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Sample records for digoxin

  1. Interference of hawthorn on serum digoxin measurements by immunoassays and pharmacodynamic interaction with digoxin.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Amitava; Kidd, Laura; Poindexter, Brian J; Bick, Roger J

    2010-08-01

    Hawthorn is an herb indicated for treating cardiac illness. Because a patient taking digoxin may also take hawthorn, we investigated potential interference of hawthorn in serum digoxin measurements using immunoassays as well as pharmacodynamic interaction between hawthorn and digoxin. Hawthorn contains alkaloids that are structurally similar to digoxin and may interfere with serum digoxin measurement using immunoassays. In addition, hawthorn has cardioactive properties similar to digoxin. To study potential pharmacodynamic interaction between hawthorn and digoxin. The effects of hawthorn extract on serum digoxin measurements using Digoxin III (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois) and the Tina-Quant digoxin assay (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, Indiana) were investigated using 2 different brands of extract. To study the pharmacodynamic interaction between hawthorn and digoxin, we used an isolated adult rat cardiomyocyte system, measuring calcium transients by real-time fluorescence spectrophotometry. Hawthorn interfered only with the Digoxin III immunoassay but had no effect on the Tina-Quant assay. Both hawthorn extracts increased intracellular calcium levels, but the lack of additive response with digoxin suggests both may bind to the same site of Na, K adenosine triphosphatase. Because of interference of hawthorn with a digoxin immunoassay and pharmacodynamic interaction with digoxin, a patient receiving digoxin should avoid hawthorn.

  2. Assessment of Digoxin-Specific Fab Fragment Dosages in Digoxin Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Nordt, Sean Patrick; Clark, Richard F; Machado, Carol; Cantrell, F Lee

    2016-01-01

    Digoxin poisoning still remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Fortunately, digoxin-specific Fab fragments are commercially available as an antidote. However, these Fab fragments are several thousand dollars per vial. There is a standardized formula to calculate appropriate Fab fragment dosage based on the serum digoxin concentration. This can greatly reduce the amount of Fab fragment administered. There is also an empiric dosing guideline recommending 6-10 vials be given; however, this may result in higher amounts of Fab fragments being administered than required. We performed this study to assess the amounts of digoxin-specific Fab fragments administered in the treatment of digoxin poisonings recorded in a poison control system database from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2009, in which digoxin serum concentrations were available. This was a retrospective study of 278 patients, 107 with acute poisonings (group A) and 171 following chronic poisoning (group B). In group A, the calculated Fab dose was higher than the calculated dose based on available concentrations in 39 (36%) of group A and 15 (9%) of group B patients. The average wholesale price cost of the excessive dosages ranged from $4818 to as high as $50,589 per patient. Our data suggests that clinician education on digoxin poisoning and the use of the standardized formula to calculate the Fab dose may decrease over utilization and decrease costs associated with the administration of digoxin-specific Fab fragments in the treatment of digoxin poisonings.

  3. Digoxin use and digoxin toxicity in the post-DIG trial era.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Zainal; Swindle, Jason; Hauptman, Paul J

    2006-06-01

    The advent of medical therapies for congestive heart failure that have proven survival benefits, specifically angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-adrenergic antagonists, and the aldosterone antagonists, have called into question the use of digoxin for patients with normal sinus rhythm, left ventricular dysfunction, and symptomatic heart failure. This issue appears to have been heightened after the publication of the results of the Digitalis Investigation Group (DIG) Trial in 1997 that did not demonstrate a statistically significant impact of digoxin on mortality. We used data from a large heart failure registry to examine digoxin use at the time of hospital admission for heart failure, a surveillance system for recording toxic drug exposures to describe patterns in digoxin toxicity and industry estimates for the use of digoxin antibody. Digoxin use has decreased significantly from 31.4% in late 2001 to 23.5% in late 2004 (P < .00001) independent of patient age, gender, or baseline creatinine. Conversely, the number of toxic or potentially toxic exposures to digoxin requiring hospitalization has not decreased. Digoxin use is decreasing but there has not been a similar decline in cases of toxicity. Further analyses are required to delineate the reasons underlying these trends and the appropriateness of prescribing practices for both digoxin and its antidote.

  4. Digoxin therapy

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, J. K.; Grahame-Smith, D. G.

    1976-01-01

    1 Recommendations for correct therapy with digoxin from twenty-five sources are reviewed. 2 Some recommendations may be unsuitable for use with high bioavailability tablets; some are accompanied by insufficient data relating to factors affecting both the response to digoxin and its handling by the body. 3 Guidelines based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles are suggested to help decide optimal digoxin treatment schedules in the presence and absence of non-cardiac disease. PMID:22216507

  5. Effect of Asian and Siberian ginseng on serum digoxin measurement by five digoxin immunoassays. Significant variation in digoxin-like immunoreactivity among commercial ginsengs.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Amitava; Wu, Sang; Actor, Jeffrey; Olsen, Margaret; Wells, Alice; Datta, Pradip

    2003-02-01

    Asian and Siberian ginsengs contain glycosides with structural similarities to digoxin. We studied potential interference of ginseng in 5 digoxin immunoassays in 3 Asian (2 liquid extracts, 1 capsule) and 3 Siberian ginseng preparations (1 liquid extract, 2 capsules). With the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA), we observed apparent digoxin activity in 1 Asian liquid preparation and in the liquid extract and 1 capsule form of Siberian ginseng. In mice fed ginseng, we observed digoxin activities in the serum (Asian, 0.48-0.68 ng/mL [0.6-0.9 nmol/L]; Siberian, 0.20-0.47 ng/mL [0.3-0.6 nmol/L]), indicating that such interferences also occur in vivo. Serum pools prepared from samples from patients receiving digoxin and then supplemented with Asian or Siberian ginseng showed falsely increased digoxin values using the FPIA (e.g., for Asian ginseng, 1.54 ng/mL [2.0 nmol/L] vs control value, 1.10 ng/mL [1.4 nmol/L]) and falsely decreased values using the microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA; 0.73 ng/mL [0.9 nmol/L] vs control value, 1.04 ng/mL [1.3 nmol/L]). Digoxin-like immunoreactive substances (DLISs) showed synergistic effects with ginsengs in interfering with the FPIA and MEIA for digoxin. No interference was observed with 3 other digoxin assays, even in the presence of elevated DLISs.

  6. Treatment of chronically digoxin-poisoned patients with a newer digoxin immune fab--a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Tammi H; Mlynarchek, Sara L; Stanford, Christopher F; Delgado, João; Holstege, Christopher P; Olsen, Dean; Bogdan, Gregory M

    2010-10-01

    Digoxin is used in the treatment of patients with cardiac dysfunction, though toxicity sometimes results from the use of this medication. In 1986, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a digoxin immune Fab for the treatment of such patients. In 2001, the FDA approved a newer digoxin immune Fab, a digoxin-specific antibody (DSAb) known as DigiFab (Protherics Inc, Brentwood, Tennessee), though minimal literature exists on the clinical effects of this DSAb. To characterize a cohort of patients presenting with chronic digoxin toxicity and to describe the clinical course of these patients with the use of DSAb. A retrospective study included patients with life-threatening cardiotoxicity and serum digoxin level greater than 2 ng/mL who were treated at two US hospitals from 2003 to 2006. Trained investigators abstracted data from patients' medical records and assessed changes in clinical and laboratory parameters at regular intervals (0-4, >4-12, >12-24, and >24-72 hours) after treatment with DSAb. An expert panel reviewed electrocardiogram results to identify life-threatening manifestations of digoxin toxicity before and after DSAb treatment. Efficacy of treatment was assessed as rates of improvement in clinical parameters and cardiotoxic effects. Rates of adverse drug reactions were used to characterize safety. All data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Fourteen patients (mean [SD] age, 71.3 [10.4] years) were treated for chronic digoxin toxicity. At presentation, 12 patients had a heart rate of less than 45 beats per minute, 1 had third-degree heart block, and 1 had asystole. Mean serum digoxin level was 3.6 ng/mL. Eleven patients had abnormal renal function. After administration of DSAb, clinical parameters improved in all patients. Within 24 hours, cardiotoxicity resolved in 7 of 9 evaluable patients. Two adverse drug reactions possibly related to DigiFab occurred, both of which resolved with conventional measures. Two patients died from

  7. Exposure to sennoside-digoxin interaction and risk of digoxin toxicity: a population-based nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng-Ting; Li, I-Hsun; Lee, Wan-Ju; Huang, Tien-Yu; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Chan, Agnes L F

    2011-11-01

    Digoxin is an important medication for heart failure (HF) patients and sennosides are widely used to treat constipation. Recently, safety concerns have been raised about a possible interaction between sennosides and digoxin, an issue that has not been studied empirically. This study therefore aimed to evaluate whether exposure to sennoside-digoxin interaction is associated with an increased risk of digoxin toxicity. This was a population-based nested case-control study that analysed data obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2004. All HF patients treated with digoxin for the first time were included as the study cohort. Of these, cases were identified as subjects hospitalized for digoxin toxicity (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, ICD-9-CM 972.1), and matched to randomly selected controls. Use of sennosides was compared between the two groups. Odds ratios (ORs) were employed to quantify the risk associated with exposure to sennoside-digoxin interaction by conditional logistic regression. The study cohort comprised 222,527 HF patients, of whom 524 were identified as cases and 2,502 as matched controls. Use of sennosides during the 14 days preceding the index date was found to be associated with a 1.61-fold increased risk of digoxin toxicity [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15, 2.25]. Additionally, a greater risk was observed for sennosides prescribed at an average daily dose ≥ 24 mg (adjusted OR = 1.93; 95% CI = 1.27, 2.94). The combined use of sennosides and digoxin was found to be associated with a modest increased risk of digoxin toxicity in HF patients.

  8. [Pharmacokinetics of digoxin in hyperthyroidism. Effect of methimazole].

    PubMed

    Izbicka, Maria; Gasińska, Teresa; Dec, Renata

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular abnormalities may be the only manifestations of overt hyperthyroidism. In patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation digoxin can be beneficial in controlling the symptoms and signs, but hyperthyroid patients show an impaired response or even resistance to digoxin treatment. The aim of the study is to establish: 1. Are there any differences in the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of digoxin between hypertyroid and euthyroid patients? 2. Does simultaneous administration of digoxin and methimazole affect the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of dogoxin? 3. Does methimazole-induced euthyroidism change the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of digoxin? The subject of the study were 28 patients with hyperthyroidism and 15 healthy persons. We evaluated the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of digoxin. Moreover we evaluated pharmacokinetics of a single dose of digoxin after simultaneous administration of digoxin and methimazole in 12 patients and 12 methimazole treated patients werere-assessed once they had become euthyroid. Hyperthyroid patients showed significantly lower serum digoxin concentrations, shorter T1/2 beta and a significantly smaller area under the concentration curve (AUC) that the control group. Administration of methimazole did not affect digoxin pharmacokinetics. In hyperthyroid patients: 1. the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of digoxin does differ from that observed in healthy subjects. 2.methimazole do not alter digoxin pharmacokinetics.

  9. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and sleep.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-04-01

    The isoprenoid path way produces endogenous digoxin, a substance that can regulate neurotransmitter and amino acid transport. Digoxin synthesis and neurotransmitter patterns were assessed in individuals with chronic insomnia. The patterns were compared in those with right hemispheric and left hemispheric dominance. The activity of HMG GoA reductase and serum levels of digoxin, magnesium, tryptophan catabolites, and tyrosine catabolites were measured in individuals with chronic insomnia and in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance. Digoxin synthesis was increased with upregulated tryptophan catabolism (increased levels of serotonin, strychnine, and nicotine), and downregulated tyrosine catabolism (decreased levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and morphine) in those with chronic insomnia and right hemispheric chemical dominance. Digoxin synthesis was reduced with downregulated tryptophan catabolism (decreased levels of serotonin, strychnine, and nicotine) and upregulated tyrosine catabolism (increased levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and morphine) in those with normal sleep patterns and left hemispheric chemical dominance. Hypothalamic digoxin plays a central role in the regulation of sleep behavior. Hemispheric chemical dominance in relation to digoxin status is also crucial.

  10. Elderly patients with suspected chronic digoxin toxicity: A comparison of clinical characteristics of patients receiving and not receiving digoxin-Fab.

    PubMed

    Arbabian, Hooman; Lee, Hwee Min; Graudins, Andis

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare clinical features of patients with elevated serum digoxin concentrations who were treated with digoxin-Fab with those where the immunotherapy was not given by a tertiary hospital toxicology service. This was a retrospective series of patients with supratherapeutic serum digoxin concentrations referred to the toxicology service from August 2013 to October 2015. Data collected included demographics, presenting complaint, digoxin dose, other medications taken, serum digoxin, potassium and creatinine concentration on presentation and initial and post-digoxin-Fab heart rate. There were 47 referrals. Digoxin-Fab was administered in 21 cases. It was given more commonly when the heart rate was <51/min or serum potassium was >5.0 mmol/L. Patients receiving digoxin-Fab were more likely to be on maintenance therapy with beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers (95% vs 61%; OR 13.1; 95% CI 1.5-113) and/or potassium-sparing medications (95% vs 54%; OR 17.1; 95% CI 2.0-147). They had elevated serum creatinine (76% vs 42%; OR 8.2; 95% CI 1.9-34), higher serum potassium (median: 5.1 mmol/L vs 4.2 mmol/L, P = 0.02), higher serum digoxin concentration (median: 3.5 nmol/L vs 2.3 nmol/L, P = 0.02) and pretreatment heart rate <51/min (66% vs 31%; OR 4.5; 95% CI 1.3-15). There were no patients with ventricular arrhythmias or hypotension. Median heart rate increased by 10/min 1 and 4 h after digoxin-Fab. However, individual heart rate response to digoxin-Fab was variable. Digoxin-Fab was more commonly administered when heart rate was <51/min. It had a small effect on increasing heart rate; however, individual response to digoxin-Fab was variable as patients were using other negative chronotropic medications. In symptomatic bradycardic patients on multiple heart failure medications, positive chronotropic and potassium-lowering therapies should be considered in concert with digoxin-Fab. © 2018 Australasian College for

  11. Digoxin therapy: textbooks, theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Aronson, J K; Grahame-Smith, D G

    1976-08-01

    Recommendations for correct therapy with digoxin from twenty-five sources are reviewed. Some recommendations may be unsuitable for use with high bioavailability tablets; some are accompanied by insufficient data relating to factors affecting both the response to digoxin and its handling by the body. Guidelines based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles are suggested to help decide optimal digoxin treatment schedules in the presence and absence of non-cardiac disease.

  12. 21 CFR 862.3320 - Digoxin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Digoxin test system. 862.3320 Section 862.3320...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3320 Digoxin test system. (a) Identification. A digoxin test system is a device intended to measure...

  13. 21 CFR 862.3320 - Digoxin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Digoxin test system. 862.3320 Section 862.3320...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3320 Digoxin test system. (a) Identification. A digoxin test system is a device intended to measure...

  14. 21 CFR 862.3320 - Digoxin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Digoxin test system. 862.3320 Section 862.3320...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3320 Digoxin test system. (a) Identification. A digoxin test system is a device intended to measure...

  15. 21 CFR 862.3320 - Digoxin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Digoxin test system. 862.3320 Section 862.3320...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3320 Digoxin test system. (a) Identification. A digoxin test system is a device intended to measure...

  16. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and creativity.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-04-01

    The human hypothalamus produces an endogenous membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase inhibitor, digoxin, which regulates neuronal transmission. The digoxin status and neurotransmitter patterns were studied in creative and non-creative individuals, as well as in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance, in order to find out the role of cerebral dominance in this respect. The activity of HMG CoA reductase and serum levels of digoxin, magnesium, tryptophan catabolites, and tyrosine catabolites were measured in creative/non-creative individuals, and in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance. In creative individuals there was increased digoxin synthesis, decreased membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, increased tryptophan catabolites (serotonin, quinolinic acid, and nicotine), and decreased tyrosine catabolites (dopamine, noradrenaline, and morphine). The pattern in creative individuals correlated with right hemispheric dominance. In non-creative individuals there was decreased digoxin synthesis, increased membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, decreased tryptophan catabolites (serotonin, quinolinic acid, and nicotine), and increased tyrosine catabolites (dopamine, noradrenaline, and morphine). This pattern in non-creative individuals correlated with that obtained in left hemispheric chemical dominance. Hemispheric chemical dominance and hypothalamic digoxin could regulate the predisposition to creative tendency.

  17. The erythrocyte sodium and potassium in patients treated with digoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, D B; Cumberbatch, M; Cohn, S; Scott, D; Gunasuntharam, T; Davidson, C; Chapman, C

    1980-01-01

    1 Four healthy persons and ten patients with heart failure were studied for 5 to 20 days after they started taking digoxin. The sodium content of their erythrocytes increased and there was an equimolar decrease in potassium content. 2 The increase in erythrocyte sodium for a given increase in plasma digoxin during this acute digitalization was less on average and varied more in the patients than in the healthy persons, that is the patients' erythrocytes were less responsive to digoxin. 3 The average erythrocyte sodium was greater in 183 patients who had been taking digoxin for at least 2 months than in 100 healthy persons not taking digoxin but there was no significant correlation between the plasma digoxin concentrations and erythrocyte sodium concentration in the patients. Indeed, there was no apparent change in the erythrocyte sodium in many of the patients taking digoxin. 4 If the erythrocyte sodium concentration is a reliable guide to the tissue effects of digoxin then the results suggest that there is a wide variation in the response to digoxin between patients both during acute digitalization and during chronic treatment with digoxin. PMID:7426274

  18. Interaction between digoxin and dronedarone in the PALLAS trial.

    PubMed

    Hohnloser, Stefan H; Halperin, Jonathan L; Camm, A John; Gao, Peggy; Radzik, David; Connolly, Stuart J

    2014-12-01

    Elevated serum digoxin concentration can cause toxicity, including death. Dronedarone increases digoxin concentration by P-glycoprotein interaction. In Permanent Atrial Fibrillation Outcome Study Using Dronedarone On Top Of Standard Therapy Trial (PALLAS), dronedarone was associated with both increased cardiovascular death and heart failure in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation. The present analysis examines whether the dronedarone-digoxin interaction might explain these adverse outcomes. Subgroup analysis was performed to compare outcomes of patients on digoxin at baseline or not. In PALLAS, 1619 patients were randomized to dronedarone and 1617 to placebo, of whom 544 (33.6%) and 526 (32.5%) were receiving digoxin, respectively. Median (Q1,Q3) digoxin serum concentration on day 7 was 1.1 (0.7,1.5) ng/mL on dronedarone and 0.7 (0.5,1.1) ng/mL on placebo (P<0.001). Among patients on digoxin, there were 15 (8.6%/year) cardiovascular deaths on dronedarone and 2 (1.2%/year) on placebo (adjusted hazard ratio, 7.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.66-32.20; P=0.009). Among patients not on digoxin, there were 6 cardiovascular deaths on dronedarone (1.7%/year) and 8 on placebo (2.2%/year; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-1.95; P=0.46; interaction P value 0.01). In patients on digoxin, there were 11 arrhythmic deaths on dronedarone and none on placebo; and in patients not on digoxin, there were 2 arrhythmic deaths on dronedarone and 4 on placebo (P value for interaction 0.002). There was no interaction between baseline digoxin use and the adverse effect of dronedarone on heart failure events. In PALLAS, there was a strong effect of concurrent digoxin use on the adverse effect of dronedarone on cardiovascular death, but not on occurrence of heart failure. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01151137. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Digoxin test

    MedlinePlus

    Heart failure - digoxin test ... Mann DL. Management of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of ...

  20. 21 CFR 862.3320 - Digoxin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862... diagnosis and treatment of digoxin overdose and in monitoring levels of digoxin to ensure appropriate...

  1. Digoxin and bepridil: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions.

    PubMed

    Belz, G G; Wistuba, S; Matthews, J H

    1986-01-01

    The influence of bepridil on steady-state serum digoxin concentrations (SDCs) and the pharmacodynamic actions of both drugs were tested in 48 healthy subjects in a randomized, double-blind study. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups of 24 subjects each: One group received placebo 1, while the other received digoxin, 0.375 mg/day, loaded with doubled doses on days 1 and 2, for 14 days. After 7 days the groups were subdivided into four groups of 12 subjects each and received concurrent dosing of digoxin with either placebo 2 or bepridil, 300 mg/day, loaded with 900 mg on day 8. Mean (+/- SD) SDCs rose during concurrent bepridil dosing from 0.93 +/- 0.22 to 1.25 +/- 0.25 ng/ml (P less than 0.001). Noninvasive cardiovascular parameters from ECG, systolic time intervals, and electrical impedance cardiography were not influenced by the placebos. Digoxin and bepridil reduced heart rate and prolonged the PQ interval because of negative chronotropic and dromotropic properties. Positive inotropism from digoxin shortened the corrected electromechanical systole (QS2c) and the preejection period and increased impedance cardiography [(dZ/dt)/RZ index]; the opposite effects occurred after bepridil, indicating negative inotropism. The QT interval corrected for heart rate (QTc) showed a similar pattern of changes, as did QS2c for each drug. Concurrent dosing of both drugs resulted in an addition of their chronotropic effects, whereas the dromotropic effects of each drug alone was not intensified. The strengthened digoxin effect from the increased SDC diminished the negative inotropic effect of bepridil. Overall, drug coadministration resulted in a nearly unchanged digoxin-induced positive inotropism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Anti-digoxin Fab variants generated by phage display.

    PubMed

    Murata, Viviane Midori; Schmidt, Mariana Costa Braga; Kalil, Jorge; Tsuruta, Lilian Rumi; Moro, Ana Maria

    2013-06-01

    Digoxin is a pharmaceutical used in the control of cardiac dysfunction. Its therapeutic window is narrow, with effect dosage very close to the toxic dosage. To counteract the toxic effect, polyclonal Fab fragments are commercially available. Our study is based on a monoclonal anti-digoxin antibody, which would provide a product with a specific potency and more precise dosage for the detoxification of patients under digoxin treatment. Phage display technology was used to select variants with high affinity. From an anti-digoxin hybridoma, RNA was extracted for subsequent cDNA synthesis. Specific primers were used for the LC and Fd amplifications, then cloned sequentially in a phagemid vector (pComb3X) for the combinatorial Fab library construction. Clones were selected for their ability to bind to digoxin-BSA. The presence of light and heavy chains was checked, randomly selected clones then sequenced and induced to produce soluble Fabs, and subsequently analyzed for anti-digoxin expression. Out of ten clones randomly chosen, six resulted positive expression of the product. The sequencing of these revealed two identical clones and one presenting a pseudogene in the LC. Four clones presenting variations in the framework1 showed binding to digoxin-BSA by ELISA and western blotting. The specific binding was further confirmed by Biacore(®), which allowed ranking of the clones. The development of these clones allowed the selection of variants with higher affinity than the original version.

  3. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-08-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces an endogenous membrane Na+-K+ ATPase inhibitor, digoxin, which can regulate neurotransmitter and amino acid transport. Digoxin synthesis and neurotransmitter patterns were assessed in eating disorders. The patterns were compared in those with right hemispheric and left hemispheric dominance. The serum HMG CoA reductase activity, RBC membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity, serum digoxin, magnesium, tryptophan catabolites (serotonin, quinolinic acid, strychnine, and nicotine), and tyrosine catabolites (morphine, dopamine, and noradrenaline) were measured in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, right hemispheric dominant, left hemispheric dominant, and bihemispheric dominant individuals. Digoxin synthesis was increased with upregulated tryptophan catabolism and downregulated tyrosine catabolism in those with anorexia nervosa and right hemispheric chemical dominance. Digoxin synthesis was reduced with downregulated tryptophan catabolism and upregulated tyrosine catabolism in those with bulimia nervosa and left hemispheric chemical dominance. The membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity and serum magnesium were decreased in anorexia nervosa and right hemispheric chemical dominance while they were increased in bulimia nervosa and left hemispheric chemical dominance. Hypothalamic digoxin and hemispheric chemical dominance play a central role in the regulation of eating behavior. Anorexia nervosa represents the right hemispheric chemically dominant/hyperdigoxinemic state and bulimia nervosa the left hemispheric chemically dominant/hypodigoxinemic state.

  4. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and spirituality.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-03-01

    The isoprenoid pathway was assessed in atheistic and spiritually inclined individuals. The pathway was also assessed in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance to assess whether hemispheric dominance has a correlation with spiritual and atheistic tendency. HMG CoA reductase activity, serum digoxin, RBC membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, serum magnesium, and tyrosine/tryptophan catabolic patterns were assessed in spiritual/atheistic individuals and in those differing hemispheric dominance. In spiritually-inclined individuals, there was increased digoxin synthesis, decreased membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, increased tryptophan catabolites (serotonin, quinolinic acid, and nicotine), and decreased tyrosine catabolites (dopamine, noradrenaline, and morphine). The pattern in spiritually-inclined individuals correlated with right hemispheric chemical dominance. In atheistic individuals there was decreased digoxin synthesis, increased membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, decreased tryptophan catabolities (serotonin, quinolinic acid, and nicotine), and increased tyrosine catabolites (dopamine, noradrenaline, and morphine). This pattern in atheistic individuals correlated with that obtained in left hemispheric chemical dominance. Hemispheric chemical dominance and hypothalamic digoxin could regulate the predisposition to spirituality or atheism.

  5. A hypothalamic digoxin-mediated model for autism.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-11-01

    The isoprenoid pathway and its metabolites--digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone--were assessed in autism. The isoprenoid pathway and digoxin status was also studied for comparison in individuals of differing hemispheric dominance to determine the role of cerebral dominance in the genesis of autism. There was an upregulation of the isoprenoid pathway as evidenced by elevated HMG CoA reductase activity in autism. Digoxin, an endogenous Na+-K+ ATPase inhibitor secreted by the hypothalamus, was found to be elevated and RBC membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity was found to be reduced in autism. Membrane Na+-K+ ATPase inhibition can result in increased intracellular Ca2+ and reduced magnesium levels. Hypothalamic digoxin can modulate conscious and subliminal perception and its dysfunction may lead to autism. Digoxin can also preferentially upregulate tryptophan transport over tyrosine resulting in increased levels of depolarizing tryptophan catabolites--serotonin, quinolinic acid (NMDA agonist), strychnine (blocks glycinergic inhibitory transmission), and nicotine (promotes dopamine release) and decreased levels of hyperpolarizing tyrosine catabolites--dopamine, noradrenaline, and morphine--contributing to membrane Na+-K+ ATPase inhibition. Increased nicotine levels can produce increased dopaminergic transmission in the presence of low dopamine levels. NMDA excitotoxicity could result from hypomagnesemia induced by membrane Na+-K+ ATPase inhibition and quinolinic acid, an NMDA agonist acting on the NMDA receptor. Hypomagnesemia and increased dolichol level can affect glycoconjugate metabolism and membranogenesis leading on to disordered synaptic connectivity in the limbic allocortex and defective presentation of viral antigens and neuronal antigens contributing to autoimmunity and viral persistence important in the pathogenesis. Membrane Na+-K+ ATPase inhibition can produce immune activation, a component of autoimmunity. Mitochondrial dysfunction consequent to altered calcium

  6. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Sugammadex for Digoxin Intoxication: An Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Ozbilgin, Sule; Yurtlu, Derya Aslan; Küçükoztaş, Beyza; Kamacı, Gonca; Korkut, Sezen; Yurtlu, Bülent Serhan; Ensari Güneli, M; Hancı, Volkan; Günerli, Ali

    2018-03-16

    Previous studies have shown that cyclodextrin group medicines bind to various drugs. The hypothesis of our study is to determine whether sugammadex could bind to digoxin and delay the cardiovascular toxicity of that drug. Twenty-eight sedated Wistar rats were infused with digoxin at 3 mg/h (0.25 mg/ml). Five minutes after the start of infusion, animals were treated with a bolus of either 16 mg/kg (Sgdx16), 100 mg/kg (Sgdx100), or 1000 mg/kg (Sgdx1000) sugammadex. The control group infusion did not contain sugammadex. Heart rate, electrocardiography, and respiratory rate were monitored. The primary endpoint was time to asystole. Digoxin infusion continued until the animals arrested. The time to asystole for the Sgdx1000 group was significantly longer compared to that for the control group (p < 0.05). The mean lethal dose of digoxin was 5.35 ± 2.06 mg/kg in the saline-treated rats. On the other hand, the mean lethal dose of digoxin was 8.54 ± 1.51 mg/kg in the sugammadex 1000 group (p < 0.05). The mean lethal dose of digoxin was significantly higher than control group (p < 0.05). We found that the 1000 mg/kg dose of sugammadex delayed digoxin cardiotoxicity in a rat model of digoxin toxicity. We conclude that further research must be conducted on the interaction between digoxin and sugammadex.

  7. Preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibody against digoxin.

    PubMed

    Kashanian, S; Rasaee, M J; Paknejad, M; Omidfar, K; Pour-Amir, M; Rajabi, Bazl M

    2002-10-01

    Mouse-mouse hybridoma cell lines producing stable, highly specific and with good affinity monoclonal antibody (MAb) against the cardiac glycoside digoxin were established. Balb/c mice were immunized via injection of digoxin-3'-bovine serum albumin (BSA). The spleens of which were fused with myeloma cells of SP2/0 origin. Three clones designated as BBA, MBE, and BMG producing good antibodies displayed different patterns of fine specificity for digoxin and low cross-reaction with several digoxin analogues as elucidated by inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). All three MAbs were of the same class and subclass (IgG(1)). Affinity purification was performed for the selected clone BBA displaying the highest affinity and nearly no cross-reactivity with any of the structurally related molecules. Ultrafiltered concentrated hybrid cell supernatant was also purified by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 precipitation for large-scale preparation and coated onto the wells of microtiter plates. The standard curve was constructed with a sensitivity of 10 pg/well covering up to 10 ng/well.

  8. Effect of the traditional Chinese medicines Chan Su, Lu-Shen-Wan, Dan Shen, and Asian ginseng on serum digoxin measurement by Tina-quant (Roche) and Synchron LX system (Beckman) digoxin immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Chow, Leonard; Johnson, Myrtle; Wells, Alice; Dasgupta, Amitava

    2003-01-01

    Chan Su, Lu-Shen-Wan, Dan Shen, and Asian ginseng are traditionally used to treat a number of conditions, including cardiovascular disease. All of these traditional Chinese medicines exhibit cardioactive properties. Digoxin is a cardioactive drug with a narrow therapeutic range (0.8-1.9 ng/mL). A patient taking digoxin may also take these Chinese medicines for their cardiotonic effects. Moreover, the active components of these medicines that are responsible for cardiotonic effects bear structural similarities to digoxin. Therefore, we studied the potential interference of these Chinese medicines with two digoxin immunoassays--the Tina-quant (Roche Diagnostics) and the Beckman (Synchron LX system)--and compared the values with the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA; Abbott Laboratories). When very small amounts (2-5 microL) of aqueous extract of Chan Su or Lu-Shen-Wan were added to drug-free serum, we observed high digoxin-like immunoreactivity with the FPIA. In contrast, when ethyl acetate extract of Dan Shen or microliter amounts of ginseng extract were added to drug-free serum, we observed modest digoxin-like immunoreactivity with the FPIA, but no apparent digoxin activity with the Roche and Beckman digoxin immunoassays. When aliquots of a digoxin pool prepared from patients receiving digoxin were supplemented with these Chinese medicines, we observed the most significant interference with the FPIA. The presence of endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactive substances can have additive effects with these Chinese medicines and falsely increase apparent digoxin levels by the FPIA. On the other hand, the Roche and Beckman assays were free from interference from DLIS but showed significant interference from Chan Su and Lu-Shen-Wan. We conclude that the FPIA showed the most significant interference from all four of the Chinese medicines we studied. However, the Roche and Beckman assays showed no interference from two (Dan Shen and Asian ginseng) of the four

  9. Investigation of possible interference by digoxin-like immunoreactive substances on the Architect iDigoxin CMIA in serum samples from pregnant women, and patients with liver disease, renal insufficiency, critical illness, and kidney and liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Lampon, Natalia; Pampin, Fernando; Tutor, J Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Although the possible interference of digoxin-like immunoreactive substances (DLIS) on the Architect iDigoxin chemiluminiscent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) has been emphasized by the manufacturer, a specific study about this subject has still not been carried out. Apparent serum digoxin concentrations were determined using the Architect iDigoxin CMIA from Abbott Laboratories in digoxin-free pregnant women (n = 50), and patients with liver disease (n = 50), renal insufficiency (n = 50), kidney (n = 25) or liver (n = 25) transplant, and critical illness (n = 50). In all of the patients included in this study, apparent serum digoxin concentrations were lower than the correspondent quantification limit (< 0.30 microg/L). The Architect iDigoxin CMIA assay would be relatively free from endogenous DLIS positive interferences.

  10. Effects of digoxin on cardiac iron content in rat model of iron overload.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Hamid Reza; Shahouzehi, Beydolah; Masoumi-Ardakani, Yaser; Iranpour, Maryam

    2016-07-01

    Plasma iron excess can lead to iron accumulation in heart, kidney and liver. Heart failure is a clinical widespread syndrome. In thalassemia, iron overload cardiomyopathy is caused by iron accumulation in the heart that leads to cardiac damage and heart failure. Digoxin increases the intracellular sodium concentration by inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase that affects Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX), which raises intracellular calcium and thus attenuates heart failure. The mechanism of iron uptake into cardiomyocytes is not exactly understood. We assessed the effect of different concentrations of digoxin on cardiac iron content in rat model of iron overload. Digoxin had been administrated intraperitoneally (IP) for one week before main study began to assure increased digoxin levels. Group 1 received four IP injections of iron-dextran (12.5mg/100g body weight) every 5 days evenly distributed over 20 days. Groups 2-4 received 0.5, 1 and 5 mg/kg/day IP digoxin, respectively. Last three groups 5-7 received iron-dextran as group 1 and digoxin concentrations 0.5, 1 and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively. Cardiac iron contents were significantly higher in iron overload groups that received different concentrations (0.5, 1 and 5 mg/kg/day) of digoxin than their counterparts in control groups and this pattern was also observed in pathology assessment. It seems that digoxin plays an important role in iron transport into heart in iron overload state but exact mechanism of this phenomenon is not clear. L-type Ca2+ channels are good candidates that probably could be involved in iron accumulation in cardiomyocytes. Thus it would be better to reconsider digoxin administration in thalassemia and iron overload conditions.

  11. Digoxin: use pattern in Estonia and bioavailability of the local market leader.

    PubMed

    Pähkla, R; Irs, A; Oselin, K; Rootslane, L

    1999-10-01

    In comparison with neighbouring Scandinavian countries, the use of digoxin in Estonia is high. The present study was carried out to determine the use pattern of digoxin in Estonia and bioavailability of the local market leader preparation in comparison with Lanoxin. Drug use data were evaluated from the annual reports of wholesale companies. For the bioequivalence study, a single-blind cross-over randomised two-way single-dose comparative bioavailability study was performed using 14 healthy volunteers. Digoxin concentrations in serum samples and urine were measured by chemiluminescent competitive immunoassay. The use of digoxin in Estonia has increased by 35% during the period 1994-97. The steady market leader was the local generic drug. No statistically significant differences were found in any pharmacokinetic parameter between the generic preparation and Lanoxin. All parameters showed considerable variability. The total amount of drug excreted was the parameter with lowest inter- individual variation. The present study indicates that the generic digoxin preparation studied is bioequivalent to Lanoxin. The increasing use of digoxin in Estonia is not caused by low bioavailability of the local market leader but by therapeutic traditions.

  12. Digoxin Is Associated With Increased Shock Events and Electrical Storms in Patients With Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Mina, George S; Acharya, Madan; Shepherd, Taylor; Gobrial, George; Tekeste, Michael; Watti, Hussam; Bhandari, Ruchi; Saini, Aditya; Reddy, Pratap; Dominic, Paari

    2018-03-01

    Recently, digoxin use has been found to associate with higher mortality. Yet, potential mechanisms by which digoxin use increases mortality remain unclear. Increased arrhythmogenicity from digoxin use is one possibility. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the relation between digoxin and shock events in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients with ICDs and at least 1 device interrogation at our institution between January 1, 2012, and January 1, 2015. We aimed to cover 1 year of interrogation period. Patients with heart failure, atrial fibrillation, or both were included in the analysis. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on digoxin use, defined as use of digoxin for any period of time during ICD interrogation period. Incidence of ICD shock events and electrical storms and hospitalizations were compared between the 2 groups. The study included 202 patients. Of those, 55 patients were on digoxin and 147 were not on digoxin. Patients on digoxin were more likely to receive ICD shocks (odds ratio [OR] = 2.5, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.01-6.18, P = .04) and have increased risk of electrical storms ( P = .02). Moreover, total hospitalizations were higher in digoxin users ( P = .02). Multivariate logistic regression analysis also showed that digoxin use was an independent predictor of shock events (OR = 4.07, 95% CI = 1.43-11.58, P = .009). Digoxin is associated with increased shock events and electrical storms in patients with ICDs; however, large randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  13. Clinical evaluation of P-glycoprotein inhibition by venetoclax: a drug interaction study with digoxin.

    PubMed

    Chiney, Manoj S; Menon, Rajeev M; Bueno, Orlando F; Tong, Bo; Salem, Ahmed Hamed

    2018-09-01

    1. Venetoclax is a novel, small molecule B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) inhibitor that has demonstrated clinical efficacy in a variety of haematological malignancies. Since venetoclax is an inhibitor of P glycoprotein (P-gp) transporter, a study was conducted in healthy, female volunteers to evaluate the effect of venetoclax on the pharmacokinetics of digoxin, a P-gp probe substrate. 2. Volunteers received a single oral dose of digoxin (0.5 mg) with or without a single oral dose of venetoclax (100  mg). Serial blood samples were obtained for pharmacokinetic assessments of digoxin and venetoclax and serial urine samples were obtained for measurement of digoxin concentrations. Safety was assessed throughout the study. 3. Coadministration of digoxin and venetoclax increased digoxin maximum observed plasma concentration (C max ) by 35% and area under the plasma-concentration time curve (AUC 0-∞) by 9%. Digoxin half-life, renal clearance and the fraction excreted unchanged in urine remained relatively similar. The results of this study indicate that venetoclax can increase the concentrations of P-gp substrates. Narrow therapeutic index P-gp substrates should be administered six hours prior to venetoclax to minimise the potential interaction.

  14. Digoxin use and the risk of cancers of the corpus uteri, ovary and cervix.

    PubMed

    Biggar, Robert J; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads

    2012-08-01

    Digoxin is a phyto-estrogen capable of inducing hormonal effects. Use has been associated with increased risk of breast cancer, an estrogen-sensitive malignancy. The incidence of corpus uteri (uterus) cancer is also strongly increased with exposure to estrogens. Therefore, we evaluated whether digoxin use might also increase its incidence. In all women in Denmark, we identified digoxin users from 1995 through 2008 using a nationwide pharmacy registry system. Cancer occurrence was obtained from Danish Cancer Registry. Relative risk was determined using incidence risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) relative to non-users after adjustment for age- and calendar-time. For ovarian and cervical cancers, RRs in users and non-users were similarly evaluated, these cancers representing gynecological cancers with weak or no associations to estrogen exposure. Of 2.1 million women, 104,648 (4.9%) had digoxin exposure and 137,493 6.5% had exposure to angina drugs but not digoxin during the study period. For uterus cancer, the RR was increased in current digoxin users (1.48, 95% CI: 1.32-1.65; N = 350). Incidence was marginally increased in former users. For ovary and cervix cancers, RRs in current digoxin users were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.92-1.22; N = 207) and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.79-1.25; N = 81), respectively. We examined risks in women using angina drugs but not digoxin to determine whether being under cardiac care affected risk. Among women using angina drugs only, RRs for uterus, ovary or cervix cancers were not statistically significant. We conclude that women currently using digoxin, a phyto-estrogen, have an increased risk of developing uterus cancers. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  15. Interaction study between digoxin and a preparation of hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha).

    PubMed

    Tankanow, Roberta; Tamer, Helen R; Streetman, Daniel S; Smith, Scott G; Welton, Janice L; Annesley, Thomas; Aaronson, Keith D; Bleske, Barry E

    2003-06-01

    Hawthorn, an herbal supplement, is currently being evaluated for the treatment of heart failure. The flavonoid components of hawthorn may be responsible for hawthorn's beneficial effects in the treatment of heart failure. However, these components may also affect P-glycoprotein function and cause interactions with drugs that are P-glycoprotein substrates, such as digoxin, which is also used to treat heart failure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of hawthorn on digoxin pharmacokinetic parameters. A randomized, crossover trial with 8 healthy volunteers was performed evaluating digoxin 0.25 mg alone (D) for 10 days and digoxin 0.25 mg with Crataegus special extract WS 1442 (hawthorn leaves with flowers; Dr. Willmar Schwabe Pharmaceuticals) 450 mg twice daily (D + H) for 21 days. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed for 72 hours. There were no statistically significant differences in any measured pharmacokinetic parameters. The AUC0-infinity, Cmax-Cmin, Cmin, and renal clearance for the D group were 79 +/- 26 mcg.h/L, 1.4 +/- 0.7 mcg/L, 0.84 +/- 0.2 mcg/L, and 74 +/- 10 mL/min versus 73 +/- 20 mcg.h/L, 1.1 +/- 0.1 mcg/L, 0.65 +/- 0.2 mcg/L, and 81 +/- 22 mL/min for the D + H group, respectively (p > 0.05). Following 3 weeks of concomitant therapy, hawthorn did not significantly alter the pharmacokinetic parameters for digoxin. This suggests that both hawthorn and digoxin, in the doses and dosage form studied, may be coadministered safely.

  16. Studies on cerebral protection of digoxin against hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kaiwei; Tan, Danfeng; He, Miao; Guo, Dandan; Huang, Juan; Wang, Xia; Liu, Chentao; Zheng, Xiangrong

    2016-08-17

    Hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) is a major cause of neonatal acute deaths and chronic nervous system damage. Our present study was designed to investigate the possible neuroprotective effect of digoxin-induced pharmacological preconditioning after hypoxia-ischemia and underlying mechanisms. Neonatal rats were assigned randomly to control, HIBD, or HIBD+digoxin groups. Pharmacological preconditioning was induced by administration of digoxin 72 h before inducing HIBD by carotid occlusion+hypoxia. Behavioral assays, and neuropathological and apoptotic assessments were performed to examine the effects; the expression of Na/K ATPase was also assessed. Rats in the HIBD group showed deficiencies on the T-maze, radial water maze, and postural reflex tests, whereas the HIBD+digoxin group showed significant improvements on all behavioral tests. The rats treated with digoxin showed recovery of pathological conditions, increased number of neural cells and proliferative cells, and decreased number of apoptotic cells. Meanwhile, an increased expression level of Na/K ATPase was observed after digoxin preconditioning treatment. The preconditioning treatment of digoxin contributed toward an improved functional recovery and exerted a marked neuroprotective effect including promotion of cell proliferation and reduction of apoptosis after HIBD, and the neuroprotective action was likely associated with increased expression of Na/K ATPase.

  17. Production and characterization of recombinant scFv against digoxin by phage display technology.

    PubMed

    Alirezapour, Behruz; Rajabibazl, Masoumeh; Rasaee, Mohhamad Javad; Omidfar, Kobra

    2013-06-01

    The cardiac glycoside digoxin is widely used for the treatment of congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias. Digoxin is a highly toxic drug and consequently is routinely measured in sera of treated patients. In such cases, antibodies are required against digoxin for detection as well as detoxification purposes. To obtain recombinant single chain antibody against digoxin, RNA was extracted from spleen of BALB/c mice immunized with digoxin-BSA and converted to cDNA. The gene fragment corresponding to the variable regions of the repertoire of antibody genes were amplified by PCR. ScFv construct was generated by randomly joining individual heavy- and light-chain variable domains through gene splicing by overlapping extension PCR. Recombinant phage library expressing scFv polypeptides were produced. Phages with higher affinity toward digoxin were selected in the biopanning process. Sensitivity of produced recombinant MAb (AR85) was determined to be about 100 pg/well, while intact MAb (BBA) produced by hybridoma technology (data not shown) was reported to be around 100 pg/well too. The saturation value for recombinant scFv MAb was found to be 1000 ng/well while that for hybridoma MAb was reported to be 10 ng/well. The affinity constant of recombinant MAb (AR85) towards digoxin was also found to be around ka=3.8×10(7) M(-1) while that for hybridoma MAb (BBA) was reported to be ka=2.6×10(8) M(-1).

  18. Digoxin and prostate cancer survival in the Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaapu, Kalle J; Murtola, Teemu J; Talala, Kirsi; Taari, Kimmo; Tammela, Teuvo Lj; Auvinen, Anssi

    2016-11-22

    Protective effects have been suggested for digoxin against prostate cancer risk. However, few studies have evaluated the possible effects on prostate cancer-specific survival. We studied the association between use of digoxin or beta-blocker sotalol and prostate cancer-specific survival as compared with users of other antiarrhythmic drugs in a retrospective cohort study. Our study population consisted of 6537 prostate cancer cases from the Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer diagnosed during 1996-2009 (485 digoxin users). The median exposure for digoxin was 480 DDDs (interquartile range 100-1400 DDDs). During a median follow-up of 7.5 years after diagnosis, 617 men (48 digoxin users) died of prostate cancer. We collected information on antiarrhythmic drug purchases from the national prescription database. Both prediagnostic and postdiagnostic drug usages were analysed using the Cox regression method. No association was found for prostate cancer death with digoxin usage before (HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.56-1.80) or after (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.43-1.51) prostate cancer diagnosis. The results were also comparable for sotalol and antiarrhythmic drugs in general. Among men not receiving hormonal therapy, prediagnostic digoxin usage was associated with prolonged prostate cancer survival (HR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.86). No general protective effects against prostate cancer were observed for digoxin or sotalol usage.

  19. Cardiac arrhythmias induced by hypokalaemia and potassium loss during maintenance digoxin therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Steiness, E; Olesen, K H

    1976-01-01

    Twelve patients with congestive heart failure receiving maintenance therapy with digoxin and potent diuretics were followed closely during development of hypokalemia and potassium loss. Cardiac arrhythmias compatible with digoxtin toxicity developed in 6 patients in the presence of stable, normal serum digoxin concentrations. The mechanisms involved in the development of the rhythm disturbances are discussed with regard to hypokalaemia, intracellular potassium loss, intra-/extracellular potassium gradients and digoxin, and the significance of maintaining a normal potassium balance in this setting is stressed. PMID:1259829

  20. ITC commentary on the prediction of digoxin clinical drug-drug interactions from in vitro transporter assays.

    PubMed

    Lee, C A; Kalvass, J C; Galetin, A; Zamek-Gliszczynski, M J

    2014-09-01

    The "P-glycoprotein" IC50 working group reported an 18- to 796-fold interlaboratory range in digoxin transport IC50 (inhibitor concentration achieving 50% of maximal inhibition), raising concerns about the predictability of clinical transporter-based drug-drug interactions (DDIs) from in vitro data. This Commentary describes complexities of digoxin transport, which involve both uptake and efflux processes. We caution against attributing digoxin transport IC50 specifically to P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or extending this composite uptake/efflux IC50 variability to individual transporters. Clinical digoxin interaction studies should be interpreted as evaluation of digoxin safety, not P-gp DDIs.

  1. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance and sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Ravi Kumar, A; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2004-06-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites: endogenous digoxin (membrane sodium-potassium ATPase inhibitor, immunomodulator and regulator of neurotransmitter/amino acid transport), dolichol (regulates N-glycosylation of proteins) and ubiquinone (free radical scavenger). The role of the isoprenoid pathway in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis in relation to hemispheric dominance was studied. The isoprenoid pathway-related cascade was assessed in patients with systemic sarcoidosis with pulmonary involvement. The pathway was also assessed in patients with right hemispheric, left hemispheric and bihemispheric dominance for comparison to find out the role of hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. In patients with sarcoidosis there was elevated digoxin synthesis, increased dolichol and glycoconjugate levels and low ubiquinone and elevated free radical levels. There was also an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites. There was an increase in the cholesterol:phospholipid ratio and a reduction in the glycoconjugate level of red blood cell (RBC) membrane in this group of patients. The same biochemical patterns were obtained in individuals with right hemispheric dominance. In individuals with left hemispheric dominance the patterns were reversed. Endogenous digoxin, by activating the calcineurin signal transduction pathway of T cells, can contribute to immune activation in sarcoidosis. An altered glycoconjugate metabolism can lead to the generation of endogenous self-glycoprotein antigens in the lung as well as other tissues. Increased free radical generation can also lead to immune activation. The role of a dysfunctional isoprenoid pathway and endogenous digoxin in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis in relation to right hemispheric chemical dominance is discussed. All the patients with sarcoidosis were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant according to the dichotic listening test, but their biochemical patterns

  2. Comparison of digoxin concentration in plastic serum tubes with clot activator and heparinized plasma tubes.

    PubMed

    Dukić, Lora; Simundić, Ana-Maria; Malogorski, Davorin

    2014-01-01

    Sample type recommended by the manufacturer for the digoxin Abbott assay is either serum collected in glass tubes or plasma (sodium heparin, lithium heparin, citrate, EDTA or oxalate as anticoagulant) collected in plastic tubes. In our hospital samples are collected in plastic tubes. Our hypothesis was that the serum sample collected in plastic serum tube can be used interchangeably with plasma sample for measurement of digoxin concentration. Our aim was verification of plastic serum tubes for determination of digoxin concentration. Concentration of digoxin was determined simultaneously in 26 venous blood plasma (plastic Vacuette, LH Lithium heparin) and serum (plastic Vacuette, Z Serum Clot activator; both Greiner Bio-One GmbH, Kremsmünster, Austria) samples, on Abbott AxSYM analyzer using the original Abbott Digoxin III assay (Abbott, Wiesbaden, Germany). Tube comparability was assessed using the Passing Bablok regression and Bland-Altman plot. Serum and plasma digoxin concentrations are comparable. Passing Bablok intercept (0.08 [95% CI = -0.10 to 0.20]) and slope (0.99 [95% CI = 0.92 to 1.11]) showed there is no constant or proportional error. Blood samples drawn in plastic serum tubes and plastic plasma tubes can be interchangeably used for determination of digoxin concentration.

  3. Comparison of digoxin concentration in plastic serum tubes with clot activator and heparinized plasma tubes

    PubMed Central

    Dukić, Lora; Šimundić, Ana-Maria; Malogorski, Davorin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sample type recommended by the manufacturer for the digoxin Abbott assay is either serum collected in glass tubes or plasma (sodium heparin, lithium heparin, citrate, EDTA or oxalate as anticoagulant) collected in plastic tubes. In our hospital samples are collected in plastic tubes. Our hypothesis was that the serum sample collected in plastic serum tube can be used interchangeably with plasma sample for measurement of digoxin concentration. Our aim was verification of plastic serum tubes for determination of digoxin concentration. Materials and methods: Concentration of digoxin was determined simultaneously in 26 venous blood plasma (plastic Vacuette, LH Lithium heparin) and serum (plastic Vacuette, Z Serum Clot activator; both Greiner Bio-One GmbH, Kremsmünster, Austria) samples, on Abbott AxSYM analyzer using the original Abbott Digoxin III assay (Abbott, Wiesbaden, Germany). Tube comparability was assessed using the Passing Bablok regression and Bland-Altman plot. Results: Serum and plasma digoxin concentrations are comparable. Passing Bablok intercept (0.08 [95% CI = −0.10 to 0.20]) and slope (0.99 [95% CI = 0.92 to 1.11]) showed there is no constant or proportional error. Conclusion: Blood samples drawn in plastic serum tubes and plastic plasma tubes can be interchangeably used for determination of digoxin concentration. PMID:24627723

  4. Pharmacokinetic monitoring of chronic treatment with digoxin from Primary Health Care.

    PubMed

    García-Iranzo, Emma M; Rodríguez-Lucena, Francisco J; Matoses-Chirivella, Carmen; García-Monsalve, Ana; Murcia-López, Ana Cristina; Navarro-Ruiz, Andrés

    2017-07-01

    The serum digoxin concentration (SDC) should be between 0.8 and 2 ng/ml. The objective is to assess the pharmacokinetic monitoring of SDC performed from primary healthcare (PH) in patients with chronic treatment. Cross-sectional retrospective study of patients with chronic treatment with digoxin belonging to the department of a General University Hospital.Data were analized: age, sex, diagnosis, number of serum digoxin concentration determinations, date and origin of the request for monitoring, analytical result and pharmacokinetic assessment are collected. 624 patients are undergoing chronic treatment with digoxin, 68% women, mean age 78.4 (39-98) years. 308 (49.4%) patients haven't analytical determination of SDC (Group 1), 183 (29.3%) patients have a SDC occasionally performed with a request from specialist care (Group 2) and 133 (21,3%) patients have CSD performed with a request from primary healthcare doctors, with an average of 2.42 monitoring per patient and year (Group 3). These are those patients who have pharmacokinetic monitoring of chronic treatment with digoxin. Of the group 2.25 (13.6%) patientes were hospital admission from emergency department for presenting digitalis intoxication with CSD>2 ng/ml, and 39 (21.3%) patients for low dosing with CSD<0.5 ng/ml. Group 3.4 (3%) patients presented digitalis intoxication and 5 (3.8%) for insufficient dosing. A small proportion of patients undergoing chronic treatment with digoxin are under pharmacokinetic monitoring and a reduction in complications derived from inappropriate CSD compared to those not under pharmacokinetic follow-up is observed. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. ROCKET AF adds more concerns about Digoxin safety in patients with atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    ElMaghawry, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    In a recent article in the Journal, we have reviewed the adverse cardiovascular outcomes observed with digoxin use in the PALLAS study.1 The PALLAS study was designed to determine if dronedarone would reduce major vascular events in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF).2 However the study was stopped early because of safety reasons, as a significant number of patients on the dronedarone arm reached the co-primary end point composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, systemic embolism, or cardiovascular death. Data sub-analyses suggested that digoxin-dronedarone interaction was responsible for the higher arrhythmic death rate observed in the trial. These observations are consistent with several other studies that demonstrate the potential hazard of the use of digoxin in heart failure and/or atrial fibrillation. A more recent article published in the Lancet studied the use and outcomes of digoxin in the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) trial.3 The investigators concluded that digoxin treatment was associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality, vascular death, and sudden death in patients with AF. PMID:26779514

  6. Studies on cerebral protection of digoxin against ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Shaminder; Rehni, Ashish K; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar S

    2009-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the possible neuroprotective effect of digoxin induced pharmacological preconditioning (PP) and its probable mechanism. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) of 17 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h was employed to produce ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) induced cerebral injury in male swiss albino mice. Cerebral infarct size was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Memory was assessed using elevated plus maze test. Degree of motor incoordination was evaluated using inclined beam walking test, rota rod test and lateral push test. Digoxin (0.08 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 24 h before surgery in a separate group of animals to induce PP. BCAO followed by reperfusion, produced significant rise in cerebral infarct size along with impairment of memory and motor coordination. Digoxin treatment produced a significant decrease in cerebral infarct size and reversal of I/R induced impairment of memory and motor incoordination. Digoxin induced neuroprotective effect was abolished significantly by verapamil (15 mg/kg, i.p.), a L-type calcium channel blocker, ruthenium red (3 mg/kg, s.c.), an intracellular ryanodine receptor blocker and 3,4-dichlorobenzamil (Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger inhibitor). These findings indicate that digoxin preconditioning exerts a marked neuroprotective effect on the ischemic brain, which is possibly linked to digitalis induced increase in intracellular calcium levels eventually leading to the activation of calcium sensitive signal transduction cascades.

  7. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-09-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--endogenous digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone. It was considered pertinent to assess the pathway in inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and regional ileitis). Since endogenous digoxin can regulate neurotransmitter transport, the pathway and the related cascade were also assessed in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance to find out the role of hemispheric dominance in its pathogenesis. All the patients with inflammatory bowel disease were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. The following parameters were measured in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance: (1) plasma HMG CoA reductase, digoxin, dolichol, ubiquinone, and magnesium levels; (2) tryptophan/tyrosine catabolic patterns; (3) free-radical metabolism; (4) glycoconjugate metabolism; and (5) membrane composition and RBC membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity. Statistical analysis was done by ANOVA. In patients with inflammatory bowel disease there was elevated digoxin synthesis, increased dolichol and glycoconjugate levels, and low ubiquinone and elevated free radical levels. There was also an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites. There was an increase in cholesterol:phospholipid ratio and a reduction in glycoconjugate level of RBC membrane in these groups of patients. Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with an upregulated isoprenoid pathway and elevated digoxin secretion from the hypothalamus. This can contribute to immune activation, defective glycoprotein bowel antigen presentation, and autoimmunity and a schizophreniform psychosis important in its pathogenesis. The biochemical patterns obtained in inflammatory bowel disease is similar to those obtained in left-handed/right hemispheric dominant individuals by the dichotic listening test. But all the patients with peptic ulcer disease were right

  8. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-11-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--endogenous digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone. This was assessed in patients with systemic sarcoidosis. All l5 patients with sarcoidosis were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. The pathway was also studied in normal right hemispheric, left hemispheric, and bihemispheric dominant individuals for comparison to find out the role of hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. In patients with sarcoidosis there was elevated digoxin synthesis, increased dolichol, and glycoconjugate levels, and low ubiquinone and elevated free radical levels. There was also an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites. There was an increase in cholesterol:phospholipid ratio and a reduction in glycoconjugate level of RBC membrane in these patients. The neurotransmitter/digoxin-mediated increased intra cellular calcium induced immune activation, ubiquinone deficiency-related mitochondrial dysfunction/free radical generation, and increased dolichol-related altered glycoconjugate metabolism/endogenous self-glycoprotein antigen generation are crucial to the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. The biochemical patterns obtained in sarcoidosis are similar to those obtained in left-handed/right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals by the dichotic listening test. But all the patients with sarcoidosis were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. Hemispheric chemical dominance has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test. Sarcoidosis occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals and is a reflection of altered brain function.

  9. Effect of Chinese medicines Chan Su, Asian ginseng, Siberian ginseng, and American ginseng on a new digoxin immunoassay based on luminescent oxygen channeling technology.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Amitava; Syklawer, Erica; Johnson, Myrtle; Hwang, Shen-An; Boyd, Sydney A; Actor, Jeffrey K

    2011-10-01

    Chan Su, Asian ginseng, Siberian ginseng, and American ginseng are known to interfere with various digoxin immunoassays. Recently, a homogeneous sequential chemiluminescent assay for digoxin based on the luminescent oxygen channeling technology (LOCI digoxin) for application on the Dimension and Vista platform has been introduced into the market. The effects of interference by Chan Su and various ginsengs on this new immunoassay have not yet been reported. Aliquots of a drug-free serum pool were supplemented with Chan Su, Asian ginseng, Siberian ginseng, and American ginseng representing the expected in vivo concentrations after normal usage and cases of overdose. Serum digoxin concentrations were measured using the LOCI digoxin assay on the Vista 1500 analyzer. We also prepared 3 digoxin pools from patients receiving digoxin. Two digoxin pools were supplemented with these traditional medicines to investigate their effect on serum digoxin measurements. Mice were fed Chan Su extract to determine the potential of in vivo derived interfering factors. The possibility of eliminating interference of Chan Su on serum digoxin measurement was also investigated, by measuring free digoxin concentration after supplementing aliquots of the third digoxin pool with various amounts of Chan Su extract. A clinically significant interference by Chan Su with serum digoxin measurement was observed using the LOCI digoxin assay. The various ginsengs demonstrated negligible effects. In addition, apparent digoxin concentrations were observed in sera of mice after feeding them with Chan Su; the half-life of digoxin-like immunoreactive components was approximately 1 hour. Moreover, serum digoxin concentrations were significantly elevated in the presence of Chan Su, whereas the various ginsengs exhibited no effect. Monitoring free digoxin can only partly eliminate the interference of Chan Su in serum digoxin measurement. Chan Su interferes with serum digoxin measurement using the LOCI Digoxin

  10. Digoxin reveals a functional connection between HIV-1 integration preference and T-cell activation.

    PubMed

    Zhyvoloup, Alexander; Melamed, Anat; Anderson, Ian; Planas, Delphine; Lee, Chen-Hsuin; Kriston-Vizi, Janos; Ketteler, Robin; Merritt, Andy; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Ancuta, Petronela; Bangham, Charles R M; Fassati, Ariberto

    2017-07-01

    HIV-1 integrates more frequently into transcribed genes, however the biological significance of HIV-1 integration targeting has remained elusive. Using a selective high-throughput chemical screen, we discovered that the cardiac glycoside digoxin inhibits wild-type HIV-1 infection more potently than HIV-1 bearing a single point mutation (N74D) in the capsid protein. We confirmed that digoxin repressed viral gene expression by targeting the cellular Na+/K+ ATPase, but this did not explain its selectivity. Parallel RNAseq and integration mapping in infected cells demonstrated that digoxin inhibited expression of genes involved in T-cell activation and cell metabolism. Analysis of >400,000 unique integration sites showed that WT virus integrated more frequently than N74D mutant within or near genes susceptible to repression by digoxin and involved in T-cell activation and cell metabolism. Two main gene networks down-regulated by the drug were CD40L and CD38. Blocking CD40L by neutralizing antibodies selectively inhibited WT virus infection, phenocopying digoxin. Thus the selectivity of digoxin depends on a combination of integration targeting and repression of specific gene networks. The drug unmasked a functional connection between HIV-1 integration and T-cell activation. Our results suggest that HIV-1 evolved integration site selection to couple its early gene expression with the status of target CD4+ T-cells, which may affect latency and viral reactivation.

  11. Digoxin reveals a functional connection between HIV-1 integration preference and T-cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Planas, Delphine; Merritt, Andy; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Ancuta, Petronela; Bangham, Charles R. M.

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 integrates more frequently into transcribed genes, however the biological significance of HIV-1 integration targeting has remained elusive. Using a selective high-throughput chemical screen, we discovered that the cardiac glycoside digoxin inhibits wild-type HIV-1 infection more potently than HIV-1 bearing a single point mutation (N74D) in the capsid protein. We confirmed that digoxin repressed viral gene expression by targeting the cellular Na+/K+ ATPase, but this did not explain its selectivity. Parallel RNAseq and integration mapping in infected cells demonstrated that digoxin inhibited expression of genes involved in T-cell activation and cell metabolism. Analysis of >400,000 unique integration sites showed that WT virus integrated more frequently than N74D mutant within or near genes susceptible to repression by digoxin and involved in T-cell activation and cell metabolism. Two main gene networks down-regulated by the drug were CD40L and CD38. Blocking CD40L by neutralizing antibodies selectively inhibited WT virus infection, phenocopying digoxin. Thus the selectivity of digoxin depends on a combination of integration targeting and repression of specific gene networks. The drug unmasked a functional connection between HIV-1 integration and T-cell activation. Our results suggest that HIV-1 evolved integration site selection to couple its early gene expression with the status of target CD4+ T-cells, which may affect latency and viral reactivation. PMID:28727807

  12. HYPOTHALAMIC DIGOXIN AND SCHIZOPHRENIA - A MODEL FOR CONSCIOUS AND SUBLIMINAL PERCEPTION AND ITS DYSFUNCTION IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Kurup, Ravikumar A.; Augustine, Jyothi; Kurup, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    In view of reports of an upregulated cation pump in genetically related Bipolar Affective Disorders the role of hypothalamic digoxin, an endogenous regulator of the cation pump was studied with special reference to its role as a modulator of glycoprotein synthesis. The study demonstrated elevated serum digoxin levels, elevated HMG CoA reductase activity suggesting increased digoxin synthesis, reduced sodium-potassium ATPase activity and altered sugar residues of serum glycoprotein in schizophrenia. A hypothalamic digoxin mediated model for conscious and subliminal perception is proposed and the significance of its dysfunction due to abnormal glycoprotein induced synaptic connectivity defects in schizophrenia is discussed. PMID:21455390

  13. Pharmacokinetic evaluations of the co-administrations of vandetanib and metformin, digoxin, midazolam, omeprazole or ranitidine.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Susanne; Read, Jessica; Oliver, Stuart; Steinberg, Mark; Li, Yan; Lisbon, Eleanor; Mathews, David; Leese, Philip T; Martin, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Vandetanib is a selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and rearranged during transfection (RET) signalling, indicated for the treatment of medullary thyroid cancer. We investigated potential drug-drug interactions between vandetanib and metformin [organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) substrate; NCT01551615]; digoxin [P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate; NCT01561781]; midazolam [cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 substrate; NCT01544140]; omeprazole (proton pump inhibitor) or ranitidine (histamine H2-receptor antagonist; both NCT01539655). Four open-label, phase I studies were conducted in healthy volunteers: n = 14 (metformin), n = 14 (digoxin), n = 17 (midazolam), n = 16 (omeprazole), n = 18 (ranitidine). Three of these comprised the following regimens: metformin 1000 mg ± vandetanib 800 mg, midazolam 7.5 mg ± vandetanib 800 mg, or digoxin 0.25 mg ± vandetanib 300 mg. The randomized study comprised vandetanib 300 mg alone and then either (i) omeprazole 40 mg (days 1-4), and omeprazole + vandetanib (day 5); or (ii) ranitidine 150 mg (day 1), and ranitidine + vandetanib (day 2). The primary objective assessed metformin, digoxin, midazolam and vandetanib pharmacokinetics. Vandetanib + metformin increased metformin area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC0-∞) and maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) by 74 and 50 %, respectively, and decreased the geometric mean metformin renal clearance (CLR) by 52 % versus metformin alone. Vandetanib + digoxin increased digoxin area under the concentration-time curve from zero to the last quantifiable concentration (AUC0-last) and Cmax by 23 and 29 %, respectively, versus digoxin alone, with only a 9 % decrease in CLR. Vandetanib had no effect on midazolam exposure. Vandetanib exposure was unchanged during co-administration with omeprazole/ranitidine. Treatment combinations were generally

  14. Study of the sensitivity of neonates to digoxin: contribution of erythrocyte /sup 86/Rb uptake test

    SciTech Connect

    Zannad, F.; Marchal, F.; Royer, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    In general, there is little agreement how digoxin should be used in newborn, and the results of studies in this field seem contradictory. This study attempts a quantitative assessment of the number and the sensitivity of cellular receptors for digoxin in the organism, by the in vitro measurement of erythrocyte /sup 86/Rb neonates compared with adults and old people. Red blood cells are first incubated with differing concentrations of digoxin, and then incubated with /sup 86/Rb. The initial level of /sup 86/Rb uptake (Rbi) is that observed in the absence of digoxin. The 50% index of captation (IC50) is themore » digoxin concentration in nanograms per ml at which /sup 86/Rb uptake is half Rbi. Three grups of patients were studied: Group I: 12 neonates, less that 5 days old; Group II: 11 adults (26 to 57 years old); Group III: 9 elderly people (71 to 82 years old). Rbi was significantly lower in neonates (Mean +/- SD: 25.8% +/- 3.5, P less than 0.001) and in the elderly (29.9% +/- 3.1) than in adults (36.8% +/- 4.6). IC50 was significantly lower in the elderly (12.1 mg/ml +/- 2.4) than in the adult patients (20.5 ng/ml +/- 5.5, P less than 0.001). In the newborns, values of IC50 were widely scattered (16.2 ng/ml +/- 7.2). The authors suggest that since Rbi reflects Na+, K+-ATPase activity, this activity is diminished in newborn and old people, and indicates that they have fewer cellular recaptors for digoxin than adults. In the elderly, the low IC50 would imply increased sensitivity to digoxin. In neonates, the wide range of values for IC50 suggests considerable individual variation in sensitivity to digoxin. The results aer consistent with the recently recomnended lower dosages of digoxin i neonates.« less

  15. Effect of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) and black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) supplementation on digoxin pharmacokinetics in humans.

    PubMed

    Gurley, Bill J; Barone, Gary W; Williams, D Keith; Carrier, Julie; Breen, Philip; Yates, C Ryan; Song, Peng-fei; Hubbard, Martha A; Tong, Yudong; Cheboyina, Sreekhar

    2006-01-01

    Phytochemical-mediated modulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and other drug transporters may underlie many herb-drug interactions. Serial serum concentration-time profiles of the P-gp substrate, digoxin, were used to determine whether supplementation with milk thistle or black cohosh modified P-gp activity in vivo. Sixteen healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive a standardized milk thistle (900 mg daily) or black cohosh (40 mg daily) supplement for 14 days, followed by a 30-day washout period. Subjects were also randomized to receive rifampin (600 mg daily, 7 days) and clarithromycin (1000 mg daily, 7 days) as positive controls for P-gp induction and inhibition, respectively. Digoxin (Lanoxicaps, 0.4 mg) was administered orally before and at the end of each supplementation and control period. Serial digoxin serum concentrations were obtained over 24 h and analyzed by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Comparisons of area under the serum concentration time curves from 0 to 3 h (AUC(0-3)), AUC(0-24), Cmax, apparent oral clearance of digoxin (CL/F), and elimination half-life were used to assess the effects of milk thistle, black cohosh, rifampin, and clarithromycin on digoxin pharmacokinetics. Rifampin produced significant reductions (p < 0.01) in AUC(0-3), AUC(0-24), and Cmax, whereas clarithromycin increased these parameters significantly (p < 0.01). Significant changes in digoxin half-life and CL/F were also observed with clarithromycin. No statistically significant effects on digoxin pharmacokinetics were observed following supplementation with either milk thistle or black cohosh, although digoxin AUC(0-3) and AUC(0-24) approached significance (p = 0.06) following milk thistle administration. When compared with rifampin and clarithromycin, supplementation with these specific formulations of milk thistle or black cohosh did not appear to affect digoxin pharmacokinetics, suggesting that these supplements are not potent modulators of P-gp in vivo.

  16. Digoxin and Adenosine Triphosphate Enhance the Functional Properties of Tissue-Engineered Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Makris, Eleftherios A.; Huang, Brian J.; Hu, Jerry C.; Chen-Izu, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Toward developing engineered cartilage for the treatment of cartilage defects, achieving relevant functional properties before implantation remains a significant challenge. Various chemical and mechanical stimuli have been used to enhance the functional properties of engineered musculoskeletal tissues. Recently, Ca2+-modulating agents have been used to enhance matrix synthesis and biomechanical properties of engineered cartilage. The objective of this study was to determine whether other known Ca2+ modulators, digoxin and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), can be employed as novel stimuli to increase collagen synthesis and functional properties of engineered cartilage. Neocartilage constructs were formed by scaffold-free self-assembling of primary bovine articular chondrocytes. Digoxin, ATP, or both agents were added to the culture medium for 1 h/day on days 10–14. After 4 weeks of culture, neocartilage properties were assessed for gross morphology, biochemical composition, and biomechanical properties. Digoxin and ATP were found to increase neocartilage collagen content by 52–110% over untreated controls, while maintaining proteoglycan content near native tissue values. Furthermore, digoxin and ATP increased the tensile modulus by 280% and 180%, respectively, while the application of both agents increased the modulus by 380%. The trends in tensile properties were found to correlate with the amount of collagen cross-linking. Live Ca2+ imaging experiments revealed that both digoxin and ATP were able to increase Ca2+ oscillations in monolayer-cultured chondrocytes. This study provides a novel approach toward directing neocartilage maturation and enhancing its functional properties using novel Ca2+ modulators. PMID:25473799

  17. Digoxin Induces Cardiac Hypertrophy Without Negative Effects on Cardiac Function and Physical Performance in Trained Normotensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Neves, Claodete Hasselstrom; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Prestes, Jonato; Voltarelli, Fabricio Azevedo; Aguiar, Andreo Fernando; Ferreira Mota, Gustavo Augusto; de Sousa, Sergio Luiz Borges; Leopoldo, Andre Soares; Leopoldo, Ana Paula Lima; Mueller, Andre; Aguiar, Danilo Henrique; Navalta, James Wilfred; Sugizaki, Mario Mateus

    2017-04-01

    Cardiotonic drugs and exercise training promote cardiac inotropic effects, which may affect training-induced cardiac adaptations. This study investigated the effects of long-term administration of digoxin on heart structure and function, and physical performance of rats submitted to high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Male Wistar rats, 60 days old, were divided into control (C), digoxin (DIGO), trained (T), and trained with digoxin (TDIGO). Digoxin was administered by gavage (30 µg/kg/day) for 75 days. The HIIT program consisted of treadmill running 60 min/day (8 min at 80% of the maximum speed (MS) and 2 min at 20% of the MS), 5 days per week during 60 days. The main cardiac parameters were evaluated by echocardiograph and cardiomyocyte area was determined by histology. There were no group x time effects of digoxin, HIIT or interactions (digoxin and HIIT) on functional echocardiographic parameters (heart rate; ejection fraction) or in the maximum exercise test. There was a group x time interaction, as evidenced by observed cardiac hypertrophy in the TDIGO group evaluated by ratio of left ventricle weight to body weight (p<0.002) and cardiomyocyte area (p<0.000002). Long-term administration of digoxin promoted cardiac hypertrophy without affecting cardiac function and physical performance in rats submitted to HIIT. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Protective effects of Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha) extract against digoxin-induced arrhythmias in rats.

    PubMed

    Alp, Hayrullah; Soner, Burak Cem; Baysal, Tamer; Şahin, Ayşe Saide

    2015-01-01

    Digitalis preparations are commonly used by children and adults with heart diseases worldwide, although excessive doses may cause cardiac effects. The aim of the study is to evaluate the antiarrhythmic effect of Crataegus oxyacantha extract on digoxin-induced arrhythmias in anesthetized Wistar rats. Control and experimental groups were evaluated for arrhythmias induced by digoxin. Fifteen rats (7 as controls and 8 as the experimental group) were included in the study. The dry fruits of 100 mg Crataegus oxyacantha were extracted by percolation method. Digoxin, at a dose of 40 µg/kg/min, was infused to form the arrhythmias in all rats. Simultaneously, the extract was infused into the experimental group, while 0.9% NaCl was infused into control group. Electrocardiographic QRS prolongation and arterial blood pressure changes were analyzed. The experimental group lived longer (62.13±2.20 min) than the controls (p=0.002). On the other hand, the time to beginning of QRS prolongation did not differ between the two groups (p=0.812). Bradycardia was significant in the control group (288.01±10.54 beat/min and p=0.01). The maximum QRS duration was observed in the control group during the digoxin and 0.9% NaCl infusion period (53.29±3.99 ms and p=0.001). Also, the durations of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias were shorter in the experimental group. However, arterial blood pressure dipping was significant in the experimental group (23.67±10.89 mm Hg and p<0.001). Crataegus oxyacantha alcoholic extract produced an antiarrhythmic effect that was induced by digoxin in Wistar rats. However, in the clinical use of this extract, the hypotensive effect should be considered. Also, the alcoholic extract of Crataegus oxyacantha may be an alternative treatment medication for arrhythmias induced by digoxin toxicity in humans.

  19. Protective effects of Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha) extract against digoxin-induced arrhythmias in rats

    PubMed Central

    Alp, Hayrullah; Soner, Burak Cem; Baysal, Tamer; Şahin, Ayşe Saide

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Digitalis preparations are commonly used by children and adults with heart diseases worldwide, although excessive doses may cause cardiac effects. The aim of the study is to evaluate the antiarrhythmic effect of Crataegus oxyacantha extract on digoxin-induced arrhythmias in anesthetized Wistar rats. Methods: Control and experimental groups were evaluated for arrhythmias induced by digoxin. Fifteen rats (7 as controls and 8 as the experimental group) were included in the study. The dry fruits of 100 mg Crataegus oxyacantha were extracted by percolation method. Digoxin, at a dose of 40 μg/kg/min, was infused to form the arrhythmias in all rats. Simultaneously, the extract was infused into the experimental group, while 0.9% NaCl was infused into control group. Electrocardiographic QRS prolongation and arterial blood pressure changes were analyzed. Results: The experimental group lived longer (62.13±2.20 min) than the controls (p=0.002). On the other hand, the time to beginning of QRS prolongation did not differ between the two groups (p=0.812). Bradycardia was significant in the control group (288.01±10.54 beat/min and p=0.01). The maximum QRS duration was observed in the control group during the digoxin and 0.9% NaCl infusion period (53.29±3.99 ms and p=0.001). Also, the durations of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias were shorter in the experimental group. However, arterial blood pressure dipping was significant in the experimental group (23.67±10.89 mm Hg and p<0.001). Conclusion: Crataegus oxyacantha alcoholic extract produced an antiarrhythmic effect that was induced by digoxin in Wistar rats. However, in the clinical use of this extract, the hypotensive effect should be considered. Also, the alcoholic extract of Crataegus oxyacantha may be an alternative treatment medication for arrhythmias induced by digoxin toxicity in humans. PMID:25880053

  20. Colored floaters as a manifestation of digoxin toxicity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lynn; Sun, Linus D; Odel, Jeffrey G

    2018-06-01

    Since its report in one patient more than 70 years ago, digitalis-induced colored muscae volitantes have not surfaced again in the literature. We report here a case of digoxin induced colored floaters. An 89-year-old man on 0.25 mg digoxin daily developed visual hallucinations and colored floaters. He had floaters in the past but now they were in various colors including yellow, green, blue and red, though predominantly in yellow. These "weirdly" shaped little particles wiggled around as if in a viscous solution and casted shadows in his vision. He also saw geometric shapes, spirals, and cross hatch patterns of various colors that moved and undulated, especially on wallpaper. Ophthalmic examination revealed reduced visual acuity, poor color vision especially in his left eye, along with central depression on Amsler grid and Humphrey visual field in his left eye. Discontinuation of digoxin resulted in complete resolution of his visual symptoms. On subsequent ophthalmic examination, the patient's visual acuity, field testing and color vision improved and he had normal Amsler grid test results. Colored floaters may occur in patients taking cardiac glycosides but this association has not been explored. Unlike optical illusions and visual hallucinations, floaters are entoptic phenomena casting a physical shadow upon the retina and their coloring likely arise from retinal dysfunction. Colored floaters may be a more common visual phenomenon than realized.

  1. Effect of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) and black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) supplementation on digoxin pharmacokinetics in humans

    PubMed Central

    Gurley, Bill J.; Barone, Gary W.; Williams, D. Keith; Carrier, Julie; Breen, Phillip; Yates, C. Ryan; Song, Peng-fei; Hubbard, Martha A.; Tong, Yudong; Cheboyina, Sreekhar

    2007-01-01

    Phytochemical-mediated modulation of p-glycoprotein (P-gp) and other drug transporters may underlie many herb-drug interactions. Serial plasma concentration-time profiles of the P-gp substrate, digoxin, were used to determine whether supplementation with milk thistle or black cohosh modified P-gp activity in vivo. Sixteen healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive a standardized milk thistle (900 mg daily) or black cohosh (40 mg daily) supplement for 14 days, followed by a 30-day washout period. Subjects were also randomized to receive rifampin (600 mg daily, 7 days) and clarithromycin (1000 mg daily, 7 days) as positive controls for P-gp induction and inhibition, respectively. Digoxin (Lanoxicaps®, 0.4 mg) was administered orally before and at the end of each supplementation and control period. Serial digoxin plasma concentrations were obtained over 24 hours and analyzed by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Comparisons of AUC(0–3), AUC(0–24), Cmax,, CL/F, and elimination half-life were used to assess the effects of milk thistle, black cohosh, rifampin, and clarithromycin on digoxin pharmacokinetics. Rifampin produced significant reductions (p<0.01) in AUC(0–3), AUC(0–24) and Cmax, while clarithromycin increased these parameters significantly (p<0.01). Significant changes in digoxin half-life and CL/F were also observed with clarithromycin. No statistically significant effects on digoxin pharmacokinetics were observed following supplementation with either milk thistle or black cohosh, although digoxin AUC(0–3) and AUC(0–24) approached significance (p=0.06) following milk thistle administration. When compared to rifampin and clarithromycin, supplementation with these specific formulations of milk thistle or black cohosh did not appear to affect digoxin pharmacokinetics, suggesting that these supplements are not potent modulators of P-gp in vivo. PMID:17079360

  2. A population pharmacokinetic analysis of the influence of nutritional status of digoxin in hospitalized Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo An; Yun, Hwi-yeol; Lee, Eun Sook; Shin, Wan Gyoon

    2014-03-01

    Safe and effective use of digoxin in hospitalized populations requires information about the drug's pharmacokinetics and the influence of various factors on drug disposition. However, no attempts have been made to link an individual's digoxin requirements with nutritional status. The main goal of this study was to estimate the population pharmacokinetics of digoxin and to identify the nutritional status that explains pharmacokinetic variability in hospitalized Korean patients. Routine therapeutic drug-monitoring data from 106 patients who received oral digoxin at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital were retrospectively collected. The pharmacokinetics of digoxin were analyzed with a 1-compartment, open-label pharmacokinetic model by using a nonlinear mixed-effects modeling tool (NONMEM) and a multiple trough screening approach. The effect of demographic characteristics and biochemical and nutritional indices were explored. Estimates generated by using NONMEM indicated that the CL/F of digoxin was influenced by renal function, serum potassium, age, and percentage of ideal body weight (PIBW). These influences could be modeled by following the equation CL/F (L/h) = 1.36 × (creatinine clearance/50)(1.580) × K(0.835) × 0.055 × (age/65) × (PIBW/100)(0.403). The interindividual %CV for CL/F was 34.3%, and the residual variability (SD) between observed and predicted concentrations was 0.225 μg/L. The median estimates from a bootstrap procedure were comparable and within 5% of the estimates from NONMEM. Correlation analysis with the validation group showed a linear correlation between observed and predicted values. The use of this model in routine therapeutic drug monitoring requires that certain conditions be met which are consistent with the conditions of the subpopulations in the present study. Therefore, further studies are needed to clarify the effects of nutritional status on digoxin pharmacokinetics. The present study established important sources of

  3. Lack of effect of ezogabine/retigabine on the pharmacokinetics of digoxin in healthy individuals: results from a drug–drug interaction study

    PubMed Central

    Tompson, Debra J; Crean, Christopher S; Buraglio, Mauro; Arumugham, Thangam

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The potential for ezogabine/retigabine (EZG/RTG) and its N-acetyl metabolite (NAMR) to inhibit the transporter protein P-glycoprotein-(P-gp)-mediated digoxin transport was tested in vitro. EZG/RTG did not inhibit P-gp. However, NAMR inhibited P-gp in a concentration-dependent manner. Based on these in vitro results, NAMR had the potential to inhibit P-gp at therapeutic doses of EZG/RTG (600–1,200 mg/day). As digoxin has a narrow therapeutic index, inhibition of digoxin clearance may have an impact on its safety. Methods An open-label, single-center, two session, fixed-sequence study was conducted to assess the effect of co-administration of therapeutic doses of EZG/RTG on digoxin pharmacokinetics in healthy adults. In session 1, subjects received a single dose of digoxin 0.25 mg. In session 2, EZG/RTG was up-titrated over 6 weeks. Digoxin 0.25 mg was co-administered at EZG/RTG steady-state doses of 600, 900, and, based on tolerability, 1,050/1,200 mg/day. Blood samples were collected over 144 hours for determination of digoxin, EZG/RTG, and NAMR concentrations. Urine samples were collected over 48 hours for determination of digoxin concentrations. Results Of 30 subjects enrolled, 29 were included in the pharmacokinetic analysis. Compared with digoxin alone, co-administration with EZG/RTG led to small increases in the digoxin plasma area under the concentration–time curve (AUC)0–120 at doses of 600, 900, and 1,050/1,200 mg (geometric mean ratio 1.08, 90% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.15; 1.18, 90% CI 1.10–1.27; 1.13, 90% CI 1.05–1.21, respectively). Safety was consistent with previous repeat-dose studies of EZG/RTG in healthy subjects. Conclusion Co-administration of EZG/RTG across the therapeutic range resulted in small, non-dose-dependent and non-clinically relevant increases in digoxin systemic exposure, suggesting that digoxin dose adjustment is not necessary. PMID:25342921

  4. Effect of lacosamide on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of digoxin: results from a phase I, multiple-dose, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Cawello, Willi; Mueller-Voessing, Christa; Andreas, Jens-Otto

    2014-05-01

    Recent data suggest that P-glycoprotein may be involved in cellular transport of lacosamide. To investigate potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between lacosamide and digoxin, this phase I, multiple-dose, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial assessed the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety and tolerability of digoxin administered in combination with lacosamide or placebo. Twenty healthy White male volunteers were randomised. After receiving digoxin 0.25 mg three times daily on day 1 (loading dose), participants received digoxin 0.25 mg once daily on days 2-22. Participants received either lacosamide (200 mg twice daily) or placebo on days 8-11 and vice versa on days 18-21, after a 6-day washout. The steady-state area under concentration-time curve over the dosing interval (AUC(24,ss)) and maximum steady-state plasma concentration (C(max,ss)) of digoxin were measured; ratios of these parameters for co-administration of digoxin + lacosamide versus digoxin alone were used to evaluate potential DDIs. Interaction was excluded if the 90 % confidence interval (CI) for the geometric mean ratio of AUC24,ss and C max,ss fell within the acceptance range for bioequivalence (0.8-1.25). The point estimates (90 % CI) of the geometric mean ratios for co-administration of digoxin with lacosamide versus digoxin alone for AUC(24,ss) [1.024 (0.979-1.071)] and C(max,ss) [1.049 (0.959-1.147)] were within the acceptance range for bioequivalence. Digoxin and lacosamide co-administration was generally well-tolerated. A small numerical increase in the mean PR interval following co-administered digoxin + lacosamide was observed versus digoxin alone and versus pre-treatment baseline values (178.5 vs. 170.4 or 166.8 ms, respectively). The RR interval increased in parallel. The change was not considered clinically relevant. Co-administration of steady-state digoxin (0.25 mg/day) with multiple-dose lacosamide (400 mg/day) versus digoxin alone revealed no

  5. Comparison of beta blocker and digoxin alone and in combination for management of patients with atrial fibrillation and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Fauchier, Laurent; Grimard, Caroline; Pierre, Bertrand; Nonin, Emilie; Gorin, Laurent; Rauzy, Bruno; Cosnay, Pierre; Babuty, Dominique; Charbonnier, Bernard

    2009-01-15

    In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF), beta blockers and digoxin reduce the ventricular rate, but controversy exists concerning how these drugs affect prognosis in this setting. This study compared the effects of beta blocker and digoxin on mortality in patients with both AF and HF. In a single-center institution, patients with AF and HF seen between January 2000 and January 2004 were identified and followed until September 2007. Of 1,269 consecutive patients with both AF and HF, 260 were treated with a beta blocker alone, 189 with beta blocker plus digoxin, 402 with digoxin alone, and 418 without beta blocker or digoxin (control group). During a follow-up of 881+/-859 days, 247 patients died. Compared with the control group, treatment with beta blocker was associated with a decreased mortality (relative risk=0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.40 to 0.85, p=0.005 for beta blocker alone and 0.59, 95% confidence interval 0.40 to 0.87, p=0.008 for beta blocker plus digoxin). By contrast, treatment with digoxin alone was not associated with a better survival (relative risk=0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.73 to 1.30, p=NS). Results remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders and similar when we considered, separately, HF with permanent or nonpermanent AF, presence or absence of coronary disease, and patients with decreased or preserved systolic function. In conclusion, in unselected patients with AF and HF, treatments with beta blocker alone or with beta blocker plus digoxin are associated with a similar decrease in the risk of death. Digoxin alone is associated with a worse survival chance, similar to that of patients without any rate control treatment.

  6. Transport inhibition of digoxin using several common P-gp expressing cell lines is not necessarily reporting only on inhibitor binding to P-gp.

    PubMed

    Lumen, Annie Albin; Li, Libin; Li, Jiben; Ahmed, Zeba; Meng, Zhou; Owen, Albert; Ellens, Harma; Hidalgo, Ismael J; Bentz, Joe

    2013-01-01

    We have reported that the P-gp substrate digoxin required basolateral and apical uptake transport in excess of that allowed by digoxin passive permeability (as measured in the presence of GF120918) to achieve the observed efflux kinetics across MDCK-MDR1-NKI (The Netherlands Cancer Institute) confluent cell monolayers. That is, GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport was kinetically required. Therefore, IC50 measurements using digoxin as a probe substrate in this cell line could be due to inhibition of P-gp, of digoxin uptake transport, or both. This kinetic analysis is now extended to include three additional cell lines: MDCK-MDR1-NIH (National Institute of Health), Caco-2 and CPT-B2 (Caco-2 cells with BCRP knockdown). These cells similarly exhibit GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport of digoxin. We demonstrate that inhibition of digoxin transport across these cell lines by GF120918, cyclosporine, ketoconazole and verapamil is greater than can be explained by inhibition of P-gp alone. We examined three hypotheses for this non-P-gp inhibition. The inhibitors can: (1) bind to a basolateral digoxin uptake transporter, thereby inhibiting digoxin's cellular uptake; (2) partition into the basolateral membrane and directly reduce membrane permeability; (3) aggregate with digoxin in the donor chamber, thereby reducing the free concentration of digoxin, with concomitant reduction in digoxin uptake. Data and simulations show that hypothesis 1 was found to be uniformly acceptable. Hypothesis 2 was found to be uniformly unlikely. Hypothesis 3 was unlikely for GF120918 and cyclosporine, but further studies are needed to completely adjudicate whether hetero-dimerization contributes to the non-P-gp inhibition for ketoconazole and verapamil. We also find that P-gp substrates with relatively low passive permeability such as digoxin, loperamide and vinblastine kinetically require basolateral uptake transport over that allowed by +GF120918 passive permeability, while highly permeable

  7. Transport Inhibition of Digoxin Using Several Common P-gp Expressing Cell Lines Is Not Necessarily Reporting Only on Inhibitor Binding to P-gp

    PubMed Central

    Lumen, Annie Albin; Li, Libin; Li, Jiben; Ahmed, Zeba; Meng, Zhou; Owen, Albert; Ellens, Harma; Hidalgo, Ismael J.; Bentz, Joe

    2013-01-01

    We have reported that the P-gp substrate digoxin required basolateral and apical uptake transport in excess of that allowed by digoxin passive permeability (as measured in the presence of GF120918) to achieve the observed efflux kinetics across MDCK-MDR1-NKI (The Netherlands Cancer Institute) confluent cell monolayers. That is, GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport was kinetically required. Therefore, IC50 measurements using digoxin as a probe substrate in this cell line could be due to inhibition of P-gp, of digoxin uptake transport, or both. This kinetic analysis is now extended to include three additional cell lines: MDCK-MDR1-NIH (National Institute of Health), Caco-2 and CPT-B2 (Caco-2 cells with BCRP knockdown). These cells similarly exhibit GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport of digoxin. We demonstrate that inhibition of digoxin transport across these cell lines by GF120918, cyclosporine, ketoconazole and verapamil is greater than can be explained by inhibition of P-gp alone. We examined three hypotheses for this non-P-gp inhibition. The inhibitors can: (1) bind to a basolateral digoxin uptake transporter, thereby inhibiting digoxin's cellular uptake; (2) partition into the basolateral membrane and directly reduce membrane permeability; (3) aggregate with digoxin in the donor chamber, thereby reducing the free concentration of digoxin, with concomitant reduction in digoxin uptake. Data and simulations show that hypothesis 1 was found to be uniformly acceptable. Hypothesis 2 was found to be uniformly unlikely. Hypothesis 3 was unlikely for GF120918 and cyclosporine, but further studies are needed to completely adjudicate whether hetero-dimerization contributes to the non-P-gp inhibition for ketoconazole and verapamil. We also find that P-gp substrates with relatively low passive permeability such as digoxin, loperamide and vinblastine kinetically require basolateral uptake transport over that allowed by +GF120918 passive permeability, while highly permeable

  8. Effect of Vemurafenib on the Pharmacokinetics of a Single Dose of Digoxin in Patients With BRAFV600 Mutation-Positive Metastatic Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijiang; McIntyre, Christine; Kuhn, Melissa; Forbes, Harper; Kim, Tae Min; Lee, Jeeyun; Demidov, Lev; Colburn, Dawn

    2018-04-12

    The primary objective of this phase 1, open-label, multicenter, 3-period, fixed-sequence study was to evaluate the effect of multiple doses of vemurafenib on the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of digoxin, a probe P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, in patients with BRAF V600 mutation-positive metastatic malignancy. Following a 28-day screening period, patients received a single oral dose of digoxin 0.25 mg on day 1 in period A, oral vemurafenib 960 mg twice daily for 21 days in period B (days 8-28), and a single oral dose of digoxin 0.25 mg on day 29 and vemurafenib 960 mg twice a day for 7 days (days 29-35) in period C. Log-transformed area under the concentration-time curve and peak concentration values for digoxin were compared between periods A (digoxin alone) and C (digoxin + vemurafenib) using an analysis of variance model. Twenty-six patients were evaluated for the primary pharmacokinetic analysis. The geometric mean ratio (period C/period A) of area under the curve to the last measurable concentration for digoxin was 1.82 (90%CI 1.63 to 2.02), and the geometric mean ratio of peak concentrations was 1.47 (90%CI 1.30 to 1.65); the 90%CIs were outside of the equivalence limits of 0.82 to 1.22, indicating an effect of vemurafenib on digoxin. Multiple oral doses of vemurafenib were generally well tolerated, with an adverse event profile similar to that previously seen in phase 2 and 3 studies of vemurafenib monotherapy. This study confirmed vemurafenib as an inhibitor of P-gp in vivo with a statistically significant drug-drug interaction with digoxin. Caution should be exercised when dosing vemurafenib concurrently with P-gp substrates. © 2018, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  9. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and chronic bronchitis emphysema.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-09-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--endogenous digoxin (membrane sodium-potassium ATPase inhibitor, immunomodulator, and regulator of neurotransmitter/amino acid transport), dolichol (regulates N-glycosylation of proteins), and ubiquinone (free radical scavenger). This was assessed in patients with chronic bronchitis emphysema. The pathway was also assessed in patients with right hemispheric, left hemispheric, and bihemispheric dominance to find the role of hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of chronic bronchitis emphysema. All the 15 patients with chronic bronchitis emphysema were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. In patients with chronic bronchitis emphysema there was elevated digoxin synthesis, increased dolichol, and glycoconjugate levels, and low ubiquinone and elevated free radical levels. There was also an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites. There was an increase in cholesterol:phospholipid ratio and a reduction in glycoconjugate levels of RBC membrane in patients with chronic bronchitis emphysema. The same biochemical patterns were obtained in individuals with right hemispheric dominance. Endogenous digoxin by activating the calcineurin signal transduction pathway of T-cell can contribute to immune activation in chronic bronchitis emphysema. Increased free radical generation can also lead to immune activation. Endogenous synthesis of nicotine can contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. Altered glycoconjugate metabolism and membranogenesis can lead to defective lysosomal stability contributing to the disease process by increased release of lysosomal proteases. The role of an endogenous digoxin and hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of chronic bronchitis emphysema and in the regulation of lung structure/function is discussed. The biochemical patterns obtained in chronic bronchitis emphysema is similar to those obtained in left

  10. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-10-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--endogenous digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone. This was assessed in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and in individuals of differing hemispheric dominance to find out the role of hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. All 15 cases of interstitial lung disease were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. The isoprenoidal metabolites--digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone, RBC membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, serum magnesium, tyrosine/tryptophan catabolic patterns, free radical metabolism, glycoconjugate metabolism, and RBC membrane composition--were assessed in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis as well as in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance. In patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis there was elevated digoxin synthesis, increased dolichol and glycoconjugate levels, and low ubiquinone and elevated free radical levels. There was also an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites. There was an increase in cholesterol phospholipid ratio and a reduction in glycoconjugate level of RBC membrane in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Isoprenoid pathway dysfunction con tributes to the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The biochemical patterns obtained in interstitial lung disease are similar to those obtained in left-handed/right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals by the dichotic listening test. However, all the patients with interstitial lung disease were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. Hemispheric chemical dominance has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test. Interstitial lung disease occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals and is a reflection of altered brain function.

  11. Hypothalamic digoxin and hemispheric chemical dominance: relation to speech and language dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-06-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--endogenous digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone. Since endogenous digoxin can regulate neurotransmitter transport and dolichols can modulate glycoconjugate synthesis important in synaptic connectivity, the pathway was assessed in patients with dyslexia, delayed recovery from global aphasia consequent to a dominant hemispheric thrombotic infarct, and developmental delay of speech milestone. The pathway was also studied in right hemispheric, left hemispheric, and bihemispheric dominance to find out the role of hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of speech disorders. The plasma/serum--activity of HMG CoA reductase, magnesium, digoxin, dolichol, ubiquinone--and tryptophan/tyrosine catabolic patterns, as well as RBC (Na+)-K+ ATPase activity, were measured in the above mentioned groups. The glycoconjugate metabolism and membrane composition was also studied. The study showed that in dyslexia, developmental delay of speech milestone, and delayed recovery from global aphasia there was an upregulated isoprenoidal pathway with increased digoxin and dolichol levels. The membrane (Na+)-K+ ATPase activity, serum magnesium and ubiquinone levels were low. The tryptophan catabolites were increased and the tyrosine catabolites including dopamine decreased in the serum contributing to a speech dysfunction. There was an increase in carbohydrate residues of glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans, and glycolipids levels as well as an increased activity of GAG degrading enzymes and glyco hydrolases in the serum. The cholesterol:phospholipid ratio of RBC membrane increased and membrane glycoconjugates showed a decrease. All of these could contribute to altered synaptic inactivity in these disorders. The patterns correlated with those obtained in right hemispheric chemical dominance. Right hemispheric chemical dominance may play a role in the genesis of these disorders. Hemispheric chemical dominance has no correlation with handedness

  12. Influence of the cardiac glycoside digoxin on cardiac troponin I, acid-base and electrolyte balance, and haematobiochemical profiles in healthy donkeys (Equus asinus).

    PubMed

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd

    2014-03-12

    The effect of digoxin administration on the serum concentration of the cardiac troponin I (cTnI) has not been reported to date in equidae. This study was therefore designed to evaluate the effect of digoxin on cardiac cell damage in donkeys (Equus asinus) as assessed by cTnI, acid-base and electrolyte balance and haematobiochemical profiles. Ten clinically healthy donkeys were given an IV infusion of digoxin at a dose of 14 μg/kg. Blood samples were collected from the donkeys up through 72 h post-injection. Three of the donkeys exhibited increased heart and respiratory rates post-injection. In the other seven animals, the heart and respiratory rates were lower 4 h post-injection. The serum digoxin concentration increased significantly at many time points after injection. The serum concentration of cTnI did not differ significantly between pre- and post-injection. An increase in blood pH was noted at 3 h after digoxin injection. There were also increases in PO2 and in oxygen saturation. Decreases in PCO2 at 2 to 48 h post-injection as well as a decrease in blood lactate at 4 h post-injection were observed. The serum concentration of glucose remained significantly elevated at all-time points after digoxin injection. It is concluded that administration of digoxin to healthy donkeys (14 μg/kg) did not result in elevations of serum cTnI concentration, signs of digoxin intoxication, ECG abnormalities and did not increase serum concentrations of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine.

  13. Use of a Simplified Nomogram to Individualize Digoxin Dosing versus Standard Dosing Practices in Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    DiDomenico, Robert J.; Bress, Adam P.; Na-Thalang, Kwanta; Tsao, Yvonne Y.; Groo, Vicki L.; Deyo, Kelly L.; Patel, Shitalben R.; Bishop, Jeffrey R.; Bauman, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives To compare the frequency of achieving a therapeutic serum digoxin concentration (SDC), defined as 0.5–0.9 ng/ml, by using a simplified nomogram to individualize digoxin dosing with standard dosing practices in patients with heart failure, and to characterize the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of the ABCB1 gene and SDC. Design Prospective study with a historical control group. Setting Outpatient care center of an urban academic medical center. Patients One hundred thirty-one adults with heart failure due to left ventricular dysfunction who were treated with digoxin. Intervention Digoxin doses were determined either by the dosing nomogram (65 patients) or standard care (SC; 66 patients) by using a historical controls who were randomly selected from a list of SDCs obtained from laboratory records and who had their digoxin doses determined by standard dosing practices. Measurements and Main Results The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving a steady-state SDC of 0.5–0.9 ng/ml; secondary end points were mean SDC and proportion of patients achieving a steady-state SDC < 1.0 ng/ml. Postdistributive steady-state SDCs were measured 2–4 weeks after digoxin dosage adjustment or initiation. Therapeutic SDCs were achieved with similar frequency in both groups (38.7% in the nomogram group vs. 34.5% in the SC group, p=0.65); however, more patients in the nomogram group had SDCs < 1.0 ng/ml than in the SC group (85.0% vs. 44.9%, p<0.001). Mean daily digoxin doses were lower in nomogram group (149 ± 67 mcg vs. 177 ± 74 mcg, p=0.02), resulting in lower mean SDCs compared with those in the SC group (0.52 ± 0.30 ng/ml vs. 1.12 ± 0.58 ng/ml, p<0.001). Patients in the pharmacogenetic substudy provided blood samples for genotyping of three common ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms: C1236T (rs1128503), G2677T/A (rs2032582), and C3435T (rs1045642). SDCs were not significantly associated with ABCB1 genotypes. Conclusion Our

  14. Changes in the pharmacokinetics of digoxin in polyuria in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and lithium carbonate-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Kagami, Mai; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Ishii, Makoto; Toda, Takahiro; Ochiai, Wataru; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2011-06-01

    In humans, digoxin is mainly eliminated through the kidneys unchanged, and renal clearance represents approximately 70% of the total clearance. In this study, we used the mouse models to examine digoxin pharmacokinetics in polyuria induced by diabetes mellitus and lithium carbonate (Li(2)CO(3)) administration, including mechanistic evaluation of the contribution of glomerular filtration, tubular secretion, and tubular reabsorption. After digoxin administration to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, digoxin CL/F increased to approximately 2.2 times that in normal mice. After treatment with Li(2)CO(3) (0.2%) for 10 days, the CL/F increased approximately 1.1 times for normal mice and 1.6 times for STZ mice. Creatinine clearance (CLcr) and the renal mRNA expression levels of mdr1a did not differ significantly between the normal, STZ, and Li(2)CO(3)-treated mice. The urine volume of STZ mice was approximately 26 mL/day, 22 times that of normal mice. The urine volume of Li(2)CO(3)-treated mice increased approximately 7.3 times for normal mice and 2.3 times for STZ mice. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of digoxin may be significantly reduced in the presence of polyuria either induced by diabetes mellitus or manifested as an adverse effect of Li(2)CO(3) in diabetic patients, along with increased urine volume.

  15. Development of a quantitative LC-MS/MS analytical method coupled with turbulent flow chromatography for digoxin for the in vitro P-gp inhibition assay.

    PubMed

    Smalley, James; Marino, Anthony M; Xin, Baomin; Olah, Timothy; Balimane, Praveen V

    2007-07-01

    Caco-2 cells, the human colon carcinoma cells, are typically used for screening compounds for their permeability characteristics and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) interaction potential during discovery and development. The P-gp inhibition of test compounds is assessed by performing bi-directional permeability studies with digoxin, a well established P-gp substrate probe. Studies performed with digoxin alone as well as digoxin in presence of test compounds as putative inhibitors constitute the P-gp inhibition assay used to assess the potential liability of discovery compounds. Radiolabeled (3)H-digoxin is commonly used in such studies followed by liquid scintillation counting. This manuscript describes the development of a sensitive, accurate, and reproducible LC-MS/MS method for analysis of digoxin and its internal standard digitoxin using an on-line extraction turbulent flow chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometric detection that is amendable to high throughput with use of 96-well plates. The standard curve for digoxin was linear between 10 nM and 5000 nM with regression coefficient (R(2)) of 0.99. The applicability and reliability of the analysis method was evaluated by successful demonstration of efflux ratio (permeability B to A over permeability A to B) greater than 10 for digoxin in Caco-2 cells. Additional evaluations were performed on 13 marketed compounds by conducting inhibition studies in Caco-2 cells using classical P-gp inhibitors (ketoconazole, cyclosporin, verapamil, quinidine, saquinavir etc.) and comparing the results to historical data with (3)H-digoxin studies. Similarly, P-gp inhibition studies with LC-MS/MS analytical method for digoxin were also performed for 21 additional test compounds classified as negative, moderate, and potent P-gp inhibitors spanning multiple chemo types and results compared with the historical P-gp inhibition data from the (3)H-digoxin studies. A very good correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.89 between the results

  16. Digoxin for atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter: A systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomised clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Gluud, Christian; Jakobsen, Janus C.

    2018-01-01

    Background During recent years, systematic reviews of observational studies have compared digoxin to no digoxin in patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter, and the results of these reviews suggested that digoxin seems to increase the risk of all-cause mortality regardless of concomitant heart failure. Our objective was to assess the benefits and harms of digoxin for atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter based on randomized clinical trials. Methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, SCI-Expanded, BIOSIS for eligible trials comparing digoxin versus placebo, no intervention, or other medical interventions in patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter in October 2016. Our primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, serious adverse events, and quality of life. Our secondary outcomes were heart failure, stroke, heart rate control, and conversion to sinus rhythm. We performed both random-effects and fixed-effect meta-analyses and chose the more conservative result as our primary result. We used Trial Sequential Analysis (TSA) to control for random errors. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the body of evidence. Results 28 trials (n = 2223 participants) were included. All were at high risk of bias and reported only short-term follow-up. When digoxin was compared with all control interventions in one analysis, we found no evidence of a difference on all-cause mortality (risk ratio (RR), 0.82; TSA-adjusted confidence interval (CI), 0.02 to 31.2; I2 = 0%); serious adverse events (RR, 1.65; TSA-adjusted CI, 0.24 to 11.5; I2 = 0%); quality of life; heart failure (RR, 1.05; TSA-adjusted CI, 0.00 to 1141.8; I2 = 51%); and stroke (RR, 2.27; TSA-adjusted CI, 0.00 to 7887.3; I2 = 17%). Our analyses on acute heart rate control (within 6 hours of treatment onset) showed firm evidence of digoxin being superior compared with placebo (mean difference (MD), -12.0 beats per minute (bpm); TSA-adjusted CI, -17.2 to -6.76; I2 = 0%) and inferior compared

  17. Influence of the cardiac glycoside digoxin on cardiac troponin I, acid–base and electrolyte balance, and haematobiochemical profiles in healthy donkeys (Equus asinus)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of digoxin administration on the serum concentration of the cardiac troponin I (cTnI) has not been reported to date in equidae. This study was therefore designed to evaluate the effect of digoxin on cardiac cell damage in donkeys (Equus asinus) as assessed by cTnI, acid–base and electrolyte balance and haematobiochemical profiles. Ten clinically healthy donkeys were given an IV infusion of digoxin at a dose of 14 μg/kg. Blood samples were collected from the donkeys up through 72 h post-injection. Results Three of the donkeys exhibited increased heart and respiratory rates post-injection. In the other seven animals, the heart and respiratory rates were lower 4 h post-injection. The serum digoxin concentration increased significantly at many time points after injection. The serum concentration of cTnI did not differ significantly between pre- and post-injection. An increase in blood pH was noted at 3 h after digoxin injection. There were also increases in PO2 and in oxygen saturation. Decreases in PCO2 at 2 to 48 h post-injection as well as a decrease in blood lactate at 4 h post-injection were observed. The serum concentration of glucose remained significantly elevated at all-time points after digoxin injection. Conclusions It is concluded that administration of digoxin to healthy donkeys (14 μg/kg) did not result in elevations of serum cTnI concentration, signs of digoxin intoxication, ECG abnormalities and did not increase serum concentrations of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. PMID:24621180

  18. The effect of inhibitors of endogenous opioid degradation, bacitracin, bestatin, captopril, and D-phenylalanine, on digoxin-induced arrhythmias in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Rabkin, S W; Redston, M

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of inhibition of endogenous opioid degradation on digitalis-induced arrhythmias, utilizing the inhibitors bacitracin, bestatin, captopril, and D-phenylalanine. Guinea pigs, anesthetized with pentobarbital, 50 mg/kg i.p., and breathing spontaneously received intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of bacitracin (6.8 mg/kg), bestatin (1 mg/kg), captopril (2 mg/kg), D-phenylalanine (1.2 mg/kg) or the diluent, saline. Digitalis arrhythmias were induced by a 50 micrograms/kg i.v. bolus of digoxin followed by 500 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 i.v. Bacitracin and bestatin, but not captopril or D-phenylalanine, significantly (p less than 0.05) altered the relationship between the digoxin dose and the first occurrence of arrhythmias, i.e., digoxin-induced ventricular arrhythmias became manifest at lower digoxin doses. The mean digoxin dose and ED50s, at which arrhythmias first occurred, were significantly (p less than 0.05) reduced by bacitracin and bestatin. The findings were similar for fatal arrhythmias, although D-phenylalanine appeared to decrease the digoxin dose at the development of fatal arrhythmias. The opioid antagonist naloxone, in a 50 micrograms/kg bolus and 50 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 i.c.v., completely prevented these effects of bacitracin and reduced the effect of bestatin. The relationship to arrhythmias could not be ascribed to an effect on blood pressure, as the blood pressure response to digoxin was the same in bestatin, D-phenylalanine, and control groups. To examine whether systemic administration of an inhibitor of opioid degradation had similar effects, a second protocol was selected with systemic administration of bacitracin because it altered the dose effect relationship after i.c.v. administration and systemic concentrations could be readily attained. Bacitracin, in a 13.5 mg/kg i.v. bolus and 135 mg.kg-1.h-1 i.v., was followed by 100 micrograms/kg digoxin i.v. every 15 min.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250

  19. Changing characteristics of the TDx digoxin II assay in detecting bufadienolides in a traditional Chinese medicine: for better or worse?

    PubMed

    Panesar, Nirmal S; Chan, Kam W; Law, Lap K

    2005-10-01

    In 1992, apparent digoxin concentrations determined by the Abbott TDx II assay 5 hours after the ingestion of 10 pills of traditional Chinese medicine containing toad secretions (chan su) by 7 volunteers, yielded results that were equimolar to bufalin measured by 2 in-house bufalin radioimmunoassays (RIAs). Recently, a 17-year-old Chinese female unintentionally took 100 (instead of 10) of these pills for a sore throat but suffered no ill effects. The blood bufalin concentration at 3 hours by 1 of the 2 RIAs was 10.93 nmol/L, which was commensurate with the dose. However, the apparent digoxin measured by a TDx II assay produced in 2004 was only 3.08 nmol/L, which probably reflects the change in the specificity of the polyclonal digoxin antisera used in the assay over the years. In 1989, the TDx assay was commended for its ability to detect poisoning from plant and animal cardenolides, a property that seems to be waning and, thus, bad news for those wishing to use the assay to detect alternative cardenolides. But, on the other hand, it possibly eliminates the "specter" of digoxin-like immunoreactive substance (DLIS) that has afflicted some digoxin assays, which can only be good news.

  20. High doses of digoxin increase the myocardial nuclear factor-kB and CaV1.2 channels in healthy mice. A possible mechanism of digitalis toxicity.

    PubMed

    Farghaly, Hanan Sayed Mohamed; Ashry, Israa El-Sayed Mohamed; Hareedy, Mohammad Salem

    2018-06-06

    Toxic effects of digoxin may occur with normal therapeutic serum level. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kB) is an important transcription factor in most organ systems and is often implicated in the harmful effects of cardiac injury. NF-kB promotes inflammatory responses, mediates adverse cardiac remodeling and has a function correlation with calcium. The voltage-gated L-type calcium channel CaV1.2 mediates the influx of Ca+2 into the cell in response to membrane depolarization. Our aim was to characterize the role of NF-kB during digoxin toxicity and to assess its correlation with Cav 1.2 in healthy mice in vivo. To address these questions, digoxin was administered in doses of 0.1, 1 or 5 mg/kg orally daily for seven days to the animals. Serum digoxin, serum calcium, atrial and ventricular calcium levels were measured. We, also, looked for NF-kB and CaV1.2 channel expression in cardiac muscle of mice. Digoxin at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg did not enhance serum, atrial, and ventricular Ca+2 levels, but were increased when digoxin dose of 1 and 5 mg/kg were administered. Histologically, myocardial necrosis and cellular infiltration on day 7 were significantly more severe in the 5 mg/kg/day digoxin group. Immunohistochemical studies showed more expression of both NF-kB and CaV1.2 in 1 and 5 mg/kg/day digoxin groups. These data suggest that NF-kB may be responsible for digoxin toxicity, at least partially via modulation of CaV1.2 and intracellular calcium homeostasis in the myocardium. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Successful use of digoxin-specific immune Fab in the treatment of severe Nerium oleander toxicosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Pao-Franco, Amaris; Hammond, Tara N; Weatherton, Linda K; DeClementi, Camille; Forney, Scott D

    2017-09-01

    To describe a case in which digoxin-specific immune Fab was used successfully in a dog with severe oleander toxicosis secondary to ingesting plant material. A 6-year-old intact female Rhodesian Ridgeback mixed breed dog was presented for severe oleander toxicosis and was refractory to all antiarrhythmic therapies and supportive care. Digoxin-specific immune Fab was successful in treating this dog. The dog recovered but suffered ischemic injuries, the long-term effects of which are unknown. This report describes the successful use of digoxin-specific immune Fab in the treatment of oleander toxicosis in a dog, which has not previously been published in veterinary literature. Oleander poisoning can be associated with permanent cardiac arrhythmias due to the ischemic damage. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  2. Hypothalamic digoxin and hemispheric chemical dominance--relation to the pathogenesis of senile osteoporosis, degenerative osteoarthritis, and spondylosis.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-03-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites: i) digoxin (a membrane sodium-potassium ATPase inhibitor which can regulate intracellular calcium/magnesium ratios), ii) dolichol (which regulates N-glycosylation of proteins), and iii) ubiquinone (a free radical scavenger), all of which are important in bone and joint metabolism. The pathway was assessed in senile osteoporosis, spondylosis, and osteoarthritis. Digoxin could possibly play a role in the genesis of cerebral dominance because it can regulate multiple neurotransmitter systems. The pathway was also assessed in individuals of differing hemispheric dominance for comparison and to find out the role of cerebral dominance in the pathogenesis of these diseases. The plasma/serum-activity of HMG CoA reductase, magnesium, digoxin, dolichol, ubiquinone, and tryptophan/tyrosine catabolic patterns, as well as RBC Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, were measured in the above mentioned groups. The glycoconjugate metabolism, free radical metabolism, and membrane composition were also studied. The pathway was upregulated with increased digoxin synthesis in patients with spondylosis and osteoarthritis. In this group of patients, the glycoconjugate levels and dolichol levels were increased and lysosomal stability reduced. The ubiquinone levels were low and free radicals increased in spondylosis and osteoarthritis. On the other hand, in senile osteoporosis, the isoprenoid pathway was downregulated and digoxin synthesis reduced. The glycoconjugate and dolichol levels were low and lysosomal stability increased. The ubiquinone levels were increased and free radical production increased in senile osteoporosis. The significance of these changes in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis, spondylosis, and osteoporosis is discussed. The hyperdigoxinemic state is seen in osteoarthritis and spondylosis and in right hemispheric dominance. The hypodigoxinemic state is seen in left hemispheric dominance and senile osteoporosis. Hemispheric

  3. Digoxin therapeutic drug monitoring practices. A College of American Pathologists Q-Probes study of 666 institutions and 18,679 toxic levels.

    PubMed

    Howanitz, P J; Steindel, S J

    1993-07-01

    We investigated digoxin therapeutic drug monitoring practices in 666 institutions participating in Q-Probes, a quality improvement program of the College of American Pathologists. Participants used 13 different lower and 16 different upper limits for their therapeutic range. More than 280,000 digoxin levels were studied, and 6.7% (n = 8679) of results were in the toxic range (> 2.6 nmol/L). For the 77% of patients with toxic levels, the last digoxin dose was given orally; for 23% of patients, it was given intravenously; and for less than 1%, it was given intramuscularly. Between 22% and 31% of specimens in the toxic range were obtained before steady state had occurred, depending on the criteria used. Small institutions (less than 150 beds), outpatients, stat specimens, and laboratory policies not requiring the time of the last dose before measurement were associated with higher percentages of specimens drawn before the recommended time had elapsed. We describe digoxin monitoring practice patterns and provide suggestions for improvement.

  4. The Role of Intralipid Emulsion in the Rat Model of Digoxin Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Turan, Cansu Arslan; Ozturk, Tuba Cimilli; Akoglu, Ebru Unal; Ak, Rohat; Aygun, Kemal; Sahiner, Ali; Sumer, Engin; Somay, Adnan; Onur, Ozge Ecmel

    2018-02-03

    Although the mechanism of action is not well known, intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of lipophilic drug intoxications. It is thought that, ILE probably separates the lipophilic drugs from target tissue by creating a lipid-rich compartment in the plasma. The second theory is that ILE provides energy to myocardium with high-dose free fatty acids activating the voltage-gated calcium channels in the myocytes. In this study, effects of ILE treatment on digoxin overdose were searched in an animal model in terms of cardiac side effects and survival. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. As the pre-treatment, the groups were administered saline, ILE, DigiFab and DigiFab and ILE. Following that, digoxin was infused to all groups until death except the control group. First arrhythmia and cardiac arrest observation times were recorded. According to the results, there was no statistically significant difference among the group in terms of first arrhythmia time and cardiac arrest times. However, when the saline group compared with ILE-treated group separately, significant difference was observed. DigiFab, ILE or ILE-DigiFab treatment make no significant difference in terms of the first arrhythmia and cardiac arrest duration in digoxin-intoxicated rats. However, it is not possible to say that at the given doses, ILE treatment might be successful at least as a known antidote. The fact that the statistical significance between the two groups is not observed in the subgroup analysis, the study should be repeated with larger groups.

  5. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and oncogenesis: evidence from multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Paramesware Achutha

    2003-12-01

    This study assessed the changes in the isoprenoid pathway and its metabolites digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone in multiple myeloma. The isoprenoid pathway and digoxin status were also studied for comparison in individuals of differing hemispheric dominance to find out the rote of cerebral dominance in the genesis of multiple myeloma and neoplasms. The following parameters were assessed: isoprenoid pathway metabolites, tyrosine and tryptophan catabolites, glycoconjugate metabolism, RBC membrane composition, and free radical metabolism--in multiple myeloma, as well as in individuals of differing hemispheric dominance. There was elevation in plasma HMG CoA reductase activity, serum digoxin, and dolichol, and a reduction in RBC membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, serum ubiquinone, and magnesium levels. Serum tryptophan, serotonin, nicotine, strychnine, and quinolinic acid were elevated, while tyrosine, dopamine, noradrenaline, and morphine were decreased. The total serum glycosaminoglycans and glycosaminoglycan fractions, the activity of GAG degrading enzymes and glycohydrolases, carbohydrate residues of glycoproteins, and serum glycolipids were elevated. The RBC membrane glycosaminoglycans, hexose, and fucose residues of glycoproteins, cholesterol, and phospholipids were reduced. The activity of all free-radical scavenging enzymes, concentration of glutathione, iron binding capacity, and ceruloplasmin decreased significantly, while the concentration of lipid peroxidation products and nitric oxide increased. Hyperdigoxinemia-related altered intracellular Ca++/Mg++ ratios mediated oncogene activation, dolichol-induced altered glycoconjugate metabolism, and ubiquinone deficiency-related mitochondrial dysfunction can contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma. The biochemical patterns obtained in multiple myeloma are similar to those obtained in left-handed/right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals by the dichotic listening test. But all the patients with

  6. Hypothalamic digoxin and hemispheric chemical dominance: relation to alcoholic addiction, alcoholic cirrhosis, and acquired hepatocerebral degeneration.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-08-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--endogenous digoxin (modulate tryptophan/tyrosine transport), dolichol (important in N -glycosylation of proteins), and ubiquinone (free radical scavenger). It was considered pertinent to assess the pathway in alcoholic addiction, alcoholic cirrhosis, and acquired hepatocerebral degeneration. Since endogenous digoxin can regulate neurotransmitter transport, the pathway was also assessed in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance to find out the role of hemispheric dominance in its pathogenesis. In the patient group there was elevated digoxin synthesis, increased dolichol and glycoconjugate levels, and low ubiquinone and elevated free radical levels. There was also an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites as reduced endogenous morphine synthesis from tyrosine. There was an increase in cholesterol:phospholipid ratio and a reduction in glycoconjugate level of RBC membrane in these groups of patients. The same patterns were obtained in individuals with right hemispheric chemical dominance. Alcoholic cirrhosis, alcoholic addiction, and acquired hepatocerebral degeneration are associated with an upregulated isoprenoid pathway and elevated digoxin secretion from the hypothalamus. This can contribute to NMDA excitotoxicity and altered connective tissue/lipid metabolism important in its pathogenesis. Endogenous morphine deficiency plays a role in alcoholic addiction. Alcoholic cirrhosis, addiction, and acquired hepato -cerebral degeneration occur in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals. Ninety percent of the patients with alcoholic addiction, alcoholic cirrhosis, and acquired hepatocerebral degeneration were right-handed and left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. However, their biochemical patterns were similar to those obtained in right hemispheric chemical dominance. Hemispheric chemical dominance is a different entity and has no correlation

  7. Digoxin net secretory transport in bronchial epithelial cell layers is not exclusively mediated by P-glycoprotein/MDR1.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Victoria; Chau, David Y S; Hilgendorf, Constanze; Brown, Alan; Cooper, Anne; Zann, Vanessa; Pritchard, David I; Bosquillon, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    The impact of P-glycoprotein (MDR1, ABCB1) on drug disposition in the lungs as well as its presence and activity in in vitro respiratory drug absorption models remain controversial to date. Hence, we characterised MDR1 expression and the bidirectional transport of the common MDR1 probe (3)H-digoxin in air-liquid interfaced (ALI) layers of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and of the Calu-3 bronchial epithelial cell line at different passage numbers. Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCKII) cells transfected with the human MDR1 were used as positive controls. (3)H-digoxin efflux ratio (ER) was low and highly variable in NHBE layers. In contrast, ER=11.4 or 3.0 were measured in Calu-3 layers at a low or high passage number, respectively. These were, however, in contradiction with increased MDR1 protein levels observed upon passaging. Furthermore, ATP depletion and the two MDR1 inhibitory antibodies MRK16 and UIC2 had no or only a marginal impact on (3)H-digoxin net secretory transport in the cell line. Our data do not support an exclusive role of MDR1 in (3)H-digoxin apparent efflux in ALI Calu-3 layers and suggest the participation of an ATP-independent carrier. Identification of this transporter might provide a better understanding of drug distribution in the lungs. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Chronic Kidney Diseases on Mortality among Digoxin Users Treated for Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation: A Nationwide Register-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sessa, Maurizio; Mascolo, Annamaria; Andersen, Mikkel Porsborg; Rosano, Giuseppe; Rossi, Francesco; Capuano, Annalisa; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of chronic kidney disease on all-causes and cardiovascular mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with digoxin. All patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and/or atrial flutter as hospitalization diagnosis from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2012 were identified in Danish nationwide administrative registries. Cox proportional hazard model was used to compare the adjusted risk of all-causes and cardiovascular mortality among patients with and without chronic kidney disease and among patients with different chronic kidney disease stages within 180 days and 2 years from the first digoxin prescription. We identified 37,981 patients receiving digoxin; 1884 patients had the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease. Cox regression analysis showed no statistically significant differences in all-causes (Hazard Ratio, HR 0.89; 95% confident interval, CI 0.78-1.03) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.88; 95%CI 0.74-1.05) among patients with and without chronic kidney disease within 180 days of follow-up period. No statistically significant differences was found using a 2 years follow-up period neither for all causes mortality (HR 0.90; 95%CI 0.79-1.03), nor for cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.87; 95%CI 0.74-1.02). No statistically significant differences was found comparing patients with and without estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate <30ml/min/1.73m2 and patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease, for all-causes and cardiovascular mortality within 180 days and 2 years from the first digoxin prescription. This study suggest no direct effect of chronic kidney disease and chronic kidney disease stages on all-causes and cardiovascular mortality within both 180 days and 2 years from the first digoxin prescription in patients treatment-naïve with digoxin for non-valvular atrial fibrillation.

  9. Massive digoxin ingestion. Report of a case and review of currently available therapies.

    PubMed Central

    Bremner, W F; Third, J L; Lawrie, T D

    1977-01-01

    Recent reports of treatment of massive digoxin overdosage have emphasized the success of medical therapy. This report describes a fatal outcome to this problem despite aggressive medical management, including pervenous cardiac pacing and draws attention to deficiencies in current treatment of a serious problem. PMID:328024

  10. Application of Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis to Refine the Prediction of Potential Digoxin Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ellens, Harma; Deng, Shibing; Coleman, JoAnn; Bentz, Joe; Taub, Mitchell E.; Ragueneau-Majlessi, Isabelle; Chung, Sophie P.; Herédi-Szabó, Krisztina; Neuhoff, Sibylle; Palm, Johan; Balimane, Praveen; Zhang, Lei; Jamei, Masoud; Hanna, Imad; O’Connor, Michael; Bednarczyk, Dallas; Forsgard, Malin; Chu, Xiaoyan; Funk, Christoph; Guo, Ailan; Hillgren, Kathleen M.; Li, LiBin; Pak, Anne Y.; Perloff, Elke S.; Rajaraman, Ganesh; Salphati, Laurent; Taur, Jan-Shiang; Weitz, Dietmar; Wortelboer, Heleen M.; Xia, Cindy Q.; Xiao, Guangqing; Yamagata, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    In the 2012 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance on drug-drug interactions (DDIs), a new molecular entity that inhibits P-glycoprotein (P-gp) may need a clinical DDI study with a P-gp substrate such as digoxin when the maximum concentration of inhibitor at steady state divided by IC50 ([I1]/IC50) is ≥0.1 or concentration of inhibitor based on highest approved dose dissolved in 250 ml divide by IC50 ([I2]/IC50) is ≥10. In this article, refined criteria are presented, determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis, using IC50 values generated by 23 laboratories. P-gp probe substrates were digoxin for polarized cell-lines and N-methyl quinidine or vinblastine for P-gp overexpressed vesicles. Inhibition of probe substrate transport was evaluated using 15 known P-gp inhibitors. Importantly, the criteria derived in this article take into account variability in IC50 values. Moreover, they are statistically derived based on the highest degree of accuracy in predicting true positive and true negative digoxin DDI results. The refined criteria of [I1]/IC50 ≥ 0.03 and [I2]/IC50 ≥ 45 and FDA criteria were applied to a test set of 101 in vitro-in vivo digoxin DDI pairs collated from the literature. The number of false negatives (none predicted but DDI observed) were similar, 10 and 12%, whereas the number of false positives (DDI predicted but not observed) substantially decreased from 51 to 40%, relative to the FDA criteria. On the basis of estimated overall variability in IC50 values, a theoretical 95% confidence interval calculation was developed for single laboratory IC50 values, translating into a range of [I1]/IC50 and [I2]/IC50 values. The extent by which this range falls above the criteria is a measure of risk associated with the decision, attributable to variability in IC50 values. PMID:23620486

  11. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and mesenteric artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Paramesware Achutha

    2003-12-01

    The role of the isoprenoid pathway in vascular thrombosis, especially mesenteric artery occlusion and its relation to hemispheric dominance, was assessed in this study. The following parameters were measured in patients with mesenteric artery occlusion and individuals with right hemispheric, left hemispheric, and bihemispheric dominance: (1) plasma HMG CoA reductase, digoxin, dolichol, ubiquinone, and magnesium levels; (2) tryptophan/tyrosine catabolic patterns; (3) free radical metabolism; (4) glycoconjugate metabolism; and (5) membrane composition. In patients with mesenteric artery occlusion there was elevated digoxin synthesis, increased dolichol and glycoconjugate levels, low ubiquinone, and elevated free radical levels. The RBC membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity and serum magnesium were decreased. There was also an increase in tryptophan catabolites and reduction in tyrosine catabolites in the serum. There was an increase in cholesterol:phospholipid ratio and a reduction in glycoconjugate level of RBC membrane in these patients. The biochemical patterns obtained in mesenteric artery occlusion is similar to those obtained in left-handed/right hemispheric dominant individuals by the dichotic listening test. But all the patients with mesenteric artery occlusion were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. Hemispheric chemical dominance has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test. Mesenteric artery occlusion occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals and is a reflection of altered brain function. Hemispheric chemical dominance may thus control the risk for developing vascular thrombosis in individuals.

  12. Effect of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of oral contraceptives, warfarin, and digoxin in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Devineni, Damayanthi; Manitpisitkul, Prasarn; Vaccaro, Nicole; Bernard, Apexa; Skee, Donna; Mamidi, Rao N V S; Tian, Hong; Weiner, Sveta; Stieltjes, Hans; Sha, Sue; Rothenberg, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Drug-drug interactions between canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor approved for the management of type-2 diabetes mellitus, and an oral contraceptive (OC), warfarin, and digoxin were evaluated in three phase 1 studies in healthy participants. All studies were open-label; study 1 included a fixed-sequence design, and studies 2 and 3 used a crossover design. Regimens were: study 1: OC (levonorgestrel (150 μg) + ethinyl estradiol (30 μg))/day (day 1), canagliflozin 200 mg/day (days 4 - 8), and canagliflozin with OC (day 9); study 2: canagliflozin 300 mg/day (days 1 - 12) with warfarin 30 mg/day (day 6) in period 1, and only warfarin 30 mg/day (day 1) in period 2, or vice versa; study 3: digoxin alone (0.5 mg/day (day 1) + 0.25 mg/day (days 2 - 7)) in period 1, and with canagliflozin 300 mg/day (days 1 - 7) in period 2, or vice versa. Pharmacokinetics (PK) were assessed at prespecified intervals; OC: days 1 and 9, canagliflozin: days 8 - 9 (study 1); warfarin: days 6 (period 1) and 1 (period 2) (study 2); and digoxin: days 5 - 7 (periods 1 and 2) (study 3). Warfarin's pharmacodynamics (PD; International Normalized Ratio (INR)) was assessed on days 6 (period 1) and 1 (period 2). Canagliflozin increased the plasma exposure of OC (maximum plasma concentration (Cmax): 22%, area under the curve (AUC): 6%) and digoxin (Cmax: 36%, AUC: 20%); but did not alter warfarin'€™s PK and PD. No clinically relevant safety findings (including hypoglycemia) were noted. Canagliflozin can be coadministered with OC, warfarin, or digoxin without dose adjustments. All treatments were well-tolerated.

  13. Prevalent digoxin use and subsequent risk of death or hospitalization in ambulatory heart failure patients with a reduced ejection fraction-Findings from the Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training (HF-ACTION) randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ambrosy, Andrew P; Bhatt, Ankeet S; Stebbins, Amanda L; Wruck, Lisa M; Fudim, Marat; Greene, Stephen J; Kraus, William E; O'Connor, Christopher M; Piña, Ileana L; Whellan, David J; Mentz, Robert J

    2018-05-01

    Despite more than 200 years of clinical experience and a pivotal trial, recently published research has called into question the safety and efficacy of digoxin therapy in heart failure (HF). HF-ACTION (ClinicalTrials.gov Number: NCT00047437) enrolled 2331 outpatients with HF and an EF ≤35% between April 2003 and February 2007 and randomized them to aerobic exercise training versus usual care. Patients were grouped according to prevalent digoxin status at baseline. The association between digoxin therapy and outcomes was assessed using Cox proportional hazard and inverse-probability weighted (IPW) regression models adjusted for demographics, medical history, medications, laboratory values, quality of life, and exercise parameters. The prevalence of digoxin therapy decreased from 52% during the first 6 months of enrollment to 35% at the end of the HF-ACTION trial (P <0.0001). Study participants were 59± 13 years of age, 72% were male, and approximately half had an ischemic etiology of HF. Patients receiving digoxin at baseline tended to be younger and were more likely to report New York Heart Association functional class III/IV symptoms (rather than class II) compared to those not receiving digoxin. Patients taking digoxin had worse baseline exercise capacity as measured by peak VO 2 and 6-min walk test and greater impairments in health status as reflected by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. The association between digoxin and the risk of death or hospitalization differed depending on whether Cox proportional hazard (Hazard Ratio 1.03, 95% Confidence Interval 0.92-1.16; P = .62) or IPW regression models (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00-1.17; P = .057) were used to adjust for potential confounders. Although digoxin use was associated with high-risk clinical features, the association between digoxin therapy and outcomes was dependent on the statistical methods used for multivariable adjustment. Clinical equipoise exists and additional prospective research is

  14. Digoxin: placental transfer, effects on the fetus, and therapeutic use in the newborn.

    PubMed

    Soyka, L F

    1975-03-01

    Digoxin rapidly crosses the placenta and reaches equilibrium, with maternal and fetal sera having equal concentrations. Virtually nothing is known about the effects of transplacentally administered digoxin on the fetus. Toxicity has been reported in the fetus of a woman ingesting a huge overdose of digitoxin; the same result would be anticipated with digoxin poisoning. Serum levels in pregnant women receiving the standard dose of 0.25 mg tend to be subnormal and certain patients may require a small increase in dose during the last trimester. While the full-term neonate appears to tolerate relatively high doses and the resultant high serum levels, there is no compelling evidence that such doses are necessary or even useful. Since toxicity can and does occur in neonates, especially during administration of loading (digitalizing) doses, it is recommended that maintenance doses of 0.01 mg per kg per day be used routinely. If the full inotropic effect is needed immediately, a loading dose of 0.03 mg per kg may be employed. Maintenance therapy is then begun on the following day. Without a loading dose cumulation occurs for about 3 days; after 5 or so days, serum levels will equal those found after use of a loading dose followed by maintenance therapy. Results of a single study suggest that the daily dose should be divided and given every 12 hours. After about 1 week of therapy, the serum level should be determined and the dose modified to maintain a serum level of 1 to 2 ng per ml. If the therapeutic effect is less than desired, a cautions increase in dose to as high as 0.02 mg per kg per day or to that dose which produces serum levels up to 3 ng per ml can be tried. Certain infants appear to tolerate serum levels of 3.5 to 4 ng per ml but such infants must be closely monitored. There are no data which indicate that a greater inotropic response will occur at these high serum levels, though this point has not been definitively investigated, and is the highest priority

  15. Nanomagnet-based removal of lead and digoxin from living rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Inge K.; Schlegel, Andrea; Graf, Rolf; Schumacher, Christoph M.; Senn, Nico; Hasler, Melanie; Gschwind, Sabrina; Hirt, Ann-Marie; Günther, Detlef; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Stark, Wendelin J.; Beck-Schimmer, Beatrice

    2013-08-01

    In a number of clinical conditions such as intoxication, bacteraemia or autoimmune diseases the removal of the disease-causing factor from blood would be the most direct cure. However, physicochemical characteristics of the target compounds limit the applicability of classical filtration and diffusion-based processes. In this work, we present a first in vivo magnetic blood purification rodent animal model and demonstrate its ability to rapidly clear toxins from blood circulation using two model toxins with stable plasma levels (lead (Pb2+) and digoxin). Ultra-strong functionalized metal nanomagnets are employed to eliminate the toxin from whole blood in an extracorporeal circuit. In the present experimental demonstration over 40% of the toxin (i.e. lead or digoxin) was removed within the first 10 minutes and over 75% within 40 minutes. After capturing the target substance, a magnetic trap prevents the toxin-loaded nanoparticles from entering the blood circulation. Elemental analysis and magnetic hysteresis measurements confirm full particle recovery by simple magnetic separation (residual particle concentration below 1 μg mL-1 (detection limit)). We demonstrate that magnetic separation-based blood purification offers rapid blood cleaning from noxious agents, germs or other deleterious materials with relevance to a number of clinical conditions. Based on this new approach, current blood purification technologies can be extended to efficiently remove disease-causing factors, e.g. overdosed drugs, bacteria or cancer cells without being limited by filter cut-offs or column surface saturation.

  16. Effect of Semaglutide on the Pharmacokinetics of Metformin, Warfarin, Atorvastatin and Digoxin in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Hausner, Helene; Derving Karsbøl, Julie; Holst, Anders G; Jacobsen, Jacob B; Wagner, Frank-Dietrich; Golor, Georg; Anderson, Thomas W

    2017-11-01

    Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue in development for the once-weekly treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Its effect on the rate and extent of absorption of concomitant oral medications (metformin, warfarin, atorvastatin and digoxin) was evaluated in healthy subjects. Subjects received metformin (500 mg twice daily for 3.5 days), warfarin (25 mg, single dose), atorvastatin (40 mg, single dose) or digoxin (0.5 mg, single dose) before and with subcutaneous semaglutide treatment at steady state (1.0 mg). Lack of drug-drug interaction was concluded if the 90% confidence intervals for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve ratio before and with semaglutide were within a pre-specified interval (0.80-1.25). Overall, metformin, warfarin, atorvastatin and digoxin pharmacokinetics were not affected to a clinically relevant degree with semaglutide co-administration. Estimated area under the plasma concentration-time curve ratios for all concomitant medications before and with semaglutide treatment were within the pre-specified interval. In addition, semaglutide did not affect maximum plasma concentration of concomitant medications to a relevant degree. Furthermore, no clinically relevant change in international normalised ratio response to warfarin was observed with semaglutide co-administration. Most adverse events with semaglutide treatment were mild or moderate. Adverse events with semaglutide and co-administered medication were comparable to those reported during treatment with semaglutide alone, and were mostly gastrointestinal related. No clinically significant pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions were identified and no new safety issues observed with combined treatment with semaglutide. This suggests that no dose adjustments should be required when semaglutide is administered concomitantly with these medications.

  17. Quality of requests for serum digoxin concentrations: experience from an Australian regional health service.

    PubMed

    Ellington, Chris; Grgurinovich, Nick; Miners, John O; Mangoni, Arduino A

    2007-05-01

    * Therapeutic drug monitoring of serum digoxin concentrations (SDC) is considered useful in enhancing the therapeutic benefits of digoxin and minimizing the incidence of adverse drug reactions. * The quality of requests for SDC has been reported to be generally unsatisfactory. However, studies have focused on few information parameters. * A better knowledge of these issues might be useful to target appropriate areas of weakness within heathcare systems. * The poor quality of the information in SDC requests involves a wide range of codes from the contact details of the requester to the time interval between the last dose of digoxin and blood sampling. * Misuse of the therapeutic drug monitoring service is common across different specialties and healthcare settings. To assess the quality of the information provided with serum digoxin concentration (SDC) requests received by a therapeutic drug monitoring service in a regional health service. We conducted a retrospective audit of a consecutive series of 685 SDC requests during a 7-month period. Information regarding (i) contact details, (ii) reasons for request, (iii) dose, (iv) route of administration, (v) concurrent therapy, (vi) treatment duration and (vii) time interval between the last dose and sampling was reviewed and coded as appropriate or inappropriate/missing. Data were analysed according to the origin of request, i.e. from different specialties/wards (emergency department and critical care, cardiology and coronary care unit, medicine and aged care, surgery, and general/private practice) and healthcare settings (teaching hospital, geriatric hospital and general/private practice). The quality of SDC requests was generally poor across different specialties and healthcare settings. The information provided for the coded parameters was appropriate only in 19.1% (i), 6.4% (ii), 54.7% (iii), 45.8% (iv), 12.8% (v), 32.9% (vi) and 47.1% (vii) of cases. No SDC request was complete in all the information codes. SDC

  18. Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of a Drug Transporter Cocktail Consisting of Digoxin, Furosemide, Metformin, and Rosuvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Giessmann, T; Hohl, K; Sharma, A; Ishiguro, N; Taub, ME; Zimdahl‐Gelling, H; Gansser, D; Wein, M; Ebner, T; Müller, F

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the clinical investigation of a probe drug cocktail containing substrates of key drug transporters. Single oral doses of 0.25 mg digoxin (P‐gp), 5 mg furosemide (OAT1 and OAT3), 500 mg metformin (OCT2, MATE1, and MATE2‐K), and 10 mg rosuvastatin (OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and BCRP) were administered separately or as a cocktail in a randomized six‐period crossover trial in 24 healthy male volunteers. As a cocktail, relative bioavailabilities of digoxin and metformin and furosemide AUC0‐tz were similar to separate dosing. However, when administered as a cocktail the Cmax of furosemide was 19.1% lower and the Cmax and AUC0‐tz of rosuvastatin were 38.6% and 43.4% higher, respectively. In addition, the effects of increased doses of metformin or furosemide on the cocktail were investigated in 11 and 12 subjects, respectively. The cocktail explored in this trial has the potential to be used for the in vivo screening of transporter‐mediated drug–drug interactions. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics PMID:27256812

  19. Quality of requests for serum digoxin concentrations: experience from an Australian Regional Health Service

    PubMed Central

    Ellington, Chris; Grgurinovich, Nick; Miners, John O; Mangoni, Arduino A

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subject Therapeutic drug monitoring of serum digoxin concentrations (SDC) is considered useful in enhancing the therapeutic benefits of digoxin and minimizing the incidence of adverse drug reactions. The quality of requests for SDC has been reported to be generally unsatisfactory. However, studies have focused on few information parameters. A better knowledge of these issues might be useful to target appropriate areas of weakness within heathcare systems. What this study adds The poor quality of the information in SDC requests involves a wide range of codes from the contact details of the requester to the time interval between the last dose of digoxin and blood sampling. Misuse of the therapeutic drug monitoring service is common across different specialties and healthcare settings. Aims To assess the quality of the information provided with serum digoxin concentration (SDC) requests received by a therapeutic drug monitoring service in a regional health service. Methods We conducted a retrospective audit of a consecutive series of 685 SDC requests during a 7-month period. Information regarding (i) contact details, (ii) reasons for request, (iii) dose, (iv) route of administration, (v) concurrent therapy, (vi) treatment duration and (vii) time interval between the last dose and sampling was reviewed and coded as appropriate or inappropriate/missing. Data were analysed according to the origin of request, i.e. from different specialties/wards (emergency department and critical care, cardiology and coronary care unit, medicine and aged care, surgery, and general/private practice) and healthcare settings (teaching hospital, geriatric hospital and general/private practice). Results The quality of SDC requests was generally poor across different specialties and healthcare settings. The information provided for the coded parameters was appropriate only in 19.1% (i), 6.4% (ii), 54.7% (iii), 45.8% (iv), 12.8% (v), 32.9% (vi) and 47.1% (vii

  20. Lack of clinically relevant drug-drug interaction between empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, and verapamil, ramipril, or digoxin in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Macha, Sreeraj; Sennewald, Regina; Rose, Peter; Schoene, Katja; Pinnetti, Sabine; Woerle, Hans J; Broedl, Uli C

    2013-03-01

    Empagliflozin is a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor in clinical development as a treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The goal of this study was to investigate potential drug-drug interactions between empagliflozin and verapamil, ramipril, and digoxin in healthy volunteers. The potential drug-drug interactions were evaluated in 3 separate trials. In the first study, 16 subjects were randomized to receive single-dose empagliflozin 25 mg alone or single-dose empagliflozin 25 mg with single-dose verapamil 120 mg. In the second study, 23 subjects were randomized to receive empagliflozin 25 mg once daily (QD) for 5 days, ramipril (2.5 mg on day 1 then 5 mg QD on days 2-5) for 5 days or empagliflozin 25 mg with ramipril (2.5 mg on day 1 then 5 mg QD on days 2-5) for 5 days. In the third study, 20 subjects were randomized to receive single-dose digoxin 0.5 mg alone or empagliflozin 25 mg QD for 8 days with single-dose digoxin 0.5 mg on day 5. Exposure of empagliflozin was not affected by coadministration with verapamil (AUC0-∞: geometric mean ratio [GMR], 102.95%; 90% CI, 98.87-107.20; Cmax: GMR, 92.39%; 90% CI, 85.38-99.97) or ramipril (AUC over a uniform dosing interval τ at steady state [AUCτ,ss]: GMR, 96.55%; 90% CI, 93.05-100.18; Cmax at steady state [Cmax,ss]: GMR, 104.47%; 90% CI 97.65-111.77). Empagliflozin had no clinically relevant effect on exposure of ramipril (AUCτ,ss: GMR, 108.14%; 90% CI 100.51-116.35; Cmax,ss: GMR, 103.61%; 90% CI, 89.73-119.64) or its active metabolite ramiprilat (AUCτ,ss: GMR, 98.67%; 90% CI, 96.00-101.42; Cmax,ss: GMR, 98.29%; 90% CI, 92.67-104.25). Coadministration of empagliflozin had no clinically meaningful effect on digoxin AUC0-∞ (GMR, 106.11%; 90% CI, 96.71-116.41); however, a slight increase in Cmax was observed that was not considered clinically relevant (GMR, 113.94%; 90% CI, 99.33-130.70). All treatments were well tolerated. There were no serious adverse events or adverse events leading to discontinuation

  1. P-glycoprotein mediated efflux in Caco-2 cell monolayers: the influence of herbals on digoxin transport.

    PubMed

    Oga, Enoche F; Sekine, Shuichi; Shitara, Yoshihisa; Horie, Toshiharu

    2012-12-18

    Several herbal medicines are concomitantly used with conventional medicines with a resultant increase in the recognition of herb-drug interactions. The phytomedicines Vernonia amygdalina Delile (VA), family Asteraceae; Azadiractha indica A. Juss (NL), family Meliaceae; Morinda lucida Benth (MLB), family Rubiaceae; Cymbopogon citratus Stapf (LG), family Poaceae; Curcuma longa L. (CUR), family Zingiberaceae; Carica papaya L. (CP), family Caricaceae and Tapinanthus sessilifolius Blume (ML), family Loranthaceae are used in African traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria. They are also used in several regions world over in managing other ailments like cancer and diabetes. This study investigated their interaction with digoxin (DIG) with a view to predict the potential of P-glycoprotein (p-gp) mediated drug-herb interactions occurring with p-gp substrate drugs. To assess p-gp mediated transport and inhibition, bidirectional transport studies were carried out on Caco-2 cell monolayers using digoxin (DIG) as a model p-gp substrate. Cell functionality was demonstrated using the determinations of transepithelial electric resistance (TEER), cell cytotoxicity testing utilizing the MTT assay as well as the inclusion of inhibition controls. Under the conditions of this study, extracts of ML, VA and CP showed significant inhibition to (3)H-Digoxin basolateral-to-apical (B-A) transport at 0.02-20mg/mL; the concentrations examined. Their apical-to-basolateral (A-B) transport was further investigated. Increases in the mean A-B transport and significant decreases in the B-A transport and efflux ratio values were observed. The apparent permeability coefficient and efflux ratio were computed providing an estimate of drug absorption. The findings show that extracts of ML, VA and CP significantly inhibit p-gp in vitro and interactions with conventional p-gp substrate drugs are likely to occur on co-administration which may result in altered therapeutic outcomes. Copyright

  2. Digoxin use in patients with atrial fibrillation and adverse cardiovascular outcomes: a retrospective analysis of the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF).

    PubMed

    Washam, Jeffrey B; Stevens, Susanna R; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Halperin, Jonathan L; Breithardt, Günter; Singer, Daniel E; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Hankey, Graeme J; Berkowitz, Scott D; Nessel, Christopher C; Fox, Keith A A; Califf, Robert M; Piccini, Jonathan P; Patel, Manesh R

    2015-06-13

    Digoxin is a widely used drug for ventricular rate control in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), despite a scarcity of randomised trial data. We studied the use and outcomes of digoxin in patients in the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF). For this retrospective analysis, we included and classified patients from ROCKET AF on the basis of digoxin use at baseline and during the study. Patients in ROCKET AF were recruited from 45 countries and had AF and risk factors putting them at moderate-to-high risk of stroke, with or without heart failure. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for baseline characteristics and drugs to investigate the association of digoxin with all-cause mortality, vascular death, and sudden death. ROCKET AF was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00403767. In 14,171 randomly assigned patients, digoxin was used at baseline in 5239 (37%). Patients given digoxin were more likely to be female (42% vs 38%) and have a history of heart failure (73% vs 56%), diabetes (43% vs 38%), and persistent AF (88% vs 77%; p<0·0001 for each comparison). After adjustment, digoxin was associated with increased all-cause mortality (5·41 vs 4·30 events per 100 patients-years; hazard ratio 1·17; 95% CI 1·04-1·32; p=0·0093), vascular death (3·55 vs 2·69 per 100 patient-years; 1·19; 1·03-1·39, p=0·0201), and sudden death (1·68 vs 1·12 events per 100 patient-years; 1·36; 1·08-1·70, p=0·0076). Digoxin treatment was associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality, vascular death, and sudden death in patients with AF. This association was independent of other measured prognostic factors, and although residual confounding could account for these results, these data show the possibility of digoxin having these effects. A randomised trial of digoxin in treatment of AF patients

  3. Extracorporeal life support and digoxin-specific Fab fragments for successful management of Taxus baccata intoxication with low output and ventricular arrhythmia.

    PubMed

    Farag, Mina; Badowski, Dominika; Koschny, Ronald; Skopp, Gisela; Brcic, Andreas; Szabo, Gabor B

    2017-12-01

    Yew plants are evergreen shrubs which are widely spread throughout the northern hemisphere. Taxane alkaloid derivatives, mainly taxine B, represent the main toxins of Taxus baccata and are highly cardiotoxic. Due to the lack of randomized clinical trials, case reports on accidental or suicidal yew intoxications build the only source of knowledge of clinical treatment options. We report the case of a suicidal yew ingestion admitted to our hospital under prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation due to pulseless electrical activity. Extra-corporeal life support (ECLS) was established to maintain adequate organ perfusion. Repeated administration of digoxin-specific Fab antibody fragments, which cross-react with taxine, was associated with an immediate conversion from asystole to broad-complex bradycardia and a gradual normalization of the electrocardiogram (ECG). This was paralleled by a recovery of the cardiac function and weaning from the ECLS. The taxine metabolite 3,5-dimethoxyphenol could be detected by mass spectrometry before but not after the first Fab-fragment treatment. In contrast, the total amount of taxine (including the neutralized, Fab fragment-bound fraction) was increased after each Fab fragment administration, suggesting an accumulation of neutralized, since antibody-bound taxine in the blood by anti-digoxin Fab fragments. In conclusion, the successful clinical course of this case suggests a benefit of an early anti-digoxin Fab-fragment administration for the treatment of yew intoxication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hypothalamic digoxin and hemispheric chemical dominance in relation to the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-08-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--digoxin (membrane sodium-potassium ATPase inhibitor and regulator of neurotransmitter transport), dolichol (regulator of N-glycosylation of proteins), and ubiquinone (free radical scavenger). The isoprenoid pathway was assessed in patients with bronchial asthma. The pathway was also assessed in patients with right hemispheric, left hemispheric, and bihemispheric dominance to find out the role of hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. The pathway was upregulated with increase in digoxin synthesis in bronchial asthma. There was an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites in patients with bronchial asthma. The ubiquinone levels were low and lipid peroxidation increased in these patients. There was increase in dolichol and glycoconjugate levels and reduction in lysosomal stability in these patients. The cholesterol:phospholipid ratio was increased and glycoconjugate levels were reduced in the membranes of these patients. The patterns noticed in bronchial asthma were similar to those in patients with right hemispheric chemical dominance. Bronchial asthma occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals. Ninety percent of the patients with bronchial asthma were right-handed and left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. But their biochemical patterns were similar to those obtained in right hemispheric chemical dominance. Hemispheric chemical dominance is a different entity and has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test.

  5. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and the tridosha theory.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-05-01

    Ayurveda, the traditional Indian System of Medicine, deals with the theory of the three tridosha states (both physical and psychological): Vata, Pitta, and Kapha. They are the three major human constitutional types that both depend on psychological and physical characteristics. The Pitta state is described as a critical, discriminative, and rational psychological state of mind, while the Kapha state is described as being dominant for emotional stimuli. The Vata state is an intermediate unstable shifting state. The Pitta types are of average height and built with well developed musculature. The Vata types are thin individuals with low body mass index. The Kapha types are short stocky individuals that tend toward obesity, and who are sedentary. The study assessed the biochemical differences between right hemispheric dominant, bihemispheric dominant, and left hemispheric dominant individuals, and then compared this with the patterns obtained in the Vata, Pitta, and Kapha states. The isoprenoid metabolites (digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone), glycoconjugate metabolism, free radical metabolism, and the RBC membrane composition were studied. The hemispheric chemical dominance in various systemic diseases and psychological states was also investigated. The results showed that right hemispheric chemically dominant/Kapha state had elevated digoxin levels, increased free radical production and reduced scavenging, increased tryptophan catabolites and reduced tyrosine catabolites, increased glycoconjugate levels and increased cholesterol: phospholipid ratio of RBC membranes. Left hemispheric chemically dominant/Pitta states had the opposite biochemical patterns. The patterns were normal or intermediate in the bihemispheric chemically dominant/Vata state. This pattern could be correlated with various systemic and neuropsychiatric diseases and personality traits. Right hemispheric chemical dominance/Kapha state represents a hyperdigoxinemic state with membrane sodium

  6. The effect of maternal obesity on the expression and functionality of placental P-glycoprotein: Implications in the individualized transplacental digoxin treatment for fetal heart failure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Li, Huaying; Luo, Chunyan; Li, Yifei; Zhang, Yi; Yun, Ding; Mu, Dezhi; Zhou, Kaiyu; Hua, Yimin

    2015-10-01

    Placental P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays a significant role in controlling digoxin transplacental rate. Investigations on P-gp regulation in placenta of women with different pregnant pathology are of great significance to the individualized transplacental digoxin treatment for fetal heart failure (FHF). This study aimed to explore the effect of maternal obesity on the expression and functionality of placental P-gp both in human and in mice. Placenta tissues from obese and lean women were collected. Female C57BL mice were fed with either a normal chow diet or a high-fat diet for 12 weeks before mating and throughout pregnancy. Maternal plasma glucose, HDL-C, LDL-C, TC, TGs, insulin, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations was detected. Placental ABCB1/Abcb1a/Abcb1b/IL-1β/IL-6/TNF-α mRNA and P-gp/IL-1β/IL-6/TNF-α protein expression were determined by real-time quantitative PCR and western-blot, respectively. Maternal plasma and fetal-unit digoxin concentrations were detected by a commercial kit assay. Both ABCB1 gene mRNA and protein expression of obesity group was significantly lower than that of control group in human. The high-fat dietary intervention resulted in an overweight phenotype, a significant increased Lee's index, higher levels of plasma glucose, HDL-C, LDL-C, insulin and TGs, increased peri-renal and peri-reproductive gland adipose tissue weight, and larger size of adipose cell. Compared with control group at the same gestational day (E12.5, E15.5, E17.5), placental Abcb1a mRNA and P-gp expression of obese group were significantly decreased in mice, while digoxin transplacental rates were significantly increased. Higher maternal plasma IL-1β/TNF-α concentrations and placental IL-1β/TNF-α expression were observed in obesity groups in comparison with control group at the same gestational age. Maternal obesity could inhibit placental P-gp expression and its functionality both in human and in mice, which might be resulted from a heightened inflammatory

  7. Pharmacokinetic Interactions Between Isavuconazole and the Drug Transporter Substrates Atorvastatin, Digoxin, Metformin, and Methotrexate in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Takao; Desai, Amit; Goldwater, Ronald; Han, David; Lasseter, Kenneth C.; Howieson, Corrie; Akhtar, Shahzad; Kowalski, Donna; Lademacher, Christopher; Rammelsberg, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article summarizes 4 phase 1 trials that explored interactions between the novel, triazole antifungal isavuconazole and substrates of the drug transporters breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug and toxin extrusion protein‐1 (MATE1), organic anion transporters 1/3 (OAT1/OAT3), organic anion‐transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), organic cation transporters 1/2 (OCT1/OCT2), and P‐glycoprotein (P‐gp). Healthy subjects received single doses of atorvastatin (20 mg; OATP1B1 and P‐gp substrate), digoxin (0.5 mg; P‐gp substrate), metformin (850 mg; OCT1, OCT2, and MATE1 substrate), or methotrexate (7.5 mg; BCRP, OAT1, and OAT3 substrate) in the presence and absence of clinical doses of isavuconazole (200 mg 3 times a day for 2 days; 200 mg once daily thereafter). Coadministration with isavuconazole increased mean area under the plasma concentration‐time curves (90% confidence interval) of atorvastatin, digoxin, and metformin to 137% (129, 145), 125% (117, 134),  and 152% (138, 168) and increased mean maximum plasma concentrations to 103% (88, 121), 133% (119, 149), and 123% (109, 140), respectively. Methotrexate parameters were unaffected by isavuconazole. There were no serious adverse events. These findings indicate that isavuconazole is a weak inhibitor of P‐gp, as well as OCT1, OCT2, MATE1, or a combination thereof but not of BCRP, OATP1B1, OAT1, or OAT3. PMID:27273004

  8. Purification and Characterization of Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase, 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase, and Glutathione Reductase from Rat Heart and Inhibition Effects of Furosemide, Digoxin, and Dopamine on the Enzymes Activities.

    PubMed

    Adem, Sevki; Ciftci, Mehmet

    2016-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate characterization and purification of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and glutathione reductase from rat heart and the inhibitory effect of three drugs. The purification of the enzymes was performed using 2',5'-ADP sepharose 4B affinity material. The subunit and the natural molecular weights were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. Biochemical characteristics such as the optimum temperature, pH, stable pH, and salt concentration were examined for each enzyme. Types of product inhibition and Ki values with Km and Vmax values of the substrates and coenzymes were determined. According to the obtained Ki and IC50 values, furosemide, digoxin, and dopamine showed inhibitory effect on the enzyme activities at low millimolar concentrations in vitro conditions. Dopamine inhibited the activity of these enzymes as competitive, whereas furosemide and digoxin inhibited the activity of the enzyme as noncompetitive. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. No Dose Adjustment is Recommended for Digoxin, Warfarin, Atorvastatin or a Combination Oral Contraceptive When Coadministered with Dulaglutide.

    PubMed

    de la Peña, Amparo; Cui, Xuewei; Geiser, Jeanne; Loghin, Corina

    2017-11-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to delay gastric emptying (GE). The potential effect of the GLP-1 RA dulaglutide on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of four orally administered drugs and on the pharmacodynamic (PD) effect of warfarin was investigated. In four separate clinical pharmacology studies, digoxin, warfarin, atorvastatin and Ortho-Cyclen ® were orally administered to healthy subjects with and without a subcutaneous dose of dulaglutide 1.5 mg. The effect of dulaglutide coadministration was assessed based on the PK parameters of key analytes. For warfarin PD, the effect of dulaglutide on the international normalized ratio (INR) was evaluated. Areas under the concentration-time curves (AUCs) with and without dulaglutide were similar for all analytes except atorvastatin, where it was reduced by 21%. Maximum concentrations (C max ) were generally lower following coadministration with dulaglutide, with statistically significant reductions (90% confidence intervals of geometric least squares means ratios outside 0.80-1.25) for all analytes except R-warfarin. For all analytes, there was a general trend for the time to C max (t max ) to increase following coadministration with dulaglutide. For warfarin, dulaglutide coadministration had no statistically significant effect on the maximum INR (INR max ); however, a 2% increase in area under the INR curve (AUC INR ) was observed. Dulaglutide did not affect the absorption of the tested medications to a clinically relevant degree. Based on the PK and PD evaluations, no dose adjustments for digoxin, warfarin, atorvastatin and Ortho-Cyclen ® are recommended when coadministered with dulaglutide. NCT01458210, NCT01436201, NCT01432938, and NCT01250834.

  10. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-10-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--endogenous digoxin-like factor (EDLF) (membrane sodium-potassium ATPase inhibitor and regulator of neurotransmitter transport), ubiquinone (free radical scavenger), and dolichol (regulator of glycoconjugate metabolism). The pathway was assessed in peptic ulcer and acid peptic disease and its relation to hemispheric dominance studied. The activity of HMG CoA reductase, serum levels of EDLF, magnesium, tryptophan catabolites, and tyrosine catabolites were measured in acid peptic disease, right hemispheric dominant, left hemispheric dominant, and bihemispheric dominant individuals. All the patients with peptic ulcer disease were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. The pathway was upregulated with increased EDLF synthesis in peptic ulcer disease (PUD). There was increase in tryptophan catabolites and reduction in tyrosine catabolites in these patients. The ubiquinone levels were low and free radical production increased. Dolichol and glycoconjugate levels were increased and lysosomal stability reduced in patients with acid peptic disease (APD). There was increase in cholesterol:phospholipid ratio with decreased glyco conjugate levels in membranes of patients with PUD. Acid peptic disease represents an elevated EDLF state which can modulate gastric acid secretion and the structure of the gastric mucous barrier. It can also lead to persistence of Helicobacter pylori infection. The biochemical pattern obtained in peptic ulcer disease is similar to those obtained in left-handed/right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals. But all the patients with peptic ulcer disease were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listen ing test. Hemispheric chemical dominance has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test. Peptic ulcer disease occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals and is a reflection of altered brain function.

  11. Assessment of Pharmacokinetic Interactions Between Obeticholic Acid and Caffeine, Midazolam, Warfarin, Dextromethorphan, Omeprazole, Rosuvastatin, and Digoxin in Phase 1 Studies in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jeffrey E; Eliot, Lise; Parkinson, Andrew; Karan, Sharon; MacConell, Leigh

    2017-09-01

    Obeticholic acid (OCA), a potent and selective farnesoid X receptor agonist, is indicated for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). We investigated the potential drug-drug interaction effect of OCA on metabolic CYP450 enzymes and drug transporters. Five phase 1 single-center, open-label, fixed-sequence, inpatient studies were conducted in healthy adult subjects to evaluate the effect of oral daily doses of 10 or 25 mg OCA on single-dose plasma pharmacokinetics of specific probe substrates for enzymes CYP1A2 (caffeine, R-warfarin), CYP3A (midazolam, R-warfarin), CYP2C9 (S-warfarin), CYP2D6 (dextromethorphan), CYP2C19 (omeprazole), and drug transporters, BCRP/OATP1B1/OATP1B3 (rosuvastatin), and P-gp (digoxin). OCA showed no substantial suppression/inhibition of S-warfarin, digoxin, and dextromethorphan and weak interactions with caffeine, omeprazole, rosuvastatin, and midazolam. The maximal pharmacodynamic responses (E max ) to warfarin-based INR, PT, and aPTT were reduced by 11%, 11%, and 1%, respectively, for the 10-mg dose group and by 7%, 7% and 0%, respectively, for the 25-mg dose group. Overall, drugs dosed in combination with OCA were well tolerated, and most adverse events were mild in severity. No clinically important trends were noted in laboratory evaluations, vital signs, or 12-lead ECGs. In these studies, OCA showed weak to no suppression/inhibition of metabolic enzymes and drug transporters at the highest recommended therapeutic dose in patients with PBC. On the basis on these analyses, monitoring and maintenance of target INR range are required during coadministration of OCA with drugs that are metabolized by CYP1A2 (R-warfarin). Intercept Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

  12. Evaluation by N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide concentrations and ross scoring of the efficacy of digoxin in the treatment of heart failure secondary to congenital heart disease with left-to-right shunts.

    PubMed

    Elkiran, Ozlem; Sandikkaya, Ayse; Kocak, Gulendam; Karakurt, Cemsit; Taskapan, Cagatay; Yologlu, Saim

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of digoxin in children with heart failure secondary to left-to-right shunt lesions and normal left ventricular systolic function. The study registered 37 such patients (ages 10 days to 24 months, groups 1 and 2) and used 20 healthy children as a control group (group 3). Left ventricular systolic function, as assessed by conventional echocardiography, was normal in all the subjects. Congestive heart failure was diagnosed by clinical evaluation and modified Ross scoring. Plasma N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations and complete blood counts were assessed in all the children. Group 1 was treated with digoxin, enalapril, and furosemide and group 2 with enalapril and furosemide. Approximately 1 month after starting treatment, the patients were reevaluated by physical and echocardiographic examinations, modified Ross scoring, plasma NT-proBNP concentrations, and complete blood counts. The pre- and posttreatment Ross scores of group 1 (p = 0.377) and group 2 (p = 0.616) did not differ significantly. The NT-proBNP values in both groups decreased after treatment (p = 0.0001). The pre- and posttreatment NT-proBNP values did not differ significantly in group 1 (p = 0.094)) and group 2 (p = 0.372). The pretreatment NT-proBNP values in groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.0001) were significantly higher than in the control group (p = 0.003). A smaller difference was observed between posttreatment NT-proBNP values in group 1 and the control group (p = 0.045). We found no significant difference between the posttreatment NT-proBNP values of group 2 and those of the control group (p = 0.271). The study showed that both treatments currently used to treat heart failure secondary to congenital heart disease with left-to-right shunts and preserved left ventricular systolic function are effective and do not differ significantly. Thus, digoxin does not provide any extra benefit in the treatment of such patients.

  13. PERSISTENCE OF HAPTEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES IN THE CIRCULATION OF IMMUNIZED ANIMALS AFTER A SINGLE INTRAVENOUS INJECTION OF HAPTEN

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Donald H.; Kaufman, Bette M.; Butler, Vincent P.

    1974-01-01

    To study the fate of a low molecular weight antigen (hapten) in the circulation of animals whose sera contain antibodies specific for that low molecular weight antigen, a single injection of digoxin-3H (0.4 mg/kg) was administered intravenously to 18 rabbits. Thirteen animals (nine nonimmunized and four immunized with bovine serum albumin) served as control animals. In five rabbits which had been immunized with a digoxin-bovine serum albumin conjugate and whose sera contained digoxin-specific antibodies, the mean 12-h serum digoxin concentration was 8,300 ng/ml (control: 92 ng/ml) and the mean serum concentration 12 mo after the single injection of digoxin-3H was 85 ng/ml. In digoxin-immunized rabbits, less than 10% of the digoxin-3H was excreted in the first 10 days (control: 77% recovered in urine and feces) and the mean biological half-life of digoxin, as calculated from serum digoxin-3H disappearance curves, was 72 days (control: 3.4 days). In sera of digoxin-immunized rabbits, more than 90% of the circulating digoxin-3H was immunoglobulin bound, as determined by the double-antibody and dextran-coated charcoal methods. The serum disappearance rate of 125I-antidigoxin antibodies was similar in nonimmunized and in immunized animals and in the presence or absence of digoxin. It is concluded that the biological half-life of a hapten may be markedly prolonged when the hapten is bound to specific antibody. The persistence of antibody-hapten complexes in the circulation suggests that these complexes may not be deposited in tissues and raises the possibility that low molecular weight determinants may be capable of preventing or reversing the deposition of immune complexes, containing macromolecular antigens, in the tissues of experimental animals and man. PMID:4129823

  14. Digitalis-like and vasoconstrictor effects of endogenous digoxin-like factor(s) from the venom of Bufo marinus toad.

    PubMed

    Bagrov, A Y; Roukoyatkina, N I; Fedorova, O V; Pinaev, A G; Ukhanova, M V

    1993-04-06

    Digitalis glycoside-like properties of the Bufo marinus toad crude venom and one of its constituents, bufalin, were studied in various assay systems. In concentrations 0.3-30 micrograms/ml crude venom increased the contractility of isolated electrically driven rat atria, constricted rat aortic rings, inhibited ouabain-sensitive Na+,K(+)-ATPase in rat erythrocytes and the Na+,K(+)-pump in rat aorta, and cross-reacted with antidigoxin antibody from the dissociation enhanced lanthanide fluoroimmunoassay (DELFIA). These effects were unaffected by adrenoceptor blockers and the 5-HT antagonist, deseril, but were blocked by antidigoxin antibody. Bufalin (10-30 microM) increased myocardial contractility and inhibited Na+,K(+)-ATPase in rat erythrocytes similarly to crude Bufo marinus venom. In rat aorta bufalin showed weak and delayed vasoconstrictor activity which was antagonized by 2 microM phentolamine, and had a biphasic effect on the Na+,K(+)-pump; 0.5-1.0 microM bufalin stimulated the pump, while higher concentrations inhibited its activity. Although the effects of bufalin were blocked by antidigoxin antibody, bufalin showed very low digoxin-like immunoreactivity in the DELFIA. These observations suggest that, in addition to bufalin, Bufo marinus venom contains at least one more digitalis-like steroid with significant intrinsic vasoconstrictor activity which, unlike bufalin, constricts the blood vessels acting directly via inhibition of the sodium pump in the vascular smooth muscle membrane.

  15. [Pharmacologic action profile of crataegus extract in comparison to epinephrine, amirinone, milrinone and digoxin in the isolated perfused guinea pig heart].

    PubMed

    Joseph, G; Zhao, Y; Klaus, W

    1995-12-01

    Using isolated perfused guinea pig hearts experiments were performed to investigate the influence of crataegus extract LI 132 (Faros 300, CRA) in comparison to other inotropic drugs--epinephrine (adrenaline, ADR), amrinone (AM), milrinone (MIL) and digoxin (DIG)--on different functional parameters, with special emphasis on the effective refractory period of the myocardium. The simultaneous registration of appropriate parameters allowed to relate the effect on the refractory period to the inotropic, chronotropic, dromotropic and coronary actions of these compounds at each concentration level. All substances--with the exception of CRA--shortened the effective refractory period concentration-dependently besides their known other functional effects (max.: 1 x 10(-5) mol/l ADR by 38%, 7 x 10(-7) mol/l DIG by 26%, 1 x 10(-4) mol/l MIL by 13% and 5 x 10(-4) mol/l AM by 1.6%). Related to the positive inotropy the shortening was most effective under MIL (1.32 ms/mN), followed by AM (0.65 ms/mN), DIG (0.40 ms/mN) and ADR (0.28 ms/mN). On the contrary, CRA produced a prolongation of the effective refractory period by maximally 10% resp. by 2.54 ms/mN. Thus, the pharmacologic profile of CRA differs from that of other inotropic compounds mainly in this parameter (with potentially reduced arrhythmogenic risk).

  16. Na/K ATPase inhibition by digitalis-like factors in neonates

    SciTech Connect

    Bottorff, M.B.; Songu-Mize, E.; Hoon, T.J.

    1986-03-01

    At the authors institution, 48% of neonates < 1 month of age had false-positive digoxin immunoassay determinations while not receiving digoxin, presumably due to an endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactive substance (DLIS) in the plasma. Plasma from 3 neonates positive for DLIS by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) was evaluated for inhibitory activity on human red blood cell (RBC) Na/K ATPase. Neonatal plasma aliquots containing DLIS concentrations (conc) of 0.24, 0.37, 0.43, 0.49 and 0.61 ng/ml (3.07 - 7.81 x 10/sup -10/M) were incubated with human RBC and /sup 86/Rb in order to measure /sup 86/Rb uptake inhibition with respect to DLIS negativemore » neonatal plasma. /sup 86/Rb uptake inhibition by digoxin-spiked human serum (1.07 x 10/sup -10/ - 4.57 x 10/sup -6/M) was also measured. Percent inhibition vs. log molar conc plots for DLIS and digoxin were compared. DLIS inhibited Na/K ATPase in a linear fashion over the range studied. Comparing the linear portions of the conc-inhibition curves for digoxin and DLIS, the molar conc of digoxin producing 40% inhibition of /sup 86/Rb uptake is 333 times greater than the molar conc of DLIS producing similar inhibition. Therefore, DLIS in neonatal serum as measured by FPIA has approximately 300 times greater inhibitory activity than digoxin. The presence of circulating DLIS may reflect an adaptive or maladaptive response to some, as yet unknown, process early in life.« less

  17. Influence of pre-, post-, and simultaneous perfusion of elevated calcium on the effect of ascending concentrations of lead on digoxin-induced cardiac arrest in isolated frog heart

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamoorthy, M.S.; Muthu, P.; Parthiban, N.

    1995-10-01

    Cardiotoxicity of lead, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has already been documented as a potentially lethal, although rarely recognized, complication of lead intoxication. Further, it has already been reported from this laboratory that lead acetate (LA) preperfusion potentiated cardiotoxicity of digoxin (DGN) in isolated frog heart preparation and that exposure to elevated calcium (elev. Ca{sup 2+}) prior to, and simultaneously with LA at 10{sup {minus}7} M concentration, attenuated this potentiation. As an extension of this work, it was considered of interest to study the effect of perfusion of elev. Ca{sup 2+} (6.5 mM) prior to, after and simultaneously with ascending concentrationsmore » of lead (10{sup {minus}9}, 10{sup {minus}7} and 10{sup {minus}5}M) on DGN induced cardiac arrest (CA) in isolated frog heart, since Pb{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions are known to compete with each other for the same target sites at the cellular level, an instance of competitive mass action effect. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.« less

  18. A combined cell based approach to identify P-glycoprotein substrates and inhibitors in a single assay.

    PubMed

    Balimane, Praveen V; Chong, Saeho

    2005-09-14

    The objective of this project was to develop a cell based in vitro experimental procedure that can differentiate P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates from inhibitors in a single assay. Caco-2 cells grown to confluency on 12-well Transwell were used for this study. The efflux permeability (B to A) of P-gp specific probe (viz., digoxin) in the presence of test compounds (e.g. substrates, inhibitors and non-substrates of P-gp) was monitored, and the influx permeability (A to B) of test compounds was evaluated after complete P-gp blockade. Radiolabelled digoxin was added on the basolateral side with buffer on the apical side. The digoxin concentration appearing on the apical side represents digoxin efflux permeability during the control phase (0-1 h period). After 1 h, a test compound (10 microM) was added on the apical side. The reduced efflux permeability of digoxin suggests that the added test compound is an inhibitor. The influx permeability of test compound is also determined during the 1-2 h study period by measuring the concentration of the test compound in the basolateral side. At the end of 2 h, a potent P-gp inhibitor (GF120918) was added. The increased influx permeability of test compound during the 2-3 h incubation period indicates that the added test compound is a substrate. Samples were taken from both sides at the end of 1-3 h and the concentrations of the test compounds and digoxin were quantitated. Digoxin efflux permeability remained unchanged when incubated with P-gp substrates (e.g., etoposide, rhodamine123, taxol). However, when a P-gp inhibitor was added to the apical side, the digoxin efflux (B to A permeability) was significantly reduced (ketoconazole=51% reduction) as expected. The influx permeability of substrates increased significantly (rhodamine123=70%, taxol=220%, digoxin=290%) after the P-gp inhibitor (GF120918) was introduced, whereas the influx permeability of P-gp inhibitor and non-substrates was not affected by GF120918. Thus, this

  19. Development, validation and utility of an in vitro technique for assessment of potential clinical drug-drug interactions involving P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Keogh, John P; Kunta, Jeevan R

    2006-04-01

    Regulatory interest is increasing for drug transporters generally and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) in particular, primarily in the area of drug-drug interactions. To aid in both identifying and discharging the potential liabilities associated with drug-transporter interactions, the pharmaceutical industry has a growing requirement for routine and robust non-clinical assays. An assay was designed, optimised and validated to determine the in vitro inhibitory potency of new chemical entities (NCEs) towards human Pgp-mediated transport. [3H]-Digoxin was established as a suitable probe substrate by investigating its characteristics in the in vitro system (MDCKII-MDR1 cells grown in 24-multiwell inserts). The inhibitory potencies (apparent IC50) of known Pgp inhibitors astemizole, GF120918, ketoconazole, itraconazole, quinidine, verapamil and quinine were determined over at least a 1000-fold concentration range. Validation was carried out using manual and automatic techniques. [3H]-Digoxin was found to be stable and have good mass balance in the system. In contrast to [A-->B] transport, [3H]-digoxin [B-->A] transport rates were readily measured with good reproducibility. There was no evidence of saturation of transport up to 10 microM digoxin and 30 nM digoxin was selected for routine assay use, reflecting clinical therapeutic concentrations. IC50 values ranged over approximately 100-fold with excellent reproducibility. Results from manual and automated versions were in close agreement. This method is suitable for routine use to assess the in vitro inhibitory potency of NCEs on Pgp-mediated digoxin transport. Comparison of IC50 values against clinical interaction profiles for the probe inhibitors indicated the in vitro assay is predictive of clinical digoxin-drug interactions mediated via Pgp.

  20. Detection of endogenous lithium in neuropsychiatric disorders--a model for biological transmutation.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2002-01-01

    The human hypothalamus produces an endogenous membrane Na(+)-K(+) ATPase inhibitor, digoxin. A digoxin induced model of cellular/neuronal quantal state and perception has been described by the authors. Biological transmutation has been described in microbial systems in the quantal state. The study focuses on the plasma levels of digoxin, RBC membrane Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity, plasma levels of magnesium and lithium in neuropsychiatric and systemic disorders. Inhibition of RBC membrane Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity was observed in most cases along with an increase in the levels of serum digoxin and lithium and a decrease in the level of serum Mg(++). The generation of endogenous lithium would obviously occur due to biological transmutation from magnesium. Digoxin and lithium together can produce added membrane Na(+)-K(+) ATPase inhibition. The role of membrane Na(+)-K(+) ATPase inhibition in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric and systemic disorders is discussed. The inhibition of membrane Na(+)-K(+) ATPase can contribute to an increase in intracellular calcium and a decrease in magnesium, which can result in a defective neurotransmitter transport mechanism, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, defective golgi body function and protein processing dysfunction, immune dysfunction and oncogenesis. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. [Effects of red ginseng on the congestive heart failure and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Ding, D Z; Shen, T K; Cui, Y Z

    1995-06-01

    Forty-five patients with class IV cardiac function were divided into three groups: group I (digoxin group), group II (Red Ginseng group) and group III (Red Ginseng plus digoxin group). Each group consisted of 15 cases. After treatment, the improvement of the hemodynamical and biochemical indexes of group II and group III were greater than those of group I, and group III was the most significant amongst all. The results suggested that Red Ginseng and digoxin had synergism for treatment of congestive heart failure, and Red Ginseng was an effective and safe adjuvant without any side effects.

  2. Ketoconazole and the modulation of multidrug resistance-mediated transport in Caco-2 and MDCKII-MDR1 drug transport models.

    PubMed

    Fan, Y; Rodriguez-Proteau, R

    2008-02-01

    The hypothesis tested was that ketoconazole can modulate P-glycoprotein, thereby altering cellular uptake and apparent permeability (P(app)) of multidrug-resistant substrates, such as cyclosporin A (CSA) and digoxin, across Caco-2, MDCKII-MDR1, and MDCKII wild-type cell transport models. (3)H-CSA/(3)H-digoxin transport experiments were performed with and without co-exposure to ketoconazole, and (3)H-ketoconzole transport experiments were performed with and without co-exposure to dietary flavonoids, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and xanthohumol. Ketoconazole (3 microM) reduced the P(app) efflux of CSA and digoxin from 5.07 x 10(-6) to 2.91 x 10(-6) cm s(-1) and from 2.60 x 10(-6) to 1.41 x 10(-6) cm s(-1), respectively, in Caco-2 cells. In the MDCKII-MDR1 cells, ketoconazole reduced the P(app) efflux of CSA and increased the P(app) absorption of digoxin. Cellular uptake of ketoconazole in the Caco-2 cells was significantly inhibited by CSA and digoxin, whereas epigallocatechin-3-gallate and xanthohumol exhibited biphasic responses. In conclusion, ketoconazole modulates the P(app) of P-glycoprotein substrates by interacting with MDR1 protein. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and xanthohumol modulate the transport and uptake of ketoconazole.

  3. Tablet splitting and weight uniformity of half-tablets of 4 medications in pharmacy practice.

    PubMed

    Tahaineh, Linda M; Gharaibeh, Shadi F

    2012-08-01

    Tablet splitting is a common practice for multiple reasons including cost savings; however, it does not necessarily result in weight-uniform half-tablets. To determine weight uniformity of half-tablets resulting from splitting 4 products available in the Jordanian market and investigate the effect of tablet characteristics on weight uniformity of half-tablets. Ten random tablets each of warfarin 5 mg, digoxin 0.25 mg, phenobarbital 30 mg, and prednisolone 5 mg were weighed and split by 6 PharmD students using a knife. The resulting half-tablets were weighed and evaluated for weight uniformity. Other relevant physical characteristics of the 4 products were measured. The average tablet hardness of the sampled tablets ranged from 40.3 N to 68.9 N. Digoxin, phenobarbital, and prednisolone half-tablets failed the weight uniformity test; however, warfarin half-tablets passed. Digoxin, warfarin, and phenobarbital tablets had a score line and warfarin tablets had the deepest score line of 0.81 mm. Splitting warfarin tablets produces weight-uniform half-tablets that may possibly be attributed to the hardness and the presence of a deep score line. Digoxin, phenobarbital, and prednisolone tablet splitting produces highly weight variable half-tablets. This can be of clinical significance in the case of the narrow therapeutic index medication digoxin.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of digoxin cross-reacting substances in patients with acute yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning, including the effect of activated charcoal.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Darren M; Southcott, Emma; Potter, Julia M; Roberts, Michael S; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A

    2008-01-01

    Intentional self-poisonings with seeds from the yellow oleander tree (Thevetia peruviana) are widely reported. Activated charcoal has been suggested to benefit patients with yellow oleander poisoning by reducing absorption and/or facilitating elimination. Two recent randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of activated charcoal reported conflicting outcomes in terms of mortality. The effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of Thevetia cardenolides has not been assessed. This information may be useful for determining whether further studies are necessary. Serial blood samples were obtained from patients enrolled in a RCT assessing the relative efficacy of single dose (SDAC) and multiple doses (MDAC) of activated charcoal compared to no activated charcoal (NoAC). The concentration of Thevetia cardenolides was estimated using a digoxin immunoassay. The effect of activated charcoal on cardenolide pharmacokinetics was compared between treatment groups using the AUC24, the 24h Mean Residence Time (MRT24), and regression lines obtained from serial concentration points adjusted for exposure. Erratic and prolonged absorption patterns were noted in each patient group. The apparent terminal half-life was highly variable, with a median time of 42.9h. There was a reduction in MRT24 and the apparent terminal half-life estimated from linear regression in patients administered activated charcoal compared to the control group (NoAC). This effect was approximately equal in patients administered MDAC or SDAC. Activated charcoal appears to favourably influence the pharmacokinetic profile of Thevetia cardenolides in patients with acute self-poisoning, which may have clinical benefits. Given the conflicting clinical outcomes noted in previous RCTs, this mechanistic data supports the need for further studies to determine whether a subgroup of patients (eg. those presenting soon after poisoning) will benefit from activated charcoal. PMID:17164695

  5. 21 CFR 201.317 - Digitalis and related cardiotonic drugs for human use in oral dosage forms; required warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... obesity, although their safety and effectiveness for that use have never been established. (b) Digitalis... the treatment of obesity. This use of digoxin or other digitalis glycosides is unwarranted. Moreover... the treatment of obesity is dangerous. (c) This section does not apply to digoxin products for oral...

  6. 21 CFR 201.317 - Digitalis and related cardiotonic drugs for human use in oral dosage forms; required warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... obesity, although their safety and effectiveness for that use have never been established. (b) Digitalis... the treatment of obesity. This use of digoxin or other digitalis glycosides is unwarranted. Moreover... the treatment of obesity is dangerous. (c) This section does not apply to digoxin products for oral...

  7. 21 CFR 201.317 - Digitalis and related cardiotonic drugs for human use in oral dosage forms; required warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... obesity, although their safety and effectiveness for that use have never been established. (b) Digitalis... the treatment of obesity. This use of digoxin or other digitalis glycosides is unwarranted. Moreover... the treatment of obesity is dangerous. (c) This section does not apply to digoxin products for oral...

  8. 21 CFR 201.317 - Digitalis and related cardiotonic drugs for human use in oral dosage forms; required warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... obesity, although their safety and effectiveness for that use have never been established. (b) Digitalis... the treatment of obesity. This use of digoxin or other digitalis glycosides is unwarranted. Moreover... the treatment of obesity is dangerous. (c) This section does not apply to digoxin products for oral...

  9. 21 CFR 201.317 - Digitalis and related cardiotonic drugs for human use in oral dosage forms; required warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... obesity, although their safety and effectiveness for that use have never been established. (b) Digitalis... the treatment of obesity. This use of digoxin or other digitalis glycosides is unwarranted. Moreover... the treatment of obesity is dangerous. (c) This section does not apply to digoxin products for oral...

  10. Discovery and characterization of a prevalent human gut bacterial enzyme sufficient for the inactivation of a family of plant toxins

    PubMed Central

    Koppel, Nitzan; Bisanz, Jordan E; Pandelia, Maria-Eirini

    2018-01-01

    Although the human gut microbiome plays a prominent role in xenobiotic transformation, most of the genes and enzymes responsible for this metabolism are unknown. Recently, we linked the two-gene ‘cardiac glycoside reductase’ (cgr) operon encoded by the gut Actinobacterium Eggerthella lenta to inactivation of the cardiac medication and plant natural product digoxin. Here, we compared the genomes of 25 E. lenta strains and close relatives, revealing an expanded 8-gene cgr-associated gene cluster present in all digoxin metabolizers and absent in non-metabolizers. Using heterologous expression and in vitro biochemical characterization, we discovered that a single flavin- and [4Fe-4S] cluster-dependent reductase, Cgr2, is sufficient for digoxin inactivation. Unexpectedly, Cgr2 displayed strict specificity for digoxin and other cardenolides. Quantification of cgr2 in gut microbiomes revealed that this gene is widespread and conserved in the human population. Together, these results demonstrate that human-associated gut bacteria maintain specialized enzymes that protect against ingested plant toxins. PMID:29761785

  11. The influence of selected potential oncostatics of plant origin on the protein biosynthesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Paszkiewicz-Gadek, A; Chlabicz, J; Gałasiński, W

    1988-01-01

    Five potential oncostatics of plant origin (reserpine, amphotericin B, rutoside, digoxin, dry aloe extract), and cyclic AMP were investigated for their effect on protein synthesis. The solutions of digoxin and dry aloe extract inhibited protein biosynthesis in vitro. The direct inhibiting effect of digoxin on the ribosomes suggests that this drug forms an inactive complex with this organelle. Therefore it can be concluded that ribosome is the target site of digoxin action. Aloin and aloeemodin are responsible for the inhibitory effect of the solution of dry aloe extract. They inhibit markedly [14C]-leucine incorporation into proteins. Aloin and aloeemodin do not influence directly the ribosomes, but they inhibit elongation factors and peptidyltransferase activities in the complete elongation system. Some preliminary experiments have shown that direct interaction between these substances and elongation factor EF-2 should be taken in account. This observation is the subject of further experiments, in which the characteristics of the inhibitory effect of the components isolated from dry aloe extract will be performed.

  12. A comparative dose-effect study with cardiac glycosides assessing cardiac and extracardiac responses in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Alken, R G; Belz, G G

    1984-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that differences exist in the pharmacodynamic pattern of different cardiac glycosides. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled study in normal volunteers and evaluated the effects of weekly increased oral dosing of digoxin (n = 10; from 0.25 to 1.0 mg/day), meproscillarin (n = 10; from 0.5 to 2.0 mg/day), and placebo (n = 5). To determine the glycoside effects, corrected electromechanical systole (QS2c) was used to measure inotropy and the PQ interval to test dromotropy. Red-green discrimination and critical flicker fusion (CFF) assessed visual functions. Subjective complaints were collected using rating lists. Both glycosides dose dependently shortened QS2c and prolonged PQ interval. PQ prolongations over +20 ms occurred in seven of 10 digoxin subjects, in two of 10 meproscillarin, and in one of five placebo. Equi-inotropic response, identified at 12 ms mean QS2c shortening, revealed the relative potency of digoxin to be 2.4 times higher than meproscillarin; this ratio increased to sevenfold for equi-effective negative dromotropic effects at 12 ms mean PQ prolongation. Each drug was associated with a dominant subjective complaint: digoxin with anergy and meproscillarin with diarrhea. Red-green discrimination was better under meproscillarin and CFF was depressed by digoxin. The results indicate that pharmacodynamic differences exist between cardiac glycosides. A differential use of various glycosides should be considered and tested clinically.

  13. Pharmacological treatment of cardiac glycoside poisoning.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Darren M; Gallapatthy, Gamini; Dunuwille, Asunga; Chan, Betty S

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac glycosides are an important cause of poisoning, reflecting their widespread clinical usage and presence in natural sources. Poisoning can manifest as varying degrees of toxicity. Predominant clinical features include gastrointestinal signs, bradycardia and heart block. Death occurs from ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia. A wide range of treatments have been used, the more common including activated charcoal, atropine, β-adrenoceptor agonists, temporary pacing, anti-digoxin Fab and magnesium, and more novel agents include fructose-1,6-diphosphate (clinical trial in progress) and anticalin. However, even in the case of those treatments that have been in use for decades, there is debate regarding their efficacy, the indications and dosage that optimizes outcomes. This contributes to variability in use across the world. Another factor influencing usage is access. Barriers to access include the requirement for transfer to a specialized centre (for example, to receive temporary pacing) or financial resources (for example, anti-digoxin Fab in resource poor countries). Recent data suggest that existing methods for calculating the dose of anti-digoxin Fab in digoxin poisoning overstate the dose required, and that its efficacy may be minimal in patients with chronic digoxin poisoning. Cheaper and effective medicines are required, in particular for the treatment of yellow oleander poisoning which is problematic in resource poor countries. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Recognition and management of digitalis toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kelly, R A; Smith, T W

    1992-06-04

    The most important step in the management of toxicity due to any of the cardiac glycosides is its recognition. Despite the development of an accurate clinical assay for serum levels of digoxin greater than 20 years ago, digitalis toxicity remains common and difficult to confirm, even if suspected, due primarily to 2 factors. First, the signs and symptoms of digitalis toxicity, most commonly an abnormal electrocardiogram showing ventricular or atrial arrhythmias, with or without some degree of concurrent atrioventricular block, often also occur in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and underlying coronary atherosclerosis who are not receiving a cardiac glycoside. Second, due to digoxin's narrow therapeutic ratio, the marked degree of variability in the sensitivity of individual patients to its toxic effects, and the common problem of obtaining blood samples inappropriately during the early distribution phase following dosing, a serum digoxin concentration often does not serve as a reliable indicator of toxicity. Despite these difficulties in diagnosis, the management of digoxin toxicity has been made much more effective with the widespread availability of F(ab) fragments of anti-digoxin antibodies. This drug provides the clinician with a rapidly acting, safe antidote for all commonly used digitalis preparations. Conventional therapy for digoxin toxicity remains the maintenance of serum potassium levels greater than or equal to 4 mEq/liter, reversal of decompensated CHF or overt myocardial ischemia, attention to serum magnesium levels and the patient's acid-base status, appropriate antiarrhythmics in the event of ventricular arrhythmias, and a temporary pacemaker for high-grade atrioventricular block. Nevertheless, the high specificity and documented safety of the antibody preparation provides a needed safety net for the continuing use of cardiac glycosides as first-line inotropic agents in the modern therapy of chronic CHF.

  15. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Label-Based Gold Nanoparticles Lateral Flow Biosensor for Detection of Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Li, Hui; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Xu, Jianguo; Ye, Changyun

    2017-01-01

    The report describes a simple, rapid and sensitive assay for visual and multiplex detection of Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus based on multiple loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP) and lateral flow biosensor (LFB). Detection and differentiation of the Ef0027 gene (E. faecalis-specific gene) and nuc gene (S. aureus-specific gene) were determined using fluorescein (FITC)-and digoxin-modified primers in the mLAMP process. In the presence of biotin- and FITC-/digoxin-modified primers, the mLAMP yielded numerous biotin- and FITC-/digoxin-attached duplex products, which were detected by LFB through biotin/streptavidin interaction (biotin on the duplex and streptavidin on the gold nanoparticle) and immunoreactions (FITC/digoxin on the duplex and anti-FITC/digoxin on the LFB test line). The accumulation of gold nanoparticles generated a characteristic red line, enabling visual and multiplex detection of target pathogens without instrumentation. The limit of detection (LoD), analytical specificity and feasibility of LAMP-LFB technique were successfully examined in pure culture and blood samples. The entire procedure, including specimen (blood samples) processing (30 min), isothermal reaction (40 min) and result reporting (within 2 min), could be completed within 75 min. Thus, this assay offers a simple, rapid, sensitive and specific test for multiplex detection of E. faecalis and S. aureus strains. Furthermore, the LAMP-LFB strategy is a universal technique, which can be extended to detect various target sequences by re-designing the specific LAMP primers. PMID:28239371

  16. Characterization of the IPEC-J2 MDR1 (iP-gp) cell line as a tool for identification of P-gp substrates.

    PubMed

    Ozgür, Burak; Saaby, Lasse; Langthaler, Kristine; Brodin, Birger

    2018-01-15

    Recently, we transfected the porcine intestinal cell line IPEC-J2, with human P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1). The resulting cell line, iP-gp, has a high expression of functional human P-gp in the apical membrane, and a low expression of nonhuman ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. The aim of the present work was to investigate the usability of iP-gp cell line for determining transepithelial transport kinetics of the prototypical P-gp substrates digoxin and rhodamine 123. The cell line generated tight monolayers after 16days of culture, reflected by high transepithelial electrical resistance values (TEER>15,000Ω·cm 2 ), immunocytochemistry and low fluxes of the paracellular flux marker [ 14 C]-mannitol. Monolayer integrity was not affected the common solvents dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), methanol and ethanol in concentrations up to 2% (v/v). Transepithelial fluxes of [ 3 H]-labeled digoxin and rhodamine 123 were measured at varying donor concentrations, and kinetic parameters were estimated. K m and V max of P-gp mediated basolateral-to-apical (B-A) flux of rhodamine 123 were estimated to 332±124μM and 111±16pmol·cm -2 ·min -1 (n=3, total N=6), respectively. V max and K m of digoxin B-A flux could not be estimated due to the low aqueous solubility of digoxin. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 ) of the selective P-gp inhibitor, zosuquidar (LY-335979), were estimated to 0.05±0.01μM (n=3, total N=6) and 0.04±0.01μM (n=3, total N=6) in transport experiments with digoxin and rhodamine 123 as substrates, respectively. Bidirectional fluxes of digoxin and rhodamine 123 were measured in transfected Madin Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK II MDR1) and compared with the fluxes obtained with the iP-gp cell monolayers. Efflux ratios were highest in the iP-gp cells, due to a tighter paracellular pathway. In conclusion, both digoxin and rhodamine 123 could be used to obtain IC 50 values of inhibition, K i values were only possible to obtain using

  17. The rate of uptake of cardiac glycosides into human cultured cells and the effects of chloroquine on it.

    PubMed

    Algharably, N; Owler, D; Lamb, J F

    1986-10-15

    HeLa cells grown on Petri dishes were either pulse labelled with various cardiac glycosides or grown in low concentrations of them for up to 2 days; either in the presence of chloroquine or not. The cells were then homogenised and the cell free homogenate layered on a continuous sucrose gradient; and the glycoside content and that of various markers measured. In another series of experiments HeLa cells were grown on plastic beads under the above conditions and then the content of glycosides and of some marker enzymes measured. The rate of internalisation of ouabain, digoxin and digitoxin from the plasma membrane preparation produced by the bead method is at 9% hr-1, similar to the rate of loss of digoxin and digitoxin from whole cells but much faster than that of ouabain. In the sucrose gradient experiments it was found that [3H]ouabain, digoxin and digitoxin all initially co-distribute with the plasma membrane marker, 5'-nucleotidase, and then leave this fraction of the homogenate at a fast rate when kept at 37 degrees, to co-distribute with the lysosomal marker, beta-hexosaminidase. At 2 degrees the ouabain remains co-distributed with the plasma membrane marker. The rate of transfer is estimated to be some 90% hr-1, much faster than previously thought. Chloroquine causes an increased retention of digoxin and digitoxin in the lysosomal fraction of the homogenate. These results are best explained by supposing that the sodium pump-glycoside complex rapidly enters a region of the peripheral cytoplasm, and that this region then controls the subsequent exit of digoxin and digitoxin from the cell. The main barrier for ouabain occurs at a stage later than this. The consequences of this model on other aspects of pump activity is discussed.

  18. PP087. Deep trial secondary analysis: Digoxin immune fab fragment treatment has additional benefits in endogenous digitalis-like factor positive preeclamptic women.

    PubMed

    Graves, S W; Hopoate-Sitake, M; Johnston, A; Buckalew, V; Lam, G; Mason, L; Adair, D

    2012-07-01

    A double blinded placebo controlled clinical trial of a commercial digoxin immune Fab fragment (DIF) in preeclamptic (PE) women provided some benefit to treated subjects (1). In that study DIF, relative to placebo, prevented a decline in CrCl and lowered levels of endogenous digitalis-like factor (EDLF) activity as measured by sodium pump inhibition (SPI). However, some PE subjects had undetectable EDLF. The hypothesis tested was that only PE women with measureable EDLF would respond to DIF treatment and analysis of EDLF positive women might reveal treatment effects masked by inclusion of EDLF negative, and hence non-responding, PE women. Accordingly, analyses of DIF effects in EDLF positive PE women were conducted. Patient characteristics and study design have been published (1). In these subanalyses, subjects were considered to be EDLF positive if their plasma inhibited red cell sodium pump mediated Rb uptake. All analyses were redone for the EDLF positive subgroup by Covance Inc as in the original trial. Continuous data were analyzed by ANCOVA. Categorical data were analyzed by Barnard Exact Test. 45 subjects (23 DIF, 22 placebo) had baseline SPI evaluated. Of these 22% had undetectable SPI. EDLF positive PE women showed greater and more significant reductions of SPI in response to DIF at each time point (12, 24, 48 hr treatment) than in the original analysis. Subjects with undetectable EDLF showed no significant change in response to DIF or placebo. For CrCl, EDLF positive PE women showed greater and more significant preservation of CrCl compared with original analyses. Subjects absent EDLF showed deterioration of CrCl with or without DIF. Among EDLF positive PE women DIF treated women had significantly less maternal pulmonary edema (p=0.035) and significantly less intraventricular hemorrhage in their infants (p=0.015). There was the suggestion of reductions in the incidence of other maternal and neonatal abnormalities. These data indicate that EDLF positive PE

  19. [No effect of digitalis on sex and adrenal hormones in healthy subjects and in patients with congestive heart failure].

    PubMed

    Kley, H K; Abendroth, H; Hehrmann, R; Müller, A; Keck, E; Schneitler, H; Elsässer, H; Krüskemper, H L

    1984-01-16

    Digoxin was studied to see whether it impairs adrenal function and feminizes male subjects by changing plasma sexual hormones; both have been reported on previously. In eight healthy male subjects neither estrone (38.7 +/- 7.7 vs 35.4 +/- 3.2 pg/ml) nor estradiol (35.8 +/- 6.4 vs 32.2 +/- 3.9 pg/ml) nor testosterone (6.32 +/- 0.74 vs 6.45 +/- 0.73 ng/ml) were found to be altered by digoxin administration (plasma levels 1.55 +/0- 0.27 ng/ml) lasting 35 days. The same was true of free testosterone (147 +/- 24 vs 142 +/- 19 pg/ml) and free estradiol (657 +/- 77 vs 615 +/- 78 fg/ml). Even maximal stimulation of the adrenal and gonadal glands by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) did not exhibit any digoxin-induced alterations in the synthesizing capacity of steroid hormones, as shown by plasma cortisol (increase from 128 +/- 18 to 389 +/- 18 ng/ml) and testosterone (from 5.96 +/- 0.90 to 10.33 +/- 1.19 ng/ml). Furthermore, seven subjects on digoxin were observed over a period of 150-210 days; they did not show any increase of estrogens. This was also found in three subjects when estrogen levels were elevated initially due to extreme obesity. Also, 35 patients who took beta-methyldigoxin (n = 8), beta-acetyldigoxin (n = 20) and digitoxin (n = 7) from 1 to 9 (mean: 1.9) years demonstrated normal plasma concentrations of gonadal and adrenal steroids, irrespective of duration of application or the digitalis compound.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Repurposed drug screen identifies cardiac glycosides as inhibitors of TGF-β-induced cancer-associated fibroblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Coleman, David T; Gray, Alana L; Stephens, Charles A; Scott, Matthew L; Cardelli, James A

    2016-05-31

    The tumor microenvironment, primarily composed of myofibroblasts, directly influences the progression of solid tumors. Through secretion of growth factors, extracellular matrix deposition, and contractile mechanotransduction, myofibroblasts, or cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), support angiogenesis and cancer cell invasion and metastasis. The differentiation of fibroblasts to CAFs is primarily induced by TGF-β from cancer cells. To discover agents capable of blocking CAF differentiation, we developed a high content immunofluorescence-based assay to screen repurposed chemical libraries utilizing fibronectin expression as an initial CAF marker. Screening of the Prestwick chemical library and NIH Clinical Collection repurposed drug library, totaling over 1700 compounds, identified cardiac glycosides as particularly potent CAF blocking agents. Cardiac glycosides are traditionally used to regulate intracellular calcium by inhibiting the Na+/K+ ATPase to control cardiac contractility. Herein, we report that multiple cardiac glycoside compounds, including digoxin, are able to inhibit TGF-β-induced fibronectin expression at low nanomolar concentrations without undesirable cell toxicity. We found this inhibition to hold true for multiple fibroblast cell lines. Using real-time qPCR, we determined that digoxin prevented induction of multiple CAF markers. Furthermore, we report that digoxin is able to prevent TGF-β-induced fibroblast contraction of extracellular matrix, a major phenotypic consequence of CAF differentiation. Assessing the mechanism of inhibition, we found digoxin reduced SMAD promoter activity downstream of TGF-β, and we provide data that the effect is through inhibition of its known target, the Na+/K+ ATPase. These findings support a critical role for calcium signaling during CAF differentiation and highlight a novel, repurposable modality for cancer therapy.

  1. SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.B.; Wexler, J.P.; Scharf, S.C.

    The effect of two antihypertensive agents (captopril and prazosin) and of digoxin on the efficiency of Tc-99m binding to RBCs was evaluated in the rat. RBCs were labeled with Tc-99m in vivo in six groups of rats: I-normotensive controls Wistar rat (WR), II-prazosin treated WR, III-spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), IV-prazosin-treated SHR, V-digoxin-treated WR, and VI-captopril-treated WR. The percentage of intravascular Tc-99m bound to RBC (%T) and the percentage of injected dose remaining intravascular 5 min after injection (%i.v.) were determined. Mean %T was 94.2, 83.8, 94.9, 86.1, 79.7, and 93.3 for groups I-VI respectively. Mean %I.V. was 96.4, 74.6, 94.9,more » 79.0, 74.4, and 87.4 for groups I-VI respectively. The findings demonstrate a significant reduction of RBC tagging with Tc-99m in rats treated with prazosin and digoxin but not with captopril. The data suggest a potential interference by patient medication with the performance of blood-pool studies.« less

  2. Cerbera odollam toxicity: A review.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Usman, Muhammad Shariq; Hussain, Syed Ather; Madadin, Mohammed; Siddiqi, Tariq Jamal; Fatima, Huda; Ram, Pradhum; Pasha, Syed Bilal; Senthilkumaran, S; Fatima, Tooba Qadir; Luis, Sushil Allen

    2018-05-09

    Cerbera odollam is a plant species of the Apocynaceae family. It is often dubbed the 'suicide tree' due to its strong cardiotoxic effects, which make it a suitable means to attempt suicide. The plant grows in wet areas in South India, Madagascar, and Southeast Asia; and its common names include Pong-Pong and Othalanga. The poison rich part of the plant is the kernel which is present at the core of its fruit. The bioactive toxin in the plant is cerberin, which is a cardiac glycoside of the cardenolide class. Cerberin has a mechanism of action similar to digoxin; hence, Cerbera odollam toxicity manifests similar to acute digoxin poisoning. Ingestion of its kernel causes nausea, vomiting, hyperkalemia, thrombocytopenia, and ECG abnormalities. Exposure to high doses of Cerbera odollam carries the highest risk of mortality. Initial management includes supportive therapy and administration of atropine followed by temporary pacemaker insertion. Administration of digoxin immune Fab may be considered in severe cases, although efficacy is variable and data limited to isolated case reports. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro propagation and production of cardiotonic glycosides in shoot cultures of Digitalis purpurea L. by elicitation and precursor feeding.

    PubMed

    Patil, Jitendra Gopichand; Ahire, Mahendra Laxman; Nitnaware, Kirti Manik; Panda, Sayantan; Bhatt, Vijay P; Kishor, Polavarapu B Kavi; Nikam, Tukaram Dayaram

    2013-03-01

    Digitalis purpurea L. (Scrophulariaceae; Foxglove) is a source of cardiotonic glycosides such as digitoxin and digoxin which are commercially applied in the treatment to strengthen cardiac diffusion and to regulate heart rhythm. This investigation deals with in vitro propagation and elicited production of cardiotonic glycosides digitoxin and digoxin in shoot cultures of D. purpurea L. In vitro germinated seedlings were used as a primary source of explants. Multiple shoot formation was achieved for three explant types (nodal, internodal, and leaf) cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with several treatments of cytokinins (6-benzyladenine-BA; kinetin-Kin; and thidiazuron-TDZ) and auxins (indole-3-acetic acid-IAA; α-naphthaleneacetic acid-NAA; and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid-2,4-D). Maximum multiple shoots (12.7 ± 0.6) were produced from nodal explants on MS + 7.5 μM BA. Shoots were rooted in vitro on MS containing 15 μM IAA. Rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized. To further maintain the multiple shoot induction, mother tissue was cut into four equal parts and repeatedly sub-cultured on fresh shoot induction liquid medium after each harvest. On adaptation of this strategy, an average of 18 shoots per explant could be produced. This strategy was applied for the production of biomass and glycosides digitoxin and digoxin in shoot cultures on MS medium supplemented with 7.5 μM BA and several treatments with plant growth regulators, incubation period, abiotic (salicylic acid, mannitol, sorbitol, PEG-6000, NaCl, and KCl), biotic (Aspergillus niger, Helminthosporium sp., Alternaria sp., chitin, and yeast extract) elicitors, and precursors (progesterone, cholesterol, and squalene). The treatment of KCl, mycelial mass of Helminthosporium sp., and progesterone were highly effective for the production of cardenolides. In the presence of progesterone (200 to 300 mg/l), digitoxin and digoxin accumulation was enhanced by 9.1- and 11.9-folds

  4. Prognostic factors of clinical endpoints in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation during a 2-year follow-up in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Hai-Jun; Chen, Ya-Dong; Tao, Tao; Guo, Yu-Tao; Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Liu, Hong-Bin; Wang, Yu-Tang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to reveal the incidence of clinical endpoints in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) during a 2-year follow-up and evaluate the related prognostic factors of these endpoints. In total, 200 elderly patients with AF and 400 age- and sex-matched patients without AF were enrolled in this prospective observational cohort study. The incidence of clinical endpoints, including thromboembolism, hemorrhage, and all-cause death, during the 2-year follow-up was analyzed. Other follow-up data, including disease history, laboratory examinations, medication status, and other clinical endpoints, were collected. The prognostic factors of these clinical endpoints were then evaluated by Cox-survival analysis. In addition, the predicative role of C-reactive protein (CRP) and platelet-activating factor (PAF) on these clinical endpoints was analyzed. The incidence of clinical endpoints, including thromboembolism, hemorrhage, and all-cause death, was significantly higher in patients with AF than in those without AF (27.8% vs 9.8%, 29.4% vs 12.7%, and 28.7% vs 11.6%, respectively; all P < .001). Antithrombotic therapy significantly reduced the incidences of all-cause deaths (P < .05). Body mass index (BMI) and digoxin were prognostic risk factors of thromboembolism; age, massive hemorrhage history, and digoxin were prognostic risk factors of hemorrhage and age, renal insufficiency history, massive hemorrhage history, and digoxin were prognostic risk factors of all-cause death (P < .05). Further, both CRP and PAF were prognostic risk factors of thromboembolism and massive hemorrhage (P < .05). Age, BMI, massive hemorrhage history, and digoxin appear to be prognostic risk factors of clinical endpoints in elderly patients with AF. Appropriate drug use during follow-up may be beneficial in preventing the occurrence of clinical endpoints in elderly patients with AF. Trial registration number: ChiCTR-OCH-13003479. PMID:28816946

  5. Sickle Cell Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Autoantibodies Digoxin Direct Antiglobulin Test Direct LDL Cholesterol Drug Abuse Testing EGFR Mutation Testing Electrolytes Emergency and Overdose Drug Testing Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Antibody Tests Erythrocyte ...

  6. Cardiac amyloidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... beta-blockers may be used in people with atrial fibrillation. However, the drugs must be used with caution, ... Complications may include: Atrial fibrillation or ventricular ... ( ascites ) Increased sensitivity to digoxin Low blood pressure ...

  7. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Combined with Lateral Flow Strip for Listeria monocytogenes Detection in Food.

    PubMed

    Du, Xin-Jun; Zang, Yu-Xuan; Liu, Hai-Bin; Li, Ping; Wang, Shuo

    2018-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an important food-borne pathogenic bacterium that causes human disease, resulting in economic losses worldwide. The current detection methods for L. monocytogenes are not well suited for direct field testing because they involve complicated, time-consuming operations. A simple, efficient method is vital for L. monocytogenes detection. In this study, we combined isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) with a lateral flow (LF) strip to rapidly and reliably detect L. monocytogenes. In the presence of biotin- and digoxin-modified primers, RPA produced numerous digoxin- and biotin-attached duplex DNA products. These products were detected on an LF strip via dual immunoreactions (digoxin on the duplex DNA reacted with the anti-digoxin antibody on the gold nanoparticle (Au-NP) and the biotin on the duplex DNA captured by the streptavidin on the LF test zone). The accumulation of Au-NPs produced characteristic bands, enabling the visual detection of L. monocytogenes without instrumentation. This assay could be used to detect L. monocytogenes within 15 min, including DNA amplification with RPA for 10 min at 39 °C and visualization of the amplicons by LF strips for 5 min. Experiments confirmed a detection limit as low as 300 fg of DNA and 1.5 × 10 1 CFU in pure cultures. Furthermore, RPA-LF exhibited no cross-reactions with pathogens. Evaluation of the method with food samples indicated that the detection limit was substantially improved to 1.5 × 10° CFU for the original bacterial content in 25 g/mL samples after enrichment for 6 hr. RPA-LF can be used as a sensitive and rapid detection technique for L. monocytogenes. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) can amplify target DNA at 37 to 42 °C without a thermal cycler. Lateral flow (LF) strips are portable, cheap and easy to operate. RPA combined with LF strips to detect Listeria monocytogenes can be widely used in remote areas. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. Toxic Amblyopia (Nutritional Amblyopia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ethambutol , and digoxin ) or toxins such as lead, ethylene glycol (antifreeze), or methanol (wood alcohol or methyl ... a nutritional deficiency, both eyes are usually affected. Ethylene glycol and particularly methanol poisoning can cause sudden, ...

  9. Contamination of injectable solutions with 2-mercaptobenzothiazole leached from rubber closures.

    PubMed

    Reepmeyer, J C; Juhl, Y H

    1983-11-01

    An impurity, discovered in a sample of digoxin injectable solution commercially packaged in a syringe for single-dose delivery, was found to originate from the rubber closure of the syringe and was identified as 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, a common accelerator for rubber vulcanization. Several similarly packaged injectable solutions of a variety of drugs from various manufacturers were examined and over half contained 2-mercaptobenzothiazole. The compound was identified by UV spectrophotometry (including a pH-dependent shift in its absorbance maximum), by mass spectrometry, and by comparison with standard 2-mercaptobenzothiazole using silica gel and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The presence of this impurity in injectable solutions may have implications with regard to toxicity and may interfere with the assay of digoxin injectable solution by HPLC.

  10. Brimonidine Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the eyes in patients who have glaucoma (high pressure in the eyes that may damage nerves and ... and secobarbital (Seconal); digoxin (Lanoxin); medications for anxiety, high blood pressure, mental illness, pain, or seizures; sedatives; sleeping pills; ...

  11. Ticlopidine

    MedlinePlus

    ... a stroke and who cannot be treated with aspirin. Ticlopidine is also used along with aspirin to prevent blood clots from forming in coronary ... antacids, anticoagulants ('blood thinners') such as warfarin (Coumadin), aspirin, cimetidine (Tagamet), clopidogrel (Plavix), digoxin (Lanoxin), and theophylline ( ...

  12. Tablet splitting: is it worthwhile? Analysis of drug content and weight uniformity for half tablets of 16 commonly used medications in the outpatient setting.

    PubMed

    Helmy, Sally A

    2015-01-01

    Tablet splitting is a well-established medical practice in clinical settings for multiple reasons, including cost savings and ease of swallowing. However, it does not necessarily result in weight-uniform half tablets. To (a) investigate the effect of tablet characteristics on weight and content uniformity of half tablets, resulting from splitting 16 commonly used medications in the outpatient setting and (b) provide recommendations for safe tablet-splitting prescribing practices. Ten random tablets from each of the selected medications were weighed and split by 5 volunteers (2 men and 3 women aged 25-44 years) using a knife. The selected medications were mirtazapine 30 mg, bromazepam 3 mg, oxcarbazepin 150 mg, sertraline 50 mg, carvedilol 25 mg, bisoprolol fumarate 10 mg, losartan 50 mg, digoxin 0.25 mg, amiodarone HCl 200 mg, metformin HCl 1,000 mg, glimepiride 4 mg, montelukast 10 mg, ibuprofen 600 mg, celecoxib 200 mg, meloxicam 15 mg, and sildenafil citrate 50 mg. The resulting half tablets were evaluated for weight and drug content uniformity in accordance with proxy United States Pharmacopeia (USP) specification (95%-105% for digoxin and 90%-110% for the other 15 drugs). Weight and drug content uniformity were assessed by comparing weight or drug content of the half tablets with one-half of the mean weight or drug content for all whole tablets in the sample. The percentages by which the weight and drug content of each whole tablet or half tablet differed from sample mean values were calculated. Other relevant physical characteristics of the 16 products were measured. A total of 52 of 320 half tablets (16.2%) and 48 of 320 half tablets (15.0%) fell outside of the proxy USP specification for weight and drug content, respectively. Bromazepam, carvedilol, bisoprolol, losartan, digoxin, and meloxicam half tablets failed the weight and content uniformity test; however, the half tablets for the rest of the medications passed the test. Mean percent weight loss after

  13. Digoxin: A Medicine for Heart Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, Procedures & Devices Over-the- ...

  14. [Digoxin poisoning: new prospects for therapy].

    PubMed

    Marino, Alfonsina; Giordano, Lorenzo; Ardu, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    The filter has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the removal of beta-2 microglobulin in patient undergoing hemodialysis. We used the filter (the patient agrees) off label, in the course of digitalis intoxication and we have shown that the filter is capable of removing the drug effectively. Copyright by Società Italiana di Nefrologia SIN, Rome, Italy.

  15. Endogenous digitalis-like factors.

    PubMed

    Schoner, W

    1992-01-01

    The postulate of a natriuretic factor inhibiting the sodium pump in the kidney led to the detection of increased concentrations of endogenous digitalis-like factors in blood after salt loading, in essential hypertension, in pregnancy-induced hypertension and in chronic hypervolaemia. The recent isolation of ouabain or a close isomer thereof from human plasma and the demonstration of a compound similar if not identical to digoxin in adrenals and human urine shows that mammals like non-vertebrates and toads may synthesize cardiac glycosides in their adrenals and possibly in hypothalamus. The hypothalamus also forms other compounds of unknown structure which bind to the cardiac glycoside receptor site. The differential functions of endogenously formed ouabain and of a digoxin-like substance are unclear. The detailed knowledge of the physiological role of both endogenously formed cardiac glycosides in the regulation of blood pressure has still to be worked out.

  16. Induction of fetal demise before abortion.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, Justin; Drey, Eleanor

    2010-06-01

    For decades, the induction of fetal demise has been used before both surgical and medical second-trimester abortion. Intracardiac potassium chloride and intrafetal or intra-amniotic digoxin injections are the pharmacologic agents used most often to induce fetal demise. In the last several years, induction of fetal demise has become more common before second-trimester abortion. The only randomized, placebo-controlled trial of induced fetal demise before surgical abortion used a 1 mg injection of intra-amniotic digoxin before surgical abortion at 20-23 weeks' gestation and found no difference in procedure duration, difficulty, estimated blood loss, pain scores or complications between groups. Inducing demise before induction terminations at near viable gestational ages to avoid signs of life at delivery is practiced widely. The role of inducing demise before dilation and evacuation (D&E) remains unclear, except for legal considerations in the United States when an intact delivery is intended. There is a discrepancy between the one published randomized trial that used 1 mg intra-amniotic digoxin that showed no improvement in D&E outcomes and observational studies using different routes, doses and pre-abortion intervals that have made claims for its use. Additional randomized trials might provide clearer evidence upon which to make further recommendations about any role of inducing demise before surgical abortion. At the current time, the Society of Family Planning recommends that pharmacokinetic studies followed by randomized controlled trials be conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of feticidal agents to improve abortion safety.

  17. Characterization of digitalis-like factors in human plasma. Interactions with NaK-ATPase and cross-reactivity with cardiac glycoside-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kelly, R A; O'Hara, D S; Canessa, M L; Mitch, W E; Smith, T W

    1985-09-25

    Much of the evidence for a physiologically important endogenous inhibitor of the sodium pump has been either contradictory or indirect. We have identified three discrete fractions in desalted deproteinized plasma from normal humans that resemble the digitalis glycosides in that they: are of low molecular weight; are resistant to acid and enzymatic proteolysis; inhibit NaK-ATPase activity; inhibit Na+ pump activity in human erythrocytes; displace [3H]ouabain bound to the enzyme; and cross-react with high-affinity polyclonal and monoclonal digoxin-specific antibodies but not with anti-ouabain or anti-digitoxin antibodies. An additional fraction cross-reacted with digoxin-specific antibodies but had no detectable activity against NaK-ATPase. The three inhibitory fractions differed from cardiac glycosides in that their concentration-effect curves in a NaK-ATPase inhibition and [3H]ouabain radioreceptor assays were steeper than unlabeled ouabain. This suggests that these inhibitors are not simple competitive ligands for binding to NaK-ATPase. In the presence of sodium, no fraction required ATP for binding to NaK-ATPase, and in the presence of potassium, only one fraction had the reduced affinity for the enzyme that is characteristic of cardiac glycosides. Unlike digitalis, all three NaK-ATPase inhibitory fractions stimulated the activity of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase. The presence of at least three fractions in human plasma that inhibit NaK-ATPase and cross-react to a variable degree with different digoxin-specific antibody populations could explain much of the conflicting evidence for the existence of endogenous digitalis-like compounds in plasma.

  18. A simplified protocol employing elacridar in rodents: a screening model in drug discovery to assess P-gp mediated efflux at the blood brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Kallem, Rajareddy; Kulkarni, Chetan P; Patel, Dakshay; Thakur, Megha; Sinz, Michael; Singh, Sheelendra P; Mahammad, S Shahe; Mandlekar, Sandhya

    2012-06-01

    In the present study we have developed a simple, time, and cost effective in vivo rodent protocol to screen the susceptibility of a test compound for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated efflux at the blood brain barrier (BBB) during early drug discovery. We used known P-gp substrates as test compounds (quinidine, digoxin, and talinolol) and elacridar (GF120918) as a chemical inhibitor to establish the model. The studies were carried out in both mice and rats. Elacridar was dosed intravenously at 5 mg/kg, 0.5 h prior to probe substrate administration. Plasma and brain samples were collected and analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS. In the presence of elacridar, the ratio of brain to plasma area under the curve (B/P) in mouse increased 2, 4, and 38-fold, respectively, for talinolol, digoxin, and quinidine; whereas in rat, a 70-fold increase was observed for quinidine. Atenolol, a non P-gp substrate, exhibited poor brain penetration in the presence or absence of elacridar in both species (B/P ratio ~ 0.1). Elacridar had no significant effect on the systemic clearance of digoxin or quinidine; however, a trend towards increasing volume of distribution and half life was observed. Our results support the utility of elacridar in evaluation of the influence of P-gp mediated efflux on drug distribution to the brain. Our protocol employing a single intravenous dose of elacridar and test compound provides a cost effective alternative to expensive P-gp knockout mice models during early drug discovery.

  19. Variability of yellow tulp (Moraea pallida Bak.) toxicity.

    PubMed

    Snyman, L D; Schultz, R A; van den Berg, H

    2011-06-01

    Yellow tulp (Moraea pallida Bak.), collected predominantly during the flowering stage from a number of sites in South Africa, showed large variation in digoxin equivalent values, indicating variability in yellow tulp toxicity. Very low values were recorded for tulp collected from certain sites in the Northern Cape.

  20. [A patient with depression due to digitalis poisoning].

    PubMed

    Schouten, J; van der Aa, G C

    1984-04-01

    A 85 year old lady suffering from depression is described. The depression was caused by digoxin intoxication. At first this was not recognized because of the low level of creatinine in the serum. This was the result of the decreased lean body mass, the patient weighing only 40 kilo!

  1. Cardiotonic Steroids Stabilize Regulator of G Protein Signaling 2 Protein Levels

    PubMed Central

    Sjögren, Benita; Parra, Sergio; Heath, Lauren J.; Atkins, Kevin B.; Xie, Zie-Jian

    2012-01-01

    Regulator of G protein signaling 2 (RGS2), a Gq-specific GTPase-activating protein, is strongly implicated in cardiovascular function. RGS2(−/−) mice are hypertensive and prone to heart failure, and several rare human mutations that accelerate RGS2 degradation have been identified among patients with hypertension. Therefore, pharmacological up-regulation of RGS2 protein levels might be beneficial. We used a β-galactosidase complementation method to screen several thousand compounds with known pharmacological functions for those that increased RGS2 protein levels. Several cardiotonic steroids (CTSs), including ouabain and digoxin, increased RGS2 but not RGS4 protein levels. CTSs increased RGS2 protein levels through a post-transcriptional mechanism, by slowing protein degradation. RGS2 mRNA levels in primary vascular smooth muscle cells were unaffected by CTS treatment, whereas protein levels were increased 2- to 3-fold. Na+/K+-ATPase was required for the increase in RGS2 protein levels, because the effect was lost in Na+/K+-ATPase-knockdown cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CTS-induced increases in RGS2 levels were functional and reduced receptor-stimulated, Gq-dependent, extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation. Finally, we showed that in vivo treatment with digoxin led to increased RGS2 protein levels in heart and kidney. CTS-induced increases in RGS2 protein levels and function might modify several deleterious mechanisms in hypertension and heart failure. This novel CTS mechanism might contribute to the beneficial actions of low-dose digoxin treatment in heart failure. Our results support the concept of small-molecule modulation of RGS2 protein levels as a new strategy for cardiovascular therapy. PMID:22695717

  2. Honokiol inhibits pathological retinal neovascularization in oxygen-induced retinopathy mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Vavilala, Divya Teja; O’Bryhim, Bliss E.; Ponnaluri, V.K. Chaithanya

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Aberrant activation of HIF pathway is the underlying cause of ischemic neovascularization. •Honokiol has better therapeutic index as a HIF inhibitor than digoxin and doxorubicin. •Daily IP injection of honokiol in OIR mouse model reduced retinal neovascularization. •Honokiol also prevents vaso-obliteration, the characteristic feature of the OIR model. •Honokiol enhanced physiological revascularization of the retinal vascular plexuses. -- Abstract: Aberrant activation of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway is the underlying cause of retinal neovascularization, one of the most common causes of blindness worldwide. The HIF pathway also plays critical roles during tumor angiogenesis and cancer stem cell transformation.more » We have recently shown that honokiol is a potent inhibitor of the HIF pathway in a number of cancer and retinal pigment epithelial cell lines. Here we evaluate the safety and efficacy of honokiol, digoxin, and doxorubicin, three recently identified HIF inhibitors from natural sources. Our studies show that honokiol has a better safety to efficacy profile as a HIF inhibitor than digoxin and doxorubicin. Further, we show for the first time that daily intraperitoneal injection of honokiol starting at postnatal day (P) 12 in an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mouse model significantly reduced retinal neovascularization at P17. Administration of honokiol also prevents the oxygen-induced central retinal vaso-obliteration, characteristic feature of the OIR model. Additionally, honokiol enhanced physiological revascularization of the retinal vascular plexuses. Since honokiol suppresses multiple pathways activated by HIF, in addition to the VEGF signaling, it may provide advantages over current treatments utilizing specific VEGF antagonists for ocular neovascular diseases and cancers.« less

  3. How are patients with heart failure treated in primary care?
.

    PubMed

    Vaillant-Roussel, Hélène; Pereira, Bruno; Gibot-Boeuf, Sylvaine; Eschalier, Romain; Dubray, Claude; Boussageon, Rémy; Vorilhon, Philippe

    2018-05-24

    The aim of this study was to assess the adherence of general practitioners (GPs) to guidelines in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and to describe GPs' prescribing behavior regarding patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Cross-sectional study as part of the ETIC trial. Five classes of drugs were described: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs); β-blockers (BBs); mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs); diuretics (thiazide or loop diuretics); and digoxin. 178 patients were studied: their mean age was 73.5 years (± 10.6). Of the 128 patients with HFpEF, 81.3% received ACEIs or ARBs, 63.3% received BBs, 13.3% received MRAs, 75.8% received diuretics, and 12.5% received digoxin. Of the 50 patients with HFrEF, 84% received ACEIs or ARBs, 74% received BBs, 20% received MRAs, 76% received diuretics, and 2% received digoxin. 25% of the patients were given a drug in accordance with the recommendations for drug class but not a drug authorized for the HFrEF indication. Among the patients with HFrEF who were treated in accordance with the recommendations, target doses were achieved in 1/3 given ACEIs/ARBs, 1/4 given BBs, and 1/2 given MRAs. Only 6% of the patients had a perfect Global Adherence Indicator-3 (GAI-3) with all target doses achieved. Several drugs were prescribed even though they were not recommended, and few patients were treated optimally. It seems to be necessary to develop a pragmatic tool to help GPs and cardiologists in optimizing treatment.
.

  4. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the effects of piperine on P-gp function and expression

    SciTech Connect

    Han Yi; Chin Tan, Theresa May; Lim, Lee-Yong

    2008-08-01

    Piperine, a major component of black pepper, is used as spice and nutrient enhancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of acute and prolonged piperine exposure on cellular P-gp expression and function in vitro and in vivo. Piperine at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}M, determined by MTT assay to be non-cytotoxic, was observed to inhibit P-gp mediated efflux transport of [{sup 3}H]-digoxin across L-MDR1 and Caco-2 cell monolayers. The acute inhibitory effect was dependent on piperine concentration, with abolishment of [{sup 3}H]-digoxin polarized transport attained at 50 {mu}M of piperine. In contrast, prolongedmore » (48 and 72 h) co-incubation of Caco-2 cell monolayers with piperine (50 and 100 {mu}M) increased P-gp activity through an up-regulation of cellular P-gp protein and MDR1 mRNA levels. The up-regulated protein was functionally active, as demonstrated by a higher degree of [{sup 3}H]-digoxin efflux across the cell monolayers, but the induction was readily reversed by the removal of the spice from the culture medium. Peroral administration of piperine at the dose of 112 {mu}g/kg body weight/day to male Wistar rats for 14 consecutive days also led to increased intestinal P-gp levels. However, there was a concomitant reduction in the rodent liver P-gp although the kidney P-gp level was unaffected. Our data suggest that caution should be exercised when piperine is to be co-administered with drugs that are P-gp substrates, particularly for patients whose diet relies heavily on pepper.« less

  5. Evaluation of Memory Enhancing Clinically Available Standardized Extract of Bacopa monniera on P-Glycoprotein and Cytochrome P450 3A in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajbir; Panduri, Jagadeesh; Kumar, Devendra; Kumar, Deepak; Chandsana, Hardik; Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2013-01-01

    Bacopa monniera is a traditional Ayurvedic herbal medicine used to treat various mental ailments from ancient times. Recently, chemically standardized alcoholic extract of Bacopa monniera (BM) has been developed and currently available as over the counter herbal remedy for memory enhancement in children and adults. However, the consumption of herbal drugs has been reported to alter the expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and membrane transporters. Present study in male Sprague-Dawley rat was performed to evaluate the effect of memory enhancing standardized extract of BM on hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 3A and P-glycoprotein expression and activity. The BM (31 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for one week in BM pre-treated group while the control group received the same amount of vehicle for the same time period. The BM treatment decreased the cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) mediated testosterone 6β-hydroxylation activity of the liver and intestine by 2 and 1.5 fold, respectively compared to vehicle treated control. Similarly pretreatment with BM extract decreased the expression of intestinal P-glycoprotein (Pgp) as confirmed by Western blot analysis but did not alter the expression of hepatic Pgp. To investigate whether this BM pretreatment mediated decrease in activity of CYP3A and Pgp would account for the alteration of respective substrate or not, pharmacokinetic study with carbamazepine and digoxin was performed in BM pre-treated rats and vehicle treated rats. Carbamazepine and digoxin were used as CYP3A and Pgp probe drugs, respectively. Significant increase in AUC and Cmax of carbamazepine (4 and 1.8 fold) and digoxin (1.3 and 1.2 fold), respectively following the BM pre-treatment confirmed the down regulation of CYP3A and Pgp. PMID:24015255

  6. Evaluation of memory enhancing clinically available standardized extract of Bacopa monniera on P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajbir; Panduri, Jagadeesh; Kumar, Devendra; Kumar, Deepak; Chandsana, Hardik; Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2013-01-01

    Bacopa monniera is a traditional Ayurvedic herbal medicine used to treat various mental ailments from ancient times. Recently, chemically standardized alcoholic extract of Bacopa monniera (BM) has been developed and currently available as over the counter herbal remedy for memory enhancement in children and adults. However, the consumption of herbal drugs has been reported to alter the expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and membrane transporters. Present study in male Sprague-Dawley rat was performed to evaluate the effect of memory enhancing standardized extract of BM on hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 3A and P-glycoprotein expression and activity. The BM (31 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for one week in BM pre-treated group while the control group received the same amount of vehicle for the same time period. The BM treatment decreased the cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) mediated testosterone 6β-hydroxylation activity of the liver and intestine by 2 and 1.5 fold, respectively compared to vehicle treated control. Similarly pretreatment with BM extract decreased the expression of intestinal P-glycoprotein (Pgp) as confirmed by Western blot analysis but did not alter the expression of hepatic Pgp. To investigate whether this BM pretreatment mediated decrease in activity of CYP3A and Pgp would account for the alteration of respective substrate or not, pharmacokinetic study with carbamazepine and digoxin was performed in BM pre-treated rats and vehicle treated rats. Carbamazepine and digoxin were used as CYP3A and Pgp probe drugs, respectively. Significant increase in AUC and Cmax of carbamazepine (4 and 1.8 fold) and digoxin (1.3 and 1.2 fold), respectively following the BM pre-treatment confirmed the down regulation of CYP3A and Pgp.

  7. Fitting the Elementary Rate Constants of the P-gp Transporter Network in the hMDR1-MDCK Confluent Cell Monolayer Using a Particle Swarm Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Agnani, Deep; Acharya, Poulomi; Martinez, Esteban; Tran, Thuy Thanh; Abraham, Feby; Tobin, Frank; Ellens, Harma; Bentz, Joe

    2011-01-01

    P-glycoprotein, a human multidrug resistance transporter, has been extensively studied due to its importance to human health and disease. In order to understand transport kinetics via P-gp, confluent cell monolayers overexpressing P-gp are widely used. The purpose of this study is to obtain the mass action elementary rate constants for P-gp's transport and to functionally characterize members of P-gp's network, i.e., other transporters that transport P-gp substrates in hMDR1-MDCKII confluent cell monolayers and are essential to the net substrate flux. Transport of a range of concentrations of amprenavir, loperamide, quinidine and digoxin across the confluent monolayer of cells was measured in both directions, apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical. We developed a global optimization algorithm using the Particle Swarm method that can simultaneously fit all datasets to yield accurate and exhaustive fits of these elementary rate constants. The statistical sensitivity of the fitted values was determined by using 24 identical replicate fits, yielding simple averages and standard deviations for all of the kinetic parameters, including the efflux active P-gp surface density. Digoxin required additional basolateral and apical transporters, while loperamide required just a basolateral tranporter. The data were better fit by assuming bidirectional transporters, rather than active importers, suggesting that they are not MRP or active OATP transporters. The P-gp efflux rate constants for quinidine and digoxin were about 3-fold smaller than reported ATP hydrolysis rate constants from P-gp proteoliposomes. This suggests a roughly 3∶1 stoichiometry between ATP hydrolysis and P-gp transport for these two drugs. The fitted values of the elementary rate constants for these P-gp substrates support the hypotheses that the selective pressures on P-gp are to maintain a broad substrate range and to keep xenobiotics out of the cytosol, but not out of the apical membrane. PMID

  8. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Menger, Laurie; Vacchelli, Erika; Kepp, Oliver; Eggermont, Alexander; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are natural compounds sharing the ability to operate as potent inhibitors of the plasma membrane Na+/K+-ATPase, hence promoting—via an indirect mechanism—the intracellular accumulation of Ca2+ ions. In cardiomyocytes, increased intracellular Ca2+ concentrations exert prominent positive inotropic effects, that is, they increase myocardial contractility. Owing to this feature, two CGs, namely digoxin and digitoxin, have extensively been used in the past for the treatment of several cardiac conditions, including distinct types of arrhythmia as well as contractility disorders. Nowadays, digoxin is approved by the FDA and indicated for the treatment of congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter with rapid ventricular response, whereas the use of digitoxin has been discontinued in several Western countries. Recently, CGs have been suggested to exert potent antineoplastic effects, notably as they appear to increase the immunogenicity of dying cancer cells. In this Trial Watch, we summarize the mechanisms that underpin the unsuspected anticancer potential of CGs and discuss the progress of clinical studies that have evaluated/are evaluating the safety and efficacy of CGs for oncological indications. PMID:23525565

  9. Hypothalamic-mediated model for systemic lupus erythematosis: relation to hemispheric chemical dominance.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-11-01

    The isoprenoid pathway including endogenous digoxin was assessed in systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE). All the patients with SLE were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. This was also studied for comparison in patients with right hemispheric and left hemispheric dominance. The isoprenoid pathway was upregulated with increased digoxin synthesis in patients with SLE and in those with right hemispheric dominance. In this group of patients (i) the tryptophan catabolites were increased and the tyrosine catabolites reduced, (ii) the dolichol and glycoconjugate levels were elevated, (iii) lysosomal stability was reduced, (iv) ubiquinone levels were low and free radical levels increased, and (v) the membrane cholesterol:phospholipid ratios were increased and membrane glycoconjugates reduced. On the other hand, in patients with left hemispheric dominance the reverse patterns were obtained. The biochemical patterns obtained in SLE is similar to those obtained in left-handed/right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals. But all the patients with SLE were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. Hemispheric chemical dominance has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test. SLE occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals, and is a reflection of altered brain function. The role of the isoprenoid pathway in the pathogenesis of SLE and its relation to hemispheric dominance is discussed.

  10. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein in Caco-2 cells: effects of herbal remedies frequently used by cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Engdal, S; Nilsen, O G

    2008-06-01

    1. The herbal products Natto K2, Agaricus, mistletoe, noni juice, green tea and garlic were investigated for in vitro inhibitory potential on P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated transport of digoxin (30 nM) in differentiated and polarized Caco-2 cells. 2. Satisfactory cell functionality was demonstrated through measurements of assay linearity, transepithelial electric resistance (TEER), cytotoxicity, mannitol permeability, and inclusion of the positive inhibition control verapamil. 3. The most potent inhibitors of the net digoxin flux (IC(50)) were mistletoe > Natto K2 > Agaricus > green tea (0.022, 0.62, 3.81, >4.5 mg ml(-1), respectively). Mistletoe also showed the lowest IC(25) value, close to that obtained by verapamil (1.0 and 0.5 microg ml(-1), respectively). The IC(50)/IC(25) ratio was found to be a good parameter for the determination of inhibition profiles. Garlic and noni juice were classified as non-inhibitors. 4. This study shows that mistletoe, Natto K2, Agaricus and green tea inhibit P-gp in vitro. Special attention should be paid to mistletoe due to very low IC(50) and IC(25) values and to Natto K2 due to a low IC(50) value and a low IC(50)/IC(25) ratio.

  11. Selective Assembly of Na,K-ATPase α2β2 Heterodimers in the Heart: DISTINCT FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES AND ISOFORM-SELECTIVE INHIBITORS.

    PubMed

    Habeck, Michael; Tokhtaeva, Elmira; Nadav, Yotam; Ben Zeev, Efrat; Ferris, Sean P; Kaufman, Randal J; Bab-Dinitz, Elizabeta; Kaplan, Jack H; Dada, Laura A; Farfel, Zvi; Tal, Daniel M; Katz, Adriana; Sachs, George; Vagin, Olga; Karlish, Steven J D

    2016-10-28

    The Na,K-ATPase α 2 subunit plays a key role in cardiac muscle contraction by regulating intracellular Ca 2+ , whereas α 1 has a more conventional role of maintaining ion homeostasis. The β subunit differentially regulates maturation, trafficking, and activity of α-β heterodimers. It is not known whether the distinct role of α 2 in the heart is related to selective assembly with a particular one of the three β isoforms. We show here by immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation that α 2 is preferentially expressed with β 2 in T-tubules of cardiac myocytes, forming α 2 β 2 heterodimers. We have expressed human α 1 β 1 , α 2 β 1 , α 2 β 2 , and α 2 β 3 in Pichia pastoris, purified the complexes, and compared their functional properties. α 2 β 2 and α 2 β 3 differ significantly from both α 2 β 1 and α 1 β 1 in having a higher K 0.5 K + and lower K 0.5 Na + for activating Na,K-ATPase. These features are the result of a large reduction in binding affinity for extracellular K + and shift of the E 1 P-E 2 P conformational equilibrium toward E 1 P. A screen of perhydro-1,4-oxazepine derivatives of digoxin identified several derivatives (e.g. cyclobutyl) with strongly increased selectivity for inhibition of α 2 β 2 and α 2 β 3 over α 1 β 1 (range 22-33-fold). Molecular modeling suggests a possible basis for isoform selectivity. The preferential assembly, specific T-tubular localization, and low K + affinity of α 2 β 2 could allow an acute response to raised ambient K + concentrations in physiological conditions and explain the importance of α 2 β 2 for cardiac muscle contractility. The high sensitivity of α 2 β 2 to digoxin derivatives explains beneficial effects of cardiac glycosides for treatment of heart failure and potential of α 2 β 2 -selective digoxin derivatives for reducing cardiotoxicity. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Limited interaction between tacrolimus and P-glycoprotein in the rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Hiroshi; Saikachi, Yuko; Kobayashi, Mikako; Yamaguchi, Michiko; Oda, Masako; Yuhki, Yoshimitsu; Achiwa, Kazuhito; Tadano, Koji; Takahashi, Yasushi; Aungst, Bruce J

    2006-05-01

    The significance of intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in determining the oral bioavailability of tacrolimus has been still controversial. In this study, we reevaluated the interaction of tacrolimus with P-gp in the rat small intestine, by evaluating its absorption from the rat small intestine and its modulating effect on the absorption of known P-gp substrates (digoxin, methylprednisolone, and vinblastine). Intestinal absorption of tacrolimus itself was as extensive as other P-gp modulators such as cyclosporine and verapamil. While cyclosporine and verapamil significantly increased the absorption of methylprednisolone and vinblastine through potent inhibition of intestinal P-gp, tacrolimus failed to achieve this. When cyclosporine and tacrolimus were intravenously administered to rats, digoxin absorption was significantly increased by cyclosporine but not by tacrolimus. When tacrolimus was coadministered with clotrimazole, a specific CYP3A inhibitor, into the rat small intestine, the area under the curve of tacrolimus blood concentrations increased more than seven-fold compared with that of tacrolimus alone. Our present results strongly suggest that the interaction between tacrolimus and P-gp is limited in the rat small intestine and that extensive metabolism by CYP3A enzymes is more responsible for the low oral bioavailability of tacrolimus. It was considered that the extensive absorption of cyclosporine and verapamil was closely associated with their potent ability to inhibit intestinal P-gp.

  13. Targeting Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α in a New Orthotopic Model of Glioblastoma Recapitulating the Hypoxic Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Nigim, Fares; Cavanaugh, Jill; Patel, Anoop P; Curry, William T; Esaki, Shin-ichi; Kasper, Ekkehard M; Chi, Andrew S; Louis, David N; Martuza, Robert L; Rabkin, Samuel D; Wakimoto, Hiroaki

    2015-07-01

    Tissue hypoxia and necrosis represent pathophysiologic and histologic hallmarks of glioblastoma (GBM). Although hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) plays crucial roles in the malignant phenotypes of GBM, developing HIF-1α-targeted agents has been hampered by the lack of a suitable preclinical model that recapitulates the complex biology of clinical GBM. We present a new GBM model, MGG123, which was established from a recurrent human GBM. Orthotopic xenografting of stem-like MGG123 cells reproducibly generated lethal tumors that were characterized by foci of palisading necrosis, hypervascularity, and robust stem cell marker expression. Perinecrotic neoplastic cells distinctively express HIF-1α and are proliferative in both xenografts and the patient tissue. The xenografts contain scattered hypoxic foci that were consistently greater than 50 μm distant from blood vessels, indicating intratumoral heterogeneity of oxygenation. Hypoxia enhanced HIF-1α expression in cultured MGG123 cells, which was abrogated by the HIF-1α inhibitors digoxin or ouabain. In vivo, treatment of orthotopic MGG123 xenografts with digoxin decreased HIF-1α expression, vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels, and CD34-positive vasculature within the tumors, and extended survival of mice bearing the aggressive MGG123 GBM. This preclinical tumor model faithfully recapitulates the GBM-relevant hypoxic microenvironment and stemness and is a suitable platform for studying disease biology and developing hypoxia-targeted agents.

  14. Fatal cardiac glycoside poisoning due to mistaking foxglove for comfrey.

    PubMed

    Wu, I-Lin; Yu, Jiun-Hao; Lin, Chih-Chuan; Seak, Chen-June; Olson, Kent R; Chen, Hsien-Yi

    2017-08-01

    Accidental ingestion of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) can cause significant cardiac toxicity. We report a patient who ingested foxglove mistaking it for comfrey and developed refractory ventricular arrhythmias. The patient died despite treatment with digoxin-specific antibody fragments (DSFab) and veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO). A 55-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with nausea, vomiting and generalized weakness eight hours after drinking "comfrey" tea. She had bradycardia (54 beats/min) and hyperkalemia (7.6 mEq/L). Electrocardiogram revealed a first-degree atrioventricular conduction block with premature atrial contractions, followed by polymorphic ventricular tachycardia three hours after arrival. A serum digoxin level was 151.2 ng/mL. The patient developed ventricular fibrillation while waiting for Digibind infusion. Resuscitation was performed and an emergent VA-ECMO was set up. A total of eight vials of Digibind were given over the next 16 hours. She temporarily regained consciousness, but remained hemodynamically unstable and subsequently developed lower limb ischemia and multiple organ failure, and she expired on hospital day seven. A botanist confirmed that the plant was foxglove. The diagnosis of cardiac glycoside plant poisoning can be difficult in the absence of an accurate exposure history. In facilities where DSFab is unavailable or insufficient, early VA-ECMO might be considered in severely cardiotoxic patients unresponsive to conventional therapy.

  15. Signaling mechanisms that link salt retention to hypertension: endogenous ouabain, the Na(+) pump, the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger and TRPC proteins.

    PubMed

    Blaustein, Mordecai P; Hamlyn, John M

    2010-12-01

    Salt retention as a result of chronic, excessive dietary salt intake, is widely accepted as one of the most common causes of hypertension. In a small minority of cases, enhanced Na(+) reabsorption by the kidney can be traced to specific genetic defects of salt transport, or pathological conditions of the kidney, adrenal cortex, or pituitary. Far more frequently, however, salt retention may be the result of minor renal injury or small genetic variation in renal salt transport mechanisms. How salt retention actually leads to the increase in peripheral vascular resistance (the hallmark of hypertension) and the elevation of blood pressure remains an enigma. Here we review the evidence that endogenous ouabain (an adrenocortical hormone), arterial smooth muscle α2 Na(+) pumps, type-1 Na/Ca exchangers, and receptor- and store-operated Ca(2+) channels play key roles in the pathway that links salt to hypertension. We discuss cardenolide structure-function relationships in an effort to understand why prolonged administration of ouabain, but not digoxin, induces hypertension, and why digoxin is actually anti-hypertensive. Finally, we summarize recent observations which indicate that ouabain upregulates arterial myocyte Ca(2+) signaling mechanisms that promote vasoconstriction, while simultaneously downregulating endothelial vasodilator mechanisms. In sum, the reports reviewed here provide novel insight into the molecular mechanisms by which salt retention leads to hypertension. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Common gastrointestinal symptoms: risks of long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy.

    PubMed

    Fashner, Julia; Gitu, Alfred Chege

    2013-10-01

    More than 11 million individuals receive proton pump inhibitor (PPI) prescriptions each year in the United States. Although PPIs are effective treatment for peptic ulcers and esophagitis and provide symptom relief for many other conditions, their use carries risks. They decrease gastric acid and can lower blood levels of drugs whose absorption is acid dependent, including several antiretroviral and cancer therapy drugs. Other drugs, such as digoxin, may be absorbed more extensively when gastric acid is reduced; thus, digoxin toxicity may occur with PPI use. Warfarin's effect also is increased in patients taking PPIs. Decreased gastric acid can lower absorption of vitamin B12, calcium, iron, and magnesium; deficiencies in these nutrients are a concern. Several medical conditions, including Clostridium difficile infection, osteoporotic fractures, and community-acquired pneumonia, are more likely to occur among PPI users. Interstitial nephritis also has been reported. Because of these risks, clinicians should try to use the lowest possible dose of PPI and to discontinue PPI therapy if it is not essential. Step-down regimens can be used to decrease/discontinue treatment; these regimens may prevent or minimize the rebound acid hypersecretion that can occur with abrupt discontinuation. For some patients, occasional treatment with intermittent or on-demand regimens may be sufficient to control symptoms. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  17. Chemoprevention by Elimination of Cancer-Prone, Mutant p53-Containing Breast Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Briefly, 50 AL reaction mixture were used for each reaction, which contained 2 QuantiTect SYBR Green RT-PCR Master Mix, 0.5 AL QuantiTect RT mix, 0.5 Amol ...cysteine-free DMEM, containing 5% dialyzed FCS and 50 Amol /L MG132. Cells were then labeled with 100 ACi/mL of [35S]-methionine (MP Biochemicals) for 5 min...with much high drug doses up to 10 Amol /L to achieve a moderate effect. Interestingly, digoxin or ouabain failed to reduce the endogenous wt p53

  18. Potential role for human P-glycoprotein in the transport of lacosamide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunbo; Chanteux, Hugues; Zuo, Zhong; Kwan, Patrick; Baum, Larry

    2013-07-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) do not effectively treat 30-40% of patients with epilepsy. Export of AEDs by P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1, or MDR1), which is overexpressed in the blood-brain barrier in drug-resistant patients, may be a mechanism for resistance to AEDs. For most recently approved AEDs, whether they are transported by Pgp is unknown. We investigated whether a new AED, lacosamide (LCM), is a substrate of human Pgp. LLC-PK1 and MDCKII cells transfected with the human MDR1 gene were used to determine the substrate status of LCM in concentration equilibrium transport assays (CETAs). An equal concentration of drug was initially loaded in both the apical and basal chambers, and the concentration in both chambers was measured up to 4 h. The experiments were repeated in the presence of the Pgp inhibitors verapamil and tariquidar. Caco-2 assays were used to determine the intrinsic permeability and efflux ratio of LCM as well as its potential to inhibit digoxin, a Pgp substrate. Lacosamide was transported by MDR1-transfected cells from basolateral to apical sides. The efflux of LCM could be completely blocked by verapamil or tariquidar. In Caco-2 assays, LCM showed high permeability without a significant efflux ratio; it did not inhibit digoxin, a Pgp substrate. Although LCM is a substrate of Pgp in CETA, Caco-2 data demonstrated that passive diffusion should play a major role in the overall disposition of LCM. The critical role of Pgp should be addressed in vivo. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  19. Therapeutical considerations in associated atrial fibrillation and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Mitu, O; Mitu, F; Constantin, S; Cojocaru, Elena; Leon, Maria-Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a supraventricular tachyarrhythmia very common in medical practice, often associated with heart failure. Pathophysiological relationship between atrial fibrillation and heart failure is in the attention of numerous case studies, being incomplete elucidated. We made a retrospective study on patients with both diseases, hospitalized in Cardiovascular Rehabilitation Hospital, Iasi, during 01.01.2013 - 31.12.2013. The obtained data allowed the classification of patients according to gender distribution, age groups, area of origin, clinical aspects, and association with other diseases, instituted treatment and appreciation of CHADS2 score. Data interpretation was performed with appropriate statistical methods. We found a higher frequency of the disease among male patients, male: female ratio being 2:1; the most of the patients lived in urban area. The pick of diseases incidence was in patients over 65 years with a total percentage of 70.84% of cases. We noted that the most common symptoms were exertional dyspnea (in all patients), palpitations, dizziness, headache, fatigue, asthenia, dyspnea at rest and pain/chest pressure. In our study, the majority of patients received the beta-blocker--digoxin combination (46 patients, 40 patients respectively). The coexistence of the two disorders could be explained by identifying common risk factors. Beta blockers should be the first therapeutic option in patients with chronic heart failure and atrial fibrillation because they have the effect of controlling heart rate and improve survival in patients with these disorders. Meanwhile, digoxin is a drug, only certain conditions of high accuracy monitoring; whose major clinical indications are heart failure and atrial rhythm disturbances.

  20. The pump, the exchanger, and the holy spirit: origins and 40-year evolution of ideas about the ouabain-Na+ pump endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Blaustein, Mordecai P

    2018-01-01

    Two prescient 1953 publications set the stage for the elucidation of a novel endocrine system: Schatzmann's report that cardiotonic steroids (CTSs) are all Na + pump inhibitors, and Szent-Gyorgi's suggestion that there is an endogenous "missing screw" in heart failure that CTSs like digoxin may replace. In 1977 I postulated that an endogenous Na + pump inhibitor acts as a natriuretic hormone and simultaneously elevates blood pressure (BP) in salt-dependent hypertension. This hypothesis was based on the idea that excess renal salt retention promoted the secretion of a CTS-like hormone that inhibits renal Na + pumps and salt reabsorption. The hormone also inhibits arterial Na + pumps, elevates myocyte Na + and promotes Na/Ca exchanger-mediated Ca 2+ gain. This enhances vasoconstriction and arterial tone-the hallmark of hypertension. Here I describe how those ideas led to the discovery that the CTS-like hormone is endogenous ouabain (EO), a key factor in the pathogenesis of hypertension and heart failure. Seminal observations that underlie the still-emerging picture of the EO-Na + pump endocrine system in the physiology and pathophysiology of multiple organ systems are summarized. Milestones include: 1) cloning the Na + pump isoforms and physiological studies of mutated pumps in mice; 2) discovery that Na + pumps are also EO-triggered signaling molecules; 3) demonstration that ouabain, but not digoxin, is hypertensinogenic; 4) elucidation of EO's roles in kidney development and cardiovascular and renal physiology and pathophysiology; 5) discovery of "brain ouabain", a component of a novel hypothalamic neuromodulatory pathway; and 6) finding that EO and its brain receptors modulate behavior and learning.

  1. Cardiotoxicity screening with simultaneous optogenetic pacing, voltage imaging and calcium imaging.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Graham T; Chaudhary, Khuram W; Atwater, Nicholas; Nguyen, Cuong; Brown, Barry S; McNeish, John D; Cohen, Adam E; Kralj, Joel M

    2016-01-01

    The Comprehensive in vitro Proarrhythmia Assay (CiPA) initiative seeks an in vitro test to accurately predict clinical Torsades de Pointes (TdP). We developed a cardiotoxicity assay incorporating simultaneous measurement of the action potential (AP) waveform and Ca(2+) transient (CT) in human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs). Concurrent optogenetic pacing provided a well-controlled electrophysiological background. We used the Optopatch platform for all-optical electrophysiology (Hochbaum et al., 2014). In a monolayer culture, a subset of cells expressed a genetically encoded, calcium and voltage reporter, CaViar (Hou, Kralj, Douglass, Engert, & Cohen, 2014), while others expressed a channelrhodopsin variant, CheRiff. Optical pacing of CheRiff-expressing cells synchronized the syncytium. We screened 12 compounds (11 acute, 1 chronic) to identify electrophysiological (AP rise time, AP50, AP90, beat rate) and CT effects in spontaneously beating and paced cultures (1Hz, 2Hz). CaViar reported spontaneous and paced APs and CTs with high signal-to-noise ratio and low phototoxicity. Quinidine, flecainide, E-4031, digoxin and cisapride prolonged APs, while verapamil and nifedipine shortened APs. Early after depolarizations (EADs) were elicited by quinidine, flecainide and cisapride. All but four compounds (amiodarone, chromanol, nifedipine, verapamil) prolonged AP rise time. Nifedipine and verapamil decreased CT amplitude, while digoxin increased CT amplitude. Pentamidine prolonged APs after chronic exposure. The Optopatch platform provides a robust assay to measure APs and CTs in hiPSC-CMs. This addresses the CiPA mandate and will facilitate comparisons of cell-based assays to human clinical data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibitory effects of herbal constituents on P-glycoprotein in vitro and in vivo: Herb–drug interactions mediated via P-gp

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xue, E-mail: lixue@imm.ac.cn; Hu, Jinping, E-mail: hujp@imm.ac.cn; Wang, Baolian, E-mail: wangbaolian@imm.ac.cn

    Modulation of drug transporters via herbal medicines which have been widely used in combination with conventional prescription drugs may result in herb–drug interactions in clinical practice. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of 50 major herbal constituents on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vitro and in vivo as well as related inhibitory mechanisms. Among these herbal medicines, four constituents, including emodin, 18β-glycyrrhetic acid (18β-GA), dehydroandrographolide (DAG), and 20(S)-ginsenoside F{sub 1} [20(S)-GF{sub 1}] exhibited significant inhibition (> 50%) on P-gp in MDR1-MDCKII and Caco-2 cells. Emodin was the strongest inhibitor of P-gp (IC{sub 50} = 9.42 μM), followed bymore » 18β-GA (IC{sub 50} = 21.78 μM), 20(S)-GF{sub 1} (IC{sub 50} = 76.08 μM) and DAG (IC{sub 50} = 77.80 μM). P-gp ATPase activity, which was used to evaluate the affinity of substrates to P-gp, was stimulated by emodin and DAG with K{sub m} and V{sub max} values of 48.61, 29.09 μM and 71.29, 38.45 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. However, 18β-GA and 20(S)-GF{sub 1} exhibited significant inhibition on both basal and verapamil-stimulated P-gp ATPase activities at high concentration. Molecular docking analysis (CDOCKER) further elucidated the mechanism for structure–inhibition relationships of herbal constituents with P-gp. When digoxin was co-administered to male SD rats with emodin or 18β-GA, the AUC{sub 0−t} and Cmax of digoxin were increased by approximately 51% and 58%, respectively. Furthermore, 18β-GA, DAG, 20(S)-GF{sub 1} and Rh{sub 1} at 10 μM significantly inhibited CYP3A4/5 activity, while emodin activated the metabolism of midazolam in human liver microsomes. In conclusion, four herbal constituents demonstrated inhibition of P-gp to specific extents in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our findings provided the basis for the reliable assessment of the potential risks of herb–drug interactions in humans. - Highlights:

  3. Is digitalis compound-induced cardiotoxicity, mediated through guinea-pig cardiomyocytes apoptosis?

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Ortega, Margarita; Zarco, Gabriela; Maldonado, Vilma; Carrillo, Jose F; Ramos, Pilar; Ceballos, Guillermo; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Garcia, Noemí; Zazueta, Cecilia; Chanona, Jose; Suarez, Jorge; Pastelin, Gustavo

    2007-07-02

    Our aim in performing this study was to analyze in vivo the cell death mechanism induced by toxic doses of digitalis compounds on guinea-pig cardiomyocytes. We analyzed three study groups of five male guinea pigs each. Guinea pigs were intoxicated under anesthesia with ouabain or digoxin (at a 50-60% lethal dose); the control group did not receive digitalis. A 5-hours period elapsed before guinea pig hearts were extracted to obtain left ventricle tissue. We carried out isolation of mitochondria and cytosol, cytochrome c and caspase-3 and -9 determination, and electrophoretic analysis of nuclear DNA. TdT-mediated DUTP-X nick end labeling (TUNEL) reaction was performed in histologic preparations to identify in situ apoptotic cell death. Ultrastructural analysis was performed by electron microscopy. Electrophoretic analysis of DNA showed degradation into fragments of 200-400 base pairs in digitalis-treated groups. TUNEL reaction demonstrated the following: in the control group, <10 positive nuclei per field; in the digoxin-treated group, 2-14 positive nuclei per field, while in the ouabain-treated group counts ranged from 9-30 positive nuclei per field. Extracts from ouabain-treated hearts had an elevation of cytochrome c in cytosol and a corresponding decrease in mitochondria; this release of cytochrome c provoked activation of caspase-9 and -3. Electron microscopy revealed presence of autophagic vesicles in cytoplasm of treated hearts. Toxic dosages of digitalis at 50-60% of the lethal dose are capable of inducing cytochrome c release from mitochondria, processing of procaspase-9 and -3, and DNA fragmentation; these observations are mainly indicative of apoptosis, although a mixed mechanism of cell death cannot be ruled out.

  4. Fluorescein-methotrexate transport in dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) choroid plexus.

    PubMed

    Baehr, Carsten H; Fricker, Gert; Miller, David S

    2006-08-01

    The vertebrate choroid plexus removes potentially toxic metabolites and xenobiotics from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to blood for subsequent excretion in urine and bile. We used confocal microscopy and quantitative image analysis to characterize the mechanisms driving transport of the large organic anion, fluorescein-methotrexate (FL-MTX), from bath (CSF-side) to blood vessels in intact lateral choroid plexus from dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, an evolutionarily ancient vertebrate. With 2 microM FL-MTX in the bath, steady-state fluorescence in the subepithelium/vascular space exceeded bath levels by 5- to 10-fold, and fluorescence in the epithelial cells was slightly below bath levels. FL-MTX accumulation in both tissue compartments was reduced by NaCN, Na removal, and ouabain, but not by a 10-fold increase in medium K. Certain organic anions, e.g., probenecid, MTX, and taurocholate, reduced FL-MTX accumulation in both tissue compartments; p-aminohippurate and estrone sulfate reduced subepithelial/vascular accumulation, but not cellular accumulation. At low concentrations, digoxin, leukotriene C4, and MK-571 reduced fluorescence in the subepithelium/vascular space while increasing cellular fluorescence, indicating preferential inhibition of efflux over uptake. In the presence of 10 microM digoxin (reduced efflux, enhanced cellular accumulation), cellular FL-MTX accumulation was specific, concentrative, and Na dependent. Thus transepithelial FL-MTX transport involved the following two carrier-mediated steps: electroneutral, Na-dependent uptake at the apical membrane and electroneutral efflux at the basolateral membrane. Finally, FL-MTX accumulation in both tissue compartments was reduced by phorbol ester and increased by forskolin, indicating antagonistic modulation by protein kinase C and protein kinase A.

  5. Reduction of non-specific adsorption of drugs to plastic containers used in bioassays or analyses.

    PubMed

    Fukazawa, Tominaga; Yamazaki, Yuri; Miyamoto, Yohei

    2010-01-01

    Non-specific adsorption (NSA) of drugs to plastic or glass containers used in clinical use is well known, but methods for reducing NSA have been rarely reported. We assessed the NSA to various containers and then investigated methods to reduce NSA. Probe drugs (methotrexate, warfarin, chloroquine, propranolol, verapamil, digoxin and paclitaxel) dissolved in water were incubated in conventional or low-adsorption containers for 4h at 4 degrees C and the NSA was determined by HPLC. They were also dissolved in aqueous methanol or acetonitrile and the NSA to a conventional polypropylene microplate was determined. Finally, tissue culture microplates were coated with silane coupling agents and the effects of the coatings were evaluated. Hydrophobic drugs (paclitaxel, verapamil and digoxin) were highly adsorbed to conventional plastic microplates, but in addition to hydrophobic drugs, positively charged drugs were well adsorbed to the tissue culture microplate. Low-adsorption microplates could reduce NSA below 15%, but positively charged or neutral hydrophobic drugs showed relatively higher adsorption. Acetonitrile showed stronger NSA inhibition than that of methanol, but the peak shapes of methotrexate and chloroquine were broadened and split. Among the silane coupling agents, GPTMS suppressed the NSA below 10%. Also, AATMS resembled the NSA pattern of GPTMS, but it increased the adsorption of methotrexate to 29%. On conventional plastic microplates, NSA is mainly driven by hydrophobic interactions, but on tissue culture microplates and low-adsorption microplates, in addition to hydrophobic interactions, ionic interactions play a role in the NSA. Therefore, to reduce the NSA to plastic containers, both hydrophobic and ionic interactions should be reduced using amphiphilic organic solvents or neutral and hydrophilic coatings. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Congenital complete heart block in the newborn associated with maternal systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, J D; Solomon, S; Banwell, G S; Beach, R; Wright, V; Howard, F M

    1979-01-01

    Four babies with complete heart block associated with maternal systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are described, together with a 5th baby whose mother had serological abnormalities only. One baby had a rapidly fatal outcome, one has required digoxin for heart failure, and the remaining 3 are asymptomatic but remain in complete heart block. Additional manifestations were present in 2 of them. The spectrum of neonatal abnormalities that may occur in association with maternal SLE and related connective tissue disorders is discussed, together with the possible causes and the prognosis. We conclude that congenital heart block is more common than had previously been appreciated. Images Figure PMID:420526

  7. Foundations of Pharmacotherapy for Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: Evidence Meets Practice, Part II.

    PubMed

    McIlvennan, Colleen K; Page, Robert L

    Pharmacologic treatment for systolic heart failure, otherwise known as heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, has been established through clinical trials and is formulated into guidelines to standardize the diagnosis and treatment. Since the introduction of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and vasodilators in the 1980s, many guideline-recommended therapies have emerged over the past 20 years targeting specific neurohormones, aldosterone, and catecholamines to treat heart failure. Part 2 of this series will describe β-blockers, digoxin, and aldosterone antagonists in the context of the mechanism of action in heart failure, investigational trials that showed beneficial effects, and the practical applications for clinical use.

  8. Tablet splitting of narrow therapeutic index drugs: a nationwide survey in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chia-Lin; Hsu, Chia-Chen; Chou, Chia-Yu; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chou, Li-Fang; Chou, Yueh-Ching

    2015-12-01

    Tablet splitting or pill splitting frequently occurs in daily medical practice. For drugs with special pharmacokinetic characters, such as drugs with narrow therapeutic index (NTI), unequal split tablets might lead to erroneous dose titration and it even cause toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of prescribing split NTI drugs at ambulatory setting in Taiwan. A population-based retrospective study was conducted using the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. All ambulatory visits were analyzed from the longitudinal cohort datasets of the National Health Insurance Research Database. The details of ambulatory prescriptions containing NTI drugs were extracted by using the claims datasets of one million beneficiaries from National Healthcare Insurance Research Database in 2010 in Taiwan. The analyses were stratified by dosage form, patient age and the number of prescribed tablets in a single dose for each NTI drugs. Main outcome measures Number and distinct dosage forms of available NTI drug items in Taiwan, number of prescriptions involved split NTI drugs, and number of patients received split NTI drugs. A total of 148,548 patients had received 512,398 prescriptions of NTI drugs and 41.8 % (n = 62,121) of patients had received 36.3 % (n = 185,936) of NTI drug prescriptions in form of split tablets. The percentage of splitting was highest in digoxin prescriptions (81.0 %), followed by warfarin (72.0 %). In the elderly patients, split tablets were very prevalent with digoxin (82.4 %) and warfarin (84.5 %). NTI drugs were frequently prescribed to be taken in split forms in Taiwan. Interventions may be needed to provide effective and convenient NTI drug use. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical outcome of inappropriate split NTI drugs.

  9. Ovine cardiac Na,K-ATPase: isolation by means of selective solubilization in Lubrol and the effect of 1 alpha,2 alpha-epoxyscillirosidin on this enzyme.

    PubMed

    Venter, P A; Naudé, R J; Oelofsen, W; Swan, G E

    1997-01-01

    The inhibition of cardiac Na,K-ATPase by 1 alpha,2 alpha-epoxyscillirosidin is the principal cause of poisoning of cattle by the tulip, Homeria pallida. The ultimate goals of this study were to study the interaction between 1 alpha,2 alpha-epoxyscillirosidin and ovine Na,K-ATPase by means of inhibition and displacement binding studies. Ovine cardiac Na,K-ATPase was isolated in membrane-bound form by means of deoxycholate treatment, high-speed ultracentrifugation, NaI treatment and selective solubilization in Lubrol. The inhibition of ovine cardiac and commercial porcine cerebral cortex Na,K-ATPase by 1 alpha,2 alpha-epoxyscilirosidin and ouabain was studied using a discontinuous Na,K-ATPase assay. The binding of 1 alpha,2 alpha-epoxyscillirosidin, ouabain and digoxin to the above enzymes was compared using a displacement binding assay with [3H] oubain. The Lubrol-solubilized ovine cardiac Na,K-ATPase showed a specific activity of 0.3 U/mg with no ouabain insensitive activity. I50 values of 2.1 x 10(-8) and 2.7 x 10(-8) were obtained for the inhibition of this enzyme by 1 alpha,2 alpha-epoxyscillirosidin and ouabain, respectively. 1 alpha,2 alpha-Epoxyscillirosidin has a much higher KD value (1.5 x 10(-7) M), however, than ouabain (9.5 x 10(-9) M) and digoxin (1.7 x 10(-8) M) in displacement binding studies with [3H]ouabain. 1 alpha,2 alpha-Epoxyscillirosidin is a potent inhibitor of ovine cardiac Na,K-ATPase and is a slightly stronger inhibitor of the enzyme than ouabain. The anomalous result for the displacement of 1 alpha,2 alpha-epoxyscillirosidin from its receptor is either a result of different affinities that K+ has for the enzyme ouabain and enzyme-1 alpha,2 alpha-epoxyscillirosidin complexes or because of different complex stabilities of these complexes.

  10. Survival in Patients with Degenerative Mitral Stenosis: Results from a Large Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Pasca, Ioana; Dang, Patricia; Tyagi, Gaurav; Pai, Ramdas G

    2016-05-01

    Severe mitral annular calcification causing degenerative mitral stenosis (DMS) is increasingly encountered in patients undergoing mitral and aortic valve interventions. However, its clinical profile and natural history and the factors affecting survival remain poorly characterized. The goal of this study was to characterize the factors affecting survival in patients with DMS. An institutional echocardiographic database was searched for patients with DMS, defined as severe mitral annular calcification without commissural fusion and a mean transmitral diastolic gradient of ≥2 mm Hg. This resulted in a cohort of 1,004 patients. Survival was analyzed as a function of clinical, pharmacologic, and echocardiographic variables. The patient characteristics were as follows: mean age, 73 ± 14 years; 73% women; coronary artery disease in 49%; and diabetes mellitus in 50%. The 1- and 5-year survival rates were 78% and 47%, respectively, and were slightly worse with higher DMS grades (P = .02). Risk factors for higher mortality included greater age (P < .0001), atrial fibrillation (P = .0009), renal insufficiency (P = .004), mitral regurgitation (P < .0001), tricuspid regurgitation (P < .0001), elevated right atrial pressure (P < .0001), concomitant aortic stenosis (P = .02), and low serum albumin level (P < .0001). Adjusted for propensity scores, use of renin-angiotensin system blockers (P = .02) or statins (P = .04) was associated with better survival, and use of digoxin was associated with higher mortality (P = .007). Prognosis in patients with DMS is poor, being worse in the aged and those with renal insufficiency, atrial fibrillation, and other concomitant valvular lesions. Renin-angiotensin system blockers and statins may confer a survival benefit, and digoxin use may be associated with higher mortality in these patients. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of NaK-ATPase inhibitors in human plasma as nonesterified fatty acids and lysophospholipids.

    PubMed

    Kelly, R A; O'Hara, D S; Mitch, W E; Smith, T W

    1986-09-05

    Elevated plasma levels of factors with cardiac glycoside-like activity have been implicated in the response to volume expansion in animals and in the pathogenesis of certain human diseases. We recently described four fractions (IR1, EI1, EI2, EI3) from normal human plasma that inhibit NaK-ATPase, displace ouabain from the enzyme, and exhibit digoxin-like immunoreactivity (Kelly, R. A., O'Hara, D. S., Canessa, M. L., Mitch, W. E., and Smith, T. W. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 11396-11405). In this report, we identify the active component of these plasma fractions as long-chain nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and lysophospholipids. These lipids were present in fractions EI1, EI2, and EI3 in quantities sufficient to account for all of the NaK-ATPase inhibitory activity. The digoxin-like immunoreactivity in fraction IR1 could be attributed to hydrocortisone and other endogenous steroids. To explore the nature of the lipid-NaK-ATPase interactions, we examined the effects of various ATP or sodium concentrations on the NaK-ATPase activity measured in the presence of NEFA. Varying sodium did not affect the inhibition of NaK-ATPase by linoleic acid. At less than 0.15 mM ATP, linoleic acid stimulated NaK-ATPase, but at higher ATP concentrations, the enzyme was progressively inhibited. In summary, NEFA and lysophospholipids, at levels similar to those occurring in human plasma, may account for all of the NaK-ATPase inhibitory activity observed in human plasma fractions. These lipids probably do not directly regulate NaK-ATPase in vivo under normal physiologic conditions, but may alter the sodium pump in disease states characterized by abnormalities in lipid metabolism or plasma protein binding.

  12. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein-mediated transport by extracts of and monoterpenoids contained in Zanthoxyli Fructus

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Naoko; Takagi, Akiyoshi; Kitazawa, Hidenori

    2005-12-01

    Citrus (rutaceous) herbs are often used in traditional medicine and Japanese cuisine and can be taken concomitantly with conventional medicine. In this study, the effect of various citrus-herb extracts on P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated transport was examined in vitro to investigate a possible interaction with P-gp substrates. Component monoterpenoids of the essential oil in Zanthoxyli Fructus was screened to find novel P-gp inhibitors. LLC-GA5-COL150 cells transfected with human MDR1 cDNA encoding P-gp were used. Cellular accumulation of [{sup 3}H]digoxin was measured in the presence or absence of P-gp inhibitors or test samples. Aurantii Fructus, Evodiae Fructus, Aurantii Fructus Immaturus, Aurantii Nobilis Pericarpium,more » Phellodendri Cortex, and Zanthoxyli Fructus were extracted with hot water (decocted) and then fractionated with ethyl acetate. The cell to medium ratio of [{sup 3}H]digoxin accumulation increased significantly in the presence of the decoction of Evodiae Fructus, Aurantii Nobilis Pericarpium, and Zanthoxyli Fructus, and the ethyl acetate fraction of all citrus herbs used. The ethyl acetate fraction of Zanthoxyli Fructus exhibited the strongest inhibition of P-gp among tested samples with an IC{sub 5} value of 166 {mu}g/mL. Then its component monoterpenoids, geraniol, geranyl acetate (R)-(+)-limonene, (R)-(+)-linalool, citronellal (R)-(+)-citronellal, DL-citronellol (S)-(-)-{beta}-citronellol, and cineole, were screened. (R)-(+)-citronellal and (S)-(-)-{beta}-citronellol inhibited P-gp with IC{sub 5} values of 167 {mu}M and 504 {mu}M, respectively. These findings suggest that Zanthoxyli Fructus may interact with P-gp substrates and that some monoterpenoids with the relatively lower molecular weight of about 150 such as (R)-(+)-citronellal can be potent inhibitors of P-gp.« less

  13. Mortality among patients due to adverse drug reactions that lead to hospitalization: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Tejas K; Patel, Parvati B

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of mortality among patients due to adverse drug reactions that lead to hospitalisation (fatal ADR Ad ), to explore the heterogeneity in its estimation through subgroup analysis of study characteristics, and to identify system-organ classes involved and causative drugs for fatal ADR Ad . We identified prospective ADR Ad -related studies via screening of the PubMed and Google Scholar databases with appropriate key terms. We estimated the prevalence of fatal ADR Ad using a double arcsine method and explored heterogeneity using the following study characteristics: age groups, wards, study region, ADR definitions, ADR identification methods, study duration and sample size. We examined patterns of fatal ADR Ad and causative drugs. Among 312 full-text articles assessed, 49 studies satisfied the selection criteria and were included in the analysis. The mean prevalence of fatal ADR Ad was 0.20% (95% CI: 0.13-0.27%; I 2  = 93%). The age groups and study wards were the important heterogeneity modifiers. The mean fatal ADR Ad prevalence varied from 0.01% in paediatric patients to 0.44% in the elderly. Subgroup analysis showed a higher prevalence of fatal ADR Ad in intensive care units, emergency departments, multispecialty wards and whole hospitals. Computer-based monitoring systems in combination with other methods detected higher mortality. Intracranial haemorrhage, renal failure and gastrointestinal bleeding accounted for more than 50% of fatal ADR Ad cases. Warfarin, aspirin, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors and digoxin accounted for 60% of fatal ADR Ad . ADR Ad is an important cause of mortality. Strategies targeting the safer use of warfarin, aspirin, RAS inhibitors and digoxin could reduce the large number of fatal ADR Ad cases.

  14. Association Between Use of Non–Vitamin K Oral Anticoagulants With and Without Concurrent Medications and Risk of Major Bleeding in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shang-Hung; Chou, I-Jun; Yeh, Yung-Hsin; Chiou, Meng-Jiun; Wen, Ming-Shien; Kuo, Chi-Tai; See, Lai-Chu

    2017-01-01

    Importance Non–vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are commonly prescribed with other medications that share metabolic pathways that may increase major bleeding risk. Objective To assess the association between use of NOACs with and without concurrent medications and risk of major bleeding in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective cohort study using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance database and including 91 330 patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who received at least 1 NOAC prescription of dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or apixaban from January 1, 2012, through December 31, 2016, with final follow-up on December 31, 2016. Exposures NOAC with or without concurrent use of atorvastatin; digoxin; verapamil; diltiazem; amiodarone; fluconazole; ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, or posaconazole; cyclosporine; erythromycin or clarithromycin; dronedarone; rifampin; or phenytoin. Main Outcomes and Measures Major bleeding, defined as hospitalization or emergency department visit with a primary diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage or gastrointestinal, urogenital, or other bleeding. Adjusted incidence rate differences between person-quarters (exposure time for each person during each quarter of the calendar year) of NOAC with or without concurrent medications were estimated using Poisson regression and inverse probability of treatment weighting using the propensity score. Results Among 91 330 patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (mean age, 74.7 years [SD, 10.8]; men, 55.8%; NOAC exposure: dabigatran, 45 347 patients; rivaroxaban, 54 006 patients; and apixaban, 12 886 patients), 4770 major bleeding events occurred during 447 037 person-quarters with NOAC prescriptions. The most common medications co-prescribed with NOACs over all person-quarters were atorvastatin (27.6%), diltiazem (22.7%), digoxin (22.5%), and amiodarone (21.1%). Concurrent use of amiodarone, fluconazole

  15. Analysis of beat fluctuations and oxygen consumption in cardiomyocytes by scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Yu; Kodama, Mikie; Shibuya, Masahiro; Maki, Yoshiyuki; Komatsu, Yasuo

    2014-02-15

    The contractile behavior of cardiomyocytes can be monitored by measuring their action potentials, and the analysis is essential for screening the safety of potential drugs. However, immobilizing cardiac cells on a specific electrode is considerably complicated. In this study, we demonstrate that scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) can be used to analyze rapid topographic changes in beating cardiomyocytes in a standard culture dish. Various cardiomyocyte contraction parameters and oxygen consumption based on cell respiration could be determined from SECM data. We also confirmed that cellular changes induced by adding the cardiotonic agent digoxin were conveniently monitored by this SECM system. These results show that SECM can be a potentially powerful tool for use in drug development for cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Drug induced psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Milavec-Puretić, Višnja; Mance, Marko; Ceović, Romana; Lipozenčić, Jasna

    2011-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder clinically characterized by erythematous, sharply demarcated papules and rounded plaques covered by silvery micaceous scale. While the exact causes of psoriasis have yet to be discovered, the immune system and genetics are known to play major roles in its development. Many external factors including infections, stress and medications may exacerbate psoriasis. Some of the most common medications know to trigger or worsen existing psoriasis include lithium, gold salts, beta blockers and antimalarials. Exacerbation of psoriasis due to the following medications has also been observed: adrenergic antagonists, interferon, gemfibrozil, iodine, digoxin and chlonidine. Having reviewed a variety of cases, we observed a relationship between certain medications and documented their involvement in exacerbating or inducing psoriasis.

  17. A review of rate control in atrial fibrillation, and the rationale and protocol for the RATE-AF trial

    PubMed Central

    Deeks, Jonathan J; Griffith, Michael; Lip, Gregory YH; Mehta, Samir; Slinn, Gemma; Stanbury, Mary; Steeds, Richard P; Townend, Jonathan N

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common and causes impaired quality of life, an increased risk of stroke and death as well as frequent hospital admissions. The majority of patients with AF require control of heart rate. In this article, we summarise the limited evidence from clinical trials that guides prescription, and present the rationale and protocol for a new randomised trial. As rate control has not yet been shown to reduce mortality, there is a clear need to compare the impact of therapy on quality of life, cardiac function and exercise capacity. Such a trial should concentrate on the long-term effects of treatment in the largest proportion of patients with AF, those with symptomatic permanent AF, with the aim of improving patient well-being. Design and intervention The RAte control Therapy Evaluation in permanent Atrial Fibrillation (RATE-AF) trial will enrol 160 participants with a prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end point design comparing initial rate control with digoxin or bisoprolol. This will be the first head-to-head randomised trial of digoxin and beta-blockers in AF. Participants Recruited patients will be aged ≥60 years with permanent AF and symptoms of breathlessness (equivalent to New York Heart Association class II or above), with few exclusion criteria to maximise generalisability to routine clinical practice. Outcome measures The primary outcome is patient-reported quality of life, with secondary outcomes including echocardiographic ventricular function, exercise capacity and biomarkers of cellular and clinical response. Follow-up will occur at 6 and 12 months, with feasibility components to inform the design of a future trial powered to detect a difference in hospital admission. The RATE-AF trial will underpin an integrated approach to management including biomarkers, functions and symptoms that will guide future research into optimal, personalised rate control in patients with AF. Ethics and dissemination

  18. Inhibitory effects of herbal constituents on P-glycoprotein in vitro and in vivo: herb-drug interactions mediated via P-gp.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Hu, Jinping; Wang, Baolian; Sheng, Li; Liu, Zhihao; Yang, Shuang; Li, Yan

    2014-03-01

    Modulation of drug transporters via herbal medicines which have been widely used in combination with conventional prescription drugs may result in herb-drug interactions in clinical practice. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of 50 major herbal constituents on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vitro and in vivo as well as related inhibitory mechanisms. Among these herbal medicines, four constituents, including emodin, 18β-glycyrrhetic acid (18β-GA), dehydroandrographolide (DAG), and 20(S)-ginsenoside F₁ [20(S)-GF₁] exhibited significant inhibition (>50%) on P-gp in MDR1-MDCKII and Caco-2 cells. Emodin was the strongest inhibitor of P-gp (IC₅₀=9.42 μM), followed by 18β-GA (IC₅₀=21.78 μM), 20(S)-GF₁ (IC₅₀=76.08 μM) and DAG (IC₅₀=77.80 μM). P-gp ATPase activity, which was used to evaluate the affinity of substrates to P-gp, was stimulated by emodin and DAG with Km and Vmax values of 48.61, 29.09 μM and 71.29, 38.45 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. However, 18β-GA and 20(S)-GF₁ exhibited significant inhibition on both basal and verapamil-stimulated P-gp ATPase activities at high concentration. Molecular docking analysis (CDOCKER) further elucidated the mechanism for structure-inhibition relationships of herbal constituents with P-gp. When digoxin was co-administered to male SD rats with emodin or 18β-GA, the AUC(₀₋t) and Cmax of digoxin were increased by approximately 51% and 58%, respectively. Furthermore, 18β-GA, DAG, 20(S)-GF₁ and Rh₁ at 10 μM significantly inhibited CYP3A4/5 activity, while emodin activated the metabolism of midazolam in human liver microsomes. In conclusion, four herbal constituents demonstrated inhibition of P-gp to specific extents in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our findings provided the basis for the reliable assessment of the potential risks of herb-drug interactions in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A post-marketing observational study to assess the safety of mibefradil in the community in England.

    PubMed

    Riley, J; Wilton, L V; Shakir, S A W

    2002-06-01

    To conduct a post-marketing observational cohort study to assess the safety of mibefradil in the community, using Prescription-Event Monitoring (PEM). Data were collected and analyzed on patients prescribed mibefradil by 1,996 General Practitioners (GPs) throughout England. Incidence densities were calculated for all reported events and selected events were followed-up by means of further questionnaires. The study was terminated early due to the voluntary withdrawal of mibefradil from the market because of potential drug interactions. A cohort of 3,085 patients was recruited, with a mean age of 64.5 years. The major indication for use was hypertension (55% of the cohort), the indication was not specified in 33% of patients. 80% of GPs expressing an opinion rated mibefradil as effective. The major reason for stopping was withdrawal from the market (2,342 patients). The commonest reported adverse events and reasons for stopping were malaise/lassitude, dizziness, edema and headache. Seven clinically serious reports of bradycardia/collapse were considered to be possible adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to mibefradil. All were in the elderly (> 65 years), 6 were considered to be a result of possible drug interactions. In total, 11 possible drug interactions occurred. Nine (8 reports of bradycardia and 1 of syncope) involved beta-blockers. Another, a report of collapse and severe bradycardia, occurred in a patient who had started a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker within 24 hours of stopping mibefradil and the other was a report of palpitations and dyspnea in a patient on concomitant digoxin and sotalol. None of the 53 deaths occurring during the study was attributed to mibefradil. Mibefradil was only available on the UK market for 6 months before it was withdrawn from the market because of potential drug interactions. With respect to the reasons leading to its withdrawal, in this cohort of 3,085 patients, 11 possible drug interactions were detected (6 clinically

  20. Admissions with atrial fibrillation in a multiracial population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Freestone, B; Rajaratnam, R; Hussain, N; Lip, G Y H

    2003-10-01

    There are established differences in cardiovascular disease in different racial groups. Worldwide, the literature regarding the clinical epidemiology of atrial fibrillation in non-white populations is scarce. To document the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the multiracial population of Malaysia, and to describe the clinical features and management of these patients. Busy city centre general hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, over a 1-month period. One-thousand four hundred and thirty-five acute medical admissions, of whom 40 patients (2.8%) had AF. Of 1435 acute medical admissions to Kuala Lumpur General Hospital over the 4-week study period, 40 had AF (21 male, 19 female; mean age 65 years). Of these, 18 were Malay, 16 Chinese and six Indian. Nineteen patients had previously known AF (seven with paroxysmal AF) and 21 were newly diagnosed cases. The principal associated medical conditions were ischaemic heart disease (42.5%), hypertension (40%) and heart failure (40%). Dyspnoea was the commonest presentation, whilst stroke was the cause of presentation in only two patients. Investigations were under-utilised, with chest X-ray and echocardiography in only 62.5% of patients and thyroid function checked in 15%. Only 16% of those with previously diagnosed AF were on warfarin, with a further three on aspirin. Anticoagulant therapy was started in 13.5% of patients previously not on warfarin, and aspirin in 8%. Records of contraindications to warfarin were unreliable, being identified in only 25%. For those with known AF, 58% were on digoxin. For new onset AF, digoxin was again the most common rate-limiting treatment, initiated in 38%, whilst five patients with new onset AF were commenced on amiodarone. DC cardioversion was not used in any of the patients with new onset AF. Amongst acute medical admissions to a single centre in Malaysia the prevalence of AF was 2.8%. Consistent with previous similar surveys in mainly western (caucasian) populations, standard

  1. [Comparison between anti-ouabain egg yolk(IgY) and rabbit antibody(IgG) in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-juan; Yang, Jun; Ge, Heng; Qiang, Lei; Duan, Zong-ming; Wang, Cong-xia; Wang, Rong; Lu, Zhuo-rern

    2007-11-01

    To improve specificity and accuracy of endogenous ouabain measurement assay. Anti-ouabain polyclonal antibody egg yolk (IgY) and anti-ouabain rabbit antibody (IgG) were prepared respectively. In the presence of two kinds of antibody, then the specificity and accuracy of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were compared. The ELISA, in the presence of IgY, provided a sensitivity of the average intraassay coefficient of variation(CV) was 2.03%, and the inter-assay CV was 2.34% respectively. In contrast, IgG were 2.83% and 3.29%. No significant interferences were observed with hydrocortisone and dexamethasone. There was 3.45% vs. 5.95%, 3.20% vs. 5.20% of crossreaction with cedilanid and digoxin. The specificity and accuracy of ELISA, in which IgY was used, were more better than IgG.

  2. Normotensive cardiomyopathy and malignant hypertension in phaeochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, L. M.; Trethowan, N.; Singh, S. P.

    1982-01-01

    A patient with two different presentations of phaeochromocytoma is described. She initially presented with normal blood pressure and heart failure following a prolonged feverish prodrome. A provisional diagnosis of myocarditis or early congestive cardiomyopathy was made and she improved with digoxin and diuretics. Eighteen months later, after a period of normotension free from heart failure, she developed malignant hypertension with recurrence of heart failure. A phaeochromocytoma was surgically removed, with return to normal of blood pressure and cardiac status. It would seem that the initial presentation of the phaeochromocytoma was a catecholamine-induced myocarditis without hypertension and this resolved with the subsequent development of malignant hypertension. The possible mechanisms responsible for this are discussed and it is concluded that phaeochromocytoma should be considered in patients who have heart failure and persistent features of myocarditis. PMID:7100023

  3. A review of rate control in atrial fibrillation, and the rationale and protocol for the RATE-AF trial.

    PubMed

    Kotecha, Dipak; Calvert, Melanie; Deeks, Jonathan J; Griffith, Michael; Kirchhof, Paulus; Lip, Gregory Yh; Mehta, Samir; Slinn, Gemma; Stanbury, Mary; Steeds, Richard P; Townend, Jonathan N

    2017-07-20

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common and causes impaired quality of life, an increased risk of stroke and death as well as frequent hospital admissions. The majority of patients with AF require control of heart rate. In this article , we summarise the limited evidence from clinical trials that guides prescription, and present the rationale and protocol for a new randomised trial. As rate control has not yet been shown to reduce mortality, there is a clear need to compare the impact of therapy on quality of life, cardiac function and exercise capacity. Such a trial should concentrate on the long-term effects of treatment in the largest proportion of patients with AF, those with symptomatic permanent AF, with the aim of improving patient well-being. The RAte control Therapy Evaluation in permanent Atrial Fibrillation (RATE-AF) trial will enrol 160 participants with a prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end point design comparing initial rate control with digoxin or bisoprolol. This will be the first head-to-head randomised trial of digoxin and beta-blockers in AF. Recruited patients will be aged ≥60 years with permanent AF and symptoms of breathlessness (equivalent to New York Heart Association class II or above), with few exclusion criteria to maximise generalisability to routine clinical practice. The primary outcome is patient-reported quality of life, with secondary outcomes including echocardiographic ventricular function, exercise capacity and biomarkers of cellular and clinical response. Follow-up will occur at 6 and 12 months, with feasibility components to inform the design of a future trial powered to detect a difference in hospital admission. The RATE-AF trial will underpin an integrated approach to management including biomarkers, functions and symptoms that will guide future research into optimal, personalised rate control in patients with AF. East Midlands-Derby Research Ethics Committee (16/EM/0178); peer-reviewed publications

  4. Fall-Risk-Increasing Drugs: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: I. Cardiovascular Drugs.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Max; Seppala, Lotta J; Daams, Joost G; van de Glind, Esther M M; Masud, Tahir; van der Velde, Nathalie

    2018-04-01

    Use of certain medications is recognized as a major and modifiable risk factor for falls. Although the literature on psychotropic drugs is compelling, the literature on cardiovascular drugs as potential fall-risk-increasing drugs is conflicting. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to provide a comprehensive overview of the associations between cardiovascular medications and fall risk in older adults. Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO. Key search concepts were "fall," "aged," "causality," and "medication." Studies that investigated cardiovascular medications as risk factors for falls in participants ≥60 years old or participants with a mean age of 70 or older were included. A meta-analysis was performed using the generic inverse variance method, pooling unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) separately. In total, 131 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. Meta-analysis using adjusted ORs showed significant results (pooled OR [95% confidence interval]) for loop diuretics, OR 1.36 (1.17, 1.57), and beta-blocking agents, OR 0.88 (0.80, 0.97). Meta-analysis using unadjusted ORs showed significant results for digitalis, OR 1.60 (1.08, 2.36); digoxin, OR 2.06 (1.56, 2.74); and statins, OR 0.80 (0.65, 0.98). Most of the meta-analyses resulted in substantial heterogeneity that mostly did not disappear after stratification for population and setting. In a descriptive synthesis, consistent associations were not observed. Loop diuretics were significantly associated with increased fall risk, whereas beta-blockers were significantly associated with decreased fall risk. Digitalis and digoxin may increase the risk of falling, and statins may reduce it. For the majority of cardiovascular medication groups, outcomes were inconsistent. Furthermore, recent studies indicate that specific drug properties, such as selectivity of beta-blockers, may affect fall risk, and drug-disease interaction also may play

  5. Trial Watch: Immunogenic cell death inducers for anticancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pol, Jonathan; Vacchelli, Erika; Aranda, Fernando; Castoldi, Francesca; Eggermont, Alexander; Cremer, Isabelle; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Fucikova, Jitka; Galon, Jérôme; Spisek, Radek; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2015-04-01

    The term "immunogenic cell death" (ICD) is now employed to indicate a functionally peculiar form of apoptosis that is sufficient for immunocompetent hosts to mount an adaptive immune response against dead cell-associated antigens. Several drugs have been ascribed with the ability to provoke ICD when employed as standalone therapeutic interventions. These include various chemotherapeutics routinely employed in the clinic (e.g., doxorubicin, epirubicin, idarubicin, mitoxantrone, bleomycin, bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and oxaliplatin) as well as some anticancer agents that are still under preclinical or clinical development (e.g., some microtubular inhibitors of the epothilone family). In addition, a few drugs are able to convert otherwise non-immunogenic instances of cell death into bona fide ICD, and may therefore be employed as chemotherapeutic adjuvants within combinatorial regimens. This is the case of cardiac glycosides, like digoxin and digitoxin, and zoledronic acid. Here, we discuss recent developments on anticancer chemotherapy based on ICD inducers.

  6. Are endogenous cardenolides controlled by atrial natriuretic peptide.

    PubMed

    Brar, Kanwarjeet S; Gao, Yonglin; El-Mallakh, Rif S

    2016-07-01

    Endogenous cardenolides are digoxin-like substances and ouabain-like substances that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and mood disorders in clinical and pre-clinical studies. Regulatory signals for endogenous cardenolides are still unknown. These endogenous compounds are believed to be produced by the adrenal gland in the periphery and the hypothalamus in the central nervous system, and constitute part of an hormonal axis that may regulate the catalytic activity of the α subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. A review of literature suggests that there is great overlap in physiological environments that are associated with either elevations or reductions in the levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and endogenous cardenolides. This suggests that these two factors may share a common regulatory signal or perhaps that ANP may be involved in the regulation of endogenous cardenolides. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Acute supraventricular tachycardia in children.

    PubMed

    Paul, Siba Prosad; Blaikley, Sarah; Peevers, Camilla; Fitz-John, Lin

    2012-10-01

    This article describes the management in emergency departments of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) in children. Of all forms of symptomatic arrhythmia in infants, children and adolescents, SVT is the most common. Its clinical presentation varies with the child's age, and it can be difficult to diagnose in infants and young children. It is important that the nurses in the emergency department consider a diagnosis of SVT in young children with histories of poor feeding, lethargy, irritability, excessive sweating or pallor (Zeigler 1994) and in older children with histories of palpitations, dizziness, chest pain, syncope or shortness of breath (Uzun 2010). If SVT is suspected, a 12-lead electrocardiogram should be recorded. Vagal manoeuvre may be successful but in some cases intravenous adenosine is necessary. Children with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome are at risk of sudden cardiac death associated with SVT, and should not be treated with calcium channel blockers or digoxin.

  8. A general strategy to construct small molecule biosensors in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Justin; Jester, Benjamin W; Tinberg, Christine E; Mandell, Daniel J; Antunes, Mauricio S; Chari, Raj; Morey, Kevin J; Rios, Xavier; Medford, June I; Church, George M; Fields, Stanley; Baker, David

    2015-12-29

    Biosensors for small molecules can be used in applications that range from metabolic engineering to orthogonal control of transcription. Here, we produce biosensors based on a ligand-binding domain (LBD) by using a method that, in principle, can be applied to any target molecule. The LBD is fused to either a fluorescent protein or a transcriptional activator and is destabilized by mutation such that the fusion accumulates only in cells containing the target ligand. We illustrate the power of this method by developing biosensors for digoxin and progesterone. Addition of ligand to yeast, mammalian, or plant cells expressing a biosensor activates transcription with a dynamic range of up to ~100-fold. We use the biosensors to improve the biotransformation of pregnenolone to progesterone in yeast and to regulate CRISPR activity in mammalian cells. This work provides a general methodology to develop biosensors for a broad range of molecules in eukaryotes.

  9. [Position of diuretics in the treatment of heart failure in light of current guidelines].

    PubMed

    Bury, Krzysztof; Nessler, Jadwiga

    Diuretics are the longest-used drugs in heart failure after digoxin. This is due to their effect on the retention of sodium and an increase in the volume of fluid in the extracellular space secondary to neurohormonal and hemodynamic disorders occurs in heart failure, and their effectiveness in the treatment of symptomatic heart failure. Discontinuation of treatment with diuretics or use them in too small doses is one of the causes of exacerbation or acute heart failure.The effectiveness of most of diuretics does not confirm in the clinical trials, and the indications for their use are often based only on expert opinion. The effect of these drugs on morbidity and mortality in patients with HF was not examined. Diuretics reduce shortness of breath and swelling. For this reasons it is recom-mended to use them in patients with signs and symptoms of fluid retention regardless of the left ventricular ejection fraction.

  10. (Pyridoxylated hemoglobin)-(polyoxyethylene) conjugate solution as blood substitute for normothermic whole body rinse-out.

    PubMed

    Agishi, T; Funakoshi, Y; Honda, H; Yamagata, K; Kobayashi, M; Takahashi, M

    1988-01-01

    In order to investigate a new possibility for artificial blood with oxygen-carrying capability to be applied to other than mere supplementation, normothermic whole body rinse-out in which artificial blood deriving from perfluorochemical emulsion, Fluosol-DA 20% (Green Cross Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan) or stabilized hemoglobin solution, (pyridoxylated hemoglobin)-(polyoxyethylene) conjugate solution (Ajinomoto Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) were used as rinsing fluid for a blood purification experiment. Replacement either with approximately 150 ml/kg of Fluosol-DA or stabilized hemoglobin solution showed effective removal of digoxin at a reduction rate of 96.3% or 92.2%, respectively. However, when Fluosol-DA was used, a certain amount of perfluorochemical should be retrieved by centrifugation to avoid a possible toxic effect on the reticulo-endothelial system. Even though 3 out of 6, and 3 out of 8 dogs, respectively, survived for a long period after the procedure, the experimental dogs were very susceptible to infection.

  11. A general strategy to construct small molecule biosensors in eukaryotes

    DOE PAGES

    Feng, Justin; Jester, Benjamin W.; Tinberg, Christine E.; ...

    2015-12-29

    Biosensors for small molecules can be used in applications that range from metabolic engineering to orthogonal control of transcription. Here, we produce biosensors based on a ligand-binding domain (LBD) by using a method that, in principle, can be applied to any target molecule. The LBD is fused to either a fluorescent protein or a transcriptional activator and is destabilized by mutation such that the fusion accumulates only in cells containing the target ligand. We illustrate the power of this method by developing biosensors for digoxin and progesterone. Addition of ligand to yeast, mammalian, or plant cells expressing a biosensor activatesmore » transcription with a dynamic range of up to ~100-fold. We use the biosensors to improve the biotransformation of pregnenolone to progesterone in yeast and to regulate CRISPR activity in mammalian cells. As a result, this work provides a general methodology to develop biosensors for a broad range of molecules in eukaryotes.« less

  12. A general strategy to construct small molecule biosensors in eukaryotes

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Justin; Jester, Benjamin W.; Tinberg, Christine E.

    Biosensors for small molecules can be used in applications that range from metabolic engineering to orthogonal control of transcription. Here, we produce biosensors based on a ligand-binding domain (LBD) by using a method that, in principle, can be applied to any target molecule. The LBD is fused to either a fluorescent protein or a transcriptional activator and is destabilized by mutation such that the fusion accumulates only in cells containing the target ligand. We illustrate the power of this method by developing biosensors for digoxin and progesterone. Addition of ligand to yeast, mammalian, or plant cells expressing a biosensor activatesmore » transcription with a dynamic range of up to ~100-fold. We use the biosensors to improve the biotransformation of pregnenolone to progesterone in yeast and to regulate CRISPR activity in mammalian cells. As a result, this work provides a general methodology to develop biosensors for a broad range of molecules in eukaryotes.« less

  13. The physicochemical parameters of marker compounds and vehicles for use in in vitro percutaneous absorption studies.

    PubMed

    Kaca, Monika; Bock, Udo; Tawfik Jalal, Mohamed; Harms, Meike; Hoffmann, Christine; Müller-Goymann, Christel; Netzlaff, Frank; Schäfer, Ulrich; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Haltner-Ukomadu, Eleonore

    2008-05-01

    In order to prepare for a validation study to compare percutaneous absorption through reconstructed human epidermis with ex vivo skin absorption through human and animal skin, nine test compounds, covering a wide range of physicochemical properties were selected, namely: benzoic acid; caffeine; clotrimazole; digoxin; flufenamic acid; ivermectin; mannitol; nicotine; and testosterone. The donor and receptor media for the test substances, the addition of a solubiliser for the lipophilic compounds, as well as the stability and solubility of the test substances in the vehicles, were systematically analysed. Hydrophilic molecules, being freely soluble in water, were applied in buffered saline solutions. In order to overcome solubility restrictions for lipophilic compounds, the non-ionic surfactant, Igepal CA-630, was added to the donor vehicle, and, in the case of clotrimazole and ivermectin, also to the receptor fluid. The model molecules showed a suitable solubility and stability in the selected donor and receptor media throughout the whole duration of the test.

  14. Polypharmacy among the elderly in the Republic of Srpska: extent and implications for the future.

    PubMed

    Marković-Peković, Vanda; Škrbić, Ranko; Petrović, Aleksandar; Vlahović-Palčevski, Vera; Mrak, Jana; Bennie, Marion; Fadare, Joseph; Kwon, Hye-Young; Schiffers, Krijn; Truter, Ilse; Godman, Brian

    2016-10-01

    The prescribing of medicines is a fundamental component of care for the elderly; however, there is increasing concern with polypharmacy and its impact on morbidity, mortality and costs. As a result, long-term prescription-medicine use and the prevalence of polypharmacy in the elderly in the Republic of Srpska were analyzed. The findings were subsequently used to suggest potential future measures. A retrospective study of all elderly patients during 2005-2010 stratified by age group (three groups), sex and long-term medicine use was performed. Polypharmacy (five or more medicines) increased from 1.4% of the elderly taking medicines long-term to 3.6% by 2010, with 53.6% of elderly taking two or more medicines long-term. The most prevalent diseases were cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Most prescriptions were in accordance with recent guidelines; however, there was a concern with appreciable prescribing of digoxin and aminophylline. Whilst polypharmacy rates are low in the Republic, the increasing rate is a concern. Further studies are planned.

  15. On-site availability of selected antidotes: results of a survey of Massachusetts hospitals.

    PubMed

    Woolf, A D; Chrisanthus, K

    1997-01-01

    Hospital pharmacies in Massachusetts were surveyed to determine their patterns of stocking antidotes. Mailed questionnaires were completed by hospital pharmacy directors at 82 of 93 acute care institutions (87% response rate). Results confirmed great variability in on-site accessibility of antidotes. Only 8 of the 82 hospitals (9.8%) stocked all of 14 common antidotes inventoried by the survey. Even fewer hospital pharmacies stocked specific antidotes (eg, Crotalid anti-venin, digoxin-specific Fab antibodies, pyridoxine) in an adequate quantity to treat one poisoned adult. Larger hospitals and those with a 24-hour pharmacy were more likely to have certain antidotes than smaller institutions. We conclude that Massachusetts hospitals do not carry complete inventories of 14 common antidotes. It is important that poisoned patients be referred to medical centers with adequate toxicological care. Improved guidelines for the accessibility of antidotes need to be developed and made available to hospital pharmacies and emergency departments.

  16. The effect of varied pH on the luminescence characteristics of antibody-mercaptoacetic acid conjugated ZnS nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhry, Madeeha; Rehman, Malik Abdul; Gul, Asghari; Qamar, Raheel; Bhatti, Arshad Saleem

    2017-11-01

    We demonstrate here that the effect of varied pH of the media on the photoluminescence (PL) properties of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA) and digoxin antibody (Ab) conjugated zinc sulphide (ZnS) nanowires. The charge-transfer kinetics from MAA to ZnS and vice versa showed a profound effect on the luminescence of ZnS defect states. The PL intensity of the ZnS defect states showed strong dependence on the value of pH with respect to the pKa of MAA. The carboxyl and thiol group of MAA in the protonated (pH < pKa) and deprotonated (pH > pKa) states resulted in the quenched PL intensity. While for pH ∼ pKa, the PL intensity was regained as there was equal probability of both protonated and deprotonated carboxyl and thiol groups. These findings indicated that pH of the environment is a key parameter for the use of MAA-Ab conjugated ZnS nanowires as an optical biomarker.

  17. Surgical treatment of atrioventricular canal defect.

    PubMed

    Hardesty, R L; Zuberbuhler, J R; Bahnson, H T

    1975-11-01

    Fifty-nine patients with congenital anomalies of the atrioventricular canal underwent operation and all survivors were followed up. In 42 patients with partial atrioventricular canal defects, ten had preoperative congestive heart failure. Three, or 7.1%, died of endomyocardial fibroelastosis, high pulmonary vascular resistance, and severe mitral regurgitation. A fourth patient later died of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and fibrilation. Reoperations in five patients were all successful. No patients had persistent atrioventricular blocks, and all patients are asymptomatic. Two of these subjects continue to receive digoxin therapy, and one of them is believed to have substantial mitral insufficiency. Of the 17 patients who had complete atrioventricular canal defects, 13 had a divided common anterior leaflet attached to the septum by chordae tendineae, and four had undivided and unattached anterior leaflets. Two had previously undergone pulmonary banding, and nine were treated for congestive heart failure. Six died after operation. There were no reoperations. No patient presently has required a pacemaker. Two subjects have persistent cardiomegaly.

  18. Health effects of hawthorn.

    PubMed

    Dahmer, Stephen; Scott, Emilie

    2010-02-15

    Hawthorn medicinal extract has long been a favored herbal remedy in Europe. The active components of this slow-acting cardiotonic agent are thought to be flavonoids and oligomeric procyanidins. The most studied hawthorn extracts are WS 1442 and LI 132. Reviews of placebo- controlled trials have reported both subjective and objective improvement in patients with mild forms of heart failure (New York Heart Association classes I through III). Other studies of hawthorn in patients with heart failure have revealed improvement in clinical symptoms, pressure-heart rate product, left ventricular ejection fraction, and patients' subjective sense of well-being. However, there is no evidence of a notable reduction in mortality or sudden death. Hawthorn is well tolerated; the most common adverse effects are vertigo and dizziness. Theoretic interactions exist with antiarrhythmics, antihypertensives, digoxin, and antihyperlipidemic agents. Proven conventional therapies for heart failure are still recommended until the safety and effectiveness of hawthorn has been proven in long-term studies.

  19. A general strategy to construct small molecule biosensors in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Justin; Jester, Benjamin W; Tinberg, Christine E; Mandell, Daniel J; Antunes, Mauricio S; Chari, Raj; Morey, Kevin J; Rios, Xavier; Medford, June I; Church, George M; Fields, Stanley; Baker, David

    2015-01-01

    Biosensors for small molecules can be used in applications that range from metabolic engineering to orthogonal control of transcription. Here, we produce biosensors based on a ligand-binding domain (LBD) by using a method that, in principle, can be applied to any target molecule. The LBD is fused to either a fluorescent protein or a transcriptional activator and is destabilized by mutation such that the fusion accumulates only in cells containing the target ligand. We illustrate the power of this method by developing biosensors for digoxin and progesterone. Addition of ligand to yeast, mammalian, or plant cells expressing a biosensor activates transcription with a dynamic range of up to ~100-fold. We use the biosensors to improve the biotransformation of pregnenolone to progesterone in yeast and to regulate CRISPR activity in mammalian cells. This work provides a general methodology to develop biosensors for a broad range of molecules in eukaryotes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10606.001 PMID:26714111

  20. [Digoxin as a cause of chromatopsia and depression in a patient with heart failure and hyperthyroidism].

    PubMed

    Chyrek, R; Jabłecka, A; Pupek-Musialik, D; Lowicki, Z

    2000-08-01

    67 year old patient with chronic heart failure and persistent atrial fibrillation had overdosed glycosides for several months. The symptoms of gastrointestinal system and nervous system appeared after long term therapy with toxic doses of glycosides. Originally depression was diagnosed based on the central nervous system disturbances. Even though overdose of glycosides was diagnosed the blood serum glycoside level was within the therapeutic limits. Based on the precise analysis of the data, it was concluded that the reason for normal blood serum glycoside level in this case was coexisting hyperthyreosis.

  1. Inhibition of membrane Na(+)-K+ Atpase of the brain, liver and RBC in rats administered di(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) a plasticizer used in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) blood storage bags.

    PubMed

    Dhanya, C R; Indu, A R; Deepadevi, K V; Kurup, P A

    2003-08-01

    Significant amounts of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) leach out into blood stored in DEHP plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags resulting in the exposure of recipients of blood transfusion to this compound. The aim of this study was to find out whether DEHP at these low levels has any effect on the activity of membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase, since a decrease in this enzyme activity has been reported to take place in a number of disorders like neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, coronary artery disease and stroke, syndrome-X, tumours etc. DEHP was administered (ip) at a low dose of 750 microg/100 g body weight to rats and the activity of membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase in liver, brain and RBC was estimated. Histopathology of brain, activity of HMG CoA reductase (a major rate limiting enzyme in the isoprenoid pathway of which digoxin, the physiological inhibitor of Na(+)-K+ ATPase is a product), intracellular concentration of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in RBC (which is altered as a result of inhibition of Na(+)-K+ ATPase) were also studied. (In the light of the observation of increase of intracellular Ca2+ load and intracellular depletion of Mg2+ when Na(+)-K+ ATPase is inhibited). Histopathology of brain revealed areas of degeneration in the rats administered DEHP. There was significant inhibition of membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase in brain, liver and RBC. Intracellular Ca2+ increased in the RBC while intracellular Mg2+ decreased. However activity of hepatic HMG CoA reductase decreased. Activity of Na(+)-K+ ATPase and HMG CoA reductase, however returned to normal levels within 7 days of stopping administration of DEHP. The inhibition of membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity by DEHP may indicate the possibility of predisposing recipients of transfusion of blood or hemodialysis to the various disorders mentioned above. However since this effect is reversed when DEHP administration is stopped, it may not be a serious problem in the case of a few transfusion; but in patients receiving

  2. Hellebrin and its aglycone form hellebrigenin display similar in vitro growth inhibitory effects in cancer cells and binding profiles to the alpha subunits of the Na+/K+-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Surface-expressed Na+/K+-ATPase (NaK) has been suggested to function as a non-canonical cardiotonic steroid-binding receptor that activates multiple signaling cascades, especially in cancer cells. By contrast, the current study establishes a clear correlation between the IC50in vitro growth inhibitory concentration in human cancer cells and the Ki for the inhibition of activity of purified human α1β1 NaK. Methods The in vitro growth inhibitory effects of seven cardiac glycosides including five cardenolides (ouabain, digoxin, digitoxin, gitoxin, uzarigenin-rhamnoside, and their respective aglycone forms) and two bufadienolides (gamabufotalin-rhamnoside and hellebrin, and their respective aglycone forms) were determined by means of the MTT colorimetric assay and hellebrigenin-induced cytotoxic effects were visualized by means of quantitative videomicroscopy. The binding affinity of ten of the 14 compounds under study was determined with respect to human α1β1, α2β1 and α3β1 NaK complexes. Lactate releases and oxygen consumption rates were also determined in cancer cells treated with these various cardiac glycosides. Results Although cardiotonic steroid aglycones usually display weaker binding affinity and in vitro anticancer activity than the corresponding glycoside, the current study demonstrates that the hellebrin / hellebrigenin pair is at odds with respect to this rule. In addition, while some cardiac steroid glycosides (e.g., digoxin), but not the aglycones, display a higher binding affinity for the α2β1 and α3β1 than for the α1β1 complex, both hellebrin and its aglycone hellebrigenin display ~2-fold higher binding affinity for α1β1 than for the α2β1 and α3β1 complexes. Finally, the current study highlights a common feature for all cardiotonic steroids analyzed here, namely a dramatic reduction in the oxygen consumption rate in cardenolide- and bufadienolide-treated cells, reflecting a direct impact on mitochondrial oxidative

  3. Effect of proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 on efflux transport of rebamipide in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Masateru; Nakai, Daisuke

    2017-09-01

    1. Effect of IL-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, on efflux transport of rebamipide, an antiulcer drug, was investigated in Caco-2 cells. 2. Rebamipide had a greater basal-to-apical than apical-to-basal transport rate. Efflux transport of rebamipide was inhibited by cyclosporine A, a P-gp inhibitor, and probenecid, which is a general MRP inhibitor, but not by Ko143, a BCRP inhibitor. 3. By the addition of IL-6, mannitol transport was slightly increased in a concentration-dependent manner in both directions of absorption and efflux. The addition of IL-6 did not change efflux transport of rebamipide even though efflux transport of digoxin, a typical substrate of P-gp, was significantly decreased by the addition of IL-6, indicating decrease of the function of P-gp. 4. Therefore, it was suggested that increase of MRP(s)-mediated transport compensates for the decrease of P-gp mediated transport of rebamipide. These findings suggested that rebamipide absorption is unlikely to be changed in IBD patients.

  4. Hypoglycemia associated with oleander toxicity in a dog.

    PubMed

    Page, C; Murtaugh, R J

    2015-03-01

    Oleander poisoning typically results in cardiac arrhythmias, hyperkalemia, and gastrointestinal irritation, and can be fatal. Oleander extracts have also been studied experimentally as hypoglycemic agents. Here, we describe a dog with confirmed oleander toxicosis presenting with classical symptoms and also hypoglycemia. After excluding other likely causes of hypoglycemia, the finding was attributed to oleander toxicosis, which has not been previously reported in dogs. A 7-year-old female spayed Maltese was presented to the emergency service after ingesting oleander leaves. Toxicosis was confirmed by measurement of digoxin using a competitive binding immunoassay, patient level 0.7 ng/mL (0.9 nmol/L) 24-h post-ingestion. Clinical symptoms included vomiting, cardiac arrhythmia, mild hyperkalemia, and hypoglycemia. Treatment was successful with aggressive supportive care, and the dog was discharged from the hospital after 48 h and made a full recovery. This case reviews the presentation and treatment of oleander toxicity but also highlights possible effects of oleander on blood sugar in dogs. Hypoglycemia in this dog, attributed to oleander poisoning, is interesting as it supports experimental research into hypoglycemic properties of oleander extracts.

  5. Elaeodendron orientale as a source of cytotoxic cardenolides.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Alex A; López, Manuel R; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Moujir, Laila M; Rodríguez, Matías L; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, we report six cardiac glycosides (1-6) along with four known ones (7-10) isolated from the leaves and fruits of Elaeodendron orientale. Their stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR, and the absolute configuration of 1 was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The compounds were evaluated for growth inhibitory activity against a panel of human cancer cell lines, HeLa, A-549, MCF-7 and HL-60, and normal Vero cells. Four compounds from this series (5 and 7-9, IC50 values ranging from 0.01 to 0.07μM) exhibited cytotoxicity against three of the cancer cell lines assayed that was similar to or higher than the well-known therapies digoxin and digitoxigenin. Taking into account the narrow safety range of cardiac glycosides used in clinic, this series shows a selectivity index higher than 3 for three of the cancer cell lines assayed, increasing their interest for further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The substances of plant origin that inhibit protein biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Gałasiński, W; Chlabicz, J; Paszkiewicz-Gadek, A; Marcinkiewicz, C; Gindzieński, A

    1996-01-01

    Some plants were used for a long time in folk medicine as sources of anti-tumour remedies. Their effects on protein biosynthesis in vitro have been examined and described. The separate features of the peptide elongation system, isolated from tumoural cells, have been demonstrated. Some elongation factors or ribosomes have been shown to be a target site for the inhibition of protein biosynthesis caused by the substances isolated from various sources. The glycoside and caffeic acid, isolated from Melissa officinalis leaves, inhibited protein biosynthesis by direct influence the elongation factor eEF-2. The activity of this factor was also inhibited by aloin and aloeemodin. Saponin glycoside and its aglycon, isolated from Verbascum thapsiforme flowers, as well as digoxin, emetine and cepheline directly inactivated ribosomes. "Chagi" fraction, isolated from Inonotus obliquus, is responsible for the inhibitory effect caused by the aqueous tannin--less extract from this fungus. The target site for quercetin has been found to be the subunit form EF-1 alpha. It may be supposed that, the plant inhibitors of protein biosynthesis could be utilized for searching specific antitumoural preparations.

  7. A cellular model for sporadic ALS using patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, Matthew F; Martinez, Fernando J; Wright, Sarah; Ramos, Carla; Volfson, Dmitri; Mason, Michael; Garnes, Jeff; Dang, Vu; Lievers, Jeffery; Shoukat-Mumtaz, Uzma; Martinez, Rita; Gai, Hui; Blake, Robert; Vaisberg, Eugeni; Grskovic, Marica; Johnson, Charles; Irion, Stefan; Bright, Jessica; Cooper, Bonnie; Nguyen, Leane; Griswold-Prenner, Irene; Javaherian, Ashkan

    2016-01-01

    Development of therapeutics for genetically complex neurodegenerative diseases such as sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has largely been hampered by lack of relevant disease models. Reprogramming of sporadic ALS patients’ fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and differentiation into affected neurons that show a disease phenotype could provide a cellular model for disease mechanism studies and drug discovery. Here we report the reprogramming to pluripotency of fibroblasts from a large cohort of healthy controls and ALS patients and their differentiation into motor neurons. We demonstrate that motor neurons derived from three sALS patients show de novo TDP-43 aggregation and that the aggregates recapitulate pathology in postmortem tissue from one of the same patients from which the iPSC were derived. We configured a high-content chemical screen using the TDP-43 aggregate endpoint both in lower motor neurons and upper motor neuron like cells and identified FDA-approved small molecule modulators including Digoxin demonstrating the feasibility of patient-derived iPSC-based disease modelling for drug screening. PMID:23891805

  8. Plant-derived cardiac glycosides: Role in heart ailments and cancer management.

    PubMed

    Patel, Seema

    2016-12-01

    Cardiac glycosides, the cardiotonic steroids such as digitalis have been in use as heart ailment remedy since ages. They manipulate the renin-angiotensin axis to improve cardiac output. However; their safety and efficacy have come under scrutiny in recent times, as poisoning and accidental mortalities have been observed. In order to better understand and exploit them as cardiac ionotropes, studies are being pursued using different cardiac glycosides such as digitoxin, digoxin, ouabain, oleandrin etc. Several cardiac glycosides as peruvoside have shown promise in cancer control, especially ovary cancer and leukemia. Functional variability of these glycosides has revealed that not all cardiac glycosides are alike. Apart from their specific affinity to sodium-potassium ATPase, their therapeutic dosage and behavior in poly-morbidity conditions needs to be considered. This review presents a concise account of the key findings in recent years with adequate elaboration of the mechanisms. This compilation is expected to contribute towards management of cardiac, cancer, even viral ailments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiplex DNA detection of food allergens on a digital versatile disk.

    PubMed

    Tortajada-Genaro, Luis A; Santiago-Felipe, Sara; Morais, Sergi; Gabaldón, José Antonio; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Ángel

    2012-01-11

    The development of a DNA microarray method on a digital versatile disk (DVD) is described for the simultaneous detection of traces of hazelnut ( Corylus avellana L.), peanut ( Arachis hypogaea ), and soybean ( Glycine max ) in foods. After DNA extraction, multiplex PCR was set up using 5'-labeled specific primers for Cor a 1, Ar h 2, and Le genes, respectively. Digoxin-labeled PCR products were detected by hybridization with 5'-biotinylated probes immobilized on a streptavidin-modified DVD surface. The reaction product attenuates the signal intensity of the laser that reached the DVD drive used as detector, correlating well with the amount of amplified sequence. Analytical performances showed a detection limit of 1 μg/g and good assay reproducibility (RSD 8%), suitable for the simultaneous detection of the three targeted allergens. The developed methodology was tested with several commercially available foodstuffs, demonstrating its applicability. The results were in good agreement, in terms of sensitivity and reproducibility, with those obtained with ELISA, PCR-gel agarose electrophoresis, and RT-PCR.

  10. Effect of the mutation (C3435T) at exon 26 of the MDR1 gene on expression level of MDR1 messenger ribonucleic acid in duodenal enterocytes of healthy Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tsutomu; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki; Horinouchi, Masanori; Tamura, Takao; Aoyama, Nobuo; Shirakawa, Toshiro; Matsuo, Masafumi; Kasuga, Masato; Okumura, Katsuhiko

    2002-04-01

    The effect of the C3435T mutation at exon 26 of the MDR1 gene on the expression levels of MDR1 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was evaluated by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction in 51 biopsy specimens of duodenum obtained from 13 healthy Japanese subjects. The mRNA levels of MDR1 were 0.38 +/- 0.15, 0.56 +/- 0.14, and 1.13 +/- 0.42 (mean value +/- SE) in the subjects with the homozygote of wild-type allele (C/C), compound heterozygote with mutant T allele (C/T), and the homozygote of the mutant allele (T/T), respectively, reasonably explaining the lower digoxin serum concentration after administration of a single oral dose to subjects harboring a mutant T allele. Good correlation (r =.797; P <.01) was observed between the mRNA concentrations of MDR1 and CYP3A4 in the individual biopsy specimens. This finding suggested a lower plasma concentration of the substrates for CYP3A4 in subjects harboring the C3435T mutation of the MDR1 gene.

  11. Diuretics for heart failure.

    PubMed

    Faris, Rajaa F; Flather, Marcus; Purcell, Henry; Poole-Wilson, Philip A; Coats, Andrew J S

    2012-02-15

    Chronic heart failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diuretics are regarded as the first-line treatment for patients with congestive heart failure since they provide symptomatic relief. The effects of diuretics on disease progression and survival remain unclear. To assess the harms and benefits of diuretics for chronic heart failure Updated searches were run in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials in The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL Issue 1 of 4, 2011), MEDLINE (1966 to 22 February 2011), EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 07) and HERDIN database (1990 to February 2011). We hand searched pertinent journals and reference lists of papers were inspected. We also contacted manufacturers and researchers in the field. No language restrictions were applied. Double-blinded randomised controlled trials of diuretic therapy comparing one diuretic with placebo, or one diuretic with another active agent (e.g. ACE inhibitors, digoxin) in patients with chronic heart failure. Two authors independently abstracted the data and assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of each trial. Extracted data were analysed by determining the odds ratio for dichotomous data, and difference in means for continuous data, of the treated group compared with controls. The likelihood of heterogeneity of the study population was assessed by the Chi-square test. If there was no evidence of statistical heterogeneity and pooling of results was clinically appropriate, a combined estimate was obtained using the fixed-effects model. This update has not identified any new studies for inclusion. The review includes 14 trials (525 participants), 7 were placebo-controlled, and 7 compared diuretics against other agents such as ACE inhibitors or digoxin. We analysed the data for mortality and for worsening heart failure. Mortality data were available in 3 of the placebo-controlled trials (202 participants). Mortality was lower for participants treated with diuretics than for

  12. A Pharmacogenetics-Based Warfarin Maintenance Dosing Algorithm from Northern Chinese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Fang; Wang, Jin'e; Shi, Yi; Tan, Yu; Chen, Qianlong; Zhang, Yu; Hui, Rutai; Wang, Yibo

    2014-01-01

    Inconsistent associations with warfarin dose were observed in genetic variants except VKORC1 haplotype and CYP2C9*3 in Chinese people, and few studies on warfarin dose algorithm was performed in a large Chinese Han population lived in Northern China. Of 787 consenting patients with heart-valve replacements who were receiving long-term warfarin maintenance therapy, 20 related Single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped. Only VKORC1 and CYP2C9 SNPs were observed to be significantly associated with warfarin dose. In the derivation cohort (n = 551), warfarin dose variability was influenced, in decreasing order, by VKORC1 rs7294 (27.3%), CYP2C9*3(7.0%), body surface area(4.2%), age(2.7%), target INR(1.4%), CYP4F2 rs2108622 (0.7%), amiodarone use(0.6%), diabetes mellitus(0.6%), and digoxin use(0.5%), which account for 45.1% of the warfarin dose variability. In the validation cohort (n = 236), the actual maintenance dose was significantly correlated with predicted dose (r = 0.609, P<0.001). Our algorithm could improve the personalized management of warfarin use in Northern Chinese patients. PMID:25126975

  13. American Heart Association Principles on the Accessibility and Affordability of Drugs and Biologics: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Antman, Elliott M; Creager, Mark A; Houser, Steven R; Warner, John J; Konig, Madeleine

    2017-12-12

    Net US spending on pharmaceuticals reached $309.5 billion in 2015, an 8.5% increase from the year before, and is expected to reach between $370 and $400 billion by 2020. These current and projected levels have raised serious concerns by policy makers, providers, payers, and patient groups that they are unsustainable and threaten the affordability of and accessibility to much-needed therapies for patients. Two trends related to drugs/biologics and generic drugs/biosimilars underlie this overall increase in spending. First, the market entry prices of innovator pharmaceutical products, or brand drugs and biologics, are at levels that some assessments consider unaffordable to the healthcare system. Second, prices for some established generic drugs such as digoxin and captopril have seen sharp and rapid increases. As an evidence-based patient advocacy organization dedicated to improving the cardiovascular health of all Americans, the American Heart Association has a unique role in advocating for treatments, including medicines that are available, affordable, and accessible to patients. This advisory serves to lay out a set of principles that will guide association engagement in pursuit of this goal. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Important drug-nutrient interactions.

    PubMed

    Mason, Pamela

    2010-11-01

    Drugs have the potential to interact with nutrients potentially leading to reduced therapeutic efficacy of the drug, nutritional risk or increased adverse effects of the drug. Despite significant interest in such interactions going back to over more than 40 years, the occurrence and clinical significance of many drug-nutrient interactions remains unclear. However, interactions involving drugs with a narrow therapeutic margin such as theophylline and digoxin and those that require careful blood monitoring such as warfarin are likely to be those of clinical significance. Drugs can affect nutrition as a result of changes in appetite and taste as well as having an influence on absorption or metabolism of nutrients. Moreover, foods and supplements can also interact with drugs, of which grapefruit juice and St John's wort are key examples. Significant numbers of people take both supplements and medication and are potentially at risk from interactions. Professionals, such as pharmacists, dietitians, nurses and doctors, responsible for the care of patients should therefore check whether supplements are being taken, while for researchers this is an area worthy of significant further study, particularly in the context of increasingly complex drug regimens and the plethora of new drugs.

  15. Availability of antidotes and key emergency drugs in tertiary care hospitals of Punjab and assessment of the knowledge of health care professionals in the management of poisoning cases.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Naheed; Khiljee, Sonia; Bakhsh, Allah; Ashraf, Muhammad; Maqsood, Iram

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the availability of antidotes/key emergency drugs in tertiary care hospitals of the Punjab province, and to assess the knowledge of health care professionals in the stocking and administration of antidotes in the proper management of poisoning cases. Seventeen (n=17) tertiary care hospitals of Punjab Pakistan were selected. Two performas (A and B) were designed for 26 antidotes/key emergency drugs and given to the hospital pharmacists and physicians respectively. It was observed that Activated Charcoal, being the universal antidote was found only in 6 hospitals (41%). Digoxin Immune Fab, Edentate Calcium disodium and Glucagon were not available in emergency department of any hospital and even not included in the formulary of any hospital. About 80% pharmacists were aware of the method of preparation of Activated Charcoal and 85% physicians were familiar with its route of administration. Data showed that tertiary care hospitals of Punjab do not stock antidotes according to national drug policy. Moreover the study strongly suggests the development of health care centers and professional by organizing antidote awareness programs, continuous education and record keeping of poisonous cases and availability of emergency drugs around the clock.

  16. Do evacuated blood collection tubes interfere with therapeutic drug monitoring?

    PubMed

    Janknegt, R; Lohman, J J; Hooymans, P M; Merkus, F W

    1983-12-16

    The influence of various brands of evacuated blood collection systems (the old type, red stoppered Vacutainer; the new type, blue stoppered Vacutainer; Monoject and Venoject) on therapeutic drug monitoring was investigated. No interferences were found in the assay of ethosuximide, phenobarbital, phenytoin, valproic acid, digitoxin, digoxin, procainamide, gentamicin and theophylline. Using Monoject and old type Vacutainer tubes, lower levels were found in the disopyramide assay: 91.3 +/- 4.6% (p less than 0.05) and 91.7 +/- 7.0% (not significant) respectively, and in the quinidine assay: 82.8 +/- 6.7% (p less than 0.02) and 83.9 +/- 4.4% (p less than 0.001) respectively as compared with glass tubes. In the carbamazepine assay a decrease was found in the Monoject tubes only: 93.7 +/- 1.7% (p less than 0.01). The stoppers of Monoject tubes and the old type Vacutainer tubes contained the plasticizer tris-(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBEP), which has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of the binding of several drugs to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. Using the new type Vacutainer and the Venoject, no interferences were found.

  17. Altered erythrocyte Na-K pump in anorectic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquali, R.; Strocchi, E.; Malini, P.

    1985-07-01

    The status of the erythrocyte sodium pump was evaluated in a group of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa and a group of healthy female control subjects. Anorectic patients showed significantly higher mean values of digoxin-binding sites/cell (ie, the number of Na-K-ATPase units) with respect to control subjects while no differences were found in the specific /sup 86/Rb uptake (which reflects the Na-K-ATPase activity) between the two groups. A significant correlation was found between relative weight and the number of Na-K-ATPase pump units (r = -0.66; P less than 0.0001). Anorectic patients showed lower serum T3 concentrations (71.3 +/- 53 ng/dL)more » with respect to control subjects (100.8 +/- 4.7 ng/dL; P less than 0.0005) and a significant negative correlation between T3 levels and the number of pump units (r = -0.52; P less than 0.003) was found. This study therefore shows that the erythrocyte Na-K pump may be altered in several anorectic patients. The authors suggest that this feature could be interrelated with the degree of underweight and/or malnutrition.« less

  18. Antidysrhythmic agents at the turn of the twenty-first century: a current review.

    PubMed

    Haugh, Kathy Henley

    2002-03-01

    The use of class IA agents is gradually on the decline, primarily as a result of its unfavorable risk-to-benefit ratio. Lidocaine, a class IB agent, has been widely used in the acute treatment of VT. However, alternate drugs are being considered increasingly as first-line agents in the acute treatment of VT. Class IC drugs are contraindicated in patients with structural cardiac abnormalities and have a limited usefulness in the management of dysrhythmias. Beta-blockers continue to increase their role in cardiology, and subsequently their use in managing dysrhythmias. Class III agents, including amiodarone, sotalol, ibutilide, and dofetilide, are among the most widely used antidysrhythmics. Class IV calcium channel blockers have a limited usefulness in tachydysrhythmias. Digoxin and adenosine have unique antidysrhythmic properties and will likely retain their roles as antidysrhythmic agents. In the wake of the effectiveness of amiodarone, the drug that crosses all classes, some now question the benefit of pure agents that block a single, specific ion channel in the heart. After CAST8 demonstrated that antidysrhythmics can increase mortality while seemingly suppressing dysrhythmias, new drugs will continue to undergo intense scrutiny with regard to their efficacy, safety, and usefulness in treating dysrhythmias.

  19. A 58-Year-Old Man With Fatigue, Weight Loss, and Diffuse Miliary Pulmonary Opacities.

    PubMed

    Chaddha, Udit; English, Rebekah; Daniels, Jessica; Walia, Rajat; Mehta, Atul C; Panchabhai, Tanmay S

    2017-06-01

    A 58-year-old man presented with a 6-month history of profound fatigue and a weight loss of 35 to 40 pounds. He reported occasional night sweats and mildly painful knees and elbows without swelling or redness. He denied respiratory symptoms, rashes, or fevers. He had no respiratory symptoms. The patient's history was significant for rheumatoid arthritis (with arthralgias and joint involvement), paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, and hypothyroidism. His medications included digoxin and metoprolol. He had been taking methotrexate and low-dose prednisone (5 mg) for approximately 10 years but discontinued taking these medications 2 years prior to current presentation. Originally from West Virginia, the patient had relocated to Arizona during the early 1980s. There was no history of international travel or TB. He had no exposure history to birds, bird feathers, or mold; however, he did report exposure to dust at his current job as a home building superintendent. He reported a 10 pack-year history of smoking, having quit 20 years ago. His family history was significant for renal sarcoidosis in his mother. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prognostic factors in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Le Conte, P; Coutant, V; N'Guyen, J M; Baron, D; Touze, M D; Potel, G

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical and biological findings at admission in the Department of Emergency Medicine associated with a poor prognosis, and to evaluate early response to treatment as a prognostic factor. It was a prospective cohort study with a 5-month follow-up. One hundred eighty-six patients admitted for acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema were included. Features were analyzed at the admission and on response to initial treatment. The main outcome measure was survival at 2 end-points: hospital discharge, and 5 months of follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed that in-hospital mortality was associated with marbleization (mottling) odd-ratio (OR) = 9.0), low diuresis (OR = 4.0), high breath rate 6 hours after admission (OR = 4.0), and chronic digoxin use (OR = 3.39). Five-month mortality was associated with a bedridden state (OR = 9.0), marbleization (mottling) (OR = 5.5), myocardial infarction (OR = 3), and poor early response to initial treatment (OR = 3.2). In addition to well-known factors, the response to initial treatment evaluated 6 hours after admission was a major determinant of outcome.

  1. Interaction of digitalis-like compounds with liver uptake transporters NTCP, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3.

    PubMed

    Gozalpour, Elnaz; Greupink, Rick; Wortelboer, Heleen M; Bilos, Albert; Schreurs, Marieke; Russel, Frans G M; Koenderink, Jan B

    2014-06-02

    Digitalis-like compounds (DLCs) such as digoxin, digitoxin, and ouabain, also known as cardiac glycosides, are among the oldest pharmacological treatments for heart failure. The compounds have a narrow therapeutic window, while at the same time, DLC pharmacokinetics is prone to drug-drug interactions at the transport level. Hepatic transporters organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1, OATP1B3, and Na(+)-dependent taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) influence the disposition of a variety of drugs by mediating their uptake from blood into hepatocytes. The interaction of digoxin, digitoxin, and ouabain with hepatic uptake transporters has been studied before. However, here, we systematically investigated a much wider range of structurally related DLCs for their capability to inhibit or to be transported by these transporters in order to better understand the relation between the activity and chemical structure of this compound type. We studied the uptake and inhibitory potency of a series of 14 structurally related DLCs in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing NTCP (CHO-NTCP) and human embryonic kidney cells expressing OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 (HEK-OATP1B1 and HEK-OATP1B3). The inhibitory effect of the DLCs was measured against taurocholic acid (TCA) uptake in CHO-NTCP cells and against uptake of β-estradiol 17-β-d-glucuronide (E217βG) in HEK-OATP1B1 and HEK-OATP1B3 cells. Proscillaridin A was the most effective inhibitor of NTCP-mediated TCA transport (IC50 = 22 μM), whereas digitoxin and digitoxigenin were the most potent inhibitors of OATP1B1 and OAPTP1B3, with IC50 values of 14.2 and 36 μM, respectively. Additionally, we found that the sugar moiety and hydroxyl groups of the DLCs play different roles in their interaction with NTCP, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3. The sugar moiety decreases the inhibition of NTCP and OATP1B3 transport activity, whereas it enhances the inhibitory potency against OATP1B1. Moreover, the hydroxyl group at position 12

  2. Clinical Presentation, Predictors, and Outcomes Among Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist (MRA)-Eligible Acute Heart Failure Patients in the Heart Function Assessment Registry Trial in Saudi Arabia (HEARTS).

    PubMed

    AlShamiri, Mostafa Q; AlHabib, Khalid F; AlHabeeb, Waleed; Raslan, Ismail R; Ullah, Anhar; Elasfar, Abdelfatah A; Alshaer, Fayez; Albackr, Hanan; Mimish, Layth; Almasood, Ali; AlGhamdi, Saleh; Ghabashi, Abdullah

    2018-04-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) therapy is indicated after myocardial infarction in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) with an ejection fraction ≤40% and lacking contraindications. We analyzed clinical presentations, predictors, and outcomes of MRA-eligible patients within a prospective registry of patients with AHF from 18 hospitals in Saudi Arabia, from 2009 to 2010. For this subgroup, mortality rates were followed until 2013, and the clinical characteristics, management, predictors, and outcomes were compared between MRA-treated and non-MRA-treated patients. Of 2609 patients with AHF, 387 (14.8%) were MRA eligible, of which 146 (37.7%) were prescribed MRAs. Compared with non-MRA-treated patients, those prescribed MRAs more commonly exhibited non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, acute on chronic heart failure, past history of ischemic heart disease, and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction; were more commonly administered oral furosemide and digoxin; and had higher in-hospital recurrent congestive HF rates. Mortality did not significantly differ ( P > .05) between groups. In Saudi Arabia, 37.7% of eligible patients received MRA treatment, which is higher than that in developed countries. The lack of long-term survival benefit raises concerns about systematic problems, for example, proper follow-up and management after hospital discharge, warranting further investigation.

  3. [The experimental study of guinea pig cytomegalovirus infection in the kidney of the pup of guinea pig].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-rong; Chen, Su-hua; Liu, Hai-zhi; Xiong, Jin-wen; Ling, Xia-zhen

    2004-02-01

    To study the relationship of guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) infection with the outcome of pregnancy by the kidney of guinea pig (GP). Twenty first-trimester gestation GPs were randomly selected, intraperitoneally inoculated with GPCMV. Then female GPs and the pups were killed within 24 h after delivery. By in situ hybridization (ISH) with three phases GPCMV late-mRNA probes labeled by digoxin, the virus load and its distribution were screened inside the pup's kidney. Twenty GPs totally conceived 63 pups. Among them, 42 had normal outcome and lived longer than 24 h; 21 had abnormal outcome such as abortion, fetal death, et al. By in situ hybridization, the infection rate of normal pups was 7.1% (3/42) and the average optical density (A) was 0.105 +/- 0.052. The infection rate of abnormal pups was 28. 6% (6/21) and the A was 0.158 +/- 0.047. The difference of the A was significant (t = 2.57, P < 0.05). The positive signal of ISH was mainly distributed in the epithelium of renal tubule and collecting duct. It is concluded that the late-mRNA mainly expressed in the epithelium of renal tubule and collecting duct and the expression level was related with the abnormal pregnancy outcome.

  4. Clinical Drug-Drug Interaction Potential of BFE1224, Prodrug of Antifungal Ravuconazole, Using Two Types of Cocktails in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yasuyuki; Ito, Yuko; Matsuki, Shunji; Sanpei, Kasumi; Ogawa, Osamu; Takeda, Kenji; Schuck, Edgar L; Uemura, Naoto

    2018-05-16

    BFE1224, prodrug of ravuconazole, is a novel, once-daily, oral, triazole antifungal drug, and currently in development for the treatment of onychomycosis. The clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential of BFE1224 with cytochrome P450 (CYP) and transporter was assessed by using two types of cocktails in healthy subjects in separate clinical studies. The CYP and transporter cocktails consisted of caffeine/tolbutamide/omeprazole/dextromethorphan/midazolam used in study 1 and digoxin/rosuvastatin used in study 2. In addition, repaglinide was separately administered to the same subjects in study 2. There were no major effects on the pharmacokinetics of CYP and transporter substrates, except for an approximate threefold increase in midazolam exposure after oral administration of BFE1224. The clinical DDIs of BFE1224 were mild for CYP3A and minor for other major CYPs (CYP1A2/2C8/2C9/2C19/2D6) as well as those of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1, and OATP1B3. © 2018 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  5. Herb-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Fugh-Berman, A

    2000-01-08

    Concurrent use of herbs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs. Plausible cases of herb-drug interactions include: bleeding when warfarin is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), garlic (Allium sativum), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), or danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza); mild serotonin syndrome in patients who mix St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) with serotonin-reuptake inhibitors; decreased bioavailability of digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporin, and phenprocoumon when these drugs are combined with St John's wort; induction of mania in depressed patients who mix antidepressants and Panax ginseng; exacerbation of extrapyramidal effects with neuroleptic drugs and betel nut (Areca catechu); increased risk of hypertension when tricyclic antidepressants are combined with yohimbine (Pausinystalia yohimbe); potentiation of oral and topical corticosteroids by liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra); decreased blood concentrations of prednisolone when taken with the Chinese herbal product xaio chai hu tang (sho-salko-to); and decreased concentrations of phenytoin when combined with the Ayurvedic syrup shankhapushpi. Anthranoid-containing plants (including senna [Cassia senna] and cascara [Rhamnus purshiana]) and soluble fibres (including guar gum and psyllium) can decrease the absorption of drugs. Many reports of herb-drug interactions are sketchy and lack laboratory analysis of suspect preparations. Health-care practitioners should caution patients against mixing herbs and pharmaceutical drugs.

  6. Immediate and delayed allergic reactions to Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) antivenom.

    PubMed

    Clark, Richard F; McKinney, Patrick E; Chase, Peter B; Walter, Frank G

    2002-06-01

    Allergic reactions are the most commonly reported adverse events after administration of antivenoms. Conventional horse serum-based crotalid antivenom used in the United States (Antivenin [Crotalidae] polyvalent) can lead to both immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions. Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) (CroFab; FabAV) has recently been approved for use in the United States. Experience from premarketing trials of this product and in the administration of other types of Fab, such as in digoxin poisoning, has demonstrated these fragments to be safe and effective, with a low incidence of sequella; however, allergic reactions can occur when any animal-protein derivatives are administered to human subjects. We report in detail the nature and course of allergic reactions that occurred in 4 patients treated with FabAV. Cases of anaphylaxis, acute urticaria, angioedema, and delayed serum sickness are described. All reactions were easily treated with some combination of antihistamines, epinephrine, and steroids, with prompt resolution of signs and symptoms enabling further dosing of antivenom as required. Several of these cases may have resulted from batches of antivenom contaminated with Fc fragments. The overall incidence of immediate and delayed allergic reactions to this product appears so far to be lower than that reported with conventional whole-immunoglobulin G (IgG) antivenom, but postmarketing surveillance is warranted.

  7. Characteristics and determinants of adult patients with acute poisoning attending the accident and emergency department of a teaching hospital in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Khudair, I F; Jassim, Z; Hanssens, Y; Alsaad, W A

    2013-09-01

    Data about etiologic and demographic characteristics of acute poisoning in adults in Qatar are lacking. This prospective observational study was undertaken to analyze characteristics and possible determinants of acute poisoning in adults in Qatar. During 2010, 18,073 patients attended the emergency department of Hamad General Hospital, a teaching hospital in Qatar. Out of them, 599 (3.3%) patients were diagnosed as "poisoning case" with either chemical or pharmaceutical substances. The prevalence rate of poisoning incidence was 35.3/100,000 population. Seven patients died, corresponding with a case-fatality rate of 0.39/1000. The majority were male (65%) and the mean age was 34 years. The poisons involved were mainly chemicals (61.6%) and pharmaceuticals (38.4%). Female, mainly single, suffered more intentional poisoning compared to male. Of the patients aged 60 years and above (7.2%), the majority (95.3%) suffered unintentional poisoning with pharmaceuticals; 56% with warfarin, 12% with digoxin and 7% with insulin. Multivariate analysis shows that female gender, single status, younger than 35 years of age, being poisoned by pharmaceutical products, and the need for hospitalization are significant determinants for acute intentional poisoning after adjusting all other possible covariates. The findings of this study can be used to establish awareness and prophylactic campaigns in Qatar.

  8. Hyperforin in St. John's wort drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Madabushi, Rajanikanth; Frank, Bruno; Drewelow, Bernd; Derendorf, Hartmut; Butterweck, Veronika

    2006-03-01

    Recently, interactions of herbal medicines with synthetic drugs came into focus of particular interest. In the past 3 years, more than 50 papers were published regarding interactions between St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.; SJW) and prescription drugs. Co-medication with SJW resulted in decreased plasma concentrations of a number of drugs including amitriptyline, cyclosporine, digoxin, indinavir, irinotecan, warfarin, phenprocoumon, alprazolam, dextrometorphane, simvastatin, and oral contraceptives. Sufficient evidence from interaction studies and case reports indicate that SJW is a potent inducer of cytochrome P450 enzymes (particularly CYP3A4) and/or P-glycoprotein. Recent studies could show that the degree of enzyme induction by SJW correlates strongly with the amount of hyperforin found in the product. Products that do not contain substantial amounts of hyperforin (<1%) have not been shown to produce clinically relevant enzyme induction. On the other hand, some evidence suggests that hyperforin may also contribute to the antidepressant activity of SJW. However, clinical studies using SJW preparations with a low hyperforin amount (<1%) clearly demonstrated the superiority of this plant extract over placebo and its equivalence to imipramine and fluoxetine in the treatment of mild to moderate forms of depression. In the present paper clinical significant SJW interactions are critically evaluated against the background of hyperforin.

  9. Use of plasma proteins as solubilizing agents in in vitro permeability experiments: correction for unbound drug concentration using the reciprocal permeability approach.

    PubMed

    Katneni, Kasiram; Charman, Susan A; Porter, Christopher J H

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the applicability of the reciprocal permeability approach to correct for changes in thermodynamic activity when in vitro permeability data are generated in the presence of plasma proteins. Diazepam (DIA), digoxin (DIG), and propranolol (PRO) permeability was assessed in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AAG). The reciprocal permeability approach was subsequently employed to calculate the true permeability coefficient (Papp(corr)) and the operational protein association constant (nK(a)). For BSA binding, good agreement was observed between the Papp(corr) values and Papp values obtained in the absence of protein. For PRO and AAG, where binding affinity was high, deviation in the reciprocal permeability plots was evident suggesting ligand depletion at low drug/high protein concentrations. Bidirectional DIG permeability data in the presence of either BSA or AAG indicated that neither protein had an effect on the efflux transporters involved in DIG permeability. The data suggest that plasma proteins can be utilized in permeability experiments with no adverse effects on transporter function and that the reciprocal permeability approach can be used to correct permeability data for changes in unbound drug concentration. c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Thrombo-embolectomy and thrombolytic therapy in acute lower limb ischaemia. A five year experience.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Ackroyd, R; Lees, T; Morris-Jones, W; Gaines, P; Beard, J D

    1996-03-01

    Between 1988 and 1993, 82 patients with a median age (iq range) of 81 (73-87) years underwent thrombo-embolectomy (TE) and thrombolysis for acute lower limb ischaemia at the Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield. 28 patients (Group 1) underwent TE prior to the introduction of thrombolysis in 1991. TE with intraoperative thrombolysis (IT) as an adjunct was performed in 34 patients (Group 2) and 20 patients (Group 3) were treated using percutaneous thrombolysis (PT) in the first instance. 41 of these patients were in AF at presentation. Although 24 were on digoxin, only 4 were on warfarin. Group 3 patients were younger (p < 0.05; ANOVA) with a longer duration of ischaemia (p < 0.05; ANOVA) and had less limbs suffering a sensorimotor deficit (p = 0.007; chi 2) compared with Groups 1 and 2 which were similar in these respects. Overall mortality was 17%. Successful revascularisation was achieved in 18 (64%), 28 (82%) and 15 (75%) patients in Groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively. 14 of the 15 patients successfully treated initially by PT required further intervention in order to maintain revascularisation. Revascularisation failure was associated with the presence of a sensorimotor deficit but not associated with patient age or duration of ischaemia.

  11. Treatment of Children with Protein – Losing Enteropathy After Fontan and Other Complex Congenital Heart Disease Procedures in Condition with Limited Human and Technical Resources

    PubMed Central

    Bejiqi, Ramush; Retkoceri, Ragip; Zeka, Naim; Bejiqi, Hana; Vuqiterna, Armend; Maloku, Arlinda

    2014-01-01

    at the time of diagnosis are: abnormal enteric protein loss was documented at the time of diagnosis in all 18 patients. At the time of diagnosis all patients receiving some form of anticoagulation, 17 patients receiving other medication: 17 – diuretics and ACE inhibitors, 12 digoxin, 9 antiarrhytmics. Cross-sectional echocardiography was performed for all patients and different abnormalities were registered. In 14 patients also magnetic resonance was performed. Therapeutic approach was based on the non-specific medication (diet, diuretics, digoxin, ACE inhibitors, and anticoagulants), heparin and corticosteroids therapy. Long-term response to this type of therapy was registered in three patients. Nine patients underwent treatment with heparin and corticosteroids and no one experienced long term benefit. Despite of needs for catheter therapy or surgical intervention in our study, in the absent of technical and human resources now any one had underwent those procedures. Six patients has been transferred abroad and in five of them surgical intervention was perform. Conclusion Protein-losing enteropathy remains a devastating complication of Fontan procedure and despite in advantages in surgical and medical therapy there is no evidence that protein-losing enteropathy is less common in the current area. PMID:24757400

  12. [Blue-light induced expression of S-adenosy-L-homocysteine hydrolase-like gene in Mucor amphibiorum RCS1].

    PubMed

    Gao, Ya; Wang, Shu; Fu, Mingjia; Zhong, Guolin

    2013-09-04

    To determine blue-light induced expression of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase-like (sahhl) gene in fungus Mucor amphibiorum RCS1. In the random process of PCR, a sequence of 555 bp was obtained from M. amphibiorum RCS1. The 555 bp sequence was labeled with digoxin to prepare the probe for northern hybridization. By northern hybridization, the transcription of sahhl gene was analyzed in M. amphibiorum RCS1 mycelia culture process from darkness to blue light to darkness. Simultaneously real-time PCR method was used to the sahhl gene expression analysis. Compared with the sequence of sahh gene from Homo sapiens, Mus musculus and some fungi species, a high homology of the 555 bp sequence was confirmed. Therefore, the preliminary confirmation has supported that the 555 bp sequence should be sahhl gene from M. amphibiorum RCS1. Under the dark pre-culture in 24 h, a large amounts of transcript of sahhl gene in the mycelia can be detected by northern hybridization and real-time PCR in the condition of 24 h blue light. But a large amounts of transcript of sahhl gene were not found in other detection for the dark pre-culture of 48 h, even though M. amphibiorum RCS1 mycelia were induced by blue light. Blue light can induce the expression of sahhl gene in the vigorous growth of M. amphibiorum RCS1 mycelia.

  13. Identifying high-risk medication: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Saedder, Eva A; Brock, Birgitte; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Bonnerup, Dorthe K; Lisby, Marianne

    2014-06-01

    A medication error (ME) is an error that causes damage or poses a threat of harm to a patient. Several studies have shown that only a minority of MEs actually causes harm, and this might explain why medication reviews at hospital admission reduce the number of MEs without showing an effect on length of hospital stay, readmissions, or death. The purpose of this study was to define drugs that actually cause serious MEs. We conducted a literature search of medication reviews and other preventive efforts. A systematic search in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Reviews, Psycinfo, and SweMed+ was performed. Danish databases containing published patient complaints, patient compensation, and reported medication errors were also searched. Articles and case reports were included if they contained information of an ME causing a serious adverse reaction (AR) in a patient. Information concerning AR seriousness, causality, and preventability was required for inclusion. This systematic literature review revealed that 47 % of all serious MEs were caused by seven drugs or drug classes: methotrexate, warfarin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), digoxin, opioids, acetylic salicylic acid, and beta-blockers; 30 drugs or drug classes caused 82 % of all serious MEs. The top ten drugs involved in fatal events accounted for 73 % of all drugs identified. Increasing focus on seven drugs/drug classes can potentially reduce hospitalizations, extended hospitalizations, disability, life-threatening conditions, and death by almost 50 %.

  14. Ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry determination of eight bioactive components of Kai-Xin-San in rat plasma and its application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in normal and Alzheimer's disease rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaotong; Zhang, Yue; Niu, Huibin; Geng, Yajing; Wang, Bing; Yang, Xiaomei; Yan, Pengyu; Li, Qing; Bi, Kaishun

    2017-05-01

    A method of ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of eight bioactive components, including polygalaxanthone III, sibiricaxanthone B, tenuifolin, sibiricose A5, sibiricose A6, tenuifoliside A, ginsenoside Re and ginsenoside Rb1 in rat plasma after oral administration of Kai-Xin-San. The plasma samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using digoxin as an internal standard. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Venusil MP C 18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 3 μm) with methanol and 0.05% acetic acid in water as mobile phase. The tandem mass spectrometric detection was performed in the multiple reaction monitoring with turbo ion spray source in the negative ionization. Validation parameters were within acceptable ranges. The established method has been successfully applied to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of the analytes between normal and Alzheimer's disease rats. The results indicated that there were significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters of some components between two groups, which may be due to the mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease and pharmacological effects of the analytes. The pharmacokinetic research in the pathological state might provide more useful information to guide the clinical usage of herbal medicine. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Canine dilated cardiomyopathy: a retrospective study of prognostic findings in 367 clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Martin, M W S; Stafford Johnson, M J; Strehlau, G; King, J N

    2010-08-01

    To review the association between clinical signs and diagnostic findings and the survival time of dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and any influence of treatment prescribed. A retrospective observational study of 367 dogs with DCM. Survival times until death or euthanasia for cardiac reasons were analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method plus univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Two-tailed P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. In the multivariate model, left ventricular diameter (LVDs)-index (P=0.0067), presence of pulmonary oedema on radiography (P=0.043), presence of ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) (P=0.0012), higher plasma creatinine (P=0.0002), lower plasma protein (P=0.029) and great Dane breed (P=0.0003) were negatively associated with survival. Most dogs were treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (93%) or furosemide (86%), and many received digoxin (50%) and/or pimobendan (30%). Thirteen dogs were lost to follow-up. No conclusions could be made in this study on the association between use of drugs and survival. The LVDs-index was the single best variable for assessing the prognosis in this group of dogs with DCM. Other variables that were negatively associated with survival were presence of pulmonary oedema on radiography, presence of VPCs, higher plasma creatinine, lower plasma protein and great Dane breed.

  16. The role of turmerones on curcumin transportation and P-glycoprotein activities in intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yue, Grace G L; Cheng, Sau-Wan; Yu, Hua; Xu, Zi-Sheng; Lee, Julia K M; Hon, Po-Ming; Lee, Mavis Y H; Kennelly, Edward J; Deng, Gary; Yeung, Simon K; Cassileth, Barrie R; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Lau, Clara B S

    2012-03-01

    The rhizome of Curcuma longa (turmeric) is often used in Asia as a spice and as a medicine. Its most well-studied component, curcumin, has been shown to exhibit poor bioavailability in animal studies and clinical trials. We hypothesized that the presence of lipophilic components (e.g., turmerones) in turmeric extract would affect the absorption of curcumin. The effects of turmerones on curcumin transport were evaluated in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. The roles of turmerones on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activities and mRNA expression were also evaluated. Results showed that in the presence of α- and aromatic turmerones, the amount of curcumin transported into the Caco-2 cells in 2 hours was significantly increased. α-Turmerone and verapamil (a P-gp inhibitor) significantly inhibited the efflux of rhodamine-123 and digoxin (i.e., inhibited the activity of P-gp). It is interesting that aromatic turmerone significantly increased the rhodamine-123 efflux and P-gp (MDR1 gene) mRNA expression levels. The effects of α- and aromatic turmerones on curcumin transport as well as P-gp activities were shown here for the first time. The presence of turmerones did affect the absorption of curcumin in vitro. These findings suggest the potential use of turmeric extract (including curcumin and turmerones), rather than curcumin alone, for treating diseases.

  17. Evaluation of P-Glycoprotein Inhibitory Potential Using a Rhodamine 123 Accumulation Assay

    PubMed Central

    Jouan, Elodie; Le Vée, Marc; Mayati, Abdullah; Denizot, Claire; Parmentier, Yannick; Fardel, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    In vitro evaluation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitory potential is now a regulatory issue during drug development, in order to predict clinical inhibition of P-gp and subsequent drug–drug interactions. Assays for this purpose, commonly based on P-gp-expressing cell lines and digoxin as a reference P-gp substrate probe, unfortunately exhibit high variability, raising thus the question of developing alternative or complementary tests for measuring inhibition of P-gp activity. In this context, the present study was designed to investigate the use of the fluorescent dye rhodamine 123 as a reference P-gp substrate probe for characterizing P-gp inhibitory potential of 16 structurally-unrelated drugs known to interact with P-gp. 14/16 of these P-gp inhibitors were found to increase rhodamine 123 accumulation in P-gp-overexpressing MCF7R cells, thus allowing the determination of their P-gp inhibitory potential, i.e., their half maximal inhibitor concentration (IC50) value towards P-gp-mediated transport of the dye. These IC50 values were in the range of variability of previously reported IC50 for P-gp and can be used for the prediction of clinical P-gp inhibition according to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) criteria, with notable sensitivity (80%). Therefore, the data demonstrated the feasibility of the use of rhodamine 123 for evaluating the P-gp inhibitory potential of drugs. PMID:27077878

  18. Heart failure across Asia: Same healthcare burden but differences in organization of care.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Eugenio B; Ha, Jong-Won; Firdaus, Isman; Ghazi, Azmee Mohd; Phrommintikul, Arintaya; Sim, David; Vu, Quynh Nga; Siu, Chung Wah; Yin, Wei-Hsian; Cowie, Martin R

    2016-11-15

    A gap in the knowledge on the status of heart failure (HF) in Asia versus other regions led to the creation of a working group of Asian experts from 9 countries or regions (Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam). Each expert sought the best available data from local publications, registries, or clinical practice. The prevalence of HF in Asia was generally similar to global values (1% to 3%), but with some outliers. There were substantial variations in healthcare spending, and the average cost of HF hospitalization varied from 813 US$ in Indonesia to nearly 9000 US$ in South Korea. Comorbidities were frequent, particularly hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Modifiable risk factors such as smoking were alarmingly common in some countries. Asian HF patients spent between 5 and 12.5days in hospital, and 3% to 15% were readmitted for HF by 30days. The pharmacological treatment of Asian patients generally followed international guidelines, including renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (61% to 90%), diuretics (76% to 99%), beta-blockers (32% to 78%), and digoxin (19% to 53%), with some room for improvement in terms of life-saving therapies. Our review supports implementation of a more comprehensive and organized approach to HF care in Asia. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Concurrent hyperthyroidism and papillary thyroid cancer: a fortuitous and ambiguous case report from a resource-poor setting.

    PubMed

    Kadia, Benjamin Momo; Dimala, Christian Akem; Bechem, Ndemazie Nkafu; Aroke, Desmond

    2016-07-26

    Concurrent thyroid cancer (TC) and hyperthyroidism (HT) is rare though increasingly being reported. HT due to TC is much rarer and more challenging especially in Africa where TC and HT have significant case fatality rates. We present a 37-year-old Cameroonian female who had been on irregular regimens of propranolol and digoxin as treatment for worsening palpitations for 12 months. She came to our district hospital for her propranolol medication refill. We fortuitously identified features of HT and found a left uninodular goiter with no cervical lymphadenopathy. She was referred for thyroid assessment which suggested primary HT and an enlarged heterogeneous left lobe with a well-defined homogenous solid mass. We restarted her on propranolol and referred her for a course of methimazole. At the referral hospital, she also underwent a left thyroid lobectomy. The resected lobe was sent for histopathology which revealed a neoplastic nodule with features suggestive of a papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) causing HT. The patient's clinical progress postoperatively was good and there was regression of hyperthyroid symptoms. The historical, clinical, and laboratory findings were suggestive of HT due to PTC. A high index of suspicion, prompt referral and counter-referral lead to a positive outcome of such a rare case in a resource poor setting. We advocate for systematic and careful evaluation of all thyroid nodules.

  20. Atrial fibrillation in healthy adolescents after highly caffeinated beverage consumption: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Energy drinks and highly caffeinated drinks comprise some of the fastest growing products of the beverage industry, often targeting teenagers and young adults. Cardiac arrhythmias in children related to high caffeine consumption have not been well described in the literature. This case series describes the possible association between the consumption of highly caffeinated drinks and the subsequent development of atrial fibrillation in the adolescent population. Case presentations We report the cases of two Caucasian adolescent boys of 14 and 16 years of age at the time of presentation, each without a significant cardiac history, who presented with palpitations or vague chest discomfort or both after a recent history of excessive caffeine consumption. Both were found to have atrial fibrillation on electrocardiogram; one patient required digoxin to restore a normal sinus rhythm, and the other self-converted after intravenous fluid administration. Conclusion With the increasing popularity of energy drinks in the pediatric and adolescent population, physicians should be aware of the arrhythmogenic potential associated with highly caffeinated beverage consumption. It is important for pediatricians to understand the lack of regulation in the caffeine content and other ingredients of these high-energy beverages and their complications so that parents and children can be educated about the risk of cardiac arrhythmias with excessive energy drink consumption. PMID:21247417

  1. A Zebrafish Heart Failure Model for Assessing Therapeutic Agents.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Yu; Wu, Si-Qi; Guo, Sheng-Ya; Yang, Hua; Xia, Bo; Li, Ping; Li, Chun-Qi

    2018-03-20

    Heart failure is a leading cause of death and the development of effective and safe therapeutic agents for heart failure has been proven challenging. In this study, taking advantage of larval zebrafish, we developed a zebrafish heart failure model for drug screening and efficacy assessment. Zebrafish at 2 dpf (days postfertilization) were treated with verapamil at a concentration of 200 μM for 30 min, which were determined as optimum conditions for model development. Tested drugs were administered into zebrafish either by direct soaking or circulation microinjection. After treatment, zebrafish were randomly selected and subjected to either visual observation and image acquisition or record videos under a Zebralab Blood Flow System. The therapeutic effects of drugs on zebrafish heart failure were quantified by calculating the efficiency of heart dilatation, venous congestion, cardiac output, and blood flow dynamics. All 8 human heart failure therapeutic drugs (LCZ696, digoxin, irbesartan, metoprolol, qiliqiangxin capsule, enalapril, shenmai injection, and hydrochlorothiazide) showed significant preventive and therapeutic effects on zebrafish heart failure (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, and p < 0.001) in the zebrafish model. The larval zebrafish heart failure model developed and validated in this study could be used for in vivo heart failure studies and for rapid screening and efficacy assessment of preventive and therapeutic drugs.

  2. The Role of Turmerones on Curcumin Transportation and P-Glycoprotein Activities in Intestinal Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Grace G.L.; Cheng, Sau-Wan; Yu, Hua; Xu, Zi-Sheng; Lee, Julia K.M.; Hon, Po-Ming; Lee, Mavis Y.H.; Kennelly, Edward J.; Deng, Gary; Yeung, Simon K.; Cassileth, Barrie R.; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The rhizome of Curcuma longa (turmeric) is often used in Asia as a spice and as a medicine. Its most well-studied component, curcumin, has been shown to exhibit poor bioavailability in animal studies and clinical trials. We hypothesized that the presence of lipophilic components (e.g., turmerones) in turmeric extract would affect the absorption of curcumin. The effects of turmerones on curcumin transport were evaluated in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. The roles of turmerones on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activities and mRNA expression were also evaluated. Results showed that in the presence of α- and aromatic turmerones, the amount of curcumin transported into the Caco-2 cells in 2 hours was significantly increased. α-Turmerone and verapamil (a P-gp inhibitor) significantly inhibited the efflux of rhodamine-123 and digoxin (i.e., inhibited the activity of P-gp). It is interesting that aromatic turmerone significantly increased the rhodamine-123 efflux and P-gp (MDR1 gene) mRNA expression levels. The effects of α- and aromatic turmerones on curcumin transport as well as P-gp activities were shown here for the first time. The presence of turmerones did affect the absorption of curcumin in vitro. These findings suggest the potential use of turmeric extract (including curcumin and turmerones), rather than curcumin alone, for treating diseases. PMID:22181075

  3. [Radiofrequency catheter ablation in children with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and sudden cardiac death who had been resuscitated].

    PubMed

    Benito Bartolomé, F; Sánchez Fernández-Bernal, C

    2001-04-01

    Sudden death may be the first manifestation of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, especially in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of radiofrequency catheter ablation in children with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome with aborted sudden death. We report four patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome who survived cardiac arrest. The patients were aged from 2.5 months to 16 years. The two first patients were lactating infants; in the first sudden death occurred during digoxin treatment for supraventricular tachycardia secondary to Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and in the second the syndrome was diagnosed after an episode of sudden death. In these patients a free wall accessory pathway (left posterior and left lateral, respectively) was successfully ablated using a transseptal approach. The third patient was diagnosed with asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome; sudden death occurred during exercise. In the fourth patient, sudden death occurred after intravenous therapy with adenosine triphosphate and amiodarone for rapid atrial fibrillation. In both patients, one accessory pathway, located in right posteroseptal and right anterior free wall, respectively, was ablated. After a mean follow-up of 43.5 26.4 months, no recurrence of sudden death had occurred and electrocardiogram showed sinus rhythm without delta wave. The third patient presented severe sequelae of hypoxemic encephalopathy, which persisted during the follow-up. Radiofrequency catheter ablation is the treatment of choice in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome with episodes of aborted sudden death.

  4. Multi-center evaluation of analytical performance of the Beckman Coulter AU5822 chemistry analyzer.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M K; Friesen, L R; Nice, A; Vollmer, P A; Dockery, E A; Rankin, J D; Zmuda, K; Wong, S H

    2015-09-01

    Our three academic institutions, Indiana University, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, and Wake Forest, were among the first in the United States to implement the Beckman Coulter AU5822 series chemistry analyzers. We undertook this post-hoc multi-center study by merging our data to determine performance characteristics and the impact of methodology changes on analyte measurement. We independently completed performance validation studies including precision, linearity/analytical measurement range, method comparison, and reference range verification. Complete data sets were available from at least one institution for 66 analytes with the following groups: 51 from all three institutions, and 15 from 1 or 2 institutions for a total sample size of 12,064. Precision was similar among institutions. Coefficients of variation (CV) were <10% for 97%. Analytes with CVs >10% included direct bilirubin and digoxin. All analytes exhibited linearity over the analytical measurement range. Method comparison data showed slopes between 0.900-1.100 for 87.9% of the analytes. Slopes for amylase, tobramycin and urine amylase were <0.8; the slope for lipase was >1.5, due to known methodology or standardization differences. Consequently, reference ranges of amylase, urine amylase and lipase required only minor or no modification. The four AU5822 analyzers independently evaluated at three sites showed consistent precision, linearity, and correlation results. Since installations, the test results had been well received by clinicians from all three institutions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Plasma vs heart tissue concentration in humans - literature data analysis of drugs distribution.

    PubMed

    Tylutki, Zofia; Polak, Sebastian

    2015-03-12

    Little is known about the uptake of drugs into the human heart, although it is of great importance nowadays, when science desires to predict tissue level behavior rather than to measure it. Although the drug concentration in cardiac tissue seems a better predictor for physiological and electrophysiological changes than its level in plasma, knowledge of this value is very limited. Tissue to plasma partition coefficients (Kp) come to rescue since they characterize the distribution of a drug among tissues as being one of the input parameters in physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. The article reviews cardiac surgery and forensic medical studies to provide a reference for drug concentrations in human cardiac tissue. Firstly, the focus is on whether a drug penetrates into heart tissue at a therapeutic level; the provided values refer to antibiotics, antifungals and anticancer drugs. Drugs that directly affect cardiomyocyte electrophysiology are another group of interest. Measured levels of amiodarone, digoxin, perhexiline and verapamil in different sites in human cardiac tissue where the compounds might meet ion channels, gives an insight into how these more lipophilic drugs penetrate the heart. Much data are derived from postmortem studies and they provide insight to the cardiac distribution of more than 200 drugs. The analysis depicts potential problems in defining the active concentration location, what may indirectly suggest multiple mechanisms involved in the drug distribution within the heart. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Reaching consensus on communication of critical laboratory results using a collective intelligence method.

    PubMed

    Llovet, Maria Isabel; Biosca, Carmen; Martínez-Iribarren, Alicia; Blanco, Aurora; Busquets, Glòria; Castro, María José; Llopis, Maria Antonia; Montesinos, Mercè; Minchinela, Joana; Perich, Carme; Prieto, Judith; Ruiz, Rosa; Serrat, Núria; Simón, Margarita; Trejo, Alex; Monguet, Josep Maria; López-Pablo, Carlos; Ibarz, Mercè

    2018-02-23

    There is no consensus in the literature about what analytes or values should be informed as critical results and how they should be communicated. The main aim of this project is to establish consensual standards of critical results for the laboratories participating in the study. Among the project's secondary objectives, establishing consensual procedures for communication can be highlighted. Consensus was reached among all participating laboratories establishing the basis for the construction of the initial model put forward for consensus in conjunction with the clinicians. A real-time Delphi, methodology "health consensus" (HC), with motivating and participative questions was applied. The physician was expected to choose a numeric value within a scale designed for each analyte. The medians of critical results obtained represent the consensus on critical results for outpatient and inpatient care. Both in primary care and in hospital care a high degree of consensus was observed for critical values proposed in the analysis of creatinine, digoxin, phosphorus, glucose, international normalized ratio (INR), leukocytes, magnesium, neutrophils, chloride, sodium, calcium and lithium. For the rest of critical results the degree of consensus obtained was "medium high". The results obtained showed that in 72% of cases the consensual critical value coincided with the medians initially proposed by the laboratories. The real-time Delphi has allowed obtaining consensual standards for communication of critical results among the laboratories participating in the study, which can serve as a basis for other organizations.

  7. Expert panel evaluation of health information technology effects on adverse events.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Erika L; Kern, Lisa M; Brenner, Samantha; Hufstader, Meghan; Patel, Vaishali; Kaushal, Rainu

    2014-08-01

    Adverse events (AEs) among hospitalized patients occur frequently and result in significant sequelae. Federal policy is incentivizing health information technology (HIT) use, although research demonstrating safety benefits from HIT is mixed. Our objective was to evaluate the potential effects of HIT on reducing 21 different inpatient AEs. Identifying AEs most likely to be reduced by HIT can inform the design of future studies evaluating its effectiveness. We conducted a modified Delphi panel of national experts in HIT and safety. We conducted a focused literature review to inform the experts. Using a novel framework, experts rated each AE as 'definitely reduced by health IT,' 'possibly reduced by health IT' and 'not likely to be reduced by health IT'. From our panel discussion, experts identified six AEs as 'definitely reduced by health IT': (1) adverse drug events (ADEs) associated with digoxin; (2) ADE associated with IV heparin; (3) ADE associated with hypoglycaemic agents; (4) ADE associated with low molecular weight heparin and factor Xa inhibitor; (5) contrast nephropathy associated with catheter angiography; and (6) ADE hospital-acquired antibiotic-associated Clostridium difficile. Understanding the effects of HIT on patient outcomes will be essential to ensuring that the significant federal investment results in anticipated improvements. This study serves as an important early step in helping with the design of future work evaluating level of HIT infrastructure and rates of inpatient AEs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Medi, Caroline; Hankey, Graeme J; Freedman, Saul B

    2007-02-19

    The incidence and prevalence of atrial fibrillation are increasing because of both population ageing and an age-adjusted increase in incidence of atrial fibrillation. Deciding between a rate control or rhythm control approach depends on patient age and comorbidities, symptoms and haemodynamic consequences of the arrhythmia, but either approach is acceptable. Digoxin is no longer a first-line drug for rate control: beta-blockers and verapamil and diltiazem control heart rate better during exercise. Anti-arrhythmic drugs have only a 40%-60% success rate of maintaining sinus rhythm at 1 year, and have significant side effects. The selection of optimal antithrombotic prophylaxis depends on the patient's risk of ischaemic stroke and the benefits and risks of long-term warfarin versus aspirin, but is independent of rate or rhythm control strategy. Ischaemic stroke risk is best estimated with the CHADS2 score (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age > or = 75 years, Diabetes, 1 point each; prior Stroke or transient ischaemic attack, 2 points). For patients with valvular atrial fibrillation or a CHADS(2) score > or = 2, anticoagulation with warfarin is recommended (INR 2-3, higher for mechanical valves) unless contraindicated or annual major bleeding risk > 3%. Aspirin or warfarin may be used when the CHADS(2) score = 1. Aspirin, 81-325 mg daily, is recommended in patients with a CHADS(2) score of 0 or if warfarin is contraindicated. Stroke rate is similar for paroxysmal, persistent, and permanent atrial fibrillation, and probably for atrial flutter.

  9. Fall-related injuries in a nursing home setting: is polypharmacy a risk factor?

    PubMed

    Baranzini, Federico; Diurni, Marcello; Ceccon, Francesca; Poloni, Nicola; Cazzamalli, Sara; Costantini, Chiara; Colli, Cristiano; Greco, Laura; Callegari, Camilla

    2009-12-11

    Polypharmacy is regarded as an important risk factor for fallingand several studies and meta-analyses have shown an increased fall risk in users of diuretics, type 1a antiarrhythmics, digoxin and psychotropic agents. In particular, recent evidence has shown that fall risk is associated with the use of polypharmacy regimens that include at least one established fall risk-increasing drug, rather than with polypharmacy per se. We studied the role of polypharmacy and the role of well-known fall risk-increasing drugs on the incidence of injurious falls. A retrospective observational study was carried out in a population of elderly nursing home residents. An unmatched, post-stratification design for age class, gender and length of stay was adopted. In all, 695 falls were recorded in 293 residents. 221 residents (75.4%) were female and 72 (24.6%) male, and 133 (45.4%) were recurrent fallers. 152 residents sustained no injuries when they fell, whereas injuries were sustained by 141: minor in 95 (67.4%) and major in 46 (32.6%). Only fall dynamics (p = 0.013) and drugs interaction between antiarrhythmic or antiparkinson class and polypharmacy regimen (> or =7 medications) seem to represent a risk association for injuries (p = 0.024; OR = 4.4; CI 95% 1.21 - 15.36). This work reinforces the importance of routine medication reviews, especially in residents exposed to polypharmacy regimens that include antiarrhythmics or antiparkinson drugs, in order to reduce the risk of fall-related injuries during nursing home stays.

  10. The Room Where It Happens: A Skeptic's Analysis of the New Heart Failure Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Packer, Milton

    2016-09-01

    New heart failure guidelines have been issued during the past several months, both in the United States and in Europe, in response to recent advances in and the approval of new drugs for the treatment of heart failure. Although guidelines documents are often viewed as authoritative and purely evidence-based, there are replete with meaningful (and inexplicable) inconsistencies, which derive from a review of the same body of scientific data by different groups. This satirical review highlights several examples of the entertaining foolishness of recent guideline documents in the good-natured hope that physicians will understand what the guidelines are, and more importantly, what they are not. Specifically, this paper describes the emergence of a new nonexistent disease; the strange battle between 2 bradycardic drugs (digoxin and ivabradine); the confusion that reigns over the positioning and dosing of inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system; and the special recommendations that have been issued for certain special populations. As Otto von Bismarck remarked, guideline deliberations are like sausages; it is better not to see them being made. Yet, even after they are ready for public view, we should be cautious. Practitioners who rely on them for clinical decision-making engage in an unnecessary form of self-deception; those who read them literally and adhere to them strictly do not practice evidence-based medicine; and those who delve into them in a search for the truth are destined to be disappointed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Survival and prognosis: investigation of Crataegus extract WS 1442 in congestive heart failure (SPICE)--rationale, study design and study protocol.

    PubMed

    Holubarsch, C J; Colucci, W S; Meinertz, T; Gaus, W; Tendera, M

    2000-12-01

    SPICE is the first, international, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study to investigate the influence of the herbal drug Crataegus Special Extract WS 1442 (hawthorn leaves with flowers) on mortality of patients suffering from congestive heart failure. In vitro and experimental animal studies have suggested the following pharmacological modes of action of standardized Crataegus extracts: (1) cAMP-independent positive inotropy; (2) peripheral and coronary vasodilation; (3) protection against ischemia-induced ventricular arrhythmias; (4) antioxidative properties; and (5) anti-inflammatory effects. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, international trial (approximately 120 investigational centers in seven European countries), up to 2300 patients with congestive heart failure, New York Heart Association class II and III and markedly impaired left ventricular function, will be enrolled and treated over a period of 24 months. During this time patients receive either two film-coated tablets of 450 mg of the Special Extract WS 1442 standardized to 84.3 mg of oligomeric procyanidines or matched placebo per day in addition to standard therapy for congestive heart failure, such as diuretics, digoxin or digitoxin, beta-adrenoceptor blockers and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors. The primary outcome variable is the combined endpoint of cardiac death, non-lethal myocardial infarction, and hospitalization due to progression of heart failure. Secondary outcome variables are total mortality, exercise duration, echocardiographic parameters, quality of life as well as pharmacoeconomic parameters. The first patient was included in October 1998. The trial is expected to be completed at the end of 2002.

  12. Gateways to Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2002-09-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Adalimumab, aeroDose insulin inhaler, agomelatine, alendronic acid sodium salt, aliskiren fumarate, alteplase, amlodipine, aspirin, atazanavir; Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, basiliximab, BQ-788, bupropion hydrochloride; Cabergoline, caffeine citrate, carbamazepine, carvedilol, celecoxib, cyclosporine, clopidogrel hydrogensulfate, colestyramine; Dexamethasone, diclofenac sodium, digoxin, dipyridamole, docetaxel, dutasteride; Eletriptan, enfuvirtidie, eplerenone, ergotamine tartrate, esomeprazole magnesium, estramustine phosphate sodium; Finasteride, fluticasone propionate, fosinopril sodium; Ganciclovir, GBE-761-ONC, glatiramer acetate, gliclazide, granulocyte-CSF; Heparin sodium, human isophane insulin (pyr), Hydrochlorothiazide; Ibuprofen, inhaled insulin, interferon alfa, interferon beta-1a; Laminvudine, lansoprazole, lisinopril, lonafarnib, losartan potassium, lumiracoxib; MAb G250, meloxicam methotrexate, methylprednisolone aceponate, mitomycin, mycophenolate mofetil; Naproxen sodium, natalizumab, nelfinavir mesilate, nemifitide ditriflutate, nimesulide; Omalizumab, omapatrilat, omeprazole, oxybutynin chloride; Pantoprazole sodium, paracetamol, paroxetine, pentoxifylline, pergolide mesylate, permixon, phVEGF-A165, pramipexole hydrochloride, prasterone, prednisone, probucol, propiverine hydrochloride; Rabeprazole sodium, resiniferatoxin, risedronate sodium, risperidone, rofecoxib rosiglitazone maleate, ruboxistaurin mesilate hydrate; Selegiline transdermal system, sertraline, sildenafil citrate, streptokinase; Tadalafil, tamsulosin hydrochloride, technosphere/Insulin, tegaserod maleate, tenofovir disoproxil

  13. Laboratory monitoring of patients treated with antihypertensive drugs and newly exposed to non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Jean-Pascal; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Sommet, Agnès; Dupouy, Julie; Poutrain, Jean-Christophe; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    Drug-Drug Interactions between Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs), Angiotensin Receptor Blocker (ARBs) or diuretics can lead to renal failure and hyperkalemia. Thus, monitoring of serum creatinine and potassium is recommended when a first dispensing of NSAID occur in patients treated with these drugs. We conducted a pharmacoepidemiological retrospective cohort study using data from the French Health Insurance Reimbursement Database to evaluate the proportion of serum creatinine and potassium laboratory monitoring in patients treated with ACEI, ARB or diuretic and receiving a first dispensing of NSAID. We described the first dispensing of NSAID among 3,500 patients of a 4-year cohort (6,633 patients treated with antihypertensive drugs) and analyzed serum creatinine and potassium laboratory monitoring within the 3 weeks after the first NSAID dispensing. General Practitioners were the most frequent prescribers of NSAIDs (85.5%, 95% CI: 84.3-86.6). The more commonly prescribed NSAIDs were ibuprofen (20%), ketoprofen (15%), diclofenac (15%) and piroxicam (12%). Serum creatinine and potassium monitoring was 10.7% (95% CI: 9.5-11.8) in patients treated by ACEIs, ARBs or diuretics. Overall, monitoring was more frequently performed to women aged over 60, treated with digoxin or glucose lowering drugs, but not to patients treated with ACEIs, ARBs or diuretics. Monitoring was more frequent when NSAIDs' prescribers were cardiologists or anesthesiologists. Monitoring of serum creatinine and potassium of patients treated with ACEIs, ARBs or diuretics and receiving a first NSAID dispensing is insufficiently performed and needs to be reinforced through specific interventions.

  14. Development and validation of a risk calculator predicting exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmia in patients with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Ilarraza-Lomelí; Marianna, García-Saldivia; Jessica, Rojano-Castillo; Carlos, Barrera-Ramírez; Rafael, Chávez-Domínguez; María Dolores, Rius-Suárez; Pedro, Iturralde

    2016-10-01

    Mortality due to cardiovascular disease is often associated with ventricular arrhythmias. Nowadays, patients with cardiovascular disease are more encouraged to take part in physical training programs. Nevertheless, high-intensity exercise is associated to a higher risk for sudden death, even in apparently healthy people. During an exercise testing (ET), health care professionals provide patients, in a controlled scenario, an intense physiological stimulus that could precipitate cardiac arrhythmia in high risk individuals. There is still no clinical or statistical tool to predict this incidence. The aim of this study was to develop a statistical model to predict the incidence of exercise-induced potentially life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia (PLVA) during high intensity exercise. 6415 patients underwent a symptom-limited ET with a Balke ramp protocol. A multivariate logistic regression model where the primary outcome was PLVA was performed. Incidence of PLVA was 548 cases (8.5%). After a bivariate model, thirty one clinical or ergometric variables were statistically associated with PLVA and were included in the regression model. In the multivariate model, 13 of these variables were found to be statistically significant. A regression model (G) with a X(2) of 283.987 and a p<0.001, was constructed. Significant variables included: heart failure, antiarrhythmic drugs, myocardial lower-VD, age and use of digoxin, nitrates, among others. This study allows clinicians to identify patients at risk of ventricular tachycardia or couplets during exercise, and to take preventive measures or appropriate supervision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of two immortalized cell lines, ECV304 and bEnd3, for in vitro permeability studies of blood-brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Shenghui; Jin, Hong; Zhu, Bin; Tian, Yue; Huo, Jiping; Cui, Xu; Guo, Anchen; Zhao, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    To identify suitable cell lines for a mimetic system of in vivo blood-brain barrier (BBB) for drug permeability assessment, we characterized two immortalized cell lines, ECV304 and bEnd3 in the respect of the tightness, tight junction proteins, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function and discriminative brain penetration. The ECV304 monoculture achieved higher transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and lower permeability to Lucifer yellow than bEnd3. However, co-culture with rat glioma C6 cells impaired the integrity of ECV304 and bEnd3 cell layers perhaps due to the heterogeneity among C6 cells in inducing BBB characteristics. The immunostaining of ZO-1 delivered distinct bands along cell borders on both cell lines while those of occludin and claudin-5 were diffused and weak. P-gp functionality was only proved in bEnd3 by Rhodamine 123 (R123) uptake assay. A permeability test of reference compounds displayed a similar rank order (digoxin < R123 < quinidine, verapamil < propranolol) in ECV304 and bEnd3 cells. In comparison with bEnd3, ECV304 developed tighter barrier for the passage of reference compounds and higher discrimination between transcellular and paracellular transport. However, the monoculture models of ECV304 and bEnd3 fail to achieve the sufficient tightness of in vitro BBB permeability models with high TEER and evident immunostaining of tight junction proteins. Further strategies to enhance the paracellular tightness of both cell lines to mimic in vivo BBB tight barrier deserve to be conducted. PMID:29059256

  16. Identification of two immortalized cell lines, ECV304 and bEnd3, for in vitro permeability studies of blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu; Mei, Shenghui; Jin, Hong; Zhu, Bin; Tian, Yue; Huo, Jiping; Cui, Xu; Guo, Anchen; Zhao, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    To identify suitable cell lines for a mimetic system of in vivo blood-brain barrier (BBB) for drug permeability assessment, we characterized two immortalized cell lines, ECV304 and bEnd3 in the respect of the tightness, tight junction proteins, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function and discriminative brain penetration. The ECV304 monoculture achieved higher transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and lower permeability to Lucifer yellow than bEnd3. However, co-culture with rat glioma C6 cells impaired the integrity of ECV304 and bEnd3 cell layers perhaps due to the heterogeneity among C6 cells in inducing BBB characteristics. The immunostaining of ZO-1 delivered distinct bands along cell borders on both cell lines while those of occludin and claudin-5 were diffused and weak. P-gp functionality was only proved in bEnd3 by Rhodamine 123 (R123) uptake assay. A permeability test of reference compounds displayed a similar rank order (digoxin < R123 < quinidine, verapamil < propranolol) in ECV304 and bEnd3 cells. In comparison with bEnd3, ECV304 developed tighter barrier for the passage of reference compounds and higher discrimination between transcellular and paracellular transport. However, the monoculture models of ECV304 and bEnd3 fail to achieve the sufficient tightness of in vitro BBB permeability models with high TEER and evident immunostaining of tight junction proteins. Further strategies to enhance the paracellular tightness of both cell lines to mimic in vivo BBB tight barrier deserve to be conducted.

  17. Clinical presentation, management, and outcomes in the Indian Heart Rhythm Society-Atrial Fibrillation (IHRS-AF) registry.

    PubMed

    Vora, A; Kapoor, A; Nair, M; Lokhandwala, Y; Narsimhan, C; Ravikishore, A G; Dwivedi, S K; Namboodiri, N; Hygriv, R; Saxena, A; Nabar, A; Garg, S; Bardoloi, N; Yadav, R; Nambiar, A; Pandurangi, U; Jhala, D; Naik, A; Nagmallesh; Rajagopal, S; Selvaraj, R; Arora, V; Thachil, A; Thomas, J; Panicker, G

    A national atrial fibrillation (AF) registry was conducted under the aegis of the Indian Heart Rhythm Society (IHRS), to capture epidemiological data-type of AF, clinical presentation and comorbidities, current treatment practices, and 1-year follow-up outcomes. A total of 1537 patients were enrolled from 24 sites in India in the IHRS-AF registry from July 2011 to August 2012. Their baseline characteristics and follow-up data were recorded in case report forms and subsequently analyzed. The average age of Indian AF patients was 54.7 years. There was a marginal female preponderance - 51.5% females and 48.5% males. At baseline, 20.4% had paroxysmal AF; 33% had persistent AF; 35.1% had permanent AF and 11% had first AF episode. At one-year follow-up, 45.6% patients had permanent AF. Rheumatic valvular heart disease (RHD) was present in 47.6% of patients. Hypertension, heart failure, coronary artery disease, and diabetes were seen in 31.4%, 18.7%, 16.2%, and 16.1%, respectively. Rate control was the strategy used in 75.2% patients, digoxin and beta-blockers being the most frequently prescribed rate-control drugs. Oral anticoagulation (OAC) drugs were used in 70% of patients. The annual mortality was 6.5%, hospitalization 8%, and incidence of stroke 1%. In India, AF patients are younger and RHD is still the most frequent etiology. Almost two-third of the patients have persistent/permanent AF. At one-year follow-up, there is a significant mortality and morbidity in AF patients in India. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Pharmacological interference with 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine: a limitation to developing cardiac innervation imaging in clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, A; Treglia, G; Bruno, I; Rufini, V; Giordano, A

    2013-05-01

    (123)I-metaiodo-benzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy is considered a valid imaging test to evaluate the cardiac sympathetic nervous system. However, scientific literature showed that some drugs are able to or are expected to interfere with MIBG uptake. Thirty years after introduction of the method and over 15 years since the appearance of the first document on pharmacological interference with MIBG, an update on this issue has become necessary. The aims of this review paper are: (1) to identify the pharmacological basis of interference of a variety of substances with MIBG uptake; and (2) to update the list of drugs that definitely interfere with MIBG on the grounds of evidence in the literature. A MEDLINE search was conducted. Scientific studies, case report and review articles were collected. Papers published demonstrating drugs interfering with MIBG uptake were evaluated. Drugs may interact with MIBG uptake by 5 mechanism: (1) type-1 uptake inhibition; (2) inhibition of active transport to vesicles; (3) competition in transport to vesicles; (4) depletion of neurosecretory vesicle content; (5) calcium-mediated mechanism. We find that drugs like cocaine, antidepressants, some antipsychotic, tramadol, labetalol, sympatho-mimetics, reserpine and some calcium antagonists (as diltiazem, verapamil and nifedipine) do interfere with MIBG uptake. On the other hand, we find that controversial data are available on scientific literature regarding digoxin and amiodarone. A compiled statement of MIBG interfering medicines is now recommended to help nuclear medicine physicians in clinical practice to avoid potential pitfalls and improve the efficacy of (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy as a diagnostic tool.

  19. Use of Inotropic Agents in Treatment of Systolic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Sohaib; Aronow, Wilbert S

    2015-12-04

    The most common use of inotropes is among hospitalized patients with acute decompensated heart failure, with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and with signs of end-organ dysfunction in the setting of a low cardiac output. Inotropes can be used in patients with severe systolic heart failure awaiting heart transplant to maintain hemodynamic stability or as a bridge to decision. In cases where patients are unable to be weaned off inotropes, these agents can be used until a definite or escalated supportive therapy is planned, which can include coronary revascularization or mechanical circulatory support (intra-aortic balloon pump, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, impella, left ventricular assist device, etc.). Use of inotropic drugs is associated with risks and adverse events. This review will discuss the use of the inotropes digoxin, dopamine, dobutamine, norepinephrine, milrinone, levosimendan, and omecamtiv mecarbil. Long-term inotropic therapy should be offered in selected patients. A detailed conversation with the patient and family shall be held, including a discussion on the risks and benefits of use of inotropes. Chronic heart failure patients awaiting heart transplants are candidates for intravenous inotropic support until the donor heart becomes available. This helps to maintain hemodynamic stability and keep the fluid status and pulmonary pressures optimized prior to the surgery. On the other hand, in patients with severe heart failure who are not candidates for advanced heart failure therapies, such as transplant and mechanical circulatory support, inotropic agents can be used for palliative therapy. Inotropes can help reduce frequency of hospitalizations and improve symptoms in these patients.

  20. Saint John's wort: An in vitro analysis of P-glycoprotein induction due to extended exposure

    PubMed Central

    Perloff, Michael D; von Moltke, Lisa L; Störmer, Elke; Shader, Richard I; Greenblatt, David J

    2001-01-01

    Chronic use of Saint John's wort (SJW) has been shown to lower the bioavailability for a variety of co-administered drugs including indinavir, cyclosporin, and digoxin. Decreases in intestinal absorption through induction of the multidrug resistance transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), may explain decreased bioavailability. The present study characterized the response of P-gp to chronic and acute exposure of SJW and hypericin (HYP, a presumed active moiety within SJW) in an in vitro system. Experiments were performed with 3 to 300 μg ml−1 of methanol-extracted SJW and 0.03 to 3 μM HYP, representing low to high estimates of intestinal concentrations. In induction experiments, LS-180 intestinal carcinoma cells were exposed for 3 days to SJW, HYP, vehicle or a positive control (ritonavir). P-gp was quantified using Western blot analysis. P-gp expression was strongly induced by SJW (400% increase at 300 μg ml−1) and by HYP (700% at 3 μM) in a dose-dependent fashion. Cells chronically treated with SJW had decreased accumulation of rhodamine 123, a P-gp substrate, that was reversed with acute verapamil, a P-gp inhibitor. Fluorescence microscopy of intact cells validated these findings. In Caco-2 cell monolayers, SJW and HYP caused moderate inhibition of P-gp-attributed transport at the maximum concentrations tested. SJW and HYP significantly induced P-gp expression at low, clinically relevant concentrations. Similar effects occurring in vivo may explain the decreased bioavailability of P-gp substrate drugs when co-administered with SJW. PMID:11739235

  1. Knowledge of healthcare professionals about medication errors in hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Medication errors are the most common types of medical errors in hospitals and leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge of healthcare professionals about medication errors in hospitals. Settings and Design: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to randomly selected healthcare professionals in eight hospitals in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: An 18-item survey was designed and comprised questions on demographic data, knowledge of medication errors, availability of reporting systems in hospitals, attitudes toward error reporting, causes of medication errors. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software Version 17. Results: A total of 323 of healthcare professionals completed the questionnaire with 64.6% response rate of 138 (42.72%) physicians, 34 (10.53%) pharmacists, and 151 (46.75%) nurses. A majority of the participants had a good knowledge about medication errors concept and their dangers on patients. Only 68.7% of them were aware of reporting systems in hospitals. Healthcare professionals revealed that there was no clear mechanism available for reporting of errors in most hospitals. Prescribing (46.5%) and administration (29%) errors were the main causes of errors. The most frequently encountered medication errors were anti-hypertensives, antidiabetics, antibiotics, digoxin, and insulin. Conclusions: This study revealed differences in the awareness among healthcare professionals toward medication errors in hospitals. The poor knowledge about medication errors emphasized the urgent necessity to adopt appropriate measures to raise awareness about medication errors in Saudi hospitals. PMID:27330261

  2. The distribution of the anti-HIV drug, 2'3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC), across the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers and the influence of organic anion transport inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, J E; Thomas, S A

    2002-02-01

    The brain and CSF distribution of the HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor, 2'3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC), was investigated by the in situ brain perfusion and isolated incubated choroid plexus methods in the guinea pig. Multiple-time brain perfusions indicated that the distribution of [3H]ddC to the brain and CSF was low and the unidirectional rate constant (K(in)) for the brain uptake of this nucleoside analogue (0.52 +/- 0.10 microL/min/g) was not significantly different to that for the vascular marker, [14C]mannitol (0.44 +/- 0.09 microL/min/g). The influence of unlabelled ddC, six organic anion transport inhibitors and 3'-azido 3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) on the CNS uptake of [3H]ddC was examined in situ and in vitro. ddC, probenecid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid altered the distribution of [3H]ddC into the brain and choroid plexuses, indicating that the limited distribution of [3H]ddC was a result of an organic anion efflux transporter, in addition to the low lipophilicity of this drug (octanol-saline partition coefficient, 0.047 +/- 0.001). The CNS distribution was also sensitive to p-aminohippurate and deltorphin II, but not digoxin, suggesting the involvement of organic anion transporters (OAT1/OAT3-like) and organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP1/OATPA-like). AZT did not effect the accumulation of [3H]ddC, indicating that when these nucleoside analogues are used in anti-HIV combination therapy, the CNS distribution of ddC is unchanged.

  3. Chemical & RNAi screening at MSKCC: a collaborative platform to discover & repurpose drugs to fight disease

    PubMed Central

    Bhinder, Bhavneet; Antczak, Christophe; Shum, David; Radu, Constantin; Mahida, Jeni P.; Liu-Sullivan, Nancy; Ibáñez, Glorymar; Raja, Balajee Somalinga; Calder, Paul A.; Djaballah, Hakim

    2014-01-01

    Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) has implemented the creation of a full service state-of-the-art High-throughput Screening Core Facility (HTSCF) equipped with modern robotics and custom-built screening data management resources to rapidly store and query chemical and RNAi screening data outputs. The mission of the facility is to provide oncology clinicians and researchers alike with access to cost-effective HTS solutions for both chemical and RNAi screening, with an ultimate goal of novel target identification and drug discovery. HTSCF was established in 2003 to support the institution’s commitment to growth in molecular pharmacology and in the realm of therapeutic agents to fight chronic diseases such as cancer. This endeavor required broad range of expertise in technology development to establish robust and innovative assays, large collections of diverse chemical and RNAi duplexes to probe specific cellular events, sophisticated compound and data handling capabilities, and a profound knowledge in assay development, hit validation, and characterization. Our goal has been to strive for constant innovation, and we strongly believe in shifting the paradigm from traditional drug discovery towards translational research now, making allowance for unmet clinical needs in patients. Our efforts towards repurposing FDA-approved drugs fructified when digoxin, identified through primary HTS, was administered in the clinic for treatment of stage Vb retinoblastoma. In summary, the overall aim of our facility is to identify novel chemical probes, to study cellular processes relevant to investigator’s research interest in chemical biology and functional genomics, and to be instrumental in accelerating the process of drug discovery in academia. PMID:24661215

  4. Calcium channel blockers: spectrum of side effects and drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Hedner, T

    1986-01-01

    Calcium antagonists are a chemically heterogenous group of agents with potent cardiovascular effects which are beneficial in the treatment of angina pectoris, arterial hypertension and cardiac arrhythmias. The main side effects for the group are dose-dependent and the result of the main action or actions of the calcium antagonists, i.e. vasodilatation, negative inotropic effects and antiarrhythmic effects. Pronounced hypotension is reported for the main calcium antagonist drugs; verapamil, diltiazem and nifedipine. While conduction disturbances and bradycardia are seen more often after verapamil and diltiazem, tachycardia, headache and flush are more frequent after nifedipine. Constipation is relatively frequent after verapamil while nifedipine is reported to induce diarrhea in som patients. Idiosyncratic side effects are rare but have been reported from the skin, mouth, musculoskeletal system, the liver and the central nervous system. These side effects include urticarial rashes, gingival hyperplasia, arthralgia, hepathotoxicity and transistory mental confusion or akathisia. Verapamil, diltiazem and possibly also nifedipine have been reported to increase serum digoxin concentrations but the clinical relevance of these drug interactions are not clear. Furthermore, verapamil and diltiazem may potentiate the effects of beta-adrenergic blocking drugs and verapamil may also potentiate the effects of neuromuscular blocking drugs. It is concluded that side effects after calcium antagonist drugs are mostly trivial and transient although they may sometimes be relatively common. Clinically relevant drug interactions are few. Judged from the point of efficacy and safety, calcium antagonists will have a major place in the future pharmacotherapy of several cardiovascular disorders.

  5. Establishment of optimized MDCK cell lines for reliable efflux transport studies.

    PubMed

    Gartzke, Dominik; Fricker, Gert

    2014-04-01

    Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells transfected with human MDR1 gene (MDCK-MDR1) encoding for P-glycoprotein (hPgp, ABCB1) are widely used for transport studies to identify drug candidates as substrates of this efflux protein. Therefore, it is necessary to rely on constant and comparable expression levels of Pgp to avoid false negative or positive results. We generated a cell line with homogenously high and stable expression of hPgp through sorting single clones from a MDCK-MDR1 cell pool using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). To obtain control cell lines for evaluation of cross-interactions with endogenous canine Pgp (cPgp) wild-type cells were sorted with a low expression pattern of cPgp in comparison with the MDCK-MDR1. Expression of other transporters was also characterized in both cell lines by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Pgp function was investigated applying the Calcein-AM assay as well as bidirectional transport assays using (3) H-Digoxin, (3) H-Vinblastine, and (3) H-Quinidine as substrates. Generated MDCK-MDR1 cell lines showed high expression of hPgp. Control MDCK-WT cells were optimized in showing a comparable expression level of cPgp in comparison with MDCK-MDR1 cell lines. Generated cell lines showed higher and more selective Pgp transport compared with parental cells. Therefore, they provide a significant improvement in the performance of efflux studies yielding more reliable results. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  6. Falls in Patients With Heart Failure: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kayoung; Pressler, Susan J; Titler, Marita

    Many heart failure patients show fall-related signs/symptoms including postural hypotension, cerebellar injury, and cognitive impairments. Falls contribute to injuries, increased healthcare use, and death, but falls have been understudied in this population. The purpose of this review is to identify fall rates, fall injuries, and risk factors for falls in heart failure patients. A systematic literature review was conducted using MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library to identify publications from August 1973 to June 2013. Keywords were accidental falls, heart failure, fall rates, fall injuries, and fall risk. Inclusion criteria were publications that were primary data based, included heart failure sample, had falls/fall risk as study variables, and were written in English language. Exclusion criteria were quality improvement/evaluation, case reports/studies, news, opinions, narrative reviews, meeting reports, reflections, and letters to editors. Data were abstracted using a standardized data collection form. Four publications met the inclusion criteria. In the first study, fall rate was 43%, which is higher than the fall rates among community-dwelling older adults. Fall-related injuries were not examined in any of studies. Benzodiazepines and digoxin were identified as medications that increased risk of falls in 1 case-control study. Loop diuretics were not significantly associated with falls in 1 cohort study. In the fourth study, patients who had poor gait and balance were at greater risk of falling. Future studies are needed to determine factors associated with falls, characterize injuries resulting from falls, and most importantly design testable interventions to prevent falls in heart failure patients.

  7. Ocular Manifestations of Oblique Facial Clefts

    PubMed Central

    Ortube, Maria Carolina; Dipple, Katrina; Setoguchi, Yoshio; Kawamoto, Henry K.; Demer, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the Tessier classification, craniofacial clefts are numbered from 0 to 14 and extend along constant axes through the eyebrows, eyelids, maxilla, nostrils, and the lips. We studied a patient with bilateral cleft 10 associated with ocular abnormalities. Method Clinical report with orbital and cranial computed tomography. Results After pregnancy complicated by oligohydramnios, digoxin, and lisinopril exposure, a boy was born with facial and ocular dysmorphism. Examination at age 26 months showed bilateral epibulbar dermoids, covering half the corneal surface, and unilateral morning glory anomaly of the optic nerve. Ductions of the right eye were normal, but the left eye had severely impaired ductions in all directions, left hypotropia, and esotropia. Under anesthesia, the left eye could not be rotated freely in any direction. Bilateral Tessier cleft number 10 was implicated by the presence of colobomata of the middle third of the upper eyelids and eyebrows. As the cleft continued into the hairline, there was marked anterior scalp alopecia. Computed x-ray tomography showed a left middle cranial fossa arachnoid cyst and calcification of the reflected tendon of the superior oblique muscle, trochlea, and underlying sclera, with downward and lateral globe displacement. Discussion Tessier 10 clefts are very rare and usually associated with encephalocele. Bilateral 10 clefts have not been reported previously. In this case, there was coexisting unilateral morning glory anomaly and arachnoid cyst of the left middle cranial fossa but no encephalocele. Conclusions Bilateral Tessier facial cleft 10 may be associated with alopecia, morning glory anomaly, epibulbar dermoids, arachnoid cyst, and restrictive strabismus. PMID:20856062

  8. Molecular Expression and Functional Activity of Efflux and Influx Transporters in Hypoxia Induced Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vadlapatla, Ramya; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Ponnaluri, VK Chaithanya; Pal, Dhananjay; Mukherji, Mridul; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2013-01-01

    A decrease in tissue oxygen levels (aka hypoxia) mediates a number of vascular retinal diseases. Despite introduction of novel therapeutics, treatment of retinal disorders remains challenging, possibly due to complex nature of hypoxia signaling. To date, the differential effect of hypoxia on expression of efflux and influx transporters in retinal cells has not been studied. Therefore, the objective of this study was to delineate molecular and functional expression of membrane transporters in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), ELISA and immunoblot analysis were performed to examine the RNA and protein expression levels of transporters. Further, functional activity was evaluated by performing the uptake of various substrates in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. qPCR analysis showed elevated expression of efflux transporters (P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistant protein 2, breast cancer resistant protein) and influx transporters (folate receptor-α, cationic and neutral amino acid transporter, sodium dependent multivitamin transporter) in a time dependent manner. Immunoblot analysis further confirmed elevated expression of breast cancer resistant protein and sodium dependent multivitamin transporter. A decrease in the uptake of efflux transporter substrates (digoxin, lopinavir and abacavir) and enhanced uptake of influx transporter substrates (arginine, folic acid and biotin) in hypoxia relative to normoxia further confirmed elevated expression of transporters, respectively. This study demonstrates for the first time that hypoxic conditions may alter expression of efflux and influx transporters in RPE cells. These findings suggest that hypoxia may further alter disposition of ophthalmic drugs. PMID:23827654

  9. A simplified PBPK modeling approach for prediction of pharmacokinetics of four primarily renally excreted and CYP3A metabolized compounds during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Xia, Binfeng; Heimbach, Tycho; Gollen, Rakesh; Nanavati, Charvi; He, Handan

    2013-10-01

    During pregnancy, a drug's pharmacokinetics may be altered and hence anticipation of potential systemic exposure changes is highly desirable. Physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) models have recently been used to influence clinical trial design or to facilitate regulatory interactions. Ideally, whole-body PBPK models can be used to predict a drug's systemic exposure in pregnant women based on major physiological changes which can impact drug clearance (i.e., in the kidney and liver) and distribution (i.e., adipose and fetoplacental unit). We described a simple and readily implementable multitissue/organ whole-body PBPK model with key pregnancy-related physiological parameters to characterize the PK of reference drugs (metformin, digoxin, midazolam, and emtricitabine) in pregnant women compared with the PK in nonpregnant or postpartum (PP) women. Physiological data related to changes in maternal body weight, tissue volume, cardiac output, renal function, blood flows, and cytochrome P450 activity were collected from the literature and incorporated into the structural PBPK model that describes HV or PP women PK data. Subsequently, the changes in exposure (area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (C max)) in pregnant women were simulated. Model-simulated PK profiles were overall in agreement with observed data. The prediction fold error for C max and AUC ratio (pregnant vs. nonpregnant) was less than 1.3-fold, indicating that the pregnant PBPK model is useful. The utilization of this simplified model in drug development may aid in designing clinical studies to identify potential exposure changes in pregnant women a priori for compounds which are mainly eliminated renally or metabolized by CYP3A4.

  10. Chemical reaction vector embeddings: towards predicting drug metabolism in the human gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Mallory, Emily K; Acharya, Ambika; Rensi, Stefano E; Turnbaugh, Peter J; Bright, Roselie A; Altman, Russ B

    2018-01-01

    Bacteria in the human gut have the ability to activate, inactivate, and reactivate drugs with both intended and unintended effects. For example, the drug digoxin is reduced to the inactive metabolite dihydrodigoxin by the gut Actinobacterium E. lenta, and patients colonized with high levels of drug metabolizing strains may have limited response to the drug. Understanding the complete space of drugs that are metabolized by the human gut microbiome is critical for predicting bacteria-drug relationships and their effects on individual patient response. Discovery and validation of drug metabolism via bacterial enzymes has yielded >50 drugs after nearly a century of experimental research. However, there are limited computational tools for screening drugs for potential metabolism by the gut microbiome. We developed a pipeline for comparing and characterizing chemical transformations using continuous vector representations of molecular structure learned using unsupervised representation learning. We applied this pipeline to chemical reaction data from MetaCyc to characterize the utility of vector representations for chemical reaction transformations. After clustering molecular and reaction vectors, we performed enrichment analyses and queries to characterize the space. We detected enriched enzyme names, Gene Ontology terms, and Enzyme Consortium (EC) classes within reaction clusters. In addition, we queried reactions against drug-metabolite transformations known to be metabolized by the human gut microbiome. The top results for these known drug transformations contained similar substructure modifications to the original drug pair. This work enables high throughput screening of drugs and their resulting metabolites against chemical reactions common to gut bacteria.

  11. Variability in P-Glycoprotein Inhibitory Potency (IC50) Using Various in Vitro Experimental Systems: Implications for Universal Digoxin Drug-Drug Interaction Risk Assessment Decision Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Bentz, Joe; O’Connor, Michael P.; Bednarczyk, Dallas; Coleman, JoAnn; Lee, Caroline; Palm, Johan; Pak, Y. Anne; Perloff, Elke S.; Reyner, Eric; Balimane, Praveen; Brännström, Marie; Chu, Xiaoyan; Funk, Christoph; Guo, Ailan; Hanna, Imad; Herédi-Szabó, Krisztina; Hillgren, Kate; Li, Libin; Hollnack-Pusch, Evelyn; Jamei, Masoud; Lin, Xuena; Mason, Andrew K.; Neuhoff, Sibylle; Patel, Aarti; Podila, Lalitha; Plise, Emile; Rajaraman, Ganesh; Salphati, Laurent; Sands, Eric; Taub, Mitchell E.; Taur, Jan-Shiang; Weitz, Dietmar; Wortelboer, Heleen M.; Xia, Cindy Q.; Xiao, Guangqing; Yabut, Jocelyn; Yamagata, Tetsuo; Zhang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    A P-glycoprotein (P-gp) IC50 working group was established with 23 participating pharmaceutical and contract research laboratories and one academic institution to assess interlaboratory variability in P-gp IC50 determinations. Each laboratory followed its in-house protocol to determine in vitro IC50 values for 16 inhibitors using four different test systems: human colon adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2; eleven laboratories), Madin-Darby canine kidney cells transfected with MDR1 cDNA (MDCKII-MDR1; six laboratories), and Lilly Laboratories Cells—Porcine Kidney Nr. 1 cells transfected with MDR1 cDNA (LLC-PK1-MDR1; four laboratories), and membrane vesicles containing human P-glycoprotein (P-gp; five laboratories). For cell models, various equations to calculate remaining transport activity (e.g., efflux ratio, unidirectional flux, net-secretory-flux) were also evaluated. The difference in IC50 values for each of the inhibitors across all test systems and equations ranged from a minimum of 20- and 24-fold between lowest and highest IC50 values for sertraline and isradipine, to a maximum of 407- and 796-fold for telmisartan and verapamil, respectively. For telmisartan and verapamil, variability was greatly influenced by data from one laboratory in each case. Excluding these two data sets brings the range in IC50 values for telmisartan and verapamil down to 69- and 159-fold. The efflux ratio-based equation generally resulted in severalfold lower IC50 values compared with unidirectional or net-secretory-flux equations. Statistical analysis indicated that variability in IC50 values was mainly due to interlaboratory variability, rather than an implicit systematic difference between test systems. Potential reasons for variability are discussed and the simplest, most robust experimental design for P-gp IC50 determination proposed. The impact of these findings on drug-drug interaction risk assessment is discussed in the companion article (Ellens et al., 2013) and recommendations are provided. PMID:23620485

  12. Pantoprazole: a new proton pump inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Jungnickel, P W

    2000-11-01

    This paper reviews the pharmacology, clinical efficacy, and tolerability of pantoprazole in comparison with those of other available proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Relevant English-language research and review articles were identified by database searches of MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and UnCover, and by examining the reference lists of the articles so identified. In selecting data for inclusion, the author gave preference to full-length articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Like other PPIs, pantoprazole exerts its pharmacodynamic actions by binding to the proton pump (H+,K+ -adenosine triphosphatase) in the parietal cells, but, compared with other PPIs, its binding may be more specific for the proton pump. Pantoprazole is well absorbed when administered as an enteric-coated, delayed-release tablet, with an oral bioavailability of approximately 77%. It is hepatically metabolized via cytochrome P2C19 to hydroxypantoprazole, an inactive metabolite that subsequently undergoes sulfate conjugation. The elimination half-life ranges from 0.9 to 1.9 hours and is independent of dose. Pantoprazole has similar efficacy to other PPIs in the healing of gastric and duodenal ulcers, as well as erosive esophagitis, and as part of triple-drug regimens for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori from the gastric mucosa. It is well tolerated, with the most common adverse effects being headache, diarrhea, flatulence, and abdominal pain. In clinical studies, it has been shown to have no interactions with various other agents, including carbamazepine, cisapride, cyclosporine, digoxin, phenytoin, theophylline, and warfarin. Pantoprazole appears to be as effective as other PPIs. Its low potential for drug interactions may give it an advantage in patients taking other drugs.

  13. Knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicines among pharmacy students of a Malaysian Public University

    PubMed Central

    Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Elkalmi, Ramadan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is consistently on the rise worldwide. Consumers often consider pharmacists as a major source of information about CAM products and their safety. Due to the limitation of data, it is worth exploring the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students toward CAM. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students regarding the use of CAM in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted for 3 months among Bachelor of Pharmacy students in a public sector University of Malaysia. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire, comprised four sections, was used to collect the data from 440 participants. Descriptive analysis was used, and Chi-square test was used to test the association between dependent and independent variables. Results: Of 440 questionnaire distributed, 287 were returned giving a response rate of (65.2%). The results showed that 38.6% participants gave correct answers when asked about the use of herbal products with digoxin. Majority of the participants were knowledgeable about supplementary therapy (25.3%) while the lack of knowledge was mostly evident in traditional Chinese medicines (73.7%). Majority of the students were either neutral (49.5%) or disagreed that (42.8%) CAM use is unsafe. Females were more in disagreement to the statements than males (P = 0.007). Majority of students also agreed to use CAM therapies for their health and well-being (51.2%). Conclusion: The study revealed that pharmacy students did not have adequate knowledge of CAM though their attitudes and perceptions were relatively positive. PMID:26957866

  14. A Prospective Survey of Atrial Fibrillation Management for Real-world Guideline Adherence: COmparison study of Drugs for symptom control and complication prEvention of Atrial Fibrillation (CODE-AF) Registry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeongsoo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Cha, Myung Jin; Lee, Jung Myung; Park, Junbeom; Park, Jin Kyu; Kang, Ki Woon; Shim, Jaemin; Uhm, Jae Sun; Kim, Jun; Park, Hyung Wook; Choi, Eue Keun; Kim, Jin Bae; Kim, Changsoo; Lee, Young Soo; Joung, Boyoung

    2017-11-01

    The aging population is rapidly increasing, and atrial fibrillation (AF) is becoming a significant public health burden in Asia, including Korea. This study evaluated current treatment patterns and guideline adherence of AF treatment. In a prospective observational registry (COmparison study of Drugs for symptom control and complication prEvention of Atrial Fibrillation [CODE-AF] registry), 6,275 patients with nonvalvular AF were consecutively enrolled between June 2016 and April 2017 from 10 tertiary hospitals in Korea. The AF type was paroxysmal, persistent, and permanent in 65.3%, 30.0%, and 2.9% of patients, respectively. Underlying structural heart disease was present in 11.9%. Mean CHA₂DS₂-VASc was 2.7±1.7. Oral anticoagulation (OAC), rate control, and rhythm control were used in 70.1%, 53.9%, and 54.4% of patients, respectively. OAC was performed in 82.7% of patients with a high stroke risk. However, antithrombotic therapy was inadequately used in 53.4% of patients with a low stroke risk. For rate control in 192 patients with low ejection fraction (<40%), β-blocker (65.6%), digoxin (5.2%), or both (19.3%) were adequately used in 90.1% of patients; however, a calcium channel blocker was inadequately used in 9.9%. A rhythm control strategy was chosen in 54.4% of patients. The prescribing rate of class Ic antiarrythmics, dronedarone, and sotalol was 16.9% of patients with low ejection fraction. This study shows how successfully guidelines can be applied in the real world. The nonadherence rate was 17.2%, 9.9%, and 22.4% for stroke prevention, rate control, and rhythm control, respectively. Copyright © 2017. The Korean Society of Cardiology

  15. A novel high-throughput format assay for HIV-1 integrase strand transfer reaction using magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    He, Hong-qiu; Ma, Xiao-hui; Liu, Bin; Chen, Wei-zu; Wang, Cun-xin; Cheng, Shao-hui

    2008-03-01

    To develop a novel high-throughput format assay to monitor the integrase (IN) strand transfer (ST) reaction in vitro and apply it to a reaction character study and the identification of antiviral drugs. The donor DNA duplex, with a sequence identical to the U5 end of HIV-1 long terminal repeats, is labeled at its 5' end with biotin (BIO). The target DNA duplex is labeled at its 3' end with digoxin (DIG). IN mediates the integration of donor DNA into target DNA and results in a 5' BIO and 3' DIG-labeled duplex DNA product. Streptavidin-coated magnetic beads were used to capture the product, and the amount of DIG was measured as the ST reaction product. The assay was optimized in 96-well microplate format for high-throughput screening purpose. Moreover, the assay was applied in a ST reaction character study, and the efficiency of the assay in the identification of antiviral compounds was tested. The end-point values, measured as absorbance at 405 nm was approximately 1.5 for the IN-mediated ST reaction as compared with no more than 0.05 of background readings. The ST reaction character and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 2 known IN inhibitors obtained in our assay were similar to previously reported results using other assays. The evaluation parameter Z' factor for this assay ranged from 0.6 to 0.9. The assay presented here has been proven to be rapid, sensitive, and specific for the detection of IN ST activity, the reaction character study, as well as for the identification of antiviral drugs targeting IN.

  16. Intact blood-brain barrier transport of small molecular drugs in animal models of amyloid beta and alpha-synuclein pathology.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Sofia; Lindström, Veronica; Ingelsson, Martin; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta; Syvänen, Stina

    2018-01-01

    Pathophysiological impairment of the neurovascular unit, including the integrity and dynamics of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), has been denoted both a cause and consequence of neurodegenerative diseases. Pathological impact on BBB drug delivery has also been debated. The aim of the present study was to investigate BBB drug transport, by determining the unbound brain-to-plasma concentration ratio (K p,uu,brain ), in aged AβPP-transgenic mice, α-synuclein transgenic mice, and wild type mice. Mice were dosed with a cassette of five compounds, including digoxin, levofloxacin (1 mg/kg, s.c.), paliperidone, oxycodone, and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg, s.c.). Brain and blood were collected at 0.5, 1, or 3 h after dosage. Drug concentrations were measured using LC-MS/MS. The total brain-to-plasma concentration ratio was calculated and equilibrium dialysis was used to determine the fraction of unbound drug in brain and plasma for all compounds. Together, these three measures were used to determine the K p,uu,brain value. Despite Aβ or α-synuclein pathology in the current animal models, no difference was observed in the extent of drug transport across the BBB compared to wild type animals for any of the compounds investigated. Hence, the present study shows that the concept of a leaking barrier within neurodegenerative conditions has to be interpreted with caution when estimating drug transport into the brain. The capability of the highly dynamic BBB to regulate brain drug exposure still seems to be intact despite the presence of pathology. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Interactome analysis of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus nucleoprotein in infected cells reveals ATPase Na+/K+ transporting subunit Alpha 1 and prohibitin as host-cell factors involved in the life cycle of mammarenaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Masaharu; Caì, Yíngyún; de la Torre, Juan C.

    2018-01-01

    Several mammalian arenaviruses (mammarenaviruses) cause hemorrhagic fevers in humans and pose serious public health concerns in their endemic regions. Additionally, mounting evidence indicates that the worldwide-distributed, prototypic mammarenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), is a neglected human pathogen of clinical significance. Concerns about human-pathogenic mammarenaviruses are exacerbated by of the lack of licensed vaccines, and current anti-mammarenavirus therapy is limited to off-label use of ribavirin that is only partially effective. Detailed understanding of virus/host-cell interactions may facilitate the development of novel anti-mammarenavirus strategies by targeting components of the host-cell machinery that are required for efficient virus multiplication. Here we document the generation of a recombinant LCMV encoding a nucleoprotein (NP) containing an affinity tag (rLCMV/Strep-NP) and its use to capture the NP-interactome in infected cells. Our proteomic approach combined with genetics and pharmacological validation assays identified ATPase Na+/K+ transporting subunit alpha 1 (ATP1A1) and prohibitin (PHB) as pro-viral factors. Cell-based assays revealed that ATP1A1 and PHB are involved in different steps of the virus life cycle. Accordingly, we observed a synergistic inhibitory effect on LCMV multiplication with a combination of ATP1A1 and PHB inhibitors. We show that ATP1A1 inhibitors suppress multiplication of Lassa virus and Candid#1, a live-attenuated vaccine strain of Junín virus, suggesting that the requirement of ATP1A1 in virus multiplication is conserved among genetically distantly related mammarenaviruses. Our findings suggest that clinically approved inhibitors of ATP1A1, like digoxin, could be repurposed to treat infections by mammarenaviruses pathogenic for humans. PMID:29462184

  18. Functional complementation between a novel mammalian polygenic transport complex and an evolutionarily ancient organic solute transporter, OSTalpha-OSTbeta.

    PubMed

    Seward, David J; Koh, Albert S; Boyer, James L; Ballatori, Nazzareno

    2003-07-25

    These studies identify an organic solute transporter (OST) that is generated when two novel gene products are co-expressed, namely human OSTalpha and OSTbeta or mouse OSTalpha and OSTbeta. The results also demonstrate that the mammalian proteins are functionally complemented by evolutionarily divergent Ostalpha-Ostbeta proteins recently identified in the little skate, Raja erinacea, even though the latter exhibit only 25-41% predicted amino acid identity with the mammalian proteins. Human, mouse, and skate OSTalpha proteins are predicted to contain seven transmembrane helices, whereas the OSTbeta sequences are predicted to have a single transmembrane helix. Human OSTalpha-OSTbeta and mouse Ostalpha-Ostbeta cDNAs were cloned from liver mRNA, sequenced, expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and tested for their ability to functionally complement the corresponding skate proteins by measuring transport of [3H]estrone 3-sulfate. None of the proteins elicited a transport signal when expressed individually in oocytes; however, all nine OSTalpha-OSTbeta combinations (i.e. OSTalpha-OSTbeta pairs from human, mouse, or skate) generated robust estrone 3-sulfate transport activity. Transport was sodium-independent, saturable, and inhibited by other steroids and anionic drugs. Human and mouse OSTalpha-OSTbeta also were able to mediate transport of taurocholate, digoxin, and prostaglandin E2 but not of estradiol 17beta-d-glucuronide or p-aminohippurate. OSTalpha and OSTbeta were able to reach the oocyte plasma membrane when expressed either individually or in pairs, indicating that co-expression is not required for proper membrane targeting. Interestingly, OSTalpha and OSTbeta mRNAs were highly expressed and widely distributed in human tissues, with the highest levels occurring in the testis, colon, liver, small intestine, kidney, ovary, and adrenal gland.

  19. Comparing errors in ED computer-assisted vs conventional pediatric drug dosing and administration.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Loren; Kanemori, Joan

    2010-06-01

    Compared to fixed-dose single-vial drug administration in adults, pediatric drug dosing and administration requires a series of calculations, all of which are potentially error prone. The purpose of this study is to compare error rates and task completion times for common pediatric medication scenarios using computer program assistance vs conventional methods. Two versions of a 4-part paper-based test were developed. Each part consisted of a set of medication administration and/or dosing tasks. Emergency department and pediatric intensive care unit nurse volunteers completed these tasks using both methods (sequence assigned to start with a conventional or a computer-assisted approach). Completion times, errors, and the reason for the error were recorded. Thirty-eight nurses completed the study. Summing the completion of all 4 parts, the mean conventional total time was 1243 seconds vs the mean computer program total time of 879 seconds (P < .001). The conventional manual method had a mean of 1.8 errors vs the computer program with a mean of 0.7 errors (P < .001). Of the 97 total errors, 36 were due to misreading the drug concentration on the label, 34 were due to calculation errors, and 8 were due to misplaced decimals. Of the 36 label interpretation errors, 18 (50%) occurred with digoxin or insulin. Computerized assistance reduced errors and the time required for drug administration calculations. A pattern of errors emerged, noting that reading/interpreting certain drug labels were more error prone. Optimizing the layout of drug labels could reduce the error rate for error-prone labels. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The central mechanism underlying hypertension: a review of the roles of sodium ions, epithelial sodium channels, the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, oxidative stress and endogenous digitalis in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Hakuo; Yoshika, Masamichi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Nishimura, Masato

    2011-01-01

    The central nervous system has a key role in regulating the circulatory system by modulating the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, pituitary hormone release, and the baroreceptor reflex. Digoxin- and ouabain-like immunoreactive materials were found >20 years ago in the hypothalamic nuclei. These factors appeared to localize to the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei and the nerve fibers at the circumventricular organs and supposed to affect electrolyte balance and blood pressure. The turnover rate of these materials increases with increasing sodium intake. As intracerebroventricular injection of ouabain increases blood pressure via sympathetic activation, an endogenous digitalis-like factor (EDLF) was thought to regulate cardiovascular system-related functions in the brain, particularly after sodium loading. Experiments conducted mainly in rats revealed that the mechanism of action of ouabain in the brain involves sodium ions, epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) and the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), all of which are affected by sodium loading. Rats fed a high-sodium diet develop elevated sodium levels in their cerebrospinal fluid, which activates ENaCs. Activated ENaCs and/or increased intracellular sodium in neurons activate the RAAS; this releases EDLF in the brain, activating the sympathetic nervous system. The RAAS promotes oxidative stress in the brain, further activating the RAAS and augmenting sympathetic outflow. Angiotensin II and aldosterone of peripheral origin act in the brain to activate this cascade, increasing sympathetic outflow and leading to hypertension. Thus, the brain Na+–ENaC–RAAS–EDLF axis activates sympathetic outflow and has a crucial role in essential and secondary hypertension. This report provides an overview of the central mechanism underlying hypertension and discusses the use of antihypertensive agents. PMID:21814209

  1. Evaluation of documented drug interactions and contraindications associated with herbs and dietary supplements: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Tsai, H-H; Lin, H-W; Simon Pickard, A; Tsai, H-Y; Mahady, G B

    2012-11-01

    The use of herbs and dietary supplements (HDS) alone or concomitantly with medications can potentially increase the risk of adverse events experienced by the patients. This review aims to evaluate the documented HDS-drug interactions and contraindications. A structured literature review was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, tertiary literature and Internet. While 85 primary literatures, six books and two web sites were reviewed for a total of 1,491 unique pairs of HDS-drug interactions, 213 HDS entities and 509 medications were involved. HDS products containing St. John's Wort, magnesium, calcium, iron, ginkgo had the greatest number of documented interactions with medications. Warfarin, insulin, aspirin, digoxin, and ticlopidine had the greatest number of reported interactions with HDS. Medications affecting the central nervous system or cardiovascular system had more documented interactions with HDS. Of the 882 HDS-drug interactions being described its mechanism and severity, 42.3% were due to altered pharmacokinetics and 240 were described as major interactions. Of the 152 identified HDS contraindications, the most frequent involved gastrointestinal (16.4%), neurological (14.5%), and renal/genitourinary diseases (12.5%). Flaxseed, echinacea, and yohimbe had the largest number of documented contraindications. Although HDS-drug interactions and contraindications primarily concerned a relatively small subset of commonly used medications and HDS entities, this review provides the summary to identify patients, HDS products, and medications that are more susceptible to HDS-drug interactions and contraindications. The findings would facilitate the health-care professionals to communicate these documented interactions and contraindications to their patients and/or caregivers thereby preventing serious adverse events and improving desired therapeutic outcomes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. RADIOACTIVE IODINE THERAPY WITHOUT RECENT ANTITHYROID DRUG PRETREATMENT FOR HYPERTHYROIDISM COMPLICATED BY SEVERE HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA DUE TO HEPATIC DYSFUNCTION: EXPERIENCE OF A CHINESE MEDICAL CENTER.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yong; Xing, Jialiu; Qiu, Zewu; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Youren; Fang, Yi; Peng, Xiaobo; Long, Yahong; Deng, Pei

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this work is to report our experience with (131)I therapy without recent antithyroid drug (ATD) pretreatment for refractory severe hyperthyroidism complicated by hyperbilirubinemia due to hepatic dysfunction. Five patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism were treated with (131)I at 90 to 120 μCi/g-thyroid (total activity, 6.2 to 10.1 mCi). The patients previously had received ATD treatment from 2 months to 12 years and discontinued ATDs from 2 months to 4 years before (131)I treatment due to treatment failure or severe jaundice. Prior to (131)I therapy, the patients were asked to take a low-iodine diet and were treated with bisoprolol fumarate, digoxin, furosemide, S-adenosylmethionine, polyene phosphatidylcholine, and plasma exchange as supportive treatment for related clinical conditions. Four of the patients also received lithium carbonate in conjunction with their (131)I treatment. The patients were followed for 4 to 9 years after (131)I therapy. After (131)I treatment, jaundice disappeared completely within 3 to 4 months in all patients, and liver function tests returned to normal. Concurrent atrial fibrillation and heart failure, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, or thrombocytopenia and left cardiac enlargement improved remarkably in 3 patients during the follow-up period. Three to 45 months after (131)I treatment, hypothyroidism was noted in the patients and they were treated with L-thyroxine replacement therapy. (131)I therapy without recent ATD pretreatment for refractory severe hyperthyroidism complicated by serious jaundice appears to be safe and effective, with good long-term results. It may be the preferred therapy for such patients and should be used as early as possible.

  3. Medication use and major depressive syndrome in a community population.

    PubMed

    Patten, S B; Lavorato, D H

    2001-01-01

    A variety of medications have been reported to cause depression as a side effect. This study evaluated cross-sectional associations between a variety of medications and a syndrome resembling major depression. A sample of 2,542 subjects were selected using the Mitofsky-Waksberg random digit dialing (RDD) procedure. Major depression was evaluated using a short form version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Current medication use was recorded during the same telephone interview. Statistical methods accounting for clustering and unequal selection probabilities were employed. Most medications were not associated with major depression: these included beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, lipid-lowering agents, digoxin, and diuretics. Calcium channel blockers were significantly associated with major depression, but only in a subset of young subjects, and these tended to be seriously ill individuals taking multiple medications. Opiate analgesics were associated with major depression, but only in male subjects. Corticosteroids were significantly associated with major depression in a logistic regression model that adjusted for age and gender. The cross-sectional nature of this study precludes causal inference about the observed associations. With the exception of the association of major depression with corticosteroid use, convincing associations with other medications were not observed. It is possible that medication-induced depressive episodes lead to changes in exposure status (such as discontinuation of the offending medications) such that the associations are not apparent in cross-sectional data. If this interpretation is correct, these data suggest that the problem of medication-induced depression is being managed effectively at the clinical level and is not a substantial public health problem. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  4. Caco-2 cells - expression, regulation and function of drug transporters compared with human jejunal tissue.

    PubMed

    Brück, S; Strohmeier, J; Busch, D; Drozdzik, M; Oswald, S

    2017-03-01

    Induction or inhibition of drug transporting proteins by concomitantly administered drugs can cause serious drug-drug interactions (DDIs). However, in vitro assays currently available are mostly for studying the inhibitory potential of drugs on intestinal transporter proteins, rather than induction. Therefore, this study investigated the suitability of the frequently used intestinal Caco-2 cell line to predict transporter-mediated DDIs as caused by induction via activation of nuclear receptors. TaqMan® low density arrays and LC-MS/MS based targeted proteomics were used to evaluate transporter expression in Caco-2 cells in comparison with jejunal tissue, in culture-time dependence studies and after incubation with different known inducers of drug metabolism and transport. Additionally, studies on ABCB1 function were performed using Transwell® assays with [ 3 H]-digoxin and [ 3 H]-talinolol as substrates after incubation with the prototypical inducers rifampicin, St John's wort, carbamazepine and efavirenz. The gene and protein expression pattern of drug transporters in Caco-2 cells and jejunal tissue differed considerably. For some transporters culture-time dependent differences in mRNA expression and/or protein abundance could be determined. Finally, none of the studied prototypical inducers showed an effect either on mRNA expression and protein abundance or on the function of ABCB1. Differences in transporter expression in Caco-2 cells compared with jejunal tissue, as well as expression dependence on culture time must be considered in in vitro studies to avoid under- or overestimation of certain transporters. The Caco-2 cell model is not suitable for the evaluation of DDIs caused by transporter induction. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The effects of retinal abnormalities on the multifocal visual evoked potential.

    PubMed

    Chen, John Y; Hood, Donald C; Odel, Jeffrey G; Behrens, Myles M

    2006-10-01

    To examine the effects on the amplitude and latency of the multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) in retinal diseases associated with depressed multifocal electroretinograms (mfERG). Static automated perimetry (SAP), mfERGs, and mfVEPs were obtained from 15 individuals seen by neuro-ophthalmologists and diagnosed with retinal disease based on funduscopic examination, visual field, and mfERG. Optic neuropathy was ruled out in all cases. Diagnoses included autoimmune retinopathy (n = 3), branch retinal arterial occlusion (n = 3), branch retinal vein occlusion (n = 1), vitamin A deficiency (n = 1), digoxin/age-related macular degeneration (n = 1), multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (n = 1), and nonspecific retinal disease (n = 5). Patients were selected from a larger group based on abnormal mfERG amplitudes covering a diameter of 20 degrees or greater. Fourteen (93%) of 15 patients showed significant mfVEP delays, as determined by either mean latency or the probability of a cluster of delayed local responses. Thirteen of 15 patients had normal mfVEP amplitudes in regions corresponding to markedly reduced or nonrecordable mfERG responses. These findings can be mimicked in normal individuals by viewing the display through a neutral-density filter. Retinal diseases can result in mfVEPs of relatively normal amplitudes, often with delays, in regions showing decreased mfERG responses and visual field sensitivity loss. Consequently, a retinal problem can be missed, or dismissed as functional, if a diagnosis is based on an mfVEP of normal or near-normal amplitude. Further, in patients with marked mfVEP delays, a retinal problem could be confused with optic neuritis, especially in a patient with a normal appearing fundus.

  6. Ivabradine: Current and Future Treatment of Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Thorup, Lene; Simonsen, Ulf; Grimm, Daniela; Hedegaard, Elise R

    2017-08-01

    In heart failure (HF), the heart cannot pump blood efficiently and is therefore unable to meet the body's demands of oxygen, and/or there is increased end-diastolic pressure. Current treatments for HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) include angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotension receptor type 1 (AT 1 ) antagonists, β-adrenoceptor antagonists, aldosterone receptor antagonists, diuretics, digoxin and a combination drug with AT 1 receptor antagonist and neprilysin inhibitor. In HF, the risk of readmission for hospital and mortality is markedly higher with a heart rate (HR) above 70 bpm. Here, we review the evidence regarding the use of ivabradine for lowering HR in HF. Ivabradine is a blocker of an I funny current (I(f)) channel and causes rate-dependent inhibition of the pacemaker activity in the sinoatrial node. In clinical trials of HFrEF, treatment with ivabradine seems to improve clinical outcome, for example improved ejection fraction (EF) and less readmission for hospital, but the effect appears most pronounced in patients with HRs above 70 bpm, while the effect on cardiovascular death appears less consistent. The adverse effects of ivabradine include bradycardia, atrial fibrillation and visual disturbances, but ivabradine avoids the negative inotrope effects observed with β-adrenoceptor antagonists. In conclusion, in patients with stable HFrEF with EF<35% and HR above 70 bpm, ivabradine improves the outcome and might be a first choice of therapy, if beta-adrenoceptor antagonists are not tolerated. Further studies must show whether that can be extended to HF patients with preserved EF. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  7. Texas Red transport across rat and dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) choroid plexus

    PubMed Central

    Reichel, Valeska; Miller, David S.; Fricker, Gert

    2008-01-01

    Confocal microscopy and image analysis were used to compare driving forces, specificity, and regulation of transport of the fluorescent organic anion, Texas Red (sulforhodamine 101 free acid; TR), in lateral choroid plexus (CP) isolated from rat and an evolutionarily ancient vertebrate, dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias). CP from both species exhibited concentrative, specific, and metabolism-dependent TR transport from bath to subepithelial/vascular space; at steady state, TR accumulation in vascular/subepithelial space was substantially higher than in epithelial cells. In rat CP, steady-state TR accumulation in subepithelial/vascular spaces was reduced by Na+-replacement, but was not affected by a 10-fold increase in buffer K+. In shark CP, Na+-replacement did not alter TR accumulation in either tissue compartment; subepithelial/vascular space levels of TR were reduced in high-K+ medium. In both species, steady-state TR accumulation was not affected by p-aminohippurate or leukotriene C4, suggesting that neither organic anion transporters (SLC22A family) nor multidrug resistance-associated proteins (ABCC family) contributed. In rat CP, digoxin was without effect, indicating that organic anion transporting polypeptide isoform 2 was not involved. Several organic anions reduced cellular and subepithelial/vascular space TR accumulation in both tissues, including estrone sulfate, taurocholate, and the Mrp1 inhibitor MK571. In rat CP, TR accumulation in subepithelial/vascular spaces increased with PKA activation (forskolin), but was not affected by PKC activation (phorbol ester). In shark, neither PKA nor PKC activation specifically affected TR transport. Thus, rat and dogfish shark CP transport TR but do so using different basic mechanisms that respond to different regulatory signals. PMID:18650317

  8. Texas Red transport across rat and dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) choroid plexus.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Valeska; Miller, David S; Fricker, Gert

    2008-10-01

    Confocal microscopy and image analysis were used to compare driving forces, specificity, and regulation of transport of the fluorescent organic anion, Texas Red (sulforhodamine 101 free acid; TR), in lateral choroid plexus (CP) isolated from rat and an evolutionarily ancient vertebrate, dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias). CP from both species exhibited concentrative, specific, and metabolism-dependent TR transport from bath to subepithelial/vascular space; at steady state, TR accumulation in vascular/subepithelial space was substantially higher than in epithelial cells. In rat CP, steady-state TR accumulation in subepithelial/vascular spaces was reduced by Na(+)-replacement, but was not affected by a 10-fold increase in buffer K(+). In shark CP, Na(+)-replacement did not alter TR accumulation in either tissue compartment; subepithelial/vascular space levels of TR were reduced in high-K(+) medium. In both species, steady-state TR accumulation was not affected by p-aminohippurate or leukotriene C4, suggesting that neither organic anion transporters (SLC22A family) nor multidrug resistance-associated proteins (ABCC family) contributed. In rat CP, digoxin was without effect, indicating that organic anion transporting polypeptide isoform 2 was not involved. Several organic anions reduced cellular and subepithelial/vascular space TR accumulation in both tissues, including estrone sulfate, taurocholate, and the Mrp1 inhibitor MK571. In rat CP, TR accumulation in subepithelial/vascular spaces increased with PKA activation (forskolin), but was not affected by PKC activation (phorbol ester). In shark, neither PKA nor PKC activation specifically affected TR transport. Thus, rat and dogfish shark CP transport TR but do so using different basic mechanisms that respond to different regulatory signals.

  9. Laboratory Monitoring of Patients Treated with Antihypertensive Drugs and Newly Exposed to Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Jean-Pascal; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Sommet, Agnès; Dupouy, Julie; Poutrain, Jean-Christophe; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    Background Drug-Drug Interactions between Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs), Angiotensin Receptor Blocker (ARBs) or diuretics can lead to renal failure and hyperkalemia. Thus, monitoring of serum creatinine and potassium is recommended when a first dispensing of NSAID occur in patients treated with these drugs. Methods We conducted a pharmacoepidemiological retrospective cohort study using data from the French Health Insurance Reimbursement Database to evaluate the proportion of serum creatinine and potassium laboratory monitoring in patients treated with ACEI, ARB or diuretic and receiving a first dispensing of NSAID. We described the first dispensing of NSAID among 3,500 patients of a 4-year cohort (6,633 patients treated with antihypertensive drugs) and analyzed serum creatinine and potassium laboratory monitoring within the 3 weeks after the first NSAID dispensing. Results General Practitioners were the most frequent prescribers of NSAIDs (85.5%, 95% CI: 84.3–86.6). The more commonly prescribed NSAIDs were ibuprofen (20%), ketoprofen (15%), diclofenac (15%) and piroxicam (12%). Serum creatinine and potassium monitoring was 10.7% (95% CI: 9.5–11.8) in patients treated by ACEIs, ARBs or diuretics. Overall, monitoring was more frequently performed to women aged over 60, treated with digoxin or glucose lowering drugs, but not to patients treated with ACEIs, ARBs or diuretics. Monitoring was more frequent when NSAIDs' prescribers were cardiologists or anesthesiologists. Conclusion Monitoring of serum creatinine and potassium of patients treated with ACEIs, ARBs or diuretics and receiving a first NSAID dispensing is insufficiently performed and needs to be reinforced through specific interventions. PMID:22479557

  10. Efficacy of spironolactone on survival in dogs with naturally occurring mitral regurgitation caused by myxomatous mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    Bernay, F; Bland, J M; Häggström, J; Baduel, L; Combes, B; Lopez, A; Kaltsatos, V

    2010-01-01

    Spironolactone, an aldosterone antagonist, has been demonstrated to decrease mortality in human patients when added to other cardiac therapies. Spironolactone in addition to conventional therapy increases survival compared with conventional therapy in dogs with naturally occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). Between February 2003 and March 2005, 221 dogs were recruited in Europe. Nine dogs were excluded from analysis, leaving 212 dogs with moderate to severe mitral regurgitation (MR) caused by MMVD (International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council classification classes II [n = 190] and III [n = 21]). Double-blinded, field study conducted with dogs randomized to receive either spironolactone (2 mg/kg once a day) or placebo in addition to conventional therapy (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, plus furosemide and digoxin if needed). Primary endpoint was a composite of cardiac-related death, euthanasia, or severe worsening of MR. Primary endpoint reached by 11/102 dogs (10.8%) in the spironolactone group (6 deaths, 5 worsening) versus 28/110 (25.5%) in control group (14 deaths, 8 euthanasia, 6 worsening). Risk of reaching the composite endpoint significantly decreased by 55% (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.45; 95% confidence limits [CL], 0.22-0.90; log rank test, P = .017). Risk of cardiac-related death or euthanasia significantly reduced by 69% (HR = 0.31; 95% CL, 0.13-0.76; P = .0071). Number of dogs not completing the study for cardiac and other miscellaneous reasons similar in spironolactone (67/102) and control groups (66/110). Spironolactone added to conventional cardiac therapy decreases the risk of reaching the primary endpoint (ie, cardiac-related death, euthanasia, or severe worsening) in dogs with moderate to severe MR caused by MMVD.

  11. Screening approach by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the blood quantification of thirty-four toxic principles of plant origin. Application to forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Jérémy; Guitton, Jérôme; Romeuf, Ludovic; Bévalot, Fabien; Boyer, Baptiste; Fanton, Laurent; Gaillard, Yvan

    2015-01-15

    Plant poisonings have left their mark on history and still cause many deaths, whether intentional or accidental. The means to show toxicological evidence of such poisonings should be implemented with great care. This article presents a technique for measuring thirty-nine toxic principles of plant origin in the blood, covering a large amount of toxins from local or exotic plants: α-lobeline, α-solanine, aconitine, ajmaline, atropine, brucine, cephalomannine, colchicine, convallatoxin, cymarine, cytisine, digitoxin, digoxin, emetine, gelsemine, ibogaine, jervine, kavain, lanatoside C, lupanine, mitragynine, neriifolin, oleandrin, ouabain, paclitaxel, physostigmine, pilocarpine, podophyllotoxin, proscillaridin A, reserpine, retrorsine, ricinine, scopolamine, senecionine, sparteine, strophanthidin, strychnine, veratridine and yohimbine. Analysis was carried out using an original ultra-high performance liquid chromatography separation coupled with tandem mass spectrometry detection. Extraction was a standard solid phase extraction performed on Oasis(®) HLB cartridge. Thirty-four of the thirty-nine compounds were put through a validation procedure. The assay was linear in the calibration curve range from 0.5 or 5 μg/L to 1000 μg/L according to the compounds. The method is sensitive (LOD from 0.1 to 1.6 μg/L). The within-day precision of the assay was less than 22.5% at the LLOQ, and the between-day precision was less than 21.5% for 10 μg/L for all the compounds included. The assay accuracy was in the range of 87.4 to 119.8% for the LLOQ. The extraction recovery and matrix effect ranged from 30 to 106% and from -30 to 14%, respectively. It has proven useful and effective in several difficult forensic cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Partial trisomy 14q and monosomy 20q due to an unbalanced familial translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Menasse-Palmer, L; Leo, J.; Cannizaro, L.

    Partial trisomy of distal 14q and monosomy of 20q are rare. There have been several reports of a partial distal trisomy 14q with characteristic clinical findings, including hypogonadism and a conotruncal cardiac anomaly. There is no deletion distal 20q syndrome. We have recently examined a newborn with this unique duplication/deletion syndrome. Case report: J.S. was the 2980 gm product of a term uneventful pregnancy delivered to a 24-year-old gravida 2, para 1001 mother. The newborn exam revealed a dysmorphic newborn male with a sloping forehead, bitemporal narrowing, glabellar furrowing and micrognathia. A systolic murmur was audible. The genital abnormalities weremore » micropenis, hypospadias with chordee and bifid scrotum with prominent raphe, and gonads were palpable. A CAT scan of the head revealed grade I IVH. An echocardiogram showed a VSD, ASD and an AP window. A sonogram of the liver showed absence of the gallbladder. Chromosome analysis revealed an abnormal male karyotype containing a derivative 20, subsequently shown to be inherited as a result of malsegregation of a paternal translocation: 46,XY,-20,+der(20)t(14;20)(q32.1;q13.3)pat. The infant fed poorly and required tube feedings and was treated for congestive heart failure with Digoxin, Lasix and oxygen. A decreased cortisol level and cholestasis were noted. The infant died after a cardiopulmonary arrest at one month of age. No post-mortem was obtained. Clinical cytogenetic correlation (conotruncal abnormality and hypogonadism) with partial duplication of distal 14q was positive. This case helps to further delineate duplication 14q and a syndrome due to partial deletion 20q.« less

  13. "If they can't tell the difference between duphalac and digoxin you've got patient safety issues". Nurse Lecturers' constructions of students' dyslexic identities in nurse education.

    PubMed

    Evans, William

    2014-06-01

    The paper explores how student nurses with a dyslexic identity were discursively constructed by lecturing staff in nurse education. An increasing number of students completing programmes of study in higher education are registering and disclosing one or more disabilities to their respective institutional support services. As students with dyslexia enter the nursing profession, they bring with them their own unique identity that situates their disability in a specific light. Nurse lecturers play an integral role in supporting all students including those with a disability; however no previous research has attempted to examine the language they use to construct students with a dyslexic identity. Critically, the internalised views of those with teaching and learning responsibilities who directly interact with students with disabilities have a critical influence on the nature of the supports provided, as well as decisions about students' professional competence. Discussions that centre on the inclusion of individuals with disability in healthcare education are shaped by language and diverse ways of understanding, therefore, an exploratory discursive design, examining how dyslexic identities are socially constructed by nurse lecturers is an overarching focus of the paper. Using narrative interviewing, twelve nurse lecturers from two higher education institutions in the Republic of Ireland were interviewed during the period February to July 2012. Discourse analysis was guided by a narrative-discursive approach. Nurse lecturers identified 'Getting the work done' as a critical component to becoming a nurse, where expectations associated with efficiency and independence superseded students' right to accommodation. An implicit mild-severe binary existed amongst lecturers while categorising students with dyslexia, with those placed in the latter considered professionally unsuitable. These concerns are individually critiqued. Critically, policy leaders must continue to consider wider sociocultural as well as individualised understandings of dyslexic identities in order to enhance inclusion prerogatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preventing Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation After Noncardiac Surgery: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Oesterle, Adam; Weber, Benjamin; Tung, Roderick; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Singh, Jagmeet P; Upadhyay, Gaurav A

    2018-07-01

    Although postoperative atrial fibrillation is common after noncardiac surgery, there is a paucity of data regarding prophylaxis. We sought to determine whether pharmacologic prophylaxis reduces the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation after noncardiac surgery. We performed an electronic search of Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane central register of controlled trials database, and SCOPUS from inception to September 7, 2016 and included prospective randomized studies in which patients in sinus rhythm underwent noncardiac surgery and examined the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation as well as secondary safety outcomes. Twenty-one studies including 11,608 patients were included. Types of surgery included vascular surgery (3465 patients), thoracic surgery (2757 patients), general surgery (2292 patients), orthopedic surgery (1756 patients), and other surgery (1338 patients). Beta-blockers (relative risk [RR] 0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.87), amiodarone (RR 0.42; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.67), and statins (RR 0.43; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.68) reduced postoperative atrial fibrillation compared with placebo or active controls. Calcium channel blockers (RR 0.55; 95% CI, 0.30 to 1.01), digoxin (RR 1.62; 95% CI, 0.95 to 2.76), and magnesium (RR 0.73; 95% CI, 0.23 to 2.33) had no statistically significant effect on postoperative atrial fibrillation incidence. The incidence of adverse events was comparable across agents, except for increased mortality (RR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.37) and bradycardia (RR 2.74; 95% CI, 2.19 to 3.43) in patients receiving beta-blockers. Pharmacologic prophylaxis with amiodarone, beta-blockers, or statins reduces the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation after noncardiac surgery. Amiodarone and statins have a relatively low overall risk of short-term adverse events. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An audit of adherence to heart failure guidelines in an Australian hospital: A pharmacist perspective.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Viviane; Danninger, Melanie; Wang, Wei; Khalil, Hanan

    2017-12-01

    The Australian National Heart Foundation Guidelines have been developed to guide clinicians on how to best manage chronic heart failure (CHF) patients according to the current best available evidence. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the proportion of patients prescribed evidence-based therapy (EBT) for CHF on discharge at this Australian metropolitan hospital and factors affecting its prescribing. The secondary aims are to examine the proportion of patients prescribed EBT on discharge on cardiac wards compared to medical wards and to explore the role of the pharmacist in the management of these patients. A retrospective audit of patients' medical notes who were admitted consecutively for CHF management was conducted over 6 months to examine their management. The results showed at discharge, a total of 52% of patients were discharged on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, 49% were discharged on β-blockers, 15% were on Aldosterone receptor antagonists, 90% were discharged on diuretics, and 29% were discharged on Digoxin. The main determinants of prescribing EBT on discharge were the presence of prescribing contraindications and patients' comorbidities. Patients discharged from cardiac wards were more likely to be prescribed EBT than if discharged on medical wards. Furthermore, in the subset of the cohort who was reviewed by a pharmacist during admission, a higher percentage of patients were discharged on EBT compared with those who did not have a pharmaceutical input. This study highlighted existing gaps between the National CHF Guidelines and clinical prescribing practice in this hospital. Patients who were discharged from cardiac wards were more likely to be prescribed medications concordant with the guidelines, and there is further opportunity for pharmacists to assist in closing gaps in prescribing practice by the promotion of adherence to these guidelines. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The occurrence of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs in surface water in South Wales, UK.

    PubMed

    Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Dinsdale, Richard M; Guwy, Alan J

    2008-07-01

    The presence and fate of 56 pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs (PPCPs) were investigated in the South Wales region of the UK. Two contrasting rivers: River Taff and River Ely were chosen for this investigation and were monitored for a period of 10 months. The impact of the factors affecting the levels of concentration of PPCPs and illicit drugs in surface water such as surrounding area, proximity to wastewater effluent and weather conditions, mainly rainfall was also investigated. Most PPCPs were frequently found in river water at concentrations reaching single microgL(-1) and their levels depended mainly on the extent of water dilution resulting from rainfall. Discharge of treated wastewater effluent into the river course was found to be the main cause of water contamination with PPCPs. The most frequently detected PPCPs represent the group of pharmaceuticals dispensed at the highest levels in the Welsh community. These were antibacterial drugs (trimethoprim, erythromycin-H(2)O and amoxicillin), anti-inflammatories/analgesics (paracetamol, tramadol, codeine, naproxen, ibuprofen and diclofenac) and antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine and gabapentin). Only four PPCPs out of 56 (simvastatin, pravastatin, digoxin and digoxigenin) were not quantified over the course of the study. Several PPCPs were found to be both ubiquitous and persistent in the aqueous environment (e.g. erythromycin-H(2)O, codeine, carbamazepine, gabapentin and valsartan). The calculated average daily loads of PPCPs indicated that in total almost 6 kg of studied PPCPs are discharged daily into the studied rivers. The illicit drugs studied were found in rivers at low levels of ng L(-1). Average daily loads of amphetamine, cocaine and its main metabolite benzoylecgonine were as follows: 8, 1.2 and 39 gday(-1), respectively. Their frequent occurrence in surface water is primarily associated with their high illegal usage and is strongly associated with the

  17. Ischemia reperfusion dysfunction changes model-estimated kinetics of myofilament interaction due to inotropic drugs in isolated hearts

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Samhita S; Camara, Amadou KS; Ropella, Kristina M; Audi, Said H; Riess, Matthias L; Pagel, Paul S; Stowe, David F

    2006-01-01

    Background The phase-space relationship between simultaneously measured myoplasmic [Ca2+] and isovolumetric left ventricular pressure (LVP) in guinea pig intact hearts is altered by ischemic and inotropic interventions. Our objective was to mathematically model this phase-space relationship between [Ca2+] and LVP with a focus on the changes in cross-bridge kinetics and myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity responsible for alterations in Ca2+-contraction coupling due to inotropic drugs in the presence and absence of ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. Methods We used a four state computational model to predict LVP using experimentally measured, averaged myoplasmic [Ca2+] transients from unpaced, isolated guinea pig hearts as the model input. Values of model parameters were estimated by minimizing the error between experimentally measured LVP and model-predicted LVP. Results We found that IR injury resulted in reduced myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity, and decreased cross-bridge association and dissociation rates. Dopamine (8 μM) reduced myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity before, but enhanced it after ischemia while improving cross-bridge kinetics before and after IR injury. Dobutamine (4 μM) reduced myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity while improving cross-bridge kinetics before and after ischemia. Digoxin (1 μM) increased myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity and cross-bridge kinetics after but not before ischemia. Levosimendan (1 μM) enhanced myofilament Ca2+ affinity and cross-bridge kinetics only after ischemia. Conclusion Estimated model parameters reveal mechanistic changes in Ca2+-contraction coupling due to IR injury, specifically the inefficient utilization of Ca2+ for contractile function with diastolic contracture (increase in resting diastolic LVP). The model parameters also reveal drug-induced improvements in Ca2+-contraction coupling before and after IR injury. PMID:16512898

  18. Prescription patterns of diuretics in Dutch community-dwelling elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Van Kraaij, Dave J W; Jansen, René W M M; De Gier, Johan J; Gribnau, Frank W J; Hoefnagels, Willibrord H L

    1998-01-01

    Aims To describe age-and gender-related prescription patterns of diuretics in community-dwelling elderly, and to compare diuretics to other cardiovascular (CV) medications. Methods Cross-sectional study of patient-specific prescription data derived from a panel of 10 Dutch community pharmacies. Determination of proportional prescription rates and prescribed daily dose (PDD) of diuretics, cardiac glycosides, nitrates, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, β-adrenoceptor blockers, and calcium channel blockers in all 5326 patients aged 65 years or older dispensed CV medications between August 1st, 1995 and February 1st, 1996. Results Diuretics were prescribed to 2677 of 5326 patients (50.3%), 1325 patients (24.9%) using thiazides and 1198 patients (22.5%) using loop diuretics. Prescription rates of loop diuretics increased from 15.1% in patients aged 65–74 years to 37.2% in patients aged 85 years or older. Rates also increased for digoxin and nitrates. Rates for thiazide diuretics remained unchanged with age; rates for β-adrenoceptor blockers, ACE inhibitors and calcium channel blockers declined with age. Thiazides were prescribed to 30.1% of women compared with 16% of men (P<0.001). Average PDD was 135±117% of defined daily dose (DDD) for loop diuretics, and highest for bumetanide (245±2.01% of DDD, equivalent to 2.5±2.0 mg). Average PDD was 74±40% of DDD for thiazides, and highest for chlorthalidone (100±49% of DDD, equivalent to 25±12 mg). Conclusions Important characteristics of diuretic usage patterns in this elderly population were a steep increase in loop diuretic use in the oldest old, a large gender difference for thiazide use, and high prescribed doses for thiazides. PMID:9803990

  19. [Intoxications with plants].

    PubMed

    Kupper, Jacqueline; Reichert, Cornelia

    2009-05-01

    Ingestions of plants rarely lead to life-threatening intoxications. Highly toxic plants, which can cause death, are monkshood (Aconitum sp.), yew (Taxus sp.) and autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale). Lethal ingestions of monkshood and yew are usually suicides, intoxications with autumn crocus are mostly accidental ingestions of the leaves mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Severe intoxications can occur with plants of the nightshade family like deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), angel's trumpet (Datura suaveolens) or jimsonweed (Datura stramonium). These plants are ingested for their psychoactive effects. Ingestion of plant material by children most often only causes minor symptoms or no symptoms at all, as children usually do not eat great quantities of the plants. They are especially attracted by the colorful berries. There are plants with mostly cardiovascular effects like monkshood, yew and Digitalis sp. Some of the most dangerous plants belong to this group. Plants of the nightshade family cause an anticholinergic syndrome. With golden chain (Laburnum anagyroides), castor bean (Ricinus communis) and raw beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) we see severe gastrointestinal effects. Autumn crocus contains a cell toxin, colchicine, which leads to multiorgan failure. Different plants are irritative or even caustic to the skin. Treatment is usually symptomatic. Activated charcoal is administered within one hour after ingestion (1 g/kg). Endoscopic removal of plant material can be considered with ingestions of great quantities of highly toxic plants. Administration of repeated doses of charcoal (1-2 g/h every 2-4 hours) may be effective in case of oleander poisoning. There exist only two antidotes: Anti-digoxin Fab fragments can be used with cardenolide glycoside-containing plants (Digitalis sp., Oleander). Physostigmine is the antidote for severe anticholinergic symptoms of the CNS. Antibodies against colchicine, having been developed in France, are not available at

  20. Thirty Years of Evidence on the Efficacy of Drug Treatments for Chronic Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Earley, Amy; Voors, Adriaan A.; Senni, Michele; McMurray, John J.V.; Deschaseaux, Celine; Cope, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    Background— Treatments that reduce mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), β-blockers (BB), mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA), and angiotensin receptor–neprilysin inhibitors (ARNI), have not been studied in a head-to-head fashion. This network meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficacy of these drugs and their combinations regarding all-cause mortality in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Methods and Results— A systematic literature review identified 57 randomized controlled trials published between 1987 and 2015, which were compared in terms of study and patient characteristics, baseline risk, outcome definitions, and the observed treatment effects. Despite differences identified in terms of study duration, New York Heart Association class, ejection fraction, and use of background digoxin, a network meta-analysis was considered feasible and all trials were analyzed simultaneously. The random-effects network meta-analysis suggested that the combination of ACEI+BB+MRA was associated with a 56% reduction in mortality versus placebo (hazard ratio 0.44, 95% credible interval 0.26–0.66); ARNI+BB+MRA was associated with the greatest reduction in all-cause mortality versus placebo (hazard ratio 0.37, 95% credible interval 0.19–0.65). A sensitivity analysis that did not account for background therapy suggested that ARNI monotherapy is more efficacious than ACEI or ARB monotherapy. Conclusions— The network meta-analysis showed that treatment with ACEI, ARB, BB, MRA, and ARNI and their combinations were better than the treatment with placebo in reducing all-cause mortality, with the exception of ARB monotherapy and ARB plus ACEI. The combination of ARNI+BB+MRA resulted in the greatest mortality reduction. PMID:28087688

  1. Cost-effective differentiation of hepatocyte-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells using small molecules.

    PubMed

    Tasnim, Farah; Phan, Derek; Toh, Yi-Chin; Yu, Hanry

    2015-11-01

    Significant efforts have been invested into the differentiation of stem cells into functional hepatocyte-like cells that can be used for cell therapy, disease modeling and drug screening. Most of these efforts have been concentrated on the use of growth factors to recapitulate developmental signals under in vitro conditions. Using small molecules instead of growth factors would provide an attractive alternative since small molecules are cell-permeable and cheaper than growth factors. We have developed a protocol for the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells using a predominantly small molecule-based approach (SM-Hep). This 3 step differentiation strategy involves the use of optimized concentrations of LY294002 and bromo-indirubin-3'-oxime (BIO) for the generation of definitive endoderm; sodium butyrate and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for the generation of hepatoblasts and SB431542 for differentiation into hepatocyte-like cells. Activin A is the only growth factor required in this protocol. Our results showed that SM-Hep were morphologically and functionally similar or better compared to the hepatocytes derived from the growth-factor induced differentiation (GF-Hep) in terms of expression of hepatic markers, urea and albumin production and cytochrome P450 (CYP1A2 and CYP3A4) activities. Cell viability assays following treatment with paradigm hepatotoxicants Acetaminophen, Chlorpromazine, Diclofenac, Digoxin, Quinidine and Troglitazone showed that their sensitivity to these drugs was similar to human primary hepatocytes (PHHs). Using SM-Hep would result in 67% and 81% cost reduction compared to GF-Hep and PHHs respectively. Therefore, SM-Hep can serve as a robust and cost effective replacement for PHHs for drug screening and development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of hemoglobin- and Perflubron-based oxygen carriers on common clinical laboratory tests.

    PubMed

    Ma, Z; Monk, T G; Goodnough, L T; McClellan, A; Gawryl, M; Clark, T; Moreira, P; Keipert, P E; Scott, M G

    1997-09-01

    Polymerized hemoglobin solutions (Hb-based oxygen carriers; HBOCs) and a second-generation perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion (Perflubron) are in clinical trials as temporary oxygen carriers ("blood substitutes"). Plasma and serum samples from patients receiving HBOCs look markedly red, whereas those from patients receiving PFC appear to be lipemic. Because hemolysis and lipemia are well-known interferents in many assays, we examined the effects of these substances on clinical chemistry, immunoassay, therapeutic drug, and coagulation tests. HBOC concentrations up to 50 g/L caused essentially no interference for Na, K, Cl, urea, total CO2, P, uric acid, Mg, creatinine, and glucose values determined by the Hitachi 747 or Vitros 750 analyzers (or both) or for immunoassays of lidocaine, N-acetylprocainamide, procainamide, digoxin, phenytoin, quinidine, or theophylline performed on the Abbott AxSym or TDx. Gentamycin and vancomycin assays on the AxSym exhibited a significant positive and negative interference, respectively. Immunoassays for TSH on the Abbott IMx and for troponin I on the Dade Stratus were unaffected by HBOC at this concentration. Tests for total protein, albumin, LDH, AST, ALT, GGT, amylase, lipase, and cholesterol were significantly affected to various extents at different HBOC concentrations on the Hitachi 747 and Vitros 750. The CK-MB assay on the Stratus exhibited a negative interference at 5 g/L HBOC. HBOC interference in coagulation tests was method-dependent-fibrometer-based methods on the BBL Fibro System were free from interference, but optical-based methods on the MLA 1000C exhibited interferences at 20 g/L HBOC. A 1:20 dilution of the PFC-based oxygen carrier (600 g/L) caused no interference on any of these chemistry or immunoassay tests except for amylase and ammonia on the Vitros 750 and plasma iron on the Hitachi 747.

  3. Deceptive meaning of oxygen uptake measured at the anaerobic threshold in patients with systolic heart failure and atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Magrì, Damiano; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Corrà, Ugo; Passino, Claudio; Scrutinio, Domenico; Perrone-Filardi, Pasquale; Correale, Michele; Cattadori, Gaia; Metra, Marco; Girola, Davide; Piepoli, Massimo F; Iorio, AnnaMaria; Emdin, Michele; Raimondo, Rosa; Re, Federica; Cicoira, Mariantonietta; Belardinelli, Romualdo; Guazzi, Marco; Limongelli, Giuseppe; Clemenza, Francesco; Parati, Gianfranco; Frigerio, Maria; Casenghi, Matteo; Scardovi, Angela B; Ferraironi, Alessandro; Di Lenarda, Andrea; Bussotti, Maurizio; Apostolo, Anna; Paolillo, Stefania; La Gioia, Rocco; Gargiulo, Paola; Palermo, Pietro; Minà, Chiara; Farina, Stefania; Battaia, Elisa; Maruotti, Antonello; Pacileo, Giuseppe; Contini, Mauro; Oliva, Fabrizio; Ricci, Roberto; Sinagra, Gianfranco

    2015-08-01

    Oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold (VO2AT), a submaximal exercise-derived variable, independent of patients' motivation, is a marker of outcome in heart failure (HF). However, previous evidence of VO2AT values paradoxically higher in HF patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF) than in those with sinus rhythm (SR) raised uncertainties. We tested the prognostic role of VO2AT in a large cohort of systolic HF patients, focusing on possible differences between SR and AF. Altogether 2976 HF patients (2578 with SR and 398 with AF) were prospectively followed. Besides a clinical examination, each patient underwent a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). The follow-up was analysed for up to 1500 days. Cardiovascular death or urgent cardiac transplantation occurred in 303 patients (250 (9.6%) patients with SR and 53 (13.3%) patients with AF, p = 0.023). In the entire population, multivariate analysis including peak oxygen uptake (VO2) showed a prognostic capacity (C-index) similar to that obtained including VO2AT (0.76 vs 0.72). Also, left ventricular ejection fraction, ventilation vs carbon dioxide production slope, β-blocker and digoxin therapy proved to be significant prognostic indexes. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves analysis showed that the best predictive VO2AT cut-off for the SR group was 11.7 ml/kg/min, while it was 12.8 ml/kg/min for the AF group. VO2AT, a submaximal CPET-derived parameter, is reliable for long-term cardiovascular mortality prognostication in stable systolic HF. However, different VO2AT cut-off values between SR and AF HF patients should be adopted. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  4. Impact of body weight, low energy diet and gastric bypass on drug bioavailability, cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic biomarkers: protocol for an open, non-randomised, three-armed single centre study (COCKTAIL)

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Shalini; Sandbu, Rune; Robertsen, Ida; Johnson, Line Kristin; Angeles, Philip Carlo; Hertel, Jens Kristoffer; Skovlund, Eva; Heijer, Maria; Ek, Anna-Lena; Krogstad, Veronica; Karlsen, Tor-Ivar; Christensen, Hege; Andersson, Tommy B; Karlsson, Cecilia

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GBP) is associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors and bioavailability of drugs, but whether these changes are induced by calorie restriction, the weight loss or surgery per se, remains uncertain. The COCKTAIL study was designed to disentangle the short-term (6 weeks) metabolic and pharmacokinetic effects of GBP and a very low energy diet (VLED) by inducing a similar weight loss in the two groups. Methods and analysis This open, non-randomised, three-armed, single-centre study is performed at a tertiary care centre in Norway. It aims to compare the short-term (6 weeks) and long-term (2 years) effects of GBP and VLED on, first, bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (24 hours) of probe drugs and biomarkers and, second, their effects on metabolism, cardiometabolic risk factors and biomarkers. The primary outcomes will be measured as changes in: (1) all six probe drugs by absolute bioavailability area under the curve (AUCoral/AUCiv) of midazolam (CYP3A4 probe), systemic exposure (AUCoral) of digoxin and rosuvastatin and drug:metabolite ratios for omeprazole, losartan and caffeine, levels of endogenous CYP3A biomarkers and genotypic variation, changes in the expression and activity data of the drug-metabolising, drug transport and drug regulatory proteins in biopsies from various organs and (2) body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic biomarkers. Ethics and dissemination The COCKTAIL protocol was reviewed and approved by the Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics (Ref: 2013/2379/REK sørøst A). The results will be disseminated to academic and health professional audiences and the public via presentations at conferences, publications in peer-reviewed journals and press releases and provided to all participants. Trial registration number NCT02386917. PMID:29844102

  5. Roles of inner blood-retinal barrier organic anion transporter 3 in the vitreous/retina-to-blood efflux transport of p-aminohippuric acid, benzylpenicillin, and 6-mercaptopurine.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Ken-ichi; Makihara, Akihide; Tsujikawa, Yuki; Yoneyama, Daisuke; Mori, Shinobu; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Akanuma, Shin-ichi; Tomi, Masatoshi; Tachikawa, Masanori

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize rat organic anion transporter (Oat) 3 (Oat3, Slc22a8) in the efflux transport at the inner blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that rat (r) Oat3 mRNA is expressed in retinal vascular endothelial cells (RVECs), but not rOat1 and rOat2 mRNA. The expression of Oat3 in the retina and human cultured retinal endothelial cells was further confirmed by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical staining in RVECs showed that rOat3 is colocalized with glucose transporter 1, but not P-glycoprotein, suggesting that rOat3 is possibly located at the abluminal membrane of the RVEC. The contribution of rOat3 to the efflux of [(3)H]p-aminohippuric acid ([(3)H]PAH), [(3)H]benzylpenicillin ([(3)H]PCG), and [(14)C]6-mercaptopurine ([(14)C]6-MP), substrates of rOat3, from the vitreous humor/retina to the circulating blood across the inner BRB was evaluated using the microdialysis method. [(3)H]PAH, [(3)H]PCG, [(14)C]6-MP, and [(14)C] or [(3)H]d-mannitol, a bulk flow marker, were biexponentially eliminated from the vitreous humor after vitreous bolus injection. The elimination rate constant of [(3)H]PAH, [(3)H]PCG, and [(14)C]6-MP during the terminal phase was approximately 2-fold greater than that of d-mannitol. This efflux transport was reduced in the retinal presence of probenecid, PAH, and PCG, whereas it was not inhibited by digoxin. In conclusion, rOat3 is expressed at the inner BRB and involved in the vitreous humor/retina-to-blood transport of PAH, PCG, and 6-MP. This transport system is one mechanism to limit the retinal distribution of PAH, PCG, and 6-MP.

  6. Identification and quantification of cardiac glycosides in blood and urine samples by HPLC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Guan, F; Ishii, A; Seno, H; Watanabe-Suzuki, K; Kumazawa, T; Suzuki, O

    1999-09-15

    Cardiac glycosides (CG) are of forensic importance because of their toxicity and the fact that very limited methods are available for identification of CG in biological samples. In this study, we have developed an identification and quantification method for digoxin, digitoxin, deslanoside, digoxigenin, and digitoxigenin by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). CG formed abundant [M + NH4]+ ions and much less abundant [M + H]+ ions as observed with electrospray ionization (ESI) source and ammonium formate buffer. Under mild conditions for collision-induced dissociation (CID), each [M + NH4]+ ion fragmented to produce a dominant daughter ion, which was essential to the sensitive method of selected reaction monitoring (SRM) quantification of CG achieved in this study. SRM was compared with selected ion monitoring (SIM) regarding the effects of sample matrixes on the methodology. SRM produced lower detection limits with biological samples than SIM, while both methods produced equal detection limits with CG standards. On the basis of the HPLC/MS/MS results for CG, we have proposed some generalized points for conducting sensitive SRM measurements, in view of the property of analytes as well as instrumental conditions such as the type of HPLC/MS interface and CID parameters. Analytes of which the molecular ion can produce one abundant daughter ion with high yield under CID conditions may be sensitively measured by SRM. ESI is the most soft ionization source developed so far and can afford formation of the fragile molecular ions that are necessary for sensitive SRM detection. Mild CID conditions such as low collision energy and low pressure of collision gas favor production of an abundant daughter ion that is essential to sensitive SRM detection. This knowledge may provide some guidelines for conducting sensitive SRM measurements of very low concentrations of drugs or toxicants in biological samples.

  7. Assessment of the Adherence of Cardiologists to Guidelines for the Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    van der Sand, Cézar R.; Leiria, Tiago Luiz Luz; Kalil, Renato Abdala Karam

    2013-01-01

    Background No local studies evaluating the knowledge of cardiologists on the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) and their adherence to these guidelines are available. Objective To evaluate the knowledge of cardiologists on the guidelines and clinical practices for the treatment of AF, correlating it to the time since medical graduation. Methods Cross-sectional study randomly including cardiologists affiliated to the Society of Cardiology of the State of Rio Grande do Sul (Sociedade de Cardiologia do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul - SOCERGS). The physicians were divided into two groups, according to time since graduation: those graduated for more (G1) or less (G2) than 25 years. Results Of the 859 SOCERGS members, 150 were interviewed, and six refused to participate in the study. G1 comprised 71 physicians, and G2, 73. Differences were observed in regard to the following variables: use of betablockers as the first-choice drug for the control of AF response in 59.2% (G1) vs 91.8% (G2) (p<0.0001); use of digoxin as the preferred drug for the control of AF response in 19.7% (G1) vs 0% (G2) (p< 0.0001); warfarin as the preferred anticoagulant in 71.8% (G1) vs 93.2% (G2) (p=0.009); application of a risk score for anticoagulation in 73.2% (G1) vs 87.7% (G2) (p=0.02). In questions regarding the knowledge about the Brazilian Society of Cardiology's guideline for AF, the overall percentage of right answers was 82.3%. Conclusion Most of the clinical measures regarding the management of AF comply with the guidelines, and the clinical practice differs according with the time since graduation. PMID:23877745

  8. History of macrolide use in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Klein, J O

    1997-04-01

    Erythromycin, the prototypical macrolide, has been widely used since the 1950s in the management of pediatric infections. Erythromycin is the drug of choice for infants and children with Legionnaire's disease, pertussis, diphtheria, lower respiratory tract infections caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis and enteritis caused by Campylobacter jejuni. It is also indicated for treatment of syphilis; for streptococcal, staphylococcal and pneumococcal infections; genital infections caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum; and for the prevention of rheumatic fever and endocarditis in patients who are allergic to beta-lactam antibiotics. The new macrolides azithromycin and clarithromycin are also active against Borrelia burgdorferi, Helicobacter pylori, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex, Cryptosporidium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii. Erythromycin is associated with a low risk of serious side effects, although gastric distress occurs in a significant proportion of patients. Drug interactions with theophylline, carbamazepine, warfarin, cyclosporine, terfenadine and digoxin limit erythromycin use. The newer macrolides azithromycin and clarithromycin are more stable, better absorbed and better tolerated than erythromycin. Azithromycin is more active than erythromycin against Haemophilus influenzae. Excellent tissue and intracellular penetration may contribute to their clinical efficacy. In children both azithromycin and clarithromycin are indicated for acute otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, H. influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis and for pharyngitis/tonsillitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. (As of December, 1996, azithromycin for oral suspension was approved for community-acquired pneumonia in children caused by C. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. pneumoniae and S. pneumoniae.) Claritromycin is also indicated for acute maxillary sinusitis, uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections, pneumonia and disseminated

  9. A systematic evaluation of solubility enhancing excipients to enable the generation of permeability data for poorly soluble compounds in Caco-2 model.

    PubMed

    Shah, Devang; Paruchury, Sundeep; Matta, Muralikrishna; Chowan, Gajendra; Subramanian, Murali; Saxena, Ajay; Soars, Matthew G; Herbst, John; Haskell, Roy; Marathe, Punit; Mandlekar, Sandhya

    2014-01-01

    The study presented here identified and utilized a panel of solubility enhancing excipients to enable the generation of flux data in the Human colon carcinoma (Caco-2) system for compounds with poor solubility. Solubility enhancing excipients Dimethyl acetamide (DMA) 1 % v/v, polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 1% v/v, povidone 1% w/v, poloxamer 188 2.5% w/v and bovine serum albumin (BSA) 4% w/v did not compromise Caco-2 monolayer integrity as assessed by trans-epithelial resistance measurement (TEER) and Lucifer yellow (LY) permeation. Further, these excipients did not affect P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated bidirectional transport of digoxin, permeabilities of high (propranolol) or low permeability (atenolol) compounds, and were found to be inert to Breast cancer resistant protein (BCRP) mediated transport of cladribine. This approach was validated further using poorly soluble tool compounds, atazanavir (poloxamer 188 2.5% w/v) and cyclosporine A (BSA 4% w/v) and also applied to new chemical entity (NCE) BMS-A in BSA 4% w/v, for which Caco-2 data could not be generated using the traditional methodology due to poor solubility (<1 µM) in conventional Hanks balanced salt solution (HBSS). Poloxamer 188 2.5% w/v increased solubility of atazanavir by >8 fold whereas BSA 4% w/v increased the solubility of cyclosporine A and BMS-A by >2-4 fold thereby enabling permeability as well as efflux liability estimation in the Caco-2 model with reasonable recovery values. To conclude, addition of excipients such as poloxamer 188 2.5% w/v and BSA 4% w/v to HBSS leads to a significant improvement in the solubility of the poorly soluble compounds resulting in enhanced recoveries without modulating transporter-mediated efflux, expanding the applicability of Caco-2 assays to poorly soluble compounds.

  10. Key articles and guidelines in the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension: 2011 update.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Samuel G; Kayser, Steven R; Attridge, Rebecca L; Duvall, Laura; Kiser, Tyree H; Moote, Rebecca; Reed, Brent N; Rodgers, Jo E; Erstad, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Pharmacotherapeutic approaches for the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have expanded greatly in the last 10 years. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a relatively rare disease and is associated with myriad disease processes. The older term for PAH, primary PAH, has been changed to represent these differences and to distinguish it from postcapillary PAH associated with left-sided heart failure. Limitations in evaluating treatment approaches for PAH include its rarity, the small number of patients included in clinical trials, and issues regarding the use of placebo-controlled trials in a disease with such a high mortality rate if left untreated. Management options include the use of prostacyclin and prostacyclin analogues, endothelin receptor antagonists, and phosphodiesterase inhibitors, as well as traditional background therapy with diuretics, digoxin, calcium channel blockers, and warfarin. Numerous drugs are under investigation to evaluate their possible roles in management. Combination therapy is increasingly becoming a standard approach to therapy, with mounting literature to document effectiveness. Current or emerging roles for the pharmacist in the management of PAH largely involves ensuring access to drug therapy, facilitating specialty pharmacy dispensing, and providing patient counseling. Newer roles may include future drug development, optimized use of investigational drugs, and specialized disease management programs. This compilation includes a series of articles identifying important literature in cardiovascular pharmacotherapy. This bibliography focuses on pharmacotherapeutic management of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Most of the cited works present the results of significant human clinical studies that have shaped the management of patients with PAH. Limited primary literature is available for some topics, so in addition, consensus documents prepared by expert panels are reviewed. This compilation may serve as a

  11. Prevalence and management of patent ductus arteriosus in a pediatric medicaid cohort.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Avnish; Black, George B; Park, Yong-Moon Mark; Jerrell, Jeanette M

    2013-09-01

    Widespread use of echocardiography has made earlier diagnosis of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) possible, but pharmacological or surgical intervention is highly variable. Herein, we investigate the prevalence of PDA and its management in a routine care system. A 15-year retrospective dataset (1996-2010) was analyzed. Selection criteria included age ≤17 years, enrollees in South Carolina State Medicaid, and diagnosed as having PDA on 1 or more service visits to a pediatrician or pediatric cardiologist. The 15-year treated prevalence rate of PDA was 0.25/1000 pediatric cases of congenital heart disease (CHD). PDA was more prevalent in non-African American patients (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.12), but not in females after controlling for all other CHDs diagnosed in the cohort. Associated CHDs were present in 57.6% of the cases, primarily atrial or ventricular septal defects, and fewer patients (5.5%) developed pulmonary hypertension. Of 3627 PDA cases examined, 70.0% received no medications or PDA repair. Therapeutic ibuprofen was used for closure in 24.4% of the cases, and a PDA repair was performed in 7.8%. Younger children (aOR: 0.82), those who received an atrial septal defect closure (aOR: 5.18), and those who were treated with digoxin (aOR: 1.86) or with diuretics or preload/afterload reducing agents (ie, calcium channel blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) (aOR: 5.72) were significantly more likely to have a PDA repair procedure. The majority of diagnosed PDA cases did not require pharmacological or surgical intervention. Those receiving pharmacological or surgical intervention were treated conservatively in relation to the presence of distress symptoms or concomitant CHDs requiring intervention. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of pericyte involvement in small-molecular drug transport across the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Mihajlica, Nebojsa; Betsholtz, Christer; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta

    2018-06-19

    Pericytes are perivascular cells that play important roles in the regulation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) properties. Pericyte-deficiency causes compromised BBB integrity and increase in permeability to different macromolecules mainly by upregulated transcytosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate pericyte involvement in the extent of small-molecular drug transport across the BBB. This was performed with five compounds: diazepam, digoxin, levofloxacin, oxycodone and paliperidone. Compounds were administered at low doses via subcutaneous injections as a cassette (simultaneously) to pericyte-deficient Pdgfb ret/ret mice and corresponding WT controls. Total drug partitioning across the BBB was calculated as the ratio of total drug exposures in brain tissue and plasma (K p,brain ). In addition, equilibrium dialysis experiments were performed to estimate unbound drug fractions in brain (f u,brain ) and plasma (f u,plasma ). This enabled estimation of unbound drug partitioning coefficients (K p,uu,brain ). The results indicated slight tendencies towards increase of total brain exposures in Pdgfb ret/ret mice as reflected in K p,brain values, which were within the 2-fold limit. Part of these differences could be explained by differences in plasma protein binding. No difference was found in brain tissue binding. The combined in vivo and in vitro data resulted in no differences in BBB transport in pericyte-deficiency, as described by similar K p,uu,brain values in Pdgfb ret/ret and control mice. In conclusion, these findings imply no influence of pericytes on the extent of BBB transport of small-molecular drugs, and suggest preserved BBB features relevant for handling of this type of molecules irrespective of pericyte presence at the brain endothelium. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Chronobiology of death in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ribas, Nuria; Domingo, Maite; Gastelurrutia, Paloma; Ferrero-Gregori, Andreu; Rull, Pilar; Noguero, Mariana; Garcia, Carmen; Puig, Teresa; Cinca, Juan; Bayes-Genis, Antoni

    2014-05-01

    In the general population, heart events occur more often during early morning, on Mondays, and during winter. However, the chronobiology of death in heart failure has not been analyzed. The aim of this study was to determine the circadian, day of the week, and seasonal variability of all-cause mortality in chronic heart failure. This was an analysis of all consecutive heart failure patients followed in a heart failure unit from January 2003 to December 2008. The circadian moment of death was analyzed at 6-h intervals and was determined by reviewing medical records and by information provided by the relatives. Of 1196 patients (mean [standard deviation] age, 69 [13] years; 62% male), 418 (34.9%) died during a mean (standard deviation) follow-up of 29 (21) months. Survivors were younger, had higher body mass index, left ventricular ejection fraction, glomerular filtration rate, hemoglobin and sodium levels, and lower Framingham risk scores, amino-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide, troponin T, and urate values. They were more frequently treated with angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, mineralocorticoids receptor antagonists, digoxin, nitrates, hydralazine, statins, loop diuretics, and thiazides. The analysis of the circadian and weekly variability did not reveal significant differences between the four 6-h intervals or the days of the week. Mortality occurred more frequently during the winter (30.6%) compared with the other seasons (P = .024). All cause mortality does not follow a circadian pattern, but a seasonal rhythm in patients with heart failure. This finding is in contrast to the circadian rhythmicity of cardiovascular events reported in the general population. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification and prevalence of adverse drug events caused by potentially inappropriate medication in homebound elderly patients: a retrospective study using a nationwide survey in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Onda, Mitsuko; Imai, Hirohisa; Takada, Yurina; Fujii, Shingo; Shono, Takako; Nanaumi, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A nationwide large-scale survey was conducted to identify the prevalence and causal medications of adverse drug events (ADEs) that are caused by potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) given to homebound elderly patients, factors associated with ADEs, and measures taken by pharmacists to manage ADEs and their effects on ADEs. Settings A questionnaire was mailed to 3321 pharmacies nationwide. It asked about the details of PIMs and ADEs of up to 5 patients for whom home visits were provided by a pharmacist. Questionnaire forms were filled in by pharmacists who visited the patients. Design and participants Between 23 January and 13 February 2013, comprehensive assessment forms were sent to 3321 pharmacies. Data collected from 1890 pharmacies including data of 4815 patients were analysed and 28 patients of unknown sex were excluded. Their average age was 82.7 years. PIMs were identified based on the 2003 Beers Criteria Japan. Results There were 600 patients who did not provide valid answers regarding the medications. In the remaining 4243 patients, one or more medications that were considered to be PIMs had been prescribed to 48.4% of patients. PIM-induced ADEs were found in 8% of these patients by pharmacists during home visits. The top ADE-inducing medications were strong anticholinergic antihistamines, benzodiazepines, sulpiride and digoxin. The most common ADEs associated with benzodiazepines were frequent lightheadedness, somnolence and sleepiness, which increase the risk of falls and subsequent fractures in elderly patients. The following factors associated with ADEs were identified: sex, pharmacist awareness of prescription issues, frequency of visits and time spent at patients’ homes, and the frequency of detailed checks for patient adverse reactions by pharmacists. Conclusions The PIM prevalence associated with home healthcare in Japan was relatively high, as reported in previous studies. The present study suggests that pharmacists could

  15. Blood pressure and stroke in heart failure in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study.

    PubMed

    Pullicino, Patrick M; McClure, Leslie A; Wadley, Virginia G; Ahmed, Ali; Howard, Virginia J; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M

    2009-12-01

    The prevalence of stroke is increased in individuals with heart failure (HF). The stroke mechanism in HF may be cardiogenic embolism or cerebral hypoperfusion. Stroke risk increases with decreasing ejection fraction and low cardiac output is associated with hypotension and poor survival. We examine the relationship among blood pressure level, history of stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA), and HF. We compared the prevalence of self-reported history of stroke or TIA in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) participants with HF (as defined by current digoxin use) and without HF. We excluded participants with atrial fibrillation or missing data. We examined the relationship between HF and history of stroke/TIA within tertiles of systolic blood pressure (SBP) adjusting for patient demographic and health characteristics. Prevalent stroke/TIA were reported by 66 (26.3%) of 251 participants with and 1805 (8.5%) of 21 202 participants without HF (P<0.0001). Within each tertile of SBP, the unadjusted OR (95% CI) for prior stroke/TIA among those with HF compared with those without HF (the reference group) was, 4.0 (2.8 to 5.8) for SBP <119.5 mm Hg, 2.7 (1.8 to 3.9) for SBP >or=119.5 but <131.5 mm Hg, and 2.3 (1.6 to 3.2) for SBP >or=131.5 mm Hg. After adjustment, the relationship between prior stroke/TIA and HF remained significant only within the lowest tertile of SBP (<119.5 mm Hg; 3.0; 1.5 to 6.1). The odds of prevalent self-reported stroke/TIA are increased in participants with HF and most markedly increased in participants with low SBP. Longitudinal data are needed to determine whether this reflects stroke/TIA secondary to thromboembolism from poor cardiac function or secondary to cerebral hypoperfusion.

  16. Clinical Risk Stratification for Primary Prevention Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Judy; Yee, Raymond; Healey, Jeffrey S.; Birnie, David; Simpson, Christopher S.; Crystal, Eugene; Mangat, Iqwal; Nanthakumar, Kumaraswamy; Wang, Xuesong; Krahn, Andrew D.; Dorian, Paul; Austin, Peter C.; Tu, Jack V.

    2015-01-01

    Background— A conceptualized model may be useful for understanding risk stratification of primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillators considering the competing risks of appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator shock versus mortality. Methods and Results— In a prospective, multicenter, population-based cohort with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% referred for primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator, we developed dual risk stratification models to determine the competing risks of appropriate defibrillator shock versus mortality using a Fine-Gray subdistribution hazard model. Among 7020 patients referred, 3445 underwent defibrillator implant (79.7% men, median, 66 years [25th, 75th: 58–73]). During 5918 person-years of follow-up, appropriate shock occurred in 204 patients (3.6 shocks/100 person-years) and 292 died (4.9 deaths/100 person-years). Competing risk predictors of appropriate shock included nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, serum creatinine concentration, digoxin or amiodarone use, and QRS duration near 130-ms peak. One-year cumulative incidence of appropriate shock was 0.9% in the lowest risk category, and 1.7%, 2.5%, 4.9%, and 9.3% in low, intermediate, high, and highest risk groups, respectively. Hazard ratios for appropriate shock ranged from 4.04 to 7.79 in the highest 3 deciles (all P≤0.001 versus lowest risk). Cumulative incidence of 1-year death was 0.6%, 1.9%, 3.3%, 6.2%, and 17.7% in lowest, low, intermediate, high, and highest risk groups, respectively. Mortality hazard ratios ranged from 11.48 to 36.22 in the highest 3 deciles (all P<0.001 versus lowest risk). Conclusions— Simultaneous estimation of risks of appropriate shock and mortality can be performed using clinical variables, providing a potential framework for identification of patients who are unlikely to benefit from prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator. PMID:26224792

  17. Treatment Failure With Rhythm and Rate Control Strategies in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Congestive Heart Failure: An AF-CHF Substudy.

    PubMed

    Dyrda, Katia; Roy, Denis; Leduc, Hugues; Talajic, Mario; Stevenson, Lynne Warner; Guerra, Peter G; Andrade, Jason; Dubuc, Marc; Macle, Laurent; Thibault, Bernard; Rivard, Lena; Khairy, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Rate and rhythm control strategies for atrial fibrillation (AF) are not always effective or well tolerated in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). We assessed reasons for treatment failure, associated characteristics, and effects on survival. A total of 1,376 patients enrolled in the AF-CHF trial were followed for 37  ±  19 months, 206 (15.0%) of whom failed initial therapy leading to crossover. Rhythm control was abandoned more frequently than rate control (21.0% vs. 9.1%, P < 0.0001). Crossovers from rhythm to rate control were driven by inefficacy, whereas worsening heart failure was the most common reason to crossover from rate to rhythm control. In multivariate analyses, failure of rhythm control was associated with female sex, higher serum creatinine, functional class III or IV symptoms, lack of digoxin, and oral anticoagulation. Factors independently associated with failure of rate control were paroxysmal (vs. persistent) AF, statin therapy, and presence of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Crossovers were not associated with cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.11 from rhythm to rate control; 95% confidence interval [95% CI, 0.73-1.73]; P = 0.6069; HR 1.29 from rate to rhythm control; 95% CI, 0.73-2.25; P = 0.3793) or all-cause mortality (HR 1.16 from rhythm to rate control, 95% CI [0.79-1.72], P = 0.4444; HR 1.15 from rate to rhythm control, 95% [0.69, 1.91], P = 0.5873). Rhythm control is abandoned more frequently than rate control in patients with AF and CHF. The most common reasons for treatment failure are inefficacy for rhythm control and worsening heart failure for rate control. Changing strategies does not impact survival. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Drug targeted virtual screening and molecular dynamics of LipU protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurkamaljit; Pandey, Bharati; Grover, Arbind; Garewal, Naina; Grover, Abhinav; Kaur, Jagdeep

    2018-03-30

    The lipolytic protein LipU was conserved in mycobacterium sp. including M. tuberculosis (MTB LipU) and M. leprae (MLP LipU). The MTB LipU was identified in extracellular fraction and was reported to be essential for the survival of mycobacterium. Therefore to address the problem of drug resistance in pathogen, LipU was selected as a drug target and the viability of finding out some FDA approved drugs as LipU inhibitors in both the cases was explored. Three-dimensional (3D) model structures of MTB LipU and MLP LipU were generated and stabilized through molecular dynamics (MD). FDA approved drugs were screened against these proteins. The result showed that the top-scoring compounds for MTB LipU were Diosmin, Acarbose and Ouabain with the Glide XP score of -12.8, -11.9 and -11.7 kcal/mol, respectively, whereas for MLP LipU protein, Digoxin (-9.2 kcal/mol), Indinavir (-8.2 kcal/mol) and Travoprost (-8.2 kcal/mol) showed highest affinity. These drugs remained bound in the active site pocket of MTB LipU and MLP LipU structure and interaction grew stronger after dynamics. RMSD, RMSF and Rg were found to be persistent throughout the simulation period. Hydrogen bonds along with large number of hydrophobic interactions stabilized the complex structures. Binding free energies obtained through Prime/MM-GBSA were found in the significant range from -63.85 kcal/mol to -34.57 kcal/mol for MTB LipU and -71.33 kcal/mol to -23.91 kcal/mol for MLP LipU. The report suggested high probability of these drugs to demolish the LipU activity and could be probable drug candidates to combat TB and leprosy disease.

  19. Association between erythrocyte Na+K+-ATPase activity and some blood lipids in type 1 diabetic patients from Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Iwalokun, Bamidele A; Iwalokun, Senapon O

    2007-01-01

    Background Altered levels of erythrocyte Na+K+-ATPase, atherogenic and anti-atherogenic lipid metabolites have been implicated in diabetic complications but their pattern of interactions remains poorly understood. This study evaluated this relationship in Nigerian patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods A total of 34 consented Type 1 diabetic patients and age -matched 27 non-diabetic controls were enrolled. Fasting plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol were determined spectrophotometrically and LDL-cholesterol estimated using Friedewald formula. Total protein content and Na+K+-ATPase activity were also determined spectrophotometrically from ghost erythrocyte membrane prepared by osmotic lysis. Results Results indicate significant (P < 0.05) reduction in Na+K+-ATPase activity in the Type 1 diabetic patients (0.38 ± 0.08 vs. 0.59 ± 0.07 uM Pi/mgprotein/h) compared to the control but with greater reduction in the diabetic subgroup with poor glycemic control (n = 20) and in whom cases of hypercholesterolemia (8.8%), hypertriglyceridemia (2.9%) and elevated LDL-cholesterol (5.9% each) were found. Correlation analyses further revealed significant (P < 0.05) inverse correlations [r = -(0.708-0.797] between all the atherogenic lipid metabolites measured and Na+K+-ATPase in this subgroup contrary to group with good glycemic control or non-diabetic subjects in which significant (P < 0.05) Na+K+-ATPase and HDL-C association were found (r = 0.427 - 0.489). The Na+K+-ATPase from the diabetic patients also exhibited increased sensitivity to digoxin and alterations in kinetic constants Vmax and Km determined by glycemic status of the patients. Conclusion It can be concluded that poor glycemic control evokes greater reduction in erythrocyte Na+K+-ATPase activity and promote enzyme-blood atherogenic lipid relationships in Type 1 diabetic Nigerian patients. PMID:17908327

  20. Drug-induced Inhibition and Trafficking Disruption of ion Channels: Pathogenesis of QT Abnormalities and Drug-induced Fatal Arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Cubeddu, Luigi X.

    2016-01-01

    Risk of severe and fatal ventricular arrhythmias, presenting as Torsade de Pointes (TdP), is increased in congenital and acquired forms of long QT syndromes (LQTS). Drug-induced inhibition of K+ currents, IKs, IKr, IK1, and/or Ito, delay repolarization, prolong QT, and increase the risk of TdP. Drug-induced interference with IKr is the most common cause of acquired LQTS/TdP. Multiple drugs bind to KNCH2-hERG-K+ channels affecting IKr, including antiarrythmics, antibiotics, antivirals, azole-antifungals, antimalarials, anticancer, antiemetics, prokinetics, antipsychotics, and antidepressants. Azithromycin has been recently added to this list. In addition to direct channel inhibition, some drugs interfere with the traffic of channels from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell membrane, decreasing mature channel membrane density; e.g., pentamidine, geldalamicin, arsenic trioxide, digoxin, and probucol. Other drugs, such as ketoconazole, fluoxetine, norfluoxetine, citalopram, escitalopram, donepezil, tamoxifen, endoxifen, atazanavir, and roxitromycin, induce both direct channel inhibition and impaired channel trafficking. Although many drugs prolong the QT interval, TdP is a rare event. The following conditions increase the risk of drug-induced TdP: a) Disease states/electrolyte levels (heart failure, structural cardiac disease, bradycardia, hypokalemia); b) Pharmacogenomic variables (presence of congenital LQTS, subclinical ion-channel mutations, history of or having a relative with history of drug-induced long QT/TdP); c) Pharmacodynamic and kinetic factors (high doses, women, elderly, metabolism inhibitors, combining two or more QT prolonging drugs, drugs that prolong the QT and increase QT dispersion, and drugs with multiple actions on ion channels). Because most of these conditions are preventable, careful evaluation of risk factors and increased knowledge of drug use associated with repolarization abnormalities are strongly recommended. PMID:26926294

  1. Clinical findings in right ventricular noncompaction in hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Monique M; Cohen, Meryl S

    2017-12-01

    Noncompaction is a poorly understood form of cardiomyopathy that typically affects the left ventricle and may be associated with congenital heart disease. Right ventricular noncompaction (RVNC) may occur when the left ventricle is affected but is rarely seen in isolation. RVNC may have clinical significance affecting surgical and long-term outcomes. We describe the diagnosis and clinical course in three patients at our institution. We performed a retrospective review of patients diagnosed with RVNC over a 12-month period at our institution and reviewed their imaging and clinical course. Three patients were identified. All had diagnosis of RVNC by echocardiography (echo) made on postnatal imaging which reviewed degree of trabeculation, and noncompaction-to-compaction ratio of the myocardium. Patient A was a neonate with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) who underwent a Norwood operation with Sano modification. Her postoperative course was notable for low-normal RV function. She returned with a pericardial effusion warranting immediate pericardiocentesis. She continued to have effusions, which were medically managed. She was subsequently found to have an RV apical pseudoaneurysm, which required surgical resection. Patient B was a neonate with HLHS who had a Norwood operation with Sano modification. She had low-normal RV function on echo. She required medical management for pericardial effusion. Patient C was a neonate with HLHS who also underwent a Norwood operation with Sano modification. His postoperative course was notable for elevated serum brain natriuretic peptide, which was treated with digoxin. RVNC is a rare diagnosis with limited known clinical impact. One of these patients had a very rare complication after pericardiocentesis (pseudoaneurysm) that may have been related to the RVNC. Our understanding of this disease process is limited and requires additional investigation, but emphasizes the importance of appropriate diagnosis to allow for timely

  2. A model of cardiac ryanodine receptor gating predicts experimental Ca2+-dynamics and Ca2+-triggered arrhythmia in the long QT syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Dan; Ermentrout, Bard; Němec, Jan; Salama, Guy

    2017-09-01

    Abnormal Ca2+ handling is well-established as the trigger of cardiac arrhythmia in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and digoxin toxicity, but its role remains controversial in Torsade de Pointes (TdP), the arrhythmia associated with the long QT syndrome (LQTS). Recent experimental results show that early afterdepolarizations (EADs) that initiate TdP are caused by spontaneous (non-voltage-triggered) Ca2+ release from Ca2+-overloaded sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) rather than the activation of the L-type Ca2+-channel window current. In bradycardia and long QT type 2 (LQT2), a second, non-voltage triggered cytosolic Ca2+ elevation increases gradually in amplitude, occurs before overt voltage instability, and then precedes the rise of EADs. Here, we used a modified Shannon-Puglisi-Bers model of rabbit ventricular myocytes to reproduce experimental Ca2+ dynamics in bradycardia and LQT2. Abnormal systolic Ca2+-oscillations and EADs caused by SR Ca2+-release are reproduced in a modified 0-dimensional model, where 3 gates in series control the ryanodine receptor (RyR2) conductance. Two gates control RyR2 activation and inactivation and sense cytosolic Ca2+ while a third gate senses luminal junctional SR Ca2+. The model predicts EADs in bradycardia and low extracellular [K+] and cessation of SR Ca2+-release terminate salvos of EADs. Ca2+-waves, systolic cell-synchronous Ca2+-release, and multifocal diastolic Ca2+ release seen in subcellular Ca2+-mapping experiments are observed in the 2-dimensional version of the model. These results support the role of SR Ca2+-overload, abnormal SR Ca2+-release, and the subsequent activation of the electrogenic Na+/Ca2+-exchanger as the mechanism of TdP. The model offers new insights into the genesis of cardiac arrhythmia and new therapeutic strategies.

  3. Prevalence of the prescription of potentially interacting drugs.

    PubMed

    Tragni, Elena; Casula, Manuela; Pieri, Vasco; Favato, Giampiero; Marcobelli, Alberico; Trotta, Maria Giovanna; Catapano, Alberico Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The use of multiple medications is becoming more common, with a correspondingly increased risk of untoward effects and drug-related morbidity and mortality. We aimed at estimating the prevalence of prescription of relevant potentially interacting drugs and at evaluating possible predictors of potentially interacting drug exposure. We retrospectively analyzed data on prescriptions dispensed from January 2004 to August 2005 to individuals of two Italian regions with a population of almost 2.1 million individuals. We identified 27 pairs of potentially interacting drugs by examining clinical relevance, documentation, and volume of use in Italy. Subjects who received at least one prescription of both drugs were selected. Co-prescribing denotes "two prescriptions in the same day", and concomitant medication "the prescription of two drugs with overlapping coverage". A logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the predictors of potential Drug-Drug Interaction (pDDIs). 957,553 subjects (45.3% of study population) were exposed to at least one of the drugs/classes of the 27 pairs. Overall, pDDIs occurred 2,465,819 times. The highest rates of concomitant prescription and of co-prescription were for ACE inhibitors+NSAIDs (6,253 and 4,621/100,000 plan participants). Considering concomitance, the male/female ratio was <1 in 17/27 pairs (from 0.31 for NSAIDs-ASA+SSRI to 0.74 for omeprazole+clopidogrel). The mean age was lowest for methotrexate pairs (+omeprazole, 59.9 years; +NSAIDs-ASA, 59.1 years) and highest for digoxin+verapamil (75.4 years). In 13/27 pairs, the mean ages were ≥70 years. On average, subjects involved in pDDIs received ≥10 drugs. The odds of exposure were more frequently higher for age ≥65 years, males, and those taking a large number of drugs. A substantial number of clinically important pDDIs were observed, particularly among warfarin users. Awareness of the most prevalent pDDIs could help practitioners in preventing concomitant use

  4. Development and validation of an UFLC-MS/MS assay for the absolute quantitation of nine notoginsenosides in rat plasma: Application to the pharmacokinetic study of Panax Notoginseng Extract.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lijun; Xing, Rong; Xie, Lin; Rao, Tai; Wang, Qian; Ye, Wei; Fu, Hanxu; Xiao, Jingcheng; Shao, Yuhao; Kang, Dian; Wang, Guangji; Liang, Yan

    2015-07-15

    Notoginsenosides, the main active gradients of Chinese traditional medicine Panax notoginseng, possesses a variety of biological activities including antioxidant property, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-obese, etc. However, pharmacokinetic evaluation for notoginsenosides is still a formidable task due to their low concentrations and complex components in vivo. The summation of this work generated a rapid and sensitive method for quantitative analysis of multi-notoginsenoside in rat plasma based on ultra fast liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric. After liquid-liquid extraction by n-butanol, notoginsenoside R1, Rg3, Rd, Rg2, Rb2, Rf, Rg1, Rb1 and Re were simultaneously monitored in negative ionization mode after separating on a Thermo ODS C18 column (5mm 50mm×2.1mm) by a binary gradient elution, and all compounds were analyzed within 9min. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was performed as follows: R1 (m/z 967.7→637.4), Rg3 (m/z 819.6→621.4), Rd (m/z 981.6→783.5), Rg2 (m/z 819.6→475.4), Rb2 (m/z 1113.4→783.4), Rf (m/z 835.6→475.4), Rg1 (m/z 835.6→637.6), Rb1 (m/z 1143.7→945.6), Re (m/z 981.6→637.4), internal standard (digoxin, m/z 815.5→779.4). Validation parameters (linearity, sensitivity, intra-and inter-assay precision and accuracy, recovery and matrix effect) were within acceptable ranges and biological extracts were stable during the entire storing and preparing process. This UFLC-MS/MS approach was further validated by being applied to the pharmacokinetic study for P. Notoginseng extract in rats, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by Winolin software. Thus, the presently developed methodology was simple, robust, accurate, precise, and would be useful for the pharmacokinetic studies for all kinds of notoginsenosides and other herbal saponins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Determining P-glycoprotein-drug interactions: evaluation of reconstituted P-glycoprotein in a liposomal system and LLC-MDR1 polarized cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Melchior, Donald L; Sharom, Frances J; Evers, Raymond; Wright, George E; Chu, Joseph W K; Wright, Stephen E; Chu, Xiaoyan; Yabut, Jocelyn

    2012-03-01

    P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1, MDR1) is a multidrug efflux pump that is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. Many drugs in common clinical use are either substrates or inhibitors of this transporter. Quantitative details of P-glycoprotein inhibition by pharmaceutical agents are essential for assessment of their pharmacokinetic behavior and prevention of negative patient reactions. Cell-based systems have been widely used for determination of drug interactions with P-glycoprotein, but they suffer from several disadvantages, and results are often widely variable between laboratories. We aimed to demonstrate that a novel liposomal system employing contemporary biochemical methodologies could measure the ability of clinically used drugs to inhibit the P-glycoprotein pump. To accomplish this we compared results with those of cell-based approaches. Purified transport-competent hamster Abcb1a P-glycoprotein was reconstituted into a unilamellar liposomal system, Fluorosome-trans-pgp, whose aqueous interior contains fluorescent drug sensors. This provides a well-defined system for measuring P-glycoprotein transport inhibition by test drugs in real time using rapid fluorescence-based technology. Inhibition of ATP-driven transport by Fluorosome-trans-pgp employed a panel of 46 representative drugs. Resulting IC50 values correlated well (r2=0.80) with Kd values for drug binding to purified P-glycoprotein. They also showed a similar trend to transport inhibition data obtained using LLC-MDR1 cell monolayers. Fluorosome-trans-pgp IC50 values were in agreement with published results of digoxin drug-drug interaction studies in humans. This novel approach using a liposomal system and fluorescence-based technology is shown to be suitable to study whether marketed drugs and drug candidates are P-glycoprotein inhibitors. The assay is rapid, allowing a 7-point IC50 determination in <6 min, and requires minimal quantities of test drug. The method is amenable to robotics and

  6. Expression of gap junction genes connexin 32 and connexin 43 mRNAs and proteins, and their role in hepatocarcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiang-Dong; Ma, Xing; Sui, Yan-Fang; Wang, Wen-Liang

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between hepatocarcinogenesis and the expression of connexin32 (cx32), connexin43 (cx43) mRNAs and proteins in vitro. METHODS: Gap junction genes cx32 and cx43 mRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines HHCC, SMMC-7721 and normal liver cell line QZG were detected by in situ hybridization (ISH) with digoxin-labeled cx32, and cx43 cDNA probes. Expression of Cx32 and Cx43 proteins in the cell lines was revealed by indirect immuno-fluorescence and flow cytometry (FCM). RESULTS: Blue positive hybridization signals of cx32 and cx43 mRNAs detected by ISH with cx32 and cx43 cDNA probes respectively were located in cytoplasm of cells of HHCC, SMMC-7721 and QZG. No significant difference of either cx32 mRNA or cx43 mRNA was tested among HHCC, SMMC-7721 and QZG (P = 2.673, HHCC vs QZG; P = 1.375, SMMC-7721 vs QZG). FCM assay showed that the positive rates of Cx32 protein in HHCC, SMMC-7721 and QZG were 0.7%, 1.7% and 99.0%, and the positive rates of Cx43 protein in HHCC, SMMC-7721 and QZG were 7.3%, 26.5% and 99.1% respectively. Significant differences of both Cx32 and Cx43 protein expression existed between hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and normal liver cell line (P = 0.0069, HHCC vs QZG; P = 0.0087, SMMC-7721 vs QZG). Moreover, the fluorescent intensities of Cx32 and Cx43 proteins in HHCC, SMMC-7721 were lower than that in QZG. CONCLUSION: Hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines HHCC and SMMC-7721 exhibited lower positive rates and fluorescent intensities of Cx32, Cx43 proteins compared with that of normal liver cell line QZG. It is suggested that lower expression of both Cx32 and Cx43 proteins in hepatocellular carcinoma cells could play pivotal roles in the hepatocarcinogenesis. Besides, genetic defects of cx32 and cx43 in post-translational processing should be considered. PMID:11833073

  7. Upregulation of P-glycoprotein by probiotics in intestinal epithelial cells and in the dextran sulfate sodium model of colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Sonia; Raheja, Geetu; Singh, Varsha; Akhtar, Maria; Nazir, Talat M.; Alrefai, Waddah A.; Gill, Ravinder K.; Dudeja, Pradeep K.

    2011-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediates efflux of xenobiotics and bacterial toxins from the intestinal mucosa into the lumen. Dysregulation of P-gp has been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease. Certain probiotics have been shown to be effective in treating inflammatory bowel disease. However, direct effects of probiotics on P-gp are not known. Current studies examined the effects of Lactobacilli on P-gp function and expression in intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 monolayers and a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis were utilized. P-gp activity was measured as verapamil-sensitive [3H]digoxin transepithelial flux. Multidrug resistant 1 (MDR1)/P-gp expression was measured by real-time quantitative PCR and immunoblotting. Culture supernatant (CS; 1:10 or 1:50, 24 h) of Lactobacillus acidophilus or Lactobacillus rhamnosus treatment of differentiated Caco-2 monolayers (21 days postplating) increased (∼3-fold) MDR1/P-gp mRNA and protein levels. L. acidophilus or L. rhamnosus CS stimulated P-gp activity (∼2-fold, P < 0.05) via phosphoinositide 3-kinase and ERK1/2 MAPK pathways. In mice, L. acidophilus or L. rhamnosus treatment (3 × 109 colony-forming units) increased mdr1a/P-gp mRNA and protein expression in the ileum and colon (2- to 3-fold). In the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model (3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days), the degree of colitis as judged by histological damage and myeloperoxidase activity was reduced by L. acidophilus. L. acidophilus treatment to DSS-treated mice blocked the reduced expression of mdr1a/P-gp mRNA and protein in the distal colon. These findings suggest that Lactobacilli or their soluble factors stimulate P-gp expression and function under normal and inflammatory conditions. These data provide insights into a novel mechanism involving P-gp upregulation in beneficial effects of probiotics in intestinal inflammatory disorders. PMID:21350189

  8. Clinical characteristics of patients from the worldwide registry on peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM): EURObservational Research Programme in conjunction with the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology Study Group on PPCM.

    PubMed

    Sliwa, Karen; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Petrie, Mark C; Maggioni, Aldo P; Laroche, Cecile; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Schaufelberger, Maria; Tavazzi, Luigi; van der Meer, Peter; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Seferovic, Petar; van Spandonck-Zwarts, Karin; Mbakwem, Amam; Böhm, Michael; Mouquet, Frederic; Pieske, Burkert; Hall, Roger; Ponikowski, Piotre; Bauersachs, Johann

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe disease presentation, co-morbidities, diagnosis and initial therapeutic management of patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) living in countries belonging to the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) vs. non-ESC countries. Out of 500 patients with PPCM entered by 31 March 2016, we report on data of the first 411 patients with completed case record forms (from 43 countries) entered into this ongoing registry. There were marked differences in socio-demographic parameters such as Human Development Index, GINI index on inequality, and Health Expenditure in PPCM patients from ESC vs. non-ESC countries (P < 0.001 each). Ethnicity was Caucasian (34%), Black African (25.8%), Asian (21.8%), and Middle Eastern backgrounds (16.4%). Despite the huge disparities in socio-demographic factors and ethnic backgrounds, baseline characteristics are remarkably similar. Drug therapy initiated post-partum included ACE inhibitors/ARBs and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists with identical frequencies in ESC vs. non-ESC countries. However, in non-ESC countries, there was significantly less use of beta-blockers (70.3% vs. 91.9%) and ivabradine (1.4% vs. 17.1%), but more use of diuretics (91.3% vs. 68.8%), digoxin (37.0% vs. 18.0%), and bromocriptine (32.6% vs. 7.1%) (P < 0.001). More patients in non-ESC vs. ESC countries continued to have symptomatic heart failure after 1 month (92.3% vs. 81.3%, P < 0.001). Venous thrombo-embolic events, arterial embolizations, and cerebrovascular accidents were documented in 28 of 411 patients (6.8%). Neonatal death rate was 3.1%. PPCM occurs in women from different ethnic backgrounds globally. Despite marked differences in socio-economic background, mode of presentation was largely similar. Embolic events and persistent heart failure were common within 1 month post-diagnosis and required intensive, multidisciplinary management. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2017 European

  9. Determining P-glycoprotein-drug interactions: evaluation of reconstituted P-glycoprotein in a liposomal system and LLC-MDR1 polarized cell monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Melchior, Donald L.; Sharom, Frances J.; Evers, Raymond; Wright, George E.; Chu, Joseph W.K.; Wright, Stephen E.; Chu, Xiaoyan; Yabut, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    Introduction P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1, MDR1) is a multidrug efflux pump that is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. Many drugs in common clinical use are either substrates or inhibitors of this transporter. Quantitative details of P-glycoprotein inhibition by pharmaceutical agents are essential for assessment of their pharmacokinetic behavior and prevention of negative patient reactions. Cell-based systems have been widely used for determination of drug interactions with P-glycoprotein, but they suffer from several disadvantages, and results are often widely variable between laboratories. We aimed to demonstrate that a novel liposomal system employing contemporary biochemical methodologies could measure the ability of clinically used drugs to inhibit the P-glycoprotein pump. To accomplish this we compared results with those of cell-based approaches. Methods Purified transport-competent hamster Abcb1a P-glycoprotein was reconstituted into a unilamellar liposomal system, Fluorosome-trans-pgp, whose aqueous interior contains fluorescent drug sensors. This provides a well-defined system for measuring P-glycoprotein transport inhibition by test drugs in real time using rapid fluorescence-based technology. Results Inhibition of ATP-driven transport by Fluorosome-trans-pgp employed a panel of 46 representative drugs. Resulting IC50 values correlated well (r2 = 0.80) with Kd values for drug binding to purified P-glycoprotein. They also showed a similar trend to transport inhibition data obtained using LLC-MDR1 cell monolayers. Fluorosome-trans-pgp IC50 values were in agreement with published results of digoxin drug-drug interaction studies in humans. Discussion This novel approach using a liposomal system and fluorescence-based technology is shown to be suitable to study whether marketed drugs and drug candidates are P-glycoprotein inhibitors. The assay is rapid, allowing a 7-point IC50 determination in <6 minutes, and requires minimal quantities of test

  10. EVALUATION OF CASES WITH THE USAGE OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE TABLETS IN THE PEDIATRIC FORMULA.

    PubMed

    Kuriata, Elżbieta; Sawicki, Wiesław

    2015-01-01

    Lack of availability, of either the medicinal product intended to be used for children, or such in a dose which is fitting for the individual child's needs, results in physicians administering medicines meant for the adult. The target of the thesis was to evaluate the cases with the usage of commercially avaible conventional tablet-formulated medicinal products intended for the adult in the pediatric formula. The subjects of the evaluation were the form of the pediatric drug, prepared from commercially available tablets and capsules, as well as the legitimacy of their usage in the treatment of the pediatric population. One hundred and fifty-four prescriptions filled in community pharmacies of Warminsko-Mazurskie Voivodeship in 2011 were chosen. A total of 5805 divided powders in starch capsules were prepared. The prescribing practice included 6 groups of manufactured medicinal products in the form of conventional tablets, containing as follows: anti-hypertensive medicines (ACE inhibitors--enalapril, captopril, ramipril, loop diuretics--furosemide, potassium sparing diuretics--spironolactone, β-adrenolytics--propranolol, α- and β-adrenolytics--carvedilol), medicines for heart failure (foxglove glycosides--digoxin, methyldigoxin), anti-clotting medicines (acetylsalicylic acid), peristalsis stimulating agents (metoclopramide), antibacterial medicines (furagin), and dopaminergic (carbidopa-levodopa). The only compounded forms ordered by the physicians were divided powders for an internal use. Starch capsules for powder preparation provided the only 'package' for the dose of the compounded powder, which after pouring, solving or suspending in water was administered to children. Such a shift of the form, between an oral tablet and divided powder for an internal use, did not cause a change in the method of administration. The information on indications and the way of dosage for children, inserted in the Summary of Product Characteristics, enables the administration

  11. Bilastine in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria: a practical approach to treatment decisions based on queries received by the medical information department

    PubMed Central

    Leceta, Amalia; Sologuren, Ander; Valiente, Román; Campo, Cristina; Labeaga, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Background Bilastine is a safe and effective commonly prescribed non-sedating H1-antihistamine approved for symptomatic treatment in patients with allergic disorders such as rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. It was evaluated in many patients throughout the clinical development required for its approval, but clinical trials generally exclude many patients who will benefit in everyday clinical practice (especially those with coexisting diseases and/or being treated with concomitant drugs). Following its introduction into clinical practice, the Medical Information Specialists at Faes Farma have received many practical queries regarding the optimal use of bilastine in different circumstances. Data sources and methods Queries received by the Medical Information Department and the responses provided to senders of these queries. Results The most frequent questions received by the Medical Information Department included the potential for drug-drug interactions with bilastine and commonly used agents such as anticoagulants (including the novel oral anticoagulants), antiretrovirals, antituberculosis regimens, corticosteroids, digoxin, oral contraceptives, and proton pump inhibitors. Most of these medicines are not usually allowed in clinical trials, and so advice needs to be based upon the pharmacological profiles of the drugs involved and expert opinion. The pharmacokinetic profile of bilastine appears favourable since it undergoes negligible metabolism and is almost exclusively eliminated via renal excretion, and it neither induces nor inhibits the activity of several isoenzymes from the CYP 450 system. Consequently, bilastine does not interact with cytochrome metabolic pathways. Other queries involved specific patient groups such as subjects with renal impairment, women who are breastfeeding or who are trying to become pregnant, and patients with other concomitant diseases. Interestingly, several questions related to topics that are well covered in the Summary of Product

  12. Bilastine in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria: a practical approach to treatment decisions based on queries received by the medical information department.

    PubMed

    Leceta, Amalia; Sologuren, Ander; Valiente, Román; Campo, Cristina; Labeaga, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Bilastine is a safe and effective commonly prescribed non-sedating H 1 -antihistamine approved for symptomatic treatment in patients with allergic disorders such as rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. It was evaluated in many patients throughout the clinical development required for its approval, but clinical trials generally exclude many patients who will benefit in everyday clinical practice (especially those with coexisting diseases and/or being treated with concomitant drugs). Following its introduction into clinical practice, the Medical Information Specialists at Faes Farma have received many practical queries regarding the optimal use of bilastine in different circumstances. Queries received by the Medical Information Department and the responses provided to senders of these queries. The most frequent questions received by the Medical Information Department included the potential for drug-drug interactions with bilastine and commonly used agents such as anticoagulants (including the novel oral anticoagulants), antiretrovirals, antituberculosis regimens, corticosteroids, digoxin, oral contraceptives, and proton pump inhibitors. Most of these medicines are not usually allowed in clinical trials, and so advice needs to be based upon the pharmacological profiles of the drugs involved and expert opinion. The pharmacokinetic profile of bilastine appears favourable since it undergoes negligible metabolism and is almost exclusively eliminated via renal excretion, and it neither induces nor inhibits the activity of several isoenzymes from the CYP 450 system. Consequently, bilastine does not interact with cytochrome metabolic pathways. Other queries involved specific patient groups such as subjects with renal impairment, women who are breastfeeding or who are trying to become pregnant, and patients with other concomitant diseases. Interestingly, several questions related to topics that are well covered in the Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC), which suggests

  13. Clinical variables affecting survival in patients with decompensated diastolic versus systolic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gorelik, Oleg; Almoznino-Sarafian, Dorit; Shteinshnaider, Miriam; Alon, Irena; Tzur, Irma; Sokolsky, Ilya; Efrati, Shai; Babakin, Zoanna; Modai, David; Cohen, Natan

    2009-04-01

    The impact of various clinical variables on long-term survival of patients with acutely decompensated diastolic heart failure (DHF) compared to systolic heart failure (SHF) has not been sufficiently investigated. Clinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic data were collected and analyzed for all-cause mortality in 473 furosemide-treated patients aged >or=60 years, hospitalized for acutely decompensated HF. Diastolic heart failure patients (n = 183) were more likely to be older, female, hypertensive, obese, with shorter preexisting HF duration, atrial fibrillation, lower New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, lower maintenance furosemide dosages, and to receive calcium antagonists. The SHF group (290 patients) demonstrated prevailing coronary artery disease, nitrate or digoxin treatment, and electrocardiographic conduction disturbances (P

  14. Pharmacological therapy in children with nodal reentry tachycardia: when, how and how long to treat the affected patients.

    PubMed

    Bouhouch, R; El Houari, T; Fellat, I; Arharbi, M

    2008-01-01

    Atrio-ventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is a rare supra-ventricular tachycardia (SVT) in children and becomes more frequent in adolescents. Most of children with an AVNRT have a healthy heart thus rarely experiencing severe symptoms. Because of haemodynamic instability or risk of complications, recurrences of SVT may require a chronic therapy. Interruption of dual atrio-ventricular nodal physiology is the basic mechanism to terminate AVNRT. This may be achieved by using anti-arrhythmic drugs or through Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RF). We aim to review the literature on the use of anti-arrhythmic drugs for the management of AVNRT in children aged more than 1 year and discuss the recommended dosages and the duration of a long term therapy. In the absence of comparative trials of risks and benefits between pharmacological therapy and RF and because of a greater clinical experience with anti-arrhythmic drugs, these last but not the least continue to be first-line therapy in the management of most SVT in children. Trials on pharmacotherapy in children with SVT in general and AVNRT in particular are lacking, use of anti-arrhythmic drugs being extrapolated from adult literature. Although Adenosine is becoming more used since it is the safest and effective drug in the acute setting, Digoxin continue to be the drug of first choice. Beta-blockers and Class I anti-arrhythmic are the second choice drugs with Flecainide being the preferred anti-arrhythmic drug for treatment failures. Amiodarone is rarely used as a chronic therapy in resistant cases. With the new advances in the RF technology, this therapy is becoming more safe and effective for AVNRT in children. Therefore, additional well-designed controlled trials are needed to further evaluate the comparative efficacy of anti-arrhythmic drugs in the management of AVNRT in children, as well as to evaluate dosing and toxicity in various age groups and determine the duration of a chronic therapy as compared

  15. The origin of the post-tetanic hyperpolarization of mammalian motor nerve terminals

    PubMed Central

    Gage, P. W.; Hubbard, J. I.

    1966-01-01

    1. Motor nerve terminals in magnesium-poisoned rat hemidiaphragm-phrenic nerve preparations in vitro were stimulated with short depolarizing pulses of approximately threshold strength and the evoked antidromic responses recorded from the phrenic nerve. The percentage of these 1/sec or 0·5/sec stimuli to which there was no antidromic response was used as a quantitative measure of the terminal excitability. After standard tetanic stimulation (1000 impulses at 100/sec) the excitability of the terminals was depressed for an average duration of 60-70 sec, during most of which time no antidromic responses to stimuli of pretetanic intensity were recorded. There was no significant interaction between stimuli to the terminals at rates of 1 or 0·5/sec. 2. Potassium-free solutions at first increased, then decreased, the post-tetanic depression of excitability. Raising [K]o threefold (15 mM) abolished the post-tetanic depression and often converted it to an exaltation of excitability. 3. Polarizing currents were applied to the terminals with a second electrode. Depolarizing currents increased, while hyperpolarizing currents decreased, the post-tetanic depression of excitability. 4. In solutions with 70% of the normal NaCl content replaced by sucrose, the post-tetanic depression of excitability was reversibly prolonged. 5. In the presence of 7·7 × 10-6 M digoxin or 0·42 mM ouabain there was a small reversible reduction of post-tetanic excitability. 6. After exposure to solutions containing no glucose or to solutions containing 3-5 mM sodium azide the excitability of the terminals was not altered by the tetanus. After washing with the control solution, post-tetanic depression of excitability returned. Antimycin-A (1·8 × 10-6 M) had little or no effect upon post-tetanic excitability. 7. It was concluded that the post-tetanic depression of excitability reflected hyperpolarization of the terminals and that this hyperpolarization was caused by a shift of the membrane

  16. Impact of body weight, low energy diet and gastric bypass on drug bioavailability, cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic biomarkers: protocol for an open, non-randomised, three-armed single centre study (COCKTAIL).

    PubMed

    Hjelmesæth, Jøran; Åsberg, Anders; Andersson, Shalini; Sandbu, Rune; Robertsen, Ida; Johnson, Line Kristin; Angeles, Philip Carlo; Hertel, Jens Kristoffer; Skovlund, Eva; Heijer, Maria; Ek, Anna-Lena; Krogstad, Veronica; Karlsen, Tor-Ivar; Christensen, Hege; Andersson, Tommy B; Karlsson, Cecilia

    2018-05-29

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GBP) is associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors and bioavailability of drugs, but whether these changes are induced by calorie restriction, the weight loss or surgery per se, remains uncertain. The COCKTAIL study was designed to disentangle the short-term (6 weeks) metabolic and pharmacokinetic effects of GBP and a very low energy diet (VLED) by inducing a similar weight loss in the two groups. This open, non-randomised, three-armed, single-centre study is performed at a tertiary care centre in Norway. It aims to compare the short-term (6 weeks) and long-term (2 years) effects of GBP and VLED on, first, bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (24 hours) of probe drugs and biomarkers and, second, their effects on metabolism, cardiometabolic risk factors and biomarkers. The primary outcomes will be measured as changes in: (1) all six probe drugs by absolute bioavailability area under the curve (AUC oral /AUC iv ) of midazolam (CYP3A4 probe), systemic exposure (AUC oral ) of digoxin and rosuvastatin and drug:metabolite ratios for omeprazole, losartan and caffeine, levels of endogenous CYP3A biomarkers and genotypic variation, changes in the expression and activity data of the drug-metabolising, drug transport and drug regulatory proteins in biopsies from various organs and (2) body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic biomarkers. The COCKTAIL protocol was reviewed and approved by the Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics (Ref: 2013/2379/REK sørøst A). The results will be disseminated to academic and health professional audiences and the public via presentations at conferences, publications in peer-reviewed journals and press releases and provided to all participants. NCT02386917. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Continuous production of monoclonal antibody in a packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Golmakany, Naghmeh; Rasaee, Mohammad Javad; Furouzandeh, Mehdi; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Kashanian, Soheila; Omidfar, Kobra

    2005-06-01

    In the present study the growth and MAb (monoclonal antibody) production of a mouse x mouse hybridoma cell producing anti-digoxin MAb was evaluated. The hybridoma cells entrapped within the support matrix Fibra-Cel were cultured in batch and continuous mode following special protocols. Cell-culture studies were performed in a 1-litre spinner basket containing 3 g.litre-1 support matrix. Batch culture was operated with the cell density of 42x10(6) cells. During the 7 days of culture, the medium was sampled daily in order to assess glucose and MAb concentrations and the lactate dehydrogenase released into the culture medium. After a culture period of 72 h, the cell density and MAb concentration were found to be 10.4x10(7) cells/3 g of NWPF (non-woven polyester fibre) discs and 250 microg/ml respectively. This yield gradually decreased to 0.55x10(6) cells/3 g of packaging material and 60 microg/ml respectively at the end of the batch culture. In the continuous-culture studies, the batch culture was initially operated for 64.5 h and then continuous flow was started at the dilution rates of 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 and 0.3 day-1 and finally stabilized at 0.25 day-1 within 288 h (12 days). The MAb concentration at steady state was found to be 116-120 microg/day per ml, and the yield of operation was 62.5 mg/day per ml, which was 3.5 times higher than that of batch culture. In conclusion, a packed-bed bioreactor with the support matrix Fibra-Cel, operated in continuous-feeding mode, is more efficient for large-scale MAb production than a batch culture. On the other hand, by using a continuous-culture system, a better supply of nutrients and removal of inhibitory metabolites and proteolytic enzymes was obtained.

  18. Effects of Sacubitril/Valsartan in the PARADIGM-HF Trial (Prospective Comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure) According to Background Therapy.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Naoki; Jhund, Pardeep S; Gong, Jianjian; Lefkowitz, Martin P; Rizkala, Adel R; Rouleau, Jean L; Shi, Victor C; Swedberg, Karl; Zile, Michael R; Solomon, Scott D; Packer, Milton; McMurray, John J V

    2016-09-01

    In the PARADIGM-HF trial (Prospective Comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure), the angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril/valsartan was more effective than the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitorenalapril in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. We examined whether this benefit was consistent irrespective of background therapy. We examined the effect of study treatment in the following subgroups: diuretics (yes/no), digitalis glycoside (yes/no), mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (yes/no),and defibrillating device (implanted defibrillating device, yes/no). We also examined the effect of study drug according to β-blocker dose (≥50% and <50% of target dose) and according to whether patients had undergone previous coronary revascularization. We analyzed the primary composite end point of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization, as well as cardiovascular death. Most randomized patients (n=8399)were treated with a diuretic (80%) and β-blocker (93%); 47% of those taking a β-blocker were treated with ≥50% of the recommended dose. In addition, 4671 (56%) were treated with a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, 2539 (30%) with digoxin, and 1243 (15%) had a defibrillating device; 2640 (31%) had undergone coronary revascularization. Overall, the sacubitril/valsartan versus enalapril hazard ratio for the primary composite end point was 0.80 (95% confidence interval,0.73-0.87;P<0.001) and for cardiovascular death was0.80 (0.71-0.89;P<0.001). The effect of sacubitril/valsartan was consistent across all subgroups examined. The hazard ratio for primary end point ranged from 0.74 to 0.85 and for cardiovascular death rangedfrom 0.75 to 0.89, with no treatment-by-subgroup interaction. The benefit of sacubitril/valsartan, over an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, was consistent regardless of background therapy and irrespective of previouscoronary

  19. Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Sacubitril/Valsartan (LCZ696): A Novel Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Ayalasomayajula, Surya; Langenickel, Thomas; Pal, Parasar; Boggarapu, Sreedevi; Sunkara, Gangadhar

    2017-12-01

    Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) is indicated for the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Absorption of sacubitril/valsartan and conversion of sacubitril (prodrug) to sacubitrilat (neprilysin inhibitor) was rapid with maximum plasma concentrations of sacubitril, sacubitrilat, and valsartan (angiotensin receptor blocker) reaching within 0.5, 1.5-2.0, and 2.0-3.0 h, respectively. With a two-fold increase in dose, an increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve was proportional for sacubitril, ~1.9-fold for sacubitrilat, and ~1.7-fold for valsartan in healthy subjects. Following multiple twice-daily administration, steady-state maximum plasma concentration was reached within 3 days, showing no accumulation for sacubitril and valsartan, while ~1.6-fold accumulation for sacubitrilat. Sacubitril is eliminated predominantly as sacubitrilat through the kidney; valsartan is eliminated mainly by biliary route. Drug-drug interactions of sacubitril/valsartan were evaluated with medications commonly used in patients with heart failure including furosemide, warfarin, digoxin, carvedilol, levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol combination, amlodipine, omeprazole, hydrochlorothiazide, intravenous nitrates, metformin, statins, and sildenafil. Co-administration with sacubitril/valsartan increased the maximum plasma concentration (~2.0-fold) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (1.3-fold) of atorvastatin; however, it did not affect the pharmacokinetics of simvastatin. Age, sex, or ethnicity did not affect the pharmacokinetics of sacubitril/valsartan. In patients with heart failure vs. healthy subjects, area under the plasma concentration-time curves of sacubitril, sacubitrilat, and valsartan were higher by approximately 1.6-, 2.1-, and 2.3-fold, respectively. Renal impairment had no significant impact on sacubitril and valsartan area under the plasma concentration-time curves, while the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of

  20. Erratum to: Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Sacubitril/Valsartan (LCZ696): A Novel Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Ayalasomayajula, Surya; Langenickel, Thomas; Pal, Parasar; Boggarapu, Sreedevi; Sunkara, Gangadhar

    2018-01-01

    Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) is indicated for the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Absorption of sacubitril/valsartan and conversion of sacubitril (prodrug) to sacubitrilat (neprilysin inhibitor) was rapid with maximum plasma concentrations of sacubitril, sacubitrilat, and valsartan (angiotensin receptor blocker) reaching within 0.5, 1.5-2.0, and 2.0-3.0 h, respectively. With a twofold increase in dose, an increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve was proportional for sacubitril, ~1.9-fold for sacubitrilat, and ~1.7-fold for valsartan in healthy subjects. Following multiple twice-daily administration, steady-state maximum plasma concentration was reached within 3 days, showing no accumulation for sacubitril and valsartan, while ~1.6-fold accumulation for sacubitrilat. Sacubitril is eliminated predominantly as sacubitrilat through the kidney; valsartan is eliminated mainly by biliary route. Drug-drug interactions of sacubitril/valsartan were evaluated with medications commonly used in patients with heart failure including furosemide, warfarin, digoxin, carvedilol, levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol combination, amlodipine, omeprazole, hydrochlorothiazide, intravenous nitrates, metformin, statins, and sildenafil. Co-administration with sacubitril/valsartan increased the maximum plasma concentration (~2.0-fold) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (1.3-fold) of atorvastatin; however, it did not affect the pharmacokinetics of simvastatin. Age, sex, or ethnicity did not affect the pharmacokinetics of sacubitril/valsartan. In patients with heart failure vs. healthy subjects, area under the plasma concentration-time curves of sacubitril, sacubitrilat, and valsartan were higher by approximately 1.6-, 2.1-, and 2.3-fold, respectively. Renal impairment had no significant impact on sacubitril and valsartan area under the plasma concentration-time curves, while the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of

  1. Comparison of clinical profile and management of outpatients with heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction treated by general practitioners and cardiologists in contemporary Poland: the results from the DATA-HELP registry.

    PubMed

    Jankowska, Ewa A; Kalicinska, Elzbieta; Drozd, Marcin; Kurian, Beata; Banasiak, Waldemar; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2014-10-20

    We sought to determine and compare clinical profile and management of outpatients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF) treated by cardiologists and general practitioners (GPs) in Poland. All the 790 randomly selected cardiologists and GPs in the DATA-HELP registry, which included 5563 patients, filled out questionnaires about 10 consecutive outpatients with HFREF. Outpatients managed by GPs were older (69±10 vs 66±12 years), and the prevalence of men was less marked (58% vs 67%). They also had higher left ventricular ejection fraction (38±6% vs 35±8%) and had more pulmonary congestion (63% vs 49%) and peripheral oedema (66% vs 51%), compared with those treated by cardiologists (all p<0.001). Hypertension (74% vs 66%), previous stroke and/or transient ischaemic attack (21% vs 16%), diabetes (40% vs 30%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (14% vs 11%) were more common in outpatients of GPs (all p<0.001). GPs were less likely to prescribe β-blocker (95% vs 97%, p<0.01), mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) (56% vs 64%, p<0.001), and loop diuretic (61% vs 64%, p<0.05) or use PCI (33% vs 44%, p<0.001), CABG (11% vs 16%, p<0.001), ICD (4% vs 10%, p<0.001), or CRT (1% vs 5%, p<0.001). Prescription of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (94% vs 94%, p>0.2) and digoxin (20% vs 21%, p>0.2) by GPs and cardiologists was similar. In contemporary Poland, most outpatients with HFREF receive drugs that improve survival and undergo revascularisation procedures, although devices are rare, but the clinical profiles and management of those treated by GPs and cardiologists differ. Outpatients treated by GPs are older and have more co-morbidities. Outpatients treated by cardiologists more commonly receive β-blocker, MRA, ICD, and CRT, and undergo coronary revascularisations. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. In vitro sensitivity of granulo-monocytic progenitors as a new toxicological cell system and endpoint in the ACuteTox Project

    SciTech Connect

    Cerrato, Laura; Valeri, Antonio; Bueren, Juan A.

    The ACuteTox Project (part of the EU 6th Framework Programme) was started up in January 2005. The aim of this project is to develop a simple and robust in vitro strategy for prediction of human acute systemic toxicity, which could replace animal tests used for regulatory purposes. Our group is responsible for the characterization of the effect of the reference chemicals on the hematopoietic tissue. CFU-GM assay based on the culture of human mononuclear cord blood cells has been used to characterize the effects of the selected compounds on the myeloid progenitors. Previous results have shown the relevance of themore » CFU-GM assay for the prediction of human acute neutropenia after treatment of antitumoral compounds, and this assay has been recently approved by the ECVAM's Scientific Advisory Committee. Among the compounds included in the study there were pharmaceuticals, environmental pollutants and industrial chemicals. Eleven out of 55 chemicals did not show any cytotoxic effect at the maximum concentration tested. The correlation coefficients of CFU-GM IC50, IC70 and IC90 values with human LC50 values (50% lethal concentration calculated from time-related sublethal and lethal human blood concentrations) were 0.4965, 0.5106 and 0.5142 respectively. Although this correlation is not improve respect to classical in vitro basal cytotoxicity tests such as 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake, chemicals which deviate substantially in the correlation with these assays (colchicine, digoxin, 5-Fluorouracil and thallium sulfate) fitted very well in the linear regression analysis of the CFU-GM progenitors. The results shown in the present study indicate that the sensitivity of CFU-GM progenitors correlates better than the sensitivity of HL-60 cells with human LC50 values and could help to refine the predictability for human acute systemic toxicity when a given chemical may affect to the hematopoietic myeloid system.« less

  3. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 1)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that herbal supplements or herbal medicines are now commonly used. As many patients taking prescription medications are concomitantly using herbal supplements, there is considerable risk for adverse herbal drug interactions. Such interactions can enhance the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index such as warfarin, cyclosporine A and digoxin. Herbal drug interactions can alter pharmacokinetic or/and pharmacodynamic properties of administered drugs. The most common pharmacokinetic interactions usually involve either the inhibition or induction of the metabolism of drugs catalyzed by the important enzymes, cytochrome P450 (CYP). The aim of the present article is to provide an updated review of clinically relevant metabolic CYP-mediated drug interactions between selected herbal supplements and prescription drugs. The commonly used herbal supplements selected include Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, St. John's wort, goldenseal, and milk thistle. To date, several significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of CYP enzyme activity by various phytochemicals. Numerous herbal drug interactions have been reported. Although the significance of many interactions is uncertain but several interactions, especially those with St. John’s wort, may have critical clinical consequences. St. John’s wort is a source of hyperforin, an active ingredient that has a strong affinity for the pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR). As a PXR ligand, hyperforin promotes expression of CYP3A4 enzymes in the small intestine and liver. This in turn causes induction of CYP3A4 and can reduce the oral bioavailability of many drugs making them less effective. The available evidence indicates that, at commonly recommended doses, other selected herbs including Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, goldenseal and milk thistle do not act as potent or moderate inhibitors or inducers of CYP enzymes. A good

  4. Metformin and sitAgliptin in patients with impAired glucose tolerance and a recent TIA or minor ischemic Stroke (MAAS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Osei, Elizabeth; Fonville, Susanne; Zandbergen, Adrienne A M; Brouwers, Paul J A M; Mulder, Laus J M M; Lingsma, Hester F; Dippel, Diederik W J; Koudstaal, Peter J; den Hertog, Heleen M

    2015-08-05

    Impaired glucose tolerance is present in one third of patients with a TIA or ischemic stroke and is associated with a two-fold risk of recurrent stroke. Metformin improves glucose tolerance, but often leads to side effects. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility, safety, and effects on glucose metabolism of metformin and sitagliptin in patients with TIA or minor ischemic stroke and impaired glucose tolerance. We will also assess whether a slow increase in metformin dose and better support and information on this treatment will reduce the incidence of side effects in these patients. The Metformin and sitAgliptin in patients with impAired glucose tolerance and a recent TIA or minor ischemic Stroke trial (MAAS trial) is a phase II, multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label trial with blinded outcome assessment. Non-diabetic patients (n = 100) with a recent (<6 months) TIA, amaurosis fugax or minor ischemic stroke (modified Rankin scale ≤ 3) and impaired glucose tolerance, defined as 2-hour post-load glucose levels between 7.8 and 11.0 mmol/L after repeated standard oral glucose tolerance test, will be included. Patients with renal or liver impairment, heart failure, chronic hypoxic lung disease stage III-IV, history of lactate acidosis or diabetic ketoacidosis, pregnancy or breastfeeding, pancreatitis and use of digoxin will be excluded. The patients will be randomly assigned in a 1:1:2 ratio to metformin, sitagliptin or "no treatment." Patients allocated to metformin will start with 500 mg twice daily, which will be slowly increased during a 6-week period to a twice daily dose of 1000 mg. Patients allocated to sitagliptin will be treated with a daily fixed dose of 100 mg. The study has been registered as NTR 3196 in The Netherlands Trial Register. Primary outcomes include percentage still on treatment, percentage of (serious) adverse events, and the baseline adjusted difference in 2-hour post-load glucose levels at 6 months. This study will give

  5. Predictors of temporary epicardial pacing wires use after valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although temporary cardiac pacing is infrequently needed, temporary epicardial pacing wires are routinely inserted after valve surgery. As they are associated with infrequent, but life threatening complications, and the decreased need for postoperative pacing in a group of low risk patients; this study aims to identify the predictors of temporary cardiac pacing after valve surgery. Methods A retrospective analysis of data collected prospectively on 400 consecutive valve surgery patients between May 2002 and December 2012 was performed. Patients were grouped according to avoidance or insertion of temporary pacing wires, and were further subdivided according to temporary cardiac pacing need. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of temporary cardiac pacing. Results 170 (42.5%) patients did not have insertion of temporary pacing wires and none of them needed temporary pacing. 230 (57.5%) patients had insertion of temporary pacing wires and among these, only 55 (23.9%) required temporary pacing who were compared with the remaining 175 (76.1%) patients in the main analysis. The determinants of temporary cardiac pacing (adjusted odds ratios; 95% confidence interval) were as follows: increased age (1.1; 1.1, 1.3, p = 0.002), New York Heart Association class III- IV (5.6; 1.6, 20.2, p = 0.008) , pulmonary artery pressure ≥ 50 mmHg (22.0; 3.4, 142.7, p = 0.01), digoxin use (8.0; 1.3, 48.8, p = 0.024), multiple valve surgery (13.5; 1.5, 124.0, p = 0.021), aorta cross clamp time ≥ 60 minutes (7.8; 1.6, 37.2, p = 0.010), and valve annulus calcification (7.9; 2.0, 31.7, p = 0.003). Conclusion Although limited by sample size, the present results suggest that routine use of temporary epicardial pacing wires after valve surgery is only necessary for high risk patients. Preoperative identification and aggressive management of predictors of temporary cardiac pacing and the possible modulation of

  6. Eukaryotic polypeptide elongation system and its sensitivity to the inhibitory substances of plant origin.

    PubMed

    Gałasiński, W

    1996-05-01

    The structural and functional characteristics of the elongation system (ribosomes and elongation factors) are presented. The immunochemical and diagnostic meaning of the ribosome investigations is considered. Evidence of the participation of ribosomes in the first step of protein glycosylation is presented. The heterogeneous elongation factor eEF-1, isolated from Guerin epithelioma, can be separated into three fractions: one of them functionally corresponds to EF-1 alpha, the second on to EF-1 beta gamma, and the third is an unidentified, active aggregate named EF-1B, which contains the subunit forms EF-1 alpha and EF-1 beta gamma, and other polypeptides showing protein kinase activity. The aggregate EF-1B can be autophosphorylated, while the subunit forms EF-1 alpha and EF-1 beta gamma can neither become autophosphorylated nor phosphorylate other polypeptides. The subunit form EF-beta gamma consists from two polypeptides of 32 and 51 kDa, corresponding to other eukaryotic beta and gamma polypeptides, respectively. EF-1 beta gamma is thermostable and protects against thermal inactivation of EF-1 alpha in the EF-1 alpha-EF-1 beta gamma complex. Pure eEF-2 preparations isolated from normal and neoplastic tissues show different structural features. The existence of eEF-2 in multiple forms, differing in molecular mass, have been found. The eEF-2 with molecular weight of about 100 kDa can be phosphorylated, while eEF-2 of about 65 kDa was not phosphorylated by protein kinase eEF-2. The phosphorylated eEF-2 lost its activity, and this effect was reversed by dephosphorylation. The eEF-2 (65 kDa) was isolated from the active polyribosomes, and it may directly participate in the translocation step of the peptide elongation. It was noted that the components of elongation system can be inhibited, in separate steps, by the substances isolated from various sources of plant origin. Alkaloids emetine and cepheline, cardiac remedy digoxin, saponin glycoside, and its aglycon

  7. Beta-blocker use and risk of symptomatic bradyarrhythmias: a hospital-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hou Tee; Kam, Jiyen; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Khelae, Surinder Kaur; Wang, Jing Mein; Choy, Chun Ngok; Lee, Chuey Yan

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the risk factors of symptomatic bradyarrhythmias in relation to β-blockers use. A hospital-based case-control study [228 patients: 108 with symptomatic bradyarrhythmias (cases) and 120 controls] was conducted in Sultanah Aminah Hospital, Malaysia between January 2011 and January 2014. The mean age was 61.1 ± 13.3 years with a majority of men (68.9%). Cases were likely than control to be older, hypertensive, lower body mass index and concomitant use of rate-controlling drugs (such as digoxin, verapamil, diltiazem, ivabradine or amiodarone). Significantly higher level of serum potassium, urea, creatinine and lower level of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were observed among cases as compared to controls. On univariate analysis among patients on β-blockers, older age (crude OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.03-1.11, P = 0.000), hypertension (crude OR: 5.6; 95% CI: 1.51-20.72, P = 0.010), lower sodium (crude OR: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.81-0.99, P = 0.036), higher potassium (crude OR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.31-4.26, P = 0.004) and higher urea (crude OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.11-1.38, P = 0.000) were associated with increased risk of symptomatic bradyarrhythmias; eGFR was inversely and significantly associated with symptomatic bradyarrhythmias in both 'β-blockers' (crude OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.96-0.98, P = 0.000) and 'non-β-blockers' (crude OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.97-0.99, P = 0.023) arms. However, eGFR was not significantly associated with symptomatic bradyarrhythmias in the final model of both 'β-blockers' (adjusted OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96-0.98, P = 0.103) and 'non-β-blockers' (adjusted OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.97-1.01, P = 0.328) arms. Importantly, older age was a significant predictor of symptomatic bradyarrhythmias in the 'β-blockers' as compared to the 'non-β-blockers' arms (adjusted OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.03-1.15, P = 0.003 vs . adjusted OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.98-1.09, P = 0.232, respectively). Older age was a significant predictor of symptomatic bradyarrhythmias in patients on

  8. Frailty, Kidney Function, and Polypharmacy: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Ballew, Shoshana H.; Chen, Yan; Daya, Natalie R.; Godino, Job G.; Windham, B. Gwen; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara; Coresh, Josef; Selvin, Elizabeth; Grams, Morgan E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Frail individuals are at increased risk for poor outcomes, including adverse drug events. Kidney function is often compromised in frailty and is a key consideration in medication choice and dosing; however, creatinine-based measures of kidney function may be biased in frail individuals. Study Design Observational study. Setting & Participants 4,987 community-dwelling older men and women with complete data who participated in visit 5 of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (2011–2013). Predictor Kidney measures included glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated using serum creatinine (eGFRcr) and serum cystatin C (eGFRcys) and urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR). Outcomes Frailty, defined using established criteria of 3 or more frailty characteristics (weight loss, slowness, exhaustion, weakness, and low physical activity). Results In total, 341 participants (7%) were classified as frail, 1475 (30%) had eGFRcr <60 ml/min/1.73 m2, 2480 (50%) had eGFRcys <60 ml/min/1.73 m2, and 1006 (20%) had albuminuria ≥30 mg/g. Among frail participants, prevalences of eGFRcr and eGFRcys <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 were 45% and 77%, respectively. Adjusted for covariates, frailty showed a moderate association with eGFRcr and a strong association with eGFRcys and ACR. Frail individuals with eGFRcr 60–<75 ml/min/1.73 m2 were frequently reclassified to lower eGFR categories using eGFRcys (49% to 45–<60, 32% to 30–<45, and 3% to <30 ml/min/1.73 m2). Hyperpolypharmacy (taking ≥10 classes of medications) was more common in frail individuals (54% vs 38% of non-frail), including classes requiring kidney clearance (e.g., digoxin) and associated with falls and subsequent complications (e.g., hypnotic/sedatives, anticoagulants). Limitations Cross-sectional study design. Conclusions Frail individuals had a high prevalence of reduce kidney function, with large discrepancies when reduced kidney function was classified by eGFRcys versus eGFRcr. Given the substantial

  9. The effectiveness of disease management programmes in reducing hospital re-admission in older patients with heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published reports.

    PubMed

    Gonseth, Jonás; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Banegas, José R; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2004-09-01

    as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers or digoxin. However, since none of the DMP studies compared different interventions directly, we do not know the relative effectiveness of types of healthcare delivery within the DMP.

  10. Potentially harmful drug-drug interactions in the elderly: a review.

    PubMed

    Hines, Lisa E; Murphy, John E

    2011-12-01

    Elderly patients are vulnerable to drug interactions because of age-related physiologic changes, an increased risk for disease associated with aging, and the consequent increase in medication use. The purpose of this narrative review was to describe findings from rigorously designed observational cohort and case-control studies that have assessed specific drug interactions in elderly patients. The PubMed and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts databases were searched for studies published in English over the past 10 years (December 2000-December 2010) using relevant Medical Subject Headings terms (aged; aged, 80 and over; and drug interactions) and search terms (drug interaction and elderly). Search strategies were saved and repeated through September 2011 to ensure that the most recent relevant published articles were identified. Additional articles were found using a search of review articles and reference lists of the identified studies. Studies were included if they were observational cohort or case-control studies that reported specific adverse drug interactions, included patients aged ≥65 years, and evaluated clinically meaningful end points. Studies were excluded if they used less rigorous observational designs, assessed pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties, evaluated drug-nutrient or drug-disease interactions or interactions of drug combinations used for therapeutic benefit (eg, dual antiplatelet therapy), or had inconclusive evidence. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Sixteen studies reported an elevated risk for hospitalization in older adults associated with adverse drug interactions. The drug interactions included: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and potassium-sparing diuretics, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, benzodiazepines or zolpidem and interacting medications, calcium channel blockers and macrolide antibiotics, digoxin and macrolide antibiotics, lithium and

  11. Transcatheter closure of large patent ductus arteriosus with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension in adults: immediate and two-year follow-up results.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cao-Jin; Huang, Yi-Gao; Huang, Xin-Sheng; Huang, Tao; Huang, Wen-Hui; Xia, Chun-Li; Mo, Yu-Jing

    2012-11-01

    Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a well established procedure and an accepted treatment modality for small to moderate-sized PDA. This study aimed to evaluate the immediate and follow-up results of transcatheter closure of large PDAs with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in adults. After a complete hemodynamic evaluation differentiating from the reversibility of severe PAH, transcatheter closure of PDA was performed. Patients were followed up clinically and echocardiographically at 24 hours, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months after occlusion. Twenty-nine patients had successful occlusion, pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and fractional shortening (FS) significantly decreased immediately after occlusion ((106 ± 25) mmHg vs. (50 ± 14) mmHg, P < 0.01; (63.7 ± 7.2)% vs. (51.4 ± 10.1)%, P < 0.01 and (36.9 ± 8.2)% vs. (28.9 ± 8.6)%, P < 0.05, respectively). At 1 month after PDA closure, the signs and symptoms improved markedly in all 29 patients, and PDAs were completely closed and remained closed during the follow-up. Eighteen patients having different degrees of dyspnea were treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and/or digoxin after occlusion. Nine patients whose pulmonary vascular resistence (PVR) > 6 Wood units accepted targeted PAH therapy. After 1 to 3 months of peroral drug therapy, their exercise tolerance improved from New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III-IV to NYHA class I. During follow-up, no latent arrhythmias were found, the left atrial diameter (LAD), left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD), left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVESD), left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) decreased significantly (P < 0.05), and FS and LVEF recovered compared to the immediate postclosure state. However, FS and LVEF remained low compared to the preclosure state. Transcatheter closure of

  12. Trends in laboratory test volumes for Medicare Part B reimbursements, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Shahangian, Shahram; Alspach, Todd D; Astles, J Rex; Yesupriya, Ajay; Dettwyler, William K

    2014-02-01

    Changes in reimbursements for clinical laboratory testing may help us assess the effect of various variables, such as testing recommendations, market forces, changes in testing technology, and changes in clinical or laboratory practices, and provide information that can influence health care and public health policy decisions. To date, however, there has been no report, to our knowledge, of longitudinal trends in national laboratory test use. To evaluate Medicare Part B-reimbursed volumes of selected laboratory tests per 10,000 enrollees from 2000 through 2010. Laboratory test reimbursement volumes per 10,000 enrollees in Medicare Part B were obtained from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (Baltimore, Maryland). The ratio of the most recent (2010) reimbursed test volume per 10,000 Medicare enrollees, divided by the oldest data (usually 2000) during this decade, called the volume ratio, was used to measure trends in test reimbursement. Laboratory tests with a reimbursement claim frequency of at least 10 per 10,000 Medicare enrollees in 2010 were selected, provided there was more than a 50% change in test reimbursement volume during the 2000-2010 decade. We combined the reimbursed test volumes for the few tests that were listed under more than one code in the Current Procedural Terminology (American Medical Association, Chicago, Illinois). A 2-sided Poisson regression, adjusted for potential overdispersion, was used to determine P values for the trend; trends were considered significant at P < .05. Tests with the greatest decrease in reimbursement volumes were electrolytes, digoxin, carbamazepine, phenytoin, and lithium, with volume ratios ranging from 0.27 to 0.64 (P < .001). Tests with the greatest increase in reimbursement volumes were meprobamate, opiates, methadone, phencyclidine, amphetamines, cocaine, and vitamin D, with volume ratios ranging from 83 to 1510 (P < .001). Although reimbursement volumes increased for most of the selected tests, other

  13. Neurohormones and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Mendzef, Scott D; Slovinski, Jennifer R

    2004-12-01

    The management of several neurohormonal pathways is crucial to treating the progression of HF, in addition to improving the quality of life for patients diagnosed with HF. Stimulation of the sympathetic and retin-angiogensin-aldosterone systems begins the initial and primary neurohormonal stimulation associated with the progression of this disease. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that other systems, including the cellular immune, endothelin-NO pathway, kallikrein-kinin system, the arachidonic acid cascade, and the natriuretic peptides need to be considered by clinicians when treating HF. Once treated solely with nitrates, diuretics, and morphine, the management of HF is becoming a more complex and intricate balancing act among several interdependent neurohormonal systems. Understanding the complex nature and proper management of these systems are crucial if patients with HF are to enjoy a better quality of life and experience an improvement in their symptoms. Current recommendations for the treatment and management of HF use several medications, which affect multiple neurohormonal pathways. The Heart Failure Society of America and the American Heart Association both recommend in their recent guidelines for management of HF the use of beta-adrenergic receptor blockers (beta-blockers), loop diuretics, digitalis glycosides(digoxin), ACE-I, aldactone antagonists (spironolactone), and in selected instances, ARBs and the combination of hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate. No discussion of HF is complete without mention of the larger challenges associated with the management of HF. It is a complex syndrome that requires a multidisciplinary approach with expertise in nutrition, exercise, pharmacology, education, and the basic pathophysiology of complex neurohormonal systems. Patients with uncompensated HF are frightened, vulnerable, and require frequent medication adjustments as well as substantial time dedicated to counseling, physical assessment, and

  14. Prevalence, clinical features and avoidability of adverse drug reactions as cause of admission to a geriatric unit: a prospective study of 1756 patients.

    PubMed

    Franceschi, Marilisa; Scarcelli, Carlo; Niro, Valeria; Seripa, Davide; Pazienza, Anna Maria; Pepe, Giovanni; Colusso, Anna Maria; Pacilli, Luigi; Pilotto, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Drug use increases with advancing age, and in older patients it is associated with an increase in adverse drug reactions (ADRs). ADRs are a primary cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. To evaluate the prevalence, clinical characteristics and avoidability of ADR-related hospital admissions in elderly patients. From November 2004 to December 2005, all patients aged >or=65 years consecutively admitted to the Geriatric Unit of the Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital, San Giovanni Rotondo in Italy, were evaluated for enrolment in the study. ADRs were defined according to the WHO Adverse Reaction Terminology system. Drugs were classified according to Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system. The Naranjo algorithm was used to evaluate the relationship between drug use and the ADR (definite, probable, possible or doubtful) and Hallas criteria were used to evaluate the avoidability of the ADR (definitely avoidable, possibly avoidable or unavoidable). All cases of a suspected ADR were discussed by a team trained in drug safety, including three geriatricians, one clinical pharmacologist and one pharmacist. Only cases of an ADR with an agreement >or=80% were included. Of the 1756 patients observed, 102 (5.8%, 42 males, 60 females, mean age 76.5 +/- 7.4 years, range 65-93 years) showed certain (6.8%) or probable (91.2%) ADR-related hospitalization. Gastrointestinal disorders (48 patients, 47.1%); platelet, bleeding and clotting disorders (20 patients, 19.6%); and cardiovascular disorders (13 patients, 12.7%) were the most frequent ADRs. NSAIDs (23.5%), oral anticoagulants (20.6%), low-dose aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) [13.7%] and digoxin (12.7%) were the drugs most frequently involved in ADRs. Of the ADRs, 45.1% were defined as definitely avoidable, 31.4% as possibly avoidable, 18.6% as unavoidable and 4.9% as unclassifiable. Of 78 patients with definitely or possibly avoidable ADRs, 17 patients (21.8%) had received an inappropriate prescription, 29

  15. Relationship between patient age and duration of physician visit in ambulatory setting: does one size fit all?

    PubMed

    Lo, Agnes; Ryder, Kathryn; Shorr, Ronald I

    2005-07-01

    To determine whether patient age, the presence of comorbid illness, and the number of prescribed medications influence the duration of a physician visit in an ambulatory care setting. A cross-sectional study of ambulatory care visits made by adults aged 45 and older to primary care physicians. A probability sample of outpatient follow-up visits in the United States using the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) 2002 database. Of 28,738 physician visits in the 2002 NAMCS data set, there were 3,819 visits by adults aged 45 and older included in this study for analysis. The primary endpoint was the time that a physician spent with a patient at each visit. Covariates included for analyses were patient characteristics, physician characteristics, visit characteristics, and source of payment. Visit characteristics, including the number of diagnoses and the number of prescribed medications, the major diagnoses, and the therapeutic class of prescribed medications, were compared for different age groups (45-64, 65-74, and > or =75) to determine the complexity of the patient's medical conditions. Endpoint estimates were computed by age group and were also estimated based on study covariates using univariate and multivariate linear regression. The mean time+/-standard deviation spent with a physician was 17.9+/-8.5 minutes. There were no differences in the duration of visits between the age groups before or after adjustment for patient covariates. Patients aged 75 and older had more comorbid illness and were prescribed more medications than patients aged 45 to 64 and 65 to 74 (P<.001). Patients aged 75 and older were also prescribed more medications that require specific monitoring and counseling (warfarin, digoxin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, diuretics, and levothyroxine) than were patients in other age groups (P<.001). Hypertension, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, and transient ischemic

  16. Effects of drug pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties, characteristics of medication use, and relevant pharmacological interventions on fall risk in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Zhou, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Falls among the elderly are an issue internationally and a public health problem that brings substantial economic and quality-of-life burdens to individuals and society. Falls prevention is an important measure of nursing quality and patient safety. Numerous studies have evaluated the association of medication use with fall risk in elderly patients. However, an up-to-date review has not been available to summarize the multifaceted pharmaceutical concerns in the prevention of medication-related falls. Relevant literature was identified by performing searches in PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library, covering the period until February 2014. We included studies that described an association between medications and falls, and effects of drug pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties, characteristics of medication use, and pharmacological interventions on fall risk in elderly patients. The full text of each included article was critically reviewed, and data interpretation was performed. Fall-risk-increasing drugs (FRIDs) include central nervous system-acting agents, cough preparations, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-Alzheimer's agents, antiplatelet agents, calcium antagonists, diuretics, α-blockers, digoxin, hypoglycemic drugs, neurotoxic chemotherapeutic agents, nasal preparations, and antiglaucoma ophthalmic preparations. The degree of medication-related fall risk was dependent on one or some of the following factors: drug pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties (eg, elimination half-life, metabolic pathway, genetic polymorphism, risk rating of medications despite belonging to the same therapeutic class) and/or characteristics of medication use (eg, number of medications and drug-drug interactions, dose strength, duration of medication use and time since stopping, medication change, prescribing appropriateness, and medication adherence). Pharmacological interventions, including withdrawal of FRIDs, pharmacist-conducted clinical medication

  17. Beta-blocker use and risk of symptomatic bradyarrhythmias: a hospital-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hou Tee; Kam, Jiyen; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Khelae, Surinder Kaur; Wang, Jing Mein; Choy, Chun Ngok; Lee, Chuey Yan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk factors of symptomatic bradyarrhythmias in relation to β-blockers use. Methods A hospital-based case-control study [228 patients: 108 with symptomatic bradyarrhythmias (cases) and 120 controls] was conducted in Sultanah Aminah Hospital, Malaysia between January 2011 and January 2014. Results The mean age was 61.1 ± 13.3 years with a majority of men (68.9%). Cases were likely than control to be older, hypertensive, lower body mass index and concomitant use of rate-controlling drugs (such as digoxin, verapamil, diltiazem, ivabradine or amiodarone). Significantly higher level of serum potassium, urea, creatinine and lower level of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were observed among cases as compared to controls. On univariate analysis among patients on β-blockers, older age (crude OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.03–1.11, P = 0.000), hypertension (crude OR: 5.6; 95% CI: 1.51–20.72, P = 0.010), lower sodium (crude OR: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.81–0.99, P = 0.036), higher potassium (crude OR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.31–4.26, P = 0.004) and higher urea (crude OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.11–1.38, P = 0.000) were associated with increased risk of symptomatic bradyarrhythmias; eGFR was inversely and significantly associated with symptomatic bradyarrhythmias in both ‘β-blockers’ (crude OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.96–0.98, P = 0.000) and ‘non-β-blockers’ (crude OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.97–0.99, P = 0.023) arms. However, eGFR was not significantly associated with symptomatic bradyarrhythmias in the final model of both ‘β-blockers’ (adjusted OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96–0.98, P = 0.103) and ‘non-β-blockers’ (adjusted OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.97–1.01, P = 0.328) arms. Importantly, older age was a significant predictor of symptomatic bradyarrhythmias in the ‘β-blockers’ as compared to the ‘non-β-blockers’ arms (adjusted OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.03–1.15, P = 0.003 vs. adjusted OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.98–1.09, P = 0.232, respectively). Conclusion Older

  18. Frailty, Kidney Function, and Polypharmacy: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    PubMed

    Ballew, Shoshana H; Chen, Yan; Daya, Natalie R; Godino, Job G; Windham, B Gwen; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara; Coresh, Josef; Selvin, Elizabeth; Grams, Morgan E

    2017-02-01

    Frail individuals are at increased risk for poor outcomes, including adverse drug events. Kidney function is often compromised in frailty and is a key consideration in medication choice and dosing; however, creatinine-based measures of kidney function may be biased in frail individuals. Observational study. 4,987 community-dwelling older men and women with complete data who participated in visit 5 of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (2011-2013). Kidney measures included glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated using serum creatinine (eGFR cr ) and serum cystatin C level (eGFR cys ) and urine albumin-creatinine ratio. Frailty, defined using established criteria of 3 or more frailty characteristics (weight loss, slowness, exhaustion, weakness, and low physical activity). 341 (7%) participants were classified as frail, 1,475 (30%) had eGFR cr <60mL/min/1.73m 2 , 2,480 (50%) had eGFR cys <60mL/min/1.73m 2 , and 1,006 (20%) had albuminuria with albumin excretion ≥ 30mg/g. Among frail participants, prevalences of eGFR cr and eGFR cys <60mL/min/1.73m 2 were 45% and 77%, respectively. Adjusted for covariates, frailty showed a moderate association with eGFR cr and a strong association with eGFR cys and albumin-creatinine ratio. Frail individuals with eGFR cr of 60 to <75mL/min/1.73m 2 were frequently reclassified to lower eGFR categories using eGFR cys (49% to 45-<60, 32% to 30-<45, and 3% to <30mL/min/1.73m 2 ). Hyperpolypharmacy (taking ≥10 classes of medications) was more common in frail individuals (54% vs 38% of nonfrail), including classes requiring kidney clearance (eg, digoxin) and associated with falls and subsequent complications (eg, hypnotic/sedatives and anticoagulants). Cross-sectional study design. Frail individuals had a high prevalence of reduced kidney function, with large discrepancies when reduced kidney function was classified by eGFR cys versus eGFR cr . Given the substantial medication burden and uncertainty in chronic

  19. Use of beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Feely, J; Peden, N

    1984-05-01

    There is an increasing use and variety of beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents (beta-blockers) available for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Recent comparative studies suggest that atenolol (200mg daily), metoprolol (200mg daily); acebutolol (400mg daily), oxprenolol ( 160mg daily), nadolol ( 80mg daily) and timolol (20mg daily) produce a beneficial clinical response equal to that seen with propranolol ( 160mg daily). Most beta-blockers reduce resting heart rate by approximately 25 to 30 beats/min, although a lesser reduction is seen with those possessing intrinsic sympathomimetic activity such as oxprenolol and pindolol. While earlier studies employing large doses of intravenous propranolol concluded that beta-blockade reduced myocardial contractility, more recent non-invasive studies suggest that the predominant cardiac effect is on heart rate. In patients with cardiac failure, beta-blockers may, however, produce a profound fall in cardiac output. Nevertheless, in combination with digoxin they may be useful in controlling the atrial fibrillation of thyrocardiac disease. beta-Blockers improve nervousness and tremor (although to a lesser extent with cardioselective agents) and severe myopathy, and they also reduce the frequency of paralysis in patients with thyrotoxic periodic paralysis. There is often subjective improvement in sweating but usually no major effect on eye signs. Recent studies show a 10% reduction in oxygen consumption/basal metabolic rate with long term oral use of selective or nonselective beta-blockers. In addition, many agents (propranolol, metoprolol, nadolol and sotalol but not acebutolol, atenolol or oxprenolol) reduce circulating tri-iodothyronine (T3) concentration by between 10 and 40%, although the clinical significance of this effect (if any) is not established. beta-Blockers may also have endocrinological effects on gastrin, cyclic AMP, catecholamines and other hormone levels. Given in adequate dosage, propranolol has been shown to

  20. Effects of drug pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties, characteristics of medication use, and relevant pharmacological interventions on fall risk in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Zhou, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Background Falls among the elderly are an issue internationally and a public health problem that brings substantial economic and quality-of-life burdens to individuals and society. Falls prevention is an important measure of nursing quality and patient safety. Numerous studies have evaluated the association of medication use with fall risk in elderly patients. However, an up-to-date review has not been available to summarize the multifaceted pharmaceutical concerns in the prevention of medication-related falls. Materials and methods Relevant literature was identified by performing searches in PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library, covering the period until February 2014. We included studies that described an association between medications and falls, and effects of drug pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties, characteristics of medication use, and pharmacological interventions on fall risk in elderly patients. The full text of each included article was critically reviewed, and data interpretation was performed. Results Fall-risk-increasing drugs (FRIDs) include central nervous system-acting agents, cough preparations, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-Alzheimer’s agents, antiplatelet agents, calcium antagonists, diuretics, α-blockers, digoxin, hypoglycemic drugs, neurotoxic chemotherapeutic agents, nasal preparations, and antiglaucoma ophthalmic preparations. The degree of medication-related fall risk was dependent on one or some of the following factors: drug pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties (eg, elimination half-life, metabolic pathway, genetic polymorphism, risk rating of medications despite belonging to the same therapeutic class) and/or characteristics of medication use (eg, number of medications and drug–drug interactions, dose strength, duration of medication use and time since stopping, medication change, prescribing appropriateness, and medication adherence). Pharmacological interventions, including withdrawal of

  1. A hospital perspective on the cost-effectiveness of beta-blockade for prophylaxis of atrial fibrillation after cardiothoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Effie L; White, C Michael; Kluger, Jeffrey; Sahni, Jasmine; Gallagher, Robert; Coleman, Craig I

    2005-12-01

    Prophylactic beta-blockade is the recommended strategy for suppressing atrial fibrillation after cardiothoracic surgery (CTS). However, beta-blockade's impact on the hospital length of stay (LOS) and other economic end points has not been adequately assessed. The present evaluation sought to determine whether beta-blocker use after CTS is a cost-effective strategy for the prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF). This was a piggyback cost-effectiveness analysis of a prospective cohort evaluation comprising 1660 patients undergoing CTS at an urban academic hospital from October 1999 to October 2003. Patients receiving beta-blocker prophylaxis were matched 1:1 with control patients not receiving prophylaxis based on age >70 years, valvular surgery, history of atrial fibrillation, male sex, and use of preoperative digoxin or beta-blockers. The incidence of POAF, total hospital costs, and LOS were compared in each group. Nonparametric bootstrapping analysis was performed to examine the study results as part of a quadrant analysis and to calculate CIs for the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. LOS and total costs were also compared in patients with and without POAF, regardless of beta-blocker use. Use of prophylactic beta-blockade was associated with a 17.3 % reduction in the incidence of POAF (P = 0.02) and a 2.2-day reduction in LOS (P = 0.001) compared with nonuse. It also was associated with a 25.7% reduction in total hospital costs compared with nonuse (mean [SD], $30,978 [$33,108] vs $41,700 [$67,369], respectively; P < 0.001), possibly due to a 27.6% reduction in room and board costs ($11,144 [$15,398] vs $14,920 [$22,132]; P < 0.001). In the bootstrapping analysis, 99.0% of the time prophylactic beta-blockade fell into quadrant IV, which indicated superior effectiveness and lower total costs. Regardless of beta-blocker use, patients who developed POAF had a significantly longer LOS compared with those who did not develop POAF (14.7 [19.1] days

  2. Patterns of Drug Use and Serum Sodium Concentrations in Older Hospitalized Patients: A Latent Class Analysis Approach.

    PubMed

    Woodman, Richard J; Wood, Karen M; Kunnel, Aline; Dedigama, Maneesha; Pegoli, Matthew A; Soiza, Roy L; Mangoni, Arduino A

    2016-12-01

    Several drugs may lower serum sodium concentrations (NaC) in older patients. However, distinguishing their individual effects is particularly difficult in this population because of the high prevalence of polypharmacy and disease states that are per se associated with hyponatremia. Our objective was to identify specific patterns of medication use in older hospitalized patients and determine whether these patterns were associated with serum NaC. We collected clinical and demographic data, pre-admission drugs, Drug Burden Index (DBI) score, and average NaC during hospitalization in a consecutive series of older medical patients (n = 101, mean ± standard deviation [SD] age 87 ± 6 years). We used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify specific patterns of drug use and multivariate regression to determine the associations between 14 separate drug classes, identified patterns of drug use, and NaC. LCA revealed three patterns: lower overall drug use (class 1), anticoagulant use and higher drug use (class 2), and antiplatelet use (class 3). Mean (±SD) DBI score in each class was 2.7 ± 1.3, 3.3 ± 1.6, and 2.4 ± 1.5, respectively (p = 0.04). Mean (± SD) NaC in classes 1, 2, and 3 were 140.6 ± 6.8, 138.7 ± 5.3, and 136.5 ± 4.7 mmol/l, respectively (p = 0.006). After adjustment for age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), DBI score, and digoxin use, mean NaC in class 2 and class 3 was significantly lower than in class 1 (-3.9 mmol/l; 95% confidence interval [CI] -7.1 to -0.8, p = 0.01 and -5.2 mmol/l; 95% CI -7.9 to -2.5, p < 0.001, respectively). Mean serum NaC was not significantly associated with any of the 14 individually assessed drug classes. In addition to latent class, increasing age and higher eGFR were also independently associated with lower serum NaC (p = 0.002 and p = 0.03, respectively). LCA enabled us to identify patterns of drug use associated with lower serum NaC in

  3. Predicting transporter-mediated drug interactions: Commentary on: "Pharmacokinetic evaluation of a drug transporter cocktail consisting of digoxin, furosemide, metformin and rosuvastatin" and "Validation of a microdose probe drug cocktail for clinical drug interaction assessments for drug transporters and CYP3A".

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Sparreboom, A

    2017-04-01

    Transporters, expressed in various tissues, govern the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs, and consequently their inherent safety and efficacy profiles. Drugs may interact with a transporter as a substrate and/or an inhibitor. Understanding transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs), in addition to enzyme-mediated DDIs, is an integral part of risk assessment in drug development and regulatory review because the concomitant use of more than one medication in patients is common. © 2016 ASCPT.

  4. [Analysis of risk factors for all cause-mortality in Chinese emergency atrial fibrillation patients].

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Yang, Yan-min; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Han; Shao, Xing-hui; Huang, Bi; Tian, Li

    2013-09-24

    To explore the independent risk factors associated with one-year mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). This study consecutively enrolled AF patients presenting to an emergency department at 20 Chinese hospitals from November 2008 to October 2011. Their baseline data and therapies were recorded. They were followed up for one year. Their major cardiovascular outcomes were recorded. And the predictors of one-year mortality were identified by uni- and multi-variate Cox regression analysis with baseline, therapy variables and follow-up therapy variables. The one-year all-cause mortality was 13.8% among a total of 2016 AF patients. They were divided into mortality group (A, n = 279) and survival group (B, n = 1737). The baseline data of two groups were analyzed. The group A patients were older ((76.1 ± 11.6) vs (67.2 ± 13.1) years, P < 0.01) and had smaller body mass index compared with group B ((23.7 ± 3.6) vs (22.3 ± 3.4) kg/m(2), P < 0.01); the proportion of permanent AF and CHADS2 score ≥ 2 points was higher in the group A (71.8% vs 47.5%, P < 0.01). History of heart failure, previous stroke, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, diabetes, dementia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were in a higher proportion of group A (51.2% vs 35.1%, 26.3% vs 17.6%, 26.7% vs 17.9%, 21.0% vs 14.6%, 6.0% vs 1.6%, 21.4% vs 10.1%, all P < 0.01). With regards to drug treatment, usage of diuretics, digoxin and other anticoagulants (heparin, etc), the values were greater in group A (50.9% vs 42.2%, 41.3% vs 34.7%, 10.0% vs 5.9%, all P < 0.01). The Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that the mortality rate increased along with rising CHADS2 score. Multi-variate Cox regression analysis showed that age (HR = 1.053, 95%CI: 1.040-1.066), permanent AF (HR = 1.374, 95%CI: 1.003-1.883), history of heart failure (HR = 1.385, 95%CI: 1.009-1.901), previous stroke (HR = 1.345, 95%CI: 1.009-1.795), COPD (HR = 1.379, 95%CI: 1.030-1.848), unused angiotensin II

  5. Two congenital coronary abnormalities affecting heart function: anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery and congenital left main coronary artery atresia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yanyan; Jin, Mei; Han, Ling; Ding, Wenhong; Zheng, Jianyong; Sun, Chufan; Lyu, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    common in adult type. In echocardiography, the common features of infantile-type ALCAPA and CLMCA-A included left ventricular enlargement, left ventricular systolic function normal or mildly reduced in CLMCA-A or significantly reduced in ALCAPA, and moderate to large mitral valve. It was performed in 9 of 23 cases of ALCAPA and showed the origin of the dilated right coronary artery (RCA) from the right sinus of the aortic root and absence of LCA origin in angiography. After opacification of RCA, reverse flow in the LCA and pulmonary artery was visualized through coronary artery collateral circulation. Angio was performed in three of the four cases of CLMCA-A and showed left main coronary artery was a blind end, with diameter of only 1.1-2.0 mm. Treatment and prognosis: 21 patients with ALCAPA had cardiac surgery and 6 of them died postoperatively. Fifteen postoperative patients survived without overt symptoms within the follow-up period of 6-166 months (median 17 months). As for treatment of CLMCA-A, four patients took digoxin and diuretics without undergoing cardiac surgery. Their clinical symptoms improved during the close follow-ups. ALCAPA and CLMCA-A are two rare coronary artery abnormalities that affect cardiac function in infants and children. In younger patients with cardiomegaly and heart dysfunction these two congenital coronary diseases should be noticed.

  6. [Status of β-blocker use and heart rate control in Chinese patients with stable coronary artery disease].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yihong; Yu, Jinming; Hu, Dayi

    2016-01-01

    To observe the current status of β-blocker (BB) use and heart rate control in Chinese patients with stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) based on subgroup data of the prospective observational longitudinal registry of patients with stable coronary artery disease (CLARIFY). The CLARIFY study is an international prospective observational registry of outpatients with SCAD. From November 2009 to July 2010, patients with SCAD were enrolled, and demographic information, clinical indicators, medication and blood flow reconstruction were collected. Patients were divided in three mutually exclusive categories by baseline pulse palpation heart rate(HR)≤60 beats per minute (bpm)(n=397), 61-69 bpm(n=782), and ≥70 bpm(n=1 443). The patients were also divided into taking BB or not taking BB groups. The aim of present study is to describe and analyze the current status and factors related to the HR control and BB use in the Chinese subgroup of CLARIFY. A total of 2 622 patients were enrolled from 56 centers across China. The mean age was (63.6±10.3) years old with 75.6% (1 983) male patients, 55.0% (1 443) patients had HR≥70 bpm. Mean HR measure by electrocardiogram(ECG) was (69.4±10.2)bpm, 50.9% (1 334 cases) patients had myocardial infarction(MI) history. A total of 21.9%(575 cases) patients had anginal symptoms; coronary angiography was performed in 88.8%(2 327 cases) of the patients. 76.2%(1 997 cases) patients were treated with BB (any molecule and any dose), 2.7% (70 cases) with digoxin or derivatives, 3.9% (103 cases) with verapamil or diltiazem, and 1.8% (47 cases) with amiodarone or dronedarone and 0.1%(2 cases) received ivabradine. BB use was similar among 3 HR groups(P>0.05). The independent risk factors associated with HR≥70 bpm were diabetes(OR=1.31), current smoker(OR=1.57), chronic heart failure(CHF) with NYHA Ⅲ (OR=2.13) and increased diastolic blood pressure (OR=1.30). Conversely, high physical activity (OR=0.61), former smoker (OR=0.76) and history

  7. Interventions for preventing post-operative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Kyle A; Yusuf, Arif M; Crystal, Eugene; Healey, Jeff S; Morillo, Carlos A; Nair, Girish M; Whitlock, Richard P

    2013-01-31

    Atrial fibrillation is a common post-operative complication of cardiac surgery and is associated with an increased risk of post-operative stroke, increased length of intensive care unit and hospital stays, healthcare costs and mortality. Numerous trials have evaluated various pharmacological and non-pharmacological prophylactic interventions for their efficacy in preventing post-operative atrial fibrillation. We conducted an update to a 2004 Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to gain a better understanding of the effectiveness of these interventions. The primary objective was to assess the effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for preventing post-operative atrial fibrillation or supraventricular tachycardia after cardiac surgery. Secondary objectives were to determine the effects on post-operative stroke or cerebrovascular accident, mortality, cardiovascular mortality, length of hospital stay and cost of treatment during the hospital stay. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of ControlLed Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 8, 2011), MEDLINE (from 1946 to July 2011), EMBASE (from 1974 to July 2011) and CINAHL (from 1981 to July 2011). We selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that included adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery who were allocated to pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions for the prevention of post-operative atrial fibrillation or supraventricular tachycardia, except digoxin, potassium (K(+)), or steroids. Two review authors independently abstracted study data and assessed trial quality. One hundred and eighteen studies with 138 treatment groups and 17,364 participants were included in this review. Fifty-seven of these studies were included in the original version of this review while 61 were added, including 27 on interventions that were not considered in the original version. Interventions included amiodarone, beta-blockers, sotalol, magnesium, atrial pacing and posterior

  8. Solitary renal myofibromatosis: an unusual cause of infantile hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kasaragod, A B; Lucia, M S; Lum, G M; Caldwell, S; Stork, L; Stenmark, K R

    1999-05-01

    Renovascular disease accounts for the vast majority of cases of infantile hypertension with complications resulting from umbilical arterial catheterization predominating in the neonatal period and fibrodysplastic lesions of the renal artery predominating outside the neonatal period. We report a previously undescribed cause of renovascular hypertension: solitary renal myofibromatosis. A 9-month-old male infant was transported to the intensive care unit at Children's Hospital in Denver, Colorado, for evaluation and treatment of a dilated cardiomyopathy and severe systemic hypertension. The child was full-term with no perinatal problems. Specifically, the child never required umbilical arterial catheterization. He was well until 6 months of age when his parents noted poor weight gain. At 9 months of age, he was evaluated at the referral hospital for failure to thrive. On examination he was noted to have a blood pressure of 170/110 mm Hg, but no other abnormalities. A chest radiograph showed cardiomegaly. Laboratory studies demonstrated normal electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine. However, urinalysis demonstrated 4+ protein without red blood cells. An echocardiogram showed severe left ventricular dilatation with an ejection fraction of 16%. On admission the child was noted to be cachectic. His vital signs, including blood pressure, were normal for age. The physical examination was unremarkable. Serum electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine were normal. Echocardiographic studies suggested a dilated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. He was started on digoxin and captopril. Subsequently, he demonstrated episodic hypertension ranging from 170/90 to 220/130 mm Hg. A repeat echocardiogram 24 hours after admission demonstrated a purely hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Verapamil and nifedipine were added to the treatment regimen in an effort to better control the blood pressure without success. Urine and blood for catecholamines and plasma renin activity

  9. Treatment for calcium channel blocker poisoning: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, P.-A.; Gosselin, S.; Guimont, C.; Godwin, J.; Archambault, P. M.; Chauny, J.-M.; Frenette, A. J.; Darveau, M.; Le sage, N.; Poitras, J.; Provencher, J.; Juurlink, D. N.; Blais, R.

    2014-01-01

    the initial search, 216 were selected for analysis, including 117 case reports. The kappa on the quality analysis tools was greater than 0.80 for all study types. Results The only observational study in humans examined high-dose insulin and extracorporeal life support. The risk of bias across studies was high for all interventions and moderate to high for extracorporeal life support. High-dose insulin. High-dose insulin (bolus of 1 unit/kg followed by an infusion of 0.5–2.0 units/kg/h) was associated with improved hemodynamic parameters and lower mortality, at the risks of hypoglycemia and hypokalemia (low quality of evidence). Extracorporeal life support. Extracorporeal life support was associated with improved survival in patients with severe shock or cardiac arrest at the cost of limb ischemia, thrombosis, and bleeding (low quality of evidence). Calcium, dopamine, and norepinephrine. These agents improved hemodynamic parameters and survival without documented severe side effects (very low quality of evidence). 4-Aminopyridine. Use of 4-aminopyridine was associated with improved hemodynamic parameters and survival in animal studies, at the risk of seizures. Lipid emulsion therapy. Lipid emulsion was associated with improved hemodynamic parameters and survival in animal models of intravenous verapamil poisoning, but not in models of oral verapamil poisoning. Other studies. Studies on decontamination, atropine, glucagon, pacemakers, levosimendan, and plasma exchange reported variable results, and the methodologies used limit their interpretation. No trial was documented in humans poisoned with calcium channel blockers for Bay K8644, CGP 28932, digoxin, cyclodextrin, liposomes, bicarbonate, carnitine, fructose 1,6-diphosphate, PK 11195, or triiodothyronine. Case reports were only found for charcoal hemoperfusion, dialysis, intra-aortic balloon pump, Impella device and methylene blue. Conclusions The treatment for calcium channel blocker poisoning is supported by low

  10. Repaglinide : a pharmacoeconomic review of its use in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Plosker, Greg L; Figgitt, David P

    2004-01-01

    trial). Other studies in this patient population indicate that metformin plus repaglinide is associated with significantly better glycaemic control than metformin plus nateglinide 60-120 mg three times daily over 16 weeks, and similar glycaemic control to that achieved with metformin in combination with either glibenclamide or glimepiride for up to 1 year. Good glycaemic control has also been achieved with preprandial administration of repaglinide in flexible meal schedules. This was demonstrated in a placebo-controlled trial and in a large, prospective survey of patients receiving repaglinide in a clinical setting. The tolerability profile of repaglinide is characterised by adverse events of mild-to-moderate intensity similar to those associated with sulphonylureas. The most frequently reported adverse events with repaglinide include hypoglycaemia, upper respiratory infection, headache, other respiratory events, musculoskeletal events and gastrointestinal events. Severe episodes of hypoglycaemia are rare with repaglinide and occur approximately 2-2.5 times less frequently than with sulphonylureas. In addition, available data indicate that repaglinide may be less likely to increase bodyweight than various commonly used sulphonylurea agents. In general, repaglinide is also well tolerated when used as part of combination therapy. Repaglinide is metabolised by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 enzyme system and therefore has the potential to interact with other CYP3A4 substrates when administered concurrently. A number of studies in healthy volunteers have shown no clinically significant pharmacokinetic drug interactions when repaglinide was administered concomitantly with digoxin, theophylline, warfarin, cimetidine, ketoconazole, rifampicin (rifampin), ethinylestradiol, simvastatin or nifedipine. However, a clinically significant increase in systemic exposure to repaglinide occurs when clarithromycin and repaglinide are administered concurrently, which may necessitate a