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Sample records for dihydrocarvone obtaining aminocyclohexane

  1. Switching the Regioselectivity of a Cyclohexanone Monooxygenase toward (+)-trans-Dihydrocarvone by Rational Protein Design.

    PubMed

    Balke, Kathleen; Schmidt, Sandy; Genz, Maika; Bornscheuer, Uwe T

    2016-01-15

    The regioselectivity of the Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase-catalyzed oxidation is governed mostly by electronic effects leading to the migration of the higher substituted residue. However, in some cases, substrate binding occurs in a way that the less substituted residue lies in an antiperiplanar orientation to the peroxy bond in the Criegee intermediate yielding in the formation of the "abnormal" lactone product. We are the first to demonstrate a complete switch in the regioselectivity of the BVMO from Arthrobacter sp. (CHMOArthro) as exemplified for (+)-trans-dihydrocarvone by redesigning the active site of the enzyme. In the designed triple mutant, the substrate binds in an inverted orientation leading to a ratio of 99:1 in favor of the normal lactone instead of exclusive formation of the abnormal lactone in case of the wild type enzyme. In order to validate our computational study, the beneficial mutations were successfully transferred to the CHMO from Acinetobacter sp. (CHMOAcineto), again yielding in a complete switch of regioselectivity.

  2. Spectral and biological evaluation of a synthetic antimicrobial peptide derived from 1-aminocyclohexane carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Abercrombie, J J; Leung, Kai P; Chai, Hanbo; Hicks, Rickey P

    2015-03-15

    Ac-GF(A6c)G(A6c)K(A6c)G(A6c)F(A6c)G(A6c)GK(A6c)KKKK-amide (A6c=1-aminocyclohexane carboxylic acid) is a synthetic antimicrobial peptide (AMP) that exhibits in vitro inhibitory activity against drug resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterococcus faecium at concentrations ranging from 10.9 to 43μM. Spectroscopic investigations were conducted to determine how this AMP interacts with simple membrane model systems in order to provide insight into possible mechanisms of action. CD and 2D-(1)H NMR experiments indicated this AMP on binding to SDS and DPC micelles adopts conformations with varying percentages of helical and random coil conformers. CD investigations in the presence of three phospholipid SUVs consisting of POPC, 4:1 POPC/POPG, and 60% POPE/21%POPG/19%POPC revealed: (1) The interactions occurring with POPC SUVs have minimal effect on the conformational diversity of the AMP yielding conformations similar to those observed in buffer. (2) The interactions with 4:1 POPC/POPG, and 60% POPE/21%POPG/19%POPC SUVs exhibited a greater influence on the percentage of different conformers contributing to the CD spectra. (3) The presence of a high of percentage of helical conformers was not observed in the presence of SUVs as was the case with micelles. This data indicates that the diversity of surface bound conformations adopted by this AMP are very different from the diversity of conformations adopted by this AMP on insertion into the lipid bilayer. CD spectra of this AMP in the presence of SUVs consisting of LPS isolated from P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli exhibited characteristics associated with various helical conformations.

  3. Obtaining and maintaining funding

    SciTech Connect

    Beverly Hartline

    1996-04-01

    Obtaining and maintaining funding is important for individuals, groups, institutions, and fields. This challenge is easier during times of abundant and growing resources than it is now, when funding is tight and shrinking. Thus, to obtain and maintain funding will require: maintaining healthy funding levels for all of science; maintaining healthy funding levels for the field(s) you work in; and competing successfully for the available funds. Everyone should pay attention to the overall prospects for science funding and dedicate some effort to working with others to grow the constituency for science. Public support is likely an important prerequisite for keeping future science budgets high. In this context, researchers should share with society at large the benefits of their research, so that taxpayers can see and appreciate some return from the federal investment in science. Assuming this effort is successful, and there continue to be government and private organizations with substantial resources to invest in research, what can the individual investigator do to improve her chances? She can be clear about her goal(s) and carefully plan her effort to make maximum progress for minimum resources, especially early in her career while she is establishing a solid professional reputation. Specific useful strategies include: brainstorm funding options and select the most promising one(s); be persistent but flexible, responsive to new information and changing circumstances; provide value and assistance to prospective funding sources both before and after receiving funding; know the funding agents and what their goals are, they are the customers; promise a lot and always deliver more; build partnerships and collaboration to leverage interest and resources; and develop capabilities and ideas with a promising, irresistible future. There is no guarantee of success. For the best chances, consistently contribute positively and productively in all your efforts, and continue to

  4. Obtaining an equivalent beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1990-01-01

    In modeling a complex structure the researcher was faced with a component that would have logical appeal if it were modeled as a beam. The structure was a mast of a robot controlled gantry crane. The structure up to this point already had a large number of degrees of freedom, so the idea of conserving grid points by modeling the mast as a beam was attractive. The researcher decided to make a separate problem of of the mast and model it in three dimensions with plates, then extract the equivalent beam properties by setting up the loading to simulate beam-like deformation and constraints. The results could then be used to represent the mast as a beam in the full model. A comparison was made of properties derived from models of different constraints versus manual calculations. The researcher shows that the three-dimensional model is ineffective in trying to conform to the requirements of an equivalent beam representation. If a full 3-D plate model were used in the complete representation of the crane structure, good results would be obtained. Since the attempt is to economize on the size of the model, a better way to achieve the same results is to use substructuring and condense the mast to equivalent end boundary and intermediate mass points.

  5. Employment Obtaining and Business Starting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Jian

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of business starting education in higher vocational colleges is of important and realistic meanings for cultivating advanced technology application-type talents and for releasing the employment obtaining pressure of higher vocational students. Based on the analysis on the employment situation of higher vocational graduates, this…

  6. Obtaining Public Records: Reporter Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining public records is essential to covering public education. Fortunately, the law is on the side of reporters: Public agencies generally must disclose their records to the public and to the media--with important exceptions. Public agencies are often reluctant to hand over records, however, even when the law clearly says they should.…

  7. 40 CFR 35.6310 - Obtaining equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Personal Property Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6310 Obtaining equipment....

  8. SOFIA Observatory Obtains 'First Light' Images

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, successfully obtained its "First Light"" images during an overnight flight May 26. Scientists are now processing the data gathered...

  9. 42 CFR 442.101 - Obtaining certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... section states the requirements for obtaining notice of an ICF/MR's certification before a Medicaid agency... Secretary for an ICF/MR located on an Indian reservation. (c) The agency must obtain notice of certification... provisions pertains to the ICF/MR: (1) An ICF/MR meets the conditions of participation set forth in subpart...

  10. 42 CFR 442.101 - Obtaining certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... section states the requirements for obtaining notice of an ICF/MR's certification before a Medicaid agency... Secretary for an ICF/MR located on an Indian reservation. (c) The agency must obtain notice of certification... provisions pertains to the ICF/MR: (1) An ICF/MR meets the conditions of participation set forth in subpart...

  11. Ready Reference. How To Obtain an ISBN; How To Obtain an ISSN; How To Obtain an SAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    2003-01-01

    These three articles describe ISBNs (International Standard Book Numbers); ISSNs (International Standard Serial Numbers); and SANs (Standard Address Numbers), for organizations served by the book industry; and explains how to apply to obtain the appropriate numbers. (LRW)

  12. 25 CFR 162.539 - Must I obtain a WEEL before obtaining a WSR lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr Leases § 162.539 Must I obtain a WEEL before obtaining... direct result of energy resource information gathered from a WEEL activity, obtaining a WEEL is not...

  13. 47 CFR 54.615 - Obtaining services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provided under § 54.621, that the requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider... thing of value; (6) If the service or services are being purchased as part of an aggregated...

  14. 47 CFR 54.615 - Obtaining services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... provided under § 54.621, that the requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider... thing of value; (6) If the service or services are being purchased as part of an aggregated...

  15. 47 CFR 54.615 - Obtaining services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... provided under § 54.621, that the requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider... thing of value; (6) If the service or services are being purchased as part of an aggregated...

  16. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Hennessey, Susan Marie

    2011-08-16

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  17. 40 CFR 35.6305 - Obtaining supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....6325 through 35.6340, and 35.6350. Supplies obtained with Core Program funds must be for non-site-specific purposes. All purchases of supplies under the Core Program must comply with the requirements...

  18. A Guide to Obtaining a Psychology Internship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megargee, Edwin J.

    This is a guidebook written to help graduate students in clinical psychology from a variety of programs obtain internships at training programs across the country. Chapter 1 discloses the politics and power relationship among internship training directors, university faculties, and internship applicants, and describes how they influence guidelines…

  19. METHOD OF OBTAINING UNIFORM COATINGS ON GRAPHITE

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, I.E.

    1961-04-01

    A method is given for obtaining uniform carbide coatings on graphite bodies. According to the invention a metallic halide in vapor form is passed over the graphite body under such conditions of temperature and pressure that the halide reacts with the graphite to form a coating of the metal carbide on the surface of the graphite.

  20. Method of Obtaining Uniform Coatings on Graphite

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, I. E.

    1961-04-01

    A method is given for obtaining uniform carbide coatings on graphite bodies. According to the invention a metallic halide in vapor form is passed over the graphite body under such conditions of temperature and pressure that the halide reacts with the graphite to form a coating of the metal carbide on the surface of the graphite.

  1. 42 CFR 442.101 - Obtaining certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... certification. (a) This section states the requirements for obtaining notice of an ICF/IID's certification... of certification from the Secretary for an ICF/IID located on an Indian reservation. (c) The agency... indicate that one of the following provisions pertains to the ICF/IID: (1) An ICF/IID meets the...

  2. 42 CFR 442.101 - Obtaining certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... certification. (a) This section states the requirements for obtaining notice of an ICF/IID's certification... of certification from the Secretary for an ICF/IID located on an Indian reservation. (c) The agency... indicate that one of the following provisions pertains to the ICF/IID: (1) An ICF/IID meets the...

  3. 42 CFR 442.101 - Obtaining certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... certification. (a) This section states the requirements for obtaining notice of an ICF/IID's certification... of certification from the Secretary for an ICF/IID located on an Indian reservation. (c) The agency... indicate that one of the following provisions pertains to the ICF/IID: (1) An ICF/IID meets the...

  4. 15 CFR 285.15 - Obtaining documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obtaining documents. 285.15 Section 285.15 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS...

  5. 36 CFR 251.84 - Obtaining notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 251.84 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy and Use of National Forest System Lands § 251.84 Obtaining... mediation of decisions to suspend or cancel term grazing permits, in whole or in part, pursuant to 36...

  6. Obtaining Funding and Support for Undergraduate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorff, Michael; Narayan, Darren A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been a dramatic increase in undergraduate research activities at colleges and universities nationwide. However, this comes at a time when budgets are being tightened and some institutions do not have the resources to pursue new initiatives. In this article we present some ideas for obtaining funding and support for…

  7. Acoustic barriers obtained from industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Valles, M; Avila, G; Martinez, S; Terradas, R; Nogués, J M

    2008-07-01

    Acoustic pollution is an environmental problem that is becoming increasingly more important in our society. Likewise, the accumulation of generated waste and the need for waste management are also becoming more and more pressing. In this study we describe a new material--called PROUSO--obtained from industrial wastes. PROUSO has a variety of commercial and engineering, as well as building, applications. The main raw materials used for this environmentally friendly material come from slag from the aluminium recycling process, dust from the marble industry, foundry sands, and recycled expanded polystyrene from recycled packaging. Some natural materials, such as plastic clays, are also used. To obtain PROUSO we used a conventional ceramic process, forming new mineral phases and incorporating polluted elements into the structure. Its physical properties make PROUSO an excellent acoustic and thermal insulation material. It absorbs 95% of the sound in the frequency band of the 500 Hz. Its compressive strength makes it ideal for use in ceramic wall building.

  8. 25 CFR 162.539 - Must I obtain a WEEL before obtaining a WSR lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Must I obtain a WEEL before obtaining a WSR lease? 162.539 Section 162.539 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr Leases § 162.539 Must I obtain a WEEL before...

  9. Intelligent drug delivery systems obtained by radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martellini, Flavia; Higa, Olga Z.; Takacs, Erzsebet; Safranj, Agneza; Yoshida, Masaru; Katakai, Ryoichi; Carenza, Mario

    1998-06-01

    Radiation-induced polymerization of acryloyl-L-proline methyl ester, an α-aminoacid-containing monomer, in the presence of a crosslinking agent and a hydrophilic monomer gave rise to polymer hydrogels whose water content at equilibrium was found to decrease as the swelling temperature increased. Some hydrogel samples were obtained with entrapped acetaminophen, an analgesic and antipyretic drug. It was ascertained that the release of the drug was controlled by both the hydrophilicity of the polymer matrices and the environmental temperature.

  10. A Sensor for Obtaining Ablation Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winters, Clyde W.; Bracalente, Emedio

    1961-01-01

    A variable-capacitance ablation-rate sensor which allows continuous measurements of ablation rates for Teflon and similar polymers has been developed and tested i n an ethylene-heated high-temperature jet at stagnation temperatures ranging from 2,400 deg to 3,800 deg F. The data (length changes) were measured by using the same telemeter equipment as that used in rocket-propelled flight vehicles.Results indicate measurement error to be a maximum of 4 percent between the telemetered length changes and the length changes that were obtained from photographic records of the test.

  11. Obtaining growth hormone from calf blood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalchev, L. A.; Ralchev, K. K.; Nikolov, I. T.

    1979-01-01

    The preparation of a growth hormone from human serum was used for the isolation of the hormone from calf serum. The preparation was biologically active - it increased the quantity of the free fatty acids released in rat plasma by 36.4 percent. Electrophoresis in Veronal buffer, ph 8.6, showed the presence of a single fraction having mobility intermediate between that of alpha and beta globulins. Gel filtration through Sephadex G 100 showed an elutriation curve identical to that obtained by the growth hormone prepared from pituitary glands.

  12. Obtaining optical properties using Representative Layer Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Neema; Yust, Brain; Sardar, Dhiraj

    2011-03-01

    Reliable and minimally invasive methods for diagnosis of toxicity and onset of disease are important for advances in clinical practices. This is commonly achieved through the optical properties, such as a change in the absorption or scattering strength of the diseased tissue. Thus, being able to quantitatively characterize these changes is important to advancements in medical diagnostic methods. By adapting the Representative Layer Theory to the integrating sphere technique, very thin biological samples may be optically characterized, yielding a quick and easy method for monitoring optical changes as a function of disease progression. Samples, consisting of cells, dyes, and nanoparticles of known concentrations were optically characterized at multiple wavelengths. Optical properties obtained by the Representative Layer Theory are compared to those obtained through other methods, such as Kubelka-Munk and Inverse Adding Doubling which are known to have sample thickness limitations. This work is also supported in part by National Science Foundation PREM Grant No. DMR - 0934218 and UTSA Collaborative Research Seed Grant Program (CRSGP).

  13. Acoustic barriers obtained from industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Valles, M; Avila, G; Martinez, S; Terradas, R; Nogués, J M

    2008-07-01

    Acoustic pollution is an environmental problem that is becoming increasingly more important in our society. Likewise, the accumulation of generated waste and the need for waste management are also becoming more and more pressing. In this study we describe a new material--called PROUSO--obtained from industrial wastes. PROUSO has a variety of commercial and engineering, as well as building, applications. The main raw materials used for this environmentally friendly material come from slag from the aluminium recycling process, dust from the marble industry, foundry sands, and recycled expanded polystyrene from recycled packaging. Some natural materials, such as plastic clays, are also used. To obtain PROUSO we used a conventional ceramic process, forming new mineral phases and incorporating polluted elements into the structure. Its physical properties make PROUSO an excellent acoustic and thermal insulation material. It absorbs 95% of the sound in the frequency band of the 500 Hz. Its compressive strength makes it ideal for use in ceramic wall building. PMID:18514765

  14. Obtaining useful information from expert based sources.

    PubMed Central

    Slawson, D. C.; Shaughnessy, A. F.

    1997-01-01

    Clinicians rely heavily on expert based systems-consultation with colleagues, journal reviews and textbooks, and continuing education activities-to obtain new information. The usefulness of sources such as these depends on the relevance and validity of the information and the work it takes to obtain it. Useful information can be distinguished from the useless by asking three questions: Does the information focus on an outcome that my patients care about? Is the issue common to my practice, and is the intervention feasible? If the information is true, will it require me to change my practice? If the answer to all three questions is yes, then the information is a common POEM (patient oriented evidence that matters), capable of improving the lives of your patients and must be evaluated for validity. Conclusions based on results of well designed clinical trials are more likely to be valid than those drawn from observations based on experience in clinical practice. Both members of the team, clinicians and experts, must take responsibility for their respective roles. PMID:9099121

  15. Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, M. T.; Carello, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this ‘information about’. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

  16. Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching.

    PubMed

    Turvey, M T; Carello, Claudia

    2011-11-12

    Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this 'information about'. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

  17. Plasticity characteristics obtained through hardness measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Milman, Y.V.; Galanov, B.A.; Chugunova, S.I. )

    1993-09-01

    A characteristic of material plasticity [delta][sub H] is proposed. [delta][sub H] is determined as a part of plastic deformation in the total deformation during indentation. The following analytic expressions for the elastic deformation [epsilon][sub e] and for the total deformation [epsilon] on the contact area indenter-specimen in the direction of loading force are obtained, [epsilon][sub e] = 1.08(1 [minus] v [minus] 2v[sup 2])H[sub V/E], [epsilon] [approx] 0.076, where H[sub V] is the Vickers hardness, E is Young's modulus, v is the Poisson ratio, and [delta][sub H] = 1 [minus] ([epsilon][sub e]/[epsilon]). The [delta][sub H] value is calculated for various crystalline materials at different temperatures and in different structural states. [delta][sub H] is consistent with the concept of plasticity established before, and to characterize the influence of temperature, alloying and strain hardening on plasticity. The necessary condition for revealing ductility at tension and bending is [delta][sub H] [>=] 0.9. [delta][sub H] can be used as a plasticity characteristic of brittle materials.

  18. Obtaining high resolution XUV coronal images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.; Spiller, E.

    1992-01-01

    Photographs obtained during three flights of an 11 inch diameter normal incident soft X-ray (wavelength 63.5 A) telescope are analyzed and the data are compared to the results expected from tests of the mirror surfaces. Multilayer coated X ray telescopes have the potential for 0.01 arcsec resolution, and there is optimism that such high quality mirrors can be built. Some of the factors which enter into the performance actually achieved in practice are as follows: quality of the mirror substrate, quality of the multilayer coating, and number of photons collected. Measurements of multilayer mirrors show that the actual performance achieved in the solar X-ray images demonstrates a reduction in the scattering compared to that calculated from the topography of the top surface of the multilayer. In the brief duration of a rocket flight, the resolution is also limited by counting statistics from the number of photons collected. At X-ray Ultraviolet (XUV) wavelengths from 171 to 335 A the photon flux should be greater than 10(exp 10) ph/sec, so that a resolution better than 0.1 arcsec might be achieved, if mirror quality does not provide a limit first. In a satellite, a large collecting area will be needed for the highest resolution.

  19. Utilizing therapists to obtain death penalty verdicts.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, R

    1994-01-01

    As a result of recent decisions by the United States and California Supreme Courts, therapists now have been placed in a position in which they can be forced to testify in death penalty cases for the only purposes of achieving a conviction and a death penalty verdict. Zeal for the death penalty seems to have overcome any concern for the ethics of psychiatrists or even for the welfare of society. In California, therapists can now be forced to testify against their own patients in capital cases even if the patient does not tender his mental state as an issue, despite the presence of a psychotherapist-patient privilege in the state for criminal matters. In California, the only option for therapists who wish to treat potentially dangerous patients may be to conduct the therapy under the umbrella of attorney-client privilege. Otherwise they may not be able to avoid serious ethical problems and personal danger if the patient actually does kill someone during or after therapy. They may be unable honestly and ethically to treat such patients without obtaining truly informed consent to therapy under these potentially "undercover policeman" circumstances. Hopefully, professional organizations will take a more activist position, and courts will appreciate the folly of these decisions and reverse them. Otherwise, they may spread to other states, for which California frequently sets precedents.

  20. Lead Oxychloride Borates Obtained under Extreme Conditions.

    PubMed

    Siidra, Oleg I; Kabbour, Houria; Mentre, Olivier; Nazarchuk, Evgeny V; Kegler, Philip; Zinyakhina, Diana O; Colmont, Marie; Depmeier, Wulf

    2016-09-01

    [Pb10O4]Pb2(B2O5)Cl12 (1) and [Pb18O12]Pb(BO2OH)2Cl10 (2) were obtained via high-temperature high-pressure experiments. [O12Pb18](12+) and [O4Pb10](12+) oxocentered structural units of different dimensionality are excised from the ideal [OPb] layer in tetragonal α-PbO. 2 is formed with an excess of lead oxide component, and 1 is formed with an excess of borate and halide reagents. The structure of 2 can be visualized as the incorporation of {Pb(10)Cl4(BO2OH)2} clusters into alternating PbO and chloride layers, with the existence of square vacancies in both. However, the structure of 1 is described as the intrusion of [O4Pb10](12+) tetramers linked by disordered Pb(B2O5) groups into a halogen three-dimensional matrix. The structure of 2 contains 10 symmetrically independent Pb positions. The 6s(2) lone electron pair is stereochemically active on Pb(1)-Pb(9) atoms, whereas it is inert on Pb(10). All of the Pb coordinations in the structure of 2, in accordance with ECCv (volume eccentricity) parameters and the density of states (DOS), can be subdivided into three groups. The current study is the first attempt to analyze this unusual behavior in structurally complex oxyhalide material with the rare case of Pb(2+) cations, demonstrating both stereochemically active and inactive behavior of the lone pair via charge and first-principle calculations. PMID:27560309

  1. Overview of galactic results obtained by MAGIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanin, Roberta

    2013-06-01

    MAGIC is a system of two atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes which explores the very-high-energy sky, from some tens of GeV up to tens of TeV. Located in the Canary island of La Palma, MAGIC has the lowest energy threshold among the instruments of its kind, well suited to study the still poorly explored energy band below 100 GeV. Although the space-borne gamma-ray telescope Fermi/LAT is sensitive up to 300 GeV, gamma-ray rates drop fast with increasing energy, so γ-ray collection areas larger than 104m2, as those provided by grounds-based instruments, are crucial above a few GeV. The combination of MAGIC and Fermi/LAT observations have provided the first astrophysical spectra sampled in the inverse Compton peak region, resulting in a complete coverage from MeV up to TeV energies, as well as the discovery of a pulsed emission in the very-high-energy band. This paper focuses on the latest results on Galactic sources obtained by MAGIC which are highlighted by the detection of the pulsed gamma-ray emission from the Crab pulsar up to 400 GeV. In addition, we will present the morphological study on the W51 complex which allowed to pinpoint the location of the majority of the emission around the interaction point between the supernova remnant W51C and the star forming region W51B, but also to find a possible contribution from the associated pulsar wind nebula. Other important scientific achievements involve the Crab Nebula with an unprecedented spectrum covering three decades in energy starting from 50 GeV and a morphological study of the unidentified source HESS J1857+026 which supports the pulsar wind nebula scenario. Finally we will report on the searches of very-high-energy signals from gamma-ray binaries, mainly LS I 303+ and HESS J0632+057.

  2. Component Repair Times Obtained from MSPI Data

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, Steven A.

    2015-05-01

    Information concerning times to repair or restore equipment to service given a failure is valuable to probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Examples of such uses in modern PRAs include estimation of the probability of failing to restore a failed component within a specified time period (typically tied to recovering a mitigating system before core damage occurs at nuclear power plants) and the determination of mission times for support system initiating event (SSIE) fault tree models. Information on equipment repair or restoration times applicable to PRA modeling is limited and dated for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. However, the Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) program covering all U.S. commercial nuclear power plants provides up-to-date information on restoration times for a limited set of component types. This paper describes the MSPI program data available and analyzes the data to obtain median and mean component restoration times as well as non-restoration cumulative probability curves. The MSPI program provides guidance for monitoring both planned and unplanned outages of trains of selected mitigating systems deemed important to safety. For systems included within the MSPI program, plants monitor both train UA and component unreliability (UR) against baseline values. If the combined system UA and UR increases sufficiently above established baseline results (converted to an estimated change in core damage frequency or CDF), a “white” (or worse) indicator is generated for that system. That in turn results in increased oversight by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and can impact a plant’s insurance rating. Therefore, there is pressure to return MSPI program components to service as soon as possible after a failure occurs. Three sets of unplanned outages might be used to determine the component repair durations desired in this article: all unplanned outages for the train type that includes the component of interest, only

  3. Obtaining and storage of ready-to-use segments from traditional orange obtained by enzymatic peeling.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Bel, P; Egea, I; Serrano, M; Romojaro, A; Pretel, M T

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize all parameters implied in the process of obtaining orange segments as minimally processed product by enzymatic peeling, from the method of segment obtaining to the storage conditions, and also to evaluate two films with different permeability. Enzymatic peeling was carried out by fruit infusion under vacuum conditions in a commercial preparation of pectinases and cellulases (Peelzym II). The best condition to obtain Cadenera segments by enzymatic peeling was 1 mL/L of Peelzym II applied at 53 kPa with three vacuum pulses of 2 min and a subsequent period of 30 min in the enzymatic solution at atmospheric pressure. The segments were packaged in two films with different permeability and they were stored for 10 days at 4 °C. Samplings were carried out after 4, 7 and 10 days of storage. The results showed that the concentration of CO(2) in the less permeable film (PA 120) ranged between 0.7 and 1.2 mL/100 mL, while in the most permeable one (PA 240) was around 0.2 mL/100 mL. Under these conditions, the weight loss was kept at low levels until day 7 of storage, showing a significant increase after 10 days. Colour (a/b) increased with the peeling process and it remained without significant changes during the whole storage period for both films. The antioxidant capacity slightly decreased after 10 days of storage. The microbial flora was reduced after the enzymatic peeling. Both the sensory and the microbiological quality were kept in adequate levels for consumption during 7 days. From this moment, they lost sweetness and aroma and the microbial development increased. Thus, the use of the most permeable film and a maximum storage time of 7 days are recommended to maintain the most quality of the segments. PMID:22328121

  4. 49 CFR 375.519 - Must I obtain weight tickets?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS Pick Up of Shipments of Household Goods Weighing the Shipment § 375.519 Must I obtain weight tickets? (a) You must obtain...

  5. 47 CFR 1.8002 - Obtaining an FRN.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Obtaining an FRN. 1.8002 Section 1.8002 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FCC Registration Number § 1.8002 Obtaining an FRN. (a) The FRN must be obtained by anyone doing business with the Commission, see 31 U.S.C. 7701(c)(2), including but...

  6. Earning and Obtaining Reinforcers under Concurrent Interval Scheduling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonall, James S.

    2005-01-01

    Contingencies of reinforcement specify how reinforcers are earned and how they are obtained. Ratio contingencies specify the number of responses that earn a reinforcer, and the response satisfying the ratio requirement obtains the earned reinforcer. Simple interval schedules specify that a certain time earns a reinforcer, which is obtained by the…

  7. 32 CFR 806b.8 - Obtaining law enforcement records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining law enforcement records. 806b.8... ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Obtaining Law Enforcement Records and Confidentiality Promises § 806b.8 Obtaining law enforcement records. The Commander, Air Force Office of Special Investigation; the...

  8. Thermal Effusivity of Vegetable Oils Obtained by a Photothermal Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-Espinosa, L. M.; de L. Castillo-Alvarado, F.; Lara-Hernández, G.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.

    2014-10-01

    Thermal properties of several vegetable oils such as soy, corn, and avocado commercial oils were obtained by using a photopyroelectric technique. The inverse photopyroelectric configuration was used in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of the oil samples. The theoretical equation for the photopyroelectric signal in this configuration, as a function of the incident light modulation frequency, was fitted to the experimental data in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of these samples. The obtained results are in good agreement with the thermal effusivity reported for other vegetable oils. All measurements were done at room temperature.

  9. 48 CFR 222.1008 - Procedures for obtaining wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Labor Standards 222.1008 Procedures for obtaining...

  10. 48 CFR 222.1008-1 - Obtaining wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Labor Standards 222.1008-1 Obtaining wage determinations. Follow the...

  11. 48 CFR 222.1008 - Procedures for obtaining wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Labor Standards 222.1008 Procedures for obtaining...

  12. 48 CFR 222.1008-1 - Obtaining wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Labor Standards 222.1008-1 Obtaining wage determinations. Follow the...

  13. Ready Reference. Publishers' Toll-Free Telephone Numbers and Web Sites; How To Obtain an ISBN; How To Obtain an ISSN; How To Obtain an SAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    2002-01-01

    Includes four articles: one lists publishers' toll-free telephone numbers and Web sites; and the others explain how to obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number), an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number), and an SAN (Standard Address Number) for organizations involved in the book industry. (LRW)

  14. 25 CFR 175.50 - Obtaining rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obtaining rights-of-way. 175.50 Section 175.50 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Rights-of-Way § 175.50 Obtaining rights-of-way. Where there is no existing right(s)-of-way for...

  15. 25 CFR 175.50 - Obtaining rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Obtaining rights-of-way. 175.50 Section 175.50 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Rights-of-Way § 175.50 Obtaining rights-of-way. Where there is no existing right(s)-of-way for...

  16. 25 CFR 175.50 - Obtaining rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obtaining rights-of-way. 175.50 Section 175.50 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Rights-of-Way § 175.50 Obtaining rights-of-way. Where there is no existing right(s)-of-way for...

  17. 25 CFR 175.50 - Obtaining rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obtaining rights-of-way. 175.50 Section 175.50 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Rights-of-Way § 175.50 Obtaining rights-of-way. Where there is no existing right(s)-of-way for...

  18. 25 CFR 175.50 - Obtaining rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Obtaining rights-of-way. 175.50 Section 175.50 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Rights-of-Way § 175.50 Obtaining rights-of-way. Where there is no existing right(s)-of-way for...

  19. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14... peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained through: (1) County offices; or... presented for disbursement unless the peanuts pledged as collateral for the marketing assistance loan...

  20. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14... peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained through: (1) County offices; or... presented for disbursement unless the peanuts pledged as collateral for the marketing assistance loan...

  1. 48 CFR 9.105-1 - Obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Obtaining information. 9... information. (a) Before making a determination of responsibility, the contracting officer shall possess or obtain information sufficient to be satisfied that a prospective contractor currently meets...

  2. 48 CFR 209.105-1 - Obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Obtaining information. 209....105-1 Obtaining information. (1) For guidance on using the Exclusions section of the System for Award... responsibility (see FAR 9.104-1(c)). One source of information relating to contractor performance is the...

  3. 42 CFR 423.2118 - Obtaining evidence from the MAC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining evidence from the MAC. 423.2118 Section..., MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2118 Obtaining evidence from the MAC. An enrollee may request... the costs of providing these items. If an enrollee requests evidence from the MAC and an...

  4. 42 CFR 405.1118 - Obtaining evidence from the MAC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining evidence from the MAC. 405.1118 Section... Council Review § 405.1118 Obtaining evidence from the MAC. A party may request and receive a copy of all... these items. If a party requests evidence from the MAC and an opportunity to comment on that...

  5. A method for obtaining coefficients of compositional inverse generating functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruchinin, Dmitry V.; Shablya, Yuriy V.; Kruchinin, Vladimir V.; Shelupanov, Alexander A.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how to obtain expressions for coefficients of compositional inverse generating functions in explicit way. The method is based on the Lagrange inversion theorem and composita of generating functions. Also we give a method of obtaining expressions for coefficients of reciprocal generating functions and consider some examples.

  6. 29 CFR 541.501 - Making sales or obtaining orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Making sales or obtaining orders. 541.501 Section 541.501... SALES EMPLOYEES Outside Sales Employees § 541.501 Making sales or obtaining orders. (a) Section 541.500 requires that the employee be engaged in: (1) Making sales within the meaning of section 3(k) of the...

  7. 29 CFR 541.501 - Making sales or obtaining orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making sales or obtaining orders. 541.501 Section 541.501... SALES EMPLOYEES Outside Sales Employees § 541.501 Making sales or obtaining orders. (a) Section 541.500 requires that the employee be engaged in: (1) Making sales within the meaning of section 3(k) of the...

  8. 29 CFR 541.501 - Making sales or obtaining orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Making sales or obtaining orders. 541.501 Section 541.501... SALES EMPLOYEES Outside Sales Employees § 541.501 Making sales or obtaining orders. (a) Section 541.500 requires that the employee be engaged in: (1) Making sales within the meaning of section 3(k) of the...

  9. 29 CFR 541.501 - Making sales or obtaining orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Making sales or obtaining orders. 541.501 Section 541.501... SALES EMPLOYEES Outside Sales Employees § 541.501 Making sales or obtaining orders. (a) Section 541.500 requires that the employee be engaged in: (1) Making sales within the meaning of section 3(k) of the...

  10. 29 CFR 541.501 - Making sales or obtaining orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Making sales or obtaining orders. 541.501 Section 541.501... SALES EMPLOYEES Outside Sales Employees § 541.501 Making sales or obtaining orders. (a) Section 541.500 requires that the employee be engaged in: (1) Making sales within the meaning of section 3(k) of the...

  11. 20 CFR 726.4 - Who must obtain insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to self-insure or obtain a policy or contract of insurance to guarantee the payment of benefits for... business entity, any former, current, or future operator or any other form of business entity which has had... business entity to self-insure or obtain a policy or contract of insurance shall in no way relieve...

  12. 75 FR 22189 - Obtaining Information From the Postal Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... Commission 39 CFR Parts 3001 and 3005 Obtaining Information From the Postal Service; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal... COMMISSION 39 CFR Parts 3001 and 3005 Obtaining Information From the Postal Service AGENCY: Postal Regulatory... information from the Postal Service. Their adoption is consistent with Commission obligations under a...

  13. 46 CFR 70.35-5 - Where obtainable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 70-35-5, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Where obtainable. 70.35-5 Section 70.35-5 Shipping COAST... of Shipping's Standards § 70.35-5 Where obtainable. (a) The standards established by the...

  14. 46 CFR 188.35-5 - Where obtainable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Where obtainable. 188.35-5 Section 188.35-5 Shipping... PROVISIONS American Bureau of Shipping's Standards § 188.35-5 Where obtainable. (a) The standards established... also be examined at the Office of the Commandant (CG-CVC), U.S. Coast Guard, 2100 2nd St. SW.,...

  15. 46 CFR 70.35-5 - Where obtainable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where obtainable. 70.35-5 Section 70.35-5 Shipping COAST... of Shipping's Standards § 70.35-5 Where obtainable. (a) The standards established by the American... Office of the Commandant (CG-52), 2100 2nd St., SW., Stop 7126, Washington, DC 20593-7126, or at...

  16. 46 CFR 188.35-5 - Where obtainable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where obtainable. 188.35-5 Section 188.35-5 Shipping... PROVISIONS American Bureau of Shipping's Standards § 188.35-5 Where obtainable. (a) The standards established... also be examined at the Office of the Commandant (CG-543), U.S. Coast Guard, 2100 2nd St. SW.,...

  17. 46 CFR 70.35-5 - Where obtainable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where obtainable. 70.35-5 Section 70.35-5 Shipping COAST... of Shipping's Standards § 70.35-5 Where obtainable. (a) The standards established by the American... Office of the Commandant (CG-52), 2100 2nd St., SW., Stop 7126, Washington, DC 20593-7126, or at...

  18. 46 CFR 90.35-5 - Where obtainable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Where obtainable. 90.35-5 Section 90.35-5 Shipping COAST... American Bureau of Shipping's Standards § 90.35-5 Where obtainable. The standards established by the... Office of the Commandant (CG-5PS), 2100 2nd St. SW., Stop 7126, Washington, DC 20593-7126, or at...

  19. 46 CFR 90.35-5 - Where obtainable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where obtainable. 90.35-5 Section 90.35-5 Shipping COAST... American Bureau of Shipping's Standards § 90.35-5 Where obtainable. (a) The standards established by the... Office of the Commandant (CG-52), 2100 2nd St. SW., Stop 7126, Washington, DC 20593-7126, or at...

  20. 46 CFR 90.35-5 - Where obtainable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where obtainable. 90.35-5 Section 90.35-5 Shipping COAST... American Bureau of Shipping's Standards § 90.35-5 Where obtainable. (a) The standards established by the... Office of the Commandant (CG-52), 2100 2nd St. SW., Stop 7126, Washington, DC 20593-7126, or at...

  1. 46 CFR 188.35-5 - Where obtainable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where obtainable. 188.35-5 Section 188.35-5 Shipping... PROVISIONS American Bureau of Shipping's Standards § 188.35-5 Where obtainable. (a) The standards established... also be examined at the Office of the Commandant (CG-543), U.S. Coast Guard, 2100 2nd St. SW.,...

  2. Full complex spectrum simultaneous obtaining SD-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Shilyagin, Pavel A.

    2011-03-01

    An efficient technique of simultaneous obtaining of quadrature spectral components of interference signal in spectrometer-based OCT is proposed. The components are obtained in air-spaced non-polarization interferometer by partition of reference beam onto two parts and using an achromatic phase shifter. Several setups of phase sifter are described and compared.

  3. Gratifications Sought and Obtained: Model Specification and Theoretical Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenner, Lawrence A.

    Uses of the gratifications sought and gratifications obtained distinction in explanations of media effects have taken two conceptually distinct forms. The discrepancy approach poses that the difference between what is sought and what is actually obtained, expressed effectively as a discrepancy score, significantly aids effects explanations. The…

  4. 43 CFR 2933.10 - Obtaining Recreation Use Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Obtaining Recreation Use Permits. 2933.10... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.10 Obtaining Recreation Use Permits....

  5. 43 CFR 2933.10 - Obtaining Recreation Use Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Obtaining Recreation Use Permits. 2933.10... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.10 Obtaining Recreation Use Permits....

  6. 43 CFR 2933.10 - Obtaining Recreation Use Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Obtaining Recreation Use Permits. 2933.10... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.10 Obtaining Recreation Use Permits....

  7. 43 CFR 2933.10 - Obtaining Recreation Use Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Obtaining Recreation Use Permits. 2933.10... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.10 Obtaining Recreation Use Permits....

  8. Obtaining the Electron Angular Momentum Coupling Spectroscopic Terms, jj

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orofino, Hugo; Faria, Roberto B.

    2010-01-01

    A systematic procedure is developed to obtain the electron angular momentum coupling (jj) spectroscopic terms, which is based on building microstates in which each individual electron is placed in a different m[subscript j] "orbital". This approach is similar to that used to obtain the spectroscopic terms under the Russell-Saunders (LS) coupling…

  9. A New Method for Obtaining Russell-Saunders Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Yue; Liu, Bihui

    2011-01-01

    A new method for obtaining Russell-Saunders terms of atomic configurations is reported. This new method is significantly different from, while at the same time complementary to, previously published methods for obtaining atomic terms. This novel procedure is elicited by the method used to determine the splitting of S, P, D terms in weak ligand…

  10. 40 CFR 270.100 - Who must obtain a RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Who must obtain a RAP? 270.100 Section...) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Applying for A Rap § 270.100 Who must obtain a RAP? When a facility or remediation waste management site...

  11. 40 CFR 270.100 - Who must obtain a RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who must obtain a RAP? 270.100 Section...) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Applying for A Rap § 270.100 Who must obtain a RAP? When a facility or remediation waste management site...

  12. 40 CFR 270.100 - Who must obtain a RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Who must obtain a RAP? 270.100 Section...) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Applying for A Rap § 270.100 Who must obtain a RAP? When a facility or remediation waste management site...

  13. 40 CFR 270.100 - Who must obtain a RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Who must obtain a RAP? 270.100 Section...) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Applying for A Rap § 270.100 Who must obtain a RAP? When a facility or remediation waste management site...

  14. 40 CFR 270.100 - Who must obtain a RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who must obtain a RAP? 270.100 Section...) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Applying for A Rap § 270.100 Who must obtain a RAP? When a facility or remediation waste management site...

  15. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 275 - Obtaining Emergency Access

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obtaining Emergency Access F Appendix F to Part 275 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED..., App. F Appendix F to Part 275—Obtaining Emergency Access A. Except as provided in paragraphs B. and...

  16. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 275 - Obtaining Emergency Access

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obtaining Emergency Access F Appendix F to Part 275 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED..., App. F Appendix F to Part 275—Obtaining Emergency Access A. Except as provided in paragraphs B. and...

  17. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 275 - Obtaining Emergency Access

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Obtaining Emergency Access F Appendix F to Part 275 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED..., App. F Appendix F to Part 275—Obtaining Emergency Access A. Except as provided in paragraphs B. and...

  18. 48 CFR 209.105-1 - Obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Information Retrieval System (PPIRS), available at http://www.ppirs.gov. Information relating to contract... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining information. 209....105-1 Obtaining information. (1) For guidance on using the Excluded Parties List System, see PGI...

  19. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14... peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained through: (1) County offices; or... presented for disbursement unless the peanuts pledged as collateral for the marketing assistance loan...

  20. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14... peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained through: (1) County offices; or... presented for disbursement unless the peanuts pledged as collateral for the marketing assistance loan...

  1. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14... peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained through: (1) County offices; or... presented for disbursement unless the peanuts pledged as collateral for the marketing assistance loan...

  2. 16 CFR 4.8 - Costs for obtaining Commission records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Costs for obtaining Commission records. 4.8 Section 4.8 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE MISCELLANEOUS RULES § 4.8 Costs for obtaining Commission records. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of this section: (1) The term search...

  3. 7 CFR 46.42 - Copies of records; how obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Copies of records; how obtained. 46.42 Section 46.42... REGULATIONS (OTHER THAN RULES OF PRACTICE) UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT, 1930 Copies of Records § 46.42 Copies of records; how obtained. Copies of records pertaining to licensees under the...

  4. 48 CFR 51.203 - Means of obtaining service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Means of obtaining service. 51.203 Section 51.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT... (IFMS) 51.203 Means of obtaining service. (a) Authorized contractors shall submit requests...

  5. 48 CFR 51.203 - Means of obtaining service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Means of obtaining service. 51.203 Section 51.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT... (IFMS) 51.203 Means of obtaining service. (a) Authorized contractors shall submit requests...

  6. 48 CFR 51.203 - Means of obtaining service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Means of obtaining service. 51.203 Section 51.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT... (IFMS) 51.203 Means of obtaining service. (a) Authorized contractors shall submit requests...

  7. 9 CFR 2.52 - How to obtain tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How to obtain tags. 2.52 Section 2.52 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Identification of Animals § 2.52 How to obtain tags. Dealers or exhibitors may...

  8. 9 CFR 2.52 - How to obtain tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How to obtain tags. 2.52 Section 2.52 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Identification of Animals § 2.52 How to obtain tags. Dealers or exhibitors may...

  9. 9 CFR 2.52 - How to obtain tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How to obtain tags. 2.52 Section 2.52 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Identification of Animals § 2.52 How to obtain tags. Dealers or exhibitors may...

  10. 9 CFR 2.52 - How to obtain tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How to obtain tags. 2.52 Section 2.52 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Identification of Animals § 2.52 How to obtain tags. Dealers or exhibitors may...

  11. 9 CFR 2.52 - How to obtain tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How to obtain tags. 2.52 Section 2.52 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Identification of Animals § 2.52 How to obtain tags. Dealers or exhibitors may...

  12. 34 CFR 685.201 - Obtaining a loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining a loan. 685.201 Section 685.201 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION WILLIAM D. FORD FEDERAL DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM Borrower Provisions § 685.201 Obtaining...

  13. 22 CFR 92.80 - Obtaining American vital statistics records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obtaining American vital statistics records. 92... statistics records. Individuals who inquire as to means of obtaining copies of or extracts from American... Vital Statistics Office at the place where the record is kept, which is usually in the capital city...

  14. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 275 - Obtaining Emergency Access

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining Emergency Access F Appendix F to Part 275 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED..., App. F Appendix F to Part 275—Obtaining Emergency Access A. Except as provided in paragraphs B. and...

  15. 22 CFR 92.80 - Obtaining American vital statistics records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Obtaining American vital statistics records. 92... statistics records. Individuals who inquire as to means of obtaining copies of or extracts from American... Vital Statistics Office at the place where the record is kept, which is usually in the capital city...

  16. 22 CFR 92.80 - Obtaining American vital statistics records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Obtaining American vital statistics records. 92... statistics records. Individuals who inquire as to means of obtaining copies of or extracts from American... Vital Statistics Office at the place where the record is kept, which is usually in the capital city...

  17. 22 CFR 92.80 - Obtaining American vital statistics records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obtaining American vital statistics records. 92... statistics records. Individuals who inquire as to means of obtaining copies of or extracts from American... Vital Statistics Office at the place where the record is kept, which is usually in the capital city...

  18. 22 CFR 92.80 - Obtaining American vital statistics records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obtaining American vital statistics records. 92... statistics records. Individuals who inquire as to means of obtaining copies of or extracts from American... Vital Statistics Office at the place where the record is kept, which is usually in the capital city...

  19. 16 CFR 4.8 - Costs for obtaining Commission records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Costs for obtaining Commission records. 4.8 Section 4.8 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE MISCELLANEOUS RULES § 4.8 Costs for obtaining Commission records. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of...

  20. HNO3 profiles obtained during the EASOE campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murcray, F. J.; Starkey, J. R.; Williams, W. J.; Matthews, W. A.; Schmidt, U.; Aimedieu, P.; Camy-Peyret, C.

    1994-01-01

    A small cryogenically cooled spectrometer system designed to obtain atmospheric emission spectra in the 7.5 micrometer to 13.0 micrometer region was flown piggyback on 9 balloon flights from ESRANGE (67.9 deg N, 21.2 deg E) during the European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment (EASOE) campaign. Initial analysis of the spectra obtained has been concentrated on obtaining HNO3 profiles for the various flights. HNO3 profiles for 17 December 1991, 9 January 1992, 22 January 1992, 5 February 1992 and 14 March 1992 are presented.

  1. Quality assessment of electroencephalography obtained from a "dry electrode" system.

    PubMed

    Slater, Jeremy D; Kalamangalam, Giridhar P; Hope, Omotola

    2012-07-15

    This study examines the difference in application times for routine electroencephalography (EEG) utilizing traditional electrodes and a "dry electrode" headset. The primary outcome measure was the time to interpretable EEG (TIE). A secondary outcome measure of recording quality and interpretability was obtained from EEG sample review by two blinded clinical neurophysiologists. With EEG samples obtained from 10 subjects, the average TIE for the "dry electrode" system was 139s, and for the conventional recording 873s (p<0.001). The results support the hypothesis that such a "dry electrode" system can be applied with more than an 80% reduction in the TIE while still obtaining interpretable EEG.

  2. Wood-Polymer composites obtained by gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gago, J.; Lopez, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Santiago, J.; Acevedo, M.

    2007-10-26

    In this work we impregnate three Peruvian woods (Calycophy spruceanum Be, Aniba amazonica Meiz and Hura crepitans L) with styrene-polyester resin and methyl methacrylate. The polymerization of the system was promoted by gamma radiation and the experimental optimal condition was obtained with styrene-polyester 1:1 and 15 kGy. The obtained composites show reduced water absorption and better mechanical properties compared to the original wood. The structure of the wood-polymer composites was studied by light microscopy. Water absorption and hardness were also obtained.

  3. Generator for gallium-68 and compositions obtained therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Neirinckx, Rudi D.; Davis, Michael A.

    1981-01-01

    A generator for obtaining radioactive gallium-68 from germanium-68 bound in a resin containing unsubstituted phenolic hydroxyl groups. The germanium-68 is loaded into the resin from an aqueous solution of the germanium-68. A physiologically acceptable solution of gallium-68 having an activity of 0.1 to 50 millicuries per milliliter of gallium-68 solution is obtained. The solution is obtained from the bound germanium-68 which forms gallium-68 in situ by eluting the column with a hydrochloric acid solution to form an acidic solution of gallium-68. The acidic solution of gallium-68 can be neutralized.

  4. Hydrolysis of starch and fermentable hydrolysates obtained therefrom

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, W.C.; Miller, F.D.

    1981-05-05

    Starch in slurry was liquefied by strong acid and a-amylase, saccharified in the presence of acid cation exchanger, and neutralized with NH/sub 4/OH to obtain an aqueous solution of fermentable sugar.

  5. 7 CFR 56.20 - Who may obtain grading service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Application for Grading Service § 56.20 Who may obtain grading service....

  6. Treatment of biomass to obtain a target chemical

    DOEpatents

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Elander, Richard T.; Hennessey, Susan Marie

    2010-08-24

    Target chemicals were produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  7. Using Mathematica and Maple To Obtain Chemical Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missen, Ronald W.; Smith, William R.

    1997-01-01

    Shows how the computer software programs Mathematica and Maple can be used to obtain chemical equations to represent the stoichiometry of a reacting system. Specific examples are included. Contains 10 references. (DKM)

  8. 46 CFR 176.105 - How to obtain or renew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Form CG-3752 may be obtained at any U.S. Coast Guard Sector Office or Marine Inspection Office. (b) The... the start of the construction or conversion. (c) The construction, arrangement, and equipment of...

  9. Color coded data obtained by JPL's Shuttle Multispectral Infrared radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Color coded data obtained from Baja California, Mexico to Texas by JPL's Shuttle Multispectral Infrared radiometer is pictured. The map shows where data was obtained on the 19th orbit of the mission. Yellow and green areas represent water. The first brown segment at left is Baja California, and the second begins at the coast of mainland Mexico and extends into Texas. The dark brown strips at the right are clouds.

  10. Enhanced reduction of velocity data obtained during CETA flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Tom D.; Wong, Douglas T.; Tripp, John S.

    1993-01-01

    A newly developed technique for enhanced data reduction provides an improved procedure that allows least squares minimization to become possible between data sets with an unequal number of data points. This technique was applied in the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment on the STS-37 Shuttle flight in April 1991 to obtain the velocity profile from the acceleration data. The new technique uses a least-squares method to estimate the initial conditions and calibration constants. These initial conditions are estimated by least-squares fitting the displacements indicated by the Hall-effect sensor data to the corresponding displacements obtained from integrating the acceleration data. The velocity and displacement profiles can then be recalculated from the corresponding acceleration data using the estimated parameters. This technique, which enables instantaneous velocities to be obtained from the test data instead of only average velocities at varying discrete times, offers more detailed velocity information, particularly during periods of large acceleration or deceleration.

  11. Functionality of porous starch obtained by amylase or amyloglucosidase treatments.

    PubMed

    Dura, A; Błaszczak, W; Rosell, C M

    2014-01-30

    Porous starch is attracting very much attention for its absorption and shielding ability in many food applications. The effect of two different enzymes, fungal α-amylase (AM) or amyloglucosidase (AMG), on corn starch at sub-gelatinization temperature was studied as an alternative to obtain porous starch. Biochemical features, thermal and structural analyses of treated starches were studied. Microscopic analysis of the granules confirmed the enzymatic modification of the starches obtaining porous structures with more agglomerates in the case of AMG treated starches. Several changes in thermal properties and hydrolysis kinetics were observed in enzymatically modified starches. Hydration properties were significantly affected by enzymatic modification being greater influenced by AMG activity, and the opposite trend was observed in the pasting properties. Overall, results showed that enzymatic modification at sub-gelatinization temperatures really offer an attractive alternative for obtaining porous starch granules to be used in a variety of foods applications.

  12. Inverse Modelling to Obtain Head Movement Controller Signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, W. S.; Lee, S. H.; Hannaford, B.; Stark, L.

    1984-01-01

    Experimentally obtained dynamics of time-optimal, horizontal head rotations have previously been simulated by a sixth order, nonlinear model driven by rectangular control signals. Electromyography (EMG) recordings have spects which differ in detail from the theoretical rectangular pulsed control signal. Control signals for time-optimal as well as sub-optimal horizontal head rotations were obtained by means of an inverse modelling procedures. With experimentally measured dynamical data serving as the input, this procedure inverts the model to produce the neurological control signals driving muscles and plant. The relationships between these controller signals, and EMG records should contribute to the understanding of the neurological control of movements.

  13. Vibrational properties of gold nanoparticles obtained by green synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Ramón A. B.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Bueno, L. Oscar Neira; Britto Hurtado, R.; Rocha-Rocha, O.; Delgado-Beleño, Y.; Martinez-Nuñez, C. E.; Serrano-Corrales, Luis Ivan; Arizpe-Chávez, H.; Flores-Acosta, M.

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles through an ecological method to obtain nanostructures from the extract of the plant Opuntia ficus-indica. Colloidal nanoparticles show sizes that vary between 10-20 nm, and present various geometric morphologies. The samples were characterized through optical absorption, Raman Spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Additionally, low energy metallic clusters of Aun (n=2-20 atoms) were modeled by computational quantum chemistry. The theoretical results were obtained with Density Functional Theory (DFT). The predicted results of Au clusters show a tendency and are correlated with the experimental results concerning the optical absorption bands and Raman spectroscopy in gold nanoparticles.

  14. Characterization of a rare earth oxide obtained from xenotime mineral

    SciTech Connect

    Vernilli, Fernando . E-mail: fernando.vernilli@demar.faenquil.br; Camargo Vernilli, Daniela; Ferreira, Bento; Silva, Gilbert

    2007-01-15

    This paper reports on the characterization of a rare earth oxide obtained by hydrometallurgy of the mineral xenotime, an yttrium phosphate containing other rare earths, and comparison with mixtures of rare earth oxides prepared in different ways. The results indicated that hydrometallurgy from xenotime yielded a solid solution of the rare earth oxides. However, when the pure rare earth oxides were simply mixed physically then heat-treated at 1000 deg. C, a similar solid solution was not obtained. On the other hand, when the mixtures were prepared using a co-precipitation process, subsequent heat treatment did produce oxide solid solutions similar to that produced by hydrometallurgy of xenotime.

  15. 32 CFR 564.40 - Procedures for obtaining medical care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procedures for obtaining medical care. 564.40... care. (a) When a member of the ARNG incurs a disease or an injury, while performing training duty under... benefits. (b) Authorization for care in civilian facility. (1) An individual who desires medical or...

  16. 9 CFR 354.30 - Who may obtain inspection service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who may obtain inspection service. 354.30 Section 354.30 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  17. 9 CFR 354.30 - Who may obtain inspection service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who may obtain inspection service. 354.30 Section 354.30 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  18. 7 CFR 621.21 - Who may obtain assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Who may obtain assistance. 621.21 Section 621.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS Floodplain...

  19. 7 CFR 621.21 - Who may obtain assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Who may obtain assistance. 621.21 Section 621.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS Floodplain...

  20. 7 CFR 621.21 - Who may obtain assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who may obtain assistance. 621.21 Section 621.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS Floodplain...

  1. 7 CFR 621.21 - Who may obtain assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who may obtain assistance. 621.21 Section 621.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS Floodplain...

  2. 7 CFR 621.21 - Who may obtain assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who may obtain assistance. 621.21 Section 621.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS Floodplain...

  3. 34 CFR 682.102 - Obtaining and repaying a loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... school, lender or guarantor. The school determines and certifies the student's eligibility for the loan... parent to obtain a PLUS loan, the parent completes an application and submits it to the school for certification. After the school certifies the application, the application is submitted to a...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 275 - Obtaining Customer Authorization

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS OBTAINING INFORMATION FROM FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: RIGHT TO FINANCIAL PRIVACY ACT... enforcement office or personal security element seeking access to a person's financial records shall, when..., shall: 1. Be in writing, signed, and dated. 2. Identify the particular financial records that are...

  5. 18 CFR 292.207 - Procedures for obtaining qualifying status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedures for obtaining qualifying status. 292.207 Section 292.207 Conservation of Power and Water Resources...

  6. Mass Media Campaign Impacts Influenza Vaccine Obtainment of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shropshire, Ali M.; Brent-Hotchkiss, Renee; Andrews, Urkovia K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the effectiveness of a mass media campaign in increasing the rate of college student influenza vaccine obtainment. Participants/Methods: Students ("N" = 721) at a large southern university completed a survey between September 2011 and January 2012 assessing what flu clinic media sources were visualized and if they…

  7. 20 CFR 327.15 - Reasonable efforts to obtain work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 327.15 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT AVAILABLE FOR WORK § 327.15 Reasonable efforts to obtain work. (a) Requirement. A claimant may... claimant's unemployment unless sufficient evidence of the claimant's availability for work on such days...

  8. 16 CFR 4.8 - Costs for obtaining Commission records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Costs for obtaining Commission records. 4.8... format (scanning) 2.50 per page. Computer programming 8.00 per qtr. hour. Other Fees: Computer Tape 18.50... category, and adding 16 percent to reflect the cost of additional benefits accorded to government...

  9. 7 CFR 201.45 - Obtaining the working sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.45 Obtaining the working sample. (a) The... available, the sample shall be thoroughly mixed and placed in a pile and the pile shall be...

  10. 9 CFR 439.10 - Criteria for obtaining accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ACT ACCREDITATION OF NON-FEDERAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORIES § 439.10 Criteria for obtaining accreditation. (a) Analytical laboratories may be accredited for the analyses of food chemistry analytes, as defined... accreditation, the supervisor must also have one year's experience in food chemistry analysis, or...

  11. 9 CFR 439.10 - Criteria for obtaining accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ACT ACCREDITATION OF NON-FEDERAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORIES § 439.10 Criteria for obtaining accreditation. (a) Analytical laboratories may be accredited for the analyses of food chemistry analytes, as defined... accreditation, the supervisor must also have one year's experience in food chemistry analysis, or...

  12. 9 CFR 439.10 - Criteria for obtaining accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ACT ACCREDITATION OF NON-FEDERAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORIES § 439.10 Criteria for obtaining accreditation. (a) Analytical laboratories may be accredited for the analyses of food chemistry analytes, as defined... accreditation, the supervisor must also have one year's experience in food chemistry analysis, or...

  13. Information and Services Obtained and Desired by Parents of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemer, Richard H.; Kivett, Vira R.

    The 3 main objectives of this study, the fourth and final phase of an investigation to determine the information and services obtained and desired by rural parents during 4 stages of child rearing, were to determine: (1) the sources from which parents of adolescents received information and services regarding child care and development; (2) the…

  14. 47 CFR 1.8002 - Obtaining an FRN.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FCC Registration Number § 1.8002... kept current by registrants either by updating the information on-line at the CORES link at www.fcc.gov or by filing FCC Form 161 (CORES Update/Change Form). (c) A business may obtain as many FRNs as...

  15. Is obesity an independent barrier to obtaining prenatal care?

    PubMed Central

    Landsberger, Ellen J.; Bernstein, Peter S.; Chazotte, Cynthia; Srinivas, Sindhu K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity is a demonstrated barrier to obtaining healthcare. Its impact on obtaining prenatal care (PNC) is unknown. Our objective was to determine if obesity is an independent barrier to accessing early and adequate PNC. Study Design We performed a retrospective cohort study of women who initiated PNC and delivered at our institution in 2005. BMI was categorized by World Health Organization guidelines: underweight (<18.5kg/m2), normal weight (18.5–24.9kg/m2), overweight (25.0–29.9kg/m2), and obese (≥30 kg/m2). Maternal history and delivery information were obtained through chart abstraction. Differences in gestational age at first visit (GA-1) and adequate PNC were evaluated by BMI category. Data were compared using χ2 and non-parametric analyses. Results 410 women were evaluated. Overall, the median GA-1 was 11.1 weeks and 69% had adequate PNC. There was no difference in GA-1 or adequate PNC by BMI category (p=0.17 and p=0.66, respectively). When BMI groups were dichotomized into obese and non-obese women, there was no difference in GA-1 or adequate PNC, p=0.41. Conclusion In our population, obesity is not an independent barrier to receiving early and adequate PNC. Future work is warranted in evaluating the association between obesity and PNC and the perceived barriers to obtaining care. PMID:23023556

  16. Weather Satellite Pictures and How to Obtain Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petit, Noel J.; Johnson, Philip

    1982-01-01

    An introduction to satellite meteorology is presented to promote use of live weather satellite photographs in the classroom. Topics addressed include weather satellites, how they work, earth emissions, satellite photography, satellite image analysis, obtaining satellite pictures, and future considerations. Includes sources for materials to…

  17. 43 CFR 3581.2 - Who may obtain a lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Who may obtain a lease. 3581.2 Section 3581.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Gold, Silver,...

  18. 43 CFR 3581.2 - Who may obtain a lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who may obtain a lease. 3581.2 Section 3581.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Gold, Silver,...

  19. 48 CFR 9.105-1 - Obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the responsibility of prospective contractors, including requesting preaward surveys when necessary..., especially when research and development is involved, the contracting officer may obtain this information... information concerning (i) the low bidder or (ii) those offerors in range for award. (2) Preaward...

  20. 7 CFR 621.11 - Who may obtain assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Who may obtain assistance. 621.11 Section 621.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS USDA Cooperative...

  1. 9 CFR 439.10 - Criteria for obtaining accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ACT ACCREDITATION OF NON-FEDERAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORIES § 439.10 Criteria for obtaining accreditation. (a) Analytical laboratories may be accredited for the analyses of food chemistry analytes, as defined... successfully satisfies the requirements presented below. For food chemistry accreditation, the...

  2. 43 CFR 3581.2 - Who may obtain a lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Who may obtain a lease. 3581.2 Section 3581.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Gold, Silver,...

  3. 43 CFR 3581.2 - Who may obtain a lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who may obtain a lease. 3581.2 Section 3581.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Gold, Silver,...

  4. 20 CFR 726.4 - Who must obtain insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Who must obtain insurance coverage. 726.4 Section 726.4 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL...

  5. 20 CFR 726.4 - Who must obtain insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who must obtain insurance coverage. 726.4 Section 726.4 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL...

  6. 20 CFR 726.4 - Who must obtain insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who must obtain insurance coverage. 726.4 Section 726.4 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL...

  7. 32 CFR 806b.8 - Obtaining law enforcement records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Obtaining law enforcement records. The Commander, Air Force Office of Special Investigation; the Commander, Air Force Security Forces Center; Major Command, Field Operating Agency, and base chiefs of security... Section 806b.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR...

  8. 32 CFR 806b.8 - Obtaining law enforcement records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Obtaining law enforcement records. The Commander, Air Force Office of Special Investigation; the Commander, Air Force Security Forces Center; Major Command, Field Operating Agency, and base chiefs of security... Section 806b.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR...

  9. 15 CFR 711.6 - Where to obtain forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Where to obtain forms. 711.6 Section 711.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS...

  10. 21 CFR 1315.34 - Obtaining an import quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Procurement and Import Quotas § 1315.34 Obtaining an import quota. (a) Any person who is registered to import ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or... desires to import during the next calendar year any ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine...

  11. 21 CFR 1315.34 - Obtaining an import quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Procurement and Import Quotas § 1315.34 Obtaining an import quota. (a) Any person who is registered to import ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or... desires to import during the next calendar year any ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine...

  12. 21 CFR 1315.32 - Obtaining a procurement quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Procurement and Import Quotas § 1315.32 Obtaining a procurement quota. (a) Any person who is registered to manufacture ephedrine... this chapter, and who desires to use during the next calendar year any ephedrine, pseudoephedrine,...

  13. 21 CFR 1315.34 - Obtaining an import quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Procurement and Import Quotas § 1315.34 Obtaining an import quota. (a) Any person who is registered to import ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or... desires to import during the next calendar year any ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine...

  14. 21 CFR 1315.32 - Obtaining a procurement quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Procurement and Import Quotas § 1315.32 Obtaining a procurement quota. (a) Any person who is registered to manufacture ephedrine... this chapter, and who desires to use during the next calendar year any ephedrine, pseudoephedrine,...

  15. 21 CFR 1315.32 - Obtaining a procurement quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Procurement and Import Quotas § 1315.32 Obtaining a procurement quota. (a) Any person who is registered to manufacture ephedrine... this chapter, and who desires to use during the next calendar year any ephedrine, pseudoephedrine,...

  16. 21 CFR 1315.32 - Obtaining a procurement quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Procurement and Import Quotas § 1315.32 Obtaining a procurement quota. (a) Any person who is registered to manufacture ephedrine... this chapter, and who desires to use during the next calendar year any ephedrine, pseudoephedrine,...

  17. 21 CFR 1315.34 - Obtaining an import quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Procurement and Import Quotas § 1315.34 Obtaining an import quota. (a) Any person who is registered to import ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or... desires to import during the next calendar year any ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine...

  18. 21 CFR 1315.34 - Obtaining an import quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Procurement and Import Quotas § 1315.34 Obtaining an import quota. (a) Any person who is registered to import ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or... desires to import during the next calendar year any ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine...

  19. 42 CFR 37.204 - Procedure for obtaining payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedure for obtaining payment. 37.204 Section 37.204 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND... correlation with clinical history if indicated. Figure 1 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  20. 48 CFR 9.105-1 - Obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Retrieval System (PPIRS), and any other relevant past performance information (see 9.104-1(c) and subpart 42... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining information. 9... information. (a) Before making a determination of responsibility, the contracting officer shall possess...

  1. 24 CFR 245.205 - Efforts to obtain assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... subpart to enter into a Housing Assistance Payments Contract pursuant to 24 CFR part 982 for the benefit... contract under part 236, subpart D, of this chapter, or a Housing Assistance Payments Contract under 24 CFR... Efforts to obtain assistance. (a) Mortgagors subject to the requirements of this subpart shall...

  2. 7 CFR 54.6 - How to obtain service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 54.6 How to obtain service... written requests for service under the regulations with respect to specific products for which the service is to be furnished under such application. Such requests shall be made at an office for...

  3. METHOD FOR OBTAINING PLUTONIUM METAL FROM ITS TRICHLORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Reavis, J.G.; Leary, J.A.; Maraman, W.J.

    1962-08-14

    A method was developed for obtaining plutonium metal by direct reduction of plutonium chloride, without the use of a booster, using calcium and lanthamum as a reductant, the said reduction being carried out at temperature in the range of 700 to 850 deg C and at about atmospheric pressure. (AEC)

  4. 27 CFR 17.103 - Bonds obtained from surety companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... U.S.C. 9304, and 31 CFR part 223. (b) A bond executed by two or more surety companies shall be the... companies. 17.103 Section 17.103 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Bonds and Consents of Sureties § 17.103 Bonds obtained from surety companies. (a)...

  5. 48 CFR 509.105-1 - Obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining information. 509.105-1 Section 509.105-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... any appropriate activities, e.g., legal counsel, quality control, contract management, credit...

  6. 7 CFR 1737.41 - Procedure for obtaining approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the interim financing, see 7 CFR 1737.22(b)(9). (v) A “Certification Regarding Lobbying” for loans, or... TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS Interim Financing of Construction of Telephone Facilities § 1737.41 Procedure for obtaining... financing. This request shall include: (1) A description of the construction proposed under...

  7. 34 CFR 685.201 - Obtaining a loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obtaining a loan. 685.201 Section 685.201 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) WILLIAM D. FORD FEDERAL DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM Borrower Provisions §...

  8. 34 CFR 685.201 - Obtaining a loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obtaining a loan. 685.201 Section 685.201 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) WILLIAM D. FORD FEDERAL DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM Borrower Provisions §...

  9. 34 CFR 685.201 - Obtaining a loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obtaining a loan. 685.201 Section 685.201 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) WILLIAM D. FORD FEDERAL DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM Borrower Provisions §...

  10. A Simple Method for Obtaining Russell-Saunders Term Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicente, J.

    1983-01-01

    Most inorganic chemistry textbooks present the determination of spectroscopic terms obtained from a given electronic configuration by a method which requires explicitly writing down all microstates. A method is provided and discussed in which tabulating all possible microstates is not required. (JN)

  11. 7 CFR 54.6 - How to obtain service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) MEATS, PREPARED MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 54.6 How to obtain service...'s new commitment. If more than one applicant is involved in the reapplication for a canceled...

  12. 29 CFR 4003.3 - PBGC assistance in obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... obtaining information. A person who lacks information or documents necessary to file a request for review... other than the PBGC. The request shall state or describe the missing information or documents, the reason why the person needs the information or documents, and the reason why the person needs...

  13. 29 CFR 4003.3 - PBGC assistance in obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... obtaining information. A person who lacks information or documents necessary to file a request for review... other than the PBGC. The request shall state or describe the missing information or documents, the reason why the person needs the information or documents, and the reason why the person needs...

  14. 29 CFR 4003.3 - PBGC assistance in obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... obtaining information. A person who lacks information or documents necessary to file a request for review... other than the PBGC. The request shall state or describe the missing information or documents, the reason why the person needs the information or documents, and the reason why the person needs...

  15. 24 CFR 3286.307 - Process for obtaining trainer's qualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Process for obtaining trainer's qualification. 3286.307 Section 3286.307 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT...

  16. 24 CFR 3286.207 - Process for obtaining installation license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Process for obtaining installation license. 3286.207 Section 3286.207 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT...

  17. How Living Things Obtain Energy: A Simpler Explanation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igelsrud, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    Examines five basic reactions which describe the biochemical pathways for living things obtaining energy. Shows the reactions that occur in respiration after glycolysis, the dehydrogenation reaction, decarboxylation, and two kinds of make-ready reactions which prepare molecules for further dehydrogenation and decarboxylation. Diagrams are…

  18. 19 CFR 145.22 - Procedures for obtaining administrative review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of duty assessed under a mail entry, he may obtain administrative review in the following ways: (a) He may pay the assessed duty, take delivery of the merchandise, and send a copy of the mail entry to... believed the duty assessed is incorrect. Any invoices, bills of sale, or other evidence should be...

  19. Using Weighted Least Squares Regression for Obtaining Langmuir Sorption Constants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the most commonly used models for describing phosphorus (P) sorption to soils is the Langmuir model. To obtain model parameters, the Langmuir model is fit to measured sorption data using least squares regression. Least squares regression is based on several assumptions including normally dist...

  20. Accentuate the Negative: Obtaining Effective Reviews through Focused Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Geoff

    1997-01-01

    Proposes an approach that emphasizes negative, "what did we do wrong?" questions so that technical communicators can obtain useful feedback on documents. Notes that this approach focuses limited resources on areas that need improvement, rather than areas that already work well and that do not require immediate improvement. (RS)

  1. Glass transition temperatures of liquid prepolymers obtained by thermal penetrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potts, J. E., Jr.; Ashcraft, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    Thermal penetrometry is experimental technique for detecting temperature at which frozen prepolymer becomes soft enough to be pierced by weighted penetrometer needle; temperature at which this occurs is called penetration temperature. Apparatus used to obtain penetration temperatures can be set up largely from standard parts.

  2. Ordered Multilayers Obtained by Electrostatic Self-Assembly.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arys, X.; Glinel, K.; Jonas, A. M.; Legras, R.; Fisher, P.; Laschewsky, A.

    2001-03-01

    The formation of ultrathin polymer films by successive adsorption of polyelectrolytes of opposite charge has been extensively studied from 1992 on. In all reported cases where organic polyelectrolytes have been used, the profuse intermixing which exists between subsequent layers results in virtually structureless films. However, we have recently discovered a possibility to obtain internally-structured films, by using polyelectrolytes of reduced linear charge density, which contain either long hydrophobic sequences or mesogenic moeities. In the present communication, we report on the principles governing growth and internal organization of such multilayers obtained from a series of ionenes of systematically varied chemical structure. We also compare the structure of these fully organic multilayers with the one of self-assembled hybrid systems, where the polyanion is replaced by negatively charged clay platelets.

  3. A manual method to obtain platelet rich plasma

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Fabiana Paulino; Ingham, Sheila Jean McNeill; Forgas, Andrea; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Sasaki, Pedro Henrique; Abdalla, Rene Jorge

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study is to report a manual method to obtain platelet rich plasma (PRP). METHODS: For this study 61 ml of peripheral blood was obtained and submitted to centrifugation at 541g for 5 min. The centrifugation separates the blood into three components: red blood cells, buffy coat and platelet rich plasma. Blood and platelet rich plasma samples were sent to the Hospital's Laboratory and platelets and leukocytes were measured. RESULTS: A sample of 637 blood donors was evaluated. The platelet yield efficiency was 86.77% and the increase in platelet concentration factor was 2.89 times. The increase in leukocyte concentration factor was 1.97 times. CONCLUSION: The method described here produces leukocyte-rich and platelet-rich plasma with a high platelet and leukocyte increased factor. Level of Evidence IV, Controlled Laboratory Study. PMID:24868183

  4. Stratospheric HBr mixing ratio obtained from far infrared emission spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. H.; Carli, B.; Barbis, A.

    1989-01-01

    Emission features of HBr isotopes have been identified in high-resolution FIR emission spectra obtained with a balloon-borne Fourier-transform spectrometer in the spring of 1979 at 32 deg N latitude. When six single-scan spectra at a zenith angle of 93.2 deg were averaged, two features of HBr isotopes at 50.054 and 50.069/cm were obtained with a signal-to-noise ratio of 2.5. The volume mixing ratio retrieved from the average spectrum is 2.0 x 10 to the -11th, which is assumed to be constant above 28 km, with an uncertainty of 35 percent. This stratospheric amount of HBr is about the same as the current level of tropospheric organic bromine compounds, 25 pptv. Thus HBr could be the major stratospheric bromine species.

  5. Methods for obtaining active mutanase preparations from Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus.

    PubMed

    Pleszczyńska, Małgorzata; Wiater, Adrian; Szczodrak, Janusz

    2008-01-01

    The strain Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus MP-1 was used to obtain mutan-hydrolyzing enzymes. Different methods of precipitation and concentration of the post culture liquid were tested. All these methods produced satisfactory results in regard to the overall activity of mutanase and yielded active preparations of the enzyme. The best precipitation was obtained with propanol -98% of the initial enzyme activity was preserved with a purification of 2-fold. Salting out with ammonium sulfate at 50% saturation gave mutanase recovery of 77% and a purification of around 2-fold. Ultrafiltration yielded an about 10-fold concentrated preparation of the enzyme with a yield of 98%. Lyophilization and concentration of the culture broth (in the range from 5 to 20 times) in a vacuum evaporator yielded active crude preparations with mutanase recovery of 97%.

  6. Hydroxylapatite nanoparticles obtained by fiber laser-induced fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutinguiza, M.; Lusquiños, F.; Riveiro, A.; Comesaña, R.; Pou, J.

    2009-03-01

    This work presents the results of laser-induced fragmentation of hydroxylapatite microparticles in water dissolution. Calcined fish bones in form of powder, which were previously milled to achieve microsized particles, were used as precursor material. Two different laser sources were employed to reduce the size of the suspended particles: a pulsed Nd:YAG laser and a Ytterbium doped fiber laser working in continuous wave mode. The morphology as well as the composition of the obtained particles was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and conventional and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM, HRTEM). The results show that nanometric particles of hydroxylapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate as small as 10 nm diameter can be obtained.

  7. Periods found in heat measurements obtained by calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, K.C.

    1984-02-28

    During a span of 640 days, a periodicity of 1.5158 +- 0.0008 days was discovered in successive heater equilibria on Calorimeter No. 127. Measurements were taken at 12-h intervals, with occasional changes of exactly 3 or 6 h in the schedule of measurements. This schedule eliminated all other possible periods except a period of 0.150156 days. Periods of 1.519125 and 1.511283 days were discovered in data on the excess length of day as obtained by the US Naval Observatory over a period of 24 y. These two periods could equally well represent periods of 0.150189 and 0.150112 days, since measurements were obtained only once every 24 h. It is suggested that periods observed in sensitive calorimeters and in length of day data may be related. 1 reference, 6 figures, 5 tables.

  8. Calibration results obtained with Liulin-4 type dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Dachev, Ts; Tomov, B; Matviichuk, Yu; Dimitrov, Pl; Lemaire, J; Gregoire, Gh; Cyamukungu, M; Schmitz, H; Fujitaka, K; Uchihori, Y; Kitamura, H; Reitz, G; Beaujean, R; Petrov, V; Shurshakov, V; Benghin, V; Spurny, F

    2002-01-01

    The Mobile Radiation Exposure Control System's (Liulin-4 type) main purpose is to monitor simultaneously the doses and fluxes at 4 independent places. It can also be used for personnel dosimetry. The system consists of 4 battery-operated 256-channel dosimeters-spectrometers. We describe results obtained during the calibrations of the spectrometers at the Cyclotron facilities of the University of Louvain, Belgium and of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences-STA, Chiba, Japan with protons of energies up to 70 MeV. The angular sensitivities of the devices are studied and compared with Monte-Carlo predictions. We also present the results obtained at the HIMAC accelerator with 500 MeV/u Fe ions and at the CERN high energy radiation reference fields. Records made during airplane flights are shown and compared with the predictions of the CARI-6 model.

  9. Structure and properties of porous ceramics obtained from aluminum hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levkov, R.; Kulkov, S.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the study of porous ceramics obtained from aluminum hydroxide with gibbsite modification is presented. The dependence of porosity and mechanical characteristics of the material sintered at different temperatures was studied. It was shown that compressive strength of alumina ceramics increases by 40 times with decreasing the pore volume from 65 to 15%. It was shown that aluminum hydroxide may be used for pore formation and pore volume in the sintered ceramics can be controlled by varying the aluminum hydroxide concentration and sintering temperature. Based on these results one can conclude that the obtained structure is very close to inorganic bone matrix and can be used as promising material for bone implants production.

  10. Quantum algorithm for obtaining the eigenstates of a physical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hefeng

    2016-05-01

    We propose a quantum algorithm for solving the following problem: given the Hamiltonian of a physical system and one of its eigenvalues, how do we obtain the corresponding eigenstate? The algorithm is based on the resonance phenomenon. For a probe qubit coupled to a quantum system, the system exhibits resonance dynamics when the frequency of the probe qubit matches a transition frequency in the system. Therefore the system can be guided to evolve to the eigenstate with a known eigenvalue by inducing the resonance between the probe qubit and a designed transition in the system. This algorithm can also be used to obtain the energy spectrum of a physical system and can achieve even quadratic speedup over the phase estimation algorithm.

  11. Obtainment and characterization of a potential functional ingredient from olive.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Díaz-Rubio, M Elena; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2015-01-01

    Current olive oil production methods generate huge amounts of polluting waste, containing most of the health-related compounds in olive. Here, a new product is obtained from olive after pitting, drying and oil extraction, without generating waste. Its characterization showed the presence, within a single matrix, of more than 90% of the polyphenols present in olive, including hydroyxtyrosols (commonly not transferred to olive oil), dietary fiber, oleic acid and polyalcohols. This product is a potential new functional ingredient, consumption of which may lead to additive and/or synergic activities among its constituents; some of which already have approved health claims. Additionally, the olive oil obtained exhibits profiles of fatty acids and phenolic compounds similar to those of commercial olive oil. The procurement of this potential functional ingredient may represent a new approach to the revalorization of olive that additionally decreases waste.

  12. 33 CFR 151.37 - Obtaining an Attachment for NLSs to the IOPP Certificate and obtaining an NLS Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of... Pollution from Ships Noxious Liquid Substance Pollution § 151.37 Obtaining an Attachment for NLSs to...

  13. 33 CFR 151.37 - Obtaining an Attachment for NLSs to the IOPP Certificate and obtaining an NLS Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of... Pollution from Ships Noxious Liquid Substance Pollution § 151.37 Obtaining an Attachment for NLSs to...

  14. 33 CFR 151.37 - Obtaining an Attachment for NLSs to the IOPP Certificate and obtaining an NLS Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of... Pollution from Ships Noxious Liquid Substance Pollution § 151.37 Obtaining an Attachment for NLSs to...

  15. 33 CFR 151.37 - Obtaining an Attachment for NLSs to the IOPP Certificate and obtaining an NLS Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of... Pollution from Ships Noxious Liquid Substance Pollution § 151.37 Obtaining an Attachment for NLSs to...

  16. 33 CFR 151.37 - Obtaining an Attachment for NLSs to the IOPP Certificate and obtaining an NLS Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of... Pollution from Ships Noxious Liquid Substance Pollution § 151.37 Obtaining an Attachment for NLSs to...

  17. Application of Microwaves for Obtaining Ground Solid Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomatov, Vl. V.; Pashchenko, S. É.; Sladkov, S. O.; Salomatov, Vas. V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an analytical overview of theoretical and experimental data on the microwave grinding of coal. As a result of the work done, we have substantiated the urgency of microwave treatment (MWT) of coal for obtaining ground coal, which in turn has a positive effect on the operation efficiency of TPPs. Moreover, we have considered the positive effects of microwave grinding as applied to coke.

  18. 42 CFR 37.52 - Method of obtaining definitive interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... first interpreted by an “A” or “B” reader will be submitted by ALOSH to a “B” reader qualified as described in § 37.51. If there is agreement between the two interpreters as defined in paragraph (b) of this... from the Panel of “B” readers. If interpretations are obtained from two or more “B” readers, and if...

  19. Obtaining anisotropic velocity data for proper depth seismic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Egerev, Sergey; Yushin, Victor; Ovchinnikov, Oleg; Dubinsky, Vladimir; Patterson, Doug

    2012-05-24

    The paper deals with the problem of obtaining anisotropic velocity data due to continuous acoustic impedance-based measurements while scanning in the axial direction along the walls of the borehole. Diagrams of full conductivity of the piezoceramic transducer were used to derive anisotropy parameters of the rock sample. The measurements are aimed to support accurate depth imaging of seismic data. Understanding these common anisotropy effects is important when interpreting data where it is present.

  20. IR absorption spectra of cellulose obtained from ozonated wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamleeva, N. A.; Autlov, S. A.; Kharlanov, A. N.; Bazarnova, N. G.; Lunin, V. V.

    2015-08-01

    The kinetic curves of ozone absorption by aspen wood were obtained. Processing of wood with peracetic acid gave cellulose samples. The yields of ozonated wood, water-soluble compounds, and cellulose were determined for the samples corresponding to different consumptions of ozone. The IR absorption spectra of wood and cellulose isolated from ozonated wood were analyzed. The supramolecular structure of cellulose can be changed by varying the conditions of wood ozonation.

  1. Hydrodesulfurization and hydrodenitrogenation catalysts obtained from coal mineral matter

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Kindtoken H. D.; Hamrin, Jr., Charles E.

    1982-01-01

    A hydrotreating catalyst is prepared from coal mineral matter obtained by low temperature ashing coals of relatively low bassanite content by the steps of: (a) depositing on the low temperature ash 0.25-3 grams of an iron or nickel salt in water per gram of ash and drying a resulting slurry; (b) crushing and sizing a resulting solid; and (c) heating the thus-sized solid powder in hydrogen.

  2. Additive for otto cycle engines and fuel mixture so obtained

    SciTech Connect

    Scifoni, M.

    1985-02-12

    The additive for Otto cycle engines according to the present invention consists of a mixture of water, ethanol, methanol and butanol to which is added a determined quantity of a liquid obtained by pressing prickly pear leaves. Added in a small percentage to the fuel, gasoline, LP or methane, this additive prevents the oxidation associated with the use of water and/or alcohols in Otto cycle engines, lowers fuel consumption and allows the use of low octane fuel.

  3. Electropolymerization of pyrrole and characterization of the obtained films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bruyne, A.; Winand, R.; Delplancke, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    It is possible to produce polypyrrole films on mild steel by electropolymerization from aqueous solutions. The present study compares the characteristics of films obtained from various solutions (Na2SO4, H2C2O4, Na2C2O4 or H3BO3) on mild steel. Films are studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Optical Microscopy, Auger Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Other studies are under way on galvanized steel and zinc.

  4. Analysis of cryogenic problems of obtaining lunar helium-3.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhitomirskij, I. S.; Mikheev, V. A.; Rudavskij, Eh. Ya.

    1992-08-01

    The technique of impurity removal and separation of pure easy He isotope from a gas mixture obtained from heating the lunar dust, which is intended for lunar conditions, is analyzed. The problem is connected with the development and realization of a new promising trend in nuclear fusion. The system design is proposed, which incorporates an eight-cascade block of cooling and purification and a block of rectification of He isotopes. The required energy consumption is calculated.

  5. Methods for Obtaining and Determination of Squalene from Natural Sources

    PubMed Central

    Popa, Ovidiu; Băbeanu, Narcisa Elena; Niță, Sultana; Dinu-Pârvu, Cristina Elena

    2015-01-01

    Squalene is a natural dehydrotriterpenic hydrocarbon (C30H50) with six double bonds, known as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of phytosterol or cholesterol in plants or animals. We have briefly reviewed the natural sources for squalene and focused on the main methods and techniques to obtain and to determine it. Some of its applications in different fields of human activity are also mentioned. PMID:25695064

  6. The analysis of experimental data obtained from automotives tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, R. M.; Radulescu, V. J.; Neagu, D.; Trocan, C.; Copae, I.

    2016-08-01

    The paper highlights the three important and inseparably aspects of the systemic approach of automotives dynamics: taking into account the human-vehicle-field interaction, dealing movement with algorithms specific to system theory and analysis of experimental data with algorithms specific to signals theory.Within the paper, the systemic approach regarding vehicles dynamics is based on experimental data obtained from tests, whereby it is analyzed the movement and there are obtained movement mathematical models through algorithms of systems identification.Likewise, there are shown main analysis methods for experimental data, which uses probability theory, information theory, correlation analysis and variance analysis;in addition, there are highlighted possibilities given by time analysis, frequency analysis and data time-frequency analysis. Identification algorithms and highlighted analysis procedures assure the study of automotives dynamics and fuel saving,by directly using experimental data, or by using mathematical models and applying concepts and algorithms specific to systems theory. Experimental data were obtained by testing automotives with electronic control devices and by using acquisition and storage equipmentsfor data given by the on-board computer and taken from embedded sensors.

  7. Experiences with obtaining informed consent for genomic sequencing.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Barbara A; Roche, Myra I; Perry, Denise L; Scollon, Sarah R; Tomlinson, Ashley N; Skinner, Debra

    2015-11-01

    Despite the increased utilization of genome and exome sequencing, little is known about the actual content and process of informed consent for sequencing. We addressed this by interviewing 29 genetic counselors and research coordinators experienced in obtaining informed consent for sequencing in research and clinical settings. Interviews focused on the process and content of informed consent; patients/participants' common questions, concerns and misperceptions; and challenges to obtaining informed consent. Content analysis of transcribed interviews revealed that the main challenges to obtaining consent related to the broad scope and uncertainty of results, and patient/participants' unrealistic expectations about the likely number and utility of results. Interviewees modified their approach to sessions according to contextual issues surrounding the indication for testing, type of patient, and timing of testing. With experience, most interviewees structured sessions to place less emphasis on standard elements in the consent form and technological aspects of sequencing. They instead focused on addressing misperceptions and helping patients/participants develop realistic expectations about the types and implications of possible results, including secondary findings. These findings suggest that informed consent sessions should focus on key issues that may be misunderstood by patients/participants. Future research should address the extent to which various stakeholders agree on key elements of informed consent.

  8. Uncertainties in obtaining high reliability from stress-strength models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Donald M.; Matthews, William T.; Vangel, Mark G.

    1992-01-01

    There has been a recent interest in determining high statistical reliability in risk assessment of aircraft components. The potential consequences are identified of incorrectly assuming a particular statistical distribution for stress or strength data used in obtaining the high reliability values. The computation of the reliability is defined as the probability of the strength being greater than the stress over the range of stress values. This method is often referred to as the stress-strength model. A sensitivity analysis was performed involving a comparison of reliability results in order to evaluate the effects of assuming specific statistical distributions. Both known population distributions, and those that differed slightly from the known, were considered. Results showed substantial differences in reliability estimates even for almost nondetectable differences in the assumed distributions. These differences represent a potential problem in using the stress-strength model for high reliability computations, since in practice it is impossible to ever know the exact (population) distribution. An alternative reliability computation procedure is examined involving determination of a lower bound on the reliability values using extreme value distributions. This procedure reduces the possibility of obtaining nonconservative reliability estimates. Results indicated the method can provide conservative bounds when computing high reliability. An alternative reliability computation procedure is examined involving determination of a lower bound on the reliability values using extreme value distributions. This procedure reduces the possibility of obtaining nonconservative reliability estimates. Results indicated the method can provide conservative bounds when computing high reliability.

  9. Electrochemical Cell for Obtaining Oxygen from Carbon Dioxide Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Matthew; Rast, H. Edward; Rogers, Darren K.; Borja, Luis; Clark, Kevin; Fleming, Kimberly; Mcgurren, Michael; Oldaker, Tom; Sweet, Nanette

    1989-01-01

    To support human life on the Martian surface, an electrochemical device will be required to obtain oxygen from the carbon dioxide rich atmosphere. The electrolyte employed in such a device must be constructed from extremely thin, dense membranes to efficiently acquire the oxygen necessary to support life. A forming process used industrially in the production of multilayer capacitors and electronic substrates was adapted to form the thin membranes required. The process, known as the tape casting, involves the suspension consisting of solvents and binders. The suspension is passed under a blade, resulting in the production of ceramic membranes between 0.1 and 0.5 mm thick. Once fired, the stabilized zirconia membranes were assembled into the cell design by employing a zirconium phosphate solution as the sealing agent. The resulting ceramic-to-ceramic seals were found to be structurally sound and gas-tight. Furthermore, by using a zirconia-based solution to assemble the cell, the problem of a thermal expansion mismatch was alleviated. By adopting an industrial forming process to produce thin membranes, an electrochemical cell for obtaining oxygen from carbon dioxide was produced. The proposed cell design is unique in that it does not require a complicated manifold system for separating the various gases present in this process, nor does it require a series of complex electrical connections. Thus, the device can reliably obtain the vital oxygen supply from the toxic carbon dioxide atmosphere.

  10. Xylitol bioproduction in hemicellulosic hydrolysate obtained from sorghum forage biomass.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Danielle; Sene, Luciane; Variz, Daniela Inês Loreto Saraiva; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the biotechnological production of xylitol from sorghum forage biomass. The yeast Candida guilliermondii was cultivated in hemicellulosic hydrolysates obtained from biomass of three sorghum varieties (A, B, and C). First, the biomass was chemically characterized and subjected to dilute acid hydrolysis to obtain the hemicellulosic hydrolysates which were vacuum-concentrated and detoxified with activated charcoal. The hemicellulosic hydrolysates (initial pH 5.5) were supplemented with nutrients, and fermentations were conducted in 125-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 mL medium, under 200 rpm, at 30 °C for 96 h. Fermentations were evaluated by determining the parameters xylitol yield (Y P/S ) and productivity (QP), as well as the activities of the enzymes xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). There was no significant difference among the three varieties with respect to the contents of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, although differences were found in the hydrolysate fermentability. Maximum xylitol yield and productivity values for variety A were 0.35 g/g and 0.16 g/L.h(-1), respectively. It was coincident with XR (0.25 U/mg prot) and XDH (0.17 U/mg prot) maximum activities. Lower values were obtained for varieties B and C, which were 0.25 and 0.17 g/g for yield and 0.12 and 0.063 g/L.h(-1) for productivity.

  11. Obtaining graphene nanoplatelets from various graphite intercalation compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melezhyk, A.; Galunin, E.; Memetov, N.

    2015-11-01

    The work compares the exfoliation ability of different graphite materials (expanded graphite intercalation compound, thermally expanded and oxidatively intercalated graphites) and describes the properties of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) obtained dependently on intercalation/deintercalation conditions and reagents. Among the studied materials, the graphite intercalated with ammonium persulfate in sulfuric acid and expanded at 40 °C possesses the maximum ability for ultrasonic exfoliation in the presence of a surfactant. The exfoliation efficiency strongly depends on the content of water in sulfuric acid during the intercalation. The highest efficiency was achieved for the expanded graphite intercalation compound (EGIC) prepared in sulfuric acid containing diluted oleum, which may be explained by increased acidity of the medium and, correspondingly, redox potential of the persulfate compound. This is also related to increased amounts of oxygen groups in the GNPs obtained from the EGIC synthesized in 100% sulfuric acid and diluted oleum. Besides, the nature of surface groups on the GNPs strongly depends on the nature of a deintercalating reagent. Thus, the treatment of the EGIC with different nucleophilic molecules (such as water, ammonia, carbamide, hexamethylenetetramine, organic amines, etc.) can yield GNPs with various surface groups. The interaction between the EGIC and nucleophilic molecules does not only include the substitution of sulfate groups, but also redox reactions with participation of graphene layers. Depending on the nature of the nucleophile, those reactions can lead to the formation of different groups attached to the graphene surface. GNPs with almost pure surface were obtained when using ammonia and carbamide.

  12. Electrochemical cell for obtaining oxygen from carbon dioxide atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, M. W.; Rast, H. E.; Rogers, D. K.

    1989-01-01

    For manned missions to Mars to become a reality, an efficient and reliable means of obtaining oxygen from the carbon dioxide-rich atmosphere will be required. Otherwise, the high cost of transporting the oxygen needed to sustain the astronauts will severely restrict the expedition to the martian surface. Recently, the use of electrochemical devices has been explored as a means of obtaining oxygen from the carbon dioxide-rich atmosphere. In these devices, oxygen ions diffuse through solid oxide membranes, thus, separating oxygen from the other gases presented. This phenomenon has only recently been explored as a means of obtaining large quantities of oxygen from toxic atmospheres, although first observed by Walter nernst in 1899. Nernst observed that stabilized zirconia will conduct oxygen ions when an electrical potential is applied across metallic electrodes applied to the ceramic membrane. Diatomic oxygen molecules are dissociated at the positive electrode/electrolyte interface. The oxygen ions enter the ceramic body due to the ion density gradient which is produced by the electrical potential across the electrolytic membrane. Once the ions have diffused through the membrane, they reform diatomic oxygen molecules at the anode. The separation of oxygen from carbon dioxide is achieved by the combination of thermal and electrochemical processes. The thermal decomposition of carbon dioxide (at 1000 C) results in the production of carbon monoxide and oxygen by the reaction.

  13. A monomeric L-aspartase obtained by in vitro selection.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangduo; Li, Zhengqiang; Gou, Xiaojun; Zhu, Shizhen; Zhang, Hongying; Wang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jin

    2002-07-01

    By mimicking the partial spatial structure of the dimer of the l-aspartase subunit, the central ten-helix bundle, and an "active site" between the cleft of domain 1 (D1) and domain 3 (D3) from different subunits, we designed l-aspartase variants, in which D1D2 and D2D3 were ligated with a random hexapeptide loop. As expected, we obtained the variant with the highest activity (relative activity is 21.3% of the native enzyme, named as drAsp017) by in vitro selection. The molecular weight of this variant, obtained from size-exclusion column chromatography, is about 81 kDa, which indicates that it is indeed a monomer, whereas native l-aspartase is a tetramer. The activity-reversibility of drAsp017 (10(-7) m) was 80% after incubation for 30 min at 50 degrees C, while native enzyme only retained about 17% under the same conditions. Reactivation of drAsp017 denatured in 4 m guanidine HCl was independent of protein concentration at up to 20 x 10(-8) m at 25 degrees C, whereas the protein concentration of native enzyme strongly affected its reactivation under the above conditions. The sensitivity of drAsp017 (10(-7) m) to effective factors in the fumarate-amination reaction compared with native enzyme was also determined. Half-saturating concentrations of the activator l-aspartate and Mg2+ for drAsp017 (0.8 and 0.5 mm, respectively) are much higher than that of the native enzyme (0.10 and 0.15 mm, respectively). The data show that a monomeric l-aspartase is obtained by in vitro selection. Thus, the conversion of oligomeric proteins into their functional monomers could have important applications. PMID:11983692

  14. Preparation of potato starch microfibers obtained by electro wet spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárdenas, W.; Gómez-Pachon, E. Y.; Muñoz, E.; Vera-Graziano, R.

    2016-07-01

    Starch is one of the most abundant biopolymer in nature. It has been primarily used as a thickener in the food industry. Starch is found in greater amounts in the potato tubers, which is one of the largest food productions in the region of Boyacá-Colombia. Thus, potatoes are a viable source of starch. The main objective of this study is the preparation and characterization of native starch's microfiber by electro wet-spinning technique. The parameters that were changed for each treatment were as follows: the amount of potential applied to the solution, the distance between the needle and the collector and the rate of injection of the solution in order to determine the physical and chemical properties of the membranes, conformed by potatoes starch microfiber. Diverse instrumental analysis techniques were applied. They were: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to determine the morphologies and diameters of microfibers, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine the chemical changes, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Calorimetry Scanning (DSC) to obtain the thermal transitions and the temperatures of useful. The microfibers were analysed in order to determine their structural properties and thus define the range of application. In conclusion, potatoes starch microfibers were obtained with average diameters of 15, 17, 23 and 25 micrometres, besides the fibers presented a degradation temperature of 304 °C, indicating that fibers are available with diameters of small scale, with good thermal properties. This study will enable the implementation of the microfibers to obtain bio packaging for food products and other applications.

  15. Acquisition strategy to obtain quantitative diffusion NMR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrère, Caroline; Thureau, Pierre; Thévand, André; Viel, Stéphane

    2012-03-01

    Pulsed Gradient Spin Echo (PGSE) diffusion NMR experiments constitute a powerful tool for analyzing complex mixtures because they can in principle separate the NMR spectra of each mixture component. However, because these experiments intrinsically rely on spin echoes, they are traditionally regarded as non-quantitative, due to the signal attenuation caused by longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) nuclear magnetic relaxation during the rather long delays of the pulse sequence. Alternatively to the quantitative Direct Exponential Curve Resolution Algorithm (qDECRA) approach proposed by Antalek (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128 (2006) 8402-8403), this work presents an acquisition strategy that renormalizes this relaxation attenuation using estimates of the T1 and T2 relaxation times for all the nuclei in the mixture, as obtained directly with the pulse sequence used to record the PGSE experiment. More specifically, it is shown that only three distinct PGSE experiments need to be recorded, each with a specific set of acquisition parameters. For small- and medium-sized molecules, only T1 is required for obtaining accurate quantification. For larger molecular weight species, which typically exhibit short T2 values, estimates of T2 must also be included but only a rough estimation is required. This appears fortunate because these data are especially hard to obtain with good accuracy when analyzing homonuclear scalar-coupled systems. Overall, the proposed methodology is shown to yield a quantification accuracy of ±5%, both in the absence and in the presence of spectral overlap, giving rise - at least, in our hands - to results that superseded those achieved by qDECRA, while requiring substantially less experimental time.

  16. Obtaining single path phase delays from GPS double differences

    SciTech Connect

    Alber, C.; Ware, R.; Rocken, C.; Braun, J.

    2000-07-01

    We describe a method for obtaining singlepath phase delays from GPS double differences. The resulting “zero differences” (ZDs) can be used for remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor. The method is demonstrated by simulating and observing atmospheric delay gradients, and by comparing ZDs with pointed radiometer observations of integrated water vapor along GPS ray paths. In-situ GPS antenna phase center and multipath effects are mapped in ZD residuals for a specific site and network. We conclude that ZDs derived from GPS network data show promise for real time sensing of water vapor for use in meteorological modeling and forecasting.

  17. A guide to obtaining information from the USGS 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, Paul F., (compiler); Hodgson, Helen E.; North, Gary W.

    1978-01-01

    For almost 100 years, the USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) has served Federal, State, and local governments and the public by collecting, analyzing, and publishing detailed information about the Nation 's mineral, land, and water resources. This information is released in a variety of map, book, and other formats and is available for free distribution or for sale from sources both within and outside the USGS. This guide has been prepared to assist in obtaining these information products and to aid in locating both general and specific unpublished information within the USGS. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Strategies of Intracellular Pathogens for Obtaining Iron from the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Reyes-Cortes, Ruth; Guadrón-Llanos, Alma M.; Madueña-Molina, Jesús; Leon-Sicairos, Claudia; Canizalez-Román, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Most microorganisms are destroyed by the host tissues through processes that usually involve phagocytosis and lysosomal disruption. However, some organisms, called intracellular pathogens, are capable of avoiding destruction by growing inside macrophages or other cells. During infection with intracellular pathogenic microorganisms, the element iron is required by both the host cell and the pathogen that inhabits the host cell. This minireview focuses on how intracellular pathogens use multiple strategies to obtain nutritional iron from the intracellular environment in order to use this element for replication. Additionally, the implications of these mechanisms for iron acquisition in the pathogen-host relationship are discussed. PMID:26120582

  19. TEPC measurements obtained on the Mir space station.

    PubMed

    Bottollier-Depois, J F; Siegrist, M; Petrov, V M; Shurshakov, V V; Bengin, V; Koslova, S B

    2002-10-01

    Measurements of the radiation environment inside the Mir space station were performed with a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) during the Antares mission in 1992, and over a long period following it. Interesting results concerning radiation measurements show (a) the South Atlantic Anomaly crossing, (b) the increase of radiation near the poles, and (c) the effects of solar particle events (the most important one occurring in early November 1992). This data also provides information about the dose and the quality factor of the radiation to which the cosmonauts were exposed during different missions. These data are compared with measurements obtained using a solid state detector. PMID:12442744

  20. Geographic correlation of television pictures obtained from weather satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushuyev, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    The geographical control of satellite pictures, using the terminology of aerial photography, can be treated as the problem of analysis of a single picture with the objective of obtaining a ground contour map. Studies have shown the possibility and capability of the method of composing photographic maps from transformed television pictures. Optico-mechanical transformation solves the problem of geographical correlation for operational purposes. However, this technique does not compensate for electronic distortion, and accounts for earth sphericity only approximately. However, for certain purposes (studying ice drift), the maximum possible accuracy is required. Analytic geographical correlation methods using digital computers should be considered promising.

  1. Obtaining Crosswind from Single-Aperture Optical Scintillometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dinther, D.; Hartogensis, O. K.

    2010-09-01

    A scintillometer is a device that consist of a transmitter and receiver. The receiver records intensity fluctuations of the electromagnetic beam emitted at optical or microwave wavelengths by the transmitter. These fluctuations are caused by refraction of the beam upon its passage through the turbulent surface layer. An increasingly popular application of scintillometry is to estimate the area-averaged surface fluxes from these raw measurements following scintillometer theory (Tatarskii, 1961) relating the raw intensity measurements to the structure parameter of the refractive index, Cn2 and Monin-Obukhov similarity theory that relates structure parameters to surface fluxes (Meijninger et al., 2002). A less known application of scintillometry is the estimation of the crosswind, i.e. the wind perpendicular to the scintillometer path. Past research on this issue focused on multiple aperture scintillometers that use the time delay between the turbulence signals of the displaced apertures to estimate the crosswind (Andreas, 2000, Poggio et al., 2000 and Furger et al., 2001,). The goal of this study is to explore a method to obtain the crosswind from single aperture scintillometers through spectral analysis of the raw scintillometer signal. In theory the scintillometer spectrum shows an inflection at the transition of the refractive and absorption part of the spectrum. The transition frequency (fC2) is related to the ratio of the crosswind and the diameter of the receiver and transmitter (Nieveen et al., 1998) via fc2 = -u-- 1.25D where u is the crosswind speed and D the diameter of the scintillometer. Limitation of the method is that it only works properly when the crosswind is constant, i.e. with a horizontal scintillometer path, no time variation and no spatial variations of the crosswind. The prescribed method to obtain the crosswind is examined with LITFASS-2009 (Germany) and Haarweg (The Netherlands) datasets. At LITFASS-2009 different optical and microwave

  2. Strategies used by parents of twins to obtain sleep.

    PubMed

    Damato, Elizabeth G; Zupancic, Julie

    2009-08-01

    Empirical evidence on how parents of twins manage their need for sleep is nonexistent. Lay publications provide advice for parents of multiples, yet their recommendations have been neither studied for their frequency of use nor tested for their effectiveness. Parents of twins were interviewed by telephone regarding strategies they used to obtain sleep during the first 6 months postbirth. Reported strategies were grouped into a priori categories suggested by the literature. Findings indicated that parents attempted various strategies to increase their sleep but disagreed on their effectiveness. Development and testing of a repertoire of effective strategies tailored for parents of twins are needed.

  3. Electropolymerization of pyrrole and characterization of the obtained films

    SciTech Connect

    De Bruyne, A.; Winand, R.; Delplancke, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    It is possible to produce polypyrrole films on mild steel by electropolymerization from aqueous solutions. The present study compares the characteristics of films obtained from various solutions (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} or H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) on mild steel. Films are studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Optical Microscopy, Auger Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Other studies are under way on galvanized steel and zinc. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Strategies of Intracellular Pathogens for Obtaining Iron from the Environment.

    PubMed

    Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Reyes-Cortes, Ruth; Guadrón-Llanos, Alma M; Madueña-Molina, Jesús; Leon-Sicairos, Claudia; Canizalez-Román, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Most microorganisms are destroyed by the host tissues through processes that usually involve phagocytosis and lysosomal disruption. However, some organisms, called intracellular pathogens, are capable of avoiding destruction by growing inside macrophages or other cells. During infection with intracellular pathogenic microorganisms, the element iron is required by both the host cell and the pathogen that inhabits the host cell. This minireview focuses on how intracellular pathogens use multiple strategies to obtain nutritional iron from the intracellular environment in order to use this element for replication. Additionally, the implications of these mechanisms for iron acquisition in the pathogen-host relationship are discussed.

  5. Spin and orbital magnetization loops obtained using magnetic Compton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Itou, M.; Sakurai, Y.; Koizumi, A.

    2013-02-25

    We present an application of magnetic Compton scattering (MCS) to decompose a total magnetization loop into spin and orbital magnetization contributions. A spin magnetization loop of SmAl{sub 2} was measured by recording the intensity of magnetic Compton scattering as a function of applied magnetic field. Comparing the spin magnetization loop with the total magnetization one measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer, the orbital magnetization loop was obtained. The data display an anti-coupled behavior between the spin and orbital magnetizations and confirm that the orbital part dominates the magnetization.

  6. LACHESIS -- An instrumentation system for obtaining containment and environmental data

    SciTech Connect

    Deupree, R.G.; Oblad, F.R.

    1995-09-01

    The instrumentation system developed to obtain containment and environmental data in the LYNER complex is presented. The primary purpose of this report is to familiarize potential operators of the system with the details of its use. The instrumentation system has three major hardware modules: (1) the sensor power source, amplifier, and signal conditioner module, (2) the digitizers, and (3) the computer controller. Each of these is described with emphasis on the steps required to make that component perform effectively. In addition the roles of activities of other people besides the Los Alamos shot engineer who are required to ensure the success of the system are outlined.

  7. Comparing turbulent parameters obtained from LITOS and radiosonde measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A.; Gerding, M.; Lübken, F.-J.

    2015-02-01

    Stratospheric turbulence is important for the mixing of trace species and the energy balance, but direct measurements are sparse due to the required resolution and accuracy. Recently, turbulence parameters such as the energy dissipation rate ɛ were inferred from standard radiosonde data by means of a Thorpe analysis. To this end, layers with vertically decreasing potential temperature are analysed, which is expected to indicate turbulence. Such an application assumes a proportionality between the Thorpe length LT and the Ozmidov scale LO. While this relation is accepted for the ocean, experimental evidence for such proportionality in the stratosphere is sparse. We have developed a high-resolution (8 kHz) turbulence measurement system called LITOS (Leibniz Institute Turbulence Observations in the Stratosphere), which for the first time resolves the inner scale of turbulence in the stratosphere. Therewith the energy dissipation rate ɛ can be determined by spectral analysis. This independent value for ɛ enables us to check the relation LO ∝ LT. In our measurements no such proportionality can be seen, although the mean of the ratio LO/LT is close to what is assumed in radiosonde analyses. Dissipation rates for individual layers obtained from radiosondes deviate up to a factor of ~3000 from those obtained by spectral analysis. Some turbulent layers measured by LITOS are not observed by the radiosonde at all, and vice versa. However, statements about the statistical mean seem to be possible by Thorpe analysis.

  8. Comparison between Measurements Obtained with three Different Perineometers

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Patrícia Brentegani; Franco, Maíra Menezes; de Oliveira Souza, Flaviane; Antônio, Flávia Ignácio; Montezuma, Thaís; Ferreira, Cristine Homsi Jorge

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the results obtained in the evaluation of intra-vaginal pressure using three different brands of perineometers in nulliparous volunteers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty nulliparous women with no anatomical alterations and/or dysfunction of the pelvic floor were enrolled in our study. All the women had the ability to voluntarily contract their PFM (Pelvic Floor Muscles), as assessed by digital palpation. The intra-vaginal pressure was assessed using three different brands of perineometer (Neurodyn Evolution™, SensuPower™ and Peritron™). Each volunteer was evaluated on three alternate days by a single examiner using a single brand of perineometer on each day. In the assessment, the volunteers were required to pull (contract) their PFM in and up as strongly as possible 3 times and to sustain the contraction for 5 seconds, with an interval of 30 seconds between each pull. For the statistical analysis, a concordance correlation coefficient was used to compare the values that were obtained with each brand of perineometer. RESULTS: A moderate concordance (0.51) was found between the results from the Peritron™ and Neurodyn™ perineometers, a fair concordance (0.21) between the Peritron™ and SensuPower™ brands and a poor concordance (0.19) between the Neurodyn™ and SensuPower™ brands. CONCLUSION: The concordance of the measurements of the intra-vaginal pressure ranged from poor to moderate, suggesting that perineometers of different brands generate different results. PMID:19578656

  9. Sensitivity of Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Obtained by Algorithmic Differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molkenthin, C.; Scherbaum, F.; Griewank, A.; Kuehn, N. M.; Stafford, P.; Leövey, H.

    2014-12-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is the current tool of the trade to assess seismogenic threat at a site of interest. A modern PSHA represents a complex framework which combines different models with several inputs. It is important to understand and assess the impact of these inputs on the model output in a quantitative way. Sensitivity analysis is a valuable tool for quantifying changes of a model output as inputs are perturbed, identifying critical input parameters and obtaining insight in the model behavior. Differential sensitivity analysis relies on calculating first-order partial derivatives of the model output with respect to its inputs; however, obtaining the derivatives of complex models can be challenging. In this study we show how differential sensitivity analysis of a complex framework such as PSHA can be carried out using Algorithmic Differentiation (AD). AD has been successfully applied for sensitivity analyses in various domains such as meteorology or aerodynamics. First we demonstrate the feasibility of the AD methodology by comparing AD derived sensitivities to analytically derived sensitivities for a basic case of PSHA using a simple ground-motion prediction equation. In a second step, we derive sensitivities via AD for a more complex PSHA study using a ground motion attenuation relation based on a stochastic method to simulate strong motion. The presented approach is general enough to accommodate more advanced PSHA studies of higher complexity.

  10. Crosslinked grafted PVC obtained by direct radiation grafting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegazy, El-Sayed A.; Dessouki, Ahmed M.; El-Dessouky, Maher M.; El-Sawy, Naeem M.

    Direct radition-induced grafting of 4-vinylpyridine onto both pure and plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) has been studied. The effect of grafting conditions such as solvent, monomer concentration, irradiation dose, and inhibitor concentration on the grafting yield was investigated. The grafting process was enhanced by using distilled water as diluent and higher degrees of grafting were obtained as compared with other solvents used (benzene, methanol, and a mixture of methanol and water). The homopolymerization of 4-vinylpyridine was reduced to a minimum using ammonium ferrous sulfate and the suitable optimum concentration of the inhibitor was found to be 0.25 wt %. It was observed that the degrees of grafting onto plasticized PVC were higher than those onto pure one, at constant grafting conditions. The diffusibility of the monomer solution through the trunk polymers enhanced at higher monomer concentrations. The higher the monomer concentration the higher the degrees of grafting obtained. The dependence of the grafting rate on monomer concentration was found to be 0.15 and 0.4 order for the grafting onto pure and plasticized PVC films, respectively. The degree of grafting, at the higher irradiation doses, deviated from linearity and it tends to level off due to the recombination of some of the free radicals without initiating graft polymerization. Gel determination in the grafted films was investigated. The gel content in both grafted extracted pure and plasticized PVC films increased with the degree of grafting to reach a certain limiting values.

  11. Digital holographic interferometry as a tool to obtain shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe López, Ubaldo; Hernández-Montes, María. del Socorro; Muñoz-Solís, Silvino

    2015-08-01

    This work describes a new method to obtain shapes on surfaces based on digital holographic interferometry (DHI). Research has been reported with different methods, such as fringe projection. DHI, being a full-field technique, decreases the number of images to capture and the processing time, besides having a high resolution. Our proposed method consists in obtaining the shape of the object and a reference plane using an out-of-plane interferometer. The phase difference of the recorded holograms is achieved by means of the Fourier transform method. This resulting phase has a tilt produced by the angle of the object beam relative to the optical axis, which is removed by subtracting the phase difference from the reference plane. The method was tested in two cylinders, one with dimensions of 17.5x23.4mm reconstructed with a height sensitivity of 4.1mm, and another with two levels: one half with dimensions of 16.08x12.75mm, and the other half of 19.07x12.75mm; the result was a successfully reconstructed shape, with a height sensitivity of 2.7mm.

  12. Characterization of banana starches obtained from cultivars grown in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Barros Mesquita, Camila; Leonel, Magali; Franco, Célia Maria Landi; Leonel, Sarita; Garcia, Emerson Loli; Dos Santos, Thaís Paes Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    The starch market is constantly evolving and studies that provide information about the physical and rheological properties of native starches to meet the diverse demands of the sector are increasingly necessary. In this study starches obtained from five cultivars of banana were analyzed for size and shape of granules, crystallinity, chemical composition, resistant starch, swelling power, solubility, thermal and paste properties. The granules of starch were large (36.58-47.24μm), oval, showed crystallinity pattern type B and the index of crystallinity ranged from 31.94 to 34.06%. The phosphorus content ranged from 0.003 to 0.011%, the amylose ranged from 25.13 to 29.01% and the resistant starch ranged from 65.70 to 80.28%. The starches showed high peak viscosity and breakdown, especially those obtained from 'Nanicão' and 'Grand Naine'. Peak temperature of gelatinization was around 71°C, the enthalpy change (ΔH) ranged from 9.45 to 14.73Jg(-1). The starch from 'Grand Naine' showed higher swelling power (15.19gg(-1)) and the starch from 'Prata-Anã' higher solubility (11.61%). The starches studied are highlighted by their physical and chemical characteristics and may be used in several applications.

  13. Characterisation of Aronia powders obtained by different drying processes.

    PubMed

    Horszwald, Anna; Julien, Heritier; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, food industry is facing challenges connected with the preservation of the highest possible quality of fruit products obtained after processing. Attention has been drawn to Aronia fruits due to numerous health promoting properties of their products. However, processing of Aronia, like other berries, leads to difficulties that stem from the preparation process, as well as changes in the composition of bioactive compounds. Consequently, in this study, Aronia commercial juice was subjected to different drying techniques: spray drying, freeze drying and vacuum drying with the temperature range of 40-80 °C. All powders obtained had a high content of total polyphenols. Powders gained by spray drying had the highest values which corresponded to a high content of total flavonoids, total monomeric anthocyanins, cyaniding-3-glucoside and total proanthocyanidins. Analysis of the results exhibited a correlation between selected bioactive compounds and their antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, drying techniques have an impact on selected quality parameters, and different drying techniques cause changes in the content of bioactives analysed. Spray drying can be recommended for preservation of bioactives in Aronia products. Powder quality depends mainly on the process applied and parameters chosen. Therefore, Aronia powders production should be adapted to the requirements and design of the final product. PMID:23871034

  14. Characteristics of acoustic gravity waves obtained from Dynasonde data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrea, Cǎtǎlin; Zabotin, Nikolay; Bullett, Terrence; Fuller-Rowell, Tim; Fang, Tzu-Wei; Codrescu, Mihail

    2016-04-01

    Traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) are ubiquitous in the thermosphere-ionosphere and are often assumed to be caused by acoustic gravity waves (AGWs). This study performs an analysis of the TID and AGW activity above Wallops Island, VA, during October 2013. The variations in electron density and ionospheric tilts obtained with the Dynasonde technique are used as primary indicators of wave activity. The temporal and spectral characteristics of the data are discussed in detail, using also results of the Whole Atmosphere Model (WAM) and the Global Ionosphere Plasmasphere Model (GIP). The full set of propagation parameters (frequency, and the vertical, zonal and meridional wave vector components) of the TIDs is determined over the 160-220 km height range. A test of the self-consistency of these results within the confines of the theoretical AGW dispersion relation is devised. This is applied to a sample data set of 24 October 2013. A remarkable agreement has been achieved for wave periods between 52 and 21 min, for which we can rigorously claim the TIDs are caused by underlying acoustic gravity waves. The Wallops Island Dynasonde can operate for extended periods at a 2 min cadence, allowing determination of the statistical distributions of propagation parameters. A dominant population of TIDs is identified in the frequency band below 1 mHz, and for it, the distributions of the horizontal wavelengths, vertical wavelengths, and horizontal phase speeds are obtained.

  15. Alternative methods of obtaining the computed tomography dose index.

    PubMed

    Knox, H H; Gagne, R M

    1996-08-01

    The most direct way of getting the value of the multiple scan average dose (MSAD) in computed tomography is to employ a pencil chamber for integration of a single scan dose profile. Because the active length of the pencil chamber is fixed, the measurement can represent the value of the MSAD from a different number of contiguous scans depending on the slice thickness. This characteristic makes it difficult to compare the value of MSAD using the pencil chamber to the information required by Federal regulations on the computed tomography dose index (CTDI). The CTDI, which is the MAD at the center of a set of 14 contiguous scans, is the dose descriptor used in the Federal Performance Standard. Two alternative methods were developed to make the CTDI measurements at the center of a CT dosimetry phantom. These alternative methods were compared to the results of thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements from more than 20 different CT scanners. One alternative method involved the use of radio-opaque sleeves with the pencil chamber to limit the length of the single scan dose profile incident on the pencil chamber. In addition, the TLD data were also used to obtain a set of conversion factors for converting the results of a measurement with the pencil chamber without a radio-opaque sleeve to a value of the CTDI. The alternative methods of obtaining the CTDI agree on the average to better than 10% for all values of slice thickness on the different CT scanners.

  16. Characterization of banana starches obtained from cultivars grown in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Barros Mesquita, Camila; Leonel, Magali; Franco, Célia Maria Landi; Leonel, Sarita; Garcia, Emerson Loli; Dos Santos, Thaís Paes Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    The starch market is constantly evolving and studies that provide information about the physical and rheological properties of native starches to meet the diverse demands of the sector are increasingly necessary. In this study starches obtained from five cultivars of banana were analyzed for size and shape of granules, crystallinity, chemical composition, resistant starch, swelling power, solubility, thermal and paste properties. The granules of starch were large (36.58-47.24μm), oval, showed crystallinity pattern type B and the index of crystallinity ranged from 31.94 to 34.06%. The phosphorus content ranged from 0.003 to 0.011%, the amylose ranged from 25.13 to 29.01% and the resistant starch ranged from 65.70 to 80.28%. The starches showed high peak viscosity and breakdown, especially those obtained from 'Nanicão' and 'Grand Naine'. Peak temperature of gelatinization was around 71°C, the enthalpy change (ΔH) ranged from 9.45 to 14.73Jg(-1). The starch from 'Grand Naine' showed higher swelling power (15.19gg(-1)) and the starch from 'Prata-Anã' higher solubility (11.61%). The starches studied are highlighted by their physical and chemical characteristics and may be used in several applications. PMID:27180297

  17. Pozzolan Obtained by Mechanochemical Treatment of Kaolinite Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrović, Aleksandra A.

    2011-12-01

    Pozzolans are supplementary materials added to Portland cement in order to increase the mechanical strength and durability of concrete structures. A number of thermal, mechanical and chemical methods have been used to activate the reactive potential of pozzolanic materials. The aim of the study is to obtain pozzolana, from Serbian kaolinite clay by mechanochemical treatment. Kaolinite clay Garaši was subjected to mechanical treatment during different times of milling. The changes were monitored using particle size distribution (PSD) analyses, thermal methods [thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential thermal analysis (DTA)] and X-ray diffraction methods (XRD). The pozzolanic activity was determined using Chapelle method. Milling withing 20 min influences particle size decrease and after that time continuous increase. XDR analysis indicates gradual decrease of cristallinity with prolonged milling time. The higher values for pozzolanic activitie, expressed through consumption of gCa(OH)2 per gPozzolana are 0.78 and 0.77, and they were obtained for milling times 20 and 40 min, respectively. The values are comparable with commercial pozzolan—metakaolin. The results indicates that milling has caused the disintegration of particles and the consequent formation of new active surfaces in addition to changes in its physico-chemical properties that decrease its crystallinity (through amorphization) and increase it reactivity.

  18. Diurnal Cycles of Tree Mass Obtained Using Accelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llamas, R. A.; Niemeier, J. J.; Kruger, A.; Lintz, H. E.; Kleinknecht, G. J.; Miller, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    We used a non-invasive technique to estimate the mass of trees using accelerometers. The technique was inspired by Selker et al., 2011 who performed experiments with an oak tree to estimate the time-varying canopy mass. The technique consists of placing an accelerometer on the trunk of a live tree. The resonance frequency is related to the mass of the tree. Wind drives the tree and the accelerometer data are analyzed to obtain estimates of the resonance frequency and mass of the tree. In addition to wind speed and direction, we also collected ambient temperature and rain accumulation using co-located instruments. We collected data for 3 months using several accelerometers configured for different sampling rates. Analysis of the data revealed diurnal cycles in temperature, wind speed, and tree mass derived from the tree resonance frequency. We used the Welch method for power spectral density estimation to obtain hourly estimates of the tree resonance frequency. Our hypothesis is that the mass diurnal cycle is related to the tree water content.

  19. Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rod to obtain required reactivity worth

    DOEpatents

    Miller, John V.; Carlson, William R.; Yarbrough, Michael B.

    1991-01-01

    Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rods are described, wherein geometric combinations of relatively weak neutron absorber materials such as stainless steel, zirconium or INCONEL, and relatively strong neutron absorber materials, such as hafnium, silver-indium cadmium and boron carbide, are used to obtain the reactivity worths required to reach zero boron change load follow. One embodiment includes a grey rod which has combinations of weak and strong neutron absorber pellets in a stainless steel cladding. The respective pellets can be of differing heights. A second embodiment includes a grey rod with a relatively thick stainless steel cladding receiving relatively strong neutron absorber pellets only. A third embodiment includes annular relatively weak netron absorber pellets with a smaller diameter pellet of relatively strong absorber material contained within the aperture of each relatively weak absorber pellet. The fourth embodiment includes pellets made of a homogeneous alloy of hafnium and a relatively weak absorber material, with the percentage of hafnium chosen to obtain the desired reactivity worth.

  20. Ultrasonic cavitation for obtainment of nanometric sized particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A.; Guzmán, R.; Espinosa, J.; Estrada, J.

    2016-02-01

    This project aims to determine the possibility of obtaining nanometric size particles of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) from commercial micron-sized powders, through the physical principle of ultrasonic cavitation, in order to be used as supply material in coatings made through a process of thermal spray by flame. The tests are performed on a Hielscher UIP 1000hd Ultrasonics equipment, in a 20 micron wave amplitude and in times of 6, 8, 12, 18 and 24 hours. The determination of the particle size is done through image processing using ImageJ software, obtained by the technique of scanning electron microscopy (SEM); while the elemental composition of the processed samples is analyzed through the technique of energy dispersing spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that Al2O3 and TiO2 have a reduction behaviour of the particles size after being subjected to ultrasonic cavitation, however is only reached the nanometric size in the TiO2 samples.

  1. Dosimetric algorithm to reproduce isodose curves obtained from a LINAC.

    PubMed

    Estrada Espinosa, Julio Cesar; Martínez Ovalle, Segundo Agustín; Pereira Benavides, Cinthia Kotzian

    2014-01-01

    In this work isodose curves are obtained by the use of a new dosimetric algorithm using numerical data from percentage depth dose (PDD) and the maximum absorbed dose profile, calculated by Monte Carlo in a 18 MV LINAC. The software allows reproducing the absorbed dose percentage in the whole irradiated volume quickly and with a good approximation. To validate results an 18 MV LINAC with a whole geometry and a water phantom were constructed. On this construction, the distinct simulations were processed by the MCNPX code and then obtained the PDD and profiles for the whole depths of the radiation beam. The results data were used by the code to produce the dose percentages in any point of the irradiated volume. The absorbed dose for any voxel's size was also reproduced at any point of the irradiated volume, even when the voxels are considered to be of a pixel's size. The dosimetric algorithm is able to reproduce the absorbed dose induced by a radiation beam over a water phantom, considering PDD and profiles, whose maximum percent value is in the build-up region. Calculation time for the algorithm is only a few seconds, compared with the days taken when it is carried out by Monte Carlo. PMID:25045398

  2. Optimization of selenium substructures as obtained from SHELXD.

    PubMed

    Dall'Antonia, Fabio; Baker, Patrick J; Schneider, Thomas R

    2003-11-01

    Using the signal of naturally inbuilt or artificially introduced anomalous scatterers to derive initial phases in a macromolecular crystal structure determination has become routine in recent years. In the context of high-throughput crystallography in particular, MAD and SAD (multiple- and single-wavelength anomalous dispersion) methods are central tools. For both techniques, a crucial step is the determination of the substructure of anomalous scatterers; subsequent phasing procedures will profit from a substructure model that is as accurate as possible. The choice of the subset of the diffraction data to be used for the substructure determination has a strong influence on the quality of the substructure and can make the difference between success and failure. The accuracy of selenium substructures obtained using F(A) values or various anomalous differences truncated to different resolutions has been investigated by comparing the sites determined by SHELXD with the selenium positions in the refined models. Based on the analysis, some recommendations for obtaining accurate and precise substructures are derived.

  3. Dosimetric Algorithm to Reproduce Isodose Curves Obtained from a LINAC

    PubMed Central

    Estrada Espinosa, Julio Cesar; Martínez Ovalle, Segundo Agustín; Pereira Benavides, Cinthia Kotzian

    2014-01-01

    In this work isodose curves are obtained by the use of a new dosimetric algorithm using numerical data from percentage depth dose (PDD) and the maximum absorbed dose profile, calculated by Monte Carlo in a 18 MV LINAC. The software allows reproducing the absorbed dose percentage in the whole irradiated volume quickly and with a good approximation. To validate results an 18 MV LINAC with a whole geometry and a water phantom were constructed. On this construction, the distinct simulations were processed by the MCNPX code and then obtained the PDD and profiles for the whole depths of the radiation beam. The results data were used by the code to produce the dose percentages in any point of the irradiated volume. The absorbed dose for any voxel's size was also reproduced at any point of the irradiated volume, even when the voxels are considered to be of a pixel's size. The dosimetric algorithm is able to reproduce the absorbed dose induced by a radiation beam over a water phantom, considering PDD and profiles, whose maximum percent value is in the build-up region. Calculation time for the algorithm is only a few seconds, compared with the days taken when it is carried out by Monte Carlo. PMID:25045398

  4. Characterisation of Aronia powders obtained by different drying processes.

    PubMed

    Horszwald, Anna; Julien, Heritier; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, food industry is facing challenges connected with the preservation of the highest possible quality of fruit products obtained after processing. Attention has been drawn to Aronia fruits due to numerous health promoting properties of their products. However, processing of Aronia, like other berries, leads to difficulties that stem from the preparation process, as well as changes in the composition of bioactive compounds. Consequently, in this study, Aronia commercial juice was subjected to different drying techniques: spray drying, freeze drying and vacuum drying with the temperature range of 40-80 °C. All powders obtained had a high content of total polyphenols. Powders gained by spray drying had the highest values which corresponded to a high content of total flavonoids, total monomeric anthocyanins, cyaniding-3-glucoside and total proanthocyanidins. Analysis of the results exhibited a correlation between selected bioactive compounds and their antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, drying techniques have an impact on selected quality parameters, and different drying techniques cause changes in the content of bioactives analysed. Spray drying can be recommended for preservation of bioactives in Aronia products. Powder quality depends mainly on the process applied and parameters chosen. Therefore, Aronia powders production should be adapted to the requirements and design of the final product.

  5. ANTIRADICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PHENOLIC FRACTIONS OBTAINED FROM HONEYS.

    PubMed

    Mazol, Irena; Sroka, Zbigniew; Sowa, Alina; Ostrowska, Anna; Dryś, Andrzej; Gamian, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Honey is a natural product consisting of multiple components which determine its dietary and medicinal properties. In this work there were studied methanol fractions obtained from seven honeys from Lower Silesia (Poland) collected in different seasons of three successive years. Melissopalynologic studies revealed that two of them were polyfloral, and five were classified as monofloral (two buckwheat and three rapes). The amount of phenolic compounds in honeys varied from 0.09 to 0.38 mg per g of honey. Honeys harvested in 2010 were the richest in phenolic compounds and especially rich was buckwheat honey, comparing to 2011- 2012. Determination of antioxidant potential with the DPPH radical revealed that the strongest antiradical activity was exhibited by extracts obtained from polyfloral (1.22 TAU(515/mg)) and buckwheat (1.06 TAU(515lmg)) honeys, while the highest number of antiradical units was observed for rape honey (3.64 TAU(515/g)). Polyphenolic fractions exhibited various bactericidal activities against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus and weak or no activity was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:27180430

  6. Intracranial CT angiography obtained from a cerebral CT perfusion examination

    SciTech Connect

    Gratama van Andel, H. A. F.; Venema, H. W.; Majoie, C. B.; Den Heeten, G. J.; Grimbergen, C. A.; Streekstra, G. J.

    2009-04-15

    CT perfusion (CTP) examinations of the brain are performed increasingly for the evaluation of cerebral blood flow in patients with stroke and vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Of the same patient often also a CT angiography (CTA) examination is performed. This study investigates the possibility to obtain CTA images from the CTP examination, thereby possibly obviating the CTA examination. This would save the patient exposure to radiation, contrast, and time. Each CTP frame is a CTA image with a varying amount of contrast enhancement and with high noise. To improve the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) we combined all 3D images into one 3D image after registration to correct for patient motion between time frames. Image combination consists of weighted averaging in which the weighting factor of each frame is proportional to the arterial contrast. It can be shown that the arterial CNR is maximized in this procedure. An additional advantage of the use of the time series of CTP images is that automatic differentiation between arteries and veins is possible. This feature was used to mask veins in the resulting 3D images to enhance visibility of arteries in maximum intensity projection (MIP) images. With a Philips Brilliance 64 CT scanner (64x0.625 mm) CTP examinations of eight patients were performed on 80 mm of brain using the toggling table technique. The CTP examination consisted of a time series of 15 3D images (2x64x0.625 mm; 80 kV; 150 mAs each) with an interval of 4 s. The authors measured the CNR in images obtained with weighted averaging, images obtained with plain averaging, and images with maximal arterial enhancement. The authors also compared CNR and quality of the images with that of regular CTA examinations and examined the effectiveness of automatic vein masking in MIP images. The CNR of the weighted averaged images is, on the average, 1.73 times the CNR of an image at maximal arterial enhancement in the CTP series, where the use of plain averaging

  7. Neptune's Wind Speeds Obtained by Tracking Clouds in Voyager Images.

    PubMed

    Hammel, H B; Beebe, R F; De Jong, E M; Hansen, C J; Howell, C D; Ingersoll, A P; Johnson, T V; Limaye, S S; Magalhaes, J A; Pollack, J B; Sromovsky, L A; Suomi, V E; Swift, C E

    1989-09-22

    Images of Neptune obtained by the narrow-angle camera of the Voyager 2 spacecraft reveal large-scale cloud features that persist for several months or longer. The features' periods of rotation about the planetary axis range from 15.8 to 18.4 hours. The atmosphere equatorward of -53 degrees rotates with periods longer than the 16.05-hour period deduced from Voyager's planetary radio astronomy experiment (presumably the planet's internal rotation period). The wind speeds computed with respect to this radio period range from 20 meters per second eastward to 325 meters per second westward. Thus, the cloud-top wind speeds are roughly the same for all the planets ranging from Venus to Neptune, even though the solar energy inputs to the atmospheres vary by a factor of 1000.

  8. Venous return curves obtained from graded series of valsalva maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastenbrook, S. M., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The effects were studied of a graded series of valsalva-like maneuvers on the venous return, which was measured transcutaneously in the jugular vein of an anesthetized dog, with the animal serving as its own control. At each of five different levels of central venous pressure, the airway pressure which just stopped venous return during each series of maneuvers was determined. It was found that this end-point airway pressure is not a good estimator of the animal's resting central venous pressure prior to the simulated valsalva maneuver. It was further found that the measured change in right atrial pressure during a valsalva maneuver is less than the change in airway pressure during the same maneuver, instead of being equal, as had been expected. Relative venous return curves were constructed from the data obtained during the graded series of valsalva maneuvers.

  9. Obtaining P3P privacy policies for composite services.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Huang, Zhiqiu; Ke, Changbo

    2014-01-01

    With the development of web services technology, web services have changed from single to composite services. Privacy protection in composite services is becoming an important issue. P3P (platform for privacy preferences) is a privacy policy language which was designed for single web services. It enables service providers to express how they will deal with the privacy information of service consumers. In order to solve the problem that P3P cannot be applied to composite services directly, we propose a method to obtain P3P privacy policies for composite services. In this method, we present the definitions of Purpose, Recipient, and Retention elements as well as Optional and Required attributes for P3P policies of composite services. We also provide an instantiation to illustrate the feasibility of the method.

  10. Responses to nasal irritation obtained from the human nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Hummel, T; Kraetsch, H G; Pauli, E; Kobal, G

    1998-12-01

    Responses to chemical irritation can be obtained from the human respiratory mucosa in response to stimulation with gaseous CO2; these negative mucosal potentials (NMPs) are thought to be summated receptor potentials from chemosensitive nociceptors. The present study aimed to investigate the relation of this response to both stimulus concentration and perceived intensity. A total of 29 healthy volunteers participated. Maximum negative amplitudes occurred 1.1 s after stimulus onset. The negativity exhibited a higher coefficient of correlation to intensity estimates of the painful sensations (r = .65) than to the stimulus concentration (r = .46); it appeared at the same time when the subjects' tracking of the painful sensations reached its maximum amplitude. These findings suggest that the NMP is suited for the investigation of peripheral nociceptive events in man.

  11. Production and characterization of functional biscuits obtained from purple wheat.

    PubMed

    Pasqualone, Antonella; Bianco, Anna Maria; Paradiso, Vito Michele; Summo, Carmine; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Caponio, Francesco; Blanco, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Purple wheat contains higher levels of anthocyanins than conventional wheat cultivars. The aim of this work was to produce anthocyanin-rich biscuits from purple wheat, and to characterize the final product. Control biscuits, having the same formulation but obtained from a non-pigmented wheat cultivar, were used for comparisons. Purple biscuits showed a level of total anthocyanins of 13.86 mg/kg cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and exhibited higher antioxidant activity than control. The volatile compounds profile of purple biscuits showed lower levels of lipid-derived carboxylic acids and higher levels of alcohols and aldehydes than control biscuits, indicating a lower oxidative degradation of the lipid fraction. In particular, the ratio (lipid-derived alcohols+aldehydes)/acids accounted for 5.9 in purple and 3.0 in control biscuits. The sensory score for friability and the spread ratio of purple biscuits accounted for 2.6 and 6.0, respectively.

  12. Obtaining a critical care pharmacist position: a marketing case study.

    PubMed

    Stratton, T P; Wu, B; Nakagawa, R S

    1993-06-01

    Marketing theory is used to explain how Pharmacy Department managers at a Vancouver-area hospital secured a new ICU pharmacist position in a period of severe fiscal constraint. Market segmentation, target marketing and pull marketing strategy were combined to obtain support for the new position. Improved drug information services for ICU nurses were promoted to Nursing Administration and enhanced pharmacotherapy monitoring was promoted to the two critical care physicians primarily responsible for patient care in the ICU. These physicians and Nursing Administration voiced their support for the new position to the V.P. of Nursing (the functional officer for Pharmacy), who then promoted the new position to Hospital Administration. A half-time DUR commitment by the ICU pharmacist was offered to Hospital Administration, expanding this already successful service and guaranteeing cost recovery for the new position. Hospital Administration approved the new ICU clinical pharmacist position in a budget which saw other hospital departments lose several positions.

  13. Single sensor processing to obtain high resolution color component signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, William E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method for generating color video signals representative of color images of a scene includes the following steps: focusing light from the scene on an electronic image sensor via a filter having a tri-color filter pattern; producing, from outputs of the sensor, first and second relatively low resolution luminance signals; producing, from outputs of the sensor, a relatively high resolution luminance signal; producing, from a ratio of the relatively high resolution luminance signal to the first relatively low resolution luminance signal, a high band luminance component signal; producing, from outputs of the sensor, relatively low resolution color component signals; and combining each of the relatively low resolution color component signals with the high band luminance component signal to obtain relatively high resolution color component signals.

  14. Antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles obtained by green synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mallmann, Eduardo José J; Cunha, Francisco Afrânio; Castro, Bruno N M F; Maciel, Auberson Martins; Menezes, Everardo Albuquerque; Fechine, Pierre Basílio Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are metal structures at the nanoscale. AgNPs have exhibited antimicrobial activities against fungi and bacteria; however synthesis of AgNPs can generate toxic waste during the reaction process. Accordingly, new routes using non-toxic compounds have been researched. The proposal of the present study was to synthesize AgNPs using ribose as a reducing agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a stabilizer. The antifungal activity of these particles against C. albicans and C. tropicalis was also evaluated. Stable nanoparticles 12.5 ± 4.9 nm (mean ± SD) in size were obtained, which showed high activity against Candida spp. and could represent an alternative for fungal infection treatment. PMID:25923897

  15. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES OBTAINED BY GREEN SYNTHESIS

    PubMed Central

    MALLMANN, Eduardo José J.; CUNHA, Francisco Afrânio; CASTRO, Bruno N.M.F.; MACIEL, Auberson Martins; MENEZES, Everardo Albuquerque; FECHINE, Pierre Basílio Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are metal structures at the nanoscale. AgNPs have exhibited antimicrobial activities against fungi and bacteria; however synthesis of AgNPs can generate toxic waste during the reaction process. Accordingly, new routes using non-toxic compounds have been researched. The proposal of the present study was to synthesize AgNPs using ribose as a reducing agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a stabilizer. The antifungal activity of these particles against C. albicans and C. tropicalis was also evaluated. Stable nanoparticles 12.5 ± 4.9 nm (mean ± SD) in size were obtained, which showed high activity against Candida spp. and could represent an alternative for fungal infection treatment. PMID:25923897

  16. Functional properties of spice extracts obtained via supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Leal, Patrícia F; Braga, Mara E M; Sato, Daisy N; Carvalho, João E; Marques, Marcia O M; Meireles, M Angela A

    2003-04-23

    In the present study the antioxidant, anticancer, and antimycobacterial activities of extracts from ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were evaluated. The extracts were obtained using supercritical CO(2) with and without ethanol and/or isopropyl alcohol as cosolvent. The extracts' antioxidant power was assessed using the reaction between beta-carotene and linolenic acid, the antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis was measured by the MABA test, and their anticancer action was tested against nine human cancer ancestries: lung, breast, breast resistant, melanoma, colon, prostate, leukemia, and kidney. The rosemary extracts exhibited the strongest antioxidant and the lowest antimycobacterial activities. Turmeric extracts showed the greatest antimycobacterial activity. Ginger and turmeric extracts showed selective anticancer activities. PMID:12696930

  17. Obtaining P3P privacy policies for composite services.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Huang, Zhiqiu; Ke, Changbo

    2014-01-01

    With the development of web services technology, web services have changed from single to composite services. Privacy protection in composite services is becoming an important issue. P3P (platform for privacy preferences) is a privacy policy language which was designed for single web services. It enables service providers to express how they will deal with the privacy information of service consumers. In order to solve the problem that P3P cannot be applied to composite services directly, we propose a method to obtain P3P privacy policies for composite services. In this method, we present the definitions of Purpose, Recipient, and Retention elements as well as Optional and Required attributes for P3P policies of composite services. We also provide an instantiation to illustrate the feasibility of the method. PMID:25126609

  18. Recent advances to obtain real - Time displacements for engineering applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent developments and approaches (using GPS technology and real-time double-integration) to obtain displacements and, in turn, drift ratios, in real-time or near real-time to meet the needs of the engineering and user community in seismic monitoring and assessing the functionality and damage condition of structures. Drift ratios computed in near real-time allow technical assessment of the damage condition of a building. Relevant parameters, such as the type of connections and story structural characteristics (including geometry) are used in computing drifts corresponding to several pre-selected threshold stages of damage. Thus, drift ratios determined from real-time monitoring can be compared to pre-computed threshold drift ratios. The approaches described herein can be used for performance evaluation of structures and can be considered as building health-monitoring applications.

  19. Antioxidative activities of fractions obtained from brewed coffee.

    PubMed

    Yanagimoto, Kenichi; Ochi, Hirotomo; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2004-02-11

    The antioxidative activity of column chromatographic fractions obtained from brewed coffee was investigated to find antioxidants and to assess the benefit of coffee drinking. The dichloromethane extract inhibited hexanal oxidation by 100 and 50% for 15 days and 30 days, respectively, at the level of 5 microg/mL. A GC/MS analysis of fractions, which exhibited oxidative activity, revealed the presence of antioxidative heterocyclic compounds including furans, pyrroles, and maltol. The residual aqueous solution exhibited slight antioxidative activity. The inhibitory activity (%) of the seven fractions from an aqueous solution toward malonaldehde formation from lipid oxidation ranged from 10 to 90 at a level of 300 microg/mL. The results indicate that brewed coffee contains many antioxidants and consumption of antioxidant-rich brewed coffee may inhibit diseases caused by oxidative damages. PMID:14759154

  20. Viable offspring obtained from Prm1-deficient sperm in mice

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Naoki; Yoshinaga, Kazuya; Furushima, Kenryo; Takamune, Kazufumi; Li, Zhenghua; Abe, Shin-ichi; Aizawa, Shin-ichi; Yamamura, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Protamines are expressed in the spermatid nucleus and allow denser packaging of DNA compared with histones. Disruption of the coding sequence of one allele of either protamine 1 (Prm1) or Prm2 results in failure to produce offspring, although sperm with disrupted Prm1 or Prm2 alleles are produced. Here, we produced Prm1-deficient female chimeric mice carrying Prm1-deficient oocytes. These mice successfully produced Prm1+/− male mice. Healthy Prm1+/− offspring were then produced by transferring blastocysts obtained via in vitro fertilization using zona-free oocytes and sperm from Prm1+/− mice. This result suggests that sperm lacking Prm1 can generate offspring despite being abnormally shaped and having destabilised DNA, decondensed chromatin and a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential. Nevertheless, these mice showed little derangement of expression profiles. PMID:27250771

  1. Antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates obtained from the housefly larvae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Ai-Jun; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Ji-Hong; Qin, Qi-Lian; Wu, Yi-Jun

    2016-09-01

    The housefly is an important resource insect and the housefly larvae are ideal source of food additives. The housefly larvae protein hydrolysates were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis by alcalase and neutral proteinase. Their antioxidant activities were investigated, including the superoxide and hydroxyl radicalscavenging activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, reducing power and metal chelating activity. The antioxidant activities of both hydrolysates increased with their increasing concentrations. The alcalase hydrolysate (AH) showed higher scavenging activities against hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical at low concentrations and higher metal-chelating activity than the neutral proteinase hydrolysate (NPH). The NPH exhibited higher scavenging activity against DPPH free radical and higher reducing power than the AH. Both hydrolysates showed more than 50% superoxide anion radical-scavenging activity at 10 μg/mL. These results indicate that both housefly larvae protein hydrolysates display high antioxidant activities and they could serve as potential natural antioxidant food additives. PMID:27630047

  2. Photocatalytic activity of titania fibers obtained by electrospinning

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, A.K. Berutti, F.A.; Clemens, F.J.; Graule, T.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2009-02-04

    Composite fibers of polyvinyl pyrrolidone and titanium isopropoxide were prepared in this study using the electrospinning technique. Titanium oxide fibers were obtained after subsequent heat treatment at high temperatures. The photocatalytic activity of these fibers is reported herein. The fibers were characterized using the BET model, thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the titania fibers was investigated using ultraviolet-visible absorbance by following the photooxidative decomposition of methylene blue in comparison to the reference TiO{sub 2} powder Degussa P25. The temperature of heat treatment, the crystalline structure, and the surface area affected the physical and chemical properties of the as-synthesized titania fibers. Increasing the temperature of heat treatment resulted in a decrease in both the fraction of anatase phase and the surface area, thereby leading to reduced photocatalytic activity.

  3. How to obtain traceability on optical radiation measurements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matamoros García, Carlos H.

    2006-02-01

    Traceability to national standards provides confidence in measurements results, granting a guaranty when carrying out governmental rules and when demonstrating conformity with quality requirements such as ISO 9000 or ISO/IEC 17025 (and the Mexican equivalent standards). The appropriate traceability contributes with confidence of the quality of products or services. This paper presents different ways to obtain traceability in Mexico for the optical radiation measurements, mentioning some applications, and highlighting the necessity of having traceability to the appropriate units of the SI. Additionally it present the national standards maintained by Centro Nacional de Metrologia (CENAM), the national metrology institute in Mexico, that give the technical support to Mexican measurements in this field and the international recognition that the personal of the Optics and Radiometry Division had gained in 10 years of development.

  4. Interpretation of tandem mass spectra obtained from cyclic nonribosomal peptides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Ting; Ng, Julio; Meluzzi, Dario; Bandeira, Nuno; Gutierrez, Marcelino; Simmons, Thomas L; Schultz, Andrew W; Linington, Roger G; Moore, Bradley S; Gerwick, William H; Pevzner, Pavel A; Dorrestein, Pieter C

    2009-06-01

    Natural and non-natural cyclic peptides are a crucial component in drug discovery programs because of their considerable pharmaceutical properties. Cyclosporin, microcystins, and nodularins are all notable pharmacologically important cyclic peptides. Because these biologically active peptides are often biosynthesized nonribosomally, they often contain nonstandard amino acids, thus increasing the complexity of the resulting tandem mass spectrometry data. In addition, because of the cyclic nature, the fragmentation patterns of many of these peptides showed much higher complexity when compared to related counterparts. Therefore, at the present time it is still difficult to annotate cyclic peptides MS/MS spectra. In this current work, an annotation program was developed for the annotation and characterization of tandem mass spectra obtained from cyclic peptides. This program, which we call MS-CPA is available as a web tool (http://lol.ucsd.edu/ms-cpa_v1/Input.py). Using this program, we have successfully annotated the sequence of representative cyclic peptides, such as seglitide, tyrothricin, desmethoxymajusculamide C, dudawalamide A, and cyclomarins, in a rapid manner and also were able to provide the first-pass structure evidence of a newly discovered natural product based on predicted sequence. This compound is not available in sufficient quantities for structural elucidation by other means such as NMR. In addition to the development of this cyclic annotation program, it was observed that some cyclic peptides fragmented in unexpected ways resulting in the scrambling of sequences. In summary, MS-CPA not only provides a platform for rapid confirmation and annotation of tandem mass spectrometry data obtained with cyclic peptides but also enables quantitative analysis of the ion intensities. This program facilitates cyclic peptide analysis, sequencing, and also acts as a useful tool to investigate the uncommon fragmentation phenomena of cyclic peptides and aids the

  5. Whey-derived valuable products obtained by microbial fermentation.

    PubMed

    Pescuma, Micaela; de Valdez, Graciela Font; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2015-08-01

    Whey, the main by-product of the cheese industry, is considered as an important pollutant due to its high chemical and biological oxygen demand. Whey, often considered as waste, has high nutritional value and can be used to obtain value-added products, although some of them need expensive enzymatic synthesis. An economical alternative to transform whey into valuable products is through bacterial or yeast fermentations and by accumulation during algae growth. Fermentative processes can be applied either to produce individual compounds or to formulate new foods and beverages. In the first case, a considerable amount of research has been directed to obtain biofuels able to replace those derived from petrol. In addition, the possibility of replacing petrol-derived plastics by biodegradable polymers synthesized during bacterial fermentation of whey has been sought. Further, the ability of different organisms to produce metabolites commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries (i.e., lactic acid, lactobionic acid, polysaccharides, etc.) using whey as growth substrate has been studied. On the other hand, new low-cost functional whey-based foods and beverages leveraging the high nutritional quality of whey have been formulated, highlighting the health-promoting effects of fermented whey-derived products. This review aims to gather the multiple uses of whey as sustainable raw material for the production of individual compounds, foods, and beverages by microbial fermentation. This is the first work to give an overview on the microbial transformation of whey as raw material into a large repertoire of industrially relevant foods and products. PMID:26124070

  6. Improving the quality of parameter estimates obtained from slug tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, J.J.; McElwee, C.D.; Liu, W.

    1996-01-01

    The slug test is one of the most commonly used field methods for obtaining in situ estimates of hydraulic conductivity. Despite its prevalence, this method has received criticism from many quarters in the ground-water community. This criticism emphasizes the poor quality of the estimated parameters, a condition that is primarily a product of the somewhat casual approach that is often employed in slug tests. Recently, the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) has pursued research directed it improving methods for the performance and analysis of slug tests. Based on extensive theoretical and field research, a series of guidelines have been proposed that should enable the quality of parameter estimates to be improved. The most significant of these guidelines are: (1) three or more slug tests should be performed at each well during a given test period; (2) two or more different initial displacements (Ho) should be used at each well during a test period; (3) the method used to initiate a test should enable the slug to be introduced in a near-instantaneous manner and should allow a good estimate of Ho to be obtained; (4) data-acquisition equipment that enables a large quantity of high quality data to be collected should be employed; (5) if an estimate of the storage parameter is needed, an observation well other than the test well should be employed; (6) the method chosen for analysis of the slug-test data should be appropriate for site conditions; (7) use of pre- and post-analysis plots should be an integral component of the analysis procedure, and (8) appropriate well construction parameters should be employed. Data from slug tests performed at a number of KGS field sites demonstrate the importance of these guidelines.

  7. Reliability of groundwater vulnerability maps obtained through statistical methods.

    PubMed

    Sorichetta, Alessandro; Masetti, Marco; Ballabio, Cristiano; Sterlacchini, Simone; Beretta, Giovanni Pietro

    2011-04-01

    Statistical methods are widely used in environmental studies to evaluate natural hazards. Within groundwater vulnerability in particular, statistical methods are used to support decisions about environmental planning and management. The production of vulnerability maps obtained by statistical methods can greatly help decision making. One of the key points in all of these studies is the validation of the model outputs, which is performed through the application of various techniques to analyze the quality and reliability of the final results and to evaluate the model having the best performance. In this study, a groundwater vulnerability assessment to nitrate contamination was performed for the shallow aquifer located in the Province of Milan (Italy). The Weights of Evidence modeling technique was used to generate six model outputs, each one with a different number of input predictive factors. Considering that a vulnerability map is meaningful and useful only if it represents the study area through a limited number of classes with different degrees of vulnerability, the spatial agreement of different reclassified maps has been evaluated through the kappa statistics and a series of validation procedures has been proposed and applied to evaluate the reliability of the reclassified maps. Results show that performance is not directly related to the number of input predictor factors and that is possible to identify, among apparently similar maps, those best representing groundwater vulnerability in the study area. Thus, vulnerability maps generated using statistical modeling techniques have to be carefully handled before they are disseminated. Indeed, the results may appear to be excellent and final maps may perform quite well when, in fact, the depicted spatial distribution of vulnerability is greatly different from the actual one. For this reason, it is necessary to carefully evaluate the obtained results using multiple statistical techniques that are capable of

  8. Improving the quality of parameter estimates obtained from slug tests

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.J. Jr.; McElwee, C.D.; Liu, W.

    1996-05-01

    The slug test is one of the most commonly used field methods for obtaining in situ estimates of hydraulic conductivity. Despite its prevalence, this method has received criticism from many quarters in the ground-water community. This criticism emphasizes the poor quality of the estimated parameters, a condition that is primarily a product of the somewhat casual approach that is often employed in slug tests. Recently, the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) has pursued research directed at improving methods for the performance and analysis of slug tests. Based on extensive theoretical and field research, a series of guidelines have been proposed that should enable the quality of parameter estimates to be improved. The most significant of these guidelines are: (1) three or more slug tests should be performed at each well during a given test period; (2) two or more different initial displacements (H{sub 0}) should be used at each well during a test period; (3) the method used to initiate a test should enable the slug to e introduced in a near-instantaneous manner and should allow a good estimate of H{sub 0} to be obtained; (4) data-acquisition equipment that enables a large quantity of high quality data to be collected should be employed; (5) if an estimate of the storage parameter is needed, an observation well other than the test well should be employed; (6) the method chosen for analysis of the slug-test data should be appropriate for site conditions; (7) use of pre- and post-analysis plots should be an integral component of the analysis procedure, and (8) appropriate well construction parameters should be employed. Data from slug tests performed at a number of KGS field sites demonstrate the importance of these guidelines.

  9. Obtaining of new magnetic nanocomposites based on modified polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Tudorachi, Nita; Chiriac, Aurica

    2013-10-15

    The study presents the preparation of some composite materials with magnetic properties by two different encapsulation methods of magnetite (Fe3O4) in a polymer matrix based on carboxymethyl starch-g-polylactic acid (CMS-g-PLA). The copolymer matrix used to obtain the magnetic nanocomposites was synthesized by grafting reaction of carboxymethyl starch (CMS) with D,L-lactic acid (DLLA), in the presence of Sn octanoate [Sn(Oct)2] as catalyst. Magnetite was obtained by co-precipitation from aqueous salt solutions FeCl2/FeCl3 (molar ratio 1/2). The magnetic composites were prepared by precipitation method in acetone (non-solvent) of the DMSO solutions of magnetite and copolymer, and synthesis in situ of the nanocomposites. In the first case, the particle size measured by DLS-technique was 168 nm, and the magnetization was 46.82 emu/g, while after in situ synthesis, the composite materials showed smaller size (141 nm), but the magnetization was reduced (3.04 emu/g). The higher magnetization in the first case is due to the great degree of encapsulation of the magnetite, which was about 43.4 wt.%, compared to 4.37 wt.% for the in situ synthesis (determined by thermogravimetry). The CMS-g-PLA copolymer, magnetite, and the nanocomposites were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), near infrared chemical imagistic (NIR-CI), dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique, X-ray diffraction (WAXD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and thermal analyses. Since the polymer matrix and magnetite are biodegradable and biocompatible, the magnetic nanocomposites can be used for conjugation of some drugs. The polymer matrix CMS-g-PLA acts as a shell, and vehicle for the active component, whereas magnetite is the component which makes targeting possible by external magnetic field manipulation. PMID:23987367

  10. Reference Crop Evapotranspiration obtained from the geostationary satellite MSG (METEOSAT).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruin, H. A. R.; Trigo, I. F.; Lorite, I. J.; Cruz-Blanco, M.; Gavilán, P.

    2012-04-01

    Among others, the scope of the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF) is to increase benefit from the EUMETSAT geostationary Satellites MSG data related to land, land-atmosphere interactions and biophysical applications. This is achieved by developing techniques, products and algorithms that will allow an effective use of MSG data, if needed, combined with data from numerical weather prediction models (e.g., ECMWF). Although directly designed to improve the observation of meteorological systems, the spectral characteristics, time resolution and area coverage offered by MSG allow for their use in a broad spectrum of other applications, for instance in agro- and hydrometeorology. This study concerns a method to determine how much water is needed for irrigation. Note that this is complementary to the actual evapotranspiration LSA SAF product. The objective of this study is to present a novel semi-empirical method to determine the Reference Crop Evapotranspiration (ET0) from the down-welling shortwave radiation and air temperature obtained through LSF SAF. ET0 is defined in the FAO Irrigation and Drainage report 56 (FAO56) and it is used to determine water requirements of agricultural crops in irrigated regions. It is evaluated with a special version of the Penman-Monteith equation (PM_FAO56) using data of a weather station installed over non-stressed grass. Such stations are expensive and very labor consuming. We developed our method for semi-arid regions where appropriate weather stations needed for FAO56 ET0 are missing. This concerns huge areas in the world. High-quality FAO-grass station near Cordoba, Spain were used, where, besides all input for PM-FAO56, independent lysimeter data are collected. In addition, it will be shown that significant errors in ET0 can occur if meteorological gathered over dry terrain will be used as input of PM-FAO56. For this purpose data sets obtained in different semi-arid regions will be analyzed.

  11. Venus Water Vapour Profiles Obtained by SOIR/VEx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, Sarah; Wilquet, Valerie; Mahieux, Arnaud; Robert, Severine; Thomas, Ian; Carine Vandaele, Ann; Bertaux, Jean-Loup

    2015-04-01

    We present up-to-date observations of the water vapour profile at the Venus terminator, between altitudes of 70 - 110km. The data were obtained by the Solar Occultation in the InfraRed (SOIR) instrument on board Venus Express (VEx). The SOIR instrument allows observations of trace gas profiles at altitudes within the Venus lower thermosphere and mesosphere. Due to the observational technique, all observations are taken at the Venus terminator, on either or both of the evening and morning side of the planet and covering almost all latitudes. These are key locations for study as the mesosphere/thermosphere altitudes correspond to the transition in dynamical regime from a retrograde zonal flow to sub-solar to antisolar flow (approximately 90 km) and at these altitudes we expect a steeper than normal temperature gradient across the terminator which would drive chemical reactions and dynamical flows. Water vapour in the mesosphere is involved in the cloud formation process and contributes to several chemical cycles. Isotopologue ratio studies also contribute towards understanding the evolution of the Venus climate and atmosphere. Determining the abundance, distribution and variability of water vapour is therefore a key element to understanding the development, maintenance and links between dynamical features, important chemical cycles and the evolution of the Venus atmosphere. Both water vapour isotopologues are targeted simultaneously in the majority of dedicated SOIR water vapour observations. H2O is detected between 70 - 110km and HDO is detected between 70 - 95km altitude. Early SOIR water vapour observations were published in 2007 and 2008. Previous results show a depletion in the volume mixing ratio (VMR) at 85km in both HDO and H2O and an increase in HDO/H2O ratio above the clouds. No noticeable temporal variability was detected. Numerous subsequent H2O and HDO SOIR observations have been obtained between 2007 - 2014 and with recent improvements in instrument

  12. New Seismic Noise Models Obtained Using Very Broadband Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd el-aal, Abd el-aziz Khairy; Soliman, Mahmoud Sami

    2013-11-01

    It has been two decades since the last comprehensive standard model of ambient earth noise was published Peterson (Observations and modelling of seismic background noise, US Geological Survey, open-file report 93-322, 1993). The PETERSON model was updated by analyzing the absolute quietest conditions for stations within the GSN ( Berger et al. in J Geophys Res 109, 2005; Mcnamara and Buland in Bull Seism Soc Am 94:1517-1527, 2004; Ringler et al. in Seismol Res Lett 81(4) doi:10.1785/gssrl.81.4.605, 2010). Unfortunately, both the original model and the updated models did not include any deployed station in North Africa and Middle East, which reflects the noise levels within the desert environment of those regions. In this study, a survey was conducted to create a new seismic noise model from very broadband stations which recently deployed in North Africa. For this purpose, 1 year of continuous recording of seismic noise data of the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) was analyzed in order to create a new noise model. Seasonal and diurnal variations in noise spectra were recorded at each station. Moreover, we constructed a new noise model for each individual station. Finally, we obtained a new cumulative noise model for all the stations. We compared the new high-noise model (EHNM) and new low-noise model (ELNM) with both the high-noise model (NHNM) and low-noise model (NLNM) of Peterson (Observations and modelling of seismic background noise, US Geological Survey, open-file report 93-322, 1993). The obtained noise levels are considerably lower than low-noise model of Peterson (Observations and modelling of seismic background noise, US Geological Survey, open-file report 93-322, 1993) at ultra long period band (ULP band), but they are still below the high-noise model of Peterson (Observations and modelling of seismic background noise, US Geological Survey, open-file report 93-322, 1993). The results of this study could be considered as a first step to create

  13. Comparison of NDVI fields obtained from different remote sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escribano Rodriguez, Juan; Alonso, Carmelo; Tarquis, Ana Maria; Benito, Rosa Maria; Hernandez Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos

    2013-04-01

    Satellite image data have become an important source of information for monitoring vegetation and mapping land cover at several scales. Beside this, the distribution and phenology of vegetation is largely associated with climate, terrain characteristics and human activity. Various vegetation indices have been developed for qualitative and quantitative assessment of vegetation using remote spectral measurements. In particular, sensors with spectral bands in the red (RED) and near-infrared (NIR) lend themselves well to vegetation monitoring and based on them [(NIR - RED) / (NIR + RED)] Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been widespread used. Given that the characteristics of spectral bands in RED and NIR vary distinctly from sensor to sensor, NDVI values based on data from different instruments will not be directly comparable. The spatial resolution also varies significantly between sensors, as well as within a given scene in the case of wide-angle and oblique sensors. As a result, NDVI values will vary according to combinations of the heterogeneity and scale of terrestrial surfaces and pixel footprint sizes. Therefore, the question arises as to the impact of differences in spectral and spatial resolutions on vegetation indices like the NDVI and their interpretation as a drought index. During 2012 three locations (at Salamanca, Granada and Córdoba) were selected and a periodic pasture monitoring and botanic composition were achieved. Daily precipitation, temperature and monthly soil water content were measurement as well as fresh and dry pasture weight. At the same time, remote sensing images were capture by DEIMOS-1 and MODIS of the chosen places. DEIMOS-1 is based on the concept Microsat-100 from Surrey. It is conceived for obtaining Earth images with a good enough resolution to study the terrestrial vegetation cover (20x20 m), although with a great range of visual field (600 km) in order to obtain those images with high temporal resolution and at a

  14. Silicon distribution on the lunar surface obtained by Kaguya GRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja; Kobayashi, Masanori; Elphic, Richard; Karouji, Yuzuru; Hamara, Dave; Kobayashi, Shingo; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Rodriguez, Alexis; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Reedy, Robert; Hasebe, Nobuyuki

    Gamma ray spectrometry (GRS) provides a powerful tool to map and characterize the elemental composition of the upper tens centimeters of solid planetary surfaces. Elemental maps generated by the Kaguya GRS (KGRS) include natural radioactive as well as major elements maps (e.g., Fe, Ca, and Ti). Analysis of the Si gamma ray has been investigated using the 4934 keV Si peak produced by the thermal neutron interaction (28) Si(n,gammag) (29) Si, generated during the interaction of galactic cosmic rays and surface material containing Si. The emission rate of gamma rays is directly proportional to the abundance of Si from the lunar surface; however, it is also affected by the thermal neutron density in the lunar surface. Thus, we corrected the Si GRS data by a low energy neutron data (< 0.1 eV) obtained by Lunar Prospector because the Kaguya orbiter did not carry a neutron detector. We used the relative change in thermal neutron flux as a function of topography measured by Lunar Prospector. Normalization of Si elemental abundance using the Kaguya data was accomplished using Apollo 11, 12, 16, and 17 archive data. The normalized Si elemental abundance of the Kaguya GRS data ranged from about 15 to 27% Si. The lowest and highest SiO _{2} abundance correspond to mineral groups like pyroxene group (PKT region) and feldspar group (Northern highlands), respectively. The Si abundance permits the quantification of the relative abundance and distribution of mafic or non-mafic lunar surfaces materials. Our KGRS data analysis shows that highland terrains are Si-enriched relative to lower basins and plains regions, which appear to consist of primarily of mafic rocks. Our elemental map of Si using Kaguya GRS data shows that the highland areas of both near side and far side of the Moon have higher abundance of Si, and the mare regions of the near side of the Moon have the lowest Si abundance on the Moon. Our study clearly shows that there are a number of Si enriched areas compared to

  15. Obtaining Io's internal state from in situ and remote observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurana, Krishan; Keszthelyi, Laszlo; Jia, Xianzhe; McEwen, Alfred

    2016-04-01

    Based on sound theoretical arguments, Io has long been suspected of harboring a magma ocean in its interior. The extremely high temperature of the lava erupting on Io's surface indeed hint at an extremely hot interior consistent with an internal magma ocean. However, the only direct evidence for a melt layer in Io's interior has been provided by Khurana et al. (2011), who used Jupiter's rotating magnetic field as an electromagnetic induction signal. They have shown that a strong dipolar field is present in Galileo magnetometer data, which is consistent with electromagnetic induction from large amounts of rock-melts in Io's interior. Modeling of this signature showed that the induction response from a completely solid mantle model is inadequate to explain the magnetometer observations. However, they found that a layer of asthenosphere > 50 km in thickness with a rock melt fraction ≥ 20% is adequate to accurately model the observed magnetic field. In this presentation, we first provide a progress report on our effort to marry the principles of thermodynamics with those of electromagnetism to further constrain the temperature profile inside Io. The constraints on the mineralogy, temperature and melt state of Io are being obtained from MELTS a modeling program that utilizes thermodynamic principles to calculate the chemical variations in the assemblages of minerals and melts as a function of pressure, temperature and oxygen fugacity. Electromagnetic induction response is calculated by solving the induction equation numerically for several different models of the interior and tested for their agreement with the Galileo magnetometer data. Next, we explore how future in situ and remote observations could be used to characterize Io's interior using multi-frequency electromagnetic induction and auroral observations. We show that the lithospheric thickness can be obtained from induction response at the Jovian synodic period while information on the magma ocean thickness

  16. Crustal structure of the Aegean area obtained by traveltime tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y.; Brüstle, A.; Küperkoch, L.; Friederich, W.

    2012-04-01

    The Hellenic arc and Aegean sea area are of locus of high seismicity and intense tectonic activity. Previous studies using either traveltimes of body waves or dispersion curves of surface waves show strong lateral heterogeneity of velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle under the Aegean area. Especially crustal thicknesses vary from about 20 km to 45 km. The complexity of crustal structure often requires the use of a number of one-dimensional layered models, in the calculation of synthetic seismograms for different ray traversing paths, to determine moment tensor of small-to-moderate earthquakes in this area. Using travel times from the EHB catalog data between 1980 and 1997 from International Seismological Center (Engdahl et al. 1998), Euro-Mediterranean Bulletin data between 1998 and 2008 from the Euro-Mediterranean Seismological Center (Godey et al. 2006), and additional local earthquakes recorded by the temporary stations deployed in the EGELADOS project, we derive a new three-dimensional velocity model of the crust in the Aegean area using the traveltime tomographic inversion code FMTOMO developed by Rawlinson et al. (2006). The events falling into the research area defined by 34°-40°N and 20°-29°E are firstly relocated using HypoDD (Waldhauser & Ellsworth 2000) before tomographic inversion is performed. Since the number of earthquakes is much greater than the number of stations, the source and receiver roles are interchanged to accelerate the forward calculation of traveltimes which is done by tracking the wavefront propagation with the fast marching method. The initial one-dimensional model was obtained by simultaneously inverting the data both for hypocenter locations and velocity using VELEST (Kissling et al. 1994). Checkboard resolution tests for the P waves show that anomalies of size of half a degree could be correctly recovered down to depth of 50 km. One notable feature from the preliminary inversion results for the P velocity is that the

  17. Inflated Sporopollenin Exine Capsules Obtained from Thin-Walled Pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Jackman, Joshua A.; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-06-01

    Sporopollenin is a physically robust and chemically resilient biopolymer that comprises the outermost layer of pollen walls and is the first line of defense against harsh environmental conditions. The unique physicochemical properties of sporopollenin increasingly motivate the extraction of sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) from pollen walls as a renewable source of organic microcapsules for encapsulation applications. Despite the wide range of different pollen species with varying sizes and wall thicknesses, faithful extraction of pollen-mimetic SECs has been limited to thick-walled pollen capsules with rigid mechanical properties. There is an unmet need to develop methods for producing SECs from thin-walled pollen capsules which constitute a large fraction of all pollen species and have attractive materials properties such as greater aerosol dispersion. Herein, we report the first successful extraction of inflated SEC microcapsules from a thin-walled pollen species (Zea mays), thereby overcoming traditional challenges with mechanical stability and loss of microstructure. Morphological and compositional characterization of the SECs obtained by the newly developed extraction protocol confirms successful protein removal along with preservation of nanoscale architectural features. Looking forward, there is excellent potential to apply similar strategies across a wide range of unexplored thin-walled pollen species.

  18. Native Elution of Yeast Protein Complexes Obtained by Affinity Capture.

    PubMed

    LaCava, John; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Rout, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes two options for the native (nondenaturing) elution of protein complexes obtained by affinity capture. The first approach involves the elution of complexes purified through a tag that includes a human rhinovirus 3C protease (PreScission protease) cleavage site sequence between the protein of interest and the tag. Incubation with the protease cleaves immobilized complexes from the affinity medium. The second approach involves the release of protein A-tagged protein complexes using a competitive elution reagent called PEGylOx. The degree of purity of the native assemblies eluted is sample dependent and strongly influenced by the affinity capture. It should be noted that the efficiency of native elution is commonly lower than that of elution by a denaturing agent (e.g., SDS) and the release of the complex will be limited by the activity of the protease or the inhibition constant (Ki) of the competitive release agent. However, an advantage of native release is that some nonspecifically bound materials tend to stay adsorbed to the affinity medium, providing an eluted fraction of higher purity. Finally, keep in mind that the presence of the protease or elution peptide could potentially affect downstream applications; thus, their removal should be considered. PMID:27371597

  19. Column Chromatography To Obtain Organic Cation Sorption Isotherms.

    PubMed

    Jolin, William C; Sullivan, James; Vasudevan, Dharni; MacKay, Allison A

    2016-08-01

    Column chromatography was evaluated as a method to obtain organic cation sorption isotherms for environmental solids while using the peak skewness to identify the linear range of the sorption isotherm. Custom packed HPLC columns and standard batch sorption techniques were used to intercompare sorption isotherms and solid-water sorption coefficients (Kd) for four organic cations (benzylamine, 2,4-dichlorobenzylamine, phenyltrimethylammonium, oxytetracycline) with two aluminosilicate clay minerals and one soil. A comparison of Freundlich isotherm parameters revealed isotherm linearity or nonlinearity was not significantly different between column chromatography and traditional batch experiments. Importantly, skewness (a metric of eluting peak symmetry) analysis of eluting peaks can establish isotherm linearity, thereby enabling a less labor intensive means to generate the extensive data sets of linear Kd values required for the development of predictive sorption models. Our findings clearly show that column chromatography can reproduce sorption measures from conventional batch experiments with the benefit of lower labor-intensity, faster analysis times, and allow for consistent sorption measures across laboratories with distinct chromatography instrumentation. PMID:27379799

  20. Obtaining Glenoid Positioning Data from Scapular Palpable Points In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Trafimow, Jordan H.; Aruin, Alexander S.

    2013-01-01

    Both clinical and biomechanical problems affecting the shoulder joint suggest that investigators should study force transmission into and out from the scapula. To analyze force transmission between the humeral head and the glenoid, one must know the position of the glenoid. Studies have analyzed the position of the scapula from the positions of three palpable points, but the position of the glenoid relative to three palpable points has not been studied. Dry scapulae (N = 13) were subjected to X-rays and a critical angle, Θ (which relates the plane determined by the three palpable points on the scapula to a plane containing the glenoid center and the first two palpable points) was calculated. The mean value for Θ was 28.5 ± 5.60 degrees. The obtained Θ allows us to determine the position of the glenoid from three palpable points. This information could be used in calculation of forces across the shoulder joint, which in turn would allow optimizing the choice of strengthening exercises. PMID:23653863

  1. Bacterial contamination in cold water samples obtained from water dispensers.

    PubMed

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Ishizaki, Naoto; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    We carried out a basic study in order to evaluate the bacterial contamination in water dispensers. Water samples were obtained from water dispensers from October 2012 to November 2013, and standard plate counts (at 36˚C, 24 h) of the samples, as well as heterotrophic plate counts (at 25˚C, 7 d), were estimated with the standard methods for the examination of drinking water in Japan. Standard plate counts exceeding the water-quality standard (1.0×10(2) CFU/ml) were observed in 42 of the 140 samples (30.0%), with a maximum detected bacterial count of 2.1×10(5) CFU/ml. The rate of the standard plate counts exceeding the water quality standard tended to be higher when using a one-way type method or water dispensers with natural water. Ralstonia spp. was most commonly isolated, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated in a few cases. Some opportunistic pathogens were also isolated, suggesting that we should be more concerned about bacterial contamination in cold water supplied from water dispensers.

  2. Obtaining Magnetic Properties of Meteorites Using Magnetic Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kletetschka, G.; Nabelek, L.; Mazanec, M.; Simon, K.; Hruba, J.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic images of Murchison meteorite's and Chelyabinsk meteorite's thin section have been obtained from magnetic scanning system from Youngwood Science and Engineering (YSE) capable of resolving magnetic anomalies down to 10-3 mT range from about 0.3 mm distance between the probe and meteorite surface (resolution about 0.15 mm). Anomalies were produced repeatedly, each time after application of magnetic field pulse of varying amplitude and constant, normal or reversed, direction. This process resulted in both magnetizing and demagnetizing of the meteorite thin section, while keeping the magnetization vector in the plane of the thin section. Analysis of the magnetic data allows determination of coercivity of remanence (Bcr) for the magnetic sources in situ. Value of Bcr is critical for calculating magnetic forces applicable during missions to asteroids where gravity is compromised. Bcr was estimated by two methods. First method measured varying dipole magnetic field strength produced by each anomaly in the direction of magnetic pulses. Second method measured deflections of the dipole direction from the direction of magnetic pulses (Nabelek et al., 2015). Nabelek, L., Mazanec, M., Kdyr, S., and Kletetschka, G., 2015, Magnetic, in situ, mineral characterization of Chelyabinsk meteorite thin section: Meteoritics & Planetary Science.

  3. Quantitative Comparison of Tandem Mass Spectra Obtained on Various Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazsó, Fanni Laura; Ozohanics, Oliver; Schlosser, Gitta; Ludányi, Krisztina; Vékey, Károly; Drahos, László

    2016-08-01

    The similarity between two tandem mass spectra, which were measured on different instruments, was compared quantitatively using the similarity index (SI), defined as the dot product of the square root of peak intensities in the respective spectra. This function was found to be useful for comparing energy-dependent tandem mass spectra obtained on various instruments. Spectral comparisons show the similarity index in a 2D "heat map", indicating which collision energy combinations result in similar spectra, and how good this agreement is. The results and methodology can be used in the pharma industry to design experiments and equipment well suited for good reproducibility. We suggest that to get good long-term reproducibility, it is best to adjust the collision energy to yield a spectrum very similar to a reference spectrum. It is likely to yield better results than using the same tuning file, which, for example, does not take into account that contamination of the ion source due to extended use may influence instrument tuning. The methodology may be used to characterize energy dependence on various instrument types, to optimize instrumentation, and to study the influence or correlation between various experimental parameters.

  4. The Data Evaluation for Obtaining Accuracy and Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Geun; Chae, Kyun Shik; Lee, Sang Tae; Bhang, Gun Woong

    2012-11-01

    Nemours scientific measurement results are flooded from the paper, data book, etc. as fast growing of internet. We meet many different measurement results on the same measurand. In this moment, we are face to choose most reliable one out of them. But it is not easy to choose and use the accurate and reliable data as we do at an ice cream parlor. Even expert users feel difficult to distinguish the accurate and reliable scientific data from huge amount of measurement results. For this reason, the data evaluation is getting more important as the fast growing of internet and globalization. Furthermore the expressions of measurement results are not in standardi-zation. As these need, the international movement has been enhanced. At the first step, the global harmonization of terminology used in metrology and the expression of uncertainty in measurement were published in ISO. These methods are wide spread to many area of science on their measurement to obtain the accuracy and reliability. In this paper, it is introduced that the GUM, SRD and data evaluation on atomic collisions.

  5. Comparative study of aerogels obtained from differently prepared nanocellulose fibers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenshuai; Li, Qing; Wang, Youcheng; Yi, Xin; Zeng, Jie; Yu, Haipeng; Liu, Yixing; Li, Jian

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the fabrication of nanocellulose fibers (NCFs) with different morphologies and surface properties from biomass resources as well as their self-aggregation into lightweight aerogels. By carefully modulating the nanofibrillation process, four types of NCFs could be readily fabricated, including long aggregated nanofiber bundles, long individualized nanofibers with surface C6 -carboxylate groups, short aggregated nanofibers, and short individualized nanofibers with surface sulfate groups. Free-standing lightweight aerogels were obtained from the corresponding aqueous NCF suspensions through freeze-drying. The structure of the aerogels could be controlled by manipulating the type of NCFs and the concentration of their suspensions. A possible mechanism for the self-aggregation of NCFs into two- or three-dimensional aerogel nanostructures was further proposed. Owing to web-like structure, high porosity, and high surface reactivity, the NCF aerogels exhibited high mechanical flexibility and ductility, and excellent properties for water uptake, removal of dye pollutants, and the use as thermal insulation materials. The aerogels also displayed sound-adsorption capability at high frequencies. PMID:24420495

  6. Obtaining reimbursement in France and Italy for new diabetes products.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Elmar; Schnell, Gerald; Sonsalla, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers launching next-generation or innovative medical devices in Europe face a very heterogeneous reimbursement landscape, with each country having its own pathways, timing, requirements and success factors. We selected 2 markets for a deeper look into the reimbursement landscape: France, representing a country with central decision making with defined processes, and Italy, which delegates reimbursement decisions to the regional level, resulting in a less transparent approach to reimbursement. Based on our experience in working on various new product launches and analyzing recent reimbursement decisions, we found that payers in both countries do not reward improved next-generation products with incremental reimbursement. Looking at innovations, we observe that manufacturers face a challenging and lengthy process to obtain reimbursement. In addition, requirements and key success factors differ by country: In France, comparative clinical evidence and budget impact very much drive reimbursement decisions in terms of pricing and restrictions, whereas in Italy, regional key opinion leader (KOL) support and additional local observational data are key. PMID:25550411

  7. Ligand Release Pathways Obtained with WExplore: Residence Times and Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Alex; Lotz, Samuel D

    2016-06-23

    The binding of ligands with their molecular receptors is of tremendous importance in biology. Although much emphasis has been placed on characterizing binding sites and bound poses that determine the binding thermodynamics, the pathway by which a ligand binds importantly determines the binding kinetics. The computational study of entire unbiased ligand binding and release pathways is still an emerging field, made possible only recently by advances in computational hardware and sampling methodologies. We have developed one such method (WExplore) that is based on a weighted ensemble of trajectories, which we apply to ligand release for the first time, using a set of three previously characterized interactions between low-affinity ligands and the protein FKBP-12 (FK-506 binding protein). WExplore is found to be more efficient that conventional sampling, even for the nanosecond-scale unbinding events observed here. From a nonequilibrium ensemble of unbinding trajectories, we obtain ligand residence times and release pathways without using biasing forces or a Markovian assumption of transitions between regions. We introduce a set of analysis tools for unbinding transition pathways, including using von Mises-Fisher distributions to model clouds of ligand exit points, which provide a quantitative proxy for ligand surface diffusion. Differences between the transition pathway ensembles of the three ligands are identified and discussed.

  8. Incorrectness of traditional statistical treatment of data obtained from CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsev, S. I.

    Traditional approach to statistical treatment of data is based on the presumption about data independence. Closure of matter turnover inevitably results in dependency of data obtained from CELSS experiments. Taking this into account a statistical coefficient displaying the degree of interaction of system elements is proposed. In addition this coefficient shows the degree of applicability of traditional statistic treatment. On the base of maximum likelihood approach a formula for correct assessment of statistical expectation of CELSS parameters is proposed: [ mathord{frown}over μ_i =bar {x}_i +σ bar {x_i }^2 (A_0-sumlimits_j{bar {x}_j })/sumlimits_j {σ bar {x_j }^2 } quad , ] where hat {μ }_i - estimation of statistical expectation; bar {x}_i - arithmetic average; σ bar {x_i }^2 - dispersion of arithmetic average; A0 - total amount of given chemical element or total mass into CELSS. This formula is applicable to completely closed CELSS or in the case of precise control of mass in CELSS. The properties of introduced estimations are discussed.

  9. Antioedematogenic effect of marrubiin obtained from Marrubium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Stulzer, Hellen K; Tagliari, Monika P; Zampirolo, Julio A; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Schlemper, Valfredo

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the antioedematogenic profile of marrubiin (1), the main constituent of Marrubium vulgare, a medicinal plant used in folk medicine of several countries to treat different pathologies. Compound (1) was analyzed in a model of microvascular leakage in mice ears. The results show that it exhibits significant and dose-related antioedematogenic effects. The results obtained for ID50 values (mg/kg, i.p.) and maximal inhibition (%) for the different phlogistic agents used were as follows: histamine (HIS, 13.84 mg/kg and 73.7%); (BK, 18.82 mg/kg and 70.0%); carrageenan (CAR, 13.61 mg/kg and 63.0%). The other phlogistic agonists, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), caused inhibition of less than 50%. In addition, (1) (100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the OVO-induced allergic edema in actively sensitized animals (maximal inhibition 67.6+/-4%). Our results demonstrate that the systemic administration of marrubiin exerts a non-specific inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory agent-induced microvascular extravasation of Evans blue in mouse ear.

  10. Pills easier to obtain as nations start to relax rules.

    PubMed

    1975-01-01

    In both developing and developed nations it has become easier to obtain oral contraception (OC). Generally, this means that the OC becomes available without a doctor's prescription and/or sources from outside a pharmacy. Sometimes there is no charge for the OC. In the People's Republic of China barefoot doctors distribute OC free of charge. Fiji, Israel, Korea and Pakistan have removed the prescription requirement. In India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and Turkey private family planning clinics distribute the OC on prescription but free of charge. Specially trained and registered midwives distribute OCs in Chile and Antigua has also recently lifted the prescription requirement. Free OC is available to low income women in Jamaica, Costa Rica and Peru. In Egypt family planning centers distribute the OC free and without prescription. The United Kingdom is making OCs available free-of-charge through the National Health Service. OCs are free in France. In the U.S. government agencies have provided free OCs to low-income women in government health centers and have subsidized free pills for distribution in private family planning clinics. In Canada and in the Democratic Republic of Germany, OCs are distributed free, on prescription, to low-income women. PMID:12259672

  11. A thermodynamic approach to obtain materials properties for engineering applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Y. Austin

    1993-01-01

    With the ever increases in the capabilities of computers for numerical computations, we are on the verge of using these tools to model manufacturing processes for improving the efficiency of these processes as well as the quality of the products. One such process is casting for the production of metals. However, in order to model metal casting processes in a meaningful way it is essential to have the basic properties of these materials in their molten state, solid state as well as in the mixed state of solid and liquid. Some of the properties needed may be considered as intrinsic such as the density, heat capacity or enthalpy of freezing of a pure metal, while others are not. For instance, the enthalpy of solidification of an alloy is not a defined thermodynamic quantity. Its value depends on the micro-segregation of the phases during the course of solidification. The objective of the present study is to present a thermodynamic approach to obtain some of the intrinsic properties and combining thermodynamics with kinetic models to estimate such quantities as the enthalpy of solidification of an alloy.

  12. Column Chromatography To Obtain Organic Cation Sorption Isotherms.

    PubMed

    Jolin, William C; Sullivan, James; Vasudevan, Dharni; MacKay, Allison A

    2016-08-01

    Column chromatography was evaluated as a method to obtain organic cation sorption isotherms for environmental solids while using the peak skewness to identify the linear range of the sorption isotherm. Custom packed HPLC columns and standard batch sorption techniques were used to intercompare sorption isotherms and solid-water sorption coefficients (Kd) for four organic cations (benzylamine, 2,4-dichlorobenzylamine, phenyltrimethylammonium, oxytetracycline) with two aluminosilicate clay minerals and one soil. A comparison of Freundlich isotherm parameters revealed isotherm linearity or nonlinearity was not significantly different between column chromatography and traditional batch experiments. Importantly, skewness (a metric of eluting peak symmetry) analysis of eluting peaks can establish isotherm linearity, thereby enabling a less labor intensive means to generate the extensive data sets of linear Kd values required for the development of predictive sorption models. Our findings clearly show that column chromatography can reproduce sorption measures from conventional batch experiments with the benefit of lower labor-intensity, faster analysis times, and allow for consistent sorption measures across laboratories with distinct chromatography instrumentation.

  13. Magnetic biocatalysts and their uses to obtain bioproducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Carmen; Cruz-Izquierdo, Álvaro; Picó, Enrique; García-Bárcena, Teresa; Villarroel, Noelia; Llama, María; Serra, Juan

    2014-08-01

    Nanobiocatalysis, as the synergistic combination of nanotechnology and biocatalysis, is rapidly emerging as a new frontier of biotechnology. The use of immobilized enzymes in industrial applications often presents advantages over their soluble counterparts, mainly in view of stability, reusability and simpler operational processing. Because of their singular properties, such as biocompatibility, large and modifiable surface and easy recovery, iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are attractive super-paramagnetic materials that serve as a support for enzyme immobilization and facilitate separations by applying an external magnetic field. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) have several benefits in the context of industrial applications since they can be cheaply and easily prepared from unpurified enzyme extracts and show improved storage and operational stability against denaturation by heat and organic solvents. In this work, by using the aforementioned advantages of MNPs of magnetite and CLEAs, we prepared two robust magnetically-separable types of nanobiocatalysts by binding either soluble enzyme onto the surface of MNPs functionalized with amino groups or by cross-linking aggregates of enzyme among them and to MNPs to obtain magnetic CLEAs. For this purpose the lipase B of Candida antarctica (CALB) was used. The hydrolytic and biosynthetic activities of the resulting magnetic nanobiocatalysts were assessed in aqueous and organic media and compared between them and to those showed by the corresponding soluble enzyme. Thus, the hydrolysis of triglycerides or the transesterification reactions to synthesize biodiesel and biosurfactants were studied using magnetic CLEAs of CALB.

  14. New space value of the solar oblateness obtained with PICARD

    SciTech Connect

    Irbah, Abdanour; Meftah, Mustapha; Hauchecorne, Alain; Bocquier, Maxime; Cisse, E. Momar; Djafer, Djelloul; Corbard, Thierry

    2014-04-20

    The PICARD spacecraft was launched on 2010 June 15 with the scientific objective of studying the geometry of the Sun. It is difficult to measure solar oblateness because images are affected by optical distortion. Rolling the satellite, as done in previous space missions, determines the contribution of the telescope by assuming that the geometry of the Sun is constant during the observations. The optical response of the telescope is considered to be time-invariant during the roll operations. This is not the case for PICARD because an orbital signature is clearly observed in the solar radius computed from its images. We take this effect into account and provide the new space value of solar oblateness from PICARD images recorded in the solar continuum at 535.7 nm on 2011 July 4-5. The equator-pole radius difference is 8.4 ± 0.5 mas, which corresponds to an absolute radius difference of 6.1 km. This coincides with the mean value of all solar oblateness measurements obtained during the last two decades from the ground, balloons, and space. It is also consistent with values determined from models using helioseismology data.

  15. Ligand Release Pathways Obtained with WExplore: Residence Times and Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Alex; Lotz, Samuel D

    2016-06-23

    The binding of ligands with their molecular receptors is of tremendous importance in biology. Although much emphasis has been placed on characterizing binding sites and bound poses that determine the binding thermodynamics, the pathway by which a ligand binds importantly determines the binding kinetics. The computational study of entire unbiased ligand binding and release pathways is still an emerging field, made possible only recently by advances in computational hardware and sampling methodologies. We have developed one such method (WExplore) that is based on a weighted ensemble of trajectories, which we apply to ligand release for the first time, using a set of three previously characterized interactions between low-affinity ligands and the protein FKBP-12 (FK-506 binding protein). WExplore is found to be more efficient that conventional sampling, even for the nanosecond-scale unbinding events observed here. From a nonequilibrium ensemble of unbinding trajectories, we obtain ligand residence times and release pathways without using biasing forces or a Markovian assumption of transitions between regions. We introduce a set of analysis tools for unbinding transition pathways, including using von Mises-Fisher distributions to model clouds of ligand exit points, which provide a quantitative proxy for ligand surface diffusion. Differences between the transition pathway ensembles of the three ligands are identified and discussed. PMID:27231969

  16. Possibilities of obtaining an additional water supply near Hingham, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brashears, M.L.

    1942-01-01

    In February 1942 the War Production Board requested the U.S. Geological Survey to furnish information on the possibilities of obtaining additional water supply near the shore at Hingham, Mass. It was estimated that 300,000 to 500,000 gallons a day was needed. On February 25 and 26, 1942, a brief field study of the ground-water conditions was made in an area about 2 miles wide along the shore of Hingham Bay at Hingham, Mass. Most of this area is shown on the topographic map of the Weymouth Quadrangle, Mass., surveyed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1936. The field work of the ground-water study consisted mainly of surface transverses and the examination of road cuts and gravel pits. In addition, well records and other data were collected from well drillers and public officials. Acknowledgement is made to H. B. Kinnison, district engineer, U.S. Geological Survey, at Boston, Mass., for his assistance and suggestions.

  17. Inflated Sporopollenin Exine Capsules Obtained from Thin-Walled Pollen.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Jackman, Joshua A; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-06-15

    Sporopollenin is a physically robust and chemically resilient biopolymer that comprises the outermost layer of pollen walls and is the first line of defense against harsh environmental conditions. The unique physicochemical properties of sporopollenin increasingly motivate the extraction of sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) from pollen walls as a renewable source of organic microcapsules for encapsulation applications. Despite the wide range of different pollen species with varying sizes and wall thicknesses, faithful extraction of pollen-mimetic SECs has been limited to thick-walled pollen capsules with rigid mechanical properties. There is an unmet need to develop methods for producing SECs from thin-walled pollen capsules which constitute a large fraction of all pollen species and have attractive materials properties such as greater aerosol dispersion. Herein, we report the first successful extraction of inflated SEC microcapsules from a thin-walled pollen species (Zea mays), thereby overcoming traditional challenges with mechanical stability and loss of microstructure. Morphological and compositional characterization of the SECs obtained by the newly developed extraction protocol confirms successful protein removal along with preservation of nanoscale architectural features. Looking forward, there is excellent potential to apply similar strategies across a wide range of unexplored thin-walled pollen species.

  18. Mutagenicity of the products obtained from heated milk systems.

    PubMed

    Rogers, A M; Shibamoto, T

    1982-06-01

    Methylene chloride extracts of the browning reaction products prepared from model systems consisting of major milk components (casein and/or lactose, and non-fat dried milk) were tested for mutagenicity in the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay. Samples obtained by heating aqueous solutions of these components under either neutral or basic (pH 10) conditions exhibited no significant mutagenic activity when tested with or without S-9 mix. The addition of common food additives, such as sodium nitrite, butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene, to the aqueous solutions did not enhance the mutagenic activity of the browning samples. On the other hand, the tar samples prepared by heating the same milk components in the dry state exhibited strong mutagenicity, primarily to Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and only with S-9 mix. A casein/lactose mixture and non-fat dried milk were also heated with baking soda in the dry state. The presence of the baking soda enhanced the mutagenicity of the browning products; the tar from the non-fat dried milk heated with baking soda was the most potently mutagenic of all the samples towards strain TA98 and also produced a positive response in strain TA100 in the presence of S-9 mix. PMID:7201951

  19. Inflated Sporopollenin Exine Capsules Obtained from Thin-Walled Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Jackman, Joshua A.; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Sporopollenin is a physically robust and chemically resilient biopolymer that comprises the outermost layer of pollen walls and is the first line of defense against harsh environmental conditions. The unique physicochemical properties of sporopollenin increasingly motivate the extraction of sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) from pollen walls as a renewable source of organic microcapsules for encapsulation applications. Despite the wide range of different pollen species with varying sizes and wall thicknesses, faithful extraction of pollen-mimetic SECs has been limited to thick-walled pollen capsules with rigid mechanical properties. There is an unmet need to develop methods for producing SECs from thin-walled pollen capsules which constitute a large fraction of all pollen species and have attractive materials properties such as greater aerosol dispersion. Herein, we report the first successful extraction of inflated SEC microcapsules from a thin-walled pollen species (Zea mays), thereby overcoming traditional challenges with mechanical stability and loss of microstructure. Morphological and compositional characterization of the SECs obtained by the newly developed extraction protocol confirms successful protein removal along with preservation of nanoscale architectural features. Looking forward, there is excellent potential to apply similar strategies across a wide range of unexplored thin-walled pollen species. PMID:27302853

  20. Making connections: New Orleans Evacuees' experiences in obtaining drugs.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Eloise; Johnson, Bruce D; Kotarba, Joseph A; Fackler, Jennifer

    2009-09-01

    Between August 29 and September 7, 2005, almost all New Orleans residents were evacuated from the area in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. News reports indicate that almost 130,000 New Orleans Evacuees (NOEs) were evacuated to Houston, Texas, the largest recipient of the civilian population from New Orleans. Some of these NOEs were active participants in the illicit drug market in New Orleans prior to the hurricane. The period between the flooding and the nearly complete evacuation of New Orleans as well as their subsequent displacement to Houston and other locations provided unique opportunities to study what occurs when illicit drug markets are disrupted, since populations of illicit drug users and purchasers could no longer routinely obtain their drugs in predictable ways. Utilizing qualitative data from in-depth interviews and focus groups, this article describes the ways NOEs (1) managed their drug acquisition and use following evacuation; (2) located new sources of drugs in Houston and elsewhere by tapping into shared drug culture; and (3) gained access to and learned the argot for drugs in the local drug market in new settings. This report contributes to the nascent literature on disrupted drug markets.

  1. The role of testing realism on experimentally obtained stereotype strength.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Errol R; Whitfield, Richard C

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown (Hoffmann 2009) that pencil-and-paper tests, when used to determine stereotype strength, may yield data quite different to that obtained from hardware tests. The purpose of this research was to determine the level of realism required in order to have stereotypes that are consistent with real-world values. It is surprising that there does not appear to be any published research addressing this problem; all previous researches have considered either paper/pencil or hardware tests or sometimes both, but no level of simulation in between these techniques. In order to determine the effect of level of testing realism, a specific example was chosen to test, that of water tap operation stereotypes. Tests used verbal questioning, photographs of tap arrangements, a partial hardware arrangement and finally a full hardware setup. The results of these four levels of realism were very different and illustrated that, only with a full realistic simulation, did participants respond as might be expected in a real-world environment, illustrating the importance of testing realism when determining population stereotypes. This result has strong implications for product designers when selecting appropriate layouts of displays and controls and the linkages relating these.

  2. Making Connections: New Orleans Evacuees’ Experiences in Obtaining Drugs1

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Eloise; Johnson, Bruce D.; Kotarba, Joseph; Fackler, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Between August 29 and September 7, 2005, almost all New Orleans residents were evacuated from the area in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. News reports indicate that almost 130,000 New Orleans Evacuees (NOEs) were evacuated to Houston, Texas, the largest recipient of the civilian population from New Orleans. Many of these NOEs were active participants in the illicit drug market in New Orleans prior to the hurricane. Their displacement to Houston and other locations provided a unique opportunity to study what occurs when illicit drug markets are disrupted. The period between the flooding and nearly complete evacuation of New Orleans provided a unique opportunity to systematically learn about the disruption of illicit drug markets since populations of illicit drug users and purchasers could no longer routinely obtain their drugs in predictable ways. Utilizing qualitative data from in-depth interviews and focus groups, this article describes the ways NOEs (1) managed their drug acquisition and use following evacuation; (2) located new sources of drugs in Houston and elsewhere by tapping into shared drug culture; and (3) gained access to and learned the argot for drugs in the local drug market in new settings. This report contributes to the nascent literature on disrupted drug markets. PMID:19999675

  3. Obtaining Reimbursement in France and Italy for New Diabetes Products

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Elmar; Sonsalla, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers launching next-generation or innovative medical devices in Europe face a very heterogeneous reimbursement landscape, with each country having its own pathways, timing, requirements and success factors. We selected 2 markets for a deeper look into the reimbursement landscape: France, representing a country with central decision making with defined processes, and Italy, which delegates reimbursement decisions to the regional level, resulting in a less transparent approach to reimbursement. Based on our experience in working on various new product launches and analyzing recent reimbursement decisions, we found that payers in both countries do not reward improved next-generation products with incremental reimbursement. Looking at innovations, we observe that manufacturers face a challenging and lengthy process to obtain reimbursement. In addition, requirements and key success factors differ by country: In France, comparative clinical evidence and budget impact very much drive reimbursement decisions in terms of pricing and restrictions, whereas in Italy, regional key opinion leader (KOL) support and additional local observational data are key. PMID:25550411

  4. Mutagenicity of the products obtained from heated milk systems.

    PubMed

    Rogers, A M; Shibamoto, T

    1982-06-01

    Methylene chloride extracts of the browning reaction products prepared from model systems consisting of major milk components (casein and/or lactose, and non-fat dried milk) were tested for mutagenicity in the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay. Samples obtained by heating aqueous solutions of these components under either neutral or basic (pH 10) conditions exhibited no significant mutagenic activity when tested with or without S-9 mix. The addition of common food additives, such as sodium nitrite, butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene, to the aqueous solutions did not enhance the mutagenic activity of the browning samples. On the other hand, the tar samples prepared by heating the same milk components in the dry state exhibited strong mutagenicity, primarily to Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and only with S-9 mix. A casein/lactose mixture and non-fat dried milk were also heated with baking soda in the dry state. The presence of the baking soda enhanced the mutagenicity of the browning products; the tar from the non-fat dried milk heated with baking soda was the most potently mutagenic of all the samples towards strain TA98 and also produced a positive response in strain TA100 in the presence of S-9 mix.

  5. [Detection of genetically modified organisms obtained from food samples ].

    PubMed

    Monma, Kimio; Araki, Rie; Ichikawa, Hisatsugu; Sato, Masaki; Uno, Naomichi; Sato, Kazue; Tobe, Takashi; Kuribara, Hideo; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Hino, Akihiro; Saito, Kazuo

    2004-08-01

    Genetially modified organisms (GMOs) were explored in food samples obtained from November 2000 to March 2003 in the Tokyo area by using PCR and real-time PCR techniques. The existence of Roundup Ready Soybean (RRS) was surveyed in processed foods derived from soybeans, such as tofu, boiled soybean, kinako, nama-age, abura-age, natto, miso, soymilk and yuba. RRS was detected in 3 of 37 tofu, 2 of 3 nama-age, 2 of 3 yuba and 3 of 3 abura-age samples. The CBH351 in 70 processed corn foods, NewLeaf Plus and NewLeaf Y in 50 processed potato foods, and 55-1 papaya in 16 papayas were surveyed. These GMOs were not detected among the samples. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of RRS and genetically modified (GM) corn were performed in soybean, corn and semi-processed corn products such as corn meal, corn flour and corn grits. RRS was detected in 42 of 178 soybean samples, and the amount of RRS in RRS-positive samples was determined. The content was in the range of 0.1-1.4% in identity-preserved soybeans (non-GMO), and 49.8-78.8% in non-segregated soybeans. On the other hand, GM corns were detected in 8 of 26 samples. The amount of GM corn in GM corn-positive samples was in the range of 0.1-2.0%.

  6. Physician's interviewing styles and medical information obtained from patients.

    PubMed

    Roter, D L; Hall, J A

    1987-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between physicians' interviewing styles and medical information obtained during simulated patient encounters. The sources of data are audiotapes and transcripts of two standardized patient cases presented by trained patient simulators to 43 primary care practitioners. Transcripts were scored for physician proficiency using expert-generated criteria and were content-analyzed to assess the process of communication and information content. Relevant patient disclosure was also scored from the transcripts based on expert-generated criteria. Findings were: 1) On the whole, physicians elicited only slightly more than 50% of the medical information considered important according to expert consensus, with a range from 9% to 85%. 2) Both open and closed questions were substantially related to patient disclosure of medical information to the physician, but open questions were substantially more so (Pearson correlations of 0.37 and 0.72, respectively). 3) Patient education, particularly information regarding prognosis, cause, and prevention, was substantially related to patient disclosure of medical information to the physician (Pearson correlations of 0.44, 0.36, and 0.34, respectively). 5) Finally, clinical expertise was only weakly associated with patient disclosure of medical information to the physician (Pearson correlation of 0.16).

  7. Main results obtained by the Siberia Regional Project of GAME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohata, T.; Fukushima, Y.

    2002-12-01

    GAME(GEWEX Asian Monsoon Experiment) selected one of their field experiment site in Siberia. Importance of this area was, first, its large area on Eurasia, second, potential effect of fresh water supply to the Arctic Ocean, thirdly, this region is one center of the recent intense warming. In order to progress the study, we set up the following objectives. 1) Clarify the physical processes of the land-surface/atmosphere interacting system. 2) Clarify the characteristics and variability of regional energy/water cycle. 3) Obtain the climate trend and land-surface change during the past 50 years. 4) Improve and develop atmospheric and hydrological models 5) Collection and archive of regional ground based/satellite data. 6) Establishment of observational network for long-term variation study, and development of hardware. The 1st phase of the study was 1996-2001, and from 2002 to 2004, 2nd phase emphasizing on integration is continued. Among the drainage in Siberia, Lena River was selected and following main results were obtained. (1) Land surface processes at three local sites: Heat water exchange study was made at three sites (Tundra: Tiksi, Flat taiga:Yakutsk, Mountaineous taiga:Tynda) for multiple years. They all showed strong influence of frozen ground (permafrost) to the heat/ water balance at patch scale. Snow cover had strong influence to hydrological process at Tundra and Mountaineous taiga, but it was masked at Flat Taiga. In Flat taiga, rhythm of heat flux to atmosphere is regulated strongly by foliation of leaves. Grassland (called alas) in comparison with nearby forest show different seasonal progress of fluxes, higher evaporation and low sensible heat at small young alas, and lower evaporation at vastly cultivated alas. Inter-annual variation of evaporation seem to be small in the Flat taiga forest compared with Tundra, although soil moisture show strong inter-annual variability, mainly due to the result of active function of the trees. In dry years trees

  8. Nelfinavir suspension obtained from nelfinavir tablets has equivalent pharmacokinetic profile.

    PubMed

    Regazzi, M B; Seminari, E; Villani, P; Carriero, P L; Montagna, M; Marubbi, F; Maserati, R

    2001-10-01

    The pharmacokinetics of nelfinavir tablets (A) and an oral simplified nelfinavir suspension (B) were studied. Twelve healthy volunteers randomly received either five 250-mg nelfinavir tablets or a simplified oral suspension obtained from tablets dissolved in water (nelfinavir 1250 mg in 100 mL of water) in a single dose before being crossed over to the second treatment after a one-week washout period. Blood samples were drawn up to 24 h after drug administration. Nelfinavir concentrations in plasma were analyzed by a specific and validated reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography assay (HPLC) with UV detection, and pharmacokinetic values were determined. For the AUC(0-infinity) with means+/-SD of 31.71+/-7.85, 30.88+/-10.28 (microg/L) respectively for treatments B and A, the ratio (F(B/A)) was of 1.1 with a C.I. of 0.90-1.24. For Cmax with means+/-SD of 3.1+/-0.6 (treatment B) and 3.2+/-0.8 mg/mL (treatment A), the ratio was 1.0. with C.I. of 0.92-1.08. The two treatments evidenced no significant differences in AUC(0-inifnity) and Cmax values and the two-one sided t-test showed that the two preparations are bioequivalent. There was no significant difference in Tmax between the liquid and tablets. Nelfinavir suspension might be a option for treating HIV-infected patients with swallowing disturbances or compliance problems.

  9. Hubble Captures Best View of Mars Ever Obtained from Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Frosty white water ice clouds and swirling orange dust storms above a vivid rusty landscape reveal Mars as a dynamic planet in this sharpest view ever obtained by an Earth-based telescope.

    NASA's Earth-orbiting Hubble Space Telescope took the picture on June 26, when Mars was approximately 43 million miles (68 million km) from Earth -- the closest Mars has ever been to Earth since 1988. Hubble can see details as small as 10 miles (16 km) across. The colors have been carefully balanced to give a realistic view of Mars' hues as they might appear through a telescope.

    Especially striking is the large amount of seasonal dust storm activity seen in this image. One large storm system is churning high above the northern polar cap [top of image], and a smaller dust storm cloud can be seen nearby. Another large dust storm is spilling out of the giant Hellas impact basin in the Southern Hemisphere [lower right].

    Hubble has observed Mars before, but never in such detail. The biennial close approaches of Mars and Earth are not all the same. Mars' orbit around the Sun is markedly elliptical; the close approaches to Earth can range from 35 million to 63 million miles.

    Astronomers are interested in studying the changeable surface and weather conditions on Mars, in part, to help plan for a pair of NASA missions to land rovers on the planet's surface in 2004.

    The Mars opposition of 2001 serves as a prelude for 2003 when Mars and Earth will come within 35 million miles of each other, the closest since 1924 and not to be matched until 2287.

  10. Noise correction of turbulent spectra obtained from Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Durgesh, Vibhav; Thomson, Jim; Richmond, Marshall C.; Polagye, Brian

    2014-03-02

    Accurately estimated auto-spectral density functions are essential for characterization of turbulent flows, and they also have applications in computational fluid dynamics modeling, site and inflow characterization for hydrokinetic turbines, and inflow turbulence generation. The Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) provides single-point temporally resolved data, that are used to characterize turbulent flows in rivers, seas, and oceans. However, ADV data are susceptible to contamination from various sources, including instrument noise, which is the intrinsic limit to the accuracy of acoustic velocity measurements. Due to the presence of instrument noise, the spectra obtained are altered at high frequencies. The focus of this study is to develop a robust and effective method for accurately estimating auto-spectral density functions from ADV data by reducing or removing the spectral contribution derived from instrument noise. For this purpose, the “Noise Auto-Correlation” (NAC) approach was developed, which exploits the correlation properties of instrument noise to identify and remove its contribution from spectra. The spectra estimated using the NAC approach exhibit increased fidelity and a slope of -5/3 in the inertial range, which is typically observed for turbulent flows. Finally, this study also compares the effectiveness of low-pass Gaussian filters in removing instrument noise with that of the NAC approach. For the data used in this study, both the NAC and Gaussian filter approaches are observed to be capable of removing instrument noise at higher frequencies from the spectra. However, the NAC results are closer to the expected frequency power of -5/3 in the inertial sub-range.

  11. Obtaining slow beam spills at the SSC collider

    SciTech Connect

    Ritson, D.

    1993-08-01

    There is substantial interest in providing slow-spill external proton beams in parallel with ``interaction running`` at the 20 TeV SSC collider. The proposal is to cause a flux of particles to impinge on a target consisting of a bent crystal extraction channel. Additionally, a slow spill onto a conventional internal target could be used as a source of secondary beams for physics or test purposes and might also be used for B-physics as proposed for HERA. The ``natural`` beam loss rates from elastic and diffractive beam gas scattering and IP collisions are not sufficient to provide suitably intense external proton beams. To prevent loss of luminosity, the rf excitation is non-linear and preferentially blows up the halo of the beam. The ``target`` is to be located at a region of high dispersion forcing particles at the edge of the momentum space onto the target. T. Lohse in this workshop has described a proposed internal target to be used at HERA that will not employ rf excitation but will use the finite loss rates observed at the HERA machine. The Hera losses are caused by a variety of sources in addition to beam gas scattering or IP interactions. Initially, the beam lifetime at HERA was too short to obtain satisfactory integrated luminosities. Subsequently, through careful attention to detail, the beam lifetime was increased to > 20 hours. Even with these changes, present loss rates provide the required intensity onto an internal target. The Tevatron and SPS proton anti-proton colliders have had similar experiences with their investigations of loss rates and also find that beam lifetimes may be substantially shorter than expected solely from beam gas and IP interactions. This paper proposes deliberately introducing controlled errors li

  12. Magnetic biocatalysts and their uses to obtain biodiesel and biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    López, Carmen; Cruz-Izquierdo, Alvaro; Picó, Enrique A; García-Bárcena, Teresa; Villarroel, Noelia; Llama, María J; Serra, Juan L

    2014-01-01

    Nanobiocatalysis, as the synergistic combination of nanotechnology and biocatalysis, is rapidly emerging as a new frontier of biotechnology. The use of immobilized enzymes in industrial applications often presents advantages over their soluble counterparts, mainly in view of stability, reusability and simpler operational processing. Because of their singular properties, such as biocompatibility, large and modifiable surface and easy recovery, iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are attractive super-paramagnetic materials that serve as a support for enzyme immobilization and facilitate separations by applying an external magnetic field. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) have several benefits in the context of industrial applications since they can be cheaply and easily prepared from unpurified enzyme extracts and show improved storage and operational stability against denaturation by heat and organic solvents. In this work, by using the aforementioned advantages of MNPs of magnetite and CLEAs, we prepared two robust magnetically-separable types of nanobiocatalysts by binding either soluble enzyme onto the surface of MNPs functionalized with amino groups or by cross-linking aggregates of enzyme among them and to MNPs to obtain magnetic CLEAs. For this purpose the lipase B of Candida antarctica (CALB) was used. The hydrolytic and biosynthetic activities of the resulting magnetic nanobiocatalysts were assessed in aqueous and organic media. Thus, the hydrolysis of triglycerides and the transesterification reactions to synthesize biodiesel and biosurfactants were studied using magnetic CLEAs of CALB. The efficiency and easy performance of this magnetic biocatalysis validates this proof of concept and sets the basis for the application of magnetic CLEAs at industrial scale. PMID:25207271

  13. Engineering preliminaries to obtain reproducible mixtures of atelocollagen and polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Lefter, Cristina-Mihaela; Maier, Stelian Sergiu; Maier, Vasilica; Popa, Marcel; Desbrieres, Jacques

    2013-05-01

    The critical stage in producing blends of biomacromolecules consists in the mixing of component solutions to generate homogenous diluted colloidal systems. Simple experimental investigations allow the establishment of the design rules of recipes and the procedures for preparing homogenous and compositionally reproducible mixtures. Starting from purified solutions of atelocollagen, hyaluronan and native gellan, having as low as possible inorganic salts content, initial binary and ternary mixtures can be prepared up to a total dry matter content of 0.150 g/dL, in no co-precipitating conditions. Two pH manipulation ways are feasible for homogenous mixing: (i) unbuffered prior correction at pH 5.5, and (ii) "rigid" buffering at pH 9.0, using organic species. Atelocollagen including co-precipitates can be obtained in the presence of one or both polysaccharides, preferably in pH domains far from the isoelectric point of scleroprotein. A critical behavior has been observed in mixtures containing gellan, due to its macromolecular dissimilarities compared with atelocollagen. In optimal binary mixtures, the coordinates of threshold points on the phase diagrams are 0.028% w/w atelocollagen/0.025% w/w hyaluronan, and 0.022% w/w atelocollagen/0.020% w/w gellan. Uni- or bi-phasic ternary systems having equilibrated ratios of co-precipitated components can be prepared starting from initial mixtures containing up to 0.032 g/dL atelocollagen, associated with, for example, 0.040 g/dL hyaluronan and 0.008 g/dL gellan, following the first pH manipulation way.

  14. Magnetic biocatalysts and their uses to obtain biodiesel and biosurfactants

    PubMed Central

    López, Carmen; Cruz-Izquierdo, Álvaro; Picó, Enrique A.; García-Bárcena, Teresa; Villarroel, Noelia; Llama, María J.; Serra, Juan L.

    2014-01-01

    Nanobiocatalysis, as the synergistic combination of nanotechnology and biocatalysis, is rapidly emerging as a new frontier of biotechnology. The use of immobilized enzymes in industrial applications often presents advantages over their soluble counterparts, mainly in view of stability, reusability and simpler operational processing. Because of their singular properties, such as biocompatibility, large and modifiable surface and easy recovery, iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are attractive super-paramagnetic materials that serve as a support for enzyme immobilization and facilitate separations by applying an external magnetic field. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) have several benefits in the context of industrial applications since they can be cheaply and easily prepared from unpurified enzyme extracts and show improved storage and operational stability against denaturation by heat and organic solvents. In this work, by using the aforementioned advantages of MNPs of magnetite and CLEAs, we prepared two robust magnetically-separable types of nanobiocatalysts by binding either soluble enzyme onto the surface of MNPs functionalized with amino groups or by cross-linking aggregates of enzyme among them and to MNPs to obtain magnetic CLEAs. For this purpose the lipase B of Candida antarctica (CALB) was used. The hydrolytic and biosynthetic activities of the resulting magnetic nanobiocatalysts were assessed in aqueous and organic media. Thus, the hydrolysis of triglycerides and the transesterification reactions to synthesize biodiesel and biosurfactants were studied using magnetic CLEAs of CALB. The efficiency and easy performance of this magnetic biocatalysis validates this proof of concept and sets the basis for the application of magnetic CLEAs at industrial scale. PMID:25207271

  15. Novel transmucosal absorption enhancers obtained by aminoalkylation of chitosan.

    PubMed

    Zambito, Ylenia; Uccello-Barretta, Gloria; Zaino, Chiara; Balzano, Federica; Di Colo, Giacomo

    2006-12-01

    Literature data suggest that quaternized chitosans have a transmucosal drug absorption enhancing property depending on their MW, quaternization degree and other structural features. With the purpose of preparing novel effective promoters, a chitosan (Ch) from crab shell (ChC; viscometric MW, 800 kDa; deacetylation: 90%, IR; 84%, NMR) and one from shrimp shell (ChS; viscometric MW, 590 kDa; deacetylation: 90%, IR; 82%, NMR) were reacted with 2-diethylaminoethyl chloride (DEAE-Cl) and novel derivatives containing different percentages of pendant quaternary ammonium groups were obtained. NMR analysis, based on HSQC, COSY, TOCSY and ROESY maps, indicated that three partially substituted N,O-[N,N-diethylaminomethyl(diethyldimethylene ammonium)(n)]methyl chitosans, coded N(+)-ChS-2 (degree of substitution, DS=40%; n=1.6), N(+)-ChS-4 (DS=132%; n=2.5), and N(+)-ChC-4 (DS=85%; n=1.7) resulted from the reaction, depending on whether the DEAE-Cl/Ch repeating unit molar ratio, was 2:1 or 4:1. The effects of the derivatives on the permeability of rhodamine 123 (Rh-123), hydrophobic, marker of the transcellular absorption route, and of fluorescein sodium (NaFlu), polar, marker of the paracellular route, across excised porcine cheek epithelium were assessed, using Franz type diffusion cells. Rh-123 permeability was enhanced by N(+)-ChS-4 (enhancement ratio, ER=8.4) and by N(+)-ChC-4 (ER=3.9), whereas N(+)-ChS-2 was ineffective. NaFlu permeability was enhanced by N(+)-ChS-2 (ER=7.2), N(+)-ChS-4 (ER=7.4) and N(+)-ChC-4 (ER=6.6). In conclusion, the three derivatives, whichever their DS, promote paracellular transport, while transcellular transport is substantially accelerated only by the most substituted one.

  16. Structural analysis of dextran-based hydrogels obtained chemoenzymatically.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, L; Figueiredo, M M; Gil, M H; Ramos, M A

    2006-04-01

    This work reports the results of structural analysis in novel dextran-acrylate (dexT70-VA) hydrogels generated chemoenzymatically. Porous structure as well as hydrogel surface and interior morphologies were evaluated by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), nitrogen adsorption (NA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses, as a function of the degree of substitution (DS), and initial water content used in the preparation of the hydrogel. MIP analysis showed that the overall networks were clearly macroporous with pore sizes ranging from 0.065 to 10 microm. As expected, the average pore size decreased as DS increased and as initial water content decreased. Moreover, the porosity values ranged from 75 up 90%, which shows that these hydrogels present an interconnected pore structure. Nitrogen adsorption analyses showed that the specific surface area of dexT70-VA hydrogels increased either by increasing the DS or by decreasing the initial water content of the hydrogel. SEM results revealed that the surface of hydrogels with lower DS presented either a porous structure or a polymeric "skin" covering the pores, whereas hydrogels with higher DS were totally porous. Furthermore, the interior morphology varied according to the DS and the initial water content of the hydrogels. Finally, the average pore size was also determined from the swelling of hydrogel using a theoretical model developed by Flory-Rehner. The comparison of the SEM and MIP results with the ones obtained by the equilibrium swelling theory of Flory-Rehner shows that this approach highly underestimates the average pore size. PMID:16211568

  17. Analysis of images obtained by the Phobos 2 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    The reflection spectrum and density of the Martian satellite, Phobos, suggests that it may be a captured C-type asteroid and hence may contain relatively unaltered organic material from the early history of the solar system. Since there is evidence from isotopic anomalies that meteorites presumably derived from such asteroids contain preserved interstellar material, it is conceivable that evidence for interstellar matter might also be present on Phobos. The present research concerns interpretation of the chemical composition of Phobos' surface and analysis of images of Phobos taken by the FREGAT camera equipment aboard the Phobos 2 Spacecraft, including both disk-integrated and disk-resolved photometry. Because the surface of Phobos is a regolith, spectral information on the surface composition will be convolved with information on the surface texture. A primary goal was to untangle these effects. Unfortunately, the Phobos 1 Spacecraft lost contact with Earth during its transit to Mars, and Phobos 2 likewise lost contact after two months in orbit around Mars. Thus, the hovering phase of very close approach and the landing of instruments on the surface of Phobos did not take place, so no data on the elemental composition of the surface is available. However, 37 images were obtained of the satellite. The results include the first such observations at near infrared wavelengths, for which disk-integrated results show that the corresponding geometric albedo is quite small and very similar to the value in the blue. The resolved surface photometry was analyzed by developing new methods of radiative transfer in rough surface layers and a procedure referred to as statistical photoclinometry. The results provide root mean square surface slopes on scales from the order of 1 millimeter to 250 meters, albedo fluctuations, and corresponding correlation lengths.

  18. Microbiological quality of goat's milk obtained under different production systems.

    PubMed

    Kyozaire, J K; Veary, C M; Petzer, I M; Donkin, E F

    2005-06-01

    In order to determine the safety of milk produced by smallholder dairy goat farms, a farm-based research study was conducted on commercial dairy goat farms to compare the microbiological quality of milk produced using 3 different types of dairy goat production systems (intensive, semi-intensive and extensive). A survey of dairy goat farms in and around Pretoria carried out by means of a questionnaire revealed that most of the smallholder dairy goat farms surveyed used an extensive type of production system. The method of milking varied with the type of production system, i.e. machine milking; bucket system machine milking and hand-milking, respectively. Udder half milk samples (n=270) were analysed, of which 31.1% were infected with bacteria. The lowest intra-mammary infection was found amongst goats in the herd under the extensive system (13.3%), compared with 43.3% and 36.7% infection rates under the intensive and semi-intensive production systems, respectively. Staphylococcus intermedius (coagulase positive), Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans (both coagulase negative), were the most common cause of intramammary infection with a prevalence of 85.7% of the infected udder halves. The remaining 14.3% of the infection was due to Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteriology of bulk milk samples on the other hand, showed that raw milk obtained by the bucket system milking machine had the lowest total bacterial count (16,450 colony forming units (CFU)/ml) compared to that by pipeline milking machine (36,300 CFU/ml) or hand-milking (48,000 CFU/ml). No significant relationship was found between the somatic cell counts (SCC) and presence of bacterial infection in goat milk In comparison with the herds under the other 2 production systems, it was shown that dairy goat farming under the extensive production system, where hand-milking was used, can be adequate for the production of safe raw goat milk.

  19. HUBBLE CAPTURES BEST VIEW OF MARS EVER OBTAINED FROM EARTH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Frosty white water ice clouds and swirling orange dust storms above a vivid rusty landscape reveal Mars as a dynamic planet in this sharpest view ever obtained by an Earth-based telescope. NASA's Earth-orbiting Hubble Space Telescope took the picture on June 26, when Mars was approximately 43 million miles (68 million km) from Earth -- the closest Mars has ever been to Earth since 1988. Hubble can see details as small as 10 miles (16 km) across. The colors have been carefully balanced to give a realistic view of Mars' hues as they might appear through a telescope. Especially striking is the large amount of seasonal dust storm activity seen in this image. One large storm system is churning high above the northern polar cap [top of image], and a smaller dust storm cloud can be seen nearby. Another large dust storm is spilling out of the giant Hellas impact basin in the Southern Hemisphere [lower right]. Hubble has observed Mars before, but never in such detail. The biennial close approaches of Mars and Earth are not all the same. Mars' orbit around the Sun is markedly elliptical; the close approaches to Earth can range from 35 million to 63 million miles. Astronomers are interested in studying the changeable surface and weather conditions on Mars, in part, to help plan for a pair of NASA missions to land rovers on the planet's surface in 2004. The Mars opposition of 2001 serves as a prelude for 2003 when Mars and Earth will come within 35 million miles of each other, the closest since 1924 and not to be matched until 2287. Image Credit: NASA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: J. Bell (Cornell U.), P. James (U. Toledo), M. Wolff (Space Science Institute), A. Lubenow (STScI), J. Neubert (MIT/Cornell)

  20. Reliability of fish size estimates obtained from multibeam imaging sonar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hightower, Joseph E.; Magowan, Kevin J.; Brown, Lori M.; Fox, Dewayne A.

    2013-01-01

    Multibeam imaging sonars have considerable potential for use in fisheries surveys because the video-like images are easy to interpret, and they contain information about fish size, shape, and swimming behavior, as well as characteristics of occupied habitats. We examined images obtained using a dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) multibeam sonar for Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, striped bass Morone saxatilis, white perch M. americana, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus of known size (20–141 cm) to determine the reliability of length estimates. For ranges up to 11 m, percent measurement error (sonar estimate – total length)/total length × 100 varied by species but was not related to the fish's range or aspect angle (orientation relative to the sonar beam). Least-square mean percent error was significantly different from 0.0 for Atlantic sturgeon (x̄  =  −8.34, SE  =  2.39) and white perch (x̄  = 14.48, SE  =  3.99) but not striped bass (x̄  =  3.71, SE  =  2.58) or channel catfish (x̄  = 3.97, SE  =  5.16). Underestimating lengths of Atlantic sturgeon may be due to difficulty in detecting the snout or the longer dorsal lobe of the heterocercal tail. White perch was the smallest species tested, and it had the largest percent measurement errors (both positive and negative) and the lowest percentage of images classified as good or acceptable. Automated length estimates for the four species using Echoview software varied with position in the view-field. Estimates tended to be low at more extreme azimuthal angles (fish's angle off-axis within the view-field), but mean and maximum estimates were highly correlated with total length. Software estimates also were biased by fish images partially outside the view-field and when acoustic crosstalk occurred (when a fish perpendicular to the sonar and at relatively close range is detected in the side lobes of adjacent beams). These sources of

  1. 21 CFR 1311.25 - Requirements for obtaining a CSOS digital certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Obtaining and Using Digital Certificates for Electronic Orders § 1311.25 Requirements for obtaining a CSOS digital certificate. (a) To obtain a certificate to... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements for obtaining a CSOS...

  2. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 275 - Obtaining Access By Search Warrant

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Obtaining Access By Search Warrant D Appendix D... OF 1978 Pt. 275, App. D Appendix D to Part 275—Obtaining Access By Search Warrant A. A Government authority may obtain financial records by using a search warrant obtained under Rule 41 of the Federal...

  3. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 275 - Obtaining Access By Search Warrant

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obtaining Access By Search Warrant D Appendix D... OF 1978 Pt. 275, App. D Appendix D to Part 275—Obtaining Access By Search Warrant A. A Government authority may obtain financial records by using a search warrant obtained under Rule 41 of the Federal...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 275 - Obtaining Access By Search Warrant

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obtaining Access By Search Warrant D Appendix D... OF 1978 Pt. 275, App. D Appendix D to Part 275—Obtaining Access By Search Warrant A. A Government authority may obtain financial records by using a search warrant obtained under Rule 41 of the Federal...

  5. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 275 - Obtaining Access By Search Warrant

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obtaining Access By Search Warrant D Appendix D... OF 1978 Pt. 275, App. D Appendix D to Part 275—Obtaining Access By Search Warrant A. A Government authority may obtain financial records by using a search warrant obtained under Rule 41 of the Federal...

  6. 21 CFR 1311.25 - Requirements for obtaining a CSOS digital certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for obtaining a CSOS digital... REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Obtaining and Using Digital Certificates for Electronic Orders § 1311.25 Requirements for obtaining a CSOS digital certificate. (a) To obtain...

  7. 75 FR 53371 - Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Obtaining Approval of Alternative Vapor-Gas Dispersion Models

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Obtaining Approval of Alternative Vapor-Gas Dispersion Models AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... provides guidance on the requirements for obtaining approval of alternative vapor-gas dispersion...

  8. 41 CFR 102-34.50 - What size motor vehicles may we obtain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accordance with the following considerations: (1) You must obtain motor vehicles that achieve maximum fuel efficiency. (2) Limit motor vehicle body size, engine size and optional equipment to what is essential to... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.50 What size motor vehicles may we obtain?...

  9. 41 CFR 102-34.50 - What size motor vehicles may we obtain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accordance with the following considerations: (1) You must obtain motor vehicles that achieve maximum fuel efficiency. (2) Limit motor vehicle body size, engine size and optional equipment to what is essential to... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.50 What size motor vehicles may we obtain?...

  10. 21 CFR 1311.10 - Eligibility to obtain a CSOS digital certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Obtaining and Using Digital Certificates for Electronic... obtain a CSOS digital certificate from the DEA Certification Authority to sign electronic orders for... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eligibility to obtain a CSOS digital...

  11. 32 CFR Appendix G to Part 275 - Releasing Information Obtained From Financial Institutions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Releasing Information Obtained From Financial... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS OBTAINING INFORMATION FROM FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: RIGHT TO FINANCIAL PRIVACY ACT OF 1978 Pt. 275, App. G Appendix G to Part 275—Releasing Information Obtained...

  12. 21 CFR 20.109 - Data and information obtained by contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Data and information obtained by contract. 20.109... GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.109 Data and information obtained by contract. (a) All data and information obtained by the Food and Drug Administration by...

  13. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 275 - Obtaining Access By Search Warrant

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining Access By Search Warrant D Appendix D... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS OBTAINING INFORMATION FROM FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: RIGHT TO FINANCIAL PRIVACY ACT OF 1978 Pt. 275, App. D Appendix D to Part 275—Obtaining Access By Search Warrant A. A...

  14. 40 CFR 370.60 - How does a person obtain MSDS information about a specific facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How does a person obtain MSDS... obtain MSDS information about a specific facility? Any person may obtain an MSDS for a specific facility by writing to the LEPC and asking for it. (a) If the LEPC has the MSDS, it must provide it to...

  15. 40 CFR 370.60 - How does a person obtain MSDS information about a specific facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How does a person obtain MSDS... obtain MSDS information about a specific facility? Any person may obtain an MSDS for a specific facility by writing to the LEPC and asking for it. (a) If the LEPC has the MSDS, it must provide it to...

  16. 40 CFR 370.60 - How does a person obtain MSDS information about a specific facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does a person obtain MSDS... obtain MSDS information about a specific facility? Any person may obtain an MSDS for a specific facility by writing to the LEPC and asking for it. (a) If the LEPC has the MSDS, it must provide it to...

  17. 40 CFR 370.60 - How does a person obtain MSDS information about a specific facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How does a person obtain MSDS... obtain MSDS information about a specific facility? Any person may obtain an MSDS for a specific facility by writing to the LEPC and asking for it. (a) If the LEPC has the MSDS, it must provide it to...

  18. 40 CFR 370.60 - How does a person obtain MSDS information about a specific facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How does a person obtain MSDS... obtain MSDS information about a specific facility? Any person may obtain an MSDS for a specific facility by writing to the LEPC and asking for it. (a) If the LEPC has the MSDS, it must provide it to...

  19. 14 CFR 61.52 - Use of aeronautical experience obtained in ultralight vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of aeronautical experience obtained in....52 Use of aeronautical experience obtained in ultralight vehicles. (a) A person may use aeronautical experience obtained in an ultralight vehicle to meet the requirements for the following certificates...

  20. 30 CFR 250.410 - How do I obtain approval to drill a well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I obtain approval to drill a well? 250... OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.410 How do I obtain approval to drill a well? You must obtain...

  1. 22 CFR 42.1 - Aliens not required to obtain immigrant visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens not required to obtain immigrant visas... Immigrants § 42.1 Aliens not required to obtain immigrant visas. An immigrant within any of the following categories is not required to obtain an immigrant visa: (a) Aliens lawfully admitted for permanent...

  2. 22 CFR 42.1 - Aliens not required to obtain immigrant visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aliens not required to obtain immigrant visas... Immigrants § 42.1 Aliens not required to obtain immigrant visas. An immigrant within any of the following categories is not required to obtain an immigrant visa: (a) Aliens lawfully admitted for permanent...

  3. 22 CFR 42.1 - Aliens not required to obtain immigrant visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aliens not required to obtain immigrant visas... Immigrants § 42.1 Aliens not required to obtain immigrant visas. An immigrant within any of the following categories is not required to obtain an immigrant visa: (a) Aliens lawfully admitted for permanent...

  4. 22 CFR 42.1 - Aliens not required to obtain immigrant visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aliens not required to obtain immigrant visas... Immigrants § 42.1 Aliens not required to obtain immigrant visas. An immigrant within any of the following categories is not required to obtain an immigrant visa: (a) Aliens lawfully admitted for permanent...

  5. 22 CFR 42.1 - Aliens not required to obtain immigrant visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aliens not required to obtain immigrant visas... Immigrants § 42.1 Aliens not required to obtain immigrant visas. An immigrant within any of the following categories is not required to obtain an immigrant visa: (a) Aliens lawfully admitted for permanent...

  6. 49 CFR 105.26 - Obtaining records on file with PHMSA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining records on file with PHMSA. 105.26... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND OIL TRANSPORTATION... Public Information § 105.26 Obtaining records on file with PHMSA. To obtain records on file with...

  7. 14 CFR 413.3 - Who must obtain a license or permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who must obtain a license or permit. 413.3 Section 413.3 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.3 Who must obtain a license or permit. (a) A person must obtain...

  8. 14 CFR 413.3 - Who must obtain a license or permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Who must obtain a license or permit. 413.3 Section 413.3 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.3 Who must obtain a license or permit. (a) A person must obtain...

  9. 14 CFR 413.3 - Who must obtain a license or permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who must obtain a license or permit. 413.3 Section 413.3 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.3 Who must obtain a license or permit. (a) A person must obtain...

  10. 41 CFR 102-34.50 - What size motor vehicles may we obtain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.50 What size motor vehicles may we obtain? (a... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What size motor vehicles may we obtain? 102-34.50 Section 102-34.50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  11. 5 CFR 410.308 - Training to obtain an academic degree.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training to obtain an academic degree... REGULATIONS TRAINING Establishing and Implementing Training Programs § 410.308 Training to obtain an academic degree. (a) An agency may authorize training for an employee to obtain an academic degree...

  12. 5 CFR 410.308 - Training to obtain an academic degree.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Training to obtain an academic degree... REGULATIONS TRAINING Establishing and Implementing Training Programs § 410.308 Training to obtain an academic degree. (a) An agency may authorize training for an employee to obtain an academic degree...

  13. 21 CFR 1311.10 - Eligibility to obtain a CSOS digital certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligibility to obtain a CSOS digital certificate... REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Obtaining and Using Digital Certificates for Electronic Orders § 1311.10 Eligibility to obtain a CSOS digital certificate. The following persons...

  14. Determination of the uncertainty of microhardness in the evaluation of hardfacing obtained by welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Crespo, A.; Leal, J. E. S.; Piratelli-Filho, A.; Mendez, T. O.; Arencibia, R. V.

    2015-10-01

    The present work evaluates the microhardness measurement uncertainty using a Vickers indenter in the characterization of hard deposits, obtained with experimental electrode for hardfacing of cutting knives in sugar mills. The following stages were proposed: i) obtainment of the deposit with experimental electrode, ii) obtainment of the samples, iii) chemical characterization, iv) metallographic analysis, v) microhardness measurement and vi) uncertainty measurement assessment. It was observed that the obtained deposit presents chrome carbides and eutectic matrix composed of austenite and carbides. The expanded uncertainty associated to the microhardness measurement is highly influenced by the low repeatability of the obtained microhardness values.

  15. Correlation studies of Pioneer Venus imagery obtained from PV experiments with near IR imagery obtained from ground-based observations during Venus inferior conjunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragent, Boris

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to attempt to find correlations between data taken by experiments aboard the Pioneer-Venus Orbiter (PVO) and those obtained from Earth-based near-infrared (NIR) measurements of Venus during periods near inferior conjunction. Since the NIR measurements have been found to provide data on the middle atmosphere cloud morphology and motion, it is assumed that any correlations will also indicate that the PVO experiments are also documenting cloud behavior. If such correlations are found, then a further task is to attempt to study the long term behavior of the cloud features implied by the correlations. Many PVO data have been obtained over an extended period extending from 1978 until the PV demise in 1992. There exists a long, somewhat ill-conditioned time series of data that may contain valuable information on the long time, as well as short term behavior of the clouds, and, derivatively from cloud motion, atmospheric dynamics and wave activity in the Venus atmosphere. For example, determination of the zonal velocities of any OCPP (Cloud Photopolarimeter) 0.935 micron features could then be used for comparisons with data from other sources to attempt to fix the altitude region in which such features existed. A further task of this study is to attempt to correlate any features found in simultaneously obtained data, for example, the OCPP 0.365 and 0.935 micron data. The existence of such correlations may imply that data was obtained in overlapping altitude regions of the atmosphere.

  16. Comparative study of mandibular linear measurements obtained by cone beam computed tomography and digital calipers

    PubMed Central

    Tarazona-Álvarez, Pablo; Romero-Millán, Javier; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Fuster-Torres, María Á.; Tarazona, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an innovative dental of imaging system characterized by rapid volumetric imaging with patient exposure to a single dose of radiation. The present study was carried out to compare the linear measurements obtained with CBCT and digital caliper in 20 mandibles from human cadavers. Study design: A total of 4800 linear measurements were measured between different mandibular anatomical points with CBCT and digital caliper. The real measurements were defined as those obtained with the digital caliper. Posteriorly, the mandibles were scanned to obtain the CBCT images, with software-based measurements of the distances. Results: The measurements obtained with the digital caliper were greater. The CBCT technique underestimated distances greater than 100 mm. Conclusions: CBCT allows to obtain linear mandibular anatomical measurements equivalent to those obtained with digital caliper. The differences existing between both methods were clinically acceptable. Key words:Computed tomography, cone beam CT, accuracy, reliability, digital caliper. PMID:25136429

  17. Embedding Knowledge Management into Business Logic of E-learning Platform for Obtaining Adaptivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdescu, Dumitru Dan; Mihaescu, Marian Cristian; Logofatu, Bogdan

    Obtaining adaptivity is one of the main concerns in current e-Learning development. This chapter proposes a methodology for obtaining adaptivity by embedding knowledge management into the business logic of the e-Learning platform. Naïve Bayes classifier is used as machine learning algorithm for obtaining the resources that need to be further accessed by learners. The analysis is accomplished on a discipline that is well structured according to a concept map.

  18. 41 CFR 102-34.50 - What size motor vehicles may we obtain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What size motor vehicles may we obtain? 102-34.50 Section 102-34.50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient...

  19. 20 CFR 200.3 - Obtaining forms from the Railroad Retirement Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obtaining forms from the Railroad Retirement Board. 200.3 Section 200.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION § 200.3 Obtaining forms from the Railroad Retirement Board. Forms used by the Board,...

  20. 20 CFR 200.3 - Obtaining forms from the Railroad Retirement Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Obtaining forms from the Railroad Retirement Board. 200.3 Section 200.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION § 200.3 Obtaining forms from the Railroad Retirement Board. Forms used by the Board,...

  1. 20 CFR 200.3 - Obtaining forms from the Railroad Retirement Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Obtaining forms from the Railroad Retirement Board. 200.3 Section 200.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION § 200.3 Obtaining forms from the Railroad Retirement Board. Forms used by the Board,...

  2. 20 CFR 200.3 - Obtaining forms from the Railroad Retirement Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Obtaining forms from the Railroad Retirement Board. 200.3 Section 200.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION § 200.3 Obtaining forms from the Railroad Retirement Board. Forms used by the Board,...

  3. 30 CFR 250.1009 - Requirements to obtain pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements to obtain pipeline right-of-way... Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1009 Requirements to obtain pipeline right-of-way grants. (a) In... Commission (FERC), when a pipeline qualifies as a right-of-way pipeline, the pipeline shall not be...

  4. 30 CFR 250.1009 - Requirements to obtain pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements to obtain pipeline right-of-way... SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1009 Requirements to obtain pipeline right-of-way... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), when a pipeline qualifies as a right-of-way pipeline,...

  5. 30 CFR 250.1009 - Requirements to obtain pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements to obtain pipeline right-of-way... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1009 Requirements to obtain pipeline right-of-way grants. (a) In addition...

  6. 30 CFR 250.1009 - Requirements to obtain pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements to obtain pipeline right-of-way... Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1009 Requirements to obtain pipeline right-of-way grants. (a) In... Commission (FERC), when a pipeline qualifies as a right-of-way pipeline, the pipeline shall not be...

  7. 30 CFR 250.1009 - Requirements to obtain pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements to obtain pipeline right-of-way... Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1009 Requirements to obtain pipeline right-of-way grants. (a) In... Commission (FERC), when a pipeline qualifies as a right-of-way pipeline, the pipeline shall not be...

  8. 32 CFR Appendix I to Part 275 - Format for Obtaining Basic Identifying Account Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Information I Appendix I to Part 275 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS OBTAINING INFORMATION FROM FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: RIGHT TO FINANCIAL PRIVACY ACT OF 1978 Pt. 275, App. I Appendix I to Part 275—Format for Obtaining Basic...

  9. 42 CFR 420.304 - Procedures for obtaining access to books, documents, and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedures for obtaining access to books, documents... Access to Books, Documents, and Records of Subcontractors § 420.304 Procedures for obtaining access to books, documents, and records. (a) Contents of the request. Requests for access will be in writing...

  10. 42 CFR 420.304 - Procedures for obtaining access to books, documents, and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Procedures for obtaining access to books, documents... Access to Books, Documents, and Records of Subcontractors § 420.304 Procedures for obtaining access to books, documents, and records. (a) Contents of the request. Requests for access will be in writing...

  11. 42 CFR 420.304 - Procedures for obtaining access to books, documents, and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Procedures for obtaining access to books, documents... Access to Books, Documents, and Records of Subcontractors § 420.304 Procedures for obtaining access to books, documents, and records. (a) Contents of the request. Requests for access will be in writing...

  12. Obtaining Consent from Young People with Autism to Participate in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyd, Daisy

    2013-01-01

    Young people with autism were involved in a study examining the participation of young people with autism in drama education. This study considers the approaches devised to obtain consent from ten young people with autism who communicated in different ways. The process of obtaining consent and monitoring assent is outlined and evaluated. The…

  13. 50 CFR 221.41 - How may parties obtain discovery of information needed for the case?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... information needed for the case? 221.41 Section 221.41 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES... parties obtain discovery of information needed for the case? (a) General. By agreement of the parties or with the permission of the ALJ, a party may obtain discovery of information to assist the party...

  14. 50 CFR 221.41 - How may parties obtain discovery of information needed for the case?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... information needed for the case? 221.41 Section 221.41 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES... parties obtain discovery of information needed for the case? (a) General. By agreement of the parties or with the permission of the ALJ, a party may obtain discovery of information to assist the party...

  15. 50 CFR 221.41 - How may parties obtain discovery of information needed for the case?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... information needed for the case? 221.41 Section 221.41 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES... parties obtain discovery of information needed for the case? (a) General. By agreement of the parties or with the permission of the ALJ, a party may obtain discovery of information to assist the party...

  16. 50 CFR 221.41 - How may parties obtain discovery of information needed for the case?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... information needed for the case? 221.41 Section 221.41 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES... parties obtain discovery of information needed for the case? (a) General. By agreement of the parties or with the permission of the ALJ, a party may obtain discovery of information to assist the party...

  17. 41 CFR 105-64.204 - Can parents and guardians obtain access to records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can parents and guardians obtain access to records? 105-64.204 Section 105-64.204 Public Contracts and Property Management... parents and guardians obtain access to records? If you are the parent or guardian of a minor, or of...

  18. 41 CFR 101-39.4901 - Obtaining standard and optional forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.49-Forms § 101-39.4901 Obtaining standard and optional... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Obtaining standard...

  19. 10 CFR 709.23 - Obtaining consent to a polygraph examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obtaining consent to a polygraph examination. 709.23 Section 709.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COUNTERINTELLIGENCE EVALUATION PROGRAM Safeguarding Privacy and Employee Rights § 709.23 Obtaining consent to a polygraph examination. DOE may not administer a...

  20. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 275 - Obtaining Access for Foreign Intelligence, Foreign Counterintelligence, and International...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obtaining Access for Foreign Intelligence..., App. E Appendix E to Part 275—Obtaining Access for Foreign Intelligence, Foreign Counterintelligence... financial institution (as identified at § 275.3) by an intelligence organization, as identified in...

  1. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 275 - Obtaining Access for Foreign Intelligence, Foreign Counterintelligence, and International...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Obtaining Access for Foreign Intelligence..., App. E Appendix E to Part 275—Obtaining Access for Foreign Intelligence, Foreign Counterintelligence... financial institution (as identified at § 275.3) by an intelligence organization, as identified in...

  2. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 275 - Obtaining Access for Foreign Intelligence, Foreign Counterintelligence, and International...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obtaining Access for Foreign Intelligence..., App. E Appendix E to Part 275—Obtaining Access for Foreign Intelligence, Foreign Counterintelligence... financial institution (as identified at § 275.3) by an intelligence organization, as identified in...

  3. 8 CFR 1280.7 - Approval of bonds or acceptance of cash deposit to obtain clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of bonds or acceptance of cash deposit to obtain clearance. 1280.7 Section 1280.7 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION... Approval of bonds or acceptance of cash deposit to obtain clearance. The district director of customs...

  4. 20 CFR 10.310 - What are the basic rules for obtaining medical care?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the basic rules for obtaining... are the basic rules for obtaining medical care? (a) The employee is entitled to receive all medical... considers necessary to treat the work-related injury. The employee need not be disabled to receive...

  5. 40 CFR 1515.10 - What information is available, and how can it be obtained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... can it be obtained? 1515.10 Section 1515.10 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY..., and how can it be obtained? (a) When a request for information has been approved, in whole or in part... Council claims the right, where it is applicable, to withhold material under the provisions specified...

  6. 5 CFR 1650.42 - How to obtain a financial hardship withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How to obtain a financial hardship... METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Procedures for In-Service Withdrawals § 1650.42 How to obtain a financial hardship withdrawal. (a) To request a financial hardship withdrawal,...

  7. 21 CFR 1311.105 - Requirements for obtaining an authentication credential-Individual practitioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in the authentication protocol is a biometric, or if the practitioner has a hard token that is being... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements for obtaining an authentication....105 Requirements for obtaining an authentication credential—Individual practitioners. (a)...

  8. 21 CFR 1311.105 - Requirements for obtaining an authentication credential-Individual practitioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in the authentication protocol is a biometric, or if the practitioner has a hard token that is being... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements for obtaining an authentication....105 Requirements for obtaining an authentication credential—Individual practitioners. (a)...

  9. 30 CFR 20.0 - Compliance with the requirements necessary for obtaining approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance with the requirements necessary for obtaining approval. 20.0 Section 20.0 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... LAMPS § 20.0 Compliance with the requirements necessary for obtaining approval. To receive approval...

  10. 30 CFR 20.0 - Compliance with the requirements necessary for obtaining approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compliance with the requirements necessary for obtaining approval. 20.0 Section 20.0 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... LAMPS § 20.0 Compliance with the requirements necessary for obtaining approval. To receive approval...

  11. 30 CFR 20.0 - Compliance with the requirements necessary for obtaining approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compliance with the requirements necessary for obtaining approval. 20.0 Section 20.0 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... LAMPS § 20.0 Compliance with the requirements necessary for obtaining approval. To receive approval...

  12. 30 CFR 20.0 - Compliance with the requirements necessary for obtaining approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compliance with the requirements necessary for obtaining approval. 20.0 Section 20.0 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... LAMPS § 20.0 Compliance with the requirements necessary for obtaining approval. To receive approval...

  13. 45 CFR 96.10 - Prerequisites to obtain block grant funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prerequisites to obtain block grant funds. 96.10 Section 96.10 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS General Procedures § 96.10 Prerequisites to obtain block grant funds. (a) Except where prescribed elsewhere in this rule or in...

  14. 10 CFR 709.23 - Obtaining consent to a polygraph examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Obtaining consent to a polygraph examination. 709.23... Employee Rights § 709.23 Obtaining consent to a polygraph examination. DOE may not administer a polygraph examination unless DOE: (a) Notifies the covered person of the polygraph examination in writing in...

  15. 10 CFR 709.23 - Obtaining consent to a polygraph examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Obtaining consent to a polygraph examination. 709.23... Employee Rights § 709.23 Obtaining consent to a polygraph examination. DOE may not administer a polygraph examination unless DOE: (a) Notifies the covered person of the polygraph examination in writing in...

  16. 10 CFR 709.23 - Obtaining consent to a polygraph examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Obtaining consent to a polygraph examination. 709.23... Employee Rights § 709.23 Obtaining consent to a polygraph examination. DOE may not administer a polygraph examination unless DOE: (a) Notifies the covered person of the polygraph examination in writing in...

  17. 10 CFR 709.23 - Obtaining consent to a polygraph examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Obtaining consent to a polygraph examination. 709.23... Employee Rights § 709.23 Obtaining consent to a polygraph examination. DOE may not administer a polygraph examination unless DOE: (a) Notifies the covered person of the polygraph examination in writing in...

  18. 29 CFR 1403.3 - Obtaining data on labor-management disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining data on labor-management disputes. 1403.3 Section... FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES § 1403.3 Obtaining data on labor-management disputes. When the existence of a labor-management dispute comes to the attention of the Federal Service upon a request for mediation service...

  19. 29 CFR 1403.3 - Obtaining data on labor-management disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obtaining data on labor-management disputes. 1403.3 Section... FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES § 1403.3 Obtaining data on labor-management disputes. When the existence of a labor-management dispute comes to the attention of the Federal Service upon a request for mediation service...

  20. 29 CFR 1403.3 - Obtaining data on labor-management disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obtaining data on labor-management disputes. 1403.3 Section... FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES § 1403.3 Obtaining data on labor-management disputes. When the existence of a labor-management dispute comes to the attention of the Federal Service upon a request for mediation service...

  1. 29 CFR 1403.3 - Obtaining data on labor-management disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Obtaining data on labor-management disputes. 1403.3 Section... FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES § 1403.3 Obtaining data on labor-management disputes. When the existence of a labor-management dispute comes to the attention of the Federal Service upon a request for mediation service...

  2. 29 CFR 1403.3 - Obtaining data on labor-management disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obtaining data on labor-management disputes. 1403.3 Section... FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES § 1403.3 Obtaining data on labor-management disputes. When the existence of a labor-management dispute comes to the attention of the Federal Service upon a request for mediation service...

  3. 49 CFR 385.203 - What are the requirements to obtain and maintain certification?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the requirements to obtain and maintain certification? 385.203 Section 385.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Inspectors § 385.203 What are the requirements to obtain and maintain certification? (a) After June 17,...

  4. 40 CFR 2.302 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Clean Water Act. 2.302 Section 2.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... governing certain information obtained under the Clean Water Act. (a) Definitions. For the purposes of this section: (1) Act means the Clean Water Act, as amended, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq. (2)(i) Effluent data...

  5. 40 CFR 2.302 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Clean Water Act. 2.302 Section 2.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... governing certain information obtained under the Clean Water Act. (a) Definitions. For the purposes of this section: (1) Act means the Clean Water Act, as amended, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq. (2)(i) Effluent data...

  6. 40 CFR 2.302 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Clean Water Act. 2.302 Section 2.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... governing certain information obtained under the Clean Water Act. (a) Definitions. For the purposes of this section: (1) Act means the Clean Water Act, as amended, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq. (2)(i) Effluent data...

  7. 40 CFR 262.21 - Manifest tracking numbers, manifest printing, and obtaining manifests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... printing, and obtaining manifests. 262.21 Section 262.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Manifest § 262.21 Manifest tracking numbers, manifest printing, and obtaining manifests. (a)(1) A registrant may not print, or have printed, the manifest for use of distribution unless it has...

  8. 32 CFR 37.845 - What data rights should I obtain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Related to Other Administrative Matters Intellectual Property § 37.845 What data rights should I obtain? (a) You should seek to obtain what you, with... intends to protect any invention as a trade secret, you should consult with your intellectual...

  9. 32 CFR 37.845 - What data rights should I obtain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Related to Other Administrative Matters Intellectual Property § 37.845 What data rights should I obtain? (a) You should seek to obtain what you, with... intends to protect any invention as a trade secret, you should consult with your intellectual...

  10. 32 CFR 37.845 - What data rights should I obtain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Related to Other Administrative Matters Intellectual Property § 37.845 What data rights should I obtain? (a) You should seek to obtain what you, with... intends to protect any invention as a trade secret, you should consult with your intellectual...

  11. 32 CFR 37.845 - What data rights should I obtain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Related to Other Administrative Matters Intellectual Property § 37.845 What data rights should I obtain? (a) You should seek to obtain what you, with... intends to protect any invention as a trade secret, you should consult with your intellectual...

  12. 13 CFR 123.8 - Does SBA charge any fees for obtaining a disaster loan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... obtaining a disaster loan? 123.8 Section 123.8 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Overview § 123.8 Does SBA charge any fees for obtaining a disaster loan? SBA does not charge points, closing, or servicing fees on any disaster loan authorized under Section 7(b). You will...

  13. 13 CFR 123.8 - Does SBA charge any fees for obtaining a disaster loan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... obtaining a disaster loan? 123.8 Section 123.8 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Overview § 123.8 Does SBA charge any fees for obtaining a disaster loan? SBA does not charge points, closing, or servicing fees on any disaster loan authorized under Section 7(b). You will...

  14. 13 CFR 123.8 - Does SBA charge any fees for obtaining a disaster loan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... obtaining a disaster loan? 123.8 Section 123.8 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Overview § 123.8 Does SBA charge any fees for obtaining a disaster loan? SBA does not charge points, closing, or servicing fees on any disaster loan authorized under Section 7(b). You will...

  15. 13 CFR 123.8 - Does SBA charge any fees for obtaining a disaster loan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... obtaining a disaster loan? 123.8 Section 123.8 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Overview § 123.8 Does SBA charge any fees for obtaining a disaster loan? SBA does not charge points, closing, or servicing fees on any disaster loan authorized under Section 7(b). You will...

  16. 36 CFR 1256.10 - How do I obtain access to Nixon Presidential materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I obtain access to Nixon Presidential materials? 1256.10 Section 1256.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... MATERIALS General Information § 1256.10 How do I obtain access to Nixon Presidential materials? See 36...

  17. 36 CFR 1256.30 - How do I obtain access to donated historical materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I obtain access to donated historical materials? 1256.30 Section 1256.30 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... MATERIALS Access to Donated Historical Materials § 1256.30 How do I obtain access to donated...

  18. 43 CFR 2933.12 - Where can I obtain a Recreation Use Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Where can I obtain a Recreation Use Permit... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.12 Where can I obtain a Recreation...

  19. 43 CFR 2933.11 - When must I obtain a Recreation Use Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When must I obtain a Recreation Use Permit... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.11 When must I obtain a Recreation...

  20. 43 CFR 2933.12 - Where can I obtain a Recreation Use Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Where can I obtain a Recreation Use Permit... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.12 Where can I obtain a Recreation...

  1. 43 CFR 2933.11 - When must I obtain a Recreation Use Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When must I obtain a Recreation Use Permit... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.11 When must I obtain a Recreation...

  2. 43 CFR 2933.11 - When must I obtain a Recreation Use Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When must I obtain a Recreation Use Permit... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.11 When must I obtain a Recreation...

  3. 43 CFR 2933.12 - Where can I obtain a Recreation Use Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Where can I obtain a Recreation Use Permit... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.12 Where can I obtain a Recreation...

  4. 43 CFR 2933.11 - When must I obtain a Recreation Use Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When must I obtain a Recreation Use Permit... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.11 When must I obtain a Recreation...

  5. 43 CFR 2933.12 - Where can I obtain a Recreation Use Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where can I obtain a Recreation Use Permit... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.12 Where can I obtain a Recreation...

  6. Synchronous Cultures of Bacillus subtilis Obtained by Filtration with Glass Fiber Filters

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Michael G.

    1973-01-01

    A simple method of potentially wide applicability for obtaining synchronous cultures of Bacillus subtilis based on size selection is described. Using glass fiber filters, a population (about 1 to 2% of the parent population) can be obtained substantially enriched for small cells which grow synchronously. A method for rapidly concentrating dilute suspensions of cells is described. PMID:4200855

  7. 10 CFR 20.2002 - Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2002 Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures. A licensee..., and the proposed manner and conditions of waste disposal; and (b) An analysis and evaluation of... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Method for obtaining approval of proposed...

  8. 10 CFR 20.2002 - Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2002 Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures. A licensee..., and the proposed manner and conditions of waste disposal; and (b) An analysis and evaluation of... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Method for obtaining approval of proposed...

  9. 10 CFR 20.2002 - Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2002 Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures. A licensee..., and the proposed manner and conditions of waste disposal; and (b) An analysis and evaluation of... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Method for obtaining approval of proposed...

  10. 10 CFR 20.2002 - Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2002 Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures. A licensee..., and the proposed manner and conditions of waste disposal; and (b) An analysis and evaluation of... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Method for obtaining approval of proposed...

  11. 10 CFR 20.2002 - Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2002 Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures. A licensee..., and the proposed manner and conditions of waste disposal; and (b) An analysis and evaluation of... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method for obtaining approval of proposed...

  12. 38 CFR 17.159 - Obtaining vehicles for special driver training courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Obtaining vehicles for special driver training courses. 17.159 Section 17.159 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.159 Obtaining vehicles...

  13. 38 CFR 17.159 - Obtaining vehicles for special driver training courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining vehicles for special driver training courses. 17.159 Section 17.159 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.159 Obtaining vehicles...

  14. 38 CFR 17.159 - Obtaining vehicles for special driver training courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obtaining vehicles for special driver training courses. 17.159 Section 17.159 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.159 Obtaining vehicles...

  15. 38 CFR 17.159 - Obtaining vehicles for special driver training courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obtaining vehicles for special driver training courses. 17.159 Section 17.159 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.159 Obtaining vehicles...

  16. 38 CFR 17.159 - Obtaining vehicles for special driver training courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obtaining vehicles for special driver training courses. 17.159 Section 17.159 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.159 Obtaining vehicles...

  17. 13 CFR 123.8 - Does SBA charge any fees for obtaining a disaster loan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... obtaining a disaster loan? 123.8 Section 123.8 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Overview § 123.8 Does SBA charge any fees for obtaining a disaster loan? SBA does not charge points, closing, or servicing fees on any disaster loan. You will be responsible for payment...

  18. 12 CFR 723.11 - How do you obtain a waiver?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... business lending policy; (b) The higher limit sought (if applicable); (c) An explanation of the need to... BUSINESS LOANS § 723.11 How do you obtain a waiver? To obtain a waiver, a federal credit union must submit... (e) An analysis of the credit union's prior experience making member business loans, including as...

  19. 42 CFR 420.304 - Procedures for obtaining access to books, documents, and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for obtaining access to books, documents... Books, Documents, and Records of Subcontractors § 420.304 Procedures for obtaining access to books... following elements: (1) Reasonable identification of the books, documents, and records to which access...

  20. 25 CFR 162.520 - Who owns the energy resource information obtained under the WEEL?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Weels § 162.520 Who owns the energy resource information obtained under the WEEL? (a) The WEEL must specify the ownership of any energy... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who owns the energy resource information obtained...

  1. 32 CFR 644.465 - Physical restoration where stipulation not obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Physical restoration where stipulation not... § 644.465 Physical restoration where stipulation not obtained. If such stipulation is not obtainable..., in writing, the restoration for which he believes the Government is liable. The Government...

  2. 32 CFR 644.465 - Physical restoration where stipulation not obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Physical restoration where stipulation not... § 644.465 Physical restoration where stipulation not obtained. If such stipulation is not obtainable..., in writing, the restoration for which he believes the Government is liable. The Government...

  3. 20 CFR 200.3 - Obtaining forms from the Railroad Retirement Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obtaining forms from the Railroad Retirement Board. 200.3 Section 200.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION § 200.3 Obtaining forms from the Railroad Retirement Board. Forms used by the Board,...

  4. 20 CFR 10.304 - Are there any exceptions to these procedures for obtaining medical care?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Medical and Related Benefits Emergency Medical Care § 10.304 Are there any exceptions to these procedures for obtaining medical care? In cases involving emergencies or... for obtaining medical care? 10.304 Section 10.304 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS'...

  5. 7 CFR 32.402 - Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining. 32... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS PURCHASE OF GREASE MOHAIR AND MOHAIR TOP SAMPLES § 32.402 Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining. Samples certified as representative of the official standards of...

  6. 7 CFR 32.402 - Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining. 32... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS PURCHASE OF GREASE MOHAIR AND MOHAIR TOP SAMPLES § 32.402 Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining. Samples certified as representative of the official standards of...

  7. 7 CFR 32.402 - Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining. 32... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS PURCHASE OF GREASE MOHAIR AND MOHAIR TOP SAMPLES § 32.402 Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining. Samples certified as representative of the official standards of...

  8. 7 CFR 32.402 - Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining. 32... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS PURCHASE OF GREASE MOHAIR AND MOHAIR TOP SAMPLES § 32.402 Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining. Samples certified as representative of the official standards of...

  9. 7 CFR 32.402 - Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining. 32... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS PURCHASE OF GREASE MOHAIR AND MOHAIR TOP SAMPLES § 32.402 Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining. Samples certified as representative of the official standards of...

  10. 30 CFR 1204.205 - How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... request must contain: (i) Your company name, ONRR-assigned payor code, address, phone number, and contact... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief... § 1204.205 How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) To take cumulative reports and...

  11. 30 CFR 1204.205 - How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (1) Your request must contain: (i) Your company name, ONRR-assigned payor code, address, phone number... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief... Auditing Relief § 1204.205 How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) To take cumulative...

  12. 30 CFR 1204.205 - How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... request must contain: (i) Your company name, ONRR-assigned payor code, address, phone number, and contact... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief... § 1204.205 How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) To take cumulative reports and...

  13. 36 CFR 1227.14 - How do I obtain copies of the GRS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I obtain copies of the... ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT GENERAL RECORDS SCHEDULES § 1227.14 How do I obtain copies of the GRS? (a) The... Administration, Modern Records Programs (NWM), 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001, phone number...

  14. 36 CFR 1227.14 - How do I obtain copies of the GRS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I obtain copies of the... ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT GENERAL RECORDS SCHEDULES § 1227.14 How do I obtain copies of the GRS? (a) The... Administration, Modern Records Programs (NWM), 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001, phone number...

  15. 36 CFR 1227.14 - How do I obtain copies of the GRS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I obtain copies of the... ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT GENERAL RECORDS SCHEDULES § 1227.14 How do I obtain copies of the GRS? (a) The... Administration, Modern Records Programs (NWM), 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001, phone number...

  16. 32 CFR Appendix N to Part 275 - Obtaining Access to Financial Records Overseas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining Access to Financial Records Overseas N Appendix N to Part 275 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF... PRIVACY ACT OF 1978 Pt. 275, App. N Appendix N to Part 275—Obtaining Access to Financial Records...

  17. 32 CFR Appendix N to Part 275 - Obtaining Access to Financial Records Overseas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obtaining Access to Financial Records Overseas N Appendix N to Part 275 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF... PRIVACY ACT OF 1978 Pt. 275, App. N Appendix N to Part 275—Obtaining Access to Financial Records...

  18. 40 CFR 1039.201 - What are the general requirements for obtaining a certificate of conformity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for all decisions related to your application (see 40 CFR 1068.5). (e) An authorized representative of... obtaining a certificate of conformity? 1039.201 Section 1039.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... obtaining a certificate of conformity? (a) You must send us a separate application for a certificate...

  19. 50 CFR 221.41 - How may parties obtain discovery of information needed for the case?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information needed for the case? 221.41 Section 221.41 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES... parties obtain discovery of information needed for the case? (a) General. By agreement of the parties or with the permission of the ALJ, a party may obtain discovery of information to assist the party...

  20. Method and apparatus for obtaining enhanced production rate of thermal chemical reactions

    DOEpatents

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y.; Wang, Yong; Wegeng, Robert S.; Gao, Yufei

    2003-09-09

    Reactors and processes are disclosed that can utilize high heat fluxes to obtain fast, steady-state reaction rates. Porous catalysts used in conjunction with microchannel reactors to obtain high rates of heat transfer are also disclosed. Reactors and processes that utilize short contact times, high heat flux and low pressure drop are described. Improved methods of steam reforming are also provided.

  1. 41 CFR 102-34.50 - What size motor vehicles may we obtain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What size motor vehicles... Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.50 What size motor vehicles may we obtain?...

  2. 30 CFR 250.410 - How do I obtain approval to drill a well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.410 How do I obtain approval to drill a well? You must obtain written approval from the District Manager before you begin drilling any well or before...

  3. 30 CFR 250.410 - How do I obtain approval to drill a well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.410 How do I obtain approval to drill a well? You must obtain written approval from the District Manager before you begin drilling any well or before...

  4. 30 CFR 250.410 - How do I obtain approval to drill a well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.410 How do I obtain approval to drill a well? You must obtain written approval from the District Manager before you begin drilling any well or before...

  5. 25 CFR 171.715 - How do I obtain an Annual Assessment Waiver?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do I obtain an Annual Assessment Waiver? 171.715 Section 171.715 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Non-Assessment Status § 171.715 How do I obtain an Annual Assessment Waiver?...

  6. 25 CFR 171.715 - How do I obtain an Annual Assessment Waiver?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How do I obtain an Annual Assessment Waiver? 171.715 Section 171.715 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Non-Assessment Status § 171.715 How do I obtain an Annual Assessment Waiver?...

  7. 25 CFR 171.715 - How do I obtain an Annual Assessment Waiver?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How do I obtain an Annual Assessment Waiver? 171.715 Section 171.715 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Non-Assessment Status § 171.715 How do I obtain an Annual Assessment Waiver?...

  8. 25 CFR 171.715 - How do I obtain an Annual Assessment Waiver?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How do I obtain an Annual Assessment Waiver? 171.715 Section 171.715 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Non-Assessment Status § 171.715 How do I obtain an Annual Assessment Waiver?...

  9. 25 CFR 171.715 - How do I obtain an Annual Assessment Waiver?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How do I obtain an Annual Assessment Waiver? 171.715 Section 171.715 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Non-Assessment Status § 171.715 How do I obtain an Annual Assessment Waiver?...

  10. Do Chinese Readers Obtain Preview Benefit from Word "n" + 2? Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jinmian; Wang, Suiping; Xu, Yimin; Rayner, Keith

    2009-01-01

    The boundary paradigm (K. Rayner, 1975) was used to determine the extent to which Chinese readers obtain information from the right of fixation during reading. As characters are the basic visual unit in written Chinese, they were used as targets in Experiment 1 to examine whether readers obtain preview information from character "n" + 1 and…

  11. 31 CFR 317.7 - Obtaining and accounting for bond stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining and accounting for bond stock. 317.7 Section 317.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... AGENCIES FOR ISSUE OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS § 317.7 Obtaining and accounting for bond stock....

  12. 31 CFR 317.7 - Obtaining and accounting for bond stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obtaining and accounting for bond stock. 317.7 Section 317.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... AGENCIES FOR ISSUE OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS § 317.7 Obtaining and accounting for bond stock....

  13. 31 CFR 317.7 - Obtaining and accounting for bond stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obtaining and accounting for bond stock. 317.7 Section 317.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... AGENCIES FOR ISSUE OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS § 317.7 Obtaining and accounting for bond stock....

  14. 31 CFR 317.7 - Obtaining and accounting for bond stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obtaining and accounting for bond stock. 317.7 Section 317.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... AGENCIES FOR ISSUE OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS § 317.7 Obtaining and accounting for bond stock....

  15. Obtaining Employment after Spinal Cord Injury: Relationship with Pre- and Postinjury Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, James S.; Reed, Karla S.

    2009-01-01

    The authors identify the association of educational milestones obtained before and after spinal cord injury (SCI) with postinjury employment (PIE). Survey data were collected from 1,362 adults younger than 65, with traumatic SCI of at least 1 year duration who were not currently attending school. The sole outcome was obtaining PIE--whether the…

  16. 41 CFR 102-34.125 - Where may we obtain U.S. Government license plates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., contact the following office: General Services Administration, ATTN: MT, Washington, DC 20405. E-mail.... Government license plates? 102-34.125 Section 102-34.125 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... obtain U.S. Government license plates? You may obtain U.S. Government license plates for domestic...

  17. 18 CFR 366.7 - Procedures for obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status. 366.7 Section 366.7 Conservation of... Procedures for obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status. (a) Self-certification notice procedure. An exempt wholesale generator or a foreign utility company, or...

  18. 18 CFR 366.7 - Procedures for obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status. 366.7 Section 366.7 Conservation of... Procedures for obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status. (a) Self-certification notice procedure. An exempt wholesale generator or a foreign utility company, or...

  19. 18 CFR 366.7 - Procedures for obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status. 366.7 Section 366.7 Conservation of... Procedures for obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status. (a) Self-certification notice procedure. An exempt wholesale generator or a foreign utility company, or...

  20. 18 CFR 366.7 - Procedures for obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status. 366.7 Section 366.7 Conservation of... Procedures for obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status. (a) Self-certification notice procedure. An exempt wholesale generator or a foreign utility company, or...