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Sample records for digital-to-analog converter dac

  1. Design of integrated all optical digital to analog converter (DAC) using 2D photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moniem, Tamer A.; El-Din, Eman S.

    2017-11-01

    A novel design of all optical 3 bit digital to analog (DAC) converter will be presented in this paper based on 2 Dimension photonic crystals (PhC). The proposed structure is based on the photonic crystal ring resonators (PCRR) with combining the nonlinear Kerr effect on the PCRR. The total size of the proposed optical 3 bit DAC is equal to 44 μm × 37 μm of 2D square lattice photonic crystals of silicon rods with refractive index equal to 3.4. The finite different time domain (FDTD) and Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) methods are used to back the overall operation of the proposed optical DAC.

  2. Ultra-high-speed optical transmission using digital-preprocessed analog-multiplexed DAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Nagatani, Munehiko; Hamaoka, Fukutaro; Horikoshi, Kengo; Nakamura, Masanori; Matsushita, Asuka; Kanazawa, Shigeru; Hashimoto, Toshikazu; Nosaka, Hideyuki; Miyamoto, Yutaka

    2018-02-01

    In advanced fiber transmission systems with digital signal processors (DSPs), analog bandwidths of digital-to-analog converters (DACs), which interface the DSPs and optics, are the major factors limiting the data rates. We have developed a technology to extend the DACs' bandwidth using a digital preprocessor, two sub-DACs, and an analog multiplexer. This technology enables us to generate baseband signals with bandwidths of up to around 60 GHz, which is almost twice that of signals generated by typical CMOS DACs. In this paper, we describe the principle of the bandwidth extension and review high-speed transmission experiments enabled by this technology.

  3. Low-Actuation Voltage MEMS Digital-to-Analog Converter with Parylene Spring Structures.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cheng-Wen; Lee, Fu-Wei; Liao, Hsin-Hung; Kuo, Wen-Cheng; Yang, Yao-Joe

    2015-08-28

    We propose an electrostatically-actuated microelectromechanical digital-to-analog converter (M-DAC) device with low actuation voltage. The spring structures of the silicon-based M-DAC device were monolithically fabricated using parylene-C. Because the Young's modulus of parylene-C is considerably lower than that of silicon, the electrostatic microactuators in the proposed device require much lower actuation voltages. The actuation voltage of the proposed M-DAC device is approximately 6 V, which is less than one half of the actuation voltages of a previously reported M-DAC equipped with electrostatic microactuators. The measured total displacement of the proposed three-bit M-DAC is nearly 504 nm, and the motion step is approximately 72 nm. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the M-DAC can be employed as a mirror platform with discrete displacement output for a noncontact surface profiling system.

  4. Low-Actuation Voltage MEMS Digital-to-Analog Converter with Parylene Spring Structures

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Cheng-Wen; Lee, Fu-Wei; Liao, Hsin-Hung; Kuo, Wen-Cheng; Yang, Yao-Joe

    2015-01-01

    We propose an electrostatically-actuated microelectromechanical digital-to-analog converter (M-DAC) device with low actuation voltage. The spring structures of the silicon-based M-DAC device were monolithically fabricated using parylene-C. Because the Young’s modulus of parylene-C is considerably lower than that of silicon, the electrostatic microactuators in the proposed device require much lower actuation voltages. The actuation voltage of the proposed M-DAC device is approximately 6 V, which is less than one half of the actuation voltages of a previously reported M-DAC equipped with electrostatic microactuators. The measured total displacement of the proposed three-bit M-DAC is nearly 504 nm, and the motion step is approximately 72 nm. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the M-DAC can be employed as a mirror platform with discrete displacement output for a noncontact surface profiling system. PMID:26343682

  5. Micromechanical torsional digital-to-analog converter for open-loop angular positioning applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guangya; Tay, Francis E. H.; Chau, Fook Siong; Zhao, Yi; Logeeswaran, VJ

    2004-05-01

    This paper reports a novel micromechanical torsional digital-to-analog converter (MTDAC), operated in open-loop with digitally controlled precise multi-level tilt angles. The MTDAC mechanism presented is analogous to that of an electrical binary-weighted-input digital-to-analog converter (DAC). It consists of a rigid tunable platform, an array of torsional microactuators, each operating in a two-state (on/off) mode, and a set of connection beams with binary-weighted torsional stiffnesses that connect the actuators to the platform. The feasibility of the proposed MTDAC mechanism was verified numerically by finite element simulations and experimentally with a commercial optical phase-shifting interferometric system. A prototype 2-bit MTDAC was implemented using the poly-MUMPS process achieving a full-scale output tilt angle of 1.92° with a rotation step of 0.64°. This mechanism can be configured for many promising applications, particularly in beam steering-based OXC switches.

  6. Optical analog-to-digital converter

    DOEpatents

    Vawter, G Allen [Corrales, NM; Raring, James [Goleta, CA; Skogen, Erik J [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-07-21

    An optical analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is disclosed which converts an input optical analog signal to an output optical digital signal at a sampling rate defined by a sampling optical signal. Each bit of the digital representation is separately determined using an optical waveguide interferometer and an optical thresholding element. The interferometer uses the optical analog signal and the sampling optical signal to generate a sinusoidally-varying output signal using cross-phase-modulation (XPM) or a photocurrent generated from the optical analog signal. The sinusoidally-varying output signal is then digitized by the thresholding element, which includes a saturable absorber or at least one semiconductor optical amplifier, to form the optical digital signal which can be output either in parallel or serially.

  7. First-Order-hold interpolation digital-to-analog converter with application to aircraft simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleveland, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    Those who design piloted aircraft simulations must contend with the finite size and speed of the available digital computer and the requirement for simulation reality. With a fixed computational plant, the more complex the model, the more computing cycle time is required. While increasing the cycle time may not degrade the fidelity of the simulated aircraft dynamics, the larger steps in the pilot cue feedback variables (such as the visual scene cues), may be disconcerting to the pilot. The first-order-hold interpolation (FOHI) digital-to-analog converter (DAC) is presented as a device which offers smooth output, regardless of cycle time. The Laplace transforms of these three conversion types are developed and their frequency response characteristics and output smoothness are compared. The FOHI DAC exhibits a pure one-cycle delay. Whenever the FOHI DAC input comes from a second-order (or higher) system, a simple computer software technique can be used to compensate for the DAC phase lag. When so compensated, the FOHI DAC has (1) an output signal that is very smooth, (2) a flat frequency response in frequency ranges of interest, and (3) no phase error. When the input comes from a first-order system, software compensation may cause the FOHI DAC to perform as an FOHE DAC, which, although its output is not as smooth as that of the FOHI DAC, has a smoother output than that of the ZOH DAC.

  8. A digital-type fluxgate magnetometer using a sigma-delta digital-to-analog converter for a sounding rocket experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Kyosuke; Matsuoka, Ayako

    2014-07-01

    One of the design challenges for future magnetospheric satellite missions is optimizing the mass, size, and power consumption of the instruments to meet the mission requirements. We have developed a digital-type fluxgate (DFG) magnetometer that is anticipated to have significantly less mass and volume than the conventional analog-type. Hitherto, the lack of a space-grade digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with good accuracy has prevented the development of a high-performance DFG. To solve this problem, we developed a high-resolution DAC using parts whose performance was equivalent to existing space-grade parts. The developed DAC consists of a 1-bit second-order sigma-delta modulator and a fourth-order analog low-pass filter. We tested the performance of the DAC experimentally and found that it had better than 17-bits resolution in 80% of the measurement range, and the linearity error was 2-13.3 of the measurement range. We built a DFG flight model (in which this DAC was embedded) for a sounding rocket experiment as an interim step in the development of a future satellite mission. The noise of this DFG was 0.79 nTrms at 0.1-10 Hz, which corresponds to a roughly 17-bit resolution. The results show that the sigma-delta DAC and the DFG had a performance that is consistent with our optimized design, and the noise was as expected from the noise simulation. Finally, we have confirmed that the DFG worked successfully during the flight of the sounding rocket.

  9. Analog current mode analog/digital converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadidi, Khayrollah (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An improved subranging or comparator circuit is provided for an analog-to-digital converter. As a subranging circuit, the circuit produces a residual signal representing the difference between an analog input signal and an analog of a digital representation. This is achieved by subdividing the digital representation into two or more parts and subtracting from the analog input signal analogs of each of the individual digital portions. In another aspect of the present invention, the subranging circuit comprises two sets of differential input pairs in which the transconductance of one differential input pair is scaled relative to the transconductance of the other differential input pair. As a consequence, the same resistor string may be used for two different digital-to-analog converters of the subranging circuit.

  10. RF digital-to-analog converter

    DOEpatents

    Conway, P.H.; Yu, D.U.L.

    1995-02-28

    A digital-to-analog converter is disclosed for producing an RF output signal proportional to a digital input word of N bits from an RF reference input, N being an integer greater or equal to 2. The converter comprises a plurality of power splitters, power combiners and a plurality of mixers or RF switches connected in a predetermined configuration. 18 figs.

  11. Highly linear, sensitive analog-to-digital converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, J.; Finley, W. R.

    1969-01-01

    Analog-to-digital converter converts 10 volt full scale input signal into 13 bit digital output. Advantages include high sensitivity, linearity, low quantitizing error, high resistance to mechanical shock and vibration loads, and temporary data storage capabilities.

  12. SEM analysis of ionizing radiation effects in an analog to digital converter /AD571/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauthier, M. K.; Perret, J.; Evans, K. C.

    1981-01-01

    The considered investigation is concerned with the study of the total-dose degradation mechanisms in an IIL analog to digital (A/D) converter. The A/D converter is a 10 digit device having nine separate functional units on the chip which encompass several hundred transistors and circuit elements. It was the objective of the described research to find the radiation sensitive elements by a systematic search of the devices on the LSI chip. The employed technique using a scanning electron microscope to determine the functional blocks of an integrated circuit which are sensitive to ionizing radiation and then progressively zeroing in on the soft components within those blocks, proved extremely successful on the AD571. Four functional blocks were found to be sensitive to radiation, including the Voltage Reference, DAC, IIL Clock, and IIL SAR.

  13. Note: Increasing dynamic range of digital-to-analog converter using a superconducting quantum interference device

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, Masakazu, E-mail: m.nakanishi@aist.go.jp

    Responses of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) are periodically dependent on magnetic flux coupling to its superconducting ring and the period is a flux quantum (Φ{sub o} = h/2e, where h and e, respectively, express Planck's constant and elementary charge). Using this periodicity, we had proposed a digital to analog converter using a SQUID (SQUID DAC) of first generation with linear current output, interval of which corresponded to Φ{sub o}. Modification for increasing dynamic range by interpolating within each interval is reported. Linearity of the interpolation was also based on the quantum periodicity. A SQUID DAC with dynamic rangemore » of about 1.4 × 10{sup 7} was created as a demonstration.« less

  14. A 12-bit high-speed column-parallel two-step single-slope analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for CMOS image sensors.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Tao; Yao, Suying; Nie, Kaiming; Xu, Jiangtao

    2014-11-17

    A 12-bit high-speed column-parallel two-step single-slope (SS) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for CMOS image sensors is proposed. The proposed ADC employs a single ramp voltage and multiple reference voltages, and the conversion is divided into coarse phase and fine phase to improve the conversion rate. An error calibration scheme is proposed to correct errors caused by offsets among the reference voltages. The digital-to-analog converter (DAC) used for the ramp generator is based on the split-capacitor array with an attenuation capacitor. Analysis of the DAC's linearity performance versus capacitor mismatch and parasitic capacitance is presented. A prototype 1024 × 32 Time Delay Integration (TDI) CMOS image sensor with the proposed ADC architecture has been fabricated in a standard 0.18 μm CMOS process. The proposed ADC has average power consumption of 128 μW and a conventional rate 6 times higher than the conventional SS ADC. A high-quality image, captured at the line rate of 15.5 k lines/s, shows that the proposed ADC is suitable for high-speed CMOS image sensors.

  15. Designed cell consortia as fragrance-programmable analog-to-digital converters.

    PubMed

    Müller, Marius; Ausländer, Simon; Spinnler, Andrea; Ausländer, David; Sikorski, Julian; Folcher, Marc; Fussenegger, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic biology advances the rational engineering of mammalian cells to achieve cell-based therapy goals. Synthetic gene networks have nearly reached the complexity of digital electronic circuits and enable single cells to perform programmable arithmetic calculations or to provide dynamic remote control of transgenes through electromagnetic waves. We designed a synthetic multilayered gaseous-fragrance-programmable analog-to-digital converter (ADC) allowing for remote control of digital gene expression with 2-bit AND-, OR- and NOR-gate logic in synchronized cell consortia. The ADC consists of multiple sampling-and-quantization modules sensing analog gaseous fragrance inputs; a gas-to-liquid transducer converting fragrance intensity into diffusible cell-to-cell signaling compounds; a digitization unit with a genetic amplifier circuit to improve the signal-to-noise ratio; and recombinase-based digital expression switches enabling 2-bit processing of logic gates. Synthetic ADCs that can remotely control cellular activities with digital precision may enable the development of novel biosensors and may provide bioelectronic interfaces synchronizing analog metabolic pathways with digital electronics.

  16. New system for digital to analog transformation and reconstruction of 12-lead ECGs.

    PubMed

    Kothadia, Roshni; Kulecz, Walter B; Kofman, Igor S; Black, Adam J; Grier, James W; Schlegel, Todd T

    2013-01-01

    We describe initial validation of a new system for digital to analog conversion (DAC) and reconstruction of 12-lead ECGs. The system utilizes an open and optimized software format with a commensurately optimized DAC hardware configuration to accurately reproduce, from digital files, the original analog electrocardiographic signals of previously instrumented patients. By doing so, the system also ultimately allows for transmission of data collected on one manufacturer's 12-lead ECG hardware/software into that of any other. To initially validate the system, we compared original and post-DAC re-digitized 12-lead ECG data files (∼5-minutes long) in two types of validation studies in 10 patients. The first type quantitatively compared the total waveform voltage differences between the original and re-digitized data while the second type qualitatively compared the automated electrocardiographic diagnostic statements generated by the original versus re-digitized data. The grand-averaged difference in root mean squared voltage between the original and re-digitized data was 20.8 µV per channel when re-digitization involved the same manufacturer's analog to digital converter (ADC) as the original digitization, and 28.4 µV per channel when it involved a different manufacturer's ADC. Automated diagnostic statements generated by the original versus reconstructed data did not differ when using the diagnostic algorithm from the same manufacturer on whose device the original data were collected, and differed only slightly for just 1 of 10 patients when using a third-party diagnostic algorithm throughout. Original analog 12-lead ECG signals can be reconstructed from digital data files with accuracy sufficient for clinical use. Such reconstructions can readily enable automated second opinions for difficult-to-interpret 12-lead ECGs, either locally or remotely through the use of dedicated or cloud-based servers.

  17. New System for Digital to Analog Transformation and Reconstruction of 12-Lead ECGs

    PubMed Central

    Kothadia, Roshni; Kulecz, Walter B.; Kofman, Igor S.; Black, Adam J.; Grier, James W.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We describe initial validation of a new system for digital to analog conversion (DAC) and reconstruction of 12-lead ECGs. The system utilizes an open and optimized software format with a commensurately optimized DAC hardware configuration to accurately reproduce, from digital files, the original analog electrocardiographic signals of previously instrumented patients. By doing so, the system also ultimately allows for transmission of data collected on one manufacturer's 12-lead ECG hardware/software into that of any other. Materials and Methods To initially validate the system, we compared original and post-DAC re-digitized 12-lead ECG data files (∼5-minutes long) in two types of validation studies in 10 patients. The first type quantitatively compared the total waveform voltage differences between the original and re-digitized data while the second type qualitatively compared the automated electrocardiographic diagnostic statements generated by the original versus re-digitized data. Results The grand-averaged difference in root mean squared voltage between the original and re-digitized data was 20.8 µV per channel when re-digitization involved the same manufacturer's analog to digital converter (ADC) as the original digitization, and 28.4 µV per channel when it involved a different manufacturer's ADC. Automated diagnostic statements generated by the original versus reconstructed data did not differ when using the diagnostic algorithm from the same manufacturer on whose device the original data were collected, and differed only slightly for just 1 of 10 patients when using a third-party diagnostic algorithm throughout. Conclusion Original analog 12-lead ECG signals can be reconstructed from digital data files with accuracy sufficient for clinical use. Such reconstructions can readily enable automated second opinions for difficult-to-interpret 12-lead ECGs, either locally or remotely through the use of dedicated or cloud-based servers. PMID:23613787

  18. Charge integration successive approximation analog-to-digital converter for focal plane applications using a single amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Zhimin (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An analog-to-digital converter for on-chip focal-plane image sensor applications. The analog-to-digital converter utilizes a single charge integrating amplifier in a charge balancing architecture to implement successive approximation analog-to-digital conversion. This design requires minimal chip area and has high speed and low power dissipation for operation in the 2-10 bit range. The invention is particularly well suited to CMOS on-chip applications requiring many analog-to-digital converters, such as column-parallel focal-plane architectures.

  19. Existing methods for improving the accuracy of digital-to-analog converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eielsen, Arnfinn A.; Fleming, Andrew J.

    2017-09-01

    The performance of digital-to-analog converters is principally limited by errors in the output voltage levels. Such errors are known as element mismatch and are quantified by the integral non-linearity. Element mismatch limits the achievable accuracy and resolution in high-precision applications as it causes gain and offset errors, as well as harmonic distortion. In this article, five existing methods for mitigating the effects of element mismatch are compared: physical level calibration, dynamic element matching, noise-shaping with digital calibration, large periodic high-frequency dithering, and large stochastic high-pass dithering. These methods are suitable for improving accuracy when using digital-to-analog converters that use multiple discrete output levels to reconstruct time-varying signals. The methods improve linearity and therefore reduce harmonic distortion and can be retrofitted to existing systems with minor hardware variations. The performance of each method is compared theoretically and confirmed by simulations and experiments. Experimental results demonstrate that three of the five methods provide significant improvements in the resolution and accuracy when applied to a general-purpose digital-to-analog converter. As such, these methods can directly improve performance in a wide range of applications including nanopositioning, metrology, and optics.

  20. ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL DATA CONVERTER

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, G.W.; Althouse, J.E.; Anderson, D.P.; Bussey, G.R.; Minnear, L.H.

    1960-09-01

    Electrical apparatus is described, particularly useful in telemetry work, for converting analog signals into electrical pulses and recording them. An electronic editor commands the taking of signal readings at a frequency which varies according to linearity of the analog signal being converted. Readings of information signals are recorded, along with time base readings and serial numbering, if desired, on magnetic tape and the latter may be used to operate a computer or the like. Magnetic tape data may be transferred to punched cards.

  1. RF digital-to-analog converter

    DOEpatents

    Conway, Patrick H.; Yu, David U. L.

    1995-01-01

    A digital-to analogue converter for producing an RF output signal proportional to a digital input word of N bits from an RF reference input, N being an integer greater or equal to 2. The converter comprises a plurality of power splitters, power combiners and a plurality of mixers or RF switches connected in a predetermined configuration.

  2. VHDL Implementation of Sigma-Delta Analog To Digital Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavan, R. N.; Chougule, D. G.

    2010-11-01

    Sigma-Delta modulation techniques provide a range of opportunities in a signal processing system for both increasing performance and data path optimization along the silicon area axis in the design space. One of the most challenging tasks in Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) design is to adapt the circuitry to ever new CMOS process technology. For digital circuits the number of gates per square mm app. doubles per chip generation. Integration of analog parts in newer deep submicron technologies is much more tough and additionally complicated because the usable voltage ranges are decreasing with every new integration step. This paper shows an approach which only uses 2 resistors and 1 capacitor which are located outside a pure digital chip. So all integration advantages of pure digital chips are preserved, there is no design effort for a new chip generation and the ADC also can be used for FPGAs. Resolutions of up to 16 bit are achievable. Sample rates in the 1 MHz region are feasible so that the approach is also useful for ADCs for xDSL technologies.

  3. A cryogenic DAC operating down to 4.2 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. T.; Lehmann, T.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a 10 bit CMOS current steering digital to analog converter (DAC) that operates from room temperature to as low as 4.2 K. It works as the core part of a cryogenic Silicon quantum computer controller circuit producing rapid control gate voltage pulses for quantum bits (qubits) initialization. An improved analog calibration method with a unique unit current cell design is included in the D/A converter structure to overcome the extended cryogenic nonlinear and mismatch effects. The DAC retains its 10 bit linear monotonic behavior over the wide temperature range and it drives a 50 Ω load to 516 mV with a full scale rise time of 10 ns. The differential non-linearity (DNL) of the converter is 0.35LSB while its average power consumption is 32.18 mW from a 3 V power supply. The complete converter is fabricated using a commercial 0.5 μm 1 poly 3 metal Silicon on Sapphire (SOS) CMOS process. He briefly worked as a Lecturer in the Stamford University Bangladesh prior to starting his Ph.D. in 2012 in the School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW. His Ph.D. research is focused on cryogenic electronics for Quantum Computer Interface. His main research interests are in designing data converters for ultra-low temperature electronics and biomedical applications. He spent two years as a Research Fellow at the University of Edinburgh, U.K., where he worked with biologically inspired artificial neural systems. From 1997 to 2000, he was an Assistant Professor in electronics at the Technical University of Denmark, working with low-power low-noise low-voltage analog and mixed analog-digital integrated circuits. From 2001 to 2003 he was Principal Engineer with Cochlear Ltd., Australia, where he was involved in the design of the world's first fully implantable cochlear implant. Today he is Associate Professor in microelectronics at the University of New South Wales, Australia. He has authored over 100 journal papers, conference papers, book chapters

  4. New technologies for radiation-hardening analog to digital converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauthier, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    Surveys of available Analog to Digital Converters (ADC) suitable for precision applications showed that none have the proper combination of accuracy and radiation hardness to meet space and/or strategic weapon requirements. A development program which will result in an ADC device which will serve a number of space and strategic applications. Emphasis was placed on approaches that could be integrated onto a single chip within three to five years.

  5. Resonant Tunneling Analog-To-Digital Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broekaert, T. P. E.; Seabaugh, A. C.; Hellums, J.; Taddiken, A.; Tang, H.; Teng, J.; vanderWagt, J. P. A.

    1995-01-01

    As sampling rates continue to increase, current analog-to-digital converter (ADC) device technologies will soon reach a practical resolution limit. This limit will most profoundly effect satellite and military systems used, for example, for electronic countermeasures, electronic and signal intelligence, and phased array radar. New device and circuit concepts will be essential for continued progress. We describe a novel, folded architecture ADC which could enable a technological discontinuity in ADC performance. The converter technology is based on the integration of multiple resonant tunneling diodes (RTD) and hetero-junction transistors on an indium phosphide substrate. The RTD consists of a layered semiconductor hetero-structure AlAs/InGaAs/AlAs(2/4/2 nm) clad on either side by heavily doped InGaAs contact layers. Compact quantizers based around the RTD offer a reduction in the number of components and a reduction in the input capacitance Because the component count and capacitance scale with the number of bits N, rather than by 2 (exp n) as in the flash ADC, speed can be significantly increased, A 4-bit 2-GSps quantizer circuit is under development to evaluate the performance potential. Circuit designs for ADC conversion with a resolution of 6-bits at 25GSps may be enabled by the resonant tunneling approach.

  6. Active-Pixel Image Sensor With Analog-To-Digital Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R.; Mendis, Sunetra K.; Pain, Bedabrata; Nixon, Robert H.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed single-chip integrated-circuit image sensor contains 128 x 128 array of active pixel sensors at 50-micrometer pitch. Output terminals of all pixels in each given column connected to analog-to-digital (A/D) converter located at bottom of column. Pixels scanned in semiparallel fashion, one row at time; during time allocated to scanning row, outputs of all active pixel sensors in row fed to respective A/D converters. Design of chip based on complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology, and individual circuit elements fabricated according to 2-micrometer CMOS design rules. Active pixel sensors designed to operate at video rate of 30 frames/second, even at low light levels. A/D scheme based on first-order Sigma-Delta modulation.

  7. All-optical analog-to-digital converter based on Kerr effect in photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, Dariush; Nurmohammadi, Tofiq; Asadi, Mohammad Javad; Abbasian, Karim

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a novel all-optical analog-to-digital converter (AOADC) is proposed and simulated for proof of principle. This AOADC is designed to operate in the range of telecom wavelength (1550 nm). A cavity made of nonlinear Kerr material in photonic crystal (PhC), is designed to achieve an optical analog-to-digital conversion with 1 Tera sample per second (TS/s) and the total footprint of 42 μm2 . The simulation is done using finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method.

  8. A rigorous analysis of digital pre-emphasis and DAC resolution for interleaved DAC Nyquist-WDM signal generation in high-speed coherent optical transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Yi; Wang, Junyi; He, Xuan; Pan, Zhongqi

    2018-02-01

    The Nyquist spectral shaping techniques facilitate a promising solution to enhance spectral efficiency (SE) and further reduce the cost-per-bit in high-speed wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) transmission systems. Hypothetically, any Nyquist WDM signals with arbitrary shapes can be generated by the use of the digital signal processing (DSP) based electrical filters (E-filter). Nonetheless, in actual 100G/ 200G coherent systems, the performance as well as DSP complexity are increasingly restricted by cost and power consumption. Henceforward it is indispensable to optimize DSP to accomplish the preferred performance at the least complexity. In this paper, we systematically investigated the minimum requirements and challenges of Nyquist WDM signal generation, particularly for higher-order modulation formats, including 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) or 64QAM. A variety of interrelated parameters, such as channel spacing and roll-off factor, have been evaluated to optimize the requirements of the digital-to-analog converter (DAC) resolution and transmitter E-filter bandwidth. The impact of spectral pre-emphasis has been predominantly enhanced via the proposed interleaved DAC architecture by at least 4%, and hence reducing the required optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) at a bit error rate (BER) of 10-3 by over 0.45 dB at a channel spacing of 1.05 symbol rate and an optimized roll-off factor of 0.1. Furthermore, the requirements of sampling rate for different types of super-Gaussian E-filters are discussed for 64QAM Nyquist WDM transmission systems. Finally, the impact of the non-50% duty cycle error between sub-DACs upon the quality of the generated signals for the interleaved DAC structure has been analyzed.

  9. Radiation-hard analog-to-digital converters for space and strategic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauthier, M. K.; Dantas, A. R. V.

    1985-01-01

    During the course of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's program to study radiation-hardened analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), numerous milestones have been reached in manufacturers' awareness and technology development and transfer, as well as in user awareness of these developments. The testing of ADCs has also continued with twenty different ADCs from seven manufacturers, all tested for total radiation dose and three tested for neutron effects. Results from these tests are reported.

  10. Optical domain analog to digital conversion methods and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vawter, Gregory A

    2014-05-13

    Methods and apparatus for optical analog to digital conversion are disclosed. An optical signal is converted by mapping the optical analog signal onto a wavelength modulated optical beam, passing the mapped beam through interferometers to generate analog bit representation signals, and converting the analog bit representation signals into an optical digital signal. A photodiode receives an optical analog signal, a wavelength modulated laser coupled to the photodiode maps the optical analog signal to a wavelength modulated optical beam, interferometers produce an analog bit representation signal from the mapped wavelength modulated optical beam, and sample and threshold circuits corresponding to the interferometers produce a digital bit signal from the analog bit representation signal.

  11. An Analysis of Offset, Gain, and Phase Corrections in Analog to Digital Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, Devin; Ford, John

    2015-01-01

    Many high-speed analog to digital converters (ADCs) use interwoven ADCs to greatly boost their sample rate. This interwoven architecture can introduce problems if the low speed ADCs do not have identical outputs. These errors are manifested as phantom frequencies that appear in the digitized signal although they never existed in the analog domain. Through the application of offset, gain, and phase (OGP) corrections to the ADC, this problem can be reduced. Here we report on an implementation of such a correction in a high speed ADC chip used for radio astronomy. While the corrections could not be implemented in the ADCs themselves, a partial solution was devised and implemented digitally inside of a signal processing field programmable gate array (FPGA). Positive results to contrived situations are shown, and null results are presented for implementation in an ADC083000 card with minimal error. Lastly, we discuss the implications of this method as well as its mathematical basis.

  12. High fidelity, radiation tolerant analog-to-digital converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Charles Chang-I (Inventor); Linscott, Ivan Richard (Inventor); Inan, Umran S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Techniques for an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) using pipeline architecture includes a linearization technique for a spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) over 80 deciBels. In some embodiments, sampling rates exceed a megahertz. According to a second approach, a switched-capacitor circuit is configured for correct operation in a high radiation environment. In one embodiment, the combination yields high fidelity ADC (>88 deciBel SFDR) while sampling at 5 megahertz sampling rates and consuming <60 milliWatts. Furthermore, even though it is manufactured in a commercial 0.25-.mu.m CMOS technology (1 .mu.m=12.sup.-6 meters), it maintains this performance in harsh radiation environments. Specifically, the stated performance is sustained through a highest tested 2 megarad(Si) total dose, and the ADC displays no latchup up to a highest tested linear energy transfer of 63 million electron Volts square centimeters per milligram at elevated temperature (131 degrees C.) and supply (2.7 Volts, versus 2.5 Volts nominal).

  13. Noise-shaping gradient descent-based online adaptation algorithms for digital calibration of analog circuits.

    PubMed

    Chakrabartty, Shantanu; Shaga, Ravi K; Aono, Kenji

    2013-04-01

    Analog circuits that are calibrated using digital-to-analog converters (DACs) use a digital signal processor-based algorithm for real-time adaptation and programming of system parameters. In this paper, we first show that this conventional framework for adaptation yields suboptimal calibration properties because of artifacts introduced by quantization noise. We then propose a novel online stochastic optimization algorithm called noise-shaping or ΣΔ gradient descent, which can shape the quantization noise out of the frequency regions spanning the parameter adaptation trajectories. As a result, the proposed algorithms demonstrate superior parameter search properties compared to floating-point gradient methods and better convergence properties than conventional quantized gradient-methods. In the second part of this paper, we apply the ΣΔ gradient descent algorithm to two examples of real-time digital calibration: 1) balancing and tracking of bias currents, and 2) frequency calibration of a band-pass Gm-C biquad filter biased in weak inversion. For each of these examples, the circuits have been prototyped in a 0.5-μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process, and we demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is able to find the optimal solution even in the presence of spurious local minima, which are introduced by the nonlinear and non-monotonic response of calibration DACs.

  14. Superconducting analog-to-digital converter with a triple-junction reversible flip-flop bidirectional counter

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.S.

    1993-07-13

    A high-performance superconducting analog-to-digital converter is described, comprising: a bidirectional binary counter having n stages of triple-junction reversible flip-flops connected together in a cascade arrangement from the least significant bit (LSB) to the most significant bit (MSB) where n is the number of bits of the digital output, each triple-junction reversible flip-flop including first, second and third shunted Josephson tunnel junctions and a superconducting inductor connected in a bridge circuit, the Josephson junctions and the inductor forming upper and lower portions of the flip-flop, each reversible flip-flop being a bistable logic circuit in which the direction of the circulating currentmore » determines the state of the circuit; and means for applying an analog input current to the bidirectional counter; wherein the bidirectional counter algebraically counts incremental changes in the analog input current, increasing the binary count for positive incremental changes in the analog current and decreasing the binary count for negative incremental changes in the current, and wherein the counter does not require a gate bias, thus minimizing power dissipation.« less

  15. Experimental results in evolutionary fault-recovery for field programmable analog devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebulum, Ricardo S.; Keymeulen, Didier; Duong, Vu; Guo, Xin; Ferguson, M. I.; Stoica, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results of fast intrinsic evolutionary design and evolutionary fault recovery of a 4-bit Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) using the JPL stand-alone board-level evolvable system (SABLES).

  16. Compendium of Single-Event Latchup and Total Ionizing Dose Test Results of Commercial Analog to Digital Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Agarwal, Shri G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports single-event latchup and total dose results for a variety of analog to digital converters targeted for possible use in NASA spacecraft's. The compendium covers devices tested over the last 15 years.

  17. A high performance DAC /DDS daughter module for the RHIC LLRF platform

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, T.; Harvey, M.; Narayan, G.

    The RHIC LLRF upgrade is a flexible, modular system. Output signals are generated by a custom designed XMC card with 4 high speed digital to analog (DAC) converters interfaced to a high performance field programmable gate array (FPGA). This paper discusses the hardware details of the XMC DAC board as well as the implementation of a low noise rf synthesizer with digital IQ modulation. This synthesizer also provides injection phase cogging and frequency hop rebucketing capabilities. A new modular RHIC LLRF system was recently designed and commissioned based on custom designed XMC cards. As part of that effort a highmore » speed, four channel DAC board was designed. The board uses Maxim MAX5891 16 bit DACs with a maximum update rate of 600 Msps. Since this module is intended to be used for many different systems throughout the Collider Accelerator complex, it was designed to be as generic as possible. One major application of this DAC card is to implement digital synthesizers to provide drive signals to the various cavities at RHIC. Since RHIC is a storage ring with stores that typically last many hours, extremely low RF noise is a critical requirement. Synchrotron frequencies at RHIC range from a few hertz to several hundred hertz depending on the species and point in the acceleration cycle so close in phase noise is a major concern. The RHIC LLRF system uses the Update Link, a deterministic, high speed data link that broadcasts the revolution frequency and the synchronous phase angle. The digital synthesizers use this data to generate a properly phased analog drive signal. The synthesizers must also provide smooth phase shifts for cogging and support frequency shift rebucketing. One additional feature implemented in the FPGA is a digital waveform generator (WFG) that generates I and Q data pairs based on a user selected amplitude and phase profile as a function of time.« less

  18. Inflight characterization and correction of Planck/HFI analog to digital converter nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvé, A.; Couchot, F.; Patanchon, G.; Montier, L.

    2016-07-01

    The Planck Satellite launched in 2009 was targeted to observe the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Back-ground (CMB) to an unprecedented sensitivity. While the Analog to Digital Converter of the HFI (High Frequency Instrument) readout electronics had not been properly characterized on ground, it has been shown to add a systematic nonlinearity effect up to 2% of the cosmological signal. This was a limiting factor for CMB science at large angular scale. We will present the in-flight analysis and method used to characterize and correct this effect down to 0.05% level. We also discuss how to avoid this kind of complex issue for future missions.

  19. An Autonomous Circuit for the Measurement of Photovoltaic Devices Parameters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Comparison Data, Gallium Arsenide ................ 80 A 7 A,. TABLE OF SYMBOLS A Curve Fitting Constant ADC Analog to Digital Converter AMO Air-Mass-Zero...in Radiation Fluence in the Logarithmic Region CMOS Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor DAC Digital to Analog Converter DC Direct Current Dp Hole...characteristics of individual solar cells. A novel circuit is developed that uses a microprocessor controlled Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) to obtain

  20. PIC microcontroller based external fast analog to digital converter to acquire wide-lined solid NMR spectra by BRUKER DRX and Avance-I spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Koczor, Bálint; Rohonczy, János

    2015-01-01

    Concerning many former liquid or hybrid liquid/solid NMR consoles, the built in Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) are incapable of digitizing the fids at sampling rates in the MHz range. Regarding both strong anisotropic interactions in the solid state and wide chemical shift dispersion nuclei in solution phase such as (195)Pt, (119)Sn, (207)Pb etc., the spectrum range of interest might be in the MHz range. As determining the informative tensor components of anisotropic NMR interactions requires nonlinear fitting over the whole spectrum including the asymptotic baseline, it is prohibited by low sampling rates of the ADCs. Wide spectrum width is also useful in solution NMR, since windowing of wide chemical shift ranges is avoidable. We built an external analog to digital converter with 10 MHz maximal sampling rate, which can work simultaneously with the built in ADC of the spectrometer. The ADC was tested on both Bruker DRX and Avance-I NMR consoles. In addition to the analog channels it only requires three external digital lines of the NMR console. The ADC sends data to PC via USB. The whole process is controlled by software written in JAVA which is implemented under TopSpin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mixed Linear/Square-Root Encoded Single Slope Ramp Provides a Fast, Low Noise Analog to Digital Converter with Very High Linearity for Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, Christopher James (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce R. (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Newton, Kenneth W. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) converts pixel voltages from a CMOS image into a digital output. A voltage ramp generator generates a voltage ramp that has a linear first portion and a non-linear second portion. A digital output generator generates a digital output based on the voltage ramp, the pixel voltages, and comparator output from an array of comparators that compare the voltage ramp to the pixel voltages. A return lookup table linearizes the digital output values.

  2. Method and apparatus for low power analog-to-digital conversion

    DOEpatents

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Nambiar, Neena

    2013-10-01

    A method and apparatus for analog-to-digital conversion. An Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) includes M ADC.sub.j, j=1, 2, . . . , M. Each ADC.sub.j comprises a number of cells each of which comprises a first switch, a second switch, a current sink and an inverter. An inverter of a cell in an ADC.sub.j changes state in response to a current associate with an input signal of the ADC.sub.j exceeding a threshold, thus switching on the next cell. Each ADC.sub.j is enabled to perform analog-to-digital conversion on a residual current of a previous ADC.sub.j-1 after the previous ADC.sub.j-1 has completed its analog-to-digital conversion and has been disabled.

  3. Design and implementation of a reconfigurable mixed-signal SoC based on field programmable analog arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lintao; Gao, Yuhan; Deng, Jun

    2017-11-01

    This work presents a reconfigurable mixed-signal system-on-chip (SoC), which integrates switched-capacitor-based field programmable analog arrays (FPAA), analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-to-analog converter, digital down converter , digital up converter, 32-bit reduced instruction-set computer central processing unit (CPU) and other digital IPs on a single chip with 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The FPAA intellectual property could be reconfigured as different function circuits, such as gain amplifier, divider, sine generator, and so on. This single-chip integrated mixed-signal system is a complete modern signal processing system, occupying a die area of 7 × 8 mm 2 and consuming 719 mW with a clock frequency of 150 MHz for CPU and 200 MHz for ADC/DAC. This SoC chip can help customers to shorten design cycles, save board area, reduce the system power consumption and depress the system integration risk, which would afford a big prospect of application for wireless communication. Project supported by the National High Technology and Development Program of China (No. 2012AA012303).

  4. 75 FR 59100 - Removal of Regulations That Implement and Administer a Coupon Program for Digital-to-Analog...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... Program for Digital-to-Analog Converter Boxes AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information... the Digital-to-Analog Converter Box Program (Coupon Program). The regulations implemented provisions of section 3005 of the Digital Television Transition and Public Safety Act of 2005, as subsequently...

  5. The initial characterization of a revised 10-Gsps analog-to-digital converter board for radio telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiango, Homin; Liuo, Howard; Guzzino, Kim

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the design of a 4 bit, 10-gigasamples-per-second analog-to-digital converter (ADC) printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) was revised, manufactured, and tested. It is used for digitizing radio telescopes. An Adsantec ANST7120-KMA flash ADC chip was used, as in the original design. Associated with the field-programmable gate array platform developed by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research community, the developed PCBA provides data acquisition systems with a wider bandwidth and simplifies the intermediate frequency section. The current version of the PCBA exhibits an analog bandwidth of up to 10 GHz (3 dB loss), and the chip exhibits an analog bandwidth of up to 18 GHz. This facilitates second and third Nyquist sampling. The following worstcase performance parameters were obtained from the revised PCBA at over 5 GHz: spurious-free dynamic range of 12 dB, signal-to-noise and distortion ratio of 2 dB, and effective number of bits of 0.7. The design bugs in the ADC chip caused the poor performance. The vendor created a new batch run and confirmed that the ADC chips of the new batch will meet the specifications addressed in its data sheet.

  6. Satellite analog FDMA/FM to digital TDMA conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driggers, T.; Nguyen, T.; Kolavennu, V.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study which investigated design issues regarding the use of analog to digital (A/D) conversion on board a satellite are presented. The need for A/D, and of course D/A as well, conversion arose from a satellite design which required analog FDMA/FM up and down links to/from a digitally modulated intersatellite link. There are also some advantages when one must interconnect a large number of various spot beams which are using analog, and therefore cannot take advantage of SS/TDMA switching among the beams, thus resulting in low fill factors. Various tradeoffs were performed regarding the implementation of on-board A/D processing, including mass, power, and costs. The various technologies which were considered included flash ADCs, surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, and digital signal processing (DSP) chips. Impact analyses were also performed to determine the effect on ground stations to convert to digital if the A/D approach were not implemented.

  7. Active pixel sensor having intra-pixel charge transfer with analog-to-digital converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mendis, Sunetra K. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Zhou, Zhimin (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate, a readout circuit including at least an output field effect transistor formed in the substrate, and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node connected to the output transistor and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node and an analog-to-digital converter formed in the substrate connected to the output of the readout circuit.

  8. Active pixel sensor having intra-pixel charge transfer with analog-to-digital converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mendis, Sunetra K. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Zhou, Zhimin (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor Integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate, a readout circuit including at least an output field effect transistor formed in the substrate, and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node connected to the output transistor and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node and an analog-to-digital converter formed in the substrate connected to the output of the readout circuit.

  9. Fast collimated neutron flux measurement using stilbene scintillator and flashy analog-to-digital converter in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, M.; Itoga, T.; Okuji, T.; Nakhostin, M.; Shinohara, K.; Hayashi, T.; Sukegawa, A.; Baba, M.; Nishitani, T.

    2006-10-01

    A line-integrated neutron emission profile is routinely measured using the radial neutron collimator system in JT-60U tokamak. Stilbene neuron detectors (SNDs), which combine a stilbene organic crystal scintillation detector (SD) with an analog neutron-gamma pulse shape discrimination (PSD) circuit, have been used to measure collimated neutron flux. Although the SND has many advantages as a neutron detector, the maximum count rate is limited up to ˜1×105counts/s due to the analog PSD circuit. To overcome this issue, a digital signal processing system (DSPS) using a flash analog-to-digital converter (Acqiris DC252, 8GHz, 10bits) has been developed at Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center in Tohoku University. In this system anode signals from photomultiplier of the SD are directory stored and digitized. Then, the PSD between neutrons and gamma rays is performed using software. The DSPS has been installed in the vertical neutron collimator system in JT-60U and applied to deuterium experiments. It is confirmed that the PSD is sufficiently performed and collimated neutron flux is successfully measured with count rate up to ˜5×105counts/s without the effect of pileup of detected pulses. The performance of the DSPS as a neutron detector, which supersedes the SND, is demonstrated.

  10. Development of a Comb Limiter Combiner with Sub band Known Interference Cancellation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-17

    Juarez, Head 55190 Networks Division ACRONYMS ABSF absorptive bandstop filters ATP applied thin films BAW bulk acoustic waves BPF bandpass filter ...BSF bandstop filters CW continuous wave CWSP Commercial Wideband Satellite Program DAC digital to analog converter DAC digital to analog converter...8 3.2 FREQUENCY AGILE ABSORPTIVE NOTCH FILTERS ................................................. 9 3.3 INTEGRATION OF

  11. Analog-to-digital conversion techniques for precision photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opal, Chet B.

    1988-01-01

    Three types of analog-to-digital converters are described: parallel, successive-approximation, and integrating. The functioning of comparators and sample-and-hold amplifiers is explained. Differential and integral linearity are defined, and good and bad examples are illustrated. The applicability and relative advantages of the three types of converters for precision astronomical photometric measurements are discussed. For most measurements, integral linearity is more important than differential linearity. Successive-approximation converters should be used with multielement solid state detectors because of their high speed, but dual slope integrating converters may be superior for use with single element solid state detectors where speed of digitization is not a factor. In all cases, the input signal should be tailored so that they occupy the upper part of the converter's dynamic range; this can be achieved by providing adjustable gain, or better by varying the integration time of the observation if possible.

  12. Flexible Data Link

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    DDC ) results in more complicated digital (FPGA) processing, yet simplifies the analog design significantly while improving the quality of the...Interleaved CP Cyclic Prefix DAC Digital to Analog Converter DDC Digital Down Converter DDR Double Data Rate DUC Digital Up Converter ENOB Effective

  13. A low-power inverter-based CMOS level-crossing analog-to-digital converter for low-frequency biosignal sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Suiki; Niitsu, Kiichi; Nakazato, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    Low-power analog-to-digital conversion is a key technique for power-limited biomedical applications such as power-limited continuous glucose monitoring. However, a conventional uniform-sampling analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is not suitable for nonuniform biosignals. A level-crossing ADC (LC-ADC) is a promising candidate for low-power biosignal processing because of its event-driven properties. The LC-ADC acquires data by level-crossing sampling. When an input signal crosses the threshold level, the LC-ADC samples the signal. The conventional LC-ADC employs a power-hungry comparator. In this paper, we present a low-power inverter-based LC-ADC. By adjusting the threshold level of the inverter, it can be used as a threshold-fixed window comparator. By using the inverter as an alternative to a comparator, power consumption can be markedly reduced. As a result, the total power consumption is successfully reduced by 90% of that of previous LC-ADC. The inverter-based LC-ADC was found to be very suitable for use in power-limited biomedical devices.

  14. All-digital pulse-expansion-based CMOS digital-to-time converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Chu, Che-Hsun

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a new all-digital CMOS digital-to-time converter (DTC) based on pulse expansion. Pulse expansion is achieved using an all-digital pulse-mixing scheme that can effectively improve the timing resolution and enable the DTC to be concise. Without requiring the Vernier principle or a costly digital-to-analog converter, the DTC comprises a pulse generator for generating a pulse, a pulse-expanding circuit (PEC) for programming timing generation, and a time subtractor for removing the time width of the pulse. The PEC comprises only a delay chain composed of proposed pulse-expanding units and a multiplexer. For accuracy enhancement, a pulse neutralization technique is presented to eliminate undesirable pulse variation. A 4-bit converter was fabricated in a 0.35-μ m Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company CMOS process and had a small area of nearly 0.045 mm2. Six chips were tested, all of which exhibited an improved resolution (approximately 16 ps) and low integral nonlinearity (less than ±0.4 least significant bit). The power consumption was 0.2 mW when the sample rate was 1M samples/s and the voltage supply was 3.3 V. The proposed DTC not only has favorable cost and power but also achieves an acceptable resolution without requiring an advanced CMOS process. This study is the first to use pulse expansion in digital-to-time conversion.

  15. All-digital pulse-expansion-based CMOS digital-to-time converter.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Chu, Che-Hsun

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a new all-digital CMOS digital-to-time converter (DTC) based on pulse expansion. Pulse expansion is achieved using an all-digital pulse-mixing scheme that can effectively improve the timing resolution and enable the DTC to be concise. Without requiring the Vernier principle or a costly digital-to-analog converter, the DTC comprises a pulse generator for generating a pulse, a pulse-expanding circuit (PEC) for programming timing generation, and a time subtractor for removing the time width of the pulse. The PEC comprises only a delay chain composed of proposed pulse-expanding units and a multiplexer. For accuracy enhancement, a pulse neutralization technique is presented to eliminate undesirable pulse variation. A 4-bit converter was fabricated in a 0.35-μm Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company CMOS process and had a small area of nearly 0.045 mm 2 . Six chips were tested, all of which exhibited an improved resolution (approximately 16 ps) and low integral nonlinearity (less than ±0.4 least significant bit). The power consumption was 0.2 mW when the sample rate was 1M samples/s and the voltage supply was 3.3 V. The proposed DTC not only has favorable cost and power but also achieves an acceptable resolution without requiring an advanced CMOS process. This study is the first to use pulse expansion in digital-to-time conversion.

  16. The architecture design of a 2mW 18-bit high speed weight voltage type DAC based on dual weight resistance chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qixing, Chen; Qiyu, Luo

    2013-03-01

    At present, the architecture of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) in essence is based on the weight current, and the average value of its D/A signal current increases in geometric series according to its digital signal bits increase, which is 2n-1 times of its least weight current. But for a dual weight resistance chain type DAC, by using the weight voltage manner to D/A conversion, the D/A signal current is fixed to chain current Icha; it is only 1/2n-1 order of magnitude of the average signal current value of the weight current type DAC. Its principle is: n pairs dual weight resistances form a resistance chain, which ensures the constancy of the chain current; if digital signals control the total weight resistance from the output point to the zero potential point, that could directly control the total weight voltage of the output point, so that the digital signals directly turn into a sum of the weight voltage signals; thus the following goals are realized: (1) the total current is less than 200 μA (2) the total power consumption is less than 2 mW; (3) an 18-bit conversion can be realized by adopting a multi-grade structure; (4) the chip area is one order of magnitude smaller than the subsection current-steering type DAC; (5) the error depends only on the error of the unit resistance, so it is smaller than the error of the subsection current-steering type DAC; (6) the conversion time is only one action time of switch on or off, so its speed is not lower than the present DAC.

  17. Current Total Ionizing Dose Results and Displacement Damage Results for Candidate Spacecraft Electronics for NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, Donna J.; Kniffin, Scott D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; OBryan, Martha V.; Reed, Robert A.; Ladbury, Ray L.; Howard, James W., Jr.; Poivey, Christian; Buchner, Stephen P.; Marshall, Cheryl J.

    2004-01-01

    We present data on the vulnerability of a variety of candidate spacecraft electronics to total ionizing dose and displacement damage. Devices tested include optoelectronics, digital, analog, linear bipolar devices, hybrid devices, Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs), and Digital-to-Analog Converters (DACS), among others.

  18. Recent Total Ionizing Dose Results and Displacement Damage Results for Candidate Spacecraft Electronics for NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, Donna J.; Buchner, Stephen P.; Irwin, Tim L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Marshall, Cheryl J.; Reed, Robert A.; Sanders, Anthony B.; Hawkins, Donald K.; Flanigan, Ryan J.; Cox, Stephen R.

    2005-01-01

    We present data on the vulnerability of a variety of candidate spacecraft electronics to total ionizing dose and displacement damage. Devices tested include optoelectronics, digital, analog, linear bipolar devices, hybrid devices, Analog-to- Digital Converters (ADCs), and Digital-to-Analog Converters (DACs), among others. T

  19. Total Ionizing Dose Results and Displacement Damage Results for Candidate Spacecraft Electronics for NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, Donna J.; Kniffin, Scott D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; OBryan, Martha V.; Reed, Robert A.; Ladbury, Ray L.; Howard, James W., Jr.; Poivey, Christian; Buchner, Stephen P.; Marshall, Cheryl J.

    2003-01-01

    We present data on the vulnerability of a variety of candidate spacecraft electronics to total ionizing dose and displacement damage. Devices tested include optoelectronics, digital, analog, linear bipolar devices, hybrid devices, Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs), and Digital-to-Analog Converters (DACs), among others.

  20. Recent Radiation Damage and Single Event Effect Results for Candidate Spacecraft Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OBryan, Martha V.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Reed, Robert A.; Ladbury, Ray L.; Howard, James W., Jr.; Buchner, Stephen P.; Barth, Janet L.; Kniffen, Scott D.; Seidleck, Christina M.; Marshall, Cheryl J.; hide

    2001-01-01

    We present data on the vulnerability of a variety of candidate spacecraft electronics to proton and heavy-ion induced single-event effects and proton-induced damage. Devices tested include optoelectronics, digital, analog, linear bipolar, hybrid devices, Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs), Digital-to-Analog Converters (DACs), and DC-DC converters, among others.

  1. Current Single Event Effects and Radiation Damage Results for Candidate Spacecraft Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OBryan, Martha V.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Reed, Robert A.; Ladbury, Ray L.; Howard, James W., Jr.; Kniffin, Scott D.; Poivey, Christian; Buchner, Stephen P.; Bings, John P.; Titus, Jeff L.

    2002-01-01

    We present data on the vulnerability of a variety of candidate spacecraft electronics to proton and heavy ion induced single event effects, total ionizing dose and proton-induced damage. Devices tested include optoelectronics, digital, analog, linear bipolar, hybrid devices, Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs), Digital-to-Analog Converters (DACs), and DC-DC converters, among others.

  2. A PWM Buck Converter With Load-Adaptive Power Transistor Scaling Scheme Using Analog-Digital Hybrid Control for High Energy Efficiency in Implantable Biomedical Systems.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Yun; Cho, Jihyun; Lee, Kyuseok; Yoon, Euisik

    2015-12-01

    We report a pulse width modulation (PWM) buck converter that is able to achieve a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of > 80% in light loads 100 μA) for implantable biomedical systems. In order to achieve a high PCE for the given light loads, the buck converter adaptively reconfigures the size of power PMOS and NMOS transistors and their gate drivers in accordance with load currents, while operating at a fixed frequency of 1 MHz. The buck converter employs the analog-digital hybrid control scheme for coarse/fine adjustment of power transistors. The coarse digital control generates an approximate duty cycle necessary for driving a given load and selects an appropriate width of power transistors to minimize redundant power dissipation. The fine analog control provides the final tuning of the duty cycle to compensate for the error from the coarse digital control. The mode switching between the analog and digital controls is accomplished by a mode arbiter which estimates the average of duty cycles for the given load condition from limit cycle oscillations (LCO) induced by coarse adjustment. The fabricated buck converter achieved a peak efficiency of 86.3% at 1.4 mA and > 80% efficiency for a wide range of load conditions from 45 μA to 4.1 mA, while generating 1 V output from 2.5-3.3 V supply. The converter occupies 0.375 mm(2) in 0.18 μm CMOS processes and requires two external components: 1.2 μF capacitor and 6.8 μH inductor.

  3. Optically-synchronized encoder and multiplexer scheme for interleaved photonics analog-to-digital conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, Carlos; Kumavor, Patrick; Donkor, Eric

    2008-04-01

    Photonics Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) utilize a train of optical pulses to sample an electrical input waveform applied to an electrooptic modulator or a reverse biased photodiode. In the former, the resulting train of amplitude-modulated optical pulses is detected (converter to electrical) and quantized using a conversional electronics ADC- as at present there are no practical, cost-effective optical quantizers available with performance that rival electronic quantizers. In the latter, the electrical samples are directly quantized by the electronics ADC. In both cases however, the sampling rate is limited by the speed with which the electronics ADC can quantize the electrical samples. One way to increase the sampling rate by a factor N is by using the time-interleaved technique which consists of a parallel array of N electrical ADC converters, which have the same sampling rate but different sampling phase. Each operating at a quantization rate of fs/N where fs is the aggregated sampling rate. In a system with no real-time operation, the N channels digital outputs are stored in memory, and then aggregated (multiplexed) to obtain the digital representation of the analog input waveform. Alternatively, for real-time operation systems the reduction of storing time in the multiplexing process is desired to improve the time response of the ADC. The complete elimination of memories come expenses of concurrent timing and synchronization in the aggregation of the digital signal that became critical for a good digital representation of the analog signal waveform. In this paper we propose and demonstrate a novel optically synchronized encoder and multiplexer scheme for interleaved photonics ADCs that utilize the N optical signals used to sample different phases of an analog input signal to synchronize the multiplexing of the resulting N digital output channels in a single digital output port. As a proof of concept, four 320 Megasamples/sec 12-bit of resolution digital

  4. Digitization of Analog Signals using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilera, Daniel; Rusu, Vadim

    The idea of this research is consolidating the electrical components used for capturing data in the Mu2e Tracker. Ideally, an FPGA will serve as the Time-Division Converters (TDC) and Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADC). The TDC is already being carried out by the FPGA, but we are still using off the shelf ADCs. This poster proposes using Low Voltage Differential Signaling as the basis for analog-to-digital conversion using and FPGA.

  5. Deep Cryogenic Low Power 24 Bits Analog to Digital Converter with Active Reverse Cryostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turqueti, Marcos; Prestemon, Soren; Albright, Robert

    LBNL is developing an innovative data acquisition module for superconductive magnets where the front-end electronics and digitizer resides inside the cryostat. This electronic package allows conventional electronic technologies such as enhanced metal-oxide-semiconductor to work inside cryostats at temperatures as low as 4.2 K. This is achieved by careful management of heat inside the module that keeps the electronic envelop at approximately 85 K. This approach avoids all the difficulties that arise from changes in carrier mobility that occur in semiconductors at deep cryogenic temperatures. There are several advantages in utilizing this system. A significant reduction in electrical noise from signals captured inside the cryostat occurs due to the low temperature that the electronics is immersed in, reducing the thermal noise. The shorter distance that signals are transmitted before digitalization reduces pickup and cross-talk between channels. This improved performance in signal-to-noise rate by itself is a significant advantage. Another important advantage is the simplification of the feedthrough interface on the cryostat head. Data coming out of the cryostat is digital and serial, dramatically reducing the number of lines going through the cryostat feedthrough interface. It is important to notice that all lines coming out of the cryostat are digital and low voltage, reducing the possibility of electric breakdown inside the cryostat. This paper will explain in details the architecture and inner workings of this data acquisition system. It will also provide the performance of the analog to digital converter when the system is immersed in liquid helium, and in liquid nitrogen. Parameters such as power dissipation, integral non-linearity, effective number of bits, signal-to-noise and distortion, will be presented for both temperatures.

  6. Deep Cryogenic Low Power 24 Bits Analog to Digital Converter with Active Reverse Cryostat

    DOE PAGES

    Turqueti, Marcos; Prestemon, Soren; Albright, Robert

    2015-07-15

    LBNL is developing an innovative data acquisition module for superconductive magnets where the front-end electronics and digitizer resides inside the cryostat. This electronic package allows conventional electronic technologies such as enhanced metal–oxide–semiconductor to work inside cryostats at temperatures as low as 4.2 K. This is achieved by careful management of heat inside the module that keeps the electronic envelop at approximately 85 K. This approach avoids all the difficulties that arise from changes in carrier mobility that occur in semiconductors at deep cryogenic temperatures. There are several advantages in utilizing this system. A significant reduction in electrical noise from signalsmore » captured inside the cryostat occurs due to the low temperature that the electronics is immersed in, reducing the thermal noise. The shorter distance that signals are transmitted before digitalization reduces pickup and cross-talk between channels. This improved performance in signal-to-noise rate by itself is a significant advantage. Another important advantage is the simplification of the feedthrough interface on the cryostat head. Data coming out of the cryostat is digital and serial, dramatically reducing the number of lines going through the cryostat feedthrough interface. It is important to notice that all lines coming out of the cryostat are digital and low voltage, reducing the possibility of electric breakdown inside the cryostat. This paper will explain in details the architecture and inner workings of this data acquisition system. It will also provide the performance of the analog to digital converter when the system is immersed in liquid helium, and in liquid nitrogen. Parameters such as power dissipation, integral non-linearity, effective number of bits, signal-to-noise and distortion, will be presented for both temperatures.« less

  7. Optical digital to analog conversion performance analysis for indoor set-up conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobesch, Aleš; Alves, Luis Nero; Wilfert, Otakar; Ribeiro, Carlos Gaspar

    2017-10-01

    In visible light communication (VLC) the optical digital to analog conversion (ODAC) approach was proposed as a suitable driving technique able to overcome light-emitting diode's (LED) non-linear characteristic. This concept is analogous to an electrical digital-to-analog converter (EDAC). In other words, digital bits are binary weighted to represent an analog signal. The method supports elementary on-off based modulations able to exploit the essence of LED's non-linear characteristic allowing simultaneous lighting and communication. In the ODAC concept the reconstruction error does not simply rely upon the converter bit depth as in case of EDAC. It rather depends on communication system set-up and geometrical relation between emitter and receiver as well. The paper describes simulation results presenting the ODAC's error performance taking into account: the optical channel, the LED's half power angle (HPA) and the receiver field of view (FOV). The set-up under consideration examines indoor conditions for a square room with 4 m length and 3 m height, operating with one dominant wavelength (blue) and having walls with a reflection coefficient of 0.8. The achieved results reveal that reconstruction error increases for higher data rates as a result of interference due to multipath propagation.

  8. Present and Future Applications of Digital Electronics in Nuclear Science - a Commercial Prospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Hui

    2011-10-01

    Digital readout electronics instrumenting radiation detectors have experienced significant advancements in the last decade or so. This on one hand can be attributed to the steady improvements in commercial digital processing components such as analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), digital-to-analog converters (DACs), field-programmable-gate-arrays (FPGAs), and digital-signal-processors (DSPs), and on the other hand can also be attributed to the increasing needs for improved time, position, and energy resolution in nuclear physics experiments, which have spurred the rapid development of commercial off-the-shelf high speed, high resolution digitizers or spectrometers. Absent from conventional analog electronics, the capability to record fast decaying pulses from radiation detectors in digital readout electronics has profoundly benefited nuclear physics researchers since they now can perform detailed pulse processing for applications such as gamma-ray tracking and decay-event selection and reconstruction. In this talk, present state-of-the-art digital readout electronics and its applications in a variety of nuclear science fields will be discussed, and future directions in hardware development for digital electronics will also be outlined, all from the prospective of a commercial manufacturer of digital electronics.

  9. Analog Nonvolatile Computer Memory Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd

    2007-01-01

    , between the positive and negative FFET saturation values. This signal value would represent a numerical value of interest corresponding to multiple bits: for example, if the memory circuit were designed to distinguish among 16 different analog values, then each cell could store 4 bits. Simultaneously with writing the signal value in the storage FFET, a negative saturation signal value would be stored in the control FFET. The decay of this control-FFET signal from the saturation value would serve as a model of the decay, for use in regenerating the numerical value of interest from its decaying analog signal value. The memory circuit would include addressing, reading, and writing circuitry that would have features in common with the corresponding parts of other memory circuits, but would also have several distinctive features. The writing circuitry would include a digital-to-analog converter (DAC); the reading circuitry would include an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). For writing a numerical value of interest in a given cell, that cell would be addressed, the saturation value would be written in the control FFET in that cell, and the non-saturation analog value representing the numerical value of interest would be generated by use of the DAC and stored in the storage FFET in that cell. For reading the numerical value of interest stored in a given cell, the cell would be addressed, the ADC would convert the decaying control and storage analog signal values to digital values, and an associated fast digital processing circuit would regenerate the numerical value from digital values.

  10. Application of digital control techniques for satellite medium power DC-DC converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skup, Konrad R.; Grudzinski, Pawel; Nowosielski, Witold; Orleanski, Piotr; Wawrzaszek, Roman

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a work concerning a digital control loop system for satellite medium power DC-DC converters that is done in Space Research Centre. The whole control process of a described power converter bases on a high speed digital signal processing. The paper presents a development of a FPGA digital controller for voltage mode stabilization that was implemented using VHDL. The described controllers are a classical digital PID controller and a bang-bang controller. The used converter for testing is a simple model of 5-20 W, 200 kHz buck power converter. A high resolution digital PWM approach is presented. Additionally a simple and effective solution of filtering of an analog-to-digital converter output is presented.

  11. Method and apparatus for spur-reduced digital sinusoid synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, George A. (Inventor); Flanagan, Michael J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A technique for reducing the spurious signal content in digital sinusoid synthesis is presented. Spur reduction is accomplished through dithering both amplitude and phase values prior to word-length reduction. The analytical approach developed for analog quantization is used to produce new bounds on spur performance in these dithered systems. Amplitude dithering allows output word-length reduction without introducing additional spurs. Effects of periodic dither similar to that produced by a pseudo-noise (PN) generator are analyzed. This phase dithering method provides a spur reduction of 6(M + 1) dB per phase bit when the dither consists of M uniform variates. While the spur reduction is at the expense of an increase in system noise, the noise power can be made white, making the power spectral density small. This technique permits the use of a smaller number of phase bits addressing sinusoid look-up tables, resulting in an exponential decrease in system complexity. Amplitude dithering allows the use of less complicated multipliers and narrower data paths in purely digital applications, as well as the use of coarse-resolution, highly-linear digital-to-analog converters (DAC's) to obtain spur performance limited by the DAC linearity rather than its resolution.

  12. A Methodology to Teach Advanced A/D Converters, Combining Digital Signal Processing and Microelectronics Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintans, C.; Colmenar, A.; Castro, M.; Moure, M. J.; Mandado, E.

    2010-01-01

    ADCs (analog-to-digital converters), especially Pipeline and Sigma-Delta converters, are designed using complex architectures in order to increase their sampling rate and/or resolution. Consequently, the learning of ADC devices also encompasses complex concepts such as multistage synchronization, latency, oversampling, modulation, noise shaping,…

  13. Behavioral study and design of a digital interpolator filter for wireless reconfigurable transmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferragina, V.; Frassone, A.; Ghittori, N.; Malcovati, P.; Vigna, A.

    2005-06-01

    The behavioral analysis and the design in a 0.13 μm CMOS technology of a digital interpolator filter for wireless applications are presented. The proposed block is designed to be embedded in the baseband part of a reconfigurable transmitter (WLAN 802.11a, UMTS) to operate as a sampling frequency boost between the digital signal processor (DSP) and the digital-to-analog converter (DAC). In recent trends the DAC of such transmitters usually operates at high conversion frequencies (to allow a relaxed implementation of the following analog reconstruction filter), while the DSP output flows at low frequencies (typically Nyquist rate). Thus a block able to increase the digital data rate, like the one proposed, is needed before the DAC. For example, in the WLAN case, an interpolation factor of 4 has been used, allowing the digital data frequency to raise from 20 MHz to 80 MHz. Using a time-domain model of the TX chain, a behavioral analysis has been performed to determine the impact of the filter performance on the quality of the signal at the antenna. This study has led to the evaluation of the z-domain filter transfer function, together with the specifications concerning a finite precision implementation. A VHDL description has allowed an automatic synthesis of the circuit in a 0.13 μm CMOS technology (with a supply voltage of 1.2 V). Post-synthesis simulations have confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed study.

  14. A look-up-table digital predistortion technique for high-voltage power amplifiers in ultrasonic applications.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zheng; Gui, Ping

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we present a digital predistortion technique to improve the linearity and power efficiency of a high-voltage class-AB power amplifier (PA) for ultrasound transmitters. The system is composed of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC), an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) in which the digital predistortion (DPD) algorithm is implemented. The DPD algorithm updates the error, which is the difference between the ideal signal and the attenuated distorted output signal, in the look-up table (LUT) memory during each cycle of a sinusoidal signal using the least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm. On the next signal cycle, the error data are used to equalize the signal with negative harmonic components to cancel the amplifier's nonlinear response. The algorithm also includes a linear interpolation method applied to the windowed sinusoidal signals for the B-mode and Doppler modes. The measurement test bench uses an arbitrary function generator as the DAC to generate the input signal, an oscilloscope as the ADC to capture the output waveform, and software to implement the DPD algorithm. The measurement results show that the proposed system is able to reduce the second-order harmonic distortion (HD2) by 20 dB and the third-order harmonic distortion (HD3) by 14.5 dB, while at the same time improving the power efficiency by 18%.

  15. BacNet and Analog/Digital Interfaces of the Building Controls Virtual Testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Nouidui, Thierry Stephane; Wetter, Michael; Li, Zhengwei

    2011-11-01

    This paper gives an overview of recent developments in the Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB), a framework for co-simulation and hardware-in-the-loop. First, a general overview of the BCVTB is presented. Second, we describe the BACnet interface, a link which has been implemented to couple BACnet devices to the BCVTB. We present a case study where the interface was used to couple a whole building simulation program to a building control system to assess in real-time the performance of a real building. Third, we present the ADInterfaceMCC, an analog/digital interface that allows a USB-based analog/digital converter to be linked tomore » the BCVTB. In a case study, we show how the link was used to couple the analog/digital converter to a building simulation model for local loop control.« less

  16. Radiation Damage and Single Event Effect Results for Candidate Spacecraft Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OBryan, Martha V.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Reed, Robert A.; Howard, James W., Jr.; Ladbury, Ray L.; Barth, Janet L.; Kniffin, Scott D.; Seidleck, Christina M.; Marshall, Paul W.; Marshall, Cheryl J.; hide

    2000-01-01

    We present data on the vulnerability of a variety of candidate spacecraft electronics to proton and heavy-ion induced single-event effects and proton-induced damage. We also present data on the susceptibility of parts to functional degradation resulting from total ionizing dose at low dose rates (0.003-0.33 Rads(Si)/s). Devices tested include optoelectronics, digital, analog, linear bipolar, hybrid devices, Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs), Digital to Analog Converters (DACs), and DC-DC converters, among others.

  17. A Low-cost 4 Bit, 10 Giga-samples-per-second Analog-to-digital Converter Printed Circuit Board Assembly for FPGA-based Backends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Homin; Yu, Chen-Yu; Kubo, Derek; Chen, Ming-Tang; Guzzino, Kim

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a 4 bit, 10 giga-samples-per-second analog-to-digital converter (ADC) printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) was designed, manufactured, and characterized for digitizing radio telescopes. For this purpose, an Adsantec ANST7120A-KMA flash ADC chip was used. Together with the field-programmable gate array platform, developed by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research community, the PCBA enables data acquisition with a wide bandwidth and simplifies the intermediate frequency section. In the current version, the PCBA and the chip exhibit an analog bandwidth of 10 GHz (3 dB loss) and 20 GHz, respectively, which facilitates second, third, and even fourth Nyquist sampling. The following average performance parameters were obtained from the first and second Nyquist zones of the three boards: a spurious-free dynamic range of 31.35/30.45 dB, a signal-to-noise and distortion ratio of 22.95/21.83 dB, and an effective number of bits of 3.65/3.43, respectively.

  18. Synchronization sampling method based on delta-sigma analog-digital converter for underwater towed array system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jia-Jia; Duan, Fa-Jie; Li, Yan-Chao; Hua, Xiang-Ning

    2014-03-01

    Synchronization sampling is very important in underwater towed array system where every acquisition node (AN) samples analog signals by its own analog-digital converter (ADC). In this paper, a simple and effective synchronization sampling method is proposed to ensure synchronized operation among different ANs of the underwater towed array system. We first present a master-slave synchronization sampling model, and then design a high accuracy phase-locked loop to synchronize all delta-sigma ADCs to a reference clock. However, when the master-slave synchronization sampling model is used, both the time-delay (TD) of messages traveling along the wired transmission medium and the jitter of the clocks will bring out synchronization sampling error (SSE). Therefore, a simple method is proposed to estimate and compensate the TD of the messages transmission, and then another effective method is presented to overcome the SSE caused by the jitter of the clocks. An experimental system with three ANs is set up, and the related experimental results verify the validity of the synchronization sampling method proposed in this paper.

  19. Synchronization sampling method based on delta-sigma analog-digital converter for underwater towed array system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jia-Jia; Duan, Fa-Jie; Li, Yan-Chao; Hua, Xiang-Ning

    2014-03-01

    Synchronization sampling is very important in underwater towed array system where every acquisition node (AN) samples analog signals by its own analog-digital converter (ADC). In this paper, a simple and effective synchronization sampling method is proposed to ensure synchronized operation among different ANs of the underwater towed array system. We first present a master-slave synchronization sampling model, and then design a high accuracy phase-locked loop to synchronize all delta-sigma ADCs to a reference clock. However, when the master-slave synchronization sampling model is used, both the time-delay (TD) of messages traveling along the wired transmission medium and the jitter of the clocks will bring out synchronization sampling error (SSE). Therefore, a simple method is proposed to estimate and compensate the TD of the messages transmission, and then another effective method is presented to overcome the SSE caused by the jitter of the clocks. An experimental system with three ANs is set up, and the related experimental results verify the validity of the synchronization sampling method proposed in this paper.

  20. Configurable analog-digital conversion using the neural engineering framework

    PubMed Central

    Mayr, Christian G.; Partzsch, Johannes; Noack, Marko; Schüffny, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Efficient Analog-Digital Converters (ADC) are one of the mainstays of mixed-signal integrated circuit design. Besides the conventional ADCs used in mainstream ICs, there have been various attempts in the past to utilize neuromorphic networks to accomplish an efficient crossing between analog and digital domains, i.e., to build neurally inspired ADCs. Generally, these have suffered from the same problems as conventional ADCs, that is they require high-precision, handcrafted analog circuits and are thus not technology portable. In this paper, we present an ADC based on the Neural Engineering Framework (NEF). It carries out a large fraction of the overall ADC process in the digital domain, i.e., it is easily portable across technologies. The analog-digital conversion takes full advantage of the high degree of parallelism inherent in neuromorphic networks, making for a very scalable ADC. In addition, it has a number of features not commonly found in conventional ADCs, such as a runtime reconfigurability of the ADC sampling rate, resolution and transfer characteristic. PMID:25100933

  1. Architecture of a mixed-mode electrophysiological signal acquisition interface.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ding-Lan; Chen, Jyun-Min

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes mixed-mode architecture for the acquisition interface of electrophysiological signals. The architecture advances the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) from the second chopper signal in the conventional approach and performs the second chopper operation in the digital domain. The demanded low-pass filter (LPF) is realized with a digital type. The analog LPF in feedback path is substituted with a digital one accompanying with a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). The analog variation is decreased due to the digitization of these operations. The entire architecture is simulated with the ECG input in a behavior model of Simulink.

  2. Conversion of cardiac performance data in analog form for digital computer entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    A system is presented which will reduce analog cardiac performance data and convert the results to digital form for direct entry into a commercial time-shared computer. Circuits are discussed which perform the measurement and digital conversion of instantaneous systolic and diastolic parameters from the analog blood pressure waveform. Digital averaging over a selected number of heart cycles is performed on these measurements, as well as those of flow and heart rate. The determination of average cardiac output and peripheral resistance, including trends, is the end result after processing by digital computer.

  3. Pixel-Level Digital-to-Analog Conversion Scheme with Compensation of Thin-Film-Transistor Variations for Compact Integrated Data Drivers of Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Park, Sang-Gyu; Choi, Byong-Deok

    2011-03-01

    The previous pixel-level digital-to-analog-conversion (DAC) scheme that implements a part of a DAC in a pixel circuit turned out to be very efficient for reducing the peripheral area of an integrated data driver fabricated with low-temperature polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS TFTs). However, how the pixel-level DAC can be compatible with the existing pixel circuits including compensation schemes of TFT variations and IR drops on supply rails, which is of primary importance for active matrix organic light emitting diodes (AMOLEDs) is an issue in this scheme, because LTPS TFTs suffer from random variations in their characteristics. In this paper, we show that the pixel-level DAC scheme can be successfully used with the previous compensation schemes by giving two examples of voltage- and current-programming pixels. The previous pixel-level DAC schemes require additional two TFTs and one capacitor, but for these newly proposed pixel circuits, the overhead is no more than two TFTs by utilizing the already existing capacitor. In addition, through a detailed analysis, it has been shown that the pixel-level DAC can be expanded to a 4-bit resolution, or be applied together with 1:2 demultiplexing driving for 6- to 8-in. diagonal XGA AMOLED display panels.

  4. High-speed ADC and DAC modules with fibre optic interconnections for telecom satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkinen, Veli; Juntunen, Eveliina; Karppinen, Mikko; Kautio, Kari; Ollila, Jyrki; Sitomaniemi, Aila; Tanskanen, Antti; Casey, Rory; Scott, Shane; Gachon, Hélène; Sotom, Michel; Venet, Norbert; Toivonen, Jaakko; Tuominen, Taisto; Karafolas, Nikos

    2017-11-01

    The flexibility required for future telecom payloads calls for the introduction of more and more digital processing capabilities. Aggregate data throughputs of several Tbps will have to be handled onboard, thus creating the need for effective, ADCDSP and DACDSP highspeed links. ADC and DAC modules with optical interconnections is an attractive option as it can solve easily the transmission and routing of the expected huge amount of data. This technique will enable to increase the bandwidth and/or the number of beams/channels to be treated, or to support advanced digital processing architectures including beam forming. We realised electrooptic ADC and DAC modules containing an 8 bit, 2 GSa/s A/D converter and a 12 bit, 2 GSa/s D/A converter. The 4channel parallel fibre optic link employs 850nm VCSELs and GaAs PIN photodiodes coupled to 50/125μm fibre ribbon cable. ADCDSP and DSPDAC links both have an aggregate data rate of 25 Gbps. The paper presents the current status of this development.

  5. Analog/digital pH meter system I.C.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, Paul; Park, Jea

    1992-01-01

    The project utilizes design automation software tools to design, simulate, and fabricate a pH meter integrated circuit (IC) system including a successive approximation type seven-bit analog to digital converter circuits using a 1.25 micron N-Well CMOS MOSIS process. The input voltage ranges from 0.5 to 1.0 V derived from a special type pH sensor, and the output is a three-digit decimal number display of pH with one decimal point.

  6. A standardized way to select, evaluate, and test an analog-to-digital converter for ultrawide bandwidth radiofrequency signals based on user's needs, ideal, published,and actual specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Daniel Y.; Rowe, Neil C.

    2012-06-01

    The most important adverse impact on the Electronic Warfare (EW) simulation is that the number of signal sources that can be tested simultaneously is relatively small. When the number of signal sources increases, the analog hardware, complexity and costs grow by the order of N2, since the number of connections among N components is O(N*N) and the signal communication is bi-directional. To solve this problem, digitization of the signal is suggested. In digitizing a radiofrequency signal, an Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) is widely used. Most research studies on ADCs are conducted from designer/test engineers' perspective. Some research studies are conducted from market's perspective. This paper presents a generic way to select, evaluate and test ultra high bandwidth COTS ADCs and generate requirements for digitizing continuous time signals from the perspective of user's needs. Based on user's needs, as well as vendor's published, ideal and actual specifications, a decision can be made in selecting a proper ADC for an application. To support our arguments and illustrate the methodology, we evaluate a Tektronix TADC-1000, an 8-bit and 12 gigasamples per second ADC. This project is funded by JEWEL lab, NAWCWD at Point Mugu, CA.

  7. Locality of Area Coverage on Digital Acoustic Communication in Air using Differential Phase Shift Keying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Keiichi; Ebihara, Tadashi; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Mizutani, Koichi

    2009-07-01

    We experimentally evaluate the locality of digital acoustic communication in air. Digital acoustic communication in air is suitable for a small cell system, because acoustic waves have a short propagation distance in air. In this study, optimal cell size is experimentally evaluated. Each base station (BS) transmits different commands. In our experiment, differential phase shift keying (DPSK), especially binary DPSK (DBPSK), is adopted as a modulation and demodulation scheme. The evaluated system consists of a personal computer (PC), a digital-to-analog converter (DAC), an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a loud speaker (SP), a microphone (MIC), and transceiver software. All experiments are performed in an anechoic room. The cell size of the transmitter can be limited under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) condition. If another transmitter works, cell size is limited by the effect of the interference from that transmitter. The cell size-to-distance ratio of transmitter A to transmitter B is 37.5%, if cell edge bit-error-rate (BER) is taken as 10-3.

  8. Analog quadrature signal to phase angle data conversion by a quadrature digitizer and quadrature counter

    DOEpatents

    Buchenauer, C.J.

    1981-09-23

    The quadrature phase angle phi (t) of a pair of quadrature signals S/sub 1/(t) and S/sub 2/(t) is digitally encoded on a real time basis by a quadrature digitizer for fractional phi (t) rotational excursions and by a quadrature up/down counter for full phi (t) rotations. The pair of quadrature signals are of the form S/sub 1/(t) = k(t) sin phi (t) and S/sub 2/(t) = k(t) cos phi (t) where k(t) is a signal common to both. The quadrature digitizer and the quadrature up/down counter may be used together or singularly as desired or required. Optionally, a digital-to-analog converter may follow the outputs of the quadrature digitizer and the quadrature up/down counter to provide an analog signal output of the quadrature phase angle phi (t).

  9. Analog quadrature signal to phase angle data conversion by a quadrature digitizer and quadrature counter

    DOEpatents

    Buchenauer, C. Jerald

    1984-01-01

    The quadrature phase angle .phi.(t) of a pair of quadrature signals S.sub.1 (t) and S.sub.2 (t) is digitally encoded on a real time basis by a quadrature digitizer for fractional .phi.(t) rotational excursions and by a quadrature up/down counter for full .phi.(t) rotations. The pair of quadrature signals are of the form S.sub.1 (t)=k(t) sin .phi.(t) and S.sub.2 (t)=k(t) cos .phi.(t) where k(t) is a signal common to both. The quadrature digitizer and the quadrature up/down counter may be used together or singularly as desired or required. Optionally, a digital-to-analog converter may follow the outputs of the quadrature digitizer and the quadrature up/down counter to provide an analog signal output of the quadrature phase angle .phi.(t).

  10. Noise reduction and control in mode-locked semiconductor diode lasers for use in next-generation all-optical analog-to-digital converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DePriest, Christopher M.; Abeles, Joseph H.; Braun, Alan; Delfyett, Peter J., Jr.

    2000-07-01

    External-cavity, actively-modelocked semiconductor diode lasers (SDLs) have proven to be attractive candidates for forming the backbone of next-generation analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), which are currently being developed to sample signals at repetition rates exceeding several GHz with up to 12 bits of digital resolution. Modelocked SDLs are capable of producing waveform-sampling pulse trains with very low temporal jitter (phase noise) and very small fluctuations in pulse height (amplitude noise)--two basic conditions that must be met in order for high-speed ADCs to achieve projected design goals. Single-wavelength modelocked operation (at nominal repetition frequencies of 400 MHz) has produced pulse trains with very low amplitude noise (approximately 0.08%), and the implementation of a phase- locked-loop has been effective in reducing the system's low- frequency phase noise (RMS timing jitter for offset frequencies between 10 Hz and 10 kHz has been reduced from 240 fs to 27 fs).

  11. Ultra-fast analog-to-digital converter based on a nonlinear triplexer and an optical coder with a photonic crystal structure.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Farhad; Soroosh, Mohammad; Alipour-Banaei, Hamed; Farshidi, Ebrahim

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we propose what we believe is a novel all-optical analog-to-digital converter (ADC) based on photonic crystals. The proposed structure is composed of a nonlinear triplexer and an optical coder. The nonlinear triplexer is for creating discrete levels in the continuous optical input signal, and the optical coder is for generating a 2-bit standard binary code out of the discrete levels coming from the nonlinear triplexer. Controlling the resonant mode of the resonant rings through optical intensity is the main objective and working mechanism of the proposed structure. The maximum delay time obtained for the proposed structure was about 5 ps and the total footprint is about 1520  μm2.

  12. Digital and analog communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanmugam, K. S.

    1979-01-01

    The book presents an introductory treatment of digital and analog communication systems with emphasis on digital systems. Attention is given to the following topics: systems and signal analysis, random signal theory, information and channel capacity, baseband data transmission, analog signal transmission, noise in analog communication systems, digital carrier modulation schemes, error control coding, and the digital transmission of analog signals.

  13. Digitally controlled analog proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for high-speed scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukic, Maja; Todorov, Vencislav; Andany, Santiago; Nievergelt, Adrian P.; Yang, Chen; Hosseini, Nahid; Fantner, Georg E.

    2017-12-01

    Nearly all scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) contain a feedback controller, which is used to move the scanner in the direction of the z-axis in order to maintain a constant setpoint based on the tip-sample interaction. The most frequently used feedback controller in SPMs is the proportional-integral (PI) controller. The bandwidth of the PI controller presents one of the speed limiting factors in high-speed SPMs, where higher bandwidths enable faster scanning speeds and higher imaging resolution. Most SPM systems use digital signal processor-based PI feedback controllers, which require analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters. These converters introduce additional feedback delays which limit the achievable imaging speed and resolution. In this paper, we present a digitally controlled analog proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. The controller implementation allows tunability of the PID gains over a large amplification and frequency range, while also providing precise control of the system and reproducibility of the gain parameters. By using the analog PID controller, we were able to perform successful atomic force microscopy imaging of a standard silicon calibration grating at line rates up to several kHz.

  14. Digitally controlled analog proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for high-speed scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dukic, Maja; Todorov, Vencislav; Andany, Santiago; Nievergelt, Adrian P; Yang, Chen; Hosseini, Nahid; Fantner, Georg E

    2017-12-01

    Nearly all scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) contain a feedback controller, which is used to move the scanner in the direction of the z-axis in order to maintain a constant setpoint based on the tip-sample interaction. The most frequently used feedback controller in SPMs is the proportional-integral (PI) controller. The bandwidth of the PI controller presents one of the speed limiting factors in high-speed SPMs, where higher bandwidths enable faster scanning speeds and higher imaging resolution. Most SPM systems use digital signal processor-based PI feedback controllers, which require analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters. These converters introduce additional feedback delays which limit the achievable imaging speed and resolution. In this paper, we present a digitally controlled analog proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. The controller implementation allows tunability of the PID gains over a large amplification and frequency range, while also providing precise control of the system and reproducibility of the gain parameters. By using the analog PID controller, we were able to perform successful atomic force microscopy imaging of a standard silicon calibration grating at line rates up to several kHz.

  15. Cost-effective bidirectional digitized radio-over-fiber systems employing sigma delta modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung Woon; Jung, HyunDo; Park, Jung Ho

    2016-11-01

    We propose a cost effective digitized radio-over-fiber (D-RoF) system employing a sigma delta modulation (SDM) and a bidirectional transmission technique using phase modulated downlink and intensity modulated uplink. SDM is transparent to different radio access technologies and modulation formats, and more suitable for a downlink of wireless system because a digital to analog converter (DAC) can be avoided at the base station (BS). Also, Central station and BS share the same light source by using a phase modulation for the downlink and an intensity modulation for the uplink transmission. Avoiding DACs and light sources have advantages in terms of cost reduction, power consumption, and compatibility with conventional wireless network structure. We have designed a cost effective bidirectional D-RoF system using a low pass SDM and measured the downlink and uplink transmission performance in terms of error vector magnitude, signal spectra, and constellations, which are based on the 10MHz LTE 64-QAM standard.

  16. Converting analog interpretive data to digital formats for use in database and GIS applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flocks, James G.

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing need by researchers and managers for comprehensive and unified nationwide datasets of scientific data. These datasets must be in a digital format that is easily accessible using database and GIS applications, providing the user with access to a wide variety of current and historical information. Although most data currently being collected by scientists are already in a digital format, there is still a large repository of information in the literature and paper archive. Converting this information into a format accessible by computer applications is typically very difficult and can result in loss of data. However, since scientific data are commonly collected in a repetitious, concise matter (i.e., forms, tables, graphs, etc.), these data can be recovered digitally by using a conversion process that relates the position of an attribute in two-dimensional space to the information that the attribute signifies. For example, if a table contains a certain piece of information in a specific row and column, then the space that the row and column occupies becomes an index of that information. An index key is used to identify the relation between the physical location of the attribute and the information the attribute contains. The conversion process can be achieved rapidly, easily and inexpensively using widely available digitizing and spreadsheet software, and simple programming code. In the geological sciences, sedimentary character is commonly interpreted from geophysical profiles and descriptions of sediment cores. In the field and laboratory, these interpretations were typically transcribed to paper. The information from these paper archives is still relevant and increasingly important to scientists, engineers and managers to understand geologic processes affecting our environment. Direct scanning of this information produces a raster facsimile of the data, which allows it to be linked to the electronic world. But true integration of the content with

  17. Analog-to-Digital Conversion to Accommodate the Dynamics of Live Music in Hearing Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Bahlmann, Frauke; Fulton, Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing instrument design focuses on the amplification of speech to reduce the negative effects of hearing loss. Many amateur and professional musicians, along with music enthusiasts, also require their hearing instruments to perform well when listening to the frequent, high amplitude peaks of live music. One limitation, in most current digital hearing instruments with 16-bit analog-to-digital (A/D) converters, is that the compressor before the A/D conversion is limited to 95 dB (SPL) or less at the input. This is more than adequate for the dynamic range of speech; however, this does not accommodate the amplitude peaks present in live music. The hearing instrument input compression system can be adjusted to accommodate for the amplitudes present in music that would otherwise be compressed before the A/D converter in the hearing instrument. The methodology behind this technological approach will be presented along with measurements to demonstrate its effectiveness. PMID:23258618

  18. Analog-to-digital conversion to accommodate the dynamics of live music in hearing instruments.

    PubMed

    Hockley, Neil S; Bahlmann, Frauke; Fulton, Bernadette

    2012-09-01

    Hearing instrument design focuses on the amplification of speech to reduce the negative effects of hearing loss. Many amateur and professional musicians, along with music enthusiasts, also require their hearing instruments to perform well when listening to the frequent, high amplitude peaks of live music. One limitation, in most current digital hearing instruments with 16-bit analog-to-digital (A/D) converters, is that the compressor before the A/D conversion is limited to 95 dB (SPL) or less at the input. This is more than adequate for the dynamic range of speech; however, this does not accommodate the amplitude peaks present in live music. The hearing instrument input compression system can be adjusted to accommodate for the amplitudes present in music that would otherwise be compressed before the A/D converter in the hearing instrument. The methodology behind this technological approach will be presented along with measurements to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  19. Method and apparatus for analog signal conditioner for high speed, digital x-ray spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Warburton, William K.; Hubbard, Bradley

    1999-01-01

    A signal processing system which accepts input from an x-ray detector-preamplifier and produces a signal of reduced dynamic range for subsequent analog-to-digital conversion. The system conditions the input signal to reduce the number of bits required in the analog-to-digital converter by removing that part of the input signal which varies only slowly in time and retaining the amplitude of the pulses which carry information about the x-rays absorbed by the detector. The parameters controlling the signal conditioner's operation can be readily supplied in digital form, allowing it to be integrated into a feedback loop as part of a larger digital x-ray spectroscopy system.

  20. Method and Apparatus for Improving the Resolution of Digitally Sampled Analog Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liaghati, Amir L. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A system and method is described for converting an analog signal into a digital signal. The gain and offset of an ADC is dynamically adjusted so that the N-bits of input data are assigned to a narrower channel instead of the entire input range of the ADC. This provides greater resolution in the range of interest without generating longer digital data strings.

  1. Generation of multiple analog pulses with different duty cycles within VME control system for ICRH Aditya system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Ramesh; Singh, Manoj; Jadav, H. M.; Misra, Kishor; Kulkarni, S. V.; ICRH-RF Group

    2010-02-01

    Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) is a promising heating method for a fusion device due to its localized power deposition profile, a direct ion heating at high density, and established technology for high RF power generation and transmission at low cost. Multiple analog pulse with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for steady state RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya to produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The control system software is based upon single digital pulse operation for RF source. It is planned to integrate multiple analog pulses with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya tokamak. The task of RF ICRH DAC is to control and acquisition of all ICRH system operation with all control loop and acquisition for post analysis of data with java based tool. For pre ionization startup as well as heating experiments using multiple RF Power of different powers and duration. The experiment based upon the idea of using single RF generator to energize antenna inside the tokamak to radiate power twise, out of which first analog pulse will produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The whole system is based on standard client server technology using tcp/ip protocol. DAC Software is based on linux operating system for highly reliable, secure and stable system operation in failsafe manner. Client system is based on tcl/tk like toolkit for user interface with c/c++ like environment which is reliable programming languages widely used on stand alone system operation with server as vxWorks real time operating system like environment. The paper is focused on the Data acquisition and monitoring system software on Aditya RF ICRH System with analog pulses in slave mode with digital pulse in

  2. An actively mode-locked fiber laser for sampling in a wide-bandwidth opto-electronic analog-to-digital converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, John P.; Pace, Phillip E.

    2008-02-01

    We have designed, built and tested an actively mode-locked fiber laser, operating at 1550 nm, for use as the sampling waveform in an opto-electronic analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Analysis shows that, in order to digitize a 10-GHz signal to 10 bits of resolution, the sampling pulsewidth must be less than 2.44 ps, the RMS timing jitter must be below 31.0 fs, and the RMS amplitude jitter must be below 0.195%. Fiber lasers have proven to have the capability to narrowly exceed these operating requirements. The fiber laser is a "sigma" laser consisting of Er-doped gain medium, dispersion-compensating fiber, nonlinear fiber, a Faraday rotation mirror, polarization-maintaining fiber and components, and diode pump lasers. The active mode-locking is achieved by a Mach-Zehnder interferometer modulator, driven by a frequency synthesizer operating at the desired sampling rate. A piezo-electric element is used in a feedback control loop to stabilize the output PRF against environmental changes. Measurements of the laser output revealed the maximum nominal PRF to be 16 GHz, the nominal pulsewidth to be 7.2 ps, and the nominal RNS timing jitter to be 386 fs. Incorporating this laser into a sampling ADC would allow us to sample a 805-MHz bandwidth signal to a resolution of 10 bits as limited by timing jitter. Techniques to reduce the timing-jitter bottleneck are discussed.

  3. High performance photonic ADC for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantoja, S.; Piqueras, M. A.; Villalba, P.; Martínez, B.; Rico, E.

    2017-11-01

    The flexibility required for future telecom payloads will require of more digital processing capabilities, moving from conventional analogue repeaters to more advanced and efficient analog subsystems or DSPbased solutions. Aggregate data throughputs will have to be handled onboard, creating the need for effective, ADC/DSP and DSP/DAC high speed links. Broadband payloads will have to receive, route and retransmit hundreds of channels and need to be designed so as to meet such requirements of larger bandwidth, system transparency and flexibility.[1][2] One important device in these new architectures is analog to digital converter (ADC) and its equivalent digital to analog converter (DAC). These will be the in/out interface for the use of digital processing in order to provide flexible beam to beam connectivity and variable bandwidth allocation. For telecom payloads having a large number of feeds and thus a large number of converters the mass and consumption of the mixer stage has become significant. Moreover, the inclusion of ADCs in the payload presents new trade-offs in design (jitter, quantization noise, ambiguity). This paper deals with an alternative solution of these two main problems with the exploitation of photonic techniques.

  4. High density, multi-range analog output Versa Module Europa board for control system applications

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Kundan, E-mail: kundan@iuac.res.in; Das, Ajit Lal

    2014-01-15

    A new VMEDAC64, 12-bit 64 channel digital-to-analog converter, a Versa Module Europa (VME) module, features 64 analog voltage outputs with user selectable multiple ranges, has been developed for control system applications at Inter University Accelerator Centre. The FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) is the module's core, i.e., it implements the DAC control logic and complexity of VMEbus slave interface logic. The VMEbus slave interface and DAC control logic are completely designed and implemented on a single FPGA chip to achieve high density of 64 channels in a single width VME module and will reduce the module count in the controlmore » system applications, and hence will reduce the power consumption and cost of overall system. One of our early design goals was to develop the VME interface such that it can be easily integrated with the peripheral devices and satisfy the timing specifications of VME standard. The modular design of this module reduces the amount of time required to develop other custom modules for control system. The VME slave interface is written as a single component inside FPGA which will be used as a basic building block for any VMEbus interface project. The module offers multiple output voltage ranges depending upon the requirement. The output voltage range can be reduced or expanded by writing range selection bits in the control register. The module has programmable refresh rate and by default hold capacitors in the sample and hold circuit for each channel are charged periodically every 7.040 ms (i.e., update frequency 284 Hz). Each channel has software controlled output switch which disconnects analog output from the field. The modularity in the firmware design on FPGA makes the debugging very easy. On-board DC/DC converters are incorporated for isolated power supply for the analog section of the board.« less

  5. Successive approximation-like 4-bit full-optical analog-to-digital converter based on Kerr-like nonlinear photonic crystal ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavousi, Alireza; Mansouri-Birjandi, Mohammad Ali; Saffari, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    Implementing of photonic sampling and quantizing analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) enable us to extract a single binary word from optical signals without need for extra electronic assisting parts. This would enormously increase the sampling and quantizing time as well as decreasing the consumed power. To this end, based on the concept of successive approximation method, a 4-bit full-optical ADC that operates using the intensity-dependent Kerr-like nonlinearity in a two dimensional photonic crystal (2DPhC) platform is proposed. The Silicon (Si) nanocrystal is chosen because of the suitable nonlinear material characteristic. An optical limiter is used for the clamping and quantization of each successive levels that represent the ADC bits. In the proposal, an energy efficient optical ADC circuit is implemented by controlling the system parameters such as ring-to-waveguide coupling coefficients, the ring's nonlinear refractive index, and the ring's length. The performance of the ADC structure is verified by the simulation using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method.

  6. 500 MHz Analog-to-Digital Converter Development Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-03-01

    marginal level digital input signals. At these encoding speeds, quasi -stable non -digital voltage levels at their outputs still resulted. Further...OF COMMERCE SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 Radar Division AEROSPACE GROUP Hughes Aircraft Company * Culver City, California / .A CONTFNTS Page INTRODUCTION...sec. The experimental data also indicated that the short time stability of the timing reference generator caused most of the time jitter associated

  7. Method and apparatus for analog signal conditioner for high speed, digital x-ray spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Warburton, W.K.; Hubbard, B.

    1999-02-09

    A signal processing system which accepts input from an x-ray detector-preamplifier and produces a signal of reduced dynamic range for subsequent analog-to-digital conversion is disclosed. The system conditions the input signal to reduce the number of bits required in the analog-to-digital converter by removing that part of the input signal which varies only slowly in time and retaining the amplitude of the pulses which carry information about the x-rays absorbed by the detector. The parameters controlling the signal conditioner`s operation can be readily supplied in digital form, allowing it to be integrated into a feedback loop as part of a larger digital x-ray spectroscopy system. 13 figs.

  8. Simulation of continuously logical base cells (CL BC) with advanced functions for analog-to-digital converters and image processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasilenko, Vladimir G.; Lazarev, Alexander A.; Nikitovich, Diana V.

    2017-10-01

    The paper considers results of design and modeling of continuously logical base cells (CL BC) based on current mirrors (CM) with functions of preliminary analogue and subsequent analogue-digital processing for creating sensor multichannel analog-to-digital converters (SMC ADCs) and image processors (IP). For such with vector or matrix parallel inputs-outputs IP and SMC ADCs it is needed active basic photosensitive cells with an extended electronic circuit, which are considered in paper. Such basic cells and ADCs based on them have a number of advantages: high speed and reliability, simplicity, small power consumption, high integration level for linear and matrix structures. We show design of the CL BC and ADC of photocurrents and their various possible implementations and its simulations. We consider CL BC for methods of selection and rank preprocessing and linear array of ADCs with conversion to binary codes and Gray codes. In contrast to our previous works here we will dwell more on analogue preprocessing schemes for signals of neighboring cells. Let us show how the introduction of simple nodes based on current mirrors extends the range of functions performed by the image processor. Each channel of the structure consists of several digital-analog cells (DC) on 15-35 CMOS. The amount of DC does not exceed the number of digits of the formed code, and for an iteration type, only one cell of DC, complemented by the device of selection and holding (SHD), is required. One channel of ADC with iteration is based on one DC-(G) and SHD, and it has only 35 CMOS transistors. In such ADCs easily parallel code can be realized and also serial-parallel output code. The circuits and simulation results of their design with OrCAD are shown. The supply voltage of the DC is 1.8÷3.3V, the range of an input photocurrent is 0.1÷24μA, the transformation time is 20÷30nS at 6-8 bit binary or Gray codes. The general power consumption of the ADC with iteration is only 50÷100μW, if the

  9. Analog to digital workflow improvement: a quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Wideman, Catherine; Gallet, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    This study tracked a radiology department's conversion from utilization of a Kodak Amber analog system to a Kodak DirectView DR 5100 digital system. Through the use of ProModel Optimization Suite, a workflow simulation software package, significant quantitative information was derived from workflow process data measured before and after the change to a digital system. Once the digital room was fully operational and the radiology staff comfortable with the new system, average patient examination time was reduced from 9.24 to 5.28 min, indicating that a higher patient throughput could be achieved. Compared to the analog system, chest examination time for modality specific activities was reduced by 43%. The percentage of repeat examinations experienced with the digital system also decreased to 8% vs. the level of 9.5% experienced with the analog system. The study indicated that it is possible to quantitatively study clinical workflow and productivity by using commercially available software.

  10. Digital scale converter

    DOEpatents

    Upton, Richard G.

    1978-01-01

    A digital scale converter is provided for binary coded decimal (BCD) conversion. The converter may be programmed to convert a BCD value of a first scale to the equivalent value of a second scale according to a known ratio. The value to be converted is loaded into a first BCD counter and counted down to zero while a second BCD counter registers counts from zero or an offset value depending upon the conversion. Programmable rate multipliers are used to generate pulses at selected rates to the counters for the proper conversion ratio. The value present in the second counter at the time the first counter is counted to the zero count is the equivalent value of the second scale. This value may be read out and displayed on a conventional seven-segment digital display.

  11. A sub-microwatt asynchronous level-crossing ADC for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongjia; Zhao, Duan; Serdijn, Wouter A

    2013-04-01

    A continuous-time level-crossing analog-to-digital converter (LC-ADC) for biomedical applications is presented. When compared to uniform-sampling (US) ADCs LC-ADCs generate fewer samples for various sparse biomedical signals. Lower power consumption and reduced design complexity with respect to conventional LC-ADCs are achieved due to: 1) replacing the n-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with a 1-bit DAC; 2) splitting the level-crossing detections; and 3) fixing the comparison window. Designed and implemented in 0.18 μm CMOS technology, the proposed ADC uses a chip area of 220 × 203 μm(2). Operating from a supply voltage of 0.8 V, the ADC consumes 313-582 nW from 5 Hz to 5 kHz and achieves an ENOB up to 7.9 bits.

  12. Digital to synchro converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Predina, Joseph P. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A digital-to-synchro converter is provided where a binary input code specifies a desired shaft angle and where an resolver type position transducer is employed with additional circuitry to generate a shaft position error signal indicative of the angular difference between the desired shaft angle and the actual shaft angle. The additional circuitry corrects for known and calculated errors in the shaft position detection process and equipment.

  13. Digital plus analog output encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafle, R. S. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    The disclosed encoder is adapted to produce both digital and analog output signals corresponding to the angular position of a rotary shaft, or the position of any other movable member. The digital signals comprise a series of binary signals constituting a multidigit code word which defines the angular position of the shaft with a degree of resolution which depends upon the number of digits in the code word. The basic binary signals are produced by photocells actuated by a series of binary tracks on a code disc or member. The analog signals are in the form of a series of ramp signals which are related in length to the least significant bit of the digital code word. The analog signals are derived from sine and cosine tracks on the code disc.

  14. Full-Circle Resolver-to-Linear-Analog Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C.; Smith, Dennis A.; Howard, David E.

    2005-01-01

    A circuit generates sinusoidal excitation signals for a shaft-angle resolver and, like the arctangent circuit described in the preceding article, generates an analog voltage proportional to the shaft angle. The disadvantages of the circuit described in the preceding article arise from the fact that it must be made from precise analog subcircuits, including a functional block capable of implementing some trigonometric identities; this circuitry tends to be expensive, sensitive to noise, and susceptible to errors caused by temperature-induced drifts and imprecise matching of gains and phases. These disadvantages are overcome by the design of the present circuit. The present circuit (see figure) includes an excitation circuit, which generates signals Ksin(Omega(t)) and Kcos(Omega(t)) [where K is an amplitude, Omega denotes 2(pi)x a carrier frequency (the design value of which is 10 kHz), and t denotes time]. These signals are applied to the excitation terminals of a shaft-angle resolver, causing the resolver to put out signals C sin(Omega(t)-Theta) and C cos(Omega(t)-Theta). The cosine excitation signal and the cosine resolver output signal are processed through inverting comparator circuits, which are configured to function as inverting squarers, to obtain logic-level or square-wave signals .-LL[cos(Omega(t)] and -LL[cos(Omega(t)-Theta)], respectively. These signals are fed as inputs to a block containing digital logic circuits that effectively measure the phase difference (which equals Theta between the two logic-level signals). The output of this block is a pulse-width-modulated signal, PWM(Theta), the time-averaged value of which ranges from 0 to 5 VDC as Theta ranges from .180 to +180deg. PWM(Theta) is fed to a block of amplifying and level-shifting circuitry, which converts the input PWM waveform to an output waveform that switches between precise reference voltage levels of +10 and -10 V. This waveform is processed by a two-pole, low-pass filter, which removes

  15. Serial-to-parallel color-TV converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doak, T. W.; Merwin, R. B.; Zuckswert, S. E.; Sepper, W.

    1976-01-01

    Solid analog-to-digital converter eliminates flicker and problems with time base stability and gain variation in sequential color TV cameras. Device includes 3-bit delta modulator; two-field memory; timing, switching, and sync network; and three 3-bit delta demodulators

  16. Frequency to Voltage Converter Analog Front-End Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, Carlos; Raines, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The frequency to voltage converter analog front end evaluation prototype (F2V AFE) is an evaluation board designed for comparison of different methods of accurately extracting the frequency of a sinusoidal input signal. A configurable input stage is routed to one or several of five separate, configurable filtering circuits, and then to a configurable output stage. Amplifier selection and gain, filter corner frequencies, and comparator hysteresis and voltage reference are all easily configurable through the use of jumpers and potentiometers.

  17. Design challenges of EO polymer based leaky waveguide deflector for 40 Gs/s all-optical analog-to-digital converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjloum, Massinissa; El Gibari, Mohammed; Li, Hongwu; Daryoush, Afshin S.

    2016-08-01

    Design challenges and performance optimization of an all-optical analog-to-digital converter (AOADC) is presented here. The paper addresses both microwave and optical design of a leaky waveguide optical deflector using electro-optic (E-O) polymer. The optical deflector converts magnitude variation of the applied RF voltage into variation of deflection angle out of a leaky waveguide optical beam using the linear E-O effect (Pockels effect) as part of the E-O polymer based optical waveguide. This variation of deflection angle as result of the applied RF signal is then quantized using optical windows followed by an array of high-speed photodetectors. We optimized the leakage coefficient of the leaky waveguide and its physical length to achieve the best trade-off between bandwidth and the deflected optical beam resolution, by improving the phase velocity matching between lightwave and microwave on one hand and using pre-emphasis technique to compensate for the RF signal attenuation on the other hand. In addition, for ease of access from both optical and RF perspective, a via-hole less broad bandwidth transition is designed between coplanar pads and coupled microstrip (CPW-CMS) driving electrodes. With the best reported E-O coefficient of 350 pm/V, the designed E-O deflector should allow an AOADC operating over 44 giga-samples-per-seconds with an estimated effective resolution of 6.5 bits on RF signals with Nyquist bandwidth of 22 GHz. The overall DC power consumption of all components used in this AOADC is of order of 4 W and is dominated by power consumption in the power amplifier to generate a 20 V RF voltage in 50 Ohm system. A higher sampling rate can be achieved at similar bits of resolution by interleaving a number of this elementary AOADC at the expense of a higher power consumption.

  18. Transitioning from analog to digital audio recording in childhood speech sound disorders.

    PubMed

    Shriberg, Lawrence D; McSweeny, Jane L; Anderson, Bruce E; Campbell, Thomas F; Chial, Michael R; Green, Jordan R; Hauner, Katherina K; Moore, Christopher A; Rusiewicz, Heather L; Wilson, David L

    2005-06-01

    Few empirical findings or technical guidelines are available on the current transition from analog to digital audio recording in childhood speech sound disorders. Of particular concern in the present context was whether a transition from analog- to digital-based transcription and coding of prosody and voice features might require re-standardizing a reference database for research in childhood speech sound disorders. Two research transcribers with different levels of experience glossed, transcribed, and prosody-voice coded conversational speech samples from eight children with mild to severe speech disorders of unknown origin. The samples were recorded, stored, and played back using representative analog and digital audio systems. Effect sizes calculated for an array of analog versus digital comparisons ranged from negligible to medium, with a trend for participants' speech competency scores to be slightly lower for samples obtained and transcribed using the digital system. We discuss the implications of these and other findings for research and clinical practise.

  19. Transitioning from analog to digital audio recording in childhood speech sound disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Campbell, Thomas F.; Chial, Michael R.; Green, Jordan R.; Hauner, Katherina K.; Moore, Christopher A.; Rusiewicz, Heather L.; Wilson, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Few empirical findings or technical guidelines are available on the current transition from analog to digital audio recording in childhood speech sound disorders. Of particular concern in the present context was whether a transition from analog- to digital-based transcription and coding of prosody and voice features might require re-standardizing a reference database for research in childhood speech sound disorders. Two research transcribers with different levels of experience glossed, transcribed, and prosody-voice coded conversational speech samples from eight children with mild to severe speech disorders of unknown origin. The samples were recorded, stored, and played back using representative analog and digital audio systems. Effect sizes calculated for an array of analog versus digital comparisons ranged from negligible to medium, with a trend for participants’ speech competency scores to be slightly lower for samples obtained and transcribed using the digital system. We discuss the implications of these and other findings for research and clinical practise. PMID:16019779

  20. Digital optical conversion module

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1991-02-26

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.

  1. Data recording and playback on video tape--a multi-channel analog interface for a digital audio processor system.

    PubMed

    Blaettler, M; Bruegger, A; Forster, I C; Lehareinger, Y

    1988-03-01

    The design of an analog interface to a digital audio signal processor (DASP)-video cassette recorder (VCR) system is described. The complete system represents a low-cost alternative to both FM instrumentation tape recorders and multi-channel chart recorders. The interface or DASP input-output unit described in this paper enables the recording and playback of up to 12 analog channels with a maximum of 12 bit resolution and a bandwidth of 2 kHz per channel. Internal control and timing in the recording component of the interface is performed using ROMs which can be reprogrammed to suit different analog-to-digital converter hardware. Improvement in the bandwidth specifications is possible by connecting channels in parallel. A parallel 16 bit data output port is provided for direct transfer of the digitized data to a computer.

  2. An evaluation of the Intel 2920 digital signal processing integrated circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, J.

    1981-01-01

    The circuit consists of a digital to analog converter, accumulator, read write memory and UV erasable read only memory. The circuit can convert an analog signal to a digital representation, perform mathematical operations on the digital signal and subsequently convert the digital signal to an analog output. Development software tailored for programming the 2920 is presented.

  3. Picosecond Resolution Time-to-Digital Converter Using Gm-C Integrator and SAR-ADC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zule; Miyahara, Masaya; Matsuzawa, Akira

    2014-04-01

    A picosecond resolution time-to-digital converter (TDC) is presented. The resolution of a conventional delay chain TDC is limited by the delay of a logic buffer. Various types of recent TDCs are successful in breaking this limitation, but they require a significant calibration effort to achieve picosecond resolution with a sufficient linear range. To address these issues, we propose a simple method to break the resolution limitation without any calibration: a Gm-C integrator followed by a successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter (SAR-ADC). This translates the time interval into charge, and then the charge is quantized. A prototype chip was fabricated in 90 nm CMOS. The measurement results reveal a 1 ps resolution, a -0.6/0.7 LSB differential nonlinearity (DNL), a -1.1/2.3 LSB integral nonlinearity (INL), and a 9-bit range. The measured 11.74 ps single-shot precision is caused by the noise of the integrator. We analyze the noise of the integrator and propose an improved front-end circuit to reduce this noise. The proposal is verified by simulations showing the maximum single-shot precision is less than 1 ps. The proposed front-end circuit can also diminish the mismatch effects.

  4. DAC-board based X-band EPR spectrometer with arbitrary waveform control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Thomas; Keller, Timothy J.; Franck, John M.; Barnes, Ryan P.; Glaser, Steffen J.; Martinis, John M.; Han, Songi

    2013-10-01

    We present arbitrary control over a homogenous spin system, demonstrated on a simple, home-built, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer operating at 8-10 GHz (X-band) and controlled by a 1 GHz arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) with 42 dB (i.e. 14-bit) of dynamic range. Such a spectrometer can be relatively easily built from a single DAC (digital to analog converter) board with a modest number of stock components and offers powerful capabilities for automated digital calibration and correction routines that allow it to generate shaped X-band pulses with precise amplitude and phase control. It can precisely tailor the excitation profiles "seen" by the spins in the microwave resonator, based on feedback calibration with experimental input. We demonstrate the capability to generate a variety of pulse shapes, including rectangular, triangular, Gaussian, sinc, and adiabatic rapid passage waveforms. We then show how one can precisely compensate for the distortion and broadening caused by transmission into the microwave cavity in order to optimize corrected waveforms that are distinctly different from the initial, uncorrected waveforms. Specifically, we exploit a narrow EPR signal whose width is finer than the features of any distortions in order to map out the response to a short pulse, which, in turn, yields the precise transfer function of the spectrometer system. This transfer function is found to be consistent for all pulse shapes in the linear response regime. In addition to allowing precise waveform shaping capabilities, the spectrometer presented here offers complete digital control and calibration of the spectrometer that allows one to phase cycle the pulse phase with 0.007° resolution and to specify the inter-pulse delays and pulse durations to ⩽250 ps resolution. The implications and potential applications of these capabilities will be discussed.

  5. Hybrid Analog/Digital Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. H.; Hurd, W. J.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced hybrid analog/digital receiver processes intermediate-frequency (IF) signals carrying digital data in form of phase modulation. Uses IF sampling and digital phase-locked loops to track carrier and subcarrier signals and to synchronize data symbols. Consists of three modules: IF assembly, signal-processing assembly, and test-signal assembly. Intended for use in Deep Space Network, but presumably basic design modified for such terrestrial uses as communications or laboratory instrumentation where signals weak and/or noise strong.

  6. Analog Signal Correlating Using an Analog-Based Signal Conditioning Front End

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokop, Norman; Krasowski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This innovation is capable of correlating two analog signals by using an analog-based signal conditioning front end to hard-limit the analog signals through adaptive thresholding into a binary bit stream, then performing the correlation using a Hamming "similarity" calculator function embedded in a one-bit digital correlator (OBDC). By converting the analog signal into a bit stream, the calculation of the correlation function is simplified, and less hardware resources are needed. This binary representation allows the hardware to move from a DSP where instructions are performed serially, into digital logic where calculations can be performed in parallel, greatly speeding up calculations.

  7. Digital optical conversion module

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

    1988-07-19

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

  8. Digital-Analog Hybrid Scheme and Its Application to Chaotic Random Number Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zeshi; Li, Hongtao; Miao, Yunchi; Hu, Wen; Zhu, Xiaohua

    2017-12-01

    Practical random number generation (RNG) circuits are typically achieved with analog devices or digital approaches. Digital-based techniques, which use field programmable gate array (FPGA) and graphics processing units (GPU) etc. usually have better performances than analog methods as they are programmable, efficient and robust. However, digital realizations suffer from the effect of finite precision. Accordingly, the generated random numbers (RNs) are actually periodic instead of being real random. To tackle this limitation, in this paper we propose a novel digital-analog hybrid scheme that employs the digital unit as the main body, and minimum analog devices to generate physical RNs. Moreover, the possibility of realizing the proposed scheme with only one memory element is discussed. Without loss of generality, we use the capacitor and the memristor along with FPGA to construct the proposed hybrid system, and a chaotic true random number generator (TRNG) circuit is realized, producing physical RNs at a throughput of Gbit/s scale. These RNs successfully pass all the tests in the NIST SP800-22 package, confirming the significance of the scheme in practical applications. In addition, the use of this new scheme is not restricted to RNGs, and it also provides a strategy to solve the effect of finite precision in other digital systems.

  9. Transitioning from Analog to Digital Audio Recording in Childhood Speech Sound Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Mcsweeny, Jane L.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Campbell, Thomas F.; Chial, Michael R.; Green, Jordan R.; Hauner, Katherina K.; Moore, Christopher A.; Rusiewicz, Heather L.; Wilson, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Few empirical findings or technical guidelines are available on the current transition from analog to digital audio recording in childhood speech sound disorders. Of particular concern in the present context was whether a transition from analog- to digital-based transcription and coding of prosody and voice features might require re-standardizing…

  10. Analog FM/FM versus digital color TV transmission aboard space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    Langley Research Center is developing an integrated fault tolerant network to support data, voice, and video communications aboard Space Station. The question of transmitting the video data via dedicated analog channels or converting it to the digital domain for consistancy with the test of the data is addressed. The recommendations in this paper are based on a comparison in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the type of video processing required aboard Space Station, the applicability to Space Station, and how they integrate into the network.

  11. The application of the analog signal to discrete time interval converter to the signal conditioner power supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfeld, A. D.; Yu, Y.

    1973-01-01

    The Analog Signal to Discrete Time Interval Converter microminiaturized module was utilized to control the signal conditioner power supplies. The multi-loop control provides outstanding static and dynamic performance characteristics, exceeding those generally associated with single-loop regulators. Eight converter boards, each containing three independent dc to dc converter, were built, tested, and delivered.

  12. Analog pulse processor

    DOEpatents

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Kemper, Dale A.

    2003-06-03

    A very low power analog pulse processing system implemented as an ASIC useful for processing signals from radiation detectors, among other things. The system incorporates the functions of a charge sensitive amplifier, a shaping amplifier, a peak sample and hold circuit, and, optionally, an analog to digital converter and associated drivers.

  13. Method and apparatus for clockless analog-to-digital conversion and peak detection

    DOEpatents

    DeGeronimo, Gianluigi

    2007-03-06

    An apparatus and method for analog-to-digital conversion and peak detection includes at least one stage, which includes a first switch, second switch, current source or capacitor, and discriminator. The discriminator changes state in response to a current or charge associated with the input signal exceeding a threshold, thereby indicating whether the current or charge associated with the input signal is greater than the threshold. The input signal includes a peak or a charge, and the converter includes a peak or charge detect mode in which a state of the switch is retained in response to a decrease in the current or charge associated with the input signal. The state of the switch represents at least a portion of a value of the peak or of the charge.

  14. Derivation of the Statistical Distribution of the Mass Peak Centroids of Mass Spectrometers Employing Analog-to-Digital Converters and Electron Multipliers

    DOE PAGES

    Ipsen, Andreas

    2017-02-03

    Here, the mass peak centroid is a quantity that is at the core of mass spectrometry (MS). However, despite its central status in the field, models of its statistical distribution are often chosen quite arbitrarily and without attempts at establishing a proper theoretical justification for their use. Recent work has demonstrated that for mass spectrometers employing analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and electron multipliers, the statistical distribution of the mass peak intensity can be described via a relatively simple model derived essentially from first principles. Building on this result, the following article derives the corresponding statistical distribution for the mass peak centroidsmore » of such instruments. It is found that for increasing signal strength, the centroid distribution converges to a Gaussian distribution whose mean and variance are determined by physically meaningful parameters and which in turn determine bias and variability of the m/z measurements of the instrument. Through the introduction of the concept of “pulse-peak correlation”, the model also elucidates the complicated relationship between the shape of the voltage pulses produced by the preamplifier and the mean and variance of the centroid distribution. The predictions of the model are validated with empirical data and with Monte Carlo simulations.« less

  15. Derivation of the Statistical Distribution of the Mass Peak Centroids of Mass Spectrometers Employing Analog-to-Digital Converters and Electron Multipliers

    SciTech Connect

    Ipsen, Andreas

    Here, the mass peak centroid is a quantity that is at the core of mass spectrometry (MS). However, despite its central status in the field, models of its statistical distribution are often chosen quite arbitrarily and without attempts at establishing a proper theoretical justification for their use. Recent work has demonstrated that for mass spectrometers employing analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and electron multipliers, the statistical distribution of the mass peak intensity can be described via a relatively simple model derived essentially from first principles. Building on this result, the following article derives the corresponding statistical distribution for the mass peak centroidsmore » of such instruments. It is found that for increasing signal strength, the centroid distribution converges to a Gaussian distribution whose mean and variance are determined by physically meaningful parameters and which in turn determine bias and variability of the m/z measurements of the instrument. Through the introduction of the concept of “pulse-peak correlation”, the model also elucidates the complicated relationship between the shape of the voltage pulses produced by the preamplifier and the mean and variance of the centroid distribution. The predictions of the model are validated with empirical data and with Monte Carlo simulations.« less

  16. Quantization noise in digital speech. M.S. Thesis- Houston Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, O. L.

    1972-01-01

    The amount of quantization noise generated in a digital-to-analog converter is dependent on the number of bits or quantization levels used to digitize the analog signal in the analog-to-digital converter. The minimum number of quantization levels and the minimum sample rate were derived for a digital voice channel. A sample rate of 6000 samples per second and lowpass filters with a 3 db cutoff of 2400 Hz are required for 100 percent sentence intelligibility. Consonant sounds are the first speech components to be degraded by quantization noise. A compression amplifier can be used to increase the weighting of the consonant sound amplitudes in the analog-to-digital converter. An expansion network must be installed at the output of the digital-to-analog converter to restore the original weighting of the consonant sounds. This technique results in 100 percent sentence intelligibility for a sample rate of 5000 samples per second, eight quantization levels, and lowpass filters with a 3 db cutoff of 2000 Hz.

  17. Digitized synchronous demodulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodhouse, Christopher E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A digitized synchronous demodulator is constructed entirely of digital components including timing logic, an accumulator, and means to digitally filter the digital output signal. Indirectly, it accepts, at its input, periodic analog signals which are converted to digital signals by traditional analog-to-digital conversion techniques. Broadly, the input digital signals are summed to one of two registers within an accumulator, based on the phase of the input signal and medicated by timing logic. At the end of a predetermined number of cycles of the inputted periodic signals, the contents of the register that accumulated samples from the negative half cycle is subtracted from the accumulated samples from the positive half cycle. The resulting difference is an accurate measurement of the narrow band amplitude of the periodic input signal during the measurement period. This measurement will not include error sources encountered in prior art synchronous demodulators using analog techniques such as offsets, charge injection errors, temperature drift, switching transients, settling time, analog to digital converter missing code, and linearity errors.

  18. 107 Gb/s coherent optical OFDM transmission over 1000-km SSMF fiber using orthogonal band multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Shieh, W; Yang, Q; Ma, Y

    2008-04-28

    Coherent optical OFDM (CO-OFDM) has emerged as an attractive modulation format for the forthcoming 100 Gb/s Ethernet. However, even the spectral-efficient implementation of CO-OFDM requires digital-to-analog converters (DAC) and analog-to-digital converters (ADC) to operate at the bandwidth which may not be available today or may not be cost-effective. In order to resolve the electronic bandwidth bottleneck associated with DAC/ADC devices, we propose and elucidate the principle of orthogonal-band-multiplexed OFDM (OBM-OFDM) to subdivide the entire OFDM spectrum into multiple orthogonal bands. With this scheme, the DAC/ADCs do not need to operate at extremely high sampling rate. The corresponding mapping to the mixed-signal integrated circuit (IC) design is also revealed. Additionally, we show the proof-of-concept transmission experiment through optical realization of OBM-OFDM. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first experimental demonstration of 107 Gb/s QPSK-encoded CO-OFDM signal transmission over 1000 km standard-single- mode-fiber (SSMF) without optical dispersion compensation and without Raman amplification. The demonstrated system employs 2x2 MIMO-OFDM signal processing and achieves high electrical spectral efficiency with direct-conversion at both transmitter and receiver.

  19. Wired and wireless convergent extended-reach optical access network using direct-detection of all-optical OFDM super-channel signal.

    PubMed

    Chow, C W; Yeh, C H; Sung, J Y; Hsu, C W

    2014-12-15

    We propose and demonstrate the feasibility of using all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (AO-OFDM) for the convergent optical wired and wireless access networks. AO-OFDM relies on all-optically generated orthogonal subcarriers; hence, high data rate (> 100 Gb/s) can be easily achieved without hitting the speed limit of electronic digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters (DAC/ADC). A proof-of-concept convergent access network using AO-OFDM super-channel (SC) is demonstrated supporting 40 - 100 Gb/s wired and gigabit/s 100 GHz millimeter-wave (MMW) ROF transmissions.

  20. Generation of optical OFDM signals using 21.4 GS/s real time digital signal processing.

    PubMed

    Benlachtar, Yannis; Watts, Philip M; Bouziane, Rachid; Milder, Peter; Rangaraj, Deepak; Cartolano, Anthony; Koutsoyannis, Robert; Hoe, James C; Püschel, Markus; Glick, Madeleine; Killey, Robert I

    2009-09-28

    We demonstrate a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmitter implementing real time digital signal processing at a sample rate of 21.4 GS/s. The QPSK-OFDM signal is generated using an 8 bit, 128 point inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) core, performing one transform per clock cycle at a clock speed of 167.2 MHz and can be deployed with either a direct-detection or a coherent receiver. The hardware design and the main digital signal processing functions are described, and we show that the main performance limitation is due to the low (4-bit) resolution of the digital-to-analog converter (DAC) and the 8-bit resolution of the IFFT core used. We analyze the back-to-back performance of the transmitter generating an 8.36 Gb/s optical single sideband (SSB) OFDM signal using digital up-conversion, suitable for direct-detection. Additionally, we use the device to transmit 8.36 Gb/s SSB OFDM signals over 200 km of uncompensated standard single mode fiber achieving an overall BER<10(-3).

  1. Noise-Enhanced Measurement of Weak Doublet Spectra with a Fourier-Transform Spectrometer and a 1-Bit Analog-to-Digital Converter.

    PubMed

    Lim, M; Saloma, C

    2001-04-10

    We demonstrate an efficient noise dithering procedure for measuring the power spectrum of a weak spectral doublet with a Fourier-transform spectrometer in which the subthreshold interferogram is measured by a 1-bit analog-to-digital converter without oversampling. In the absence of noise, no information is obtained regarding the doublet spectrum because the modulation term s(x) of its interferogram is below the instrumental detection limit B, i.e., |s(x)| < B, for all path difference x values. Extensive numerical experiments are carried out concerning the recovery of the doublet power spectrum that is represented by s(x) = (s(0)/2)exp(-pi(2)x(2)/beta)[cos(2pif(1)x) + cos(2pif(2)x)], where s(0) is a constant, beta is the linewidth factor, and ?f? = (f(1) + f(2))/2. Different values of ?f?, s(0), and beta are considered to evaluate thoroughly the accuracy of the procedure to determine the unknown values of f(1) and f(2), the spectral linewidth, and the peak values of the spectral profiles. Our experiments show that, even for short observation times, the resonant frequencies of s(x) could be located with high accuracy over a wide range of ?f? and beta values. Signal-to-noise ratios as high as 50 are also gained for the recovered power spectra. The performance of the procedure is also analyzed with respect to another method that recovers the amplitude values of s(x) directly.

  2. Fast transient digitizer

    DOEpatents

    Villa, Francesco

    1982-01-01

    Method and apparatus for sequentially scanning a plurality of target elements with an electron scanning beam modulated in accordance with variations in a high-frequency analog signal to provide discrete analog signal samples representative of successive portions of the analog signal; coupling the discrete analog signal samples from each of the target elements to a different one of a plurality of high speed storage devices; converting the discrete analog signal samples to equivalent digital signals; and storing the digital signals in a digital memory unit for subsequent measurement or display.

  3. Design of a Low-Light-Level Image Sensor with On-Chip Sigma-Delta Analog-to- Digital Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendis, Sunetra K.; Pain, Bedabrata; Nixon, Robert H.; Fossum, Eric R.

    1993-01-01

    The design and projected performance of a low-light-level active-pixel-sensor (APS) chip with semi-parallel analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion is presented. The individual elements have been fabricated and tested using MOSIS* 2 micrometer CMOS technology, although the integrated system has not yet been fabricated. The imager consists of a 128 x 128 array of active pixels at a 50 micrometer pitch. Each column of pixels shares a 10-bit A/D converter based on first-order oversampled sigma-delta (Sigma-Delta) modulation. The 10-bit outputs of each converter are multiplexed and read out through a single set of outputs. A semi-parallel architecture is chosen to achieve 30 frames/second operation even at low light levels. The sensor is designed for less than 12 e^- rms noise performance.

  4. Digital Ratiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beer, R.

    1985-01-01

    Small, low-cost comparator with 24-bit-precision yields ratio signal from pair of analog or digital input signals. Arithmetic logic chips (bit-slice) sample two 24-bit analog-to-digital converters approximately once every millisecond and accumulate them in two 24-bit registers. Approach readily modified to arbitrary precision.

  5. High speed analog-to-digital conversion with silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzwarth, C. W.; Amatya, R.; Araghchini, M.; Birge, J.; Byun, H.; Chen, J.; Dahlem, M.; DiLello, N. A.; Gan, F.; Hoyt, J. L.; Ippen, E. P.; Kärtner, F. X.; Khilo, A.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Motamedi, A.; Orcutt, J. S.; Park, M.; Perrott, M.; Popovic, M. A.; Ram, R. J.; Smith, H. I.; Zhou, G. R.; Spector, S. J.; Lyszczarz, T. M.; Geis, M. W.; Lennon, D. M.; Yoon, J. U.; Grein, M. E.; Schulein, R. T.; Frolov, S.; Hanjani, A.; Shmulovich, J.

    2009-02-01

    Sampling rates of high-performance electronic analog-to-digital converters (ADC) are fundamentally limited by the timing jitter of the electronic clock. This limit is overcome in photonic ADC's by taking advantage of the ultra-low timing jitter of femtosecond lasers. We have developed designs and strategies for a photonic ADC that is capable of 40 GSa/s at a resolution of 8 bits. This system requires a femtosecond laser with a repetition rate of 2 GHz and timing jitter less than 20 fs. In addition to a femtosecond laser this system calls for the integration of a number of photonic components including: a broadband modulator, optical filter banks, and photodetectors. Using silicon-on-insulator (SOI) as the platform we have fabricated these individual components. The silicon optical modulator is based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer architecture and achieves a VπL of 2 Vcm. The filter banks comprise 40 second-order microring-resonator filters with a channel spacing of 80 GHz. For the photodetectors we are exploring ion-bombarded silicon waveguide detectors and germanium films epitaxially grown on silicon utilizing a process that minimizes the defect density.

  6. Multi-speed multi-phase resolver converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean (Inventor); Howard, David (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A multiphase converter circuit generates a plurality of sinusoidal outputs of displaced phase and given speed value from the output of an angular resolver system attachable to a motor excited by these multi-phase outputs, the resolver system having a lower speed value than that of the motor. The angular resolver system provides in parallel format sequential digital numbers indicative of the amount of rotation of the shaft of an angular position sensor associated with the angular resolver system. These numbers are used to excite simultaneously identical addresses of a plurality of addressable memory systems, each memory system having stored therein at sequential addresses sequential values of a sinusoidal wavetrain of a given number of sinusoids. The stored wavetrain values represent sinusoids displaced from each other in phase according to the number of output phases desired. A digital-to-analog converter associated with each memory system converts each accessed word to a corresponding analog value to generate attendant to rotation of the angular resolver a sinusoidal wave of proper phase at each of the plurality of outputs. By properly orienting the angular resolver system with respect to the rotor of the motor, essentially ripple-free torque is supplied to the rotor. The angular resolver system may employ an analog resolver feeding an integrated circuit resolver-to-digital converter to produce the requisite digital values serving as addresses. Alternative versions employing incremental or absolute encoders are also described.

  7. Multi-speed multi-phase resolver converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A multiphase converter circuit generates a plurality of sinusoidal outputs of displaced phase and given speed value from the output of an angular resolver system attachable to a motor excited by these multi-phase outputs, the resolver system having a lower speed value than that of the motor. The angular resolver system provides in parallel format sequential digital numbers indicative of the amount of rotation of the shaft of an angular position sensor associated with the angular resolver system. These numbers are used to excite simultaneously identical addresses of a plurality of addressable memory systems, each memory system having stored therein at sequential addresses sequential values of a sinusoidal wavetrain of a given number of sinusoids. The stored wavetrain values represent sinusoids displaced from each other in phase according to the number of output phases desired. A digital-to-analog converter associated with each memory system converts each accessed word to a corresponding analog value to generate attendant to rotation of the angular resolver a sinusoidal wave of proper phase at each of the plurality of outputs. By properly orienting the angular resolver system with respect to the rotor of the motor, essentially ripple-free torque is supplied to the rotor. The angular resolver system may employ an analog resolver feeding an integrated circuit resolver-to-digital converter to produce the requisite digital values serving as addresses. Alternative versions employing incremental or absolute encoders are also described.

  8. Digital redesign of anti-wind-up controller for cascaded analog system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y S; Tsai, J S H; Shieh, L S; Moussighi, M M

    2003-01-01

    The cascaded conventional anti-wind-up (CAW) design method for integral controller is discussed. Then, the prediction-based digital redesign methodology is utilized to find the new pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) digital controller for effective digital control of the analog plant with input saturation constraint. The desired digital controller is determined from existing or pre-designed CAW analog controller. The proposed method provides a novel methodology for indirect digital design of a continuous-time unity output-feedback system with a cascaded analog controller as in the case of PID controllers for industrial control processes with the presence of actuator saturations. It enables us to implement an existing or pre-designed cascaded CAW analog controller via a digital controller effectively.

  9. Data reduction complex analog-to-digital data processing requirements for onsite test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debbrecht, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The analog to digital processing requirements of onsite test facilities are described. The source and medium of all input data to the Data Reduction Complex (DRC) and the destination and medium of all output products of the analog-to-digital processing are identified. Additionally, preliminary input and output data formats are presented along with the planned use of the output products.

  10. CMOS based capacitance to digital converter circuit for MEMS sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotake, D. R.; Darji, A. D.

    2018-02-01

    Most of the MEMS cantilever based system required costly instruments for characterization, processing and also has large experimental setups which led to non-portable device. So there is a need of low cost, highly sensitive, high speed and portable digital system. The proposed Capacitance to Digital Converter (CDC) interfacing circuit converts capacitance to digital domain which can be easily processed. Recent demand microcantilever deflection is part per trillion ranges which change the capacitance in 1-10 femto farad (fF) range. The entire CDC circuit is designed using CMOS 250nm technology. Design of CDC circuit consists of a D-latch and two oscillators, namely Sensor controlled oscillator (SCO) and digitally controlled oscillator (DCO). The D-latch is designed using transmission gate based MUX for power optimization. A CDC design of 7-stage, 9-stage and 11-stage tested for 1-18 fF and simulated using mentor graphics Eldo tool with parasitic. Since the proposed design does not use resistance component, the total power dissipation is reduced to 2.3621 mW for CDC designed using 9-stage SCO and DCO.

  11. A Capacitance-To-Digital Converter for MEMS Sensors for Smart Applications.

    PubMed

    Pérez Sanjurjo, Javier; Prefasi, Enrique; Buffa, Cesare; Gaggl, Richard

    2017-06-07

    The use of MEMS sensors has been increasing in recent years. To cover all the applications, many different readout circuits are needed. To reduce the cost and time to market, a generic capacitance-to-digital converter (CDC) seems to be the logical next step. This work presents a configurable CDC designed for capacitive MEMS sensors. The sensor is built with a bridge of MEMS, where some of them function with pressure. Then, the capacitive to digital conversion is realized using two steps. First, a switched-capacitor (SC) preamplifier is used to make the capacitive to voltage (C-V) conversion. Second, a self-oscillated noise-shaping integrating dual-slope (DS) converter is used to digitize this magnitude. The proposed converter uses time instead of amplitude resolution to generate a multibit digital output stream. In addition it performs noise shaping of the quantization error to reduce measurement time. This article shows the effectiveness of this method by measurements performed on a prototype, designed and fabricated using standard 0.13 µm CMOS technology. Experimental measurements show that the CDC achieves a resolution of 17 bits, with an effective area of 0.317 mm², which means a pressure resolution of 1 Pa, while consuming 146 µA from a 1.5 V power supply.

  12. A Capacitance-To-Digital Converter for MEMS Sensors for Smart Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Sanjurjo, Javier; Prefasi, Enrique; Buffa, Cesare; Gaggl, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The use of MEMS sensors has been increasing in recent years. To cover all the applications, many different readout circuits are needed. To reduce the cost and time to market, a generic capacitance-to-digital converter (CDC) seems to be the logical next step. This work presents a configurable CDC designed for capacitive MEMS sensors. The sensor is built with a bridge of MEMS, where some of them function with pressure. Then, the capacitive to digital conversion is realized using two steps. First, a switched-capacitor (SC) preamplifier is used to make the capacitive to voltage (C-V) conversion. Second, a self-oscillated noise-shaping integrating dual-slope (DS) converter is used to digitize this magnitude. The proposed converter uses time instead of amplitude resolution to generate a multibit digital output stream. In addition it performs noise shaping of the quantization error to reduce measurement time. This article shows the effectiveness of this method by measurements performed on a prototype, designed and fabricated using standard 0.13 µm CMOS technology. Experimental measurements show that the CDC achieves a resolution of 17 bits, with an effective area of 0.317 mm2, which means a pressure resolution of 1 Pa, while consuming 146 µA from a 1.5 V power supply. PMID:28590425

  13. High quality digital holographic reconstruction on analog film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelsen, B.; Hartmann, P.

    2017-05-01

    High quality real-time digital holographic reconstruction, i.e. at 30 Hz frame rates, has been at the forefront of research and has been hailed as the holy grail of display systems. While these efforts have produced a fascinating array of computer algorithms and technology, many applications of reconstructing high quality digital holograms do not require such high frame rates. In fact, applications such as 3D holographic lithography even require a stationary mask. Typical devices used for digital hologram reconstruction are based on spatial-light-modulator technology and this technology is great for reconstructing arbitrary holograms on the fly; however, it lacks the high spatial resolution achievable by its analog counterpart, holographic film. Analog holographic film is therefore the method of choice for reconstructing highquality static holograms. The challenge lies in taking a static, high-quality digitally calculated hologram and effectively writing it to holographic film. We have developed a theoretical system based on a tunable phase plate, an intensity adjustable high-coherence laser and a slip-stick based piezo rotation stage to effectively produce a digitally calculated hologram on analog film. The configuration reproduces the individual components, both the amplitude and phase, of the hologram in the Fourier domain. These Fourier components are then individually written on the holographic film after interfering with a reference beam. The system is analogous to writing angularly multiplexed plane waves with individual component phase control.

  14. Method of pedestal and common-mode noise correction for switched-capacitor analog memories

    DOEpatents

    Britton, C.L.

    1997-09-23

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for correcting common-mode noise and pedestal noise in a multichannel array of switched-capacitor analog memories wherein each analog memory is connected to an associated analog-to-digital converter. The apparatus comprises a single differential element in two different embodiments. In a first embodiment, the differential element is a reference analog memory connected to a buffer. In the second embodiment, the differential dement is a reference analog memory connected to a reference analog-to-digital connected to an array of digital summing circuits. 4 figs.

  15. Method of pedestal and common-mode noise correction for switched-capacitor analog memories

    DOEpatents

    Britton, C.L.

    1996-12-31

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for correcting common-mode noise and pedestal noise in a multichannel array of switched-capacitor analog memories wherein each analog memory is connected to an associated analog-to-digital converter. The apparatus comprises a single differential element in two different embodiments. In a first embodiment, the differential element is a reference analog memory connected to a buffer. In the second embodiment, the differential element is a reference analog memory connected to a reference analog-to-digital connected to an array of digital summing circuits. 4 figs.

  16. Method of pedestal and common-mode noise correction for switched-capacitor analog memories

    DOEpatents

    Britton, Charles L.

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for correcting common-mode noise and pedestal noise in a multichannel array of switched-capacitor analog memories wherein each analog memory is connected to an associated analog-to-digital converter. The apparatus comprises a single differential element in two different embodiments. In a first embodiment, the differential element is a reference analog memory connected to a buffer. In the second embodiment, the differential dement is a reference analog memory connected to a reference analog-to-digital connected to an array of digital summing circuits.

  17. Method of pedestal and common-mode noise correction for switched-capacitor analog memories

    DOEpatents

    Britton, Charles L.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus for correcting common-mode noise and pedestal noise in a multichannel array of switched-capacitor analog memories wherein each analog memory is connected to an associated analog-to-digital converter. The apparatus comprises a single differential element in two different embodiments. In a first embodiment, the differential element is a reference analog memory connected to a buffer. In the second embodiment, the differential element is a reference analog memory connected to a reference analog-to-digital connected to an array of digital summing circuits.

  18. Digital-analog quantum simulation of generalized Dicke models with superconducting circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamata, Lucas

    2017-03-01

    We propose a digital-analog quantum simulation of generalized Dicke models with superconducting circuits, including Fermi- Bose condensates, biased and pulsed Dicke models, for all regimes of light-matter coupling. We encode these classes of problems in a set of superconducting qubits coupled with a bosonic mode implemented by a transmission line resonator. Via digital-analog techniques, an efficient quantum simulation can be performed in state-of-the-art circuit quantum electrodynamics platforms, by suitable decomposition into analog qubit-bosonic blocks and collective single-qubit pulses through digital steps. Moreover, just a single global analog block would be needed during the whole protocol in most of the cases, superimposed with fast periodic pulses to rotate and detune the qubits. Therefore, a large number of digital steps may be attained with this approach, providing a reduced digital error. Additionally, the number of gates per digital step does not grow with the number of qubits, rendering the simulation efficient. This strategy paves the way for the scalable digital-analog quantum simulation of many-body dynamics involving bosonic modes and spin degrees of freedom with superconducting circuits.

  19. Digital-analog quantum simulation of generalized Dicke models with superconducting circuits

    PubMed Central

    Lamata, Lucas

    2017-01-01

    We propose a digital-analog quantum simulation of generalized Dicke models with superconducting circuits, including Fermi- Bose condensates, biased and pulsed Dicke models, for all regimes of light-matter coupling. We encode these classes of problems in a set of superconducting qubits coupled with a bosonic mode implemented by a transmission line resonator. Via digital-analog techniques, an efficient quantum simulation can be performed in state-of-the-art circuit quantum electrodynamics platforms, by suitable decomposition into analog qubit-bosonic blocks and collective single-qubit pulses through digital steps. Moreover, just a single global analog block would be needed during the whole protocol in most of the cases, superimposed with fast periodic pulses to rotate and detune the qubits. Therefore, a large number of digital steps may be attained with this approach, providing a reduced digital error. Additionally, the number of gates per digital step does not grow with the number of qubits, rendering the simulation efficient. This strategy paves the way for the scalable digital-analog quantum simulation of many-body dynamics involving bosonic modes and spin degrees of freedom with superconducting circuits. PMID:28256559

  20. Digital-analog quantum simulation of generalized Dicke models with superconducting circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamata, Lucas

    We propose a digital-analog quantum simulation of generalized Dicke models with superconducting circuits, including Fermi-Bose condensates, biased and pulsed Dicke models, for all regimes of light-matter coupling. We encode these classes of problems in a set of superconducting qubits coupled with a bosonic mode implemented by a transmission line resonator. Via digital-analog techniques, an efficient quantum simulation can be performed in state-of-the-art circuit quantum electrodynamics platforms, by suitable decomposition into analog qubit-bosonic blocks and collective single-qubit pulses through digital steps. Moreover, just a single global analog block would be needed during the whole protocol in most of the cases, superimposed with fast periodic pulses to rotate and detune the qubits. Therefore, a large number of digital steps may be attained with this approach, providing a reduced digital error. Additionally, the number of gates per digital step does not grow with the number of qubits, rendering the simulation efficient. This strategy paves the way for the scalable digital-analog quantum simulation of many-body dynamics involving bosonic modes and spin degrees of freedom with superconducting circuits. The author wishes to acknowledge discussions with I. Arrazola, A. Mezzacapo, J. S. Pedernales, and E. Solano, and support from Ramon y Cajal Grant RYC-2012-11391, Spanish MINECO/FEDER FIS2015-69983-P, UPV/EHU UFI 11/55 and Project EHUA14/04.

  1. An 11-bit and 39 ps resolution time-to-digital converter for ADPLL in digital television

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; (Ruth) Li, Wei; Ren, P.; Lin, C. L.; Zhang, Shengdong; Wang, Yangyuan

    2010-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate an 11-bit time-to-digital converter (TDC) for all-digital phase-locked loops (ADPLLs) in digital television. The proposed TDC converts the width of the input pulse into digital output with the tap space of the outputs of a free-running ring oscillator (FRO) being the conversion resolution. The FRO is in a structure of coiled cell array and the TDC core is symmetrical in the input structure. This leads to equally spaced taps in the reference clocks and thereby a high TDC conversion linearity. The TDC is fabricated in 0.13 μm CMOS process and the chip area is 0.025 mm2. The measurement results show that the TDC has a conversion resolution of 39 ps at 1.2 V power supply and a 4.5 ns dead time in the 11-bits output case. Both the differential non-linearity (DNL) and integral non-linearity (INL) are below 0.5 LSB. The power consumption of the whole circuit is 4.2 mW.

  2. Synthesis and implementation of state-trajectory control law for dc-to-dc converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, W. W., III; Huffman, S. D.; Wilson, T. G.; Owen, H. A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Mathematical representations of a state-plane switching boundary employed in a state-trajectory control law for dc-to-dc converters are derived. Two approaches to implementing the control law are discussed; one approach employs a digital processor and the other uses analog computational circuits. Performance characteristics of experimental voltage step-up dc-to-dc converters operating under the control of each of these implementations are presented.

  3. Systems and methods for self-synchronized digital sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, Jr., John R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Systems and methods for self-synchronized data sampling are provided. In one embodiment, a system for capturing synchronous data samples is provided. The system includes an analog to digital converter adapted to capture signals from one or more sensors and convert the signals into a stream of digital data samples at a sampling frequency determined by a sampling control signal; and a synchronizer coupled to the analog to digital converter and adapted to receive a rotational frequency signal from a rotating machine, wherein the synchronizer is further adapted to generate the sampling control signal, and wherein the sampling control signal is based on the rotational frequency signal.

  4. Photonic Analog-to-Digital Converters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Edward W. Taylor, “Gamma-Ray Induced Damage and Recovery Behavior in an Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser ”, SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 4547, Sep. 2001, pp.126-133...requirements. The center frequency of the bandpass filter determined the laser mode-locked frequency. SNDP’s COEO had an operating frequency of... laser . Better filters and amplifiers were needed to improve operation and to reduce the phase noise to a level comparable with Delfyett’s actively

  5. Bandwidth tunable microwave photonic filter based on digital and analog modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jie; Li, Qiang; Wang, Yubing; Sun, Xian; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Xindong

    2018-05-01

    A bandwidth tunable microwave photonic filter based on digital and analog modulation is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The digital modulation is used to broaden the effective gain spectrum and the analog modulation is to get optical lines. By changing the symbol rate of data pattern, the bandwidth is tunable from 50 MHz to 700 MHz. The interval of optical lines is set according to the bandwidth of gain spectrum which is related to the symbol rate. Several times of bandwidth increase are achieved compared to a single analog modulation and the selectivity of the response is increased by 3.7 dB compared to a single digital modulation.

  6. Computerized Experiments Using an A/D Converter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karl, John H.

    The indroduction of on-line data collection and data processing techniques into an intermediate physics laboratory is described. Using a minimum configuration PDP-8L and a Digital Equipment AD01 analog to digital converter, an interface is developed with two existing experiments. These are a microwave apparatus used to simulate Bragg diffraction…

  7. Frequency domain near-infrared multiwavelength imager design using high-speed, direct analog-to-digital conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Bernhard B.; Fang, Qianqian; Boas, David A.; Carp, Stefan A.

    2016-01-01

    Frequency domain near-infrared spectroscopy (FD-NIRS) has proven to be a reliable method for quantification of tissue absolute optical properties. We present a full-sampling direct analog-to-digital conversion FD-NIR imager. While we developed this instrument with a focus on high-speed optical breast tomographic imaging, the proposed design is suitable for a wide-range of biophotonic applications where fast, accurate quantification of absolute optical properties is needed. Simultaneous dual wavelength operation at 685 and 830 nm is achieved by concurrent 67.5 and 75 MHz frequency modulation of each laser source, respectively, followed by digitization using a high-speed (180 MS/s) 16-bit A/D converter and hybrid FPGA-assisted demodulation. The instrument supports 25 source locations and features 20 concurrently operating detectors. The noise floor of the instrument was measured at <1.4 pW/√Hz, and a dynamic range of 115+ dB, corresponding to nearly six orders of magnitude, has been demonstrated. Titration experiments consisting of 200 different absorption and scattering values were conducted to demonstrate accurate optical property quantification over the entire range of physiologically expected values.

  8. Frequency domain near-infrared multiwavelength imager design using high-speed, direct analog-to-digital conversion

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Bernhard B.; Fang, Qianqian; Boas, David A.; Carp, Stefan A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Frequency domain near-infrared spectroscopy (FD-NIRS) has proven to be a reliable method for quantification of tissue absolute optical properties. We present a full-sampling direct analog-to-digital conversion FD-NIR imager. While we developed this instrument with a focus on high-speed optical breast tomographic imaging, the proposed design is suitable for a wide-range of biophotonic applications where fast, accurate quantification of absolute optical properties is needed. Simultaneous dual wavelength operation at 685 and 830 nm is achieved by concurrent 67.5 and 75 MHz frequency modulation of each laser source, respectively, followed by digitization using a high-speed (180  MS/s) 16-bit A/D converter and hybrid FPGA-assisted demodulation. The instrument supports 25 source locations and features 20 concurrently operating detectors. The noise floor of the instrument was measured at <1.4  pW/√Hz, and a dynamic range of 115+ dB, corresponding to nearly six orders of magnitude, has been demonstrated. Titration experiments consisting of 200 different absorption and scattering values were conducted to demonstrate accurate optical property quantification over the entire range of physiologically expected values. PMID:26813081

  9. Quantum digital-to-analog conversion algorithm using decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SaiToh, Akira

    2015-08-01

    We consider the problem of mapping digital data encoded on a quantum register to analog amplitudes in parallel. It is shown to be unlikely that a fully unitary polynomial-time quantum algorithm exists for this problem; NP becomes a subset of BQP if it exists. In the practical point of view, we propose a nonunitary linear-time algorithm using quantum decoherence. It tacitly uses an exponentially large physical resource, which is typically a huge number of identical molecules. Quantumness of correlation appearing in the process of the algorithm is also discussed.

  10. Digital and analog chemical evolution.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Jay T; Mehta, Anil K; Lynn, David G

    2012-12-18

    Living matter is the most elaborate, elegant, and complex hierarchical material known and is consequently the natural target for an ever-expanding scientific and technological effort to unlock and deconvolute its marvelous forms and functions. Our current understanding suggests that biological materials are derived from a bottom-up process, a spontaneous emergence of molecular networks in the course of chemical evolution. Polymer cooperation, so beautifully manifested in the ribosome, appeared in these dynamic networks, and the special physicochemical properties of the nucleic and amino acid polymers made possible the critical threshold for the emergence of extant cellular life. These properties include the precise and geometrically discrete hydrogen bonding patterns that dominate the complementary interactions of nucleic acid base-pairing that guide replication and ensure replication fidelity. In contrast, complex and highly context-dependent sets of intra- and intermolecular interactions guide protein folding. These diverse interactions allow the more analog environmental chemical potential fluctuations to dictate conformational template-directed propagation. When these two different strategies converged in the remarkable synergistic ribonucleoprotein that is the ribosome, this resulting molecular digital-to-analog converter achieved the capacity for both persistent information storage and adaptive responses to an ever-changing environment. The ancestral chemical networks that preceded the Central Dogma of Earth's biology must reflect the dynamic chemical evolutionary landscapes that allowed for selection, propagation, and diversification and ultimately the demarcation and specialization of function that modern biopolymers manifest. Not only should modern biopolymers contain molecular fossils of this earlier age, but it should be possible to use this information to reinvent these dynamic functional networks. In this Account, we review the first dynamic network

  11. Phase-locked loops. [in analog and digital circuits communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, S. C.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt to systematically outline the work done in the area of phase-locked loops which are now used in modern communication system design is presented. The analog phase-locked loops are well documented in several books but discrete, analog-digital, and digital phase-locked loop work is scattered. Apart from discussing the various analysis, design, and application aspects of phase-locked loops, a number of references are given in the bibliography.

  12. Fast-response free-running dc-to-dc converter employing a state-trajectory control law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, S. D.; Burns, W. W., III; Wilson, T. G.; Owen, H. A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A recently proposed state-trajectory control law for a family of energy-storage dc-to-dc converters has been implemented for the voltage step-up configuration. Two methods of realization are discussed; one employs a digital processor and the other uses analog computational circuits. Performance characteristics of experimental voltage step-up converters operating under the control of each of these implementations are reported and compared to theoretical predictions and computer simulations.

  13. Preface: SciDAC 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Horst

    2009-07-01

    By almost any measure, the SciDAC community has come a long way since DOE launched the SciDAC program back in 2001. At the time, we were grappling with how to efficiently run applications on terascale systems (the November 2001 TOP500 list was led by DOE's ASCI White IBM system at Lawrence Livermore achieving 7.2 teraflop/s). And the results stemming from the first round of SciDAC projects were summed up in two-page reports. The scientific results were presented at annual meetings, which were by invitation only and typically were attended by about 75 researchers. Fast forward to 2009 and we now have SciDAC Review, a quarterly magazine showcasing the scientific computing contributions of SciDAC projects and related programs, all focused on presenting a comprehensive look at Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing. That is also the motivation behind the annual SciDAC conference that in 2009 was held from June 14-18 in San Diego. The annual conference, which can also be described as a celebration of all things SciDAC, grew out those meetings organized in the early days of the program. In 2005, the meeting was held in San Francisco and attendance was opened up to all members of the SciDAC community. The schedule was also expanded to include a keynote address, plenary speakers and other features found in a conference format. This year marks the fifth such SciDAC conference, which now comprises four days of computational science presentations, multiple poster sessions and, since last year, an evening event showcasing simulations and modeling runs resulting from SciDAC projects. The fifth annual SciDAC conference was remarkable on several levels. The primary purpose, of course, is to showcase the research accomplishments resulting from SciDAC programs in particular and computational science in general. It is these accomplishments, represented in 38 papers and 52 posters, that comprise this set of conference proceedings. These proceedings can stand alone as

  14. Digital control of diode laser for atmospheric spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, R. T.; Rutledge, C. W. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A system is described for remote absorption spectroscopy of trace species using a diode laser tunable over a useful spectral region of 50 to 200 cm(-1) by control of diode laser temperature over range from 15 K to 100 K, and tunable over a smaller region of typically 0.1 to 10 cm(-1) by control of the diode laser current over a range from 0 to 2 amps. Diode laser temperature and current set points are transmitted to the instrument in digital form and stored in memory for retrieval under control of a microprocessor during measurements. The laser diode current is determined by a digital to analog converter through a field effect transistor for a high degree of ambient temperature stability, while the laser diode temperature is determined by set points entered into a digital to analog converter under control of the microprocessor. Temperature of the laser diode is sensed by a sensor diode to provide negative feedback to the temperature control circuit that responds to the temperature control digital to analog converter.

  15. Development of the Low-cost Analog-to-Digital Converter (for nuclear physics experiments) with PC sound card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugihara, Kenkoh

    2009-10-01

    A low-cost ADC (Analogue-to-Digital Converter) with shaping embedded for undergraduate physics laboratory is developed using a home made circuit and a PC sound card. Even though an ADC is needed as an essential part of an experimental set up, commercially available ones are very expensive and are scarce for undergraduate laboratory experiments. The system that is developed from the present work is designed for a gamma-ray spectroscopy laboratory with NaI(Tl) counters, but not limited. For this purpose, the system performance is set to sampling rate of 1-kHz with 10-bit resolution using a typical PC sound card with 41-kHz or higher sampling rate and 16-bit resolution ADC with an addition of a shaping circuit. Details of the system and the status of development will be presented. Ping circuit and PC soundcard as typical PC sound card has 41.1kHz or heiger sampling rate and 16bit resolution ADCs. In the conference details of the system and the status of development will be presented.

  16. Digital computer technique for setup and checkout of an analog computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambaruch, R.

    1968-01-01

    Computer program technique, called Analog Computer Check-Out Routine Digitally /ACCORD/, generates complete setup and checkout data for an analog computer. In addition, the correctness of the analog program implementation is validated.

  17. BPSK Demodulation Using Digital Signal Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Thomas R.

    1996-01-01

    A digital communications signal is a sinusoidal waveform that is modified by a binary (digital) information signal. The sinusoidal waveform is called the carrier. The carrier may be modified in amplitude, frequency, phase, or a combination of these. In this project a binary phase shift keyed (BPSK) signal is the communication signal. In a BPSK signal the phase of the carrier is set to one of two states, 180 degrees apart, by a binary (i.e., 1 or 0) information signal. A digital signal is a sampled version of a "real world" time continuous signal. The digital signal is generated by sampling the continuous signal at discrete points in time. The rate at which the signal is sampled is called the sampling rate (f(s)). The device that performs this operation is called an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter or a digitizer. The digital signal is composed of the sequence of individual values of the sampled BPSK signal. Digital signal processing (DSP) is the modification of the digital signal by mathematical operations. A device that performs this processing is called a digital signal processor. After processing, the digital signal may then be converted back to an analog signal using a digital-to-analog (D/A) converter. The goal of this project is to develop a system that will recover the digital information from a BPSK signal using DSP techniques. The project is broken down into the following steps: (1) Development of the algorithms required to demodulate the BPSK signal; (2) Simulation of the system; and (3) Implementation a BPSK receiver using digital signal processing hardware.

  18. A Power Conditioning Stage Based on Analog-Circuit MPPT Control and a Superbuck Converter for Thermoelectric Generators in Spacecraft Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kai; Wu, Hongfei; Cai, Yan; Xing, Yan

    2014-06-01

    A thermoelectric generator (TEG) is a very important kind of power supply for spacecraft, especially for deep-space missions, due to its long lifetime and high reliability. To develop a practical TEG power supply for spacecraft, a power conditioning stage is indispensable, being employed to convert the varying output voltage of the TEG modules to a definite voltage for feeding batteries or loads. To enhance the system reliability, a power conditioning stage based on analog-circuit maximum-power-point tracking (MPPT) control and a superbuck converter is proposed in this paper. The input of this power conditioning stage is connected to the output of the TEG modules, and the output of this stage is connected to the battery and loads. The superbuck converter is employed as the main circuit, featuring low input current ripples and high conversion efficiency. Since for spacecraft power systems reliable operation is the key target for control circuits, a reset-set flip-flop-based analog circuit is used as the basic control circuit to implement MPPT, being much simpler than digital control circuits and offering higher reliability. Experiments have verified the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed power conditioning stage. The results show the advantages of the proposed stage, such as maximum utilization of TEG power, small input ripples, and good stability.

  19. Digital Control Technologies for Modular DC-DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.; Kascak, Peter E.; Lebron-Velilla, Ramon

    2002-01-01

    Recent trends in aerospace Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) systems focus on using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components as standard building blocks. This move to more modular designs has been driven by a desire to reduce costs and development times, but is also due to the impressive power density and efficiency numbers achieved by today's commercial DC-DC converters. However, the PMAD designer quickly learns of the hidden "costs" of using COTS converters. The most significant cost is the required addition of external input filters to meet strict electromagnetic interference (MIAMI) requirements for space systems. In fact, the high power density numbers achieved by the commercial manufacturers are greatly due to the lack of necessary input filters included in the COTS module. The NASA Glenn Research Center is currently pursuing a digital control technology that addresses this problem with modular DC-DC converters. This paper presents the digital control technologies that have been developed to greatly reduce the input filter requirements for paralleled, modular DC-DC converters. Initial test result show that the input filter's inductor size was reduced by 75 percent, and the capacitor size was reduced by 94 percent while maintaining the same power quality specifications.

  20. Signal Digitizer and Cross-Correlation Application Specific Integrated Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baranauskas, Gytis (Inventor); Lim, Boon H. (Inventor); Baranauskas, Dalius (Inventor); Zelenin, Denis (Inventor); Kangaslahti, Pekka (Inventor); Tanner, Alan B. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    According to one embodiment, a cross-correlator comprises a plurality of analog front ends (AFEs), a cross-correlation circuit and a data serializer. Each of the AFEs comprises a variable gain amplifier (VGA) and a corresponding analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in which the VGA receives and modifies a unique analog signal associates with a measured analog radio frequency (RF) signal and the ADC produces digital data associated with the modified analog signal. Communicatively coupled to the AFEs, the cross-correlation circuit performs a cross-correlation operation on the digital data produced from different measured analog RF signals. The data serializer is communicatively coupled to the summing and cross-correlating matrix and continuously outputs a prescribed amount of the correlated digital data.

  1. Tailpulse signal generator

    DOEpatents

    Baker, John [Walnut Creek, CA; Archer, Daniel E [Knoxville, TN; Luke, Stanley John [Pleasanton, CA; Decman, Daniel J [Livermore, CA; White, Gregory K [Livermore, CA

    2009-06-23

    A tailpulse signal generating/simulating apparatus, system, and method designed to produce electronic pulses which simulate tailpulses produced by a gamma radiation detector, including the pileup effect caused by the characteristic exponential decay of the detector pulses, and the random Poisson distribution pulse timing for radioactive materials. A digital signal process (DSP) is programmed and configured to produce digital values corresponding to pseudo-randomly selected pulse amplitudes and pseudo-randomly selected Poisson timing intervals of the tailpulses. Pulse amplitude values are exponentially decayed while outputting the digital value to a digital to analog converter (DAC). And pulse amplitudes of new pulses are added to decaying pulses to simulate the pileup effect for enhanced realism in the simulation.

  2. A Low-Power Wide Dynamic-Range Current Readout Circuit for Ion-Sensitive FET Sensors.

    PubMed

    Son, Hyunwoo; Cho, Hwasuk; Koo, Jahyun; Ji, Youngwoo; Kim, Byungsub; Park, Hong-June; Sim, Jae-Yoon

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents an amplifier-less and digital-intensive current-to-digital converter for ion-sensitive FET sensors. Capacitance on the input node is utilized as a residue accumulator, and a clocked comparator is followed for quantization. Without any continuous-time feedback circuit, the converter performs a first-order noise shaping of the quantization error. In order to minimize static power consumption, the proposed circuit employs a single-ended current-steering digital-to-analog converter which flows only the same current as the input. By adopting a switching noise averaging algorithm, our dynamic element matching not only mitigates mismatch of current sources in the current-steering DAC, but also makes the effect of dynamic switching noise become an input-independent constant. The implemented circuit in 0.35 μm CMOS converts the current input with a range of 2.8 μ A to 15 b digital output in about 4 ms, showing a DNL of +0.24/-0.25 LSB and an INL of + 1.98/-1.98 LSB while consuming 16.8 μW.

  3. A SAR-ADC using unit bridge capacitor and with calibration for the front-end electronics of PET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Tingcun; Li, Bo; Yang, Lifeng; Xue, Feifei; Hu, Yongcai

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a 12-bit 1 MS/s successive approximation register-analog to digital converter (SAR-ADC) for the 32-channel front-end electronics of CZT-based PET imaging system. To reduce the capacitance mismatch, instead of the fractional capacitor, the unit capacitor is used as the bridge capacitor in the split-capacitor digital to analog converter (DAC) circuit. In addition, in order to eliminate the periodical DNL errors of -1 LSB which often exists in the SAR-ADC using the charge-redistributed DAC, a calibration algorithm is proposed and verified by the experiments. The proposed 12-bit 1 MS/s SAR-ADC is designed and implemented using a 0.35 μm CMOS technology, it occupies only an active area of 986×956 μm2. The measurement results show that, at the power supply of 3.3/5.0 V and the sampling rate of 1 MS/s, the ADC with calibration has a signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio (SINAD) of 67.98 dB, the power dissipation of 5 mW, and a figure of merit (FOM) of 2.44 pJ/conv.-step. This ADC is with the features of high accuracy, low power and small layout area, it is especially suitable to the one-chip integration of the front-end readout electronics.

  4. Device for modular input high-speed multi-channel digitizing of electrical data

    DOEpatents

    VanDeusen, A.L.; Crist, C.E.

    1995-09-26

    A multi-channel high-speed digitizer module converts a plurality of analog signals to digital signals (digitizing) and stores the signals in a memory device. The analog input channels are digitized simultaneously at high speed with a relatively large number of on-board memory data points per channel. The module provides an automated calibration based upon a single voltage reference source. Low signal noise at such a high density and sample rate is accomplished by ensuring the A/D converters are clocked at the same point in the noise cycle each time so that synchronous noise sampling occurs. This sampling process, in conjunction with an automated calibration, yields signal noise levels well below the noise level present on the analog reference voltages. 1 fig.

  5. Device for modular input high-speed multi-channel digitizing of electrical data

    DOEpatents

    VanDeusen, Alan L.; Crist, Charles E.

    1995-09-26

    A multi-channel high-speed digitizer module converts a plurality of analog signals to digital signals (digitizing) and stores the signals in a memory device. The analog input channels are digitized simultaneously at high speed with a relatively large number of on-board memory data points per channel. The module provides an automated calibration based upon a single voltage reference source. Low signal noise at such a high density and sample rate is accomplished by ensuring the A/D converters are clocked at the same point in the noise cycle each time so that synchronous noise sampling occurs. This sampling process, in conjunction with an automated calibration, yields signal noise levels well below the noise level present on the analog reference voltages.

  6. Digital sonar system

    DOEpatents

    Young, K.K.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1995-11-21

    A transponder of an active digital sonar system identifies a multifrequency underwater activating sonar signal received from a remote sonar transmitter. The transponder includes a transducer that receives acoustic waves, including the activating sonar signal, and generates an analog electrical receipt signal. The analog electrical receipt signal is converted to a digital receipt signal and cross-correlated with a digital transmission signal pattern corresponding to the activating sonar signal. A relative peak in the cross-correlation value is indicative of the activating sonar signal having been received by the transponder. In response to identifying the activating sonar signal, the transponder transmits a responding multifrequency sonar signal. 4 figs.

  7. Digital sonar system

    DOEpatents

    Young, Kenneth K.; Wilkes, R. Jeffrey

    1995-01-01

    A transponder of an active digital sonar system identifies a multifrequency underwater activating sonar signal received from a remote sonar transmitter. The transponder includes a transducer that receives acoustic waves, including the activating sonar signal, and generates an analog electrical receipt signal. The analog electrical receipt signal is converted to a digital receipt signal and cross-correlated with a digital transmission signal pattern corresponding to the activating sonar signal. A relative peak in the cross-correlation value is indicative of the activating sonar signal having been received by the transponder. In response to identifying the activating sonar signal, the transponder transmits a responding multifrequency sonar signal.

  8. FPGA implementation of digital down converter using CORDIC algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Lakshmi, Boppana

    2013-01-01

    In radio receivers, Digital Down Converters (DDC) are used to translate the signal from Intermediate Frequency level to baseband. It also decimates the oversampled signal to a lower sample rate, eliminating the need of a high end digital signal processors. In this paper we have implemented architecture for DDC employing CORDIC algorithm, which down converts an IF signal of 70MHz (3G) to 200 KHz baseband GSM signal, with an SFDR greater than 100dB. The implemented architecture reduces the hardware resource requirements by 15 percent when compared with other architecture available in the literature due to elimination of explicit multipliers and a quadrature phase shifter for mixing.

  9. Precision Control of Multiple Quantum Cascade Lasers for Calibration Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Myers, Tanya L.; Pratt, Richard M.

    We present a precision, digitally interfaced current controller for quantum cascade lasers, with demonstrated DC and modulated temperature coefficients of 1- 2 ppm/ºC and 15 ppm/ºC respectively. High linearity digital to analog converters (DACs) together with an ultra-precision voltage reference, produce highly stable, precision voltages. These are in turn selected by a low charge-injection multiplexer (MUX) chip, which are then used to set output currents via a linear current regulator. The controller is operated in conjunction with a power multiplexing unit, allowing one of three lasers to be driven by the controller while ensuring protection of controller and all lasersmore » during operation, standby and switching. Simple ASCII commands sent over a USB connection to a microprocessor located in the current controller operate both the controller (via the DACs and MUX chip) and the power multiplexer.« less

  10. 21 CFR 892.2030 - Medical image digitizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical image digitizer. 892.2030 Section 892.2030...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2030 Medical image digitizer. (a) Identification. A medical image digitizer is a device intended to convert an analog medical image into a digital...

  11. 21 CFR 892.2030 - Medical image digitizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical image digitizer. 892.2030 Section 892.2030...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2030 Medical image digitizer. (a) Identification. A medical image digitizer is a device intended to convert an analog medical image into a digital...

  12. 21 CFR 892.2030 - Medical image digitizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical image digitizer. 892.2030 Section 892.2030...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2030 Medical image digitizer. (a) Identification. A medical image digitizer is a device intended to convert an analog medical image into a digital...

  13. 21 CFR 892.2030 - Medical image digitizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical image digitizer. 892.2030 Section 892.2030...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2030 Medical image digitizer. (a) Identification. A medical image digitizer is a device intended to convert an analog medical image into a digital...

  14. A Fast Multiple Sampling Method for Low-Noise CMOS Image Sensors With Column-Parallel 12-bit SAR ADCs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Kyu; Hong, Seong-Kwan; Kwon, Oh-Kyong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a fast multiple sampling method for low-noise CMOS image sensor (CIS) applications with column-parallel successive approximation register analog-to-digital converters (SAR ADCs). The 12-bit SAR ADC using the proposed multiple sampling method decreases the A/D conversion time by repeatedly converting a pixel output to 4-bit after the first 12-bit A/D conversion, reducing noise of the CIS by one over the square root of the number of samplings. The area of the 12-bit SAR ADC is reduced by using a 10-bit capacitor digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with four scaled reference voltages. In addition, a simple up/down counter-based digital processing logic is proposed to perform complex calculations for multiple sampling and digital correlated double sampling. To verify the proposed multiple sampling method, a 256 × 128 pixel array CIS with 12-bit SAR ADCs was fabricated using 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurement results shows that the proposed multiple sampling method reduces each A/D conversion time from 1.2 μs to 0.45 μs and random noise from 848.3 μV to 270.4 μV, achieving a dynamic range of 68.1 dB and an SNR of 39.2 dB. PMID:26712765

  15. A Fast Multiple Sampling Method for Low-Noise CMOS Image Sensors With Column-Parallel 12-bit SAR ADCs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Kyu; Hong, Seong-Kwan; Kwon, Oh-Kyong

    2015-12-26

    This paper presents a fast multiple sampling method for low-noise CMOS image sensor (CIS) applications with column-parallel successive approximation register analog-to-digital converters (SAR ADCs). The 12-bit SAR ADC using the proposed multiple sampling method decreases the A/D conversion time by repeatedly converting a pixel output to 4-bit after the first 12-bit A/D conversion, reducing noise of the CIS by one over the square root of the number of samplings. The area of the 12-bit SAR ADC is reduced by using a 10-bit capacitor digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with four scaled reference voltages. In addition, a simple up/down counter-based digital processing logic is proposed to perform complex calculations for multiple sampling and digital correlated double sampling. To verify the proposed multiple sampling method, a 256 × 128 pixel array CIS with 12-bit SAR ADCs was fabricated using 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurement results shows that the proposed multiple sampling method reduces each A/D conversion time from 1.2 μs to 0.45 μs and random noise from 848.3 μV to 270.4 μV, achieving a dynamic range of 68.1 dB and an SNR of 39.2 dB.

  16. 47 CFR 74.796 - Modification of digital transmission systems and analog transmission systems for digital operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74... translator transmission systems and the modification of existing analog transmission systems for digital... specifically refitted or replaced to operate at a higher power. (3) Analog heterodyne translators, when...

  17. Preface: SciDAC 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyes, David E.

    2007-09-01

    It takes a village to perform a petascale computation—domain scientists, applied mathematicians, computer scientists, computer system vendors, program managers, and support staff—and the village was assembled during 24-28 June 2007 in Boston's Westin Copley Place for the third annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) 2007 Conference. Over 300 registered participants networked around 76 posters, focused on achievements and challenges in 36 plenary talks, and brainstormed in two panels. In addition, with an eye to spreading the vision for simulation at the petascale and to growing the workforce, 115 participants—mostly doctoral students and post-docs complementary to the conferees—were gathered on 29 June 2007 in classrooms of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for a full day of tutorials on the use of SciDAC software. Eleven SciDAC-sponsored research groups presented their software at an introductory level, in both lecture and hands-on formats that included live runs on a local BlueGene/L. Computation has always been about garnering insight into the behavior of systems too complex to explore satisfactorily by theoretical means alone. Today, however, computation is about much more: scientists and decision makers expect quantitatively reliable predictions from simulations ranging in scale from that of the Earth's climate, down to quarks, and out to colliding black holes. Predictive simulation lies at the heart of policy choices in energy and environment affecting billions of lives and expenditures of trillions of dollars. It is also at the heart of scientific debates on the nature of matter and the origin of the universe. The petascale is barely adequate for such demands and we are barely established at the levels of resolution and throughput that this new scale of computation affords. However, no scientific agenda worldwide is pushing the petascale frontier on all its fronts as vigorously as SciDAC. The breadth of this conference

  18. A Time-Domain CMOS Oscillator-Based Thermostat with Digital Set-Point Programming

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Lin, Shih-Hao

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a time-domain CMOS oscillator-based thermostat with digital set-point programming [without a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) or external resistor] to achieve on-chip thermal management of modern VLSI systems. A time-domain delay-line-based thermostat with multiplexers (MUXs) was used to substantially reduce the power consumption and chip size, and can benefit from the performance enhancement due to the scaling down of fabrication processes. For further cost reduction and accuracy enhancement, this paper proposes a thermostat using two oscillators that are suitable for time-domain curvature compensation instead of longer linear delay lines. The final time comparison was achieved using a time comparator with a built-in custom hysteresis to generate the corresponding temperature alarm and control. The chip size of the circuit was reduced to 0.12 mm2 in a 0.35-μm TSMC CMOS process. The thermostat operates from 0 to 90 °C, and achieved a fine resolution better than 0.05 °C and an improved inaccuracy of ± 0.6 °C after two-point calibration for eight packaged chips. The power consumption was 30 μW at a sample rate of 10 samples/s. PMID:23385403

  19. Hybrid digital-analog coding with bandwidth expansion for correlated Gaussian sources under Rayleigh fading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahampath, Pradeepa

    2017-12-01

    Consider communicating a correlated Gaussian source over a Rayleigh fading channel with no knowledge of the channel signal-to-noise ratio (CSNR) at the transmitter. In this case, a digital system cannot be optimal for a range of CSNRs. Analog transmission however is optimal at all CSNRs, if the source and channel are memoryless and bandwidth matched. This paper presents new hybrid digital-analog (HDA) systems for sources with memory and channels with bandwidth expansion, which outperform both digital-only and analog-only systems over a wide range of CSNRs. The digital part is either a predictive quantizer or a transform code, used to achieve a coding gain. Analog part uses linear encoding to transmit the quantization error which improves the performance under CSNR variations. The hybrid encoder is optimized to achieve the minimum AMMSE (average minimum mean square error) over the CSNR distribution. To this end, analytical expressions are derived for the AMMSE of asymptotically optimal systems. It is shown that the outage CSNR of the channel code and the analog-digital power allocation must be jointly optimized to achieve the minimum AMMSE. In the case of HDA predictive quantization, a simple algorithm is presented to solve the optimization problem. Experimental results are presented for both Gauss-Markov sources and speech signals.

  20. Preface: SciDAC 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, William M., Dr.

    2006-01-01

    The second annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Conference was held from June 25-29, 2006 at the new Hyatt Regency Hotel in Denver, Colorado. This conference showcased outstanding SciDAC-sponsored computational science results achieved during the past year across many scientific domains, with an emphasis on science at scale. Exciting computational science that has been accomplished outside of the SciDAC program both nationally and internationally was also featured to help foster communication between SciDAC computational scientists and those funded by other agencies. This was illustrated by many compelling examples of how domain scientists collaborated productively with applied mathematicians and computer scientists to effectively take advantage of terascale computers (capable of performing trillions of calculations per second) not only to accelerate progress in scientific discovery in a variety of fields but also to show great promise for being able to utilize the exciting petascale capabilities in the near future. The SciDAC program was originally conceived as an interdisciplinary computational science program based on the guiding principle that strong collaborative alliances between domain scientists, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists are vital to accelerated progress and associated discovery on the world's most challenging scientific problems. Associated verification and validation are essential in this successful program, which was funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE OS) five years ago. As is made clear in many of the papers in these proceedings, SciDAC has fundamentally changed the way that computational science is now carried out in response to the exciting challenge of making the best use of the rapid progress in the emergence of more and more powerful computational platforms. In this regard, Dr. Raymond Orbach, Energy Undersecretary for Science at the DOE and Director of the OS has stated

  1. Use of DAC-Hours for Radiation Work Permit Suspension Guides and Validation of Respiratory Equipment Selection at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hadlock, D.J.

    Historically, the Savannah River Site, like many Department of Energy sites, has used some multiple of the expected Derived Air Concentration (DAC) of a radionuclide as a suspension guide for Radiological Work Permits (RWP) or validation of selected respiratory protection equipment. The term DAC expresses the concentration of a radionuclide in air, typically in mCi/cc. Even though the term DAC is derived from an intake of radioactivity (Annual Limit on Intake) that would result in defined estimated dose to a worker, knowing only the DAC value does not allow a worker's potential dose to be determined. Recently, the Savannah Rivemore » Site has converted to the use of DAC-hours for RWP suspension guides and respiratory equipment validation. The term DAC-hr takes into account not only the concentration of the radionuclide in air (DAC) but also the time the individual was exposed allowing an estimate of a worker's dose to be determined. The conversion to DAC-hrs resulted in four benefits to the radiation protection program without increasing the risk to workers; (1) consistency with the constant air monitor (CAM) alarm setpoint protocol; (2) consistency with Internal Dosimetry terminology; (3) an a priori determination of the potential risk to a worker; and (4) reduced complexity/error in field calculations. This paper outlines the justification for the conversion to DAC-hrs, the protocols used for field and count room calculations, and the implementation process utilized at the Savannah River Site« less

  2. Broad-Bandwidth FPGA-Based Digital Polyphase Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamot, Robert F.; Monroe, Ryan M.

    2012-01-01

    With present concern for ecological sustainability ever increasing, it is desirable to model the composition of Earth s upper atmosphere accurately with regards to certain helpful and harmful chemicals, such as greenhouse gases and ozone. The microwave limb sounder (MLS) is an instrument designed to map the global day-to-day concentrations of key atmospheric constituents continuously. One important component in MLS is the spectrometer, which processes the raw data provided by the receivers into frequency-domain information that cannot only be transmitted more efficiently, but also processed directly once received. The present-generation spectrometer is fully analog. The goal is to include a fully digital spectrometer in the next-generation sensor. In a digital spectrometer, incoming analog data must be converted into a digital format, processed through a Fourier transform, and finally accumulated to reduce the impact of input noise. While the final design will be placed on an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the building of these chips is prohibitively expensive. To that end, this design was constructed on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). A family of state-of-the-art digital Fourier transform spectrometers has been developed, with a combination of high bandwidth and fine resolution. Analog signals consisting of radiation emitted by constituents in planetary atmospheres or galactic sources are downconverted and subsequently digitized by a pair of interleaved analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). This 6-Gsps (gigasample per second) digital representation of the analog signal is then processed through an FPGA-based streaming fast Fourier transform (FFT). Digital spectrometers have many advantages over previously used analog spectrometers, especially in terms of accuracy and resolution, both of which are particularly important for the type of scientific questions to be addressed with next-generation radiometers.

  3. The GANDALF 128-Channel Time-to-Digital Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büchele, M.; Fischer, H.; Herrmann, F.; Königsmann, K.; Schill, C.; Schopferer, S.

    The GANDALF 6U-VME64x/VXS module has been designed to cope with a variety of readout tasks in high energy and nuclear physics experiments, in particular the COMPASS experiment at CERN. The exchangeable mezzanine cards allow for an employment of the system in very different applications such as analog-to-digital or time-to-digital conversions, coincidence matrix formation, fast pattern recognition or fast trigger generation. Based on this platform, we present a 128-channel TDC which is implemented in a single Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA using a shifted clock sampling method. In this concept each input signal is continuously sampled by 16 flip-flops using equidistant phase-shifted clocks. Compared to previous FPGA designs, usually based on delay lines and comprising few TDC channels with resolutions in the order of 10 ps, our design permits the implementation of a large number of TDC channels with a resolution of 64 ps in a single FPGA. Predictable placement of logic components and uniform routing inside the FPGA fabric is a particular challenge of this design. We present measurement results for the time resolution and the nonlinearity of the TDC readout system.

  4. Performance Effects of Display Incogruity in a Digital and Analog Clock Reading Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, J. Raymond, Jr.; Derks, Peter L.

    2004-01-01

    In an era of increasing automation, it is important to design displays and input devices that minimize human error. In this context, information concerning the human response to the detection of incongruous information is important. Such incongruous information can be operationalized as unexpected (perhaps erroneous) information on which a decision by the human or operation by an automated system is based. In the aviation environment, decision making when faced with inadequate, incomplete, or incongruous information may occur in a failure scenario. An additional challenge facing the human operator in automated environments is maintaining alertness or vigilance. The vigilance issue is of particular concern as a factor that may interact with performance when faced with inadequate, incomplete, or incongruous information. From the literature on eye-scan behavior we know that the time spent looking at a particular display or indicator is a function of the type of information one is trying to discern from the display. For example, quick glances are all it takes for confirming that an indicator is in a normal position or range, whereas a continuous look of several seconds may be required for confirmation that a complex control input is having the desired effect. Important to consider is that while an extended look takes place, visual input from other sources may be missed. Much like an extended look, the interpretation of incongruous information may require extra time. The present experiment was designed to explore the performance consequences of a decision making task when incongruous information was presented. For this experiment a display incongruity was created on a subset of trials of a clock reading laboratory task. Display incongruity was made possible through presentation of 'impossible' times (e.g. 1:65 or 11:90). Subjects made 'same' 'different' decisions and keyboard responses to pairings of Analog-Analog (AA), Digital-Digital (DD), and Analog- Digital (AD

  5. A 128-channel Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) inside a Virtex-5 FPGA on the GANDALF module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büchele, M.; Fischer, H.; Gorzellik, M.; Herrmann, F.; Königsmann, K.; Schill, C.; Schopferer, S.

    2012-03-01

    The GANDALF 6U-VME64x/VXS module has been developed for the digitization and real time analysis of detector signals. To perform different applications such as analog-to-digital or time-to-digital conversions, coincidence matrix formation, fast pattern recognition and trigger generation, this module comes with exchangeable analog and digital mezzanine cards. Based on this platform, we present a 128-channel TDC which is implemented in a single Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA using a shifted clock sampling method. In contrast to common TDC concepts, the input signal is sampled by 16 equidistant phase-shifted clocks. A particular challenge of the design is the minimum skew routing of the input signals to the sampling flip-flops. We present measurement results for the differential nonlinearity and the time resolution of the TDC readout system.

  6. Implantable digital hearing aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissiah, A. M., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Hearing aid converts analog output of microphone into digital pulses in about 10 channels of audiofrequencies. Each pulse band could be directly connected to portion of auditory nerve most sensitive to that range.

  7. Signal-to-noise ratio estimation in digital computer simulation of lowpass and bandpass systems with applications to analog and digital communications, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tranter, W. H.; Turner, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques are developed to estimate power gain, delay, signal-to-noise ratio, and mean square error in digital computer simulations of lowpass and bandpass systems. The techniques are applied to analog and digital communications. The signal-to-noise ratio estimates are shown to be maximum likelihood estimates in additive white Gaussian noise. The methods are seen to be especially useful for digital communication systems where the mapping from the signal-to-noise ratio to the error probability can be obtained. Simulation results show the techniques developed to be accurate and quite versatile in evaluating the performance of many systems through digital computer simulation.

  8. [Comparative evaluation of six different body regions of the dog using analog and digital radiography].

    PubMed

    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andrea; Ebermaier, Christine; Wolvekamp, Pim; Tellhelm, Bernd; Meutstege, Freek J; Lang, Johann; Hartung, Klaus; Fehr, Michael; Nolte, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    In this study the quality of digital and analog radiography in dogs was compared. For this purpose, three conventional radiographs (varying in exposure) and three digital radiographs (varying in MUSI-contrast [MUSI = MUlti Scale Image Contrast], the main post-processing parameter) of six different body regions of the dog were evaluated (thorax, abdomen, skull, femur, hip joints, elbow). The quality of the radiographs was evaluated by eight veterinary specialists familiar with radiographic images using a questionnaire based on details of each body region significant in obtaining a radiographic diagnosis. In the first part of the study the overall quality of the radiographs was evaluated. Within one region, 89.5% (43/48) chose a digital radiograph as the best image. Divided into analog and digital groups, the digital image with the highest MUSI-contrast was most often considered the best, while the analog image considered the best varied between the one with the medium and the one with the longest exposure time. In the second part of the study, each image was rated for the visibility of specific, diagnostically important details. After summarisation of the scores for each criterion, divided into analog and digital imaging, the digital images were rated considerably superior to conventional images. The results of image comparison revealed that digital radiographs showed better image detail than radiographs taken with the analog technique in all six areas of the body.

  9. Digital sonar system

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.K.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1995-11-21

    A transponder of an active digital sonar system identifies a multifrequency underwater activating sonar signal received from a remote sonar transmitter. The transponder includes a transducer that receives acoustic waves, including the activating sonar signal, and generates an analog electrical receipt signal. The analog electrical receipt signal is converted to a digital receipt signal and cross-correlated with a digital transmission signal pattern corresponding to the activating sonar signal. A relative peak in the cross-correlation value is indicative of the activating sonar signal having been received by the transponder. In response to identifying the activating sonar signal, the transponder transmits amore » responding multifrequency sonar signal. 4 figs.« less

  10. Digital computer simulation of inductor-energy-storage dc-to-dc converters with closed-loop regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohri, A. K.; Owen, H. A.; Wilson, T. G.; Rodriguez, G. E.

    1974-01-01

    The simulation of converter-controller combinations by means of a flexible digital computer program which produces output to a graphic display is discussed. The procedure is an alternative to mathematical analysis of converter systems. The types of computer programming involved in the simulation are described. Schematic diagrams, state equations, and output equations are displayed for four basic forms of inductor-energy-storage dc to dc converters. Mathematical models are developed to show the relationship of the parameters.

  11. Design of transient light signal simulator based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jing; Chen, Rong-li; Wang, Hong

    2014-11-01

    A design scheme of transient light signal simulator based on Field Programmable gate Array (FPGA) was proposed in this paper. Based on the characteristics of transient light signals and measured feature points of optical intensity signals, a fitted curve was created in MATLAB. And then the wave data was stored in a programmed memory chip AT29C1024 by using SUPERPRO programmer. The control logic was realized inside one EP3C16 FPGA chip. Data readout, data stream cache and a constant current buck regulator for powering high-brightness LEDs were all controlled by FPGA. A 12-Bit multiplying CMOS digital-to-analog converter (DAC) DAC7545 and an amplifier OPA277 were used to convert digital signals to voltage signals. A voltage-controlled current source constituted by a NPN transistor and an operational amplifier controlled LED array diming to achieve simulation of transient light signal. LM3405A, 1A Constant Current Buck Regulator for Powering LEDs, was used to simulate strong background signal in space. Experimental results showed that the scheme as a transient light signal simulator can satisfy the requests of the design stably.

  12. Design and development progress of a LLRF control system for a 500 MHz superconducting cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. S.; Kim, H. W.; Song, H. S.; Lee, J. H.; Park, K. H.; Yu, I. H.; Chai, J. S.

    2012-07-01

    The LLRF (low-level radio-frequency) control system which regulates the amplitude and the phase of the accelerating voltage inside a RF cavity is essential to ensure the stable operation of charged particle accelerators. Recent advances in digital signal processors and data acquisition systems have allowed the LLRF control system to be implemented in digitally and have made it possible to meet the higher demands associated with the performance of LLRF control systems, such as stability, accuracy, etc. For this reason, many accelerator laboratories have completed or are completing the developments of digital LLRF control systems. The digital LLRF control system has advantages related with flexibility and fast reconfiguration. This paper describes the design of the FPGA (field programmable gate array) based LLRF control system and the status of development for this system. The proposed LLRF control system includes an analog front-end, a digital board (ADC (analog to digital converter), DAC (digital to analog converter), FPGA, etc.) and a RF & clock generation system. The control algorithms will be implemented by using the VHDL (VHSIC (very high speed integrated circuits) hardware description language), and the EPICS (experiment physics and industrial control system) will be ported to the host computer for the communication. In addition, the purpose of this system is to control a 500 MHz RF cavity, so the system will be applied to the superconducting cavity to be installed in the PLS storage ring, and its performance will be tested.

  13. Super-Nyquist shaping and processing technologies for high-spectral-efficiency optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhensheng; Chien, Hung-Chang; Zhang, Junwen; Dong, Ze; Cai, Yi; Yu, Jianjun

    2013-12-01

    The implementations of super-Nyquist pulse generation, both in a digital field using a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) or an optical filter at transmitter side, are introduced. Three corresponding signal processing algorithms at receiver are presented and compared for high spectral-efficiency (SE) optical systems employing the spectral prefiltering. Those algorithms are designed for the mitigation towards inter-symbol-interference (ISI) and inter-channel-interference (ICI) impairments by the bandwidth constraint, including 1-tap constant modulus algorithm (CMA) and 3-tap maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE), regular CMA and digital filter with 2-tap MLSE, and constant multi-modulus algorithm (CMMA) with 2-tap MLSE. The principles and prefiltering tolerance are given through numerical and experimental results.

  14. Precision control of multiple quantum cascade lasers for calibration systems

    SciTech Connect

    Taubman, Matthew S., E-mail: Matthew.Taubman@pnnl.gov; Myers, Tanya L.; Pratt, Richard M.

    We present a precision, 1-A, digitally interfaced current controller for quantum cascade lasers, with demonstrated temperature coefficients for continuous and 40-kHz full-depth square-wave modulated operation, of 1–2 ppm/ °C and 15 ppm/ °C, respectively. High precision digital to analog converters (DACs) together with an ultra-precision voltage reference produce highly stable, precision voltages, which are selected by a multiplexer (MUX) chip to set output currents via a linear current regulator. The controller is operated in conjunction with a power multiplexing unit, allowing one of three lasers to be driven by the controller, while ensuring protection of controller and all lasers during operation, standby,more » and switching. Simple ASCII commands sent over a USB connection to a microprocessor located in the current controller operate both the controller (via the DACs and MUX chip) and the power multiplexer.« less

  15. Converting the Active Digital Controller for Use in Two Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Robert G.

    1995-01-01

    The Active Digital Controller is a system used to control the various functions of wind tunnel models. It has the capability of digitizing and saving of up to sixty-four channels of analog data. It can output up to 16 channels of analog command signals. In addition to its use as a general controller, it can run up to two distinct control laws. All of this is done at a regulated speed of two hundred hertz. The Active Digital Controller (ADC) was modified for use in the Actively Controlled Response of Buffet Affected Tails (ACROBAT) tests and for side-wall pressure data acquisition. The changes included general maintenance and updating of the controller as well as setting up special modes of operation. The ACROBAT tests required that two sets of output signals be available. The pressure data acquisition needed a sampling rate of four hundred hertz, twice the standard ADC rate. These modifications were carried out and the ADC was used during the ACROBAT wind tunnel entry.

  16. A Nonlinear Digital Control Solution for a DC/DC Power Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Minshao

    2002-01-01

    A digital Nonlinear Proportional-Integral-Derivative (NPID) control algorithm was proposed to control a 1-kW, PWM, DC/DC, switching power converter. The NPID methodology is introduced and a practical hardware control solution is obtained. The design of the controller was completed using Matlab (trademark) Simulink, while the hardware-in-the-loop testing was performed using both the dSPACE (trademark) rapid prototyping system, and a stand-alone Texas Instruments (trademark) Digital Signal Processor (DSP)-based system. The final Nonlinear digital control algorithm was implemented and tested using the ED408043-1 Westinghouse DC-DC switching power converter. The NPID test results are discussed and compared to the results of a standard Proportional-Integral (PI) controller.

  17. Implementation of high-resolution time-to-digital converter in 8-bit microcontrollers.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Lars E

    2012-04-01

    This paper will demonstrate how a time-to-digital converter (TDC) with sub-nanosecond resolution can be implemented into an 8-bit microcontroller using so called "direct" methods. This means that a TDC is created using only five bidirectional digital input-output-pins of a microcontroller and a few passive components (two resistors, a capacitor, and a diode). We will demonstrate how a TDC for the range 1-10 μs is implemented with 0.17 ns resolution. This work will also show how to linearize the output by combining look-up tables and interpolation. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  18. Capacitance-digital and impedance converter as electrical tomography measurement system for biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhsanti, Mila Izzatul; Bouzida, Rana; Wijaya, Sastra Kusuma; Rohmadi, Muttakin, Imamul; Taruno, Warsito P.

    2017-02-01

    This research aims to explore the feasibility of capacitance-digital converter and impedance converter for measurement module in electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) system. ECT sensor used was a cylindrical sensor having 8 electrodes. Absolute capacitance measurement system based on Sigma Delta Capacitance-to-Digital-Converter AD7746 has been shown to produce measurement with high resolution. Whereas, capacitance measurement with wide range of frequency is possible using Impedance Converter AD5933. Comparison of measurement accuracy by both AD7746 and AD5933 with reference of LCR meter was evaluated. Biological matters represented in water and oil were treated as object reconstructed into image using linear back projection (LBP) algorithm.

  19. Step-by-Step Design of an FPGA-Based Digital Compensator for DC/DC Converters Oriented to an Introductory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumel, P.; Fernandez, C.; Sanz, M.; Lazaro, A.; Barrado, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a short introductory course to introduce field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based digital control of dc/dc switching power converters is presented. Digital control based on specific hardware has been at the leading edge of low-medium power dc/dc switching converters in recent years. Besides industry's interest in this topic, from…

  20. An analog gamma correction scheme for high dynamic range CMOS logarithmic image sensors.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuan; Pan, Xiaofang; Zhao, Xiaojin; Wu, Huisi

    2014-12-15

    In this paper, a novel analog gamma correction scheme with a logarithmic image sensor dedicated to minimize the quantization noise of the high dynamic applications is presented. The proposed implementation exploits a non-linear voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO) based analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to perform the gamma correction during the analog-to-digital conversion. As a result, the quantization noise does not increase while the same high dynamic range of logarithmic image sensor is preserved. Moreover, by combining the gamma correction with the analog-to-digital conversion, the silicon area and overall power consumption can be greatly reduced. The proposed gamma correction scheme is validated by the reported simulation results and the experimental results measured for our designed test structure, which is fabricated with 0.35 μm standard complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process.

  1. An Analog Gamma Correction Scheme for High Dynamic Range CMOS Logarithmic Image Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yuan; Pan, Xiaofang; Zhao, Xiaojin; Wu, Huisi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel analog gamma correction scheme with a logarithmic image sensor dedicated to minimize the quantization noise of the high dynamic applications is presented. The proposed implementation exploits a non-linear voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO) based analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to perform the gamma correction during the analog-to-digital conversion. As a result, the quantization noise does not increase while the same high dynamic range of logarithmic image sensor is preserved. Moreover, by combining the gamma correction with the analog-to-digital conversion, the silicon area and overall power consumption can be greatly reduced. The proposed gamma correction scheme is validated by the reported simulation results and the experimental results measured for our designed test structure, which is fabricated with 0.35 μm standard complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process. PMID:25517692

  2. Converting Topographic Maps into Digital Form to Aid in Archeological Research in the Peten, Guatemala

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Serena R.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of my project was to convert a topographical map into digital form so that the data can be manipulated and easily accessed in the field. With the data in this particular format, Dr. Sever and his colleagues can highlight the specific features of the landscape that they require for their research of the ancient Mayan civilization. Digital elevation models (DEMs) can also be created from the digitized contour features adding another dimension to their research.

  3. Digital to analog conversion and visual evaluation of Thematic Mapper data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCord, James R.; Binnie, Douglas R.; Seevers, Paul M.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Landsat D Image Data Quality Analysis Program, the Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center (EDC) developed procedures to optimize the visual information content of Thematic Mapper data and evaluate the resulting photographic products by visual interpretation. A digital-to-analog transfer function was developed which would properly place the digital values on the most useable portion of a film response curve. Individual black-and-white transparencies generated using the resulting look-up tables were utilized in the production of color-composite images with varying band combinations. Four experienced photointerpreters ranked 2-cm-diameter (0. 75 inch) chips of selected image features of each band combination for ease of interpretability. A nonparametric rank-order test determined the significance of interpreter preference for the band combinations.

  4. Digital to Analog Conversion and Visual Evaluation of Thematic Mapper Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCord, James R.; Binnie, Douglas R.; Seevers, Paul M.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Landsat D Image Data Quality Analysis Program, the Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center (EDC) developed procedures to optimize the visual information content of Thematic Mapper data and evaluate the resulting photographic products by visual interpretation. A digital-to-analog transfer function was developed which would properly place the digital values on the most useable portion of a film response curve. Individual black-and-white transparencies generated using the resulting look-up tables were utilized in the production of color-composite images with varying band combinations. Four experienced photointerpreters ranked 2-cm-diameter (0. 75 inch) chips of selected image features of each band combination for ease of interpretability. A nonparametric rank-order test determined the significance of interpreter preference for the band combinations.

  5. Analog VS Digital Hadron Calorimetry at a Future Electron-Positron Linear Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magill, Stephen R.

    2005-02-01

    Precision jet measurements at a future e+e- linear collider may only be possible using so-called Particle Flow Algorithms (PFAs). While there are many possible implementations of P-flow techniques, they all have in common separation of induced calorimeter showers from charged and neutral hadrons (as well as photons) within a jet. Shower reconstruction in the calorimeter becomes more important than energy measurement of hadrons. The calorimeter cells must be highly granular both transverse to the particle trajectory and in longitudinal segmentation. It is probable that as the cell size decreases, it will be harder to get an energy measure from each cell (analog calorimetry). Using only the hit information (digital calorimetry) may be the best way to measure the neutral hadron energy contribution to jets. In this paper, comparisons of analog and digital methods of measuring the contributions of neutral hadrons to jets are made in simulation and in the context of a particular PFA, indicating that the digital method is at least equal to the analog case in jet energy resolution.

  6. An Ultra-Low Power Charge Redistribution Successive Approximation Register A/D Converter for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Koppa, Santosh; Mohandesi, Manouchehr; John, Eugene

    2016-12-01

    Power consumption is one of the key design constraints in biomedical devices such as pacemakers that are powered by small non rechargeable batteries over their entire life time. In these systems, Analog to Digital Convertors (ADCs) are used as interface between analog world and digital domain and play a key role. In this paper we present the design of an 8-bit Charge Redistribution Successive Approximation Register (CR-SAR) analog to digital converter in standard TSMC 0.18μm CMOS technology for low power and low data rate devices such as pacemakers. The 8-bit optimized CR-SAR ADC achieves low power of less than 250nW with conversion rate of 1KB/s. This ADC achieves integral nonlinearity (INL) and differential nonlinearity (DNL) less than 0.22 least significant bit (LSB) and less than 0.04 LSB respectively as compared to the standard requirement for the INL and DNL errors to be less than 0.5 LSB. The designed ADC operates at 1V supply voltage converting input ranging from 0V to 250mV.

  7. Performance of the THS4302 and the Class V Radiation-Tolerant THS4304-SP Silicon Germanium Wideband Amplifiers at Extreme Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Elbuluk, Malik; Hammoud, Ahmad; VanKeuls, Frederick W.

    2009-01-01

    This report discusses the performance of silicon germanium, wideband gain amplifiers under extreme temperatures. The investigated devices include Texas Instruments THS4304-SP and THS4302 amplifiers. Both chips are manufactured using the BiCom3 process based on silicon germanium technology along with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) buried oxide layers. The THS4304-SP device was chosen because it is a Class V radiation-tolerant (150 kRad, TID silicon), voltage-feedback operational amplifier designed for use in high-speed analog signal applications and is very desirable for NASA missions. It operates with a single 5 V power supply [1]. It comes in a 10-pin ceramic flatpack package, and it provides balanced inputs, low offset voltage and offset current, and high common mode rejection ratio. The fixed-gain THS4302 chip, which comes in a 16-pin leadless package, offers high bandwidth, high slew rate, low noise, and low distortion [2]. Such features have made the amplifier useful in a number of applications such as wideband signal processing, wireless transceivers, intermediate frequency (IF) amplifier, analog-to-digital converter (ADC) preamplifier, digital-to-analog converter (DAC) output buffer, measurement instrumentation, and medical and industrial imaging.

  8. Development of an inherently digital transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    The term digital transducer normally implies the combination of conventional analog sensors with encoders or analog-to-digital converters. Because of the objectionable characteristics of most digital transducers, a program was instituted to investigate the possibility of producing a transducer that is inherently digital, instead of a transducer that is digital in the usual sense. Such a device would have improved accuracy and reliability and would have reduced power and bulk requirements because two processes, sensing and conditioning, would be combined into one processes. A Curie-point-temperature sensor is described that represents realization of the stated goal. Also, a metal-insulator semiconductor is described that does not conform precisely to the program goals but that appears to have applications as a new and interesting transduction device.

  9. Analysis of discrepancies observed between digital and analog images during a clinical trial of IRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Morris; Coristine, Marjorie; Currie, Shawn; Belanger, Garry; Ahuja, J.; Dillon, Richard F.; Robertson, John G.

    1990-08-01

    A clinical trial of an Integrated Radiological Information System (IRIS) was conducted at the Ottawa Civic Hospital with the Department of Emergency Medicine and the Department of Radiological Sciences between April 4, and May 12, 1989. During the trial, 319 active Emergency Department cases (905 films) were processed using IRIS. Radiologists examined the digital images on the image screen to formulate a diagnosis, then before dictating a report, they examined the analog films. In 30 cases there was a discrepancy between the information obtained while viewing the digital images on IRIS and the information obtained from the analog films. These anomalous cases were used in an independent study of the discrepancies. In the study, each case was reviewed in both digital and analog form by three physicians who provided a comparative rating of diagnostic quality. Any perceived differences between the digital and analog media were noted. Particular attention was paid to rating the relevance of the IRIS enhancement capabilities. Although ratings for digital images were high, the comparative ratings for the film are in general better. An analysis of the individual cases shows that: (i) most of the discrepancies probably resulted from physician inexperience in reading radiographs in digital form, (ii) the IRIS enhancement facilities significantly increase the ratings of satisfaction or perceived quality of digital images and (iii) an appropriate choice of enhancement may make visible the required diagnostic features for cases where some reviewers did not find the image/digital discrepant.

  10. Digital versus analog complete-arch impressions for single-unit premolar implant crowns: Operating time and patient preference.

    PubMed

    Schepke, Ulf; Meijer, Henny J A; Kerdijk, Wouter; Cune, Marco S

    2015-09-01

    Digital impression-making techniques are supposedly more patient friendly and less time-consuming than analog techniques, but evidence is lacking to substantiate this assumption. The purpose of this in vivo within-subject comparison study was to examine patient perception and time consumption for 2 complete-arch impression-making methods: a digital and an analog technique. Fifty participants with a single missing premolar were included. Treatment consisted of implant therapy. Three months after implant placement, complete-arch digital (Cerec Omnicam; Sirona) and analog impressions (semi-individual tray, Impregum; 3M ESPE) were made, and the participant's opinion was evaluated with a standard questionnaire addressing several domains (inconvenience, shortness of breath, fear of repeating the impression, and feelings of helplessness during the procedure) with the visual analog scale. All participants were asked which procedure they preferred. Operating time was measured with a stopwatch. The differences between impressions made for maxillary and mandibular implants were also compared. The data were analyzed with paired and independent sample t tests, and effect sizes were calculated. Statistically significant differences were found in favor of the digital procedure regarding all subjective domains (P<.001), with medium to large effect sizes. Of all the participants, over 80% preferred the digital procedure to the analog procedure. The mean duration of digital impression making was 6 minutes and 39 seconds (SD=1:51) versus 12 minutes and 13 seconds (SD=1:24) for the analog impression (P<.001, effect size=2.7). Digital impression making for the restoration of a single implant crown takes less time than analog impression making. Furthermore, participants preferred the digital scan and reported less inconvenience, less shortness of breath, less fear of repeating the impression, and fewer feelings of helplessness during the procedure. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council

  11. An integrated system for multichannel neuronal recording with spike/LFP separation, integrated A/D conversion and threshold detection.

    PubMed

    Perelman, Yevgeny; Ginosar, Ran

    2007-01-01

    A mixed-signal front-end processor for multichannel neuronal recording is described. It receives 12 differential-input channels of implanted recording electrodes. A programmable cutoff High Pass Filter (HPF) blocks dc and low-frequency input drift at about 1 Hz. The signals are band-split at about 200 Hz to low-frequency Local Field Potential (LFP) and high-frequency spike data (SPK), which is band limited by a programmable-cutoff LPF, in a range of 8-13 kHz. Amplifier offsets are compensated by 5-bit calibration digital-to-analog converters (DACs). The SPK and LFP channels provide variable amplification rates of up to 5000 and 500, respectively. The analog signals are converted into 10-bit digital form, and streamed out over a serial digital bus at up to 8 Mbps. A threshold filter suppresses inactive portions of the signal and emits only spike segments of programmable length. A prototype has been fabricated on a 0.35-microm CMOS process and tested successfully, demonstrating a 3-microV noise level. Special interface system incorporating an embedded CPU core in a programmable logic device accompanied by real-time software has been developed to allow connectivity to a computer host.

  12. Note: All-digital CMOS MOS-capacitor-based pulse-shrinking mechanism suitable for time-to-digital converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Hwang, Chorng-Sii; Lin, You-Ting; Liu, Keng-Chih

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an all-digital CMOS pulse-shrinking mechanism suitable for time-to-digital converters (TDCs). A simple MOS capacitor is used as a pulse-shrinking cell to perform time attenuation for time resolving. Compared with a previous pulse-shrinking mechanism, the proposed mechanism provides an appreciably improved temporal resolution with high linearity. Furthermore, the use of a binary-weighted pulse-shrinking unit with scaled MOS capacitors is proposed for achieving a programmable resolution. A TDC involving the proposed mechanism was fabricated using a TSMC (Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company) 0.18-μm CMOS process, and it has a small area of nearly 0.02 mm2 and an integral nonlinearity error of ±0.8 LSB for a resolution of 24 ps.

  13. An inexpensive digital tape recorder suitable for neurophysiological signals.

    PubMed

    Lamb, T D

    1985-10-01

    Modifications are described which convert an inexpensive 'Digital Audio Processor' (Sony PCM-701ES), together with a video cassette recorder, into a high performance digital tape recorder, with two analog channels of 16 bit resolution and DC-20 kHz bandwidth. A further modification is described which optionally provides four additional 1-bit digital channels by sacrificing the least significant four bits of one analog channel. If required two additional high quality analog channels may be obtained by use of one of the new video cassette recorders (such as the Sony SL-HF100) which incorporate a pair of FM tracks.

  14. Design and Testing of Space Telemetry SCA Waveform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortensen, Dale J.; Handler, Louis M.; Quinn, Todd M.

    2006-01-01

    A Software Communications Architecture (SCA) Waveform for space telemetry is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The space telemetry waveform is implemented in a laboratory testbed consisting of general purpose processors, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), and digital-to-analog converters (DACs). The radio hardware is integrated with an SCA Core Framework and other software development tools. The waveform design is described from both the bottom-up signal processing and top-down software component perspectives. Simulations and model-based design techniques used for signal processing subsystems are presented. Testing with legacy hardware-based modems verifies proper design implementation and dynamic waveform operations. The waveform development is part of an effort by NASA to define an open architecture for space based reconfigurable transceivers. Use of the SCA as a reference has increased understanding of software defined radio architectures. However, since space requirements put a premium on size, mass, and power, the SCA may be impractical for today s space ready technology. Specific requirements for an SCA waveform and other lessons learned from this development are discussed.

  15. Weather satellite picture receiving stations, APT digital scan converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vermillion, C. H.; Kamowski, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The automatic picture transmission digital scan converter is used at ground stations to convert signals received from scanning radiometers to data compatible with ground equipment designed to receive signals from vidicons aboard operational meteorological satellites. Information necessary to understand the circuit theory, functional operation, general construction and calibration of the converter is provided. Brief and detailed descriptions of each of the individual circuits are included, accompanied by a schematic diagram contained at the end of each circuit description. Listings of integral parts and testing equipment required as well as an overall wiring diagram are included. This unit will enable the user to readily accept and process weather photographs from the operational meteorological satellites.

  16. Multi-GHz Synchronous Waveform Acquisition With Real-Time Pattern-Matching Trigger Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinfelder, Stuart A.; Chiang, Shiuh-hua Wood; Huang, Wei

    2013-10-01

    A transient waveform capture and digitization circuit with continuous synchronous 2-GHz sampling capability and real-time programmable windowed trigger generation has been fabricated and tested. Designed in 0.25 μm CMOS, the digitizer contains a circular array of 128 sample and hold circuits for continuous sample acquisition, and attains 2-GHz sample speeds with over 800-MHz analog bandwidth. Sample clock generation is synchronous, combining a phase-locked loop for high-speed clock generation and a high-speed fully-differential shift register for distributing clocks to all 128 sample circuits. Using two comparators per sample, the sampled voltage levels are compared against two reference levels, a high threshold and a low threshold, that are set via per-comparator digital to analog converters (DACs). The 256 per-comparator 5-bit DACs compensate for comparator offsets and allow for fine reference level adjustment. The comparator results are matched in 8-sample-wide windows against up to 72 programmable patterns in real time using an on-chip programmable logic array. Each 8-sample trigger window is equivalent to 4 ns of acquisition, overlapped sample by sample in a circular fashion through the entire 128-sample array. The 72 pattern-matching trigger criteria can be programmed to be any combination of High-above the high threshold, Low-below the low threshold, Middle-between the two thresholds, or “Don't Care”-any state is accepted. A trigger pattern of “HLHLHLHL,” for example, watches for a waveform that is oscillating at about 1 GHz given the 2-GHz sample rate. A trigger is flagged in under 20 ns if there is a match, after which sampling is stopped, and on-chip digitization can proceed via 128 parallel 10-bit converters, or off-chip conversion can proceed via an analog readout. The chip exceeds 11 bits of dynamic range, nets over 800-MHz -3-dB bandwidth in a realistic system, and jitter in the PLL-based sampling clock has been measured to be about 1 part

  17. Digital ac monitor

    DOEpatents

    Hart, George W.; Kern, Jr., Edward C.

    1987-06-09

    An apparatus and method is provided for monitoring a plurality of analog ac circuits by sampling the voltage and current waveform in each circuit at predetermined intervals, converting the analog current and voltage samples to digital format, storing the digitized current and voltage samples and using the stored digitized current and voltage samples to calculate a variety of electrical parameters; some of which are derived from the stored samples. The non-derived quantities are repeatedly calculated and stored over many separate cycles then averaged. The derived quantities are then calculated at the end of an averaging period. This produces a more accurate reading, especially when averaging over a period in which the power varies over a wide dynamic range. Frequency is measured by timing three cycles of the voltage waveform using the upward zero crossover point as a starting point for a digital timer.

  18. Digital ac monitor

    DOEpatents

    Hart, G.W.; Kern, E.C. Jr.

    1987-06-09

    An apparatus and method is provided for monitoring a plurality of analog ac circuits by sampling the voltage and current waveform in each circuit at predetermined intervals, converting the analog current and voltage samples to digital format, storing the digitized current and voltage samples and using the stored digitized current and voltage samples to calculate a variety of electrical parameters; some of which are derived from the stored samples. The non-derived quantities are repeatedly calculated and stored over many separate cycles then averaged. The derived quantities are then calculated at the end of an averaging period. This produces a more accurate reading, especially when averaging over a period in which the power varies over a wide dynamic range. Frequency is measured by timing three cycles of the voltage waveform using the upward zero crossover point as a starting point for a digital timer. 24 figs.

  19. High-speed photonically assisted analog-to-digital conversion using a continuous wave multiwavelength source and phase modulation.

    PubMed

    Bortnik, Bartosz J; Fetterman, Harold R

    2008-10-01

    A more simple photonically assisted analog-to-digital conversion system utilizing a cw multiwavelength source and phase modulation instead of a mode-locked laser is presented. The output of the cw multiwavelength source is launched into a dispersive device (such as a single-mode fiber). This fiber creates a pulse train, where the central wavelength of each pulse corresponds to a spectral line of the optical source. The pulses can then be either dispersed again to perform discrete wavelength time stretching or demultiplexed for continuous time analog-to-digital conversion. We experimentally demonstrate the operation of both time stretched and interleaved systems at 38 GHz. The potential of integrating this type of system on a monolithic chip is discussed.

  20. The application of digital signal processing techniques to a teleoperator radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pujol, A.

    1982-01-01

    A digital signal processing system was studied for the determination of the spectral frequency distribution of echo signals from a teleoperator radar system. The system consisted of a sample and hold circuit, an analog to digital converter, a digital filter, and a Fast Fourier Transform. The system is interfaced to a 16 bit microprocessor. The microprocessor is programmed to control the complete digital signal processing. The digital filtering and Fast Fourier Transform functions are implemented by a S2815 digital filter/utility peripheral chip and a S2814A Fast Fourier Transform chip. The S2815 initially simulates a low-pass Butterworth filter with later expansion to complete filter circuit (bandpass and highpass) synthesizing.

  1. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Welcome to Seattle and the 2008 SciDAC Conference. This conference, the fourth in the series, is a continuation of the PI meetings we first began under SciDAC-1. I would like to start by thanking the organizing committee, and Rick Stevens in particular, for organizing this year's meeting. This morning I would like to look briefly at SciDAC, to give you a brief history of SciDAC and also look ahead to see where we plan to go over the next few years. I think the best description of SciDAC, at least the simulation part, comes from a quote from Dr Ray Orbach, DOE's Under Secretary for Science and Director of the Office of Science. In an interview that appeared in the SciDAC Review magazine, Dr Orbach said, `SciDAC is unique in the world. There isn't any other program like it anywhere else, and it has the remarkable ability to do science by bringing together physical scientists, mathematicians, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists who recognize that computation is not something you do at the end, but rather it needs to be built into the solution of the very problem that one is addressing'. Of course, that is extended not just to physical scientists, but also to biological scientists. This is a theme of computational science, this partnership among disciplines, which goes all the way back to the early 1980s and Ken Wilson. It's a unique thread within the Department of Energy. SciDAC-1, launched around the turn of the millennium, created a new generation of scientific simulation codes. It advocated building out mathematical and computing system software in support of science and a new collaboratory software environment for data. The original concept for SciDAC-1 had topical centers for the execution of the various science codes, but several corrections and adjustments were needed. The ASCR scientific computing infrastructure was also upgraded, providing the hardware facilities for the program. The computing facility that we had at that time was the big 3

  2. Analog-to-digital conversion as a source of drifts in displacements derived from digital recordings of ground acceleration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Displacements obtained from double integration of digitally recorded ground accelerations often show drifts much larger than those expected for the true ground displacements. These drifts might be due to many things, including dynamic elastic ground tilt, inelastic ground deformation, hysteresis in the instruments, and cross feed due to misalignment of nominally orthogonal sensors. This article shows that even if those effects were not present, the analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) process can produce apparent "pulses" and offsets in the acceleration baseline if the ground motion is slowly varying compared with the quantization level of the digitization. Such slowly varying signals can be produced by constant offsets that do not coincide with a quantization level and by near- and intermediate-field terms in the wave field radiated from earthquakes. Double integration of these apparent pulses and offsets leads to drifts in the displacements similar to those found in processing real recordings. These effects decrease in importance as the resolution of the ADC process increases.

  3. Digital image film generation: from the photoscientist's perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, John E.

    1982-01-01

    The technical sophistication of photoelectronic transducers, integrated circuits, and laser-beam film recorders has made digital imagery an alternative to traditional analog imagery for remote sensing. Because a digital image is stored in discrete digital values, image enhancement is possible before the data are converted to a photographic image. To create a special film-reproduction curve - which can simulate any desired gamma, relative film speed, and toe/shoulder response - the digital-to-analog transfer function of the film recorder is uniquely defined and implemented by a lookup table in the film recorder. Because the image data are acquired in spectral bands, false-color composites also can be given special characteristics by selecting a reproduction curve tailored for each band.

  4. Image resolution in the digital era: notion and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Rakhshan, Vahid

    2014-12-01

    Digital radiographs need additional metadata in order to be accurate when being converted to analog media. Resolution is a major reason of failures in proper printing or digitizing the images. This letter shortly explains the overlooked pitfalls of digital radiography and photography in dental practice, and briefly instructs the reader how to avoid or rectify common problems associated with resolution calibration of digital radiographs.

  5. Digitally programmable signal generator and method

    DOEpatents

    Priatko, Gordon J.; Kaskey, Jeffrey A.

    1989-01-01

    A digitally programmable waveform generator for generating completely arbitrary digital or analog waveforms from very low frequencies to frequencies in the gigasample per second range. A memory array with multiple parallel outputs is addressed; then the parallel output data is latched into buffer storage from which it is serially multiplexed out at a data rate many times faster than the access time of the memory array itself. While data is being multiplexed out serially, the memory array is accessed with the next required address and presents its data to the buffer storage before the serial multiplexing of the last group of data is completed, allowing this new data to then be latched into the buffer storage for smooth continuous serial data output. In a preferred implementation, a plurality of these serial data outputs are paralleled to form the input to a digital to analog converter, providing a programmable analog output.

  6. Optical-analog-to-digital conversion based on successive-like approximations in octagonal-shape photonic crystal ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavousi, A.; Mansouri-Birjandi, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    Implementing intensity-dependent Kerr-like nonlinearity in octagonal-shape photonic crystal ring resonators (OSPCRRs), a new class of optical analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) with low power consumption is presented. Due to its size dependent refractive index, Silicon (Si) nanocrystal is used as nonlinear medium in the proposed ADC. Coding system of optical ADC is based on successive-like approximations which requires only one quantization level to represent each single bit, despite of conventional ADCs that require at least two distinct levels for each bit. Each is representing bit of optical ADC is formed by vertically alignment of double rings of OSPCRRs (DR-OSPCRR) and cascading m number of DR-OSPCRR, forms an m bit ADC. Investigating different parameters of DR-OSPCRR such as refractive indices of rings, lattice refractive index, and coupling coefficients of waveguide-to-ring and ring-to-ring, the ADC's threshold power is tuned. Increasing the number of bits of ADC, increases the overall power consumption of ADC. One can arrange to have any number of bits for this ADC, as long as the power levels are treated carefully. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) in-house codes were used to evaluate the ADC's effectiveness.

  7. A low-cost digital filing system for echocardiography data with MPEG4 compression and its application to remote diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Akira; Iwata, Yasushi; Okada, Yasumasa; Shimada, Megumi; Baba, Akiyasu; Minatogawa, Yasuyuki; Yamada, Takayasu; Chino, Masao; Watanabe, Takafumi; Akaishi, Makoto

    2004-12-01

    The high cost of digital echocardiographs and the large size of data files hinder the adoption of remote diagnosis of digitized echocardiography data. We have developed a low-cost digital filing system for echocardiography data. In this system, data from a conventional analog echocardiograph are captured using a personal computer (PC) equipped with an analog-to-digital converter board. Motion picture data are promptly compressed using a moving pictures expert group (MPEG) 4 codec. The digitized data with preliminary reports obtained in a rural hospital are then sent to cardiologists at distant urban general hospitals via the internet. The cardiologists can evaluate the data using widely available movie-viewing software (Windows Media Player). The diagnostic accuracy of this double-check system was confirmed by comparison with ordinary super-VHS videotapes. We have demonstrated that digitization of echocardiography data from a conventional analog echocardiograph and MPEG 4 compression can be performed using an ordinary PC-based system, and that this system enables highly efficient digital storage and remote diagnosis at low cost.

  8. Effect of second harmonic in pulse-width-modulation-based DAC for feedback of digital fluxgate magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyayev, Serhiy; Ivchenko, Nickolay

    2018-04-01

    Digital fluxgate magnetometers employ processing of the measured pickup signal to produce the value of the compensation current. Using pulse-width modulation with filtering for digital to analog conversion is a convenient approach, but it can introduce an intrinsic source of nonlinearity, which we discuss in this design note. A code shift of one least significant bit changes the second harmonic content of the pulse train, which feeds into the pick-up signal chain despite the heavy filtering. This effect produces a code-dependent nonlinearity. This nonlinearity can be overcome by the specific design of the timing of the pulse train signal. The second harmonic is suppressed if the first and third quarters of the excitation period pulse train are repeated in the second and fourth quarters. We demonstrate this principle on a digital magnetometer, achieving a magnetometer noise level corresponding to that of the sensor itself.

  9. Energy savings opportunities in the global digital television transition

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Won Young; Gopal, Anand; Phadke, Amol

    Globally, terrestrial television (TV) broadcasting is in the midst of a complete transition to digital signals. The last analog terrestrial broadcast is expected to be switched off in the early 2020s. This transition presents huge energy savings opportunities that have thus far been ignored. Digital TV switchovers have likely increased energy consumption as countries have completed transitions by providing digital TV converters to analog TV users, which increase energy consumption and extend the life of energy-inefficient analog TVs. We find that if analog TVs were retired at the time of a digital switchover and replaced with super-efficient flat-panel TVs, suchmore » as light-emitting diode (LED) backlit liquid crystal display (LCD) TVs, there is a combined electricity savings potential of 32 terawatt hours [TWh] per year in countries that have not yet completed their digital TV transition. In view of these findings as well as the dramatic drops of super-efficient TV prices and the unique early-retirement opportunity resulting from cessation of terrestrial analog broadcasts, TV-exchange programs would easily and substantially advance energy efficiency.« less

  10. Energy savings opportunities in the global digital television transition

    DOE PAGES

    Park, Won Young; Gopal, Anand; Phadke, Amol

    2016-12-20

    Globally, terrestrial television (TV) broadcasting is in the midst of a complete transition to digital signals. The last analog terrestrial broadcast is expected to be switched off in the early 2020s. This transition presents huge energy savings opportunities that have thus far been ignored. Digital TV switchovers have likely increased energy consumption as countries have completed transitions by providing digital TV converters to analog TV users, which increase energy consumption and extend the life of energy-inefficient analog TVs. We find that if analog TVs were retired at the time of a digital switchover and replaced with super-efficient flat-panel TVs, suchmore » as light-emitting diode (LED) backlit liquid crystal display (LCD) TVs, there is a combined electricity savings potential of 32 terawatt hours [TWh] per year in countries that have not yet completed their digital TV transition. In view of these findings as well as the dramatic drops of super-efficient TV prices and the unique early-retirement opportunity resulting from cessation of terrestrial analog broadcasts, TV-exchange programs would easily and substantially advance energy efficiency.« less

  11. Design Challenges in Converting a Paper Checklist to Digital Format for Dynamic Medical Settings

    PubMed Central

    Sarcevic, Aleksandra; Rosen, Brett J.; Kulp, Leah J.; Marsic, Ivan; Burd, Randall S.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a mobile digital checklist that we designed and developed for trauma resuscitation—a dynamic, fast-paced medical process of treating severely injured patients. The checklist design was informed by our analysis of user interactions with a paper checklist that was introduced to improve team performance during resuscitations. The design process followed an iterative approach and involved several medical experts. We discuss design challenges in converting a paper checklist to its digital counterpart, as well as our approaches for addressing those challenges. While we show that using a digital checklist during a fast-paced medical event is feasible, we also recognize several design constraints, including limited display size, difficulties in entering notes about the medical process and patient, and difficulties in replicating user experience with paper checklists. PMID:28480116

  12. Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report: Certificate Number: 940325S1. 11341 DDC-I, DACS Sun SPARC/SunOS to 80186 Bare Ada Cross Compiler System, Version 4.6.4 Sun SPARCstation IPX = Intel iSBC 186/100 (Bare Machine)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-25

    declarations requiring more digits than SYSTEM.MAXDIGITS: C24113L..Y (14 tests) C35705L..Y (14 tests) C35706L..Y (14 tests) C35707L..Y (14 tests) 2-1...before the DACS Run-Time System (RMs) libary normally searches for na-4ime routin;, in this way one can replace the standard DACS RTS routines with...SHORTINTEGER is range -128 .. 127; type INTEGER is range -32_768 .. 32_767; type LONGINTEGER is range -2147_483_648 .. 2_147_483_647; type FLOAT is digits 6

  13. Video signal processing system uses gated current mode switches to perform high speed multiplication and digital-to-analog conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliland, M. G.; Rougelot, R. S.; Schumaker, R. A.

    1966-01-01

    Video signal processor uses special-purpose integrated circuits with nonsaturating current mode switching to accept texture and color information from a digital computer in a visual spaceflight simulator and to combine these, for display on color CRT with analog information concerning fading.

  14. Digitally programmable signal generator and method

    DOEpatents

    Priatko, G.J.; Kaskey, J.A.

    1989-11-14

    Disclosed is a digitally programmable waveform generator for generating completely arbitrary digital or analog waveforms from very low frequencies to frequencies in the gigasample per second range. A memory array with multiple parallel outputs is addressed; then the parallel output data is latched into buffer storage from which it is serially multiplexed out at a data rate many times faster than the access time of the memory array itself. While data is being multiplexed out serially, the memory array is accessed with the next required address and presents its data to the buffer storage before the serial multiplexing of the last group of data is completed, allowing this new data to then be latched into the buffer storage for smooth continuous serial data output. In a preferred implementation, a plurality of these serial data outputs are paralleled to form the input to a digital to analog converter, providing a programmable analog output. 6 figs.

  15. Preface: SciDAC 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzacappa, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    On 26-30 June 2005 at the Grand Hyatt on Union Square in San Francisco several hundred computational scientists from around the world came together for what can certainly be described as a celebration of computational science. Scientists from the SciDAC Program and scientists from other agencies and nations were joined by applied mathematicians and computer scientists to highlight the many successes in the past year where computation has led to scientific discovery in a variety of fields: lattice quantum chromodynamics, accelerator modeling, chemistry, biology, materials science, Earth and climate science, astrophysics, and combustion and fusion energy science. Also highlighted were the advances in numerical methods and computer science, and the multidisciplinary collaboration cutting across science, mathematics, and computer science that enabled these discoveries. The SciDAC Program was conceived and funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Science. It is the Office of Science's premier computational science program founded on what is arguably the perfect formula: the priority and focus is science and scientific discovery, with the understanding that the full arsenal of `enabling technologies' in applied mathematics and computer science must be brought to bear if we are to have any hope of attacking and ultimately solving today's computational Grand Challenge problems. The SciDAC Program has been in existence for four years, and many of the computational scientists funded by this program will tell you that the program has given them the hope of addressing their scientific problems in full realism for the very first time. Many of these scientists will also tell you that SciDAC has also fundamentally changed the way they do computational science. We begin this volume with one of DOE's great traditions, and core missions: energy research. As we will see, computation has been seminal to the critical advances that have been made in this arena. Of course, to

  16. A high-resolution time-to-digital converter using a three-level resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, Asma; Saneei, Mohsen; Mahani, Ali

    2016-08-01

    In this article, a three-level resolution Vernier delay line time-to-digital converter (TDC) was proposed. The proposed TDC core was based on the pseudo-differential digital architecture that made it insensitive to nMOS and pMOS transistor mismatches. It also employed a Vernier delay line (VDL) in conjunction with an asynchronous read-out circuitry. The time interval resolution was equal to the difference of delay between buffers of upper and lower chains. Then, via the extra chain included in the lower delay line, resolution was controlled and power consumption was reduced. This method led to high resolution and low power consumption. The measurement results of TDC showed a resolution of 4.5 ps, 12-bit output dynamic range, and integral nonlinearity of 1.5 least significant bits. This TDC achieved the consumption of 68.43 µW from 1.1-V supply.

  17. Digital circuits for computer applications: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The innovations in this updated series of compilations dealing with electronic technology represent a carefully selected collection of digital circuits which have direct application in computer oriented systems. In general, the circuits have been selected as representative items of each section and have been included on their merits of having universal applications in digital computers and digital data processing systems. As such, they should have wide appeal to the professional engineer and scientist who encounter the fundamentals of digital techniques in their daily activities. The circuits are grouped as digital logic circuits, analog to digital converters, and counters and shift registers.

  18. Digital control of a direct current converter for a hybrid vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Juan Manuel

    The nonlinear feedback loops permitting the large signal control of pulse width modulators in direct current converters are discussed. A digital feedback loop on a converter controlling the coupling of a direct current machine is described. It is used in the propulsion of a hybrid vehicle (thermal-electric) with regenerative braking. The protection of the power switches is also studied. An active protection of the MOST bipolar transistor association is proposed.

  19. A Laboratory Study of X-to-Frequency Converters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartalopoulos, Stamatios V.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a laboratory demonstration that can be used to convert an analog quantity into frequency, which can then be converted into a binary measure using either an oscilloscope or a frequency counter. (MA)

  20. Opening Remarks: SciDAC 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Good morning. Welcome to Boston, the home of the Red Sox, Celtics and Bruins, baked beans, tea parties, Robert Parker, and SciDAC 2007. A year ago I stood before you to share the legacy of the first SciDAC program and identify the challenges that we must address on the road to petascale computing—a road E E Cummins described as `. . . never traveled, gladly beyond any experience.' Today, I want to explore the preparations for the rapidly approaching extreme scale (X-scale) generation. These preparations are the first step propelling us along the road of burgeoning scientific discovery enabled by the application of X- scale computing. We look to petascale computing and beyond to open up a world of discovery that cuts across scientific fields and leads us to a greater understanding of not only our world, but our universe. As part of the President's America Competitiveness Initiative, the ASCR Office has been preparing a ten year vision for computing. As part of this planning the LBNL together with ORNL and ANL hosted three town hall meetings on Simulation and Modeling at the Exascale for Energy, Ecological Sustainability and Global Security (E3). The proposed E3 initiative is organized around four programmatic themes: Engaging our top scientists, engineers, computer scientists and applied mathematicians; investing in pioneering large-scale science; developing scalable analysis algorithms, and storage architectures to accelerate discovery; and accelerating the build-out and future development of the DOE open computing facilities. It is clear that we have only just started down the path to extreme scale computing. Plan to attend Thursday's session on the out-briefing and discussion of these meetings. The road to the petascale has been at best rocky. In FY07, the continuing resolution provided 12% less money for Advanced Scientific Computing than either the President, the Senate, or the House. As a consequence, many of you had to absorb a no cost extension for your

  1. Frequency-domain cascading microwave superconducting quantum interference device multiplexers; beyond limitations originating from room-temperature electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohjiro, Satoshi; Hirayama, Fuminori

    2018-07-01

    A novel approach, frequency-domain cascading microwave multiplexers (MW-Mux), has been proposed and its basic operation has been demonstrated to increase the number of pixels multiplexed in a readout line U of MW-Mux for superconducting detector arrays. This method is an alternative to the challenging development of wideband, large power, and spurious-free room-temperature (300 K) electronics. The readout system for U pixels consists of four main parts: (1) multiplexer chips connected in series those contain U superconducting resonators in total. (2) A cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor amplifier (HEMT). (3) A 300 K microwave frequency comb generator based on N(≡U/M) parallel units of digital-to-analog converters (DAC). (4) N parallel units of 300 K analog-to-digital converters (ADC). Here, M is the number of tones each DAC produces and each ADC handles. The output signal of U detectors multiplexed at the cryogenic stage is transmitted through a cable to the room temperature and divided into N processors where each handles M pixels. Due to the reduction factor of 1/N, U is not anymore dominated by the 300 K electronics but can be increased up to the potential value determined by either the bandwidth or the spurious-free power of the HEMT. Based on experimental results on the prototype system with N = 2 and M = 3, neither excess inter-pixel crosstalk nor excess noise has been observed in comparison with conventional MW-Mux. This indicates that the frequency-domain cascading MW-Mux provides the full (100%) usage of the HEMT band by assigning N 300 K bands on the frequency axis without inter-band gaps.

  2. Phase-locked loops. [analog, hybrid, discrete and digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, S. C.

    1974-01-01

    The basic analysis and design procedures are described for the realization of analog phase-locked loops (APLL), hybrid phase-locked loops (HPLL), discrete phase-locked loops, and digital phase-locked loops (DPLL). Basic configurations are diagrammed, and performance curves are given. A discrete communications model is derived and developed. The use of the APLL as an optimum angle demodulator and the Kalman-Bucy approach to APLL design are discussed. The literature in the area of phase-locked loops is reviewed, and an extensive bibliography is given. Although the design of APLLs is fairly well documented, work on discrete, hybrid, and digital PLLs is scattered, and more will have to be done in the future to pinpoint the formal design of DPLLs.

  3. The European project Merlin on multi-gigabit, energy-efficient, ruggedized lightwave engines for advanced on-board digital processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stampoulidis, L.; Kehayas, E.; Karppinen, M.; Tanskanen, A.; Heikkinen, V.; Westbergh, P.; Gustavsson, J.; Larsson, A.; Grüner-Nielsen, L.; Sotom, M.; Venet, N.; Ko, M.; Micusik, D.; Kissinger, D.; Ulusoy, A. C.; King, R.; Safaisini, R.

    2017-11-01

    Modern broadband communication networks rely on satellites to complement the terrestrial telecommunication infrastructure. Satellites accommodate global reach and enable world-wide direct broadcasting by facilitating wide access to the backbone network from remote sites or areas where the installation of ground segment infrastructure is not economically viable. At the same time the new broadband applications increase the bandwidth demands in every part of the network - and satellites are no exception. Modern telecom satellites incorporate On-Board Processors (OBP) having analogue-to-digital (ADC) and digital-to-analogue converters (DAC) at their inputs/outputs and making use of digital processing to handle hundreds of signals; as the amount of information exchanged increases, so do the physical size, mass and power consumption of the interconnects required to transfer massive amounts of data through bulk electric wires.

  4. Digital television: a new way to deliver information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Samson

    1998-12-01

    Digital television (DTV) is a new way to deliver video, audio, and other data. Why should TV be converted to digital? How does DTV work? What can we do with it? This paper provides some introduction about DTV, its history, and its roll-out plan. It then compares DTV with analog TV, and describes how DTV works. It also describes why the computer industry, as well as the consumer electronics industry, are both very interested I the DTV market. Next, it describes what Intel has done on DTV, including how we build a PC- based DTV, its test evaluation results, its new applications, and Intel's DTV station DMRL. This paper also describes remaining issues, our roadmap, vision, and future directions.

  5. Analog synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Sarpeshkar, R

    2014-03-28

    We analyse the pros and cons of analog versus digital computation in living cells. Our analysis is based on fundamental laws of noise in gene and protein expression, which set limits on the energy, time, space, molecular count and part-count resources needed to compute at a given level of precision. We conclude that analog computation is significantly more efficient in its use of resources than deterministic digital computation even at relatively high levels of precision in the cell. Based on this analysis, we conclude that synthetic biology must use analog, collective analog, probabilistic and hybrid analog-digital computational approaches; otherwise, even relatively simple synthetic computations in cells such as addition will exceed energy and molecular-count budgets. We present schematics for efficiently representing analog DNA-protein computation in cells. Analog electronic flow in subthreshold transistors and analog molecular flux in chemical reactions obey Boltzmann exponential laws of thermodynamics and are described by astoundingly similar logarithmic electrochemical potentials. Therefore, cytomorphic circuits can help to map circuit designs between electronic and biochemical domains. We review recent work that uses positive-feedback linearization circuits to architect wide-dynamic-range logarithmic analog computation in Escherichia coli using three transcription factors, nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient in parts than prior digital implementations.

  6. A single-chip 32-channel analog beamformer with 4-ns delay resolution and 768-ns maximum delay range for ultrasound medical imaging with a linear array transducer.

    PubMed

    Um, Ji-Yong; Kim, Yoon-Jee; Cho, Seong-Eun; Chae, Min-Kyun; Kim, Byungsub; Sim, Jae-Yoon; Park, Hong-June

    2015-02-01

    A single-chip 32-channel analog beamformer is proposed. It achieves a delay resolution of 4 ns and a maximum delay range of 768 ns. It has a focal-point based architecture, which consists of 7 sub-analog beamformers (sub-ABF). Each sub-ABF performs a RX focusing operation for a single focal point. Seven sub-ABFs perform a time-interleaving operation to achieve the maximum delay range of 768 ns. Phase interpolators are used in sub-ABFs to generate sampling clocks with the delay resolution of 4 ns from a low frequency system clock of 5 MHz. Each sub-ABF samples 32 echo signals at different times into sampling capacitors, which work as analog memory cells. The sampled 32 echo signals of each sub-ABF are originated from one target focal point at one instance. They are summed at one instance in a sub-ABF to perform the RX focusing for the target focal point. The proposed ABF chip has been fabricated in a 0.13- μ m CMOS process with an active area of 16 mm (2). The total power consumption is 287 mW. In measurement, the digital echo signals from a commercial ultrasound medical imaging machine were applied to the fabricated chip through commercial DAC chips. Due to the speed limitation of the DAC chips, the delay resolution was relaxed to 10 ns for the real-time measurement. A linear array transducer with no steering operation is used in this work.

  7. Electro-Optic Analog/Digital Converter.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    electro - optic material and a source of linearly polarized light is arranged to transmit its light energy along each of the optical waveguides. Electrodes are disposed contiguous to the optical waveguides for impressing electric fields thereacross. An input signal potential is applied to the electrodes to produce electric fields of intensity relative to each of the waveguides such that causes phase shift and resultant change of polarization which can be detected as representative of a binary ’one’ or binary ’zero’ for each of the channel optical

  8. The Analog Revolution and Its On-Going Role in Modern Analytical Measurements.

    PubMed

    Enke, Christie G

    2015-12-15

    The electronic revolution in analytical instrumentation began when we first exceeded the two-digit resolution of panel meters and chart recorders and then took the first steps into automated control. It started with the first uses of operational amplifiers (op amps) in the analog domain 20 years before the digital computer entered the analytical lab. Their application greatly increased both accuracy and precision in chemical measurement and they provided an elegant means for the electronic control of experimental quantities. Later, laboratory and personal computers provided an unlimited readout resolution and enabled programmable control of instrument parameters as well as storage and computation of acquired data. However, digital computers did not replace the op amp's critical role of converting the analog sensor's output to a robust and accurate voltage. Rather it added a new role: converting that voltage into a number. These analog operations are generally the limiting portions of our computerized instrumentation systems. Operational amplifier performance in gain, input current and resistance, offset voltage, and rise time have improved by a remarkable 3-4 orders of magnitude since their first implementations. Each 10-fold improvement has opened the doors for the development of new techniques in all areas of chemical analysis. Along with some interesting history, the multiple roles op amps play in modern instrumentation are described along with a number of examples of new areas of analysis that have been enabled by their improvements.

  9. Integrated electrofluidic circuits: pressure sensing with analog and digital operation functionalities for microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chueh-Yu; Lu, Jau-Ching; Liu, Man-Chi; Tung, Yi-Chung

    2012-10-21

    Microfluidic technology plays an essential role in various lab on a chip devices due to its desired advantages. An automated microfluidic system integrated with actuators and sensors can further achieve better controllability. A number of microfluidic actuation schemes have been well developed. In contrast, most of the existing sensing methods still heavily rely on optical observations and external transducers, which have drawbacks including: costly instrumentation, professional operation, tedious interfacing, and difficulties of scaling up and further signal processing. This paper reports the concept of electrofluidic circuits - electrical circuits which are constructed using ionic liquid (IL)-filled fluidic channels. The developed electrofluidic circuits can be fabricated using a well-developed multi-layer soft lithography (MSL) process with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels. Electrofluidic circuits allow seamless integration of pressure sensors with analog and digital operation functions into microfluidic systems and provide electrical readouts for further signal processing. In the experiments, the analog operation device is constructed based on electrofluidic Wheatstone bridge circuits with electrical outputs of the addition and subtraction results of the applied pressures. The digital operation (AND, OR, and XOR) devices are constructed using the electrofluidic pressure controlled switches, and output electrical signals of digital operations of the applied pressures. The experimental results demonstrate the designed functions for analog and digital operations of applied pressures are successfully achieved using the developed electrofluidic circuits, making them promising to develop integrated microfluidic systems with capabilities of precise pressure monitoring and further feedback control for advanced lab on a chip applications.

  10. Network-Physics(NP) Bec DIGITAL(#)-VULNERABILITY Versus Fault-Tolerant Analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, G. K.; Hathaway, M.; Schmidt, H. E.; Siegel, E.

    2011-03-01

    Siegel[AMS Joint Mtg.(2002)-Abs.973-60-124] digits logarithmic-(Newcomb(1881)-Weyl(1914; 1916)-Benford(1938)-"NeWBe"/"OLDbe")-law algebraic-inversion to ONLY BEQS BEC:Quanta/Bosons= digits: Synthesis reveals EMP-like SEVERE VULNERABILITY of ONLY DIGITAL-networks(VS. FAULT-TOLERANT ANALOG INvulnerability) via Barabasi "Network-Physics" relative-``statics''(VS.dynamics-[Willinger-Alderson-Doyle(Not.AMS(5/09)]-]critique); (so called)"Quantum-computing is simple-arithmetic(sans division/ factorization); algorithmic-complexities: INtractibility/ UNdecidability/ INefficiency/NONcomputability / HARDNESS(so MIScalled) "noise"-induced-phase-transitions(NITS) ACCELERATION: Cook-Levin theorem Reducibility is Renormalization-(Semi)-Group fixed-points; number-Randomness DEFINITION via WHAT? Query(VS. Goldreich[Not.AMS(02)] How? mea culpa)can ONLY be MBCS "hot-plasma" versus digit-clumping NON-random BEC; Modular-arithmetic Congruences= Signal X Noise PRODUCTS = clock-model; NON-Shor[Physica A,341,586(04)] BEC logarithmic-law inversion factorization:Watkins number-thy. U stat.-phys.); P=/=NP TRIVIAL Proof: Euclid!!! [(So Miscalled) computational-complexity J-O obviation via geometry.

  11. Wideband Spectroscopy: The Design and Implementation of a 3 GHz, 2048 Channel Digital Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Ryan M.

    2011-01-01

    A state-of-the-art digital Fourier Transform spectrometer has been developed, with a combination of high bandwidth and fine resolution unavailable elsewhere. Analog signals consisting of radiation emitted by constituents in planetary atmospheres or galactic sources are downconverted and subsequently digitized by a pair of interleaved Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADC). This 6 Gsps (giga sample per second) digital representation of the analog signal is then processed through an FPGA-based streaming Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), the key development described below. Digital spectrometers have many advantages over previously used analog spectrometers, especially in terms of accuracy and resolution, both of which are particularly important for the type of scientific questions to be addressed with next-generation radiometers. The implementation, results and underlying math for this spectrometer, as well as potential for future extension to even higher bandwidth, resolution and channel orthogonality, needed to support proposed future advanced atmospheric science and radioastronomy, are discussed.

  12. 47 CFR 25.212 - Narrowband analog transmissions, digital transmissions, and video transmissions in the GSO Fixed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... transmissions, and video transmissions in the GSO Fixed-Satellite Service. 25.212 Section 25.212... Technical Standards § 25.212 Narrowband analog transmissions, digital transmissions, and video transmissions... narrowband and/or wideband digital services, including digital video services, if the maximum input spectral...

  13. 47 CFR 25.212 - Narrowband analog transmissions, digital transmissions, and video transmissions in the GSO Fixed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... transmissions, and video transmissions in the GSO Fixed-Satellite Service. 25.212 Section 25.212... Technical Standards § 25.212 Narrowband analog transmissions, digital transmissions, and video transmissions... narrowband and/or wideband digital services, including digital video services, if the maximum input spectral...

  14. 47 CFR 25.212 - Narrowband analog transmissions, digital transmissions, and video transmissions in the GSO Fixed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... transmissions, and video transmissions in the GSO Fixed-Satellite Service. 25.212 Section 25.212... Technical Standards § 25.212 Narrowband analog transmissions, digital transmissions, and video transmissions... narrowband and/or wideband digital services, including digital video services, if the maximum input spectral...

  15. Through-the-earth radio

    DOEpatents

    Reagor, David [Los Alamos, NM; Vasquez-Dominguez, Jose [Los Alamos, NM

    2006-05-09

    A method and apparatus for effective through-the-earth communication involves a signal input device connected to a transmitter operating at a predetermined frequency sufficiently low to effectively penetrate useful distances through-the earth, and having an analog to digital converter receiving the signal input and passing the signal input to a data compression circuit that is connected to an encoding processor, the encoding processor output being provided to a digital to analog converter. An amplifier receives the analog output from the digital to analog converter for amplifying said analog output and outputting said analog output to an antenna. A receiver having an antenna receives the analog output passes the analog signal to a band pass filter whose output is connected to an analog to digital converter that provides a digital signal to a decoding processor whose output is connected to an data decompressor, the data decompressor providing a decompressed digital signal to a digital to analog converter. An audio output device receives the analog output form the digital to analog converter for producing audible output.

  16. Analog synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    Sarpeshkar, R.

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the pros and cons of analog versus digital computation in living cells. Our analysis is based on fundamental laws of noise in gene and protein expression, which set limits on the energy, time, space, molecular count and part-count resources needed to compute at a given level of precision. We conclude that analog computation is significantly more efficient in its use of resources than deterministic digital computation even at relatively high levels of precision in the cell. Based on this analysis, we conclude that synthetic biology must use analog, collective analog, probabilistic and hybrid analog–digital computational approaches; otherwise, even relatively simple synthetic computations in cells such as addition will exceed energy and molecular-count budgets. We present schematics for efficiently representing analog DNA–protein computation in cells. Analog electronic flow in subthreshold transistors and analog molecular flux in chemical reactions obey Boltzmann exponential laws of thermodynamics and are described by astoundingly similar logarithmic electrochemical potentials. Therefore, cytomorphic circuits can help to map circuit designs between electronic and biochemical domains. We review recent work that uses positive-feedback linearization circuits to architect wide-dynamic-range logarithmic analog computation in Escherichia coli using three transcription factors, nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient in parts than prior digital implementations. PMID:24567476

  17. Design of 90×8 ROIC with pixel level digital TDI implementation for scanning type LWIR FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceylan, Omer; Kayahan, Huseyin; Yazici, Melik; Gurbuz, Yasar

    2013-06-01

    Design of a 90×8 CMOS readout integrated circuit (ROIC) based on pixel level digital time delay integration (TDI) for scanning type LWIR focal plane arrays (FPAs) is presented. TDI is implemented on 8 pixels which improves the SNR of the system with a factor of √8. Oversampling rate of 3 improves the spatial resolution of the system. TDI operation is realized with a novel under-pixel analog-to-digital converter, which improves the noise performance of ROIC with a lower quantization noise. Since analog signal is converted to digital domain in-pixel, non-uniformities and inaccuracies due to analog signal routing over large chip area is eliminated. Contributions of each pixel for proper TDI operation are added in summation counters, no op-amps are used for summation, hence power consumption of ROIC is lower than its analog counterparts. Due to lack of multiple capacitors or summation amplifiers, ROIC occupies smaller chip area compared to its analog counterparts. ROIC is also superior to its digital counterparts due to novel digital TDI implementation in terms of power consumption, noise and chip area. ROIC supports bi-directional scan, multiple gain settings, bypass operation, automatic gain adjustment, pixel select/deselect, and is programmable through serial or parallel interface. Input referred noise of ROIC is less than 750 rms electrons, while power consumption is less than 20mW. ROIC is designed to perform both in room and cryogenic temperatures.

  18. A miniature high-efficiency fully digital adaptive voltage scaling buck converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hangbiao; Zhang, Bo; Luo, Ping; Zhen, Shaowei; Liao, Pengfei; He, Yajuan; Li, Zhaoji

    2015-09-01

    A miniature high-efficiency fully digital adaptive voltage scaling (AVS) buck converter is proposed in this paper. The pulse skip modulation with flexible duty cycle (FD-PSM) is used in the AVS controller, which simplifies the circuit architecture (<170 gates) and greatly saves the die area and the power consumption. The converter is implemented in a 0.13-μm one-poly-eight-metal (1P8 M) complementary metal oxide semiconductor process and the active on-chip area of the controller is only 0.003 mm2, which is much smaller. The measurement results show that when the operating frequency of the digital load scales dynamically from 25.6 MHz to 112.6 MHz, the supply voltage of which can be scaled adaptively from 0.84 V to 1.95 V. The controller dissipates only 17.2 μW, while the supply voltage of the load is 1 V and the operating frequency is 40 MHz.

  19. A mixed analog/digital chaotic neuro-computer system for quadratic assignment problems.

    PubMed

    Horio, Yoshihiko; Ikeguchi, Tohru; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2005-01-01

    We construct a mixed analog/digital chaotic neuro-computer prototype system for quadratic assignment problems (QAPs). The QAP is one of the difficult NP-hard problems, and includes several real-world applications. Chaotic neural networks have been used to solve combinatorial optimization problems through chaotic search dynamics, which efficiently searches optimal or near optimal solutions. However, preliminary experiments have shown that, although it obtained good feasible solutions, the Hopfield-type chaotic neuro-computer hardware system could not obtain the optimal solution of the QAP. Therefore, in the present study, we improve the system performance by adopting a solution construction method, which constructs a feasible solution using the analog internal state values of the chaotic neurons at each iteration. In order to include the construction method into our hardware, we install a multi-channel analog-to-digital conversion system to observe the internal states of the chaotic neurons. We show experimentally that a great improvement in the system performance over the original Hopfield-type chaotic neuro-computer is obtained. That is, we obtain the optimal solution for the size-10 QAP in less than 1000 iterations. In addition, we propose a guideline for parameter tuning of the chaotic neuro-computer system according to the observation of the internal states of several chaotic neurons in the network.

  20. Extremely Bendable, High-Performance Integrated Circuits Using Semiconducting Carbon Nanotube Networks for Digital, Analog, and Radio-Frequency Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-07

    circuits on mechanically flexible substrates for digital, analog and radio frequency applications. The asobtained thin-film transistors ( TFTs ) exhibit... flexible substrates for digital, analog and radio frequency applications. The as- obtained thin-film transistors ( TFTs ) exhibit highly uniform device...LCD) and organic light- emitting diode ( OLED ) displays lack the transparency and flexibility and are thus unsuitable for flexible electronic

  1. Genomes of Candidatus Wolbachia bourtzisii wDacA and Candidatus Wolbachia pipientis wDacB from the Cochineal Insect Dactylopius coccus (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae).

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Puebla, Shamayim T; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Vera-Ponce de León, Arturo; Lozano, Luis; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Rosenblueth, Mónica; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2016-10-13

    Dactylopius species, known as cochineal insects, are the source of the carminic acid dye used worldwide. The presence of two Wolbachia strains in Dactylopius coccus from Mexico was revealed by PCR amplification of wsp and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. A metagenome analysis recovered the genome sequences of Candidatus Wolbachia bourtzisii wDacA (supergroup A) and Candidatus Wolbachia pipientis wDacB (supergroup B). Genome read coverage, as well as 16S rRNA clone sequencing, revealed that wDacB was more abundant than wDacA. The strains shared similar predicted metabolic capabilities that are common to Wolbachia, including riboflavin, ubiquinone, and heme biosynthesis, but lacked other vitamin and cofactor biosynthesis as well as glycolysis, the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and sugar uptake systems. A complete tricarboxylic acid cycle and gluconeogenesis were predicted as well as limited amino acid biosynthesis. Uptake and catabolism of proline were evidenced in Dactylopius Wolbachia strains. Both strains possessed WO-like phage regions and type I and type IV secretion systems. Several efflux systems found suggested the existence of metal toxicity within their host. Besides already described putative virulence factors like ankyrin domain proteins, VlrC homologs, and patatin-like proteins, putative novel virulence factors related to those found in intracellular pathogens like Legionella and Mycobacterium are highlighted for the first time in Wolbachia Candidate genes identified in other Wolbachia that are likely involved in cytoplasmic incompatibility were found in wDacB but not in wDacA. Copyright © 2016 Ramírez-Puebla et al.

  2. A Dust Aggregation and Concentration System (DACS) for the Microgravity Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giovane, F. J.; Blum, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Dust Aggregation and Concentration System, DACS, Project is an international effort intended to complete the preliminary definition of a system for suspending and concentrating dust particles in a microgravity environment for extended periods of time. The DACS design concept is based on extensive ground, drop tower, and parabolic flight tests. During the present proposed work, the DACS design will be completed, and a Science Requirements Document generated. At the end of the proposed 2 year project, DACS will be positioned to enter the advanced definition phase.

  3. A 41 ps ASIC time-to-digital converter for physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Stefano; Petra, Nicola; De Caro, Davide; Barbarino, Giancarlo; Strollo, Antonio G. M.

    2011-12-01

    We present a novel Time-to-Digital (TDC) converter for physics experiments. Proposed TDC is based on a synchronous counter and an asynchronous fine interpolator. The fine part of the measurement is obtained using NORA inverters that provide improved resolution. A prototype IC was fabricated in 180 nm CMOS technology. Experimental measurements show that proposed TDC features 41 ps resolution associated with 0.35LSB differential non-linearity, 0.77LSB integral non-linearity and a negligible single shot precision. The whole dynamic range is equal to 18 μs. The proposed TDC is designed using a flash architecture that reduces dead time. Data reported in the paper show that our design is well suited for present and future particle physics experiments.

  4. Display nonlinearity in digital image processing for visual communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peli, Eli

    1992-11-01

    The luminance emitted from a cathode ray tube (CRT) display is a nonlinear function (the gamma function) of the input video signal voltage. In most analog video systems, compensation for this nonlinear transfer function is implemented in the camera amplifiers. When CRT displays are used to present psychophysical stimuli in vision research, the specific display nonlinearity usually is measured and accounted for to ensure that the luminance of each pixel in the synthetic image property represents the intended value. However, when using digital image processing, the linear analog-to-digital converters store a digital image that is nonlinearly related to the displayed or recorded image. The effect of this nonlinear transformation on a variety of image-processing applications used in visual communications is described.

  5. Display nonlinearity in digital image processing for visual communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peli, Eli

    1991-11-01

    The luminance emitted from a cathode ray tube, (CRT) display is a nonlinear function (the gamma function) of the input video signal voltage. In most analog video systems, compensation for this nonlinear transfer function is implemented in the camera amplifiers. When CRT displays are used to present psychophysical stimuli in vision research, the specific display nonlinearity usually is measured and accounted for to ensure that the luminance of each pixel in the synthetic image properly represents the intended value. However, when using digital image processing, the linear analog-to-digital converters store a digital image that is nonlinearly related to the displayed or recorded image. This paper describes the effect of this nonlinear transformation on a variety of image-processing applications used in visual communications.

  6. A REVIEW OF HUMAN-SYSTEM INTERFACE DESIGN ISSUES OBSERVED DURING ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL AND DIGITAL-TO-DIGITAL MIGRATIONS IN U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kovesdi, C.; Joe, J.

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is developing a scientific basis through targeted research and development (R&D) to support the U.S. nuclear power plant (NPP) fleet in extending their existing licensing period and ensuring their long-term reliability, productivity, safety, and security. Over the last several years, human factors engineering (HFE) professionals at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have supported the LWRS Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) System Technologies pathway across several U.S. commercial NPPs in analog-to-digital migrations (i.e., turbine control systems) and digital-to-digital migrations (i.e., Safety Parameter Display System). These effortsmore » have included in-depth human factors evaluation of proposed human-system interface (HSI) design concepts against established U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) design guidelines from NUREG-0700, Rev 2 to inform subsequent HSI design prior to transitioning into Verification and Validation. This paper discusses some of the overarching design issues observed from these past HFE evaluations. In addition, this work presents some observed challenges such as common tradeoffs utilities are likely to face when introducing new HSI technologies into NPP hybrid control rooms. The primary purpose of this work is to distill these observed design issues into general HSI design guidance that industry can use in early stages of HSI design.« less

  7. Wideband Spectroscopy: The Design and Implementation of a 3 GHz Bandwidth, 8192 Channel, Polyphase Digital Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Ryan M.

    2011-01-01

    A family of state-of-the-art digital Fourier transform spectrometers has been developed, with a combination of high bandwidth and fine resolution unavailable elsewhere. Analog signals consisting of radiation emitted by constituents in planetary atmospheres or galactic sources are downconverted and subsequently digitized by a pair of interleaved Analog-to-Digital Converters, (ADC). This 6 Gsps (giga-sample per second) digital representation of the analog signal is then processed through an FPGA-based streaming Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), the key development described below. Digital spectrometers have many advantages over previously used analog spectrometers, especially in terms of accuracy and resolution, both of which are particularly important for the type of scientific questions to be addressed with next-generation radiometers. the implementation, results and underlying math for this spectrometer, as well as, potential for future extension to even higher bandwidth, resolution and channel orthogonality, needed to support proposed future advanced atmospheric science and radioastronomy, are discussed.

  8. PixonVision real-time Deblurring Anisoplanaticism Corrector (DAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hier, R. G.; Puetter, R. C.

    2007-09-01

    DigiVision, Inc. and PixonImaging LLC have teamed to develop a real-time Deblurring Anisoplanaticism Corrector (DAC) for the Army. The DAC measures the geometric image warp caused by anisoplanaticism and removes it to rectify and stabilize (dejitter) the incoming image. Each new geometrically corrected image field is combined into a running-average reference image. The image averager employs a higher-order filter that uses temporal bandpass information to help identify true motion of objects and thereby adaptively moderate the contribution of each new pixel to the reference image. This result is then passed to a real-time PixonVision video processor (see paper 6696-04 note, the DAC also first dehazes the incoming video) where additional blur from high-order seeing effects is removed, the image is spatially denoised, and contrast is adjusted in a spatially adaptive manner. We plan to implement the entire algorithm within a few large modern FPGAs on a circuit board for video use. Obvious applications are within the DOD, surveillance and intelligence, security and law enforcement communities. Prototype hardware is scheduled to be available in late 2008. To demonstrate the capabilities of the DAC, we present a software simulation of the algorithm applied to real atmosphere-corrupted video data collected by Sandia Labs.

  9. A high capacity data recording device based on a digital audio processor and a video cassette recorder.

    PubMed

    Bezanilla, F

    1985-03-01

    A modified digital audio processor, a video cassette recorder, and some simple added circuitry are assembled into a recording device of high capacity. The unit converts two analog channels into digital form at 44-kHz sampling rate and stores the information in digital form in a common video cassette. Bandwidth of each channel is from direct current to approximately 20 kHz and the dynamic range is close to 90 dB. The total storage capacity in a 3-h video cassette is 2 Gbytes. The information can be retrieved in analog or digital form.

  10. A high capacity data recording device based on a digital audio processor and a video cassette recorder.

    PubMed Central

    Bezanilla, F

    1985-01-01

    A modified digital audio processor, a video cassette recorder, and some simple added circuitry are assembled into a recording device of high capacity. The unit converts two analog channels into digital form at 44-kHz sampling rate and stores the information in digital form in a common video cassette. Bandwidth of each channel is from direct current to approximately 20 kHz and the dynamic range is close to 90 dB. The total storage capacity in a 3-h video cassette is 2 Gbytes. The information can be retrieved in analog or digital form. PMID:3978213

  11. Digital phase-locked-loop speed sensor for accuracy improvement in analog speed controls. [feedback control and integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, A. G.

    1975-01-01

    A digital speed control that can be combined with a proportional analog controller is described. The stability and transient response of the analog controller were retained and combined with the long-term accuracy of a crystal-controlled integral controller. A relatively simple circuit was developed by using phase-locked-loop techniques and total error storage. The integral digital controller will maintain speed control accuracy equal to that of the crystal reference oscillator.

  12. Optical Oversampled Analog-to-Digital Conversion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-29

    hologram weights and interconnects in the digital image halftoning configuration. First, no temporal error diffusion occurs in the digital image... halftoning error diffusion ar- chitecture as demonstrated by Equation (6.1). Equation (6.2) ensures that the hologram weights sum to one so that the exact...optimum halftone image should be faster. Similarly, decreased convergence time suggests that an error diffusion filter with larger spatial dimensions

  13. Digital readout for image converter cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honour, Joseph

    1991-04-01

    There is an increasing need for fast and reliable analysis of recorded sequences from image converter cameras so that experimental information can be readily evaluated without recourse to more time consuming photographic procedures. A digital readout system has been developed using a randomly triggerable high resolution CCD camera, the output of which is suitable for use with IBM AT compatible PC. Within half a second from receipt of trigger pulse, the frame reformatter displays the image and transfer to storage media can be readily achieved via the PC and dedicated software. Two software programmes offer different levels of image manipulation which includes enhancement routines and parameter calculations with accuracy down to pixel levels. Hard copy prints can be acquired using a specially adapted Polaroid printer, outputs for laser and video printer extend the overall versatility of the system.

  14. Design and performance of a custom ASIC digitizer for wire chamber readout in 65 nm CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. J.; Brown, D. N.; Chang, J. K.; Ding, D.; Gnani, D.; Grace, C. R.; Jones, J. A.; Kolomensky, Y. G.; von der Lippe, H.; Mcvittie, P. J.; Stettler, M. W.; Walder, J.-P.

    2015-06-01

    We present the design and performance of a prototype ASIC digitizer for integrated wire chamber readout, implemented in 65 nm commercial CMOS technology. Each channel of the 4-channel prototype is composed of two 16-bit Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs), one 8-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC), a front-end preamplifier and shaper, plus digital and analog buffers that support a variety of digitization chains. The prototype has a multiplexed digital backend that executes a state machine, distributes control and timing signals, and buffers data for serial output. Laboratory bench tests measure the absolute TDC resolution between 74 ps and 480 ps, growing with the absolute delay, and a relative time resolution of 19 ps. Resolution outliers due to cross-talk between clock signals and supply or reference voltages are seen. After calibration, the ADC displays good linearity and noise performance, with an effective number of bits of 6.9. Under normal operating conditions the circuit consumes 32 mW per channel. Potential design improvements to address the resolution drift and tails are discussed.

  15. [Digital vs. analog hearing aids for children. Is there a method for making an objective comparison possible?].

    PubMed

    Prinz, I; Nubel, K; Gross, M

    2002-09-01

    Until now, the assumed benefits of digital hearing aids are reflected only in subjective descriptions by patients with hearing aids, but cannot be documented adequately by routine diagnostic methods. Seventeen schoolchildren with moderate severe bilateral symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss were examined in a double-blinded crossover study. Differences in performance between a fully digital hearing aid (DigiFocus compact/Oticon) and an analogous digitally programmable two-channel hearing aid were evaluated. Of the 17 children, 13 choose the digital and 4 the analogous hearing aid. In contrast to the clear subjective preferences for the fully digital hearing aid, we could not obtain any significant results with routine diagnostic methods. Using the "virtual hearing aid," a subjective comparison and speech recognition performance task yielded significant differences. The virtual hearing aid proved to be suitable for a direct comparison of different hearing aids and can be used for double-blind testing in a pediatric population.

  16. A Computationally Efficient Visual Saliency Algorithm Suitable for an Analog CMOS Implementation.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Robert; Wood, Richard; Lowry, Nathan; Freifeld, Geremy; Huang, Haiyao; Salthouse, Christopher D; Hollosi, Brent; Muresan, Matthew; Uy, Wes; Tran, Nhut; Chery, Armand; Poppe, Dorothy C; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2018-06-27

    Computer vision algorithms are often limited in their application by the large amount of data that must be processed. Mammalian vision systems mitigate this high bandwidth requirement by prioritizing certain regions of the visual field with neural circuits that select the most salient regions. This work introduces a novel and computationally efficient visual saliency algorithm for performing this neuromorphic attention-based data reduction. The proposed algorithm has the added advantage that it is compatible with an analog CMOS design while still achieving comparable performance to existing state-of-the-art saliency algorithms. This compatibility allows for direct integration with the analog-to-digital conversion circuitry present in CMOS image sensors. This integration leads to power savings in the converter by quantizing only the salient pixels. Further system-level power savings are gained by reducing the amount of data that must be transmitted and processed in the digital domain. The analog CMOS compatible formulation relies on a pulse width (i.e., time mode) encoding of the pixel data that is compatible with pulse-mode imagers and slope based converters often used in imager designs. This letter begins by discussing this time-mode encoding for implementing neuromorphic architectures. Next, the proposed algorithm is derived. Hardware-oriented optimizations and modifications to this algorithm are proposed and discussed. Next, a metric for quantifying saliency accuracy is proposed, and simulation results of this metric are presented. Finally, an analog synthesis approach for a time-mode architecture is outlined, and postsynthesis transistor-level simulations that demonstrate functionality of an implementation in a modern CMOS process are discussed.

  17. Disciplinary Action Committee (DAC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notar, Charles; Riley, Gena; Thornburg, Roland; Owens, Lynetta; Harper, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    The College of Education and Professional Studies (CEPS) provides an environment in which all students can learn. The term "students" encompasses anyone enrolled in a course provided by the College. The DAC was formed to protect the health, safety, and general welfare of students, educators, and those who participate in conjunction with…

  18. Analog and digital transport of RF channels over converged 5G wireless-optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binh, Le Nguyen

    2016-02-01

    Under the exponential increase demand by the emerging 5G wireless access networking and thus data-center based Internet, novel and economical transport of RF channels to and from wireless access systems. This paper presents the transport technologies of RF channels over the analog and digital domain so as to meet the demands of the transport capacity reaching multi-Tbps, in the followings: (i) The convergence of 5G broadband wireless and optical networks and its demands on capacity delivery and network structures; (ii) Analog optical technologies for delivery of both the information and RF carriers to and from multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna sites so as to control the beam steering of MIMO antenna in the mmW at either 28.6 GHz and 56.8 GHz RF carrier and delivery of channels of aggregate capacity reaching several Tbps; (ii) Transceiver employing advanced digital modulation formats and digital signal processing (DSP) so as to provide 100G and beyond transmission rate to meet the ultra-high capacity demands with flexible spectral grids, hence pay-on-demand services. The interplay between DSP-based and analog transport techniques is examined; (iii) Transport technologies for 5G cloud access networks and associate modulation and digital processing techniques for capacity efficiency; and (iv) Finally the integrated optic technologies with novel lasers, comb generators and simultaneous dual function photonic devices for both demultiplexing/multiplexing and modulation are proposed, hence a system on chip structure can be structured. Quantum dot lasers and matrixes of micro ring resonators are integrated on the same Si-on-Silica substrate are proposed and described.

  19. Preface: SciDAC 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Rick

    2008-07-01

    The fourth annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Conference was held June 13-18, 2008, in Seattle, Washington. The SciDAC conference series is the premier communitywide venue for presentation of results from the DOE Office of Science's interdisciplinary computational science program. Started in 2001 and renewed in 2006, the DOE SciDAC program is the country's - and arguably the world's - most significant interdisciplinary research program supporting the development of advanced scientific computing methods and their application to fundamental and applied areas of science. SciDAC supports computational science across many disciplines, including astrophysics, biology, chemistry, fusion sciences, and nuclear physics. Moreover, the program actively encourages the creation of long-term partnerships among scientists focused on challenging problems and computer scientists and applied mathematicians developing the technology and tools needed to address those problems. The SciDAC program has played an increasingly important role in scientific research by allowing scientists to create more accurate models of complex processes, simulate problems once thought to be impossible, and analyze the growing amount of data generated by experiments. To help further the research community's ability to tap into the capabilities of current and future supercomputers, Under Secretary for Science, Raymond Orbach, launched the Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) program in 2003. The INCITE program was conceived specifically to seek out computationally intensive, large-scale research projects with the potential to significantly advance key areas in science and engineering. The program encourages proposals from universities, other research institutions, and industry. During the first two years of the INCITE program, 10 percent of the resources at NERSC were allocated to INCITE awardees. However, demand for supercomputing resources

  20. Effects of analog and digital filtering on auditory middle latency responses in adults and young children.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Hirabayashi, M; Kobayashi, K

    1984-01-01

    Effects of analog high pass (HP) filtering were compared with those of zero phase-shift digital filtering on the auditory middle latency responses (MLR) from nine adults and 16 young children with normal hearing. Analog HP filtering exerted several prominent effects on the MLR waveforms in both adults and young children, such as suppression of Po (ABR), enhancement of Nb, enhancement or emergence of Pb, and latency decrements for Pa and the later components. Analog HP filtering at 20 Hz produced more pronounced waveform distortions in the responses from young children than from adults. Much greater latency decrements for Pa and Nb were observed for young children than for adults in the analog HP-filtered responses at 20 Hz. A large positive peak (Pb) emerged at about 65 ms after the stimulus onset. From these results, the use of digital HP filtering at 20 Hz is strongly recommended for obtaining unbiased and stable MLR in young children.

  1. Analysis of self-oscillating dc-to-dc converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, P.

    1974-01-01

    The basic operational characteristics of dc-to-dc converters are analyzed along with the basic physical characteristics of power converters. A simple class of dc-to-dc power converters are chosen which could satisfy any set of operating requirements, and three different controlling methods in this class are described in detail. Necessary conditions for the stability of these converters are measured through analog computer simulation whose curves are related to other operational characteristics, such as ripple and regulation. Further research is suggested for the solution of absolute stability and efficient physical design of this class of power converters.

  2. Design of a delay-locked-loop-based time-to-digital converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhaoxin, Ma; Xuefei, Bai; Lu, Huang

    2013-09-01

    A time-to-digital converter (TDC) based on a reset-free and anti-harmonic delay-locked loop (DLL) circuit for wireless positioning systems is discussed and described. The DLL that generates 32-phase clocks and a cycle period detector is employed to avoid “false locking". Driven by multiphase clocks, an encoder detects pulses and outputs the phase of the clock when the pulse arrives. The proposed TDC was implemented in SMIC 0.18 μm CMOS technology, and its core area occupies 0.7 × 0.55 mm2. The reference frequency ranges from 20 to 150 MHz. An LSB resolution of 521 ps can be achieved by using a reference clock of 60 MHz and the DNL is less than ±0.75 LSB. It dissipates 31.5 mW at 1.8 V supply voltage.

  3. Lunar Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2009-01-01

    In this viewgraph presentation, a ground-based lunar analog is developed for the return of manned space flight to the Moon. The contents include: 1) Digital Astronaut; 2) Bed Design; 3) Lunar Analog Feasibility Study; 4) Preliminary Data; 5) Pre-pilot Study; 6) Selection of Stockings; 7) Lunar Analog Pilot Study; 8) Bed Design for Lunar Analog Pilot.

  4. A hybrid analog-digital phase-locked loop for frequency mode non-contact scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mehta, M M; Chandrasekhar, V

    2014-01-01

    Non-contact scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has developed into a powerful technique to image many different properties of samples. The conventional method involves monitoring the amplitude, phase, or frequency of a cantilever oscillating at or near its resonant frequency as it is scanned across the surface of a sample. For high Q factor cantilevers, monitoring the resonant frequency is the preferred method in order to obtain reasonable scan times. This can be done by using a phase-locked-loop (PLL). PLLs can be obtained as commercial integrated circuits, but these do not have the frequency resolution required for SPM. To increase the resolution, all-digital PLLs requiring sophisticated digital signal processors or field programmable gate arrays have also been implemented. We describe here a hybrid analog/digital PLL where most of the components are implemented using discrete analog integrated circuits, but the frequency resolution is provided by a direct digital synthesis chip controlled by a simple peripheral interface controller (PIC) microcontroller. The PLL has excellent frequency resolution and noise, and can be controlled and read by a computer via a universal serial bus connection.

  5. A hybrid analog-digital phase-locked loop for frequency mode non-contact scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, M. M.; Chandrasekhar, V.

    2014-01-01

    Non-contact scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has developed into a powerful technique to image many different properties of samples. The conventional method involves monitoring the amplitude, phase, or frequency of a cantilever oscillating at or near its resonant frequency as it is scanned across the surface of a sample. For high Q factor cantilevers, monitoring the resonant frequency is the preferred method in order to obtain reasonable scan times. This can be done by using a phase-locked-loop (PLL). PLLs can be obtained as commercial integrated circuits, but these do not have the frequency resolution required for SPM. To increase the resolution, all-digital PLLs requiring sophisticated digital signal processors or field programmable gate arrays have also been implemented. We describe here a hybrid analog/digital PLL where most of the components are implemented using discrete analog integrated circuits, but the frequency resolution is provided by a direct digital synthesis chip controlled by a simple peripheral interface controller (PIC) microcontroller. The PLL has excellent frequency resolution and noise, and can be controlled and read by a computer via a universal serial bus connection.

  6. Optical, analog and digital domain architectural considerations for visual communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, W. A.

    2008-01-01

    The end of the performance entitlement historically achieved by classic scaling of CMOS devices is within sight, driven ultimately by fundamental limits. Performance entitlements predicted by classic CMOS scaling have progressively failed to be realized in recent process generations due to excessive leakage, increasing interconnect delays and scaling of gate dielectrics. Prior to reaching fundamental limits, trends in technology, architecture and economics will pressure the industry to adopt new paradigms. A likely response is to repartition system functions away from digital implementations and into new architectures. Future architectures for visual communications will require extending the implementation into the optical and analog processing domains. The fundamental properties of these domains will in turn give rise to new architectural concepts. The limits of CMOS scaling and impact on architectures will be briefly reviewed. Alternative approaches in the optical, electronic and analog domains will then be examined for advantages, architectural impact and drawbacks.

  7. A 780 × 800 μm2 Multichannel Digital Silicon Photomultiplier With Column-Parallel Time-to-Digital Converter and Basic Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandai, Shingo; Jain, Vishwas; Charbon, Edoardo

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a digital silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) partitioned in columns, whereas each column is connected to a column-parallel time-to-digital converter (TDC), in order to improve the timing resolution of single-photon detection. By reducing the number of pixels per TDC using a sharing scheme with three TDCs per column, the pixel-to-pixel skew is reduced. We report the basic characterization of the SiPM, comprising 416 single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs); the characterization includes photon detection probability, dark count rate, afterpulsing, and crosstalk. We achieved 264-ps full-width at half maximum timing resolution of single-photon detection using a 48-fold column-parallel TDC with a temporal resolution of 51.8 ps (least significant bit), fully integrated in standard complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology.

  8. PBP5, PBP6 and DacD play different roles in intrinsic β-lactam resistance of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sujoy Kumar; Dutta, Mouparna; Chowdhury, Chiranjit; Kumar, Akash; Ghosh, Anindya S

    2011-09-01

    Escherichia coli PBP5, PBP6 and DacD, encoded by dacA, dacC and dacD, respectively, share substantial amino acid identity and together constitute ~50 % of the total penicillin-binding proteins of E. coli. PBP5 helps maintain intrinsic β-lactam resistance within the cell. To test if PBP6 and DacD play simlar roles, we deleted dacC and dacD individually, and dacC in combination with dacA, from E. coli 2443 and compared β-lactam sensitivity of the mutants and the parent strain. β-Lactam resistance was complemented by wild-type, but not dd-carboxypeptidase-deficient PBP5, confirming that enzymic activity of PBP5 is essential for β-lactam resistance. Deletion of dacC and expression of PBP6 during exponential or stationary phase did not alter β-lactam resistance of a dacA mutant. Expression of DacD during mid-exponential phase partially restored β-lactam resistance of the dacA mutant. Therefore, PBP5 dd-carboxypeptidase activity is essential for intrinsic β-lactam resistance of E. coli and DacD can partially compensate for PBP5 in this capacity, whereas PBP6 cannot.

  9. Preliminary design and implementation of the baseline digital baseband architecture for advanced deep space transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, T. M.; Yeh, H.-G.

    1993-01-01

    The baseline design and implementation of the digital baseband architecture for advanced deep space transponders is investigated and identified. Trade studies on the selection of the number of bits for the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and optimum sampling schemes are presented. In addition, the proposed optimum sampling scheme is analyzed in detail. Descriptions of possible implementations for the digital baseband (or digital front end) and digital phase-locked loop (DPLL) for carrier tracking are also described.

  10. Silicon optical modulators for optical digital and analog communications (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lin; Ding, Jianfeng; Zhang, Lei; Shao, Sizu

    2017-02-01

    Silicon photonics is considered as a promising technology to overcome the difficulties of the existing digital and analog optical communication systems, such as low integration, high cost, and high power consumption. Silicon optical modulator, as a component to transfer data from electronic domain to optical one, has attracted extensive attentions in the past decade. In this paper, we review the statuses of the silicon optical modulators for digital and analog optical communications and introduce our efforts on these topics. We analyze the relationship between the performance and the structural parameters of the silicon optical modulator and present how to optimize its performance including electro-optical bandwidth, modulation efficiency, optical bandwidth and insertion loss. The fabricated silicon optical modulator has an electro-optical bandwidth of 30 GHz. Its extinction ratios are 14.0 dB, 11.2 dB and 9.0 dB at the speeds of 40 Gbps, 50 Gbps and 64 Gbps for OOK modulation. The high extinction ratio of the silicon optical modulator at the high speed makes it very appropriate for the application of optical coherent modulation, such as QPSK and 16-QAM. The fabricated silicon optical modulator also can be utilized for analog optical communication. With respect to a noise floor of -165 dBc, the dynamic ranges for the second-order harmonic and the third-order intermodulation distortion are 90.8 dB and 110.5 dB respectively. By adopting a differential driving structure, the dynamic range for the second-order harmonic can be further improved to 100.0 dB while the third-order intermodulation distortion remains the same level.

  11. New User Support in the University Network with DACS Scheme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odagiri, Kazuya; Yaegashi, Rihito; Tadauchi, Masaharu; Ishii, Naohiro

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose and examine the new user support in university network. Design/methodology/approach: The new user support is realized by use of DACS (Destination Addressing Control System) Scheme which manages a whole network system through communication control on a client computer. This DACS Scheme has been…

  12. New capabilities for older aircraft: A study of pilot integration of retro-fit digital avionics to analog-instrumented flight decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, Glynn E.

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether applying Gilbert's Behavior Engineering Model to military tactical aviation organizations would foster effective user integration of retro-fit digital avionics in analog-instrumented flight decks. This study examined the relationship between the reported presence of environmental supports and personal repertory supports as defined by Gilbert, and the reported self-efficacy of users of retro-fit digital avionics to analog flight decks, and examined the efficacious behaviors of users as they attain mastery of the equipment and procedures, and user reported best practices and criteria for masterful performance in the use of retro-fit digital avionics and components. This study used a mixed methodology, using quantitative surveys to measure the perceived level of organizational supports that foster mastery of retro-fit digital avionic components, and qualitative interviews to ascertain the efficacious behaviors and best practices of masterful users of these devices. The results of this study indicate that there is some relationship between the reported presence of organizational supports and personal repertory supports and the reported self-mastery and perceived organizational mastery of retro-fit digital avionics applied to the operation of the research aircraft. The primary recommendation is that unit leadership decide exactly the capabilities desired from retro-fit equipment, publish these standards, ensure training in these standards is effective, and evaluate performance based on these standards. Conclusions indicate that sufficient time and resources are available to the individual within the study population, and the organization as a whole, to apply Gilbert's criteria toward the mastery of retro-fit digital avionics applied to the operation of the research aircraft.

  13. eeDAP: An Evaluation Environment for Digital and Analog Pathology.

    PubMed

    Gallas, Brandon D; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Gavrielides, Marios A; Ivansky, Adam; Keay, Tyler; Wunderlich, Adam; Hipp, Jason; Hewitt, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present a platform for designing and executing studies that compare pathologists interpreting histopathology of whole slide images (WSI) on a computer display to pathologists interpreting glass slides on an optical microscope. Here we present eeDAP, an evaluation environment for digital and analog pathology. The key element in eeDAP is the registration of the WSI to the glass slide. Registration is accomplished through computer control of the microscope stage and a camera mounted on the microscope that acquires images of the real time microscope view. Registration allows for the evaluation of the same regions of interest (ROIs) in both domains. This can reduce or eliminate disagreements that arise from pathologists interpreting different areas and focuses the comparison on image quality. We reduced the pathologist interpretation area from an entire glass slide (≈10-30 mm) 2 to small ROIs <(50 um) 2 . We also made possible the evaluation of individual cells. We summarize eeDAP's software and hardware and provide calculations and corresponding images of the microscope field of view and the ROIs extracted from the WSIs. These calculations help provide a sense of eeDAP's functionality and operating principles, while the images provide a sense of the look and feel of studies that can be conducted in the digital and analog domains. The eeDAP software can be downloaded from code.google.com (project: eeDAP) as Matlab source or as a precompiled stand-alone license-free application.

  14. Analog-to-digital clinical data collection on networked workstations with graphic user interface.

    PubMed

    Lunt, D

    1991-02-01

    An innovative respiratory examination system has been developed that combines physiological response measurement, real-time graphic displays, user-driven operating sequences, and networked file archiving and review into a scientific research and clinical diagnosis tool. This newly constructed computer network is being used to enhance the research center's ability to perform patient pulmonary function examinations. Respiratory data are simultaneously acquired and graphically presented during patient breathing maneuvers and rapidly transformed into graphic and numeric reports, suitable for statistical analysis or database access. The environment consists of the hardware (Macintosh computer, MacADIOS converters, analog amplifiers), the software (HyperCard v2.0, HyperTalk, XCMDs), and the network (AppleTalk, fileservers, printers) as building blocks for data acquisition, analysis, editing, and storage. System operation modules include: Calibration, Examination, Reports, On-line Help Library, Graphic/Data Editing, and Network Storage.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of a novel energy-resolved photon-counting gamma ray detector.

    PubMed

    Meng, L-J; Tan, J W; Spartiotis, K; Schulman, T

    2009-06-11

    In this paper, we present the design and preliminary performance evaluation of a novel energy-resolved photon-counting (ERPC) detector for gamma ray imaging applications. The prototype ERPC detector has an active area of 4.4 cm × 4.4 cm, which is pixelated into 128 × 128 square pixels with a pitch size of 350 µm × 350µm. The current detector consists of multiple detector hybrids, each with a CdTe crystal of 1.1 cm × 2.2 cm × 1 mm, bump-bonded onto a custom-designed application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The ERPC ASIC has 2048 readout channels arranged in a 32 × 64 array. Each channel is equipped with pre- and shaping-amplifiers, a discriminator, peak/hold circuitry and an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for digitizing the signal amplitude. In order to compensate for the pixel-to-pixel variation, two 8-bit digital-to-analog converters (DACs) are implemented into each channel for tuning the gain and offset. The ERPC detector is designed to offer a high spatial resolution, a wide dynamic range of 12-200 keV and a good energy resolution of 3-4 keV. The hybrid detector configuration provides a flexible detection area that can be easily tailored for different imaging applications. The intrinsic performance of a prototype ERPC detector was evaluated with various gamma ray sources, and the results are presented.

  16. DigitSeis: A New Digitization Software and its Application to the Harvard-Adam Dziewoński Observatory Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogiatzis, P.; Altoé, I. L.; Karamitrou, A.; Ishii, M.; Ishii, H.

    2015-12-01

    DigitSeis is a new open-source, interactive digitization software written in MATLAB that converts digital, raster images of analog seismograms to readily usable, discretized time series using image processing algorithms. DigitSeis automatically identifies and corrects for various geometrical distortions of seismogram images that are acquired through the original recording, storage, and scanning procedures. With human supervision, the software further identifies and classifies important features such as time marks and notes, corrects time-mark offsets from the main trace, and digitizes the combined trace with an analysis to obtain as accurate timing as possible. Although a large effort has been made to minimize the human input, DigitSeis provides interactive tools for challenging situations such as trace crossings and stains in the paper. The effectiveness of the software is demonstrated with the digitization of seismograms that are over half a century old from the Harvard-Adam Dziewoński observatory that is still in operation as a part of the Global Seismographic Network (station code HRV and network code IU). The spectral analysis of the digitized time series shows no spurious features that may be related to the occurrence of minute and hour marks. They also display signals associated with significant earthquakes, and a comparison of the spectrograms with modern recordings reveals similarities in the background noise.

  17. Comparison of DAC and MONACO DSMC Codes with Flat Plate Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padilla, Jose F.

    2010-01-01

    Various implementations of the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method exist in academia, government and industry. By comparing implementations, deficiencies and merits of each can be discovered. This document reports comparisons between DSMC Analysis Code (DAC) and MONACO. DAC is NASA's standard DSMC production code and MONACO is a research DSMC code developed in academia. These codes have various differences; in particular, they employ distinct computational grid definitions. In this study, DAC and MONACO are compared by having each simulate a blunted flat plate wind tunnel test, using an identical volume mesh. Simulation expense and DSMC metrics are compared. In addition, flow results are compared with available laboratory data. Overall, this study revealed that both codes, excluding grid adaptation, performed similarly. For parallel processing, DAC was generally more efficient. As expected, code accuracy was mainly dependent on physical models employed.

  18. Latency study of the High Performance Time to Digital Converter for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer trigger upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, X. T.; Levin, D. S.; Chapman, J. W.; Li, D. C.; Yao, Z. E.; Zhou, B.

    2017-02-01

    The High Performance Time to Digital Converter (HPTDC), a multi-channel ASIC designed by the CERN Microelectronics group, has been proposed for the digitization of the thin-Resistive Plate Chambers (tRPC) in the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer Phase-1 upgrade project. These chambers, to be staged for higher luminosity LHC operation, will increase trigger acceptance and reduce or eliminate the fake muon trigger rates in the barrel-endcap transition region, corresponding to pseudo-rapidity range 1<|η|<1.3. Low level trigger candidates must be flagged within a maximum latency of 1075 ns, thus imposing stringent signal processing time performance requirements on the readout system in general, and on the digitization electronics in particular. This paper investigates the HPTDC signal latency performance based on a specially designed evaluation board coupled with an external FPGA evaluation board, when operated in triggerless mode, and under hit rate conditions expected in Phase-I. This hardware based study confirms previous simulations and demonstrates that the HPTDC in triggerless operation satisfies the digitization timing requirements in both leading edge and pair modes.

  19. Interference mitigation for simultaneous transmit and receive applications on digital phased array systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Trevor M.

    As analog-to-digital (ADC) and digital-to-analog conversion (DAC) technologies become cheaper and digital processing capabilities improve, phased array systems with digital transceivers at every element will become more commonplace. These architectures offer greater capability over traditional analog systems and enable advanced applications such as multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) communications, adaptive beamforming, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), and MIMO for radar. Capabilities for such systems are still limited by the need for isolating self-interference from transmitters at co-located receivers. The typical approach of time-sharing the antenna aperture between transmitters and receivers works but leaves the receivers blind for a period of time. For full-duplex operation, some systems use separate frequency bands for transmission and reception, but these require fixed filtering which reduces the system's ability to adapt to its environment and is also an inefficient use of spectral resources. To that end, tunable, high quality-factor filters are used for sub-band isolation and protect receivers while allowing open reception at other frequencies. For more flexibility, another emergent area of related research has focused on co-located spatial isolation using multiple antennas and direct injection of interference cancellation signals into receivers, which enables same-frequency full-duplex operation. With all these methods, self-interference must be reduced by an amount that prevents saturation of the ADC. Intermodulation products generated in the receiver in this process can potentially be problematic, as certain intermodulation products may appear to come from a particular angle and cohere in the beamformer. This work explores various digital phased array architectures and the how the flexibility afforded by an all-digital beamforming architecture, layered with other methods of isolation, can be used to reduce self-interference within the system

  20. Superluminal Labview Code

    SciTech Connect

    Wheat, Robert; Marksteiner, Quinn; Quenzer, Jonathan

    2012-03-26

    This labview code is used to set the phase and amplitudes on the 72 antenna of the superluminal machine, and to map out the radiation patter from the superluminal antenna.Each antenna radiates a modulated signal consisting of two separate frequencies, in the range of 2 GHz to 2.8 GHz. The phases and amplitudes from each antenna are controlled by a pair of AD8349 vector modulators (VMs). These VMs set the phase and amplitude of a high frequency signal using a set of four DC inputs, which are controlled by Linear Technologies LTC1990 digital to analog converters (DACs). The labview codemore » controls these DACs through an 8051 microcontroller.This code also monitors the phases and amplitudes of the 72 channels. Near each antenna, there is a coupler that channels a portion of the power into a binary network. Through a labview controlled switching array, any of the 72 coupled signals can be channeled in to the Tektronix TDS 7404 digital oscilloscope. Then the labview code takes an FFT of the signal, and compares it to the FFT of a reference signal in the oscilloscope to determine the magnitude and phase of each sideband of the signal. The code compensates for phase and amplitude errors introduced by differences in cable lengths.The labview code sets each of the 72 elements to a user determined phase and amplitude. For each element, the code runs an iterative procedure, where it adjusts the DACs until the correct phases and amplitudes have been reached.« less

  1. Multiplexed Oversampling Digitizer in 65 nm CMOS for Column-Parallel CCD Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, Carl; Walder, Jean-Pierre; von der Lippe, Henrik

    2012-04-10

    A digitizer designed to read out column-parallel charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used for high-speed X-ray imaging is presented. The digitizer is included as part of the High-Speed Image Preprocessor with Oversampling (HIPPO) integrated circuit. The digitizer module comprises a multiplexed, oversampling, 12-bit, 80 MS/s pipelined Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) and a bank of four fast-settling sample-and-hold amplifiers to instrument four analog channels. The ADC multiplexes and oversamples to reduce its area to allow integration that is pitch-matched to the columns of the CCD. Novel design techniques are used to enable oversampling and multiplexing with a reduced power penalty. The ADC exhibits 188more » ?V-rms noise which is less than 1 LSB at a 12-bit level. The prototype is implemented in a commercially available 65 nm CMOS process. The digitizer will lead to a proof-of-principle 2D 10 Gigapixel/s X-ray detector.« less

  2. Digital Analysis and Sorting of Fluorescence Lifetime by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Jessica P.; Naivar, Mark A.; Freyer, James P.

    2010-01-01

    Frequency-domain flow cytometry techniques are combined with modifications to the digital signal processing capabilities of the Open Reconfigurable Cytometric Acquisition System (ORCAS) to analyze fluorescence decay lifetimes and control sorting. Real-time fluorescence lifetime analysis is accomplished by rapidly digitizing correlated, radiofrequency modulated detector signals, implementing Fourier analysis programming with ORCAS’ digital signal processor (DSP) and converting the processed data into standard cytometric list mode data. To systematically test the capabilities of the ORCAS 50 MS/sec analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and our DSP programming, an error analysis was performed using simulated light scatter and fluorescence waveforms (0.5–25 ns simulated lifetime), pulse widths ranging from 2 to 15 µs, and modulation frequencies from 2.5 to 16.667 MHz. The standard deviations of digitally acquired lifetime values ranged from 0.112 to >2 ns, corresponding to errors in actual phase shifts from 0.0142° to 1.6°. The lowest coefficients of variation (<1%) were found for 10-MHz modulated waveforms having pulse widths of 6 µs and simulated lifetimes of 4 ns. Direct comparison of the digital analysis system to a previous analog phase-sensitive flow cytometer demonstrated similar precision and accuracy on measurements of a range of fluorescent microspheres, unstained cells and cells stained with three common fluorophores. Sorting based on fluorescence lifetime was accomplished by adding analog outputs to ORCAS and interfacing with a commercial cell sorter with a radiofrequency modulated solid-state laser. Two populations of fluorescent microspheres with overlapping fluorescence intensities but different lifetimes (2 and 7 ns) were separated to ~98% purity. Overall, the digital signal acquisition and processing methods we introduce present a simple yet robust approach to phase-sensitive measurements in flow cytometry. The ability to simply and inexpensively

  3. Analog Design for Digital Deployment of a Serious Leadership Game

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, Nicholas; Lang, Tristan; Herman, Jeffrey L.; Phares, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design, development, and user testing of a leadership development simulation. The authors share lessons learned from using a design process for a board game to allow for quick and inexpensive revision cycles during the development of a serious leadership development game. The goal of this leadership simulation is to accelerate the development of leadership capacity in high-potential mid-level managers (GS-15 level) in a federal government agency. Simulation design included a mixed-method needs analysis, using both quantitative and qualitative approaches to determine organizational leadership needs. Eight design iterations were conducted, including three user testing phases. Three re-design iterations followed initial development, enabling game testing as part of comprehensive instructional events. Subsequent design, development and testing processes targeted digital application to a computer- and tablet-based environment. Recommendations include pros and cons of development and learner testing of an initial analog simulation prior to full digital simulation development.

  4. Research of digital controlled DC/DC converter based on STC12C5410AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dan-Jiang; Jin, Xin; Xiao, Zhi-Hong

    2010-02-01

    In order to study application of digital control technology on DC/DC converter, principle of increment mode PID control algorithm was analyzed in the paper. Then, a SCM named STC12C5410AD was introduced with its internal resources and characteristics. The PID control algorithm can be implemented easily based on it. The output of PID control was used to change the value of a variable that is 255 times than duty cycle, and this reduced the error of calculation. The valid of the presented algorithm was verified by an experiment for a BUCK DC/DC converter. The experimental results indicated that output voltage of the BUCK converter is stable with low ripple.

  5. eeDAP: An Evaluation Environment for Digital and Analog Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Gallas, Brandon D.; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Gavrielides, Marios A.; Ivansky, Adam; Keay, Tyler; Wunderlich, Adam; Hipp, Jason; Hewitt, Stephen M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this work is to present a platform for designing and executing studies that compare pathologists interpreting histopathology of whole slide images (WSI) on a computer display to pathologists interpreting glass slides on an optical microscope. Methods Here we present eeDAP, an evaluation environment for digital and analog pathology. The key element in eeDAP is the registration of the WSI to the glass slide. Registration is accomplished through computer control of the microscope stage and a camera mounted on the microscope that acquires images of the real time microscope view. Registration allows for the evaluation of the same regions of interest (ROIs) in both domains. This can reduce or eliminate disagreements that arise from pathologists interpreting different areas and focuses the comparison on image quality. Results We reduced the pathologist interpretation area from an entire glass slide (≈10–30 mm)2 to small ROIs <(50 um)2. We also made possible the evaluation of individual cells. Conclusions We summarize eeDAP’s software and hardware and provide calculations and corresponding images of the microscope field of view and the ROIs extracted from the WSIs. These calculations help provide a sense of eeDAP’s functionality and operating principles, while the images provide a sense of the look and feel of studies that can be conducted in the digital and analog domains. The eeDAP software can be downloaded from code.google.com (project: eeDAP) as Matlab source or as a precompiled stand-alone license-free application. PMID:28845079

  6. OPENING REMARKS: SciDAC: Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Good morning. Welcome to SciDAC 2005 and San Francisco. SciDAC is all about computational science and scientific discovery. In a large sense, computational science characterizes SciDAC and its intent is change. It transforms both our approach and our understanding of science. It opens new doors and crosses traditional boundaries while seeking discovery. In terms of twentieth century methodologies, computational science may be said to be transformational. There are a number of examples to this point. First are the sciences that encompass climate modeling. The application of computational science has in essence created the field of climate modeling. This community is now international in scope and has provided precision results that are challenging our understanding of our environment. A second example is that of lattice quantum chromodynamics. Lattice QCD, while adding precision and insight to our fundamental understanding of strong interaction dynamics, has transformed our approach to particle and nuclear science. The individual investigator approach has evolved to teams of scientists from different disciplines working side-by-side towards a common goal. SciDAC is also undergoing a transformation. This meeting is a prime example. Last year it was a small programmatic meeting tracking progress in SciDAC. This year, we have a major computational science meeting with a variety of disciplines and enabling technologies represented. SciDAC 2005 should position itself as a new corner stone for Computational Science and its impact on science. As we look to the immediate future, FY2006 will bring a new cycle to SciDAC. Most of the program elements of SciDAC will be re-competed in FY2006. The re-competition will involve new instruments for computational science, new approaches for collaboration, as well as new disciplines. There will be new opportunities for virtual experiments in carbon sequestration, fusion, and nuclear power and nuclear waste, as well as collaborations

  7. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Welcome to San Diego and the 2009 SciDAC conference. Over the next four days, I would like to present an assessment of the SciDAC program. We will look at where we've been, how we got to where we are and where we are going in the future. Our vision is to be first in computational science, to be best in class in modeling and simulation. When Ray Orbach asked me what I would do, in my job interview for the SciDAC Director position, I said we would achieve that vision. And with our collective dedicated efforts, we have managed to achieve this vision. In the last year, we have now the most powerful supercomputer for open science, Jaguar, the Cray XT system at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). We also have NERSC, probably the best-in-the-world program for productivity in science that the Office of Science so depends on. And the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility offers architectural diversity with its IBM Blue Gene/P system as a counterbalance to Oak Ridge. There is also ESnet, which is often understated—the 40 gigabit per second dual backbone ring that connects all the labs and many DOE sites. In the President's Recovery Act funding, there is exciting news that ESnet is going to build out to a 100 gigabit per second network using new optical technologies. This is very exciting news for simulations and large-scale scientific facilities. But as one noted SciDAC luminary said, it's not all about the computers—it's also about the science—and we are also achieving our vision in this area. Together with having the fastest supercomputer for science, at the SC08 conference, SciDAC researchers won two ACM Gordon Bell Prizes for the outstanding performance of their applications. The DCA++ code, which solves some very interesting problems in materials, achieved a sustained performance of 1.3 petaflops, an astounding result and a mark I suspect will last for some time. The LS3DF application for studying nanomaterials also required the development of a

  8. An embodied biologically constrained model of foraging: from classical and operant conditioning to adaptive real-world behavior in DAC-X.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Giovanni; Santos-Pata, Diogo; Marcos, Encarni; Sánchez-Fibla, Marti; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2015-12-01

    Animals successfully forage within new environments by learning, simulating and adapting to their surroundings. The functions behind such goal-oriented behavior can be decomposed into 5 top-level objectives: 'how', 'why', 'what', 'where', 'when' (H4W). The paradigms of classical and operant conditioning describe some of the behavioral aspects found in foraging. However, it remains unclear how the organization of their underlying neural principles account for these complex behaviors. We address this problem from the perspective of the Distributed Adaptive Control theory of mind and brain (DAC) that interprets these two paradigms as expressing properties of core functional subsystems of a layered architecture. In particular, we propose DAC-X, a novel cognitive architecture that unifies the theoretical principles of DAC with biologically constrained computational models of several areas of the mammalian brain. DAC-X supports complex foraging strategies through the progressive acquisition, retention and expression of task-dependent information and associated shaping of action, from exploration to goal-oriented deliberation. We benchmark DAC-X using a robot-based hoarding task including the main perceptual and cognitive aspects of animal foraging. We show that efficient goal-oriented behavior results from the interaction of parallel learning mechanisms accounting for motor adaptation, spatial encoding and decision-making. Together, our results suggest that the H4W problem can be solved by DAC-X building on the insights from the study of classical and operant conditioning. Finally, we discuss the advantages and limitations of the proposed biologically constrained and embodied approach towards the study of cognition and the relation of DAC-X to other cognitive architectures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Precision digital pulse phase generator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-10-08

    A timing generator comprises a crystal oscillator connected to provide an output reference pulse. A resistor-capacitor combination is connected to provide a variable-delay output pulse from an input connected to the crystal oscillator. A phase monitor is connected to provide duty-cycle representations of the reference and variable-delay output pulse phase. An operational amplifier drives a control voltage to the resistor-capacitor combination according to currents integrated from the phase monitor and injected into summing junctions. A digital-to-analog converter injects a control current into the summing junctions according to an input digital control code. A servo equilibrium results that provides a phase delay of the variable-delay output pulse to the output reference pulse that linearly depends on the input digital control code. 2 figs.

  10. Precision digital pulse phase generator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A timing generator comprises a crystal oscillator connected to provide an output reference pulse. A resistor-capacitor combination is connected to provide a variable-delay output pulse from an input connected to the crystal oscillator. A phase monitor is connected to provide duty-cycle representations of the reference and variable-delay output pulse phase. An operational amplifier drives a control voltage to the resistor-capacitor combination according to currents integrated from the phase monitor and injected into summing junctions. A digital-to-analog converter injects a control current into the summing junctions according to an input digital control code. A servo equilibrium results that provides a phase delay of the variable-delay output pulse to the output reference pulse that linearly depends on the input digital control code.

  11. Low-Cutoff, High-Pass Digital Filtering of Neural Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mojarradi,Mohammad; Johnson, Travis; Ortiz, Monico; Cunningham, Thomas; Andersen, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The figure depicts the major functional blocks of a system, now undergoing development, for conditioning neural signals acquired by electrodes implanted in a brain. The overall functions to be performed by this system can be summarized as preamplification, multiplexing, digitization, and high-pass filtering. Other systems under development for recording neural signals typically contain resistor-capacitor analog low-pass filters characterized by cutoff frequencies in the vicinity of 100 Hz. In the application for which this system is being developed, there is a requirement for a cutoff frequency of 5 Hz. Because the resistors needed to obtain such a low cutoff frequency would be impractically large, it was decided to perform low-pass filtering by use of digital rather than analog circuitry. In addition, it was decided to timemultiplex the digitized signals from the multiple input channels into a single stream of data in a single output channel. The signal in each input channel is first processed by a preamplifier having a voltage gain of approximately 50. Embedded in each preamplifier is a low-pass anti-aliasing filter having a cutoff frequency of approximately 10 kHz. The anti-aliasing filters make it possible to couple the outputs of the preamplifiers to the input ports of a multiplexer. The output of the multiplexer is a single stream of time-multiplexed samples of analog signals. This stream is processed by a main differential amplifier, the output of which is sent to an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The output of the ADC is sent to a digital signal processor (DSP).

  12. Low-voltage analog front-end processor design for ISFET-based sensor and H+ sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Wen-Yaw; Yang, Chung-Huang; Peng, Kang-Chu; Yeh, M. H.

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents a modular-based low-voltage analog-front-end processor design in a 0.5mm double-poly double-metal CMOS technology for Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor (ISFET)-based sensor and H+ sensing applications. To meet the potentiometric response of the ISFET that is proportional to various H+ concentrations, the constant-voltage and constant current (CVCS) testing configuration has been used. Low-voltage design skills such as bulk-driven input pair, folded-cascode amplifier, bootstrap switch control circuits have been designed and integrated for 1.5V supply and nearly rail-to-rail analog to digital signal processing. Core modules consist of an 8-bit two-step analog-digital converter and bulk-driven pre-amplifiers have been developed in this research. The experimental results show that the proposed circuitry has an acceptable linearity to 0.1 pH-H+ sensing conversions with the buffer solution in the range of pH2 to pH12. The processor has a potential usage in battery-operated and portable healthcare devices and environmental monitoring applications.

  13. Comparison between analog and digital neural network implementations for range-finding applications.

    PubMed

    Gatet, Laurent; Tap-Béteille, Hélène; Bony, Francis

    2009-03-01

    A neural network (NN) was developed in order to increase the distance range of a phase-shift laser range finder and to achieve surface recognition, by using two photoelectrical signals issued from the measurement system. The NN architecture consists of a multilayer perceptron (MLP) with two inputs, three neurons in the hidden layer, and one output. Depending on the application, the NN output has to resolve the ambiguity due to phase-shift measurement by linearizing the inverse of the square law, or to indicate an output voltage corresponding to the tested surface. This embedded system dedicated to optoelectronic measurements was successfully tested with an analog NN, implemented in 0.35- microm complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, resulting in a threefold increase in the distance range with respect to the one limited by the phase-shift measurement, and by discriminating four types of surfaces (a plastic surface, glossy paper, a painted wall, and a porous surface), at a remote distance between the range finder and the target varying from 0.5 m up to 1.25 m and with a laser beam angle varying between -pi/6 and pi/6 with respect to the target. In this type of application, NN analog implementation provides many advantages, notably use of a small silicon area, low power consumption and no analog-to-digital conversions (ADCs). Nevertheless, digital implementation allows ease of conception and reconfigurability and an embedded weight and bias update. This paper presents the complete measurement system and a comparison between both types of implementation, by developing the advantages and drawbacks relative to each method. An optimized mixed architecture, using both techniques, is then proposed and discussed at the end of the paper.

  14. Modeling from Local to Subsystem Level Effects in Analog and Digital Circuits Due to Space Induced Single Event Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Reinaldo J.

    2011-01-01

    Single Event Transients in analog and digital electronics from space generated high energetic nuclear particles can disrupt either temporarily and sometimes permanently the functionality and performance of electronics in space vehicles. This work first provides some insights into the modeling of SET in electronic circuits that can be used in SPICE-like simulators. The work is then directed to present methodologies, one of which was developed by this author, for the assessment of SET at different levels of integration in electronics, from the circuit level to the subsystem level.

  15. Simulation of the High Performance Time to Digital Converter for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer trigger upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, X. T.; Levin, D. S.; Chapman, J. W.; Zhou, B.

    2016-09-01

    The ATLAS Muon Spectrometer endcap thin-Resistive Plate Chamber trigger project compliments the New Small Wheel endcap Phase-1 upgrade for higher luminosity LHC operation. These new trigger chambers, located in a high rate region of ATLAS, will improve overall trigger acceptance and reduce the fake muon trigger incidence. These chambers must generate a low level muon trigger to be delivered to a remote high level processor within a stringent latency requirement of 43 bunch crossings (1075 ns). To help meet this requirement the High Performance Time to Digital Converter (HPTDC), a multi-channel ASIC designed by CERN Microelectronics group, has been proposed for the digitization of the fast front end detector signals. This paper investigates the HPTDC performance in the context of the overall muon trigger latency, employing detailed behavioral Verilog simulations in which the latency in triggerless mode is measured for a range of configurations and under realistic hit rate conditions. The simulation results show that various HPTDC operational configurations, including leading edge and pair measurement modes can provide high efficiency (>98%) to capture and digitize hits within a time interval satisfying the Phase-1 latency tolerance.

  16. Experimental investigation of analog and digital dimming techniques on photometric performance of an indoor Visible Light Communication (VLC) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafar, Fahad; Kalavally, Vineetha; Bakaul, Masuduzzaman; Parthiban, R.

    2015-09-01

    For making commercial implementation of light emitting diode (LED) based visible light communication (VLC) systems feasible, it is necessary to incorporate it with dimming schemes which will provide energy savings, moods and increase the aesthetic value of the places using this technology. There are two general methods which are used to dim LEDs commonly categorized as analog and digital dimming. Incorporating fast data transmission with these techniques is a key challenge in VLC. In this paper, digital and analog dimming for a 10 Mb/s non return to zero on-off keying (NRZ-OOK) based VLC system is experimentally investigated considering both photometric and communicative parameters. A spectrophotometer was used for photometric analysis and a line of sight (LOS) configuration in the presence of ambient light was used for analyzing communication parameters. Based on the experimental results, it was determined that digital dimming scheme is preferable for use in indoor VLC systems requiring high dimming precision and data transmission at lower brightness levels. On the other hand, analog dimming scheme is a cost effective solution for high speed systems where dimming precision is insignificant.

  17. All-optical analog comparator.

    PubMed

    Li, Pu; Yi, Xiaogang; Liu, Xianglian; Zhao, Dongliang; Zhao, Yongpeng; Wang, Yuncai

    2016-08-23

    An analog comparator is one of the core units in all-optical analog-to-digital conversion (AO-ADC) systems, which digitizes different amplitude levels into two levels of logical '1' or '0' by comparing with a defined decision threshold. Although various outstanding photonic ADC approaches have been reported, almost all of them necessitate an electrical comparator to carry out this binarization. The use of an electrical comparator is in contradiction to the aim of developing all-optical devices. In this work, we propose a new concept of an all-optical analog comparator and numerically demonstrate an implementation based on a quarter-wavelength-shifted distributed feedback laser diode (QWS DFB-LD) with multiple quantum well (MQW) structures. Our results show that the all-optical comparator is very well suited for true AO-ADCs, enabling the whole digital conversion from an analog optical signal (continuous-time signal or discrete pulse signal) to a binary representation totally in the optical domain. In particular, this all-optical analog comparator possesses a low threshold power (several mW), high extinction ratio (up to 40 dB), fast operation rate (of the order of tens of Gb/s) and a step-like transfer function.

  18. A demonstration of ERTS-1 analog and digital techniques applied to strip mining in Maryland and West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. T.; Schubert, J.

    1974-01-01

    The largest contour strip mining operations in western Maryland and West Virginia are located within the Georges Creek and the Upper Potomac Basins. These two coal basins lie within the Georges Creek (Wellersburg) syncline. The disturbed strip mine areas were delineated with the surrounding geological and vegetation features using ERTS-1 data in both analog (imagery) and digital form. The two digital systems used were: (1) the ERTS-Analysis system, a point-by-point digital analysis of spectral signatures based on known spectral values, and (2) the LARS Automatic Data Processing System. The digital techniques being developed will later be incorporated into a data base for land use planning. These two systems aided in efforts to determine the extent and state of strip mining in this region. Aircraft data, ground verification information, and geological field studies also aided in the application of ERTS-1 imagery to perform an integrated analysis that assessed the adverse effects of strip mining. The results indicated that ERTS can both monitor and map the extent of strip mining to determine immediately the acreage affected and indicate where future reclamation and revegetation may be necessary.

  19. A Fully Integrated Sensor SoC with Digital Calibration Hardware and Wireless Transceiver at 2.4 GHz

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Sun; Jang, Sung-Joon; Hwang, Tae-Ho

    2013-01-01

    A single-chip sensor system-on-a-chip (SoC) that implements radio for 2.4 GHz, complete digital baseband physical layer (PHY), 10-bit sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter and dedicated sensor calibration hardware for industrial sensing systems has been proposed and integrated in a 0.18-μm CMOS technology. The transceiver's building block includes a low-noise amplifier, mixer, channel filter, receiver signal-strength indicator, frequency synthesizer, voltage-controlled oscillator, and power amplifier. In addition, the digital building block consists of offset quadrature phase-shift keying (OQPSK) modulation, demodulation, carrier frequency offset compensation, auto-gain control, digital MAC function, sensor calibration hardware and embedded 8-bit microcontroller. The digital MAC function supports cyclic redundancy check (CRC), inter-symbol timing check, MAC frame control, and automatic retransmission. The embedded sensor signal processing block consists of calibration coefficient calculator, sensing data calibration mapper and sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter with digital decimation filter. The sensitivity of the overall receiver and the error vector magnitude (EVM) of the overall transmitter are −99 dBm and 18.14%, respectively. The proposed calibration scheme has a reduction of errors by about 45.4% compared with the improved progressive polynomial calibration (PPC) method and the maximum current consumption of the SoC is 16 mA. PMID:23698271

  20. Versatile Stimulation Back-End With Programmable Exponential Current Pulse Shapes for a Retinal Visual Prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Maghami, Mohammad Hossein; Sodagar, Amir M; Sawan, Mohamad

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports on the design, implementation, and test of a stimulation back-end, for an implantable retinal prosthesis. In addition to traditional rectangular pulse shapes, the circuit features biphasic stimulation pulses with both rising and falling exponential shapes, whose time constants are digitally programmable. A class-B second generation current conveyor is used as a wide-swing, high-output-resistance stimulation current driver, delivering stimulation current pulses of up to ±96 μA to the target tissue. Duration of the generated current pulses is programmable within the range of 100 μs to 3 ms. Current-mode digital-to-analog converters (DACs) are used to program the amplitudes of the stimulation pulses. Fabricated using the IBM 130 nm process, the circuit consumes 1.5×1.5 mm 2 of silicon area. According to the measurements, the DACs exhibit DNL and INL of 0.23 LSB and 0.364 LSB, respectively. Experimental results indicate that the stimuli generator meets expected requirements when connected to electrode-tissue impedance of as high as 25 k Ω. Maximum power consumption of the proposed design is 3.4 mW when delivering biphasic rectangular pulses to the target load. A charge pump block is in charge of the upconversion of the standard 1.2-V supply voltage to ±3.3V.

  1. Field-Programmable Gate Array-based fluxgate magnetometer with digital integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butta, Mattia; Janosek, Michal; Ripka, Pavel

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, a digital magnetometer based on printed circuit board fluxgate is presented. The fluxgate is pulse excited and the signal is extracted by gate integration. We investigate the possibility to perform integration on very narrow gates (typically 500 ns) by using digital techniques. The magnetometer is based on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) card: we will show all the advantages and disadvantages, given by digitalization of fluxgate output voltage by means of analog-to-digital converter on FPGA card, as well as digitalization performed by external digitizer. Due to very narrow gate, it is shown that a magnetometer entirely based on a FPGA card is preferable, because it avoids noise due to trigger instability. Both open loop and feedback operative mode are described and achieved results are presented.

  2. Compact self-contained electrical-to-optical converter/transmitter

    DOEpatents

    Seligmann, Daniel A.; Moss, William C.; Valk, Theodore C.; Conder, Alan D.

    1995-01-01

    A first optical receiver and a second optical receiver are provided for receiving a calibrate command and a power switching signal, respectively, from a remote processor. A third receiver is provided for receiving an analog electrical signal from a transducer. A calibrator generates a reference signal in response to the calibrate command. A combiner mixes the electrical signal with the reference signal to form a calibrated signal. A converter converts the calibrated signal to an optical signal. A transmitter transmits the optical signal to the remote processor. A primary battery supplies power to the calibrator, the combiner, the converter, and the transmitter. An optically-activated switch supplies power to the calibrator, the combiner, the converter, and the transmitter in response to the power switching signal. An auxiliary battery supplies power continuously to the switch.

  3. Low Temperature Testing of a Radiation Hardened CMOS 8-Bit Flash Analog-to-Digital (A/D) Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, Scott S.; Hammond, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik E.; Patterson, Richard L.; Overton, Eric; Ghaffarian, Reza; Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Agarwal, Shri G.

    2001-01-01

    Power processing electronic systems, data acquiring probes, and signal conditioning circuits are required to operate reliably under harsh environments in many of NASA:s missions. The environment of the space mission as well as the operational requirements of some of the electronic systems, such as infrared-based satellite or telescopic observation stations where cryogenics are involved, dictate the utilization of electronics that can operate efficiently and reliably at low temperatures. In this work, radiation-hard CMOS 8-bit flash A/D converters were characterized in terms of voltage conversion and offset in the temperature range of +25 to -190 C. Static and dynamic supply currents, ladder resistance, and gain and offset errors were also obtained in the temperature range of +125 to -190 C. The effect of thermal cycling on these properties for a total of ten cycles between +80 and - 150 C was also determined. The experimental procedure along with the data obtained are reported and discussed in this paper.

  4. Analog voicing detector responds to pitch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, R. S.; Watkins, H. E.

    1967-01-01

    Modified electronic voice encoder /Vocoder/ includes an independent analog mode of operation in addition to the conventional digital mode. The Vocoder is a bandwidth compression equipment that permits voice transmission over channels, having only a fraction of the bandwidth required for conventional telephone-quality speech transmission.

  5. Superconducting Digital Multiplexers for Sensor Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadin, Alan M.; Brock, Darren K.; Gupta, Deepnarayan

    2004-01-01

    Arrays of cryogenic microbolometers and other cryogenic detectors are being developed for infrared imaging. If the signal from each sensor is amplified, multiplexed, and digitized using superconducting electronics, then this data can be efficiently read out to ambient temperature with a minimum of noise and thermal load. HYPRES is developing an integrated system based on SQUID amplifiers, a high-resolution analog-to-digital converter (ADC) based on RSFQ (rapid single flux quantum) logic, and a clocked RSFQ multiplexer. The ADC and SQUIDs have already been demonstrated for other projects, so this paper will focus on new results of a digital multiplexer. Several test circuits have been fabricated using Nb Josephson technology and are about to be tested at T = 4.2 K, with a more complete prototype in preparation.

  6. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of

  7. Synthetic Analog and Digital Circuits for Cellular Computation and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Oliver; Lu, Timothy K.

    2014-01-01

    Biological computation is a major area of focus in synthetic biology because it has the potential to enable a wide range of applications. Synthetic biologists have applied engineering concepts to biological systems in order to construct progressively more complex gene circuits capable of processing information in living cells. Here, we review the current state of computational genetic circuits and describe artificial gene circuits that perform digital and analog computation. We then discuss recent progress in designing gene circuits that exhibit memory, and how memory and computation have been integrated to yield more complex systems that can both process and record information. Finally, we suggest new directions for engineering biological circuits capable of computation. PMID:24794536

  8. SciDAC-Data, A Project to Enabling Data Driven Modeling of Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Mubarak, M.; Ding, P.; Aliaga, L.

    The SciDAC-Data project is a DOE funded initiative to analyze and exploit two decades of information and analytics that have been collected by the Fermilab Data Center on the organization, movement, and consumption of High Energy Physics data. The project will analyze the analysis patterns and data organization that have been used by the NOvA, MicroBooNE, MINERvA and other experiments, to develop realistic models of HEP analysis workflows and data processing. The SciDAC-Data project aims to provide both realistic input vectors and corresponding output data that can be used to optimize and validate simulations of HEP analysis. These simulations aremore » designed to address questions of data handling, cache optimization and workflow structures that are the prerequisites for modern HEP analysis chains to be mapped and optimized to run on the next generation of leadership class exascale computing facilities. We will address the use of the SciDAC-Data distributions acquired from Fermilab Data Center’s analysis workflows and corresponding to around 71,000 HEP jobs, as the input to detailed queuing simulations that model the expected data consumption and caching behaviors of the work running in HPC environments. In particular we describe in detail how the Sequential Access via Metadata (SAM) data handling system in combination with the dCache/Enstore based data archive facilities have been analyzed to develop the radically different models of the analysis of HEP data. We present how the simulation may be used to analyze the impact of design choices in archive facilities.« less

  9. Obstacle Avoidance and Target Acquisition for Robot Navigation Using a Mixed Signal Analog/Digital Neuromorphic Processing System

    PubMed Central

    Milde, Moritz B.; Blum, Hermann; Dietmüller, Alexander; Sumislawska, Dora; Conradt, Jörg; Indiveri, Giacomo; Sandamirskaya, Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Neuromorphic hardware emulates dynamics of biological neural networks in electronic circuits offering an alternative to the von Neumann computing architecture that is low-power, inherently parallel, and event-driven. This hardware allows to implement neural-network based robotic controllers in an energy-efficient way with low latency, but requires solving the problem of device variability, characteristic for analog electronic circuits. In this work, we interfaced a mixed-signal analog-digital neuromorphic processor ROLLS to a neuromorphic dynamic vision sensor (DVS) mounted on a robotic vehicle and developed an autonomous neuromorphic agent that is able to perform neurally inspired obstacle-avoidance and target acquisition. We developed a neural network architecture that can cope with device variability and verified its robustness in different environmental situations, e.g., moving obstacles, moving target, clutter, and poor light conditions. We demonstrate how this network, combined with the properties of the DVS, allows the robot to avoid obstacles using a simple biologically-inspired dynamics. We also show how a Dynamic Neural Field for target acquisition can be implemented in spiking neuromorphic hardware. This work demonstrates an implementation of working obstacle avoidance and target acquisition using mixed signal analog/digital neuromorphic hardware. PMID:28747883

  10. Obstacle Avoidance and Target Acquisition for Robot Navigation Using a Mixed Signal Analog/Digital Neuromorphic Processing System.

    PubMed

    Milde, Moritz B; Blum, Hermann; Dietmüller, Alexander; Sumislawska, Dora; Conradt, Jörg; Indiveri, Giacomo; Sandamirskaya, Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Neuromorphic hardware emulates dynamics of biological neural networks in electronic circuits offering an alternative to the von Neumann computing architecture that is low-power, inherently parallel, and event-driven. This hardware allows to implement neural-network based robotic controllers in an energy-efficient way with low latency, but requires solving the problem of device variability, characteristic for analog electronic circuits. In this work, we interfaced a mixed-signal analog-digital neuromorphic processor ROLLS to a neuromorphic dynamic vision sensor (DVS) mounted on a robotic vehicle and developed an autonomous neuromorphic agent that is able to perform neurally inspired obstacle-avoidance and target acquisition. We developed a neural network architecture that can cope with device variability and verified its robustness in different environmental situations, e.g., moving obstacles, moving target, clutter, and poor light conditions. We demonstrate how this network, combined with the properties of the DVS, allows the robot to avoid obstacles using a simple biologically-inspired dynamics. We also show how a Dynamic Neural Field for target acquisition can be implemented in spiking neuromorphic hardware. This work demonstrates an implementation of working obstacle avoidance and target acquisition using mixed signal analog/digital neuromorphic hardware.

  11. DACS II - A distributed thermal/mechanical loads data acquisition and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zamanzadeh, Behzad; Trover, William F.; Anderson, Karl F.

    1987-01-01

    A distributed data acquisition and control system has been developed for the NASA Flight Loads Research Facility. The DACS II system is composed of seven computer systems and four array processors configured as a main computer system, three satellite computer systems, and 13 analog input/output systems interconnected through three independent data networks. Up to three independent heating and loading tests can be run concurrently on different test articles or the entire system can be used on a single large test such as a full scale hypersonic aircraft. Thermal tests can include up to 512 independent adaptive closed loop control channels. The control system can apply up to 20 MW of heating to a test specimen while simultaneously applying independent mechanical loads. Each thermal control loop is capable of heating a structure at rates of up to 150 F per second over a temperature range of -300 to +2500 F. Up to 64 independent mechanical load profiles can be commanded along with thermal control. Up to 1280 analog inputs monitor temperature, load, displacement and strain on the test specimens with real time data displayed on up to 15 terminals as color plots and tabular data displays. System setup and operation is accomplished with interactive menu-driver displays with extensive facilities to assist the users in all phases of system operation.

  12. Compliance-Free, Digital SET and Analog RESET Synaptic Characteristics of Sub-Tantalum Oxide Based Neuromorphic Device.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Yawar; Jeon, Yu-Rim; Sokolov, Andrey Sergeevich; Kim, Sohyeon; Ku, Boncheol; Choi, Changhwan

    2018-01-19

    A two terminal semiconducting device like a memristor is indispensable to emulate the function of synapse in the working memory. The analog switching characteristics of memristor play a vital role in the emulation of biological synapses. The application of consecutive voltage sweeps or pulses (action potentials) changes the conductivity of the memristor which is considered as the fundamental cause of the synaptic plasticity. In this study, a neuromorphic device using an in-situ growth of sub-tantalum oxide switching layer is fabricated, which exhibits the digital SET and analog RESET switching with an electroforming process without any compliance current (compliance free). The process of electroforming and SET is observed at the positive sweeps of +2.4 V and +0.86 V, respectively, while multilevel RESET is observed with the consecutive negative sweeps in the range of 0 V to -1.2 V. The movement of oxygen vacancies and gradual change in the anatomy of the filament is attributed to digital SET and analog RESET switching characteristics. For the Ti/Ta 2 O 3-x /Pt neuromorphic device, the Ti top and Pt bottom electrodes are considered as counterparts of the pre-synaptic input terminal and a post-synaptic output terminal, respectively.

  13. Instantly Converting Atrial Fibrillation into Sinus Rhythm by a Digital Rectal Exam on a 29-year-Old Male

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Cheng-Huai

    2010-01-01

    Vagal maneuvers cause increase in vagal tone, which has been shown to slow many types supraventricular tachycardia, such as atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the conversion of AF to sinus rhythm is usually not associated with vagal manuvers. Thus, AF is classically treated with medication and electrical cardioversion. Here, we present a 29-year-old male with no cardiovascular history and a low atherosclerotic risk profile who developed AF which converted into sinus rhythm immediately after a digital rectal exam. The patient remained asymptomatic after a 3-month follow-up. This implies that the digital rectal exam can be considered as an additional attempt to convert AF to sinus rhythm in AF patients. PMID:21769254

  14. A software controllable modular RF signal generator with multichannel transmission capabilities.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Z; Feilner, W; Esser, B; Dickens, J C; Neuber, A A

    2017-09-01

    A software controllable system which generates and transmits user defined RF signals is discussed. The system is implemented with multiple, modular transmitting channels that allow the user to easily replace parts such as amplifiers or antennas. Each channel is comprised of a data pattern generator (DPG), a digital to analog converter (DAC), a power amplifier, and a transmitting antenna. All channels are controlled through a host PC and synchronized through a master clock signal provided to each DAC by an external clock source. Signals to be transmitted are generated through the DPG control software on the PC or can be created by the user in a numerical computing environment. Three experiments are discussed using a two- and four-channel antenna array incorporating Chebyshev tapered TEM horn antennas. Transmitting distinct sets of nonperiodic bipolar impulses through each of the antennas in the array enabled synthesizing a sinusoidal signal of specific frequency in free space. Opposite to the standard phased array approach, each antenna radiates a distinctly different signal rather than the same signal simply phase shifted. The presented approach may be employed as a physical layer of encryption dependent on the position of the receiving antenna.

  15. Fault detection in digital and analog circuits using an i(DD) temporal analysis technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, J.; Magallanes, D.; Vridhagiri, A.; Ramamurthy, Hema; Deyong, Mark

    1993-01-01

    An i(sub DD) temporal analysis technique which is used to detect defects (faults) and fabrication variations in both digital and analog IC's by pulsing the power supply rails and analyzing the temporal data obtained from the resulting transient rail currents is presented. A simple bias voltage is required for all the inputs, to excite the defects. Data from hardware tests supporting this technique are presented.

  16. Low-power analog integrated circuits for wireless ECG acquisition systems.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Heng; Hong, Jia-Hua; Wang, Liang-Hung; Lee, Shuenn-Yuh

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents low-power analog ICs for wireless ECG acquisition systems. Considering the power-efficient communication in the body sensor network, the required low-power analog ICs are developed for a healthcare system through miniaturization and system integration. To acquire the ECG signal, a low-power analog front-end system, including an ECG signal acquisition board, an on-chip low-pass filter, and an on-chip successive-approximation analog-to-digital converter for portable ECG detection devices is presented. A quadrature CMOS voltage-controlled oscillator and a 2.4 GHz direct-conversion transmitter with a power amplifier and upconversion mixer are also developed to transmit the ECG signal through wireless communication. In the receiver, a 2.4 GHz fully integrated CMOS RF front end with a low-noise amplifier, differential power splitter, and quadrature mixer based on current-reused folded architecture is proposed. The circuits have been implemented to meet the specifications of the IEEE 802.15.4 2.4 GHz standard. The low-power ICs of the wireless ECG acquisition systems have been fabricated using a 0.18 μm Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) CMOS standard process. The measured results on the human body reveal that ECG signals can be acquired effectively by the proposed low-power analog front-end ICs.

  17. Image display device in digital TV

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Seung Jong [Seoul, KR

    2006-07-18

    Disclosed is an image display device in a digital TV that is capable of carrying out the conversion into various kinds of resolution by using single bit map data in the digital TV. The image display device includes: a data processing part for executing bit map conversion, compression, restoration and format-conversion for text data; a memory for storing the bit map data obtained according to the bit map conversion and compression in the data processing part and image data inputted from an arbitrary receiving part, the receiving part receiving one of digital image data and analog image data; an image outputting part for reading the image data from the memory; and a display processing part for mixing the image data read from the image outputting part and the bit map data converted in format from the a data processing part. Therefore, the image display device according to the present invention can convert text data in such a manner as to correspond with various resolution, carry out the compression for bit map data, thereby reducing the memory space, and support text data of an HTML format, thereby providing the image with the text data of various shapes.

  18. All-optical analog comparator

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pu; Yi, Xiaogang; Liu, Xianglian; Zhao, Dongliang; Zhao, Yongpeng; Wang, Yuncai

    2016-01-01

    An analog comparator is one of the core units in all-optical analog-to-digital conversion (AO-ADC) systems, which digitizes different amplitude levels into two levels of logical ‘1’ or ‘0’ by comparing with a defined decision threshold. Although various outstanding photonic ADC approaches have been reported, almost all of them necessitate an electrical comparator to carry out this binarization. The use of an electrical comparator is in contradiction to the aim of developing all-optical devices. In this work, we propose a new concept of an all-optical analog comparator and numerically demonstrate an implementation based on a quarter-wavelength-shifted distributed feedback laser diode (QWS DFB-LD) with multiple quantum well (MQW) structures. Our results show that the all-optical comparator is very well suited for true AO-ADCs, enabling the whole digital conversion from an analog optical signal (continuous-time signal or discrete pulse signal) to a binary representation totally in the optical domain. In particular, this all-optical analog comparator possesses a low threshold power (several mW), high extinction ratio (up to 40 dB), fast operation rate (of the order of tens of Gb/s) and a step-like transfer function. PMID:27550874

  19. All-optical analog comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pu; Yi, Xiaogang; Liu, Xianglian; Zhao, Dongliang; Zhao, Yongpeng; Wang, Yuncai

    2016-08-01

    An analog comparator is one of the core units in all-optical analog-to-digital conversion (AO-ADC) systems, which digitizes different amplitude levels into two levels of logical ‘1’ or ‘0’ by comparing with a defined decision threshold. Although various outstanding photonic ADC approaches have been reported, almost all of them necessitate an electrical comparator to carry out this binarization. The use of an electrical comparator is in contradiction to the aim of developing all-optical devices. In this work, we propose a new concept of an all-optical analog comparator and numerically demonstrate an implementation based on a quarter-wavelength-shifted distributed feedback laser diode (QWS DFB-LD) with multiple quantum well (MQW) structures. Our results show that the all-optical comparator is very well suited for true AO-ADCs, enabling the whole digital conversion from an analog optical signal (continuous-time signal or discrete pulse signal) to a binary representation totally in the optical domain. In particular, this all-optical analog comparator possesses a low threshold power (several mW), high extinction ratio (up to 40 dB), fast operation rate (of the order of tens of Gb/s) and a step-like transfer function.

  20. Compact self-contained electrical-to-optical converter/transmitter

    DOEpatents

    Seligmann, D.A.; Moss, W.C.; Valk, T.C.; Conder, A.D.

    1995-11-21

    A first optical receiver and a second optical receiver are provided for receiving a calibrate command and a power switching signal, respectively, from a remote processor. A third receiver is provided for receiving an analog electrical signal from a transducer. A calibrator generates a reference signal in response to the calibrate command. A combiner mixes the electrical signal with the reference signal to form a calibrated signal. A converter converts the calibrated signal to an optical signal. A transmitter transmits the optical signal to the remote processor. A primary battery supplies power to the calibrator, the combiner, the converter, and the transmitter. An optically-activated switch supplies power to the calibrator, the combiner, the converter, and the transmitter in response to the power switching signal. An auxiliary battery supplies power continuously to the switch. 13 figs.

  1. DESDynI Quad First Stage Processor - A Four Channel Digitizer and Digital Beam Forming Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Chung-Lun; Shaffer, Scott; Smythe, Robert; Niamsuwan, Noppasin; Li, Samuel; Liao, Eric; Lim, Chester; Morfopolous, Arin; Veilleux, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The proposed Deformation, Eco-Systems, and Dynamics of Ice Radar (DESDynI-R) L-band SAR instrument employs multiple digital channels to optimize resolution while keeping a large swath on a single pass. High-speed digitization with very fine synchronization and digital beam forming are necessary in order to facilitate this new technique. The Quad First Stage Processor (qFSP) was developed to achieve both the processing performance as well as the digitizing fidelity in order to accomplish this sweeping SAR technique. The qFSP utilizes high precision and high-speed analog to digital converters (ADCs), each with a finely adjustable clock distribution network to digitize the channels at the fidelity necessary to allow for digital beam forming. The Xilinx produced FX130T Virtex 5 part handles the processing to digitally calibrate each channel as well as filter and beam form the receive signals. Demonstrating the digital processing required for digital beam forming and digital calibration is instrumental to the viability of the proposed DESDynI instrument. The qFSP development brings this implementation to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 6. This paper will detail the design and development of the prototype qFSP as well as the preliminary results from hardware tests.

  2. A parallel unbalanced digitization architecture to reduce the dynamic range of multiple signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallérian, Mathieu; HuÅ£u, Florin; Villemaud, Guillaume; Miscopein, Benoît; Risset, Tanguy

    2016-05-01

    Technologies employed in urban sensor networks are permanently evolving, and thus the gateways employed to collect data in such kind of networks have to be very flexible in order to be compliant with the new communication standards. A convenient way to do that is to digitize all the received signals in one shot and then to digitally perform the signal processing, as it is done in software-defined radio (SDR). All signals can be emitted with very different features (bandwidth, modulation type, and power level) in order to respond to the various propagation conditions. Their difference in terms of power levels is a problem when digitizing them together, as no current commercial analog-to-digital converter (ADC) can provide a fine enough resolution to digitize this high dynamic range between the weakest possible signal in the presence of a stronger signal. This paper presents an RF front end receiver architecture capable of handling this problem by using two ADCs of lower resolutions. The architecture is validated through a set of simulations using Keysight's ADS software. The main validation criterion is the bit error rate comparison with a classical receiver.

  3. Digitally Controlled Analog Signal Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    each analog switch. The third is the parasiti - capacitance at the output (the capacitor side) of each analog switch. This last is of concern only when a...21) where fk (x) tf H(wk) -H(wk) for k = 1, 2,... n, and x denotes the vector containing n-+ I transfer function coefficients, a, a2 ,... am, and bl...b2, .... bt that are non-zero. We wish to solve this system of equations for x, the vector of unknown transfer function coefficients. The modified

  4. Signal digitizing system and method based on amplitude-to-time optical mapping

    DOEpatents

    Chou, Jason; Bennett, Corey V; Hernandez, Vince

    2015-01-13

    A signal digitizing system and method based on analog-to-time optical mapping, optically maps amplitude information of an analog signal of interest first into wavelength information using an amplitude tunable filter (ATF) to impress spectral changes induced by the amplitude of the analog signal onto a carrier signal, i.e. a train of optical pulses, and next from wavelength information to temporal information using a dispersive element so that temporal information representing the amplitude information is encoded in the time domain in the carrier signal. Optical-to-electrical conversion of the optical pulses into voltage waveforms and subsequently digitizing the voltage waveforms into a digital image enables the temporal information to be resolved and quantized in the time domain. The digital image may them be digital signal processed to digitally reconstruct the analog signal based on the temporal information with high fidelity.

  5. Thermal heat-balance mode flow-to-frequency converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlowski, Eligiusz

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents new type of thermal flow converter with the pulse frequency output. The integrating properties of the temperature sensor have been used, which allowed for realization of pulse frequency modulator with thermal feedback loop, stabilizing temperature of sensor placed in the flowing medium. The system assures balancing of heat amount supplied in impulses to the sensor and heat given up by the sensor in a continuous way to the flowing medium. Therefore the frequency of output impulses is proportional to the heat transfer coefficient from sensor to environment. According to the King's law, the frequency of those impulses is a function of medium flow velocity around the sensor. The special feature of presented solution is total integration of thermal sensor with the measurement signal conditioning system. Sensor and conditioning system are not the separate elements of the measurement circuit, but constitute a whole in form of thermal heat-balance mode flow-to-frequency converter. The advantage of such system is easiness of converting the frequency signal to the digital form, without using any additional analogue-to-digital converters. The frequency signal from the converter may be directly connected to the microprocessor input, which with use of standard built-in counters may convert the frequency into numerical value of high precision. Moreover, the frequency signal has higher resistance to interference than the voltage signal and may be transmitted to remote locations without the information loss.

  6. Application handbook for a Standardized Control Module (SCM) for DC-DC converters, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, F. C.; Mahmoud, M. F.; Yu, Y.

    1980-04-01

    The standardized control module (SCM) was developed for application in the buck, boost and buck/boost DC-DC converters. The SCM used multiple feedback loops to provide improved input line and output load regulation, stable feedback control system, good dynamic transient response and adaptive compensation of the control loop for changes in open loop gain and output filter time constraints. The necessary modeling and analysis tools to aid the design engineer in the application of the SCM to DC-DC Converters were developed. The SCM functional block diagram and the different analysis techniques were examined. The average time domain analysis technique was chosen as the basic analytical tool. The power stage transfer functions were developed for the buck, boost and buck/boost converters. The analog signal and digital signal processor transfer functions were developed for the three DC-DC Converter types using the constant on time, constant off time and constant frequency control laws.

  7. Application handbook for a Standardized Control Module (SCM) for DC-DC converters, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F. C.; Mahmoud, M. F.; Yu, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The standardized control module (SCM) was developed for application in the buck, boost and buck/boost DC-DC converters. The SCM used multiple feedback loops to provide improved input line and output load regulation, stable feedback control system, good dynamic transient response and adaptive compensation of the control loop for changes in open loop gain and output filter time constraints. The necessary modeling and analysis tools to aid the design engineer in the application of the SCM to DC-DC Converters were developed. The SCM functional block diagram and the different analysis techniques were examined. The average time domain analysis technique was chosen as the basic analytical tool. The power stage transfer functions were developed for the buck, boost and buck/boost converters. The analog signal and digital signal processor transfer functions were developed for the three DC-DC Converter types using the constant on time, constant off time and constant frequency control laws.

  8. Cheating and Feeling Honest: Committing and Punishing Analog versus Digital Academic Dishonesty Behaviors in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Adi; Blau,Ina; Eshet-Alkalai, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the phenomenon of academic dishonesty among university students. It was based on Pavela's (1997) framework of types of academic dishonesty (cheating, plagiarism, fabrication, and facilitation) and distinguished between digital and "traditional"- analog dishonesty. The study analyzed cases of academic dishonesty…

  9. 78 FR 59903 - Emission Mask Requirements for Digital Technologies on 800 MHz NPSPAC Channels; Analog FM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ...] Emission Mask Requirements for Digital Technologies on 800 MHz NPSPAC Channels; Analog FM Capability on Mutual Aid and Interoperability Channels AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule... interoperability channels. These proposals could help safeguard public safety licensees in the NPSPAC band from...

  10. The AAPM/RSNA physics tutorial for residents: digital fluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pooley, R A; McKinney, J M; Miller, D A

    2001-01-01

    A digital fluoroscopy system is most commonly configured as a conventional fluoroscopy system (tube, table, image intensifier, video system) in which the analog video signal is converted to and stored as digital data. Other methods of acquiring the digital data (eg, digital or charge-coupled device video and flat-panel detectors) will become more prevalent in the future. Fundamental concepts related to digital imaging in general include binary numbers, pixels, and gray levels. Digital image data allow the convenient use of several image processing techniques including last image hold, gray-scale processing, temporal frame averaging, and edge enhancement. Real-time subtraction of digital fluoroscopic images after injection of contrast material has led to widespread use of digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Additional image processing techniques used with DSA include road mapping, image fade, mask pixel shift, frame summation, and vessel size measurement. Peripheral angiography performed with an automatic moving table allows imaging of the peripheral vasculature with a single contrast material injection.

  11. Synthetic analog and digital circuits for cellular computation and memory.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Oliver; Lu, Timothy K

    2014-10-01

    Biological computation is a major area of focus in synthetic biology because it has the potential to enable a wide range of applications. Synthetic biologists have applied engineering concepts to biological systems in order to construct progressively more complex gene circuits capable of processing information in living cells. Here, we review the current state of computational genetic circuits and describe artificial gene circuits that perform digital and analog computation. We then discuss recent progress in designing gene networks that exhibit memory, and how memory and computation have been integrated to yield more complex systems that can both process and record information. Finally, we suggest new directions for engineering biological circuits capable of computation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Digitized analog boomer seismic-reflection data collected during U.S. Geological Survey cruises Erda 90-1_HC, Erda 90-1_PBP, and Erda 91-3 in Mississippi Sound, June 1990 and September 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bosse, Stephen T.; Flocks, James G.; Forde, Arnell S.

    2017-04-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program has actively collected geophysical and sedimentological data in the northern Gulf of Mexico for several decades, including shallow subsurface data in the form of high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles (HRSP). Prior to the mid-1990s most HRSP data were collected in analog format as paper rolls of continuous profiles up to 25 meters long. A large portion of this data resides in a single repository with minimal metadata. As part of the National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program, scientists at the USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center are converting the analog paper records to digital format using a large-format continuous scanner.This report, along with the accompanying USGS data release (Bosse and others, 2017), serves as an archive of seismic profiles with headers, converted Society of Exploration Geophysicists Y format (SEG-Y) files, navigation data, and geographic information system data files for digitized boomer seismic-reflection data collected from the Research Vessel (R/V) Erda during two cruises in 1990 and 1991. The Erda 90-1 geophysical cruise was conducted in two legs. The first leg included seismic data collected from the Hancock County region of the Mississippi Sound (Erda 90-1_HC) from June 4 to June 6, 1990. The second leg included seismic data collected from the Petit Bois Pass area of Mississippi Sound (Erda 90-1_PBP) from June 8 to June 9, 1990. The Erda 91-3 cruise occurred between September 12 and September 23, 1991, and surveyed the Mississippi Sound region just west of Horn Island, Mississippi.

  13. System for transmitting low frequency analog signals over AC power lines

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Steven P.; Durall, Robert L.; Haynes, Howard D.

    1989-01-01

    A system for transmitting low frequency analog signals over AC power lines using FM modulation. A low frequency analog signal to be transmitted is first applied to a voltage-to-frequency converter where it is converted to a signal whose frequency varies in proportion to the analog signal amplitude. This signal is then used to modulate the carrier frequency of an FM transmitter coupled to an AC power line. The modulation signal frequency range in selected to be within the response band of the FM transmitter. The FM modulated carrier signal is received by an FM receiver coupled to the AC power line, demodulated and the demodulated signal frequency is converted by a frequency-to-voltage converter back to the form of the original low frequency analog input signal.

  14. System for transmitting low frequency analog signals over AC power lines

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Steven P.; Durall, Robert L.; Haynes, Howard D.

    1989-09-05

    A system for transmitting low frequency analog signals over AC power lines using FM modulation. A low frequency analog signal to be transmitted is first applied to a voltage-to-frequency converter where it is converted to a signal whose frequency varies in proportion to the analog signal amplitude. This signal is then used to modulate the carrier frequency of an FM transmitter coupled to an AC power line. The modulation signal frequency range in selected to be within the response band of the FM transmitter. The FM modulated carrier signal is received by an FM receiver coupled to the AC power line, demodulated and the demodulated signal frequency is converted by a frequency-to-voltage converter back to the form of the original low frequency analog input signal.

  15. Performance Engineering Research Institute SciDAC-2 Enabling Technologies Institute Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert

    2013-04-20

    Enhancing the performance of SciDAC applications on petascale systems had high priority within DOE SC at the start of the second phase of the SciDAC program, SciDAC-2, as it continues to do so today. Achieving expected levels of performance on high-end computing (HEC) systems is growing ever more challenging due to enormous scale, increasing architectural complexity, and increasing application complexity. To address these challenges, the University of Southern California?s Information Sciences Institute organized the Performance Engineering Research Institute (PERI). PERI implemented a unified, tripartite research plan encompassing: (1) performance modeling and prediction; (2) automatic performance tuning; and (3) performance engineeringmore » of high profile applications. Within PERI, USC?s primary research activity was automatic tuning (autotuning) of scientific software. This activity was spurred by the strong user preference for automatic tools and was based on previous successful activities such as ATLAS, which automatically tuned components of the LAPACK linear algebra library, and other recent work on autotuning domain-specific libraries. Our other major component was application engagement, to which we devoted approximately 30% of our effort to work directly with SciDAC-2 applications. This report is a summary of the overall results of the USC PERI effort.« less

  16. Five Bit, Five Gigasample TED Analog-to-Digital Converter Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    pliers. TRW uses two sources at present: materials grown by Horizontal I Bridgman technique from Crystal Specialties, and Czochralski from MRI. The...the circuit modelling and circuit design tasks. A number of design iterations were required to arrive at a satisfactory design. In or-der to riake...made by modeling the TELD as a voltage-controlled current generator with a built-in time delay between impressed voltage and output current. Based on

  17. Subnanosecond time-to-digital converter implemented in a Kintex-7 FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Y.; Horii, Y.; Ikeno, M.; Sasaki, O.; Tomoto, M.; Uchida, T.

    2017-12-01

    Time-to-digital converters (TDCs) are used in various fields, including high-energy physics. One advantage of implementing TDCs in field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) is the flexibility on the modification of the logics, which is useful to cope with the changes in the experimental conditions. Recent FPGAs make it possible to implement TDCs with a time resolution less than 10 ps. On the other hand, various drift chambers require a time resolution of O(0.1) ns, and a simple and easy-to-implement TDC is useful for a robust operation. Herein an eight-channel TDC with a variable bin size down to 0.28 ns is implemented in a Xilinx Kintex-7 FPGA and tested. The TDC is based on a multisampling scheme with quad phase clocks synchronised with an external reference clock. Calibration of the bin size is unnecessary if a stable reference clock is available, which is common in high-energy physics experiments. Depending on the channel, the standard deviation of the differential nonlinearity for a 0.28 ns bin size is 0.13-0.31. The performance has a negligible dependence on the temperature. The power consumption and the potential to extend the number of channels are also discussed.

  18. State trajectories used to observe and control dc-to-dc converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, W. W., III; Wilson, T. G.

    1976-01-01

    State-plane analysis techniques are employed to study the voltage stepup energy-storage dc-to-dc converter. Within this framework, an example converter operating under the influence of a constant on-time and a constant frequency controller is examined. Qualitative insight gained through this approach is used to develop a conceptual free-running control law for the voltage stepup converter which can achieve steady-state operation in one on/off cycle of control. Digital computer simulation data are presented to illustrate and verify the theoretical discussions presented.

  19. Digital Front End for Wide-Band VLBI Science Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jongeling, Andre; Sigman, Elliott; Navarro, Robert; Goodhart, Charles; Rogstad, Steve; Chandra, Kumar; Finley, Sue; Trinh, Joseph; Soriano, Melissa; White, Les; hide

    2006-01-01

    An upgrade to the very-long-baseline-interferometry (VLBI) science receiver (VSR) a radio receiver used in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is currently being implemented. The current VSR samples standard DSN intermediate- frequency (IF) signals at 256 MHz and after digital down-conversion records data from up to four 16-MHz baseband channels. Currently, IF signals are limited to the 265-to-375-MHz range, and recording rates are limited to less than 80 Mbps. The new digital front end, denoted the Wideband VSR, provides improvements to enable the receiver to process wider bandwidth signals and accommodate more data channels for recording. The Wideband VSR utilizes state-of-the-art commercial analog-to-digital converter and field-programmable gate array (FPGA) integrated circuits, and fiber-optic connections in a custom architecture. It accepts IF signals from 100 to 600 MHz, sampling the signal at 1.28 GHz. The sample data are sent to a digital processing module, using a fiber-optic link for isolation. The digital processing module includes boards designed around an Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA) industry-standard backplane. Digital signal processing implemented in FPGAs down-convert the data signals in up to 16 baseband channels with programmable bandwidths from 1 kHz to 16 MHz. Baseband samples are transmitted to a computer via multiple Ethernet connections allowing recording to disk at rates of up to 1 Gbps.

  20. Design of a Single Channel Modulated Wideband Converter for Wideband Spectrum Sensing: Theory, Architecture and Hardware Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weisong; Huang, Zhitao; Wang, Xiang; Sun, Weichao

    2017-01-01

    In a cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN), wideband spectrum sensing devices which aims to effectively exploit temporarily vacant spectrum intervals as soon as possible are of great importance. However, the challenge of increasingly high signal frequency and wide bandwidth requires an extremely high sampling rate which may exceed today’s best analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) front-end bandwidth. Recently, the newly proposed architecture called modulated wideband converter (MWC), is an attractive analog compressed sensing technique that can highly reduce the sampling rate. However, the MWC has high hardware complexity owing to its parallel channel structure especially when the number of signals increases. In this paper, we propose a single channel modulated wideband converter (SCMWC) scheme for spectrum sensing of band-limited wide-sense stationary (WSS) signals. With one antenna or sensor, this scheme can save not only sampling rate but also hardware complexity. We then present a new, SCMWC based, single node CR prototype System, on which the spectrum sensing algorithm was tested. Experiments on our hardware prototype show that the proposed architecture leads to successful spectrum sensing. And the total sampling rate as well as hardware size is only one channel’s consumption of MWC. PMID:28471410

  1. Optical Injection Locking of Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers: Digital and Analog Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parekh, Devang

    With the rise of mobile (cellphones, tablets, notebooks, etc.) and broadband wireline communications (Fiber to the Home), there are increasing demands being placed on transmitters for moving data from device to device and around the world. Digital and analog fiber-optic communications have been the key technology to meet this challenge, ushering in ubiquitous Internet and cable TV over the past 20 years. At the physical layer, high-volume low-cost manufacturing of semiconductor optoelectronic devices has played an integral role in allowing for deployment of high-speed communication links. In particular, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) have revolutionized short reach communications and are poised to enter more markets due to their low cost, small size, and performance. However, VCSELs have disadvantages such as limited modulation performance and large frequency chirp which limits fiber transmission speed and distance, key parameters for many fiber-optic communication systems. Optical injection locking is one method to overcome these limitations without re-engineering the VCSEL at the device level. By locking the frequency and phase of the VCSEL by the direct injection of light from another laser oscillator, improved device performance is achieved in a post-fabrication method. In this dissertation, optical injection locking of VCSELs is investigated from an applications perspective. Optical injection locking of VCSELs can be used as a pathway to reduce complexity, cost, and size of both digital and analog fiber-optic communications. On the digital front, reduction of frequency chirp via bit pattern inversion for large-signal modulation is experimentally demonstrated showing up to 10 times reduction in frequency chirp and over 90 times increase in fiber transmission distance. Based on these results, a new reflection-based interferometric model for optical injection locking was established to explain this phenomenon. On the analog side, the resonance

  2. Design and development of digital seismic amplifier recorder

    SciTech Connect

    Samsidar, Siti Alaa; Afuar, Waldy; Handayani, Gunawan, E-mail: gunawanhandayani@gmail.com

    2015-04-16

    A digital seismic recording is a recording technique of seismic data in digital systems. This method is more convenient because it is more accurate than other methods of seismic recorders. To improve the quality of the results of seismic measurements, the signal needs to be amplified to obtain better subsurface images. The purpose of this study is to improve the accuracy of measurement by amplifying the input signal. We use seismic sensors/geophones with a frequency of 4.5 Hz. The signal is amplified by means of 12 units of non-inverting amplifier. The non-inverting amplifier using IC 741 with the resistor values 1KΩmore » and 1MΩ. The amplification results were 1,000 times. The results of signal amplification converted into digital by using the Analog Digital Converter (ADC). Quantitative analysis in this study was performed using the software Lab VIEW 8.6. The Lab VIEW 8.6 program was used to control the ADC. The results of qualitative analysis showed that the seismic conditioning can produce a large output, so that the data obtained is better than conventional data. This application can be used for geophysical methods that have low input voltage such as microtremor application.« less

  3. Rotary encoding device with polygonal reflector and centroid detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A device for positioning encoding of a rotating shaft in which a polygonal mirror having a number of facets is mounted to the shaft and a light beam is directed towards the facets. The facets of the polygonal mirror reflect the light beam such that a light spot is created on a linear array detector. An analog-to-digital converter is connected to the linear array detector for reading the position of the spot on the spots on the linear array detector. A microprocessor with memory is connected to the analog-to-digital converter to hold and manipulate the data provided by the analog-to-digital converter on the position of the spot and to compute the position of the shaft based upon the data from the analog-to-digital converter.

  4. Rotary encoding device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A device for position encoding of a rotating shaft in which a polygonal mirror having a number of facets is mounted to the shaft and a light beam is directed towards the facets is presented. The facets of the polygonal mirror reflect the light beam such that a light spot is created on a linear array detector. An analog-to-digital converter is connected to the linear array detector for reading the position of the spot on the linear array detector. A microprocessor with memory is connected to the analog-to-digital converter to hold and manipulate the data provided by the analog-to-digital converter on the position of the spot and to compute the position of the shaft based upon the data from the analog-to-digital converter.

  5. Performance Comparison of 112-Gb/s DMT, Nyquist PAM4, and Partial-Response PAM4 for Future 5G Ethernet-Based Fronthaul Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Muench, Daniel; Dochhan, Annika; Griesser, Helmut; Eiselt, Michael; Olmos, Juan Jose Vegas; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur; Elbers, Joerg-Peter

    2018-05-01

    For a future 5G Ethernet-based fronthaul architecture, 100G trunk lines of a transmission distance up to 10 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) in combination with cheap grey optics to daisy chain cell site network interfaces are a promising cost- and power-efficient solution. For such a scenario, different intensity modulation and direct detect (IMDD) Formats at a data rate of 112 Gb/s, namely Nyquist four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4), discrete multi-tone Transmission (DMT) and partial-response (PR) PAM4 are experimentally investigated, using a low-cost electro-absorption modulated laser (EML), a 25G driver and current state-of-the-art high Speed 84 GS/s CMOS digital-to-analog converter (DAC) and analog-to-digital converter (ADC) test chips. Each modulation Format is optimized independently for the desired scenario and their digital signal processing (DSP) requirements are investigated. The performance of Nyquist PAM4 and PR PAM4 depend very much on the efficiency of pre- and post-equalization. We show the necessity for at least 11 FFE-taps for pre-emphasis and up to 41 FFE coefficients at the receiver side. In addition, PR PAM4 requires an MLSE with four states to decode the signal back to a PAM4 signal. On the contrary, bit- and power-loading (BL, PL) is crucial for DMT and an FFT length of at least 512 is necessary. With optimized parameters, all Modulation formats result in a very similar performances, demonstrating a transmission distance of up to 10 km over SSMF with bit error rates (BERs) below a FEC threshold of 4.4E-3, allowing error free transmission.

  6. Design Architecture and Initial Results from an FPGA Based Digital Receiver for Multistatic Meteor Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palo, Scott; Vaudrin, Cody

    Defined by a minimal RF front-end followed by an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and con-trolled by a reconfigurable logic device (FPGA), the digital receiver will replace conventional heterodyning analog receivers currently in use by the COBRA meteor radar. A basic hardware overview touches on the major digital receiver components, theory of operation and data han-dling strategies. We address concerns within the community regarding the implementation of digital receivers in small-scale scientific radars, and outline the numerous benefits with a focus on reconfigurability. From a remote sensing viewpoint, having complete visibility into a band of the EM spectrum allows an experiment designer to focus on parameter estimation rather than hardware limitations. Finally, we show some basic multistatic receiver configurations enabled through GPS time synchronization. Currently, the digital receiver is configured to facilitate range and radial velocity determination of meteors in the MLT region for use with the COBRA meteor radar. Initial measurements from data acquired at Platteville, Colorado and Tierra Del Fuego in Argentina will be presented. We show an improvement in detection rates compared to conventional analog systems. Scientific justification for a digital receiver is clearly made by the presentation of RTI plots created using data acquired from the receiver. These plots reveal an interesting phenomenon concerning vacillating power structures in a select number of meteor trails.

  7. A system for tranmitting low frequency analog signals over ac power lines

    DOEpatents

    Baker, S.P.; Durall, R.L.; Haynes, H.D.

    1987-07-30

    A system for transmitting low frequency analog signals over ac power lines using FM modulation. A low frequency analog signal to be transmitted is first applied to a voltage-to-frequency converter where it is converted to a signal whose frequency varies in proportion to the analog signal amplitude. This signal is then used to modulate the carrier frequency of an FM transmitter coupled to an ac power line. The modulation signal frequency range is selected to be within the response band of the FM transmitter. The FM modulated carrier signal is received by an FM receiver coupled to the ac power line, demodulated and the demodulated signal frequency is converted by a frequency-to-voltage converter back to the form of the original low frequency analog input signal. 4 figs.

  8. Digitized Database of Old Seismograms Recorder in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulescu, Daniel; Rogozea, Maria; Popa, Mihaela; Radulian, Mircea

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a managing system for a unique Romanian database of historical seismograms and complementary documentation (metadata) and its dissemination and analysis procedure. For this study, 5188 historical seismograms recorded between 1903 and 1957 by the Romanian seismological observatories (Bucharest-Filaret, Focşani, Bacău, Vrincioaia, Câmpulung-Muscel, Iaşi) were used. In order to reconsider the historical instrumental data, the analog seismograms are converted to digital images and digital waveforms (digitization/ vectorialisation). First, we applied a careful scanning procedure of the seismograms and related material (seismic bulletins, station books, etc.). In a next step, the high resolution scanned seismograms will be processed to obtain the digital/numeric waveforms. We used a Colortrac Smartlf Cx40 scanner which provides images in TIFF or JPG format. For digitization the algorithm Teseo2 developed by the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in Rome (Italy), within the framework of the SISMOS Project, will be used.

  9. Autonomous Telemetry Collection for Single-Processor Small Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speer, Dave

    2003-01-01

    For the Space Technology 5 mission, which is being developed under NASA's New Millennium Program, a single spacecraft processor will be required to do on-board real-time computations and operations associated with attitude control, up-link and down-link communications, science data processing, solid-state recorder management, power switching and battery charge management, experiment data collection, health and status data collection, etc. Much of the health and status information is in analog form, and each of the analog signals must be routed to the input of an analog-to-digital converter, converted to digital form, and then stored in memory. If the micro-operations of the analog data collection process are implemented in software, the processor may use up a lot of time either waiting for the analog signal to settle, waiting for the analog-to-digital conversion to complete, or servicing a large number of high frequency interrupts. In order to off-load a very busy processor, the collection and digitization of all analog spacecraft health and status data will be done autonomously by a field-programmable gate array that can configure the analog signal chain, control the analog-to-digital converter, and store the converted data in memory.

  10. Programmable high-output-impedance, large-voltage compliance, microstimulator for low-voltage biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Farahmand, Sina; Maghami, Mohammad Hossein; Sodagar, Amir M

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the design of a programmable, high output impedance, large voltage compliance microstimulator for low-voltage biomedical applications. A 6-bit binary-weighted digital to analog converter (DAC) is used to generate biphasic stimulus current pulses. A compact current mirror with large output voltage compliance and high output resistance conveys the current pulses to the target tissue. Designed and simulated in a standard 0.18µm CMOS process, the microstimulator circuit is capable of delivering a maximum stimulation current of 160µA to a 10-kΩ resistive load. Operated at a 1.8-V supply voltage, the output stage exhibits a voltage compliance of 1.69V and output resistance of 160MΩ at full scale stimulus current. Layout of the core microelectrode circuit measures 25.5µm×31.5µm.

  11. Integrated High Resolution Digital Color Light Sensor in 130 nm CMOS Technology

    PubMed Central

    Strle, Drago; Nahtigal, Uroš; Batistell, Graciele; Zhang, Vincent Chi; Ofner, Erwin; Fant, Andrea; Sturm, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a color light detection system integrated in 130 nm CMOS technology. The sensors and corresponding electronics detect light in a CIE XYZ color luminosity space using on-chip integrated sensors without any additional process steps, high-resolution analog-to-digital converter, and dedicated DSP algorithm. The sensor consists of a set of laterally arranged integrated photodiodes that are partly covered by metal, where color separation between the photodiodes is achieved by lateral carrier diffusion together with wavelength-dependent absorption. A high resolution, hybrid, ∑∆ ADC converts each photo diode’s current into a 22-bit digital result, canceling the dark current of the photo diodes. The digital results are further processed by the DSP, which calculates normalized XYZ or RGB color and intensity parameters using linear transformations of the three photo diode responses by multiplication of the data with a transformation matrix, where the coefficients are extracted by training in combination with a pseudo-inverse operation and the least-mean square approximation. The sensor system detects the color light parameters with 22-bit accuracy, consumes less than 60 μA on average at 10 readings per second, and occupies approx. 0.8 mm2 of silicon area (including three photodiodes and the analog part of the ADC). The DSP is currently implemented on FPGA. PMID:26205275

  12. Integrated High Resolution Digital Color Light Sensor in 130 nm CMOS Technology.

    PubMed

    Strle, Drago; Nahtigal, Uroš; Batistell, Graciele; Zhang, Vincent Chi; Ofner, Erwin; Fant, Andrea; Sturm, Johannes

    2015-07-22

    This article presents a color light detection system integrated in 130 nm CMOS technology. The sensors and corresponding electronics detect light in a CIE XYZ color luminosity space using on-chip integrated sensors without any additional process steps, high-resolution analog-to-digital converter, and dedicated DSP algorithm. The sensor consists of a set of laterally arranged integrated photodiodes that are partly covered by metal, where color separation between the photodiodes is achieved by lateral carrier diffusion together with wavelength-dependent absorption. A high resolution, hybrid, ∑∆ ADC converts each photo diode's current into a 22-bit digital result, canceling the dark current of the photo diodes. The digital results are further processed by the DSP, which calculates normalized XYZ or RGB color and intensity parameters using linear transformations of the three photo diode responses by multiplication of the data with a transformation matrix, where the coefficients are extracted by training in combination with a pseudo-inverse operation and the least-mean square approximation. The sensor system detects the color light parameters with 22-bit accuracy, consumes less than 60 μA on average at 10 readings per second, and occupies approx. 0.8 mm(2) of silicon area (including three photodiodes and the analog part of the ADC). The DSP is currently implemented on FPGA.

  13. Two-way digital communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, William E.; Daly, Ed

    1996-03-01

    The communications industry has been rapidly converting from analog to digital communications for audio, video, and data. The initial applications have been concentrating on point-to-multipoint transmission. Currently, a new revolution is occurring in which two-way point-to-point transmission is a rapidly growing market. The system designs for video compression developed for point-to-multipoint transmission are unsuitable for this new market as well as for satellite based video encoding. A new system developed by the Space Communications Technology Center has been designed to address both of these newer applications. An update on the system performance and design will be given.

  14. Direct Digital Demultiplexing of Analog TDM Signals for Cable Reduction in Ultrasound Imaging Catheters

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Thomas M.; Rashid, M. Wasequr; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Cowell, David M. J.; Freear, Steven; Degertekin, F. Levent

    2016-01-01

    In real-time catheter based 3D ultrasound imaging applications, gathering data from the transducer arrays is difficult as there is a restriction on cable count due to the diameter of the catheter. Although area and power hungry multiplexing circuits integrated at the catheter tip are used in some applications, these are unsuitable for use in small sized catheters for applications like intracardiac imaging. Furthermore, the length requirement for catheters and limited power available to on-chip cable drivers leads to limited signal strength at the receiver end. In this paper an alternative approach using Analog Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is presented which addresses the cable restrictions of ultrasound catheters. A novel digital demultiplexing technique is also described which allows for a reduction in the number of analog signal processing stages required. The TDM and digital demultiplexing schemes are demonstrated for an intracardiac imaging system that would operate in the 4 MHz to 11 MHz range. A TDM integrated circuit (IC) with 8:1 multiplexer is interfaced with a fast ADC through a micro-coaxial catheter cable bundle, and processed with an FPGA RTL simulation. Input signals to the TDM IC are recovered with −40 dB crosstalk between channels on the same micro-coax, showing the feasibility of this system for ultrasound imaging applications. PMID:27116738

  15. A wideband analog correlator system for AMiBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao-Te; Kubo, Derek; Han, Chih-Chiang; Chen, Chung-Cheng; Chen, Ming-Tang; Lien, Chun-Hsien; Wang, Huei; Wei, Ray-Ming; Yang, Chia-Hsiang; Chiueh, Tzi-Dar; Peterson, Jeffrey; Kesteven, Michael; Wilson, Warwick

    2004-10-01

    A wideband correlator system with a bandwidth of 16 GHz or more is required for Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) to achieve the sensitivity of 10μK in one hour of observation. Double-balanced diode mixers were used as multipliers in 4-lag correlator modules. Several wideband modules were developed for IF signal distribution between receivers and correlators. Correlator outputs were amplified, and digitized by voltage-to-frequency converters. Data acquisition circuits were designed using field programmable gate arrays (FPGA). Subsequent data transfer and control software were based on the configuration for Australia Telescope Compact Array. Transform matrix method will be adopted during calibration to take into account the phase and amplitude variations of analog devices across the passband.

  16. Triaxial digital fluxgate magnetometer for NASA applications explorer mission: Results of tests of critical elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, M. G.; Means, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Tests performed to prove the critical elements of the triaxial digital fluxgate magnetometer design were described. A method for improving the linearity of the analog to digital converter portion of the instrument was studied in detail. A sawtooth waveform was added to the signal being measured before the A/D conversion, and averaging the digital readings over one cycle of the sawtooth. It was intended to reduce bit error nonlinearities present in the A/D converter which could be expected to be as much as 16 gamma if not reduced. No such nonlinearities were detected in the output of the instrument which included the feature designed to reduce these nonlinearities. However, a small scale nonlinearity of plus or minus 2 gamma with a 64 gamma repetition rate was observed in the unit tested. A design improvement intended to eliminate this small scale nonlinearity was examined.

  17. The research of laser marking control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiue; Zhang, Rong

    2009-08-01

    In the area of Laser marking, the general control method is insert control card to computer's mother board, it can not support hot swap, it is difficult to assemble or it. Moreover, the one marking system must to equip one computer. In the system marking, the computer can not to do the other things except to transmit marking digital information. Otherwise it can affect marking precision. Based on traditional control methods existed some problems, introduced marking graphic editing and digital processing by the computer finish, high-speed digital signal processor (DSP) control marking the whole process. The laser marking controller is mainly contain DSP2812, digital memorizer, DAC (digital analog converting) transform unit circuit, USB interface control circuit, man-machine interface circuit, and other logic control circuit. Download the marking information which is processed by computer to U disk, DSP read the information by USB interface on time, then processing it, adopt the DSP inter timer control the marking time sequence, output the scanner control signal by D/A parts. Apply the technology can realize marking offline, thereby reduce the product cost, increase the product efficiency. The system have good effect in actual unit markings, the marking speed is more quickly than PCI control card to 20 percent. It has application value in practicality.

  18. A low power, low noise Programmable Analog Front End (PAFE) for biopotential measurements.

    PubMed

    Adimulam, Mahesh Kumar; Divya, A; Tejaswi, K; Srinivas, M B

    2017-07-01

    A low power Programmable Analog Front End (PAFE) for biopotential measurements is presented in this paper. The PAFE circuit processes electrocardiogram (ECG), electromyography (EMG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) signals with higher accuracy. It consists mainly of improved transconductance programmable gain instrumentational amplifier (PGIA), programmable high pass filter (PHPF), and second order low pass filter (SLPF). A 15-bit programmable 5-stage successive approximation analog-to-digital converter (SAR-ADC) is implemented for improving the performance, whose power consumption is reduced due to multiple stages and by OTA/Comparator sharing technique between the stages. The power consumption is further reduced by operating the analog portion of PAFE on 0.5V supply voltage and digital portion on 0.3V supply voltage generated internally through a voltage regulator. The proposed low power PAFE has been fabricated in 180nm standard CMOS process. The performance parameters of PAFE in 15-bit mode are found to be, gain of 31-70 dB, input referred noise of 1.15 μVrms, CMRR of 110 dB, PSRR of 104 dB, and signal-to-noise distortion ratio (SNDR) of 83.5dB. The power consumption of the design is 1.1 μW @ 0.5 V supply voltage and it occupies a core silicon area of 1.2 mm 2 .

  19. Linear encoding device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A Linear Motion Encoding device for measuring the linear motion of a moving object is disclosed in which a light source is mounted on the moving object and a position sensitive detector such as an array photodetector is mounted on a nearby stationary object. The light source emits a light beam directed towards the array photodetector such that a light spot is created on the array. An analog-to-digital converter, connected to the array photodetector is used for reading the position of the spot on the array photodetector. A microprocessor and memory is connected to the analog-to-digital converter to hold and manipulate data provided by the analog-to-digital converter on the position of the spot and to compute the linear displacement of the moving object based upon the data from the analog-to-digital converter.

  20. Time-to-digital converter card for multichannel time-resolved single-photon counting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamborini, Davide; Portaluppi, Davide; Tisa, Simone; Tosi, Alberto

    2015-03-01

    We present a high performance Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) card that provides 10 ps timing resolution and 20 ps (rms) timing precision with a programmable full-scale-range from 160 ns to 10 μs. Differential Non-Linearity (DNL) is better than 1.3% LSB (rms) and Integral Non-Linearity (INL) is 5 ps rms. Thanks to the low power consumption (400 mW) and the compact size (78 mm x 28 mm x 10 mm), this card is the building block for developing compact multichannel time-resolved instrumentation for Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting (TCSPC). The TDC-card outputs the time measurement results together with the rates of START and STOP signals and the number of valid TDC conversions. These additional information are needed by many TCSPC-based applications, such as: Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (FLIM), Time-of-Flight (TOF) ranging measurements, time-resolved Positron Emission Tomography (PET), single-molecule spectroscopy, Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS), Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT), Optical Time-Domain Reflectometry (OTDR), quantum optics, etc.

  1. Digital Detection and Processing of Multiple Quadrature Harmonics for EPR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, R.; Som, S.; Kesselring, E.; Kuppusamy, P.; Zweier, J.L.; Potter, L.C.

    2010-01-01

    A quadrature digital receiver and associated signal estimation procedure are reported for L-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The approach provides simultaneous acquisition and joint processing of multiple harmonics in both in-phase and out-of-phase channels. The digital receiver, based on a high-speed dual-channel analog-to-digital converter, allows direct digital down-conversion with heterodyne processing using digital capture of the microwave reference signal. Thus, the receiver avoids noise and nonlinearity associated with analog mixers. Also, the architecture allows for low-Q anti-alias filtering and does not require the sampling frequency to be time-locked to the microwave reference. A noise model applicable for arbitrary contributions of oscillator phase noise is presented, and a corresponding maximum-likelihood estimator of unknown parameters is also reported. The signal processing is applicable for Lorentzian lineshape under nonsaturating conditions. The estimation is carried out using a convergent iterative algorithm capable of jointly processing the in-phase and out-of-phase data in the presence of phase noise and unknown microwave phase. Cramér-Rao bound analysis and simulation results demonstrate a significant reduction in linewidth estimation error using quadrature detection, for both low and high values of phase noise. EPR spectroscopic data are also reported for illustration. PMID:20971667

  2. Acceleration of the chemistry solver for modeling DI engine combustion using dynamic adaptive chemistry (DAC) schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu; Liang, Long; Ge, Hai-Wen; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2010-03-01

    Acceleration of the chemistry solver for engine combustion is of much interest due to the fact that in practical engine simulations extensive computational time is spent solving the fuel oxidation and emission formation chemistry. A dynamic adaptive chemistry (DAC) scheme based on a directed relation graph error propagation (DRGEP) method has been applied to study homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine combustion with detailed chemistry (over 500 species) previously using an R-value-based breadth-first search (RBFS) algorithm, which significantly reduced computational times (by as much as 30-fold). The present paper extends the use of this on-the-fly kinetic mechanism reduction scheme to model combustion in direct-injection (DI) engines. It was found that the DAC scheme becomes less efficient when applied to DI engine simulations using a kinetic mechanism of relatively small size and the accuracy of the original DAC scheme decreases for conventional non-premixed combustion engine. The present study also focuses on determination of search-initiating species, involvement of the NOx chemistry, selection of a proper error tolerance, as well as treatment of the interaction of chemical heat release and the fuel spray. Both the DAC schemes were integrated into the ERC KIVA-3v2 code, and simulations were conducted to compare the two schemes. In general, the present DAC scheme has better efficiency and similar accuracy compared to the previous DAC scheme. The efficiency depends on the size of the chemical kinetics mechanism used and the engine operating conditions. For cases using a small n-heptane kinetic mechanism of 34 species, 30% of the computational time is saved, and 50% for a larger n-heptane kinetic mechanism of 61 species. The paper also demonstrates that by combining the present DAC scheme with an adaptive multi-grid chemistry (AMC) solver, it is feasible to simulate a direct-injection engine using a detailed n-heptane mechanism with 543 species

  3. A novel digital neutron flux monitor for international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, ZHOU; Zihao, LIU; Chao, CHEN; Renjie, ZHU; Li, ZHAO; Lingfeng, WEI; Zejie, YIN

    2018-04-01

    A novel full-digital real-time neutron flux monitor (NFM) has been developed for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. A measurement range of 109 counts per second is achieved with 3 different sensitive fission chambers. The Counting mode and Campbelling mode have been combined as a means to achieve higher measurement range. The system is based on high speed as well as parallel and pipeline processing of the field programmable gate array and has the ability to upload raw-data of analog-to-digital converter in real-time through the PXIe platform. With the advantages of the measurement range, real time performance and the ability of raw-data uploading, the digital NFM has been tested in HL-2A experiments and reflected good experimental performance.

  4. Visualizing along-strike change in deformation style using analog modeling and digital visualization software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burberry, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    It is a well-known phenomenon that deformation style varies in space; both along the strike of a deformed belt and along the strike of individual structures within that belt. This variation in deformation style is traditionally visualized with a series of closely spaced 2D cross-sections. However, the use of 2D section lines implies plane strain along those lines, and the true 3D nature of the deformation is not necessarily captured. By using a combination of remotely sensed data, analog modeling of field datasets and this remote data, and numerical and digital visualization of the finished model, a 3D understanding and restoration of the deformation style within the region can be achieved. The workflow used for this study begins by considering the variation in deformation style which can be observed from satellite images and combining this data with traditional field data, in order to understand the deformation in the region under consideration. The conceptual model developed at this stage is then modeled using a sand and silicone modeling system, where the kinematics and dynamics of the deformation processes can be examined. A series of closely-spaced cross-sections, as well as 3D images of the deformation, are created from the analog model, and input into a digital visualization and modeling system for restoration. In this fashion, a valid 3D model is created where the internal structure of the deformed system can be visualized and mined for information. The region used in the study is the Sawtooth Range, Montana. The region forms part of the Montana Disturbed Belt in the Front Ranges of the Rocky Mountains, along strike from the Alberta Syncline in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Interpretation of satellite data indicates that the deformation front structures include both folds and thrust structures. The thrust structures vary from hinterland-verging triangle zones to foreland-verging imbricate thrusts along strike, and the folds also vary in geometry along

  5. Digital test signal generation: An accurate SNR calibration approach for the DSN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez-Luaces, Benito O.

    1993-01-01

    In support of the on-going automation of the Deep Space Network (DSN) a new method of generating analog test signals with accurate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is described. High accuracy is obtained by simultaneous generation of digital noise and signal spectra at the desired bandwidth (base-band or bandpass). The digital synthesis provides a test signal embedded in noise with the statistical properties of a stationary random process. Accuracy is dependent on test integration time and limited only by the system quantization noise (0.02 dB). The monitor and control as well as signal-processing programs reside in a personal computer (PC). Commands are transmitted to properly configure the specially designed high-speed digital hardware. The prototype can generate either two data channels modulated or not on a subcarrier, or one QPSK channel, or a residual carrier with one biphase data channel. The analog spectrum generated is on the DC to 10 MHz frequency range. These spectra may be up-converted to any desired frequency without loss on the characteristics of the SNR provided. Test results are presented.

  6. Design of the low area monotonic trim DAC in 40 nm CMOS technology for pixel readout chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd, A.; Szczygiel, R.; Maj, P.; Satlawa, T.; Grybos, P.

    2014-12-01

    The recent research in hybrid pixel detectors working in single photon counting mode focuses on nanometer or 3D technologies which allow making pixels smaller and implementing more complex solutions in each of the pixels. Usually single pixel in readout electronics for X-ray detection comprises of charge amplifier, shaper and discriminator that allow classification of events occurring at the detector as true or false hits by comparing amplitude of the signal obtained with threshold voltage, which minimizes the influence of noise effects. However, making the pixel size smaller often causes problems with pixel to pixel uniformity and additional effects like charge sharing become more visible. To improve channel-to-channel uniformity or implement an algorithm for charge sharing effect minimization, small area trimming DACs working in each pixel independently are necessary. However, meeting the requirement of small area often results in poor linearity and even non-monotonicity. In this paper we present a novel low-area thermometer coded 6-bit DAC implemented in 40 nm CMOS technology. Monte Carlo simulations were performed on the described design proving that under all conditions designed DAC is inherently monotonic. Presented DAC was implemented in the prototype readout chip with 432 pixels working in single photon counting mode, with two trimming DACs in each pixel. Each DAC occupies the area of 8 μm × 18.5 μm. Measurements and chips' tests were performed to obtain reliable statistical results.

  7. Digital Audio Application to Short Wave Broadcasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Edward Y.

    1997-01-01

    Digital audio is becoming prevalent not only in consumer electornics, but also in different broadcasting media. Terrestrial analog audio broadcasting in the AM and FM bands will be eventually be replaced by digital systems.

  8. Rotary encoding device using polygonal mirror with diffraction gratings on each facet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A device for position encoding of a rotating shaft in which a polygonal mirror having a number of facets is mounted to the shaft and a monochromatic light beam is directed towards the facets. The facets of the polygonal mirror each have a low line density diffraction grating to diffract the monochromatic light beam into a number of diffracted light beams such that a number of light spots are created on a linear array detector. An analog-to-digital converter is connected to the linear array detector for reading the position of the spots on the linear array detector means. A microprocessor with memory is connected to the analog-to-digital converter to hold and manipulate the data provided by the analog-to-digital converter on the position of the spots and to compute the position of the shaft based upon the data from the analog-to-digital converter.

  9. CMOS time-to-digital converter based on a pulse-mixing scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Hwang, Chorng-Sii; Liu, Keng-Chih; Chen, Guan-Hong

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes a new pulse-mixing scheme utilizing both pulse-shrinking and pulse-stretching mechanisms to improve the performance of time-to-digital converters (TDCs). The temporal resolution of the conventional pulse-shrinking mechanism is determined by the size ratio between homogeneous and inhomogeneous elements. The proposed scheme which features double-stage operation derives its resolution according to the time difference between pulse-shrinking and pulse-stretching amounts. Thus, it can achieve greater immunity against temperature and ambient variations than that of the single-stage scheme. The circuit area also can be reduced by the proposed pulse-mixing scheme. In addition, this study proposes an improved cyclic delay line to eliminate the undesirable shift in the temporal resolution successfully. Therefore, the effective resolution can be controlled completely by the pulse-mixing unit to improve accuracy. The proposed TDC composed of only one cyclic delay line and one counter is fabricated in a TSMC CMOS 0.35-μm DPQM process. The chip core occupies an extremely small area of 0.02 mm2, which is the best among the related works. The experimental result shows that an effective resolution of around 53 ps within ±13% variation over a 0-100 °C temperature range is achieved. The power consumption is 90 μW at a sample rate of 1000 samples/s. In addition to the reduced area, the proposed TDC circuit achieves its resolution with less thermal-sensitivity and better fluctuations caused by process variations.

  10. Analog-Digital-Wandler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Peter

    Analogsignale in digital codierter Form haben Vorteile (z. B. Speicherung, Übertragung). Ein Beispiel dafür ist die Musik-Film-CD/DVD. In diesem Kapitel werden entsprechende Verfahren vorgestellt. Themen: Grundlagen; Spannungs-Frequenz-Umsetzer: Sägezahn-Verfahren; Dual-Slope-Verfahren; Flash-Umsetzer; Umsetzer nach dem Wägeverfahren. Integrierte Umsetzer.

  11. Current Controller for Multi-level Front-end Converter and Its Digital Implementation Considerations on Three-level Flying Capacitor Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekwani, P. N.; Shah, M. T.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents behaviour analysis and digital implementation of current error space phasor based hysteresis controller applied to three-phase three-level flying capacitor converter as front-end topology. The controller is self-adaptive in nature, and takes the converter from three-level to two-level mode of operation and vice versa, following various trajectories of sector change with the change in reference dc-link voltage demanded by the load. It keeps current error space phasor within the prescribed hexagonal boundary. During the contingencies, the proposed controller takes the converter in over modulation mode to meet the load demand, and once the need is satisfied, controller brings back the converter in normal operating range. Simulation results are presented to validate behaviour of controller to meet the said contingencies. Unity power factor is assured by proposed controller with low current harmonic distortion satisfying limits prescribed in IEEE 519-2014. Proposed controller is implemented using TMS320LF2407 16-bit fixed-point digital signal processor. Detailed analysis of numerical format to avoid overflow of sensed variables in processor, and per-unit model implementation in software are discussed and hardware results are presented at various stages of signal conditioning to validate the experimental setup. Control logic for the generation of reference currents is implemented in TMS320LF2407A using assembly language and experimental results are also presented for the same.

  12. Automating analog design: Taming the shrew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, A.

    1990-01-01

    The pace of progress in the design of integrated circuits continues to amaze observers inside and outside of the industry. Three decades ago, a 50 transistor chip was a technological wonder. Fifteen year later, a 5000 transistor device would 'wow' the crowds. Today, 50,000 transistor chips will earn a 'not too bad' assessment, but it takes 500,000 to really leave an impression. In 1975 a typical ASIC device had 1000 transistors, took one year to first samples (and two years to production) and sold for about 5 cents per transistor. Today's 50,000 transistor gate array takes about 4 months from spec to silicon, works the first time, and sells for about 0.02 cents per transistor. Fifteen years ago, the single most laborious and error prone step in IC design was the physical layout. Today, most IC's never see the hand of a layout designer: and automatic place and route tool converts the engineer's computer captured schematic to a complete physical design using a gate array or a library of standard cells also created by software rather than by designers. CAD has also been a generous benefactor to the digital design process. The architect of today's digital systems creates the design using an RTL or other high level simulator. Then the designer pushes a button to invoke the logic synthesizer-optimizer tool. A fault analyzer checks the result for testability and suggests where scan based cells will improve test coverage. One obstinate holdout amidst this parade of progress is the automation of analog design and its reduction to semi-custom techniques. This paper investigates the application of CAD techniques to analog design.

  13. Transitioning from analog to digital communications: An information security perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    A summary is given of the government's perspective on evolving digital communications as they affect secure voice users and approaches for operating during a transition period to an all digital world. An integrated architecture and a mobile satellite interface are discussed.

  14. Self-Calibration Approach for Mixed Signal Circuits in Systems-on-Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, In-Seok

    MOSFET scaling has served industry very well for a few decades by proving improvements in transistor performance, power, and cost. However, they require high test complexity and cost due to several issues such as limited pin count and integration of analog and digital mixed circuits. Therefore, self-calibration is an excellent and promising method to improve yield and to reduce manufacturing cost by simplifying the test complexity, because it is possible to address the process variation effects by means of self-calibration technique. Since the prior published calibration techniques were developed for a specific targeted application, it is not easy to be utilized for other applications. In order to solve the aforementioned issues, in this dissertation, several novel self-calibration design techniques in mixed-signal mode circuits are proposed for an analog to digital converter (ADC) to reduce mismatch error and improve performance. These are essential components in SOCs and the proposed self-calibration approach also compensates the process variations. The proposed novel self-calibration approach targets the successive approximation (SA) ADC. First of all, the offset error of the comparator in the SA-ADC is reduced using the proposed approach by enabling the capacitor array in the input nodes for better matching. In addition, the auxiliary capacitors for each capacitor of DAC in the SA-ADC are controlled by using synthesized digital controller to minimize the mismatch error of the DAC. Since the proposed technique is applied during foreground operation, the power overhead in SA-ADC case is minimal because the calibration circuit is deactivated during normal operation time. Another benefit of the proposed technique is that the offset voltage of the comparator is continuously adjusted for every step to decide one-bit code, because not only the inherit offset voltage of the comparator but also the mismatch of DAC are compensated simultaneously. Synthesized digital

  15. Digital controller design: Analysis of the annular suspension pointing system. [analog controllers with feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, B. C.

    1978-01-01

    The analog controllers of the annular suspension pointing system are designed for control of the chi, phi sub 1, and phi sub 2 bandwidth dynamics through decoupling and pole placement. Since it is virtually impossible to find an equivalent bandwidth of the overall system and establish a general eigenvalue requirement for the system, the subsystem dynamics are decoupled through state feedback and the poles are placed simultaneously to realize the desired bandwidths for the three system components. Decoupling and pole placement are also used to design the closed-loop digital system through approximation.

  16. Note: Wide band amplifier for quartz tuning fork sensors with digitally controlled stray capacitance compensation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ping; Hao, Lifeng; Ding, Ning; Jiao, Weicheng; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Rongguo

    2015-11-01

    We presented a preamplifier design for quartz tuning fork (QTF) sensors in which the stray capacitance is digitally compensated. In this design, the manually controlled variable capacitor is replaced by a pair of varicap diodes, whose capacitance could be accurately tuned by a bias voltage. A tuning circuit including a single side low power operational amplifier, a digital-to-analog converter, and a microprocessor is also described, and the tuning process can be conveniently carried out on a personal computer. For the design, the noise level was investigated experimentally.

  17. Fermilab Recycler Ring BPM Upgrade Based on Digital Receiver Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, R.; Crisp, J.; Prieto, P.; Voy, D.; Briegel, C.; McClure, C.; West, R.; Pordes, S.; Mengel, M.

    2004-11-01

    Electronics for the 237 BPMs in the Fermilab Recycler Ring have been upgraded from a log-amplifier based system to a commercially produced digitizer-digital down converter based system. The hardware consists of a pre-amplifier connected to a split-plate BPM, an analog differential receiver-filter module and an 8-channel 80-MHz digital down converter VME board. The system produces position and intensity with a dynamic range of 30 dB and a resolution of ±10 microns. The position measurements are made on 2.5-MHz bunched beam and barrier buckets of the un-bunched beam. The digital receiver system operates in one of six different signal processing modes that include 2.5-MHz average, 2.5-MHz bunch-by-bunch, 2.5-MHz narrow band, unbunched average, un-bunched head/tail and 89-kHz narrow band. Receiver data is acquired on any of up to sixteen clock events related to Recycler beam transfers and other machine activities. Data from the digital receiver board are transferred to the front-end CPU for position and intensity computation on an on-demand basis through the VME bus. Data buffers are maintained for each of the acquisition events and support flash, closed orbit and turn-by-turn measurements. A calibration system provides evaluation of the BPM signal path and application programs.

  18. Contributions to the NUCLEI SciDAC-3 Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, Scott; Nazarewicz, Witek

    This is the Final Report for Michigan State University for the NUCLEI SciDAC-3 project. The NUCLEI project, as defined by the scope of work, has developed, implemented and run codes for large-scale computations of many topics in low-energy nuclear physics. Physics studied included the properties of nuclei and nuclear decays, nuclear structure and reactions, and the properties of nuclear matter. The computational techniques used included Configuration Interaction, Coupled Cluster, and Density Functional methods. The research program emphasized areas of high interest to current and possible future DOE nuclear physics facilities, including ATLAS at ANL and FRIB at MSU (nuclear structuremore » and reactions, and nuclear astrophysics), TJNAF (neutron distributions in nuclei, few body systems, and electroweak processes), NIF (thermonuclear reactions), MAJORANA and FNPB (neutrinoless double-beta decay and physics beyond the Standard Model), and LANSCE (fission studies).« less

  19. The Digital Data Acquisition System for the Russian VLBI Network of New Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedotov, Leonid; Nosov, Eugeny; Grenkov, Sergey; Marshalov, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    The system consists of several identical channels of 1024 MHz bandwidth each. In each channel, the RF band is frequency-translated to the intermediate frequency range 1 - 2 GHz. Each channel consists of two parts: the digitizer and Mark 5C recorder. The digitizer is placed on the antenna close to the corresponding Low-Noise Amplifier output and consists of the analog frequency converter, ADC, and a device for digital processing of the signals using FPGA. In the digitizer the subdigitization on frequency of 2048 MHz is used. For producing narrow-band channels and to interface with existing data acquisition systems, the polyphase filtering with FPGA can be used. Digital signals are re-quantized to 2-bits in the FPGA and are transferred to an input of Mark 5C through a fiber line. The breadboard model of the digitizer is being tested, and the data acquisition system is being designed.

  20. Design of Digital Phase-Locked Loops For Advanced Digital Transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.

    1994-01-01

    For advanced digital space transponders, the Digital Phased-Locked Loops (DPLLs) can be designed using the available analog loops. DPLLs considered in this paper are derived from the Analog Phase-Locked Loop (APLL) using S-domain mapping techniques.

  1. High resolution distributed time-to-digital converter (TDC) in a White Rabbit network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Weibin; Gong, Guanghua; Du, Qiang; Li, Hongming; Li, Jianmin

    2014-02-01

    The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) project consists of a complex detector array with over 6000 detector nodes spreading over 1.2 km2 areas. The arrival times of shower particles are captured by time-to-digital converters (TDCs) in the detectors' frontend electronics, the arrival direction of the high energy cosmic ray are then to be reconstructed from the space-time information of all detector nodes. To guarantee the angular resolution of 0.5°, a time synchronization of 500 ps (RMS) accuracy and 100 ps precision must be achieved among all TDC nodes. A technology enhancing Gigabit Ethernet, called the White Rabbit (WR), has shown the capability of delivering sub-nanosecond accuracy and picoseconds precision of synchronization over the standard data packet transfer. In this paper we demonstrate a distributed TDC prototype system combining the FPGA based TDC and the WR technology. With the time synchronization and data transfer services from a compact WR node, separate FPGA-TDC nodes can be combined to provide uniform time measurement information for correlated events. The design detail and test performance will be described in the paper.

  2. Membrane topology and identification of key residues of EaDAcT, a plant MBOAT with unusual substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tam N T; Shelton, Jennifer; Brown, Susan; Durrett, Timothy P

    2017-10-01

    Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase (EaDAcT) catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the sn-3 position of diacylglycerol to form 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol (acetyl-TAG). EaDAcT belongs to a small, plant-specific subfamily of the membrane bound O-acyltransferases (MBOAT) that acylate different lipid substrates. Sucrose gradient density centrifugation revealed that EaDAcT colocalizes to the same fractions as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-specific marker. By mapping the membrane topology of EaDAcT, we obtained an experimentally determined topology model for a plant MBOAT. The EaDAcT model contains four transmembrane domains (TMDs), with both the N- and C-termini orientated toward the lumen of the ER. In addition, there is a large cytoplasmic loop between the first and second TMDs, with the MBOAT signature region of the protein embedded in the third TMD close to the interface between the membrane and the cytoplasm. During topology mapping, we discovered two cysteine residues (C187 and C293) located on opposite sides of the membrane that are important for enzyme activity. In order to identify additional amino acid residues important for acetyltransferase activity, we isolated and characterized acetyltransferases from other acetyl-TAG-producing plants. Among them, the acetyltransferase from Euonymus fortunei possessed the highest activity in vivo and in vitro. Mutagenesis of conserved amino acids revealed that S253, H257, D258 and V263 are essential for EaDAcT activity. Alteration of residues unique to the acetyltransferases did not alter the unique acyl donor specificity of EaDAcT, suggesting that multiple amino acids are important for substrate recognition. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. High Angular Sensitivity, Absolute Rotary Encoding Device with Polygonal Mirror and Stand-Alone Diffraction Gratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A device for position encoding of a rotating shaft in which a polygonal mirror having a number of facets is mounted to the shaft and a monochromatic light beam is directed towards the facets. The facets of the polygonal mirror direct the light beam to a stand-alone low line density diffraction grating to diffract the monochromatic light beam into a number of diffracted light beams such that a number of light spots are created on a linear array detector. An analog-to-digital converter is connected to the linear array detector for reading the position of the spots on the linear array detector means. A microprocessor with memory is connected to the analog-to-digital converter to hold and manipulate the data provided by the analog-to-digital converter on the position of the spots and to compute the position of the shaft based upon the data from the analog-lo-digital converter.

  4. Digital detection and processing of multiple quadrature harmonics for EPR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, R; Som, S; Kesselring, E; Kuppusamy, P; Zweier, J L; Potter, L C

    2010-12-01

    A quadrature digital receiver and associated signal estimation procedure are reported for L-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The approach provides simultaneous acquisition and joint processing of multiple harmonics in both in-phase and out-of-phase channels. The digital receiver, based on a high-speed dual-channel analog-to-digital converter, allows direct digital down-conversion with heterodyne processing using digital capture of the microwave reference signal. Thus, the receiver avoids noise and nonlinearity associated with analog mixers. Also, the architecture allows for low-Q anti-alias filtering and does not require the sampling frequency to be time-locked to the microwave reference. A noise model applicable for arbitrary contributions of oscillator phase noise is presented, and a corresponding maximum-likelihood estimator of unknown parameters is also reported. The signal processing is applicable for Lorentzian lineshape under nonsaturating conditions. The estimation is carried out using a convergent iterative algorithm capable of jointly processing the in-phase and out-of-phase data in the presence of phase noise and unknown microwave phase. Cramér-Rao bound analysis and simulation results demonstrate a significant reduction in linewidth estimation error using quadrature detection, for both low and high values of phase noise. EPR spectroscopic data are also reported for illustration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Geologic analyses of LANDSAT-1 multispectral imagery of a possible power plant site employing digital and analog image processing. [in Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovegreen, J. R.; Prosser, W. J.; Millet, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A site in the Great Valley subsection of the Valley and Ridge physiographic province in eastern Pennsylvania was studied to evaluate the use of digital and analog image processing for geologic investigations. Ground truth at the site was obtained by a field mapping program, a subsurface exploration investigation and a review of available published and unpublished literature. Remote sensing data were analyzed using standard manual techniques. LANDSAT-1 imagery was analyzed using digital image processing employing the multispectral Image 100 system and using analog color processing employing the VP-8 image analyzer. This study deals primarily with linears identified employing image processing and correlation of these linears with known structural features and with linears identified manual interpretation; and the identification of rock outcrops in areas of extensive vegetative cover employing image processing. The results of this study indicate that image processing can be a cost-effective tool for evaluating geologic and linear features for regional studies encompassing large areas such as for power plant siting. Digital image processing can be an effective tool for identifying rock outcrops in areas of heavy vegetative cover.

  6. Enhancing programming logic thinking using analogy mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukamto, R. A.; Megasari, R.

    2018-05-01

    Programming logic thinking is the most important competence for computer science students. However, programming is one of the difficult subject in computer science program. This paper reports our work about enhancing students' programming logic thinking using Analogy Mapping for basic programming subject. Analogy Mapping is a computer application which converts source code into analogies images. This research used time series evaluation and the result showed that Analogy Mapping can enhance students' programming logic thinking.

  7. On the extensive unification of digital-to-analog converters and kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yanchu

    2012-09-01

    System administrators agree that scalable communication is an interesting new topic in the field of steganography, and leading analysts concur. After years of unfortunate re-search into context-free grammar, we argue the intuitive unification of fiber-optic cables and context-free grammar. Our focus here is not on whether sensor networks and randomized algorithms can collaborate to accomplish this aim, but rather on introducing an analysis of DHTs [2] (Soupy Coil).

  8. Wireless sensor platform for harsh environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garverick, Steven L. (Inventor); Yu, Xinyu (Inventor); Toygur, Lemi (Inventor); He, Yunli (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Reliable and efficient sensing becomes increasingly difficult in harsher environments. A sensing module for high-temperature conditions utilizes a digital, rather than analog, implementation on a wireless platform to achieve good quality data transmission. The module comprises a sensor, integrated circuit, and antenna. The integrated circuit includes an amplifier, A/D converter, decimation filter, and digital transmitter. To operate, an analog signal is received by the sensor, amplified by the amplifier, converted into a digital signal by the A/D converter, filtered by the decimation filter to address the quantization error, and output in digital format by the digital transmitter and antenna.

  9. Earth analog image digitization of field, aerial, and lab experiment studies for Planetary Data System archiving.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. A.; Nelson, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    A portion of the earth analog image archive at the Ronald Greeley Center for Planetary Studies (RGCPS)-the NASA Regional Planetary Information Facility at Arizona State University-is being digitized and will be added to the Planetary Data System (PDS) for public use. This will be a first addition of terrestrial data to the PDS specifically for comparative planetology studies. Digitization is separated into four tasks. First is the scanning of aerial photographs of volcanic and aeolian structures and flows. The second task is to scan field site images taken from ground and low-altitude aircraft of volcanic structures, lava flows, lava tubes, dunes, and wind streaks. The third image set to be scanned includes photographs of lab experiments from the NASA Planetary Aeolian Laboratory wind tunnels, vortex generator, and of wax models. Finally, rare NASA documents are being scanned and formatted as PDF files. Thousands of images are to be scanned for this project. Archiving of the data will follow the PDS4 standard, where the entire project is classified as a single bundle, with individual subjects (i.e., the Amboy Crater volcanic structure in the Mojave Desert of California) as collections. Within the collections, each image is considered a product, with a unique ID and associated XML document. Documents describing the image data, including the subject and context, will be included with each collection. Once complete, the data will be hosted by a PDS data node and available for public search and download. As one of the first earth analog datasets to be archived by the PDS, this project could prompt the digitizing and making available of historic datasets from other facilities for the scientific community.

  10. 32 CFR 637.2 - Use of MPI and DAC Detectives/Investigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .../investigators may be employed in joint MPI/USACIDC drug suppression teams; however, the conduct of such... and DAC detectives/investigators may also be utilized to make controlled buys of suspected controlled...

  11. Static and Dynamic Characteristics of DC-DC Converter Using a Digital Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, Fujio; Okamatsu, Masashi

    This paper presents the regulation and dynamic characteristics of the dc-dc converter with digital PID control, the minimum phase FIR filter or the IIR filter, and then the design criterion to improve the dynamic characteristics is discussed. As a result, it is clarified that the DC-DC converter using the IIR filter method has superior performance characteristics. The regulation range is within 1.3%, the undershoot against the step change of the load is less than 2% and the transient time is less than 0.4ms with the IIR filter method. In this case, the switching frequency is 100kHz and the step change of the load R is from 50 Ω to 10 Ω. Further, the superior characteristics are obtained when the first gain, the second gain and the second cut-off frequency are relatively large, and the first cut-off frequency and the passing frequency are relatively low. Moreover, it is important that the gain strongly decreases at the second cut-off frequency because the upper band pass frequency range must be always less than half of the sampling frequency based on the sampling theory.

  12. A state-trajectory control law for dc-to-dc converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, W. W., III; Wilson, T. G.

    1978-01-01

    Mathematical representations of a state-plane switching boundary employed in a state-trajectory control law for dc-to-dc converters are derived. Several levels of approximation to the switching boundary equations are presented, together with an evaluation of the effects of nonideal operating characteristics of converter power stage components on the shape and location of the boundary and the behavior of a system controlled by it. Digital computer simulations of dc-to-dc converters operating in conjunction with each of these levels of control are presented and evaluated with respect to changes in transient and steady-state performance.

  13. Development of digital sideband separating down-conversion for Yuan-Tseh Lee Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao-Te; Kubo, Derek; Cheng, Jen-Chieh; Kuroda, John; Srinivasan, Ranjani; Ho, Solomon; Guzzino, Kim; Chen, Ming-Tang

    2016-07-01

    This report presents a down-conversion method involving digital sideband separation for the Yuan-Tseh Lee Array (YTLA) to double the processing bandwidth. The receiver consists of a MMIC HEMT LNA front end operating at a wavelength of 3 mm, and sub-harmonic mixers that output signals at intermediate frequencies (IFs) of 2-18 GHz. The sideband separation scheme involves an analog 90° hybrid followed by two mixers that provide down-conversion of the IF signal to a pair of in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signals in baseband. The I and Q baseband signals are digitized using 5 Giga sample per second (Gsps) analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). A second hybrid is digitally implemented using field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to produce two sidebands, each with a bandwidth of 1.6 GHz. The 2 x 1.6 GHz band can be tuned to cover any 3.6 GHz window within the aforementioned IF range of the array. Sideband rejection ratios (SRRs) above 20 dB can be obtained across the 3.6 GHz bandwidth by equalizing the power and delay between the I and Q baseband signals. Furthermore, SRRs above 30 dB can be achieved when calibration is applied.

  14. ROC Analysis of Chest Radiographs Using Computed Radiography and Conventional Analog Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morioka, Craig A.; Brown, Kathy; Hayrapetian, Alek S.; Kangarloo, Hooshang; Balter, Stephen; Huang, H. K.

    1989-05-01

    Receiver operating characteristic is used to compare the image quality of films obtained digitally using computed radiography (CR) and conventionally using analog film following fluoroscopic examination. Similar radiological views were obtained by both modalities. Twenty-four cases, some with a solitary noncalcified nodule and/or pneumothorax, were collected. Ten radiologists have been tested viewing analog and CR digital films separately. Final results indicate that there is no statistically significant difference in the ability to detect either a pneumothorax or a solitary noncalcified nodule when comparing CR digital film with conventional analog film. However, there is a trend that indicated the area under the ROC curves for detection of either a pneumothorax or solitary noncalcified nodule were greater for the analog film than for the digital film.

  15. Using high-resolution digital aerial imagery to map land cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieck, J.J.; Robinson, Larry

    2014-01-01

    The Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has used aerial photography to map land cover/land use on federally owned and managed lands for over 20 years. Until recently, that process used 23- by 23-centimeter (9- by 9-inch) analog aerial photos to classify vegetation along the Upper Mississippi River System, on National Wildlife Refuges, and in National Parks. With digital aerial cameras becoming more common and offering distinct advantages over analog film, UMESC transitioned to an entirely digital mapping process in 2009. Though not without challenges, this method has proven to be much more accurate and efficient when compared to the analog process.

  16. Adaptive frequency-domain equalization in digital coherent optical receivers.

    PubMed

    Faruk, Md Saifuddin; Kikuchi, Kazuro

    2011-06-20

    We propose a novel frequency-domain adaptive equalizer in digital coherent optical receivers, which can reduce computational complexity of the conventional time-domain adaptive equalizer based on finite-impulse-response (FIR) filters. The proposed equalizer can operate on the input sequence sampled by free-running analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) at the rate of two samples per symbol; therefore, the arbitrary initial sampling phase of ADCs can be adjusted so that the best symbol-spaced sequence is produced. The equalizer can also be configured in the butterfly structure, which enables demultiplexing of polarization tributaries apart from equalization of linear transmission impairments. The performance of the proposed equalization scheme is verified by 40-Gbits/s dual-polarization quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) transmission experiments.

  17. Miniature L-Band Radar Transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McWatters, Dalia; Price, Douglas; Edelstein, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    A miniature L-band transceiver that operates at a carrier frequency of 1.25 GHz has been developed as part of a generic radar electronics module (REM) that would constitute one unit in an array of many identical units in a very-large-aperture phased-array antenna. NASA and the Department of Defense are considering the deployment of such antennas in outer space; the underlying principles of operation, and some of those of design, also are applicable on Earth. The large dimensions of the antennas make it advantageous to distribute radio-frequency electronic circuitry into elements of the arrays. The design of the REM is intended to implement the distribution. The design also reflects a requirement to minimize the size and weight of the circuitry in order to minimize the weight of any such antenna. Other requirements include making the transceiver robust and radiation-hard and minimizing power demand. Figure 1 depicts the functional blocks of the REM, including the L-band transceiver. The key functions of the REM include signal generation, frequency translation, amplification, detection, handling of data, and radar control and timing. An arbitrary-waveform generator that includes logic circuitry and a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) generates a linear-frequency-modulation chirp waveform. A frequency synthesizer produces local-oscillator signals used for frequency conversion and clock signals for the arbitrary-waveform generator, for a digitizer [that is, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC)], and for a control and timing unit. Digital functions include command, timing, telemetry, filtering, and high-rate framing and serialization of data for a high-speed scientific-data interface. The aforementioned digital implementation of filtering is a key feature of the REM architecture. Digital filters, in contradistinction to analog ones, provide consistent and temperature-independent performance, which is particularly important when REMs are distributed throughout a large

  18. Hybrid digital-analog video transmission in wireless multicast and multiple-input multiple-output system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Lin, Xiaocheng; Fan, Nianfei; Zhang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Wireless video multicast has become one of the key technologies in wireless applications. But the main challenge of conventional wireless video multicast, i.e., the cliff effect, remains unsolved. To overcome the cliff effect, a hybrid digital-analog (HDA) video transmission framework based on SoftCast, which transmits the digital bitstream with the quantization residuals, is proposed. With an effective power allocation algorithm and appropriate parameter settings, the residual gains can be maximized; meanwhile, the digital bitstream can assure transmission of a basic video to the multicast receiver group. In the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system, since nonuniform noise interference on different antennas can be regarded as the cliff effect problem, ParCast, which is a variation of SoftCast, is also applied to video transmission to solve it. The HDA scheme with corresponding power allocation algorithms is also applied to improve video performance. Simulations show that the proposed HDA scheme can overcome the cliff effect completely with the transmission of residuals. What is more, it outperforms the compared WSVC scheme by more than 2 dB when transmitting under the same bandwidth, and it can further improve performance by nearly 8 dB in MIMO when compared with the ParCast scheme.

  19. Transitioning to digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Drost, Wm Tod

    2011-04-01

    To describe the different forms of digital radiography (DR), image file formats, supporting equipment and services required for DR, storage of digital images, and teleradiology. Purchasing a DR system is a major investment for a veterinary practice. Types of DR systems include computed radiography, charge coupled devices, and direct or indirect DR. Comparison of workflow for analog and DR is presented. On the surface, switching to DR involves the purchase of DR acquisition hardware. The X-ray machine, table and grids used in analog radiography are the same for DR. Realistically, a considerable infrastructure supports the image acquisition hardware. This infrastructure includes monitors, computer workstations, a robust computer network and internet connection, a plan for storage and back up of images, and service contracts. Advantages of DR compared with analog radiography include improved image quality (when used properly), ease of use (more forgiving to the errors of radiographic technique), speed of making a complete study (important for critically ill patients), fewer repeat radiographs, less time looking for imaging studies, less physical storage space, and the ability to easily send images for consultation. With an understanding of the infrastructure requirements, capabilities and limitations of DR, an informed veterinary practice should be better able to make a sound decision about transitioning to DR. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2011.

  20. 45 CFR 1705.3 - Procedures for requests pertaining to individual records in the D/AC File.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedures for requests pertaining to individual records in the D/AC File. 1705.3 Section 1705.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE PRIVACY REGULATIONS § 1705.3 Procedures...

  1. 45 CFR 1705.3 - Procedures for requests pertaining to individual records in the D/AC File.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for requests pertaining to individual records in the D/AC File. 1705.3 Section 1705.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE PRIVACY REGULATIONS § 1705.3 Procedures...

  2. 45 CFR 1705.3 - Procedures for requests pertaining to individual records in the D/AC File.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Procedures for requests pertaining to individual records in the D/AC File. 1705.3 Section 1705.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE PRIVACY REGULATIONS § 1705.3 Procedures...

  3. 45 CFR 1705.3 - Procedures for requests pertaining to individual records in the D/AC File.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedures for requests pertaining to individual records in the D/AC File. 1705.3 Section 1705.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE PRIVACY REGULATIONS § 1705.3 Procedures...

  4. 45 CFR 1705.3 - Procedures for requests pertaining to individual records in the D/AC File.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Procedures for requests pertaining to individual records in the D/AC File. 1705.3 Section 1705.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE PRIVACY REGULATIONS § 1705.3 Procedures...

  5. A Low Power Digital Accumulation Technique for Digital-Domain CMOS TDI Image Sensor.

    PubMed

    Yu, Changwei; Nie, Kaiming; Xu, Jiangtao; Gao, Jing

    2016-09-23

    In this paper, an accumulation technique suitable for digital domain CMOS time delay integration (TDI) image sensors is proposed to reduce power consumption without degrading the rate of imaging. In terms of the slight variations of quantization codes among different pixel exposures towards the same object, the pixel array is divided into two groups: one is for coarse quantization of high bits only, and the other one is for fine quantization of low bits. Then, the complete quantization codes are composed of both results from the coarse-and-fine quantization. The equivalent operation comparably reduces the total required bit numbers of the quantization. In the 0.18 µm CMOS process, two versions of 16-stage digital domain CMOS TDI image sensor chains based on a 10-bit successive approximate register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC), with and without the proposed technique, are designed. The simulation results show that the average power consumption of slices of the two versions are 6 . 47 × 10 - 8 J/line and 7 . 4 × 10 - 8 J/line, respectively. Meanwhile, the linearity of the two versions are 99.74% and 99.99%, respectively.

  6. A 14-bit 40-MHz analog front end for CCD application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jingyu, Wang; Zhangming, Zhu; Shubin, Liu

    2016-06-01

    A 14-bit, 40-MHz analog front end (AFE) for CCD scanners is analyzed and designed. The proposed system incorporates a digitally controlled wideband variable gain amplifier (VGA) with nearly 42 dB gain range, a correlated double sampler (CDS) with programmable gain functionality, a 14-bit analog-to-digital converter and a programmable timing core. To achieve the maximum dynamic range, the VGA proposed here can linearly amplify the input signal in a gain range from -1.08 to 41.06 dB in 6.02 dB step with a constant bandwidth. A novel CDS takes image information out of noise, and further amplifies the signal accurately in a gain range from 0 to 18 dB in 0.035 dB step. A 14-bit ADC is adopted to quantify the analog signal with optimization in power and linearity. An internal timing core can provide flexible timing for CCD arrays, CDS and ADC. The proposed AFE was fabricated in SMIC 0.18 μm CMOS process. The whole circuit occupied an active area of 2.8 × 4.8 mm2 and consumed 360 mW. When the frequency of input signal is 6.069 MHz, and the sampling frequency is 40 MHz, the signal to noise and distortion (SNDR) is 70.3 dB, the effective number of bits is 11.39 bit. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61234002, 61322405, 61306044, 61376033), the National High-Tech Program of China (No. 2013AA014103), and the Opening Project of Science and Technology on Reliability Physics and Application Technology of Electronic Component Laboratory (No. ZHD201302).

  7. Archive of Digitized Analog Boomer Seismic Reflection Data Collected from Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, to Mobile Bay, Alabama, During Cruises Onboard the R/V ERDA-1, June and August 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, Jordan M.; Harrison, Arnell S.; Wiese, Dana S.; Flocks, James G.

    2008-01-01

    . The acoustic energy is reflected at density boundaries (such as the seafloor or sediment layers beneath the seafloor), detected by the hydrophone receiver, and the amplitude of the reflected energy is recorded by an Edward P. Curley Lab (EPC) thermal plotter. This process is repeated at timed intervals (for example, 0.5 s) and recorded for specific intervals of time (for example, 100 ms). The timed intervals are also referred to as the shot interval or fire rate. On analog records, the recorded interval is referred to as the sweep, which is the amount of time the recorder stylus takes to sweep from the top of the record to the bottom of the record, thereby recording the amplitude of the reflected energy of one shot. In this way, consecutive recorded shots produce a two-dimensional (2-D) vertical image of the shallow geologic structure beneath the ship track. Many of the geophysical data collected by the USGS prior to the late 1990s were recorded in analog format and stored as paper copies. Scientists onboard made hand-written annotations onto these records to note latitude and longitude, time, line number, course heading, and geographic points of reference. Each paper roll typically contained numerous survey lines and could reach more than 90 ft in length. All rolls are stored at the USGS FISC-St. Petersburg, FL. To preserve the integrity of these records and improve accessibility, analog holdings were converted to digital files.

  8. Final Report for DOE Project: Portal Web Services: Support of DOE SciDAC Collaboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Mary Thomas, PI; Geoffrey Fox, Co-PI; Gannon, D

    2007-10-01

    Grid portals provide the scientific community with familiar and simplified interfaces to the Grid and Grid services, and it is important to deploy grid portals onto the SciDAC grids and collaboratories. The goal of this project is the research, development and deployment of interoperable portal and web services that can be used on SciDAC National Collaboratory grids. This project has four primary task areas: development of portal systems; management of data collections; DOE science application integration; and development of web and grid services in support of the above activities.

  9. FITPix COMBO—Timepix detector with integrated analog signal spectrometric readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holik, M.; Kraus, V.; Georgiev, V.; Granja, C.

    2016-02-01

    The hybrid semiconductor pixel detector Timepix has proven a powerful tool in radiation detection and imaging. Energy loss and directional sensitivity as well as particle type resolving power are possible by high resolution particle tracking and per-pixel energy and quantum-counting capability. The spectrometric resolving power of the detector can be further enhanced by analyzing the analog signal of the detector common sensor electrode (also called back-side pulse). In this work we present a new compact readout interface, based on the FITPix readout architecture, extended with integrated analog electronics for the detector's common sensor signal. Integrating simultaneous operation of the digital per-pixel information with the common sensor (called also back-side electrode) analog pulse processing circuitry into one device enhances the detector capabilities and opens new applications. Thanks to noise suppression and built-in electromagnetic interference shielding the common hardware platform enables parallel analog signal spectroscopy on the back side pulse signal with full operation and read-out of the pixelated digital part, the noise level is 600 keV and spectrometric resolution around 100 keV for 5.5 MeV alpha particles. Self-triggering is implemented with delay of few tens of ns making use of adjustable low-energy threshold of the particle analog signal amplitude. The digital pixelated full frame can be thus triggered and recorded together with the common sensor analog signal. The waveform, which is sampled with frequency 100 MHz, can be recorded in adjustable time window including time prior to the trigger level. An integrated software tool provides control, on-line display and read-out of both analog and digital channels. Both the pixelated digital record and the analog waveform are synchronized and written out by common time stamp.

  10. All-optical, ultra-wideband microwave I/Q mixer and image-reject frequency down-converter.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongsheng; Wen, Aijun; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiaoyan

    2017-03-15

    An all-optical and ultra-wideband microwave in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) mixer, based on a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator and a wavelength division multiplexer, is proposed. Due to the simultaneous frequency down-conversion and 360-deg tunable phase shifting in the optical domain, the proposed I/Q mixer has the advantages of high conversion gain and excellent quadrature phase balance (<±1.3 deg⁡) with a wide operating frequency from 10 to 40 GHz. Assisted by an analog or digital intermediate-frequency quadrature coupler, an image-reject frequency down-converter is then implemented, with an image rejection exceeding 50 dB over the working band.

  11. Comparative hybrid and digital simulation studies of the behaviour of a wind generator equipped with a static frequency converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dube, B.; Lefebvre, S.; Perocheau, A.; Nakra, H. L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the comparative results obtained from digital and hybrid simulation studies on a variable speed wind generator interconnected to the utility grid. The wind generator is a vertical-axis Darrieus type coupled to a synchronous machine by a gear-box; the synchronous machine is connected to the AC utility grid through a static frequency converter. Digital simulation results have been obtained using CSMP software; these results are compared with those obtained from a real-time hybrid simulator that in turn uses a part of the IREQ HVDC simulator. The agreement between hybrid and digital simulation results is generally good. The results demonstrate that the digital simulation reproduces the dynamic behavior of the system in a satisfactory manner and thus constitutes a valid tool for the design of the control systems of the wind generator.

  12. On-demand Simulation of Atmospheric Transport Processes on the AlpEnDAC Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachinger, S.; Harsch, C.; Meyer-Arnek, J.; Frank, A.; Heller, H.; Giemsa, E.

    2016-12-01

    The "Alpine Environmental Data Analysis Centre" (AlpEnDAC) develops a data-analysis platform for high-altitude research facilities within the "Virtual Alpine Observatory" project (VAO). This platform, with its web portal, will support use cases going much beyond data management: On user request, the data are augmented with "on-demand" simulation results, such as air-parcel trajectories for tracing down the source of pollutants when they appear in high concentration. The respective back-end mechanism uses the Compute Cloud of the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) to transparently calculate results requested by the user, as far as they have not yet been stored in AlpEnDAC. The queuing-system operation model common in supercomputing is replaced by a model in which Virtual Machines (VMs) on the cloud are automatically created/destroyed, providing the necessary computing power immediately on demand. From a security point of view, this allows to perform simulations in a sandbox defined by the VM configuration, without direct access to a computing cluster. Within few minutes, the user receives conveniently visualized results. The AlpEnDAC infrastructure is distributed among two participating institutes [front-end at German Aerospace Centre (DLR), simulation back-end at LRZ], requiring an efficient mechanism for synchronization of measured and augmented data. We discuss our iRODS-based solution for these data-management tasks as well as the general AlpEnDAC framework. Our cloud-based offerings aim at making scientific computing for our users much more convenient and flexible than it has been, and to allow scientists without a broad background in scientific computing to benefit from complex numerical simulations.

  13. Implement an adjustable delay time digital trigger for an NI data acquisition card in a high-speed demodulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongtao; Fan, Lingling; Wang, Pengfei; Park, Seong-Wook

    2012-06-01

    A National Instruments (NI) DAQ card PCI 5105 is installed in a high-speed demodulation system based on Fiber Fabry-Pérot Tunable Filter. The instability of the spectra of Fiber Bragg Grating sensors caused by intrinsic drifts of FFP-TF needs an appropriate, flexible trigger. However, the driver of the DAQ card in the current development environment does not provide the functions of analog trigger but digital trigger type. Moreover, the high level of the trigger signal from the tuning voltage of FFP-TF is larger than the maximum input overload voltage of PCI 5105 card. To resolve this incompatibility, a novel converter to change an analog trigger signal into a digital trigger signal has been reported previously. However, the obvious delay time between input and output signals limits the function of demodulation system. Accordingly, we report an improved low-cost, small-size converter with an adjustable delay time. This new scheme can decline the delay time to or close to zero when the frequency of trigger signal is less than 3,000 Hz. This method might be employed to resolve similar problems or to be applied in semiconductor integrated circuits.

  14. Energy requirements for CO2 capture from ambient air (DAC) competitive with capture from flue-gas (PCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinrenken, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    Capture of CO2, whether from a flue gas source (PCC) or from distributed sources via ambient air (DAC), is a key enabling technology to provide carbon for sustainable synthetic energy carriers such as solar fuels. Based on thermodynamic minimum considerations, DAC is often expected to require about 3 times more energy (per ton CO2 captured) than PCC because CO2 in ambient air is more dilute. Here, we calculate the energy required for a humidity swing-based DAC installation that uses an anionic exchange resin as sorbent. The calculation uses recently measured equilibrium CO2 loadings of the sorbent as function of partial CO2 pressure, temperature, and humidity. We calculate the installation's electricity consumption to be about 45 kJ per mole of pure CO2 at 1 bar (scenario-dependent). Furthermore, we estimate the amount of heat provided by ambient air and thus provide context of the overall energy and entropy balance and thermodynamic minimum views. The electricity consumption is competitive with typical parasitic loads of PCC-equipped coal-fired power plants (40-50 kJ per mole at same pressure) and significantly lower than predicted for other DAC installations such as Na(OH) sorbent-based systems. Our analyses elucidate why DAC is not always more energy-intensive that PCC, thus alleviating often cited concerns of significant cost impediments. Financial support by ABB for research presented herein is gratefully acknowledged.

  15. Development of Coriolis mass flowmeter with digital drive and signal processing technology.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qi-Li; Xu, Ke-Jun; Fang, Min; Liu, Cui; Xiong, Wen-Jun

    2013-09-01

    Coriolis mass flowmeter (CMF) often suffers from two-phase flowrate which may cause flowtube stalling. To solve this problem, a digital drive method and a digital signal processing method of CMF is studied and implemented in this paper. A positive-negative step signal is used to initiate the flowtube oscillation without knowing the natural frequency of the flowtube. A digital zero-crossing detection method based on Lagrange interpolation is adopted to calculate the frequency and phase difference of the sensor output signals in order to synthesize the digital drive signal. The digital drive approach is implemented by a multiplying digital to analog converter (MDAC) and a direct digital synthesizer (DDS). A digital Coriolis mass flow transmitter is developed with a digital signal processor (DSP) to control the digital drive, and realize the signal processing. Water flow calibrations and gas-liquid two-phase flowrate experiments are conducted to examine the performance of the transmitter. The experimental results show that the transmitter shortens the start-up time and can maintain the oscillation of flowtube in two-phase flowrate condition. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multichannel low power time-to-digital converter card with 21 ps precision and full scale range up to 10 μs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamborini, D.; Portaluppi, D.; Villa, F.; Tisa, S.; Tosi, A.

    2014-11-01

    We present a Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) card with a compact form factor, suitable for multichannel timing instruments or for integration into more complex systems. The TDC Card provides 10 ps timing resolution over the whole measurement range, which is selectable from 160 ns up to 10 μs, reaching 21 ps rms precision, 1.25% LSB rms differential nonlinearity, up to 3 Mconversion/s with 400 mW power consumption. The I/O edge card connector provides timing data readout through either a parallel bus or a 100 MHz serial interface and further measurement information like input signal rate and valid conversion rate (typically useful for time-correlated single-photon counting application) through an independent serial link.

  17. Multichannel low power time-to-digital converter card with 21 ps precision and full scale range up to 10 μs.

    PubMed

    Tamborini, D; Portaluppi, D; Villa, F; Tisa, S; Tosi, A

    2014-11-01

    We present a Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) card with a compact form factor, suitable for multichannel timing instruments or for integration into more complex systems. The TDC Card provides 10 ps timing resolution over the whole measurement range, which is selectable from 160 ns up to 10 μs, reaching 21 ps rms precision, 1.25% LSB rms differential nonlinearity, up to 3 Mconversion/s with 400 mW power consumption. The I/O edge card connector provides timing data readout through either a parallel bus or a 100 MHz serial interface and further measurement information like input signal rate and valid conversion rate (typically useful for time-correlated single-photon counting application) through an independent serial link.

  18. Biomedical sensor design using analog compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balouchestani, Mohammadreza; Krishnan, Sridhar

    2015-05-01

    The main drawback of current healthcare systems is the location-specific nature of the system due to the use of fixed/wired biomedical sensors. Since biomedical sensors are usually driven by a battery, power consumption is the most important factor determining the life of a biomedical sensor. They are also restricted by size, cost, and transmission capacity. Therefore, it is important to reduce the load of sampling by merging the sampling and compression steps to reduce the storage usage, transmission times, and power consumption in order to expand the current healthcare systems to Wireless Healthcare Systems (WHSs). In this work, we present an implementation of a low-power biomedical sensor using analog Compressed Sensing (CS) framework for sparse biomedical signals that addresses both the energy and telemetry bandwidth constraints of wearable and wireless Body-Area Networks (BANs). This architecture enables continuous data acquisition and compression of biomedical signals that are suitable for a variety of diagnostic and treatment purposes. At the transmitter side, an analog-CS framework is applied at the sensing step before Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) in order to generate the compressed version of the input analog bio-signal. At the receiver side, a reconstruction algorithm based on Restricted Isometry Property (RIP) condition is applied in order to reconstruct the original bio-signals form the compressed bio-signals with high probability and enough accuracy. We examine the proposed algorithm with healthy and neuropathy surface Electromyography (sEMG) signals. The proposed algorithm achieves a good level for Average Recognition Rate (ARR) at 93% and reconstruction accuracy at 98.9%. In addition, The proposed architecture reduces total computation time from 32 to 11.5 seconds at sampling-rate=29 % of Nyquist rate, Percentage Residual Difference (PRD)=26 %, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE)=3 %.

  19. Charge pump-based MOSFET-only 1.5-bit pipelined ADC stage in digital CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Anil; Agarwal, Alpana

    2016-10-01

    A simple low-power and low-area metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor-only fully differential 1.5-bit pipelined analog-to-digital converter stage is proposed and designed in Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company 0.18 μm-technology using BSIM3v3 parameters with supply voltage of 1.8 V in inexpensive digital complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. It is based on charge pump technique to achieve the desired voltage gain of 2, independent of capacitor mismatch and avoiding the need of power hungry operational amplifier-based architecture to reduce the power, Si area and cost. Various capacitances are implemented by metal-oxide semiconductor capacitors, offering compatibility with cheaper digital CMOS process in order to reduce the much required manufacturing cost.

  20. Breaking down number syntax: spared comprehension of multi-digit numbers in a patient with impaired digit-to-word conversion.

    PubMed

    Dotan, Dror; Friedmann, Naama; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2014-10-01

    Can the meaning of two-digit Arabic numbers be accessed independently of their verbal-phonological representations? To answer this question we explored the number processing of ZN, an aphasic patient with a syntactic deficit in digit-to-verbal transcoding, who could hardly read aloud two-digit numbers, but could read them as single digits ("four, two"). Neuropsychological examination showed that ZN's deficit was neither in the digit input nor in the phonological output processes, as he could copy and repeat two-digit numbers. His deficit thus lied in a central process that converts digits to abstract number words and sends this information to phonological retrieval processes. Crucially, in spite of this deficit in number transcoding, ZN's two-digit comprehension was spared in several ways: (1) he could calculate two-digit additions; (2) he showed good performance in a two-digit comparison task, and a continuous distance effect; and (3) his performance in a task of mapping numbers to positions on an unmarked number line showed a logarithmic (nonlinear) factor, indicating that he represented two-digit Arabic numbers as holistic two-digit quantities. Thus, at least these aspects of number comprehension can be performed without converting the two-digit number from digits to verbal representation.

  1. An Economic Analysis of Two Groundwater Allocation Programs for the Salinas Valley

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    monitoring system would establish a definable and 17Each individual well would have a frequency generator, analog/ digital converter, microprocessor with...RTU). The cost for purchasing and installing the frequency generator is estimated to be $1,100. The RTU consists of an analog/ digital converter and a...programmable microprocessor that can accept up to eight inputs and one output. The unit can transmit and receive digital data via LAN network or

  2. NF-κB dynamics show digital activation and analog information processing in cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tay, Savas; Hughey, Jake; Lee, Timothy; Lipniacki, Tomasz; Covert, Markus; Quake, Stephen

    2010-03-01

    Cells operate in ever changing environments using extraordinary communication capabilities. Cell-to-cell communication is mediated by signaling molecules that form spatiotemporal concentration gradients, which requires cells to respond to a wide range of signal intensities. We used high-throughput microfluidic cell culture, quantitative gene expression analysis and mathematical modeling to investigate how single mammalian cells respond to different concentrations of the signaling molecule TNF-α via the transcription factor NF-κB. We measured NF-κB activity in thousands of live cells under TNF-α doses covering four orders of magnitude. In contrast to population studies, the activation is a stochastic, switch-like process at the single cell level with fewer cells responding at lower doses. The activated cells respond fully and express early genes independent of the TNF-α concentration, while only high dose stimulation results in the expression of late genes. Cells also encode a set of analog parameters such as the NF-κB peak intensity, response time and number of oscillations to modulate the outcome. We developed a stochastic model that reproduces both the digital and analog dynamics as well as the gene expression profiles at all measured conditions, constituting a broadly applicable model for TNF-α induced NF-κB signaling in various types of cells.

  3. Design and Calibration of an RF Actuator for Low-Level RF Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Zheqiao; Hong, Bo

    2016-02-01

    X-ray free electron laser (FEL) machines like the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC require high-quality electron beams to generate X-ray lasers for various experiments. Digital low-level RF (LLRF) systems are widely used to control the high-power RF klystrons to provide a highly stable RF field in accelerator structures for beam acceleration. Feedback and feedforward controllers are implemented in LLRF systems to stabilize or adjust the phase and amplitude of the RF field. To achieve the RF stability and the accuracy of the phase and amplitude adjustment, low-noise and highly linear RF actuators are required. Aiming for the upgrade of the S-band Linac at SLAC, an RF actuator is designed with an I/Qmodulator driven by two digital-to-analog converters (DAC) for the digital LLRF systems. A direct upconversion scheme is selected for RF actuation, and an on-line calibration algorithm is developed to compensate the RF reference leakage and the imbalance errors in the I/Q modulator, which may cause significant phase and amplitude actuation errors. This paper presents the requirements on the RF actuator, the design of the hardware, the calibration algorithm, and the implementation in firmware and software and the test results at LCLS.

  4. Cognitive Cellular Systems: A New Challenge on the RF Analog Frontend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Gabor; Schrey, Moritz; Subbiah, Iyappan; Ashok, Arun; Heinen, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive Cellular Systems are seen today as one of the most promising ways of moving forward solving or at least easing the still worsening situation of congested spectrum caused by the growing number of users and the expectation of higher data transfer rates. As the intelligence of a Cognitive Radio system is located in the digital domain - the Cognitive Engine and associated layers - extensive research has been ongoing in that domain since Mitola published his idea in 1999. Since, a big progress has been made in the domain of architectures and algorithms making systems more efficient and highly flexible. The pace of this progress, however, is going to be impeded by hard requirements on the received and transmitted signal quality, introducing ultimate challenges on the performance of the RF analog frontend, such as in-band local oscillator harmonics, ultra low sensitivity and ultra high linearity. The RF frontend is thus likely to become the limiting technical factor in the true realization of a Cognitive Cellular System. Based on short recapitulations of the most crucial issues in RF analog design for Cognitive Systems, this article will point out why those mechanisms become responsible for the limitation of the overall performance particularly in a broadband Cognitive Cellular System. Furthermore, as part of a possible solution to ease the situation, system design of a high intermediate frequency (IF) to UHF frequency converter for cognitive radios is discussed and the performance of such a converter analyzed as a proof of concept. In addition to successfully tackling some of the challenges, such a high-IF converter enables white space operation for existing commercial devices by acting as frequency converter. From detailed measurements, the capabilities in both physical layer and application layer performance of a high-IF frontend developed out of off-the-shelf components is explained and is shown to provide negligible degradation to the commercial device

  5. Continuous-waveform constant-current isolated physiological stimulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcomb, Mark R.; Devine, Jack M.; Harder, Rene; Sidorov, Veniamin Y.

    2012-04-01

    We have developed an isolated continuous-waveform constant-current physiological stimulator that is powered and controlled by universal serial bus (USB) interface. The stimulator is composed of a custom printed circuit board (PCB), 16-MHz MSP430F2618 microcontroller with two integrated 12-bit digital to analog converters (DAC0, DAC1), high-speed H-Bridge, voltage-controlled current source (VCCS), isolated USB communication and power circuitry, two isolated transistor-transistor logic (TTL) inputs, and a serial 16 × 2 character liquid crystal display. The stimulators are designed to produce current stimuli in the range of ±15 mA indefinitely using a 20V source and to be used in ex vivo cardiac experiments, but they are suitable for use in a wide variety of research or student experiments that require precision control of continuous waveforms or synchronization with external events. The device was designed with customization in mind and has features that allow it to be integrated into current and future experimental setups. Dual TTL inputs allow replacement by two or more traditional stimulators in common experimental configurations. The MSP430 software is written in C++ and compiled with IAR Embedded Workbench 5.20.2. A control program written in C++ runs on a Windows personal computer and has a graphical user interface that allows the user to control all aspects of the device.

  6. Development of a digital solar simulator based on full-bridge converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chen; Feng, Jian; Liu, Zhilong; Tong, Weichao; Ji, Yibo

    2014-02-01

    With the development of solar photovoltaic, distribution schemes utilized in power grid had been commonly application, and photovoltaic (PV) inverter is an essential equipment in grid. In this paper, a digital solar simulator based on full-bridge structure is presented. The output characteristic curve of system is electrically similar to silicon solar cells, which can greatly simplify research methods of PV inverter, improve the efficiency of research and development. The proposed simulator consists on a main control board based on TM320F28335, phase-shifted zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) DC-DC full-bridge converter and voltage and current sampling circuit, that allows emulating the voltage-current curve with the open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 900V and the short-circuit current (Isc) of 18A .When the system connected to a PV inverter, the inverter can quickly track from the open-circuit to the maximum power point and keep stability.

  7. Multichannel low power time-to-digital converter card with 21 ps precision and full scale range up to 10 μs

    SciTech Connect

    Tamborini, D., E-mail: davide.tamborini@polimi.it; Portaluppi, D.; Villa, F.

    We present a Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) card with a compact form factor, suitable for multichannel timing instruments or for integration into more complex systems. The TDC Card provides 10 ps timing resolution over the whole measurement range, which is selectable from 160 ns up to 10 μs, reaching 21 ps rms precision, 1.25% LSB rms differential nonlinearity, up to 3 Mconversion/s with 400 mW power consumption. The I/O edge card connector provides timing data readout through either a parallel bus or a 100 MHz serial interface and further measurement information like input signal rate and valid conversion rate (typically usefulmore » for time-correlated single-photon counting application) through an independent serial link.« less

  8. Digital Seismic-Reflection Data from Eastern Rhode Island Sound and Vicinity, 1975-1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Soderberg, N.K.

    2009-01-01

    During 1975 and 1980, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted two seismic-reflection surveys in Rhode Island Sound (RIS) aboard the research vessel Asterias: cruise ASTR75-June surveyed eastern RIS in 1975 and cruise AST-80-6B surveyed southern RIS in 1980. Data from these surveys were recorded in analog form and archived at the USGS Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center's Data Library. In response to recent interest in the geology of RIS and in an effort to make the data more readily accessible while preserving the original paper records, the seismic data from these cruises were scanned and converted to black and white Tagged Image File Format and grayscale Portable Network Graphics images and SEG-Y data files. Navigation data were converted from U.S. Coast Guard Long Range Aids to Navigation time delays to latitudes and longitudes that are available in Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., shapefile format and as eastings and northings in space-delimited text format. This report complements two others that contain analog seismic-reflection data from RIS (McMullen and others, 2009) and Long Island and Block Island Sounds (Poppe and others, 2002) and were converted into digital form.

  9. Phase relations in the system Fe-Si determined in an internally-resistive heated DAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komabayashi, T.; Antonangeli, D.; Morard, G.; Sinmyo, R.; Mezouar, N.

    2015-12-01

    It is believed that the iron-rich Earth's core contains some amounts of light elements on the basis of the density deficit of 7 % compared to pure iron. The identification of the kinds and amounts of the light elements in the core places constraints on the origin, formation, and evolution of the Earth because dissolution of light elements into an iron-rich core should place important constraints on the thermodynamic conditions (pressure (P), temperature (T), and oxygen fugacity) of the equilibration between liquid silicate and liquid iron during the core formation. Among potential light elements, silicon has been attracting attentions because it is abundant in the mantle, partitioned into both solid and liquid irons, and very sensitive to the oxygen fugacity. An important phase relation in iron alloy is a transition between the face-centred cubic (FCC) structure and hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure. This boundary is a key to infer the stable structure in the inner core and is used to derive thermodynamic properties of the phases (Komabayashi, 2014). In the Fe-Si system, previous reports were based on experiments in laser-heated diamond anvil cells (DAC), which might have included large termperature uncertainties. We have revisited this boundary in the system Fe-Si using an internally resistive-heated DAC combined with synchrotron X-ray diffraction at the beamline ID27, ESRF. The internally-heated DAC (Komabayashi et al., 2009; 2012) provides much more stable heating than the laser-heated DAC and much higher temperature than externally resistive-heated DAC, which enables us to place tight constraints on the P-T locations of the boundaries. Also because the minimum measurable temperature is as low as 1000 K due to the stable electric heating, the internal heating is able to examine the low temperature phase stability which was not studied by the previous studies. We will report the P-T locations of the boundaries and evaluate the effect of Si on the phase

  10. Novel active signal compression in low-noise analog readout at future X-ray FEL facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manghisoni, M.; Comotti, D.; Gaioni, L.; Lodola, L.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Vacchi, C.

    2015-04-01

    This work presents the design of a low-noise front-end implementing a novel active signal compression technique. This feature can be exploited in the design of analog readout channels for application to the next generation free electron laser (FEL) experiments. The readout architecture includes the low-noise charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) with dynamic signal compression, a time variant shaper used to process the signal at the preamplifier output and a 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The channel will be operated in such a way to cope with the high frame rate (exceeding 1 MHz) foreseen for future XFEL machines. The choice of a 65 nm CMOS technology has been made in order to include all the building blocks in the target pixel pitch of 100 μm. This work has been carried out in the frame of the PixFEL Project funded by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Italy.

  11. A family of chaotic pure analog coding schemes based on baker's map function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Jing; Lu, Xuanxuan; Yuen, Chau; Wu, Jun

    2015-12-01

    This paper considers a family of pure analog coding schemes constructed from dynamic systems which are governed by chaotic functions—baker's map function and its variants. Various decoding methods, including maximum likelihood (ML), minimum mean square error (MMSE), and mixed ML-MMSE decoding algorithms, have been developed for these novel encoding schemes. The proposed mirrored baker's and single-input baker's analog codes perform a balanced protection against the fold error (large distortion) and weak distortion and outperform the classical chaotic analog coding and analog joint source-channel coding schemes in literature. Compared to the conventional digital communication system, where quantization and digital error correction codes are used, the proposed analog coding system has graceful performance evolution, low decoding latency, and no quantization noise. Numerical results show that under the same bandwidth expansion, the proposed analog system outperforms the digital ones over a wide signal-to-noise (SNR) range.

  12. Digital Sensor Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Ken D.; Quinn, Edward L.; Mauck, Jerry L.

    The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy and reliability. This paper, which refers to a final report issued in 2013, demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. Improved accuracy results from the superior operating characteristics of digital sensors. These include improvements in sensor accuracy and drift and other related parameters which reduce total loop uncertainty and thereby increase safety and operating margins. Anmore » example instrument loop uncertainty calculation for a pressure sensor application is presented to illustrate these improvements. This is a side-by-side comparison of the instrument loop uncertainty for both an analog and a digital sensor in the same pressure measurement application. Similarly, improved sensor reliability is illustrated with a sample calculation for determining the probability of failure on demand, an industry standard reliability measure. This looks at equivalent analog and digital temperature sensors to draw the comparison. The results confirm substantial reliability improvement with the digital sensor, due in large part to ability to continuously monitor the health of a digital sensor such that problems can be immediately identified and corrected. This greatly reduces the likelihood of a latent failure condition of the sensor at the time of a design basis event. Notwithstanding the benefits of digital sensors, there are certain qualification issues that are inherent with digital technology and these are described in the report. One major qualification impediment for digital sensor implementation is software common cause failure (SCCF).« less

  13. Calculation Package: Derivation of Facility-Specific Derived Air Concentration (DAC) Values in Support of Spallation Neutron Source Operations

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, David A

    Derived air concentration (DAC) values for 175 radionuclides* produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), but not listed in Appendix A of 10 CFR 835 (01/01/2009 version), are presented. The proposed DAC values, ranging between 1 E-07 {micro}Ci/mL and 2 E-03 {micro}Ci/mL, were calculated in accordance with the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and are intended to support an exemption request seeking regulatory relief from the 10 CFR 835, Appendix A, requirement to apply restrictive DACs of 2E-13 {micro}Ci/mL and 4E-11 {micro}Ci/mL and for non-listed alpha and non-alpha-emitting radionuclides, respectively.

  14. Artifacts in Radar Imaging of Moving Targets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    CA, USA, 2007. [11] B. Borden, Radar imaging of airborne targets: A primer for Applied mathematicians and Physicists . New York, NY: Taylor and... Project (0704–0188) Washington DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 21 September 2012 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED...CW Continuous Wave DAC Digital to Analog Convertor DFT Discrete Fourier Transform FBP Filtered Back Projection FFT Fast Fourier Transform GPS

  15. Digital video technology, today and tomorrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberman, J.

    1994-10-01

    Digital video is probably computing's fastest moving technology today. Just three years ago, the zenith of digital video technology on the PC was the successful marriage of digital text and graphics with analog audio and video by means of expensive analog laser disc players and video overlay boards. The state of the art involves two different approaches to fully digital video on computers: hardware-assisted and software-only solutions.

  16. Quarter-Rate Superconducting Modulator for Improved High Resolution Analog-to-Digital Converter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    third pulse to Output B2, and the fourth to Output C2. The fifth pulse goes to Output B1 and the pattern continues. The inductances LQA , LQB, LQC...inductance LQA . Junction JL1A is now biased with the loop phase being equal to – π. In the bottom left demultiplexer, junctions JR1B and JL2B are

  17. Guided-Wave Optic Devices for Integrated Optic Information Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-08

    Modulation and switching of light waves in Yttrium iron garnet (YIG)- Gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG) waveguides using Farady rotation , and light...switch, an electrooptic analog-to-digital converter using a Fabry -Perot modula- tor array, and a noncollinear magnetooptic modulator using magnetostatic...data routing in electronic computer networks. ELECTROOPTIC ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTER USING CHANNEL WAVEGUIDE FABRY -PEROT MODULATOR ARRAY One of the

  18. Cameras for digital microscopy.

    PubMed

    Spring, Kenneth R

    2013-01-01

    This chapter reviews the fundamental characteristics of charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and related detectors, outlines the relevant parameters for their use in microscopy, and considers promising recent developments in the technology of detectors. Electronic imaging with a CCD involves three stages--interaction of a photon with the photosensitive surface, storage of the liberated charge, and readout or measurement of the stored charge. The most demanding applications in fluorescence microscopy may require as much as four orders of greater magnitude sensitivity. The image in the present-day light microscope is usually acquired with a CCD camera. The CCD is composed of a large matrix of photosensitive elements (often referred to as "pixels" shorthand for picture elements, which simultaneously capture an image over the entire detector surface. The light-intensity information for each pixel is stored as electronic charge and is converted to an analog voltage by a readout amplifier. This analog voltage is subsequently converted to a numerical value by a digitizer situated on the CCD chip, or very close to it. Several (three to six) amplifiers are required for each pixel, and to date, uniform images with a homogeneous background have been a problem because of the inherent difficulties of balancing the gain in all of the amplifiers. Complementary metal oxide semiconductor sensors also exhibit relatively high noise associated with the requisite high-speed switching. Both of these deficiencies are being addressed, and sensor performance is nearing that required for scientific imaging. Copyright © 1998 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Distributing digital video to multiple computers

    PubMed Central

    Murray, James A.

    2004-01-01

    Video is an effective teaching tool, and live video microscopy is especially helpful in teaching dissection techniques and the anatomy of small neural structures. Digital video equipment is more affordable now and allows easy conversion from older analog video devices. I here describe a simple technique for bringing digital video from one camera to all of the computers in a single room. This technique allows students to view and record the video from a single camera on a microscope. PMID:23493464

  20. Second Workshop on Improvements to Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The papers in these proceedings show that a major effort is under way to improve all aspects of photometry. Astronomical multichannel photometry, photodiodes, analog-to-digital converters, data reduction techniques, interference filters and optical fibers are discussed.

  1. A 6-bit 4 GS/s pseudo-thermometer segmented CMOS DAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yijun, Song; Wenyuan, Li

    2014-06-01

    A 6-bit 4 GS/s, high-speed and power-efficient DAC for ultra-high-speed transceivers in 60 GHz band millimeter wave technology is presented. A novel pseudo-thermometer architecture is proposed to realize a good compromise between the fast conversion speed and the chip area. Symmetrical and compact floor planning and layout techniques including tree-like routing, cross-quading and common-centroid method are adopted to guarantee the chip is fully functional up to near-Nyquist frequency in a standard 0.18 μm CMOS process. Post simulation results corroborate the feasibility of the designed DAC, which canperform good static and dynamic linearity without calibration. DNL errors and INL errors can be controlled within ±0.28 LSB and ±0.26 LSB, respectively. SFDR at 4 GHz clock frequency for a 1.9 GHz near-Nyquist sinusoidal output signal is 40.83 dB and the power dissipation is less than 37 mW.

  2. Digital Audio Sampling for Film and Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Michael J.

    Digital audio sampling is explained, and some of its implications in digital sound applications are discussed. Digital sound equipment is rapidly replacing analog recording devices as the state-of-the-art in audio technology. The philosophy of digital recording involves doing away with the continuously variable analog waveforms and turning the…

  3. Improved performance of analog and digital acousto-optic modulation with feedback under profiled beam propagation for secure communication using chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almehmadi, Fares S.; Chatterjee, Monish R.

    2014-12-01

    Using intensity feedback, the closed-loop behavior of an acousto-optic hybrid device under profiled beam propagation has been recently shown to exhibit wider chaotic bands potentially leading to an increase in both the dynamic range and sensitivity to key parameters that characterize the encryption. In this work, a detailed examination is carried out vis-à-vis the robustness of the encryption/decryption process relative to parameter mismatch for both analog and pulse code modulation signals, and bit error rate (BER) curves are used to examine the impact of additive white noise. The simulations with profiled input beams are shown to produce a stronger encryption key (i.e., much lower parametric tolerance thresholds) relative to simulations with uniform plane wave input beams. In each case, it is shown that the tolerance for key parameters drops by factors ranging from 10 to 20 times below those for uniform plane wave propagation. Results are shown to be at consistently lower tolerances for secure transmission of analog and digital signals using parameter tolerance measures, as well as BER performance measures for digital signals. These results hold out the promise for considerably greater information transmission security for such a system.

  4. A flexible 32-channel time-to-digital converter implemented in a Xilinx Zynq-7000 field programmable gate array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yonggang; Kuang, Jie; Liu, Chong; Cao, Qiang; Li, Deng

    2017-03-01

    A high performance multi-channel time-to-digital converter (TDC) is implemented in a Xilinx Zynq-7000 field programmable gate array (FPGA). It can be flexibly configured as either 32 TDC channels with 9.9 ps time-interval RMS precision, 16 TDC channels with 6.9 ps RMS precision, or 8 TDC channels with 5.8 ps RMS precision. All TDCs have a 380 M Samples/second measurement throughput and a 2.63 ns measurement dead time. The performance consistency and temperature dependence of TDC channels are also evaluated. Because Zynq-7000 FPGA family integrates a feature-rich dual-core ARM based processing system and 28 nm Xilinx programmable logic in a single device, the realization of high performance TDCs on it will make the platform more widely used in time-measuring related applications.

  5. FPGA-based digital signal processing for the next generation radio astronomy instruments: ultra-pure sideband separation and polarization detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvear, Andrés.; Finger, Ricardo; Fuentes, Roberto; Sapunar, Raúl; Geelen, Tom; Curotto, Franco; Rodríguez, Rafael; Monasterio, David; Reyes, Nicolás.; Mena, Patricio; Bronfman, Leonardo

    2016-07-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) capacity and Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) speed have largely increased in the last decade. Nowadays we can find one million or more logic blocks (slices) as well as several thousand arithmetic units (ALUs/DSP) available on a single FPGA chip. We can also commercially procure ADC chips reaching 10 GSPS, with 8 bits resolution or more. This unprecedented power of computing hardware has allowed the digitalization of signal processes traditionally performed by analog components. In radio astronomy, the clearest example has been the development of digital sideband separating receivers which, by replacing the IF hybrid and calibrating the system imbalances, have exhibited a sideband rejection above 40dB; this is 20 to 30dB higher than traditional analog sideband separating (2SB) receivers. In Rodriguez et al.,1 and Finger et al.,2 we have demonstrated very high digital sideband separation at 3mm and 1mm wavelengths, using laboratory setups. We here show the first implementation of such technique with a 3mm receiver integrated into a telescope, where the calibration was performed by quasi-optical injection of the test tone in front of the Cassegrain antenna. We also reported progress in digital polarization synthesis, particularly in the implementation of a calibrated Digital Ortho-Mode Transducer (DOMT) based on the Morgan et al. proof of concept.3 They showed off- line synthesis of polarization with isolation higher than 40dB. We plan to implement a digital polarimeter in a real-time FPGA-based (ROACH-2) platform, to show ultra-pure polarization isolation in a non-stop integrating spectrometer.

  6. Fast Low-Cost Multiple Sensor Readout System

    DOEpatents

    Carter-Lewis, David; Krennich, Frank; Le Bohec, Stephane; Petry, Dirk; Sleege, Gary

    2004-04-06

    A low resolution data acquisition system is presented. The data acquisition system has a plurality of readout modules serially connected to a controller. Each readout module has a FPGA in communication with analog to digital (A/D) converters, which are connected to sensors. The A/D converter has eight bit or lower resolution. The FPGA detects when a command is addressed to it and commands the A/D converters to convert analog sensor data into digital data. The digital data is sent on a high speed serial communication bus to the controller. A graphical display is used in one embodiment to indicate if a sensor reading is outside of a predetermined range.

  7. Genetic algorithms for GNC settings and DACS design application to an asteroid Kinetic Impactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernis, P.; Oliviero, V.

    2018-06-01

    This paper deals with an application of Genetic Algorithm (GA) tools in order to perform and optimize the settings phase of the Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) data set for the endgame phase of a Kinetic Impactor (KI) targeting a medium-size Near Earth Object (NEO). A coupled optimization of the GNC settings and of the GC-oriented design of the Divert and Attitude Control System (DACS) is also proposed. The illustration of the developed principles is made considering the NEOShield study frame.

  8. A counting-weighted calibration method for a field-programmable-gate-array-based time-to-digital converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan-Ho

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we propose a counting-weighted calibration method for field-programmable-gate-array (FPGA)-based time-to-digital converter (TDC) to provide non-linearity calibration for use in positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. To deal with the non-linearity in FPGA, we developed a counting-weighted delay line (CWD) to count the delay time of the delay cells in the TDC in order to reduce the differential non-linearity (DNL) values based on code density counts. The performance of the proposed CWD-TDC with regard to linearity far exceeds that of TDC with a traditional tapped delay line (TDL) architecture, without the need for nonlinearity calibration. When implemented in a Xilinx Vertix-5 FPGA device, the proposed CWD-TDC achieved time resolution of 60 ps with integral non-linearity (INL) and DNL of [-0.54, 0.24] and [-0.66, 0.65] least-significant-bit (LSB), respectively. This is a clear indication of the suitability of the proposed FPGA-based CWD-TDC for use in PET scanners.

  9. Electronics for Deep Space Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, R. L.; Hammond, A.; Dickman, J. E.; Gerber, S. S.; Elbuluk, M. E.; Overton, E.

    2002-01-01

    Deep space probes and planetary exploration missions require electrical power management and control systems that are capable of efficient and reliable operation in very cold temperature environments. Typically, in deep space probes, heating elements are used to keep the spacecraft electronics near room temperature. The utilization of power electronics designed for and operated at low temperature will contribute to increasing efficiency and improving reliability of space power systems. At NASA Glenn Research Center, commercial-off-the-shelf devices as well as developed components are being investigated for potential use at low temperatures. These devices include semiconductor switching devices, magnetics, and capacitors. Integrated circuits such as digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters, DC/DC converters, operational amplifiers, and oscillators are also being evaluated. In this paper, results will be presented for selected analog-to-digital converters, oscillators, DC/DC converters, and pulse width modulation (PWM) controllers.

  10. A CCD Monolithic LMS Adaptive Analog Signal Processor Integrated Circuit.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    adaptive filter with electrically- reprogrammable MOS analog conductance weights. I The analog and digital peripheral MOS on-chip circuits are provided with...electrically reprogrammable analog weights at tap positions along a CCD analog delay line in order to form a basic linear combiner for adaptive filtering...electrically reprogrammable analog conductance weights was introduced with the use of non-volatile MNOS memory 6-7 transistors biased in their triode

  11. Optical analog data link with simple self-test feature

    DOEpatents

    Witkover, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    A communications circuit for optically transmitting analog data signals free of excessive ripple, while having rapid response time. The invention is further characterized by being adapted to provide an immediate indication of the failure of the optical transmission link of the circuit. Commercially available voltage to frequency converter chips are used in conjunction with suitable wiring arrays and in combination with readily available indicator means for constructing the communication circuit of the invention. A V/F converter in the communications circuit is coupled to an offset adjustment means to cause the converter to continuously produce a string of output voltage pulses having a frequency of about 1 Khz responsive to the input analog signal to the converter being zero. The continuous presence of the 1 Khz frequency on the optical transmission link is monitored at the receiving end of the communication circuit and the indicator means is connected to immediately provide an easily detected indication of a failure of the optical transmission link to transmit the 1 Khz frequency pulses.

  12. Optical analog data link with simple self-test feature

    DOEpatents

    Witkover, R.L.

    1984-02-01

    A communications circuit for optically transmitting analog data signals free of excessive ripple, while having rapid response time. The invention is further characterized by being adapted to provide an immediate indication of the failure of the optical transmission link of the circuit. Commerically available voltage to frequency converter chips are used in conjunction with suitable wiring arrays and in combination with readily available indicator means for constructing the communication circuit of the invention. A V/F converter in the communications circuit is coupled to an offset adjustment means to cause the converter to continuously produce a string of output voltage pulses having a frequency of about 1Khz responsive to the input analog signal to the converter being zero. The continuous presence of the 1Khz frequency on the optical transmission link is monitored at the receiving end of the communication circuit and the indicator means is connected to immediately provide an easily detected indication of a failure of the optical transmission link to transmit the 1Khz frequency pulses.

  13. Low-to-Medium Power Single Chip Digital Controlled DC-DC Regulator for Point-of-Load Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adell, Philippe C. (Inventor); Bakkaloglu, Bertan (Inventor); Vermeire, Bert (Inventor); Liu, Tao (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A DC-DC converter for generating a DC output voltage includes: a digitally controlled pulse width modulator (DPWM) for controlling a switching power stage to supply a varying voltage to an inductor; and a digital voltage feedback circuit for controlling the DPWM in accordance with a feedback voltage corresponding to the DC output voltage, the digital voltage feedback circuit including: a first voltage controlled oscillator for converting the feedback voltage into a first frequency signal and to supply the first frequency signal to a first frequency discriminator; a second voltage controlled oscillator for converting a reference voltage into a second frequency signal and to supply the second frequency signal to a second frequency discriminator; a digital comparator for comparing digital outputs of the first and second frequency discriminators and for outputting a digital feedback signal; and a controller for controlling the DPWM in accordance with the digital feedback signal.

  14. The SIRIUS mixed analog-digital ASIC developed for the LOFT LAD and WFM instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cros, A.; Rambaud, D.; Moutaye, E.; Ravera, L.; Barret, D.; Caïs, P.; Clédassou, R.; Bodin, P.; Seyler, J. Y.; Bonzo, A.; Feroci, M.; Labanti, C.; Evangelista, Y.; Favre, Y.

    2014-07-01

    We report on the development and characterization of the low-noise, low power, mixed analog-digital SIRIUS ASICs for both the LAD and WFM X-ray instruments of LOFT. The ASICs we developed are reading out large area silicon drift detectors (SDD). Stringent requirements in terms of noise (ENC of 17 e- to achieve an energy resolution on the LAD of 200 eV FWHM at 6 keV) and power consumption (650 μW per channel) were basis for the ASICs design. These SIRIUS ASICs are developed to match SDD detectors characteristics: 16 channels ASICs adapted for the LAD (970 microns pitch) and 64 channels for the WFM (145 microns pitch) will be fabricated. The ASICs were developed with the 180nm mixed technology of TSMC.

  15. Security and Privacy in a DACS.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Jaime; Llorente, Silvia; Pàmies, Martí; Vilalta, Josep

    2016-01-01

    The management of electronic health records (EHR), in general, and clinical documents, in particular, is becoming a key issue in the daily work of Healthcare Organizations (HO). The need for providing secure and private access to, and storage for, clinical documents together with the need for HO to interoperate, raises a number of issues difficult to solve. Many systems are in place to manage EHR and documents. Some of these Healthcare Information Systems (HIS) follow standards in their document structure and communications protocols, but many do not. In fact, they are mostly proprietary and do not interoperate. Our proposal to solve the current situation is the use of a DACS (Document Archiving and Communication System) for providing security, privacy and standardized access to clinical documents.

  16. An All-Digital Fast Tracking Switching Converter with a Programmable Order Loop Controller for Envelope Tracking RF Power Amplifiers

    PubMed Central

    Anabtawi, Nijad; Ferzli, Rony; Harmanani, Haidar M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a step down, switched mode power converter for use in multi-standard envelope tracking radio frequency power amplifiers (RFPA). The converter is based on a programmable order sigma delta modulator that can be configured to operate with either 1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th order loop filters, eliminating the need for a bulky passive output filter. Output ripple, sideband noise and spectral emission requirements of different wireless standards can be met by configuring the modulator’s filter order and converter’s sampling frequency. The proposed converter is entirely digital and is implemented in 14nm bulk CMOS process for post layout verification. For an input voltage of 3.3V, the converter’s output can be regulated to any voltage level from 0.5V to 2.5V, at a nominal switching frequency of 150MHz. It achieves a maximum efficiency of 94% at 1.5 W output power. PMID:28919657

  17. Scaling single-wavelength optical interconnects to 180 Gb/s with PAM-M and pulse shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dris, Stefanos; Bakopoulos, Paraskevas; Argyris, Nikolaos; Spatharakis, Christos; Avramopoulos, Hercules

    2016-03-01

    Faced with surging datacenter traffic demand, system designers are turning to multi-level optical modulation with direct detection as the means of reaching 100 Gb/s in a single optical lane; a further upgrade to 400 Gb/s is envisaged through wavelength-multiplexing of multiple 100 Gb/s strands. In terms of modulation formats, PAM-4 and PAM-8 are considered the front-runners, striking a good balance between bandwidth-efficiency and implementation complexity. In addition, the emergence of energy-efficient, high-speed CMOS digital-to-analog converters (DACs) opens up new possibilities: Spectral shaping through digital filtering will allow squeezing even more data through low-cost, low-bandwidth electro-optic components. In this work we demonstrate an optical interconnect based on an EAM that is driven directly with sub-volt electrical swing by a 65 GSa/s arbitrary waveform generator (AWG). Low-voltage drive is particularly attractive since it allows direct interfacing with the switch/server ASIC, eliminating the need for dedicated, power-hungry and expensive electrical drivers. Single-wavelength throughputs of 180 and 120 Gb/s are experimentally demonstrated with 60 Gbaud optical PAM-8 and PAM-4 respectively. Successful transmission over 1250 m SMF is achieved with direct-detection, using linear equalization via offline digital signal processing in order to overcome the strong bandwidth limitation of the overall link (~20 GHz). The suitability of Nyquist pulse shaping for optical interconnects is also investigated experimentally with PAM-4 and PAM-8, at a lower symbol rate of 40 Gbaud (limited by the sampling rate of the AWG). To the best of our knowledge, the rates achieved are the highest ever using optical PAM-M formats.

  18. Design of a CMOS readout circuit on ultra-thin flexible silicon chip for printed strain gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsobky, Mourad; Mahsereci, Yigit; Keck, Jürgen; Richter, Harald; Burghartz, Joachim N.

    2017-09-01

    Flexible electronics represents an emerging technology with features enabling several new applications such as wearable electronics and bendable displays. Precise and high-performance sensors readout chips are crucial for high quality flexible electronic products. In this work, the design of a CMOS readout circuit for an array of printed strain gauges is presented. The ultra-thin readout chip and the printed sensors are combined on a thin Benzocyclobutene/Polyimide (BCB/PI) substrate to form a Hybrid System-in-Foil (HySiF), which is used as an electronic skin for robotic applications. Each strain gauge utilizes a Wheatstone bridge circuit, where four Aerosol Jet® printed meander-shaped resistors form a full-bridge topology. The readout chip amplifies the output voltage difference (about 5 mV full-scale swing) of the strain gauge. One challenge during the sensor interface circuit design is to compensate for the relatively large dc offset (about 30 mV at 1 mA) in the bridge output voltage so that the amplified signal span matches the input range of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The circuit design uses the 0. 5 µm mixed-signal GATEFORESTTM technology. In order to achieve the mechanical flexibility, the chip fabrication is based on either back thinned wafers or the ChipFilmTM technology, which enables the manufacturing of silicon chips with a thickness of about 20 µm. The implemented readout chip uses a supply of 5 V and includes a 5-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC), a differential difference amplifier (DDA), and a 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR) ADC. The circuit is simulated across process, supply and temperature corners and the simulation results indicate excellent performance in terms of circuit stability and linearity.

  19. Dynamic diamond anvil cell (dDAC): A novel device for studying the dynamic-pressure properties of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, William J.; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Lee, Geun Woo; Cynn, Hyunchae; Lipp, Magnus J.; Visbeck, Ken

    2007-07-01

    We have developed a unique device, a dynamic diamond anvil cell (dDAC), which repetitively applies a time-dependent load/pressure profile to a sample. This capability allows studies of the kinetics of phase transitions and metastable phases at compression (strain) rates of up to 500GPa/s (˜0.16s-1 for a metal). Our approach adapts electromechanical piezoelectric actuators to a conventional diamond anvil cell design, which enables precise specification and control of a time-dependent applied load/pressure. Existing DAC instrumentation and experimental techniques are easily adapted to the dDAC to measure the properties of a sample under the varying load/pressure conditions. This capability addresses the sparsely studied regime of dynamic phenomena between static research (diamond anvil cells and large volume presses) and dynamic shock-driven experiments (gas guns, explosive, and laser shock). We present an overview of a variety of experimental measurements that can be made with this device.

  20. Detectability of neural tracts and nuclei in the brainstem utilizing 3DAC-PROPELLER.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Taro; Okamoto, Kouichirou; Matsuzawa, Hitoshi; Terumitsu, Makoto; Nakada, Tsutomu; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2014-01-01

    Despite clinical importance of identifying exact anatomical location of neural tracts and nuclei in the brainstem, no neuroimaging studies have validated the detectability of these structures. The aim of this study was to assess the detectability of the structures using three-dimensional anisotropy contrast-periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (3DAC-PROPELLER) imaging. Forty healthy volunteers (21 males, 19 females; 19-53 years, average 23.4 years) participated in this study. 3DAC-PROPELLER axial images were obtained with a 3T-MR system at four levels of the brainstem: the lower midbrain, upper and lower pons, and medulla oblongata. Three experts independently judged whether five tracts (corticospinal tract, medial lemniscus, medial longitudinal fasciculus, central tegmental and spinothalamic tracts) and 10 nuclei (oculomotor and trochlear nuclei, spinal trigeminal, abducens, facial, vestibular, hypoglossal, prepositus, and solitary nuclei, locus ceruleus, superior and inferior olives) on each side could be identified. In total, 240 assessments were made. The five tracts and eight nuclei were identified in all the corresponding assessments, whereas the locus ceruleus and superior olive could not be identified in 3 (1.3%) and 16 (6.7%) assessments, respectively. 3DAC-PROPELLER seems extremely valuable imaging method for mapping out surgical strategies for brainstem lesions. Copyright © 2013 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.