Science.gov

Sample records for dihydrocarvone obtaining aminocyclohexane

  1. VCD studies on cyclic peptides assembled from L-α-amino acids and a trans-2-aminocyclopentane- or trans-2-aminocyclohexane carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Vass, E; Strijowski, U; Wollschläger, K; Mándity, I M; Szilvágyi, G; Jewgiński, M; Gaus, K; Royo, S; Majer, Z; Sewald, N; Hollósi, M

    2010-11-01

    The increasing interest in peptidomimetics of biological relevance prompted us to synthesize a series of cyclic peptides comprising trans-2-aminocyclohexane carboxylic acid (Achc) or trans-2-aminocyclopentane carboxylic acid (Acpc). NMR experiments in combination with MD calculations were performed to investigate the three-dimensional structure of the cyclic peptides. These data were compared to the conformational information obtained by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy. Experimental VCD spectra were compared to theoretical VCD spectra computed quantum chemically at B3LYP/6-31G(d) density functional theory (DFT) level. The good agreement between the structural features derived from the VCD spectra and the NMR-based structures underlines the applicability of VCD in studying the conformation of small cyclic peptides.

  2. Switching the Regioselectivity of a Cyclohexanone Monooxygenase toward (+)-trans-Dihydrocarvone by Rational Protein Design.

    PubMed

    Balke, Kathleen; Schmidt, Sandy; Genz, Maika; Bornscheuer, Uwe T

    2016-01-15

    The regioselectivity of the Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase-catalyzed oxidation is governed mostly by electronic effects leading to the migration of the higher substituted residue. However, in some cases, substrate binding occurs in a way that the less substituted residue lies in an antiperiplanar orientation to the peroxy bond in the Criegee intermediate yielding in the formation of the "abnormal" lactone product. We are the first to demonstrate a complete switch in the regioselectivity of the BVMO from Arthrobacter sp. (CHMOArthro) as exemplified for (+)-trans-dihydrocarvone by redesigning the active site of the enzyme. In the designed triple mutant, the substrate binds in an inverted orientation leading to a ratio of 99:1 in favor of the normal lactone instead of exclusive formation of the abnormal lactone in case of the wild type enzyme. In order to validate our computational study, the beneficial mutations were successfully transferred to the CHMO from Acinetobacter sp. (CHMOAcineto), again yielding in a complete switch of regioselectivity.

  3. Application of 1-aminocyclohexane carboxylic acid to protein nanostructure computer design

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Ropero, Francisco; Zanuy, David; Casanovas, Jordi; Nussinov, Ruth; Alemán, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Conformationally restricted amino acids are promising candidates to serve as basic pieces in redesigned protein motifs which constitute the basic modules in synthetic nanoconstructs. Here we study the ability of constrained cyclic amino acid 1-aminocyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid (Ac6c) to stabilize highly regular β-helical motifs excised from naturally occurring proteins. Calculations indicate that the conformational flexibility observed in both the ring and the main chain is significantly higher than that detected for other 1-aminocycloalkane-1-carboxylic acid (Acnc, where n refers to the size of the ring) with smaller cycles. Incorporation of Ac6c into the flexible loops of β-helical motifs indicates that the stability of such excised building blocks as well as the nano-assemblies derived from them is significantly enhanced. Thus, the intrinsic Ac6c tendency to adopt folded conformations combined with the low structural strain of the cyclohexane ring confers the ability to both self-adapt to the β-helix motif and to stabilize the overall structure by absorbing part of its conformational fluctuations. Comparison with other Acnc residues indicates that the ability to adapt to the targeted position improves considerably with the ring size, i.e. when the rigidity introduced by the strain of the ring decreases. PMID:18201062

  4. Spectral and biological evaluation of a synthetic antimicrobial peptide derived from 1-aminocyclohexane carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Abercrombie, J J; Leung, Kai P; Chai, Hanbo; Hicks, Rickey P

    2015-03-15

    Ac-GF(A6c)G(A6c)K(A6c)G(A6c)F(A6c)G(A6c)GK(A6c)KKKK-amide (A6c=1-aminocyclohexane carboxylic acid) is a synthetic antimicrobial peptide (AMP) that exhibits in vitro inhibitory activity against drug resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterococcus faecium at concentrations ranging from 10.9 to 43μM. Spectroscopic investigations were conducted to determine how this AMP interacts with simple membrane model systems in order to provide insight into possible mechanisms of action. CD and 2D-(1)H NMR experiments indicated this AMP on binding to SDS and DPC micelles adopts conformations with varying percentages of helical and random coil conformers. CD investigations in the presence of three phospholipid SUVs consisting of POPC, 4:1 POPC/POPG, and 60% POPE/21%POPG/19%POPC revealed: (1) The interactions occurring with POPC SUVs have minimal effect on the conformational diversity of the AMP yielding conformations similar to those observed in buffer. (2) The interactions with 4:1 POPC/POPG, and 60% POPE/21%POPG/19%POPC SUVs exhibited a greater influence on the percentage of different conformers contributing to the CD spectra. (3) The presence of a high of percentage of helical conformers was not observed in the presence of SUVs as was the case with micelles. This data indicates that the diversity of surface bound conformations adopted by this AMP are very different from the diversity of conformations adopted by this AMP on insertion into the lipid bilayer. CD spectra of this AMP in the presence of SUVs consisting of LPS isolated from P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli exhibited characteristics associated with various helical conformations.

  5. Obtaining contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Barnes, M; Maxwell, G

    1980-01-01

    A survey of 3 sample urban populations of adolescent males and females was conducted in New Zealand to ascertain whether difficulties in obtaining contraceptives was a major factor contributing toward the high rate of unprotected intercourse among young people. The samples included 246 high school students, 80 university students, and 70 individuals from the general population. There was a 47% refusal rate so the interviewed subjects could not be considered representative of the total populations. Subjects were asked to indicate the degree of embarrassment they would experience in obtaining contraceptives from a variety of sources including some sources which were currently not available. Males felt somewhat more embarrassed in obtaining contraceptives than females. About 1/3 of the males said that they felt embarrassed when obtaining contraceptives at a chemist's shop, especially if they were served by a female shop assistant. Males preferred obtaining contraceptives from sources which provided them with a high degree of privacy and anonymity. Males favored obtaining contraceptives from mail order houses, from vending machines, and from male chemists who made contraceptives available in a special display area. Many males said that they would use the services of a male family planning clinic if such services were made available. Most female methods were available through doctors and females reported less embarrassment in obtaining contraceptives than males. About 1/3 of the females preferred getting contraceptive advice and methods from female doctors, and 1/2 of the females felt it was important to know how the physician felt about contraception before seeking his advice. Current methods of distribution are inadequate and new sources associated with less embarrassment are needed.

  6. [Erythromycin ethylsuccinate obtaining possibilities].

    PubMed

    Stan, Cătălina Daniela; Stefanache, Alina; Tântaru, Gladiola; Poiată, Antonia; Dumitrache, M; Diaconu, D E; Profire, Lenuţa

    2008-01-01

    In this study we tried to improve the erythromycin ethylsuccinate obtaining, having in view to separate the erythromycin ester by crystallization in water. The erythromycin acylation and the erythromycin ethylsuccinate crystallization were realized, following the next steps: 1. the acylation of the erythromycin with a methylene chloride solution of monoethylsuccinyl chloride, at 25-28 degrees C for 3 hours in the presence of NaHCO3; 2. the transfer of the erythromycin ethylsuccinate from methylene chloride solution in acetone solution by distillation of mixture methylene chloride: acetone 1:1 at 25-28 degrees C; 3. erythromycin ethylsuccinate separation by crystallization in water at pH = 8-8.5 and 5 degrees C for 90 minutes. The quality control for the erythromycin ester was performed according to the Xth edition of Romanian Pharmacopoeia standards using national standard for erythromycin ethylsuccinate and national standard for erythromycin with an activity of 1: 937 U and 2.02% humidity. The Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341 was used as a test microorganism and a thin layer cromatography was performed for qualitative control. 13.1 g of erythromycin ethylsuccinate were obtained with an output of the process of 82.02%. Using water for the separation of erythromycin ethylsuccinate the output of the process is greater (82.02%) than in case of using petroleum ether (74.14%) or hexane (80.25%). The thin layer cromatography revealed an Rf = 0.56 and the microbiological activity of the erythromycin ethylsuccinate was 98.7% compared with the standard. Using water instead of hexane or petroleum ether is gainful for the separation of erythromycin ethylsuccinate from the reaction medium. The obtained erythromycin ethylsuccinate corresponds to the Xth edition of Romanian Pharmacopoeia standards. So, the raw materials consumption is decreased, the costs are cut down, the obtained product purity is high and the output of the process is greater.

  7. Obtaining and maintaining funding

    SciTech Connect

    Beverly Hartline

    1996-04-01

    Obtaining and maintaining funding is important for individuals, groups, institutions, and fields. This challenge is easier during times of abundant and growing resources than it is now, when funding is tight and shrinking. Thus, to obtain and maintain funding will require: maintaining healthy funding levels for all of science; maintaining healthy funding levels for the field(s) you work in; and competing successfully for the available funds. Everyone should pay attention to the overall prospects for science funding and dedicate some effort to working with others to grow the constituency for science. Public support is likely an important prerequisite for keeping future science budgets high. In this context, researchers should share with society at large the benefits of their research, so that taxpayers can see and appreciate some return from the federal investment in science. Assuming this effort is successful, and there continue to be government and private organizations with substantial resources to invest in research, what can the individual investigator do to improve her chances? She can be clear about her goal(s) and carefully plan her effort to make maximum progress for minimum resources, especially early in her career while she is establishing a solid professional reputation. Specific useful strategies include: brainstorm funding options and select the most promising one(s); be persistent but flexible, responsive to new information and changing circumstances; provide value and assistance to prospective funding sources both before and after receiving funding; know the funding agents and what their goals are, they are the customers; promise a lot and always deliver more; build partnerships and collaboration to leverage interest and resources; and develop capabilities and ideas with a promising, irresistible future. There is no guarantee of success. For the best chances, consistently contribute positively and productively in all your efforts, and continue to

  8. Obtaining an equivalent beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1990-01-01

    In modeling a complex structure the researcher was faced with a component that would have logical appeal if it were modeled as a beam. The structure was a mast of a robot controlled gantry crane. The structure up to this point already had a large number of degrees of freedom, so the idea of conserving grid points by modeling the mast as a beam was attractive. The researcher decided to make a separate problem of of the mast and model it in three dimensions with plates, then extract the equivalent beam properties by setting up the loading to simulate beam-like deformation and constraints. The results could then be used to represent the mast as a beam in the full model. A comparison was made of properties derived from models of different constraints versus manual calculations. The researcher shows that the three-dimensional model is ineffective in trying to conform to the requirements of an equivalent beam representation. If a full 3-D plate model were used in the complete representation of the crane structure, good results would be obtained. Since the attempt is to economize on the size of the model, a better way to achieve the same results is to use substructuring and condense the mast to equivalent end boundary and intermediate mass points.

  9. Obtaining Public Records: Reporter Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining public records is essential to covering public education. Fortunately, the law is on the side of reporters: Public agencies generally must disclose their records to the public and to the media--with important exceptions. Public agencies are often reluctant to hand over records, however, even when the law clearly says they should.…

  10. Employment Obtaining and Business Starting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Jian

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of business starting education in higher vocational colleges is of important and realistic meanings for cultivating advanced technology application-type talents and for releasing the employment obtaining pressure of higher vocational students. Based on the analysis on the employment situation of higher vocational graduates, this…

  11. Obtaining consent for eye donation.

    PubMed

    Diamond, G A; Campion, M; Mussoline, J F; D'Amico, R A

    1987-02-15

    We prospectively studied 100 consecutive deaths at St. Vincent's Hospital and Medical Center in New York City for possible eye donation. Fifty-two patients were unsuitable mainly because of medical contraindications and age at death. Of the 48 suitable candidates, 21 pairs (44%) of eyes were obtained. Sixteen of the 42 eyes (38%) were used for transplantation. Projection of the number of corneas obtainable for transplant in New York City were calculated. The figures indicated that the three-month waiting list of the New York Eye-Bank for Sight Restoration, Inc., could be eradicated if hospitals were able to get seven donors from every 100 deaths suitable for donation, a rate only 16% of that realized in this study.

  12. How To Obtain Aerial Photographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains an informational data base of aerial photographic coverage of the United States and its territories that dates back to the 1940?s. This information describes photographic projects from the USGS, other Federal, State, and local government agencies, and commercial firms. The pictures on this page show a part of a standard 9- by 9-inch photograph and the results obtained by enlarging the original photograph two and four times. Compare the size of the Qualcomm Stadium, Jack Murphy Field, in San Diego, Calif, and the adjacent parking lot and freeways shown at the different scales. USGS Earth Science Information Center (ESIC) representatives will assist you in locating and ordering photographs. Please submit the completed checklist and a marked map showing your area of interest to any ESIC.

  13. SOFIA Observatory Obtains 'First Light' Images

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, successfully obtained its "First Light"" images during an overnight flight May 26. Scientists are now processing the data gathered...

  14. 40 CFR 35.6310 - Obtaining equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Personal Property Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6310 Obtaining equipment....

  15. 40 CFR 35.6305 - Obtaining supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Personal Property Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6305 Obtaining supplies....

  16. 33 CFR 118.20 - Obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Obtaining information. 118.20 Section 118.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.20 Obtaining information. Persons desiring information concerning the...

  17. 33 CFR 118.20 - Obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining information. 118.20 Section 118.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.20 Obtaining information. Persons desiring information concerning the...

  18. 33 CFR 118.20 - Obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obtaining information. 118.20 Section 118.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.20 Obtaining information. Persons desiring information concerning the...

  19. 33 CFR 118.20 - Obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obtaining information. 118.20 Section 118.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.20 Obtaining information. Persons desiring information concerning the...

  20. 33 CFR 118.20 - Obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obtaining information. 118.20 Section 118.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.20 Obtaining information. Persons desiring information concerning the...

  1. 42 CFR 442.101 - Obtaining certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... section states the requirements for obtaining notice of an ICF/MR's certification before a Medicaid agency... Secretary for an ICF/MR located on an Indian reservation. (c) The agency must obtain notice of certification... provisions pertains to the ICF/MR: (1) An ICF/MR meets the conditions of participation set forth in subpart I...

  2. Astrophysical Reaction Rates Obtained By Indirect Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Tribble, R. E.; Al-Abdullah, T.; Alharbi, A.; Banu, A.; Chen, X.; Clark, H. L.; Fu, C.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.; Lui, Y.-W.; McCleskey, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Nica, N.; Park, H. I.; Roeder, B.; Simmons, E.; Tabacaru, G.; Tokimoto, Y.; Trache, L.

    2010-08-12

    Indirect techniques have been used to obtain information about reaction rates for several proton capture reactions that occur on short-lived nuclei. The techniques used to carry out the measurements are reviewed and the results obtained are presented. Also future prospects for further measurements with a new facility, T-REX are discussed.

  3. Ready Reference. How To Obtain an ISBN; How To Obtain an ISSN; How To Obtain an SAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    2003-01-01

    These three articles describe ISBNs (International Standard Book Numbers); ISSNs (International Standard Serial Numbers); and SANs (Standard Address Numbers), for organizations served by the book industry; and explains how to apply to obtain the appropriate numbers. (LRW)

  4. 25 CFR 162.539 - Must I obtain a WEEL before obtaining a WSR lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr Leases § 162.539 Must I obtain a WEEL before obtaining... direct result of energy resource information gathered from a WEEL activity, obtaining a WEEL is not a...

  5. 25 CFR 162.539 - Must I obtain a WEEL before obtaining a WSR lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr Leases § 162.539 Must I obtain a WEEL before obtaining... direct result of energy resource information gathered from a WEEL activity, obtaining a WEEL is not a...

  6. 48 CFR 53.107 - Obtaining forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Government Printing Office (GPO). (b) Contractors and other parties may obtain standard and optional forms from the Superintendent of Documents, GPO, Washington, DC 20402. Standard and optional forms not...

  7. 48 CFR 53.107 - Obtaining forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Government Printing Office (GPO). (b) Contractors and other parties may obtain standard and optional forms from the Superintendent of Documents, GPO, Washington, DC 20402. Standard and optional forms not...

  8. 48 CFR 53.107 - Obtaining forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Government Printing Office (GPO). (b) Contractors and other parties may obtain standard and optional forms from the Superintendent of Documents, GPO, Washington, DC 20402. Standard and optional forms not...

  9. 48 CFR 53.107 - Obtaining forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Government Printing Office (GPO). (b) Contractors and other parties may obtain standard and optional forms from the Superintendent of Documents, GPO, Washington, DC 20402. Standard and optional forms not...

  10. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Elander, Richard T [Evergreen, CO; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Hennessey, Susan Marie [Avondale, PA

    2011-08-16

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  11. 47 CFR 54.615 - Obtaining services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... provided under § 54.621, that the requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider... thing of value; (6) If the service or services are being purchased as part of an aggregated purchase...

  12. 47 CFR 54.615 - Obtaining services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provided under § 54.621, that the requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider... thing of value; (6) If the service or services are being purchased as part of an aggregated...

  13. 47 CFR 54.615 - Obtaining services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... provided under § 54.621, that the requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider... thing of value; (6) If the service or services are being purchased as part of an aggregated purchase...

  14. Mass culture of photobacteria to obtain luciferase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.; Rich, E., Jr.

    1969-01-01

    Inoculating preheated trays containing nutrient agar with photobacteria provides a means for mass culture of aerobic microorganisms in order to obtain large quantities of luciferase. To determine optimum harvest time, growth can be monitored by automated light-detection instrumentation.

  15. 40 CFR 35.6305 - Obtaining supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response....6325 through 35.6340, and 35.6350. Supplies obtained with Core Program funds must be for non-site... §§ 35.6300, 35.6315(b), 35.6325 through 35.6340, and 35.6350, except where these requirements are...

  16. 40 CFR 35.6305 - Obtaining supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response....6325 through 35.6340, and 35.6350. Supplies obtained with Core Program funds must be for non-site... §§ 35.6300, 35.6315(b), 35.6325 through 35.6340, and 35.6350, except where these requirements are...

  17. 40 CFR 35.6305 - Obtaining supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response....6325 through 35.6340, and 35.6350. Supplies obtained with Core Program funds must be for non-site... §§ 35.6300, 35.6315(b), 35.6325 through 35.6340, and 35.6350, except where these requirements are...

  18. 15 CFR 285.15 - Obtaining documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; phone: 301-975-4016; fax: 301-926-2884; e-mail: nvlap@nist.gov. (b) Copies of all ISO/IEC documents are..., Gaithersburg, MD. For access to the NIST campus, please contact NVLAP by phone at 301-975-4016 or by e-mail at NVLAP@nist.gov to obtain instructions for visitor registration....

  19. Method of Obtaining Uniform Coatings on Graphite

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, I. E.

    1961-04-01

    A method is given for obtaining uniform carbide coatings on graphite bodies. According to the invention a metallic halide in vapor form is passed over the graphite body under such conditions of temperature and pressure that the halide reacts with the graphite to form a coating of the metal carbide on the surface of the graphite.

  20. METHOD OF OBTAINING UNIFORM COATINGS ON GRAPHITE

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, I.E.

    1961-04-01

    A method is given for obtaining uniform carbide coatings on graphite bodies. According to the invention a metallic halide in vapor form is passed over the graphite body under such conditions of temperature and pressure that the halide reacts with the graphite to form a coating of the metal carbide on the surface of the graphite.

  1. Reverse technology transfer; obtaining feedback from managers.

    Treesearch

    A.B. Carey; J.M. Calhoun; B. Dick; K. O' Halloran; L.S. Young; R.E. Bigley; S. Chan; C.A. Harrington; J.P. Hayes; J. Marzluff

    1999-01-01

    Forestry policy, planning, and practice have changed rapidly with implementation of ecosystem management by federal, state, tribal, and private organizations. Implementation entails new concepts, terminology, and management approaches. Yet there seems to have been little organized effort to obtain feedback from on-the-ground managers on the practicality of implementing...

  2. 15 CFR 285.15 - Obtaining documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obtaining documents. 285.15 Section 285.15 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS...

  3. Obtaining Grants in the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Linda L.

    Prepared to assist community college educators in obtaining grants from public and private sources, this paper provides instructions on writing a grant proposal and a list of prospective donors. Section 1 discusses the history of philanthropic support for higher education and the ethics of grant-giving. Drawing from Norton J. Kirtz's work,…

  4. 40 CFR 35.6305 - Obtaining supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response....6325 through 35.6340, and 35.6350. Supplies obtained with Core Program funds must be for non-site... §§ 35.6300, 35.6315(b), 35.6325 through 35.6340, and 35.6350, except where these requirements are site...

  5. Obtaining Your License: Careers in Real Estate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Robert

    Two steps are required to obtain a real estate salesperson's license in Texas: (1) selecting a broker to serve as an advisor, and (2) meeting personal requirements (at least 18 years old, a Texas resident, completion of a minimum of 12 semester hours of real estate and related courses, application, acceptable score on state exam, and payment of…

  6. Obtaining Funding and Support for Undergraduate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorff, Michael; Narayan, Darren A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been a dramatic increase in undergraduate research activities at colleges and universities nationwide. However, this comes at a time when budgets are being tightened and some institutions do not have the resources to pursue new initiatives. In this article we present some ideas for obtaining funding and support for…

  7. Lightning Field Spectra Obtained from Airborne Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    ground-based elec- tric field measurements have been obtained by Serhan (11) and more recently by Weidman (12). Serhan calculated spectra from 2 kHz...Sensors." Air Force Con- tract F33615-81-C-3409 Final Report, AFWAL-TR- 82-3095, December 1982. 11. G.I. Serhan , et al., "The RF Spectra of First and

  8. 15 CFR 285.15 - Obtaining documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS NATIONAL VOLUNTARY LABORATORY ACCREDITATION PROGRAM § 285.15 Obtaining documents. (a) Application forms, NVLAP...; phone: 301-975-4016; fax: 301-926-2884; e-mail: nvlap@nist.gov. (b) Copies of all ISO/IEC documents...

  9. 40 CFR 761.208 - Obtaining manifests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.208 Obtaining manifests. (a)(1) A generator may use... print the manifest under 40 CFR 262.21 (c) and (e). A registered source may be a: (i) State agency; (ii) Commercial printer; (iii) PCB waste generator, transporter or, designated facility; or (iv) PCB waste...

  10. A Guide to Obtaining a Psychology Internship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megargee, Edwin J.

    This is a guidebook written to help graduate students in clinical psychology from a variety of programs obtain internships at training programs across the country. Chapter 1 discloses the politics and power relationship among internship training directors, university faculties, and internship applicants, and describes how they influence guidelines…

  11. 48 CFR 53.107 - Obtaining forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... optional forms from the General Services Administration (GSA) by using GSA Supply Catalog - Office Products... construction and printing (see 53.106) that are not available from GSA may be ordered directly from the Government Printing Office (GPO). (b) Contractors and other parties may obtain standard and optional forms...

  12. Obtaining Funding and Support for Undergraduate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorff, Michael; Narayan, Darren A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been a dramatic increase in undergraduate research activities at colleges and universities nationwide. However, this comes at a time when budgets are being tightened and some institutions do not have the resources to pursue new initiatives. In this article we present some ideas for obtaining funding and support for…

  13. 40 CFR 761.208 - Obtaining manifests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 761.208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.208 Obtaining manifests. (a)(1) A generator may use...) Commercial printer; (iii) PCB waste generator, transporter or, designated facility; or (iv) PCB waste...

  14. Acoustic barriers obtained from industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Valles, M; Avila, G; Martinez, S; Terradas, R; Nogués, J M

    2008-07-01

    Acoustic pollution is an environmental problem that is becoming increasingly more important in our society. Likewise, the accumulation of generated waste and the need for waste management are also becoming more and more pressing. In this study we describe a new material--called PROUSO--obtained from industrial wastes. PROUSO has a variety of commercial and engineering, as well as building, applications. The main raw materials used for this environmentally friendly material come from slag from the aluminium recycling process, dust from the marble industry, foundry sands, and recycled expanded polystyrene from recycled packaging. Some natural materials, such as plastic clays, are also used. To obtain PROUSO we used a conventional ceramic process, forming new mineral phases and incorporating polluted elements into the structure. Its physical properties make PROUSO an excellent acoustic and thermal insulation material. It absorbs 95% of the sound in the frequency band of the 500 Hz. Its compressive strength makes it ideal for use in ceramic wall building.

  15. Processing to obtain high-purity gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, Renato G.

    2003-03-01

    Gallium has become increasingly popular as a substrate material for electronic devices. Aside from ore, gallium can be obtained from such industrial sources as the Bayer process caustic liquor that is a byproduct of bauxite processing, flue dust removed from the fume-collection system in plants that produce aluminum by the electrolytic process, zinc refinery residues, gallium scrap materials, and coal fly ash. The purification process for gallium can start with solvent-extraction processes where the concentrations of impurities, especially metals, are reduced to the ppm range. This article describes how ultra-purification techniques can be employed to reduce the undesirable impurities to the low ppb range. The various procedures described give an idea as to the extent of work needed to obtain and prepare high-purity gallium for electronic application.

  16. Obtaining growth hormone from calf blood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalchev, L. A.; Ralchev, K. K.; Nikolov, I. T.

    1979-01-01

    The preparation of a growth hormone from human serum was used for the isolation of the hormone from calf serum. The preparation was biologically active - it increased the quantity of the free fatty acids released in rat plasma by 36.4 percent. Electrophoresis in Veronal buffer, ph 8.6, showed the presence of a single fraction having mobility intermediate between that of alpha and beta globulins. Gel filtration through Sephadex G 100 showed an elutriation curve identical to that obtained by the growth hormone prepared from pituitary glands.

  17. Erroneous laboratory values obtained from central catheters.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J B; Messina, M

    1991-01-01

    Serious analytic errors in potassium measurements have been identified in blood specimens obtained from newly inserted central catheters. Erroneous elevated readings have been related to interactions of chemistry analyzer electrodes and substances fixed to external and intraluminal walls of the central catheter. Anecdotal summaries of this phenomenon are presented to enable the nurse to recognize potential problems when sampling blood from central catheters. Studies were performed to determine the amount of flush necessary to clear the catheter of interfering residue. To eliminate this potentially hazardous occurrence, recommended flush volumes, nursing implications, and actions are described.

  18. Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, M. T.; Carello, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this ‘information about’. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

  19. Obtaining optical properties using Representative Layer Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Neema; Yust, Brain; Sardar, Dhiraj

    2011-03-01

    Reliable and minimally invasive methods for diagnosis of toxicity and onset of disease are important for advances in clinical practices. This is commonly achieved through the optical properties, such as a change in the absorption or scattering strength of the diseased tissue. Thus, being able to quantitatively characterize these changes is important to advancements in medical diagnostic methods. By adapting the Representative Layer Theory to the integrating sphere technique, very thin biological samples may be optically characterized, yielding a quick and easy method for monitoring optical changes as a function of disease progression. Samples, consisting of cells, dyes, and nanoparticles of known concentrations were optically characterized at multiple wavelengths. Optical properties obtained by the Representative Layer Theory are compared to those obtained through other methods, such as Kubelka-Munk and Inverse Adding Doubling which are known to have sample thickness limitations. This work is also supported in part by National Science Foundation PREM Grant No. DMR - 0934218 and UTSA Collaborative Research Seed Grant Program (CRSGP).

  20. Obtaining the metric of our Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Mark W.; Linder, Eric V.; Wagoner, Robert V.

    1992-05-01

    We formulate a method for solving the gravitational field equations for perturbations to a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric, which does not depend on any kind of averaging procedure or make any a priori assumptions about the magnitude of fluctuations in the matter variables. We present a Green's function for obtaining the effective potential which characterizes the metric perturbations directly from the (possibly large) density fluctuations, and describe the application to astrophysical observations, for example, the angular-diameter distance-versus-redshift relation. The results do not assume a particular model for the formation of structure in the matter distribution, and are valid everywhere in our Universe outside of strong-field regions (e.g., black holes).

  1. New approach to obtain boron selective emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Moehlecke, A.; Luque, A.

    1994-12-31

    Selective emitters, used in high efficiency solar cells, need a series of oxidations and photolithographic steps that render the process more expensive. In this paper, a new way to make selective emitters using boron is presented. The main feature of this approach is to save oxide growths and photolithographic processes and it is based on the property of boron doped silicon surfaces to be resistant to anisotropic etchings like the one performed during the texturization. Using this characteristic of boron emitter surfaces, the authors can obtain a highly doped emitter under metal grid and simultaneously a shield to avoid texture on these surfaces. First cells were processed and short wavelength response of p{sup +}nn{sup +} solar cells was enhanced by using lightly doped boron emitters in the uncovered area.

  2. Advanced materials obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvil'deev, V. N.; Boldin, M. S.; Nokhrin, A. V.; Popov, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    This research paper provides an illustration of how to use the Spark Plasma Sintering technology (SPS) for powder materials in order to obtain lightweight ceramics (based on alumina) and describes physical principles ensuring efficiency of high heating rates for sintering high-temperature ceramics (pure silicon carbide). Optimization of SPS modes helps to produce Al2O3/ZrO2 ceramics with grain size of less than 400 nm, microhardness Hv=24 GPa, and crack resistance KIC=4.2 MPa m1/2., and ceramics of pure SiC with grain size less than 50 nm, microhardness Hv=21 GPa and crack resistance coefficient KIC=3.5 MPa m1/2.

  3. A Method for Obtaining Integrable Couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Sen; Chen, Wei; Liao, Bo; Gong, Xin-Bo

    2006-06-01

    By making use of the vector product in R3, a commuting operation is introduced so that R3 becomes a Lie algebra. The resulting loop algebra tilde R3 is presented, from which the well-known AKNS hierarchy is produced. Again via applying the superposition of the commuting operations of the Lie algebra, a commuting operation in R6 is constructed so that R6 becomes a Lie algebra. Thanks to the corresponding loop algebra tilde R3 of the Lie algebra R3, the integrable coupling of the AKNS system is obtained. The method presented in this paper is rather simple and can be used to work out integrable coupling systems of the other known integrable hierarchies of soliton equations.

  4. Where Manitoba children obtain their cigarettes.

    PubMed Central

    Stanwick, R S; Fish, D G; Manfreda, J; Gelskey, D; Skuba, A

    1987-01-01

    People who start to smoke as children put themselves at greater risk of dying prematurely or being disabled by tobacco-induced disease. One solution is to restrict children's access to cigarettes, thereby reducing consumption of the product and, ultimately, damage to health. This study found that in 1985 the majority of Manitoba public school children 8 to 15 years of age who smoked "regularly" (defined as usually every day) obtained their cigarettes from stores. This source could be reduced, if not eliminated, were a federal regulation passed in 1908 enforced. Under Canada's Tobacco Restraint Act it is illegal for merchants to sell tobacco to anyone under the age of 16 years. By implementing this existing law, authorities would not only be keeping the profit from almost a million dollars in cigarette sales in Manitoba alone out of tobacco company coffers but also be having an impact on the leading cause of preventable premature death and disability in Canada. PMID:3621098

  5. Modifying networks to obtain low cost trees

    SciTech Connect

    Krumke, S.O.; Noltemeier, H.; Drangmeister, K.U.; Marathe, M.V.; Ravi, S.S.

    1996-07-01

    We consider the problem of reducing the edge lengths of a given network so that the modified network has a spanning tree of small total length. It is assumed that each edge e of the given network has an associated function C{sub e} that specifies the cost of shortening the edge by a given amount and that there is a budget B on the total reduction cost. The goal is to develop a reduction strategy satisfying the budget constraint so that the total length of a minimum spanning tree in the modified network is the smallest possible over all reduction strategies that obey the budget constraint. We show that in general the problem of computing optimal reduction strategy for modifying the network as above in NP-hard and present the first polynomial time approximation algorithms for the problem, where the cost functions C{sub e} are allowed to be taken from a broad class of functions. We also present improved approximation algorithms for the class of treewidth-bounded graphs when the cost functions are linear. Our results can be extended to obtain approximation algorithms for more general network design problems such as those considered in [GW, GG+94].

  6. Obtaining high resolution XUV coronal images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.; Spiller, E.

    1992-01-01

    Photographs obtained during three flights of an 11 inch diameter normal incident soft X-ray (wavelength 63.5 A) telescope are analyzed and the data are compared to the results expected from tests of the mirror surfaces. Multilayer coated X ray telescopes have the potential for 0.01 arcsec resolution, and there is optimism that such high quality mirrors can be built. Some of the factors which enter into the performance actually achieved in practice are as follows: quality of the mirror substrate, quality of the multilayer coating, and number of photons collected. Measurements of multilayer mirrors show that the actual performance achieved in the solar X-ray images demonstrates a reduction in the scattering compared to that calculated from the topography of the top surface of the multilayer. In the brief duration of a rocket flight, the resolution is also limited by counting statistics from the number of photons collected. At X-ray Ultraviolet (XUV) wavelengths from 171 to 335 A the photon flux should be greater than 10(exp 10) ph/sec, so that a resolution better than 0.1 arcsec might be achieved, if mirror quality does not provide a limit first. In a satellite, a large collecting area will be needed for the highest resolution.

  7. Lead Oxychloride Borates Obtained under Extreme Conditions.

    PubMed

    Siidra, Oleg I; Kabbour, Houria; Mentre, Olivier; Nazarchuk, Evgeny V; Kegler, Philip; Zinyakhina, Diana O; Colmont, Marie; Depmeier, Wulf

    2016-09-06

    [Pb10O4]Pb2(B2O5)Cl12 (1) and [Pb18O12]Pb(BO2OH)2Cl10 (2) were obtained via high-temperature high-pressure experiments. [O12Pb18](12+) and [O4Pb10](12+) oxocentered structural units of different dimensionality are excised from the ideal [OPb] layer in tetragonal α-PbO. 2 is formed with an excess of lead oxide component, and 1 is formed with an excess of borate and halide reagents. The structure of 2 can be visualized as the incorporation of {Pb(10)Cl4(BO2OH)2} clusters into alternating PbO and chloride layers, with the existence of square vacancies in both. However, the structure of 1 is described as the intrusion of [O4Pb10](12+) tetramers linked by disordered Pb(B2O5) groups into a halogen three-dimensional matrix. The structure of 2 contains 10 symmetrically independent Pb positions. The 6s(2) lone electron pair is stereochemically active on Pb(1)-Pb(9) atoms, whereas it is inert on Pb(10). All of the Pb coordinations in the structure of 2, in accordance with ECCv (volume eccentricity) parameters and the density of states (DOS), can be subdivided into three groups. The current study is the first attempt to analyze this unusual behavior in structurally complex oxyhalide material with the rare case of Pb(2+) cations, demonstrating both stereochemically active and inactive behavior of the lone pair via charge and first-principle calculations.

  8. Component Repair Times Obtained from MSPI Data

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, Steven A.

    2015-05-01

    Information concerning times to repair or restore equipment to service given a failure is valuable to probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Examples of such uses in modern PRAs include estimation of the probability of failing to restore a failed component within a specified time period (typically tied to recovering a mitigating system before core damage occurs at nuclear power plants) and the determination of mission times for support system initiating event (SSIE) fault tree models. Information on equipment repair or restoration times applicable to PRA modeling is limited and dated for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. However, the Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) program covering all U.S. commercial nuclear power plants provides up-to-date information on restoration times for a limited set of component types. This paper describes the MSPI program data available and analyzes the data to obtain median and mean component restoration times as well as non-restoration cumulative probability curves. The MSPI program provides guidance for monitoring both planned and unplanned outages of trains of selected mitigating systems deemed important to safety. For systems included within the MSPI program, plants monitor both train UA and component unreliability (UR) against baseline values. If the combined system UA and UR increases sufficiently above established baseline results (converted to an estimated change in core damage frequency or CDF), a “white” (or worse) indicator is generated for that system. That in turn results in increased oversight by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and can impact a plant’s insurance rating. Therefore, there is pressure to return MSPI program components to service as soon as possible after a failure occurs. Three sets of unplanned outages might be used to determine the component repair durations desired in this article: all unplanned outages for the train type that includes the component of interest, only

  9. Polysulfonylamines. CXCI. The `almost' polymorphs rac-trans-2-aminocyclohexan-1-aminium di(methanesulfonyl)azanide and its 0.11-hydrate.

    PubMed

    Wölper, Christoph; Anwar, Naveed; Gulzar, Naeem; Jones, Peter G; Blaschette, Armand

    2011-07-01

    The title compound, C(6)H(15)N(2)(+)·C(2)H(6)NO(4)S(2)(-), crystallizes as a 0.11-hydrate, (I), in the space group C2; the asymmetric unit consists of two cations (one of each enantiomer), one anion on a general position, two half anions, each with the N atom on a twofold axis, and approximately one fifth of a water molecule. The general anion departs significantly from the usual conformation: it lacks one of the typical `W'-shaped sequence of O-S-N-S-O atoms. The compound also crystallizes in the solvent-free form, (II), in the space group P2(1)/c, with one formula unit in the asymmetric unit. Both compounds form ribbons of hydrogen-bonded cation dimers parallel to the b axis. In (I), there are two independent ribbons of opposite chirality, each involving one anion on a special position, and these ribbons are connected by hydrogen bonds to the anion on a general position, resulting in a layer structure parallel to (100). In (II), the chains are connected by hydrogen bonds, and again a layer structure parallel to (100) results. © 2011 International Union of Crystallography

  10. Obtaining and storage of ready-to-use segments from traditional orange obtained by enzymatic peeling.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Bel, P; Egea, I; Serrano, M; Romojaro, A; Pretel, M T

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize all parameters implied in the process of obtaining orange segments as minimally processed product by enzymatic peeling, from the method of segment obtaining to the storage conditions, and also to evaluate two films with different permeability. Enzymatic peeling was carried out by fruit infusion under vacuum conditions in a commercial preparation of pectinases and cellulases (Peelzym II). The best condition to obtain Cadenera segments by enzymatic peeling was 1 mL/L of Peelzym II applied at 53 kPa with three vacuum pulses of 2 min and a subsequent period of 30 min in the enzymatic solution at atmospheric pressure. The segments were packaged in two films with different permeability and they were stored for 10 days at 4 °C. Samplings were carried out after 4, 7 and 10 days of storage. The results showed that the concentration of CO(2) in the less permeable film (PA 120) ranged between 0.7 and 1.2 mL/100 mL, while in the most permeable one (PA 240) was around 0.2 mL/100 mL. Under these conditions, the weight loss was kept at low levels until day 7 of storage, showing a significant increase after 10 days. Colour (a/b) increased with the peeling process and it remained without significant changes during the whole storage period for both films. The antioxidant capacity slightly decreased after 10 days of storage. The microbial flora was reduced after the enzymatic peeling. Both the sensory and the microbiological quality were kept in adequate levels for consumption during 7 days. From this moment, they lost sweetness and aroma and the microbial development increased. Thus, the use of the most permeable film and a maximum storage time of 7 days are recommended to maintain the most quality of the segments.

  11. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 275 - Obtaining Customer Authorization

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining Customer Authorization B Appendix B to... OF 1978 Pt. 275, App. B Appendix B to Part 275—Obtaining Customer Authorization A. A DoD law... feasible, obtain the customer's consent. B. Any authorization obtained under paragraph A. of this...

  12. 20 CFR 327.15 - Reasonable efforts to obtain work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable efforts to obtain work. 327.15... INSURANCE ACT AVAILABLE FOR WORK § 327.15 Reasonable efforts to obtain work. (a) Requirement. A claimant may... efforts to obtain work which he professes to be willing to accept and perform, unless he has...

  13. 9 CFR 2.52 - How to obtain tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How to obtain tags. 2.52 Section 2.52 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Identification of Animals § 2.52 How to obtain tags. Dealers or exhibitors may obtain...

  14. 9 CFR 2.52 - How to obtain tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How to obtain tags. 2.52 Section 2.52 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Identification of Animals § 2.52 How to obtain tags. Dealers or exhibitors may obtain...

  15. 9 CFR 2.52 - How to obtain tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How to obtain tags. 2.52 Section 2.52 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Identification of Animals § 2.52 How to obtain tags. Dealers or exhibitors may obtain...

  16. 9 CFR 2.52 - How to obtain tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How to obtain tags. 2.52 Section 2.52 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Identification of Animals § 2.52 How to obtain tags. Dealers or exhibitors may obtain...

  17. 47 CFR 1.8002 - Obtaining an FRN.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or by filing FCC Form 161 (CORES Update/Change Form). (c) A business may obtain as many FRNs as it... Obtaining an FRN. (a) The FRN must be obtained by anyone doing business with the Commission, see 31 U.S.C... chapter. (b)(1) When registering for an FRN through the CORES, an entity's name, entity type, contact name...

  18. 48 CFR 22.1007 - Requirement to obtain wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement to obtain wage determinations. 22.1007 Section 22.1007 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Amended 22.1007 Requirement to obtain wage determinations. The contracting officer shall obtain...

  19. 8 CFR 1280.6 - Bond to obtain clearance; form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bond to obtain clearance; form. 1280.6... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.6 Bond to obtain clearance; form. A bond to obtain clearance of a vessel or aircraft under section 231, 237, 239, 243, 251, 253, 254, 255, 256,...

  20. 8 CFR 280.6 - Bond to obtain clearance; form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bond to obtain clearance; form. 280.6 Section 280.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 280.6 Bond to obtain clearance; form. A bond to obtain clearance of a...

  1. 32 CFR 806b.8 - Obtaining law enforcement records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining law enforcement records. 806b.8... ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Obtaining Law Enforcement Records and Confidentiality Promises § 806b.8 Obtaining law enforcement records. The Commander, Air Force Office of Special Investigation; the Commander...

  2. 46 CFR 126.230 - How to obtain or renew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How to obtain or renew. 126.230 Section 126.230 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Certificate of Inspection § 126.230 How to obtain or renew. (a) A builder, owner, master, or operator may begin to obtain or to renew a Certificate of Inspection by submitting an “Application for...

  3. 46 CFR 126.230 - How to obtain or renew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How to obtain or renew. 126.230 Section 126.230 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Certificate of Inspection § 126.230 How to obtain or renew. (a) A builder, owner, master, or operator may begin to obtain or to renew a Certificate of Inspection by submitting an “Application for...

  4. 46 CFR 126.230 - How to obtain or renew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How to obtain or renew. 126.230 Section 126.230 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Certificate of Inspection § 126.230 How to obtain or renew. (a) A builder, owner, master, or operator may begin to obtain or to renew a Certificate of Inspection by submitting an “Application for...

  5. 46 CFR 126.230 - How to obtain or renew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How to obtain or renew. 126.230 Section 126.230 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Certificate of Inspection § 126.230 How to obtain or renew. (a) A builder, owner, master, or operator may begin to obtain or to renew a Certificate of Inspection by submitting an “Application for...

  6. 32 CFR 806b.8 - Obtaining law enforcement records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obtaining law enforcement records. 806b.8... ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Obtaining Law Enforcement Records and Confidentiality Promises § 806b.8 Obtaining law enforcement records. The Commander, Air Force Office of Special Investigation; the...

  7. 46 CFR 115.105 - How to obtain or renew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How to obtain or renew. 115.105 Section 115.105 Shipping... Provisions; Certificate of Inspection § 115.105 How to obtain or renew. (a) A Certificate of Inspection is obtained or renewed by making application on Form CG 3752, “Application for Inspection of U.S. Vessel,” to...

  8. 46 CFR 115.105 - How to obtain or renew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How to obtain or renew. 115.105 Section 115.105 Shipping... Provisions; Certificate of Inspection § 115.105 How to obtain or renew. (a) A Certificate of Inspection is obtained or renewed by making application on Form CG 3752, “Application for Inspection of U.S. Vessel,” to...

  9. 46 CFR 115.105 - How to obtain or renew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How to obtain or renew. 115.105 Section 115.105 Shipping... Certificate of Inspection § 115.105 How to obtain or renew. (a) A Certificate of Inspection is obtained or renewed by making application on Form CG 3752, “Application for Inspection of U.S. Vessel,” to the Coast...

  10. 46 CFR 115.105 - How to obtain or renew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How to obtain or renew. 115.105 Section 115.105 Shipping... Certificate of Inspection § 115.105 How to obtain or renew. (a) A Certificate of Inspection is obtained or renewed by making application on Form CG 3752, “Application for Inspection of U.S. Vessel,” to the Coast...

  11. 46 CFR 115.105 - How to obtain or renew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How to obtain or renew. 115.105 Section 115.105 Shipping... Provisions; Certificate of Inspection § 115.105 How to obtain or renew. (a) A Certificate of Inspection is obtained or renewed by making application on Form CG 3752, “Application for Inspection of U.S. Vessel,” to...

  12. Thermal Effusivity of Vegetable Oils Obtained by a Photothermal Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-Espinosa, L. M.; de L. Castillo-Alvarado, F.; Lara-Hernández, G.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.

    2014-10-01

    Thermal properties of several vegetable oils such as soy, corn, and avocado commercial oils were obtained by using a photopyroelectric technique. The inverse photopyroelectric configuration was used in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of the oil samples. The theoretical equation for the photopyroelectric signal in this configuration, as a function of the incident light modulation frequency, was fitted to the experimental data in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of these samples. The obtained results are in good agreement with the thermal effusivity reported for other vegetable oils. All measurements were done at room temperature.

  13. 48 CFR 222.1008 - Procedures for obtaining wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Labor Standards 222.1008 Procedures for obtaining wage...

  14. 48 CFR 222.1008-1 - Obtaining wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Labor Standards 222.1008-1 Obtaining wage determinations. Follow the procedures...

  15. 48 CFR 222.1008-1 - Obtaining wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Labor Standards 222.1008-1 Obtaining wage determinations. Follow the procedures...

  16. Ready Reference. Publishers' Toll-Free Telephone Numbers and Web Sites; How To Obtain an ISBN; How To Obtain an ISSN; How To Obtain an SAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    2002-01-01

    Includes four articles: one lists publishers' toll-free telephone numbers and Web sites; and the others explain how to obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number), an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number), and an SAN (Standard Address Number) for organizations involved in the book industry. (LRW)

  17. 24 CFR 245.205 - Efforts to obtain assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Efforts to obtain assistance. (a) Mortgagors subject to the requirements of this subpart shall not interfere with the efforts of tenants to obtain rent subsidies or other public assistance. (b) A mortgagor subject to the requirements of this subpart who is a party to a rent supplement contract under section 101...

  18. 48 CFR 8.104 - Obtaining nonreportable property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Obtaining nonreportable property. 8.104 Section 8.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Excess Personal Property 8.104 Obtaining...

  19. 48 CFR 8.104 - Obtaining nonreportable property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Obtaining nonreportable property. 8.104 Section 8.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Excess Personal Property 8.104 Obtaining...

  20. 48 CFR 8.104 - Obtaining nonreportable property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Obtaining nonreportable property. 8.104 Section 8.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Excess Personal Property 8.104 Obtaining...

  1. 27 CFR 17.103 - Bonds obtained from surety companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... companies. 17.103 Section 17.103 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Bonds and Consents of Sureties § 17.103 Bonds obtained from surety companies. (a) The bond may be obtained from any surety company authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury to be a...

  2. 27 CFR 17.103 - Bonds obtained from surety companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... companies. 17.103 Section 17.103 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Bonds and Consents of Sureties § 17.103 Bonds obtained from surety companies. (a) The bond may be obtained from any surety company authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury to be a...

  3. 27 CFR 17.103 - Bonds obtained from surety companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... companies. 17.103 Section 17.103 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Bonds and Consents of Sureties § 17.103 Bonds obtained from surety companies. (a) The bond may be obtained from any surety company authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury to be a...

  4. 27 CFR 17.103 - Bonds obtained from surety companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... companies. 17.103 Section 17.103 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Bonds and Consents of Sureties § 17.103 Bonds obtained from surety companies. (a) The bond may be obtained from any surety company authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury to be a...

  5. 27 CFR 17.103 - Bonds obtained from surety companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... companies. 17.103 Section 17.103 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Bonds and Consents of Sureties § 17.103 Bonds obtained from surety companies. (a) The bond may be obtained from any surety company authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury to be a...

  6. 40 CFR 270.100 - Who must obtain a RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who must obtain a RAP? 270.100 Section...) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Applying for A Rap § 270.100 Who must obtain a RAP? When a facility or remediation waste management site is...

  7. 40 CFR 270.100 - Who must obtain a RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who must obtain a RAP? 270.100 Section...) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Applying for A Rap § 270.100 Who must obtain a RAP? When a facility or remediation waste management site is...

  8. 40 CFR 270.100 - Who must obtain a RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Who must obtain a RAP? 270.100 Section...) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Applying for A Rap § 270.100 Who must obtain a RAP? When a facility or remediation waste management site is...

  9. 40 CFR 270.100 - Who must obtain a RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Who must obtain a RAP? 270.100 Section...) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Applying for A Rap § 270.100 Who must obtain a RAP? When a facility or remediation waste management site is...

  10. 40 CFR 270.100 - Who must obtain a RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Who must obtain a RAP? 270.100 Section...) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Applying for A Rap § 270.100 Who must obtain a RAP? When a facility or remediation waste management site is...

  11. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 275 - Obtaining Emergency Access

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obtaining Emergency Access F Appendix F to Part 275 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED..., App. F Appendix F to Part 275—Obtaining Emergency Access A. Except as provided in paragraphs B. and...

  12. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 275 - Obtaining Emergency Access

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining Emergency Access F Appendix F to Part 275 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED..., App. F Appendix F to Part 275—Obtaining Emergency Access A. Except as provided in paragraphs B. and...

  13. 5 CFR 1501.12 - Obtaining further information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obtaining further information. 1501.12 Section 1501.12 Administrative Personnel THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS EMPLOYEES LOYALTY BOARD OPERATIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS EMPLOYEES LOYALTY BOARD § 1501.12 Obtaining further...

  14. 43 CFR 2933.10 - Obtaining Recreation Use Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Obtaining Recreation Use Permits. 2933.10... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.10 Obtaining Recreation Use Permits. ...

  15. 48 CFR 209.105-1 - Obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Obtaining information. 209....105-1 Obtaining information. (1) For guidance on using the Exclusions section of the System for Award... responsibility (see FAR 9.104-1(c)). One source of information relating to contractor performance is the Past...

  16. 48 CFR 9.105-1 - Obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Obtaining information. 9... information. (a) Before making a determination of responsibility, the contracting officer shall possess or obtain information sufficient to be satisfied that a prospective contractor currently meets the...

  17. A New Method for Obtaining Russell-Saunders Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Yue; Liu, Bihui

    2011-01-01

    A new method for obtaining Russell-Saunders terms of atomic configurations is reported. This new method is significantly different from, while at the same time complementary to, previously published methods for obtaining atomic terms. This novel procedure is elicited by the method used to determine the splitting of S, P, D terms in weak ligand…

  18. 7 CFR 400.411 - Obtaining personal records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obtaining personal records. 400.411 Section 400.411 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION... and Storage of Social Security Account Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers § 400.411 Obtaining...

  19. 15 CFR 711.6 - Where to obtain forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Where to obtain forms. 711.6 Section 711.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU... OF DECLARATIONS AND REPORTS § 711.6 Where to obtain forms. (a) Forms to complete declarations and...

  20. 15 CFR 711.6 - Where to obtain forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Where to obtain forms. 711.6 Section 711.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU... OF DECLARATIONS AND REPORTS § 711.6 Where to obtain forms. (a) Forms to complete declarations and...

  1. 15 CFR 711.6 - Where to obtain forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Where to obtain forms. 711.6 Section 711.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU... OF DECLARATIONS AND REPORTS § 711.6 Where to obtain forms. (a) Forms to complete declarations and...

  2. 15 CFR 711.6 - Where to obtain forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Where to obtain forms. 711.6 Section 711.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU... OF DECLARATIONS AND REPORTS § 711.6 Where to obtain forms. (a) Forms to complete declarations and...

  3. 22 CFR 92.80 - Obtaining American vital statistics records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Obtaining American vital statistics records. 92... statistics records. Individuals who inquire as to means of obtaining copies of or extracts from American... Vital Statistics Office at the place where the record is kept, which is usually in the capital city...

  4. 22 CFR 92.80 - Obtaining American vital statistics records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obtaining American vital statistics records. 92... statistics records. Individuals who inquire as to means of obtaining copies of or extracts from American... Vital Statistics Office at the place where the record is kept, which is usually in the capital city...

  5. 22 CFR 92.80 - Obtaining American vital statistics records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obtaining American vital statistics records. 92... statistics records. Individuals who inquire as to means of obtaining copies of or extracts from American... Vital Statistics Office at the place where the record is kept, which is usually in the capital city...

  6. 22 CFR 92.80 - Obtaining American vital statistics records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Obtaining American vital statistics records. 92... statistics records. Individuals who inquire as to means of obtaining copies of or extracts from American... Vital Statistics Office at the place where the record is kept, which is usually in the capital city...

  7. 22 CFR 92.80 - Obtaining American vital statistics records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obtaining American vital statistics records. 92... statistics records. Individuals who inquire as to means of obtaining copies of or extracts from American... Vital Statistics Office at the place where the record is kept, which is usually in the capital city...

  8. Obtaining the Electron Angular Momentum Coupling Spectroscopic Terms, jj

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orofino, Hugo; Faria, Roberto B.

    2010-01-01

    A systematic procedure is developed to obtain the electron angular momentum coupling (jj) spectroscopic terms, which is based on building microstates in which each individual electron is placed in a different m[subscript j] "orbital". This approach is similar to that used to obtain the spectroscopic terms under the Russell-Saunders (LS) coupling…

  9. 19 CFR 201.9 - Methods employed in obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods employed in obtaining information. 201.9... APPLICATION Initiation and Conduct of Investigations § 201.9 Methods employed in obtaining information. In... agencies of the Government, through questionnaires and correspondence, through field work by members of...

  10. 42 CFR 423.2118 - Obtaining evidence from the MAC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining evidence from the MAC. 423.2118 Section..., MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2118 Obtaining evidence from the MAC. An enrollee may request... the costs of providing these items. If an enrollee requests evidence from the MAC and an opportunity...

  11. 42 CFR 405.1118 - Obtaining evidence from the MAC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining evidence from the MAC. 405.1118 Section... Council Review § 405.1118 Obtaining evidence from the MAC. A party may request and receive a copy of all... these items. If a party requests evidence from the MAC and an opportunity to comment on that evidence...

  12. 7 CFR 58.7 - Who may obtain service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who may obtain service. 58.7 Section 58.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Grading Service § 58.7 Who may obtain service. An application for inspection or grading service may...

  13. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14... peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained through: (1) County offices; or... presented for disbursement unless the peanuts pledged as collateral for the marketing assistance loan is...

  14. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14... peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained through: (1) County offices; or... presented for disbursement unless the peanuts pledged as collateral for the marketing assistance loan is...

  15. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14... peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained through: (1) County offices; or... presented for disbursement unless the peanuts pledged as collateral for the marketing assistance loan is...

  16. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14... peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained through: (1) County offices; or... presented for disbursement unless the peanuts pledged as collateral for the marketing assistance loan is...

  17. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14... peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained through: (1) County offices; or... presented for disbursement unless the peanuts pledged as collateral for the marketing assistance loan is...

  18. 48 CFR 209.105-1 - Obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Information Retrieval System (PPIRS), available at http://www.ppirs.gov. Information relating to contract... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Obtaining information. 209....105-1 Obtaining information. (1) For guidance on using the Excluded Parties List System, see PGI...

  19. 48 CFR 209.105-1 - Obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Information Retrieval System (PPIRS), available at http://www.ppirs.gov. Information relating to contract... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining information. 209....105-1 Obtaining information. (1) For guidance on using the Excluded Parties List System, see PGI...

  20. 34 CFR 685.201 - Obtaining a loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining a loan. 685.201 Section 685.201 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION WILLIAM D. FORD FEDERAL DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM Borrower Provisions § 685.201 Obtaining...

  1. 7 CFR 54.1008 - How to obtain service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How to obtain service. 54.1008 Section 54.1008... and Poultry Products § 54.1008 How to obtain service. (a) Application. Any person may apply to the Chief for service under the regulations with respect to equipment or utensils in which the applicant is...

  2. 7 CFR 53.8 - How to obtain service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How to obtain service. 53.8 Section 53.8 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 53.8 How to obtain service. (a) Application. Any person may apply to the Director or Chief for service under the regulations with respect to livestock in which the...

  3. 7 CFR 54.1008 - How to obtain service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How to obtain service. 54.1008 Section 54.1008... and Poultry Products § 54.1008 How to obtain service. (a) Application. Any person may apply to the Chief for service under the regulations with respect to equipment or utensils in which the applicant is...

  4. 7 CFR 29.91 - How to obtain an appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How to obtain an appeal. 29.91 Section 29.91... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Appeal § 29.91 How to obtain an appeal. An appeal shall be made in... such requirement is waived by the Division when it is impracticable for the appellant to furnish such...

  5. 7 CFR 53.8 - How to obtain service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How to obtain service. 53.8 Section 53.8 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 53.8 How to obtain service. (a) Application. Any person may apply to the Director or Chief for service under the regulations with respect to livestock in which the...

  6. 7 CFR 54.1008 - How to obtain service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How to obtain service. 54.1008 Section 54.1008... and Poultry Products § 54.1008 How to obtain service. (a) Application. Any person may apply to the Chief for service under the regulations with respect to equipment or utensils in which the applicant is...

  7. 7 CFR 53.8 - How to obtain service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How to obtain service. 53.8 Section 53.8 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 53.8 How to obtain service. (a) Application. Any person may apply to the Director or Chief for service under the regulations with respect to livestock in which the...

  8. 7 CFR 29.91 - How to obtain an appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How to obtain an appeal. 29.91 Section 29.91... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Appeal § 29.91 How to obtain an appeal. An appeal shall be made in... such requirement is waived by the Division when it is impracticable for the appellant to furnish such...

  9. 7 CFR 53.8 - How to obtain service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How to obtain service. 53.8 Section 53.8 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 53.8 How to obtain service. (a) Application. Any person may apply to the Director or Chief for service under the regulations with respect to livestock in which the...

  10. 7 CFR 29.91 - How to obtain an appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How to obtain an appeal. 29.91 Section 29.91... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Appeal § 29.91 How to obtain an appeal. An appeal shall be made in... such requirement is waived by the Division when it is impracticable for the appellant to furnish such...

  11. 7 CFR 53.8 - How to obtain service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How to obtain service. 53.8 Section 53.8 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 53.8 How to obtain service. (a) Application. Any person may apply to the Director or Chief for service under the regulations with respect to livestock in which the...

  12. 25 CFR 175.50 - Obtaining rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obtaining rights-of-way. 175.50 Section 175.50 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Rights-of-Way § 175.50 Obtaining rights-of-way. Where there is no existing right(s)-of-way for...

  13. 25 CFR 175.50 - Obtaining rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obtaining rights-of-way. 175.50 Section 175.50 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Rights-of-Way § 175.50 Obtaining rights-of-way. Where there is no existing right(s)-of-way for...

  14. 25 CFR 175.50 - Obtaining rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Obtaining rights-of-way. 175.50 Section 175.50 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Rights-of-Way § 175.50 Obtaining rights-of-way. Where there is no existing right(s)-of-way for...

  15. 25 CFR 175.50 - Obtaining rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Obtaining rights-of-way. 175.50 Section 175.50 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Rights-of-Way § 175.50 Obtaining rights-of-way. Where there is no existing right(s)-of-way for...

  16. 25 CFR 175.50 - Obtaining rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obtaining rights-of-way. 175.50 Section 175.50 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Rights-of-Way § 175.50 Obtaining rights-of-way. Where there is no existing right(s)-of-way for...

  17. 16 CFR 4.8 - Costs for obtaining Commission records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Costs for obtaining Commission records. 4.8 Section 4.8 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE MISCELLANEOUS RULES § 4.8 Costs for obtaining Commission records. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of...

  18. A New Method for Obtaining Russell-Saunders Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Yue; Liu, Bihui

    2011-01-01

    A new method for obtaining Russell-Saunders terms of atomic configurations is reported. This new method is significantly different from, while at the same time complementary to, previously published methods for obtaining atomic terms. This novel procedure is elicited by the method used to determine the splitting of S, P, D terms in weak ligand…

  19. Obtaining the Electron Angular Momentum Coupling Spectroscopic Terms, jj

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orofino, Hugo; Faria, Roberto B.

    2010-01-01

    A systematic procedure is developed to obtain the electron angular momentum coupling (jj) spectroscopic terms, which is based on building microstates in which each individual electron is placed in a different m[subscript j] "orbital". This approach is similar to that used to obtain the spectroscopic terms under the Russell-Saunders (LS) coupling…

  20. Bismuth thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Teresa; Arronte, Miguel; Rodriguez, Eugenio; Ponce, Luis; Alonso, J. C.; Garcia, C.; Fernandez, M.; Haro, E.

    1999-07-01

    In the present work Bi thin films were obtained by Pulsed Laser Deposition, using Nd:YAG lasers. The films were characterized by optical microscopy. Raman spectroscopy and X-rays diffraction. It was accomplished the real time spectral emission characterization of the plasma generated during the laser evaporation process. Highly oriented thin films were obtained.

  1. 20 CFR 404.974 - Obtaining evidence from Appeals Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obtaining evidence from Appeals Council. 404.974 Section 404.974 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... and Decisions Appeals Council Review § 404.974 Obtaining evidence from Appeals Council. You...

  2. 46 CFR 188.35-5 - Where obtainable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where obtainable. 188.35-5 Section 188.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS American Bureau of Shipping's Standards § 188.35-5 Where obtainable. (a) The standards...

  3. 46 CFR 188.35-5 - Where obtainable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where obtainable. 188.35-5 Section 188.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS American Bureau of Shipping's Standards § 188.35-5 Where obtainable. (a) The standards...

  4. 48 CFR 222.1008 - Procedures for obtaining wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Procedures for obtaining wage determinations. 222.1008 Section 222.1008 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Labor Standards 222.1008 Procedures for obtaining...

  5. Techniques for obtaining subjective response to vertical vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, M. J.; Oborne, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to validate the techniques used for obtaining ratings in the field surveys carried out by the University College of Swansea. In addition, attempts were made to evaluate the basic form of the human response to vibration. Some of the results obtained by different methods are described.

  6. 13 CFR 142.36 - Can I obtain judicial review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Can I obtain judicial review? 142.36 Section 142.36 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Decisions and Appeals § 142.36 Can I obtain judicial review? If the...

  7. 17 CFR 37.404 - Ability to obtain information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ability to obtain information. 37.404 Section 37.404 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SWAP EXECUTION FACILITIES Monitoring of Trading and Trade Processing § 37.404 Ability to obtain information....

  8. 12 CFR 792.06 - Can I obtain other records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Can I obtain other records? 792.06 Section 792.06 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING THE OPERATIONS OF THE... Act Records Available Upon Request § 792.06 Can I obtain other records? Except with respect to records...

  9. Obtaining medical and biological images by FTIR multiaspect projection refractometry

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, V.N.; Agureev, V.V.

    1994-12-01

    A new method of obtaining images is proposed, called FTIR multiaspect projection refractometry. A theoretical basis is provided for it, and its experimental implementation is described. Using this method to study a number of biological objects showed that it can be used to obtain high-contrast images of such objects. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  10. 7 CFR 29.91 - How to obtain an appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How to obtain an appeal. 29.91 Section 29.91 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Appeal § 29.91 How to obtain an appeal. An appeal shall be made...

  11. 7 CFR 46.42 - Copies of records; how obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Copies of records; how obtained. 46.42 Section 46.42 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Records § 46.42 Copies of records; how obtained. Copies of records pertaining to licensees under the...

  12. 46 CFR 176.105 - How to obtain or renew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How to obtain or renew. 176.105 Section 176.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificate of Inspection § 176.105 How to obtain or renew. (a) A Certificate...

  13. 9 CFR 2.52 - How to obtain tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How to obtain tags. 2.52 Section 2.52 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Identification of Animals § 2.52 How to obtain tags. Dealers or exhibitors may...

  14. HNO3 profiles obtained during the EASOE campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murcray, F. J.; Starkey, J. R.; Williams, W. J.; Matthews, W. A.; Schmidt, U.; Aimedieu, P.; Camy-Peyret, C.

    1994-01-01

    A small cryogenically cooled spectrometer system designed to obtain atmospheric emission spectra in the 7.5 micrometer to 13.0 micrometer region was flown piggyback on 9 balloon flights from ESRANGE (67.9 deg N, 21.2 deg E) during the European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment (EASOE) campaign. Initial analysis of the spectra obtained has been concentrated on obtaining HNO3 profiles for the various flights. HNO3 profiles for 17 December 1991, 9 January 1992, 22 January 1992, 5 February 1992 and 14 March 1992 are presented.

  15. HNO[sub 3] profiles obtained during the EASOE campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Murcray, F.J.; Starkey, J.R.; Williams, W.J. ); Matthews, W.A. ); Schmidt, U. ); Aimedieu, P. ); Camy-Peyret, C. )

    1994-06-22

    A small cryogenically cooled spectrometer system designed to obtain atmospheric emission spectra in the 7.5 [mu]m to 13.0 [mu]m region was flown piggyback on 9 balloon flights from ESRANGE (67.9[degrees]N, 21.1[degrees]E) during the EASOE campaign. Initial analysis of the spectra obtained has been concentrated on obtaining HNO[sub 3] profiles for the various flights. HNO[sub 3] profiles for 17 December 1991, 9 January 1992, 22 January 1992, 5 February 1992 and 14 March 1992 are presented. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. HNO3 profiles obtained during the EASOE campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murcray, F. J.; Starkey, J. R.; Williams, W. J.; Matthews, W. A.; Schmidt, U.; Aimedieu, P.; Camy-Peyret, C.

    1994-01-01

    A small cryogenically cooled spectrometer system designed to obtain atmospheric emission spectra in the 7.5 micrometer to 13.0 micrometer region was flown piggyback on 9 balloon flights from ESRANGE (67.9 deg N, 21.2 deg E) during the European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment (EASOE) campaign. Initial analysis of the spectra obtained has been concentrated on obtaining HNO3 profiles for the various flights. HNO3 profiles for 17 December 1991, 9 January 1992, 22 January 1992, 5 February 1992 and 14 March 1992 are presented.

  17. Generator for gallium-68 and compositions obtained therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Neirinckx, Rudi D.; Davis, Michael A.

    1981-01-01

    A generator for obtaining radioactive gallium-68 from germanium-68 bound in a resin containing unsubstituted phenolic hydroxyl groups. The germanium-68 is loaded into the resin from an aqueous solution of the germanium-68. A physiologically acceptable solution of gallium-68 having an activity of 0.1 to 50 millicuries per milliliter of gallium-68 solution is obtained. The solution is obtained from the bound germanium-68 which forms gallium-68 in situ by eluting the column with a hydrochloric acid solution to form an acidic solution of gallium-68. The acidic solution of gallium-68 can be neutralized.

  18. Wood-Polymer composites obtained by gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gago, J.; Lopez, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Santiago, J.; Acevedo, M.

    2007-10-26

    In this work we impregnate three Peruvian woods (Calycophy spruceanum Be, Aniba amazonica Meiz and Hura crepitans L) with styrene-polyester resin and methyl methacrylate. The polymerization of the system was promoted by gamma radiation and the experimental optimal condition was obtained with styrene-polyester 1:1 and 15 kGy. The obtained composites show reduced water absorption and better mechanical properties compared to the original wood. The structure of the wood-polymer composites was studied by light microscopy. Water absorption and hardness were also obtained.

  19. Differences in behavioral characteristics between dogs obtained as puppies from pet stores and those obtained from noncommercial breeders.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Franklin D; Serpell, James A; Duffy, Deborah L; Masaoud, Elmabrok; Dohoo, Ian R

    2013-05-15

    To compare the owner-reported prevalence of behavioral characteristics in dogs obtained as puppies from pet stores with that of dogs obtained as puppies from noncommercial breeders. Cross-sectional study. Animals-Dogs obtained as puppies from pet stores (n = 413) and breeder-obtained dogs (5,657). Behavioral evaluations were obtained from a large convenience sample of current dog owners with the online version of the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire, which uses ordinal scales to rate either the intensity or frequency of the dogs' behavior. Hierarchic linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze the effects of source of acquisition on behavioral outcomes when various confounding and intervening variables were controlled for. Pet store-derived dogs received significantly less favorable scores than did breeder-obtained dogs on 12 of 14 of the behavioral variables measured; pet store dogs did not score more favorably than breeder dogs in any behavioral category. Compared with dogs obtained as puppies from noncommercial breeders, dogs obtained as puppies from pet stores had significantly greater aggression toward human family members, unfamiliar people, and other dogs; greater fear of other dogs and nonsocial stimuli; and greater separation-related problems and house soiling. Obtaining dogs from pet stores versus noncommercial breeders represented a significant risk factor for the development of a wide range of undesirable behavioral characteristics. Until the causes of the unfavorable differences detected in this group of dogs can be specifically identified and remedied, the authors cannot recommend that puppies be obtained from pet stores.

  20. Treatment of biomass to obtain a target chemical

    DOEpatents

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Elander, Richard T.; Hennessey, Susan Marie

    2010-08-24

    Target chemicals were produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  1. 32 CFR 1662.5 - Inspection, copying, and obtaining copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SYSTEM FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) PROCEDURES § 1662.5 Inspection, copying, and obtaining copies... may make an appointment to inspect or copy the materials requested during regular business hours by...

  2. Hydrolysis of starch and fermentable hydrolysates obtained therefrom

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, W.C.; Miller, F.D.

    1981-05-05

    Starch in slurry was liquefied by strong acid and a-amylase, saccharified in the presence of acid cation exchanger, and neutralized with NH/sub 4/OH to obtain an aqueous solution of fermentable sugar.

  3. Using Mathematica and Maple To Obtain Chemical Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missen, Ronald W.; Smith, William R.

    1997-01-01

    Shows how the computer software programs Mathematica and Maple can be used to obtain chemical equations to represent the stoichiometry of a reacting system. Specific examples are included. Contains 10 references. (DKM)

  4. 7 CFR 56.20 - Who may obtain grading service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Application for Grading Service § 56.20 Who may obtain grading service. An...

  5. 7 CFR 56.20 - Who may obtain grading service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Application for Grading Service § 56.20 Who may obtain grading service. An...

  6. 7 CFR 56.20 - Who may obtain grading service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Application for Grading Service § 56.20 Who may obtain grading service. An...

  7. 7 CFR 56.20 - Who may obtain grading service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Application for Grading Service § 56.20 Who may obtain grading service. An...

  8. 7 CFR 56.20 - Who may obtain grading service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Application for Grading Service § 56.20 Who may obtain grading service. An...

  9. Color coded data obtained by JPL's Shuttle Multispectral Infrared radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Color coded data obtained from Baja California, Mexico to Texas by JPL's Shuttle Multispectral Infrared radiometer is pictured. The map shows where data was obtained on the 19th orbit of the mission. Yellow and green areas represent water. The first brown segment at left is Baja California, and the second begins at the coast of mainland Mexico and extends into Texas. The dark brown strips at the right are clouds.

  10. 46 CFR 176.105 - How to obtain or renew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How to obtain or renew. 176.105 Section 176.105 Shipping...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificate of Inspection § 176.105 How to obtain or renew. (a) A Certificate of.... Vessel,” to the Coast Guard OCMI of the marine inspection zone in which the inspection is to be made...

  11. 46 CFR 176.105 - How to obtain or renew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How to obtain or renew. 176.105 Section 176.105 Shipping...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION General Provisions; Certificate of Inspection § 176.105 How to obtain or renew..., “Application for Inspection of U.S. Vessel,” to the Coast Guard OCMI of the marine inspection zone in which the...

  12. 46 CFR 176.105 - How to obtain or renew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How to obtain or renew. 176.105 Section 176.105 Shipping...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION General Provisions; Certificate of Inspection § 176.105 How to obtain or renew..., “Application for Inspection of U.S. Vessel,” to the Coast Guard OCMI of the marine inspection zone in which the...

  13. 46 CFR 176.105 - How to obtain or renew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How to obtain or renew. 176.105 Section 176.105 Shipping...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION General Provisions; Certificate of Inspection § 176.105 How to obtain or renew..., “Application for Inspection of U.S. Vessel,” to the Coast Guard OCMI of the marine inspection zone in which the...

  14. Obtaining Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-23

    Obtaining Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending Gold Coast Conference Tim Dowd Director for Contracts Space and Naval...Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Obtaining Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending ” 5   Present a competitive strategy at each program milestone *   Remove

  15. Health Outcomes of Obtaining Housing Among Older Homeless Adults

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yinghui; Mitchell, Susan L.; Bharel, Monica; Patel, Mitkumar; Ard, Kevin L.; Grande, Laura J.; Blazey-Martin, Deborah; Floru, Daniella; Steinman, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We determined the impact of obtaining housing on geriatric conditions and acute care utilization among older homeless adults. Methods. We conducted a 12-month prospective cohort study of 250 older homeless adults recruited from shelters in Boston, Massachusetts, between January and June 2010. We determined housing status at follow-up, determined number of emergency department visits and hospitalizations over 12 months, and examined 4 measures of geriatric conditions at baseline and 12 months. Using multivariable regression models, we evaluated the association between obtaining housing and our outcomes of interest. Results. At 12-month follow-up, 41% of participants had obtained housing. Compared with participants who remained homeless, those with housing had fewer depressive symptoms. Other measures of health status did not differ by housing status. Participants who obtained housing had a lower rate of acute care use, with an adjusted annualized rate of acute care visits of 2.5 per year among participants who obtained housing and 5.3 per year among participants who remained homeless. Conclusions. Older homeless adults who obtained housing experienced improved depressive symptoms and reduced acute care utilization compared with those who remained homeless. PMID:25973822

  16. [Immunization with antigen D. Results obtained with 118 volunteers].

    PubMed

    Mannessier, L; Dufossé, F; Dehaut, H; Goudemand, M

    1983-11-01

    During the last four years, 118 blood donors have been immunized to obtain plasma with a high level anti-D in order to prepare anti-D immunoglobulins. The results of the immunizing schedule are very successful, as we have obtained anti-D of titer superior to 256 in 96,36% of the cases (Coombs technic). However, the development of unwanted antibodies outside the Rh system (anti-Jka: 6, anti-Fya: 5) has led us since November 1979 to use phenotyped blood without undesirable red blood cell antigens. No irregular antibody has developed since except for an anti-Yta. The anti-HLA have been observed with a frequency of 36%. The use of frozen/thawed and phenotyped blood without undesirable red blood cell antigens can allow to obtain a high level of anti-D without risk for the donors. Nevertheless, the exceptional immunization to a public antigen persists.

  17. Technical and technological solution for vegetal bio-stimulants obtaining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghelache, D. G.; Diaconescu, I.; Pătraşcu, R.

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents a modern technology for bio fertilizers resulted from waste plant mass after harvesting crops Experimental products were obtained rich in nutrients, but unstable in terms of existing microorganisms. Therefore, they conducted further studies to obtaining bio fungicide herb, so in all investigations undertaken so far in the laboratory, were able to conclude that the introduction of medicinal plant extracts with fungicidal effect into the bio fertilizers obtained by degradation of plant material post-harvest can get various bio-stimulants with nourishing effect upon the plants. Following this technology the paper’s objective is to identify a flux scheme for experimental equipment which can produce as final outcome this type of bio-stimulant. Also, in this work, this equipment will be chosen and will be designed following and obeying to the request of every step of the above technology.

  18. Properties of rice stem extracts obtained by using subcritical fluids.

    PubMed

    Tangkhavanich, Boonnakhom; Kobayashi, Takashi; Adachi, Shuji

    2013-01-01

    Rice stems were subjected to a subcritical fluid treatment at 230 °C, using ethanol or acetone at a dilution of 0-100% in water. The obtained extracts were determined for their yield, carbohydrate content, phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging ability, and color. The highest yield and carbohydrate content were achieved with the subcritical 20% (v/v) organic solvent, while the highest phenolic content was obtained with subcritical 80% (v/v) acetone. The highest radical scavenging ability was achieved with subcritical 60% (v/v) ethanol and 80% (v/v) acetone. The lightness of the extracts obtained with subcritical ethanol and acetone was negatively correlation with their radical scavenging ability (R=-0.85). The relationship between the lightness and phenolic content of the extracts was not significant, suggesting that other substances in the extract could also possess radical scavenging ability.

  19. Epoxidation of propylene dimers and isomerization of mixtures obtained

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrev, D.M.; Kurtev, K.S.

    1988-05-10

    Mixtures of hexenes are obtained in the dimerization of propylene on a Ziegler catalyst. By the epoxidation of this mixture by organic peroxides, followed by isomerization of the oxides, C/sub 6/ ketones, which are used as solvents, can be obtained. The hexenes were obtained by dimerization of propylene in the presence of a Ni(C/sub 5/H/sub 7/O/sub 2/)/sub 2/-P(C/sub 6/H/sub 5/)/sub 3/-(C/sub 3/H/sub 5/)/sub 2/AlCl catalytic system. The epoxidation was carried with technical grade isopropylbenzyl hydroperoxide (IPBHP). MoO/sub 2/(C/sub 5/H/sub 7/O/sub 2/)/sub 2/ was used as the catalyst. The relative rates of epoxidation of different isomers contained in the dimeric fraction, with respect to 2-methyl-1-pentene, was determined by means of competing reactions.

  20. Enhanced reduction of velocity data obtained during CETA flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Tom D.; Wong, Douglas T.; Tripp, John S.

    1993-01-01

    A newly developed technique for enhanced data reduction provides an improved procedure that allows least squares minimization to become possible between data sets with an unequal number of data points. This technique was applied in the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment on the STS-37 Shuttle flight in April 1991 to obtain the velocity profile from the acceleration data. The new technique uses a least-squares method to estimate the initial conditions and calibration constants. These initial conditions are estimated by least-squares fitting the displacements indicated by the Hall-effect sensor data to the corresponding displacements obtained from integrating the acceleration data. The velocity and displacement profiles can then be recalculated from the corresponding acceleration data using the estimated parameters. This technique, which enables instantaneous velocities to be obtained from the test data instead of only average velocities at varying discrete times, offers more detailed velocity information, particularly during periods of large acceleration or deceleration.

  1. Balancing patient care and confidentiality: considerations in obtaining collateral information.

    PubMed

    Petrik, Megan L; Billera, Melodi; Kaplan, Yuliya; Matarazzo, Bridget; Wortzel, Hal

    2015-05-01

    Collateral information facilitates comprehensive mental health care and is consistent with recovery-oriented models of care. But providers are often faced with complex decisions about obtaining collateral information, particularly when patients do not consent to communication with third parties for information gathering. Such situations require a thoughtful balance of best clinical practices, legal and ethical responsibilities, and patient safety concerns. This column offers an overview of the clinical utility of collateral information as well as the ethical and legal regulations concerning confidentiality that guide the process of obtaining collateral information. The risk-benefit analysis process related to obtaining collateral information without patient permission is illustrated. Recommendations about clinical consultation and documentation that facilitate optimal and ethical patient care are offered.

  2. Modelling of classical ghost images obtained using scattered light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, S.; Castelletto, S.; Aruldoss, C.; Scholten, R. E.; Roberts, A.

    2007-08-01

    The images obtained in ghost imaging with pseudo-thermal light sources are highly dependent on the spatial coherence properties of the incident light. Pseudo-thermal light is often created by reducing the coherence length of a coherent source by passing it through a turbid mixture of scattering spheres. We describe a model for simulating ghost images obtained with such partially coherent light, using a wave-transport model to calculate the influence of the scattering on initially coherent light. The model is able to predict important properties of the pseudo-thermal source, such as the coherence length and the amplitude of the residual unscattered component of the light which influence the resolution and visibility of the final ghost image. We show that the residual ballistic component introduces an additional background in the reconstructed image, and the spatial resolution obtainable depends on the size of the scattering spheres.

  3. Drag reduction obtained by modifying a standard truck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, A. E.; Grier, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    A standard two-axle truck with a box-shaped cargo compartment was tested to determine whether significant reductions in aerodynamic drag could be obtained by modifying the front of the cargo compartment. The coastdown method was used to determine the total drag of the baseline vehicle, which had a square-cornered cargo box, and of several modified configurations. Test velocities ranged from 56.3 to 94.6 kilometers per hour (35 to 60 miles per hour). At 88.5 kilometers per hour (55 miles per hour), the aerodynamic drag reductions obtained with the modified configurations ranged from 8 to 30 percent.

  4. Characterization of a rare earth oxide obtained from xenotime mineral

    SciTech Connect

    Vernilli, Fernando . E-mail: fernando.vernilli@demar.faenquil.br; Camargo Vernilli, Daniela; Ferreira, Bento; Silva, Gilbert

    2007-01-15

    This paper reports on the characterization of a rare earth oxide obtained by hydrometallurgy of the mineral xenotime, an yttrium phosphate containing other rare earths, and comparison with mixtures of rare earth oxides prepared in different ways. The results indicated that hydrometallurgy from xenotime yielded a solid solution of the rare earth oxides. However, when the pure rare earth oxides were simply mixed physically then heat-treated at 1000 deg. C, a similar solid solution was not obtained. On the other hand, when the mixtures were prepared using a co-precipitation process, subsequent heat treatment did produce oxide solid solutions similar to that produced by hydrometallurgy of xenotime.

  5. Vibrational properties of gold nanoparticles obtained by green synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Ramón A. B.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Bueno, L. Oscar Neira; Britto Hurtado, R.; Rocha-Rocha, O.; Delgado-Beleño, Y.; Martinez-Nuñez, C. E.; Serrano-Corrales, Luis Ivan; Arizpe-Chávez, H.; Flores-Acosta, M.

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles through an ecological method to obtain nanostructures from the extract of the plant Opuntia ficus-indica. Colloidal nanoparticles show sizes that vary between 10-20 nm, and present various geometric morphologies. The samples were characterized through optical absorption, Raman Spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Additionally, low energy metallic clusters of Aun (n=2-20 atoms) were modeled by computational quantum chemistry. The theoretical results were obtained with Density Functional Theory (DFT). The predicted results of Au clusters show a tendency and are correlated with the experimental results concerning the optical absorption bands and Raman spectroscopy in gold nanoparticles.

  6. Diamond ultraviolet photovoltaic cell obtained by lithium and boron doping

    SciTech Connect

    Popovici, G.; Melnikov, A.; Varichenko, V.V.; Sung, T.; Prelas, M.A.; Wilson, R.G.; Loyalka, S.K.

    1997-03-01

    Polycrystalline high quality freestanding 300-{mu}m-thick diamond films were doped by diffusion of B and Li under electric bias in order to fabricate vertical p-n junctions. Circular contacts were obtained by high dose ion implantation of B and Li. The I{endash}V characteristics were rectifying. When illuminated by deuterium lamp, an open circuit voltage was 2.6 eV. The shape of the I{endash}V characteristic under illumination points to the existence of shunt and series resistances. The obtained structure is most probably a p-n junction with bad contacts. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Inverse Modelling to Obtain Head Movement Controller Signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, W. S.; Lee, S. H.; Hannaford, B.; Stark, L.

    1984-01-01

    Experimentally obtained dynamics of time-optimal, horizontal head rotations have previously been simulated by a sixth order, nonlinear model driven by rectangular control signals. Electromyography (EMG) recordings have spects which differ in detail from the theoretical rectangular pulsed control signal. Control signals for time-optimal as well as sub-optimal horizontal head rotations were obtained by means of an inverse modelling procedures. With experimentally measured dynamical data serving as the input, this procedure inverts the model to produce the neurological control signals driving muscles and plant. The relationships between these controller signals, and EMG records should contribute to the understanding of the neurological control of movements.

  8. Effective Charge on Polymer Colloids Obtained Using a Renormalization Model.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Pérez; Callejas-Fernández; Hidalgo-Álvarez

    1998-10-01

    Static light scattering has been used to study the electrostatic interaction between colloidal particles. Experiments were carried out using a latex with a very small diameter, allowing structure determination at high particle concentration. The obtained effective charge characterizing this interaction is found to be smaller than the bare charge determined from titration. A renormalization model connecting both values has been used. The agreement between the renormalized charge and that obtained from scattering data seems to point out that this model operates well. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  9. Obtaining 3-150 MeV Focused Particle Microbeams

    SciTech Connect

    Dymnikov, Alexander D.

    2003-08-26

    The number of nuclear microprobe setups is growing steadily and its potential in research fields such as biomedicine, material science and geology is being established. The most existing microprobe lenses can focus a proton beam up to energy of 30 MeV. The studies reported here deal with magnetic quadrupole systems such as Russian Separated Quadruplet for obtaining 3-150 MeV proton microbeams. For a given magnetic field in the quarupole lenses optimal parameters of microprobes for different energies of protons are obtained. The smallest beam spot size and appropriate geometry of the focusing and matching slit systems have been found for three different emittances.

  10. GHM method for obtaining rationalsolutions of nonlinear differential equations.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Leal, Hector; Sarmiento-Reyes, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the application of the general homotopy method (GHM) to obtain rational solutions of nonlinear differential equations. It delivers a high precision representation of the nonlinear differential equation using a few linear algebraic terms. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, three nonlinear problems are solved and compared against other semi-analytic methods or numerical methods. The obtained results show that GHM is a powerful tool, capable to generate highly accurate rational solutions. AMS subject classification 34L30.

  11. 15 CFR 748.2 - Obtaining forms; mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Obtaining forms; mailing addresses. 748.2 Section 748.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade...: (949) 660-9347, or U.S. Export Assistance Center, Bureau of Industry and Security, 160 W. Santa Clara...

  12. 15 CFR 748.2 - Obtaining forms; mailing addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obtaining forms; mailing addresses. 748.2 Section 748.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade...: (949) 660-9347, or U.S. Export Assistance Center, Bureau of Industry and Security, 160 W. Santa Clara...

  13. 7 CFR 75.9 - Who may obtain service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who may obtain service. 75.9 Section 75.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE...

  14. 24 CFR 966.55 - Procedures to obtain a hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Procedures to obtain a hearing. (a) Request for hearing. The complainant shall submit a written request for a hearing to the PHA or the project office within a reasonable time after receipt of the summary of... is specified by the PHA for a grievance under the expedited grievance procedure. The written request...

  15. 24 CFR 966.55 - Procedures to obtain a hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Procedures to obtain a hearing. (a) Request for hearing. The complainant shall submit a written request for a hearing to the PHA or the project office within a reasonable time after receipt of the summary of... is specified by the PHA for a grievance under the expedited grievance procedure. The written request...

  16. Glass transition temperatures of liquid prepolymers obtained by thermal penetrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potts, J. E., Jr.; Ashcraft, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    Thermal penetrometry is experimental technique for detecting temperature at which frozen prepolymer becomes soft enough to be pierced by weighted penetrometer needle; temperature at which this occurs is called penetration temperature. Apparatus used to obtain penetration temperatures can be set up largely from standard parts.

  17. 7 CFR 29.91 - How to obtain an appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How to obtain an appeal. 29.91 Section 29.91 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD...

  18. 9 CFR 592.100 - Who may obtain service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who may obtain service. 592.100 Section 592.100 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Application for Service § 592.100 Who...

  19. Weather Satellite Pictures and How to Obtain Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petit, Noel J.; Johnson, Philip

    1982-01-01

    An introduction to satellite meteorology is presented to promote use of live weather satellite photographs in the classroom. Topics addressed include weather satellites, how they work, earth emissions, satellite photography, satellite image analysis, obtaining satellite pictures, and future considerations. Includes sources for materials to…

  20. 29 CFR 4.4 - Obtaining a wage determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., contracting agencies may select and obtain a wage determination using WDOL. (See § 4.4(c).) Although the WDOL... subsequent issuance of wage determinations for one or more composite localities. (4) In no event may a... thereon pursuant to section 4(c) of the Act is warranted, shall file its request for such hearing...

  1. Obtaining partial purified xylose reductase from Candida guilliermondii

    PubMed Central

    Tomotani, Ester Junko; de Arruda, Priscila Vaz; Vitolo, Michele; de Almeida Felipe, Maria das Graças

    2009-01-01

    The enzymatic bioconversion of xylose into xylitol by xylose reductase (XR) is an alternative for chemical and microbiological processes. The partial purified XR was obtained by using the following three procedures: an agarose column, a membrane reactor or an Amicon Ultra-15 50K Centrifugal Filter device at yields of 40%, 7% and 67%, respectively. PMID:24031408

  2. 24 CFR 245.205 - Efforts to obtain assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Efforts to obtain assistance. 245.205 Section 245.205 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 24 CFR 245.205 - Efforts to obtain assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Efforts to obtain assistance. 245.205 Section 245.205 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. 24 CFR 245.205 - Efforts to obtain assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Efforts to obtain assistance. 245.205 Section 245.205 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 24 CFR 3286.307 - Process for obtaining trainer's qualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Process for obtaining trainer's qualification. 3286.307 Section 3286.307 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 24 CFR 3286.307 - Process for obtaining trainer's qualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Process for obtaining trainer's qualification. 3286.307 Section 3286.307 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. 24 CFR 3286.207 - Process for obtaining installation license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Process for obtaining installation license. 3286.207 Section 3286.207 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. How Living Things Obtain Energy: A Simpler Explanation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igelsrud, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    Examines five basic reactions which describe the biochemical pathways for living things obtaining energy. Shows the reactions that occur in respiration after glycolysis, the dehydrogenation reaction, decarboxylation, and two kinds of make-ready reactions which prepare molecules for further dehydrogenation and decarboxylation. Diagrams are…

  9. 7 CFR 54.1008 - How to obtain service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) MEATS, PREPARED MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Governing the Certification of... and Poultry Products § 54.1008 How to obtain service. (a) Application. Any person may apply to the...

  10. 7 CFR 54.1008 - How to obtain service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) MEATS, PREPARED MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Governing the Certification of... and Poultry Products § 54.1008 How to obtain service. (a) Application. Any person may apply to the...

  11. 15 CFR 711.6 - Where to obtain forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Where to obtain forms. 711.6 Section 711.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL...

  12. 21 CFR 1315.34 - Obtaining an import quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obtaining an import quota. 1315.34 Section 1315.34 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS... Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of each form to be imported. (6) The amount requested expressed...

  13. 21 CFR 1315.32 - Obtaining a procurement quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obtaining a procurement quota. 1315.32 Section 1315.32 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND... the Office of Diversion Control Web site, and must be filed with the Drug & Chemical...

  14. 21 CFR 1315.34 - Obtaining an import quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obtaining an import quota. 1315.34 Section 1315.34 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS... Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of each form to be imported. (6) The amount requested expressed...

  15. 21 CFR 1315.34 - Obtaining an import quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Obtaining an import quota. 1315.34 Section 1315.34 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS... Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of each form to be imported. (6) The amount requested expressed...

  16. 21 CFR 1315.32 - Obtaining a procurement quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obtaining a procurement quota. 1315.32 Section 1315.32 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND... the Office of Diversion Control Web site, and must be filed with the Drug & Chemical...

  17. 21 CFR 1315.32 - Obtaining a procurement quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obtaining a procurement quota. 1315.32 Section 1315.32 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND... the Office of Diversion Control Web site, and must be filed with the Drug & Chemical...

  18. 21 CFR 1315.34 - Obtaining an import quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Obtaining an import quota. 1315.34 Section 1315.34 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS... Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of each form to be imported. (6) The amount requested expressed...

  19. 21 CFR 1315.32 - Obtaining a procurement quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Obtaining a procurement quota. 1315.32 Section 1315.32 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND... the Office of Diversion Control Web site, and must be filed with the Drug & Chemical...

  20. 21 CFR 1315.34 - Obtaining an import quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obtaining an import quota. 1315.34 Section 1315.34 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS... Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of each form to be imported. (6) The amount requested expressed...

  1. How Living Things Obtain Energy: A Simpler Explanation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igelsrud, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    Examines five basic reactions which describe the biochemical pathways for living things obtaining energy. Shows the reactions that occur in respiration after glycolysis, the dehydrogenation reaction, decarboxylation, and two kinds of make-ready reactions which prepare molecules for further dehydrogenation and decarboxylation. Diagrams are…

  2. 7 CFR 621.11 - Who may obtain assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who may obtain assistance. 621.11 Section 621.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS USDA Cooperative Studies...

  3. 43 CFR 3581.2 - Who may obtain a lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Who may obtain a lease. 3581.2 Section 3581.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Gold, Silver,...

  4. 43 CFR 3581.2 - Who may obtain a lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Who may obtain a lease. 3581.2 Section 3581.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Gold, Silver,...

  5. 43 CFR 3581.2 - Who may obtain a lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who may obtain a lease. 3581.2 Section 3581.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Gold, Silver,...

  6. 43 CFR 3581.2 - Who may obtain a lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who may obtain a lease. 3581.2 Section 3581.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Gold, Silver,...

  7. 34 CFR 682.102 - Obtaining and repaying a loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obtaining and repaying a loan. 682.102 Section 682.102 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM Purpose...

  8. 5 CFR 2411.5 - Procedure for obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OFFICIAL INFORMATION § 2411.5 Procedure for obtaining information. (a) Authority/General Counsel/Panel/IG... Panel, or the IG, as appropriate. A list of the office and e-mail addresses is in Appendix A to 5 CFR..., the General Counsel, the Panel or the IG, covered by this part, other than those specified in...

  9. Fluoride technology of obtaining REM magnetic alloys and master alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sophronov, V. L.; Zhiganov, A. N.; Makaseev, Yu N.; Rusakov, I. Yu; Verkhoturova, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    Rare earth permanent magnets (REPM) based on neodymium-Fe-boron system are the most promising, since they have the highest magnetic and satisfactory mechanical characteristics. The paper covers physical-chemical principles and shows the results of experimental studies of the process of obtaining REM alloys and master alloys using fundamentally new fluoride technology based on ladle calciothermal REM fluorides and Fe reduction.

  10. 7 CFR 201.45 - Obtaining the working sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.45 Obtaining the working sample. (a)...

  11. Mass Media Campaign Impacts Influenza Vaccine Obtainment of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shropshire, Ali M.; Brent-Hotchkiss, Renee; Andrews, Urkovia K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the effectiveness of a mass media campaign in increasing the rate of college student influenza vaccine obtainment. Participants/Methods: Students ("N" = 721) at a large southern university completed a survey between September 2011 and January 2012 assessing what flu clinic media sources were visualized and if they…

  12. 42 CFR 37.52 - Method of obtaining definitive interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CARE AND EXAMINATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINERS Chest... section the result shall be considered final and reported to MSHA for transmittal to the miner. When in... miner. When agreement is lacking, NIOSH must obtain a third interpretation from the panel of B Readers...

  13. 28 CFR 51.38 - Obtaining information from others.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining information from others. 51.38 Section 51.38 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED Processing of Submissions § 51.38...

  14. Damping filter method for obtaining spatially localized solutions.

    PubMed

    Teramura, Toshiki; Toh, Sadayoshi

    2014-05-01

    Spatially localized structures are key components of turbulence and other spatiotemporally chaotic systems. From a dynamical systems viewpoint, it is desirable to obtain corresponding exact solutions, though their existence is not guaranteed. A damping filter method is introduced to obtain variously localized solutions and adapted in two typical cases. This method introduces a spatially selective damping effect to make a good guess at the exact solution, and we can obtain an exact solution through a continuation with the damping amplitude. The first target is a steady solution to the Swift-Hohenberg equation, which is a representative of bistable systems in which localized solutions coexist and a model for spanwise-localized cases. Not only solutions belonging to the well-known snaking branches but also those belonging to isolated branches known as "isolas" are found with continuation paths between them in phase space extended with the damping amplitude. This indicates that this spatially selective excitation mechanism has an advantage in searching spatially localized solutions. The second target is a spatially localized traveling-wave solution to the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, which is a model for streamwise-localized cases. Since the spatially selective damping effect breaks Galilean and translational invariances, the propagation velocity cannot be determined uniquely while the damping is active, and a singularity arises when these invariances are recovered. We demonstrate that this singularity can be avoided by imposing a simple condition, and a localized traveling-wave solution is obtained with a specific propagation speed.

  15. Barium strontium titanate powder obtained by polymeric precursor method

    SciTech Connect

    Ries, A.; Simoes, A.Z.; Cilense, M.; Zaghete, M.A.; Varela, J.A

    2003-03-15

    Pure barium strontium titanate powder, with Ba/Sr ratio of 80/20 was prepared by the polymeric precursor method (also called Pechini process). The powder was obtained after a calcination at 800 deg. C for 8 h and characterized by XRD, IR, BET and SEM. The requirements to avoid barium carbonate as a secondary phase are presented and discussed in detail.

  16. 9 CFR 592.100 - Who may obtain service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who may obtain service. 592.100 Section 592.100 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Application for Service § 592.100 Who...

  17. 9 CFR 592.100 - Who may obtain service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Who may obtain service. 592.100 Section 592.100 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Application for Service § 592.100 Who...

  18. 9 CFR 592.100 - Who may obtain service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who may obtain service. 592.100 Section 592.100 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Application for Service § 592.100 Who...

  19. 9 CFR 592.100 - Who may obtain service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Who may obtain service. 592.100 Section 592.100 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Application for Service § 592.100 Who...

  20. 32 CFR 806b.8 - Obtaining law enforcement records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Obtaining law enforcement records. The Commander, Air Force Office of Special Investigation; the Commander, Air Force Security Forces Center; Major Command, Field Operating Agency, and base chiefs of security... Section 806b.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR...

  1. 22 CFR 1411.4 - Procedure for obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Procedure for obtaining information. 1411.4... and located in Washington, DC, it should be made to the Freedom of Information Officer, Office of the... clearly and prominently identified as a request for information under the Freedom of Information Act...

  2. 22 CFR 1411.4 - Procedure for obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Procedure for obtaining information. 1411.4... and located in Washington, DC, it should be made to the Freedom of Information Officer, Office of the... clearly and prominently identified as a request for information under the Freedom of Information Act...

  3. 20 CFR 726.4 - Who must obtain insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who must obtain insurance coverage. 726.4 Section 726.4 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL...

  4. 20 CFR 726.4 - Who must obtain insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who must obtain insurance coverage. 726.4 Section 726.4 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL...

  5. 20 CFR 726.4 - Who must obtain insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Who must obtain insurance coverage. 726.4 Section 726.4 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL...

  6. METHOD FOR OBTAINING PLUTONIUM METAL FROM ITS TRICHLORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Reavis, J.G.; Leary, J.A.; Maraman, W.J.

    1962-08-14

    A method was developed for obtaining plutonium metal by direct reduction of plutonium chloride, without the use of a booster, using calcium and lanthamum as a reductant, the said reduction being carried out at temperature in the range of 700 to 850 deg C and at about atmospheric pressure. (AEC)

  7. Bioactive glass nanoparticles obtained through sol-gel chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lukowiak, Anna; Lao, Jonathan; Lacroix, Josephine; Nedelec, Jean-Marie

    2013-07-28

    Different sol-gel strategies based on the Stöber method are proposed enabling preparation of nanoparticles of SiO2-CaO bioactive glass with different size, narrow size distribution and good dispersion capability. Eu(3+)-doped glass nanoparticles with luminescent properties can also be obtained.

  8. Weather Satellite Pictures and How to Obtain Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petit, Noel J.; Johnson, Philip

    1982-01-01

    An introduction to satellite meteorology is presented to promote use of live weather satellite photographs in the classroom. Topics addressed include weather satellites, how they work, earth emissions, satellite photography, satellite image analysis, obtaining satellite pictures, and future considerations. Includes sources for materials to…

  9. Strategies for Obtaining Probability Samples of Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golinelli, Daniela; Tucker, Joan S.; Ryan, Gery W.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of homeless individuals typically sample subjects from few types of sites or regions within a metropolitan area. This article focuses on the biases that can result from such a practice. We obtained a probability sample of 419 homeless youth from 41 sites (shelters, drop-in centers, and streets) in four regions of Los Angeles County (LAC).…

  10. 7 CFR 868.21 - Requirements for obtaining service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for obtaining service. 868.21 Section 868.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS...

  11. 7 CFR 868.21 - Requirements for obtaining service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for obtaining service. 868.21 Section 868.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS...

  12. Obtaining Predictions from Models Fit to Multiply Imputed Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining predictions from regression models fit to multiply imputed data can be challenging because treatments of multiple imputation seldom give clear guidance on how predictions can be calculated, and because available software often does not have built-in routines for performing the necessary calculations. This research note reviews how…

  13. Damping filter method for obtaining spatially localized solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teramura, Toshiki; Toh, Sadayoshi

    2014-05-01

    Spatially localized structures are key components of turbulence and other spatiotemporally chaotic systems. From a dynamical systems viewpoint, it is desirable to obtain corresponding exact solutions, though their existence is not guaranteed. A damping filter method is introduced to obtain variously localized solutions and adapted in two typical cases. This method introduces a spatially selective damping effect to make a good guess at the exact solution, and we can obtain an exact solution through a continuation with the damping amplitude. The first target is a steady solution to the Swift-Hohenberg equation, which is a representative of bistable systems in which localized solutions coexist and a model for spanwise-localized cases. Not only solutions belonging to the well-known snaking branches but also those belonging to isolated branches known as "isolas" are found with continuation paths between them in phase space extended with the damping amplitude. This indicates that this spatially selective excitation mechanism has an advantage in searching spatially localized solutions. The second target is a spatially localized traveling-wave solution to the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, which is a model for streamwise-localized cases. Since the spatially selective damping effect breaks Galilean and translational invariances, the propagation velocity cannot be determined uniquely while the damping is active, and a singularity arises when these invariances are recovered. We demonstrate that this singularity can be avoided by imposing a simple condition, and a localized traveling-wave solution is obtained with a specific propagation speed.

  14. Obtaining Original Publications in the Educational and Related Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Guidelines are presented for obtaining educational and social science research documents from several information retrieval, clearinghouse, and document delivery services. The guide is international in scope; services are from all parts of the world, and addresses are given for correspondence from within and outside the United States. Contained in…

  15. A Case for Obtaining Informed Consent from Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Teresa; Helling, Mary Kay

    A discussion of informed consent in research on children focuses on the history of informed consent and problems of obtaining informed consent from young children. It is argued that, in the past, researchers and research monitors have assumed that parents will act in the best interests of children participating in research and protect them from…

  16. 7 CFR 621.21 - Who may obtain assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Who may obtain assistance. 621.21 Section 621.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS Floodplain Management...

  17. 7 CFR 621.21 - Who may obtain assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who may obtain assistance. 621.21 Section 621.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS Floodplain Management...

  18. 7 CFR 621.21 - Who may obtain assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Who may obtain assistance. 621.21 Section 621.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS Floodplain Management...

  19. 7 CFR 621.21 - Who may obtain assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who may obtain assistance. 621.21 Section 621.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS Floodplain Management...

  20. 7 CFR 621.21 - Who may obtain assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who may obtain assistance. 621.21 Section 621.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS Floodplain Management...

  1. 42 CFR 37.204 - Procedure for obtaining payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... EXAMINATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF COAL MINERS Autopsies § 37.204 Procedure for obtaining... duplicate) on the pathologist's letterhead or billhead indicating the date of autopsy, the amount of the... the autopsy from the miner's widow, his surviving next-of-kin, the estate of the miner, or any other...

  2. 48 CFR 9.105-1 - Obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... competence and credit needs; and (B) The administrative contracting officer shall obtain from the auditor any... required concerning prospective contractors' financial competence and credit needs, the adequacy of their... such determinations: (1) Records and experience data, including verifiable knowledge of personnel...

  3. 48 CFR 9.105-1 - Obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... competence and credit needs; and (B) The administrative contracting officer shall obtain from the auditor any... required concerning prospective contractors' financial competence and credit needs, the adequacy of their... such determinations: (1) Records and experience data, including verifiable knowledge of personnel...

  4. Mass Media Campaign Impacts Influenza Vaccine Obtainment of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shropshire, Ali M.; Brent-Hotchkiss, Renee; Andrews, Urkovia K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the effectiveness of a mass media campaign in increasing the rate of college student influenza vaccine obtainment. Participants/Methods: Students ("N" = 721) at a large southern university completed a survey between September 2011 and January 2012 assessing what flu clinic media sources were visualized and if they…

  5. 21 CFR 1315.32 - Obtaining a procurement quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Procurement and Import Quotas § 1315.32 Obtaining a procurement quota. (a) Any person who is registered to manufacture ephedrine... this chapter, and who desires to use during the next calendar year any ephedrine, pseudoephedrine,...

  6. 41 CFR 101-26.308 - Obtaining filing cabinets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Obtaining filing cabinets. 101-26.308 Section 101-26.308 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES...

  7. Using Weighted Least Squares Regression for Obtaining Langmuir Sorption Constants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the most commonly used models for describing phosphorus (P) sorption to soils is the Langmuir model. To obtain model parameters, the Langmuir model is fit to measured sorption data using least squares regression. Least squares regression is based on several assumptions including normally dist...

  8. 50 CFR 222.302 - Procedure for obtaining permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Procedure for obtaining permits. 222.302 Section 222.302 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES...

  9. 50 CFR 222.302 - Procedure for obtaining permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Procedure for obtaining permits. 222.302 Section 222.302 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES...

  10. 50 CFR 222.302 - Procedure for obtaining permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedure for obtaining permits. 222.302 Section 222.302 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES...

  11. 50 CFR 222.302 - Procedure for obtaining permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedure for obtaining permits. 222.302 Section 222.302 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES...

  12. 50 CFR 222.302 - Procedure for obtaining permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedure for obtaining permits. 222.302 Section 222.302 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES...

  13. Tips on Obtaining Grants for the Community College LRC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Wanda

    1989-01-01

    Offers grantsmanship guidelines for learning resource centers (LRC's), focusing on locating funding and writing proposals. Describes grants obtained by Morton College's (Illinois) LRC from the college foundation, the state library, and the federal Department of Education. Lists resources useful in pursuing grants and identifying funding sources.…

  14. Obtaining orthotropic elasticity tensor using entries zeroing method.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierlach, Bartosz; Danek, Tomasz

    2017-04-01

    A generally anisotropic elasticity tensor obtained from measurements can be represented by a tensor belonging to one of eight material symmetry classes. Knowledge of symmetry class and orientation is helpful for describing physical properties of a medium. For each non-trivial symmetry class except isotropic this problem is nonlinear. A common method of obtaining effective tensor is a choosing its non-trivial symmetry class and minimizing Frobenius norm between measured and effective tensor in the same coordinate system. Global optimization algorithm has to be used to determine the best rotation of a tensor. In this contribution, we propose a new approach to obtain optimal tensor, with the assumption that it is orthotropic (or at least has a similar shape to the orthotropic one). In orthotropic form tensor 24 out of 36 entries are zeros. The idea is to minimize the sum of squared entries which are supposed to be equal to zero through rotation calculated with optimization algorithm - in this case Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Quaternions were used to parametrize rotations in 3D space to improve computational efficiency. In order to avoid a choice of local minima we apply PSO several times and only if we obtain similar results for the third time we consider it as a correct value and finish computations. To analyze obtained results Monte-Carlo method was used. After thousands of single runs of PSO optimization, we obtained values of quaternion parts and plot them. Points concentrate in several points of the graph following the regular pattern. It suggests the existence of more complex symmetry in the analyzed tensor. Then thousands of realizations of generally anisotropic tensor were generated - each tensor entry was replaced with a random value drawn from normal distribution having a mean equal to measured tensor entry and standard deviation of the measurement. Each of these tensors was subject of PSO based optimization delivering quaternion for optimal

  15. Influence of pansharpening techniques in obtaining accurate vegetation thematic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarrola-Ulzurrun, Edurne; Gonzalo-Martin, Consuelo; Marcello-Ruiz, Javier

    2016-10-01

    In last decades, there have been a decline in natural resources, becoming important to develop reliable methodologies for their management. The appearance of very high resolution sensors has offered a practical and cost-effective means for a good environmental management. In this context, improvements are needed for obtaining higher quality of the information available in order to get reliable classified images. Thus, pansharpening enhances the spatial resolution of the multispectral band by incorporating information from the panchromatic image. The main goal in the study is to implement pixel and object-based classification techniques applied to the fused imagery using different pansharpening algorithms and the evaluation of thematic maps generated that serve to obtain accurate information for the conservation of natural resources. A vulnerable heterogenic ecosystem from Canary Islands (Spain) was chosen, Teide National Park, and Worldview-2 high resolution imagery was employed. The classes considered of interest were set by the National Park conservation managers. 7 pansharpening techniques (GS, FIHS, HCS, MTF based, Wavelet `à trous' and Weighted Wavelet `à trous' through Fractal Dimension Maps) were chosen in order to improve the data quality with the goal to analyze the vegetation classes. Next, different classification algorithms were applied at pixel-based and object-based approach, moreover, an accuracy assessment of the different thematic maps obtained were performed. The highest classification accuracy was obtained applying Support Vector Machine classifier at object-based approach in the Weighted Wavelet `à trous' through Fractal Dimension Maps fused image. Finally, highlight the difficulty of the classification in Teide ecosystem due to the heterogeneity and the small size of the species. Thus, it is important to obtain accurate thematic maps for further studies in the management and conservation of natural resources.

  16. Verification of surface wave solutions obtained by the reciprocity theorem.

    PubMed

    Phan, Haidang; Cho, Younho; Achenbach, Jan D

    2014-09-01

    Surface wave motions generated by a time-harmonic point load applied at the surface of an isotropic linearly elastic half-space are conventionally solved by the use of integral transform techniques. The inverse transforms, are often complicated and will not always yield closed-form solutions. In this paper expressions for the displacements for surface wave motions radiated from point-load excitation are determined in a simple manner by the use of the elastodynamic reciprocity theorem. It is shown that the radiated amplitudes of the surface displacements obtained by the reciprocity approach are identical to the corresponding results obtained by the use of Hankel transform and by Lamb in his classical paper. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Plasma Impedance Obtained by Poynting's Theorem and MHD Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Farias, E. E.; Cavalcanti, G. H.; Borges, F. O.; Santiago, M. A. M

    2006-12-04

    Using fluid equations to model an electron and ion plasma combined with the complex Poynting's theorem for harmonic fields, the expression for the resistance and plasma reactance could be obtained to some simple plasma diode configurations. Theses expressions take into account the plasma parameters and the dimensions of plasma discharge channel and they are important as a guide to change or adjust the experimental conditions in such way to obtain a new plasma impedance in order to emphasize some plasma response. The theoretical model must both, take into account the experimental conditions of plasma production and excitation and equilibrium plasma. We applied the method to a collisionless field free plasma and other that obeys the Drude's model.

  18. Associative Self-Anchoring Interacts with Obtainability of Chosen Objects

    PubMed Central

    Prévost, Charlotte; Bolger, Niall; Mobbs, Dean

    2016-01-01

    While there is evidence that implicit self-esteem transfers to chosen objects (associative self-anchoring), it is still unknown whether this phenomenon extends to explicit self-esteem. Moreover, whether the knowledge that these objects might belong to the self in the future or not affects the evaluation of these objects has received little attention. Here, we demonstrate that evaluations of chosen objects are further enhanced when they are obtainable as compared to when they are not in participants with high explicit self-esteem, whereas participants with low explicit self-esteem exhibit the opposite pattern. These findings extend previous results and shed new light on the role of self-esteem in altering preferences for chosen objects depending on their obtainability. PMID:26913011

  19. New terpenoid glycosides obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Adelakun, Tiwalade Adegoke; Qu, Lu; Li, Xiaoxia; Li, Jian; Han, Lifeng; Wang, Tao

    2014-12-01

    Five new terpenoid glycosides, named as officinoterpenosides A₁ (1), A₂ (2), B (3), C (4), and D (5), together with 11 known ones, (1S,4S,5S)-5-exo-hydrocamphor 5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), isorosmanol (7), rosmanol (8), 7-methoxyrosmanol (9), epirosmanol (10), ursolic acid (11), micromeric acid (12), oleanolic acid (13), niga-ichigoside F₁ (14), glucosyl tormentate (15), and asteryunnanoside B (16), were obtained from the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, HRESI-TOF-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Among the new ones, 1 and 2, 3 and 4 are diterpenoid and triterpenoid glycosides, respectively; and 5 is a normonoterpenoid. For the known ones, 6 was isolated from the Rosmarinus genus first, and 15, 16 were obtained from this species for the first time.

  20. Processes for obtaining nonmedical exemptions to state immunization laws.

    PubMed Central

    Rota, J S; Salmon, D A; Rodewald, L E; Chen, R T; Hibbs, B F; Gangarosa, E J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the specific processes required for obtaining religious and philosophical exemptions to school immunization laws. METHODS: State health department immunization program managers in the 48 states that offer nonmedical exemptions were surveyed. Categories were assigned to reflect the complexity of the procedure within a state for obtaining an exemption. RESULTS: Sixteen of the states delegated sole authority for processing exemptions to school officials. Nine states had written policies informing parents who seek an exemption of the risks of not immunizing. The complexity of the exemption process, in terms of paperwork or effort required, was inversely associated with the proportion of exemptions field. CONCLUSIONS: In many states, the process of claiming a nonmedical exemption requires less effort than fulfilling immunization requirements. PMID:11291383

  1. Processes for obtaining nonmedical exemptions to state immunization laws.

    PubMed

    Rota, J S; Salmon, D A; Rodewald, L E; Chen, R T; Hibbs, B F; Gangarosa, E J

    2001-04-01

    This study sought to determine the specific processes required for obtaining religious and philosophical exemptions to school immunization laws. State health department immunization program managers in the 48 states that offer nonmedical exemptions were surveyed. Categories were assigned to reflect the complexity of the procedure within a state for obtaining an exemption. Sixteen of the states delegated sole authority for processing exemptions to school officials. Nine states had written policies informing parents who seek an exemption of the risks of not immunizing. The complexity of the exemption process, in terms of paperwork or effort required, was inversely associated with the proportion of exemptions field. In many states, the process of claiming a nonmedical exemption requires less effort than fulfilling immunization requirements.

  2. Obtaining fully dynamic coarse-grained models from MD.

    PubMed

    Español, Pep; Zúñiga, Ignacio

    2011-06-14

    We present a general method to obtain parametrised models for the drift and diffusion terms of the Fokker-Planck equation of a coarse-grained description of molecular systems. The method is based on the minimisation of the relative entropy defined in terms of the two-time joint probability and thus captures the full dynamics of the coarse-grained description. In addition, we show an alternative Bayesian argument that starts from the path probability of a diffusion process which allows one to obtain the best parametrised model that fits an actual observed path of the coarse-grained variables. Both approaches lead to exactly the same optimisation function giving strong support to the methodology. We provide an heuristic argument that explains how both approaches are connected.

  3. Absolute FKBP binding affinities obtained via nonequilibrium unbinding simulations

    PubMed Central

    Ytreberg, F. Marty

    2009-01-01

    We compute the absolute binding affinities for two ligands bound to the FKBP protein using nonequilibrium unbinding simulations. The methodology is straightforward requiring little or no modification to many modern molecular simulation packages. The approach makes use of a physical pathway, eliminating the need for complicated alchemical decoupling schemes. We compare our nonequilibrium results to those obtained via a fully equilibrium approach and to experiment. The results of this study suggest that to obtain accurate results using nonequilibrium approaches one should use the stiff-spring approximation with the second cumulant expansion. From this study we conclude that nonequilibrium simulation could provide a simple means to estimate protein-ligand binding affinities. PMID:19405629

  4. A manual method to obtain platelet rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Marques, Fabiana Paulino; Ingham, Sheila Jean McNeill; Forgas, Andrea; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Sasaki, Pedro Henrique; Abdalla, Rene Jorge

    2014-01-01

    This study is to report a manual method to obtain platelet rich plasma (PRP). For this study 61 ml of peripheral blood was obtained and submitted to centrifugation at 541g for 5 min. The centrifugation separates the blood into three components: red blood cells, buffy coat and platelet rich plasma. Blood and platelet rich plasma samples were sent to the Hospital's Laboratory and platelets and leukocytes were measured. A sample of 637 blood donors was evaluated. The platelet yield efficiency was 86.77% and the increase in platelet concentration factor was 2.89 times. The increase in leukocyte concentration factor was 1.97 times. The method described here produces leukocyte-rich and platelet-rich plasma with a high platelet and leukocyte increased factor. Level of Evidence IV, Controlled Laboratory Study.

  5. Structure and properties of porous ceramics obtained from aluminum hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levkov, R.; Kulkov, S.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the study of porous ceramics obtained from aluminum hydroxide with gibbsite modification is presented. The dependence of porosity and mechanical characteristics of the material sintered at different temperatures was studied. It was shown that compressive strength of alumina ceramics increases by 40 times with decreasing the pore volume from 65 to 15%. It was shown that aluminum hydroxide may be used for pore formation and pore volume in the sintered ceramics can be controlled by varying the aluminum hydroxide concentration and sintering temperature. Based on these results one can conclude that the obtained structure is very close to inorganic bone matrix and can be used as promising material for bone implants production.

  6. Method to obtain C-phycocyanin of high purity.

    PubMed

    Patil, Ganapathi; Chethana, S; Sridevi, A S; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2006-09-15

    A new approach is made for the purification of C-phycocyanin (C-PC), which is simple and more efficient than existing methods. The proposed method involves two steps: aqueous two phase extraction and ion-exchange chromatography. Crude extract of C-phycocyanin, of purity 1.18, obtained from Spirulina platensis is subjected to aqueous two phase extraction. C-phycocyanin obtained from this process showed a purity of 5.22, which is higher than the reported value till date. In order to explore the possibility of further purification, C-phycocyanin is subjected to ion-exchange chromatography and found that the purity increased from 5.22 to 6.69. The fluorescence, intactness of structure and purity of C-phycocyanin are confirmed using spectrofluorometry, circular dichroism spectra and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel, respectively.

  7. Accuracy of impressions obtained with dual-arch trays.

    PubMed

    Wöstmann, Bernd; Rehmann, Peter; Balkenhol, Markus

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the accuracy resulting from dual-arch impressions when compared to conventional impressions in complex preparations (ie, inlay and partial crown). One hundred eighty impressions were made using two different dual-arch trays; conventional trays served as the control. The accuracy of the dies obtained (Fuji-Rock EP, GC Europe) was assessed indirectly from the change of 59 transversal dimensions. Statistical analysis (t test, analysis of variance) revealed that less rigid dual-arch trays performed better than rigid ones. Though the inlay preparation was more difficult to reproduce with dual-arch trays, it can be concluded that the accuracy obtainable with nonrigid dual-arch trays is comparable to impressions taken from full-arch trays.

  8. Deliberation: obtaining informed input from a diverse public.

    PubMed

    Wang, Grace; Gold, Marthe; Siegel, Joanna; Sofaer, Shoshanna; Yang, Manshu; Mallery, Coretta; Carman, Kristin L

    2015-02-01

    Health care decision makers require public input to incorporate diverse values into programs and policies. Deliberation, one method for obtaining input, seeks to apply inclusive principles wherein diverse groups provide perspectives to inform decisions. We evaluate whether participants of different racial, ethnic, and educational backgrounds show differences in the effect of deliberation and the value placed on deliberation participation. We surveyed 907 participants before and after deliberation. Regression models examined associations between demographics and change in knowledge and attitudes, and perceived impact. Changes in knowledge about using medical evidence in decision-making were not associated with race, ethnicity, or education. Changes in attitudes were not associated with these characteristics with one exception. African American, Hispanic, and participants with lower educational attainment reported more perceived impact. Similar results across demographic groups suggest deliberation's promise for obtaining input from a diverse public to inform health programs and policies.

  9. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava to obtain fermentable sugars.

    PubMed

    Collares, Renata M; Miklasevicius, Luiza V S; Bassaco, Mariana M; Salau, Nina P G; Mazutti, Marcio A; Bisognin, Dilson A; Terra, Lisiane M

    2012-07-01

    This work evaluates the enzymatic hydrolysis of starch from cassava using pectinase, α-amylase, and amyloglucosidase. A central composite rotational design (CCRD) was carried out to evaluate the effects of amyloglucosidase, pectinase, reaction time, and solid to liquid ratio. All the experiments were carried out in a bioreactor with working volume of 2 L. Approximately 98% efficiency hydrolysis was obtained, resulting in a concentration of total reducing sugar released of 160 g/L. It was concluded that pectinase improved the hydrolysis of starch from cassava. Reaction time was found to be significant until 7 h of reaction. A solid to liquid ratio of 1.0 was considered suitable for hydrolysis of starch from cassava. Amyloglucosidase was a significant variable in the process: after its addition to the reaction media, a 30%-50% increase in the amount of total reducing sugar released was observed. At optimal conditions the maximum productivity obtained was 22.9 g/(L·h).

  10. Stratospheric HBr mixing ratio obtained from far infrared emission spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. H.; Carli, B.; Barbis, A.

    1989-01-01

    Emission features of HBr isotopes have been identified in high-resolution FIR emission spectra obtained with a balloon-borne Fourier-transform spectrometer in the spring of 1979 at 32 deg N latitude. When six single-scan spectra at a zenith angle of 93.2 deg were averaged, two features of HBr isotopes at 50.054 and 50.069/cm were obtained with a signal-to-noise ratio of 2.5. The volume mixing ratio retrieved from the average spectrum is 2.0 x 10 to the -11th, which is assumed to be constant above 28 km, with an uncertainty of 35 percent. This stratospheric amount of HBr is about the same as the current level of tropospheric organic bromine compounds, 25 pptv. Thus HBr could be the major stratospheric bromine species.

  11. Stratospheric HBr mixing ratio obtained from far infrared emission spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H. ); Carli, B. ); Barbis, A. )

    1989-08-01

    Emission features of HBr isotopes have been identified in high-resolution far-infrared emission spectra obtained with a balloon-born Fourier transform spectrometer in the spring of 1979 at 32{degree}N latitude. When six single-scan spectra at a zenith angle of 93.2{degree} were averaged, two features of HBr isotopes at 50.054 and 50.069 cm{sup {minus}1} were obtained with a signal-to-noise ratio of 2.5. The volume mixing ratio retrieved from the average spectrum is 2.0 {times} 10{sub {minus}11}, which is assumed to be constant above 28 km, with an uncertainty of 35%. This stratospheric amount of HBr is about the same as the current level of tropospheric organic bromine compounds, 25 pptv. Thus, HBr could be the major stratospheric bromine species.

  12. Nanoporous microtubes obtained from a Cu-Ni metallic wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marano, Emanuele Francesco; Lussana, Danilo; Castellero, Alberto; Baricco, Marcello

    2016-03-01

    Nanoporous microtubes of a nickel-copper alloy were obtained from a Cu-44Ni-1Mn (wt%) commercial wire (200 μm diameter). A new synthesis method was established through three steps: 1) partial oxidation of the wire at 1173 K in air, 2) removal of the inner unoxidized core by chemical etching, 3) reduction in 10 bar hydrogen atmosphere. During oxidation, the segregation of Cu and Ni occurred because of their different diffusion coefficients in the corresponding oxides. As a consequence, pores were formed by Kirkendall effect and due to selective chemical etching of the different oxides. Additional porosity formed because of volume contraction during reduction with hydrogen. After reduction, the microtube shows a composition gradient from the inner wall (almost pure nickel) to the outer wall (almost pure copper). The process allowed to obtain microtubes with tuneable wall thickness and inner pores around 180 ± 80 nm. The morphological features developed suggest improved capillarity properties for applications in MEMS.

  13. A New Simple Interferometer for Obtaining Quantitatively Evaluable Flow Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdmann, S F

    1953-01-01

    The method described in the present report makes it possible to obtain interferometer records with the aid of any one of the available Schlieren optics by the addition of very simple expedients, which fundamentally need not to be inferior to those obtained by other methods, such as the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, for example. The method is based on the fundamental concept of the phase-contrast process developed by Zernike, but which in principle has been enlarged to such an extent that it practically represents an independent interference method for general applications. Moreover, the method offers the possibility, in case of necessity, of superposing any apparent wedge field on the density field to be gauged. The theory is explained on a purely physical basis and illustrated and proved by experimental data. A number of typical cases are cited and some quantitative results reported.

  14. Periods found in heat measurements obtained by calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, K.C.

    1984-02-28

    During a span of 640 days, a periodicity of 1.5158 +- 0.0008 days was discovered in successive heater equilibria on Calorimeter No. 127. Measurements were taken at 12-h intervals, with occasional changes of exactly 3 or 6 h in the schedule of measurements. This schedule eliminated all other possible periods except a period of 0.150156 days. Periods of 1.519125 and 1.511283 days were discovered in data on the excess length of day as obtained by the US Naval Observatory over a period of 24 y. These two periods could equally well represent periods of 0.150189 and 0.150112 days, since measurements were obtained only once every 24 h. It is suggested that periods observed in sensitive calorimeters and in length of day data may be related. 1 reference, 6 figures, 5 tables.

  15. Prospects for obtaining metallic hydrogen with spherical presses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spain, I. L.; Ishizaki, K.; Marchello, J. M.; Paauwe, J.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a split-sphere apparatus modified for use at low temperature and affording a possible method for compressing molecular hydrogen to a pressure in excess of 1 Mbar and for converting it to the metallic state. The construction costs of the apparatus are relatively low and the amount of liquid helium required for low-temperature operation is readily obtainable with modern liquefiers.

  16. Hydrodesulfurization and hydrodenitrogenation catalysts obtained from coal mineral matter

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Kindtoken H. D.; Hamrin, Jr., Charles E.

    1982-01-01

    A hydrotreating catalyst is prepared from coal mineral matter obtained by low temperature ashing coals of relatively low bassanite content by the steps of: (a) depositing on the low temperature ash 0.25-3 grams of an iron or nickel salt in water per gram of ash and drying a resulting slurry; (b) crushing and sizing a resulting solid; and (c) heating the thus-sized solid powder in hydrogen.

  17. Comparative studies of methods of obtaining AGW's propagation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, H. Y.; Kuo, F. S.

    2012-03-01

    Three among the existing methods of obtaining the properties (intrinsic period, wavelength, propagation direction) of atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) were compared and studied by numerical method to simulate radar data. Three-dimensional fluctuation velocity satisfying dispersion equation and polarization relation of atmospheric gravity wave were generated, then the numerical data were analysed by these methods to obtain the properties of waves. We found that, hodograph analysis was accurate for a monochromatic wave in obtaining its wave period and propagation direction, but the analysis became erratic for the case of multiple waves' superposition. The error was especially large when data consisted of both upward propagating waves and downward propagating waves. The hodograph method became meaningful again if all the component waves propagated in the same direction and the resulting period was dominantly decided by the lowest frequency wave. Stokes parameters method would obtain statistically meaningful values of wave period and azimuth if the spreading of the azimuths among the component waves did not exceed 90° and the resulting period and azimuth were dominated by the lowest frequency wave component as well, irrespective of the vertical sense of propagation. Another method called phase and group velocity tracing technique was reconfirmed to be meaningful in measuring the characteristic wave period and vertical group and phase velocities of a wave packet: the characteristic wave period and vertical wavelength was dominated by the wave with the highest frequency among the component waves in the wave packet. Based on these numerical results, a composite procedure of data analysis for wave propagation was proposed and an example of real data analysis was presented.

  18. Additive for otto cycle engines and fuel mixture so obtained

    SciTech Connect

    Scifoni, M.

    1985-02-12

    The additive for Otto cycle engines according to the present invention consists of a mixture of water, ethanol, methanol and butanol to which is added a determined quantity of a liquid obtained by pressing prickly pear leaves. Added in a small percentage to the fuel, gasoline, LP or methane, this additive prevents the oxidation associated with the use of water and/or alcohols in Otto cycle engines, lowers fuel consumption and allows the use of low octane fuel.

  19. Dual frequency electrical impedance tomography to obtain functional image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapuan, Imam; Ain, Khusnul; Suryanto, Alif

    2017-05-01

    Electric Impedance Tomography with two frequencies is a system to detect the anomalies. This system is expected to detect the presence of a cancer in the breast. In this study, the objects are modelled in a circle phantom within 13 cm diameter. Those objects are equipped with 16 electrodes of copperplate. The objects, carrots, are functioned as a cancer and water as a medium of the normal breast. This electrode works to inject the current and to measure the voltage at a certain point. The position of the electrode current injection is controlled by a de-multiplexer, whereas the measurement of voltage at the electrodes is controlled by a multiplexer. The electric current source utilized has two frequencies; 10 kHz and 100 kHz. This electric current is generated from a circuit of Voltage Controlled Current Source using an oscillator XR2206. The microcontroller is utilized to control the current injection through a de-multiplexer and the measurement of output voltage through a multiplexer. This research has produced three images. Two images are obtained from both frequencies of 10 kHz and 100 kHz. Those two images cannot be achieved in the reality. The object condition of normal breast cannot be measured, since the normal breast of a person is different from others. In this study, the two images can be obtained when the potential background of the phantom can be measured. The third image is obtained from the reconstruction of the electrical potential difference between the low and high frequencies. This image is called as a functional image. This functional image makes the EIT system can be implemented, since it can be obtained without measuring the potential background. This functional image reveals that the anomalies are more obvious than the single frequency image.

  20. [Lymphoscintigrams with anatomical landmarks obtained with vector graphics].

    PubMed

    Rubini, Giuseppe; Antonica, Filippo; Renna, Maria Antonia; Ferrari, Cristina; Iuele, Francesca; Stabile Ianora, Antonio Amato; Losco, Matteo; Niccoli Asabella, Artor

    2012-11-01

    Nuclear medicine images are difficult to interpret because they do not include anatomical details. The aim of this study was to obtain lymphoscintigrams with anatomical landmarks that could be easily interpreted by General Physicians. Traditional lymphoscintigrams were processed with Adobe© Photoshop® CS6 and converted into vector images created by Illustrator®. The combination with a silhouette vector improved image interpretation, without resulting in longer radiation exposure or acquisition times.

  1. Obtaining vascular access in the obese patient population.

    PubMed

    Houston, Patricia A

    2013-01-01

    Obese patients are a highly specialized population to manage within the health care system. Excess weight contributes to changes in patients' anatomy and physiology. Specialized equipment, including vascular access devices, is required to accommodate their needs. Research has shown that traditional methods of obtaining vascular access can prove unfruitful in the obese patient population. Choosing the most appropriate device in conjunction with practicing the most effective technique will improve vascular access outcomes for obese patients.

  2. Methods for obtaining and determination of squalene from natural sources.

    PubMed

    Popa, Ovidiu; Băbeanu, Narcisa Elena; Popa, Ioana; Niță, Sultana; Dinu-Pârvu, Cristina Elena

    2015-01-01

    Squalene is a natural dehydrotriterpenic hydrocarbon (C30H50) with six double bonds, known as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of phytosterol or cholesterol in plants or animals. We have briefly reviewed the natural sources for squalene and focused on the main methods and techniques to obtain and to determine it. Some of its applications in different fields of human activity are also mentioned.

  3. Methods for Obtaining and Determination of Squalene from Natural Sources

    PubMed Central

    Popa, Ovidiu; Băbeanu, Narcisa Elena; Niță, Sultana; Dinu-Pârvu, Cristina Elena

    2015-01-01

    Squalene is a natural dehydrotriterpenic hydrocarbon (C30H50) with six double bonds, known as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of phytosterol or cholesterol in plants or animals. We have briefly reviewed the natural sources for squalene and focused on the main methods and techniques to obtain and to determine it. Some of its applications in different fields of human activity are also mentioned. PMID:25695064

  4. Application of Microwaves for Obtaining Ground Solid Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomatov, Vl. V.; Pashchenko, S. É.; Sladkov, S. O.; Salomatov, Vas. V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an analytical overview of theoretical and experimental data on the microwave grinding of coal. As a result of the work done, we have substantiated the urgency of microwave treatment (MWT) of coal for obtaining ground coal, which in turn has a positive effect on the operation efficiency of TPPs. Moreover, we have considered the positive effects of microwave grinding as applied to coke.

  5. IR absorption spectra of cellulose obtained from ozonated wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamleeva, N. A.; Autlov, S. A.; Kharlanov, A. N.; Bazarnova, N. G.; Lunin, V. V.

    2015-08-01

    The kinetic curves of ozone absorption by aspen wood were obtained. Processing of wood with peracetic acid gave cellulose samples. The yields of ozonated wood, water-soluble compounds, and cellulose were determined for the samples corresponding to different consumptions of ozone. The IR absorption spectra of wood and cellulose isolated from ozonated wood were analyzed. The supramolecular structure of cellulose can be changed by varying the conditions of wood ozonation.

  6. Obtaining anisotropic velocity data for proper depth seismic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Egerev, Sergey; Yushin, Victor; Ovchinnikov, Oleg; Dubinsky, Vladimir; Patterson, Doug

    2012-05-24

    The paper deals with the problem of obtaining anisotropic velocity data due to continuous acoustic impedance-based measurements while scanning in the axial direction along the walls of the borehole. Diagrams of full conductivity of the piezoceramic transducer were used to derive anisotropy parameters of the rock sample. The measurements are aimed to support accurate depth imaging of seismic data. Understanding these common anisotropy effects is important when interpreting data where it is present.

  7. 33 CFR 151.37 - Obtaining an Attachment for NLSs to the IOPP Certificate and obtaining an NLS Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of... Pollution from Ships Noxious Liquid Substance Pollution § 151.37 Obtaining an Attachment for NLSs to the...

  8. 33 CFR 151.37 - Obtaining an Attachment for NLSs to the IOPP Certificate and obtaining an NLS Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of... Pollution from Ships Noxious Liquid Substance Pollution § 151.37 Obtaining an Attachment for NLSs to the...

  9. 33 CFR 151.37 - Obtaining an Attachment for NLSs to the IOPP Certificate and obtaining an NLS Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of... Pollution from Ships Noxious Liquid Substance Pollution § 151.37 Obtaining an Attachment for NLSs to the...

  10. 33 CFR 151.37 - Obtaining an Attachment for NLSs to the IOPP Certificate and obtaining an NLS Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of... Pollution from Ships Noxious Liquid Substance Pollution § 151.37 Obtaining an Attachment for NLSs to the...

  11. 33 CFR 151.37 - Obtaining an Attachment for NLSs to the IOPP Certificate and obtaining an NLS Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of... Pollution from Ships Noxious Liquid Substance Pollution § 151.37 Obtaining an Attachment for NLSs to the...

  12. Uncertainties in obtaining high reliability from stress-strength models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Donald M.; Matthews, William T.; Vangel, Mark G.

    1992-01-01

    There has been a recent interest in determining high statistical reliability in risk assessment of aircraft components. The potential consequences are identified of incorrectly assuming a particular statistical distribution for stress or strength data used in obtaining the high reliability values. The computation of the reliability is defined as the probability of the strength being greater than the stress over the range of stress values. This method is often referred to as the stress-strength model. A sensitivity analysis was performed involving a comparison of reliability results in order to evaluate the effects of assuming specific statistical distributions. Both known population distributions, and those that differed slightly from the known, were considered. Results showed substantial differences in reliability estimates even for almost nondetectable differences in the assumed distributions. These differences represent a potential problem in using the stress-strength model for high reliability computations, since in practice it is impossible to ever know the exact (population) distribution. An alternative reliability computation procedure is examined involving determination of a lower bound on the reliability values using extreme value distributions. This procedure reduces the possibility of obtaining nonconservative reliability estimates. Results indicated the method can provide conservative bounds when computing high reliability. An alternative reliability computation procedure is examined involving determination of a lower bound on the reliability values using extreme value distributions. This procedure reduces the possibility of obtaining nonconservative reliability estimates. Results indicated the method can provide conservative bounds when computing high reliability.

  13. New approach for porous materials obtaining using centrifugal casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bălţătescu, O.; Axinte, M.; Barbu, G.; Manole, V.

    2015-11-01

    It has been presented different methods for obtaining porous materials, (mainly used for metallic foams) and highlighting a new technology developed in the Faculty of Materials science and engineering, of Iasi. Our technology for obtaining porous materials is called centrifugal casting for porous materials. This technology is included in the method number 8: co-pressing of a metal powder with a leachable powder being in the same time a newer approach in the porous materials field. This technology is currently in the developmental phase. Since now we made experiments on the metallic materials, aluminum alloys. The technology is briefly described in this paper. The obtained parts were used for making samples in order to characterize the properties of the materials. The cellular structure of metallic foams requires special precautions that must be taken in characterization and testing. In this paper we have characterized the samples structurally by its cell topology (open cells, closed cells), relative density, cell size and cell shape and anisotropy. Also it was used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which is straightforward; the only necessary precaution is that relating to surface preparation.

  14. Solid polymeric electrolytes obtained from modified natural polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlicka, Agnieszka; Machado, G. O.; Guimaraes, K. V.; Dragunski, Douglas C.

    2003-10-01

    Polysaccharides like starch and cellulose derivatives, hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) or hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) were modified to obtain solid polymeric electrolytes. The chemical modifications were performed by the grafting of polymers with poly(ethylene oxide) mono and diisocyanates or JEFFAMINE (Shiff base). The physical modifications were made by the plasticization process of starch and cellulose derivatives with glycerol and ethylene glycol. All the samples obtained from polysaccharides were characterized by X-ray, thermal analysis (DSC) and impedance spectroscopy. The plasticized samples showed low glass transition temperatures (Tg); for HEC the value was about -60°C and for starch it was about -30°C. Tg values for grafted samples were of about -58°C for starch and -7°C for HPC. The low Tg values obtained are important to ensure good ionic conductivity that reached the values of about 10-5 Scm-1 for plasticized samples and 10-6 Scm-1 for grafted ones at room temperature. The good film forming and ionic conductivity properties of the samples of HEC, HPC and starch are very interesting candidates to be used as solid polymer electrolytes.

  15. Histology of periapical lesions obtained during apical surgery.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Malte; von Arx, Thomas; Altermatt, Hans Jörg; Bosshardt, Dieter

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this was to evaluate the histology of periapical lesions in teeth treated with periapical surgery. After root-end resection, the root tip was removed together with the periapical pathological tissue. Histologic sectioning was performed on calcified specimens embedded in methylmethacrylate (MMA) and on demineralized specimens embedded in LR White (Fluka, Buchs, Switzerland). The samples were evaluated with light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The histologic findings were classified into periapical abscesses, granulomas, or cystic lesions (true or pocket cysts). The final material comprised 70% granulomas, 23% cysts and 5% abscesses, 1% scar tissues, and 1% keratocysts. Six of 125 samples could not be used. The cystic lesions could not be subdivided into pocket or true cysts. All cysts had an epithelium-lined cavity, two of them with cilia-lined epithelium. These results show the high incidence of periapical granulomas among periapical lesions obtained during apical surgery. Periapical abscesses were a rare occasion. The histologic findings from samples obtained during apical surgery may differ from findings obtained by teeth extractions. A determination between pocket and true apical cysts is hardly possible when collecting samples by apical surgery.

  16. Electrochemical Cell for Obtaining Oxygen from Carbon Dioxide Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Matthew; Rast, H. Edward; Rogers, Darren K.; Borja, Luis; Clark, Kevin; Fleming, Kimberly; Mcgurren, Michael; Oldaker, Tom; Sweet, Nanette

    1989-01-01

    To support human life on the Martian surface, an electrochemical device will be required to obtain oxygen from the carbon dioxide rich atmosphere. The electrolyte employed in such a device must be constructed from extremely thin, dense membranes to efficiently acquire the oxygen necessary to support life. A forming process used industrially in the production of multilayer capacitors and electronic substrates was adapted to form the thin membranes required. The process, known as the tape casting, involves the suspension consisting of solvents and binders. The suspension is passed under a blade, resulting in the production of ceramic membranes between 0.1 and 0.5 mm thick. Once fired, the stabilized zirconia membranes were assembled into the cell design by employing a zirconium phosphate solution as the sealing agent. The resulting ceramic-to-ceramic seals were found to be structurally sound and gas-tight. Furthermore, by using a zirconia-based solution to assemble the cell, the problem of a thermal expansion mismatch was alleviated. By adopting an industrial forming process to produce thin membranes, an electrochemical cell for obtaining oxygen from carbon dioxide was produced. The proposed cell design is unique in that it does not require a complicated manifold system for separating the various gases present in this process, nor does it require a series of complex electrical connections. Thus, the device can reliably obtain the vital oxygen supply from the toxic carbon dioxide atmosphere.

  17. Electrochemical cell for obtaining oxygen from carbon dioxide atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, M. W.; Rast, H. E.; Rogers, D. K.

    1989-01-01

    For manned missions to Mars to become a reality, an efficient and reliable means of obtaining oxygen from the carbon dioxide-rich atmosphere will be required. Otherwise, the high cost of transporting the oxygen needed to sustain the astronauts will severely restrict the expedition to the martian surface. Recently, the use of electrochemical devices has been explored as a means of obtaining oxygen from the carbon dioxide-rich atmosphere. In these devices, oxygen ions diffuse through solid oxide membranes, thus, separating oxygen from the other gases presented. This phenomenon has only recently been explored as a means of obtaining large quantities of oxygen from toxic atmospheres, although first observed by Walter nernst in 1899. Nernst observed that stabilized zirconia will conduct oxygen ions when an electrical potential is applied across metallic electrodes applied to the ceramic membrane. Diatomic oxygen molecules are dissociated at the positive electrode/electrolyte interface. The oxygen ions enter the ceramic body due to the ion density gradient which is produced by the electrical potential across the electrolytic membrane. Once the ions have diffused through the membrane, they reform diatomic oxygen molecules at the anode. The separation of oxygen from carbon dioxide is achieved by the combination of thermal and electrochemical processes. The thermal decomposition of carbon dioxide (at 1000 C) results in the production of carbon monoxide and oxygen by the reaction.

  18. Experiences with Obtaining Informed Consent for Genomic Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Barbara A.; Roche, Myra I.; Perry, Denise L.; Scollon, Sarah R.; Tomlinson, Ashley N.; Skinner, Debra

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increased utilization of genome and exome sequencing, little is known about the actual content and process of informed consent for sequencing. We addressed this by interviewing 29 genetic counselors and research coordinators experienced in obtaining informed consent for sequencing in research and clinical settings. Interviews focused on the process and content of informed consent; patients/participants’ common questions, concerns and misperceptions; and challenges to obtaining informed consent. Content analysis of transcribed interviews revealed that the main challenges to obtaining consent related to the broad scope and uncertainty of results, and patient/ participants’ unrealistic expectations about the likely number and utility of results. Interviewees modified their approach to sessions according to contextual issues surrounding the indication for testing, type of patient, and timing of testing. With experience, most interviewees structured sessions to place less emphasis on standard elements in the consent form and technological aspects of sequencing. They instead focused on addressing misperceptions and helping patients/participants develop realistic expectations about the types and implications of possible results, including secondary findings. These findings suggest that informed consent sessions should focus on key issues that may be misunderstood by patients/participants. Future research should address the extent to which various stakeholders agree on key elements of informed consent. PMID:26198374

  19. Characterization of graphene oxide nanofilms obtained by the SAW atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachova, O. V.; Balashov, S. M.; Kubota, L. T.; Timm, R. A.; Nascimento, P. H.; Pavani Filho, A.; Moshkalev, S.

    2015-03-01

    Due to its ability to absorb water molecules, graphene oxide (GO) is considered a promising material for sensitive coatings in fast surface acoustic wave (SAW) humidity sensors. In this work, we characterize GO films obtained by the SAW atomization technique. It is shown that the atomized submicroliter droplets of aqueous suspension of GO can be deposited onto the surface of Si, LiNbO3 or quartz substrates forming discrete or continuous films of nanometer thickness. The deposited films were examined using AFM and electron microscopy. We discuss the dependence of thickness and structure of the obtained GO films on the parameters of deposition: the number of atomized droplets, a volume of the initial droplet, a distance between the atomizer and the sample, etc. To evaluate the adsorption characteristics of the obtained GO films, we used them as sensitive coatings of the SAW humidity sensors. We found that the adsorption characteristics of the GO films are determined by fast adsorption on the surface of GO sheets and slow adsorption, attributed to limited penetration of water molecules between the sheets, and depend on the number of deposited layers.

  20. The analysis of experimental data obtained from automotives tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, R. M.; Radulescu, V. J.; Neagu, D.; Trocan, C.; Copae, I.

    2016-08-01

    The paper highlights the three important and inseparably aspects of the systemic approach of automotives dynamics: taking into account the human-vehicle-field interaction, dealing movement with algorithms specific to system theory and analysis of experimental data with algorithms specific to signals theory.Within the paper, the systemic approach regarding vehicles dynamics is based on experimental data obtained from tests, whereby it is analyzed the movement and there are obtained movement mathematical models through algorithms of systems identification.Likewise, there are shown main analysis methods for experimental data, which uses probability theory, information theory, correlation analysis and variance analysis;in addition, there are highlighted possibilities given by time analysis, frequency analysis and data time-frequency analysis. Identification algorithms and highlighted analysis procedures assure the study of automotives dynamics and fuel saving,by directly using experimental data, or by using mathematical models and applying concepts and algorithms specific to systems theory. Experimental data were obtained by testing automotives with electronic control devices and by using acquisition and storage equipmentsfor data given by the on-board computer and taken from embedded sensors.

  1. Secular variations around 2000 obtained from satellite and observatory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondar, T.; Golovkov, V.; Yakovleva, S.

    2003-04-01

    SECULAR VARIATIONS AROUND 2000 OBTAINED FROM SATELLITE AND OBSERVATORY DATA T. Bondar, V. Golovkov and S. Yakovleva Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation RAS IZMIRAN, Troitsk, Moscow Reg., 142190, Russia golovkov@izmiran.rssi.ru/FAX: +7-095-3340124 Using coefficients of models, developed on base of the satellite measurements of the geomagnetic vector (missions Magsat and Oersted), as well as SV coefficients in model by Olsen (2002) a space-time model of the geomagnetic field changes on the time interval of 20 yrs duration was developed. Coefficients of this ST model were obtained as the Taylor series up to second derivative. Obtained parabolic space-time model was compared with data series from magnetic observatories. It is shown that deviation of this completely satellite based model relative observatory time series is rather big due to the geomagnetic jerk about 1990. Space-time model derived from data from observatories describes variations better but only for area covered enough with observatories. False foci over SE Pacific reach hundreds nT. A new approach of joint use of satellite and observatory data is proposed. This technique of space-time analysis permits decreasing averaged errors to a few tens nT on whole time interval and whole Earth’s surface including large ocean areas.

  2. Comparison of orbital volume obtained by tomography and rapid prototyping.

    PubMed

    Roça, Guilherme Berto; Foggiatto, José Aguiomar; Ono, Maria Cecilia Closs; Ono, Sergio Eiji; da Silva Freitas, Renato

    2013-11-01

    This study aims to compare orbital volume obtained by helical tomography and rapid prototyping. The study sample was composed of 6 helical tomography scans. Eleven healthy orbits were identified to have their volumes measured. The volumetric analysis with the helical tomography utilized the same protocol developed by the Plastic Surgery Unit of the Federal University of Paraná. From the CT images, 11 prototypes were created, and their respective volumes were analyzed in 2 ways: using software by SolidWorks and by direct analysis, when the prototype was filled with saline solution. For statistical analysis, the results of the volumes of the 11 orbits were considered independent. The average orbital volume measurements obtained by the method of Ono et al was 20.51 cm, the average obtained by the SolidWorks program was 20.64 cm, and the average measured using the prototype method was 21.81 cm. The 3 methods demonstrated a strong correlation between the measurements. The right and left orbits of each patient had similar volumes. The tomographic method for the analysis of orbital volume using the Ono protocol yielded consistent values, and by combining this method with rapid prototyping, both reliability validations of results were enhanced.

  3. [Biotechnological cultivation of edible macrofungi: an alternative for obtaining nutraceutics].

    PubMed

    Suárez Arango, Carolina; Nieto, Ivonne Jeannette

    2013-01-03

    Macromycetes have been part of the human culture for thousand years, and have been reported as food in the most important civilizations in history. Many nutraceutical properties of macromycetes have been described, such as anti-cancer, anti-tumour, cholesterol lowering, antiviral, antibacterial, or immunomodulatory, among others. Given that production of mushrooms by traditional cultivation and extraction of bioactive metabolites is very difficult in some cases, biotechnology is essential for the development of profitable and productive techniques for obtaining these metabolites. It is the development of this technology, and the ease in which it enables the use of its variables that has allowed mycelium to be cultivated in liquid medium of macrofungi, with a significant reduction in time and an increased production of metabolites. This increased production has led to the study of compounds that have medicinal, nutriceutical and quasi-farmaceutical potential, in the exhausted media and the mycelium. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the use of liquid-state fermentation as a technological tool for obtaining edible fungi, and the study of these and their metabolites, by describing the different cultivation conditions used in recent years, as well as the results obtained. The relevance of Agaricus, Flammulina, Grifola, Pleurotus and Lentinula genera, will also be discussed, with emphasis on the last one, since Shiitake has been always considered as the ultimate medicinal mushroom. Copyright © 2011 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Obtaining graphene nanoplatelets from various graphite intercalation compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melezhyk, A.; Galunin, E.; Memetov, N.

    2015-11-01

    The work compares the exfoliation ability of different graphite materials (expanded graphite intercalation compound, thermally expanded and oxidatively intercalated graphites) and describes the properties of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) obtained dependently on intercalation/deintercalation conditions and reagents. Among the studied materials, the graphite intercalated with ammonium persulfate in sulfuric acid and expanded at 40 °C possesses the maximum ability for ultrasonic exfoliation in the presence of a surfactant. The exfoliation efficiency strongly depends on the content of water in sulfuric acid during the intercalation. The highest efficiency was achieved for the expanded graphite intercalation compound (EGIC) prepared in sulfuric acid containing diluted oleum, which may be explained by increased acidity of the medium and, correspondingly, redox potential of the persulfate compound. This is also related to increased amounts of oxygen groups in the GNPs obtained from the EGIC synthesized in 100% sulfuric acid and diluted oleum. Besides, the nature of surface groups on the GNPs strongly depends on the nature of a deintercalating reagent. Thus, the treatment of the EGIC with different nucleophilic molecules (such as water, ammonia, carbamide, hexamethylenetetramine, organic amines, etc.) can yield GNPs with various surface groups. The interaction between the EGIC and nucleophilic molecules does not only include the substitution of sulfate groups, but also redox reactions with participation of graphene layers. Depending on the nature of the nucleophile, those reactions can lead to the formation of different groups attached to the graphene surface. GNPs with almost pure surface were obtained when using ammonia and carbamide.

  5. Xylitol bioproduction in hemicellulosic hydrolysate obtained from sorghum forage biomass.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Danielle; Sene, Luciane; Variz, Daniela Inês Loreto Saraiva; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the biotechnological production of xylitol from sorghum forage biomass. The yeast Candida guilliermondii was cultivated in hemicellulosic hydrolysates obtained from biomass of three sorghum varieties (A, B, and C). First, the biomass was chemically characterized and subjected to dilute acid hydrolysis to obtain the hemicellulosic hydrolysates which were vacuum-concentrated and detoxified with activated charcoal. The hemicellulosic hydrolysates (initial pH 5.5) were supplemented with nutrients, and fermentations were conducted in 125-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 mL medium, under 200 rpm, at 30 °C for 96 h. Fermentations were evaluated by determining the parameters xylitol yield (Y P/S ) and productivity (QP), as well as the activities of the enzymes xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). There was no significant difference among the three varieties with respect to the contents of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, although differences were found in the hydrolysate fermentability. Maximum xylitol yield and productivity values for variety A were 0.35 g/g and 0.16 g/L.h(-1), respectively. It was coincident with XR (0.25 U/mg prot) and XDH (0.17 U/mg prot) maximum activities. Lower values were obtained for varieties B and C, which were 0.25 and 0.17 g/g for yield and 0.12 and 0.063 g/L.h(-1) for productivity.

  6. Preparation of potato starch microfibers obtained by electro wet spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárdenas, W.; Gómez-Pachon, E. Y.; Muñoz, E.; Vera-Graziano, R.

    2016-07-01

    Starch is one of the most abundant biopolymer in nature. It has been primarily used as a thickener in the food industry. Starch is found in greater amounts in the potato tubers, which is one of the largest food productions in the region of Boyacá-Colombia. Thus, potatoes are a viable source of starch. The main objective of this study is the preparation and characterization of native starch's microfiber by electro wet-spinning technique. The parameters that were changed for each treatment were as follows: the amount of potential applied to the solution, the distance between the needle and the collector and the rate of injection of the solution in order to determine the physical and chemical properties of the membranes, conformed by potatoes starch microfiber. Diverse instrumental analysis techniques were applied. They were: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to determine the morphologies and diameters of microfibers, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine the chemical changes, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Calorimetry Scanning (DSC) to obtain the thermal transitions and the temperatures of useful. The microfibers were analysed in order to determine their structural properties and thus define the range of application. In conclusion, potatoes starch microfibers were obtained with average diameters of 15, 17, 23 and 25 micrometres, besides the fibers presented a degradation temperature of 304 °C, indicating that fibers are available with diameters of small scale, with good thermal properties. This study will enable the implementation of the microfibers to obtain bio packaging for food products and other applications.

  7. Using stereophotogrammetric technology for obtaining intraoral digital impressions of implants.

    PubMed

    Pradíes, Guillermo; Ferreiroa, Alberto; Özcan, Mutlu; Giménez, Beatriz; Martínez-Rus, Francisco

    2014-04-01

    The procedure for making impressions of multiple implants continues to be a challenge, despite the various techniques proposed to date. The authors' objective in this case report is to describe a novel digital impression method for multiple implants involving the use of stereophotogrammetric technology. The authors present three cases of patients who had multiple implants in which the impressions were obtained with this technology. Initially, a stereo camera with an infrared flash detects the position of special flag abutments screwed into the implants. This process is based on registering the x, y and z coordinates of each implant and the distances between them. This information is converted into a stereolithographic (STL) file. To add the soft-tissue information, the user must obtain another STL file by using an intraoral or extraoral scanner. In the first case presented, this information was acquired from the plaster model with an extraoral scanner; in the second case, from a Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) file of the plaster model obtained with cone-beam computed tomography; and in the third case, through an intraoral digital impression with a confocal scanner. In the three cases, the frameworks manufactured from this technique showed a correct clinical passive fit. At follow-up appointments held six, 12 and 24 months after insertion of the prosthesis, no complications were reported. Stereophotogrammetric technology is a viable, accurate and easy technique for making multiple implant impressions. Clinicians can use stereophotogrammetric technology to acquire reliable digital master models as a first step in producing frameworks with a correct passive fit.

  8. Obtaining Lissamine Green 1% Solution for Clinical Use.

    PubMed

    Stock, Michael; Salvay, David; Shoss, Bradley; Piggott, Kisha; Culican, Susan M

    2015-11-01

    With new compounding pharmacy laws, the only economically feasible approach to using lissamine is through dye-impregnated strips. This research aims to determine the concentration of lissamine that can be obtained using a single commercially available lissamine strip. With the optimal vital staining requiring 1% concentration of lissamine, we sought to obtain this concentration using supplies in an ordinary ophthalmology clinic. A standard curve was generated using compounded lissamine green 1% solution. Serial dilutions were made with 3 different diluents and measured using a spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 633 μm. Combinations of the number of strips, amount of solvent, and absorption time were performed to obtain a 1% solution. Cost analyses were performed to select the most economical method. Single lissamine strips wetted with any of the diluents produced 0.17% ± 0.05% (95% confidence interval) lissamine solution, a 5-fold weaker concentration than the optimal for vital staining. Combinations of 4 strips in 200 μL (4 drops) for 1 minute and 2 strips in 200 μL for 5 minutes were found to reach concentrations of 1%. Cost analysis showed that the 2 strip/4 drops/5 minutes method costs $0.67 and the 4 strips/4 drops/1 minute method $1.27. Use of a single lissamine strip leads to suboptimal concentrations for vital staining. With only the addition of disposable microcentrifuge tubes to the clinical setting, ophthalmologists can make 1% solutions of lissamine. This solution is both more economical and in compliance with both state and national compounding laws.

  9. Spatial Compounding Technique to Obtain Rotation Elastogram: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Kothawala, AliArshad; Chandramoorthi, Sowmiya; Reddy, N Ravi Kiran; Thittai, Arun Kumar

    2017-06-01

    The perception of stiffness and slipperiness of a breast mass on palpation is used by physicians to assess the level of suspicion of a lesion as being malignant or benign. However, most current ultrasound elastography imaging methods provide only stiffness-related information. There is no existing approach that provides information about the local rigid body rotation undergone by only a loosely bonded, asymmetrically oriented lesion subjected to a small quasi-static compression. The inherent poor lateral resolution in ultrasound imaging poses a limitation in estimating the local rigid body rotation. Several techniques have been reported in the literature to improve the lateral resolution in ultrasound imaging, and among them is spatial compounding. In this study, we explore the feasibility of obtaining better-quality rotation elastograms with spatial compounding through simulations using Field II and experiments on tissue-mimicking phantoms. The phantom was subjected to axial compression (∼1%-2%) from the top, and the angular axial and lateral displacement estimates were obtained using a multilevel 2-D displacement tracking algorithm at different insonification angles. A rotation elastogram (RE) was obtained by taking half of the difference between the lateral gradient of the axial displacement estimates and the axial gradient of the lateral displacement estimates. Contrast-to-noise ratio was used to quantify the improvements in quality of RE. Contrast-to-noise ratio values were calculated by varying the maximum steering angle and the incremental angle, and its effects on RE quality were evaluated. Both simulation and experimental results corroborated and indicated a significant improvement in the quality of RE using compounding technique. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. On quantum codes obtained from cyclic codes over A2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dertli, Abdullah; Cengellenmis, Yasemin; Eren, Senol

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, quantum codes from cyclic codes over A2 = F2 + uF2 + vF2 + uvF2, u2 = u, v2 = v, uv = vu, for arbitrary length n have been constructed. It is shown that if C is self orthogonal over A2, then so is Ψ(C), where Ψ is a Gray map. A necessary and sufficient condition for cyclic codes over A2 that contains its dual has also been given. Finally, the parameters of quantum error correcting codes are obtained from cyclic codes over A2.

  11. Analysis for Obtaining High Lift Pressure Distributions for Transonic Airfoils.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    to algebraic complexities . Consequently, a numerical procedure was used. Figure 9 and 10 display the variation of maximum theoretical lift coefficient...thickness after the shock Bs was found to be related to the momentum thickness before the shock by s F(Mo;k) a° (47) where F(M ;k) E1 +L (+) (1+4M 0...ltPlt ondr-aerNraM Shoc 6n(racio Model AD-A093 982 DYNAMICS TECHNIOL06Y INC TORRANCE CA F/6 1/3 ANLYI FOR OBTAINING HIGH LIFT PRESSURE DISTRIBUTIONS

  12. Strategies of Intracellular Pathogens for Obtaining Iron from the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Reyes-Cortes, Ruth; Guadrón-Llanos, Alma M.; Madueña-Molina, Jesús; Leon-Sicairos, Claudia; Canizalez-Román, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Most microorganisms are destroyed by the host tissues through processes that usually involve phagocytosis and lysosomal disruption. However, some organisms, called intracellular pathogens, are capable of avoiding destruction by growing inside macrophages or other cells. During infection with intracellular pathogenic microorganisms, the element iron is required by both the host cell and the pathogen that inhabits the host cell. This minireview focuses on how intracellular pathogens use multiple strategies to obtain nutritional iron from the intracellular environment in order to use this element for replication. Additionally, the implications of these mechanisms for iron acquisition in the pathogen-host relationship are discussed. PMID:26120582

  13. Obtaining DC and AC isothermal electrical characteristics for RF MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, A. K.; Fregonese, S.; Scheer, P.; Celi, D.; Juge, A.; Zimmer, T.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a new and simple approach to obtain isothermal electrical characteristics of metal oxide field effect transistor (MOSFET) from conventional non-isothermal measurements. DC and continuous wave (CW) S-parameter measurements are performed at different chuck temperatures (Tchuck). Knowing the thermal resistance (RTH) of the device the variation of DC and AC characteristic due to self-heating can be de-embedded and all the isothermal DC data and AC data above isothermal frequency can be determined. The method is validated by comparing the results with pulsed DC and pulsed RF measurements and found to be in good agreements.

  14. Obtaining Crosswind from Single-Aperture Optical Scintillometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dinther, D.; Hartogensis, O. K.

    2010-09-01

    A scintillometer is a device that consist of a transmitter and receiver. The receiver records intensity fluctuations of the electromagnetic beam emitted at optical or microwave wavelengths by the transmitter. These fluctuations are caused by refraction of the beam upon its passage through the turbulent surface layer. An increasingly popular application of scintillometry is to estimate the area-averaged surface fluxes from these raw measurements following scintillometer theory (Tatarskii, 1961) relating the raw intensity measurements to the structure parameter of the refractive index, Cn2 and Monin-Obukhov similarity theory that relates structure parameters to surface fluxes (Meijninger et al., 2002). A less known application of scintillometry is the estimation of the crosswind, i.e. the wind perpendicular to the scintillometer path. Past research on this issue focused on multiple aperture scintillometers that use the time delay between the turbulence signals of the displaced apertures to estimate the crosswind (Andreas, 2000, Poggio et al., 2000 and Furger et al., 2001,). The goal of this study is to explore a method to obtain the crosswind from single aperture scintillometers through spectral analysis of the raw scintillometer signal. In theory the scintillometer spectrum shows an inflection at the transition of the refractive and absorption part of the spectrum. The transition frequency (fC2) is related to the ratio of the crosswind and the diameter of the receiver and transmitter (Nieveen et al., 1998) via fc2 = -u-- 1.25D where u is the crosswind speed and D the diameter of the scintillometer. Limitation of the method is that it only works properly when the crosswind is constant, i.e. with a horizontal scintillometer path, no time variation and no spatial variations of the crosswind. The prescribed method to obtain the crosswind is examined with LITFASS-2009 (Germany) and Haarweg (The Netherlands) datasets. At LITFASS-2009 different optical and microwave

  15. Broadband negative refractive index obtained by plasmonic hybridization in metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hien T.; Bui, Tung S.; Yan, Sen; Vandenbosch, Guy A. E.; Lievens, Peter; Vu, Lam D.; Janssens, Ewald

    2016-11-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a broadband negative refractive index (NRI) behavior in combined dimer and fishnet dimer metamaterials operating in the GHz frequency range. The observations can be well explained by a hybridization model and are in agreement with numerical modelling results. Hybridization of the magnetic resonances is obtained by reducing the distance between the layers in the dimer structures. A ratio of the double negative refractive index bandwidth to operational frequency of approximately 10% was achieved in the fishnet dimer. The applicable frequency range of the broadband NRI was shown to scale with the size of the structures from the microwave to the far infrared.

  16. Strategies of Intracellular Pathogens for Obtaining Iron from the Environment.

    PubMed

    Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Reyes-Cortes, Ruth; Guadrón-Llanos, Alma M; Madueña-Molina, Jesús; Leon-Sicairos, Claudia; Canizalez-Román, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Most microorganisms are destroyed by the host tissues through processes that usually involve phagocytosis and lysosomal disruption. However, some organisms, called intracellular pathogens, are capable of avoiding destruction by growing inside macrophages or other cells. During infection with intracellular pathogenic microorganisms, the element iron is required by both the host cell and the pathogen that inhabits the host cell. This minireview focuses on how intracellular pathogens use multiple strategies to obtain nutritional iron from the intracellular environment in order to use this element for replication. Additionally, the implications of these mechanisms for iron acquisition in the pathogen-host relationship are discussed.

  17. Partitioning Ocean Wave Spectra Obtained from Radar Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaye, Lauriane; Vergely, Jean-Luc; Hauser, Daniele; Guitton, Gilles; Mouche, Alexis; Tison, Celine

    2016-08-01

    2D wave spectra of ocean waves can be partitioned into several wave components to better characterize the scene. We present here two methods of component detection: one based on watershed algorithm and the other based on a Bayesian approach. We tested both methods on a set of simulated SWIM data, the Ku-band real aperture radar embarked on the CFOSAT (China- France Oceanography Satellite) mission which launch is planned mid-2018. We present the results and the limits of both approaches and show that Bayesian method can also be applied to other kind of wave spectra observations as those obtained with the radar KuROS, an airborne radar wave spectrometer.

  18. Obtaining single path phase delays from GPS double differences

    SciTech Connect

    Alber, C.; Ware, R.; Rocken, C.; Braun, J.

    2000-07-01

    We describe a method for obtaining singlepath phase delays from GPS double differences. The resulting “zero differences” (ZDs) can be used for remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor. The method is demonstrated by simulating and observing atmospheric delay gradients, and by comparing ZDs with pointed radiometer observations of integrated water vapor along GPS ray paths. In-situ GPS antenna phase center and multipath effects are mapped in ZD residuals for a specific site and network. We conclude that ZDs derived from GPS network data show promise for real time sensing of water vapor for use in meteorological modeling and forecasting.

  19. Strategies used by parents of twins to obtain sleep.

    PubMed

    Damato, Elizabeth G; Zupancic, Julie

    2009-08-01

    Empirical evidence on how parents of twins manage their need for sleep is nonexistent. Lay publications provide advice for parents of multiples, yet their recommendations have been neither studied for their frequency of use nor tested for their effectiveness. Parents of twins were interviewed by telephone regarding strategies they used to obtain sleep during the first 6 months postbirth. Reported strategies were grouped into a priori categories suggested by the literature. Findings indicated that parents attempted various strategies to increase their sleep but disagreed on their effectiveness. Development and testing of a repertoire of effective strategies tailored for parents of twins are needed.

  20. [Obtaining protein fractions from commercial sesame cakes (Sesamum indicum)].

    PubMed

    Guerra, M J; Jaffe, W G; Sangronis, E

    1984-09-01

    Sesame press cake represents an important potential protein source for human consumption. Some of the limiting factors are its high crude fiber content, oxalic acid content, and its bitter taste. By fractionation of solvent-extracted sesame meal, several preparations were obtained which were analyzed for their nutrient content, protein utilization and digestibility. PER values were low, and supplementation with lysine, skim-milk powder, soymeal or fish meal, improved the PER values considerably. Based on these findings, formulas for use as a protein supplement for children are presented.

  1. How can we obtain data on the demand for nurses?

    PubMed

    Spetz, Joanne; Kovner, Christine T

    2013-01-01

    Sources related to demand for nurses data are more difficult to find, and also more difficult to interpret relative to supply. When people talk about the "demand" for nurses, they can have multiple concepts in mind. Even if the concept is well-defined, the data may not clearly align with the intended concept. As with data on RN supply, the relative value of different data sources on RN demand depends on the goals of the data collection and analysis. To measure the current demand for nurses, employer surveys are ideal. Such surveys can explicitly obtain information about vacant positions to measure the total demand for nurses.

  2. Strategies Used by Parents of Twins to Obtain Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Damato, Elizabeth G.; Zupancic, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Empirical evidence on how parents of twins manage their need for sleep is non-existent. Lay publications provide advice for parents of multiples, yet their recommendations have not been studied for frequency of use nor effectiveness. Parents of twins were interviewed by telephone regarding strategies they used to obtain sleep during the first 6 months post-birth. Reported strategies were grouped into a priori categories suggested by the literature. Findings indicated that parents attempted various strategies to increase their sleep, but disagreed on their effectiveness. Development and testing of a repertoire of effective strategies tailored for parents of twins is needed. PMID:19616171

  3. [Biological decontamination of the imprints obtained from different dental materials].

    PubMed

    Brekhlichuk, P P; Petrov, V O; Bati, V V; Levchuk, O B; Boĭko, N V

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological contamination of the imprints made of alginate ("Ypeen") and silicone material ("Speedex") with and without the correction supplement has been investigated. Streptococcus and Staphylococcus have been estimated to be the most survivable species on the imprint surface, however their concentration differ depending on the type of imprints' material. The strains resistant to antibiotics dominated among all the isolated microorganisms. Bacterial preparations based on Bacillus - Biosporin and Subalin and some extracts of edible plants, fruits and berries can be used in dentistry for the decontamination of imprints obtained by the use of different materials.

  4. Role of Sampling Designs in Obtaining Representative Data

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Richard O.; Pulsipher, Brent A.

    2005-03-01

    Representative environmental data are necessary to make defensible environmental decisions. This paper focuses on the important role that sampling designs have in obtaining sufficiently representative data, which is to use the conceptual site model (CSM) and statistical methods to determine the number and location of samples necessary to achieve sampling objectives with required confidence and minimal cost. The importance of systematic planning and the development of an adequate CSM is stressed. Examples provide discussion of sampling designs that may be applicable for some sampling objectives, with reference to the Visual Sample Plan design software as an aid to design.

  5. Spectral method for obtaining three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshman, S.P.; Lee, D.K.

    1985-07-01

    A description is given of a new code, MOMCON (spectral moments with constraints), that obtains three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria in a fixed toroidal domain using a Fourier expansion for the inverse coordinates (R,Z) representing nested magnetic surfaces. A set of nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations for the spectral coefficients of (R,Z) is solved using an accelerated steepest descent method. A stream function lambda is introduced to improve the mode convergence properties of the Fourier series for R and Z. Constraint equations relating the m greater than or equal to 2 moments of R and Z are solved to define a unique poloidal angle.

  6. High acceleration rates obtained in plasma-loaded FEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevorgian, Lekdar A.

    2005-08-01

    The problem of acceleration of electron bunches interacting with powerful laser beam in a plasma-loaded inverse free electron laser (IFEL) is considered. It is shown that the presence of plasma in a free electron laser (FEL) results in a new mechanism of interaction between relativistic electrons and laser soft photons. This interaction maintains the synchronism during the induced absorption of laser photons by electrons. This method can provide high acceleration rates. It is also shown that the efficiency of this interaction increases essentially due to coherent effects in case of truncated dense electron bunches. As a result one obtains high acceleration rates in a wide energy region.

  7. Novel micromirrors to obtain three-dimensional images of cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Charles; Boczko, Erik; Wikswo, John; Seale, Kevin

    2007-11-01

    Confocal scanning laser microscopy and multiphoton microscopy provide 3D data from biological specimens, but with limited z-axis precision. We are developing a system which uses multiple microscale mirrors to obtain more accurate 3D data on living cells while using classical widefield microscopy. Etched silicon wells coated with aluminum have been used to obtain 3D images of pollen grains and protozoa. Because the sides of the well are angled, reflections along these planes provide information along the z-axis, and a back-projection algorithm can be used to reflect the data points to reconstruct a 3D image. We are currently optimizing the system to make measurements of the volume of an individual budding yeast cell as it progresses through the cell cycle. Due to the roughly prolate spheroidal shape of the yeast cell, data from this organism are suitable for fitting to a simple 3D surface, and integration provides the volume of the cell over time. The mirrored silicon wells can also be coupled to a microfluidic device to allow for measurements of 3D data for cells in traps. In addition, we are forming a mirrored well on the end of an aluminum rod which can then be positioned optimally above a cell, obviating the need for the cell to sit within the well.

  8. Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rod to obtain required reactivity worth

    DOEpatents

    Miller, John V.; Carlson, William R.; Yarbrough, Michael B.

    1991-01-01

    Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rods are described, wherein geometric combinations of relatively weak neutron absorber materials such as stainless steel, zirconium or INCONEL, and relatively strong neutron absorber materials, such as hafnium, silver-indium cadmium and boron carbide, are used to obtain the reactivity worths required to reach zero boron change load follow. One embodiment includes a grey rod which has combinations of weak and strong neutron absorber pellets in a stainless steel cladding. The respective pellets can be of differing heights. A second embodiment includes a grey rod with a relatively thick stainless steel cladding receiving relatively strong neutron absorber pellets only. A third embodiment includes annular relatively weak netron absorber pellets with a smaller diameter pellet of relatively strong absorber material contained within the aperture of each relatively weak absorber pellet. The fourth embodiment includes pellets made of a homogeneous alloy of hafnium and a relatively weak absorber material, with the percentage of hafnium chosen to obtain the desired reactivity worth.

  9. Evaluation of recipes for obtaining single terminated perovskite oxide substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunnarsson, R.; Kalabukhov, A. S.; Winkler, D.

    2009-01-01

    We have re-assessed different methods to obtain single terminated perovskite oxide substrate surfaces of SrTiO3, LaAlO3 and NdGaO3. The surfaces have been probed by a combination of atomic and lateral force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and reflection high-energy electron diffraction. (0 0 1)SrTiO3 surfaces were prepared with HF or plasma etching and annealing, (0 0 1)LaAlO3 surfaces were prepared with or without HCl etching and a consecutive annealing at 750-1100 °C, and (1 1 0)NdGaO3 surfaces were only annealed. Two of the recipes have previously been suggested to result in A-site terminated surfaces. However, except for the case of high-temperature annealed LaAlO3 where we observe a double-terminated surface, our data suggest that the single terminated surfaces obtained by these methods were of B-site type.

  10. Comparison between Measurements Obtained with three Different Perineometers

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Patrícia Brentegani; Franco, Maíra Menezes; de Oliveira Souza, Flaviane; Antônio, Flávia Ignácio; Montezuma, Thaís; Ferreira, Cristine Homsi Jorge

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the results obtained in the evaluation of intra-vaginal pressure using three different brands of perineometers in nulliparous volunteers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty nulliparous women with no anatomical alterations and/or dysfunction of the pelvic floor were enrolled in our study. All the women had the ability to voluntarily contract their PFM (Pelvic Floor Muscles), as assessed by digital palpation. The intra-vaginal pressure was assessed using three different brands of perineometer (Neurodyn Evolution™, SensuPower™ and Peritron™). Each volunteer was evaluated on three alternate days by a single examiner using a single brand of perineometer on each day. In the assessment, the volunteers were required to pull (contract) their PFM in and up as strongly as possible 3 times and to sustain the contraction for 5 seconds, with an interval of 30 seconds between each pull. For the statistical analysis, a concordance correlation coefficient was used to compare the values that were obtained with each brand of perineometer. RESULTS: A moderate concordance (0.51) was found between the results from the Peritron™ and Neurodyn™ perineometers, a fair concordance (0.21) between the Peritron™ and SensuPower™ brands and a poor concordance (0.19) between the Neurodyn™ and SensuPower™ brands. CONCLUSION: The concordance of the measurements of the intra-vaginal pressure ranged from poor to moderate, suggesting that perineometers of different brands generate different results. PMID:19578656

  11. Obtaining a TRIP microstructure by thermomechanical treatment without isothermal holding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masek, B.; Jirkova, H.; Kucerova, L.; F-X Wagner, M.

    2016-03-01

    The contemporary development of technological processes for the production of modern multiphase steels can be characterized by the need for precise control of their technological parameters. The design of modern technological processes that allow sophisticated microstructures to be obtained usually cannot be carried out on real production equipment for technical as well as economical reasons. Therefore, new processes and test devices are continuously being developed to make it possible to simulate and model thermomechanical treatments on small specimens with precise control and monitoring of process parameters. A simulator for experimental modelling of thermomechanical processes has been developed at the University of West Bohemia. In this paper, to demonstrate the feasibility of simulating thermomechanical treatments with this setup on a lab scale, we discuss the thermomechanical treatment of TRIP steels without isothermal holding - a processing route that is difficult to handle and thus poses several technological as well as economic problems. The realistic processing of wire rolling with different cooling strategies is tested on the TRIP CMnSiNb steel. Our results show that the processing route without isothermal holding allows to obtain multiphase microstructures with a tensile strength of up to 835 MPa and a ductility A5mm = 25%.

  12. Ultrasonic cavitation for obtainment of nanometric sized particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A.; Guzmán, R.; Espinosa, J.; Estrada, J.

    2016-02-01

    This project aims to determine the possibility of obtaining nanometric size particles of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) from commercial micron-sized powders, through the physical principle of ultrasonic cavitation, in order to be used as supply material in coatings made through a process of thermal spray by flame. The tests are performed on a Hielscher UIP 1000hd Ultrasonics equipment, in a 20 micron wave amplitude and in times of 6, 8, 12, 18 and 24 hours. The determination of the particle size is done through image processing using ImageJ software, obtained by the technique of scanning electron microscopy (SEM); while the elemental composition of the processed samples is analyzed through the technique of energy dispersing spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that Al2O3 and TiO2 have a reduction behaviour of the particles size after being subjected to ultrasonic cavitation, however is only reached the nanometric size in the TiO2 samples.

  13. Pozzolan Obtained by Mechanochemical Treatment of Kaolinite Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrović, Aleksandra A.

    2011-12-01

    Pozzolans are supplementary materials added to Portland cement in order to increase the mechanical strength and durability of concrete structures. A number of thermal, mechanical and chemical methods have been used to activate the reactive potential of pozzolanic materials. The aim of the study is to obtain pozzolana, from Serbian kaolinite clay by mechanochemical treatment. Kaolinite clay Garaši was subjected to mechanical treatment during different times of milling. The changes were monitored using particle size distribution (PSD) analyses, thermal methods [thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential thermal analysis (DTA)] and X-ray diffraction methods (XRD). The pozzolanic activity was determined using Chapelle method. Milling withing 20 min influences particle size decrease and after that time continuous increase. XDR analysis indicates gradual decrease of cristallinity with prolonged milling time. The higher values for pozzolanic activitie, expressed through consumption of gCa(OH)2 per gPozzolana are 0.78 and 0.77, and they were obtained for milling times 20 and 40 min, respectively. The values are comparable with commercial pozzolan—metakaolin. The results indicates that milling has caused the disintegration of particles and the consequent formation of new active surfaces in addition to changes in its physico-chemical properties that decrease its crystallinity (through amorphization) and increase it reactivity.

  14. Characterisation of Aronia powders obtained by different drying processes.

    PubMed

    Horszwald, Anna; Julien, Heritier; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, food industry is facing challenges connected with the preservation of the highest possible quality of fruit products obtained after processing. Attention has been drawn to Aronia fruits due to numerous health promoting properties of their products. However, processing of Aronia, like other berries, leads to difficulties that stem from the preparation process, as well as changes in the composition of bioactive compounds. Consequently, in this study, Aronia commercial juice was subjected to different drying techniques: spray drying, freeze drying and vacuum drying with the temperature range of 40-80 °C. All powders obtained had a high content of total polyphenols. Powders gained by spray drying had the highest values which corresponded to a high content of total flavonoids, total monomeric anthocyanins, cyaniding-3-glucoside and total proanthocyanidins. Analysis of the results exhibited a correlation between selected bioactive compounds and their antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, drying techniques have an impact on selected quality parameters, and different drying techniques cause changes in the content of bioactives analysed. Spray drying can be recommended for preservation of bioactives in Aronia products. Powder quality depends mainly on the process applied and parameters chosen. Therefore, Aronia powders production should be adapted to the requirements and design of the final product. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Digital holographic interferometry as a tool to obtain shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe López, Ubaldo; Hernández-Montes, María. del Socorro; Muñoz-Solís, Silvino

    2015-08-01

    This work describes a new method to obtain shapes on surfaces based on digital holographic interferometry (DHI). Research has been reported with different methods, such as fringe projection. DHI, being a full-field technique, decreases the number of images to capture and the processing time, besides having a high resolution. Our proposed method consists in obtaining the shape of the object and a reference plane using an out-of-plane interferometer. The phase difference of the recorded holograms is achieved by means of the Fourier transform method. This resulting phase has a tilt produced by the angle of the object beam relative to the optical axis, which is removed by subtracting the phase difference from the reference plane. The method was tested in two cylinders, one with dimensions of 17.5x23.4mm reconstructed with a height sensitivity of 4.1mm, and another with two levels: one half with dimensions of 16.08x12.75mm, and the other half of 19.07x12.75mm; the result was a successfully reconstructed shape, with a height sensitivity of 2.7mm.

  16. Obtaining the child testimony in the criminal proceedings.

    PubMed

    Marinović, Dunja; Palijan, Tija Zarković; Marinović, Marin; Krpina, Milena Gasparović; Piglić, Iva; Nikolić, Harry

    2010-04-01

    Children fall under the special category of vulnerable witnesses. Children's vulnerability is the reason that we must approach obtaining the child's testimony in the criminal proceedings with special attention. It is important to take the child's testimony as soon as possible and to avoid the repetition of interrogation. The criminal proceedings law and the juvenile court law enable children interrogation through the professional person without the presence of other parties in the procedure and enable the recording of such interrogation by audio-video link which considerably diminish the secondary victimization. The professionals who obtain the testimony must be well acquainted with children's psychological development. Knowledge of psychological development is of major importance in order to make the quality arrangements for interrogation and to interrogate the child and to achieve positive social contact between the examiner and the examinee and it is also of great importance for the credibility evaluation of the child's testimony. The adequate way of children interrogation will enable the child to say the correct information and to recognize the perpetrator. The forensic interview is well elaborated and child adapted technique of interrogation. Respecting the rules of forensic interview will enable the child's testimony on court to be relevant evidence.

  17. The ethics of obtaining consent in labour for research.

    PubMed

    Reid, Rachel; Susic, Daniella; Pathirana, Shanthi; Tracy, Sally; Welsh, Alec W

    2011-12-01

      It is widely acknowledged that the pregnant population is a vulnerable and potentially disadvantaged one with regard to research. We sought to evaluate compliance with this concept by examining current Australian practices of obtaining consent for research during labour through the published literature and from Australian Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs) as well as reviewing the relevant literature.   We surveyed Australian HRECs requesting information about their opinions and/or practices surrounding the ethics of research consent during labour or birth. In addition, a literature search was performed to find randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving interventions during labour in Australia in the last five years.   Of the HREC respondents, 75% believed it to be ethical to obtain consent for research in labour, 87% would require additional expert assistance to approve, 57% felt the partner should be involved and all proposed research scenarios were thought to require protocol changes. Recent local RCTs reflected a variety of consent strategies, each having their limitations.   An under-used but potentially useful strategy may be staged recruitment and consent. Despite the evidence supporting labour as a time requiring increased acuity for informed consent, there is little to suggest that this knowledge is being applied to current Australian HREC and RCT practices. We suggest that further practical guidelines be devised to aid researchers and human ethics committees. © 2011 The Authors. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  18. A model on how to obtain data from botanical practitioners.

    PubMed

    Elsas, Siegward M

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the challenge on how to obtain information from practitioners with experience in using medicinal plants. Collecting information on medicinal uses of plants is very challenging; since botanical remedies are used within the context of multiple differing medical systems, practitioners differ in training from Western physicians and scientists, and active ingredients of botanicals vary with preparation method, growth, and harvest conditions. A model on how useful data on safety and efficacy can be obtained from botanical practitioners is presented, based on methods developed by the association of anthroposophic physicians in Europe, a system of integrative medicine which includes the use of botanicals and is practiced mostly by medical doctors. Decades of experience by hundreds of practitioners are summarized and made accessible in a manual, which alphabetically lists the most commonly used botanicals and describes the most successful therapeutic experiences which could be confirmed by several of the contributing practitioners. This approach of continuous, multilingual systematic collection of successful therapeutic experiences within a community of practitioners with similar goals and a common therapeutic framework can be used not only for the training of successful future botanical practitioners, but also for helping to identify promising botanicals for scientific research and to further their development, and could support their official registration with governing bodies in countries of their use. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Botanicals for Epilepsy". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Magnetic Properties of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Obtained by Laser Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselova, Iu. P.; Samatov, O. M.; Kupriyanova, G. S.; Murzakaev, A. M.; Safronov, A. P.; Kurlyandskaya, G. V.

    2017-01-01

    The paper concentrates on a synthesis of spherical magnetic particles obtained by laser evaporation under various process conditions. Depending on the process conditions, which include the pressure in a process chamber, laser pulse duration, mean laser power, and the type of power gas, the stoichiometry of the material ranges from Fe 2.70 O 4 to Fe 2.84 O 4 , while the average diameter of nanoparticles ranges between 10-23 nm. The nanoparticles have an inverse spinel structure. In terms of the magnetic properties, the samples are a superparamagnetic ensemble. The spherical shape of the majority of nanoparticles as well as the existence of merely one magnetic phase are verified by the characteristics of microwave absorption. A relatively high saturation magnetization and a narrow size distribution of small nanoparticles obtained at 700 mmHg working pressure, 100 ms pulse duration, and 200 W laser power allow the authors to consider these conditions to be the most optimum for the nanopowder synthesis and recommend them for biological applications.

  20. Optical properties of hydroxyapatite obtained by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, C. C.; Thomazini, D.; Pinheiro, A. G.; Lanciotti, F.; Sasaki, J. M.; Góes, J. C.; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2002-09-01

    Calcium phosphate based bioceramics, mainly in the form of hydroxyapatite (HA), have been in use in medicine and dentistry for the last 20 years. Applications include coatings of orthopaedic and dental implants, alveolar ridge augmentation, maxillofacial surgery, otolaryngology, and scaffolds for bone growth and as powders in total hip and knee surgery. These materials exhibit several problems of handling and fabrication, which can be overcome by mixing with a suitable binder. In this paper, mechanical alloying has been used successfully to produce nanocrystalline powders of HA using five different experimental procedures. The milled HA were studied by X-ray powder diffraction, infrared and Raman scattering spectroscopy. For four different procedures, HA was obtained after a couple of hours of milling (on an average, 20 h of milling depending on the reaction procedure). The XRD patterns indicate that the grain size is within the range of 29-103 nm. This milling process, used to produce HA, presents the advantage that melting is not necessary and the powder obtained is nanocrystalline with extraordinary mechanical properties. The material can be compacted and transformed in solid ceramic samples. The high efficiency of the process opens a way to produce commercial amount of nanocrystalline HA. Due to the nanocrystalline character of this powder, their mechanical properties have changed and for this reason a pressure of 1 GPa is enough to shape the sample into any geometry.

  1. Characterization of banana starches obtained from cultivars grown in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Barros Mesquita, Camila; Leonel, Magali; Franco, Célia Maria Landi; Leonel, Sarita; Garcia, Emerson Loli; Dos Santos, Thaís Paes Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    The starch market is constantly evolving and studies that provide information about the physical and rheological properties of native starches to meet the diverse demands of the sector are increasingly necessary. In this study starches obtained from five cultivars of banana were analyzed for size and shape of granules, crystallinity, chemical composition, resistant starch, swelling power, solubility, thermal and paste properties. The granules of starch were large (36.58-47.24μm), oval, showed crystallinity pattern type B and the index of crystallinity ranged from 31.94 to 34.06%. The phosphorus content ranged from 0.003 to 0.011%, the amylose ranged from 25.13 to 29.01% and the resistant starch ranged from 65.70 to 80.28%. The starches showed high peak viscosity and breakdown, especially those obtained from 'Nanicão' and 'Grand Naine'. Peak temperature of gelatinization was around 71°C, the enthalpy change (ΔH) ranged from 9.45 to 14.73Jg(-1). The starch from 'Grand Naine' showed higher swelling power (15.19gg(-1)) and the starch from 'Prata-Anã' higher solubility (11.61%). The starches studied are highlighted by their physical and chemical characteristics and may be used in several applications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Characteristics of acoustic gravity waves obtained from Dynasonde data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrea, Cǎtǎlin; Zabotin, Nikolay; Bullett, Terrence; Fuller-Rowell, Tim; Fang, Tzu-Wei; Codrescu, Mihail

    2016-04-01

    Traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) are ubiquitous in the thermosphere-ionosphere and are often assumed to be caused by acoustic gravity waves (AGWs). This study performs an analysis of the TID and AGW activity above Wallops Island, VA, during October 2013. The variations in electron density and ionospheric tilts obtained with the Dynasonde technique are used as primary indicators of wave activity. The temporal and spectral characteristics of the data are discussed in detail, using also results of the Whole Atmosphere Model (WAM) and the Global Ionosphere Plasmasphere Model (GIP). The full set of propagation parameters (frequency, and the vertical, zonal and meridional wave vector components) of the TIDs is determined over the 160-220 km height range. A test of the self-consistency of these results within the confines of the theoretical AGW dispersion relation is devised. This is applied to a sample data set of 24 October 2013. A remarkable agreement has been achieved for wave periods between 52 and 21 min, for which we can rigorously claim the TIDs are caused by underlying acoustic gravity waves. The Wallops Island Dynasonde can operate for extended periods at a 2 min cadence, allowing determination of the statistical distributions of propagation parameters. A dominant population of TIDs is identified in the frequency band below 1 mHz, and for it, the distributions of the horizontal wavelengths, vertical wavelengths, and horizontal phase speeds are obtained.

  3. Nanostructured Thin Films Obtained from Fischer Aminocarbene Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Lazo-Jiménez, Rosa E.; Ortega-Alfaro, M. Carmen; López-Cortés, José G.; Alvarez-Toledano, Cecilio; Chávez-Carvayar, José Á.; Ignés-Mullol, Jordi; González-Torres, Maykel; Carreón-Castro, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of four amphiphilic organometallic complexes with the general formula RC = M(CO)5NH(CH2)15CH3, where R is a ferrocenyl 2(a-b) or a phenyl 4(a-b) group as a donor moiety and a Fischer carbene of chromium (0) or tungsten (0) as an acceptor group, are reported. These four push-pull systems formed Langmuir (L) monolayers at the air-water interface, which were characterized by isotherms of surface pressure versus molecular area and compression/expansion cycles (hysteresis curves); Brewster angle microscopic images were also obtained. By using the Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) method, molecular monolayers were transferred onto glass substrates forming Z-type multilayers. LB films were characterized through ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Results indicated that films obtained from 2b complex [(Ferrocenyl)(hexadecylamine)methylidene] pentacarbonyl tungsten (0) are the most stable and homogeneous; due to their properties, these materials may be incorporated into organic electronic devices. PMID:28773289

  4. Dosimetric algorithm to reproduce isodose curves obtained from a LINAC.

    PubMed

    Estrada Espinosa, Julio Cesar; Martínez Ovalle, Segundo Agustín; Pereira Benavides, Cinthia Kotzian

    2014-01-01

    In this work isodose curves are obtained by the use of a new dosimetric algorithm using numerical data from percentage depth dose (PDD) and the maximum absorbed dose profile, calculated by Monte Carlo in a 18 MV LINAC. The software allows reproducing the absorbed dose percentage in the whole irradiated volume quickly and with a good approximation. To validate results an 18 MV LINAC with a whole geometry and a water phantom were constructed. On this construction, the distinct simulations were processed by the MCNPX code and then obtained the PDD and profiles for the whole depths of the radiation beam. The results data were used by the code to produce the dose percentages in any point of the irradiated volume. The absorbed dose for any voxel's size was also reproduced at any point of the irradiated volume, even when the voxels are considered to be of a pixel's size. The dosimetric algorithm is able to reproduce the absorbed dose induced by a radiation beam over a water phantom, considering PDD and profiles, whose maximum percent value is in the build-up region. Calculation time for the algorithm is only a few seconds, compared with the days taken when it is carried out by Monte Carlo.

  5. Dosimetric Algorithm to Reproduce Isodose Curves Obtained from a LINAC

    PubMed Central

    Estrada Espinosa, Julio Cesar; Martínez Ovalle, Segundo Agustín; Pereira Benavides, Cinthia Kotzian

    2014-01-01

    In this work isodose curves are obtained by the use of a new dosimetric algorithm using numerical data from percentage depth dose (PDD) and the maximum absorbed dose profile, calculated by Monte Carlo in a 18 MV LINAC. The software allows reproducing the absorbed dose percentage in the whole irradiated volume quickly and with a good approximation. To validate results an 18 MV LINAC with a whole geometry and a water phantom were constructed. On this construction, the distinct simulations were processed by the MCNPX code and then obtained the PDD and profiles for the whole depths of the radiation beam. The results data were used by the code to produce the dose percentages in any point of the irradiated volume. The absorbed dose for any voxel's size was also reproduced at any point of the irradiated volume, even when the voxels are considered to be of a pixel's size. The dosimetric algorithm is able to reproduce the absorbed dose induced by a radiation beam over a water phantom, considering PDD and profiles, whose maximum percent value is in the build-up region. Calculation time for the algorithm is only a few seconds, compared with the days taken when it is carried out by Monte Carlo. PMID:25045398

  6. Immunogenic Activity of a Ribosomal Fraction Obtained from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Youmans, Anne S.; Youmans, Guy P.

    1965-01-01

    Youmans, Anne S. (Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Ill.), and Guy P. Youmans. Immunogenic activity of a ribosomal fraction obtained from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Bacteriol. 89:1291–1298. 1965.—The highly immunogenic particulate fraction obtained from mechanically ruptured cells of the H37Ra strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was suspended and centrifuged at 20,360 × g. The supernatant liquid from this centrifugation was centrifuged at 56,550 × g to remove the larger particles, and the supernatant liquid from this was centrifuged at 144,000 × g to obtain a ribosomal fraction. The sediments from the first two centrifugations were highly immunogenic, but the ribosomal fraction showed only slight capacity to immunize mice. However, when the ribosomal fraction was mixed with Freund's incomplete adjuvant, the immunogenic activity was equivalent to the particulate fraction from which it was prepared. To test the hypothesis that some membranous substance in the particulate fraction was acting as an adjuvant for the smaller particles in the ribosomal fraction, portions of the particulate fraction were treated separately with each of the membrane-disrupting agents, sodium deoxycholate, sodium lauryl sulfate, and 1 m sodium chloride. The treated materials were then centrifuged at 144,000 × g, and the sediments were tested for immunogenicity both with and without the addition of Freund's incomplete adjuvant. Without the adjuvant, the immunizing activities were very weak or absent; with the adjuvant, they were equivalent to that of the particulate fraction from which they were prepared. Other factors which have been found to damage or destroy membranes, such as freezing and thawing, and heat, also significantly decreased the immunogenic activity of the particulate fraction unless it was incorporated into Freund's incomplete adjuvant. The larger particles which sedimented at 56,550 × g were also treated with sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium

  7. Intracranial CT angiography obtained from a cerebral CT perfusion examination

    SciTech Connect

    Gratama van Andel, H. A. F.; Venema, H. W.; Majoie, C. B.; Den Heeten, G. J.; Grimbergen, C. A.; Streekstra, G. J.

    2009-04-15

    CT perfusion (CTP) examinations of the brain are performed increasingly for the evaluation of cerebral blood flow in patients with stroke and vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Of the same patient often also a CT angiography (CTA) examination is performed. This study investigates the possibility to obtain CTA images from the CTP examination, thereby possibly obviating the CTA examination. This would save the patient exposure to radiation, contrast, and time. Each CTP frame is a CTA image with a varying amount of contrast enhancement and with high noise. To improve the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) we combined all 3D images into one 3D image after registration to correct for patient motion between time frames. Image combination consists of weighted averaging in which the weighting factor of each frame is proportional to the arterial contrast. It can be shown that the arterial CNR is maximized in this procedure. An additional advantage of the use of the time series of CTP images is that automatic differentiation between arteries and veins is possible. This feature was used to mask veins in the resulting 3D images to enhance visibility of arteries in maximum intensity projection (MIP) images. With a Philips Brilliance 64 CT scanner (64x0.625 mm) CTP examinations of eight patients were performed on 80 mm of brain using the toggling table technique. The CTP examination consisted of a time series of 15 3D images (2x64x0.625 mm; 80 kV; 150 mAs each) with an interval of 4 s. The authors measured the CNR in images obtained with weighted averaging, images obtained with plain averaging, and images with maximal arterial enhancement. The authors also compared CNR and quality of the images with that of regular CTA examinations and examined the effectiveness of automatic vein masking in MIP images. The CNR of the weighted averaged images is, on the average, 1.73 times the CNR of an image at maximal arterial enhancement in the CTP series, where the use of plain averaging

  8. A simple analytical method to obtain achromatic waveplate retarders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilas, Jose Luis; Lazarova-Lazarova, Aleksandra

    2017-04-01

    A new linear and analytical method to design achromatic retarders using waveplates is proposed. The root of this procedure is a generalization of the Hariharan method, which supposes a set of waveplates with fast axes aligned. Hence, it imposes a set of contour conditions over the overall retardation with the aim of determining the thicknesses of the waveplates. Our method proposes a polynomial approximation of the birefringences, thus removing the contour condition. Analytic expressions for calculating the thicknesses of the waveplates are then derived, showing a non-explicit dependence on the wavelength. Moreover, the overall retardation obtained by this method is close to the optimal retardation curve achieved by minimizing the merit function of the achromatism degree.

  9. Unification of VW Arietis observations obtained in multisite campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhova, T. N.

    1999-04-01

    The two-channel photometric observations of the δ Scuti star VW Arietis (BDS 1269A) obtained at the Mt. Dushak-Erekdag Station of the Odessa Astron. Obs., Turkmenistan, were combined with the STEPHI Network four-channel photometry made at Xinglong Obs., China, and Observatorio del Teide, Spain, during the same season. The data set 164.9 hours long (16 days in October 1993) was analyzed. A five-frequency solution is proposed at the present stage of investigation. The suggestion that VW Arietis belongs to a small group of peculiar λ Bootis stars removes some contradictions in previous results, the existence of a binary system with a peculiar and a normal star finds a natural explanation. A possible pulsation mode identification is suggested.

  10. Recent advances to obtain real - Time displacements for engineering applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent developments and approaches (using GPS technology and real-time double-integration) to obtain displacements and, in turn, drift ratios, in real-time or near real-time to meet the needs of the engineering and user community in seismic monitoring and assessing the functionality and damage condition of structures. Drift ratios computed in near real-time allow technical assessment of the damage condition of a building. Relevant parameters, such as the type of connections and story structural characteristics (including geometry) are used in computing drifts corresponding to several pre-selected threshold stages of damage. Thus, drift ratios determined from real-time monitoring can be compared to pre-computed threshold drift ratios. The approaches described herein can be used for performance evaluation of structures and can be considered as building health-monitoring applications.

  11. Obtaining self-similar scalings in focusing flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijksman, Joshua; Mukhopadhyay, Shomeek; Gaebler, Cameron; Witelski, Thomas; Behringer, Robert

    The surface structure of converging thin fluid films displays self-similar behavior, as was shown in the work by Diez et al [Q. Appl. Math 210, 155, 1990]. Extracting the related similarity scaling exponents from either numerical or experimental data is non-trivial. Here we provide two such methods. We apply them to experimental and numerical data on converging fluid films driven by both surface tension and gravitational forcing. In the limit of pure gravitational driving, we recover Diez' semi-analytic result, but our methods also allow us to explore the entire regime of mixed capillary and gravitational driving, up to entirely surface tension driven flows. We find scaling forms of smoothly varying exponents up to surprisingly small Bond numbers. Our experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our numerical simulations, which confirm theoretically obtained relations between the scaling exponents.

  12. Obtaining self-similar scalings in focusing flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijksman, Joshua A.; Mukhopadhyay, Shomeek; Gaebler, Cameron; Witelski, Thomas P.; Behringer, Robert P.

    2015-10-01

    The surface structure of converging thin fluid films displays self-similar behavior, as was shown in the work by Diez et al. [Q. Appl. Math. 210, 155 (1990)]. Extracting the related similarity scaling exponents from either numerical or experimental data is nontrivial. Here we provide two such methods. We apply them to experimental and numerical data on converging fluid films driven by both surface tension and gravitational forcing. In the limit of pure gravitational driving, we recover Diez' semianalytic result, but our methods also allow us to explore the entire regime of mixed capillary and gravitational driving, up to entirely surface-tension-driven flows. We find scaling forms of smoothly varying exponents up to surprisingly small Bond numbers. Our experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our numerical simulations, which confirm theoretically obtained relations between the scaling exponents.

  13. Obtaining biobleached eucalyptus cellulose fibres by using various enzyme combinations.

    PubMed

    Valls, Cristina; Cadena, Edith M; Blanca Roncero, M

    2013-01-30

    Various combinations of laccases, xylanase and cellulase were used to biobleach cellulose fibres from eucalyptus. The Trametes villosa and Myceliophthora thermophila laccases were used in combination with violuric acid (VA(TvL) system) and methyl syringate (MeS(MtL) system), respectively, as mediator. A dissimilar mode of action of the two systems was found: the VA(TvL) treatment released both hexenuronic acids and lignin, whereas the MeS(MtL) released lignin alone. Pulp properties were further improved by applying the mediator before the enzyme during treatment. Pulp properties comparable to those provided by industrial TCF sequences were obtained by inserting a xylanase pretreatment before VA(TvL), but no significant effect was observed after the cellulase pretreatment. As an added value, the resulting enzymatically bleached fibres possess a reduced hexenuronic acid content. The chemical oxygen demand of the effluents from each stage was also assessed.

  14. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES OBTAINED BY GREEN SYNTHESIS

    PubMed Central

    MALLMANN, Eduardo José J.; CUNHA, Francisco Afrânio; CASTRO, Bruno N.M.F.; MACIEL, Auberson Martins; MENEZES, Everardo Albuquerque; FECHINE, Pierre Basílio Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are metal structures at the nanoscale. AgNPs have exhibited antimicrobial activities against fungi and bacteria; however synthesis of AgNPs can generate toxic waste during the reaction process. Accordingly, new routes using non-toxic compounds have been researched. The proposal of the present study was to synthesize AgNPs using ribose as a reducing agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a stabilizer. The antifungal activity of these particles against C. albicans and C. tropicalis was also evaluated. Stable nanoparticles 12.5 ± 4.9 nm (mean ± SD) in size were obtained, which showed high activity against Candida spp. and could represent an alternative for fungal infection treatment. PMID:25923897

  15. Venous return curves obtained from graded series of valsalva maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastenbrook, S. M., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The effects were studied of a graded series of valsalva-like maneuvers on the venous return, which was measured transcutaneously in the jugular vein of an anesthetized dog, with the animal serving as its own control. At each of five different levels of central venous pressure, the airway pressure which just stopped venous return during each series of maneuvers was determined. It was found that this end-point airway pressure is not a good estimator of the animal's resting central venous pressure prior to the simulated valsalva maneuver. It was further found that the measured change in right atrial pressure during a valsalva maneuver is less than the change in airway pressure during the same maneuver, instead of being equal, as had been expected. Relative venous return curves were constructed from the data obtained during the graded series of valsalva maneuvers.

  16. Functional properties of spice extracts obtained via supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Leal, Patrícia F; Braga, Mara E M; Sato, Daisy N; Carvalho, João E; Marques, Marcia O M; Meireles, M Angela A

    2003-04-23

    In the present study the antioxidant, anticancer, and antimycobacterial activities of extracts from ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were evaluated. The extracts were obtained using supercritical CO(2) with and without ethanol and/or isopropyl alcohol as cosolvent. The extracts' antioxidant power was assessed using the reaction between beta-carotene and linolenic acid, the antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis was measured by the MABA test, and their anticancer action was tested against nine human cancer ancestries: lung, breast, breast resistant, melanoma, colon, prostate, leukemia, and kidney. The rosemary extracts exhibited the strongest antioxidant and the lowest antimycobacterial activities. Turmeric extracts showed the greatest antimycobacterial activity. Ginger and turmeric extracts showed selective anticancer activities.

  17. An antibacterial coating obtained through implantation of titanium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delle Side, D.; Nassisi, V.; Giuffreda, E.; Velardi, L.; Alifano, P.; Talà, A.; Tredici, S. M.

    2014-04-01

    Everyday life is exposed to the risks of contracting severe diseases due to the diffusion of severe pathogens. For this reason, efficient antimicrobial surfaces becomes a need of primary importance. In this work we report the first evidences of a new technique to synthesize an antibacterial coating on Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE)samples, based on a non-stoichiometric, visible light responsive, titanium oxide. The coating was obtained through laser ablation of a titanium target, then the resulting ions were accelerated and implanted on the samples. The samples where tested against a Staphylococcus aureus strain, in order to assay their antimicrobial efficacy. Results show that this treatment strongly discourages bacterial adhesion to the treated surfaces.

  18. Neptune's Wind Speeds Obtained by Tracking Clouds in Voyager Images.

    PubMed

    Hammel, H B; Beebe, R F; De Jong, E M; Hansen, C J; Howell, C D; Ingersoll, A P; Johnson, T V; Limaye, S S; Magalhaes, J A; Pollack, J B; Sromovsky, L A; Suomi, V E; Swift, C E

    1989-09-22

    Images of Neptune obtained by the narrow-angle camera of the Voyager 2 spacecraft reveal large-scale cloud features that persist for several months or longer. The features' periods of rotation about the planetary axis range from 15.8 to 18.4 hours. The atmosphere equatorward of -53 degrees rotates with periods longer than the 16.05-hour period deduced from Voyager's planetary radio astronomy experiment (presumably the planet's internal rotation period). The wind speeds computed with respect to this radio period range from 20 meters per second eastward to 325 meters per second westward. Thus, the cloud-top wind speeds are roughly the same for all the planets ranging from Venus to Neptune, even though the solar energy inputs to the atmospheres vary by a factor of 1000.

  19. Doped ZnO nanowires obtained by thermal annealing.

    PubMed

    Shan, C X; Liu, Z; Wong, C C; Hark, S K

    2007-02-01

    Doped ZnO nanowires were prepared in a very simple and inexpensive thermal annealing method using ZnSe nanowires as a precursor. As doped, P doped, and As/P codoped ZnO nanowires were obtained in this method. X-ray diffraction shows that the zincblende ZnSe nanowires were converted to doped wurtzite ZnO nanowires. The incorporation of the dopants was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The doping concentration could be adjusted by changing the annealing temperature and duration. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the morphology of the ZnSe nanowires was essentially retained after the annealing and doping process. Photoluminescence spectroscopy also verified the incorporation of the dopants into the nanowires.

  20. Agricultural use of leachates obtained from two different vermicomposting processes.

    PubMed

    Tejada, M; Gonzalez, J L; Hernandez, M T; Garcia, C

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the possible agricultural use of the vermicomposting process leachates. Two leachates coming, respectively, from the vermicomposting of cow dung (SCD) and the vermicomposting of green forages (SGF), as well as solution of Hewitt (C) were used at a dose of 1 ml 500 ml(-1) in the foliar fertilization of tomato plants. Treatments were applied 30, 60 and 90 days after planting (DAP). The obtained results showed that foliar fertilization with SCD and SGF increased the morphological and chemical parameters on tomato crop with respect to the plants receiving foliar treatment with SH and C, possibly due to the humic substances content in SCD and SGF. The higher content of humic substances in SGF with respect to the SCD are possibly the responsible of the higher chlorophyll contents observed in the plants receiving the former treatment. This aspect possibly promoted an increase in plant photosynthesis and therefore an increase in fruit quality.

  1. Weak values obtained from mass-energy equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Miao

    2017-01-01

    Quantum weak measurement, measuring some observable quantities within the selected subensemble of the entire quantum ensemble, can produce many interesting results such as the superluminal phenomena. An outcome of such a measurement is the weak value which has been applied to amplify some weak signals of quantum interactions in lots of previous references. Here, we apply the weak measurement to the system of relativistic cold atoms. According to mass-energy equivalence, the internal energy of an atom will contribute its rest mass and consequently the external momentum of center of mass. This implies a weak coupling between the internal and external degrees of freedom of atoms moving in the free space. After a duration of this coupling, a weak value can be obtained by post-selecting an internal state of atoms. We show that the weak value can change the momentum uncertainty of atoms and consequently help us to experimentally measure the weak effects arising from mass-energy equivalence.

  2. Criticality of environmental information obtainable by dynamically controlled quantum probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwick, Analia; Álvarez, Gonzalo A.; Kurizki, Gershon

    2016-10-01

    A universal approach to decoherence control combined with quantum estimation theory reveals a critical behavior, akin to a phase transition, of the information obtainable by a qubit probe concerning the memory time of environmental fluctuations of generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes. The criticality is intrinsic to the environmental fluctuations but emerges only when the probe is subject to suitable dynamical control aimed at inferring the memory time. A sharp transition is anticipated between two dynamical phases characterized by either a short or long memory time compared to the probing time. This phase transition of the environmental information is a fundamental feature that characterizes open quantum-system dynamics and is important for attaining the highest estimation precision of the environment memory time under experimental limitations.

  3. Image processing methods to obtain symmetrical distribution from projection image.

    PubMed

    Asano, H; Takenaka, N; Fujii, T; Nakamatsu, E; Tagami, Y; Takeshima, K

    2004-10-01

    Flow visualization and measurement of cross-sectional liquid distribution is very effective to clarify the effects of obstacles in a conduit on heat transfer and flow characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow. In this study, two methods to obtain cross-sectional distribution of void fraction are applied to vertical upward air-water two-phase flow. These methods need projection image only from one direction. Radial distributions of void fraction in a circular tube and a circular-tube annuli with a spacer were calculated by Abel transform based on the assumption of axial symmetry. On the other hand, cross-sectional distributions of void fraction in a circular tube with a wire coil whose conduit configuration rotates about the tube central axis periodically were measured by CT method based on the assumption that the relative distributions of liquid phase against the wire were kept along the flow direction.

  4. How to obtain traceability on optical radiation measurements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matamoros García, Carlos H.

    2006-02-01

    Traceability to national standards provides confidence in measurements results, granting a guaranty when carrying out governmental rules and when demonstrating conformity with quality requirements such as ISO 9000 or ISO/IEC 17025 (and the Mexican equivalent standards). The appropriate traceability contributes with confidence of the quality of products or services. This paper presents different ways to obtain traceability in Mexico for the optical radiation measurements, mentioning some applications, and highlighting the necessity of having traceability to the appropriate units of the SI. Additionally it present the national standards maintained by Centro Nacional de Metrologia (CENAM), the national metrology institute in Mexico, that give the technical support to Mexican measurements in this field and the international recognition that the personal of the Optics and Radiometry Division had gained in 10 years of development.

  5. Cytogenetic analysis of meiotic cells obtained from stallion testes.

    PubMed

    Bugno-Poniewierska, Monika; Dardzińska, Aneta; Pawlina, Klaudia; Słota, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    A normal course of meiosis and the associated course of spermatogenesis in males are very significant from the viewpoint of animal breeding, in particular animal reproduction. This takes on special significance when studying late-maturing animals such as horses. The aim of the study was to analyse meiotic cells, with particular consideration of synaptonemal complexes obtained from the testes of young stallions and cryptorchids, based on observations of the X-Y bivalent. The analysis was performed in successive stages of meiotic division using the FISH technique. The greatest diversity and most advanced meiotic stages were observed in the normal testis of a unilateral cryptorchid. No abnormalities were observed that could have caused cryptorchidism in the analysed horses.

  6. An analytical approach to obtaining JWL parameters from cylinder tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, B. D.; Ferguson, J. W.; Hodgson, A. N.

    2017-01-01

    An analytical method for determining parameters for the JWL Equation of State from cylinder test data is described. This method is applied to four datasets obtained from two 20.3 mm diameter EDC37 cylinder tests. The calculated pressure-relative volume (p-Vr) curves agree with those produced by hydro-code modelling. The average calculated Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) pressure is 38.6 GPa, compared to the model value of 38.3 GPa; the CJ relative volume is 0.729 for both. The analytical pressure-relative volume curves produced agree with the one used in the model out to the commonly reported expansion of 7 relative volumes, as do the predicted energies generated by integrating under the p-Vr curve. The calculated energy is within 1.6% of that predicted by the model.

  7. A highly efficient cocaine detoxifying enzyme obtained by computational design

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fang; Xue, Liu; Hou, Shurong; Liu, Junjun; Zhan, Max; Yang, Wenchao; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Compared to naturally occurring enzymes, computationally designed enzymes are usually much less efficient, with their catalytic activities being more than six orders of magnitude below the diffusion limit. Here we use a two-step computational design approach, combined with experimental work, to design a highly efficient cocaine hydrolising enzyme. We engineer E30-6 from human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), which is specific for cocaine hydrolysis, and obtain a much higher catalytic efficiency for cocaine conversion than for conversion of the natural BChE substrate, acetylcholine (ACh). The catalytic efficiency of E30-6 for cocaine hydrolysis is comparable to that of the most efficient known naturally-occurring hydrolytic enzyme, acetylcholinesterase, the catalytic activity of which approaches the diffusion limit. We further show that E30-6 can protect mice from a subsequently administered lethal dose of cocaine, suggesting the enzyme may have therapeutic potential in the setting of cocaine detoxification or cocaine abuse. PMID:24643289

  8. A new methodology to obtain wine yeast strains overproducing mannoproteins.

    PubMed

    Quirós, Manuel; Gonzalez-Ramos, Daniel; Tabera, Laura; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2010-04-30

    Yeast mannoproteins are highly glycosylated proteins that are covalently bound to the beta-1,3-glucan present in the yeast cell wall. Among their outstanding enological properties, yeast mannoproteins contribute to several aspects of wine quality by protecting against protein haze, reducing astringency, retaining aroma compounds and stimulating growth of lactic-acid bacteria. The development of a non-recombinant method to obtain enological yeast strains overproducing mannoproteins would therefore be very useful. Our previous experience on the genetic determinants of the release of these molecules by Saccharomyces cerevisiae has allowed us to propose a new methodology to isolate and characterize wine yeast that overproduce mannoproteins. The described methodology is based on the resistance of the killer 9 toxin produced by Williopsis saturnus, a feature linked to an altered biogenesis of the yeast cell wall. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Obtaining of High Cr Content Cast Iron Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florea, C.; Bejinariu, C.; Carcea, I.; Cimpoesu, N.; Chicet, D. L.; Savin, C.

    2017-06-01

    We have obtained, through the classic casting process, 3 highly chromium-based experimental alloys proposed for replacing the FC 250 classical cast iron in braking applications. Casting was carried out in an induction furnace and cast into moulds made of KALHARTZ 8500 resin casting mixture and HARTER hardener at SC RanCon SRL Iasi. It is known that the microstructure of the cast iron is a combination of martensite with a small amount of residual austenite after the heat treatment of the ingot. In the case of high-alloy chromium alloys, the performance of the material is due to the presence of M7C3 carbides distributed in the iron matrix Resistance to machining and deformation is based on alloy composition and microstructure, while abrasion resistance will depend on properties and wear conditions.

  10. Obtaining P3P privacy policies for composite services.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Huang, Zhiqiu; Ke, Changbo

    2014-01-01

    With the development of web services technology, web services have changed from single to composite services. Privacy protection in composite services is becoming an important issue. P3P (platform for privacy preferences) is a privacy policy language which was designed for single web services. It enables service providers to express how they will deal with the privacy information of service consumers. In order to solve the problem that P3P cannot be applied to composite services directly, we propose a method to obtain P3P privacy policies for composite services. In this method, we present the definitions of Purpose, Recipient, and Retention elements as well as Optional and Required attributes for P3P policies of composite services. We also provide an instantiation to illustrate the feasibility of the method.

  11. Obtaining P3P Privacy Policies for Composite Services

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yi; Huang, Zhiqiu; Ke, Changbo

    2014-01-01

    With the development of web services technology, web services have changed from single to composite services. Privacy protection in composite services is becoming an important issue. P3P (platform for privacy preferences) is a privacy policy language which was designed for single web services. It enables service providers to express how they will deal with the privacy information of service consumers. In order to solve the problem that P3P cannot be applied to composite services directly, we propose a method to obtain P3P privacy policies for composite services. In this method, we present the definitions of Purpose, Recipient, and Retention elements as well as Optional and Required attributes for P3P policies of composite services. We also provide an instantiation to illustrate the feasibility of the method. PMID:25126609

  12. Antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles obtained by green synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mallmann, Eduardo José J; Cunha, Francisco Afrânio; Castro, Bruno N M F; Maciel, Auberson Martins; Menezes, Everardo Albuquerque; Fechine, Pierre Basílio Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are metal structures at the nanoscale. AgNPs have exhibited antimicrobial activities against fungi and bacteria; however synthesis of AgNPs can generate toxic waste during the reaction process. Accordingly, new routes using non-toxic compounds have been researched. The proposal of the present study was to synthesize AgNPs using ribose as a reducing agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a stabilizer. The antifungal activity of these particles against C. albicans and C. tropicalis was also evaluated. Stable nanoparticles 12.5 ± 4.9 nm (mean ± SD) in size were obtained, which showed high activity against Candida spp. and could represent an alternative for fungal infection treatment.

  13. High-resolution imagery of Uranus obtained by Stratoscope 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, R. E.; Tomasko, M. G.; Savage, B. D.

    1972-01-01

    From 17 photographs of Uranus obtained by Stratoscope 2, a composite image has been produced having a Gaussian point spread function with a half maximum intensity diameter of 0.2. No certain surface markings are visible. If there are any faint belts parallel to the rotation equator they have a maximum contrast of 5%. The measured limb darkening does not agree with either a deep Rayleigh atmosphere or with clouds high in the atmosphere; a cloud deck under a finite Rayleigh atmosphere seems to be indicated. The equatorial diameter of Uranus is measured to be 51,800 plus or minus 600 km and the ellipticity is estimated to be 0.01 plus or minus 0.01.

  14. A new method for obtaining electrocardiograms in unrestrained crocodilian reptiles.

    PubMed

    Phelps, R L; Gatten, R E; Mosberg, A T

    1992-02-01

    A new procedure is described for acquiring measurements of electrocardiographic parameters in unrestrained crocodilians. These measurements are difficult to obtain in freely moving animals; hence, electrocardiographic activity under natural conditions has not been previously quantified. In this investigation, twelve American alligators were equipped with subcutaneous electrodes. The lead wires were sutured to each animal's skin and the extracutaneous wires coiled and held in place against the animals' dorsal surfaces with waterproof elastic bandages. The electrodes were connected to an ECG analyzer only at the time of measurement. The presence of the leads and harness did not appear to interfere with the movements of the animals either in the animal room or during testing. This method allows for more precise measurements of cardiac activity under conditions which closely resemble those of crocodilians in their natural state.

  15. Neptune's wind speeds obtained by tracking clouds in Voyager images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammel, H. B.; Hansen, C. J.; Johnson, T. V.; Beebe, R. F.; De Jong, E. M.; Howell, C. D.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Limaye, S. S.; Magalhaes, J. A.; Pollack, J. B.

    1989-01-01

    Images of Neptune obtained by the narrow-angle camera of the Voyager 2 spacecraft reveal large-scale cloud features that persist for several months or longer. The features' periods of rotation about the planetary axis range from 15.8 to 18.4 hours. The atmosphere equatorward of -53 deg rotates with periods longer than the 16.05-hour period deduced from Voyager's planetary radio astronomy experiment (presumably the planet's internal rotation period). The wind speeds computed with respect to this radio period range from 20 meters per second eastward to 325 meters per second westward. Thus, the cloud-top wind speeds are roughly the same for all the planets ranging from Venus to Neptune, even though the solar energy inputs to the atmospheres vary by a factor of 1000.

  16. Viable offspring obtained from Prm1-deficient sperm in mice

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Naoki; Yoshinaga, Kazuya; Furushima, Kenryo; Takamune, Kazufumi; Li, Zhenghua; Abe, Shin-ichi; Aizawa, Shin-ichi; Yamamura, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Protamines are expressed in the spermatid nucleus and allow denser packaging of DNA compared with histones. Disruption of the coding sequence of one allele of either protamine 1 (Prm1) or Prm2 results in failure to produce offspring, although sperm with disrupted Prm1 or Prm2 alleles are produced. Here, we produced Prm1-deficient female chimeric mice carrying Prm1-deficient oocytes. These mice successfully produced Prm1+/− male mice. Healthy Prm1+/− offspring were then produced by transferring blastocysts obtained via in vitro fertilization using zona-free oocytes and sperm from Prm1+/− mice. This result suggests that sperm lacking Prm1 can generate offspring despite being abnormally shaped and having destabilised DNA, decondensed chromatin and a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential. Nevertheless, these mice showed little derangement of expression profiles. PMID:27250771

  17. Viable offspring obtained from Prm1-deficient sperm in mice.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Naoki; Yoshinaga, Kazuya; Furushima, Kenryo; Takamune, Kazufumi; Li, Zhenghua; Abe, Shin-Ichi; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Yamamura, Ken-Ichi

    2016-06-02

    Protamines are expressed in the spermatid nucleus and allow denser packaging of DNA compared with histones. Disruption of the coding sequence of one allele of either protamine 1 (Prm1) or Prm2 results in failure to produce offspring, although sperm with disrupted Prm1 or Prm2 alleles are produced. Here, we produced Prm1-deficient female chimeric mice carrying Prm1-deficient oocytes. These mice successfully produced Prm1(+/-) male mice. Healthy Prm1(+/-) offspring were then produced by transferring blastocysts obtained via in vitro fertilization using zona-free oocytes and sperm from Prm1(+/-) mice. This result suggests that sperm lacking Prm1 can generate offspring despite being abnormally shaped and having destabilised DNA, decondensed chromatin and a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential. Nevertheless, these mice showed little derangement of expression profiles.

  18. Investigation of photoelectron spectroscopy. [for obtaining branching ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of obtaining true and meaningful branching ratios from the photoelectron spectra is investigated. The problem consists of understanding the transmission of an electron energy analyzer for electrons with different energies, understanding the effects of using partially polarized radiation from different vacuum monochromators, and in understanding the effects of the angular distribution of photoelectrons ejected from different orbitals. An analysis of the degree of polarization of monochromatic radiation and of the problem of varying angular distributions led to the construction of a cylindrical mirror electron energy analyzer set at the special angle of 54 deg 44 min so that no discrimination would occur for electrons of different angular distributions. With the analyzer properly calibrated for transmission of electrons of different energies, data were taken at several wavelengths and for several atmospheric gases.

  19. Cleaning with water decomposed products obtained by laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidai, Hirofumi; Tokura, Hitoshi

    2006-11-01

    ArF excimer laser irradiation can decompose water, and decomposed products contain highly reactive substrates, such as radicals. We propose cleaning using pure water with the aid of water decomposed products obtained by ArF excimer laser irradiation. In this study, the oxidation potential of decomposed products was estimated in metal etching. Then, cleaning of cutting oil was examined. The focal point of the lens used was set at the water surface. Specimens were aligned parallel to the laser beam, so that only decomposed products affected contaminants. As a result, decomposed products could not etch nickel and copper plates, but only zinc plates. Cutting oil was cleaned after 18 000 irradiation pulses. The range of the region cleaned was 5 mm around the focal point.

  20. Single sensor processing to obtain high resolution color component signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, William E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method for generating color video signals representative of color images of a scene includes the following steps: focusing light from the scene on an electronic image sensor via a filter having a tri-color filter pattern; producing, from outputs of the sensor, first and second relatively low resolution luminance signals; producing, from outputs of the sensor, a relatively high resolution luminance signal; producing, from a ratio of the relatively high resolution luminance signal to the first relatively low resolution luminance signal, a high band luminance component signal; producing, from outputs of the sensor, relatively low resolution color component signals; and combining each of the relatively low resolution color component signals with the high band luminance component signal to obtain relatively high resolution color component signals.

  1. Derivative analysis of potentiometric titration data to obtain protonation constants

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.F.; Xia, Y.X.; Choppin, G.R.

    1996-11-15

    A methodology is described to calibrate glass electrodes and to analyze potentiometric titration data to calculate protonation constants. The analysis uses the variation of dV/dpH with titrant addition in terms of two physical parameters which involve the concentrations of H{sup +}, OH{sup -}, and H{sub m}A. The data for titration of acetic acid and 8-hydroxyquinoline in 0.10-5.0 m NaCl media are analyzed by this method to obtain the stoichiometric protonation constants of the acids, the ionization constants of water, and the parameters s and b in the pH electrode calibration equation, pcH = spH{sub m} + b, where pcH = -log[H{sup +}], pH{sub m} is the pH meter reading. 31 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Improving the quality of parameter estimates obtained from slug tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, J.J.; McElwee, C.D.; Liu, W.

    1996-01-01

    The slug test is one of the most commonly used field methods for obtaining in situ estimates of hydraulic conductivity. Despite its prevalence, this method has received criticism from many quarters in the ground-water community. This criticism emphasizes the poor quality of the estimated parameters, a condition that is primarily a product of the somewhat casual approach that is often employed in slug tests. Recently, the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) has pursued research directed it improving methods for the performance and analysis of slug tests. Based on extensive theoretical and field research, a series of guidelines have been proposed that should enable the quality of parameter estimates to be improved. The most significant of these guidelines are: (1) three or more slug tests should be performed at each well during a given test period; (2) two or more different initial displacements (Ho) should be used at each well during a test period; (3) the method used to initiate a test should enable the slug to be introduced in a near-instantaneous manner and should allow a good estimate of Ho to be obtained; (4) data-acquisition equipment that enables a large quantity of high quality data to be collected should be employed; (5) if an estimate of the storage parameter is needed, an observation well other than the test well should be employed; (6) the method chosen for analysis of the slug-test data should be appropriate for site conditions; (7) use of pre- and post-analysis plots should be an integral component of the analysis procedure, and (8) appropriate well construction parameters should be employed. Data from slug tests performed at a number of KGS field sites demonstrate the importance of these guidelines.

  3. Mars Orbital SAR: Obtaining Geologic Information from Radar Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, B.; Maxwell, T.; Freeman, A.

    2004-05-01

    Radar penetration of mantling layers, and scattering from buried objects or interfaces, is a topic of current interest in both terrestrial and planetary remote sensing. We examine the behavior of surface and sub-surface scattering interfaces, and the types of information that may be obtained from observations in different polarizations and wavelengths. These theoretical results are compared with AIRSAR and SIR-C data for terrestrial arid environments. Our results are also applied to the basic design of a Mars orbital synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system, for which we draw the following conclusions. (1) Mapping of buried geologic features is best accomplished using VV polarization, at an optimal wavelength determined by the competing effects of antenna gain, attenuation in the dust, and the reduction in effective surface roughness with wavelength. For reasonable values of dust depth and loss properties, P-band frequencies offer the best opportunity for detection of moderately rough, buried features. (2) The relative roles of surface and sub-surface scattering may be determined using measurements in HH and VV polarization, with a requisite channel gain calibration better than 0.5 dB. (3) The depth of a mantling layer (or ice mass) cannot be directly inferred from multi-wavelength observations; even for HH and VV measurements in two wavelengths, we only obtain an estimate of the combined effects of dust depth and loss tangent. Mantle or ice layer depth may be inferred from the interferometric correlation of backscatter measurements collected on suitably spaced orbital passes. While additional information may be gained by collecting scattering data in more polarizations or wavelengths, we suggest that the primary science goals of a Mars orbital radar could be accomplished by a single-wavelength, P-band system capable of collecting VV and HH polarizations with the calibration and orbit control needed to permit interferometric analysis.

  4. Whey-derived valuable products obtained by microbial fermentation.

    PubMed

    Pescuma, Micaela; de Valdez, Graciela Font; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2015-08-01

    Whey, the main by-product of the cheese industry, is considered as an important pollutant due to its high chemical and biological oxygen demand. Whey, often considered as waste, has high nutritional value and can be used to obtain value-added products, although some of them need expensive enzymatic synthesis. An economical alternative to transform whey into valuable products is through bacterial or yeast fermentations and by accumulation during algae growth. Fermentative processes can be applied either to produce individual compounds or to formulate new foods and beverages. In the first case, a considerable amount of research has been directed to obtain biofuels able to replace those derived from petrol. In addition, the possibility of replacing petrol-derived plastics by biodegradable polymers synthesized during bacterial fermentation of whey has been sought. Further, the ability of different organisms to produce metabolites commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries (i.e., lactic acid, lactobionic acid, polysaccharides, etc.) using whey as growth substrate has been studied. On the other hand, new low-cost functional whey-based foods and beverages leveraging the high nutritional quality of whey have been formulated, highlighting the health-promoting effects of fermented whey-derived products. This review aims to gather the multiple uses of whey as sustainable raw material for the production of individual compounds, foods, and beverages by microbial fermentation. This is the first work to give an overview on the microbial transformation of whey as raw material into a large repertoire of industrially relevant foods and products.

  5. Reference Crop Evapotranspiration obtained from the geostationary satellite MSG (METEOSAT).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruin, H. A. R.; Trigo, I. F.; Lorite, I. J.; Cruz-Blanco, M.; Gavilán, P.

    2012-04-01

    Among others, the scope of the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF) is to increase benefit from the EUMETSAT geostationary Satellites MSG data related to land, land-atmosphere interactions and biophysical applications. This is achieved by developing techniques, products and algorithms that will allow an effective use of MSG data, if needed, combined with data from numerical weather prediction models (e.g., ECMWF). Although directly designed to improve the observation of meteorological systems, the spectral characteristics, time resolution and area coverage offered by MSG allow for their use in a broad spectrum of other applications, for instance in agro- and hydrometeorology. This study concerns a method to determine how much water is needed for irrigation. Note that this is complementary to the actual evapotranspiration LSA SAF product. The objective of this study is to present a novel semi-empirical method to determine the Reference Crop Evapotranspiration (ET0) from the down-welling shortwave radiation and air temperature obtained through LSF SAF. ET0 is defined in the FAO Irrigation and Drainage report 56 (FAO56) and it is used to determine water requirements of agricultural crops in irrigated regions. It is evaluated with a special version of the Penman-Monteith equation (PM_FAO56) using data of a weather station installed over non-stressed grass. Such stations are expensive and very labor consuming. We developed our method for semi-arid regions where appropriate weather stations needed for FAO56 ET0 are missing. This concerns huge areas in the world. High-quality FAO-grass station near Cordoba, Spain were used, where, besides all input for PM-FAO56, independent lysimeter data are collected. In addition, it will be shown that significant errors in ET0 can occur if meteorological gathered over dry terrain will be used as input of PM-FAO56. For this purpose data sets obtained in different semi-arid regions will be analyzed.

  6. Packaging and labeling of pharmaceutical products obtained from the internet.

    PubMed

    Veronin, Michael

    2011-02-15

    For patients, the prescription container label may be the only source of instructions on how to take their medicines. In the United States, the legal requirements for a prescription label are set by federal law and state statutes. The container should be comparable to that which manufacturers use to package drug products and should preserve a product's identity, strength, quality, and purity and prevent contamination. Safety features such as a child-resistant closure should be provided. Pharmaceutical products purchased from international online pharmacies are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and may not meet US guidelines for labeling and packaging. The study objective was to determine whether commonly purchased pharmaceutical products obtained from international online pharmacies are comparable to products dispensed in the United States with regard to labeling and packaging. During March 2006 through January 2007, 41 pharmaceutical oral dosage form samples were obtained from international Internet pharmacy websites for evaluation: 18 generic simvastatin samples, 18 generic amlodipine samples, and 5 generic sildenafil samples. Contents for each package were observed and recorded and comparison of the prescription labeling and packaging of these products was made with prescription labeling and packaging requirements in the United States. Of the 41 drug products obtained from online pharmacies from 12 different countries, only 1 product (from Canada) would meet both labeling and packaging guidelines for products dispensed in the United States. Of those not meeting the requirements, 7 were dispensed in paper envelopes with label affixed that was either handwritten or typed and contained missing information such as name and address of dispenser, name of prescriber, name of patient, and directions for use. Another 3 products did not have a label affixed to the drug product, but information was printed on a paper document enclosed in the shipping

  7. Lander radioscience for obtaining the rotation and orientation of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, Veronique; Folkner, William; Renotte, Etienne; Orban, Daniel; Asmar, Sami; Balmino, Georges; Barriot, Jean-Pierre; Benoist, Jeremy; Biancale, Richard; Biele, Jens; Budnik, Frank; Burger, Stefaan; de Viron, Olivier; Häusler, Bernd; Karatekin, Özgur; Le Maistre, Sébastien; Lognonné, Philippe; Menvielle, Michel; Mitrovic, Michel; Pätzold, Martin; Rivoldini, Attilio; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Schubert, Gerald; Spohn, Tilman; Tortora, Paolo; Van Hoolst, Tim; Witasse, Olivier; Yseboodt, Marie

    2009-07-01

    The paper presents the concept, the objectives, the approach used, and the expected performances and accuracies of a radioscience experiment based on a radio link between the Earth and the surface of Mars. This experiment involves radioscience equipment installed on a lander at the surface of Mars. The experiment with the generic name lander radioscience (LaRa) consists of an X-band transponder that has been designed to obtain, over at least one Martian year, two-way Doppler measurements from the radio link between the ExoMars lander and the Earth (ExoMars is an ESA mission to Mars due to launch in 2013). These Doppler measurements will be used to obtain Mars' orientation in space and rotation (precession and nutations, and length-of-day variations). More specifically, the relative position of the lander on the surface of Mars with respect to the Earth ground stations allows reconstructing Mars' time varying orientation and rotation in space. Precession will be determined with an accuracy better by a factor of 4 (better than the 0.1% level) with respect to the present-day accuracy after only a few months at the Martian surface. This precession determination will, in turn, improve the determination of the moment of inertia of the whole planet (mantle plus core) and the radius of the core: for a specific interior composition or even for a range of possible compositions, the core radius is expected to be determined with a precision decreasing to a few tens of kilometers. A fairly precise measurement of variations in the orientation of Mars' spin axis will enable, in addition to the determination of the moment of inertia of the core, an even better determination of the size of the core via the core resonance in the nutation amplitudes. When the core is liquid, the free core nutation (FCN) resonance induces a change in the nutation amplitudes, with respect to their values for a solid planet, at the percent level in the large semi-annual prograde nutation amplitude and

  8. Packaging and Labeling of Pharmaceutical Products Obtained from the Internet

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background For patients, the prescription container label may be the only source of instructions on how to take their medicines. In the United States, the legal requirements for a prescription label are set by federal law and state statutes. The container should be comparable to that which manufacturers use to package drug products and should preserve a product’s identity, strength, quality, and purity and prevent contamination. Safety features such as a child-resistant closure should be provided. Pharmaceutical products purchased from international online pharmacies are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and may not meet US guidelines for labeling and packaging. Objective The study objective was to determine whether commonly purchased pharmaceutical products obtained from international online pharmacies are comparable to products dispensed in the United States with regard to labeling and packaging. Methods During March 2006 through January 2007, 41 pharmaceutical oral dosage form samples were obtained from international Internet pharmacy websites for evaluation: 18 generic simvastatin samples, 18 generic amlodipine samples, and 5 generic sildenafil samples. Contents for each package were observed and recorded and comparison of the prescription labeling and packaging of these products was made with prescription labeling and packaging requirements in the United States. Results Of the 41 drug products obtained from online pharmacies from 12 different countries, only 1 product (from Canada) would meet both labeling and packaging guidelines for products dispensed in the United States. Of those not meeting the requirements, 7 were dispensed in paper envelopes with label affixed that was either handwritten or typed and contained missing information such as name and address of dispenser, name of prescriber, name of patient, and directions for use. Another 3 products did not have a label affixed to the drug product, but information was printed on a

  9. Barriers to obtaining family consent for potential organ donors.

    PubMed

    Brown, Carlos V R; Foulkrod, Kelli H; Dworaczyk, Sarah; Thompson, Kit; Elliot, Eric; Cooper, Hassie; Coopwood, Ben

    2010-02-01

    Our country suffers from a chronic shortage of organ donors, and the list of individuals in desperate need of life-saving organ transplants is growing every year. Family consent represents an important limiting factor for successful donation. We hypothesize that specific barriers to obtaining family consent can be identified and improved upon to increase organ donation consent rates. The purpose of this study was to compare families who declined organ donation to those who granted consent, specifically to identify barriers to family consent for successful organ donation. We performed a 4-year (2004-2007) retrospective study of potential organ donors covered by our regional organ procurement organization (OPO). Variables collected included age, gender, race, cause of brain death (trauma vs. medical) of the potential organ donor, and elapsed time from declaration of brain death to family approach by OPO. Potential organ donors whose family declined organ donation (DECLINE group) were compared with potential organ donors whose family consented to organ donation (CONSENT group). Groups were compared using univariate and multivariate analysis. There were a total of 827 potential organ donors during the 4-year period within our OPO region. Overall, 471 families (57%) consented to organ donation, whereas 356 families (43%) declined. Although there was no difference in male gender between the DECLINE and CONSENT groups (59% vs. 53%, p = 0.12), the DECLINE group had more medical brain deaths (73% vs. 58%, p < 0.001), more potential donors aged 50 years or older (43% vs. 34%, p < 0.001), as well as more potential organ donors of Hispanic (67% vs. 43%, p < 0.001) and African American (10% vs. 4%, p < 0.001) descent. In addition, time from declaration of brain death to family approach by OPO was longer for the DECLINE group (350 minutes vs. 112 minutes, p = 0.001). Logistic regression identified race, older age, and death from a medical cause as independent risk factors for

  10. Comparison of NDVI fields obtained from different remote sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escribano Rodriguez, Juan; Alonso, Carmelo; Tarquis, Ana Maria; Benito, Rosa Maria; Hernandez Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos

    2013-04-01

    Satellite image data have become an important source of information for monitoring vegetation and mapping land cover at several scales. Beside this, the distribution and phenology of vegetation is largely associated with climate, terrain characteristics and human activity. Various vegetation indices have been developed for qualitative and quantitative assessment of vegetation using remote spectral measurements. In particular, sensors with spectral bands in the red (RED) and near-infrared (NIR) lend themselves well to vegetation monitoring and based on them [(NIR - RED) / (NIR + RED)] Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been widespread used. Given that the characteristics of spectral bands in RED and NIR vary distinctly from sensor to sensor, NDVI values based on data from different instruments will not be directly comparable. The spatial resolution also varies significantly between sensors, as well as within a given scene in the case of wide-angle and oblique sensors. As a result, NDVI values will vary according to combinations of the heterogeneity and scale of terrestrial surfaces and pixel footprint sizes. Therefore, the question arises as to the impact of differences in spectral and spatial resolutions on vegetation indices like the NDVI and their interpretation as a drought index. During 2012 three locations (at Salamanca, Granada and Córdoba) were selected and a periodic pasture monitoring and botanic composition were achieved. Daily precipitation, temperature and monthly soil water content were measurement as well as fresh and dry pasture weight. At the same time, remote sensing images were capture by DEIMOS-1 and MODIS of the chosen places. DEIMOS-1 is based on the concept Microsat-100 from Surrey. It is conceived for obtaining Earth images with a good enough resolution to study the terrestrial vegetation cover (20x20 m), although with a great range of visual field (600 km) in order to obtain those images with high temporal resolution and at a

  11. Use of autocatalytic kinetics to obtain composition of lignocellulosic materials.

    PubMed

    Barneto, Agustín García; Carmona, José Ariza; Alfonso, José E Martín; Alcaide, Luís Jiménez

    2009-09-01

    Non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data of biomasses and pulps originating from non-wood and alternatives materials (i.e., Tagasaste or rice straw) have been fitted with refined models, which include autocatalytic kinetics. Data sets were obtained for different experimental conditions, such as variations of heating rate and atmosphere, i.e., inert (pyrolysis) versus oxidative atmosphere (combustion). Besides the access to classical kinetic parameters (pre-exponential factor, activation energy, and reaction order), the improved data analysis enabled the determination of the chemical composition of the samples (cellulose, hemicellulose, extractives, lignin). The latter compared very well with those obtained by conventional methods (chemical analysis, HPLC). Given the reduced environmental impact and rapidness of the method, potential applications for research related to new biomasses and industrial processes can be foreseen. The herein implemented method is based on the assumption that samples contain pseudo-components, which independently degrade, and that combustion is the combination of an initial volatilization process (similar to pyrolysis) and a subsequent char oxidation process. Further, it was found that for a reliable modeling of the volatilization stage, extractives should be considered as well, together with the classical pseudo-components: hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The char oxidation stage has been simulated as a sum of the oxidation of three char types, one for each main pseudo-component. Importantly, fitting of TGA curves under consideration of autocatalytic kinetics allows the determination of a consistent set of kinetic parameters at different heating rates and leads to significant suppression of the compensation effect. While autocatalysis (characterized by the nucleation order) is not very significant for pyrolysis of biomasses, it can reach high levels for combustion, especially when high heating rates are used. In

  12. [Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus isolates obtained from different hosts].

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Emrah; Özkan, Bora; Mutlu, Fatih; Karaca, Serkan; Şahin, İzzet

    2017-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is a parasite that can be seen throughout the world. So far, five species of genus Echinococcus have been identified as parasite in people: E.granulosus, E.multilocularis, E.vogeli, E.oligarthrus, E.shiquicus. Larval (metacestod) form of parasite settles in internal organs of hoofed animals (cattle, goats, pigs, horses, sheep, etc.) and human; the adult form is found in small intestine of final host, canine. Disease caused by parasite called as "Cystic echinococcosis" (CE) is an important health problem and causes economic losses in many countries including our country that livestock is common. Infective eggs cause infections in intermediate hosts by taking oral way and rarely inhalation. Received egg opens in the stomach and intestines of intermediate host and oncosphere is released. Oncosphere quickly reaches the lamina propria of the villus epithelium by its histolytic enzymes and hooks. It usually transported from here to the liver and lungs, less frequently, muscle, brain, spleen, kidney and to other organs through the veins. By molecular studies, five species have been validated taxonomically and 10 different variants or strains of E.granulosus have been identified. Host and developmental differences between strains may negatively affect control studies and fight against the parasite. This study aimed to determinate E.granulosus strains obtained from cyst material of different intermediate hosts from different regions of Turkey by molecular methods. In the study, 25 human, 8 cattle, 6 sheep and 2 goat cysts material has been collected. Total genomic DNA was isolated from protoscoleces in cyst fluid and analyzed by PCR with COX-1 (L) and COX-1 (S) genes specific primers. DNA sequence analysis for each PCR product has been made. DNA sequence analysis results evaluated phylogenetically by MEGA analyze and BLAST software. As a result of this study, all isolates were identified as E.granulosus sensu stricto (G1) by DNA sequence analysis. CE

  13. Obtaining Io's internal state from in situ and remote observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurana, Krishan; Keszthelyi, Laszlo; Jia, Xianzhe; McEwen, Alfred

    2016-04-01

    Based on sound theoretical arguments, Io has long been suspected of harboring a magma ocean in its interior. The extremely high temperature of the lava erupting on Io's surface indeed hint at an extremely hot interior consistent with an internal magma ocean. However, the only direct evidence for a melt layer in Io's interior has been provided by Khurana et al. (2011), who used Jupiter's rotating magnetic field as an electromagnetic induction signal. They have shown that a strong dipolar field is present in Galileo magnetometer data, which is consistent with electromagnetic induction from large amounts of rock-melts in Io's interior. Modeling of this signature showed that the induction response from a completely solid mantle model is inadequate to explain the magnetometer observations. However, they found that a layer of asthenosphere > 50 km in thickness with a rock melt fraction ≥ 20% is adequate to accurately model the observed magnetic field. In this presentation, we first provide a progress report on our effort to marry the principles of thermodynamics with those of electromagnetism to further constrain the temperature profile inside Io. The constraints on the mineralogy, temperature and melt state of Io are being obtained from MELTS a modeling program that utilizes thermodynamic principles to calculate the chemical variations in the assemblages of minerals and melts as a function of pressure, temperature and oxygen fugacity. Electromagnetic induction response is calculated by solving the induction equation numerically for several different models of the interior and tested for their agreement with the Galileo magnetometer data. Next, we explore how future in situ and remote observations could be used to characterize Io's interior using multi-frequency electromagnetic induction and auroral observations. We show that the lithospheric thickness can be obtained from induction response at the Jovian synodic period while information on the magma ocean thickness

  14. Silicon distribution on the lunar surface obtained by Kaguya GRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja; Kobayashi, Masanori; Elphic, Richard; Karouji, Yuzuru; Hamara, Dave; Kobayashi, Shingo; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Rodriguez, Alexis; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Reedy, Robert; Hasebe, Nobuyuki

    Gamma ray spectrometry (GRS) provides a powerful tool to map and characterize the elemental composition of the upper tens centimeters of solid planetary surfaces. Elemental maps generated by the Kaguya GRS (KGRS) include natural radioactive as well as major elements maps (e.g., Fe, Ca, and Ti). Analysis of the Si gamma ray has been investigated using the 4934 keV Si peak produced by the thermal neutron interaction (28) Si(n,gammag) (29) Si, generated during the interaction of galactic cosmic rays and surface material containing Si. The emission rate of gamma rays is directly proportional to the abundance of Si from the lunar surface; however, it is also affected by the thermal neutron density in the lunar surface. Thus, we corrected the Si GRS data by a low energy neutron data (< 0.1 eV) obtained by Lunar Prospector because the Kaguya orbiter did not carry a neutron detector. We used the relative change in thermal neutron flux as a function of topography measured by Lunar Prospector. Normalization of Si elemental abundance using the Kaguya data was accomplished using Apollo 11, 12, 16, and 17 archive data. The normalized Si elemental abundance of the Kaguya GRS data ranged from about 15 to 27% Si. The lowest and highest SiO _{2} abundance correspond to mineral groups like pyroxene group (PKT region) and feldspar group (Northern highlands), respectively. The Si abundance permits the quantification of the relative abundance and distribution of mafic or non-mafic lunar surfaces materials. Our KGRS data analysis shows that highland terrains are Si-enriched relative to lower basins and plains regions, which appear to consist of primarily of mafic rocks. Our elemental map of Si using Kaguya GRS data shows that the highland areas of both near side and far side of the Moon have higher abundance of Si, and the mare regions of the near side of the Moon have the lowest Si abundance on the Moon. Our study clearly shows that there are a number of Si enriched areas compared to

  15. [Detection of genetically modified organisms obtained from food samples ].

    PubMed

    Monma, Kimio; Araki, Rie; Ichikawa, Hisatsugu; Sato, Masaki; Uno, Naomichi; Sato, Kazue; Tobe, Takashi; Kuribara, Hideo; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Hino, Akihiro; Saito, Kazuo

    2004-08-01

    Genetially modified organisms (GMOs) were explored in food samples obtained from November 2000 to March 2003 in the Tokyo area by using PCR and real-time PCR techniques. The existence of Roundup Ready Soybean (RRS) was surveyed in processed foods derived from soybeans, such as tofu, boiled soybean, kinako, nama-age, abura-age, natto, miso, soymilk and yuba. RRS was detected in 3 of 37 tofu, 2 of 3 nama-age, 2 of 3 yuba and 3 of 3 abura-age samples. The CBH351 in 70 processed corn foods, NewLeaf Plus and NewLeaf Y in 50 processed potato foods, and 55-1 papaya in 16 papayas were surveyed. These GMOs were not detected among the samples. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of RRS and genetically modified (GM) corn were performed in soybean, corn and semi-processed corn products such as corn meal, corn flour and corn grits. RRS was detected in 42 of 178 soybean samples, and the amount of RRS in RRS-positive samples was determined. The content was in the range of 0.1-1.4% in identity-preserved soybeans (non-GMO), and 49.8-78.8% in non-segregated soybeans. On the other hand, GM corns were detected in 8 of 26 samples. The amount of GM corn in GM corn-positive samples was in the range of 0.1-2.0%.

  16. Characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films obtained from rice husk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, K. C.; Mukherjee, D.; Biswas, A. K.; Acharya, H. N.

    1991-08-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon ( a-Si: H) films were prepared by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of silanes generated by the acid hydrolysis of magnesium silicide (Mg 2Si) obtained from rice husk. The films were deposited at various substrate temperatures ( Ts) ranging from 430 to 520°C. The results show that the films have room temperature (294 K) dark conductivity (σ d) of the order of 10 -8 - 10 -10 (ohm-cm) -1 with single activation energy (Δ Ed) and the photoconductivity (σ ph) decreases with increase of Ts. Optical band gap ( Eopt) lies between 1.60-1.73 eV and hydrogen content ( CH) in the films is at best 8.3 at %. Au/ a-Si: H junction shows that it acts as a rectifier contact with Schottky barrier height ( VB) 0.69 eV. The films are contaminated by traces of impurities like Na, K, Al, Cl and O as revealed by secondary ion mass spectrometric (SIMS) analysis.

  17. Water-soluble adjuvant obtained from Bacterionema matruchotii.

    PubMed Central

    Nitta, T; Okumura, S; Tanabe, M J; Nakano, M

    1978-01-01

    The adjuvant effect of a butanol-extracted water-soluble adjuvant (bu-WSA) obtained from Bacterionemia matruchotii, a gram-positive oral bacteria, was studied on the antibody response at the plaque-forming cell (PFC) level in murine spleens. Intraperitoneal injection of Bu-WSA caused significant increase in direct PFC numbers in spleens 1 to 3 days after the antigenic stimulation with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC). Injection of 100 to 800 microgram of Bu-WSA was effective, and 400 microgram of Bu-WSA seemed to be the optimum for induction of the adjuvant effect. The adjuvant effect was strongest when Bu-WSA was injected at the same time as the SRBC, but some effect was still observed when Bu-WSA was injected 7 days before or 1 day after the immunization. The adjuvant effect of Bu-WSA was greatest at high dose of antigen. The mice injected with Bu-WSA at the time of priming SRBC and then immunized with trinitrophenylated SRBC showed greater anti-trinitrophenyl PFC response than controls without the injection of Bu-WSA. These findings suggest that a part of the adjuvant effect of Bu-WSA depends on thymic cell function and another part does not. PMID:352955

  18. Manganese removal in saturated gravel beds: Obtaining design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sikora, F.J.; Brodie, G.A.; Behrends, L.L.

    1996-12-31

    Manganese is difficult to remove in passive wetland systems due to high pH requirements for rapid Mn oxidation and solubilization of MnO{sub 2} in the presence of Fe. To achieve Mn removal below the federal requirement of 2 mg/L, gravel beds placed after wetlands that remove Fe has been proposed. Although some data is available on gravel beds, not enough is available to recommend design parameters for these systems under a range of operating conditions. A study is being conducted to obtain information on the required Mn loading rates and retention times for adequate Mn removal at the TVA constructed wetland research facility. Treatments consist of two Mn loading rates of 1.4 and 3.7 g/m{sup 2}/d and two types of gravel, namely limestone and river gravel. The treatments are replicated 3 times resulting in 12 experimental units. After 3 months of operation, limestone is proving to be more effective at removing Mn than river gravel. Compilation of operating parameters for Mn removal in gravel beds will benefit power utility and surface mining industries by yielding information on a passive system that is inexpensive relative to caustic alkaline drip.

  19. Column Chromatography To Obtain Organic Cation Sorption Isotherms.

    PubMed

    Jolin, William C; Sullivan, James; Vasudevan, Dharni; MacKay, Allison A

    2016-08-02

    Column chromatography was evaluated as a method to obtain organic cation sorption isotherms for environmental solids while using the peak skewness to identify the linear range of the sorption isotherm. Custom packed HPLC columns and standard batch sorption techniques were used to intercompare sorption isotherms and solid-water sorption coefficients (Kd) for four organic cations (benzylamine, 2,4-dichlorobenzylamine, phenyltrimethylammonium, oxytetracycline) with two aluminosilicate clay minerals and one soil. A comparison of Freundlich isotherm parameters revealed isotherm linearity or nonlinearity was not significantly different between column chromatography and traditional batch experiments. Importantly, skewness (a metric of eluting peak symmetry) analysis of eluting peaks can establish isotherm linearity, thereby enabling a less labor intensive means to generate the extensive data sets of linear Kd values required for the development of predictive sorption models. Our findings clearly show that column chromatography can reproduce sorption measures from conventional batch experiments with the benefit of lower labor-intensity, faster analysis times, and allow for consistent sorption measures across laboratories with distinct chromatography instrumentation.

  20. Comparative study of aerogels obtained from differently prepared nanocellulose fibers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenshuai; Li, Qing; Wang, Youcheng; Yi, Xin; Zeng, Jie; Yu, Haipeng; Liu, Yixing; Li, Jian

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the fabrication of nanocellulose fibers (NCFs) with different morphologies and surface properties from biomass resources as well as their self-aggregation into lightweight aerogels. By carefully modulating the nanofibrillation process, four types of NCFs could be readily fabricated, including long aggregated nanofiber bundles, long individualized nanofibers with surface C6 -carboxylate groups, short aggregated nanofibers, and short individualized nanofibers with surface sulfate groups. Free-standing lightweight aerogels were obtained from the corresponding aqueous NCF suspensions through freeze-drying. The structure of the aerogels could be controlled by manipulating the type of NCFs and the concentration of their suspensions. A possible mechanism for the self-aggregation of NCFs into two- or three-dimensional aerogel nanostructures was further proposed. Owing to web-like structure, high porosity, and high surface reactivity, the NCF aerogels exhibited high mechanical flexibility and ductility, and excellent properties for water uptake, removal of dye pollutants, and the use as thermal insulation materials. The aerogels also displayed sound-adsorption capability at high frequencies. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Inflated Sporopollenin Exine Capsules Obtained from Thin-Walled Pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Jackman, Joshua A.; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-06-01

    Sporopollenin is a physically robust and chemically resilient biopolymer that comprises the outermost layer of pollen walls and is the first line of defense against harsh environmental conditions. The unique physicochemical properties of sporopollenin increasingly motivate the extraction of sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) from pollen walls as a renewable source of organic microcapsules for encapsulation applications. Despite the wide range of different pollen species with varying sizes and wall thicknesses, faithful extraction of pollen-mimetic SECs has been limited to thick-walled pollen capsules with rigid mechanical properties. There is an unmet need to develop methods for producing SECs from thin-walled pollen capsules which constitute a large fraction of all pollen species and have attractive materials properties such as greater aerosol dispersion. Herein, we report the first successful extraction of inflated SEC microcapsules from a thin-walled pollen species (Zea mays), thereby overcoming traditional challenges with mechanical stability and loss of microstructure. Morphological and compositional characterization of the SECs obtained by the newly developed extraction protocol confirms successful protein removal along with preservation of nanoscale architectural features. Looking forward, there is excellent potential to apply similar strategies across a wide range of unexplored thin-walled pollen species.

  2. Inflated Sporopollenin Exine Capsules Obtained from Thin-Walled Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Jackman, Joshua A.; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Sporopollenin is a physically robust and chemically resilient biopolymer that comprises the outermost layer of pollen walls and is the first line of defense against harsh environmental conditions. The unique physicochemical properties of sporopollenin increasingly motivate the extraction of sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) from pollen walls as a renewable source of organic microcapsules for encapsulation applications. Despite the wide range of different pollen species with varying sizes and wall thicknesses, faithful extraction of pollen-mimetic SECs has been limited to thick-walled pollen capsules with rigid mechanical properties. There is an unmet need to develop methods for producing SECs from thin-walled pollen capsules which constitute a large fraction of all pollen species and have attractive materials properties such as greater aerosol dispersion. Herein, we report the first successful extraction of inflated SEC microcapsules from a thin-walled pollen species (Zea mays), thereby overcoming traditional challenges with mechanical stability and loss of microstructure. Morphological and compositional characterization of the SECs obtained by the newly developed extraction protocol confirms successful protein removal along with preservation of nanoscale architectural features. Looking forward, there is excellent potential to apply similar strategies across a wide range of unexplored thin-walled pollen species. PMID:27302853

  3. Chickpea protein isolates obtained by wet extraction as emulsifying agents.

    PubMed

    Papalamprou, Evdoxia M; Doxastakis, Georgios I; Kiosseoglou, Vassilios

    2010-01-30

    Wet extraction of protein from defatted chickpea (variety Thiva (T), Greece) flour, at alkaline or slightly acidic pH, followed by isoelectric precipitation (pI) or ultrafiltration (UF) to recover the protein, was employed to obtain a number of chickpea protein isolates, enriched either in protein constituents belonging to the globulin (TpI, TUF, TUFG) or to the albumin fraction (TUFA). The interfacial activity and film-forming ability of the isolate protein constituents as well as their emulsifying properties were evaluated. The method applied for chickpea protein isolate preparation influenced to an appreciable extent their composition, adsorption behaviour to oil-water interfaces and emulsion formation and stabilization characteristics, especially with respect to oil droplet flocculation and coalescence. The isolates also differed in their ability to stabilize emulsions subjected to thermal processing or following storage under freezing conditions. The results are discussed in terms of compositional and, possibly, structural differences existing between the protein constituents of the chickpea isolates that may influence their functional behaviour in emulsion systems. The method applied for isolate preparation influenced to an appreciable extent the ability of proteins to adsorb to the oil-water interface and stabilize emulsions during long-time ageing or following heat treatment or freezing. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Obtaining Magnetic Properties of Meteorites Using Magnetic Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kletetschka, G.; Nabelek, L.; Mazanec, M.; Simon, K.; Hruba, J.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic images of Murchison meteorite's and Chelyabinsk meteorite's thin section have been obtained from magnetic scanning system from Youngwood Science and Engineering (YSE) capable of resolving magnetic anomalies down to 10-3 mT range from about 0.3 mm distance between the probe and meteorite surface (resolution about 0.15 mm). Anomalies were produced repeatedly, each time after application of magnetic field pulse of varying amplitude and constant, normal or reversed, direction. This process resulted in both magnetizing and demagnetizing of the meteorite thin section, while keeping the magnetization vector in the plane of the thin section. Analysis of the magnetic data allows determination of coercivity of remanence (Bcr) for the magnetic sources in situ. Value of Bcr is critical for calculating magnetic forces applicable during missions to asteroids where gravity is compromised. Bcr was estimated by two methods. First method measured varying dipole magnetic field strength produced by each anomaly in the direction of magnetic pulses. Second method measured deflections of the dipole direction from the direction of magnetic pulses (Nabelek et al., 2015). Nabelek, L., Mazanec, M., Kdyr, S., and Kletetschka, G., 2015, Magnetic, in situ, mineral characterization of Chelyabinsk meteorite thin section: Meteoritics & Planetary Science.

  5. Obtaining Remote-Sensing Reflectance from Multiple Instrument Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Scott A.; Proctor, Christopher W.; Werdell, P. Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Obtaining accurate in situ measurements of Apparent Optical Properties (AOPs) is critical to maintaining satellite data quality. One approach to ensure accuracy is to deploy several independent instruments to measure the same phenomenon. During a cruise in June 2012, off the lee coast of the island of Hawaii, repeated profiles were made with two separate radiometric systems, one from Satlantic, Inc. (Hyperpro) and the other from Biospherical Instruments, Inc. (C-Ops). The C-Ops is multispectral, while the Hyperpro is hyperspectral. Both measure above-water solar irradiance (E(sub s)), downwelling in-water irradiance (E(sub d)), and upwelling in-water radiance (L(sub u)). From these measurements remotely-sensed reflectance (R(sub rs))can be calculated and compared with satellite data. All instruments were calibrated shortly before use, and while differences are to be expected due to temporal changes and spectral weighting differences, these should be consistent and minimal. We explore these differences, and compare to data retrieved from the NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer onboard Aqua (MODIS Aqua) when available. We also examine data collection and processing protocols for these systems.

  6. OBTAINING POTENTIAL FIELD SOLUTIONS WITH SPHERICAL HARMONICS AND FINITE DIFFERENCES

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, Gabor; Van der Holst, Bart; Huang Zhenguang

    2011-05-10

    Potential magnetic field solutions can be obtained based on the synoptic magnetograms of the Sun. Traditionally, a spherical harmonics decomposition of the magnetogram is used to construct the current- and divergence-free magnetic field solution. This method works reasonably well when the order of spherical harmonics is limited to be small relative to the resolution of the magnetogram, although some artifacts, such as ringing, can arise around sharp features. When the number of spherical harmonics is increased, however, using the raw magnetogram data given on a grid that is uniform in the sine of the latitude coordinate can result in inaccurate and unreliable results, especially in the polar regions close to the Sun. We discuss here two approaches that can mitigate or completely avoid these problems: (1) remeshing the magnetogram onto a grid with uniform resolution in latitude and limiting the highest order of the spherical harmonics to the anti-alias limit; (2) using an iterative finite difference algorithm to solve for the potential field. The naive and the improved numerical solutions are compared for actual magnetograms and the differences are found to be rather dramatic. We made our new Finite Difference Iterative Potential-field Solver (FDIPS) a publicly available code so that other researchers can also use it as an alternative to the spherical harmonics approach.

  7. Histopathology of Veins Obtained at Hemodialysis Arteriovenous Fistula Creation Surgery.

    PubMed

    Alpers, Charles E; Imrey, Peter B; Hudkins, Kelly L; Wietecha, Tomasz A; Radeva, Milena; Allon, Michael; Cheung, Alfred K; Dember, Laura M; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir; Shiu, Yan-Ting; Terry, Christi M; Farber, Alik; Beck, Gerald J; Feldman, Harold I; Kusek, John W; Himmelfarb, Jonathan

    2017-07-19

    Stenosis from venous neointimal hyperplasia is common in native arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs). However, the preexisting histologic characteristics of veins at fistula creation, and associations thereof with baseline patient factors, have not been well characterized. In this study, we conducted histologic analysis of a segment of the vein used for anastomosis creation, obtained during AVF creation from 554 of the 602 participants in the multicenter Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation Cohort Study. We quantified intimal and medial areas and lengths of the internal and external elastic lamina by morphometry and assessed venous wall cells by immunohistochemistry, extracellular matrix with Movat stain, and calcium deposition by alizarin red stain. We also studied a representative subset of veins for markers of monocyte/macrophage content, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and neoangiogenesis. Neointima occupied >20% of the lumen in 57% of fully circumferential vein samples, and neointimal hyperplasia associated positively with age and inversely with black race. The neointima was usually irregularly thickened, sometimes concentric, and contained α-smooth muscle actin-expressing cells of smooth muscle or myofibroblast origin. Proteoglycans admixed with lesser amounts of collagen constituted the predominant matrix in the neointima. In 82% of vein samples, the media of vessel walls contained large aggregates of collagen. A minority of veins expressed markers of inflammation, cell proliferation, cell death, calcification, or neoangiogenesis. In conclusion, we observed preexisting abnormalities, including neointimal hyperplasia and prominent accumulation of extracellular matrix, in veins used for AVF creation from a substantial proportion of this cohort. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  8. The Data Evaluation for Obtaining Accuracy and Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Geun; Chae, Kyun Shik; Lee, Sang Tae; Bhang, Gun Woong

    2012-11-01

    Nemours scientific measurement results are flooded from the paper, data book, etc. as fast growing of internet. We meet many different measurement results on the same measurand. In this moment, we are face to choose most reliable one out of them. But it is not easy to choose and use the accurate and reliable data as we do at an ice cream parlor. Even expert users feel difficult to distinguish the accurate and reliable scientific data from huge amount of measurement results. For this reason, the data evaluation is getting more important as the fast growing of internet and globalization. Furthermore the expressions of measurement results are not in standardi-zation. As these need, the international movement has been enhanced. At the first step, the global harmonization of terminology used in metrology and the expression of uncertainty in measurement were published in ISO. These methods are wide spread to many area of science on their measurement to obtain the accuracy and reliability. In this paper, it is introduced that the GUM, SRD and data evaluation on atomic collisions.

  9. [Obtaining transgenic rice plants and their progenies using Agrobacterium tumefaciens].

    PubMed

    Yin, Z C; Yang, F; Xu, Y; Li, B J

    1998-12-01

    Rice (Oriza sativa L.) suspension cells of Taipei 309 were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens stran EHA101 harbouring binary vector pBYT2 for 3 days in the presence of vir inducer, 100 mumol/L acetosyringone (AS). After 2 months of continuous selection, 17 stable hygromycin-resistant, GUS-positive calli were recovered from 364 suspension cell clusters co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens. 10 putative transgenic R0 plants obtained from 8 tansformed calli and their progenies were analyzed for the integration and expression of foreign genes. Southern blot analysis of R0 and R1 generations indicated that foreign genes had been stably integrated in the genome of transgenic rice and sexually transmitted. One of the transgenic lines showed 5 copies of T-DNA integration, while the others had only one copy. Histochemical staining observation and fluorometric assay of GUS activity in transgenic rice cells and plants showed ubiquitin promoter from maize was highly effective in driving the expression of gus reporter gene in transgenic rice cells. GUS protein and its activity were also investigated through ndPAGE-X-Gluc staining assay, and it was found that the GUS protein in transgenic rice cells was smaller in size than the standard GUS protein (Sigma Co. G0786) but as large as that from E.coli HB101 (pBI121). This study suggested that Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of plant is an efficient and reliable method to introduce foreign genes into rice.

  10. A thermodynamic approach to obtain materials properties for engineering applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Y. Austin

    1993-01-01

    With the ever increases in the capabilities of computers for numerical computations, we are on the verge of using these tools to model manufacturing processes for improving the efficiency of these processes as well as the quality of the products. One such process is casting for the production of metals. However, in order to model metal casting processes in a meaningful way it is essential to have the basic properties of these materials in their molten state, solid state as well as in the mixed state of solid and liquid. Some of the properties needed may be considered as intrinsic such as the density, heat capacity or enthalpy of freezing of a pure metal, while others are not. For instance, the enthalpy of solidification of an alloy is not a defined thermodynamic quantity. Its value depends on the micro-segregation of the phases during the course of solidification. The objective of the present study is to present a thermodynamic approach to obtain some of the intrinsic properties and combining thermodynamics with kinetic models to estimate such quantities as the enthalpy of solidification of an alloy.

  11. Sensory thresholds obtained from MEG data: cortical psychometric functions.

    PubMed

    Witton, C; Patel, T; Furlong, P L; Henning, G B; Worthen, S F; Talcott, J B

    2012-11-15

    Sensory sensitivity is typically measured using behavioural techniques (psychophysics), which rely on observers responding to very large numbers of stimulus presentations. Psychophysics can be problematic when working with special populations, such as children or clinical patients who may lack the compliance or cognitive skills to perform the behavioural tasks. We used an auditory gap-detection paradigm to develop an accurate measure of sensory threshold derived from passively-recorded magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data. Auditory evoked responses were elicited by silent gaps of varying durations in an on-going noise stimulus. Source modelling was used to spatially filter the MEG data and sigmoidal 'cortical psychometric functions' relating response amplitude to gap duration were obtained for each individual participant. Fitting the functions with a curve and estimating the gap duration at which the amplitude of the evoked response exceeded one standard deviation of the prestimulus brain activity provided an excellent prediction of psychophysical threshold. Accurate sensory thresholds can therefore be reliably extracted from MEG data recorded while participants listen passively to a stimulus. Because our paradigm required no behavioural task, the method is suitable for studies of populations where variations in cognitive skills or vigilance make traditional psychophysics unsuitable.

  12. The role of testing realism on experimentally obtained stereotype strength.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Errol R; Whitfield, Richard C

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown (Hoffmann 2009) that pencil-and-paper tests, when used to determine stereotype strength, may yield data quite different to that obtained from hardware tests. The purpose of this research was to determine the level of realism required in order to have stereotypes that are consistent with real-world values. It is surprising that there does not appear to be any published research addressing this problem; all previous researches have considered either paper/pencil or hardware tests or sometimes both, but no level of simulation in between these techniques. In order to determine the effect of level of testing realism, a specific example was chosen to test, that of water tap operation stereotypes. Tests used verbal questioning, photographs of tap arrangements, a partial hardware arrangement and finally a full hardware setup. The results of these four levels of realism were very different and illustrated that, only with a full realistic simulation, did participants respond as might be expected in a real-world environment, illustrating the importance of testing realism when determining population stereotypes. This result has strong implications for product designers when selecting appropriate layouts of displays and controls and the linkages relating these.

  13. New space value of the solar oblateness obtained with PICARD

    SciTech Connect

    Irbah, Abdanour; Meftah, Mustapha; Hauchecorne, Alain; Bocquier, Maxime; Cisse, E. Momar; Djafer, Djelloul; Corbard, Thierry

    2014-04-20

    The PICARD spacecraft was launched on 2010 June 15 with the scientific objective of studying the geometry of the Sun. It is difficult to measure solar oblateness because images are affected by optical distortion. Rolling the satellite, as done in previous space missions, determines the contribution of the telescope by assuming that the geometry of the Sun is constant during the observations. The optical response of the telescope is considered to be time-invariant during the roll operations. This is not the case for PICARD because an orbital signature is clearly observed in the solar radius computed from its images. We take this effect into account and provide the new space value of solar oblateness from PICARD images recorded in the solar continuum at 535.7 nm on 2011 July 4-5. The equator-pole radius difference is 8.4 ± 0.5 mas, which corresponds to an absolute radius difference of 6.1 km. This coincides with the mean value of all solar oblateness measurements obtained during the last two decades from the ground, balloons, and space. It is also consistent with values determined from models using helioseismology data.

  14. Quantitative Comparison of Tandem Mass Spectra Obtained on Various Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazsó, Fanni Laura; Ozohanics, Oliver; Schlosser, Gitta; Ludányi, Krisztina; Vékey, Károly; Drahos, László

    2016-08-01

    The similarity between two tandem mass spectra, which were measured on different instruments, was compared quantitatively using the similarity index (SI), defined as the dot product of the square root of peak intensities in the respective spectra. This function was found to be useful for comparing energy-dependent tandem mass spectra obtained on various instruments. Spectral comparisons show the similarity index in a 2D "heat map", indicating which collision energy combinations result in similar spectra, and how good this agreement is. The results and methodology can be used in the pharma industry to design experiments and equipment well suited for good reproducibility. We suggest that to get good long-term reproducibility, it is best to adjust the collision energy to yield a spectrum very similar to a reference spectrum. It is likely to yield better results than using the same tuning file, which, for example, does not take into account that contamination of the ion source due to extended use may influence instrument tuning. The methodology may be used to characterize energy dependence on various instrument types, to optimize instrumentation, and to study the influence or correlation between various experimental parameters.

  15. Computer Program to Obtain Ordinates for NACA Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladson, Charles L.; Brooks, Cuyler W., Jr.; Hill, Acquilla S.; Sproles, Darrell W.

    1996-01-01

    Computer programs to produce the ordinates for airfoils of any thickness, thickness distribution, or camber in the NACA airfoil series were developed in the early 1970's and are published as NASA TM X-3069 and TM X-3284. For analytic airfoils, the ordinates are exact. For the 6-series and all but the leading edge of the 6A-series airfoils, agreement between the ordinates obtained from the program and previously published ordinates is generally within 5 x 10(exp -5) chord. Since the publication of these programs, the use of personal computers and individual workstations has proliferated. This report describes a computer program that combines the capabilities of the previously published versions. This program is written in ANSI FORTRAN 77 and can be compiled to run on DOS, UNIX, and VMS based personal computers and workstations as well as mainframes. An effort was made to make all inputs to the program as simple as possible to use and to lead the user through the process by means of a menu.

  16. [Obtaining monoclonal antibodies against outer membrane glycoproteins of Entamoeba histolytica].

    PubMed

    Agundis, C; Isibasi, A; Ortíz, V; Reyes, J L; Paniagua, J; Ramírez, A; Kumate, J

    1990-01-01

    The goal of this paper was the production of monoclonal antibodies capable of detecting relevant antigens from the surface of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites, with the purpose of using them as a diagnostic test. The cellular fusion for obtaining the monoclonal antibodies (mAb) was done with spleen cells from BALB/c mice, previously immunized with glycoproteins from the membrane, as well as Sp2/0 cells. The hybridoma supernatants were tested with ELISA, using glycoproteins and lipopeptide phosphoglycans (LPPG) as antigens. Seven hybridomas producing mAb against the glycoproteins were found. Among these, three recognize LPPG. The ability of reacting with the mAb against two molecules disappeared for all the LPPG positive ones when were treated with meta-periodate, and only three reacted against the glycoproteins. All of the mAb were of the Ig M isotypes. They were characterized by Dot blot and Western blot assays. From the results, one may deduce that some mAb recognize as epitopes the polysaccharide portion, and thus infer that they are directed of against the surface and therefore, in the future, could be used with a diagnostic purpose.

  17. Obtaining meteorological data from historical newspapers: La Integridad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-González, Ignacio A.; Añel, Juan A.; Saenz, Guadalupe; Gimeno, Luis; de la Torre, Laura; Polychroniadou, Eleni; Vidal-Mina, Renán

    2017-04-01

    The meteorological data recovery from old documentary sources is of huge significance for meteorological and weather research of our planet. In this work we present the meteorological series from the end of XIX century and the beginning of the XX at the A Guarda's Observatory, pioneer in Galicia in this kind of measurements and located in that time at "Colexio Xesuita Apóstol Santiago". The data series was obtained from meteorological notes of the catholic newspaper "La Integridad" published in that dates in Tui(Galicia). It was revised in total for this study more than 1000 newspapers from this publication and it was manually retrieved about 60000 individual measurements. Recovered variables include temperature, pressure, wind, relative humidity, vapor pressure, evaporation, precipitation and overview weather observations. This enables us to get a general picture of weather for this period of time in the studied region, to validate and to complete others independent data sources and study climate change. Also we prove the reliability of meteorological forecasts published from time to time in the same journal using sea level pressure fields from historical datasets provided by the MetOffice.

  18. Magnetic biocatalysts and their uses to obtain bioproducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Carmen; Cruz-Izquierdo, Álvaro; Picó, Enrique; García-Bárcena, Teresa; Villarroel, Noelia; Llama, María; Serra, Juan

    2014-08-01

    Nanobiocatalysis, as the synergistic combination of nanotechnology and biocatalysis, is rapidly emerging as a new frontier of biotechnology. The use of immobilized enzymes in industrial applications often presents advantages over their soluble counterparts, mainly in view of stability, reusability and simpler operational processing. Because of their singular properties, such as biocompatibility, large and modifiable surface and easy recovery, iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are attractive super-paramagnetic materials that serve as a support for enzyme immobilization and facilitate separations by applying an external magnetic field. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) have several benefits in the context of industrial applications since they can be cheaply and easily prepared from unpurified enzyme extracts and show improved storage and operational stability against denaturation by heat and organic solvents. In this work, by using the aforementioned advantages of MNPs of magnetite and CLEAs, we prepared two robust magnetically-separable types of nanobiocatalysts by binding either soluble enzyme onto the surface of MNPs functionalized with amino groups or by cross-linking aggregates of enzyme among them and to MNPs to obtain magnetic CLEAs. For this purpose the lipase B of Candida antarctica (CALB) was used. The hydrolytic and biosynthetic activities of the resulting magnetic nanobiocatalysts were assessed in aqueous and organic media and compared between them and to those showed by the corresponding soluble enzyme. Thus, the hydrolysis of triglycerides or the transesterification reactions to synthesize biodiesel and biosurfactants were studied using magnetic CLEAs of CALB.

  19. Making Connections: New Orleans Evacuees’ Experiences in Obtaining Drugs1

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Eloise; Johnson, Bruce D.; Kotarba, Joseph; Fackler, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Between August 29 and September 7, 2005, almost all New Orleans residents were evacuated from the area in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. News reports indicate that almost 130,000 New Orleans Evacuees (NOEs) were evacuated to Houston, Texas, the largest recipient of the civilian population from New Orleans. Many of these NOEs were active participants in the illicit drug market in New Orleans prior to the hurricane. Their displacement to Houston and other locations provided a unique opportunity to study what occurs when illicit drug markets are disrupted. The period between the flooding and nearly complete evacuation of New Orleans provided a unique opportunity to systematically learn about the disruption of illicit drug markets since populations of illicit drug users and purchasers could no longer routinely obtain their drugs in predictable ways. Utilizing qualitative data from in-depth interviews and focus groups, this article describes the ways NOEs (1) managed their drug acquisition and use following evacuation; (2) located new sources of drugs in Houston and elsewhere by tapping into shared drug culture; and (3) gained access to and learned the argot for drugs in the local drug market in new settings. This report contributes to the nascent literature on disrupted drug markets. PMID:19999675

  20. Rice straw pulp obtained by using various methods.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Moral, Ana; Serrano, Luis; Labidi, Jalel; Jiménez, Luis

    2008-05-01

    Rice straw was used as an alternative raw material to obtain cellulosics pulps. Pulping was done by using classics reagents as soda (with anthraquinone and parabenzoquinone as aditives), potassium hydroxide and Kraft process. The holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin contents of rice straw (viz. 60.7, 41.2 and 21.9 wt%, respectively) are similar to those of some woody raw materials such as pine and eucalyptus, and various non-wood materials including olive tree prunings, wheat straw and sunflower stalks. Pulping tests were conducted by using soda, soda and anthraquinone at 1 wt%, soda and parabenzoquinone at 1 wt%, potassium hydroxide and sodium sulphate (Kraft process) under two different sets of operating conditions, namely: (a) a 10 wt% reagent concentration, 170 degrees C and 60 min; and (b) 15 wt% reagent, 180 degrees C and 90 min. The solid/liquid ratio was 6 in both cases. Paper sheets made from pulp extracted by cooking with soda (15 wt%) and AQ (1 wt%) at 180 degrees C and 90 min pulp exhibit the best drainage index, breaking length, stretch and burst index (viz. 23 degrees SR, 3494 m, 3.34% and 2.51 kN/g, respectively).

  1. [Obtainment of pineapple juice powder by foam-mat drying].

    PubMed

    Beristain, C I; Cortés, R; Casillas, M A; Díaz, R

    1991-06-01

    The foam-mat production and stability using pineapple juice concentrate (25, 30 and 40 degrees Brix), adding a surfactants mixture and maltodextrin (DE 10) as co-adjuvant, stirred in a commercial mixer, was studied. Adequate foam formation conditions were as follows: concentrate of 25 degrees Brix using surface active agents (Sorbac 60-Polisorbac 80) 0.285% surface active agent/total solids, HLB = 6, and stirring time, 7 min. The foam was dehydrated in an oven dried with a horizontal air flow circulation set at 60, 70 and 80 degrees C using 3, 5 and 10 mm bed depths. The best conditions were obtained at 60 degrees C and 5 mm bed depth. The product had a particle size of sieve 40-80, and a moisture content of 3%. It was then packaged in multilayer plastic film and stored at environmental conditions. No brown color formation or mold growth was detected during storage. Pineapple juice and a refreshing drink were prepared. The general acceptability in a community indicated that 95% of the population involved accepted the product.

  2. Thymidine kinase mutants obtained by random sequence selection.

    PubMed

    Munir, K M; French, D C; Loeb, L A

    1993-05-01

    Knowledge of the catalytic properties and structural information regarding the amino acid residues that comprise the active site of an enzyme allows one, in principle, to use site-specific mutagenesis to construct genes that encode enzymes with altered functions. However, such information about most enzymes is not known and the effects of specific amino acid substitutions are not generally predictable. An alternative approach is to substitute random nucleotides for key codons in a gene and to use genetic selection to identify new and interesting enzyme variants. We describe here the construction, selection, and characterization of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase mutants either with different catalytic properties or with enhanced thermostability. From a library containing 2 x 10(6) plasmid-encoded herpes thymidine kinase genes, each with a different nucleotide sequence at the putative nucleoside binding site, we obtained 1540 active mutants. Using this library and one previously constructed, we identified by secondary selection Escherichia coli harboring thymidine kinase mutant clones that were unable to grow in the presence of concentrations of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) that permits colony formation by E. coli harboring the wild-type plasmid. Two of the mutant enzymes exhibited a reduced Km for AZT, one of which displayed a higher catalytic efficiency for AZT over thymidine relative to that of the wild type. We also identified one mutant with enhanced thermostability. These mutants may have clinical potential as the promise of gene therapy is increasingly becoming a reality.

  3. Obtaining patient feedback at point of service using electronic kiosks.

    PubMed

    Dirocco, Danae N; Day, Susan C

    2011-07-01

    Engaging patients in their healthcare is a goal of healthcare reform. Obtaining sufficient, reliable patient feedback about their experiences in an office encounter has been a challenge. To determine the feasibility of collecting feedback from patients regarding their office encounter at the point of care using touch screen kiosk technology in an urban primary care clinic. We analyzed response rate, ease of use, provider data, and condition-specific data. The study was conducted over a 45-day period at 1 internal medicine academic teaching practice. Providers, staff, and a sponsor-supported monitor directed patients to use the kiosk after an office visit. A total of 1923 surveys were completed from 3850 office visits (50%). There was no appreciable impact on office flow in terms of wait time, checkout procedures, or visit with provider. Characteristics of patients completing the surveys were similar to practice demographics of patients with an office visit during the study period in terms of sex, but differed by age and race. Small but statistically significant differences were seen among patient ratings of resident versus attending physicians. Patients with depression were less likely than patients with diabetes, chronic low back pain, or asthma to report that they had set personal goals to manage their condition. This technology represents an important advance in our ability to capture the patient's opinion regarding quality and practice improvement initiatives, and has the potential for directly engaging patients in their care.

  4. Obtaining reimbursement in France and Italy for new diabetes products.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Elmar; Schnell, Gerald; Sonsalla, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers launching next-generation or innovative medical devices in Europe face a very heterogeneous reimbursement landscape, with each country having its own pathways, timing, requirements and success factors. We selected 2 markets for a deeper look into the reimbursement landscape: France, representing a country with central decision making with defined processes, and Italy, which delegates reimbursement decisions to the regional level, resulting in a less transparent approach to reimbursement. Based on our experience in working on various new product launches and analyzing recent reimbursement decisions, we found that payers in both countries do not reward improved next-generation products with incremental reimbursement. Looking at innovations, we observe that manufacturers face a challenging and lengthy process to obtain reimbursement. In addition, requirements and key success factors differ by country: In France, comparative clinical evidence and budget impact very much drive reimbursement decisions in terms of pricing and restrictions, whereas in Italy, regional key opinion leader (KOL) support and additional local observational data are key.

  5. Comparing dependent kappa coefficients obtained on multilevel data.

    PubMed

    Vanbelle, Sophie

    2017-09-01

    Reliability and agreement are two notions of paramount importance in medical and behavioral sciences. They provide information about the quality of the measurements. When the scale is categorical, reliability and agreement can be quantified through different kappa coefficients. The present paper provides two simple alternatives to more advanced modeling techniques, which are not always adequate in case of a very limited number of subjects, when comparing several dependent kappa coefficients obtained on multilevel data. This situation frequently arises in medical sciences, where multilevel data are common. Dependent kappa coefficients can result from the assessment of the same individuals at various occasions or when each member of a group is compared to an expert, for example. The method is based on simple matrix calculations and is available in the R package "multiagree". Moreover, the statistical properties of the proposed method are studied using simulations. Although this paper focuses on kappa coefficients, the method easily extends to other statistical measures. © 2017 The Author. Biometrical Journal Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Making connections: New Orleans Evacuees' experiences in obtaining drugs.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Eloise; Johnson, Bruce D; Kotarba, Joseph A; Fackler, Jennifer

    2009-09-01

    Between August 29 and September 7, 2005, almost all New Orleans residents were evacuated from the area in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. News reports indicate that almost 130,000 New Orleans Evacuees (NOEs) were evacuated to Houston, Texas, the largest recipient of the civilian population from New Orleans. Some of these NOEs were active participants in the illicit drug market in New Orleans prior to the hurricane. The period between the flooding and the nearly complete evacuation of New Orleans as well as their subsequent displacement to Houston and other locations provided unique opportunities to study what occurs when illicit drug markets are disrupted, since populations of illicit drug users and purchasers could no longer routinely obtain their drugs in predictable ways. Utilizing qualitative data from in-depth interviews and focus groups, this article describes the ways NOEs (1) managed their drug acquisition and use following evacuation; (2) located new sources of drugs in Houston and elsewhere by tapping into shared drug culture; and (3) gained access to and learned the argot for drugs in the local drug market in new settings. This report contributes to the nascent literature on disrupted drug markets.

  7. Accuracy of stone casts obtained by different impression materials.

    PubMed

    Faria, Adriana Cláudia Lapria; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; Macedo, Ana Paula; Mattos, Maria da Gloria Chiarello de; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria

    2008-01-01

    Several impression materials are available in the Brazilian marketplace to be used in oral rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of different impression materials used for fixed partial dentures following the manufacturers' instructions. A master model representing a partially edentulous mandibular right hemi-arch segment whose teeth were prepared to receive full crowns was used. Custom trays were prepared with auto-polymerizing acrylic resin and impressions were performed with a dental surveyor, standardizing the path of insertion and removal of the tray. Alginate and elastomeric materials were used and stone casts were obtained after the impressions. For the silicones, impression techniques were also compared. To determine the impression materials' accuracy, digital photographs of the master model and of the stone casts were taken and the discrepancies between them were measured. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and Duncan's complementary test. Polyether and addition silicone following the single-phase technique were statistically different from alginate, condensation silicone and addition silicone following the double-mix technique (p < or = .05), presenting smaller discrepancies. However, condensation silicone was similar (p > or = .05) to alginate and addition silicone following the double-mix technique, but different from polysulfide. The results led to the conclusion that different impression materials and techniques influenced the stone casts' accuracy in a way that polyether, polysulfide and addition silicone following the single-phase technique were more accurate than the other materials.

  8. Pills easier to obtain as nations start to relax rules.

    PubMed

    1975-01-01

    In both developing and developed nations it has become easier to obtain oral contraception (OC). Generally, this means that the OC becomes available without a doctor's prescription and/or sources from outside a pharmacy. Sometimes there is no charge for the OC. In the People's Republic of China barefoot doctors distribute OC free of charge. Fiji, Israel, Korea and Pakistan have removed the prescription requirement. In India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and Turkey private family planning clinics distribute the OC on prescription but free of charge. Specially trained and registered midwives distribute OCs in Chile and Antigua has also recently lifted the prescription requirement. Free OC is available to low income women in Jamaica, Costa Rica and Peru. In Egypt family planning centers distribute the OC free and without prescription. The United Kingdom is making OCs available free-of-charge through the National Health Service. OCs are free in France. In the U.S. government agencies have provided free OCs to low-income women in government health centers and have subsidized free pills for distribution in private family planning clinics. In Canada and in the Democratic Republic of Germany, OCs are distributed free, on prescription, to low-income women.

  9. Highly bactericidal Ag nanoparticle films obtained by cluster beam deposition.

    PubMed

    Cavaliere, Emanuele; De Cesari, Sebastiano; Landini, Giulia; Riccobono, Eleonora; Pallecchi, Lucia; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Gavioli, Luca

    2015-08-01

    The recent emergence of bacterial pathogens resistant to most or all available antibiotics is among the major global public health problems. As indirect transmission through contaminated surfaces is a main route of dissemination for most of such pathogens, the implementation of effective antimicrobial surfaces has been advocated as a promising approach for their containment, especially in the hospital settings. However, traditional wet synthesis methods of nanoparticle-based antimicrobial materials leave a number of key points open for metal surfaces: such as adhesion to the surface and nanoparticle coalescence. Here we demonstrate an alternative route, i.e. supersonic cluster beam deposition, to obtain antimicrobial Ag nanoparticle films deposited directly on surfaces. The synthesized films are simple to produce with controlled density and thickness, are stable over time, and are shown to be highly bactericidal against major Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial pathogens, including extensively drug-resistant strains. The use of silver nanoparticle in health care is getting more widespread. The authors here describe the technique of cluster beam deposition for spraying silver on surfaces used in health care sectors. This may open a new avenue for future anti-bacterial coatings. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Obtaining Reimbursement in France and Italy for New Diabetes Products

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Elmar; Sonsalla, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers launching next-generation or innovative medical devices in Europe face a very heterogeneous reimbursement landscape, with each country having its own pathways, timing, requirements and success factors. We selected 2 markets for a deeper look into the reimbursement landscape: France, representing a country with central decision making with defined processes, and Italy, which delegates reimbursement decisions to the regional level, resulting in a less transparent approach to reimbursement. Based on our experience in working on various new product launches and analyzing recent reimbursement decisions, we found that payers in both countries do not reward improved next-generation products with incremental reimbursement. Looking at innovations, we observe that manufacturers face a challenging and lengthy process to obtain reimbursement. In addition, requirements and key success factors differ by country: In France, comparative clinical evidence and budget impact very much drive reimbursement decisions in terms of pricing and restrictions, whereas in Italy, regional key opinion leader (KOL) support and additional local observational data are key. PMID:25550411

  11. Metal Ir coatings on endocardial electrode tips, obtained by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikulova, Evgeniia S.; Kal'nyi, Danila B.; Shubin, Yury V.; Kokovkin, Vasily V.; Morozova, Natalya B.; Hassan, Aseel; Basova, Tamara V.

    2017-12-01

    The present work demonstrates the application of the Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition technique to fabricate metal iridium coatings onto the pole tips of endocardial electrodes. Using iridium (III) acetylacetonate as a volatile precursor, the target coatings were successfully applied to the working surface of cathodes and anodes of pacemaker electrodes in the flow type reactor in hydrogen atmosphere at deposition temperature of 550 °C. The coating samples were characterized by means of XRD, SEM, Raman- and XPS-spectroscopies. The formation of non-textured coatings with fractal-like morphology and 7-24 nm crystallite size has been realized. The electrochemical properties of the coatings were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The charge storage capacity values of the electrochemically activated samples were 17.0-115 mC cm-2 and 14.4-76.5 mC cm-2 for measurements carried out in 0.1 M sulfuric acid and in phosphate buffer saline solutions, respectively. A comparison of some characteristics of the samples obtained with commercially available cathode of pacemaker electrodes is also presented.

  12. Dissolution behaviour of calcium phosphate coatings obtained by laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Clèries, L; Fernández-Pradas, J M; Sardin, G; Morenza, J L

    1998-08-01

    Pulsed laser deposited calcium phosphate coatings on titanium alloy have been tested under simulated physiological conditions in order to evaluate the changes in morphology, composition and structure. The coatings were deposited under different conditions to obtain different crystalline structures, ranging from amorphous and mixed crystalline phases to pure crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA). The coated samples were immersed in a Ca-free Hank's balanced salt solution for up to 5 days. Characterization of the coatings was performed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy before and after immersion. Their dissolution behaviour was also monitored through their mass loss and calcium release. Coatings of pure HA preserve their morphology and structure during the exposure time in solution. In multiphasic coatings, consisting of HA with tetracalcium phosphate (TetraCP) or beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) with a-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP), microporosity is induced by the complete dissolution of TetraCP or gamma-TCP. Amorphous calcium phosphate coatings totally dissolve.

  13. Magnetic biocatalysts and their uses to obtain biodiesel and biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    López, Carmen; Cruz-Izquierdo, Alvaro; Picó, Enrique A; García-Bárcena, Teresa; Villarroel, Noelia; Llama, María J; Serra, Juan L

    2014-01-01

    Nanobiocatalysis, as the synergistic combination of nanotechnology and biocatalysis, is rapidly emerging as a new frontier of biotechnology. The use of immobilized enzymes in industrial applications often presents advantages over their soluble counterparts, mainly in view of stability, reusability and simpler operational processing. Because of their singular properties, such as biocompatibility, large and modifiable surface and easy recovery, iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are attractive super-paramagnetic materials that serve as a support for enzyme immobilization and facilitate separations by applying an external magnetic field. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) have several benefits in the context of industrial applications since they can be cheaply and easily prepared from unpurified enzyme extracts and show improved storage and operational stability against denaturation by heat and organic solvents. In this work, by using the aforementioned advantages of MNPs of magnetite and CLEAs, we prepared two robust magnetically-separable types of nanobiocatalysts by binding either soluble enzyme onto the surface of MNPs functionalized with amino groups or by cross-linking aggregates of enzyme among them and to MNPs to obtain magnetic CLEAs. For this purpose the lipase B of Candida antarctica (CALB) was used. The hydrolytic and biosynthetic activities of the resulting magnetic nanobiocatalysts were assessed in aqueous and organic media. Thus, the hydrolysis of triglycerides and the transesterification reactions to synthesize biodiesel and biosurfactants were studied using magnetic CLEAs of CALB. The efficiency and easy performance of this magnetic biocatalysis validates this proof of concept and sets the basis for the application of magnetic CLEAs at industrial scale.

  14. Magnetic biocatalysts and their uses to obtain biodiesel and biosurfactants

    PubMed Central

    López, Carmen; Cruz-Izquierdo, Álvaro; Picó, Enrique A.; García-Bárcena, Teresa; Villarroel, Noelia; Llama, María J.; Serra, Juan L.

    2014-01-01

    Nanobiocatalysis, as the synergistic combination of nanotechnology and biocatalysis, is rapidly emerging as a new frontier of biotechnology. The use of immobilized enzymes in industrial applications often presents advantages over their soluble counterparts, mainly in view of stability, reusability and simpler operational processing. Because of their singular properties, such as biocompatibility, large and modifiable surface and easy recovery, iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are attractive super-paramagnetic materials that serve as a support for enzyme immobilization and facilitate separations by applying an external magnetic field. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) have several benefits in the context of industrial applications since they can be cheaply and easily prepared from unpurified enzyme extracts and show improved storage and operational stability against denaturation by heat and organic solvents. In this work, by using the aforementioned advantages of MNPs of magnetite and CLEAs, we prepared two robust magnetically-separable types of nanobiocatalysts by binding either soluble enzyme onto the surface of MNPs functionalized with amino groups or by cross-linking aggregates of enzyme among them and to MNPs to obtain magnetic CLEAs. For this purpose the lipase B of Candida antarctica (CALB) was used. The hydrolytic and biosynthetic activities of the resulting magnetic nanobiocatalysts were assessed in aqueous and organic media. Thus, the hydrolysis of triglycerides and the transesterification reactions to synthesize biodiesel and biosurfactants were studied using magnetic CLEAs of CALB. The efficiency and easy performance of this magnetic biocatalysis validates this proof of concept and sets the basis for the application of magnetic CLEAs at industrial scale. PMID:25207271

  15. Noise correction of turbulent spectra obtained from Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Durgesh, Vibhav; Thomson, Jim; Richmond, Marshall C.; Polagye, Brian

    2014-03-02

    Accurately estimated auto-spectral density functions are essential for characterization of turbulent flows, and they also have applications in computational fluid dynamics modeling, site and inflow characterization for hydrokinetic turbines, and inflow turbulence generation. The Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) provides single-point temporally resolved data, that are used to characterize turbulent flows in rivers, seas, and oceans. However, ADV data are susceptible to contamination from various sources, including instrument noise, which is the intrinsic limit to the accuracy of acoustic velocity measurements. Due to the presence of instrument noise, the spectra obtained are altered at high frequencies. The focus of this study is to develop a robust and effective method for accurately estimating auto-spectral density functions from ADV data by reducing or removing the spectral contribution derived from instrument noise. For this purpose, the “Noise Auto-Correlation” (NAC) approach was developed, which exploits the correlation properties of instrument noise to identify and remove its contribution from spectra. The spectra estimated using the NAC approach exhibit increased fidelity and a slope of -5/3 in the inertial range, which is typically observed for turbulent flows. Finally, this study also compares the effectiveness of low-pass Gaussian filters in removing instrument noise with that of the NAC approach. For the data used in this study, both the NAC and Gaussian filter approaches are observed to be capable of removing instrument noise at higher frequencies from the spectra. However, the NAC results are closer to the expected frequency power of -5/3 in the inertial sub-range.

  16. Methods of obtaining meaningful information from disperse media holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyomin, Victor V.

    1997-05-01

    The problem of nondestructive testing of microstructure parameters, both aerosols and water suspension, is actual for biology, medicine, and environmental control. Among the methods of optical investigations and diagnostics of light scattering media the holographic method plays a special role. A hologram of scattering volume allows us to reproduce the optical wave field to obtain information on the parameters of microparticles: size, shape, and spatial position. Usually this is done by analysis of the particle images reconstructed from the hologram. On the basis of calculated and experimental results, characteristics of holographic methods are analyzed in this paper. These estimations demonstrate a possibility to use the above methods for investigation of media in biomedical science and clinical practice. A lot of micro-organisms and other living particles are transparent or semitransparent ones. In this case the reconstructed image of the particle will show a spot formed due to light focusing by the particle in addition to its cross section. This circumstance allowed us to propose a method of determining of refractive index of transparent and semitransparent microparticles, that, in turn, can provide identification of the particles type. The development of this method is presented. To make measurement of the size-distribution of particles one can do this simultaneously with the reconstruction of scattering optical field from the hologram. In this case a small angle optical meter (for example, focusing lens) can be placed just behind the illuminated hologram. The reconstructed field is composed of the initial one and its conjugate. Each of these components as well as interference between them can bear an additional information on the medium. The possibility of extraction of this information is also discussed.

  17. How nurse practitioners obtained provider status: lessons for pharmacists.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, John Michael

    2003-11-15

    The history of nurse practitioners, their efforts to achieve provider status, and lessons learned from their activism are discussed. The nurse practitioner profession arose out of a need to meet a rising demand for primary care services, especially in rural areas. Some nurses and physicians vehemently opposed the nurse practitioner model, but studies documented the value of nurse practitioner services, and the utilization of these practitioners continued to grow. Compensation was provided via salary or per-member-per-month agreements. Nurse practitioners recognized that direct federal reimbursement (provider status) was needed to recognize them as independent health care providers and assign specific monetary values to their services, so they undertook an aggressive lobbying campaign. Contacts on Capitol Hill were exploited, and nursing organizations encouraged nurse practitioners to get involved in grass-roots activism. Nurse practitioners discussed their patients during meetings with their representatives in Congress, and legislators were invited to make site visits. In 1993, the American College of Nurse Practitioners was formed to unite the profession and move the campaign forward. Ultimately, the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 granted nurse practitioners provider status and authorized them to bill Medicare directly for services furnished in any setting. The key strategies that contributed to this victory were (1) gaining recognition that nursing had the potential to expand its role, (2) documenting nurse practitioners' value, (3) establishing standards in education and credentialing, (4) using professional organizations to empower individuals, and (5) being willing to accept small, incremental gains over time. The experience of nurse practitioners in obtaining Medicare provider status offers valuable lessons for pharmacists as they pursue the same goal.

  18. Automatic adaptive enhancement for images obtained with fiberscopic endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Winter, Christian; Rupp, Stephan; Elter, Matthias; Münzenmayer, Christian; Gerhäuser, Heinz; Wittenberg, Thomas

    2006-10-01

    Modern techniques for medical diagnostics and therapy in keyhole surgery scenarios as well as technical inspection make use of flexible endoscopes. Their characteristic bendable image conductor consists of a very limited number of coated fibers, which leads to so-called comb structure. This effect has a negative impact on further image processing steps such as feature tracking because these overlaid image structures are wrongly detected as image features. With respect to these tasks, we propose an automatic approach to generate optimal spectral filter masks for enhancement of fiberscopic images. We apply the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem to the spectrum of fiberscopically acquired images to obtain parameters for optimal filter mask calculation. This can be done automatically and independently of scale and resolution of the image conductor as well as type and resolution of the image sensor. We designed and verified simple rotation invariant masks as well as star-shaped rotation variant masks that contain information about orientation between the fiberscope and sensor. A subjective survey among experts between different modes of filtering certified the best results to the adapted star-shaped mask for high-quality glass fiberscopes. We furthermore define an objective metric to evaluate the results of different filter approaches, which verifies the results of the subjective survey. The proposed approach enables the automated reduction of fiberscopic comb structure. It is adaptive to arbitrary endoscope and sensor combinations. The results give the prospect of a large field of possible applications to reduce fiberscopic structure both for visual optimization in clinical environments and for further digital imaging tasks.

  19. Hubble Captures Best View of Mars Ever Obtained from Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Frosty white water ice clouds and swirling orange dust storms above a vivid rusty landscape reveal Mars as a dynamic planet in this sharpest view ever obtained by an Earth-based telescope.

    NASA's Earth-orbiting Hubble Space Telescope took the picture on June 26, when Mars was approximately 43 million miles (68 million km) from Earth -- the closest Mars has ever been to Earth since 1988. Hubble can see details as small as 10 miles (16 km) across. The colors have been carefully balanced to give a realistic view of Mars' hues as they might appear through a telescope.

    Especially striking is the large amount of seasonal dust storm activity seen in this image. One large storm system is churning high above the northern polar cap [top of image], and a smaller dust storm cloud can be seen nearby. Another large dust storm is spilling out of the giant Hellas impact basin in the Southern Hemisphere [lower right].

    Hubble has observed Mars before, but never in such detail. The biennial close approaches of Mars and Earth are not all the same. Mars' orbit around the Sun is markedly elliptical; the close approaches to Earth can range from 35 million to 63 million miles.

    Astronomers are interested in studying the changeable surface and weather conditions on Mars, in part, to help plan for a pair of NASA missions to land rovers on the planet's surface in 2004.

    The Mars opposition of 2001 serves as a prelude for 2003 when Mars and Earth will come within 35 million miles of each other, the closest since 1924 and not to be matched until 2287.

  20. HUBBLE CAPTURES BEST VIEW OF MARS EVER OBTAINED FROM EARTH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Frosty white water ice clouds and swirling orange dust storms above a vivid rusty landscape reveal Mars as a dynamic planet in this sharpest view ever obtained by an Earth-based telescope. NASA's Earth-orbiting Hubble Space Telescope took the picture on June 26, when Mars was approximately 43 million miles (68 million km) from Earth -- the closest Mars has ever been to Earth since 1988. Hubble can see details as small as 10 miles (16 km) across. The colors have been carefully balanced to give a realistic view of Mars' hues as they might appear through a telescope. Especially striking is the large amount of seasonal dust storm activity seen in this image. One large storm system is churning high above the northern polar cap [top of image], and a smaller dust storm cloud can be seen nearby. Another large dust storm is spilling out of the giant Hellas impact basin in the Southern Hemisphere [lower right]. Hubble has observed Mars before, but never in such detail. The biennial close approaches of Mars and Earth are not all the same. Mars' orbit around the Sun is markedly elliptical; the close approaches to Earth can range from 35 million to 63 million miles. Astronomers are interested in studying the changeable surface and weather conditions on Mars, in part, to help plan for a pair of NASA missions to land rovers on the planet's surface in 2004. The Mars opposition of 2001 serves as a prelude for 2003 when Mars and Earth will come within 35 million miles of each other, the closest since 1924 and not to be matched until 2287. Image Credit: NASA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: J. Bell (Cornell U.), P. James (U. Toledo), M. Wolff (Space Science Institute), A. Lubenow (STScI), J. Neubert (MIT/Cornell)

  1. Reliability of fish size estimates obtained from multibeam imaging sonar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hightower, Joseph E.; Magowan, Kevin J.; Brown, Lori M.; Fox, Dewayne A.

    2013-01-01

    Multibeam imaging sonars have considerable potential for use in fisheries surveys because the video-like images are easy to interpret, and they contain information about fish size, shape, and swimming behavior, as well as characteristics of occupied habitats. We examined images obtained using a dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) multibeam sonar for Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, striped bass Morone saxatilis, white perch M. americana, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus of known size (20–141 cm) to determine the reliability of length estimates. For ranges up to 11 m, percent measurement error (sonar estimate – total length)/total length × 100 varied by species but was not related to the fish's range or aspect angle (orientation relative to the sonar beam). Least-square mean percent error was significantly different from 0.0 for Atlantic sturgeon (x̄  =  −8.34, SE  =  2.39) and white perch (x̄  = 14.48, SE  =  3.99) but not striped bass (x̄  =  3.71, SE  =  2.58) or channel catfish (x̄  = 3.97, SE  =  5.16). Underestimating lengths of Atlantic sturgeon may be due to difficulty in detecting the snout or the longer dorsal lobe of the heterocercal tail. White perch was the smallest species tested, and it had the largest percent measurement errors (both positive and negative) and the lowest percentage of images classified as good or acceptable. Automated length estimates for the four species using Echoview software varied with position in the view-field. Estimates tended to be low at more extreme azimuthal angles (fish's angle off-axis within the view-field), but mean and maximum estimates were highly correlated with total length. Software estimates also were biased by fish images partially outside the view-field and when acoustic crosstalk occurred (when a fish perpendicular to the sonar and at relatively close range is detected in the side lobes of adjacent beams). These sources of

  2. Targeted estimation of nuisance parameters to obtain valid statistical inference.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    In order to obtain concrete results, we focus on estimation of the treatment specific mean, controlling for all measured baseline covariates, based on observing independent and identically distributed copies of a random variable consisting of baseline covariates, a subsequently assigned binary treatment, and a final outcome. The statistical model only assumes possible restrictions on the conditional distribution of treatment, given the covariates, the so-called propensity score. Estimators of the treatment specific mean involve estimation of the propensity score and/or estimation of the conditional mean of the outcome, given the treatment and covariates. In order to make these estimators asymptotically unbiased at any data distribution in the statistical model, it is essential to use data-adaptive estimators of these nuisance parameters such as ensemble learning, and specifically super-learning. Because such estimators involve optimal trade-off of bias and variance w.r.t. the infinite dimensional nuisance parameter itself, they result in a sub-optimal bias/variance trade-off for the resulting real-valued estimator of the estimand. We demonstrate that additional targeting of the estimators of these nuisance parameters guarantees that this bias for the estimand is second order and thereby allows us to prove theorems that establish asymptotic linearity of the estimator of the treatment specific mean under regularity conditions. These insights result in novel targeted minimum loss-based estimators (TMLEs) that use ensemble learning with additional targeted bias reduction to construct estimators of the nuisance parameters. In particular, we construct collaborative TMLEs (C-TMLEs) with known influence curve allowing for statistical inference, even though these C-TMLEs involve variable selection for the propensity score based on a criterion that measures how effective the resulting fit of the propensity score is in removing bias for the estimand. As a particular special

  3. Assessment of osteoporosis in family medicine obtained by ultrasound densitometry.

    PubMed

    Alibasic, Esad; Ramic, Enisa; Batic Mujanovic, Olivera; Avdibasic, Enes; Husic, Damir; Alic, Alma

    2013-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by a decrease in bone mineral density, making bones become less rigid, and therefore susceptible to fractures, either spontaneously or with force, which is lower than otherwise needed for healthy bones fractured. Nearly 10% of the world population and 30% of women after menopause, suffer from osteoporosis. Clinical assessment of osteoporosis in family medicine is key to prevention, early detection and treatment of osteoporosis. To investigate the possibility of early detection and diagnosis of osteoporosis by analyzing the risk factors for osteoporosis and to compare the results with the parameters obtained by ultrasound densitometry of calcaneus, and determine the relationship of calcaneus densitometry with DXA findings, as the gold standard for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. The study included all patients of Family Medicine Kalesija Team 1, aged 50 years and over, a total of 711 patients, of whom 425 were women and 286 men. In all patients we assessed the existence of the following risk factors for osteoporosis: Constitutional: gender, age, weight, constitution, menarche and menopause, loss of height and stooped posture; Living habits: smoking, alcohol consumption, coffee, physical activity, and medications: long-term use corticosteroids, anticonvulsants, antacids, thyroid hormones. Comorbidity: history of fractures, hyperthyroidism, COPD, Chussing's disease, diabetes. In the group of high-risk patients determined by the clinical assessment, quantitative ultrasound densitometry screening was carried out. Monitoring parameters derived with densitometry: the value of T-score, BUA (Broadband Ultrasound Attenuation), SOS (Speed of Sound), QUI (Quantitative Ultrasound Index). To confirm the diagnosis of osteoporosis, in all patients with positive findings using ultrasound densitometry (T score lower than 2.5), another densitometry was performed by standard DXA method. The incidence of osteoporosis was 96% in women and 4% in men

  4. Assessment of Osteoporosis in Family Medicine Obtained by Ultrasound Densitometry

    PubMed Central

    Alibasic, Esad; Ramic, Enisa; Batic Mujanovic, Olivera; Avdibasic, Enes; Husic, Damir; Alic, Alma

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by a decrease in bone mineral density, making bones become less rigid, and therefore susceptible to fractures, either spontaneously or with force, which is lower than otherwise needed for healthy bones fractured. Nearly 10% of the world population and 30% of women after menopause, suffer from osteoporosis. Clinical assessment of osteoporosis in family medicine is key to prevention, early detection and treatment of osteoporosis. Objective: To investigate the possibility of early detection and diagnosis of osteoporosis by analyzing the risk factors for osteoporosis and to compare the results with the parameters obtained by ultrasound densitometry of calcaneus, and determine the relationship of calcaneus densitometry with DXA findings, as the gold standard for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Patients and methods: The study included all patients of Family Medicine Kalesija Team 1, aged 50 years and over, a total of 711 patients, of whom 425 were women and 286 men. In all patients we assessed the existence of the following risk factors for osteoporosis: Constitutional: gender, age, weight, constitution, menarche and menopause, loss of height and stooped posture; Living habits: smoking, alcohol consumption, coffee, physical activity, and medications: long-term use corticosteroids, anticonvulsants, antacids, thyroid hormones. Comorbidity: history of fractures, hyperthyroidism, COPD, Chussing’s disease, diabetes. In the group of high-risk patients determined by the clinical assessment, quantitative ultrasound densitometry screening was carried out. Monitoring parameters derived with densitometry: the value of T-score, BUA (Broadband Ultrasound Attenuation), SOS (Speed of Sound), QUI (Quantitative Ultrasound Index). To confirm the diagnosis of osteoporosis, in all patients with positive findings using ultrasound densitometry (T score lower than 2.5), another densitometry was performed by standard DXA method. Results

  5. 49 CFR 105.26 - Obtaining records on file with PHMSA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PROGRAM DEFINITIONS AND GENERAL PROCEDURES General Procedures Obtaining Guidance and Public Information § 105.26 Obtaining records on file with PHMSA. To obtain records on file with PHMSA... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Obtaining records on file with PHMSA. 105.26...

  6. 49 CFR 105.26 - Obtaining records on file with PHMSA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PROGRAM DEFINITIONS AND GENERAL PROCEDURES General Procedures Obtaining Guidance and Public Information § 105.26 Obtaining records on file with PHMSA. To obtain records on file with PHMSA... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining records on file with PHMSA. 105.26...

  7. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 275 - Obtaining Access By Search Warrant

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obtaining Access By Search Warrant D Appendix D... OF 1978 Pt. 275, App. D Appendix D to Part 275—Obtaining Access By Search Warrant A. A Government authority may obtain financial records by using a search warrant obtained under Rule 41 of the Federal Rules...

  8. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 275 - Obtaining Access By Search Warrant

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obtaining Access By Search Warrant D Appendix D... OF 1978 Pt. 275, App. D Appendix D to Part 275—Obtaining Access By Search Warrant A. A Government authority may obtain financial records by using a search warrant obtained under Rule 41 of the Federal Rules...

  9. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 275 - Obtaining Access By Search Warrant

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Obtaining Access By Search Warrant D Appendix D... OF 1978 Pt. 275, App. D Appendix D to Part 275—Obtaining Access By Search Warrant A. A Government authority may obtain financial records by using a search warrant obtained under Rule 41 of the Federal Rules...

  10. 21 CFR 1311.25 - Requirements for obtaining a CSOS digital certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements for obtaining a CSOS digital... REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Obtaining and Using Digital Certificates for Electronic Orders § 1311.25 Requirements for obtaining a CSOS digital certificate. (a) To obtain a certificate...

  11. 21 CFR 1311.25 - Requirements for obtaining a CSOS digital certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements for obtaining a CSOS digital... REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Obtaining and Using Digital Certificates for Electronic Orders § 1311.25 Requirements for obtaining a CSOS digital certificate. (a) To obtain a certificate...

  12. 21 CFR 1311.25 - Requirements for obtaining a CSOS digital certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Requirements for obtaining a CSOS digital... REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Obtaining and Using Digital Certificates for Electronic Orders § 1311.25 Requirements for obtaining a CSOS digital certificate. (a) To obtain a certificate...

  13. 21 CFR 1311.25 - Requirements for obtaining a CSOS digital certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements for obtaining a CSOS digital... REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Obtaining and Using Digital Certificates for Electronic Orders § 1311.25 Requirements for obtaining a CSOS digital certificate. (a) To obtain a certificate...

  14. Comparison of cerebral blood flow data obtained by computed tomography (CT) perfusion with that obtained by xenon CT using 320-row CT.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Kimura, Hiroaki; Akaji, Kazunori; Kano, Tadashige; Suzuki, Kentaro; Takayama, Youhei; Kanzawa, Takao; Shidoh, Satoka; Nakazawa, Masaki; Yoshida, Kazunari; Mihara, Ban

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) data obtained by computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging have been shown to be qualitative data rather than quantitative, in contrast with data obtained by other imaging methods, such as xenon CT (XeCT) imaging. Thus, interpatient comparisons of CBF values themselves obtained by CTP may be inaccurate. In this study, we have compared CBF ratios as well as CBF values obtained from CTP-CBF data to those obtained from XeCT-CBF data for the same patients to determine CTP-CBF parameters that can be used for interpatient comparisons. The data used in the present study were obtained as volume data using 320-row CT. The volume data were applied to an automated region of interest-determining software (3DSRT, version 3.5.2 ) and converted to 59 slices of 2 mm interval standardized images. In the present study, we reviewed 10 patients with occlusive cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) undergoing both CTP and XeCT in the same period. Our study shows that ratios of CBF measurements, such as hemodynamic stress distribution (perforator-to-cortical flow ratio of middle cerebral artery [MCA] region) or the left/right ratio for the region of the MCA, calculated using CTP data have been shown to correlate well with the same ratios calculated using XeCT data. These results suggest that such CBF ratios could be useful for generating interpatient comparisons of CTP-CBF data obtained by 320-row CT among patients with occlusive CVD.

  15. 7 CFR 944.400 - Designated inspection services and procedure for obtaining inspection and certification of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... obtaining inspection and certification of imported avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, oranges, prune variety... and procedure for obtaining inspection and certification of imported avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit..., quality, and maturity of avocados, grapefruit, nectarines, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes...

  16. 7 CFR 944.400 - Designated inspection services and procedure for obtaining inspection and certification of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... obtaining inspection and certification of imported avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, oranges, prune variety... and procedure for obtaining inspection and certification of imported avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit..., quality, and maturity of avocados, grapefruit, nectarines, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes...

  17. 7 CFR 944.400 - Designated inspection services and procedure for obtaining inspection and certification of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... obtaining inspection and certification of imported avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, oranges, prune variety... and procedure for obtaining inspection and certification of imported avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit..., quality, and maturity of avocados, grapefruit, nectarines, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes...

  18. 7 CFR 944.400 - Designated inspection services and procedure for obtaining inspection and certification of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... obtaining inspection and certification of imported avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, oranges, prune variety... and procedure for obtaining inspection and certification of imported avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit..., quality, and maturity of avocados, grapefruit, nectarines, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes...

  19. 7 CFR 944.400 - Designated inspection services and procedure for obtaining inspection and certification of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... obtaining inspection and certification of imported avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, oranges, prune variety... and procedure for obtaining inspection and certification of imported avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit..., quality, and maturity of avocados, grapefruit, nectarines, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes...

  20. 22 CFR 42.1 - Aliens not required to obtain immigrant visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aliens not required to obtain immigrant visas... Immigrants § 42.1 Aliens not required to obtain immigrant visas. An immigrant within any of the following categories is not required to obtain an immigrant visa: (a) Aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence...