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Sample records for dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase

  1. Inhibitor-bound complexes of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase from Babesia bovis

    PubMed Central

    Begley, Darren W.; Edwards, Thomas E.; Raymond, Amy C.; Smith, Eric R.; Hartley, Robert C.; Abendroth, Jan; Sankaran, Banumathi; Lorimer, Donald D.; Myler, Peter J.; Staker, Bart L.; Stewart, Lance J.

    2011-01-01

    Babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by eukaryotic Babesia parasites which are morphologically similar to Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of malaria in humans. Like Plasmodium, different species of Babesia are tuned to infect different mammalian hosts, including rats, dogs, horses and cattle. Most species of Plasmodium and Babesia possess an essential bifunctional enzyme for nucleotide synthesis and folate metabolism: dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase. Although thymidylate synthase is highly conserved across organisms, the bifunctional form of this enzyme is relatively uncommon in nature. The structural characterization of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase in Babesia bovis, the causative agent of babesiosis in livestock cattle, is reported here. The apo state is compared with structures that contain dUMP, NADP and two different antifolate inhibitors: pemetrexed and raltitrexed. The complexes reveal modes of binding similar to that seen in drug-resistant malaria strains and point to the utility of applying structural studies with proven cancer chemotherapies towards infectious disease research. PMID:21904052

  2. Identifying antimalarial compounds targeting dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) by chemogenomic profiling.

    PubMed

    Aroonsri, Aiyada; Akinola, Olugbenga; Posayapisit, Navaporn; Songsungthong, Warangkhana; Uthaipibull, Chairat; Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee; Gbotosho, Grace O; Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Shaw, Philip J

    2016-07-01

    The mode of action of many antimalarial drugs is unknown. Chemogenomic profiling is a powerful method to address this issue. This experimental approach entails disruption of gene function and phenotypic screening for changes in sensitivity to bioactive compounds. Here, we describe the application of reverse genetics for chemogenomic profiling in Plasmodium. Plasmodium falciparum parasites harbouring a transgenic insertion of the glmS ribozyme downstream of the dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) gene were used for chemogenomic profiling of antimalarial compounds to identify those which target DHFR-TS. DHFR-TS expression can be attenuated by exposing parasites to glucosamine. Parasites with attenuated DHFR-TS expression were significantly more sensitive to antifolate drugs known to target DHFR-TS. In contrast, no change in sensitivity to other antimalarial drugs with different modes of action was observed. Chemogenomic profiling was performed using the Medicines for Malaria Venture (Switzerland) Malaria Box compound library, and two compounds were identified as novel DHFR-TS inhibitors. We also tested the glmS ribozyme in Plasmodium berghei, a rodent malaria parasite. The expression of reporter genes with downstream glmS ribozyme could be attenuated in transgenic parasites comparable with that obtained in P. falciparum. The chemogenomic profiling method was applied in a P. berghei line expressing a pyrimethamine-resistant Toxoplasma gondii DHFR-TS reporter gene under glmS ribozyme control. Parasites with attenuated expression of this gene were significantly sensitised to antifolates targeting DHFR-TS, but not other drugs with different modes of action. In conclusion, these data show that the glmS ribozyme reverse genetic tool can be applied for identifying primary targets of antimalarial compounds in human and rodent malaria parasites. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Accurate and Sensitive Detection of Plasmodium Species in Humans by Use of the Dihydrofolate Reductase-Thymidylate Synthase Linker Region▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Tanomsing, Naowarat; Imwong, Mallika; Theppabutr, Sasikrit; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Day, Nicholas P. J.; White, Nicholas J.; Snounou, Georges

    2010-01-01

    A nested-PCR protocol based on the linker region of the Plasmodium dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase gene (dhfr-ts) was developed. This provides highly sensitive specific detection and identification of the five parasite species that infect humans. PMID:20702666

  4. Two crystal structures of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase from Cryptosporidium hominis reveal protein–ligand interactions including a structural basis for observed antifolate resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Amy C.

    2005-03-01

    An analysis of the protein–ligand interactions in two crystal structures of DHFR-TS from C. hominis reveals a possible structural basis for observed antifolate resistance in C. hominis DHFR. A comparison with the structure of human DHFR reveals residue substitutions that may be exploited for the design of species-selective inhibitors. Cryptosporidium hominis is a protozoan parasite that causes acute gastrointestinal illness. There are no effective therapies for cryptosporidiosis, highlighting the need for new drug-lead discovery. An analysis of the protein–ligand interactions in two crystal structures of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) from C. hominis, determined at 2.8 and 2.87 Å resolution, reveals that the interactions of residues Ile29, Thr58 and Cys113 in the active site of C. hominis DHFR provide a possible structural basis for the observed antifolate resistance. A comparison with the structure of human DHFR reveals active-site differences that may be exploited for the design of species-selective inhibitors.

  5. Structures of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase of Trypanosoma cruzi in the folate-free state and in complex with two antifolate drugs, trimetrexate and methotrexate

    SciTech Connect

    Senkovich, Olga; Schormann, Norbert; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2010-11-22

    The flagellate protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is the pathogenic agent of Chagas disease (also called American trypanosomiasis), which causes approximately 50 000 deaths annually. The disease is endemic in South and Central America. The parasite is usually transmitted by a blood-feeding insect vector, but can also be transmitted via blood transfusion. In the chronic form, Chagas disease causes severe damage to the heart and other organs. There is no satisfactory treatment for chronic Chagas disease and no vaccine is available. There is an urgent need for the development of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of T. cruzi infection and therefore for the identification of potential drug targets. The dihydrofolate reductase activity of T. cruzi, which is expressed as part of a bifunctional enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS), is a potential target for drug development. In order to gain a detailed understanding of the structure-function relationship of T. cruzi DHFR, the three-dimensional structure of this protein in complex with various ligands is being studied. Here, the crystal structures of T. cruzi DHFR-TS with three different compositions of the DHFR domain are reported: the folate-free state, the complex with the lipophilic antifolate trimetrexate (TMQ) and the complex with the classical antifolate methotrexate (MTX). These structures reveal that the enzyme is a homodimer with substantial interactions between the two TS domains of neighboring subunits. In contrast to the enzymes from Cryptosporidium hominis and Plasmodium falciparum, the DHFR and TS active sites of T. cruzi lie on the same side of the monomer. As in other parasitic DHFR-TS proteins, the N-terminal extension of the T. cruzi enzyme is involved in extensive interactions between the two domains. The DHFR active site of the T. cruzi enzyme shows subtle differences compared with its human counterpart. These differences may be exploited for the development of

  6. Trypanosoma brucei DHFR-TS Revisited: Characterisation of a Bifunctional and Highly Unstable Recombinant Dihydrofolate Reductase-Thymidylate Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Marc W.; Dewar, Simon; Ong, Han B.; Sienkiewicz, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase–thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) is a chemically and genetically validated target in African trypanosomes, causative agents of sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in cattle. Here we report the kinetic properties and sensitivity of recombinant enzyme to a range of lipophilic and classical antifolate drugs. The purified recombinant enzyme, expressed as a fusion protein with elongation factor Ts (Tsf) in ThyA- Escherichia coli, retains DHFR activity, but lacks any TS activity. TS activity was found to be extremely unstable (half-life of 28 s) following desalting of clarified bacterial lysates to remove small molecules. Stability could be improved 700-fold by inclusion of dUMP, but not by other pyrimidine or purine (deoxy)-nucleosides or nucleotides. Inclusion of dUMP during purification proved insufficient to prevent inactivation during the purification procedure. Methotrexate and trimetrexate were the most potent inhibitors of DHFR (Ki 0.1 and 0.6 nM, respectively) and FdUMP and nolatrexed of TS (Ki 14 and 39 nM, respectively). All inhibitors showed a marked drop-off in potency of 100- to 1,000-fold against trypanosomes grown in low folate medium lacking thymidine. The most potent inhibitors possessed a terminal glutamate moiety suggesting that transport or subsequent retention by polyglutamylation was important for biological activity. Supplementation of culture medium with folate markedly antagonised the potency of these folate-like inhibitors, as did thymidine in the case of the TS inhibitors raltitrexed and pemetrexed. PMID:27175479

  7. Functional analysis of Plasmodium vivax dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase genes through stable transformation of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Auliff, Alyson M; Balu, Bharath; Chen, Nanhua; O'Neil, Michael T; Cheng, Qin; Adams, John H

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms of drug resistance in Plasmodium vivax have been difficult to study partially because of the difficulties in culturing the parasite in vitro. This hampers monitoring drug resistance and research to develop or evaluate new drugs. There is an urgent need for a novel method to study mechanisms of P. vivax drug resistance. In this paper we report the development and application of the first Plasmodium falciparum expression system to stably express P. vivax dhfr-ts alleles. We used the piggyBac transposition system for the rapid integration of wild-type, single mutant (117N) and quadruple mutant (57L/58R/61M/117T) pvdhfr-ts alleles into the P. falciparum genome. The majority (81%) of the integrations occurred in non-coding regions of the genome; however, the levels of pvdhfr transcription driven by the P. falciparum dhfr promoter were not different between integrants of non-coding and coding regions. The integrated quadruple pvdhfr mutant allele was much less susceptible to antifolates than the wild-type and single mutant pvdhfr alleles. The resistance phenotype was stable without drug pressure. All the integrated clones were susceptible to the novel antifolate JPC-2067. Therefore, the piggyBac expression system provides a novel and important tool to investigate drug resistance mechanisms and gene functions in P. vivax.

  8. Functional Analysis of Plasmodium vivax Dihydrofolate Reductase-Thymidylate Synthase Genes through Stable Transformation of Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Auliff, Alyson M.; Balu, Bharath; Chen, Nanhua; O’Neil, Michael T.; Cheng, Qin; Adams, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms of drug resistance in Plasmodium vivax have been difficult to study partially because of the difficulties in culturing the parasite in vitro. This hampers monitoring drug resistance and research to develop or evaluate new drugs. There is an urgent need for a novel method to study mechanisms of P. vivax drug resistance. In this paper we report the development and application of the first Plasmodium falciparum expression system to stably express P. vivax dhfr-ts alleles. We used the piggyBac transposition system for the rapid integration of wild-type, single mutant (117N) and quadruple mutant (57L/58R/61M/117T) pvdhfr-ts alleles into the P. falciparum genome. The majority (81%) of the integrations occurred in non-coding regions of the genome; however, the levels of pvdhfr transcription driven by the P. falciparum dhfr promoter were not different between integrants of non-coding and coding regions. The integrated quadruple pvdhfr mutant allele was much less susceptible to antifolates than the wild-type and single mutant pvdhfr alleles. The resistance phenotype was stable without drug pressure. All the integrated clones were susceptible to the novel antifolate JPC-2067. Therefore, the piggyBac expression system provides a novel and important tool to investigate drug resistance mechanisms and gene functions in P. vivax. PMID:22792308

  9. Synthesis and characterization of potent inhibitors of Trypanosoma cruzi dihydrofolate reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Schormann, Norbert; Velu, Sadanandan E.; Murugesan, Srinivasan; Senkovich, Olga; Walker, Kiera; Chenna, Bala C.; Shinkre, Bidhan; Desai, Amar; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2010-09-17

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) is a potential target for developing drugs to treat Chagas disease. We have undertaken a detailed structure-activity study of this enzyme. We report here synthesis and characterization of six potent inhibitors of the parasitic enzyme. Inhibitory activity of each compound was determined against T. cruzi and human DHFR. One of these compounds, ethyl 4-(5-[(2,4-diamino-6-quinazolinyl)methyl]amino-2-methoxyphenoxy)butanoate (6b) was co-crystallized with the bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase enzyme of T. cruzi and the crystal structure of the ternary enzyme:cofactor:inhibitor complex was determined. Molecular docking was used to analyze the potential interactions of all inhibitors with T. cruzi DHFR and human DHFR. Inhibitory activities of these compounds are discussed in the light of enzyme-ligand interactions. Binding affinities of each inhibitor for the respective enzymes were calculated based on the experimental or docked binding mode. An estimated 60-70% of the total binding energy is contributed by the 2,4-diaminoquinazoline scaffold.

  10. Lausannevirus Encodes a Functional Dihydrofolate Reductase Susceptible to Proguanil

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, L.; Hauser, P. M.; Gauye, F.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lausannevirus belongs to the family Marseilleviridae within the group of nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs). These giant viruses exhibit unique features, including a large genome, ranging from 100 kb to 2.5 Mb and including from 150 to more than 2,500 genes, as well as the presence of genes coding for proteins involved in transcription and translation. The large majority of Lausannevirus open reading frames have unknown functions. Interestingly, a bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) is encoded in the Lausannevirus genome. The enzyme plays central roles in DNA precursor biosynthesis. DHFR is the pharmacological target of antifolates, such as trimethoprim, pyrimethamine, and proguanil. First, the functionality of Lausannevirus DHFR-TS was demonstrated by the successful complementation of a DHFR-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with a plasmid expressing the heterologous gene. Additionally, using this heterologous expression system, we demonstrated the in vitro susceptibility of Lausannevirus DHFR-TS to proguanil and its resistance to pyrimethamine and trimethoprim. Proguanil may provide a unique and useful treatment if Lausannevirus proves to be a human pathogen. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a DHFR-TS has been described and characterized in an NCLDV. PMID:28137801

  11. Point mutations in dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthase genes of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Urdaneta, L; Plowe, C; Goldman, I; Lal, A A

    1999-09-01

    The present study was designed to characterize mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) genes of Plasmodium falciparum in the Bolivar region of Venezuela, where high levels of clinical resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP, Fansidar; F. Hoffman-La Roche, Basel, Switzerland) has been documented. We used a nested mutation-specific polymerase chain reaction and restriction digestion methods to measure 1) the prevalence of DHFR mutations at 16, 50, 51, 59, 108, and 164 codon positions, and 2) the prevalence of mutations in the 436, 437, 581, and 613 codon sites in DHPS gene. In the case of the DHFR gene, of the 54 parasite isolates analyzed, we detected the presence of Asn-108 and Ile-51 in 96% of the isolates and Arg-50 mutation in 64% of the isolates. Each of these mutations has been associated with high level of resistance to pyrimethamine. Only 2 samples (4%) showed the wild type Ser-108 mutation and none showed Thr-108 and Val-16 mutations that are specific for resistance to cycloguanil. In the case of DHPS gene, we found a mutation at position 437 (Gly) in 100% of the isolates and Gly-581 in 96% of the isolates. The simultaneous presence of mutations Asn-108 and Ile-51 in the DHFR gene and Gly-437 and Gly-581 in the DHPS gene in 96% of the samples tested suggested that a cumulative effect of mutations could be the major mechanism conferring high SP resistance in this area.

  12. Dihydrofolate Reductase and Thymidylate Synthase Transgenes Resistant to Methotrexate Interact to Permit Novel Transgene Regulation*

    PubMed Central

    Rushworth, David; Mathews, Amber; Alpert, Amir; Cooper, Laurence J. N.

    2015-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is an anti-folate that inhibits de novo purine and thymidine nucleotide synthesis. MTX induces death in rapidly replicating cells and is used in the treatment of multiple cancers. MTX inhibits thymidine synthesis by targeting dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TYMS). The use of MTX to treat cancer also causes bone marrow suppression and inhibits the immune system. This has led to the development of an MTX-resistant DHFR, DHFR L22F, F31S (DHFRFS), to rescue healthy cells. 5-Fluorouracil-resistant TYMS T51S, G52S (TYMSSS) is resistant to MTX and improves MTX resistance of DHFRFS in primary T cells. Here we find that a known mechanism of MTX-induced increase in DHFR expression persists with DHFRFS and cis-expressed transgenes. We also find that TYMSSS expression of cis-expressed transgenes is similarly decreased in an MTX-inducible manner. MTX-inducible changes in DHFRFS and TYMSSS expression changes are lost when both genes are expressed together. In fact, expression of the DHFRFS and TYMSSS cis-expressed transgenes becomes correlated. These findings provide the basis for an unrecognized post-transcriptional mechanism that functionally links expression of DHFR and TYMS. These findings were made in genetically modified primary human T cells and have a clear potential for use in clinical applications where gene expression needs to be regulated by drug or maintained at a specific expression level. We demonstrate a potential application of this system in the controlled expression of systemically toxic cytokine IL-12. PMID:26242737

  13. Structural studies provide clues for analog design of specific inhibitors of Cryptosporidium hominis thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vidya P; Cisneros, Jose A; Frey, Kathleen M; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Wang, Yiqiang; Gangjee, Aleem; White, A Clinton; Jorgensen, William L; Anderson, Karen S

    2014-09-01

    Cryptosporidium is the causative agent of a gastrointestinal disease, cryptosporidiosis, which is often fatal in immunocompromised individuals and children. Thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) are essential enzymes in the folate biosynthesis pathway and are well established as drug targets in cancer, bacterial infections, and malaria. Cryptosporidium hominis has a bifunctional thymidylate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase enzyme, compared to separate enzymes in the host. We evaluated lead compound 1 from a novel series of antifolates, 2-amino-4-oxo-5-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines as an inhibitor of Cryptosporidium hominis thymidylate synthase with selectivity over the human enzyme. Complementing the enzyme inhibition compound 1 also has anti-cryptosporidial activity in cell culture. A crystal structure with compound 1 bound to the TS active site is discussed in terms of several van der Waals, hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions with the protein residues and the substrate analog 5-fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate (TS), cofactor NADPH and inhibitor methotrexate (DHFR). Another crystal structure in complex with compound 1 bound in both the TS and DHFR active sites is also reported here. The crystal structures provide clues for analog design and for the design of ChTS-DHFR specific inhibitors. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Beyond Thymidylate Synthase and Dihydrofolate Reductase: Impact of Non-coding microRNAs in Anticancer Chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jingfang

    2012-09-01

    Chemoresistance is one of the major reasons for the failure of anticancer chemotherapy in treating advanced stage cancer. The mechanism of chemoresistance to fluoropyrimidines and antifolates has been extensively investigated in the past 40 years. It has been well established that thymidylate synthase (TYMS, TS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) are two major targets for fluoropyrimidines and antifolates, respectively. The regulatory mechanism of TS and DHFR expression is rather complex involving transcriptional, post-transcriptional and translational regulations. Our recent understanding of the chemoresistance mechanism has been extended beyond the simple one target/drug view. In this review, we will focus on the recent advancement of non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) in contributing to the regulations of TS and DHFR expression, and to the chemoresistance mechanism of fluoropyrimidines and antifolates.

  15. Mutational analysis of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthase genes in the interior division of Sabah, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SDX/PYR) combination had been chosen to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Malaysia for more than 30 years. Non-silent mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) genes are responsible for the resistance to pyrimethamine and sulphadoxine, respectively. This study reports the mutational analysis of pfdhfr and pfdhps in single Plasmodium falciparum infection isolates from the interior division of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Methods A total of 22 P. falciparum single infection isolates collected from two districts of the interior division of Sabah from February to November 2010 were recruited for the mutational study of pfdhfr and pfdhps. Both genes were amplified by nested PCR prior to DNA sequencing and mutational analysis. Results A total of three pfdhfr and four pfdhps alleles were identified. The most prevalent pfdhfr allele is ANRNL (86%) involving triple mutation at position 108(S to N), 59(C to R) and 164(I to L). In pfdhps, two novel alleles, SGTGA (73%) and AAKAA (5%) were identified. Alleles involving triple mutation in both pfdhfr (ANRNL) and pfdhps (SGTGA), which were absent in Sabah in a study conducted about 15 years ago, are now prevalent. Conclusions High prevalence of mutations in SDX/PYR associated drug resistance genes are reported in this study. This mutational study of pfdhps and pfdhfr indicating that SDX/PYR should be discontinued in this region. PMID:24321120

  16. Mutational analysis of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthase genes in the interior division of Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lau, Tiek Ying; Sylvi, Mersumpin; William, Timothy

    2013-12-10

    The sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SDX/PYR) combination had been chosen to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Malaysia for more than 30 years. Non-silent mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) genes are responsible for the resistance to pyrimethamine and sulphadoxine, respectively. This study reports the mutational analysis of pfdhfr and pfdhps in single Plasmodium falciparum infection isolates from the interior division of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. A total of 22 P. falciparum single infection isolates collected from two districts of the interior division of Sabah from February to November 2010 were recruited for the mutational study of pfdhfr and pfdhps. Both genes were amplified by nested PCR prior to DNA sequencing and mutational analysis. A total of three pfdhfr and four pfdhps alleles were identified. The most prevalent pfdhfr allele is ANRNL (86%) involving triple mutation at position 108(S to N), 59(C to R) and 164(I to L). In pfdhps, two novel alleles, SGTGA (73%) and AAKAA (5%) were identified. Alleles involving triple mutation in both pfdhfr (ANRNL) and pfdhps (SGTGA), which were absent in Sabah in a study conducted about 15 years ago, are now prevalent. High prevalence of mutations in SDX/PYR associated drug resistance genes are reported in this study. This mutational study of pfdhps and pfdhfr indicating that SDX/PYR should be discontinued in this region.

  17. Human dihydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase form a complex in vitro and co-localize in normal and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Antosiewicz, Anna; Jarmuła, Adam; Przybylska, Dorota; Mosieniak, Grażyna; Szczepanowska, Joanna; Kowalkowska, Anna; Rode, Wojciech; Cieśla, Joanna

    2016-08-05

    Enzymes involved in thymidylate biosynthesis, thymidylate synthase (TS), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) are well-known targets in cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time, that human TS and DHFR form a strong complex in vitro and co-localize in human normal and colon cancer cell cytoplasm and nucleus. Treatment of cancer cells with methotrexate or 5-fluorouracil did not affect the distribution of either enzyme within the cells. However, 5-FU, but not MTX, lowered the presence of DHFR-TS complex in the nucleus by 2.5-fold. The results may suggest the sequestering of TS by FdUMP in the cytoplasm and thereby affecting the translocation of DHFR-TS complex to the nucleus. Providing a strong likelihood of DHFR-TS complex formation in vivo, the latter complex is a potential new drug target in cancer therapy. In this paper, known 3D structures of human TS and human DHFR, and some protozoan bifunctional DHFR-TS structures as templates, are used to build an in silico model of human DHFR-TS complex structure, consisting of one TS dimer and two DHFR monomers. This complex structure may serve as an initial 3D drug target model for prospective inhibitors targeting interfaces between the DHFR and TS enzymes.

  18. Sulfa and trimethoprim-like drugs - antimetabolites acting as carbonic anhydrase, dihydropteroate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances in microbial genomics, synthetic organic chemistry and X-ray crystallography provided opportunities to identify novel antibacterial targets for the development of new classes of antibiotics and to design more potent antimicrobial compounds derived from existing antibiotics in clinical use for decades. The antimetabolites, sulfa drugs and trimethoprim (TMP)-like agents, are inhibitors of three families of enzymes. One family belongs to the carbonic anhydrases, which catalyze a simple but physiologically relevant reaction in all life kingdoms, carbon dioxide hydration to bicarbonate and protons. The other two enzyme families are involved in the synthesis of tetrahydrofolate (THF), i.e. dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) and dihydrofolate reductase. The antibacterial agents belonging to the THF and DHPS inhibitors were developed decades ago and present significant bacterial resistance problems. However, the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance both to sulfa drugs and TMP-like inhibitors were understood in detail only recently, when several X-ray crystal structures of such enzymes in complex with their inhibitors were reported. Here, we revue the state of the art in the field of antibacterials based on inhibitors of these three enzyme families.

  19. A nanotherapy strategy significantly enhances anticryptosporidial activity of an inhibitor of bifunctional thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase from Cryptosporidium.

    PubMed

    Mukerjee, Anindita; Iyidogan, Pinar; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Cisneros, José A; Czyzyk, Daniel; Ranjan, Amalendu Prakash; Jorgensen, William L; White, A Clinton; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K; Anderson, Karen S

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis, a gastrointestinal disease caused by protozoans of the genus Cryptosporidium, is a common cause of diarrheal diseases and often fatal in immunocompromised individuals. Bifunctional thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase (TS-DHFR) from Cryptosporidium hominis (C. hominis) has been a molecular target for inhibitor design. C. hominis TS-DHFR inhibitors with nM potency at a biochemical level have been developed however drug delivery to achieve comparable antiparasitic activity in Cryptosporidium infected cell culture has been a major hurdle for designing effective therapies. Previous mechanistic and structural studies have identified compound 906 as a nM C. hominis TS-DHFR inhibitor in vitro, having μM antiparasitic activity in cell culture. In this work, proof of concept studies are presented using a nanotherapy approach to improve drug delivery and the antiparasitic activity of 906 in cell culture. We utilized PLGA nanoparticles that were loaded with 906 (NP-906) and conjugated with antibodies to the Cryptosporidium specific protein, CP2, on the nanoparticle surface in order to specifically target the parasite. Our results indicate that CP2 labeled NP-906 (CP2-NP-906) reduces the level of parasites by 200-fold in cell culture, while NP-906 resulted in 4.4-fold decrease. Moreover, the anticryptosporidial potency of 906 improved 15 to 78-fold confirming the utility of the antibody conjugated nanoparticles as an effective drug delivery strategy.

  20. Endothelial dihydrofolate reductase: critical for nitric oxide bioavailability and role in angiotensin II uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Chalupsky, Karel; Cai, Hua

    2005-06-21

    Recent studies demonstrate that oxidative inactivation of tetrahydrobiopterin (H4B) may cause uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to produce superoxide (O2*-). H4B was found recyclable from its oxidized form by dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) in several cell types. Functionality of the endothelial DHFR, however, remains completely unknown. Here we present findings that specific inhibition of endothelial DHFR by RNA interference markedly reduced endothelial H4B and nitric oxide (NO.) bioavailability. Furthermore, angiotensin II (100 nmol/liter for 24 h) caused a H4B deficiency that was mediated by H2O2-dependent down-regulation of DHFR. This response was associated with a significant increase in endothelial O2*- production, which was abolished by eNOS inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester or H2O2 scavenger polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase, strongly suggesting H2O2-dependent eNOS uncoupling. Rapid and transient activation of endothelial NAD(P)H oxidases was responsible for the initial burst production of O2* (Rac1 inhibitor NSC 23766 but not an N-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-attenuated ESR O2*- signal at 30 min) in response to angiotensin II, preceding a second peak in O2*- production at 24 h that predominantly depended on uncoupled eNOS. Overexpression of DHFR restored NO. production and diminished eNOS production of O2*- in angiotensin II-stimulated cells. In conclusion, these data represent evidence that DHFR is critical for H4B and NO. bioavailability in the endothelium. Endothelial NAD(P)H oxidase-derived H2O2 down-regulates DHFR expression in response to angiotensin II, resulting in H4B deficiency and uncoupling of eNOS. This signaling cascade may represent a universal mechanism underlying eNOS dysfunction under pathophysiological conditions associated with oxidant stress.

  1. Structure-based approach to pharmacophore identification, in silico screening, and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship studies for inhibitors of Trypanosoma cruzi dihydrofolate reductase function

    SciTech Connect

    Schormann, N.; Senkovich, O.; Walker, K.; Wright, D.L.; Anderson, A.C.; Rosowsky, A.; Ananthan, S.; Shinkre, B.; Velu, S.; Chattopadhyay, D.

    2009-07-10

    We have employed a structure-based three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) approach to predict the biochemical activity for inhibitors of T. cruzi dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS). Crystal structures of complexes of the enzyme with eight different inhibitors of the DHFR activity together with the structure in the substrate-free state (DHFR domain) were used to validate and refine docking poses of ligands that constitute likely active conformations. Structural information from these complexes formed the basis for the structure-based alignment used as input for the QSAR study. Contrary to indirect ligand-based approaches the strategy described here employs a direct receptor-based approach. The goal is to generate a library of selective lead inhibitors for further development as antiparasitic agents. 3D-QSAR models were obtained for T. cruzi DHFR-TS (30 inhibitors in learning set) and human DHFR (36 inhibitors in learning set) that show a very good agreement between experimental and predicted enzyme inhibition data. For crossvalidation of the QSAR model(s), we have used the 10% leave-one-out method. The derived 3D-QSAR models were tested against a few selected compounds (a small test set of six inhibitors for each enzyme) with known activity, which were not part of the learning set, and the quality of prediction of the initial 3D-QSAR models demonstrated that such studies are feasible. Further refinement of the models through integration of additional activity data and optimization of reliable docking poses is expected to lead to an improved predictive ability.

  2. Structure-based approach to pharmacophore identification, in silico screening, and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship studies for inhibitors of Trypanosoma cruzi dihydrofolate reductase function.

    PubMed

    Schormann, N; Senkovich, O; Walker, K; Wright, D L; Anderson, A C; Rosowsky, A; Ananthan, S; Shinkre, B; Velu, S; Chattopadhyay, D

    2008-12-01

    We have employed a structure-based three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) approach to predict the biochemical activity for inhibitors of T. cruzi dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS). Crystal structures of complexes of the enzyme with eight different inhibitors of the DHFR activity together with the structure in the substrate-free state (DHFR domain) were used to validate and refine docking poses of ligands that constitute likely active conformations. Structural information from these complexes formed the basis for the structure-based alignment used as input for the QSAR study. Contrary to indirect ligand-based approaches the strategy described here employs a direct receptor-based approach. The goal is to generate a library of selective lead inhibitors for further development as antiparasitic agents. 3D-QSAR models were obtained for T. cruzi DHFR-TS (30 inhibitors in learning set) and human DHFR (36 inhibitors in learning set) that show a very good agreement between experimental and predicted enzyme inhibition data. For crossvalidation of the QSAR model(s), we have used the 10% leave-one-out method. The derived 3D-QSAR models were tested against a few selected compounds (a small test set of six inhibitors for each enzyme) with known activity, which were not part of the learning set, and the quality of prediction of the initial 3D-QSAR models demonstrated that such studies are feasible. Further refinement of the models through integration of additional activity data and optimization of reliable docking poses is expected to lead to an improved predictive ability.

  3. Mutations in the Antifolate-Resistance-Associated Genes Dihydrofolate Reductase and Dihydropteroate Synthase in Plasmodium vivax Isolates from Malaria-Endemic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Feng; Lim, Chae Seung; Nam, Deok Hwa; Kim, Kwonkee; Lin, Khin; Kim, Tong-Soo; Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Chen, Jun-Hu; Wang, Yue; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Han, Eun-Taek

    2010-01-01

    Parasite dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) are known target enzymes of antifolate drugs used for the treatment and prophylaxis of persons with malaria. We sequenced the Plasmodium vivax dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (pvdhps) genes to examine the prevalence and extent of point mutations in isolates from malaria-endemic countries. Double mutations (S58R and S117N) or quadruple mutations (F57L/I, S58R, T61M, and S117T) in the pvdhfr gene were found in isolates from Thailand (96.4%) and Myanmar (71.4%), but in only one isolate (1.0%) from Korea, where sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has never been used. The pvdhfr point mutations correlated strongly with the pvdhps point mutations and ranged from single to triple mutations (S382A, A383G, and A553G), among isolates from Thailand, Myanmar, and Korea. These findings suggests that the prevalence of mutations in pvdhfr and pvdhps in P. vivax isolates from different malaria-endemic countries is associated with selection pressure imposed by sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. PMID:20810806

  4. Selective peptide inhibitors of bifunctional thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase from Toxoplasma gondii provide insights into domain-domain communication and allosteric regulation.

    PubMed

    Landau, Mark J; Sharma, Hitesh; Anderson, Karen S

    2013-09-01

    The bifunctional enzyme thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase (TS-DHFR) plays an essential role in DNA synthesis and is unique to several species of pathogenic protozoans, including the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Infection by T. gondii causes the prevalent disease toxoplasmosis, for which TS-DHFR is a major therapeutic target. Here, we design peptides that target the dimer interface between the TS domains of bifunctional T. gondii TS-DHFR by mimicking β-strands at the interface, revealing a previously unknown allosteric target. The current study shows that these β-strand mimetic peptides bind to the apo-enzyme in a species-selective manner to inhibit both the TS and distal DHFR. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to monitor conformational switching of the TS domain and demonstrate that these peptides induce a conformational change in the enzyme. Using structure-guided mutagenesis, nonconserved residues in the linker between TS and DHFR were identified that play a key role in domain-domain communication and in peptide inhibition of the DHFR domain. These studies validate allosteric inhibition of apo-TS, specifically at the TS-TS interface, as a potential target for novel, species-specific therapeutics for treating T. gondii parasitic infections and overcoming drug resistance. © 2013 The Protein Society.

  5. Use of bacterial surrogates as a tool to explore antimalarial drug interaction: Synergism between inhibitors of malarial dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthase.

    PubMed

    Talawanich, Yuwadee; Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee; Sirawaraporn, Worachart; Yuthavong, Yongyuth

    2015-09-01

    Interaction between antimalarial drugs is important in determining the outcome of chemotherapy using drug combinations. Inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) such as pyrimethamine and of dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) such as sulfa drugs are known to have synergistic interactions. However, studies of the synergism are complicated by the fact that the malaria parasite can also salvage exogenous folates, and the salvage may also be affected by the drugs. It is desirable to have a convenient system to study interaction of DHFR and DHPS inhibitors without such complications. Here, we describe the use of Escherichia coli transformed with malarial DHFR and DHPS, while its own corresponding genes have been inactivated by optimal concentration of trimethoprim and genetic knockout, respectively, to study the interaction of the inhibitors. Marked synergistic effects are observed for all combinations of pyrimethamine and sulfa inhibitors in the presence of trimethoprim. At 0.05μM trimethoprim, sum of fractional inhibitory concentrations, ΣFIC of pyrimethamine with sulfadoxine, pyrimethamine with sulfathiazole, pyrimethamine with sulfamethoxazole, and pyrimethamine with dapsone are in the range of 0.24-0.41. These results show synergism between inhibitors of the two enzymes even in the absence of folate transport and uptake. This bacterial surrogate system should be useful as a tool for assessing the interactions of drug combinations between the DHFR and DHPS inhibitors.

  6. [Gene polymorphisms in the dihydrofolate reductase ( dhfr ) and dihydropteroate synthase ( dhps ) genes and structural modelling of the dhps gene in Colombian isolates of Toxoplasma gondii].

    PubMed

    Cortés, Liliana Jazmín; Duque, Sofía; López, Miryam Consuelo; Moncada, Diego; Molina, Diego; Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique; Gunturiz, María Luz

    2014-01-01

    There are no reports describing polymorphisms in target genes of anti- Toxoplasma drugs in South American isolates. This study sought to perform cloning and sequencing of the dihydrofolate reductase ( dhfr ) and dihydropteroate-synthase ( dhps ) genes of the reference Rh strain and two Colombian isolates of Toxoplasma gondii . Two isolates were obtained from the cerebrospinal fluid of HIV-infected patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis. A DNA extraction technique and PCR assay for the dhfr and dhps genes were standardized, and the products of amplification were cloned into Escherichia coli and sequenced. One polymorphism (A « G) was found at position 235 of exon 2 in the dhps gene. In addition, two polymorphisms (G « C) at positions 259 and 260 and one polymorphism (T « G) at position 371 within exon 4 of the dhps gene were detected. In this last exon, a bioinformatic analysis revealed a non-synonymous polymorphism in the coding region that could lead to the substitution of Glu (CAA or CAG) for His (encoded by codons AAU or AAC). A structural model of the T. gondii DHPS protein was calculated, and the results revealed modifications in secondary structure due to mutations. The methods described in this study can be used as a tool to search for polymorphisms in samples from patients with different clinical manifestations of toxoplasmosis and to examine their relationship with the therapeutic response.

  7. An Innovative Strategy for Dual Inhibitor Design and Its Application in Dual Inhibition of Human Thymidylate Synthase and Dihydrofolate Reductase Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Arooj, Mahreen; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Cao, Guang ping; Lee, Keun Woo

    2013-01-01

    Due to the diligence of inherent redundancy and robustness in many biological networks and pathways, multitarget inhibitors present a new prospect in the pharmaceutical industry for treatment of complex diseases. Nevertheless, to design multitarget inhibitors is concurrently a great challenge for medicinal chemists. We have developed a novel computational approach by integrating the affinity predictions from structure-based virtual screening with dual ligand-based pharmacophore to discover potential dual inhibitors of human Thymidylate synthase (hTS) and human dihydrofolate reductase (hDHFR). These are the key enzymes in folate metabolic pathway that is necessary for the biosynthesis of RNA, DNA, and protein. Their inhibition has found clinical utility as antitumor, antimicrobial, and antiprotozoal agents. A druglike database was utilized to perform dual-target docking studies. Hits identified through docking experiments were mapped over a dual pharmacophore which was developed from experimentally known dual inhibitors of hTS and hDHFR. Pharmacophore mapping procedure helped us in eliminating the compounds which do not possess basic chemical features necessary for dual inhibition. Finally, three structurally diverse hit compounds that showed key interactions at both active sites, mapped well upon the dual pharmacophore, and exhibited lowest binding energies were regarded as possible dual inhibitors of hTS and hDHFR. Furthermore, optimization studies were performed for final dual hit compound and eight optimized dual hits demonstrating excellent binding features at target systems were also regarded as possible dual inhibitors of hTS and hDHFR. In general, the strategy used in the current study could be a promising computational approach and may be generally applicable to other dual target drug designs. PMID:23577115

  8. Declining trend of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) mutant alleles after the withdrawal of Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine in North Western Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tessema, Sofonias K; Kassa, Moges; Kebede, Amha; Mohammed, Hussein; Leta, Gemechu Tadesse; Woyessa, Adugna; Guma, Geremew Tasew; Petros, Beyene

    2015-01-01

    Antimalarial drug resistance is one of the major challenges in global efforts of malaria control and elimination. In 1998, chloroquine was abandoned and replaced with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, which in turn was replaced with artemether/lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in 2004. Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine resistance is associated with mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (Pfdhps) genes. The prevalence of mutation in Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes were evaluated and compared for a total of 159 isolates collected in two different time points, 2005 and 2007/08, from Pawe hospital, in North Western Ethiopia. The frequency of triple Pfdhfr mutation decreased significantly from 50.8% (32/63) to 15.9% (10/63) (P<0.001), while Pfdhps double mutation remained high and changed only marginally from 69.2% (45/65) to 55.4% (40/65) (P = 0.08). The combined Pfdhfr/Pfdhps quintuple mutation, which is strongly associated with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine resistance, was significantly decreased from 40.7% (24/59) to 13.6% (8/59) (P<0.0001). On the whole, significant decline in mutant alleles and re-emergence of wild type alleles were observed. The change in the frequency is explained by the reduction of residual drug-resistant parasites caused by the strong drug pressure imposed when sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine was the first-line drug, followed by lower fitness of these resistant parasites in the absence of drug pressure. Despite the decrease in the frequency of mutant alleles, higher percentages of mutation remain prevalent in the study area in 2007/08 in both Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes. Therefore, further multi-centered studies in different parts of the country will be required to assess the re-emergence of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine sensitive parasites and to monitor and prevent the establishment of multi drug resistant parasites in this region.

  9. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XXVII. Clinical and parasitological response to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine treatment and Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthase alleles in Cameroonian children.

    PubMed

    Tahar, Rachida; Basco, Leonardo K

    2007-08-01

    The rapidly changing epidemiology of antifolate-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Africa requires monitoring. The present study was designed to assess the degree of association between the clinical and parasitological response to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and allelic combinations of dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) genes. Of 357 children who completed the 14-day follow-up, an adequate clinical and parasitological response was observed in 316 patients (88.5%) and early and late failures occurred in 18 (5%) and 23 (6.4%, mostly due to recrudescence) patients, respectively. The majority of clinical isolates were characterized as "quadruple" (n=196, 55.2%; N51I-C59R-S108N in DHFR and A437G in DHPS) or "triple" mutants (n=97, 27.3%; N51I-C59R-S108N in DHFR and wild-type DHPS; S108N+N51I or C59R in DHFR and A437G in DHPS). Wild-type, single mutation, and double mutation were observed in 29, 20, and 13 parasites, respectively. The comparison of different sets of mutations and early or late failures did not reveal any molecular marker associated with treatment outcome when the follow-up period was limited to 14 days (P>0.05). In this study, the determination of dhfr-dhps genotypes was of limited value to predict the treatment outcome in individual patients, mostly due to few treatment failures and few wild-type haplotypes. Further monitoring will be required to define the relationship between clinical response to SP therapy and parasite genotypes in our epidemiological setting.

  10. An innovative strategy for dual inhibitor design and its application in dual inhibition of human thymidylate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase enzymes.

    PubMed

    Arooj, Mahreen; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Cao, Guang ping; Lee, Keun Woo

    2013-01-01

    Due to the diligence of inherent redundancy and robustness in many biological networks and pathways, multitarget inhibitors present a new prospect in the pharmaceutical industry for treatment of complex diseases. Nevertheless, to design multitarget inhibitors is concurrently a great challenge for medicinal chemists. We have developed a novel computational approach by integrating the affinity predictions from structure-based virtual screening with dual ligand-based pharmacophore to discover potential dual inhibitors of human Thymidylate synthase (hTS) and human dihydrofolate reductase (hDHFR). These are the key enzymes in folate metabolic pathway that is necessary for the biosynthesis of RNA, DNA, and protein. Their inhibition has found clinical utility as antitumor, antimicrobial, and antiprotozoal agents. A druglike database was utilized to perform dual-target docking studies. Hits identified through docking experiments were mapped over a dual pharmacophore which was developed from experimentally known dual inhibitors of hTS and hDHFR. Pharmacophore mapping procedure helped us in eliminating the compounds which do not possess basic chemical features necessary for dual inhibition. Finally, three structurally diverse hit compounds that showed key interactions at both active sites, mapped well upon the dual pharmacophore, and exhibited lowest binding energies were regarded as possible dual inhibitors of hTS and hDHFR. Furthermore, optimization studies were performed for final dual hit compound and eight optimized dual hits demonstrating excellent binding features at target systems were also regarded as possible dual inhibitors of hTS and hDHFR. In general, the strategy used in the current study could be a promising computational approach and may be generally applicable to other dual target drug designs.

  11. Towards an understanding of the mechanism of pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum: genotyping of dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthase of Kenyan parasites.

    PubMed

    Nzila, A M; Mberu, E K; Sulo, J; Dayo, H; Winstanley, P A; Sibley, C H; Watkins, W M

    2000-04-01

    The antifolate combination of pyrimethamine (PM) and sulfadoxine (SD) is the last affordable drug combination available for wide-scale treatment of falciparum malaria in Africa. Wherever this combination has been used, drug-resistant parasites have been selected rapidly. A study of PM-SD effectiveness carried out between 1997 and 1999 at Kilifi on the Kenyan coast has shown the emergence of RI and RII resistance to PM-SD (residual parasitemia 7 days after treatment) in 39 out of 240 (16.25%) patients. To understand the mechanism that underlies resistance to PM-SD, we have analyzed the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) genotypes of 81 patients. Fifty-one samples were obtained, before treatment, from patients who remained parasite free for at least 7 days after treatment. For a further 20 patients, samples were obtained before treatment and again when they returned to the clinic with parasites 7 days after PM-SD treatment. Ten additional isolates were obtained from patients who were parasitemic 7 days after treatment but who were not sampled before treatment. More than 65% of the isolates (30 of 46) in the initial group had wild-type or double mutant DHFR alleles, and all but 7 of the 47 (85%) had wild-type DHPS alleles. In the paired (before and after treatment) samples, the predominant combinations of DHFR and DHPS alleles before treatment were of triple mutant DHFR and double mutant DHPS (41% [7 of 17]) and of double mutant DHFR and double mutant DHPS (29% [5 of 17]). All except one of the posttreatment isolates had triple mutations in DHFR, and most of these were "pure" triple mutants. In these isolates, the combination of a triple mutant DHFR and wild-type DHPS was detected in 6 of 29 cases (20.7%), the combination of a triple mutant DHFR and a single mutant (A437G) DHPS was detected in 4 of 29 cases (13.8%), and the combination of a triple mutant DHFR and a double mutant (A437G, L540E) DHPS was detected in 16 of 29 cases (55

  12. Anti-folate drug resistance in Africa: meta-analysis of reported dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) mutant genotype frequencies in African Plasmodium falciparum parasite populations.

    PubMed

    Sridaran, Sankar; McClintock, Shannon K; Syphard, Luke M; Herman, Karen M; Barnwell, John W; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2010-08-30

    Mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) genes of Plasmodium falciparum are associated with resistance to anti-folate drugs, most notably sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). Molecular studies document the prevalence of these mutations in parasite populations across the African continent. However, there is no systematic review examining the collective epidemiological significance of these studies. This meta-analysis attempts to: 1) summarize genotype frequency data that are critical for molecular surveillance of anti-folate resistance and 2) identify the specific challenges facing the development of future molecular databases. This review consists of 220 studies published prior to 2009 that report the frequency of select dhfr and dhps mutations in 31 African countries. Maps were created to summarize the location and prevalence of the highly resistant dhfr triple mutant (N51I, C59R, S108N) genotype and dhps double mutant (A437G and K540E) genotype in Africa. A hierarchical mixed effects logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various factors on reported mutant genotype frequency. These factors include: year and location of study, age and clinical status of sampled population, and reporting conventions for mixed genotype data. A database consisting of dhfr and dhps mutant genotype frequencies from all African studies that met selection criteria was created for this analysis. The map illustrates particularly high prevalence of both the dhfr triple and dhps double mutant genotypes along the Kenya-Tanzania border and Malawi. The regression model shows a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of both the dhfr triple and dhps double mutant genotypes in Africa. Increasing prevalence of the dhfr triple mutant and dhps double mutant genotypes in Africa are consistent with the loss of efficacy of SP for treatment of clinical malaria in most parts of this continent. Continued assessment of the effectiveness

  13. Anti-folate drug resistance in Africa: meta-analysis of reported dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) mutant genotype frequencies in African Plasmodium falciparum parasite populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) genes of Plasmodium falciparum are associated with resistance to anti-folate drugs, most notably sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). Molecular studies document the prevalence of these mutations in parasite populations across the African continent. However, there is no systematic review examining the collective epidemiological significance of these studies. This meta-analysis attempts to: 1) summarize genotype frequency data that are critical for molecular surveillance of anti-folate resistance and 2) identify the specific challenges facing the development of future molecular databases. Methods This review consists of 220 studies published prior to 2009 that report the frequency of select dhfr and dhps mutations in 31 African countries. Maps were created to summarize the location and prevalence of the highly resistant dhfr triple mutant (N51I, C59R, S108N) genotype and dhps double mutant (A437G and K540E) genotype in Africa. A hierarchical mixed effects logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various factors on reported mutant genotype frequency. These factors include: year and location of study, age and clinical status of sampled population, and reporting conventions for mixed genotype data. Results A database consisting of dhfr and dhps mutant genotype frequencies from all African studies that met selection criteria was created for this analysis. The map illustrates particularly high prevalence of both the dhfr triple and dhps double mutant genotypes along the Kenya-Tanzania border and Malawi. The regression model shows a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of both the dhfr triple and dhps double mutant genotypes in Africa. Conclusion Increasing prevalence of the dhfr triple mutant and dhps double mutant genotypes in Africa are consistent with the loss of efficacy of SP for treatment of clinical malaria in most parts of this continent

  14. Molecular Epidemiology of Malaria in Cameroon. XXX. Sequence Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum ATPase 6, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Dihydropteroate Synthase Resistance Markers in Clinical Isolates from Children Treated with an Artesunate-Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine Combination

    PubMed Central

    Menemedengue, Virginie; Sahnouni, Khalifa; Basco, Leonardo; Tahar, Rachida

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) genes are reliable molecular markers for antifolate resistance. The P. falciparum ATPase 6 (pfatp6) gene has been proposed to be a potential marker for artemisinin resistance. In our previous clinical study, we showed that artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is highly effective against uncomplicated malaria in Yaoundé, Cameroon. In the present study, dhfr, dhps, and pfatp6 mutations in P. falciparum isolates obtained from children treated with artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine were determined. All 61 isolates had wild-type Pfatp6 263, 623, and 769 alleles, and 11 (18%) had a single E431K substitution. Three additional mutations, E643Q, E432K, and E641Q, were detected. The results did not indicate any warning signal of serious concern (i.e., no parasites were seen with quintuple dhfr-dhps, DHFR Ile164Leu, or pfatp6 mutations), as confirmed by the high clinical efficacy of artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Further studies are required to identify a molecular marker that reliably predicts artemisinin resistance. PMID:21734119

  15. Design, synthesis, biological evaluation and X-ray crystal structure of novel classical 6,5,6-tricyclic benzo[4,5]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines as dual thymidylate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Zhou, Xilin; L.Kisliuk, Roy; Piraino, Jennifer; Cody, Vivian

    2011-01-01

    Classical antifolates (4-7) with a tricyclic benzo[4,5]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine scaffold and a flexible and rigid benzoylglutamate were synthesized as dual thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitors. Oxidative aromatization of ethyl 2-amino-4-methyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1-benzothiophene-3-carboxylate (±)-9 to ethyl 2-amino-4-methyl-1-benzothiophene-3-carboxylate 10 with 10% Pd/C was a key synthetic step. Compounds with 2-CH3 substituents inhibited human (h) TS (IC50 = 0.26-0.8 μM), but not hDHFR. Substitution of the 2-CH3 with a 2-NH2 increases hTS inhibition by more than 10-fold and also affords excellent hDHFR inhibition (IC50 = 0.09-0.1 μM). This study shows that the tricyclic benzo[4,5]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine scaffold is highly conducive to single hTS or dual hTS-hDHFR inhibition depending on the 2-position substituents. The X-ray crystal structures of 6 and 7 with hDHFR reveal, for the first time, that tricyclics 6 and 7 bind with the benzo[4,5]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine ring in the folate binding mode with the thieno S mimicking the 4-amino of methotrexate. PMID:21550809

  16. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XXX. sequence analysis of Plasmodium falciparum ATPase 6, dihydrofolate reductase, and dihydropteroate synthase resistance markers in clinical isolates from children treated with an artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combination.

    PubMed

    Menemedengue, Virginie; Sahnouni, Khalifa; Basco, Leonardo; Tahar, Rachida

    2011-07-01

    Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) genes are reliable molecular markers for antifolate resistance. The P. falciparum ATPase 6 (pfatp6) gene has been proposed to be a potential marker for artemisinin resistance. In our previous clinical study, we showed that artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is highly effective against uncomplicated malaria in Yaoundé, Cameroon. In the present study, dhfr, dhps, and pfatp6 mutations in P. falciparum isolates obtained from children treated with artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine were determined. All 61 isolates had wild-type Pfatp6 263, 623, and 769 alleles, and 11 (18%) had a single E431K substitution. Three additional mutations, E643Q, E432K, and E641Q, were detected. The results did not indicate any warning signal of serious concern (i.e., no parasites were seen with quintuple dhfr-dhps, DHFR Ile164Leu, or pfatp6 mutations), as confirmed by the high clinical efficacy of artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Further studies are required to identify a molecular marker that reliably predicts artemisinin resistance.

  17. Multiparameter Screening on SlipChip Used for Nanoliter Protein Crystallization Combining Free Interface Diffusion and Microbatch Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liang; Du, Wenbin; Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    2010-08-04

    This paper describes two SlipChip-based approaches to protein crystallization: a SlipChip-based free interface diffusion (FID) method and a SlipChip-based composite method that simultaneously performs microbatch and FID crystallization methods in a single device. The FID SlipChip was designed to screen multiple reagents, each at multiple diffusion equilibration times, and was validated by screening conditions for crystallization of two proteins, enoyl-CoA hydratase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and dihydrofolate reductase/thymidylate synthase from Babesia bovis, against 48 different reagents at five different equilibration times each, consuming 12 {micro}L of each protein for a total of 480 experiments using three SlipChips. The composite SlipChip was designed to screen multiple reagents, each at multiple mixing ratios and multiple equilibration times, and was validated by screening conditions for crystallization of two proteins, enoyl-CoA hydratase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and dihydrofolate reductase/thymidylate synthase from Babesia bovis. To prevent cross-contamination while keeping the solution in the neck channels for FID stable, the plates of the SlipChip were etched with a pattern of nanowells. This nanopattern was used to increase the contact angle of aqueous solutions on the surface of the silanized glass. The composite SlipChip increased the number of successful crystallization conditions and identified more conditions for crystallization than separate FID and microbatch screenings. Crystallization experiments were scaled up in well plates using conditions identified during the SlipChip screenings, and X-ray diffraction data were obtained to yield the protein structure of dihydrofolate reductase/thymidylate synthase at 1.95 {angstrom} resolution. This free-interface diffusion approach provides a convenient and high-throughput method of setting up gradients in microfluidic devices and may find additional applications in cell-based assays.

  18. Tales of Dihydrofolate Binding to R67 Dihydrofolate Reductase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Homotetrameric R67 dihydrofolate reductase possesses 222 symmetry and a single active site pore. This situation results in a promiscuous binding site that accommodates either the substrate, dihydrofolate (DHF), or the cofactor, NADPH. NADPH interacts more directly with the protein as it is larger than the substrate. In contrast, the p-aminobenzoyl-glutamate tail of DHF, as monitored by nuclear magnetic resonance and crystallography, is disordered when bound. To explore whether smaller active site volumes (which should decrease the level of tail disorder by confinement effects) alter steady state rates, asymmetric mutations that decreased the half-pore volume by ∼35% were constructed. Only minor effects on kcat were observed. To continue exploring the role of tail disorder in catalysis, 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide-mediated cross-linking between R67 DHFR and folate was performed. A two-folate, one-tetramer complex results in the loss of enzyme activity where two symmetry-related K32 residues in the protein are cross-linked to the carboxylates of two bound folates. The tethered folate could be reduced, although with a ≤30-fold decreased rate, suggesting decreased dynamics and/or suboptimal positioning of the cross-linked folate for catalysis. Computer simulations that restrain the dihydrofolate tail near K32 indicate that cross-linking still allows movement of the p-aminobenzoyl ring, which allows the reaction to occur. Finally, a bis-ethylene-diamine-α,γ-amide folate adduct was synthesized; both negatively charged carboxylates in the glutamate tail were replaced with positively charged amines. The Ki for this adduct was ∼9-fold higher than for folate. These various results indicate a balance between folate tail disorder, which helps the enzyme bind substrate while dynamics facilitates catalysis. PMID:26637016

  19. Synthesis, antimalarial activity and molecular docking of hybrid 4-aminoquinoline-1,3,5-triazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Hans Raj; Singh, Udaya Pratap; Thakur, Anjali; Kumar Ghosh, Surajit; Gogoi, Kabita; Prakash, Anil; Singh, Ramendra K

    2015-10-01

    A series of novel hybrid 4-aminoquinoline 1,3,5-triazine derivatives was synthesized in a five-steps reaction and evaluated for their in vitro antimalarial activity against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and chloroquine-resistant (RKL-2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Entire synthetic derivatives showed higher antimalarial activity on the sensitive strain while two compounds, viz., 9a and 9c displayed good activity against both the strains of P. falciparum. The observed activity was further substantiated by docking study on both wild and qradruple mutant type P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (pf-DHFR-TS).

  20. Vibrational structure of dihydrofolate bound to R67 dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Deng, H; Callender, R; Howell, E

    2001-12-28

    R67 is a Type II dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) that catalyzes the reduction of dihydrofolate (DHF) to tetrahydrofolate by facilitating the addition of a proton to N5 of DHF and the transfer of a hydride ion from NADPH to C6. Because this enzyme is a plasmid-encoded DHFR from trimethoprim-resistant bacteria, extensive studies on R67 with various methods have been performed to elucidate its reaction mechanism. Here, Raman difference measurements, conducted on the ternary complex of R67.NADP(+).DHF believed to be an accurate mimic of the productive DHFR.NADPH.DHF complex, show that the pK(a) of N5 in the complex is less than 4. This is in clear contrast to the behavior observed in Escherichia coli DHFR, a substantially more efficient enzyme, where the pK(a) of bound DHF at N5 is increased to 6.5 compared with its solution value of 2.6. A comparison of the ternary complexes in R67 and E. coli DHFRs suggests that enzymic raising of the pK(a) at N5 can significantly increase the catalytic efficiency of the hydride transfer step. However, R67 shows that even without such a strategy an effective DHFR can still be designed.

  1. Over-production of dihydrofolate reductase leads to sulfa-dihydropteroate resistance in yeast.

    PubMed

    Patel, Onisha; Karnik, Kuldeep; Macreadie, Ian G

    2004-07-15

    Dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) can metabolise sulfa drugs into sulfa-dihydropteroate (sulfa-DHP), which inhibits cell growth through competition with dihydrofolate (DHF), possibly indicating dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) as the target of sulfa-DHP. The effect of over-production of DHFR on sulfa-DHP resistance was examined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a strain that requires DHF for growth. This strain was transformed with a plasmid which encodes over-production of DHFR in the presence of CuSO4. Over-production led to resistance to sulfa-DHP suggesting that sulfa-DHP targets DHFR. Spontaneous mutants hyper-resistant to sulfa-DHP did not show any changes within DHFR.

  2. Control of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid production

    SciTech Connect

    Leys, E.J.; Kellems, R.E.

    1981-11-01

    The authors used methotrexate-resistant mouse cells in which dihydrofolate reductase levels are approximately 500 times normal to study the effect of growth stimulation on dihydrofolate reductase gene expression. As a result of growth stimulation, the relative rate of dihydrofolate reductase protein synthesis increased threefold, reaching a maximum between 25 and 30 h after stimulation. The relative rate of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid production (i.e., the appearance of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid in the cytoplasm) increased threefold after growth stimulation and was accompanied by a corresponding increase in the relative steady-state level of dihydrofolate reductase ribonucleic acid in the nucleus. However, the increase in the nuclear level of dihydrofolate reductase ribonucleic acid was not accompanied by a significant increase in the relative rate of transcription of the dihydrofolate reductase genes. These data indicated that the relative rate of appearance of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid in the cytoplasm depends on the relative stability of the dihydrofolate reductase ribonucleic acid sequences in the nucleus and is not dependent on the relative rate of transcription of the dihydrofolate reductase genes.

  3. Human endothelial dihydrofolate reductase low activity limits vascular tetrahydrobiopterin recycling.

    PubMed

    Whitsett, Jennifer; Rangel Filho, Artur; Sethumadhavan, Savitha; Celinska, Joanna; Widlansky, Michael; Vasquez-Vivar, Jeannette

    2013-10-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH₄) is required for NO synthesis and inhibition of superoxide release from endothelial NO synthase. Clinical trials using BH₄ to treat endothelial dysfunction have produced mixed results. Poor outcomes may be explained by the rapid systemic and cellular oxidation of BH₄. One of the oxidation products of BH₄, 7,8-dihydrobiopterin (7,8-BH₂), is recycled back to BH₄ by dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). This enzyme is ubiquitously distributed and shows a wide range of activity depending on species-specific factors and cell type. Information about the kinetics and efficiency of BH4 recycling in human endothelial cells receiving BH₄ treatment is lacking. To characterize this reaction, we applied a novel multielectrode coulometric HPLC method that enabled the direct quantification of 7,8-BH₂ and BH₄, which is not possible with fluorescence-based methodologies. We found that basal untreated BH₄ and 7,8-BH₂ concentrations in human endothelial cells (ECs) are lower than in bovine and murine endothelioma cells. Treatment of human ECs with BH₄ transiently increased intracellular BH₄ while accumulating the more stable 7,8-BH₂. This was different from bovine or murine ECs, which resulted in preferential BH₄ increase. Using BH₄ diastereomers, 6S-BH₄ and 6R-BH₄, the narrow contribution of enzymatic DHFR recycling to total intracellular BH₄ was demonstrated. Reduction of 7,8-BH₂ to BH₄ occurs at very slow rates in cells and needs supraphysiological levels of 7,8-BH₂, indicating this reaction is kinetically limited. Activity assays verified that human DHFR has very low affinity for 7,8-BH₂ (DHF7,8-BH₂) and folic acid inhibits 7,8-BH₂ recycling. We conclude that low activity of endothelial DHFR is an important factor limiting the benefits of BH4 therapies, which may be further aggravated by folate supplements.

  4. Molecular phylogeny of Trypanosoma cruzi from Central America (Guatemala) and a comparison with South American strains.

    PubMed

    Iwagami, M; Higo, H; Miura, S; Yanagi, T; Tada, I; Kano, S; Agatsuma, T

    2007-12-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analysis was carried out for 21 strains of Trypanosoma cruzi, nine of which were obtained from Guatemala and 12 from South America. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the nucleotide sequences of two nuclear gene regions, dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) and trypanothione reductase (TR), and contiguous portions of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1). Possible genetic exchange between the rather divergent lineages of T. cruzi II from South America was suggested in the trees of the two nuclear genes. T. cruzi I strains obtained from Guatemala and Colombia were identical in all the genes examined, but other T. cruzi I isolates from South America were rather polymorphic in the DHFR-TS and mitochondrial genes. No genetic exchange was identified between T. cruzi I populations from Central and South America in the present study.

  5. Purification and properties of the dihydrofolate synthetase from Serratia indica.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, M; Kazuo, I

    1976-01-01

    The dihydrofolate synthetase (EC 6.3.2.12) responsible for catalyzing the synthesis of dihydrofolic acid from dihydropteroic acid and L-glutamic acid was purified about 130-fold from extracts of Serratia indica IFO 3759 by ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-Sephadex column chromatography, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration, and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The enzyme preparation obtained was shown to be homogeneous by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography and ultracentrifugal analysis. The sedimentation coefficient of this enzyme was 3.9 S, and the molecular weight was determined to be about 47,000 by Sephadex G-100. The optimum pH for the reaction was 9.0. The enzymatic reaction required dihydropteroate, L-glutamate and ATP as substrates, and Mg2+ and K+ as cofactors. gamma-L-Glutamyl-L-glutamic acid cannot replace L-glutamic acid as the substrate. Neither pteroic acid nor tetrahydropteroic acid can be used as the substrate. ATP was partially replaced by ITP or GTP. The enzyme reaction was inhibited by the addition of AD, but not by AMP. One mole of dihydrofolate, 1 mole of ADP and 1 mole of orthophosphate were produced from each 1 mole of dihydropteroic acid, L-glutamic acid, and ATP by the following equation: 7,8-Dihydropteroic acid ml-Glutamic acid matp Mg2+, K+ leads to Dihydrofolic acid + ADP + Pi. These results suggest that the systematic name for the dihydrofolate synthetase is 7,8-dihydropteroate: L-glutamate ligase (ADP).

  6. Microsecond subdomain folding in dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Arai, Munehito; Iwakura, Masahiro; Matthews, C Robert; Bilsel, Osman

    2011-07-08

    The characterization of microsecond dynamics in the folding of multisubdomain proteins has been a major challenge in understanding their often complex folding mechanisms. Using a continuous-flow mixing device coupled with fluorescence lifetime detection, we report the microsecond folding dynamics of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), a two-subdomain α/β/α sandwich protein known to begin folding in this time range. The global dimensions of early intermediates were monitored by Förster resonance energy transfer, and the dynamic properties of the local Trp environments were monitored by fluorescence lifetime detection. We found that substantial collapse occurs in both the locally connected adenosine binding subdomain and the discontinuous loop subdomain within 35 μs of initiation of folding from the urea unfolded state. During the fastest observable ∼550 μs phase, the discontinuous loop subdomain further contracts, concomitant with the burial of Trp residue(s), as both subdomains achieve a similar degree of compactness. Taken together with previous studies in the millisecond time range, a hierarchical assembly of DHFR--in which each subdomain independently folds, subsequently docks, and then anneals into the native conformation after an initial heterogeneous global collapse--emerges. The progressive acquisition of structure, beginning with a continuously connected subdomain and spreading to distal regions, shows that chain entropy is a significant organizing principle in the folding of multisubdomain proteins and single-domain proteins. Subdomain folding also provides a rationale for the complex kinetics often observed.

  7. Dihydrofolate reductase: A potential drug target in trypanosomes and leishmania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccotto, Fabio; Martin, Andrew C. R.; Laskowski, Roman A.; Thornton, Janet M.; Gilbert, Ian H.

    1998-05-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase has successfully been used as a drug target in the area of anti-cancer, anti-bacterial and anti-malarial chemotherapy. Little has been done to evaluate it as a drug target for treatment of the trypanosomiases and leishmaniasis. A crystal structure of Leishmania major dihydrofolate reductase has been published. In this paper, we describe the modelling of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei dihydrofolate reductases based on this crystal structure. These structures and models have been used in the comparison of protozoan, bacterial and human enzymes in order to highlight the different features that can be used in the design of selective anti-protozoan agents. Comparison has been made between residues present in the active site, the accessibility of these residues, charge distribution in the active site, and the shape and size of the active sites. Whilst there is a high degree of similarity between protozoan, human and bacterial dihydrofolate reductase active sites, there are differences that provide potential for selective drug design. In particular, we have identified a set of residues which may be important for selective drug design and identified a larger binding pocket in the protozoan than the human and bacterial enzymes.

  8. Dihydrofolate Reductase Activity in Strains of Streptococcus faecium var. durans Resistant to Methasquin and Amethopterin1

    PubMed Central

    Rader, Jeanne I.; Hutchison, Dorris J.

    1972-01-01

    Resistance to the antifolates methasquin and amethopterin has been studied in new strains of Streptococcus faecium var. durans. Two methasquin-resistant strains (SF/MQ, SF/MQT) and an amethopterin-resistant strain (SF/AM) were selected independently from the wild-type S. faecium var. durans (SF/O). SF/MQT is a thymine auxotroph. Total dihydrofolate reductase activity was elevated in each of the resistant strains. The greatest increase (36-fold) was observed in extracts of SF/AM. The methasquin-resistant strains, SF/MQ and SF/MQT, had 29-fold and 8-fold, respectively, more dihydrofolate reductase activity than the parental strain. Total dihydrofolate reductase activity of SF/O was separable by gel filtration into two components: a folate reductase (11%) and a specific dihydrofolate reductase (89%). Folate reductase activity was associated with 88% of the total dihydrofolate reductase activity of SF/MQT, with specific dihydrofolate reductase activity accounting for the remaining 12%. In SF/MQ and SF/AM, folate reductase activity was associated with 97% of the total dihydrofolate reductase activity. Studies of the inhibition by methasquin and amethopterin of partially purified folate reductase and specific dihydrofolate reductase of the mutant strains suggested that resistance was not accompanied by changes in the affinities of these enzymes for either antifolate. PMID:4401600

  9. The dynamic energy landscape of dihydrofolate reductase catalysis.

    PubMed

    Boehr, David D; McElheny, Dan; Dyson, H Jane; Wright, Peter E

    2006-09-15

    We used nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation dispersion to characterize higher energy conformational substates of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase. Each intermediate in the catalytic cycle samples low-lying excited states whose conformations resemble the ground-state structures of preceding and following intermediates. Substrate and cofactor exchange occurs through these excited substates. The maximum hydride transfer and steady-state turnover rates are governed by the dynamics of transitions between ground and excited states of the intermediates. Thus, the modulation of the energy landscape by the bound ligands funnels the enzyme through its reaction cycle along a preferred kinetic path.

  10. Optical observation of correlated motions in dihydrofolate reductase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mengyang; Niessen, Katherine; Pace, James; Cody, Vivian; Markelz, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Enzyme function relies on its structural flexibility to make conformational changes for substrate binding and product release. An example of a metabolic enzyme where such structural changes are vital is dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). DHFR is essential in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes for the nucleotide biosynthesis by catalyzing the reduction of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate. NMR dynamical measurements found large amplitude fast dynamics that could indicate rigid-body, twisting-hinge motion for ecDHFR that may mediate flux. The role of such long-range correlated motions in function was suggested by the observed sharp decrease in enzyme activity for the single point mutation G121V, which is remote from active sites. This decrease in activity may be caused by the mutation interfering with the long-range intramolecular vibrations necessary for rapid access to functional configurations. We use our new technique of crystal anisotropy terahertz microscopy (CATM), to observe correlated motions in ecDHFR crystals with the bonding of NADPH and methotrexate. We compare the measured intramolecular vibrational spectrum with calculations using normal mode analysis.

  11. Structure and kinetics assays of recombinant Schistosoma mansoni dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Serrão, Vitor Hugo Balasco; Romanello, Larissa; Cassago, Alexandre; de Souza, Juliana Roberta Torini; Cheleski, Juliana; DeMarco, Ricardo; Brandão-Neto, José; Pereira, Humberto D'Muniz

    2017-03-11

    The parasite Schistosoma mansoni possesses all pathways for pyrimidine biosynthesis, in which dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), thymidylate cycle participants, is essential for nucleotide metabolism to obtain energy and structural nucleic acids. Thus, DHFRs have been widely suggested as therapeutic targets for the treatment of infectious diseases. In this study, we expressed recombinant SmDHFR in a heterologous manner to obtain structural, biochemical and kinetic information. X-ray diffraction of recombinant SmDHFR at 1.95Å resolution showed that the structure exhibited the canonical DHFR fold. Isothermal titration calorimetry was used to determine the kinetic constants for NADP(+) and dihydrofolate. Moreover, inhibition assays were performed using the commercial folate analogs methotrexate and aminopterin; these analogs are recognized as folate competitors and are used as chemotherapeutic agents in cancer and autoimmune diseases. This study provides information that may prove useful for the future discovery of novel drugs and for understanding these metabolic steps from this pathway of S. mansoni, thus aiding in our understanding of the function of these essential pathways for parasite metabolism.

  12. Correlated Protein Motion Measurements of Dihydrofolate Reductase Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mengyang; Niessen, Katherine; Pace, James; Cody, Vivian; Markelz, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    We report the first direct measurements of the long range structural vibrational modes in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). DHFR is a universal housekeeping enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of 7,8-dihydrofolate to 5,6,7,8-tetra-hydrofolate, with the aid of coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). This crucial enzymatic role as the target for anti-cancer [methotrexate (MTX)], and other clinically useful drugs, has made DHFR a long-standing target of enzymological studies. The terahertz (THz) frequency range (5-100 cm-1), corresponds to global correlated protein motions. In our lab we have developed Crystal Anisotropy Terahertz Microscopy (CATM), which directly measures these large scale intra-molecular protein vibrations, by removing the relaxational background of the solvent and residue side chain librational motions. We demonstrate narrowband features in the anisotropic absorbance for mouse DHFR with the ligand binding of NADPH and MTX single crystals as well as Escherichia coli DHFR with the ligand binding of NADPH and MTX single crystals. This work is supported by NSF grant MRI2 grant DBI2959989.

  13. Fluorescent analogues of methotrexate: characterization and interaction with dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A A; Kempton, R J; Anstead, G M; Freisheim, J H

    1983-01-18

    The dansylated derivatives of lysine and ornithine analogues of methotrexate exhibit fluorescence properties characteristic of the dansyl moiety with an excitation at 328 nm and an emission maximum at 580 nm in aqueous media. As in the case of dansyl amino acids, the fluorescence emission is dependent upon the polarity of the medium. In solvents of low dielectric constant there is an enhancement of the dansyl fluorescence intensity as well as a shift to shorter wavelengths. The dansylated analogues show a reduction in the quantum yields as compared to N epsilon-dansyl-L-lysine and 5-(N,N-dimethylamino)-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid. The absorption spectra of the two dansyl analogues are similar to the spectra of the parent basic amino acid precursors but with reduced molar extinction values. The two fluorescent analogues of methotrexate were found to be potent inhibitors of purified dihydrofolate reductases from Lactobacillus casei and from chicken liver. The binding of these fluorescent analogues to either dihydrofolate reductase resulted in 10-15-nm blue shift of the ligand emission maxima and a 2-5-fold enhancement of the emission. These fluorescent properties of the bound ligands indicate a possible interaction of the dansyl moiety with a region on the enzyme molecule which is more hydrophobic relative to the surrounding solvent.

  14. Amplification and loss of dihydrofolate reductase genes in a Chinese hamster ovary cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, R.J.; Schimke, R.T.

    1981-12-01

    During stepwise increases in the methotrexate concentration in culture medium, the authors selected Chinese hamster ovary cells that contained elevated dihydrofolate reductase levels which were proportional to the number of dihydrofolate reductase gene copies (i.e., gene amplification). The authors studied the dihydrofolate reductase levels in individual cells that underwent the initial steps of methotrexate resistance by using the fluorescence-activated cell sorter technique. Such cells constituted a heterogeneous population with differing dihydrofolate reductase levels, and they characteristically lost the elevated enzyme levels when they were grown in the absence of methotrexate. The progeny of individual cells with high enzyme levels behaved differently and could lose all or variable numbers of the amplified genes.

  15. Methotrexate-resistant form of dihydrofolate reductase protects transgenic murine embryos from teratogenic effects of methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Sutton, C; McIvor, R S; Vagt, M; Doggett, B; Kapur, R P

    1998-01-01

    Methotrexate, a potent inhibitor of the ubiquitously expressed enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, induces limb and facial anomalies that resemble vascular disruptions in their evolution and final outcome. Previous studies suggest that inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase is responsible for methotrexate-induced embryopathy, although specific sites of methotrexate activity have not been well defined. In this report, we show that constitutive expression of a methotrexate-resistant form of dihydrofolate reductase in transgenic embryos and their placentas ameliorates methotrexate teratogenicity. However, expression of the transgene in maternal tissues had no significant protective effect. The results confirm the role of dihydrofolate reductase inhibition in the pathogenesis of methotrexate-induced birth defects and provide a foundation for future studies of targeted transgene expression in select embryonic or placental cell populations.

  16. Mutations in Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthase genes in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, D; Daily, J P; Sarr, O; Ndir, O; Gaye, O; Mboup, S; Wirth, D F

    2005-11-01

    Senegal recently (2004) switched to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) with amodiaquine as first line therapy for malaria in response to increasing chloroquine resistance. In anticipation of emerging resistance to SP as a result of this change in drug pressure, we set out to define the baseline prevalence of SP-associated mutations in the dhfr and dhps genes in Plasmodium falciparum using geographically diverse and longitudinally collected samples. A total of 153 blood samples were analysed from patients (5 years or older) with mild malaria after informed consent was obtained. Longitudinal samples were collected between 2000 and 2003 in Pikine, a suburb of Dakar. Geographically diverse site sampling was carried out in 2003. The mutation prevalence in DHFR codons 51, 59 and 108 is 65%, 61% and 78% in Pikine, 2003. The overall prevalence of the triple mutation that is associated with high-level pyrimethamine resistance is 61%. The mutation prevalence rate in DHPS codons 436 and 437 is 21% and 40%, respectively. There is significant geographic variation in genotypic resistance, as samples from Pikine in 2003 had higher mutation prevalence in the pfdhfr and pfdhps genes compared to samples from Tambacounda (P < 0.015). In summary, this study demonstrates a high background prevalence of SP resistance mutations already present in P. falciparum in Senegal.

  17. Kinetic and Structural Characterization of Dihydrofolate Reductase from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeeyeon; Yennawar, Neela H.; Gam, Jongsik; Benkovic, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Drug resistance associated with dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) has emerged as a critical issue in the treatment of bacterial infections. In our efforts to understand the mechanism of a drug-resistant dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from a pathogenic bacterial source, we report the first kinetic characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae DHFR (spDHFR) along with its X-ray structure. This study revealed that the kinetic properties of spDHFR were significantly different from E. coli DHFR. The product (tetrahydrofolate) dissociation step that is the rate limiting step in the E. coli DHFR is significantly accelerated in spDHFR so that hydride transfer or a preceding step is rate limiting. Comparison of the binding parameters of this enzyme to a mutant spDHFR (Sp9) confirmed that the Leu100 residue in spDHFR is the critical element for the trimethoprim (TMP) resistance. Steady-state kinetics exhibited a pH dependence in kcat, which prompted us to elucidate the role of the new catalytic residue (His33) in the active site of spDHFR. Structural data of the Sp9 mutant in complex with NADPH and methotrexate confirmed the participation of His33 in a hydrogen bonding network involving a water molecule, the hydroxyl group of Thr119, and carboxylate ion of Glu30. Sequence analysis of the DHFR superfamily revealed that the His residue is the major amino acid component at this position and is found mostly in pathogenic bacterial DHFRs. A mutation of Val100 to Leu demonstrated a steric clash of the leucine side chain with the side chains of Ile8 and Phe34, rationalizing weaker binding of trimethoprim to Leu100 DHFR. Understanding the role of specific amino acids in the active site coupled with detailed structural analysis will inform us on how to better design inhibitors targeting drug resistant pathogenic bacterial DHFRs. PMID:19950924

  18. Hydride transfer during catalysis by dihydrofolate reductase from Thermotoga maritima.

    PubMed Central

    Maglia, Giovanni; Javed, Masood H; Allemann, Rudolf K

    2003-01-01

    DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase) catalyses the metabolically important reduction of 7,8-dihydrofolate by NADPH. DHFR from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima (TmDHFR), which shares similarity with DHFR from Escherichia coli, has previously been characterized structurally. Its tertiary structure is similar to that of DHFR from E. coli but it is the only DHFR characterized so far that relies on dimerization for stability. The midpoint of the thermal unfolding of TmDHFR was at approx. 83 degrees C, which was 30 degrees C higher than the melting temperature of DHFR from E. coli. The turnover and the hydride-transfer rates in the kinetic scheme of TmDHFR were derived from measurements of the steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetics using absorbance and stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopy. The rate constant for hydride transfer was found to depend strongly on the temperature and the pH of the solution. Hydride transfer was slow (0.14 s(-1) at 25 degrees C) and at least partially rate limiting at low temperatures but increased dramatically with temperature. At 80 degrees C the hydride-transfer rate of TmDHFR was 20 times lower than that observed for the E. coli enzyme at its physiological temperature. Hydride transfer depended on ionization of a single group in the active site with a p K(a) of 6.0. While at 30 degrees C, turnover of substrate by TmDHFR was almost two orders of magnitude slower than by DHFR from E. coli; the steady-state rates of the two enzymes differed only 8-fold at their respective working temperatures. PMID:12765545

  19. Electrostatic Channeling in P. falciparum DHFR-TS: Brownian Dynamics and Smoluchowski Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Vincent T.; Eun, Changsun; Kekenes-Huskey, Peter M.; Huber, Gary; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We perform Brownian dynamics simulations and Smoluchowski continuum modeling of the bifunctional Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (P. falciparum DHFR-TS) with the objective of understanding the electrostatic channeling of dihydrofolate generated at the TS active site to the DHFR active site. The results of Brownian dynamics simulations and Smoluchowski continuum modeling suggest that compared to Leishmania major DHFR-TS, P. falciparum DHFR-TS has a lower but significant electrostatic-mediated channeling efficiency (∼15–25%) at physiological pH (7.0) and ionic strength (150 mM). We also find that removing the electric charges from key basic residues located between the DHFR and TS active sites significantly reduces the channeling efficiency of P. falciparum DHFR-TS. Although several protozoan DHFR-TS enzymes are known to have similar tertiary and quaternary structure, subtle differences in structure, active-site geometry, and charge distribution appear to influence both electrostatic-mediated and proximity-based substrate channeling. PMID:25418308

  20. Ligand-Dependent Conformational Dynamics of Dihydrofolate Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Reddish, Michael J.; Vaughn, Morgan B.; Fu, Rong; Dyer, R. Brian

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes are known to change among several conformational states during turnover. The role of such dynamic structural changes in catalysis is not fully understood. The influence of dynamics in catalysis can be inferred, but not proven, by comparison of equilibrium structures of protein variants and protein–ligand complexes. A more direct way to establish connections between protein dynamics and the catalytic cycle is to probe the kinetics of specific protein motions in comparison to progress along the reaction coordinate. We have examined the enzyme model system dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Escherichia coli with tryptophan fluorescence-probed temperature-jump spectroscopy. We aimed to observe the kinetics of the ligand binding and ligand-induced conformational changes of three DHFR complexes to establish the relationship among these catalytic steps. Surprisingly, in all three complexes, the observed kinetics do not match a simple sequential two-step process. Through analysis of the relationship between ligand concentration and observed rate, we conclude that the observed kinetics correspond to the ligand binding step of the reaction and a noncoupled enzyme conformational change. The kinetics of the conformational change vary with the ligand's identity and presence but do not appear to be directly related to progress along the reaction coordinate. These results emphasize the need for kinetic studies of DHFR with highly specific spectroscopic probes to determine which dynamic events are coupled to the catalytic cycle and which are not. PMID:26901612

  1. A second target of benzamide riboside: dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Breton; Johnson-Farley, Nadine; Kerrigan, John E; Scotto, Kathleen W; Banerjee, Debabrata; Felczak, Krzysztof; Pankiewicz, Krzysztof W; Gounder, Murugesan; Lin, HongXia; Abali, Emine Ercikan; Bertino, Joseph R

    2012-11-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is an essential enzyme involved in de novo purine and thymidine biosynthesis. For several decades, selective inhibition of DHFR has proven to be a potent therapeutic approach in the treatment of various cancers including acute lymphoblastic leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, osteogenic sarcoma, carcinoma of the breast, and head and neck cancer. Therapeutic success with DHFR inhibitor methotrexate (MTX) has been compromised in the clinic, which limits the success of MTX treatment by both acquired and intrinsic resistance mechanisms. We report that benzamide riboside (BR), via anabolism to benzamide adenine dinucleotide (BAD) known to potently inhibit inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), also inhibits cell growth through a mechanism involving downregulation of DHFR protein. Evidence to support this second site of action of BR includes the finding that CCRF-CEM/R human T-cell lymphoblasic leukemia cells, resistant to MTX as a consequence of gene amplification and overexpression of DHFR, are more resistant to BR than are parental cells. Studies of the mechanism by which BR lowers DHFR showed that BR, through its metabolite BAD, reduced NADP and NADPH cellular levels by inhibiting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide kinase (NADK). As consequence of the lack of NADPH, DHFR was shown to be destabilized. We suggest that, inhibition of NADK is a new approach to downregulate DHFR and to inhibit cell growth.

  2. Solvent effects on catalysis by Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Loveridge, E Joel; Tey, Lai-Hock; Allemann, Rudolf K

    2010-01-27

    Hydride transfer catalyzed by dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) has been described previously within an environmentally coupled model of hydrogen tunneling, where protein motions control binding of substrate and cofactor to generate a tunneling ready conformation and modulate the width of the activation barrier and hence the reaction rate. Changes to the composition of the reaction medium are known to perturb protein motions. We have measured kinetic parameters of the reaction catalyzed by DHFR from Escherichia coli in the presence of various cosolvents and cosolutes and show that the dielectric constant, but not the viscosity, of the reaction medium affects the rate of reaction. Neither the primary kinetic isotope effect on the reaction nor its temperature dependence were affected by changes to the bulk solvent properties. These results are in agreement with our previous report on the effect of solvent composition on catalysis by DHFR from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima. However, the effect of solvent on the temperature dependence of the kinetic isotope effect on hydride transfer catalyzed by E. coli DHFR is difficult to explain within a model, in which long-range motions couple to the chemical step of the reaction, but may indicate the existence of a short-range promoting vibration or the presence of multiple nearly isoenergetic conformational substates of enzymes with similar but distinct catalytic properties.

  3. Synthetic and Crystallographic Studies of a New Inhibitor Series Targeting Bacillus anthracis Dihydrofolate Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Beierlein, J.; Frey, K; Bolstad, D; Pelphrey, P; Joska, T; Smith, A; Priestley, N; Wright, D; Anderson, A

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, poses a significant biodefense danger. Serious limitations in approved therapeutics and the generation of resistance have produced a compelling need for new therapeutic agents against this organism. Bacillus anthracis is known to be insensitive to the clinically used antifolate, trimethoprim, because of a lack of potency against the dihydrofolate reductase enzyme. Herein, we describe a novel lead series of B. anthracis dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors characterized by an extended trimethoprim-like scaffold. The best lead compound adds only 22 Da to the molecular weight and is 82-fold more potent than trimethoprim. An X-ray crystal structure of this lead compound bound to B. anthracis dihydrofolate reductase in the presence of NADPH was determined to 2.25 A resolution. The structure reveals several features that can be exploited for further development of this lead series.

  4. Synthetic and Crystallographic Studies of a New Inhibitor Series Targeting Bacillus anthracis Dihydrofolate Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Beierlein, Jennifer M.; Frey, Kathleen M.; Bolstad, David B.; Pelphrey, Phillip M.; Joska, Tammy M.; Smith, Adrienne E.; Priestley, Nigel D.; Wright, Dennis L.; Anderson, Amy C.

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, poses a significant biodefense danger. Serious limitations in approved therapeutics and the generation of resistance have produced a compelling need for new therapeutic agents against this organism. Bacillus anthracis is known to be insensitive to the clinically used antifolate, trimethoprim, because of a lack of potency against the dihydrofolate reductase enzyme. Herein, we describe a novel lead series of B. anthracis dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors characterized by an extended trimethoprim-like scaffold. The best lead compound adds only 22 Da to the molecular weight and is 82-fold more potent than trimethoprim. An X-ray crystal structure of this lead compound bound to B. anthracis dihydrofolate reductase in the presence of NADPH was determined to 2.25 Å resolution. The structure reveals several features that can be exploited for further development of this lead series. PMID:19007108

  5. A DFT-based QSAR study on inhibition of human dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Karabulut, Sedat; Sizochenko, Natalia; Orhan, Adnan; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2016-11-01

    Diaminopyrimidine derivatives are frequently used as inhibitors of human dihydrofolate reductase, for example in treatment of patients whose immune system are affected by human immunodeficiency virus. Forty-seven dicyclic and tricyclic potential inhibitors of human dihydrofolate reductase were analyzed using the quantitative structure-activity analysis supported by DFT-based and DRAGON-based descriptors. The developed model yielded an RMSE deviation of 1.1 a correlation coefficient of 0.81. The prediction set was characterized by R(2)=0.60 and RMSE=3.59. Factors responsible for inhibition process were identified and discussed. The resulting model was validated via cross validation and Y-scrambling procedure. From the best model, we found several mass-related descriptors and Sanderson electronegativity-related descriptors that have the best correlations with the investigated inhibitory concentration. These descriptors reflect results from QSAR studies based on characteristics of human dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors.

  6. Recombinant bovine dihydrofolate reductase produced by mutagenesis and nested PCR of murine dihydrofolate reductase cDNA.

    PubMed

    Cody, Vivian; Mao, Qilong; Queener, Sherry F

    2008-11-01

    Recent reports of the slow-tight binding inhibition of bovine liver dihydrofolate reductase (bDHFR) in the presence of polyphenols isolated from green tea leaves has spurred renewed interest in the biochemical properties of bDHFR. Earlier studies were done with native bDHFR but in order to validate models of polyphenol binding to bDHFR, larger quantities of bDHFR are necessary to support structural studies. Bovine DHFR differs from its closest sequence homologue, murine DHFR, by 19 amino acids. To obtain the bDHFR cDNA, murineDHFR cDNA was transformed by a series of nested PCRs to reproduce the amino acid coding sequence for bovine DHFR. The bovine liver DHFR cDNA has an open reading frame of 561 base pairs encoding a protein of 187 amino acids that has a high level of conservation at the primary sequence level with other DHFR enzymes, and more so for the amino acid residues in the active site of the mammalian DHFR enzymes. Expression of the bovine DHFR cDNA in bacterial cells produced a stable recombinant protein with high enzymatic activity and kinetic properties similar to those previously reported for the native protein.

  7. ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Junge, Wolfgang; Nelson, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is the principal converter of sunlight into chemical energy. Cyanobacteria and plants provide aerobic life with oxygen, food, fuel, fibers, and platform chemicals. Four multisubunit membrane proteins are involved: photosystem I (PSI), photosystem II (PSII), cytochrome b6f (cyt b6f), and ATP synthase (FOF1). ATP synthase is likewise a key enzyme of cell respiration. Over three billion years, the basic machinery of oxygenic photosynthesis and respiration has been perfected to minimize wasteful reactions. The proton-driven ATP synthase is embedded in a proton tight-coupling membrane. It is composed of two rotary motors/generators, FO and F1, which do not slip against each other. The proton-driven FO and the ATP-synthesizing F1 are coupled via elastic torque transmission. Elastic transmission decouples the two motors in kinetic detail but keeps them perfectly coupled in thermodynamic equilibrium and (time-averaged) under steady turnover. Elastic transmission enables operation with different gear ratios in different organisms.

  8. Environmental Adaptation of Dihydrofolate Reductase from Deep-Sea Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ohmae, Eiji; Gekko, Kunihiko; Kato, Chiaki

    2015-01-01

    In order to elucidate the molecular adaptation mechanisms of enzymes to the high hydrostatic pressure of the deep sea, we cloned, purified, and characterized more than ten dihydrofolate reductases (DHFRs) from bacteria living in deep-sea and ambient atmospheric pressure environments. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of these DHFRs indicate the deep-sea bacteria are adapted to their environments after the differentiation of their genus from ancestors inhabiting atmospheric pressure environments. In particular, the backbone structure of the deep-sea DHFR from Moritella profunda (mpDHFR) almost overlapped with the normal homolog from Escherichia coli (ecDHFR). Thus, those of other DHFRs would also overlap on the basis of their sequence similarities. However, the structural stability of both DHFRs was quite different: compared to ecDHFR, mpDHFR was more thermally stable but less stable against urea and pressure unfolding. The smaller volume changes due to unfolding suggest that the native structure of mpDHFR has a smaller cavity and/or enhanced hydration compared to ecDHFR. High hydrostatic pressure reduced the enzymatic activity of many DHFRs, but three deep-sea DHFRs and the D27E mutant of ecDHFR exhibited pressure-dependent activation. The inverted activation volumes from positive to negative values indicate the modification of their structural dynamics, conversion of the rate-determining step of the enzymatic reaction, and different contributions of the cavity and hydration to the transition-state structure. Since the cavity and hydration depend on amino acid side chains, DHFRs would adapt to the deep-sea environment by regulating the cavity and hydration by substituting their amino acid side chains without altering their backbone structure. The results of this study clearly indicate that the cavity and hydration play important roles in the adaptation of enzymes to the deep-sea environment.

  9. The Effect of Protein Mass Modulation on Human Dihydrofolate Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Kevin; Sapienza, Paul J.; Lee, Andrew L.; Kohen, Amnon

    2016-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Escherichia coli has long served as a model enzyme with which to elucidate possible links between protein dynamics and the catalyzed reaction. Such physical properties of its human counterpart have not been rigorously studied so far, but recent computer-based simulations suggest that these two DHFRs differ significantly in how closely coupled the protein dynamics and the catalyzed C-H→C hydride transfer step are. To test this prediction, two contemporary probes for studying the effect of protein dynamics on catalysis were combined here: temperature dependence of intrinsic kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) that are sensitive to the physical nature of the chemical step, and protein mass-modulation that slows down fast dynamics (femto- to picosecond timescale) throughout the protein. The intrinsic H/T KIEs of human DHFR, like those of E. coli DHFR, are shown to be temperature-independent in the range from 5–45 °C, indicating fast sampling of donor and acceptor distances (DADs) at the reaction’s transition state (or tunneling ready state – TRS). Mass modulation of these enzymes through isotopic labeling with 13C, 15N, and 2H at nonexchangeable hydrogens yield an 11% heavier enzyme. The additional mass has no effect on the intrinsic KIEs of the human enzyme. This finding indicates that the mass-modulation of the human DHFR affects neither DAD distribution nor the DAD’s conformational sampling dynamics. Furthermore, reduction in the enzymatic turnover number and the dissociation rate constant for the product indicate that the isotopic substitution affects kinetic steps that are not the catalyzed C-H→C hydride transfer. The findings are discussed in terms of fast dynamics and their role in catalysis, the comparison of calculations and experiments, and the interpretation of isotopically-modulated heavy enzymes in general. PMID:26813442

  10. The crystal structure of dihydrofolate reductase from Thermotoga maritima: molecular features of thermostability.

    PubMed

    Dams, T; Auerbach, G; Bader, G; Jacob, U; Ploom, T; Huber, R; Jaenicke, R

    2000-03-31

    Two high-resolution structures have been obtained for dihydrofolate reductase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima in its unliganded state, and in its ternary complex with the cofactor NADPH and the inhibitor, methotrexate. While the overall fold of the hyperthermophilic enzyme is closely similar to monomeric mesophilic dihydrofolate reductase molecules, its quaternary structure is exceptional, in that T. maritima dihydrofolate reductase forms a highly stable homodimer. Here, the molecular reasons for the high intrinsic stability of the enzyme are elaborated and put in context with the available data on the physical parameters governing the folding reaction. The molecule is extremely rigid, even with respect to structural changes during substrate binding and turnover. Subunit cooperativity can be excluded from structural and biochemical data. Major contributions to the high intrinsic stability of the enzyme result from the formation of the dimer. Within the monomer, only subtle stabilizing interactions are detectable, without clear evidence for any of the typical increments of thermal stabilization commonly reported for hyperthermophilic proteins. The docking of the subunits is optimized with respect to high packing density in the dimer interface, additional salt-bridges and beta-sheets. The enzyme does not show significant structural changes upon binding its coenzyme, NADPH, and the inhibitor, methotrexate. The active-site loop, which is known to play an important role in catalysis in mesophilic dihydrofolate reductase molecules, is rearranged, participating in the association of the subunits; it no longer participates in catalysis.

  11. Loss and stabilization of amplified dihydrofolate reductase genes in mouse sarcoma S-180 cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, R.J.; Brown, P.C.; Schimke, R.T.

    1981-12-01

    The authors studied the loss and stabilization of dihydrofolate reductase genes in clones of a methotrexate-resistant murine S-180 cell line. These cells contained multiple copies of the dihydrofolate reductase gene which were associated with double minute chromosomes. The growth rate of these cells in the absence of methotrexate was inversely related to the degree of gene amplification (number of double minute chromosomes). Cells could both gain and lose genes as a result of an unequal distribution of double minute chromosomes into daughter cells at mitosis. The loss of amplified dihydrofolate reductase genes during growth in the absence of methotrexate resulted from the continual generation of cells containing lower numbers of double minute chromosomes. Because of the growth advantage of these cells, they became dominant in the population. They also studied an unstably resistant S-180 cell line (clone) that, after 3 years of continuous growth in methotrexate, generated cells containing stably amplified dihydrofolate reductase genes. These genes were present on one or more chromosomes, and they were retained in a stable state.

  12. Assignment of the human dihydrofolate reductase gene to the q11. -->. q22 region of chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Funanage, V.L.; Myoda, T.T.; Moses, P.A.; Cowell, H.R.

    1984-10-01

    Cells from a dihydrofolate reductase-deficit Chinese hamster ovary cell line were hybridized to human fetal skin fibroblast cells. Nineteen dihydrofolate reductase-positive hybrid clones were isolated and characterized. Cytogenetic and biochemical analyses of these clones have shown that the human dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene is located on chromosome 5. Three of these hybrid cell lines contained different terminal deletions of chromosome 5. An analysis of the breakpoints of these deletions has demonstrated that the DHFR gene resides in the q11..-->..q22 region.

  13. Endothelial human dihydrofolate reductase low activity limits vascular tetrahydrobiopterin recycling

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Jennifer; Filho, Artur Rangel; Sethumadhavan, Savitha; Celinska, Joanna; Widlansky, Michael; Vásquez-Vivar, Jeannette

    2013-01-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is required for NO synthesis and inhibition of superoxide release from eNOS. Clinical trials using BH4 to treat endothelial dysfunction have produced mixed results. Poor outcomes may be explained by the rapid systemic and cellular oxidation of BH4. One of the oxidation products of BH4, 7,8-dihydrobiopterin (7,8-BH2), is recycled back to BH4 by dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). This enzyme is ubiquitously distributed and shows a wide range of activity depending on species-specific factors and cell type. Information about the kinetics and efficiency of BH4 recycling in human endothelial cells receiving BH4 treatment is lacking. To characterize this reaction, we applied a novel multi-electrode coulometric HPLC method that enabled the direct quantification of 7,8-BH2 and BH4 which is not possible with fluorescent-based methodologies. We found that basal untreated BH4 and 7,8-BH2 concentrations in human ECs is lower than bovine and murine endothelioma cells. Treatment of human ECs with BH4 transiently increased intracellular BH4 while accumulating the more stable 7,8-BH2. This was different from bovine or murine ECs that resulted in preferential BH4 increase. Using BH4 diastereomers, 6S-BH4 and 6R-BH4, the narrow contribution of enzymatic DHFR recycling to total intracellular BH4 was demonstrated. Reduction of 7,8-BH2 to BH4 occurs at very slow rates in cells and needs supra-physiological levels of 7,8-BH2, indicating this reaction is kinetically limited. Activity assays verified that hDHFR has very low affinity for 7,8-BH2 (DHF7,8-BH2) and folic acid inhibits 7,8-BH2 recycling. We conclude that low activity of endothelial DHFR is an important factor limiting the benefits of BH4 therapies which may be further aggravated by folate supplements. PMID:23707606

  14. A toolbox facilitating stable transfection of Eimeria species.

    PubMed

    Clark, Julie D; Billington, Karen; Bumstead, Janene M; Oakes, Richard D; Soon, Puay Eng; Sopp, Paul; Tomley, Fiona M; Blake, Damer P

    2008-11-01

    Stable transfection of Eimeria species has been difficult to achieve because of the obligate requirement for in vivo amplification and selection of the parasites. Strategies to generate and stabilise populations of transfected Eimeria tenella are described here, together with the identification of optimal parameters for the transfection process. A series of plasmids expressing selectable markers, including a panel of fluorescent reporter genes and a mutant Toxoplasma gondii dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TSm2m3) gene that confers resistance to pyrimethamine, were electroporated into sporozoites of the E. tenella Wisconsin strain and stabilised by selective passage through chickens. Very high transfection efficiencies of up to 25% sporozoites in transient transfection and up to 9% oocysts following a single round of in vivo selection were achieved. Crucial factors include the use of very freshly harvested parasites with the AMAXA nucleofection system (program U33 in a cytomix-buffered reaction) and linearised plasmid DNA. The use of a restriction enzyme mediated integration (REMI) protocol boosted overall efficiency and elevated insertion rate per genome. Successful development of methods to generate and isolate stable populations of transfected Eimeria parasites will now stimulate rapid expansion of reverse genetic studies in this important coccidian.

  15. Molecular genetic transfection of the coccidian parasite Sarcocystis neurona.

    PubMed

    Gaji, Rajshekhar Y; Zhang, Deqing; Breathnach, Cormac C; Vaishnava, Shipra; Striepen, Boris; Howe, Daniel K

    2006-11-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is an apicomplexan parasite that is the major cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). The biology of this pathogen remains poorly understood in part due to unavailability of molecular genetic tools. Hence, with an objective to develop DNA transfection capabilities for S. neurona, the 5' flanking region of the SnSAG1 gene was isolated from a genomic library and used to construct expression plasmids. In transient assays, the reporter molecules beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) could be detected in electroporated S. neurona, thereby confirming the feasibility of transgene expression in this organism. Stable transformation of S. neurona was achieved using a mutant dihydrofolate reductase thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) gene of Toxoplasma gondii that confers resistance to pyrimethamine. This selection system was used to create transgenic S. neurona that stably express beta-gal and YFP. As shown in this study, these transgenic clones can be useful for analyzing growth rate of parasites in vitro and for assessing drug sensitivities. More importantly, the DNA transfection methods described herein should greatly facilitate studies examining intracellular parasitism by this important coccidian pathogen.

  16. Synthesis and cytotoxicity of substituted ethyl 2-phenacyl-3-phenylpyrrole-4-carboxylates.

    PubMed

    Evans, Michael A; Smith, Daniel C; Holub, Justin M; Argenti, Anthony; Hoff, Mafoloe; Dalglish, Gerard A; Wilson, Donna L; Taylor, Brett M; Berkowitz, Joshua D; Burnham, Bruce S; Krumpe, Keith; Gupton, John T; Scarlett, Tanya C; Durham Jr, Richard W; Hall, Iris H

    2003-06-01

    The substituted ethyl-2-phenacyl-3-phenylpyrrole-4-carboxylates were synthesized by a condensation of a beta-chloroenal and an alpha-aminoketone under neutral conditions. They proved to be potent cytotoxic agents against the growth of murine L1210 and P388 leukemias and human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia, HuT-78 lymphoma, and HeLa-S(3) uterine carcinoma. Selective compounds were active against the growth of Tmolt(3) and Tmolt(4) leukemias and THP-1 acute monocytic leukemia, liver Hepe-2, ovary 1-A9, ileum HCT-8 adenocarcinoma, and osteosarcoma HSO. A mode of action study in HL-60 cells demonstrated that DNA and protein syntheses were inhibited after 60 min at 100 microM. DNA and RNA polymerases, PRPP-amido transferase, dihydrofolate reductase, thymidylate synthase, and TMP kinase activities were interfered with by the agent with reduction of d[NTP] pools. Nonspecific interaction with the bases of DNA and cross-linking of the DNA may play a role in the mode of action of these carboxylates.

  17. Metabolic enzyme expression highlights a key role for MTHFD2 and the mitochondrial folate pathway in cancer.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Roland; Jain, Mohit; Madhusudhan, Nikhil; Sheppard, Nina Gustafsson; Strittmatter, Laura; Kampf, Caroline; Huang, Jenny; Asplund, Anna; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic remodeling is now widely regarded as a hallmark of cancer, but it is not clear whether individual metabolic strategies are frequently exploited by many tumours. Here we compare messenger RNA profiles of 1,454 metabolic enzymes across 1,981 tumours spanning 19 cancer types to identify enzymes that are consistently differentially expressed. Our meta-analysis recovers established targets of some of the most widely used chemotherapeutics, including dihydrofolate reductase, thymidylate synthase and ribonucleotide reductase, while also spotlighting new enzymes, such as the mitochondrial proline biosynthetic enzyme PYCR1. The highest scoring pathway is mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism and is centred on MTHFD2. MTHFD2 RNA and protein are markedly elevated in many cancers and correlated with poor survival in breast cancer. MTHFD2 is expressed in the developing embryo, but is absent in most healthy adult tissues, even those that are proliferating. Our study highlights the importance of mitochondrial compartmentalization of one-carbon metabolism in cancer and raises important therapeutic hypotheses.

  18. Inducible Knockdown of Plasmodium Gene Expression Using the glmS Ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Prommana, Parichat; Uthaipibull, Chairat; Wongsombat, Chayaphat; Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee; Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Knuepfer, Ellen; Holder, Anthony A.; Shaw, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional reverse genetic approaches for study of Plasmodium malaria parasite gene function are limited, or not applicable. Hence, new inducible systems are needed. Here we describe a method to control P. falciparum gene expression in which target genes bearing a glmS ribozyme in the 3′ untranslated region are efficiently knocked down in transgenic P. falciparum parasites in response to glucosamine inducer. Using reporter genes, we show that the glmS ribozyme cleaves reporter mRNA in vivo leading to reduction in mRNA expression following glucosamine treatment. Glucosamine-induced ribozyme activation led to efficient reduction of reporter protein, which could be rapidly reversed by removing the inducer. The glmS ribozyme was validated as a reverse-genetic tool by integration into the essential gene and antifolate drug target dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (PfDHFR-TS). Glucosamine treatment of transgenic parasites led to rapid and efficient knockdown of PfDHFR-TS mRNA and protein. PfDHFR-TS knockdown led to a growth/arrest mutant phenotype and hypersensitivity to pyrimethamine. The glmS ribozyme may thus be a tool for study of essential genes in P. falciparum and other parasite species amenable to transfection. PMID:24023691

  19. Global phylogeographic limits of Hawaii's avian malaria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beadell, J.S.; Ishtiaq, F.; Covas, R.; Melo, M.; Warren, B.H.; Atkinson, C.T.; Bensch, S.; Graves, G.R.; Jhala, Y.V.; Peirce, M.A.; Rahmani, A.R.; Fonseca, D.M.; Fleischer, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) to Hawaii has provided a model system for studying the influence of exotic disease on naive host populations. Little is known, however, about the origin or the genetic variation of Hawaii's malaria and traditional classification methods have confounded attempts to place the parasite within a global ecological and evolutionary context. Using fragments of the parasite mitochondrial gene cytochrome b and the nuclear gene dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase obtained from a global survey of greater than 13 000 avian samples, we show that Hawaii's avian malaria, which can cause high mortality and is a major limiting factor for many species of native passerines, represents just one of the numerous lineages composing the morphological parasite species. The single parasite lineage detected in Hawaii exhibits a broad host distribution worldwide and is dominant on several other remote oceanic islands, including Bermuda and Moorea, French Polynesia. The rarity of this lineage in the continental New World and the restriction of closely related lineages to the Old World suggest limitations to the transmission of reproductively isolated parasite groups within the morphological species. ?? 2006 The Royal Society.

  20. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification and LFD Combination for Detection of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Kongkasuriyachai, Darin; Yongkiettrakul, Suganya; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika; Arunrut, Narong

    2017-01-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been used to detect several pathogens including malaria parasites from field and clinical samples. In this protocol, the malaria LAMP technology is developed to differentiate between Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and Plasmodium vivax (Pv) species by targeting the dihydrofolate reductase thymidylate synthase (dhfr-ts) gene, a known target for the antifolate class of drugs such as Pyrimethamine. LAMP primer sets are designed and validated for species specific amplification. Additionally, specific probes help improve detection and visualization of the products when combined with lateral flow dipstick-based (LFD) detection. The protocols are further simplified to eliminate tedious sample preparation steps, such that crude lysis prepared simply by diluting few microliter (μL) of blood sample with distilled water is sufficient. The LAMP-LFD malaria dhfr-ts protocols are sensitive and can detect as little as 1 picogram (pg) of PfDNA and 1 nanogram (ng) of PvDNA, or a few microliters of crude lysate from infected blood samples (Yongkiettrakul et al., Parasitol Int 63: 777-784, 2014). These simplified steps not only reduce cost but also increase the potential for large application in the fields and clinical settings.

  1. Metabolic enzyme expression highlights a key role for MTHFD2 and the mitochondrial folate pathway in cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Roland; Jain, Mohit; Madhusudhan, Nikhil; Sheppard, Nina Gustafsson; Strittmatter, Laura; Kampf, Caroline; Huang, Jenny; Asplund, Anna; Mootha, Vamsi K.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic remodeling is now widely regarded as a hallmark of cancer, but it is not clear whether individual metabolic strategies are frequently exploited by many tumours. Here we compare messenger RNA profiles of 1,454 metabolic enzymes across 1,981 tumours spanning 19 cancer types to identify enzymes that are consistently differentially expressed. Our meta-analysis recovers established targets of some of the most widely used chemotherapeutics, including dihydrofolate reductase, thymidylate synthase and ribonucleotide reductase, while also spotlighting new enzymes, such as the mitochondrial proline biosynthetic enzyme PYCR1. The highest scoring pathway is mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism and is centred on MTHFD2. MTHFD2 RNA and protein are markedly elevated in many cancers and correlated with poor survival in breast cancer. MTHFD2 is expressed in the developing embryo, but is absent in most healthy adult tissues, even those that are proliferating. Our study highlights the importance of mitochondrial compartmentalization of one-carbon metabolism in cancer and raises important therapeutic hypotheses.

  2. Double targeted gene replacement for creating null mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, A; Coburn, C M; Beverley, S M

    1991-01-01

    We have used double gene targeting to create homozygous gene replacements in the protozoan parasite Leishmania major, an asexual diploid. This method uses two independent selectable markers in successive rounds of gene targeting to replace both alleles of an endogenous gene. We developed an improved hygromycin B-resistance cassette encoding hygromycin phosphotransferase (HYG) for use as a selectable marker for Leishmania. HYG-containing vectors functioned equivalently to those containing the neomycin phosphotransferase (NEO) cassette previously used for extrachromosomal transformation or gene targeting. Drug resistances conferred by the NEO and HYG markers were independent, allowing simultaneous selection for both markers. A HYG targeting vector was utilized to replace the single dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) gene remaining in a line heterozygous for a NEO replacement at the dhfr-ts locus (+/neo), with a targeting efficiency comparable to that seen with wild-type recipients. The resultant dhfr-ts- line (hyg/neo) was auxotrophic for thymidine. The double targeted replacement method will enable functional genetic testing in a variety of asexual diploids, including cultured mammalian cells and fungi such as Candida albicans. Additionally, it may be possible to use Leishmania bearing conditionally auxotrophic gene replacements as safe, improved live vaccines for leishmaniasis. Images PMID:1651496

  3. Probing the structure of Leishmania major DHFR TS and structure based virtual screening of peptide library for the identification of anti-leishmanial leads.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Rajalakshmi; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe

    2012-09-01

    Leishmaniasis, a multi-faceted ethereal disease is considered to be one of the World's major communicable diseases that demands exhaustive research and control measures. The substantial data on these protozoan parasites has not been utilized completely to develop potential therapeutic strategies against Leishmaniasis. Dihydrofolate reductase thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) plays a major role in the infective state of the parasite and hence the DHFR-TS based drugs remains of much interest to researchers working on Leishmaniasis. Although, crystal structures of DHFR-TS from different species including Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma cruzi are available, the experimentally determined structure of the Leishmania major DHFR-TS has not yet been reported in the Protein Data Bank. A high quality three dimensional structure of L.major DHFR-TS has been modeled through the homology modeling approach. Carefully refined and the energy minimized structure of the modeled protein was validated using a number of structure validation programs to confirm its structure quality. The modeled protein structure was used in the process of structure based virtual screening to figure out a potential lead structure against DHFR TS. The lead molecule identified has a binding affinity of 0.51 nM and clearly follows drug like properties.

  4. Double targeted gene replacement for creating null mutants.

    PubMed

    Cruz, A; Coburn, C M; Beverley, S M

    1991-08-15

    We have used double gene targeting to create homozygous gene replacements in the protozoan parasite Leishmania major, an asexual diploid. This method uses two independent selectable markers in successive rounds of gene targeting to replace both alleles of an endogenous gene. We developed an improved hygromycin B-resistance cassette encoding hygromycin phosphotransferase (HYG) for use as a selectable marker for Leishmania. HYG-containing vectors functioned equivalently to those containing the neomycin phosphotransferase (NEO) cassette previously used for extrachromosomal transformation or gene targeting. Drug resistances conferred by the NEO and HYG markers were independent, allowing simultaneous selection for both markers. A HYG targeting vector was utilized to replace the single dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) gene remaining in a line heterozygous for a NEO replacement at the dhfr-ts locus (+/neo), with a targeting efficiency comparable to that seen with wild-type recipients. The resultant dhfr-ts- line (hyg/neo) was auxotrophic for thymidine. The double targeted replacement method will enable functional genetic testing in a variety of asexual diploids, including cultured mammalian cells and fungi such as Candida albicans. Additionally, it may be possible to use Leishmania bearing conditionally auxotrophic gene replacements as safe, improved live vaccines for leishmaniasis.

  5. Next-Generation Sequencing of Plasmodium vivax Patient Samples Shows Evidence of Direct Evolution in Drug-Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Flannery, Erika L.; Wang, Tina; Akbari, Ali; Corey, Victoria C.; Gunawan, Felicia; Bright, A. Taylor; Abraham, Matthew; Sanchez, Juan F.; Santolalla, Meddly L.; Baldeviano, G. Christian; Edgel, Kimberly A.; Rosales, Luis A.; Lescano, Andrés G.; Bafna, Vineet; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of drug resistance in Plasmodium vivax, the parasite that causes the most widespread form of human malaria, is complicated by the lack of a suitable long-term cell culture system for this parasite. In contrast to P. falciparum, which can be more readily manipulated in the laboratory, insights about parasite biology need to be inferred from human studies. Here we analyze the genomes of parasites within 10 human P. vivax infections from the Peruvian Amazon. Using next-generation sequencing we show that some P. vivax infections analyzed from the region are likely polyclonal. Despite their polyclonality we observe limited parasite genetic diversity by showing that three or fewer haplotypes comprise 94% of the examined genomes, suggesting the recent introduction of parasites into this geographic region. In contrast we find more than three haplotypes in putative drug-resistance genes, including the gene encoding dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase and the P. vivax multidrug resistance associated transporter, suggesting that resistance mutations have arisen independently. Additionally, several drug-resistance genes are located in genomic regions with evidence of increased copy number. Our data suggest that whole genome sequencing of malaria parasites from patients may provide more insight about the evolution of drug resistance than genetic linkage or association studies, especially in geographical regions with limited parasite genetic diversity. PMID:26719854

  6. An integrated approach towards the discovery of novel non-nucleoside Leishmania major pteridine reductase 1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Leite, Franco Henrique Andrade; Froes, Thamires Quadros; da Silva, Suellen Gonçalves; de Souza, Evandro Italo Macêdo; Vital-Fujii, Drielli Gomes; Trossini, Gustavo Henrique Goulart; Pita, Samuel Silva da Rocha; Castilho, Marcelo Santos

    2017-05-26

    Despite the fact that Leishmania ssp are pteridine auxotrophs, Dihydrofolate Reductase-Thymidylate Synthase (DHFR-TS) inhibitors are ineffective against Leishmania major. On the other hand Pteridine Reductase 1 (PTR1) inhibitors proved to be lethal to the parasite. Aiming at identifying hits that lie outside the chemical space of known PTR1 inhibitors, pharmacophore models that differentiate true-binders from decoys and explain the structure-activity relationships of known inhibitors were employed to virtually screen the lead-like subset of ZINC database. This approach leads to the identification of Z80393 (IC50 = 32.31 ± 1.18 μM), whose inhibition mechanism was investigated by Thermal Shift Assays. This experimental result supports a competitive mechanism and was crucial to establish the docking search space as well as select the best pose, which was then investigated by molecular dynamics studies that corroborate the hit putative binding profile towards LmPTR1. The information gathered from such studies shall be useful to design more potent non-nucleoside LmPTR1 inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. A qualitative and quantitative cytochemical assay of dihydrofolate reductase in erythroid cells.

    PubMed

    Nano, R; Gerzeli, G; Invernizzi, R; Supino, R

    1989-01-01

    The distribution and intensity of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) cytochemically demonstrable was studied in erythroid cells. Cells of normal human bone marrow, of human erythroleukaemia (M6), and cells of the Friend (MEL) clone 745A murine erythroleukaemia (also after differentiation with dimethylsulphoxide, DMSO) were stained according to Gerzeli and de Piceis Polver (1969) technique; quantification of the reaction product was made using a Vickers M86 microdensitometer. The enzyme activity progressively decreased during the normal differentiation of the erythropoietic series while persisted at high levels in erythroleukaemia cells. It can be suggested that in the 1st case, the cytochemical pattern of dihydrofolate reductase may be a useful added tool for studying the erythroid differentiation. In the 2nd case, the increased level of this enzyme may be related to an amplification of the gene of DHFR in the malignant transformation.

  8. Molecular modeling toward selective inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase from the biological warfare agent Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Juliana O S; Mancini, Daiana T; Guimarães, Ana P; Gonçalves, Arlan S; da Cunha, Elaine F F; França, Tanos C C; Ramalho, Teodorico C

    2015-02-16

    In the present work, we applied docking and molecular dynamics techniques to study 11 compounds inside the enzymes dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from the biological warfare agent Bacillus anthracis (BaDHFR) and Homo sapiens sapiens (HssDHFR). Six of these compounds were selected for a study with the mutant BaF96IDHFR. Our results corroborated with experimental data and allowed the proposition of a new molecule with potential activity and better selectivity for BaDHFR.

  9. Dihydrofolate reductase as a model for studies of enzyme dynamics and catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Kohen, Amnon

    2015-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase from Escherichia coli (ecDHFR) serves as a model system for investigating the role of protein dynamics in enzyme catalysis. We discuss calculations predicting a network of dynamic motions that is coupled to the chemical step catalyzed by this enzyme. Kinetic studies testing these predictions are presented, and their potential use in better understanding the role of these dynamics in enzyme catalysis is considered. The cumulative results implicate motions across the entire protein in catalysis. PMID:26918149

  10. How native-state topology affects the folding of dihydrofolate reductase and interleukin-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clementi, Cecilia; Jennings, Patricia A.; Onuchic, José N.

    2000-05-01

    The overall structure of the transition-state and intermediate ensembles observed experimentally for dihydrofolate reductase and interleukin-1 can be obtained by using simplified models that have almost no energetic frustration. The predictive power of these models suggests that, even for these very large proteins with completely different folding mechanisms and functions, real protein sequences are sufficiently well designed, and much of the structural heterogeneity observed in the intermediates and the transition-state ensembles is determined by topological effects.

  11. Functional significance of evolving protein sequence in dihydrofolate reductase from bacteria to humans.

    PubMed

    Liu, C Tony; Hanoian, Philip; French, Jarrod B; Pringle, Thomas H; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Benkovic, Stephen J

    2013-06-18

    With the rapidly growing wealth of genomic data, experimental inquiries on the functional significance of important divergence sites in protein evolution are becoming more accessible. Here we trace the evolution of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and identify multiple key divergence sites among 233 species between humans and bacteria. We connect these sites, experimentally and computationally, to changes in the enzyme's binding properties and catalytic efficiency. One of the identified evolutionarily important sites is the N23PP modification (∼mid-Devonian, 415-385 Mya), which alters the conformational states of the active site loop in Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase and negatively impacts catalysis. This enzyme activity was restored with the inclusion of an evolutionarily significant lid domain (G51PEKN in E. coli enzyme; ∼2.4 Gya). Guided by this evolutionary genomic analysis, we generated a human-like E. coli dihydrofolate reductase variant through three simple mutations despite only 26% sequence identity between native human and E. coli DHFRs. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the overall conformational motions of the protein within a common scaffold are retained throughout evolution, although subtle changes to the equilibrium conformational sampling altered the free energy barrier of the enzymatic reaction in some cases. The data presented here provide a glimpse into the evolutionary trajectory of functional DHFR through its protein sequence space that lead to the diverged binding and catalytic properties of the E. coli and human enzymes.

  12. Distribution of dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) mutant alleles in Plasmodium vivax isolates from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thongdee, Pimwan; Kuesap, Jiraporn; Rungsihirunrat, Kanchana; Tippawangkosol, Pongsri; Mungthin, Mathirut; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2013-10-01

    The analysis of prevalence and distribution of pvdhfr and pvdhps mutations were performed in 169 samples collected from patients with Plasmodium vivax infection who attended the malaria clinics in the provinces along the three international borders of Thailand (Thai-Myanmar, Thai-Cambodian, and Thai-Malaysian borders). SNP-haplotypes of the pvdhfr at amino acid positions 13, 33, 57, 58, 61, 117, and 173 and of the pvdhps at positions 383 and 553 were examined by nested PCR-RFLP. Significant differences in the prevalence and distribution of pvdhfr and pvdhps combination alleles were observed in P. vivax isolates collected from all the three border areas. The most prevalent combination alleles were triple mutant pvdhfr 57L/58R/117T alleles/double wild-type pvdhps alleles (n=18), double mutant pvdhfr 58R/117N alleles/double wild-type pvdhps alleles (n=10), and triple mutant pvdhfr 58R/61M/117N alleles/double wild-type pvdhps alleles (n=52) or with single mutant pvdhps 383G allele (n=28), respectively. These information on prevalence and patterns of pvdhfr and pvdhps polymorphisms obtained from the present study suggest the presence of SP pressure on P. vivax isolates in Thailand which could be linked to the introduction of malaria from neighboring countries. Results did not support the application of SP for P. vivax control program in Thailand as well as the neighboring countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship of amplified dihydrofolate reductase genes to double minute chromosomes in unstably resistant mouse fibroblast cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, P C; Beverley, S M; Schimke, R T

    1981-01-01

    Murine 3T6 selected in increasing concentrations of methotrexate were unstable with respect to dihydrofolate reductase overproduction and methotrexate resistance when they are cultured in the absence of methotrexate. An analysis of the karyotypes of these resistant cells revealed the presence of numerous double minute chromosomes. We observed essentially identical kinetics of loss of dihydrofolate reductase gene sequences in total deoxyribonucleic acid and in deoxyribonucleic acid from fractions enriched in double minute chromosomes and in the numbers of double minute chromosomes per cell during reversion to methotrexate sensitivity, and this suggested that unstably amplified gene sequences were localized on double minute chromosomes. This conclusion ws also supported by an analysis of cell populations sorted according to dihydrofolate reductase enzyme contents, in which relative gene amplification and double minute chromosome content were related proportionally. Images PMID:6287217

  14. Enhancement of methotrexate resistance and dihydrofolate reductase gene amplification by treatment of mouse 3T6 cells with hydroxyurea.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, P C; Tlsty, T D; Schimke, R T

    1983-01-01

    We investigated various parameters associated with the initial selection of mouse 3T6 cells for resistance to single concentrations of methotrexate and characterized resistant colonies for the presence of additional (amplified) copies of the dihydrofolate reductase gene. Our results indicate that the frequency of occurrence of dihydrofolate reductase gene amplification varies with the selecting concentration of methotrexate and is highly variable between clonally derived sublines of mouse 3T6 cells. Second, we increased the frequency of occurrence of cells with amplified dihydrofolate reductase genes by transiently inhibiting DNA synthesis with hydroxyurea before the selection of cells in single concentrations of methotrexate. This effect was dependent on the concentration of hydroxyurea, the time of exposure to the drug, and the time interval between the removal of hydroxyurea and the selection of cells in methotrexate. Images PMID:6877240

  15. [Comparison of Physico-chemical Aspects between E. coli and Human Dihydrofolate Reductase: an Equilibrium Unfolding Study].

    PubMed

    Thapliyal, Charu; Jain, Neha; Chaudhuri, Pratima

    2015-01-01

    A protein, differing in origin, may exhibit variable physicochemical behaviour, difference in sequence homology, fold and function. Thus studying structure-function relationship of proteins from altered sources is meaningful in the sense that it may give rise to comparative aspects of their sequence-structure-function relationship. Dihydrofolate reductase is an enzyme involved in cell cycle regulation. It is a significant enzyme as.a target for developing anticancer drugs. Hence, detailed understanding of structure-function relationships of wide variants of the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase would be important for developing an inhibitor or an antagonist against the enzyme involved in the cellular developmental processes. In this communication, we have reported the comparative structure-function relationship between E. coli and human dihydrofolate reductase. The differences in the unfolding behaviour of these two proteins have been investigated to understand various properties of these two proteins like relative' stability differences and variation in conformational changes under identical denaturing conditions. The equilibrium unfolding mechanism of dihydrofolate reductase proteins using guanidine hydrochloride as a denaturant in the presence of various types of osmolytes has been monitored using loss in enzymatic activity, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and an extrinsic fluorophore 8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonic acid as probes. It has been observed that osmolytes, such as 1M sucrose, and 30% glycerol, provided enhanced stability to both variants of dihydrofolate reductase. Their level of stabilisation has been observed to be dependent on intrinsic protein stability. It was observed that 100 mM proline does not show any 'significant stabilisation to either of dihydrofolate reductases. In the present study, it has been observed that the human protein is relatively less stable than the E.coli counterpart.

  16. Pharmacoinformatic Study on the Selective Inhibition of the Protozoan Dihydrofolate Reductase Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vishnu K; Abbat, Sheenu; Bharatam, P V

    2017-06-12

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is an essential enzyme of the folate metabolic pathway in protozoa and it is a validated, potential drug target in many infectious diseases. Information about unique conserved residues of the DHFR enzyme is required to understand residual selectivity of the protozoan DHFR enzyme. The three dimensional crystal structures are not available for all the protozoan DHFR enzymes. Enzyme-substrate/inhibitor interaction information is required for the binding mode characterization in protozoan DHFR for selective inhibitor design. In this work, multiple sequence analysis was carried out in all the studied species. Homology models were built for protozoan DHFR enzymes, for which 3D structures are not available in PDB. The molecular docking and Prime-MMGBSA calculations of the natural substrate (dihydrofolate, DHF) and classical DHFR inhibitor (methotrexate, MTX) were performed in protozoan DHFR enzymes. Comparative sequence analysis showed that an overall sequence identity between the studied species ranging from 22.94 % (CfDHFR-BgDHFR) to 94.61 % (LdDHFR-LmDHFR). Interestingly, it was observed that most of the active site residues were conserved in all the cases and all the enzymes exhibit similar key binding interactions with DHF and MTX in molecular docking analysis, but there are a few key binding residues which differ in protozoan species that makes it suitable for target selectivity. This information can be used to design selective and potent protozoan DHFR enzyme inhibitors. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Quinazolinone-benzimidazole conjugates: Synthesis, characterization, dihydrofolate reductase inhibition, DNA and protein binding properties.

    PubMed

    Singla, Prinka; Luxami, Vijay; Paul, Kamaldeep

    2017-03-01

    Quinazolinone and benzimidazole represent as important and abundant classes of fused nitrogen-containing heterocycle. A series of two isomeric quinazolinone-benzimidazole conjugates is synthesized and substitutes with different aromatic rings. These compounds are well characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR as well as mass spectrometry. Compounds are then evaluated by dihydrofolate reductase inhibitory activity. In vitro assay shows that some compounds are exhibiting significant dihydrofolate reductase inhibitory activities. Compound 14 shows comparable or even superior inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 0.011μM in contrast to methotrexate (IC50=0.02μM). The preliminary interactive investigation of compound 14 is studied with calf thymus DNA by UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. It reveals that compound 14 is effectively intercalated with ct-DNA to form 14.DNA complex which is further supported by ethidium bromide (EB) displacement studies. The compound 14 also shows strong interaction with bovine serum albumin that can helpful in the design, modification and screening of drug molecules. The binding interactions of compound 14 with bovine serum albumin demonstrate that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces play important roles in the strong association of compound 14.BSA. These compounds can be considered as useful templates for future development and further derivatization or modification will be helpful to obtain more potent compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dihydrofolate Reductase Gene Variations in Susceptibility to Disease and Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Askari, Bahram S.; Krajinovic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) catalyzes the reduction of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate (THF). THF is needed for the action of folate-dependent enzymes and is thus essential for DNA synthesis and methylation. The importance of this reaction is demonstrated by the effectiveness of antifolate medications used to treat cancer by inhibiting DHFR, thereby depleting THF and slowing DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. Due to the pivotal role that DHFR plays in folate metabolism and cancer treatment, changes in the level of DHFR expression can affect susceptibility to a variety of diseases dependent on folate status such as spina bifida and cancer. Likewise, variability in DHFR expression can affect sensitivity to anti-cancer drugs such as the folate antagonist methotrexate. Alterations in DHFR expression can be due to polymorphisms in the DHFR gene. Several variations have recently been described in DHFR, including promoter polymorphisms, the 19-bp deletion allele and variations in 3’UTR. These polymorphisms seem to be functional, affecting mRNA levels through various interesting mechanisms, including regulation through RNA interference. Several groups have assessed the association of these polymorphisms with folate levels, risk of cancer and spina bifida as well as the outcome of diseases treated with MTX. The latter may lead to different treatment schedules, improving treatment efficacy and/or allowing for a reduction in drug side effects. This review will summarize present knowledge regarding the predictive potential of DHFR polymorphisms in disease and treatment. PMID:21629435

  19. Dihydrofolate reductase gene variations in susceptibility to disease and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Askari, Bahram S; Krajinovic, Maja

    2010-12-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) catalyzes the reduction of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate (THF). THF is needed for the action of folate-dependent enzymes and is thus essential for DNA synthesis and methylation. The importance of this reaction is demonstrated by the effectiveness of antifolate medications used to treat cancer by inhibiting DHFR, thereby depleting THF and slowing DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. Due to the pivotal role that DHFR plays in folate metabolism and cancer treatment, changes in the level of DHFR expression can affect susceptibility to a variety of diseases dependent on folate status such as spina bifida and cancer. Likewise, variability in DHFR expression can affect sensitivity to anti-cancer drugs such as the folate antagonist methotrexate. Alterations in DHFR expression can be due to polymorphisms in the DHFR gene. Several variations have recently been described in DHFR, including promoter polymorphisms, the 19-bp deletion allele and variations in 3'UTR. These polymorphisms seem to be functional, affecting mRNA levels through various interesting mechanisms, including regulation through RNA interference. Several groups have assessed the association of these polymorphisms with folate levels, risk of cancer and spina bifida as well as the outcome of diseases treated with MTX. The latter may lead to different treatment schedules, improving treatment efficacy and/or allowing for a reduction in drug side effects. This review will summarize present knowledge regarding the predictive potential of DHFR polymorphisms in disease and treatment.

  20. Dihydrofolate reductase: low-resolution mass-spectrometric analysis of an elastase digest as a sequencing tool (Short Communication)

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Howard R.; Batley, Karen E.; Harding, Nigel G. L.; Bjur, Richard A.; Dann, John G.; King, Rodney W.

    1974-01-01

    An elastase digest of a protein of unknown structure, dihydrofolate reductase, was studied by mass spectrometry. This soluble digest contained a large number of small peptides in different yields, within the ideal molecular-weight range (200–1200) for mixture-analysis mass spectrometry. Sequences of the major component peptides in the digest are reported. PMID:4207389

  1. A study of chromosomal changes associated with amplified dihydrofolate reductase genes in rat hepatoma cells and their dedifferentiated variants

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    We have examined the karyological consequences of dihydrofolate reductase gene amplification in a series of six rat hepatoma cell lines, all derived from the same clone. Cells of three of these lines express a series of liver-specific functions whereas those of three others fail to express these functions. Cells of each line have been subjected to stepwise selection for methotrexate resistance and, in most cases, resistance is associated with a 40-50-fold amplification of sequences hybridizing to a dihydrofolate reductase cDNA probe. In one line no modified chromosome is observed, whereas in two others the amplified genes are associated with an expanded chromosomal region. R- banding analysis of these karyotypes showed that few changes have occurred. These observations apply to two of the well-differentiated lines, and to a variant able to revert to the differentiated state. In contrast, in the two stably dedifferentiated hepatoma cell lines, amplified dihydrofolate reductase genes are found on large chromosomes of variable size, on ring chromosomes, and on chromosomes containing terminal, median, or multiple centromeres. We conclude that the nature of the chromosomal changes associated with dihydrofolate reductase gene amplification are the result of differences in cell lines rather than in the protocols employed for selection. PMID:6746737

  2. Role of Lysine-54 in determining cofactor specificity and binding in human dihydrofolate reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shaoming; Tan, Xuehai; Thompson, P.D.; Freisheim, J.H. ); Appleman, J.R.; Blakley, R.L. ); Sheridan, R.P.; Venkataraghavan, R. )

    1990-09-04

    Lysine-54 of human dihydrofolate reductase (hDHFR) appears to be involved in the interaction with the 2{prime}-phosphate of NADPH and is conserved as a basic residue in other species. Studies have suggested that in Lactobacillus casei dihydrofolate reductase Arg-43, the homologous residue at this position, plays an important role in the binding of NADPH and in the differentiation of K{sub m} values for NADPH and NADH. A Lys-54 to Gln-54 mutant (K54Q) of hDHFR has been constructed by oligodeoxynucleotide-directed mutagenesis in order to study the role of Lys-54 in differentiating K{sub m} and k{sub cat} values for NADPH and NADH as well as in other functions of hDHFR. The purpose of this paper is to delineate in quantitative terms the magnitude of the effect of the Lys-54 to Gln-54 replacement on the various kinetic parameters of hDHFR. Such quantitative effects cannot be predicted solely on the basis of X-ray structures. The ratio of K{sub m}(NADH)/K{sub m}(NADPH) decreases from 69 in the wild-type enzyme to 4.7 in the K54Q enzyme, suggesting that Lys-54, among other interactions between protein side-chain residues and the 2{prime}-phosphate, makes a major contribution in terms of binding energy and differentiation of K{sub m} values for NADPH and NADH. Agents at concentrations that show activating effects on the wild-type enzyme such as potassium chloride and urea all inactivate the K54Q enzyme. There appear to be no gross conformational differences between wild-type and K54Q enzyme molecules as judged by competitive ELISA using peptide-specific antibodies against human dihydrofolate reductase and from protease susceptibility studies on both wild-type and K54Q mutant enzymes. The pH-rate profiles using NADPH for K54Q and wild-type enzymes show divergences at certain pH values, suggesting the possibility of alteration(s) in the steps of the catalytic pathway for the K54Q enzyme.

  3. Disagreement in genotyping results of drug resistance alleles of the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) gene by allele-specific PCR (ASPCR) assays and Sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Divya; Lather, Manila; Dykes, Cherry L; Dang, Amita S; Adak, Tridibes; Singh, Om P

    2016-01-01

    The rapid spread of antimalarial drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum over the past few decades has necessitated intensive monitoring of such resistance for an effective malaria control strategy. P. falciparum dihydropteroate synthase (Pfdhps) and P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) genes act as molecular markers for resistance against the antimalarial drugs sulphadoxine and pyrimethamine, respectively. Resistance to pyrimethamine which is used as a partner drug in artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is associated with several mutations in the Pfdhfr gene, namely A16V, N51I, C59R, S108N/T and I164L. Therefore, routine monitoring of Pfdhfr-drug-resistant alleles in a population may help in effective drug resistance management. Allele-specific PCR (ASPCR) is one of the commonly used methods for molecular genotyping of these alleles. In this study, we genotyped 55 samples of P. falciparum for allele discrimination at four codons of Pfdhfr (N51, C59, S108 and I164) by ASPCR using published methods and by Sanger's DNA sequencing method. We found that the ASPCR identified a significantly higher number of mutant alleles as compared to the DNA sequencing method. Such discrepancies arise due to the non-specificity of some of the allele-specific primer sets and due to the lack of sensitivity of Sanger's DNA sequencing method to detect minor alleles present in multiple clone infections. This study reveals the need of a highly specific and sensitive method for genotyping and detecting minor drug-resistant alleles present in multiple clonal infections.

  4. Barrier crossing in dihydrofolate reductase does not involve a rate-promoting vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dametto, Mariangela; Antoniou, Dimitri; Schwartz, Steven D.

    2012-05-01

    We have studied atomic motions during the chemical reaction catalysed by the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase of Escherichia coli (EcDHFR), an important enzyme for nucleic acid synthesis. In our earlier work on the enzymes human lactate dehydrogenase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase, we had identified fast sub-ps motions that are part of the reaction coordinate. We employed Transition Path Sampling (TPS) and our recently developed reaction coordinate identification methodology to investigate if such fast motions couple to the reaction in DHFR on the barrier-crossing timescale. While we identified some protein motions near the barrier crossing event, these motions do not constitute a compressive promoting vibration, and do not appear as a clearly identifiable protein component in reaction.

  5. Comparative stability of dihydrofolate reductase mutants in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Leontiev, V V; Uversky, V N; Gudkov, A T

    1993-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase mutants with amino acid replacements in the active center (Thr35-->Asp mutant, Arg57-->His mutant and the mutant with triple replacement Thr35-->Asp, Asn37-->Ser, Arg57-->His) were obtained by site-directed mutagenesis. The stabilization effect of trimethoprim and NADP.H on the protein tertiary structure in vitro has been investigated. In the case of mutants with a 'weak' tertiary structure (Thr35-->Asp35 and the triple mutant) the separate addition of ligands does not affect their stability. The simultaneous addition of these ligands to Thr35-->Asp35 and the triple mutant leads to the large increase in their stability. A distinct correlation was found between the in vitro studied stability of the mutant proteins to the urea- or heat-induced denaturation and the level of proteolytic degradation of these mutants previously observed in vivo.

  6. Triazine-benzimidazole hybrids: anticancer activity, DNA interaction and dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Singla, Prinka; Luxami, Vijay; Paul, Kamaldeep

    2015-04-15

    A new series of triazine-benzimidazole hybrids has been synthesized with different substitution of primary and secondary amines at one of the position of triazine in moderate to good yields. These compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activities over 60 human tumor cell lines at one dose and five dose concentrations. Compounds 6b, 8 and 9 showed broad spectrum of antitumor activities with GI50 values of 9.79, 2.58 and 3.81μM, respectively. DNA binding studies also indicated strong interaction properties of these compounds. These synthesized compounds also showed inhibition of mammalian dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Compound 6b was depicted as the most active member of DHFR inhibitor with IC50 value of 1.05μM. Molecular modelling studies were used to identify the stabilized interactions of Compound 6b within the active site of enzyme for DHFR.

  7. Thermal Adaptation of Dihydrofolate Reductase from the Moderate Thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The thermal melting temperature of dihydrofolate reductase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus (BsDHFR) is ∼30 °C higher than that of its homologue from the psychrophile Moritella profunda. Additional proline residues in the loop regions of BsDHFR have been proposed to enhance the thermostability of BsDHFR, but site-directed mutagenesis studies reveal that these proline residues contribute only minimally. Instead, the high thermal stability of BsDHFR is partly due to removal of water-accessible thermolabile residues such as glutamine and methionine, which are prone to hydrolysis or oxidation at high temperatures. The extra thermostability of BsDHFR can be obtained by ligand binding, or in the presence of salts or cosolvents such as glycerol and sucrose. The sum of all these incremental factors allows BsDHFR to function efficiently in the natural habitat of G. stearothermophilus, which is characterized by temperatures that can reach 75 °C. PMID:24730604

  8. The Lactone form of stachybotrydial: a new inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase from stachybotrys sp. FN298.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yun-Ju; Sohn, Mi-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Won-Gon

    2014-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) has been confirmed to be a novel target for antibacterial drug development. In this study, we determined that a fungal metabolite from Stachybotrys sp. FN298 can inhibit the DHFR of Staphylococcus aureus. Its structure was identified as a lactone form of stachybotrydial using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. This compound inhibited S. aureus DHFR with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 41 µM. It also prevented the growth of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 32 µg·mL(-1). To our knowledge, this is the first description of a DHFR inhibitor of microbial origin. The inhibitory function of the lactone form of stachybotrydial highlights its potential for development into a new broad-spectrum antibacterial agent and as an agent against MRSA.

  9. Structure-Guided Development of Efficacious Antifungal Agents Targeting Candida Glabrata Dihydrofolate Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.; Bolstad, D; Smith, A; Priestley, N; Wright, D; Anderson, A

    2008-01-01

    Candida glabrata is a lethal fungal pathogen resistant to many antifungal agents and has emerged as a critical target for drug discovery. Over the past several years, we have been developing a class of propargyl-linked antifolates as antimicrobials and hypothesized that these compounds could be effective inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from C. glabrata. We initially screened a small collection of these inhibitors and found modest levels of potency. Subsequently, we determined the crystal structure of C. glabrata DHFR bound to a representative inhibitor with data to 1.6 A resolution. Using this structure, we designed and synthesized second-generation inhibitors. These inhibitors bind the C. glabrata DHFR enzyme with subnanomolar potency, display greater than 2000-fold levels of selectivity over the human enzyme, and inhibit the growth of C. glabrata at levels observed with clinically employed therapeutics.

  10. Discovery of Potent and Selective Leads against Toxoplasma gondii Dihydrofolate Reductase via Structure-Based Design.

    PubMed

    Welsch, Matthew E; Zhou, Jian; Gao, Yueqiang; Yan, Yunqing; Porter, Gene; Agnihotri, Gautam; Li, Yingjie; Lu, Henry; Chen, Zhongguo; Thomas, Stephen B

    2016-12-08

    Current treatment of toxoplasmosis targets the parasite's folate metabolism through inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). The most widely used DHFR antagonist, pyrimethamine, was introduced over 60 years ago and is associated with toxicity that can be largely attributed to a similar affinity for parasite and human DHFR. Computational analysis of biochemical differences between Toxoplasma gondii and human DHFR enabled the design of inhibitors with both improved potency and selectivity. The approach described herein yielded TRC-19, a promising lead with an IC50 of 9 nM and 89-fold selectivity in favor of Toxoplasma gondii DHFR, as well as crystallographic data to substantiate in silico methodology. Overall, 50% of synthesized in silico designs met hit threshold criteria of IC50 < 10 μM and >2-fold selectivity favoring Toxoplasma gondii, further demonstrating the efficiency of our structure-based drug design approach.

  11. Kinetic and Chemical Mechanism of the Dihydrofolate Reductase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Czekster, Clarissa M.; Vandemeulebroucke, An; Blanchard, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalyzes the NAD(P)H dependent reduction of dihydrofolate, yielding NAD(P)+ and tetrahydrofolate, the primary one carbon unit carrier in biology. Tetrahydrofolate needs to be recycled so that reactions involved in dTMP synthesis and purine metabolism are maintained. In this work, we report the kinetic characterization of the MtDHFR. This enzyme has a sequential steady-state random kinetic mechanism, probably with a preferred pathway with NADPH binding first. A pKa value for an enzymic acid of approximately 7.0 was identified from the pH dependence of V, and the analysis of the primary kinetic isotope effects revealed that the hydride transfer step is at least partly rate limiting throughout the pH range analyzed. Additionally, the determination and analysis of solvent, and multiple kinetic isotope effects was conducted, and equilibrium isotope effects were measured on the equilibrium constant. D2OV and D2OV/K[4R-4-2H]-NADH were slightly inverse at pH 6.0, and inverse values for D2OV[4R-4-2H]-NADH and D2OV/K[4R-4-2H]-NADH suggested that a pre-equilibrium protonation is occurring before the hydride transfer step, indicating a stepwise mechanism for proton and hydride transfer. The same value was obtained for DkH at pH values of 5.5 and 7.5, reaffirming the rate-limiting nature of the hydride transfer step. A chemical mechanism is proposed based on the results obtained here. PMID:21138249

  12. Malaria antifolate resistance with contrasting Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) polymorphisms in humans and Anopheles mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Mharakurwa, Sungano; Kumwenda, Taida; Mkulama, Mtawa A. P.; Musapa, Mulenga; Chishimba, Sandra; Shiff, Clive J.; Sullivan, David J.; Thuma, Philip E.; Liu, Kun; Agre, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Surveillance for drug-resistant parasites in human blood is a major effort in malaria control. Here we report contrasting antifolate resistance polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum when parasites in human blood were compared with parasites in Anopheles vector mosquitoes from sleeping huts in rural Zambia. DNA encoding P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (EC 1.5.1.3) was amplified by PCR with allele-specific restriction enzyme digestions. Markedly prevalent pyrimethamine-resistant mutants were evident in human P. falciparum infections—S108N (>90%), with N51I, C59R, and 108N+51I+59R triple mutants (30–80%). This resistance level may be from selection pressure due to decades of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine use in the region. In contrast, cycloguanil-resistant mutants were detected in very low frequency in parasites from human blood samples—S108T (13%), with A16V and 108T+16V double mutants (∼4%). Surprisingly, pyrimethamine-resistant mutants were of very low prevalence (2–12%) in the midguts of Anopheles arabiensis vector mosquitoes, but cycloguanil-resistant mutants were highly prevalent—S108T (90%), with A16V and the 108T+16V double mutant (49–57%). Structural analysis of the dihydrofolate reductase by in silico modeling revealed a key difference in the enzyme within the NADPH binding pocket, predicting the S108N enzyme to have reduced stability but the S108T enzyme to have increased stability. We conclude that P. falciparum can bear highly host-specific drug-resistant polymorphisms, most likely reflecting different selective pressures found in humans and mosquitoes. Thus, it may be useful to sample both human and mosquito vector infections to accurately ascertain the epidemiological status of drug-resistant alleles. PMID:22065788

  13. Osmolyte induced enhancement of expression and solubility of human dihydrofolate reductase: An in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Naira; Thapliyal, Charu; Chaudhuri Chattopadhyay, Pratima

    2017-10-01

    The process of recombinant protein production in E. coli system is often hampered by the formation of insoluble aggregates. Human Dihydrofolate reductase (hDHFR), an enzyme involved in the synthesis of purine, thymidilate and several other amino acids like glycine, methionine and serine is highly aggregation prone. It catalyzes the reduction of dihydrofolate (H2F) in order to regenerate tetrahydrofolate (H4F) utilizing NADPH as a cofactor. We have attempted to ameliorate the production of soluble and functional protein by growing and inducing the cells under osmotic stress condition, in the presence of various osmolytes like glycerol, sorbitol, TMAO, proline and glycine at 37°C. The expression and yield of functional hDHFR protein were highly enhanced in the presence of these osmolytes. The specific activity of the purified recombinant hDHFR protein has also been increased to a cogent level in the presence of osmolytes. We also observed that protein expressed in presence of the osmolytes was stable in the denaturing conditions as compared to the protein expressed in absence of an osmolyte. We also observed using the intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy that the osmolytes didn't interfere with the structure of the protein and in denaturing conditions the protein expressed in presence of osmolytes had more stability. Our study is consequential in increasing the production of functional and soluble protein in the cell extract and will also be appropriate to find a therapeutic agent against many neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Crystal structure of a Type II dihydrofolate reductase catalytic ternary complex

    PubMed Central

    Krahn, Joseph M.; Jackson, Michael R.; DeRose, Eugene F.; Howell, Elizabeth E.; London, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Type II dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a plasmid-encoded enzyme that confers resistance to bacterial DHFR-targeted antifolate drugs. It forms a symmetric homotetramer with a central pore which functions as the active site. Its unusual structure, which results in a promiscuous binding surface that accommodates either the Dihydrofolate (DHF) substrate or the NADPH cofactor, has constituted a significant limitation to efforts to understand its substrate specificity and reaction mechanism. We describe here the first structure of a ternary R67 DHFR•DHF•NADP+ catalytic complex, resolved to1.26 Å. This structure provides the first clear picture of how this enzyme, which lacks the active site carboxyl residue that is ubiquitous in Type I DHFRs, is able to function. In the catalytic complex, the polar backbone atoms of two symmetry-related I68 residues provide recognition motifs that interact with the carboxamide on the nicotinamide ring, and the N3-O4 amide function on the pteridine. This set of interactions orients the aromatic rings of substrate and cofactor in a relative endo geometry in which the reactive centers are held in close proximity. Additionally, a central, hydrogen-bonded network consisting of two pairs of Y69-Q67-Q67′-Y69′ residues provides an unusually tight interface, which appears to serve as a “molecular clamp” holding the substrates in place in an orientation conducive to hydride transfer. In addition to providing the first clear insight regarding how this extremely unusual enzyme is able to function, the structure of the ternary complex provides general insights into how a mutationally-challenged enzyme, i.e., an enzyme whose evolution is restricted to four-residues-at-a-time active site mutations, overcomes this fundamental limitation. PMID:18052202

  15. Structure-activity relationship for enantiomers of potent inhibitors of B. anthracis dihydrofolate reductase

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Christina R.; Wakeham, Nancy; Nammalwar, Baskar; Tseitin, Vladimir; Bourne, Philip C.; Barrow, Esther W.; Mylvaganam, Shankari; Ramnarayan, Kal; Bunce, Richard A.; Berlin, K. Darrell; Barrow, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial resistance to antibiotic therapies is increasing and new treatment options are badly needed. There is an overlap between these resistant bacteria and organisms classified as likely bioterror weapons. For example, Bacillus anthracis is innately resistant to the anti-folate trimethoprim due to sequence changes found in the dihydrofolate reductase enzyme. Development of new inhibitors provides an opportunity to enhance the current arsenal of anti-folate antibiotics while also expanding the coverage of the anti-folate class. Methods We have characterized inhibitors of Bacillus anthracis dihydrofolate reductase by measuring the Ki and MIC values and calculating the energetics of binding. This series contains a core diaminopyrimidine ring, a central dimethoxybenzyl ring, and a dihydrophthalazine moiety. We have altered the chemical groups extended from a chiral center on the dihydropyridazine ring of the phthalazine moiety. The interactions for the most potent compounds were visualized by X-ray structure determination. Results We find that the potency of individual enantiomers is divergent with clear preference for the S-enantiomer, while maintaining a high conservation of contacts within the binding site. The preference for enantiomers seems to be predicated largely by differential interactions with protein residues Leu29, Gln30 and Arg53. Conclusions These studies have clarified the activity of modifications and of individual enantiomers, and highlighted the role of the less-active R-enantiomer in effectively diluting the more active S-enantiomer in racemic solutions. This directly contributes to the development of new antimicrobials, combating trimethoprim resistance, and treatment options for potential bioterrorism agents. PMID:22999981

  16. Cancer metabolism and oxidative stress: Insights into carcinogenesis and chemotherapy via the non-dihydrofolate reductase effects of methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Joshua A.; Khasawneh, Mohamad K.

    2015-01-01

    Methotrexate has been in use as an anti-cancer agent for over 60 years. Though inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase is its best known mechanisms of action, its non-dihydrofolate reductase dependent mechanisms disrupt metabolic pathways resulting in a depletion of NAD(P)H and increasing oxidative stress. These mechanisms highlight a novel dependence of cancer cells on their metabolic abnormalities to buffer oxidative stress and chemotherapeutic agents interfere with these cellular abilities. Mitochondria appear to play a significant role in maintaining cancer cell viability and alterations in metabolism seen in cancer cells aid this mitochondrial ability. Further research is needed to understand the effects of other chemotherapeutic agents on these pathways. PMID:26674389

  17. Sequence-specific sup 1 H and sup 15 N resonance assignments for human dihydrofolate reductase in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Stockman, B.J.; Nirmala, N.R.; Wagner, G. ); Delcamp, T.J.; DeYarman, M.T.; Freisheim, J.H. )

    1992-01-14

    Dihydrofolate reductase is an intracellular target enzyme for folate antagonists, including the anticancer drug methotrexate. In order to design novel drugs with altered binding properties, a detailed description of protein-drug interactions in solution is desirable to understand the specificity of drug binding. As a first step in this process, heteronuclear three-dimensional NMR spectroscopy has been used to make sequential resonance assignments for more than 90% of the residues in human dihydrofolate reductase complexed with methotrexate. Uniform enrichment of the 21.5-kDa protein with {sup 15}N was required to obtain the resonance assignments via heteronuclear 3D NMR spectroscopy since homonuclear 2D spectra did not provide sufficient {sup 1}H resonance dispersion. Medium- and long-range NOE's have been used to characterize the secondary structure of the binary ligand-enzyme complex in solution.

  18. Large-scale purification and characterization of dihydrofolate reductase from a methotrexate-resistant strain of Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed Central

    Dann, J G; Ostler, G; Bjur, R A; King, R W; Scudder, P; Turner, P C; Roberts, G C; Burgen, A S

    1976-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase has been purified from a methotrexate-resistant strain of Lactobacillus casei NCB 6375. By careful attention to growth conditions, up to 2.5 g of enzyme is obtained from a 400 litre culture. The purification procedure, involving poly-ethyleneimine treatment, DEAE-cellulose chromatography and affinity chromatography on methotrexate-aminohexyl-Sepharose, operates on the gram scale, with overall yields of 50-60%. Elution of the affinity column by reverse (upward) flow was used, as it led to recovery of the enzyme in a much smaller volume. The enzyme obtained appears to be more than 98% pure, as judged by gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and gel filtration. It has a mol.wt. of approx. 17900 and a turnover number of 4s-1 (50mM-triethanolamine/400mM-KCl, pH 7.2, 25 degrees C) with dihydrofolate and NADPH as substrates. The turnover number for folate is 0.02s-1. Michaelis constants for a variety of substrates have been measured by using a new fluorimetric assay (0.36 muM-dihydrofolate; 0.78 muM-NADPH), and binding constants determined by using the quenching of protein fluorescence (dihydrofolate, 2.25 X 10(6)M-1; NADPH, greater than 10(8)M-1). The pH/activity profile shows a single maximum at pH 7.3; at this pH, marked activation by 0.5M-NaCl is observed. PMID:10886

  19. Defining the binding site of homotetrameric R67 dihydrofolate reductase and correlating binding enthalpy with catalysis.

    PubMed

    Strader, Michael Brad; Chopra, Shaileja; Jackson, Michael; Smiley, R Derike; Stinnett, Lori; Wu, Jun; Howell, Elizabeth E

    2004-06-15

    R67 dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a novel protein that possesses 222 symmetry. A single active site pore traverses the length of the homotetramer. Although the 222 symmetry implies that four symmetry-related binding sites should exist for each substrate as well as each cofactor, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies indicate only two molecules bind. Three possible combinations include two dihydrofolate molecules, two NADPH molecules, or one substrate with one cofactor. The latter is the productive ternary complex. To evaluate the roles of A36, Y46, T51, G64, and V66 residues in binding and catalysis, a site-directed mutagenesis approach was employed. One mutation per gene produces four mutations per active site pore, which often result in large cumulative effects. Conservative mutations at these positions either eliminate the ability of the gene to confer trimethoprim resistance or have no effect on catalysis. This result, in conjunction with previous mutagenesis studies on K32, K33, S65, Q67, I68, and Y69 [Strader, M. B., et al. (2001) Biochemistry 40, 11344-11352; Hicks, S. N., et al. (2003) Biochemistry 42, 10569-10578; Park, H., et al. (1997) Protein Eng. 10, 1415-1424], allows mapping of the active site surface. Residues for which conservative mutations have large effects on binding and catalysis include K32, Q67, I68, and Y69. These residues form a stripe that establishes the ligand binding surface. Residues that accommodate conservative mutations that do not greatly affect catalysis include K33, Y46, T51, S65, and V66. Isothermal titration calorimetry studies were also conducted on many of the mutants described above to determine the enthalpy of folate binding to the R67 DHFR.NADPH complex. A linear correlation between this DeltaH value and log k(cat)/K(m) is observed. Since structural tightness appears to be correlated with the exothermicity of the binding interaction, this leads to the hypothesis that enthalpy-driven formation of the ternary

  20. The Tail Wagging the Dog: Insights into Catalysis in R67 Dihydrofolate Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, Ganesh K; Agarwal, Pratul K

    2010-01-01

    Plasmid-encoded R67 dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) catalyzes a hydride transfer reaction between substrate dihydrofolate (DHF) and its cofactor, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). R67 DHFR is a homotetramer that exhibits numerous characteristics of a primitive enzyme, including promiscuity in binding of substrate and cofactor, formation of nonproductive complexes, and the absence of a conserved acid in its active site. Furthermore, R67's active site is a pore, which is mostly accessible by bulk solvent. This study uses a computational approach to characterize the mechanism of hydride transfer. Not surprisingly, NADPH remains fixed in one-half of the active site pore using numerous interactions with R67. Also, stacking between the nicotinamide ring of the cofactor and the pteridine ring of the substrate, DHF, at the hourglass center of the pore, holds the reactants in place. However, large movements of the p-aminobenzoylglutamate tail of DHF occur in the other half of the pore because of ion pair switching between symmetry-related K32 residues from two subunits. This computational result is supported by experimental results that the loss of these ion pair interactions (located >13 {angstrom} from the center of the pore) by addition of salt or in asymmetric K32M mutants leads to altered enzyme kinetics [Hicks, S. N., et al. (2003) Biochemistry 42, 10569-10578; Hicks, S. N., et al. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 46995?47002]. The tail movement at the edge of the active site, coupled with the fixed position of the pteridine ring in the center of the pore, leads to puckering of the pteridine ring and promotes formation of the transition state. Flexibility coupled to R67 function is unusual as it contrasts with the paradigm that enzymes use increased rigidity to facilitate attainment of their transition states. A comparison with chromosomal DHFR indicates a number of similarities, including puckering of the nicotinamide ring and changes in the DHF tail

  1. Multiple Mutations Modulate the Function of Dihydrofolate Reductase in Trimethoprim-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Maskell, Jeffrey P.; Sefton, Armine M.; Hall, Lucinda M. C.

    2001-01-01

    Trimethoprim resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae can be conferred by a single amino acid substitution (I100-L) in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), but resistant clinical isolates usually carry multiple DHFR mutations. DHFR genes from five trimethoprim-resistant isolates from the United Kingdom were compared to susceptible isolates and used to transform a susceptible control strain (CP1015). All trimethoprim-resistant isolates and transformants contained the I100-L mutation. The properties of DHFRs from transformants with different combinations of mutations were compared. In a transformant with only the I100-L mutation (R12/T2) and a D92-A mutation also found in the DHFRs of susceptible isolates, the enzyme was much more resistant to trimethoprim inhibition (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 4.2 μM) than was the DHFR from strain CP1015 (IC50, 0.09 μM). However, Km values indicated a lower affinity for the enzyme's natural substrates (Km for dihydrofolate [DHF], 3.1 μM for CP1015 and 27.5 μM for R12/T2) and a twofold decrease in the specificity constant. In transformants with additional mutations in the C-terminal portion of the enzyme, Km values for DHF were reduced (9.2 to 15.2 μM), indicating compensation for the lower affinity generated by I100-L. Additional mutations in the N-terminal portion of the enzyme were associated with up to threefold-increased resistance to trimethoprim (IC50 of up to 13.7 μM). It is postulated that carriage of the mutation M53-I—which, like I100-L, corresponds to a trimethoprim binding site in the Escherichia coli DHFR—is responsible for this increase. This study demonstrates that although the I100-L mutation alone may give rise to trimethoprim resistance, additional mutations serve to enhance resistance and modulate the effects of existing mutations on the affinity of DHFR for its natural substrates. PMID:11257022

  2. The tail wagging the dog: insights into catalysis in R67 dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Ganesh; Howell, Elizabeth E; Agarwal, Pratul K

    2010-10-26

    Plasmid-encoded R67 dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) catalyzes a hydride transfer reaction between substrate dihydrofolate (DHF) and its cofactor, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). R67 DHFR is a homotetramer that exhibits numerous characteristics of a primitive enzyme, including promiscuity in binding of substrate and cofactor, formation of nonproductive complexes, and the absence of a conserved acid in its active site. Furthermore, R67's active site is a pore, which is mostly accessible by bulk solvent. This study uses a computational approach to characterize the mechanism of hydride transfer. Not surprisingly, NADPH remains fixed in one-half of the active site pore using numerous interactions with R67. Also, stacking between the nicotinamide ring of the cofactor and the pteridine ring of the substrate, DHF, at the hourglass center of the pore, holds the reactants in place. However, large movements of the p-aminobenzoylglutamate tail of DHF occur in the other half of the pore because of ion pair switching between symmetry-related K32 residues from two subunits. This computational result is supported by experimental results that the loss of these ion pair interactions (located >13 Å from the center of the pore) by addition of salt or in asymmetric K32M mutants leads to altered enzyme kinetics [Hicks, S. N., et al. (2003) Biochemistry 42, 10569-10578; Hicks, S. N., et al. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 46995-47002]. The tail movement at the edge of the active site, coupled with the fixed position of the pteridine ring in the center of the pore, leads to puckering of the pteridine ring and promotes formation of the transition state. Flexibility coupled to R67 function is unusual as it contrasts with the paradigm that enzymes use increased rigidity to facilitate attainment of their transition states. A comparison with chromosomal DHFR indicates a number of similarities, including puckering of the nicotinamide ring and changes in the DHF tail angle

  3. Down-regulation of dihydrofolate reductase inhibits the growth of endothelial EA.hy926 cell through induction of G1 cell cycle arrest via up-regulating p53 and p21(waf1/cip1) expression.

    PubMed

    Fei, Zhewei; Gao, Yong; Qiu, Mingke; Qi, Xianqin; Dai, Yuxin; Wang, Shuqing; Quan, Zhiwei; Liu, Yingbin; Ou, Jingmin

    2016-03-01

    Folic acid supplementation may meliorate cardiovascular disease risk by improving vascular endothelial structure and function. However, the underlying mechanisms are still lack of a global understanding. To be used, folic acid must be converted to 7,8-dihydrofolate by dihydrofolate reductase to generate one-carbon derivatives serving as important cellular cofactors in the synthesis of nucleotides and amino acids required for cell growth. Therefore, this study explored the effect of dihydrofolate reductase knockdown on endothelial EA.hy926 cell growth and the mechanism involved. We found that down-regulation of dihydrofolate reductase inhibited EA.hy926 cell proliferation, and induced G1 phase arrest. Meanwhile, the expression of regulators necessary for G1/S phase transition, such as cyclin-dependent kinases CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6, were remarkably down-regulated; by contrast, the cell cycle inhibitors p21(waf/cip1), p27(Kip1) and p53 were significantly up-regulated after dihydrofolate reductase knockdown. Furthermore, supplementation of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to the dihydrofolate reductase knockdown cells could weaken the inhibitory effect of dihydrofolate reductase knockdown on cell proliferation, simultaneously, inducing the expression of p53 and p21(waf/cip1) falling back moderately. Our findings suggest that attenuating dihydrofolate reductase may cause imbalanced expression of cell cycle regulators, especially up-regulation of p53-p21(waf/cip1) pathway, leading to G1 cell cycle arrest, thereby inhibiting the growth of endothelial EA.hy926 cells.

  4. Chemical Ligation and Isotope Labeling to Locate Dynamic Effects during Catalysis by Dihydrofolate Reductase.

    PubMed

    Luk, Louis Y P; Ruiz-Pernía, J Javier; Adesina, Aduragbemi S; Loveridge, E Joel; Tuñón, Iñaki; Moliner, Vincent; Allemann, Rudolf K

    2015-07-27

    Chemical ligation has been used to alter motions in specific regions of dihydrofolate reductase from E. coli and to investigate the effects of localized motional changes on enzyme catalysis. Two isotopic hybrids were prepared; one with the mobile N-terminal segment containing heavy isotopes ((2) H, (13) C, (15) N) and the remainder of the protein with natural isotopic abundance, and the other one with only the C-terminal segment isotopically labeled. Kinetic investigations indicated that isotopic substitution of the N-terminal segment affected only a physical step of catalysis, whereas the enzyme chemistry was affected by protein motions from the C-terminal segment. QM/MM studies support the idea that dynamic effects on catalysis mostly originate from the C-terminal segment. The use of isotope hybrids provides insights into the microscopic mechanism of dynamic coupling, which is difficult to obtain with other studies, and helps define the dynamic networks of intramolecular interactions central to enzyme catalysis. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  5. A Rapid Analysis of Variations in Conformational Behavior during Dihydrofolate Reductase Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Robert L; Johnson, Luke A; Behiry, Enas M; Loveridge, E Joel; Allemann, Rudolf K

    2017-04-18

    Protein flexibility is central to enzyme catalysis, yet it remains challenging both to predict conformational behavior on the basis of analysis of amino acid sequence and protein structure and to provide the necessary breadth of experimental support to any such predictions. Here a generic and rapid procedure for identifying conformational changes during dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) catalysis is described. Using DHFR from Escherichia coli (EcDHFR), selective side-chain (13)C labeling of methionine and tryptophan residues is shown to be sufficient to detect the closed-to-occluded conformational transition that follows the chemical step in the catalytic cycle, with clear chemical shift perturbations found for both methionine methyl and tryptophan indole groups. In contrast, no such perturbations are seen for the DHFR from the psychrophile Moritella profunda, where the equivalent conformational change is absent. Like EcDHFR, Salmonella enterica DHFR shows experimental evidence of a large-scale conformational change following hydride transfer that relies on conservation of a key hydrogen bonding interaction between the M20 and GH loops, directly comparable to the closed-to-occluded conformational change observed in EcDHFR. For the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima, no chemical shift perturbations were observed, suggesting that no major conformational change occurs during the catalytic cycle. In spite of their conserved tertiary structures, DHFRs display variations in conformational sampling that occurs concurrently with catalysis.

  6. Effect of pH on hydride transfer by Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Loveridge, E Joel; Allemann, Rudolf K

    2011-05-16

    The kinetic isotope effect (KIE) on hydride transfer in the reaction catalysed by dihydrofolate reductase from Escherichia coli (EcDHFR) is known to be temperature dependent at pH 7, but essentially independent of temperature at elevated pH. Here, we show that the transition from the temperature-dependent regime to the temperature-independent regime occurs sharply between pH 7.5 and 8. The activation energy for hydride transfer is independent of pH. The mechanism leading to the change in behaviour of the KIEs is not clear, but probably involves a conformational change in the enzyme brought about by deprotonation of a key residue (or residues) at high pH. The KIE on hydride transfer at low pH suggests that the rate constant for the reaction is not limited by a conformational change to the enzyme under these conditions. The effect of pH on the temperature dependence of the rate constants and KIEs for hydride transfer catalysed by EcDHFR suggests that enzyme motions and conformational changes do not directly influence the chemistry, but that the reaction conditions affect the conformational ensemble of the enzyme prior to reaction and control the reaction though this route.

  7. Chemical Ligation and Isotope Labeling to Locate Dynamic Effects during Catalysis by Dihydrofolate Reductase†

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Louis Y. P.; Ruiz‐Pernía, J. Javier; Adesina, Aduragbemi S.; Loveridge, E. Joel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chemical ligation has been used to alter motions in specific regions of dihydrofolate reductase from E. coli and to investigate the effects of localized motional changes on enzyme catalysis. Two isotopic hybrids were prepared; one with the mobile N‐terminal segment containing heavy isotopes (2H, 13C, 15N) and the remainder of the protein with natural isotopic abundance, and the other one with only the C‐terminal segment isotopically labeled. Kinetic investigations indicated that isotopic substitution of the N‐terminal segment affected only a physical step of catalysis, whereas the enzyme chemistry was affected by protein motions from the C‐terminal segment. QM/MM studies support the idea that dynamic effects on catalysis mostly originate from the C‐terminal segment. The use of isotope hybrids provides insights into the microscopic mechanism of dynamic coupling, which is difficult to obtain with other studies, and helps define the dynamic networks of intramolecular interactions central to enzyme catalysis. PMID:26079622

  8. Interaction of dihydrofolate reductase with methotrexate: Ensemble and single-molecule kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, P. T. Ravi; Zhang, Zhiquan; McCourt, Lynn; Dwyer, Mary; Benkovic, Stephen J.; Hammes, Gordon G.

    2002-10-01

    The thermodynamics and kinetics of the interaction of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) with methotrexate have been studied by using fluorescence, stopped-flow, and single-molecule methods. DHFR was modified to permit the covalent addition of a fluorescent molecule, Alexa 488, and a biotin at the N terminus of the molecule. The fluorescent molecule was placed on a protein loop that closes over methotrexate when binding occurs, thus causing a quenching of the fluorescence. The biotin was used to attach the enzyme in an active form to a glass surface for single-molecule studies. The equilibrium dissociation constant for the binding of methotrexate to the enzyme is 9.5 nM. The stopped-flow studies revealed that methotrexate binds to two different conformations of the enzyme, and the association and dissociation rate constants were determined. The single-molecule investigation revealed a conformational change in the enzyme-methotrexate complex that was not observed in the stopped-flow studies. The ensemble averaged rate constants for this conformation change in both directions is about 2-4 s1 and is attributed to the opening and closing of the enzyme loop over the bound methotrexate. Thus the mechanism of methotrexate binding to DHFR involves multiple steps and protein conformational changes.

  9. Evidence for two interconverting protein isomers in the methotrexate complex of dihydrofolate reductase from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Falzone, C.J.; Benkovic, S.J. ); Wright, P.E. )

    1991-02-26

    Two-dimensional {sup 1}H NMR methods and a knowledge of the X-ray crystal structure have been used to make resonance assignments for the amino acid side chains of dihydrofolate reductase from Escherichia coli complexed with methotrexate. The H7 proton on the pteridine ring of methotrexate was found to have NOEs to the methyl protons of Leu-28 which were assigned by using the L28F mutant. These NOEs indicated that the orientation of the methotrexate pteridine ring is similar in both solution and crystal structures. During the initial assignment process, it became evident that many of the resonances in this complex, unlike those of the folate complex, are severally broadened or doubled. The observation of two distinct sets of resonances in a ratio of approximately 2:1 was attributed to the presence of two protein isomers. Many of the side chains with clearly doubled resonances were located in the {beta}-sheet and the active site. Preliminary studies on the apoprotein also revealed doubled resonances in the absence of the inhibitor, indicating the existence of the protein isomers prior to methotrexate binding. In contrast to the methotrexate complex, the binary complex with folate and the ternary MTX-NADPH-DHFR complex presented a single enzyme form. These results are proposed to reflect the ability of folate and NADPH to bind predominantly to one protein isomer.

  10. Dihydrofolate synthetase and folylpolyglutamate synthetase: direct evidence for intervention of acyl phosphate intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, R.V.; Shane, B.; McGuire, J.J.; Coward, J.K.

    1988-12-13

    The transfer of /sup 17/O and/or /sup 18/O from (COOH-/sup 17/O or -/sup 18/O) enriched substrates to inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/) has been demonstrated for two enzyme-catalyzed reactions involved in folate biosynthesis and glutamylation. COOH-/sup 18/O-labeled folate, methotrexate, and dihydropteroate, in addition to (/sup 17/O)-glutamate, were synthesized and used as substrates for folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS) isolated from Escherichia coli, hog liver, and rat liver and for dihydrofolate synthetase (DHFS) isolated from E. coli. P/sub i/ was purified from the reaction mixtures and converted to trimethyl phosphate (TMP), which was then analyzed for /sup 17/O and /sup 18/O enrichment by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and/or mass spectroscopy. In the reactions catalyzed by the E. coli enzymes, both NMR and quantitative mass spectral analyses established that transfer of the oxygen isotope from the substrate /sup 18/O-enriched carboxyl group to P/sub i/ occurred, thereby providing strong evidence for an acyl phosphate intermediate in both the FPGS- and DHFS-catalyzed reactions. Similar oxygen-transfer experiments were carried out by use of two mammalian enzymes. The small amounts of P/sub i/ obtained from reactions catalyzed by these less abundant FPGS proteins precluded the use of NMR techniques. However, mass spectral analysis of the TMP derived from the mammalian FPGS-catalyzed reactions showed clearly that /sup 18/O transfer had occurred.

  11. The HIP1 binding site is required for growth regulation of the dihydrofolate reductase gene promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Means, A L; Slansky, J E; McMahon, S L; Knuth, M W; Farnham, P J

    1992-01-01

    The transcription rate of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene increases at the G1/S boundary of the proliferative cell cycle. Through analysis of transiently and stably transfected NIH 3T3 cells, we have now demonstrated that DHFR promoter sequences extending from -270 to +20 are sufficient to confer similar regulation on a reporter gene. Mutation of a protein binding site that spans sequences from -16 to +11 in the DHFR promoter resulted in loss of the transcriptional increase at the G1/S boundary. Purification of an activity from HeLa nuclear extract that binds to this region enriched for a 180-kDa polypeptide (HIP1). Using this HIP1 preparation, we have identified specific positions within the binding site that are critical for efficient protein-DNA interactions. An analysis of association and dissociation rates suggests that bound HIP1 protein can exchange rapidly with free protein. This rapid exchange may facilitate the burst of transcriptional activity from the DHFR promoter at the G1/S boundary. Images PMID:1545788

  12. Temporal and topological clustering of diverged residues among enterobacterial dihydrofolate reductases.

    PubMed

    Garvin, L D; Hardies, S C

    1991-09-01

    The complete nucleotide and encoded amino acid sequences were determined for the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from the bacteria Enterobacter aerogenes and Citrobacter freundii. These were compared with the closely related Escherichia coli DHFR sequence. The ancestral DHFR sequence common to these three species was reconstructed. Since that ancestor there have been seven, nine, and one amino acid replacements in E. coli, E. aerogenes, and C. freundii, respectively. In E. coli, five of its seven replacements were located in the beta-sheet portion of the protein, and all seven were located in a single restricted region of the protein. In E. aerogenes, all nine of its replacements were located within surface residues, with five clustered in a region topologically distinct from the E. coli cluster. The replaced side chains are sometimes in direct contact but more often are separated by an intervening side chain. It is argued that the temporal clustering of replacements is typical for the evolution of most proteins and that the associated topological clustering gives a picture of how evolutionary change is accommodated by protein structure.

  13. Genetic variations of the dihydrofolate reductase gene of Plasmodium vivax in Mandalay Division, Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Na, Byoung-Kuk; Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Moon, Sung-Ung; In, Tae-Suk; Lin, Khin; Maung, Maung; Chung, Gyung-Tae; Lee, Jong-Koo; Kim, Tong-Soo; Kong, Yoon

    2005-07-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR; EC1.5.1.3) is a known target enzyme for antifolate agents, which are used as alternative chemotherapeutics for chloroquine-resistant malaria. Mutations in the dhfr gene of Plasmodium vivax are thought to be associated with resistance to the antifolate drugs. In this study, we have analyzed genetic variations in the dhfr genes of clinical isolates of P. vivax (n=21) in Myanmar, to monitor antifolate resistance in this country. Sequence variations within the entire dhfr gene were highly restricted to codons from 57 to 117, and the GGDN tandem repeat region. Double (S58R and S117N/T) or quadruple mutations (F57L/I, S58R, T61M, and S117N/T), which may be closely related to the drug resistance, were recognized in most of the isolates (20/21 cases). Our results suggest that antifolate-resistant P. vivax is becoming widespread in Myanmar, as it also is in the neighboring countries in Southeast Asia. It appears that the drug resistance situation may be worsening in the country.

  14. Dynamics of immobilized and native Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase by quasielastic neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Tehei, M; Smith, J C; Monk, C; Ollivier, J; Oettl, M; Kurkal, V; Finney, J L; Daniel, R M

    2006-02-01

    The internal dynamics of native and immobilized Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) have been examined using incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering. These results reveal no difference between the high frequency vibration mean-square displacement of the native and the immobilized E. coli DHFR. However, length-scale-dependent, picosecond dynamical changes are found. On longer length scales, the dynamics are comparable for both DHFR samples. On shorter length scales, the dynamics is dominated by local jump motions over potential barriers. The residence time for the protons to stay in a potential well is tau = 7.95 +/- 1.02 ps for the native DHFR and tau = 20.36 +/- 1.80 ps for the immobilized DHFR. The average height of the potential barrier to the local motions is increased in the immobilized DHFR, and may increase the activation energy for the activity reaction, decreasing the rate as observed experimentally. These results suggest that the local motions on the picosecond timescale may act as a lubricant for those associated with DHFR activity occurring on a slower millisecond timescale. Experiments indicate a significantly slower catalytic reaction rate for the immobilized E. coli DHFR. However, the immobilization of the DHFR is on the exterior of the enzyme and essentially distal to the active site, thus this phenomenon has broad implications for the action of drugs distal to the active site.

  15. New small-molecule inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase inhibit Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiong; Nguyen, Thao; McMichael, Megan; Velu, Sadanandan E; Zou, Jing; Zhou, Xuedong; Wu, Hui

    2015-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a major aetiological agent of dental caries. Formation of biofilms is a key virulence factor of S. mutans. Drugs that inhibit S. mutans biofilms may have therapeutic potential. Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) plays a critical role in regulating the metabolism of folate. DHFR inhibitors are thus potent drugs and have been explored as anticancer and antimicrobial agents. In this study, a library of analogues based on a DHFR inhibitor, trimetrexate (TMQ), an FDA-approved drug, was screened and three new analogues that selectively inhibited S. mutans were identified. The most potent inhibitor had a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 454.0±10.2nM for the biofilm and 8.7±1.9nM for DHFR of S. mutans. In contrast, the IC50 of this compound for human DHFR was ca. 1000nM, a >100-fold decrease in its potency, demonstrating the high selectivity of the analogue. An analogue that exhibited the least potency for the S. mutans biofilm also had the lowest activity towards inhibiting S. mutans DHFR, further indicating that inhibition of biofilms is related to reduced DHFR activity. These data, along with docking of the most potent analogue to the modelled DHFR structure, suggested that the TMQ analogues indeed selectively inhibited S. mutans through targeting DHFR. These potent and selective small molecules are thus promising lead compounds to develop new effective therapeutics to prevent and treat dental caries.

  16. Site specific polarization transfer from a hyperpolarized ligand of dihydrofolate reductase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunyi; Ragavan, Mukundan; Hilty, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Protein–ligand interaction is often characterized using polarization transfer by the intermolecular nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE). For such NOE experiments, hyperpolarization of nuclear spins presents the opportunity to increase the spin magnetization, which is transferred, by several orders of magnitude. Here, folic acid, a ligand of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), was hyperpolarized on 1H spins using dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP). Mixing hyperpolarized ligand with protein resulted in observable increases in protein 1H signal predominantly in the methyl group region of the spectra. Using 13C single quantum selection in a series of one-dimensional spectra, the carbon chemical shift ranges of the corresponding methyl groups can be elucidated. Signals observed in these hyperpolarized spectra could be confirmed using 3D isotope filtered NOESY spectra, although the hyperpolarized spectra were obtained in single scans. By further correlating the signal intensities observed in the D-DNP experiments with the occurrence of short distances in the crystal structure of the protein–ligand complex, the observed methyl proton signals could be matched to the chemical shifts of six amino acids in the active site of DHFR-folic acid binary complex. These data demonstrate that 13C chemical shift selection of protein resonances, combined with the intrinsic selectivity towards magnetization originating from the initially hyperpolarized spins, can be used for site specific characterization of protein–ligand interactions. PMID:27189223

  17. In Vitro Generation of Novel Pyrimethamine Resistance Mutations in the Toxoplasma gondii Dihydrofolate Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Mary G.; Oh, Jung; Roos, David S.

    2001-01-01

    Pyrimethamine is a potent inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase and is widely used in the treatment of opportunistic infections caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. In order to assess the potential role of dhfr sequence polymorphisms in drug treatment failures, we examined the dhfr-ts genes of representative isolates for T. gondii virulence types I, II, and III. These strains exhibit differences in their sensitivities to pyrimethamine but no differences in predicted dhfr-ts protein sequences. To assess the potential for pyrimethamine-resistant dhfr mutants to emerge, three drug-sensitive variants of the T. gondii dhfr-ts gene (the wild-type T. gondii sequence and two mutants engineered to reflect polymorphisms observed in drug-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum) were subjected to random mutagenesis and transfected into either wild-type T. gondii parasites or dhfr-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae under pyrimethamine selection. Three resistance mutations were identified, at amino acid residues 25 (Trp→Arg), 98 (Leu→Ser), and 134 (Leu→His). PMID:11257045

  18. Reduced Impact of Pyrimethamine Drug Pressure on Plasmodium malariae Dihydrofolate Reductase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Bouchier, Christiane; Tichit, Magali; Ariey, Frédéric; Fandeur, Thierry; Chim, Pheaktra; Ke, Sopheakvatey; Sum, Sarorn; Man, Somnang; Ratsimbasoa, Arsène; Durand, Rémy

    2012-01-01

    Molecular investigations performed following the emergence of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum have allowed the identification of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme as the target of pyrimethamine. Although clinical cases of Plasmodium malariae are not usually treated with antifolate therapy, incorrect diagnosis and the high frequency of undetected mixed infections has probably exposed non-P. falciparum parasites to antifolate therapy in many areas. In this context, we aimed to assess the worldwide genetic diversity of the P. malariae dhfr gene in 123 samples collected in Africa and Asia, areas with different histories of SP use. Among the 10 polymorphic sites found, we have observed 7 new mutations (K55E, S58R, S59A, F168S, N194S, D207G, and T221A), which led us to describe 6 new DHFR proteins. All isolates from African countries were classified as wild type, while new mutations and haplotypes were recognized as exclusive to Madagascar (except for the double mutations at nucleotides 341 and 342 [S114N] found in one Cambodian isolate). Among these nonsynonymous mutations, two were likely related to pyrimethamine resistance: S58R (corresponding to C59R in P. falciparum and S58R in Plasmodium vivax; observed in one Malagasy sample) and S114N (corresponding to S108N in P. falciparum and S117N in P. vivax; observed in three Cambodian samples). PMID:22123682

  19. Reduced impact of pyrimethamine drug pressure on Plasmodium malariae dihydrofolate reductase gene.

    PubMed

    Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Bouchier, Christiane; Tichit, Magali; Ariey, Frédéric; Fandeur, Thierry; Chim, Pheaktra; Ke, Sopheakvatey; Sum, Sarorn; Man, Somnang; Ratsimbasoa, Arsène; Durand, Rémy; Ménard, Didier

    2012-02-01

    Molecular investigations performed following the emergence of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum have allowed the identification of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme as the target of pyrimethamine. Although clinical cases of Plasmodium malariae are not usually treated with antifolate therapy, incorrect diagnosis and the high frequency of undetected mixed infections has probably exposed non-P. falciparum parasites to antifolate therapy in many areas. In this context, we aimed to assess the worldwide genetic diversity of the P. malariae dhfr gene in 123 samples collected in Africa and Asia, areas with different histories of SP use. Among the 10 polymorphic sites found, we have observed 7 new mutations (K55E, S58R, S59A, F168S, N194S, D207G, and T221A), which led us to describe 6 new DHFR proteins. All isolates from African countries were classified as wild type, while new mutations and haplotypes were recognized as exclusive to Madagascar (except for the double mutations at nucleotides 341 and 342 [S114N] found in one Cambodian isolate). Among these nonsynonymous mutations, two were likely related to pyrimethamine resistance: S58R (corresponding to C59R in P. falciparum and S58R in Plasmodium vivax; observed in one Malagasy sample) and S114N (corresponding to S108N in P. falciparum and S117N in P. vivax; observed in three Cambodian samples).

  20. Dihydrofolate reductase is required for the development of heart and outflow tract in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shuna; Gui, Yonghao; Jiang, Qiu; Song, Houyan

    2011-12-01

    Folic acid is very important for embryonic development and folic acid inhibition can cause congenital heart defects in vertebrates. Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a key enzyme in folate-mediated metabolism. The dysfunction of DHFR disrupts the key biological processes which folic acid participates in. DHFR gene is conserved during vertebrate evolution. It is important to investigate the roles of DHFR in cardiac developments. In this study, we showed that DHFR knockdown resulted in the abnormal developments of zebrafish embryos in the early stages. Obvious malformations in heart and outflow tract (OFT) were also observed in DHFR knockdown embryos. DHFR overexpression rescued the abnormal phenotypes in the DHFR knockdown group. DHFR knockdown had negative impacts on the expressions of NKX2.5 (NK2 transcription factor-related 5), MEF2C (myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C), TBX20 (T-box 20), and TBX1 (T-box 1) which are important transcriptional factors during cardiac development process, while DHFR overexpression had positive effects. DHFR was required for Hedgehog pathway. DHFR knockdown caused reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis, while its overexpression promoted cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis. Taken together, our study suggested that DHFR plays crucial roles in the development of heart and OFT in zebrafish by regulating gene transcriptions and affecting cell proliferation and apoptosis.

  1. Dynamics of Immobilized and Native Escherichia coli Dihydrofolate Reductase by Quasielastic Neutron Scattering. Biophysical Journal

    SciTech Connect

    Tehei, M; Smith, Jeremy C; Monk, C; Olliver, J; Oettl, M; Kurkal-Siebert, V; Finney, J.L.; Daniel, R. M.

    2005-10-01

    The internal dynamics of native and immobilized Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) have been examined using incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering. These results reveal no difference between the high frequency vibration mean-square displacement of the native and the immobilized E. coli DHFR. However, length-scale-dependent, picosecond dynamical changes are found. On longer length scales, the dynamics are comparable for both DHFR samples. On shorter length scales, the dynamics is dominated by local jump motions over potential barriers. The residence time for the protons to stay in a potential well is {tau}=7.95{+-}1.02ps for the native DHFR and {tau}=20.36{+-}1.80ps for the immobilized DHFR. The average height of the potential barrier to the local motions is increased in the immobilized DHFR, and may increase the activation energy for the activity reaction, decreasing the rate as observed experimentally. These results suggest that the local motions on the picosecond timescale may act as a lubricant for those associated with DHFR activity occurring on a slower millisecond timescale. Experiments indicate a significantly slower catalytic reaction rate for the immobilized E. coli DHFR. However, the immobilization of the DHFR is on the exterior of the enzyme and essentially distal to the active site, thus this phenomenon has broad implications for the action of drugs distal to the active site.

  2. NMR studies of multiple conformations in complexes of Lactobacillus casei dihydrofolate reductase with analogues of pyrimethamine

    SciTech Connect

    Birdsall, B.; Tendler, S.J.B.; Feeney, J.; Carr, M.D. ); Arnold, J.R.P.; Thomas, J.A.; Roberts, G.C.K. ); Griffin, R.J.; Stevens, M.F.G. )

    1990-10-01

    {sup 1}H and {sup 19}F NMR signals from bound ligands have been assigned in one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra of complexes of Lactobacillus casei dihydrofolate reductase with various pyrimethamine analogues. The signals were identified mainly by correlating signals from bound and free ligands by using 2D exchange experiments. Analogues with symmetrically substituted phenyl rings give rise to {sup 1}H signals from four nonequivalent aromatic protons, clearly indicating the presence of hindered rotation about the pyrimidine-phenyl bond. Analogues with symmetrically substituted phenyl rings give rise to {sup 1}H signals from four nonequivalent aromatic protons, clearly indicating the presence of hindered rotation about the pyrimidine-phenyl bond. Analogues containing asymmetrically substituted aromatic rings exist as mixtures of two rotational isomers (an enantiomeric pair) because of this hindered rotation and the NMR spectra revealed that both isomers (forms A and B) bind to the enzyme with comparable, though unequal, binding energies. In this case two complete sets of bound proton signals were observed. The relative orientations of the two forms have been determined from NOE through-space connections between protons on the ligand and protein. Ternary complexes with NADP{sup {plus}} were also examined.

  3. Increased Dynamic Effects in a Catalytically Compromised Variant of Escherichia coli Dihydrofolate Reductase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Isotopic substitution (15N, 13C, 2H) of a catalytically compromised variant of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase, EcDHFR-N23PP/S148A, has been used to investigate the effect of these mutations on catalysis. The reduction of the rate constant of the chemical step in the EcDHFR-N23PP/S148A catalyzed reaction is essentially a consequence of an increase of the quasi-classical free energy barrier and to a minor extent of an increased number of recrossing trajectories on the transition state dividing surface. Since the variant enzyme is less well set up to catalyze the reaction, a higher degree of active site reorganization is needed to reach the TS. Although millisecond active site motions are lost in the variant, there is greater flexibility on the femtosecond time scale. The “dynamic knockout” EcDHFR-N23PP/S148A is therefore a “dynamic knock-in” at the level of the chemical step, and the increased dynamic coupling to the chemical coordinate is in fact detrimental to catalysis. This finding is most likely applicable not just to hydrogen transfer in EcDHFR but also to other enzymatic systems. PMID:24252106

  4. Targeted Mutations of Bacillus anthracis Dihydrofolate Reductase Condense Complex Structure-Activity Relationships

    SciTech Connect

    J Beierlein; N Karri; A Anderson

    2011-12-31

    Several antifolates, including trimethoprim (TMP) and a series of propargyl-linked analogues, bind dihydrofolate reductase from Bacillus anthracis (BaDHFR) with lower affinity than is typical in other bacterial species. To guide lead optimization for BaDHFR, we explored a new approach to determine structure-activity relationships whereby the enzyme is altered and the analogues remain constant, essentially reversing the standard experimental design. Active site mutants of the enzyme, Ba(F96I)DHFR and Ba(Y102F)DHFR, were created and evaluated with enzyme inhibition assays and crystal structures. The affinities of the antifolates increase up to 60-fold with the Y102F mutant, suggesting that interactions with Tyr 102 are critical for affinity. Crystal structures of the enzymes bound to TMP and propargyl-linked inhibitors reveal the basis of TMP resistance and illuminate the influence of Tyr 102 on the lipophilic linker between the pyrimidine and aryl rings. Two new inhibitors test and validate these conclusions and show the value of the technique for providing new directions during lead optimization.

  5. Catalysis by dihydrofolate reductase and other enzymes arises from electrostatic preorganization, not conformational motions.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Andrew J; Cao, Jie; Kamerlin, Shina C L; Warshel, Arieh

    2011-08-23

    The proposal that enzymatic catalysis is due to conformational fluctuations has been previously promoted by means of indirect considerations. However, recent works have focused on cases where the relevant motions have components toward distinct conformational regions, whose population could be manipulated by mutations. In particular, a recent work has claimed to provide direct experimental evidence for a dynamical contribution to catalysis in dihydrofolate reductase, where blocking a relevant conformational coordinate was related to the suppression of the motion toward the occluded conformation. The present work utilizes computer simulations to elucidate the true molecular basis for the experimentally observed effect. We start by reproducing the trend in the measured change in catalysis upon mutations (which was assumed to arise as a result of a "dynamical knockout" caused by the mutations). This analysis is performed by calculating the change in the corresponding activation barriers without the need to invoke dynamical effects. We then generate the catalytic landscape of the enzyme and demonstrate that motions in the conformational space do not help drive catalysis. We also discuss the role of flexibility and conformational dynamics in catalysis, once again demonstrating that their role is negligible and that the largest contribution to catalysis arises from electrostatic preorganization. Finally, we point out that the changes in the reaction potential surface modify the reorganization free energy (which includes entropic effects), and such changes in the surface also alter the corresponding motion. However, this motion is never the reason for catalysis, but rather simply a reflection of the shape of the reaction potential surface.

  6. Virtual ligand screening against Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase: improving docking enrichment using physics-based methods.

    PubMed

    Bernacki, Katarzyna; Kalyanaraman, Chakrapani; Jacobson, Matthew P

    2005-10-01

    Motivated by their participation in the McMaster Data-Mining and Docking Competition, the authors developed 2 new computational technologies and applied them to docking against Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase: a receptor preparation procedure that incorporates rotamer optimization of side chains and a physics-based rescoring procedure for estimating relative binding affinities of the protein-ligand complexes. Both methods use the same energy function, consisting of the all-atom OPLS-AA force field and a generalized Born solvent model, which treats the protein receptor and small-molecule ligands in a consistent manner. Thus, the energy function is similar to that used in more sophisticated approaches, such as free-energy perturbation and the molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann/surface area, but sampling during the rescoring procedure is limited to simple energy minimization of the ligand. The use of a highly efficient minimization algorithm permitted the authors to apply this rescoring procedure to hundreds of thousands of protein-ligand complexes during the competition, using a modest Linux cluster. To test these methods, they used the 12 competitive inhibitors identified in the training set, plus methotrexate, as positive controls in enrichment studies with both the training and test sets, each containing 50,000 compounds. The key conclusion is that combining the receptor preparation and rescoring methods makes it possible to identify most of the positive controls within the top few tenths of a percent of the rank-ordered training and test set libraries.

  7. New small-molecule inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase inhibit Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiong; Nguyen, Thao; McMichael, Megan; Velu, Sandanandan; Zou, Jing; Zhou, Xuedong; Wu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a major aetiological agent of dental caries. Formation of biofilms is a key virulence factor of S. mutans. Drugs that inhibit S. mutans biofilms may have therapeutic potential. Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) plays a critical role in regulating the metabolism of folate. DHFR inhibitors are thus potent drugs and have been explored as anticancer and antimicrobial agents. In this study, a library of analogues based on a DHFR inhibitor, trimetrexate (TMQ), an FDA-approved drug, was screened and three new analogues that selectively inhibited S. mutans were identified. The most potent inhibitor had a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 454.0 ± 10.2 nM for the biofilm and 8.7 ± 1.9 nM for DHFR of S. mutans. In contrast, the IC50 of this compound for human DHFR was ca. 1000 nM, a >100-fold decrease in its potency, demonstrating the high selectivity of the analogue. An analogue that exhibited the least potency for the S. mutans biofilm also had the lowest activity towards inhibiting S. mutans DHFR, further indicating that inhibition of biofilms is related to reduced DHFR activity. These data, along with docking of the potent analogue to the modelled DHFR structure, suggested that the TMQ analogues indeed selectively inhibited S. mutans through targeting DHFR. These potent and selective small molecules are thus promising lead compounds to develop new effective therapeutics to prevent and treat dental caries. PMID:26022931

  8. Inhibition of Bacterial Dihydrofolate Reductase by 6-Alkyl-2,4-diaminopyrimidines

    PubMed Central

    Nammalwar, Baskar; Bourne, Christina R.; Bunce, Richard A.; Wakeham, Nancy; Bourne, Philip C.; Ramnarayan, Kal; Mylvaganam, Shankari; Berlin, K. Darrell; Barrow, Esther W.; Barrow, William W.

    2012-01-01

    A series of (±)-6-alkyl-2,4-diaminopyrimidine-based inhibitors of bacterial dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) have been prepared and evaluated for biological potency against Bacillus anthracis and Staphylococcus aureus. Biological studies reveal attenuated activity relative to earlier structures lacking substitution at C6 of the diaminopyrimidine moiety, though minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values are in the 0.125–8 μg/mL range for both organisms. This effect was rationalized from previous three-dimensional X-ray structure studies that indicate the presence of a side pocket containing two water molecules adjacent to the main binding pocket. Because of the hydrophobic nature of the substitutions at C6 the main interactions are with protein residues Leu20 and Leu28. These interactions lead to a minor conformational change in the protein, which opens the pocket containing these waters such that it is continuous with the main binding pocket. These water molecules are reported to play a critical role in the catalytic reaction. This highlights a new area for inhibitor expansion within the limited architectural variation at the catalytic site of bacterial DHFR. PMID:22930550

  9. Transfusion-transmitted severe Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in a splenectomized patient with beta-thalassaemia major in Sabah, Malaysia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bird, Elspeth M; Parameswaran, Uma; William, Timothy; Khoo, Tien Meng; Grigg, Matthew J; Aziz, Ammar; Marfurt, Jutta; Yeo, Tsin W; Auburn, Sarah; Anstey, Nicholas M; Barber, Bridget E

    2016-07-12

    Transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM) is a well-recognized risk of receiving blood transfusions, and has occurred with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, and Plasmodium malariae. The simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is also known to be transmissible through inoculation of infected blood, and this species is now the most common cause of malaria in Malaysia with a high rate of severity and fatal cases reported. No confirmed case of accidental transfusion-transmitted P. knowlesi has yet been reported. A 23-year old splenectomized patient with beta thalassaemia major presented with fever 11 days after receiving a blood transfusion from a pre-symptomatic donor who presented with knowlesi malaria 12 days following blood donation. The infection resulted in severe disease in the recipient, with a parasite count of 84,000/µL and associated metabolic acidosis and multi-organ failure. She was treated with intravenous artesunate and made a good recovery. Sequencing of a highly diverse 649-base pair fragment of the P. knowlesi bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase gene (pkdhfr) revealed that the recipient and donor shared the same haplotype. This case demonstrates that acquisition of P. knowlesi from blood transfusion can occur, and that clinical consequences can be severe. Furthermore, this case raises the possibility that thalassaemic patients, particularly those who are splenectomized, may represent a high-risk group for TTM and severe malaria. With rising P. knowlesi incidence, further studies in Sabah are required to determine the risk of TTM in order to guide screening strategies for blood transfusion services.

  10. New developments in malaria diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Versteeg, Inge; Migchelsen, Stephanie J; González, Iveth J; Perkins, Mark D; Mens, Petra F; Schallig, Henk DFH

    2012-01-01

    Currently available rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria show large variation in sensitivity and specificity, and there are concerns about their stability under field conditions. To improve current RDTs, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for novel malaria antigens have been developed and screened for their possible use in new diagnostic tests. Three antigens, glutamate rich protein (GLURP), dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) and heme detoxification protein (HDP), were selected based on literature searches. Recombinant antigens were produced and used to immunize mice. Antibody-producing cell lines were subsequently selected and the resulting antibodies were screened for specificity against Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The most optimal antibody couples were selected based on antibody affinity (expressed as dissociation constants, KD) and detection limit of crude antigen extract from P. falciparum 3D7 culture. The highest affinity antibodies have KD values of 0.10 nM ± 0.014 (D5) and 0.068 ± 0.015 nM (D6) for DHFR-TS mAbs, 0.10 ± 0.022 nM (H16) and 0.21 ± 0.022 nM (H18) for HDP mAbs and 0.11 ± 0.028 nM (G23) and 0.33 ± 0.093 nM (G22) for GLURP mAbs. The newly developed antibodies performed at least as well as commercially available histidine rich protein antibodies (KD of 0.16 ± 0.13 nM for PTL3 and 1.0 ± 0.049 nM for C1–13), making them promising reagents for further test development. PMID:22327435

  11. Rational drug design approach for overcoming drug resistance: application to pyrimethamine resistance in malaria.

    PubMed

    McKie, J H; Douglas, K T; Chan, C; Roser, S A; Yates, R; Read, M; Hyde, J E; Dascombe, M J; Yuthavong, Y; Sirawaraporn, W

    1998-04-23

    Pyrimethamine acts by selectively inhibiting malarial dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS). Resistance in the most important human parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, initially results from an S108N mutation in the DHFR domain, with additional mutation (most commonly C59R or N51I or both) imparting much greater resistance. From a homology model of the 3-D structure of DHFR-TS, rational drug design techniques have been used to design and subsequently synthesize inhibitors able to overcome malarial pyrimethamine resistance. Compared to pyrimethamine (Ki 1.5 nM) with purified recombinant DHFR fromP. falciparum, the Ki value of the m-methoxy analogue of pyrimethamine was 1.07 nM, but against the DHFR bearing the double mutation (C59R + S108N), the Ki values for pyrimethamine and the m-methoxy analogue were 71.7 and 14.0 nM, respectively. The m-chloro analogue of pyrimethamine was a stronger inhibitor of both wild-type DHFR (with Ki 0.30 nM) and the doubly mutant (C59R +S108N) purified enzyme (with Ki 2.40 nM). Growth of parasite cultures of P. falciparum in vitro was also strongly inhibited by these compounds with 50% inhibition of growth occurring at 3.7 microM for the m-methoxy and 0.6 microM for the m-chloro compounds with the K1 parasite line bearing the double mutation (S108N + C59R), compared to 10.2 microM for pyrimethamine. These inhibitors were also found in preliminary studies to retain antimalarial activity in vivo in P. berghei-infected mice.

  12. Exploring QSAR, pharmacophore mapping and docking studies and virtual library generation for cycloguanil derivatives as PfDHFR-TS inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Probir Kumar; Roy, Kunal

    2011-05-01

    Resistance of available antimalarial drugs against Plasmodium species is one of the major problems of malaria control in the developing world. In the present study, we have performed QSAR, pharmacophore mapping and molecular docking studies of cycloguanil derivatives as Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase thymidylate synthase (PfDHFR-TS) inhibitors to explore essential features required for the antimalarial activity and important interaction patterns between the enzyme and ligands for the design of new potent PfDHFR-TS inhibitors. The QSAR studies have been carried out using topological parameters along with thermodynamic and structural descriptors. Acceptable values of internal and external validation parameters for the developed QSAR models confirm acceptability of the models. Pharmacophore mapping revealed that two hydrogen bond donor (HBD) features and a hydrophobic feature (HYD) are important parameters for PfDHFR-TS inhibitory activity. The docking studies suggest that the PfDHFR-TS inhibitors interact with Asp54, Ile14, Ile164, ser108, Ser111, Tyr170, Met55, Ala16, Thr185, Leu46, Cys15, Phe58, Ile112, Trp48, Tyr57 and Leu119 amino acid residues. The QSAR, pharmacophore and docking studies inferred that i) branching of the substituents at R1 and R2 positions should be less (small alkyl chain substituents are favored); ii) the electronegativity of the molecules should be high but within some limit; iii) the size and volume of the molecules should be high; iv) molecules should be flexible enough; v) R configuration at C6 position of the triazine ring favors the inhibitory binding affinity; vi) the substituents of the phenyl ring at 3, 4 and 5 position of the phenyl ring should be small hydrophobic groups. Based on these studies, we have designed a library of cycloguanil derivatives with good in silico predicted PfDHFR-TS inhibitory activity.

  13. Geranyl diphosphate synthase from mint

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wildung, Mark Raymond; Burke, Charles Cullen; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID No:1) is provided which codes for the expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2) from peppermint (Mentha piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of the geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith (e.g., antisense geranyl diphosphate synthase RNA or fragments of complementary geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA which are useful as polymerase chain reaction primers or as probes for geranyl diphosphate synthase or related genes). In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate the production, isolation and purification of significant quantities of recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase for subsequent use, to obtain expression or enhanced expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, to produce geranyl diphosphate in cancerous cells as a precursor to monoterpenoids having anti-cancer properties or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase or the production of geranyl diphosphate.

  14. Geranyl diphosphate synthase from mint

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, R.B.; Wildung, M.R.; Burke, C.C.; Gershenzon, J.

    1999-03-02

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID No:1) is provided which codes for the expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2) from peppermint (Mentha piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of the geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith (e.g., antisense geranyl diphosphate synthase RNA or fragments of complementary geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA which are useful as polymerase chain reaction primers or as probes for geranyl diphosphate synthase or related genes). In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate the production, isolation and purification of significant quantities of recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase for subsequent use, to obtain expression or enhanced expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, to produce geranyl diphosphate in cancerous cells as a precursor to monoterpenoids having anti-cancer properties or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase or the production of geranyl diphosphate. 5 figs.

  15. Circularly permuted dihydrofolate reductase possesses all the properties of the molten globule state, but can resume functional tertiary structure by interaction with its ligands.

    PubMed Central

    Uversky, V. N.; Kutyshenko, V. P.; Protasova NYu; Rogov, V. V.; Vassilenko, K. S.; Gudkov, A. T.

    1996-01-01

    It is obvious that functional activity of a protein molecule is closely related to its structure. On the other hand, the understanding of structure-function relationship still remains one of the intriguing problems of molecular biology. There is widespread belief that mutagenesis presents a real way to solve this problem. Following this assumption, we have investigated the effect of circular permutation in dihydrofolate reductase from E. coli on protein structure and functioning. It has been shown that in the absence of ligands two circularly permuted variants of dihydrofolate reductase possess all the properties of the molten globule state. However, after addition of ligands they gain the native-like structural properties and specific activity. This means that the in vitro folding of permuted dihydrofolate reductase is terminated at the stage of the molten globule formation. Interaction of permuted protein with ligands leads to the structural adjustment and formation of active protein molecules. PMID:8880908

  16. NMR studies of multiple conformations in complexes of Lactobacillus casei dihydrofolate reductase with analogues of pyrimethamine.

    PubMed

    Birdsall, B; Tendler, S J; Arnold, J R; Feeney, J; Griffin, R J; Carr, M D; Thomas, J A; Roberts, G C; Stevens, M F

    1990-10-16

    1H and 19F NMR signals from bound ligands have been assigned in one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra of complexes of Lactobacillus casei dihydrofolate reductase with various pyrimethamine analogues (including pyrimethamine [1, 2,4-diamino-5-(4'-chlorophenyl)-6-ethylpyrimidine], fluoropyrimethamine [2, 2,4-diamino-5-(4'-fluorophenyl)-6-ethylpyrimidine], fluoronitropyrimethamine [3, 2,4-diamino-5-(4'-fluoro-3'-nitrophenyl) -6-ethylpyrimidine], and methylbenzoprim [4, 2,4-diamino-5-[4'- (methylbenzylamino)-3'-nitrophenyl]-6-ethylpyrimidine]). The signals were identified mainly by correlating signals from bound and free ligands by using 2D exchange experiments. Analogues (such as 1 and 2) with symmetrically substituted phenyl rings give rise to 1H signals from four nonequivalent aromatic protons, clearly indicating the presence of hindered rotation about the pyrimidine-phenyl bond. Analogues containing asymmetrically substituted aromatic rings (such as 3 and 4) exist as mixtures of two rotational isomers (an enantiomeric pair) because of this hindered rotation and the NMR spectra revealed that both isomers (forms A and B) bind to the enzyme with comparable, though unequal, binding energies. In this case two complete sets of bound proton signals were observed. The phenyl ring protons in each of the two forms experience essentially the same protein environment (same shielding) as that experienced by the corresponding protons in bound pyrimethamine: this confirms that forms A and B correspond to two rotational isomers resulting from approximately 180 degrees rotation about the pyrimidine-phenyl bond, with the 2,4-diaminopyrimidine ring being bound similarly in both forms. The relative orientations of the two forms have been determined from NOE through-space connections between protons on the ligand and protein.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Pivotal role of dihydrofolate reductase knockdown in the anticancer activity of 2-hydroxyoleic acid

    PubMed Central

    Lladó, Victoria; Terés, Silvia; Higuera, Mónica; Álvarez, Rafael; Noguera-Salva, Maria Antònia; Halver, John E.; Escribá, Pablo V.; Busquets, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    α-Hydroxy-9-cis-octadecenoic acid, a synthetic fatty acid that modifies the composition and structure of lipid membranes. 2-Hydroxyoleic acid (HOA) generated interest due to its potent, yet nontoxic, anticancer activity. It induces cell cycle arrest in human lung cancer (A549) cells and apoptosis in human leukemia (Jurkat) cells. These two pathways may explain how HOA induces regression of a variety of cancers. We showed that HOA repressed the expression of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), the enzyme responsible for tetrahydrofolate (THF) synthesis. Folinic acid, which readily produces THF without the participation of DHFR, reverses the antitumor effects of HOA in A549 and Jurkat cells, as well as the inhibitory influence on cyclin D and cdk2 in A549 cells, and on DNA and PARP degradation in Jurkat cells. This effect was very specific, because either elaidic acid (an analog of HOA) or other lipids, failed to alter A549 or Jurkat cell growth. THF is a cofactor necessary for DNA synthesis. Thus, impairment of DNA synthesis appears to be a common mechanism involved in the different responses elicited by cancer cells following treatment with HOA, namely cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Compared with other antifolates, such as methotrexate, HOA did not directly inhibit DHFR but rather, it repressed its expression, a mode of action that offers certain therapeutic advantages. These results not only demonstrate the effect of a fatty acid on the expression of DHFR, but also emphasize the potential of HOA to be used as a wide-spectrum drug against cancer. PMID:19666584

  18. A molecular model of the folate binding site of Pneumocystis carinii dihydrofolate reductase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southerland, William M.

    1994-04-01

    The inhibition of Pneumocystis carinii dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) continues to be the major treatment strategy for P. carinii pneumonia (PCP). The design of new anti-pneumocystis agents would be significantly enhanced by the availability of a 3D model of the methotrexate (MTX) binding site of the P. carinii DHFR. However, an X-ray crystal structure of the P. carinii DHFR is not yet available. Alignment of the amino acid sequences of P. carinii and Lactobacillus casei DHFRs indicates that the two proteins show approximately 80% homology among MTX binding-site residues. This high level of homology suggests that the L. casei DHFR MTX binding-site structure could serve as a structural template in developing a model of the P. carinii DHFR MTX binding site. Therefore, the X-ray crystal structure of L. casei DHFR was used to develop a 3D model of the methotrexate binding site of P. carinii DHFR. The molecular modeling and dynamics software QUANTA/CHARMm was used. Amino acid residue mutations and deletions were performed using QUANTA and macromolecular minimizations were achieved with CHARMm. The MTX binding-site residues of L. casei DHFR were mutated to the corresponding residues of the P. carinii DHFR sequence. The resulting structure was extensively minimized. The resulting P. carinii MTX binding-site model showed significant differences in hydrogen-bonding patterns from the L. casei MTX binding site. Also, the P. carinii site is more hydrophobic than the corresponding L. casei site. Analysis of atom-to-atom close contacts between methotrexate and protein binding-site residues indicates that the P. carinii MTX binding-site complex is primarily stabilized by hydrophobic interactions, while the L. casei complex is mostly stabilized by electrostatic interactions. The model is consistent with the observed increased sensitivity of P. carinii DHFR to lipid-soluble inhibitors and provides a rational basis for the design of new anti-pneumocystis agents.

  19. Protein Mass-Modulated Effects in the Catalytic Mechanism of Dihydrofolate Reductase: Beyond Promoting Vibrations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The role of fast protein dynamics in enzyme catalysis has been of great interest in the past decade. Recent “heavy enzyme” studies demonstrate that protein mass-modulated vibrations are linked to the energy barrier for the chemical step of catalyzed reactions. However, the role of fast dynamics in the overall catalytic mechanism of an enzyme has not been addressed. Protein mass-modulated effects in the catalytic mechanism of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (ecDHFR) are explored by isotopic substitution (13C, 15N, and non-exchangeable 2H) of the wild-type ecDHFR (l-DHFR) to generate a vibrationally perturbed “heavy ecDHFR” (h-DHFR). Steady-state, pre-steady-state, and ligand binding kinetics, intrinsic kinetic isotope effects (KIEint) on the chemical step, and thermal unfolding experiments of both l- and h-DHFR show that the altered protein mass affects the conformational ensembles and protein–ligand interactions, but does not affect the hydride transfer at physiological temperatures (25–45 °C). Below 25 °C, h-DHFR shows altered transition state (TS) structure and increased barrier-crossing probability of the chemical step compared with l-DHFR, indicating temperature-dependent protein vibrational coupling to the chemical step. Protein mass-modulated vibrations in ecDHFR are involved in TS interactions at cold temperatures and are linked to dynamic motions involved in ligand binding at physiological temperatures. Thus, mass effects can affect enzymatic catalysis beyond alterations in promoting vibrations linked to chemistry. PMID:24820793

  20. A-to-I RNA Editing Up-regulates Human Dihydrofolate Reductase in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masataka; Fukami, Tatsuki; Gotoh, Saki; Nakajima, Miki

    2017-03-24

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) plays a key role in folate metabolism and is a target molecule of methotrexate. An increase in the cellular expression level of DHFR is one of the mechanisms of tumor resistance to methotrexate. The present study investigated the possibility that adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing, which causes nucleotide conversion by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, might modulate DHFR expression. In human breast adenocarcinoma-derived MCF-7 cells, 26 RNA editing sites were identified in the 3'-UTR of DHFR. Knockdown of ADAR1 decreased the RNA editing levels of DHFR and resulted in a decrease in the DHFR mRNA and protein levels, indicating that ADAR1 up-regulates DHFR expression. Using a computational analysis, miR-25-3p and miR-125a-3p were predicted to bind to the non-edited 3'-UTR of DHFR but not to the edited sequence. The decrease in DHFR expression by the knockdown of ADAR1 was restored by transfection of antisense oligonucleotides for these miRNAs, suggesting that RNA editing mediated up-regulation of DHFR requires the function of these miRNAs. Interestingly, we observed that the knockdown of ADAR1 decreased cell viability and increased the sensitivity of MCF-7 cells to methotrexate. ADAR1 expression levels and the RNA editing levels in the 3'-UTR of DHFR in breast cancer tissues were higher than those in adjacent normal tissues. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that ADAR1 positively regulates the expression of DHFR by editing the miR-25-3p and miR-125a-3p binding sites in the 3'-UTR of DHFR, enhancing cellular proliferation and resistance to methotrexate.

  1. Detection of dihydrofolate reductase conformational change by FRET using two fluorescent amino acids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shengxi; Fahmi, Nour Eddine; Wang, Lin; Bhattacharya, Chandrabali; Benkovic, Stephen J; Hecht, Sidney M

    2013-09-04

    Two fluorescent amino acids, including the novel fluorescent species 4-biphenyl-l-phenylalanine (1), have been incorporated at positions 17 and 115 of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) to enable a study of conformational changes associated with inhibitor binding. Unlike most studies involving fluorescently labeled proteins, the fluorophores were incorporated into the amino acid side chains, and both probes [1 and L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine (2)] were smaller than fluorophores typically used for such studies. The DHFR positions were chosen as potentially useful for Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements on the basis of their estimated separation (17-18 Å) and the expected change in distance along the reaction coordinate. Also of interest was the steric accessibility of the two sites: Glu17 is on the surface of DHFR, while Ile115 is within a folded region of the protein. Modified DHFR I (1 at position 17; 2 at position 115) and DHFR II (2 at position 17; 1 at position 115) were both catalytically competent. However, DHFR II containing the potentially rotatable biphenylphenylalanine moiety at sterically encumbered position 115 was significantly more active than DHFR I. Irradiation of the modified DHFRs at 280 nm effected excitation of 1, energy transfer to 2, and emission by 2 at 450 nm. However, the energy transfer was substantially more efficient in DHFR II. The effect of inhibitor binding was also measured. Trimethoprim mediated concentration-dependent diminution of the emission observed at 450 nm for DHFR II but not for DHFR I. These findings demonstrate that amino acids containing small fluorophores can be introduced into DHFR with minimal disruption of function and in a fashion that enables sensitive monitoring of changes in DHFR conformation.

  2. Thermal Stabilization of Dihydrofolate Reductase Using Monte Carlo Unfolding Simulations and Its Functional Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Anna; Shakhnovich, Eugene I.

    2015-01-01

    Design of proteins with desired thermal properties is important for scientific and biotechnological applications. Here we developed a theoretical approach to predict the effect of mutations on protein stability from non-equilibrium unfolding simulations. We establish a relative measure based on apparent simulated melting temperatures that is independent of simulation length and, under certain assumptions, proportional to equilibrium stability, and we justify this theoretical development with extensive simulations and experimental data. Using our new method based on all-atom Monte-Carlo unfolding simulations, we carried out a saturating mutagenesis of Dihydrofolate Reductase (DHFR), a key target of antibiotics and chemotherapeutic drugs. The method predicted more than 500 stabilizing mutations, several of which were selected for detailed computational and experimental analysis. We find a highly significant correlation of r = 0.65–0.68 between predicted and experimentally determined melting temperatures and unfolding denaturant concentrations for WT DHFR and 42 mutants. The correlation between energy of the native state and experimental denaturation temperature was much weaker, indicating the important role of entropy in protein stability. The most stabilizing point mutation was D27F, which is located in the active site of the protein, rendering it inactive. However for the rest of mutations outside of the active site we observed a weak yet statistically significant positive correlation between thermal stability and catalytic activity indicating the lack of a stability-activity tradeoff for DHFR. By combining stabilizing mutations predicted by our method, we created a highly stable catalytically active E. coli DHFR mutant with measured denaturation temperature 7.2°C higher than WT. Prediction results for DHFR and several other proteins indicate that computational approaches based on unfolding simulations are useful as a general technique to discover stabilizing

  3. Elucidating features that drive the design of selective antifolates using crystal structures of human dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Kristen M; G-Dayanandan, Narendran; Wright, Dennis L; Anderson, Amy C

    2013-10-15

    The pursuit of antimicrobial drugs that target dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) exploits differences in sequence and dynamics between the pathogenic and human enzymes. Here, we present five crystal structures of human DHFR bound to a new class of antimicrobial agents, the propargyl-linked antifolates (PLAs), with a range of potency (IC50 values of 0.045-1.07 μM) for human DHFR. These structures reveal that interactions between the ligands and Asn 64, Phe 31, and Phe 34 are important for increased affinity for human DHFR and that loop residues 58-64 undergo ligand-induced conformational changes. The utility of these structural studies was demonstrated through the design of three new ligands that reduce the number of contacts with Asn 64, Phe 31, and Phe 34. Synthesis and evaluation show that one of the designed inhibitors exhibits the lowest affinity for human DHFR of any of the PLAs (2.64 μM). Comparisons of structures of human and Staphylococcus aureus DHFR bound to the same PLA reveal a conformational change in the ligand that enhances interactions with residues Phe 92 (Val 115 in huDHFR) and Ile 50 (Ile 60 in huDHFR) in S. aureus DHFR, yielding selectivity. Likewise, comparisons of human and Candida glabrata DHFR bound to the same ligand show that hydrophobic interactions with residues Ile 121 and Phe 66 (Val 115 and Asn 64 in human DHFR) yield selective inhibitors. The identification of residue substitutions that are important for selectivity and the observation of active site flexibility will help guide antimicrobial antifolate development for the inhibition of pathogenic species.

  4. Probing the Electrostatics of Active Site Microenvironments along the Catalytic Cycle for Escherichia coli Dihydrofolate Reductase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Electrostatic interactions play an important role in enzyme catalysis by guiding ligand binding and facilitating chemical reactions. These electrostatic interactions are modulated by conformational changes occurring over the catalytic cycle. Herein, the changes in active site electrostatic microenvironments are examined for all enzyme complexes along the catalytic cycle of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (ecDHFR) by incorporation of thiocyanate probes at two site-specific locations in the active site. The electrostatics and degree of hydration of the microenvironments surrounding the probes are investigated with spectroscopic techniques and mixed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations. Changes in the electrostatic microenvironments along the catalytic environment lead to different nitrile (CN) vibrational stretching frequencies and 13C NMR chemical shifts. These environmental changes arise from protein conformational rearrangements during catalysis. The QM/MM calculations reproduce the experimentally measured vibrational frequency shifts of the thiocyanate probes across the catalyzed hydride transfer step, which spans the closed and occluded conformations of the enzyme. Analysis of the molecular dynamics trajectories provides insight into the conformational changes occurring between these two states and the resulting changes in classical electrostatics and specific hydrogen-bonding interactions. The electric fields along the CN axes of the probes are decomposed into contributions from specific residues, ligands, and solvent molecules that make up the microenvironments around the probes. Moreover, calculation of the electric field along the hydride donor–acceptor axis, along with decomposition of this field into specific contributions, indicates that the cofactor and substrate, as well as the enzyme, impose a substantial electric field that facilitates hydride transfer. Overall, experimental and theoretical data provide evidence for

  5. Probing the electrostatics of active site microenvironments along the catalytic cycle for Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Liu, C Tony; Layfield, Joshua P; Stewart, Robert J; French, Jarrod B; Hanoian, Philip; Asbury, John B; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Benkovic, Stephen J

    2014-07-23

    Electrostatic interactions play an important role in enzyme catalysis by guiding ligand binding and facilitating chemical reactions. These electrostatic interactions are modulated by conformational changes occurring over the catalytic cycle. Herein, the changes in active site electrostatic microenvironments are examined for all enzyme complexes along the catalytic cycle of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (ecDHFR) by incorporation of thiocyanate probes at two site-specific locations in the active site. The electrostatics and degree of hydration of the microenvironments surrounding the probes are investigated with spectroscopic techniques and mixed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations. Changes in the electrostatic microenvironments along the catalytic environment lead to different nitrile (CN) vibrational stretching frequencies and (13)C NMR chemical shifts. These environmental changes arise from protein conformational rearrangements during catalysis. The QM/MM calculations reproduce the experimentally measured vibrational frequency shifts of the thiocyanate probes across the catalyzed hydride transfer step, which spans the closed and occluded conformations of the enzyme. Analysis of the molecular dynamics trajectories provides insight into the conformational changes occurring between these two states and the resulting changes in classical electrostatics and specific hydrogen-bonding interactions. The electric fields along the CN axes of the probes are decomposed into contributions from specific residues, ligands, and solvent molecules that make up the microenvironments around the probes. Moreover, calculation of the electric field along the hydride donor-acceptor axis, along with decomposition of this field into specific contributions, indicates that the cofactor and substrate, as well as the enzyme, impose a substantial electric field that facilitates hydride transfer. Overall, experimental and theoretical data provide evidence for

  6. Hybrid polyketide synthases

    DOEpatents

    Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Hagen, Andrew; Katz, Leonard; Keasling, Jay D.; Poust, Sean; Zhang, Jingwei; Zotchev, Sergey

    2016-05-10

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing an even-chain or odd-chain diacid or lactam or diamine. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS and when cultured produces the even-chain diacid, odd-chain diacid, or KAPA. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS capable of synthesizing a pimelic acid or KAPA, and when cultured produces biotin.

  7. Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase catalyzed proton and hydride transfers: Temporal order and the roles of Asp27 and Tyr100

    PubMed Central

    Liu, C. Tony; Francis, Kevin; Layfield, Joshua P.; Huang, Xinyi; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Kohen, Amnon; Benkovic, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    The reaction catalyzed by Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (ecDHFR) has become a model for understanding enzyme catalysis, and yet several details of its mechanism are still unresolved. Specifically, the mechanism of the chemical step, the hydride transfer reaction, is not fully resolved. We found, unexpectedly, the presence of two reactive ternary complexes [enzyme:NADPH:7,8-dihydrofolate (E:NADPH:DHF)] separated by one ionization event. Furthermore, multiple kinetic isotope effect (KIE) studies revealed a stepwise mechanism in which protonation of the DHF precedes the hydride transfer from the nicotinamide cofactor (NADPH) for both reactive ternary complexes of the WT enzyme. This mechanism was supported by the pH- and temperature-independent intrinsic KIEs for the C-H→C hydride transfer between NADPH and the preprotonated DHF. Moreover, we showed that active site residues D27 and Y100 play a synergistic role in facilitating both the proton transfer and subsequent hydride transfer steps. Although D27 appears to have a greater effect on the overall rate of conversion of DHF to tetrahydrofolate, Y100 plays an important electrostatic role in modulating the pKa of the N5 of DHF to enable the preprotonation of DHF by an active site water molecule. PMID:25453098

  8. Probing the Active Site of Candida Glabrata Dihydrofolate Reductase with High Resolution Crystal Structures and the Synthesis of New Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.; Bolstad, D; Smith, A; Priestley, N; Wright, D; Anderson, A

    2009-01-01

    Candida glabrata, a fungal strain resistant to many commonly administered antifungal agents, has become an emerging threat to human health. In previous work, we validated that the essential enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase, is a drug target in C. glabrata. Using a crystal structure of dihydrofolate reductase from C. glabrata bound to an initial lead compound, we designed a class of biphenyl antifolates that potently and selectively inhibit both the enzyme and the growth of the fungal culture. In this work, we explore the structure-activity relationships of this class of antifolates with four new high resolution crystal structures of enzyme:inhibitor complexes and the synthesis of four new inhibitors. The designed inhibitors are intended to probe key hydrophobic pockets visible in the crystal structure. The crystal structures and an evaluation of the new compounds reveal that methyl groups at the meta and para positions of the distal phenyl ring achieve the greatest number of interactions with the pathogenic enzyme and the greatest degree of selectivity over the human enzyme. Additionally, antifungal activity can be tuned with substitution patterns at the propargyl and para-phenyl positions.

  9. A 19-base pair deletion polymorphism in dihydrofolate reductase is associated with increased unmetabolized folic acid in plasma and decreased red blood cell folate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) catalyzes the reduction of folic acid to tetrahydrofolate (THF). A 19-bp noncoding deletion allele maps to intron 1, beginning 60 bases from the splice donor site, and has been implicated in neural tube defects and cancer, presumably by influencing folate metabolism. T...

  10. Mammalian Ceramide Synthases

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Michal; Futerman, Anthony H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary In mammals, ceramide, a key intermediate in sphingolipid metabolism and an important signaling molecule, is synthesized by a family of six ceramide synthases (CerS), each of which synthesizes ceramides with distinct acyl chain lengths. There are a number of common biochemical features between the CerS, such as their catalytic mechanism, and their stucture and intracellular localization. Different CerS also display remarkable differences in their biological properties, with each of them playing distinct roles in processes as diverse as cancer and tumor suppression, in the response to chemotherapeutic drugs, in apoptosis, and in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:20222015

  11. Mammalian ceramide synthases.

    PubMed

    Levy, Michal; Futerman, Anthony H

    2010-05-01

    In mammals, ceramide, a key intermediate in sphingolipid metabolism and an important signaling molecule, is synthesized by a family of six ceramide synthases (CerS), each of which synthesizes ceramides with distinct acyl chain lengths. There are a number of common biochemical features between the CerS, such as their catalytic mechanism, and their structure and intracellular localization. Different CerS also display remarkable differences in their biological properties, with each of them playing distinct roles in processes as diverse as cancer and tumor suppression, in the response to chemotherapeutic drugs, in apoptosis, and in neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. Induction of methotrexate resistance by retroviral-mediated transfer of a mutant dihydrofolate reductase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Ricciardone, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX), a folate analog which inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), is an effective antineoplastic drug. However, MTX-induced myelosuppression limits the effectiveness of this agent. Selective induction of MTX resistance in bone marrow stem cells, prior to treatment with MTX, might prevent this toxicity and improve the therapeutic index of the drug. In these studies drug resistance was transferred to mouse and human bone marrow stem cells by retroviral expression vectors containing coding sequences of a mutant DHFR with a decreased affinity for MTX. Three retroviral expression vectors were analyzed. The CIS DR vector contained the mutant DHFR gene inserted into the replication-defective amphotropic 4070 virus, Cistor. The other vectors contained the mutant DHFR inserted into either the env region (SDHT1) or gag-pol region (SDHT2) of a replication-defective spleen focus-forming virus. All three constructs induced approximately a 200-fold resistance to MTX when transfected into NIH3T3 cells. Amphotropic infectious retroviruses were obtained by transfecting the mutant DHFR vectors into a packaging cell line, which supplied the gag, pol, and env proteins for virus production. Virus titers of 4.5 x 10/sup 3/ colony-forming units (CFU)/ml (CIS DR), 1.5 x 10/sup 4/ CFU/ml (SDHT2), and 5 x 10/sup 5/ CFU/ml (SDHT1) were measured by the transfer of MTX resistance to NIH3T3 cells. The amphotropic SDHT1 virus efficiently induced MTX resistance in cells of several species, including mouse NIH3T3 cells (5 x 10/sup 5/ CFU/ml), monkey CV1 cells (4 x 10/sup 3/ CFU/ml), and human MCF-7 cells (6 x 10/sup 4/ CFU/ml). When cocultured with SDHT1 virus-producing cells, both mouse and human bone marrow cells could be infected and rendered resistant to MTX. Mouse cytotoxic T lymphocytes and mouse helper T lymphocytes can also be made resistant to MTX.

  13. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wise, Mitchell Lynn; Katahira, Eva Joy; Savage, Thomas Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  14. Microscale synthesis of isotopically labeled R-[6-xH]N5,N10-methylene-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate as a cofactor for thymidylate synthase.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Nitish; Mihai, Cornelia; Kohen, Amnon

    2004-05-01

    A one-pot synthesis of isotopically labeled R-[6-xH]N5,N10-methylene-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate (CH2H4F) is presented, where x=1, 2, or 3 represents hydrogen, deuterium, or tritium, respectively. The current procedure offers high-yield, high-purity, and microscale-quantity synthesis. In this procedure, two enzymes were used simultaneously in the reaction mixture. The first was Thermoanaerobium brockii alcohol dehydrogenase, which stereospecifically catalyzed a hydride transfer from C-2-labeled isopropanol to the re face of oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate to form R-[4-xH]-labeled reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. The second enzyme, Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase, used the xH to reduce 7,8-dihydrofolate (H2F) to form S-[6-xH]5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate (S-[6-xH]H4F). The enzymatic reactions were followed by chemical trapping of S-[6-xH]H4F with formaldehyde to form the final product. Product purification was carried out in a single step by reverse phase high-pressure liquid chromatography separation followed by lyophilization. Two analytical methods were developed to follow the reaction progress. Finally, the utility of the labeled cofactor in mechanistic studies of thymidylate synthase is demonstrated by measuring the tritium kinetic isotope effect on the enzyme's second order rate constant.

  15. Toward resolving the catalytic mechanism of dihydrofolate reductase using neutron and ultrahigh-resolution X-ray crystallography [Neutron and ultrahigh resolution X-ray crystallography reveals water as the proton donor in the catalytic mechanism of dihydrofolate reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Qun; Bennett, Brad C.; Wilson, Mark A.; Kovalevsky, Andrey; Langan, Paul; Howell, Elizabeth E.; Dealwis, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of dihydrofolate (DHF) to tetrahydrofolate (THF). An important step in the mechanism involves proton donation to the N5 atom of DHF. The inability to determine the protonation states of active site residues and substrate has led to the lack of consensus on a catalytic mechanism. To resolve this ambiguity, we conducted neutron and ultrahigh resolution X-ray crystallographic studies of the pseudo-Michaelis ternary complex of DHFR with folate and NADP+ from E. coli. The neutron data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution using a 3.6 mm3 crystal with the quasi-Laue technique, and the structure reveals that the N3 atom of folate is protonated while Asp27 is negatively charged. Previous mechanisms have proposed a keto-to-enol tautomerization of the substrate to facilitate protonation of the N5 atom. The structure supports the existence of the keto tautomer due to protonation of the N3 atom, suggesting tautomerization is unnecessary for catalysis. In the 1.05 Å resolution X-ray structure of the ternary complex, conformational disorder of the Met20 side chain is coupled to electron density for a partially occupied water within hydrogen-bonding distance of the N5 atom of folate; this suggests direct protonation of substrate by solvent. We propose a catalytic mechanism for DHFR that involves stabilization of the keto tautomer of the substrate, elevation of the pKa of the N5 atom of DHF by Asp27, and protonation of N5 by water whose access to the active site is gated by fluctuation of the Met20 side chain even though the Met-20 loop is closed.

  16. Toward resolving the catalytic mechanism of dihydrofolate reductase using neutron and ultrahigh-resolution X-ray crystallography [Neutron and ultrahigh resolution X-ray crystallography reveals water as the proton donor in the catalytic mechanism of dihydrofolate reductase

    DOE PAGES

    Wan, Qun; Bennett, Brad C.; Wilson, Mark A.; ...

    2014-12-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of dihydrofolate (DHF) to tetrahydrofolate (THF). An important step in the mechanism involves proton donation to the N5 atom of DHF. The inability to determine the protonation states of active site residues and substrate has led to the lack of consensus on a catalytic mechanism. To resolve this ambiguity, we conducted neutron and ultrahigh resolution X-ray crystallographic studies of the pseudo-Michaelis ternary complex of DHFR with folate and NADP+ from E. coli. The neutron data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution using a 3.6 mm3 crystal with the quasi-Laue technique, and the structuremore » reveals that the N3 atom of folate is protonated while Asp27 is negatively charged. Previous mechanisms have proposed a keto-to-enol tautomerization of the substrate to facilitate protonation of the N5 atom. The structure supports the existence of the keto tautomer due to protonation of the N3 atom, suggesting tautomerization is unnecessary for catalysis. In the 1.05 Å resolution X-ray structure of the ternary complex, conformational disorder of the Met20 side chain is coupled to electron density for a partially occupied water within hydrogen-bonding distance of the N5 atom of folate; this suggests direct protonation of substrate by solvent. We propose a catalytic mechanism for DHFR that involves stabilization of the keto tautomer of the substrate, elevation of the pKa of the N5 atom of DHF by Asp27, and protonation of N5 by water whose access to the active site is gated by fluctuation of the Met20 side chain even though the Met-20 loop is closed.« less

  17. In Planta Recapitulation of Isoprene Synthases Evolution from Ocimene Synthases.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingai; Xu, Jia; Algarra Alarcon, Alberto; Carlin, Silvia; Barbaro, Enrico; Cappellin, Luca; Velikova, Violeta; Vrhovsek, Urska; Loreto, Francesco; Varotto, Claudio

    2017-06-16

    Isoprene is the most abundant biogenic volatile hydrocarbon compound naturally emitted by plants and plays a major role in atmospheric chemistry. It has been proposed that isoprene synthases (IspS) may readily evolve from other terpene synthases, but this hypothesis has not been experimentally investigated.We isolated and functionally validated in Arabidopsis the first isoprene synthase gene, AdoIspS, from a monocotyledonous species (Arundo donax L., Poaceae). Phylogenetic reconstruction indicates that AdoIspS and dicots isoprene synthases most likely originated by parallel evolution from TPS-b monoterpene synthases. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated in vivo the functional and evolutionary relevance of the residues considered diagnostic for IspS function. One of these positions was identified by saturating mutagenesis as a major determinant of substrate specificity in AdoIspS able to cause in vivo a dramatic change in total volatile emission from hemi- to monoterpenes and supporting evolution of isoprene synthases from ocimene synthases. The mechanism responsible for IspS neofunctionalization by active site size modulation by a single amino acid mutation demonstrated in this study might be general, as the very same amino acidic position is implicated in the parallel evolution of different short-chain terpene synthases from both angiosperms and gymnosperms.Based on these results, we present a model reconciling in a unified conceptual framework the apparently contrasting patterns previously observed for isoprene synthase evolution in plants. These results indicate that parallel evolution may be driven by relatively simple biophysical constraints, and illustrate the intimate molecular evolutionary links between the structural and functional bases of traits with global relevance. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. Effects of Point Mutations in Plasmodium falciparum Dihydrofolate Reductase and Dihydropterate Synthase Genes on Clinical Outcomes and In Vitro Susceptibility to Sulfadoxine and Pyrimethamine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas4, Coralith Garcia4, Lelv Solari4, Dennis Kyle5, Alan J. Magill3 1 Parasitology Program, Naval Medical Research Center...5]. PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 1 August 2009 | Volume 4 | Issue 8 | e6762 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting...burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing

  19. Mechanisms of acetohydroxyacid synthases.

    PubMed

    Chipman, David M; Duggleby, Ronald G; Tittmann, Kai

    2005-10-01

    Acetohydroxyacid synthases are thiamin diphosphate- (ThDP-) dependent biosynthetic enzymes found in all autotrophic organisms. Over the past 4-5 years, their mechanisms have been clarified and illuminated by protein crystallography, engineered mutagenesis and detailed single-step kinetic analysis. Pairs of catalytic subunits form an intimate dimer containing two active sites, each of which lies across a dimer interface and involves both monomers. The ThDP adducts of pyruvate, acetaldehyde and the product acetohydroxyacids can be detected quantitatively after rapid quenching. Determination of the distribution of intermediates by NMR then makes it possible to calculate individual forward unimolecular rate constants. The enzyme is the target of several herbicides and structures of inhibitor-enzyme complexes explain the herbicide-enzyme interaction.

  20. CoMFA/CoMSIA 3D-QSAR of pyrimidine inhibitors of Pneumocystis carinii dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Santos-Filho, Osvaldo A; Forge, Delphine; Hoelz, Lucas V B; de Freitas, Guilherme B L; Marinho, Thiago O; Araújo, Jocley Q; Albuquerque, Magaly G; de Alencastro, Ricardo B; Boechat, Nubia

    2012-09-01

    Pneumocystis carinii is typically a non-pathogenic fungus found in the respiratory tract of healthy humans. However, it may cause P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) in people with immune deficiency, affecting mainly premature babies, cancer patients and transplant recipients, and people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In the latter group, PCP occurs in approximately 80% of patients, a major cause of death. Currently, there are many available therapies to treat PCP patients, including P. carinii dihydrofolate reductase (PcDHFR) inhibitors, such as trimetrexate (TMX), piritrexim (PTX), trimethoprim (TMP), and pyrimethamine (PMT). Nevertheless, the high percentage of adverse side effects and the limited therapeutic success of the current drug therapy justify the search for new drugs rationally planned against PCP. This work focuses on the study of pyrimidine inhibitors of PcDHFR, using both CoMFA and CoMSIA 3D-QSAR methods.

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis dihydrofolate reductase reveals two conformational states and a possible low affinity mechanism to antifolate drugs.

    PubMed

    Dias, Marcio Vinicius Bertacine; Tyrakis, Petros; Domingues, Romenia Ramos; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Blundell, Tom L

    2014-01-07

    Inhibition of the biosynthesis of tetrahydrofolate (THF) has long been a focus in the treatment of both cancer and infectious diseases. Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), which catalyzes the last step, is one of the most thoroughly explored targets of this pathway, but there are no DHFR inhibitors used for tuberculosis treatment. Here, we report a structural, site-directed mutagenesis and calorimetric analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DHFR (MtDHFR) in complex with classical DHFR inhibitors. Our study provides insights into the weak inhibition of MtDHFR by trimethoprim and other antifolate drugs, such as pyrimethamine and cycloguanil. The construction of the mutant Y100F, together with calorimetric studies, gives insights into low affinity of MtDHFR for classical DHFR inhibitors. Finally, the structures of MtDHFR in complex with pyrimethamine and cycloguanil define important interactions in the active site and provide clues to the more effective design of antibiotics targeted against MtDHFR.

  2. Quantitative structure-activity relationships by evolved neural networks for the inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase by pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Landavazo, Dana G; Fogel, Gary B; Fogel, David B

    2002-02-01

    Evolutionary computation provides a useful method for training neural networks in the face of multiple local optima. This paper begins with a description of methods for quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR). An overview of artificial neural networks for pattern recognition problems such as QSAR is presented and extended with the description of how evolutionary computation can be used to evolve neural networks. Experiments are conducted to examine QSAR for the inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase by pyrimidines using evolved neural networks. Results indicate the utility of evolutionary algorithms and neural networks for the predictive task at hand. Furthermore, results that are comparable or perhaps better than those published previously were obtained using only a small fraction of the previously required degrees of freedom.

  3. Evidence that a ‘dynamic knockout’ in Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase does not affect the chemical step of catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveridge, E. Joel; Behiry, Enas M.; Guo, Jiannan; Allemann, Rudolf K.

    2012-04-01

    The question of whether protein motions play a role in the chemical step of enzymatic catalysis has generated much controversy in recent years. Debate has recently reignited over possible dynamic contributions to catalysis in dihydrofolate reductase, following conflicting conclusions from studies of the N23PP/S148A variant of the Escherichia coli enzyme. By investigating the temperature dependence of kinetic isotope effects, we present evidence that the reduction in the hydride transfer rate constants in this variant is not a direct result of impairment of conformational fluctuations. Instead, the conformational state of the enzyme immediately before hydride transfer, which determines the electrostatic environment of the active site, affects the rate constant for the reaction. Although protein motions are clearly important for binding and release of substrates and products, there appears to be no detectable dynamic coupling of protein motions to the hydride transfer step itself.

  4. The replication timing of the amplified dihydrofolate reductase genes in the Chinese hamster ovary cell line CHOC 400.

    PubMed

    Caddle, M S; Heintz, N H

    1990-07-16

    We have examined the timing of replication of the amplified dihydrofolate reductase genes in the methotrexate-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell line CHOC 400 using two synchronization procedures. DNA replicated in the presence of 5-bromodeoxyuridine was collected from cells of various times during the DNA synthesis phase and the extent of replication for defined sequences was determined by Southern blotting analysis of CsCl density gradient fractions. We report that under these conditions the DHFR gene replicates throughout the course of S phase in a mode similar to the bulk of the replicated genomic DNA. This contrasts with previous data that shows the non-amplified DHFR gene replicates during the first quarter of S phase. Therefore, we conclude that gene amplification alters the replication timing of the DHFR gene in CHOC 400 cells.

  5. Structural features of the murine dihydrofolate reductase transcription termination region: identification of a conserved DNA sequence element.

    PubMed Central

    Frayne, E G; Kellems, R E

    1986-01-01

    Structural features of the transcription termination region for the mouse dihydrofolate reductase gene have been determined and compared with those of several other known termination regions for protein coding genes. A common feature identified among these termination regions was the presence of a 20 bp consensus DNA sequence element (ATCAGAATATAGGAAAGTAGCAAT). The results imply that the 20 bp consensus DNA sequence element is important for signaling RNA polymerase II transcription termination at least in the several vertebrate species investigated. Furthermore, the results suggest that for the dhfr gene and possibly for other genes in mice as well, the potential termination consensus sequence can exist as part of a long interspersed repetitive DNA element. Images PMID:3714472

  6. Structural comparison of chromosomal and exogenous dihydrofolate reductase from Staphylococcus aureus in complex with the potent inhibitor trimethoprim

    SciTech Connect

    Heaslet, Holly; Harris, Melissa; Fahnoe, Kelly; Sarver, Ronald; Putz, Henry; Chang, Jeanne; Subramanyam, Chakrapani; Barreiro, Gabriela; Miller, J. Richard; Pfizer

    2010-09-02

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is the enzyme responsible for the NADPH-dependent reduction of 5,6-dihydrofolate to 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate, an essential cofactor in the synthesis of purines, thymidylate, methionine, and other key metabolites. Because of its importance in multiple cellular functions, DHFR has been the subject of much research targeting the enzyme with anticancer, antibacterial, and antimicrobial agents. Clinically used compounds targeting DHFR include methotrexate for the treatment of cancer and diaminopyrimidines (DAPs) such as trimethoprim (TMP) for the treatment of bacterial infections. DAP inhibitors of DHFR have been used clinically for >30 years and resistance to these agents has become widespread. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the causative agent of many serious nosocomial and community acquired infections, and other gram-positive organisms can show resistance to DAPs through mutation of the chromosomal gene or acquisition of an alternative DHFR termed 'S1 DHFR.' To develop new therapies for health threats such as MRSA, it is important to understand the molecular basis of DAP resistance. Here, we report the crystal structure of the wild-type chromosomal DHFR from S. aureus in complex with NADPH and TMP. We have also solved the structure of the exogenous, TMP resistant S1 DHFR, apo and in complex with TMP. The structural and thermodynamic data point to important molecular differences between the two enzymes that lead to dramatically reduced affinity of DAPs to S1 DHFR. These differences in enzyme binding affinity translate into reduced antibacterial activity against strains of S. aureus that express S1 DHFR.

  7. Toward resolving the catalytic mechanism of dihydrofolate reductase using neutron and ultrahigh-resolution X-ray crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Qun; Bennett, Brad C.; Wilson, Mark A.; Kovalevsky, Andrey; Langan, Paul; Howell, Elizabeth E.; Dealwis, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of dihydrofolate (DHF) to tetrahydrofolate (THF). An important step in the mechanism involves proton donation to the N5 atom of DHF. The inability to determine the protonation states of active site residues and substrate has led to a lack of consensus regarding the catalytic mechanism involved. To resolve this ambiguity, we conducted neutron and ultrahigh-resolution X-ray crystallographic studies of the pseudo-Michaelis ternary complex of Escherichia coli DHFR with folate and NADP+. The neutron data were collected to 2.0-Å resolution using a 3.6-mm3 crystal with the quasi-Laue technique. The structure reveals that the N3 atom of folate is protonated, whereas Asp27 is negatively charged. Previous mechanisms have proposed a keto-to-enol tautomerization of the substrate to facilitate protonation of the N5 atom. The structure supports the existence of the keto tautomer owing to protonation of the N3 atom, suggesting that tautomerization is unnecessary for catalysis. In the 1.05-Å resolution X-ray structure of the ternary complex, conformational disorder of the Met20 side chain is coupled to electron density for a partially occupied water within hydrogen-bonding distance of the N5 atom of folate; this suggests direct protonation of substrate by solvent. We propose a catalytic mechanism for DHFR that involves stabilization of the keto tautomer of the substrate, elevation of the pKa value of the N5 atom of DHF by Asp27, and protonation of N5 by water that gains access to the active site through fluctuation of the Met20 side chain even though the Met20 loop is closed. PMID:25453083

  8. Rational Design of Novel Allosteric Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitors Showing Antibacterial Effects on Drug-Resistant Escherichia coli Escape Variants.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bharath; Rodrigues, João V; Tonddast-Navaei, Sam; Shakhnovich, Eugene; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2017-07-21

    In drug discovery, systematic variations of substituents on a common scaffold and bioisosteric replacements are often used to generate diversity and obtain molecules with better biological effects. However, this could saturate the small-molecule diversity pool resulting in drug resistance. On the other hand, conventional drug discovery relies on targeting known pockets on protein surfaces leading to drug resistance by mutations of critical pocket residues. Here, we present a two-pronged strategy of designing novel drugs that target unique pockets on a protein's surface to overcome the above problems. Dihydrofolate reductase, DHFR, is a critical enzyme involved in thymidine and purine nucleotide biosynthesis. Several classes of compounds that are structural analogues of the substrate dihydrofolate have been explored for their antifolate activity. Here, we describe 10 novel small-molecule inhibitors of Escherichia coli DHFR, EcDHFR, belonging to the stilbenoid, deoxybenzoin, and chalcone family of compounds discovered by a combination of pocket-based virtual ligand screening and systematic scaffold hopping. These inhibitors show a unique uncompetitive or noncompetitive inhibition mechanism, distinct from those reported for all known inhibitors of DHFR, indicative of binding to a unique pocket distinct from either substrate or cofactor-binding pockets. Furthermore, we demonstrate that rescue mutants of EcDHFR, with reduced affinity to all known classes of DHFR inhibitors, are inhibited at the same concentration as the wild-type. These compounds also exhibit antibacterial activity against E. coli harboring the drug-resistant variant of DHFR. This discovery is the first report on a novel class of inhibitors targeting a unique pocket on EcDHFR.

  9. Biosynthetic incorporation of telluromethionine into dihydrofolate reductase and crystallographic analysis of the distribution of tellurium atoms in the protein molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Kunkle, M.G.; Lewinski, K.; Boles, J.O.; Dunlap, R.B.; Odom, J.D.; Lebioda, L.

    1994-12-01

    Recent successes in crystallographic studies of proteins with methionine (Met) residues replaced with SeMet, pioneered by Hendrickson and coworkers, inspired us to replace Met with TeMet in Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). E. coli DHFR, which catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate, consists of 159 residues, 5 of which are Met. TeMet was incorporated into DHFR using the Met auxotroph, E. coli DL41, carrying the expression vector pWT8 with an IPTG inducible promoter and ampicillin resistance gene. The enzyme was purified by successive chromatography on Q-Sepharose and PHenyl Sepharose resins, yielding milligram quantities of homogeneous enzyme with a specific activity of 40 units/mg. TeMet DHFR exhibits kinetic properties similar to those of wt DHFR. Amino acid analysis indicated 3 authentic Met residues in TeMet DHFR, whereas atomic absorption spectroscopy detected 2 Te per protein molecule. Amino acid sequence analysis results suggested that only authentic Met was present in the first three Met positions (1,16,and 20). Crystals of Te-DHFR were grown in the presence of methotrexate from PEG 4000 and were isomorphous with wt-DHFR crystals grown from ethanol. Difference Fourier maps and restrained least-squares refinement show very little, if any, Te in the first three Met positions: Met{sup 1}, Met{sup 16}, and Met{sup 20}, whereas the occupancy of Te in positions 42 and 92 is 0.64. Apparently, the process of folding, subsequent purification, and crystallization select DHFR molecules with Te in Met{sup 42} and Met{sup 92}. Replacing Met with TeMet provides an internal probe that should facilitate structural and mechanistic studies of proteins.

  10. Isolation of streptococcal hyaluronate synthase.

    PubMed

    Prehm, P; Mausolf, A

    1986-05-01

    Hyaluronate synthase was isolated from protoblast membranes of streptococci by Triton X-114 extraction and cetylpyridinium chloride precipitation. It was identified as a 52,000-Mr protein, which bound to nascent hyaluronate and was affinity-labelled by periodate-oxidized UDP-glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. Antibodies directed against the 52,000-Mr protein inhibited hyaluronate synthesis. Mutants defective in hyaluronate synthase activity lacked the 52,000-Mr protein in membrane extracts. Synthase activity was solubilized from membranes by cholate in active form and purified by ion-exchange chromatography.

  11. Isolation of streptococcal hyaluronate synthase.

    PubMed Central

    Prehm, P; Mausolf, A

    1986-01-01

    Hyaluronate synthase was isolated from protoblast membranes of streptococci by Triton X-114 extraction and cetylpyridinium chloride precipitation. It was identified as a 52,000-Mr protein, which bound to nascent hyaluronate and was affinity-labelled by periodate-oxidized UDP-glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. Antibodies directed against the 52,000-Mr protein inhibited hyaluronate synthesis. Mutants defective in hyaluronate synthase activity lacked the 52,000-Mr protein in membrane extracts. Synthase activity was solubilized from membranes by cholate in active form and purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:3092808

  12. Phosphanilic Acid Inhibits Dihydropteroate Synthase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    dihydropteroate synthases of P. aeruginosa and E . coli were about equally susceptible to inhibition by PA. These results suggest that cells of P. aeruginosa...are more permeable to PA than cells of E . coli . Although a weak inhibitor, PA acted on dihydropteroate synthase in the same manner as the sulfonamides...with which PA is structurally related. Inhibition of E . coli by PA in a basal salts-glucose medium was prevented by p-aminobenzoic acid (pABA). However

  13. Bacterial nitric oxide synthases.

    PubMed

    Crane, Brian R; Sudhamsu, Jawahar; Patel, Bhumit A

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) are multidomain metalloproteins first identified in mammals as being responsible for the synthesis of the wide-spread signaling and protective agent nitric oxide (NO). Over the past 10 years, prokaryotic proteins that are homologous to animal NOSs have been identified and characterized, both in terms of enzymology and biological function. Despite some interesting differences in cofactor utilization and redox partners, the bacterial enzymes are in many ways similar to their mammalian NOS (mNOS) counterparts and, as such, have provided insight into the structural and catalytic properties of the NOS family. In particular, spectroscopic studies of thermostable bacterial NOSs have revealed key oxyheme intermediates involved in the oxidation of substrate L-arginine (Arg) to product NO. The biological functions of some bacterial NOSs have only more recently come to light. These studies disclose new roles for NO in biology, such as taking part in toxin biosynthesis, protection against oxidative stress, and regulation of recovery from radiation damage.

  14. sup 13 C and sup 15 N nuclear magnetic resonance evidence of the ionization state of substrates bound to bovine dihydrofolate reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Selinsky, B.S.; Perlman, M.E.; London, R.E. ); Unkefer, C.J. ); Mitchell, J. ); Blakley, R.L. Univ. of Tennessee, Memphis )

    1990-02-06

    The state of protonation of substrates bound to mammalian dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) has significance for the mechanism of catalysis. To investigate this, dihydrofolate and dihydropteroylpentaglutamate have been synthesized with {sup 15}N enrichment at N-5. {sup 15}N NMR studies have been performed on the binary complexes formed by bovine DHFR with these compounds and with (5-{sup 15}N)dihydrobiopterin. The results indicate that there is no protonation at N-5 in the binary complexes, and this was confirmed by {sup 13}C NMR studies with folate and dihydrofolate synthesized with {sup 13}C enrichment at C-6. The chemical shift displacements produced by complex formation are in the same direction as those which result from deprotonation of the N-3/C-4-O amide group and are consistent with at least partial loss of the proton from N-3. This would be possible if, as crystallographic data indicate, there is interaction of N-3 and the 2-amino group of the bound ligands with the carboxylate of the active site glutamate residue (Glu{sup 30}).

  15. Functional nucleotide excision repair is required for the preferential removal of N-ethylpurines from the transcribed strand of the dihydrofolate reductase gene of Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sitaram, A; Plitas, G; Wang, W; Scicchitano, D A

    1997-01-01

    Transcription-coupled repair of DNA adducts is an essential factor that must be considered when one is elucidating biological endpoints resulting from exposure to genotoxic agents. Alkylating agents comprise one group of chemical compounds which modify DNA by reacting with oxygen and nitrogen atoms in the bases of the double helix. To discern the role of transcription-coupled DNA repair of N-ethylpurines present in discrete genetic domains, Chinese hamster ovary cells were exposed to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, and the clearance of the damage from the dihydrofolate reductase gene was investigated. The results indicate that N-ethylpurines were removed from the dihydrofolate reductase gene of nucleotide excision repair-proficient Chinese hamster ovary cells; furthermore, when repair rates in the individual strands were determined, a statistically significant bias in the removal of ethyl-induced, alkali-labile sites was observed, with clearance occurring 30% faster from the transcribed strand than from its nontranscribed counterpart at early times after exposure. In contrast, removal of N-ethylpurines was observed in the dihydrofolate reductase locus in cells that lacked nucleotide excision repair, but both strands were repaired at the same rate, indicating that transcription-coupled clearance of these lesions requires the presence of active nucleotide excision repair. PMID:9001209

  16. Lipoic Acid Synthase (LASY)

    PubMed Central

    Padmalayam, Indira; Hasham, Sumera; Saxena, Uday; Pillarisetti, Sivaram

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Lipoic acid synthase (LASY) is the enzyme that is involved in the endogenous synthesis of lipoic acid, a potent mitochondrial antioxidant. The aim of this study was to study the role of LASY in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We studied expression of LASY in animal models of type 2 diabetes. We also looked at regulation of LASY in vitro under conditions that exist in diabetes. Additionally, we looked at effects of LASY knockdown on cellular antioxidant status, inflammation, mitochondrial function, and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. RESULTS—LASY expression is significantly reduced in tissues from animal models of diabetes and obesity compared with age- and sex-matched controls. In vitro, LASY mRNA levels were decreased by the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and high glucose. Downregulation of the LASY gene by RNA interference (RNAi) reduced endogenous levels of lipoic acid, and the activities of critical components of the antioxidant defense network, increasing oxidative stress. Treatment with exogenous lipoic acid compensated for some of these defects. RNAi-mediated downregulation of LASY induced a significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells. In endothelial cells, downregulation of LASY aggravated the inflammatory response that manifested as an increase in both basal and TNF-α–induced expression of the proinflammatory cytokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Overexpression of the LASY gene ameliorated the inflammatory response. CONCLUSIONS—Deficiency of LASY results in an overall disturbance in the antioxidant defense network, leading to increased inflammation, insulin resistance, and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:19074983

  17. Quinazoline antifolates inhibiting thymidylate synthase: variation of the N10 substituent.

    PubMed

    Jones, T R; Calvert, A H; Jackman, A L; Eakin, M A; Smithers, M J; Betteridge, R F; Newell, D R; Hayter, A J; Stocker, A; Harland, S J

    1985-10-01

    The synthesis of 12 new 5,8-dideazafolates with isopropyl, cyclopropylmethyl, 2-fluoroethyl, carbamoylmethyl, phenacyl, 3-fluorobenzyl, 5-uracilylmethyl, carboxymethyl, 2-carboxyethyl, 3-cyanopropyl, 3-hydroxypropyl, and cyanomethyl substituents at N10 is described. In general, the synthetic route involved monoalkylation of diethyl N-(4-amino-benzoyl)-L-glutamate, coupling of the resulting secondary amine with 2-amino-6-(bromomethyl)-4-hydroxyquinazoline hydrobromide in N,N-dimethylacetamide with calcium carbonate as the base, and deprotection using mild alkali. The cyanomethyl derivatives was found to be unexpectedly base labile and was therefore prepared by mild acid deprotection of a di-tert-butyl ester. The compounds were tested as inhibitors of purified L1210 thymidylate synthase (TS). Four members of the series were more potent that the N10-hydrogen compound, but none was superior to the previously described N10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolic acid. Selected compounds were examined as inhibitors of purified L1210 dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). As desired, N10 substitution in general reduced DHFR inhibitory activity; these results are discussed. As a measure of cytotoxicity, the compounds were examined for their inhibition of the growth of L1210 cells in culture. None of the new substituents conferred enhanced potency relative to N10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolic acid (ID50 = 5 microM), which, as the best TS inhibitor and a relatively poor DHFR inhibitor, continues to lead this series.

  18. Control of synthesis of mRNA's for T4 bacteriophage-specific dihydrofolate reductase and deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase.

    PubMed Central

    Witmer, H; Baros, A; Ende, D; Dosmar, M

    1976-01-01

    A 30 degrees C, functional messengers for dCMP hydroxymethylase first appeared 3 to 6 min postinfection and reached their maximum levels at 12 min. Chloramphenicol, added before the phage, reduced the rate of mRNA accumulation. When the antibiotic was added 6 min postinfection, mRNA levels increased at their normal rate but there was no obvious repression of messenger accumulation. Delaying the addition of drug until 8 or 12 min had progressively less effect on the pattern of hydroxymethylase mRNA metabolism. When chloramphenicol was present from preinfection times or from 6 min postinfection, all hydroxymethylase mRNA's synthesized were stable; at later times, however, the ability of the drug to stabilize mRNA decreased with its ability to delay the turnoff of mRNA production. An overaccumulation of hydroxymethylase mRNA was also seen when phage-specific DNA synthesis was inhibited either by mutational lesion in an essential viral gene or by 5-fluorodeoxyuridine. By min 20 of a DNA-negative program, hydroxymethylase mRNA synthesis was repressed to the point where it no longer compensated for decay. However, a finite level of hydroxymethylase mRNA synthesis was maintained at later times of a DNA-negative infection. Such results indicate that replication of the phage chromosome is necessary but not sufficient for a complete turnoff of hydroxymethylase mRNA production. Functions controlled by the maturation-defective proteins (the products of genes 55 and 33) played only a minor role in the regulation of hydroxymethylase mRNA, metabolism. Thus, we favor the hypothesis that a complete turnoff of hydroxymethylase messenger production requires one or more new proteins as well as an interval of DNA replication. The absence of DNA synthesis had no particular effect upon dihydrofolate reductase messenger production. The preinfection addition of chloramphenicol likewise had little effect on dihydrofolate reductase messenger metabolism. These latter data imply that prior

  19. Molecular cloning of Chinese hamster dihydrofolate reductase-specific cDNA and the identification of multiple dihydrofolate reductase mRNAs in antifolate-resistant Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, J A; Kurtz, D T; Melera, P W

    1981-01-01

    ds cDNA from antifolate-resistant Chinese hamster lung fibroblast subline DC-3F/MQ19 was ligated to Eco RI and Sal I oligonucleotide linkers and cloned into Eco RI and Sal I digested pBR322. Transformed colonies containing dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)-specific recombinant plasmid were identified by Grunstein Hogness assay using a Chinese hamster DHFR-specific cDNA probe. A recombinant plasmid, pDHFR6, containing a 650 bp HFR insert was isolated and analyzed. This plasmid was used as a molecular probe in a Northern blot analysis of both cytoplasmic and polysomal DHFR, poly A+ mRNAs of the DC-3F/MQ19 subline, which over-produces a 20,000d DHFR 150-fold, and DC-3F/A3 subline, which over-produces a 21,000d DHFR 170-fold. This analysis revealed the presence of three DHFR mRNA species of 1350, 2200, and 3300 nucleotides in both independently-derived cell lines. The relative abundance of each species however varied strikingly between the two cell lines. Images PMID:6262725

  20. Study on Folate Binding Domain of Dihydrofolate Reductase in Different Plant species and Human beings.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Aveek; Datta, Animesh Kumar; Datta, Siraj

    2014-01-01

    Data base (NCBI and TIGR) searches are made to retrieve protein sequences of different plant species namely Medicago truncatula, Pisum sativum, Ricinus communis, Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera, Glycine max, Daucus carota, Oryza sativa Japonica Group, Arabidopsis lyrata subsp. lyrata, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa Indica Group, Zea mays and careful alignment of derived sequences shows 95% or higher identity. Similarly, DHFR sequence of human being is also retrieved from NCBI. A phylogenetic tree is constructed from different plant and human DHFR domain using the Neighbour - Joining method in MEGA 5.05. Conservation score is performed by using PARALINE. Result suggests that folate binding domain of dihydrofolare reductase is conserved (score 8.06) and excepting some minor variations the basic structure of the domain in both plant species and human being is rather similar. Human DHFR domain contains PEKN sequence near active site, though proline is common for all the selected organisms but the other sequences are different in plants. The plant domain is always associated with TS (Thymidylate synthase). Plant based system is predicted to be an effective model for assessment of MTX (Methotrexate) and other antifolate drugs.

  1. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Naithani, Manisha; Saxena, Vartika; Mirza, Anissa Atif; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Sharma, Kapil; Bharadwaj, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p = 0.790). Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus.

  2. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Vartika; Mirza, Anissa Atif; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Sharma, Kapil; Bharadwaj, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p = 0.790). Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus. PMID:27064332

  3. Stoichiometric selection of tight-binding inhibitors by wild-type and mutant forms of malarial (Plasmodium falciparum) dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee; Vanichtanankul, Jarunee; Tarnchompoo, Bongkoch; Yuvaniyama, Jirundon; Taweechai, Supannee; Yuthavong, Yongyuth

    2005-03-01

    A simple method for screening combinatorial and other libraries of inhibitors of malarial (Plasmodium falciparum) dihydrofolate reductase (PfDHFR) has been developed, based on the affinities of the inhibitors with the enzyme. In the presence of limiting amounts of the enzyme, a number of inhibitors in the library were bound to extents reflecting the relative binding affinities. Following ultrafiltration and guanidine hydrochloride treatment to release bound inhibitors, the amounts of free and bound inhibitors could be determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The differences in the patterns reflected the binding of high-affinity components compared with the other members in the library. A good correlation was found between the inhibition constants (Ki values) and the extent of binding of inhibitors to wild-type, double (C59R+S108N) and quadruple mutant (N51I+C59R+S108N+I164L) of PfDHFR, as well as human DHFR. In addition to identifying lead components of the libraries with high affinities (low Ki values) and stabilities (low k(off) rates), this simple method also provides an alternative way for quickly and accurately calculating enzyme binding affinities of inhibitors in combinatorial chemical libraries.

  4. Structural studies on bioactive compounds. 28. Selective activity of triazenyl-substituted pyrimethamine derivatives against Pneumocystis carinii dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M F; Phillip, K S; Rathbone, D L; O'Shea, D M; Queener, S F; Schwalbe, C H; Lambert, P A

    1997-06-06

    Triazenyl-substituted pyrimethamine derivatives 10a-s have been prepared by coupling diazotized 2,4-diamino-5-(3-amino-4-chlorophenyl)-6-ethyl pyrimidine (1c) with a series of secondary amines in aqueous sodium carbonate solution. The triazenes which are stable and poorly soluble as free bases form more soluble, but unstable, salts with alkanesulfonic acids. The lead dimethyltriazene 2,4-diamino-5[4-chloro-3-(3,3-dimethyltriazen-1-yl)phenyl]-6-et hylpyrimidine (4a) forms a crystalline ethanesulfonic acid salt (solvated with 2-propanol), which is protonated at the pyrimidine N-1 position, as determined by X-ray crystallography. The ability of these new triazenes to inhibit Pneumocystis carinii dihydrofolate reductase in vitro has been compared to that of triazene 4a. The most potent and selective compound, 2,4-diamino-5-[3-[3-[2-(acetyloxy)ethyl]-3-benzyltriazen-1-y l]-4- chlorophenyl]-6-ethylpyrimidine (14a), has an IC50 value of 0.17 microM against the microbial enzyme and potentially useful selectivity (rat liver IC50/P. carinii IC50 = 114).

  5. Simulations of Remote Mutants of Dihydrofolate Reductase Reveal the Nature of a Network of Residues Coupled to Hydride Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Roston, Daniel; Kohen, Amnon; Doron, Dvir; Major, Dan T.

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical studies have proposed that enzymes involve networks of coupled residues throughout the protein that participate in motions accompanying chemical barrier crossing. Here we have examined portions of a proposed network in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations. The simulations employ a hybrid quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics approach with a recently developed semi-empirical AM1-SRP Hamiltonian that provides accurate results for this reaction. The simulations reproduce experimentally determined catalytic rates for the wild type and distant mutants of E. coli DHFR, underscoring the accuracy of the simulation protocol. Additionally the simulations provide detailed insight into how residues remote from the active site affect the catalyzed chemistry, through changes in the thermally averaged properties along the reaction coordinate. The mutations do not greatly affect the structure of the transition state near the bond activation, but we observe differences somewhat removed from the point of C-H cleavage that affect the rate. The mutations have global effects on the thermally averaged structure that propagate throughout the enzyme and the current simulations highlight several interactions that appear to be particularly important. PMID:24798860

  6. Survival and risk of relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a Mexican population is affected by dihydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    GÓMEZ-GÓMEZ, YAZMÍN; ORGANISTA-NAVA, JORGE; SAAVEDRA-HERRERA, MÓNICA VIRGINIA; RIVERA-RAMÍREZ, ANA BERTHA; TERÁN-PORCAYO, MARCO ANTONIO; DEL CARMEN ALARCÓN-ROMERO, LUZ; ILLADES-AGUIAR, BERENICE; LEYVA-VÁZQUEZ, MARCO ANTONIO

    2012-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is the major target of methotrexate, a key component in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment. Polymorphisms in the gene coding for DHFR have been associated with adverse event treatment. This study evaluated the effect of the -A317G and C829T polymorphisms in the DHFR gene on survival and risk of relapse of ALL. Seventy patients with ALL and 100 healthy individuals were genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. An association between the polymorphisms and the risk of relapse was found (p<0.05); patients with the -317G/G genotype were found to have an 8.55 (95% CI 1.84–39.70) higher chance of relapse and carriers of the 829T/T genotype had a 14.0 (95% CI 1.13–172.63) higher chance of relapse. Other variables, such as age and leukocyte count, were associated (p<0.05) with the risk of relapse of the disease. Individuals with the G/G and T/T genotype of the -A317G and C829T polymorphisms had poorer survival compared to other genotype groups (log-rank test; p<0.05). Although preliminary, these data seem to suggest a role for the DHFR polymorphisms in the risk of relapse of ALL and the mortality risk in these patients. PMID:22969948

  7. Modified 2,4-diaminopyrimidine-based dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors as potential drug scaffolds against Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Nammalwar, Baskar; Bourne, Christina R.; Wakeham, Nancy; Bourne, Philip C.; Barrow, Esther W.; Muddala, N. Prasad; Bunce, Richard A.; Berlin, K. Darrell; Barrow, William W.

    2014-01-01

    The current paper describes the synthesis and biological evaluation of dihydrophthalazine-appended 2,4-diaminopyrimidine (DAP) inhibitors (1) oxidized at the methylene bridge linking the DAP ring to the central aromatic ring and (2) modified at the central ring ether groups. Structures 4a-b incorporating an oxidized methylene bridge showed a decrease in activity, while slightly larger alkyl groups (CH2CH3 versus CH3) on the central ring oxygen atoms (R2 and R3) had a minimal impact on the inhibition. Comparison of the potency data for previously reported RAB1 and BN-53 with the most potent of the new derivatives (19b and 20a-b) showed similar values for inhibition of cellular growth and direct enzymatic inhibition (MICs 0.5-2 μg/mL). Compounds 29-34 with larger ester and ether groups containing substituted aromatic rings at R3 exhibited slightly reduced activity (MICs 2-16 μg/mL). One explanation for this attenuated activity could be encroachment of the extended R3 into the neighboring NADPH co-factor. These results indicate that modest additions to the central ring oxygen atoms are well tolerated, while larger modifications have the potential to act as dual-site inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). PMID:25435253

  8. Computation of affinity and selectivity: Binding of 2,4-diaminopteridine and 2,4-diaminoquinazoline inhibitors to dihydrofolate reductases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marelius, John; Graffner-Nordberg, Malin; Hansson, Tomas; Hallberg, Anders; Åqvist, Johan

    1998-03-01

    Binding energy calculations for complexes of mutant and wild-type human dihydrofolate reductases with 2,4-diaminopteridine and 2,4-diaminoquinazoline inhibitors are reported. Quantitative insight into binding energetics of these molecules is obtained from calculations based on force field energy evaluation and thermal sampling by molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated affinity of methotrexate for wild-type and mutant enzymes is reasonably well reproduced. Truncation of the methotrexate glutamate tail results in a loss of affinity by several orders of magnitude. No major difference in binding strength is predicted between the pteridines and the quinazolines, while the N-methyl group present in methotrexate appears to confer significantly stronger binding. The recent improvement, which is used here, of our linear interaction energy method for binding affinity prediction, as well as problems with treating charged and flexible ligands are discussed. This approach should be suitable in a drug discovery context for prediction of binding energies of new inhibitors prior to their synthesis, when some information about the binding mode is available.

  9. Comparative study on dihydrofolate reductases from Shewanella species living in deep-sea and ambient atmospheric-pressure environments.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Chiho; Ohmae, Eiji; Tate, Shin-ichi; Gekko, Kunihiko; Nakasone, Kaoru; Kato, Chiaki

    2011-03-01

    To examine whether dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from deep-sea bacteria has undergone molecular evolution to adapt to high-pressure environments, we cloned eight DHFRs from Shewanella species living in deep-sea and ambient atmospheric-pressure environments, and subsequently purified six proteins to compare their structures, stabilities, and functions. The DHFRs showed 74-90% identity in primary structure to DHFR from S. violacea, but only 55% identity to DHFR from Escherichia coli (ecDHFR). Far-ultraviolet circular dichroism and fluorescence spectra suggested that the secondary and tertiary structures of these DHFRs were similar. In addition, no significant differences were found in structural stability as monitored by urea-induced unfolding and the kinetic parameters, K(m) and k(cat); although the DHFRs from Shewanella species were less stable and more active (2- to 4-fold increases in k(cat)/K(m)) than ecDHFR. Interestingly, the pressure effects on enzyme activity revealed that DHFRs from ambient-atmospheric species are not necessarily incompatible with high pressure, and DHFRs from deep-sea species are not necessarily tolerant of high pressure. These results suggest that the DHFR molecule itself has not evolved to adapt to high-pressure environments, but rather, those Shewanella species with enzymes capable of retaining functional activity under high pressure migrated into the deep-sea.

  10. Specificity in structure-based drug design: identification of a novel, selective inhibitor of Pneumocystis carinii dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Gschwend, D A; Sirawaraporn, W; Santi, D V; Kuntz, I D

    1997-09-01

    Specificity is an important aspect of structure-based drug design. Distinguishing between related targets in different organisms is often the key to therapeutic success. Pneumocystis carinii is a fungal opportunist which causes a crippling pneumonia in immunocompromised individuals. We report the identification of novel inhibitors of P. carinii dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) that are selective versus inhibition of human DHFR using computational molecular docking techniques. The Fine Chemicals Directory, a database of commercially available compounds, was screened with the DOCK program suite to produce a list of potential P. carinii DHFR inhibitors. We then used a postdocking refinement directed at discerning subtle structural and chemical features that might reflect species specificity. Of 40 compounds predicted to exhibit anti-Pneumocystis DHFR activity, each of novel chemical framework, 13 (33%) show IC50 values better than 150 microM in an enzyme assay. These inhibitors were further assayed against human DHFR: 10 of the 13 (77%) bind preferentially to the fungal enzyme. The most potent compound identified is a 7 microM inhibitor of P. carinii DHFR with 25-fold selectivity. The ability of molecular docking methods to locate selective inhibitors reinforces our view of structure-based drug discovery as a valuable strategy, not only for identifying lead compounds, but also for addressing receptor specificity.

  11. An approximate but efficient method to calculate free energy trends by computer simulation: Application to dihydrofolate reductase-inhibitor complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, Paul R.; Mark, Alan E.; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F.

    1993-06-01

    Derivatives of free energy differences have been calculated by molecular dynamics techniques. The systems under study were ternary complexes of Trimethoprim (TMP) with dihydrofolate reductases of E. coli and chicken liver, containing the cofactor NADPH. Derivatives are taken with respect to modification of TMP, with emphasis on altering the 3-, 4- and 5-substituents of the phenyl ring. A linear approximation allows the encompassing of a whole set of modifications in a single simulation, as opposed to a full perturbation calculation, which requires a separate simulation for each modification. In the case considered here, the proposed technique requires a factor of 1000 less computing effort than a full free energy perturbation calculation. For the linear approximation to yield a significant result, one has to find ways of choosing the perturbation evolution, such that the initial trend mirrors the full calculation. The generation of new atoms requires a careful treatment of the singular terms in the non-bonded interaction. The result can be represented by maps of the changed molecule, which indicate whether complex formation is favoured under movement of partial charges and change in atom polarizabilities. Comparison with experimental measurements of inhibition constants reveals fair agreement in the range of values covered. However, detailed comparison fails to show a significant correlation. Possible reasons for the most pronounced deviations are given.

  12. Asymmetric mutations in the tetrameric R67 dihydrofolate reductase reveal high tolerance to active-site substitutions

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Maximilian C C J C; Morley, Krista L; Volpato, Jordan P; Schmitzer, Andreea R; Pelletier, Joelle N

    2015-01-01

    Type II R67 dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a bacterial plasmid-encoded enzyme that is intrinsically resistant to the widely-administered antibiotic trimethoprim. R67 DHFR is genetically and structurally unrelated to E. coli chromosomal DHFR and has an unusual architecture, in that four identical protomers form a single symmetrical active site tunnel that allows only one substrate binding/catalytic event at any given time. As a result, substitution of an active-site residue has as many as four distinct consequences on catalysis, constituting an atypical model of enzyme evolution. Although we previously demonstrated that no single residue of the native active site is indispensable for function, library selection here revealed a strong bias toward maintenance of two native protomers per mutated tetramer. A variety of such “half-native” tetramers were shown to procure native-like catalytic activity, with similar KM values but kcat values 5- to 33-fold lower, illustrating a high tolerance for active-site substitutions. The selected variants showed a reduced thermal stability (Tm ∼12°C lower), which appears to result from looser association of the protomers, but generally showed a marked increase in resilience to heat denaturation, recovering activity to a significantly greater extent than the variant with no active-site substitutions. Our results suggest that the presence of two native protomers in the R67 DHFR tetramer is sufficient to provide native-like catalytic rate and thus ensure cellular proliferation. PMID:25401264

  13. Towards the Understanding of Resistance Mechanisms in Clinically Isolated Trimethoprim-resistant, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Dihydrofolate Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, K.; Lombardo, M; Wright, D; Anderson, A

    2010-01-01

    Resistance to therapeutics such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has become an increasing problem in strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Clinically isolated trimethoprim-resistant strains reveal a double mutation, H30N/F98Y, in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). In order to develop novel and effective therapeutics against these resistant strains, we evaluated a series of propargyl-linked antifolate lead compounds for inhibition of the mutant enzyme. For the propargyl-linked antifolates, the F98Y mutation generates minimal (between 1.2- and 6-fold) losses of affinity and the H30N mutation generates greater losses (between 2.4- and 48-fold). Conversely, trimethoprim affinity is largely diminished by the F98Y mutation (36-fold) and is not affected by the H30N mutation. In order to elucidate a mechanism of resistance, we determined a crystal structure of a complex of this double mutant with a lead propargyl-linked antifolate. This structure suggests a resistance mechanism consistent both for the propargyl-linked class of antifolates and for trimethoprim that is based on the loss of a conserved water-mediated hydrogen bond.

  14. Development of nonpolar surfaces in the folding of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase detected by 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate binding.

    PubMed

    Jones, B E; Jennings, P A; Pierre, R A; Matthews, C R

    1994-12-27

    The development of nonpolar surfaces during the folding of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) was studied by monitoring the time-dependent fluorescence of 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (ANS) included in the refolding solution. Stopped-flow refolding experiments demonstrated a rapid increase in fluorescence intensity within the dead time of mixing (5 ms), indicating that the earliest detectable folding intermediate contains hydrophobic surfaces which are capable of binding ANS. A further increase in fluorescence intensity over the next 300 ms coincides with the formation of a set of four intermediates which are known to contain a specific tertiary contact [Kuwajima, K., Garvey, E. P., Finn, B. E., Matthews, C. R., & Sugai, S. (1991) Biochemistry 30, 7693-7703]. Experiments performed in the presence of polar fluorescence quenching agents indicate that the binding sites for ANS in the burst phase species are more exposed to solvent than those in the subsequent set of intermediates. When considered along with the above study of the formation of secondary structure by stopped-flow circular dichroism, these results imply that DHFR initially forms a molten globule intermediate. Subdomains containing specific tertiary structure and more solvent-excluded ANS binding sites then form before ultimately being converted to native or native-like conformations during the rate-limiting steps in the folding of DHFR. The occurrence of similar kinetic phases observed by ANS binding during the folding of a number of other proteins suggests that this may be a common scheme for protein folding reactions.

  15. Combinatorial exploration of the catalytic site of a drug-resistant dihydrofolate reductase: creating alternative functional configurations.

    PubMed

    Schmitzer, Andreea R; Lépine, François; Pelletier, Joelle N

    2004-11-01

    We have applied a global approach to enzyme active site exploration, where multiple mutations were introduced combinatorially at the active site of Type II R67 dihydrofolate reductase (R67 DHFR), creating numerous new active site environments within a constant framework. By this approach, we combinatorially modified all 16 principal amino acids that constitute the active site of this enzyme. This approach is fundamentally different from active site point mutation in that the native active site context is no longer accounted for. Among the 1536 combinatorially mutated active site variants of R67 DHFR we created, we selected and kinetically characterized three variants with highly altered active site compositions. We determined that they are of high fitness, as defined by a complex function consisting jointly of catalytic activity and resistance to trimethoprim. The k(cat) and K(M) values were similar to those for the native enzyme. The favourable Delta(DeltaG) values obtained (ranging from -0.72 to -1.08 kcal/mol) suggest that, despite their complex mutational pattern, no fundamental change in the catalytic mechanism has occurred. We illustrate that combinatorial active site mutagenesis can allow for the creation of compensatory mutations that could not be predicted and thus provides a route for more extensive exploration of functional sequence space than is allowed by point mutation.

  16. Dihydrofolate reductase: Sequential resonance assignments using 2D and 3D NMR and secondary structure determination in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, M.D.; Birdsall, B.; Jimenez-Barbero, J.; Polshakov, V.I.; McCormick, J.E.; Feeney, J.; Frenkiel, T.A.; Bauer, C.J. ); Roberts, G.C.K. )

    1991-06-25

    Three-dimensional (3D) heteronuclear NMR techniques have been used to make sequential {sup 1}H and {sup 15}H resonance assignments for most of the residues of Lactobacillus casei dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), a monomeric protein of molecular mass 18,300 Da. A uniformly {sup 15}N-labeled sample of the protein was prepared and its complex with methotrexate (MTX) studied by 3D {sup 15}N/{sup 1}H nuclear Overhauserheteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (NOESY-HMQC), Harmann-Hahn-heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HOHAHA-HMQC), and HMQC-NOESY-HMQC experiments. These experiments overcame most of the spectral overlap problems caused by chemical shift degeneracies in 2D spectra and allowed the {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H through-space and through-bond connectivities to be identified unambiguously, leading to the resonance assignments. The novel HMQC-NOESY-HMQC experiment allows NOE cross peaks to be detected between NH protons even when their {sup 1}H chemical shifts are degenerate as long as the amide {sup 15}N chemical shifts are nondegenerate. The 3D experiments, in combination with conventional 2D NOESY, COSY, and HOHAHA experiments on unlabelled and selectively deuterated DHFR, provide backbone assignments for 146 of the 162 residues and side-chain assignments for 104 residues of the protein. Data from the NOE-based experiments and identification of the slowly exchanging amide protons provide detailed information about the secondary structure of the binary complex of the protein with methotrexate.

  17. Host dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)-directed cycloguanil analogues endowed with activity against influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, Michele; Naesens, Lieve; Gazzarrini, Sabrina; Santucci, Matteo; Cichero, Elena; Tasso, Bruno; Moroni, Anna; Costi, Maria Paola; Loddo, Roberta

    2017-07-28

    We have identified a series of 1-aryl-4,6-diamino-1,2-dihydrotriazines, structurally related to the antimalarial drug cycloguanil, as new inhibitors of influenza A and B virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) via targeting of the host dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme. Most analogues proved active against influenza B virus in the low micromolar range, and the best compounds (11, 13, 14 and 16) even reached the sub-micromolar potency of zanamivir (EC50 = 0.060 μM), and markedly exceeded (up to 327 times) the antiviral efficacy of ribavirin. Activity was also observed for two influenza A strains, including a virus with the S31N mutant form of M2 proton channel, which is the most prevalent resistance mutation for amantadine. Importantly, the compounds displayed nanomolar activity against RSV and a superior selectivity index, since the ratio of cytotoxic to antiviral concentration was >10,000 for the three most active compounds 11, 14 and 16 (EC50 ∼0.008 μM), far surpassing the potency and safety profile of the licensed drug ribavirin (EC50 = 5.8 μM, SI > 43). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. DNA variants in region for noncoding interfering transcript of dihydrofolate reductase gene and outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Al-Shakfa, Fidaa; Dulucq, Stéphanie; Brukner, Ivan; Milacic, Iva; Ansari, Marc; Beaulieu, Patrick; Moghrabi, Albert; Laverdière, Caroline; Sallan, Stephen E; Silverman, Lewis B; Neuberg, Donna; Kutok, Jeffery L; Sinnett, Daniel; Krajinovic, Maja

    2009-11-15

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is the major target of methotrexate, a key component in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment. We recently reported an association of DHFR promoter polymorphisms with ALL outcome. Lower event-free survival correlated with haplotype *1, defined by A(-317) and C(-1610) alleles. Haplotype *1 was also associated higher DHFR expression. Here, we analyzed adjacent 400-bp region participating in DHFR regulation as both a major promoter and a noncoding minor transcript. Six polymorphisms were identified, of which five were single nucleotide polymorphisms and one was length polymorphism composed of variable number of 9-bp elements and 9-bp insertion/deletion. Haplotype analysis including all promoter polymorphisms revealed diversification of haplotype *1 into five subtypes (*1a-*1e). DNA variations of major promoter/noncoding transcript region and haplotype *1 subtypes were subsequently analyzed for the association with ALL outcome. Lower event-free survival was associated with an A allele of G(308)A polymorphism (P = 0.02) and with *1b haplotype (P = 0.01). This association was particularly striking in high-risk patients (P = 0.001) and was subsequently confirmed in independent patient cohort (P = 0.02). Haplotype *1b was the only haplotype *1 subtype associated with higher mRNA levels. The study provides a new insight into DHFR regulatory variations predisposing to an event in ALL patients.

  19. Cloning, recombinant expression and inhibitor profiles of dihydrofolate reductase from the Australian sheep blow fly, Lucilia cuprina.

    PubMed

    Kotze, A C; Bagnall, N H; Ruffell, A P; Pearson, R

    2014-09-01

    While dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is an important drug target in mammals, bacteria and protozoa, no inhibitors of this enzyme have been developed as commercial insecticides. We therefore examined the potential of this enzyme as a drug target in an important ectoparasite of livestock, the Australian sheep blow fly, Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) (Wiedemann). The non-specific DHFR inhibitors aminopterin and methotrexate significantly inhibited the growth of L. cuprina larvae, with IC50 values at µg levels. Trimethoprim and pyrimethamine were 5-30-fold less active. Relative IC50 values for the inhibition of recombinant L. cuprina DHFR by various inhibitors were in accordance with their relative effects on larval growth. The active-site amino acid residues of L. cuprina DHFR differed by between 34% and 50% when compared with two mammalian species, as well as two bacteria and two protozoa. There were significant charge and size differences in specific residues between the blow fly and human DHFR enzymes, notably the L. cuprina Asn21, Lys31 and Lys63 residues. This study provides bioassay evidence to highlight the potential of blow fly DHFR as an insecticide target, and describes differences in active site residues between blow flies and other organisms which could be exploited in the design of blow fly control chemicals. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  20. Mycocerosic acid synthase exemplifies the architecture of reducing polyketide synthases.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Dominik A; Jakob, Roman P; Zähringer, Franziska; Maier, Timm

    2016-03-24

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are biosynthetic factories that produce natural products with important biological and pharmacological activities. Their exceptional product diversity is encoded in a modular architecture. Modular PKSs (modPKSs) catalyse reactions colinear to the order of modules in an assembly line, whereas iterative PKSs (iPKSs) use a single module iteratively as exemplified by fungal iPKSs (fiPKSs). However, in some cases non-colinear iterative action is also observed for modPKSs modules and is controlled by the assembly line environment. PKSs feature a structural and functional separation into a condensing and a modifying region as observed for fatty acid synthases. Despite the outstanding relevance of PKSs, the detailed organization of PKSs with complete fully reducing modifying regions remains elusive. Here we report a hybrid crystal structure of Mycobacterium smegmatis mycocerosic acid synthase based on structures of its condensing and modifying regions. Mycocerosic acid synthase is a fully reducing iPKS, closely related to modPKSs, and the prototype of mycobacterial mycocerosic acid synthase-like PKSs. It is involved in the biosynthesis of C20-C28 branched-chain fatty acids, which are important virulence factors of mycobacteria. Our structural data reveal a dimeric linker-based organization of the modifying region and visualize dynamics and conformational coupling in PKSs. On the basis of comparative small-angle X-ray scattering, the observed modifying region architecture may be common also in modPKSs. The linker-based organization provides a rationale for the characteristic variability of PKS modules as a main contributor to product diversity. The comprehensive architectural model enables functional dissection and re-engineering of PKSs.

  1. Sucrose Synthase: Expanding Protein Function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sucrose synthase (SUS: EC 2.4.1.13), a key enzyme in plant sucrose catabolism, is uniquely able to mobilize sucrose into multiple pathways involved in metabolic, structural, and storage functions. Our research indicates that the biological function of SUS may extend beyond its catalytic activity. Th...

  2. 2,4-Diaminothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine lipophilic antifolates as inhibitors of Pneumocystis carinii and Toxoplasma gondii dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Rosowsky, A; Papoulis, A T; Queener, S F

    1997-10-24

    Ten previously unreported 2,4-diaminothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine lipophilic dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors were synthesized as potential inhibitors of Pneumocystis carinii and Toxoplasma gondii dihydrofolate reductase. Pivaloylation of 2,4-diamino-5-methylthieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine followed by dibromination with N-bromosuccinimide in the presence of benzoyl peroxide gave 2,4-bis(pivaloylamino)-6-bromo-5-(bromomethyl)thieno[2,3-d]pyrimid ine, which after condensation with substituted anilines or N-methylanilines and deprotection with base yielded 2,4-diamino-6-bromo-5-[(substituted anilino)methyl]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines. Removal of the 6-bromo substituent was accomplished with sodium borohydride and palladium chloride. The reaction yields were generally good to excellent. The products were tested as inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from P. carinii, T. gondii, and rat liver. Although the IC50 could not be reached for the 6-unsubstituted compounds because of their extremely poor solubility, three of the five 6-bromo derivatives were soluble enough to allow the IC50 to be determined against all three enzymes. 2,4-Diamino-5-[3,5-dichloro-4-(1-pyrrolo)anilino]methyl]- 6-bromothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine was the most active of the 6-bromo derivatives, with an IC50 of 7.5 microM against P. carinii DHFR, but showed no selectivity for either P. carinii or T. gondii DHFR relative to the enzyme from rat liver.

  3. Sphingomyelin synthase SMS2 displays dual activity as ceramide phosphoethanolamine synthase[S

    PubMed Central

    Ternes, Philipp; Brouwers, Jos F. H. M.; van den Dikkenberg, Joep; Holthuis, Joost C. M.

    2009-01-01

    Sphingolipids are vital components of eukaryotic membranes involved in the regulation of cell growth, death, intracellular trafficking, and the barrier function of the plasma membrane (PM). While sphingomyelin (SM) is the major sphingolipid in mammals, previous studies indicate that mammalian cells also produce the SM analog ceramide phosphoethanolamine (CPE). Little is known about the biological role of CPE or the enzyme(s) responsible for CPE biosynthesis. SM production is mediated by the SM synthases SMS1 in the Golgi and SMS2 at the PM, while a closely related enzyme, SMSr, has an unknown biochemical function. We now demonstrate that SMS family members display striking differences in substrate specificity, with SMS1 and SMSr being monofunctional enzymes with SM and CPE synthase activity, respectively, and SMS2 acting as a bifunctional enzyme with both SM and CPE synthase activity. In agreement with the PM residency of SMS2, we show that both SM and CPE synthase activities are enhanced at the surface of SMS2-overexpressing HeLa cells. Our findings reveal an unexpected diversity in substrate specificity among SMS family members that should enable the design of specific inhibitors to target the biological role of each enzyme individually. PMID:19454763

  4. The Structure and Competitive Substrate Inhibition of Dihydrofolate Reductase from Enterococcus faecalis Reveal Restrictions to Cofactor Docking

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We are addressing bacterial resistance to antibiotics by repurposing a well-established classic antimicrobial target, the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme. In this work, we have focused on Enterococcus faecalis, a nosocomial pathogen that frequently harbors antibiotic resistance determinants leading to complicated and difficult-to-treat infections. An inhibitor series with a hydrophobic dihydrophthalazine heterocycle was designed from the anti-folate trimethoprim. We have examined the potency of this inhibitor series based on inhibition of DHFR enzyme activity and bacterial growth, including in the presence of the exogenous product analogue folinic acid. The resulting preferences were rationalized using a cocrystal structure of the DHFR from this organism with a propyl-bearing series member (RAB-propyl). In a companion apo structure, we identify four buried waters that act as placeholders for a conserved hydrogen-bonding network to the substrate and indicate an important role in protein stability during catalytic cycling. In these structures, the nicotinamide of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate cofactor is visualized outside of its binding pocket, which is exacerbated by RAB-propyl binding. Finally, homology models of the TMPR sequences dfrK and dfrF were constructed. While the dfrK-encoded protein shows clear sequence changes that would be detrimental to inhibitor binding, the dfrF-encoded protein model suggests the protein would be relatively unstable. These data suggest a utility for anti-DHFR compounds for treating infections arising from E. faecalis. They also highlight a role for water in stabilizing the DHFR substrate pocket and for competitive substrate inhibitors that may gain advantages in potency by the perturbation of cofactor dynamics. PMID:24495113

  5. Identification and characterization of a gene that is coamplified with dihydrofolate reductase in a methotrexate-resistant CHO cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Foreman, P K; Hamlin, J L

    1989-01-01

    As part of an effort to characterize the spatial and functional relationships among genetic elements within the amplified dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) domain in Chinese hamster cells, we have used a variation of the differential hybridization approach to identify cDNA clones whose genes are coamplified with DHFR in the methotrexate-resistant cell line, CHOC 400. Our initial screen was successful in isolating both DHFR and non-DHFR cDNAs. One of the non-DHFR cDNA clones, 2BE2121, hybridizes on Northern (RNA) blots to abundant 1,200- and 1,500-nucleotide (nt) transcripts which differ in the lengths of their 3' untranslated regions. The clone 2BE2121 contains a 789-nt open reading frame but does not appear to be related to any members of the protein or nucleic acid sequence databases. A second larger non-DHFR cDNA, II-19-211, was isolated that is transcribed from the same gene as 2BE2121 but contains only a small carboxyl-terminal portion of the open reading frame. II-19-211 may, therefore, represent either a splicing intermediate or an mRNA transcribed from a cryptic intragenic promoter. Hybridization to cosmids from the DHFR domain shows that 2BE2121 is encoded by a gene approximately 34 kilobases (kb) long. The 5'-most genomic fragment is less than 4 kb from an interamplicon junction. The 3' end of the 2BE2121 gene lies approximately 75 kb downstream from the DHFR gene and approximately 25 kb downstream from the proximal replication initiation site, and the transcriptional polarity is opposite to that of the leading strand of replication. Thus, both the DHFR and 2BE2121 genes are exceptions to the theory that transcription proceeds in the same direction as the leading strand of the replication fork. Images PMID:2725490

  6. Free energy force field (FEFF) 3D-QSAR analysis of a set of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Santos-Filho, O A; Mishra, R K; Hopfinger, A J

    2001-09-01

    Free energy force field (FEFF) 3D-QSAR analysis was used to construct ligand-receptor binding models for a set of 18 structurally diverse antifolates including pyrimethamine, cycloguanil, methotrexate, aminopterin and trimethoprim, and 13 pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines. The molecular target ('receptor') used was a 3D-homology model of a specific mutant type of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). The dependent variable of the 3D-QSAR models is the IC50 inhibition constant for the specific mutant type of PfDHFR. The independent variables of the 3D-QSAR models (the descriptors) are scaled energy terms of a modified first-generation AMBER force field combined with a hydration shell aqueous solvation model and a collection of 2D-QSAR descriptors often used in QSAR studies. Multiple temperature molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) and the genetic function approximation (GFA) were employed using partial least square (PLS) and multidimensional linear regressions as the fitting functions to develop FEFF 3D-QSAR models for the binding process. The significant FEFF energy terms in the best 3D-QSAR models include energy contributions of the direct ligand-receptor interaction. Some changes in conformational energy terms of the ligand due to binding to the enzyme are also found to be important descriptors. The FEFF 3D-QSAR models indicate some structural features perhaps relevant to the mechanism of resistance of the PfDHFR to current antimalarials. The FEFF 3D-QSAR models are also compared to receptor-independent (RI) 4D-QSAR models developed in an earlier study and subsequently refined using recently developed generalized alignment rules.

  7. Mapping and characterization of mutations induced by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide at dihydrofolate reductase locus in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Carothers, A M; Urlaub, G; Grunberger, D; Chasin, L A

    1988-03-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells were mutagenized with benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE), an aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogen, and mutants at the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) locus were isolated. Of 15 mutants analyzed by Southern blotting, one contained a large deletion that spanned all six exons of the 25-kb dhfr gene; the remaining mutants exhibited no detectable changes. Three of these putative point mutations were localized by the loss of a restriction site: a SacI site in exon III, an MspI site in exon III, and a KpnI site in exon VI. The affected regions in two of these mutants were cloned and sequenced. The SacI- mutant was caused by a G:C----T:A transversion resulting in an amber termination codon. In the MspI- mutant, the deletion of a single C:G resulted in a frameshift and a downstream ochre termination codon. On the basis of overlapping restriction site sequences, the KpnI- mutant was deduced to be a splicing mutant involving the most 3' G in intron V. The location of these and the remaining 11 putative point mutations was sought using RNA heteroduplex mapping. Mismatched bases between riboprobes complementary to wild-type dhfr mRNA and mutant mRNA molecules were detected in 10 of the 14 mutants analyzed. These mutations mapped to four of the six exons or exon splice sites. Surprisingly, over half of these mutants exhibited greatly reduced (approximately 10-fold) steady-state levels of dhfr mRNA.

  8. Organization and genesis of dihydrofolate reductase amplicons in the genome of a methotrexate-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell line.

    PubMed

    Ma, C; Looney, J E; Leu, T H; Hamlin, J L

    1988-06-01

    We have recently isolated overlapping recombinant cosmids that represent the equivalent of two complete dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) amplicon types from the methotrexate-resistant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line CHOC 400. In the work described in this report, we used pulse-field gradient gel electrophoresis to analyze large SfiI restriction fragments arising from the amplified dhfr domains. The junction between the 260-kilobase type I amplicons (which are arranged in head-to-tail configurations in the genome) has been localized, allowing the construction of a linear map of the parental dhfr locus. We also show that the 220-kilobase type II amplicons are arranged as inverted repeat structures in the CHOC 400 genome and arose from the type I sequence relatively early in the amplification process. Our data indicate that there are a number of minor amplicon types in the CHOC 400 cell line that were not detected in previous studies; however, the type II amplicons represent ca. 75% of all the amplicons in the CHOC 400 genome. Both the type I and type II amplicons are shown to be composed entirely of sequences that were present in the parental dhfr locus. Studies of less resistant cell lines show that initial amplicons can be larger than those observed in CHOC 400. Once established, a given amplicon type appears to be relatively stable throughout subsequent amplification steps. We also present a modification of an in-gel renaturation method that gives a relatively complete picture of the size and variability of amplicons in the genome.

  9. Free energy force field (FEFF) 3D-QSAR analysis of a set of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Filho, Osvaldo A.; Mishra, Rama K.; Hopfinger, A. J.

    2001-09-01

    Free energy force field (FEFF) 3D-QSAR analysis was used to construct ligand-receptor binding models for a set of 18 structurally diverse antifolates including pyrimethamine, cycloguanil, methotrexate, aminopterin and trimethoprim, and 13 pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines. The molecular target (`receptor') used was a 3D-homology model of a specific mutant type of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). The dependent variable of the 3D-QSAR models is the IC50 inhibition constant for the specific mutant type of PfDHFR. The independent variables of the 3D-QSAR models (the descriptors) are scaled energy terms of a modified first-generation AMBER force field combined with a hydration shell aqueous solvation model and a collection of 2D-QSAR descriptors often used in QSAR studies. Multiple temperature molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) and the genetic function approximation (GFA) were employed using partial least square (PLS) and multidimensional linear regressions as the fitting functions to develop FEFF 3D-QSAR models for the binding process. The significant FEFF energy terms in the best 3D-QSAR models include energy contributions of the direct ligand-receptor interaction. Some changes in conformational energy terms of the ligand due to binding to the enzyme are also found to be important descriptors. The FEFF 3D-QSAR models indicate some structural features perhaps relevant to the mechanism of resistance of the PfDHFR to current antimalarials. The FEFF 3D-QSAR models are also compared to receptor-independent (RI) 4D-QSAR models developed in an earlier study and subsequently refined using recently developed generalized alignment rules.

  10. Construction of a modular dihydrofolate reductase cDNA gene: Analysis of signals utilized for efficient expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, J.; Sharp, P.A.

    1982-11-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) modular genes have been constructed with segments containing the adenovirus major late promoter, a 3' splice site from a variable region immunoglobulin gene, a DHFR cDNA, and portions of the simian virus 40 (SV40) genome, DNA-mediated transfer of these genes transformed Chinese hamster ovary DHFR/sup -/ cells to the DHFR/sup +/ phenotype. Transformants contained one to several copies of the transfected DNA integrated into the host genome. Clones subjected to growth in increasing concentrations of methotrexate eventually gave rise to lines containing several hundred copies of the transforming DNA. Analysis of the DHFr mRNA produced in amplified lines indicated the following: (i) All clones utilize the adenovirus major late promoter for transcription initiation. (ii) A hybrid intron formed by the 5' splice site of the adenovirus major late leader and a 3' splice site from a variable-region immunoglobulin gene is properly excised. (iii) The mRNA is not efficiently polyadenylated at sequences in the 3' end of the DHFR cDNA but rather uses polyadenylation signals downstream from the DHFR cDNA. Three independent clones produce a DHFR mRNA containing SV40 or pBR322 and SV40 sequences, and the RNA is polyadenylated at the SV40 late polyadenylation site. Another clone has recombined into cellular DNA and apparently uses a cellular sequence for polyadenylation. Introduction of a segment containing the SV40 early polyadenylation signal into the 3' end of the DHFR cDNA generated a recombinant capable of transforming cells to the DHFR/sup +/ phenotype with at least a 10-fold increase in efficiency, demonstrating the necessity for an efficient polyadenylation signal. Attachment of a DNA segment containing the transcription enhancer 72-base pair repeat) of SV40 further increased the biological activity of the modular DHFR gene 50- to 100-fold.

  11. Identification and characterization of a gene that is coamplified with dihydrofolate reductase in a methotrexate-resistant CHO cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Foreman, P.K.; Hamlin, J.L. . School of Medicine)

    1989-03-01

    As part of an effort to characterize the spatial and functional relationships among genetic elements within the amplified dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) domain in Chinese hamster cells, the authors have used a variation of the differential hybridization approach to identify cDNA clones whose genes are coamplified with DHFR in the methotrexate-resistant cell line, CHOC 400. Their initial screen was successful in isolating both DHFR and non-DHFR cDNAs. One of the non-DHFR cDNA clones, 2BE2121, hybridizes on Northern (RNA) blots to abundant 1,200- and 1,500-nucleotide (nt) transcripts which differ in the lengths of their 3' untranslated regions. The clone 2BE2121 contains a 789-nt open reading frame but does not appear to be related to any members of the protein or nucleic acid sequence databases. A second larger non-DHFR cDNA, II-19-211, was isolated that is transcribed from the same gene as 2BE2121 but contains only a small carboxyl-terminal portion of the open reading frame. II-19-211 may, therefore, represent either a splicing intermediate or an mRNA transcribed from a cryptic intragenic promoter. Hybridization to cosmids from DHFr domain shows that 2BE2121 is encoded by a gene --34 kilobases (kb) long. The 5'-most genomic fragment is less than 4 kb from an interamplicon injection. The 3' end of the 2BE2121 gene lies --75 kb downstream from the DHFR gene and --25 kb downstream from the proximal replication initiation site, and the transcriptional polarity is opposite to that of the leading strand of replication. Thus, both the DHFR and 2BE2121 genes are exceptions to the theory that transcription proceeds in the same direction as the leading strand of the replication fork.

  12. Cloning and characterization of a novel, plasmid-encoded trimethoprim-resistant dihydrofolate reductase from Staphylococcus haemolyticus MUR313.

    PubMed

    Dale, G E; Langen, H; Page, M G; Then, R L; Stüber, D

    1995-09-01

    In recent years resistance to the antibacterial agent trimethoprim (Tmp) has become more widespread, and several trimethoprim-resistant (Tmpr) dihydrofolate reductases (DHFRs) have been described from gram-negative bacteria. In staphylococci, only one Tmpr DHFR has been described, the type S1 DHFR, which is encoded by the dfrA gene found on transposon Tn4003. In order to investigate the coincidence of high-level Tmp resistance and the presence of dfrA, we analyzed the DNAs from various Tmpr staphylococci for the presence of dfrA sequences by PCR with primers specific for the thyE-dfrA genes from Tn4003. We found that 30 or 33 isolates highly resistant to Tmp (MICs, > or = 512 micrograms/ml) contained dfrA sequences, whereas among the Tmpr (MICs, < or = 256 micrograms/ml) and Tmps isolates only the Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates (both Tmpr and Tmps) seemed to contain the dfrA gene. Furthermore, we have cloned and characterized a novel, plasmid-encoded Tmpr DHFR from Staphylococcus haemolyticus MUR313. The dfrD gene of plasmid pABU17 is preceded by two putative Shine-Dalgarno sequences potentially allowing for the start of translation at two triplets separated by nine nucleotides. The predicted protein of 166 amino acids, designated S2DHFR, encoded by the longer open reading frame was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. The molecular size of the recombinant S2DHFR was determined by ion spray mass spectrometry to be 19,821.2 +/- 2 Da, which is in agreement with the theoretical value of 19,822 Da. In addition, the recombinant S2DHFR was shown to exhibit DHFR activity and to be highly resistant to Tmp.

  13. The structure and competitive substrate inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase from Enterococcus faecalis reveal restrictions to cofactor docking.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Christina R; Wakeham, Nancy; Webb, Nicole; Nammalwar, Baskar; Bunce, Richard A; Berlin, K Darrell; Barrow, William W

    2014-02-25

    We are addressing bacterial resistance to antibiotics by repurposing a well-established classic antimicrobial target, the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme. In this work, we have focused on Enterococcus faecalis, a nosocomial pathogen that frequently harbors antibiotic resistance determinants leading to complicated and difficult-to-treat infections. An inhibitor series with a hydrophobic dihydrophthalazine heterocycle was designed from the anti-folate trimethoprim. We have examined the potency of this inhibitor series based on inhibition of DHFR enzyme activity and bacterial growth, including in the presence of the exogenous product analogue folinic acid. The resulting preferences were rationalized using a cocrystal structure of the DHFR from this organism with a propyl-bearing series member (RAB-propyl). In a companion apo structure, we identify four buried waters that act as placeholders for a conserved hydrogen-bonding network to the substrate and indicate an important role in protein stability during catalytic cycling. In these structures, the nicotinamide of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate cofactor is visualized outside of its binding pocket, which is exacerbated by RAB-propyl binding. Finally, homology models of the TMP(R) sequences dfrK and dfrF were constructed. While the dfrK-encoded protein shows clear sequence changes that would be detrimental to inhibitor binding, the dfrF-encoded protein model suggests the protein would be relatively unstable. These data suggest a utility for anti-DHFR compounds for treating infections arising from E. faecalis. They also highlight a role for water in stabilizing the DHFR substrate pocket and for competitive substrate inhibitors that may gain advantages in potency by the perturbation of cofactor dynamics.

  14. NMR studies of differences in the conformations and dynamics of ligand complexes formed with mutant dihydrofolate reductases

    SciTech Connect

    Birdsall, B.; Andrews, J.; Ostler, G.; Tendler, S.J.B.; Feeney, J.; Roberts, G.C.K.; Davies, R.W.; Cheung, H.T.A. )

    1989-02-07

    Two mutants of Lactobacillus casei dihydrofolate reductase, Trp 21 {yields} Leu and Asp 26 {yields} Glu, have been prepared by using site-directed mutagenesis methods, and their ligand binding and structural properties have been compared with those of the wild-type enzyme. {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 31}P NMR studies have been carried out to characterize the structural changes in the complexes of the mutant and wild-type enzymes. Replacement of the conserved Trp 21 by a Leu residue causes a decrease in activity of the enzyme and reduces the NADPH binding constant by a factor of 400. The binding of substrates and substrate analogues is only slightly affected. {sup 1}H NMR studies of the Trp 21 {yields} Leu enzyme complexes have confirmed the original resonance assignments for Trp 21. In complexes formed with methotrexate and the mutant enzyme, the results indicate some small changes in conformation occurring as much as 14 {angstrom} away from the site of substitution. For the enzyme-NADPH complexes, the chemical shifts of nuclei in the bound coenzyme indicate that the nicotinamide ring binds differently in complexes with the mutant and the wild-type enzyme. There are complexes where the wild-type enzyme has been shown to exist in solution as a mixture of conformations, and studies on the corresponding complexes with the Trp 21 {yields} Leu mutant indicate that the delicately poised equilibria can be perturbed. Some conformational adjustments are required to allow the carboxylate of Glu 26 to bind effectively to the N1 proton of inhibitors such as methotrexate and trimethoprim.

  15. Histidine Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry for Probing the Microenvironment of Histidine Residues in Dihydrofolate Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Md. Faiz; Gokulrangan, Giridharan; Tomechko, Sara E.; Bennett, Brad; Dealwis, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Background Histidine Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry (His-HDX-MS) determines the HDX rates at the imidazole C2-hydrogen of histidine residues. This method provides not only the HDX rates but also the pKa values of histidine imidazole rings. His-HDX-MS was used to probe the microenvironment of histidine residues of E. coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), an enzyme proposed to undergo multiple conformational changes during catalysis. Methodology/Principal Findings Using His-HDX-MS, the pKa values and the half-lives (t1/2) of HDX reactions of five histidine residues of apo-DHFR, DHFR in complex with methotrexate (DHFR-MTX), DHFR in complex with MTX and NADPH (DHFR-MTX-NADPH), and DHFR in complex with folate and NADP+ (DHFR-folate-NADP+) were determined. The results showed that the two parameters (pKa and t1/2) are sensitive to the changes of the microenvironment around the histidine residues. Although four of the five histidine residues are located far from the active site, ligand binding affected their pKa, t1/2 or both. This is consistent with previous observations of ligand binding-induced distal conformational changes on DHFR. Most of the observed pKa and t1/2 changes could be rationalized using the X-ray structures of apo-DHFR, DHFR-MTX-NADPH, and DHFR-folate-NADP+. The availability of the neutron diffraction structure of DHFR-MTX enabled us to compare the protonation states of histidine imidazole rings. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate the usefulness of His-HDX-MS in probing the microenvironments of histidine residues within proteins. PMID:21359214

  16. Association of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) -317AA genotype with poor response to methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Milic, Vera; Jekic, Biljana; Lukovic, Ljiljana; Bunjevacki, Vera; Milasin, Jelena; Novakovic, Ivana; Damnjanovic, Tatjana; Popovic, Branka; Maksimovic, Nela; Damjanov, Nemanja; Radunovic, Goran; Pejnovic, Nada; Krajinovic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    Identifying genetic predictors of methotrexate (MTX) treatment response in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may have great importance for optimising drug doses required for clinical benefit without toxicity. In a group of 125 RA patients treated with MTX we investigated whether selected polymorphisms in genes relevant for MTX action (aminoimidazole-4-carboxiamide ribonucleotide transformylase, ATIC, and dihydrofolate reductase, DHFR) modulate disease activity and/or have impact on therapy side effects. The efficacy of treatment was estimated both by the disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28), based on EULAR criteria, and relative DAS28 (rDAS28) score. Adverse drug events (ADEs) were also recorded. RA patients were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP method, followed by an association study between ATIC -129T>G, DHFR -216T>C and DHFR -317A>G polymorphisms and the efficacy and toxicity of MTX. According to the EULAR response criteria, 96 RA patients (76.8%) were classified as responders (good/moderate response) and 29 (23.2%) as non-responders (poor response). rDAS28 values ranged from -0.01 to 0.80 (mean value 0.31±0.19). Among 125 patients enrolled in this study 39 experienced at least one side effect. The DHFR -317AA genotype was associated with the less favourable response (reduction in rDAS28 score, p=0.05). None of the analysed polymorphisms was associated with MTX toxicity. RA patients with DHFR-317AA genotype had less favourable response to MTX. Further studies in larger patient populations are necessary to confirm the relationship between the analysed polymorphisms and MTX treatment response.

  17. Incorporation of β-amino acids into dihydrofolate reductase by ribosomes having modifications in the peptidyltransferase center.

    PubMed

    Maini, Rumit; Nguyen, Dan T; Chen, Shengxi; Dedkova, Larisa M; Chowdhury, Sandipan Roy; Alcala-Torano, Rafael; Hecht, Sidney M

    2013-03-01

    Ribosomes containing modifications in three regions of 23S rRNA, all of which are in proximity to the ribosomal peptidyltransferase center (PTC), were utilized previously as a source of S-30 preparations for in vitro protein biosynthesis experiments. When utilized in the presence of mRNAs containing UAG codons at predetermined positions+β-alanyl-tRNA(CUA), the modified ribosomes produced enhanced levels of full length proteins via UAG codon suppression. In the present study, these earlier results have been extended by the use of substituted β-amino acids, and direct evidence for β-amino acid incorporation is provided. Presently, five of the clones having modified ribosomes are used in experiments employing four substituted β-amino acids, including α-methyl-β-alanine, β,β-dimethyl-β-alanine, β-phenylalanine, and β-(p-bromophenyl)alanine. The β-amino acids were incorporated into three different positions (10, 18 and 49) of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and their efficiencies of suppression of the UAG codons were compared with those of β-alanine and representative α-l-amino acids. The isolated proteins containing the modified β-amino acids were subjected to proteolytic digestion, and the derived fragments were characterized by mass spectrometry, establishing that the β-amino acids had been incorporated into DHFR, and that they were present exclusively in the anticipated peptide fragments. DHFR contains glutamic acid in position 17, and it has been shown previously that Glu-C endoproteinase can hydrolyze DHFR between amino acids residues 17 and 18. The incorporation of β,β-dimethyl-β-alanine into position 18 of DHFR prevented this cleavage, providing further evidence for the position of incorporation of the β-amino acid.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XXII. Geographic mapping and distribution of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) mutant alleles.

    PubMed

    Tahar, Rachida; Basco, Leonardo K

    2006-09-01

    Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is still a useful drug to combat chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Cameroon. Because of several disadvantages of the in vivo test and in vitro drug sensitivity assays, molecular assays are an alternative laboratory tool to monitor the evolution of antifolate resistance, especially over the entire country that is characterized by several epidemiologic strata and malaria transmission patterns. In this study, 1,430 blood samples from either symptomatic children or asymptomatic carriers were collected from 14 sites throughout the country between 1999 and 2003 for the analysis of dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) sequence. Of 1,368 samples (95.7%) that were successfully amplified, 1,180 were analyzed by direct sequencing of the polymerase chain reaction product, and 188 were analyzed by restriction enzymes. The prevalences of the wild-type, single Asn-108 mutation, double Arg-59/Asn-108 mutations, double Ile-51/Asn-108 mutations, triple Ile-51/Arg-59/Asn-108 mutations, and mixed alleles were 20.8%, 2.8%, 5.7%, 0.8%, 62.2%, and 7.6%, respectively. The proportions of triple dhfr mutations were > 60% at all study sites, with the exception of the eastern province (42% triple mutants in Bertoua in 1999) and the northern provinces (11-35% triple mutants in Ngaoundere, Garoua, and Maroua). In these two provinces, the proportion of mutant parasites increased significantly (P < 0.05) over the period of 2-4 years. Furthermore, there was a higher proportion (P < 0.05) of wild-type parasites in the northern provinces, compared with the rest of the country. The geographic mapping of molecular markers offers a novel tool for monitoring the epidemiology of drug-resistant malaria.

  19. SIRT3 Deacetylates Ceramide Synthases

    PubMed Central

    Novgorodov, Sergei A.; Riley, Christopher L.; Keffler, Jarryd A.; Yu, Jin; Kindy, Mark S.; Macklin, Wendy B.; Lombard, David B.; Gudz, Tatyana I.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental evidence supports the role of mitochondrial ceramide accumulation as a cause of mitochondrial dysfunction and brain injury after stroke. Herein, we report that SIRT3 regulates mitochondrial ceramide biosynthesis via deacetylation of ceramide synthase (CerS) 1, 2, and 6. Reciprocal immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that CerS1, CerS2, and CerS6, but not CerS4, are associated with SIRT3 in cerebral mitochondria. Furthermore, CerS1, -2, and -6 are hyperacetylated in the mitochondria of SIRT3-null mice, and SIRT3 directly deacetylates the ceramide synthases in a NAD+-dependent manner that increases enzyme activity. Investigation of the SIRT3 role in mitochondrial response to brain ischemia/reperfusion (IR) showed that SIRT3-mediated deacetylation of ceramide synthases increased enzyme activity and ceramide accumulation after IR. Functional studies demonstrated that absence of SIRT3 rescued the IR-induced blockade of the electron transport chain at the level of complex III, attenuated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, and decreased reactive oxygen species generation and protein carbonyls in mitochondria. Importantly, Sirt3 gene ablation reduced the brain injury after IR. These data support the hypothesis that IR triggers SIRT3-dependent deacetylation of ceramide synthases and the elevation of ceramide, which could inhibit complex III, leading to increased reactive oxygen species generation and brain injury. The results of these studies highlight a novel mechanism of SIRT3 involvement in modulating mitochondrial ceramide biosynthesis and suggest an important role of SIRT3 in mitochondrial dysfunction and brain injury after experimental stroke. PMID:26620563

  20. Increased thymidylate synthase in L1210 cells possessing acquired resistance to N10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolic acid (CB3717): development, characterization, and cross-resistance studies

    SciTech Connect

    Jackman, A.L.; Alison, D.L.; Calvert, A.H.; Harrap, K.R.

    1986-06-01

    The properties are described of a mutant L1210 cell line (L1210:C15) with acquired resistance (greater than 200-fold) to the thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitor N10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolic acid. TS was overproduced 45-fold and was accompanied by a small increase in the activity of dihydrofolate reductase (2.6-fold). Both the level of resistance and enzyme activities were maintained in drug-free medium (greater than 300 generations). Failure of N10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolic acid to suppress the (/sup 3/H)-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation into the acid-precipitable material of the resistant line supported the evidence that TS overproduction was the mechanism of resistance; consequently the L1210:C15 cells were largely cross-resistant to another (but weaker) TS inhibitor, 5,8-dideazafolic acid. Minimal cross-resistance was observed to the dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors methotrexate and 5-methyl-5,8-dideazaaminopterin (5- and 2-fold, respectively). L1210 and L1210:C15 cells were, however, equally sensitive to 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (FdUrd), an unexpected finding since a metabolite, 5-fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate, is a potent TS inhibitor; however, this cytotoxicity against the L1210:C15 cells was antagonized by coincubation with 5 microM folinic acid although folinic acid potentiated the cytotoxicity of FdUrd to the N10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolic acid-sensitive L1210 line. Thymidine was much less effective as a FdUrd protecting agent in the L1210:C15 when compared with the L1210 cells; however, a combination of thymidine plus hypoxanthine was without any additional effect (compared with thymidine alone) against the sensitive line but effectively protected L1210:C15 cells.

  1. Partial sup 1 H NMR assignments of the Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase complex with folate: Evidence for a unique conformation of bound folate

    SciTech Connect

    Falzone, C.J.; Benkovic, S.J. ); Wright, P.E. )

    1990-10-01

    Sequence-specific {sup 1}H assignments have been made for over 25% of the amino acid side chains of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase complexed with folate by using a variety of two-dimensional techniques. Proton resonances were assigned by using a combination of site-directed mutagenesis and a knowledge of the X-ray crystal structure. Unique sets of NOE connectivities present in hydrophobic pockets were matched with the X-ray structure and used to assign many of the residues. Other residues, particularly those near or in the active site, were assigned by site-directed mutagenesis. The ability to assign unambiguosly the proton resonances of these catalytically important residues allowed for extensive networks of NOE connectivities to follow from these assignments. As a consequence of these assignments, the orientation of the pterin ring of folate could be determined, and its conformation is similar to that of the productive dihydrofolate complex. Under these experimental conditions, only one bound form of the pterin ring could be detected.

  2. Photoaffinity analogues of methotrexate as folate antagonist binding probes. 1. Photoaffinity labeling of murine L1210 dihydrofolate reductase and amino acid sequence of the binding region

    SciTech Connect

    Price, E.M.; Smith, P.L.; Klein, T.E.; Freisheim, J.H.

    1987-07-28

    N/sup ..cap alpha../-(4-Amino-4-deoxy-10-methylpteroyl)-N/sup epsilon/-(4-azido-5-(/sup 125/I)iodosalicylyl)-L-lysine, a photoaffinity analogue of methotrexate, is only 2-fold less potent than methotrexate in the inhibition of murine L1210 dihydrofolate reductase. Irradiation of the enzyme in the presence of an equimolar concentration of the /sup 125/I-labeled analogue ultimately leads to an 8% incorporation of the photoprobe. A 100-fold molar excess of methotrexate essentially blocks this incorporation. Cyanogen bromide digestion of the labeled enzyme, followed by high-pressure liquid chromatography purification of the generated peptides, indicates that greater than 85% of the total radioactivity is incorporated into a single cyanogen bromide peptide. Sequence analysis revealed this peptide to be residues 53-111, with a majority of the radioactivity centered around residues 63-65 (Lys-Asn-Arg). These data demonstrate that the photoaffinity analogue specifically binds to dihydrofolate reductase and covalently modifies the enzyme following irradiation and is therefore a photolabeling agent useful for probing the inhibitor binding domain of the enzyme.

  3. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the effects of ligand binding on ryptophan residues of selectively deuterated dihydrofolate reductase from Lactobacillus casei

    SciTech Connect

    Feeney, J.; Roberts, G.C.; Thomson, J.W.; King, R.W; Griffiths, D.V.; Burgen, A.S.

    1980-05-01

    We have prepared a selectively deuterated dihydrofolate reductase in which all the aromatic protons except the C(2) protons of tryptophan have been replaced by deuterium and have examined the 1H NMR spectra of its complexes with folate, trimethoprim, methotrexate, NADP+, and NADPH. One of the four Trp C(2)-proton resonance signals (signal P at 3.66 ppm from dioxane) has been asigned to Trp-21 by examining the NMR spectrum of a selectively deuterated N-bromosuccinimide-modified dihydrofolate reductase. This signal is not perturbed by NADPH, indicating that the coenzyme is not binding close to the 2 position of Trp-21. This contrasts markedly with the 19F shift (2.7 ppm) observed for the 19F signal of Trp-21 in the NADPH complex with the 6-fluorotryptophan-labeled enzyme. In fact the crystal structure of the enzyme . methotrexate . NADPH shows that the carboxamide group of the reduced nicotinamide ring is near to the 6 position of Trp-21 but remote from its 2 position. The nonadditivity of the 1H chemical-shift contributions for signals tentatively assigned to Trp-5 and -133 indicates that these residues are influenced by ligand-induced conformational changes.

  4. Replacement of the folC gene, encoding folylpolyglutamate synthetase-dihydrofolate synthetase in Escherichia coli, with genes mutagenized in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Pyne, C; Bognar, A L

    1992-01-01

    The folylpolyglutamate synthetase-dihydrofolate synthetase gene (folC) in Escherichia coli was deleted from the bacterial chromosome and replaced by a selectable Kmr marker. The deletion strain required a complementing gene expressing folylpolyglutamate synthetase encoded on a plasmid for viability, indicating that folC is an essential gene in E. coli. The complementing folC gene was cloned into the vector pPM103 (pSC101, temperature sensitive for replication), which segregated spontaneously at 42 degrees C in the absence of selection. This complementing plasmid was replaced in the folC deletion strain by compatible pUC plasmids containing folC genes with mutations generated in vitro, producing strains which express only mutant folylpolyglutamate synthetase. Mutant folC genes expressing insufficient enzyme activity could not complement the chromosomal deletion, resulting in retention of the pPM103 plasmid. Some mutant genes expressing low levels of enzyme activity replaced the complementing plasmid, but the strains produced were auxotrophic for products of folate-dependent pathways. The folylpolyglutamate synthetase gene from Lactobacillus casei, which may lack dihydrofolate synthetase activity, replaced the complementing plasmid, but the strain was auxotrophic for all folate end products. Images PMID:1548226

  5. An atypical orthologue of 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase can provide the missing link in the folate biosynthesis pathway of malaria parasites

    PubMed Central

    Dittrich, Sabine; Mitchell, Sarah L; Blagborough, Andrew M; Wang, Qi; Wang, Ping; Sims, Paul F G; Hyde, John E

    2008-01-01

    Folate metabolism in malaria parasites is a long-standing, clinical target for chemotherapy and prophylaxis. However, despite determination of the complete genome sequence of the lethal species Plasmodium falciparum, the pathway of de novo folate biosynthesis remains incomplete, as no candidate gene for dihydroneopterin aldolase (DHNA) could be identified. This enzyme catalyses the third step in the well-characterized pathway of plants, bacteria, and those eukaryotic microorganisms capable of synthesizing their own folate. Utilizing bioinformatics searches based on both primary and higher protein structures, together with biochemical assays, we demonstrate that P. falciparum cell extracts lack detectable DHNA activity, but that the parasite possesses an unusual orthologue of 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS), which simultaneously gives rise to two products in comparable amounts, the predominant of which is 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin, the substrate for the fourth step in folate biosynthesis (catalysed by 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin pyrophosphokinase; PPPK). This can provide a bypass for the missing DHNA activity and thus a means of completing the biosynthetic pathway from GTP to dihydrofolate. Supported by site-directed mutagenesis experiments, we ascribe the novel catalytic activity of the malarial PTPS to a Cys to Glu change at its active site relative to all previously characterized PTPS molecules, including that of the human host. PMID:18093090

  6. Genistein ameliorated endothelial nitric oxidase synthase uncoupling by stimulating sirtuin-1 pathway in ox-LDL-injured HUVECs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua-ping; Zhao, Jia-hui; Yu, Hai-xia; Guo, Dong-xing

    2016-03-01

    Endothelial nitric oxidase synthase (eNOS) uncoupling plays a causal role in endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis. Genistein consumption has been associated with the prevention of atherosclerosis. However, the effect of genistein on eNOS uncoupling has not been reported. A model of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced injury on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was established to evaluate the effect of genistein on eNOS uncoupling. We investigated the effect of genistein on NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production, NOX4 expression, BH4 synthesis and oxidation, the expression of GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). The results showed that genistein decreased superoxide production and NOX4 expression, enhanced the ratio of BH4/BH2, augmented the expressions of GCH1 and DHFR. Accompanied with genistein ameliorating eNOS uncoupling, genistein elevated the expression of sirtuin-1; furthermore, the effects of genistein on eNOS uncoupling were blunted with sirtuin-1 siRNA. The present study indicated that genistein ameliorated eNOS uncoupling was concerned with sirtuin-1 pathway in ox-LDL-injured HUVECs.

  7. Malarial parasite diversity in chimpanzees: the value of comparative approaches to ascertain the evolution of Plasmodium falciparum antigens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum shares its most recent common ancestor with parasites found in African apes; these species constitute the so-called Laverania clade. In this investigation, the evolutionary history of Plasmodium lineages found in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) was explored. Methods Here, the remainders of 74 blood samples collected as part of the chimpanzees’ routine health examinations were studied. For all positive samples with parasite lineages belonging to the Laverania clade, the complete mitochondrial genome (mtDNA), the gene encoding dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (dhfr-ts), the chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt), the circumsporozoite protein (csp), merozoite surface protein 2 (msp2), and the DBL-1 domain from var2CSA were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Other Plasmodium species were included in the mtDNA, dhfr-ts, and csp analyses. Phylogenetic and evolutionary genetic analyses were performed, including molecular clock analyses on the mtDNA. Results/Conclusions Nine chimpanzees were malaria positive (12.2%); four of those infections were identified as P. falciparum, two as a Plasmodium reichenowi-like parasite or Plasmodium sp., one as Plasmodium gaboni, and two as Plasmodium malariae. All P. falciparum isolates were resistant to chloroquine indicating that the chimpanzees acquired such infections from humans in recent times. Such findings, however, are not sufficient for implicating chimpanzees as an animal reservoir for P. falciparum. Timing estimates support that the Laverania clade has co-existed with hominids for a long-period of time. The proposed species P. gaboni, Plasmodium billbrayi, and Plasmodium billcollinsi are monophyletic groups supporting that they are indeed different species. An expanded CSP phylogeny is presented, including all the Laverania species and other malarial parasites. Contrasting with other Plasmodium, the Laverania csp exhibits great conservation at the central tandem repeat region

  8. Parasite-specific inserts in the bifunctional S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase/ornithine decarboxylase of Plasmodium falciparum modulate catalytic activities and domain interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie; Wrenger, Carsten; Joubert, Fourie; Wells, Gordon A; Walter, Rolf D; Louw, Abraham I

    2004-01-01

    Polyamine biosynthesis of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, is regulated by a single, hinge-linked bifunctional PfAdoMetDC/ODC [ P. falciparum AdoMetDC (S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase)/ODC (ornithine decarboxylase)] with a molecular mass of 330 kDa. The bifunctional nature of AdoMetDC/ODC is unique to Plasmodia and is shared by at least three species. The PfAdoMetDC/ODC contains four parasite-specific regions ranging in size from 39 to 274 residues. The significance of the parasite-specific inserts for activity and protein-protein interactions of the bifunctional protein was investigated by a single- and multiple-deletion strategy. Deletion of these inserts in the bifunctional protein diminished the corresponding enzyme activity and in some instances also decreased the activity of the neighbouring, non-mutated domain. Intermolecular interactions between AdoMetDC and ODC appear to be vital for optimal ODC activity. Similar results have been reported for the bifunctional P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase [Yuvaniyama, Chitnumsub, Kamchonwongpaisan, Vanichtanankul, Sirawaraporn, Taylor, Walkinshaw and Yuthavong (2003) Nat. Struct. Biol. 10, 357-365]. Co-incubation of the monofunctional, heterotetrameric approximately 150 kDa AdoMetDC domain with the monofunctional, homodimeric ODC domain (approximately 180 kDa) produced an active hybrid complex of 330 kDa. The hinge region is required for bifunctional complex formation and only indirectly for enzyme activities. Deletion of the smallest, most structured and conserved insert in the ODC domain had the biggest impact on the activities of both decarboxylases, homodimeric ODC arrangement and hybrid complex formation. The remaining large inserts are predicted to be non-globular regions located on the surface of these proteins. The large insert in AdoMetDC in contrast is not implicated in hybrid complex formation even though distinct interactions between this insert and the two domains

  9. Malarial parasite diversity in chimpanzees: the value of comparative approaches to ascertain the evolution of Plasmodium falciparum antigens.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, M Andreína; Cranfield, Michael; Cameron, Kenneth; Escalante, Ananias A

    2013-09-17

    Plasmodium falciparum shares its most recent common ancestor with parasites found in African apes; these species constitute the so-called Laverania clade. In this investigation, the evolutionary history of Plasmodium lineages found in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) was explored. Here, the remainders of 74 blood samples collected as part of the chimpanzees' routine health examinations were studied. For all positive samples with parasite lineages belonging to the Laverania clade, the complete mitochondrial genome (mtDNA), the gene encoding dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (dhfr-ts), the chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt), the circumsporozoite protein (csp), merozoite surface protein 2 (msp2), and the DBL-1 domain from var2CSA were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Other Plasmodium species were included in the mtDNA, dhfr-ts, and csp analyses. Phylogenetic and evolutionary genetic analyses were performed, including molecular clock analyses on the mtDNA. Nine chimpanzees were malaria positive (12.2%); four of those infections were identified as P. falciparum, two as a Plasmodium reichenowi-like parasite or Plasmodium sp., one as Plasmodium gaboni, and two as Plasmodium malariae. All P. falciparum isolates were resistant to chloroquine indicating that the chimpanzees acquired such infections from humans in recent times. Such findings, however, are not sufficient for implicating chimpanzees as an animal reservoir for P. falciparum.Timing estimates support that the Laverania clade has co-existed with hominids for a long-period of time. The proposed species P. gaboni, Plasmodium billbrayi, and Plasmodium billcollinsi are monophyletic groups supporting that they are indeed different species.An expanded CSP phylogeny is presented, including all the Laverania species and other malarial parasites. Contrasting with other Plasmodium, the Laverania csp exhibits great conservation at the central tandem repeat region. Msp2 and var2CSA, however, show extended

  10. Acetohydroxyacid synthases: evolution, structure, and function.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yadi; Li, Yanyan; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2016-10-01

    Acetohydroxyacid synthase, a thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzyme, can condense either two pyruvate molecules to form acetolactate for synthesizing L-valine and L-leucine or pyruvate with 2-ketobutyrate to form acetohydroxybutyrate for synthesizing L-isoleucine. Because the key reaction catalyzed by acetohydroxyacid synthase in the biosynthetic pathways of branched-chain amino acids exists in plants, fungi, archaea, and bacteria, but not in animals, acetohydroxyacid synthase becomes a potential target for developing novel herbicides and antimicrobial compounds. In this article, the evolution, structure, and catalytic mechanism of acetohydroxyacid synthase are summarized.

  11. Shedding of hyaluronate synthase from streptococci.

    PubMed

    Mausolf, A; Jungmann, J; Robenek, H; Prehm, P

    1990-04-01

    Hyaluronate synthase was shed into the culture medium from growing streptococci (group C) together with nascent hyaluronate. The mechanism of solubilization was analysed using isolated protoplast membranes. Solubilization increased when membranes were suspended in larger volumes, but it was temperature-independent and was not inhibited by protease inhibitors. Increased hyaluronate chain length enhanced solubilization. The soluble synthase could re-integrate into Streptococcal membranes in a saturable manner. The soluble synthase behaved like an integral membrane protein, although it was not integrated into phospholipid vesicles. In sucrose velocity centrifugation the synthase had a higher sedimentation rate in detergent-free solution, indicating that it existed in an aggregated state.

  12. Characterization of dihydrofolate reductase genes from trimethoprim-susceptible and trimethoprim-resistant strains of Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Coque, T M; Singh, K V; Weinstock, G M; Murray, B E

    1999-01-01

    Enterococci are usually susceptible in vitro to trimethoprim; however, high-level resistance (HLR) (MICs, >1,024 microg/ml) has been reported. We studied Enterococcus faecalis DEL, for which the trimethoprim MIC was >1,024 microg/ml. No transfer of resistance was achieved by broth or filter matings. Two different genes that conferred trimethoprim resistance when they were cloned in Escherichia coli (MICs, 128 and >1,024 microg/ml) were studied. One gene that coded for a polypeptide of 165 amino acids (MIC, 128 microg/ml for E. coli) was identical to dfr homologs that we cloned from a trimethoprim-susceptible E. faecalis strain, and it is presumed to be the intrinsic E. faecalis dfr gene (which causes resistance in E. coli when cloned in multiple copies); this gene was designated dfrE. The nucleotide sequence 5' to this dfr gene showed similarity to thymidylate synthetase genes, suggesting that the dfr and thy genes from E. faecalis are located in tandem. The E. faecalis gene that conferred HLR to trimethoprim in E. coli, designated dfrF, codes for a predicted polypeptide of 165 amino acids with 38 to 64% similarity with other dihydrofolate reductases from gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. The nucleotide sequence 5' to dfrF did not show similarity to the thy sequences. A DNA probe for dfrF hybridized under high-stringency conditions only to colony lysates of enterococci for which the trimethoprim MIC was >1,024 microg/ml; there was no hybridization to plasmid DNA from the strain of origin. To confirm that this gene causes trimethoprim resistance in enterococci, we cloned it into the integrative vector pAT113 and electroporated it into RH110 (E. faecalis OG1RF::Tn916DeltaEm) (trimethoprim MIC, 0.5 microg/ml), which resulted in RH110 derivatives for which the trimethoprim MIC was >1, 024 microg/ml. These results indicate that dfrF is an acquired but probably chromosomally located gene which is responsible for in vitro HLR to trimethoprim in E. faecalis.

  13. Evaluation of dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthetase genotypes that confer resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in Plasmodium falciparum in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum infects roughly 30,000 individuals in Haiti each year. Haiti has used chloroquine (CQ) as a first-line treatment for malaria for many years and as a result there are concerns that malaria parasites may develop resistance to CQ over time. Therefore it is important to prepare for alternative malaria treatment options should CQ resistance develop. In many other malaria-endemic regions, antifolates, particularly pyrimethamine (PYR) and sulphadoxine (SDX) treatment combination (SP), have been used as an alternative when CQ resistance has developed. This study evaluated mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps) genes that confer PYR and SDX resistance, respectively, in P. falciparum to provide baseline data in Haiti. This study is the first comprehensive study to examine PYR and SDX resistance genotypes in P. falciparum in Haiti. Methods DNA was extracted from dried blood spots and genotyped for PYR and SDX resistance mutations in P. falciparum using PCR and DNA sequencing methods. Sixty-one samples were genotyped for PYR resistance in codons 51, 59, 108 and 164 of the dhfr gene and 58 samples were genotyped for SDX resistance codons 436, 437, 540 of the dhps gene in P. falciparum. Results Thirty-three percent (20/61) of the samples carried a mutation at codon 108 (S108N) of the dhfr gene. No mutations in dhfr at codons 51, 59, 164 were observed in any of the samples. In addition, no mutations were observed in dhps at the three codons (436, 437, 540) examined. No significant difference was observed between samples collected in urban vs rural sites (Welch’s T-test p-value = 0.53 and permutations p-value = 0.59). Conclusion This study has shown the presence of the S108N mutation in P. falciparum that confers low-level PYR resistance in Haiti. However, the absence of SDX resistance mutations suggests that SP resistance may not be present in Haiti. These results have important

  14. Evaluation of dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthetase genotypes that confer resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in Plasmodium falciparum in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tamar E; Warner, Megan; Mulligan, Connie J; Existe, Alexander; Victor, Yves S; Memnon, Gladys; Boncy, Jacques; Oscar, Roland; Fukuda, Mark M; Okech, Bernard A

    2012-08-13

    Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum infects roughly 30,000 individuals in Haiti each year. Haiti has used chloroquine (CQ) as a first-line treatment for malaria for many years and as a result there are concerns that malaria parasites may develop resistance to CQ over time. Therefore it is important to prepare for alternative malaria treatment options should CQ resistance develop. In many other malaria-endemic regions, antifolates, particularly pyrimethamine (PYR) and sulphadoxine (SDX) treatment combination (SP), have been used as an alternative when CQ resistance has developed. This study evaluated mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps) genes that confer PYR and SDX resistance, respectively, in P. falciparum to provide baseline data in Haiti. This study is the first comprehensive study to examine PYR and SDX resistance genotypes in P. falciparum in Haiti. DNA was extracted from dried blood spots and genotyped for PYR and SDX resistance mutations in P. falciparum using PCR and DNA sequencing methods. Sixty-one samples were genotyped for PYR resistance in codons 51, 59, 108 and 164 of the dhfr gene and 58 samples were genotyped for SDX resistance codons 436, 437, 540 of the dhps gene in P. falciparum. Thirty-three percent (20/61) of the samples carried a mutation at codon 108 (S108N) of the dhfr gene. No mutations in dhfr at codons 51, 59, 164 were observed in any of the samples. In addition, no mutations were observed in dhps at the three codons (436, 437, 540) examined. No significant difference was observed between samples collected in urban vs rural sites (Welch's T-test p-value = 0.53 and permutations p-value = 0.59). This study has shown the presence of the S108N mutation in P. falciparum that confers low-level PYR resistance in Haiti. However, the absence of SDX resistance mutations suggests that SP resistance may not be present in Haiti. These results have important implications for ongoing discussions on

  15. Splicing mutants and their second-site suppressors at the dihydrofolate reductase locus in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Carothers, A M; Urlaub, G; Grunberger, D; Chasin, L A

    1993-08-01

    Point mutants induced with a variety of mutagens at the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) locus in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were screened for aberrantly spliced dhfr mRNA by RNase protection and/or reverse transcriptase coupled with cDNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 115 mutants screened, 28 were found to be affected in splicing. All exhibited less than 1% correct splicing, probably because the selection procedure was stringent. All 26 unique mutations were located within the consensus splice sequences; changes were found at 9 of 10 possible sites in this 25-kb six-exon gene. Mutations at the sites flanking the first and last exons resulted in the efficient recruitment of a cryptic site within each exon. In contrast, mutations bordering internal exons caused predominantly exon skipping. In many cases, multiple exons were skipped, suggesting the clustering of adjacent exons prior to actual splicing. Six mutations fell outside the well-conserved GU and AG dinucleotides. All but one were donor site single-base substitutions that decreased the agreement with the consensus and resulted in little or no correct splicing. Starting with five of these donor site mutants, we isolated 31 DHFR+ revertants. Most revertants carried a single-base substitution at a site other than that of the original mutation, and most had only partially regained the ability to splice correctly. The second-site suppression occurred through a variety of mechanisms: (i) a second change within the consensus sequence that produced a better agreement with the consensus; (ii) a change close to but beyond the consensus boundaries, as far as 8 bases upstream in the exon or 28 bases downstream in the intron; (iii) mutations in an apparent pseudo 5' site in the intron, 84 and 88 bases downstream of a donor site; and (iv) mutations that improved the upstream acceptor site of the affected exon. Taken together, these second-site suppressor mutations extend the definition of a

  16. Splicing mutants and their second-site suppressors at the dihydrofolate reductase locus in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed Central

    Carothers, A M; Urlaub, G; Grunberger, D; Chasin, L A

    1993-01-01

    Point mutants induced with a variety of mutagens at the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) locus in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were screened for aberrantly spliced dhfr mRNA by RNase protection and/or reverse transcriptase coupled with cDNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 115 mutants screened, 28 were found to be affected in splicing. All exhibited less than 1% correct splicing, probably because the selection procedure was stringent. All 26 unique mutations were located within the consensus splice sequences; changes were found at 9 of 10 possible sites in this 25-kb six-exon gene. Mutations at the sites flanking the first and last exons resulted in the efficient recruitment of a cryptic site within each exon. In contrast, mutations bordering internal exons caused predominantly exon skipping. In many cases, multiple exons were skipped, suggesting the clustering of adjacent exons prior to actual splicing. Six mutations fell outside the well-conserved GU and AG dinucleotides. All but one were donor site single-base substitutions that decreased the agreement with the consensus and resulted in little or no correct splicing. Starting with five of these donor site mutants, we isolated 31 DHFR+ revertants. Most revertants carried a single-base substitution at a site other than that of the original mutation, and most had only partially regained the ability to splice correctly. The second-site suppression occurred through a variety of mechanisms: (i) a second change within the consensus sequence that produced a better agreement with the consensus; (ii) a change close to but beyond the consensus boundaries, as far as 8 bases upstream in the exon or 28 bases downstream in the intron; (iii) mutations in an apparent pseudo 5' site in the intron, 84 and 88 bases downstream of a donor site; and (iv) mutations that improved the upstream acceptor site of the affected exon. Taken together, these second-site suppressor mutations extend the definition of a

  17. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    DOEpatents

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  18. Folic Acid Promotes Recycling of Tetrahydrobiopterin and Protects Against Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension by Recoupling Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Chalupsky, Karel; Kračun, Damir; Kanchev, Ivan; Bertram, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) has been implicated in the adaptive response to hypoxia. An imbalance between 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and 7,8-dihydrobiopterin (BH2) can result in eNOS uncoupling and the generation of superoxide instead of NO. Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) can recycle BH2 to BH4, leading to eNOS recoupling. However, the role of DHFR and eNOS recoupling in the response to hypoxia is not well understood. We hypothesized that increasing the capacity to recycle BH4 from BH2 would improve NO bioavailability as well as pulmonary vascular remodeling (PVR) and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) as indicators of pulmonary hypertension (PH) under hypoxic conditions. Results: In human pulmonary artery endothelial cells and murine pulmonary arteries exposed to hypoxia, eNOS was uncoupled as indicated by reduced superoxide production in the presence of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Concomitantly, NO levels, BH4 availability, and expression of DHFR were diminished under hypoxia. Application of folic acid (FA) restored DHFR levels, NO bioavailability, and BH4 levels under hypoxia. Importantly, FA prevented the development of hypoxia-induced PVR, right ventricular pressure increase, and RVH. Innovation: FA-induced upregulation of DHFR recouples eNOS under hypoxia by improving BH4 recycling, thus preventing hypoxia-induced PH. Conclusion: FA might serve as a novel therapeutic option combating PH. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 1076–1091. PMID:26414244

  19. Polyester synthases: natural catalysts for plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Bernd H A

    2003-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biopolyesters composed of hydroxy fatty acids, which represent a complex class of storage polyesters. They are synthesized by a wide range of different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as by some Archaea, and are deposited as insoluble cytoplasmic inclusions. Polyester synthases are the key enzymes of polyester biosynthesis and catalyse the conversion of (R)-hydroxyacyl-CoA thioesters to polyesters with the concomitant release of CoA. These soluble enzymes turn into amphipathic enzymes upon covalent catalysis of polyester-chain formation. A self-assembly process is initiated resulting in the formation of insoluble cytoplasmic inclusions with a phospholipid monolayer and covalently attached polyester synthases at the surface. Surface-attached polyester synthases show a marked increase in enzyme activity. These polyester synthases have only recently been biochemically characterized. An overview of these recent findings is provided. At present, 59 polyester synthase structural genes from 45 different bacteria have been cloned and the nucleotide sequences have been obtained. The multiple alignment of the primary structures of these polyester synthases show an overall identity of 8-96% with only eight strictly conserved amino acid residues. Polyester synthases can been assigned to four classes based on their substrate specificity and subunit composition. The current knowledge on the organization of the polyester synthase genes, and other genes encoding proteins related to PHA metabolism, is compiled. In addition, the primary structures of the 59 PHA synthases are aligned and analysed with respect to highly conserved amino acids, and biochemical features of polyester synthases are described. The proposed catalytic mechanism based on similarities to alpha/beta-hydrolases and mutational analysis is discussed. Different threading algorithms suggest that polyester synthases belong to the alpha/beta-hydrolase superfamily, with

  20. Molecular evolution and sequence divergence of plant chalcone synthase and chalcone synthase-Like genes.

    PubMed

    Han, Yingying; Zhao, Wenwen; Wang, Zhicui; Zhu, Jingying; Liu, Qisong

    2014-06-01

    Plant chalcone synthase (CHS) and CHS-Like (CHSL) proteins are polyketide synthases. In this study, we evaluated the molecular evolution of this gene family using representative types of CHSL genes, including stilbene synthase (STS), 2-pyrone synthase (2-PS), bibenzyl synthase (BBS), acridone synthase (ACS), biphenyl synthase (BIS), benzalacetone synthase, coumaroyl triacetic acid synthase (CTAS), and benzophenone synthase (BPS), along with their CHS homologs from the same species of both angiosperms and gymnosperms. A cDNA-based phylogeny indicated that CHSLs had diverse evolutionary patterns. STS, ACS, and 2-PS clustered with CHSs from the same species (late diverged pattern), while CTAS, BBS, BPS, and BIS were distant from their CHS homologs (early diverged pattern). The amino-acid phylogeny suggested that CHS and CHSL proteins formed clades according to enzyme function. The CHSs and CHSLs from Polygonaceae and Arachis had unique evolutionary histories. Synonymous mutation rates were lower in late diverged CHSLs than in early diverged ones, indicating that gene duplications occurred more recently in late diverged CHSLs than in early diverged ones. Relative rate tests proved that late diverged CHSLs had unequal rates to CHSs from the same species when using fatty acid synthase, which evolved from the common ancestor with the CHS superfamily, as the outgroup, while the early diverged lineages had equal rates. This indicated that late diverged CHSLs experienced more frequent mutation than early diverged CHSLs after gene duplication, allowing obtaining new functions in relatively short period of time.

  1. Association of Thymidylate Synthase Gene Polymorphisms with Stavudine Triphosphate Intracellular Levels and Lipodystrophy▿

    PubMed Central

    Domingo, Pere; Cabeza, M. Carmen; Pruvost, Alain; Torres, Ferran; Salazar, Juliana; del Mar Gutierrez, M.; Mateo, M. Gracia; Fontanet, Angels; Fernandez, Irene; Domingo, Joan C.; Villarroya, Francesc; Vidal, Francesc; Baiget, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    The antiviral activity and toxicity of stavudine (d4T) depend on its triphosphate metabolite, stavudine triphosphate (d4T-TP). Therefore, modifications in intracellular levels of d4T-TP may change the toxicity profile of stavudine. d4T-TP intracellular levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were determined with a prominence liquid chromatograph connected to a triple-quadruple mass spectrometer. Polymorphisms in the thymidylate synthase (TS), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1; SLC19A1), and cyclin D1 (CCND1) genes were determined by direct sequencing using an ABI Prism 3100 genetic analyzer or Fluidigm's Biomark system. The Mann-Whitney test, rank analysis of variance (with Bonferroni's adjusted post hoc comparisons), and logistic regression were used for the inferential analyses. Thirty-three stavudine-treated patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. d4T-TP intracellular levels were 11.50 fmol/106 cells (interquartile range [IQR] = 8.12 to 13.87 fmol/106 cells) in patients with a high-expression TS genotype (2/3G, 3C/3G, and 3G/3G), whereas in those with a low-expression TS genotype (2/2, 2/3C, and 3C/3C), they were 21.40 fmol/106 cells (IQR = 18.90 to 27.0 fmol/106 cells) (P < 0.0001). Polymorphisms in the MTHFR, DHFR, RFC1, and CCND1 genes did not influence the intracellular concentration of d4T-TP. d4T-TP levels were independently associated with the TS genotype (low versus high expression; odds ratio [OR] = 86.22; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.48 to nonestimable; P = 0.0023). The low-expression TS genotype was associated with the development of HIV/highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated lypodystrophy syndrome (HALS) (OR = 14.0; 95% CI = 2.09 to 108.0; P = 0.0032). Our preliminary data show that polymorphisms in the thymidylate synthase gene are strongly associated with d4T-TP intracellular levels and with development of HALS. PMID:21282454

  2. Kinetics of the inhibition of bovine liver dihydrofolate reductase by tea catechins: origin of slow-binding inhibition and pH studies.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Perán, Enma; Cabezas-Herrera, Juan; Hiner, Alexander N P; Sadunishvili, Tinatin; García-Cánovas, Francisco; Rodríguez-López, José Neptuno

    2005-05-24

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is the subject of intensive investigation since it appears to be the primary target enzyme for "antifolate" drugs, such as methotrexate and trimethoprim. Fluorescence quenching and stopped-flow fluorimetry show that the ester bond-containing tea polyphenols (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) are potent and specific inhibitors of DHFR with inhibition constants (K(I)) of 120 and 82 nM, respectively. Both tea compounds showed the characteristics of slow-binding inhibitors of bovine liver DHFR. In this work, we have determined a complete kinetic scheme to explain the slow-binding inhibition and the pH effects observed during the inhibition of bovine liver DHFR by these tea polyphenols. Experimental data, based on fluorimetric titrations, and transient phase and steady-state kinetic studies confirm that EGCG and ECG are competitive inhibitors with respect to 7,8-dihydrofolate, which bind preferentially to the free form of the enzyme. The origin of their slow-binding inhibition is proposed to be the formation of a slow dissociation ternary complex by the reaction of NADPH with the enzyme-inhibitor complex. The pH controls both the ionization of critical catalytic residues of the enzyme and the protonation state of the inhibitors. At acidic pH, EGCG and ECG are mainly present as protonated species, whereas near neutrality, they evolve toward deprotonated species due to ionization of the ester-bonded gallate moiety (pK = 7.8). Although DHFR exhibits different affinities for the protonated and deprotonated forms of EGCG and ECG, it appears that the ionization state of Glu-30 in DHFR is critical for its inhibition. The physiological implications of these pH dependencies are also discussed.

  3. 2,4-Diamino-6,7-dihydro-5H-cyclopenta[d]pyrimidine analogues of trimethoprim as inhibitors of Pneumocystis carinii and Toxoplasma gondii dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Rosowsky, A; Papoulis, A T; Queener, S F

    1998-03-12

    Three previously unreported (R,S)-2,4-diamino-5-[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl) alkyl]-6,7-dihydro-5H-cyclopenta[d]pyrimidines 15a-c were synthesized as analogues of trimethoprim (TMP) and were tested as inhibitors of Pneumocystis carinii, Toxoplasma gondii, and rat liver dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). The length of the alkyl bridge between the cyclopenta[d]pyrimidine and trimethoxyphenyl moiety ranged from one in 15a to three carbons in 15c. The products were tested as competitive inhibitors of the reduction of dihydrofolate by Pneumocystis carinii, Toxoplasma gondii, and rat liver DHFR. Compounds 15a-c had IC50 values of > 32, 1.8 and 1.3 microM, respectively, against P. carinii DHFR, as compared to 12 microM for TMP. Against the T. gondii enzyme, 15a-c had IC50 values of 21, 0.14 and 0.14 microM, respectively, as compared to 2.7 microM for TMP. Inhibitors 15b and 15c with two- and three-carbon bridges were significantly more potent than 15a against all three enzymes. Unlike TMP, 15b and 15c were better inhibitors of the rat liver enzyme than of the microbial enzymes. The potency of 15b and 15c against rat liver DHFR was less than has been reported for the corresponding 6,7-dihydro-5H-cyclopenta[d]pyrimidines with a classical p-aminobenzoyl-L-glutamate side chain as inhibitors of bovine, murine, and human DHFR.

  4. Solvent environments significantly affect the enzymatic function of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase: comparison of wild-type protein and active-site mutant D27E.

    PubMed

    Ohmae, Eiji; Miyashita, Yurina; Tate, Shin-Ichi; Gekko, Kunihiko; Kitazawa, Soichiro; Kitahara, Ryo; Kuwajima, Kunihiro

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the contribution of solvent environments to the enzymatic function of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), the salt-, pH-, and pressure-dependence of the enzymatic function of the wild-type protein were compared with those of the active-site mutant D27E in relation to their structure and stability. The salt concentration-dependence of enzymatic activity indicated that inorganic cations bound to and inhibited the activity of wild-type DHFR at neutral pH. The BaCl2 concentration-dependence of the (1)H-(15)N HSQC spectra of the wild-type DHFR-folate binary complex showed that the cation-binding site was located adjacent to the Met20 loop. The insensitivity of the D27E mutant to univalent cations, the decreased optimal pH for its enzymatic activity, and the increased Km and Kd values for its substrate dihydrofolate suggested that the substrate-binding cleft of the mutant was slightly opened to expose the active-site side chain to the solvent. The marginally increased fluorescence intensity and decreased volume change due to unfolding of the mutant also supported this structural change or the modified cavity and hydration. Surprisingly, the enzymatic activity of the mutant increased with pressurization up to 250MPa together with negative activation volumes of -4.0 or -4.8mL/mol, depending on the solvent system, while that of the wild-type was decreased and had positive activation volumes of 6.1 or 7.7mL/mol. These results clearly indicate that the insertion of a single methylene at the active site could substantially change the enzymatic reaction mechanism of DHFR, and solvent environments play important roles in the function of this enzyme. © 2013.

  5. Momentum Distribution as a Fingerprint of Quantum Delocalization in Enzymatic Reactions: Open-Chain Path-Integral Simulations of Model Systems and the Hydride Transfer in Dihydrofolate Reductase.

    PubMed

    Engel, Hamutal; Doron, Dvir; Kohen, Amnon; Major, Dan Thomas

    2012-04-10

    The inclusion of nuclear quantum effects such as zero-point energy and tunneling is of great importance in studying condensed phase chemical reactions involving the transfer of protons, hydrogen atoms, and hydride ions. In the current work, we derive an efficient quantum simulation approach for the computation of the momentum distribution in condensed phase chemical reactions. The method is based on a quantum-classical approach wherein quantum and classical simulations are performed separately. The classical simulations use standard sampling techniques, whereas the quantum simulations employ an open polymer chain path integral formulation which is computed using an efficient Monte Carlo staging algorithm. The approach is validated by applying it to a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator and symmetric double-well potential. Subsequently, the method is applied to the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) catalyzed reduction of 7,8-dihydrofolate by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydride (NADPH) to yield S-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADP(+). The key chemical step in the catalytic cycle of DHFR involves a stereospecific hydride transfer. In order to estimate the amount of quantum delocalization, we compute the position and momentum distributions for the transferring hydride ion in the reactant state (RS) and transition state (TS) using a recently developed hybrid semiempirical quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics potential energy surface. Additionally, we examine the effect of compression of the donor-acceptor distance (DAD) in the TS on the momentum distribution. The present results suggest differential quantum delocalization in the RS and TS, as well as reduced tunneling upon DAD compression.

  6. Crystal structure of riboflavin synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, D.-I.; Wawrzak, Z.; Calabrese, J.C.; Viitanen, P.V.; Jordan, D.B.

    2010-03-05

    Riboflavin synthase catalyzes the dismutation of two molecules of 6,7-dimethyl-8-(1'-D-ribityl)-lumazine to yield riboflavin and 4-ribitylamino-5-amino-2,6-dihydroxypyrimidine. The homotrimer of 23 kDa subunits has no cofactor requirements for catalysis. The enzyme is nonexistent in humans and is an attractive target for antimicrobial agents of organisms whose pathogenicity depends on their ability to biosynthesize riboflavin. The first three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was determined at 2.0 {angstrom} resolution using the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) method on the Escherichia coli protein containing selenomethionine residues. The homotrimer consists of an asymmetric assembly of monomers, each of which comprises two similar {beta} barrels and a C-terminal {alpha} helix. The similar {beta} barrels within the monomer confirm a prediction of pseudo two-fold symmetry that is inferred from the sequence similarity between the two halves of the protein. The {beta} barrels closely resemble folds found in phthalate dioxygenase reductase and other flavoproteins. The three active sites of the trimer are proposed to lie between pairs of monomers in which residues conserved among species reside, including two Asp-His-Ser triads and dyads of Cys-Ser and His-Thr. The proposed active sites are located where FMN (an analog of riboflavin) is modeled from an overlay of the {beta} barrels of phthalate dioxygenase reductase and riboflavin synthase. In the trimer, one active site is formed, and the other two active sites are wide open and exposed to solvent. The nature of the trimer configuration suggests that only one active site can be formed and be catalytically competent at a time.

  7. Shedding of hyaluronate synthase from streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Mausolf, A; Jungmann, J; Robenek, H; Prehm, P

    1990-01-01

    Hyaluronate synthase was shed into the culture medium from growing streptococci (group C) together with nascent hyaluronate. The mechanism of solubilization was analysed using isolated protoplast membranes. Solubilization increased when membranes were suspended in larger volumes, but it was temperature-independent and was not inhibited by protease inhibitors. Increased hyaluronate chain length enhanced solubilization. The soluble synthase could re-integrate into Streptococcal membranes in a saturable manner. The soluble synthase behaved like an integral membrane protein, although it was not integrated into phospholipid vesicles. In sucrose velocity centrifugation the synthase had a higher sedimentation rate in detergent-free solution, indicating that it existed in an aggregated state. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:2109602

  8. Genetics Home Reference: GM3 synthase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... GM3 synthase deficiency is characterized by recurrent seizures (epilepsy) and problems with brain development. Within the first ... Testing (1 link) Genetic Testing Registry: Amish infantile epilepsy syndrome Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (2 links) ...

  9. Chitin synthase inhibitors as antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Preeti M; Tupe, Santosh G; Deshpande, Mukund V

    2013-02-01

    Increased risk of fungal diseases in immunocompromised patients, emerging fungal pathogens, limited repertoire of antifungal drugs and resistance development against the drugs demands for development of new and effective antifungal agents. With greater knowledge of fungal metabolism efforts are being made to inhibit specific enzymes involved in different biochemical pathways for the development of antifungal drugs. Chitin synthase is one such promising target as it is absent in plants and mammals. Nikkomycin Z, a chitin synthase inhibitor is under clinical development. Chitin synthesis in fungi, chitin synthase as a target for antifungal agent development, different chitin synthase inhibitors isolated from natural sources, randomly synthesized and modified from nikkomycin and polyoxin are discussed in this review.

  10. Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Judith K.; Page, Jonathan E.

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety ‘Finola’ revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS) were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of ‘Finola’ resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, (-)-limonene, (+)-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties. PMID:28355238

  11. Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Booth, Judith K; Page, Jonathan E; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety 'Finola' revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS) were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of 'Finola' resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, (-)-limonene, (+)-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties.

  12. Energy transduction in ATP synthase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elston, Timothy; Wang, Hongyun; Oster, George

    1998-01-01

    Mitochondria, bacteria and chloroplasts use the free energy stored in transmembrane ion gradients to manufacture ATP by the action of ATP synthase. This enzyme consists of two principal domains. The asymmetric membrane-spanning Fo portion contains the proton channel, and the soluble F1 portion contains three catalytic sites which cooperate in the synthetic reactions. The flow of protons through Fo is thought to generate a torque which is transmitted to F1 by an asymmetric shaft, the coiled-coil γ-subunit. This acts as a rotating `cam' within F1, sequentially releasing ATPs from the three active sites. The free-energy difference across the inner membrane of mitochondria and bacteria is sufficient to produce three ATPs per twelve protons passing through the motor. It has been suggested that this protonmotive force biases the rotor's diffusion so that Fo constitutes a rotary motor turning the γ shaft. Here we show that biased diffusion, augmented by electrostatic forces, does indeed generate sufficient torque to account for ATP production. Moreover, the motor's reversibility - supplying torque from ATP hydrolysis in F1 converts the motor into an efficient proton pump - can also be explained by our model.

  13. Identification of avian wax synthases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bird species show a high degree of variation in the composition of their preen gland waxes. For instance, galliform birds like chicken contain fatty acid esters of 2,3-alkanediols, while Anseriformes like goose or Strigiformes like barn owl contain wax monoesters in their preen gland secretions. The final biosynthetic step is catalyzed by wax synthases (WS) which have been identified in pro- and eukaryotic organisms. Results Sequence similarities enabled us to identify six cDNAs encoding putative wax synthesizing proteins in chicken and two from barn owl and goose. Expression studies in yeast under in vivo and in vitro conditions showed that three proteins from chicken performed WS activity while a sequence from chicken, goose and barn owl encoded a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing both wax ester and triacylglycerol synthesis. Mono- and bifunctional WS were found to differ in their substrate specificities especially with regard to branched-chain alcohols and acyl-CoA thioesters. According to the expression patterns of their transcripts and the properties of the enzymes, avian WS proteins might not be confined to preen glands. Conclusions We provide direct evidence that avian preen glands possess both monofunctional and bifunctional WS proteins which have different expression patterns and WS activities with different substrate specificities. PMID:22305293

  14. Malate synthase a membrane protein

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, K.D.; Turley, R.B.; Hermerath, C.A.; Carrapico, F.; Trelease, R.N.

    1987-04-01

    Malate synthase (MS) is generally regarded as a peripheral membrane protein, and believed by some to be ontogenetically associated with ER. However, immuno- and cyto-chemical in situ localizations show MS throughout the matrix of cotton (and cucumber) glyoxysomes, not specifically near their boundary membranes, nor in ER. Only a maximum of 50% MS can be solubilized from cotton glyoxysomes with 1% Triton X-100, 2mM Zwittergen 14, or 10mM DOC +/- salts. Cotton MS does not incorporate /sup 3/H-glucosamine in vivo, nor does it react with Con A on columns or blots. Cotton MS banded with ER in sucrose gradients (20-40%) in Tricine after 3h, but not after 22h in Tricine or Hepes, or after 3h in Hepes or K-phosphate. Collectively the authors data are inconsistent with physiologically meaningful MS-membrane associations in ER or glyoxysomes. It appears that experimentally-induced aggregates of MS migrate in ER gradients and occur in isolated glyoxysomes. These data indicate that ER is not involved in synthesis or modification of cottonseed MS prior to its import into the glyoxysomal matrix.

  15. Assay of Deoxyhypusine Synthase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Edith C.; Lee, Seung Bum; Park, Myung Hee

    2011-01-01

    Deoxyhypusine synthase catalyzes an unusual protein modification reaction. A portion of spermidine is covalently added to one specific lysine residue of one eukaryotic protein, eIF5A (eukaryotic initiation factor 5A) to form a deoxyhypusine residue. The assay measures the incorporation of radioactivity from [1,8-3H]spermidine into the eIF5A protein. The enzyme is specific for the eIF5A precursor protein and does not work on short peptides (<50 amino acids). Optimum conditions for the reaction and four detection methods for the product, deoxyhypusine-containing eIF5A, are described in this chapter. The first, and most specific, method is the measurement of the amount of [3H]deoxyhypusine in the protein hydrolysate after its separation by ion exchange chromatography. However, this method requires some specialized equipment. The second method is counting the radioactivity in TCA-precipitated protein after thorough washing. The third method involves determining the radioactivity in the band of [3H] deoxyhypusine-containing eIF5A after separation by SDS-PAGE. The fourth method is a filter-binding assay. It is important to minimize nonspecific binding of [3H]spermidine to proteins in the assay mixture, especially for methods 2 and 4, as illustrated in a comparison figure in the chapter. PMID:21318875

  16. Inhibitors of specific ceramide synthases.

    PubMed

    Schiffmann, Susanne; Hartmann, Daniela; Fuchs, Sina; Birod, Kerstin; Ferreiròs, Nerea; Schreiber, Yannick; Zivkovic, Aleksandra; Geisslinger, Gerd; Grösch, Sabine; Stark, Holger

    2012-02-01

    Ceramide synthases (CerSs) are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of ceramides and display a group of at least six different isoenzymes (CerS1-6). Ceramides itself are bioactive molecules. Ceramides with different N-acyl side chains (C(14:0)-Cer - C(26:0)-Cer) possess distinct roles in cell signaling. Therefore, the selective inhibition of specific CerSs which are responsible for the formation of a specific ceramide holds promise for a number of new clinical treatment strategies, e.g., cancer. Here, we identified four of hitherto unknown functional inhibitors of CerSs derived from the FTY720 (Fingolimod) lead structure and showed their inhibitory effectiveness by two in vitro CerS activity assays. Additionally, we tested the substances in two cell lines (HCT-116 and HeLa) with different ceramide patterns. In summary, the in vitro activity assays revealed out that ST1058 and ST1074 preferentially inhibit CerS2 and CerS4, while ST1072 inhibits most potently CerS4 and CerS6. Importantly, ST1060 inhibits predominately CerS2. First structure-activity relationships and the potential biological impact of these compounds are discussed.

  17. Isolation of fast purine nucleotide synthase ribozymes.

    PubMed

    Lau, Matthew W L; Cadieux, Kelly E C; Unrau, Peter J

    2004-12-08

    Here we report the in vitro selection of fast ribozymes capable of promoting the synthesis of a purine nucleotide (6-thioguanosine monophosphate) from tethered 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) and 6-thioguanine ((6S)Gua). The two most proficient purine synthases have apparent efficiencies of 284 and 230 M(-1) min(-1) and are both significantly more efficient than pyrimidine nucleotide synthase ribozymes selected previously by a similar approach. Interestingly, while both ribozymes showed good substrate discrimination, one ribozyme had no detectable affinity for 6-thioguanine while the second had a K(m) of approximately 80 muM, indicating that these ribozymes use considerably different modes of substrate recognition. The purine synthases were isolated after 10 rounds of selection from two high-diversity RNA pools. The first pool contained a long random sequence region. The second pool contained random sequence elements interspersed with the mutagenized helical elements of a previously characterized 4-thiouridine synthase ribozyme. While nearly all of the ribozymes isolated from this biased pool population appeared to have benefited from utilizing one of the progenitor's helical elements, little evidence for more complicated secondary structure preservation was evident. The discovery of purine synthases, in addition to pyrimidine synthases, demonstrates the potential for nucleotide synthesis in an 'RNA World' and provides a context from which to study small molecule RNA catalysis.

  18. Unique animal prenyltransferase with monoterpene synthase activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilg, Anna B.; Tittiger, Claus; Blomquist, Gary J.

    2009-06-01

    Monoterpenes are structurally diverse natural compounds that play an essential role in the chemical ecology of a wide array of organisms. A key enzyme in monoterpene biosynthesis is geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS). GPPS is an isoprenyl diphosphate synthase that catalyzes a single electrophilic condensation reaction between dimethylallyl diphosphate (C5) and isopentenyl diphosphate (C5) to produce geranyl diphosphate (GDP; C10). GDP is the universal precursor to all monoterpenes. Subsequently, monoterpene synthases are responsible for the transformation of GDP to a variety of acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic monoterpene products. In pheromone-producing male Ips pini bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), the acyclic monoterpene myrcene is required for the production of the major aggregation pheromone component, ipsdienol. Here, we report monoterpene synthase activity associated with GPPS of I. pini. Enzyme assays were performed on recombinant GPPS to determine the presence of monoterpene synthase activity, and the reaction products were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The functionally expressed recombinant enzyme produced both GDP and myrcene, making GPPS of I. pini a bifunctional enzyme. This unique insect isoprenyl diphosphate synthase possesses the functional plasticity that is characteristic of terpene biosynthetic enzymes of plants, contributing toward the current understanding of product specificity of the isoprenoid pathway.

  19. Terpene synthases are widely distributed in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yuuki; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Komatsu, Mamoru; Shin-ya, Kazuo; Omura, Satoshi; Cane, David E.; Ikeda, Haruo

    2015-01-01

    Odoriferous terpene metabolites of bacterial origin have been known for many years. In genome-sequenced Streptomycetaceae microorganisms, the vast majority produces the degraded sesquiterpene alcohol geosmin. Two minor groups of bacteria do not produce geosmin, with one of these groups instead producing other sesquiterpene alcohols, whereas members of the remaining group do not produce any detectable terpenoid metabolites. Because bacterial terpene synthases typically show no significant overall sequence similarity to any other known fungal or plant terpene synthases and usually exhibit relatively low levels of mutual sequence similarity with other bacterial synthases, simple correlation of protein sequence data with the structure of the cyclized terpene product has been precluded. We have previously described a powerful search method based on the use of hidden Markov models (HMMs) and protein families database (Pfam) search that has allowed the discovery of monoterpene synthases of bacterial origin. Using an enhanced set of HMM parameters generated using a training set of 140 previously identified bacterial terpene synthase sequences, a Pfam search of 8,759,463 predicted bacterial proteins from public databases and in-house draft genome data has now revealed 262 presumptive terpene synthases. The biochemical function of a considerable number of these presumptive terpene synthase genes could be determined by expression in a specially engineered heterologous Streptomyces host and spectroscopic identification of the resulting terpene products. In addition to a wide variety of terpenes that had been previously reported from fungal or plant sources, we have isolated and determined the complete structures of 13 previously unidentified cyclic sesquiterpenes and diterpenes. PMID:25535391

  20. Distribution of Callose Synthase, Cellulose Synthase, and Sucrose Synthase in Tobacco Pollen Tube Is Controlled in Dissimilar Ways by Actin Filaments and Microtubules1[W

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Giampiero; Faleri, Claudia; Del Casino, Cecilia; Emons, Anne Mie C.; Cresti, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Callose and cellulose are fundamental components of the cell wall of pollen tubes and are probably synthesized by distinct enzymes, callose synthase and cellulose synthase, respectively. We examined the distribution of callose synthase and cellulose synthase in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) pollen tubes in relation to the dynamics of actin filaments, microtubules, and the endomembrane system using specific antibodies to highly conserved peptide sequences. The role of the cytoskeleton and membrane flow was investigated using specific inhibitors (latrunculin B, 2,3-butanedione monoxime, taxol, oryzalin, and brefeldin A). Both enzymes are associated with the plasma membrane, but cellulose synthase is present along the entire length of pollen tubes (with a higher concentration at the apex) while callose synthase is located in the apex and in distal regions. In longer pollen tubes, callose synthase accumulates consistently around callose plugs, indicating its involvement in plug synthesis. Actin filaments and endomembrane dynamics are critical for the distribution of callose synthase and cellulose synthase, showing that enzymes are transported through Golgi bodies and/or vesicles moving along actin filaments. Conversely, microtubules appear to be critical in the positioning of callose synthase in distal regions and around callose plugs. In contrast, cellulose synthases are only partially coaligned with cortical microtubules and unrelated to callose plugs. Callose synthase also comigrates with tubulin by Blue Native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Membrane sucrose synthase, which expectedly provides UDP-glucose to callose synthase and cellulose synthase, binds to actin filaments depending on sucrose concentration; its distribution is dependent on the actin cytoskeleton and the endomembrane system but not on microtubules. PMID:21205616

  1. Distribution of callose synthase, cellulose synthase, and sucrose synthase in tobacco pollen tube is controlled in dissimilar ways by actin filaments and microtubules.

    PubMed

    Cai, Giampiero; Faleri, Claudia; Del Casino, Cecilia; Emons, Anne Mie C; Cresti, Mauro

    2011-03-01

    Callose and cellulose are fundamental components of the cell wall of pollen tubes and are probably synthesized by distinct enzymes, callose synthase and cellulose synthase, respectively. We examined the distribution of callose synthase and cellulose synthase in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) pollen tubes in relation to the dynamics of actin filaments, microtubules, and the endomembrane system using specific antibodies to highly conserved peptide sequences. The role of the cytoskeleton and membrane flow was investigated using specific inhibitors (latrunculin B, 2,3-butanedione monoxime, taxol, oryzalin, and brefeldin A). Both enzymes are associated with the plasma membrane, but cellulose synthase is present along the entire length of pollen tubes (with a higher concentration at the apex) while callose synthase is located in the apex and in distal regions. In longer pollen tubes, callose synthase accumulates consistently around callose plugs, indicating its involvement in plug synthesis. Actin filaments and endomembrane dynamics are critical for the distribution of callose synthase and cellulose synthase, showing that enzymes are transported through Golgi bodies and/or vesicles moving along actin filaments. Conversely, microtubules appear to be critical in the positioning of callose synthase in distal regions and around callose plugs. In contrast, cellulose synthases are only partially coaligned with cortical microtubules and unrelated to callose plugs. Callose synthase also comigrates with tubulin by Blue Native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Membrane sucrose synthase, which expectedly provides UDP-glucose to callose synthase and cellulose synthase, binds to actin filaments depending on sucrose concentration; its distribution is dependent on the actin cytoskeleton and the endomembrane system but not on microtubules.

  2. Allene oxide synthases and allene oxides.

    PubMed

    Tijet, Nathalie; Brash, Alan R

    2002-08-01

    Allene oxides are unstable epoxides formed by the enzymatic dehydration of the lipoxygenase products of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The allene oxide synthases are of two structurally-unrelated types. In plants, a subfamily of cytochromes P450, designated as CYP74A, use the hydroperoxides of linoleic and linolenic acids as substrate. Both the 9- and 13-hydroperoxides may be converted to allene oxides and subsequently give rise to plant signaling molecules. In corals, a catalase-related hemoprotein functions as the allene oxide synthase. These marine invertebrates, as well as starfish, form allene oxides from the 8R-hydroperoxide of arachidonic acid. The coral allene oxide synthase from Plexaura homomalla occurs as the N-terminal domain of a natural fusion protein with the 8R-lipoxygenase that forms its substrate. This enzyme may be involved in biosynthesis of the cyclopentenone eicosanoids such as the clavulones.

  3. Dihydrofolate reductase deficiency due to a homozygous DHFR mutation causes megaloblastic anemia and cerebral folate deficiency leading to severe neurologic disease.

    PubMed

    Cario, Holger; Smith, Desirée E C; Blom, Henk; Blau, Nenad; Bode, Harald; Holzmann, Karlheinz; Pannicke, Ulrich; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Rump, Eva-Maria; Ayric, Zuleya; Kohne, Elisabeth; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Smulders, Yvo; Schwarz, Klaus

    2011-02-11

    The importance of intracellular folate metabolism is illustrated by the severity of symptoms and complications caused by inborn disorders of folate metabolism or by folate deficiency. We examined three children of healthy, distantly related parents presenting with megaloblastic anemia and cerebral folate deficiency causing neurologic disease with atypical childhood absence epilepsy. Genome-wide homozygosity mapping revealed a candidate region on chromosome 5 including the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) locus. DHFR sequencing revealed a homozygous DHFR mutation, c.458A>T (p.Asp153Val), in all siblings. The patients' folate profile in red blood cells (RBC), plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, was compatible with DHFR deficiency. DHFR activity and fluorescein-labeled methotrexate (FMTX) binding were severely reduced in EBV-immortalized lymphoblastoid cells of all patients. Heterozygous cells displayed intermediate DHFR activity and FMTX binding. RT-PCR of DHFR mRNA revealed no differences between wild-type and DHFR mutation-carrying cells, whereas protein expression was reduced in cells with the DHFR mutation. Treatment with folinic acid resulted in the resolution of hematological abnormalities, normalization of CSF folate levels, and improvement of neurological symptoms. In conclusion, the homozygous DHFR mutation p.Asp153Val causes DHFR deficiency and leads to a complex hematological and neurological disease that can be successfully treated with folinic acid. DHFR is necessary for maintaining sufficient CSF and RBC folate levels, even in the presence of adequate nutritional folate supply and normal plasma folate.

  4. The Chinese hamster dihydrofolate reductase replication origin decision point follows activation of transcription and suppresses initiation of replication within transcription units.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takayo; Ramanathan, Sunita; Okuno, Yukiko; Kumagai, Chiharu; Shaikh, Seemab S; Gilbert, David M

    2006-02-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells select specific replication origin sites within the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) locus at a discrete point during G1 phase, the origin decision point (ODP). Origin selection is sensitive to transcription but not protein synthesis inhibitors, implicating a pretranslational role for transcription in origin specification. We have constructed a DNA array covering 121 kb surrounding the DHFR locus, to comprehensively investigate replication initiation and transcription in this region. When nuclei isolated within the first 3 h of G1 phase were stimulated to initiate replication in Xenopus egg extracts, replication initiated without any detectable preference for specific sites. At the ODP, initiation became suppressed from within the Msh3, DHFR, and 2BE2121 transcription units. Active transcription was mostly confined to these transcription units, and inhibition of transcription by alpha-amanitin resulted in the initiation of replication within transcription units, indicating that transcription is necessary to limit initiation events to the intergenic region. However, the resumption of DHFR transcription after mitosis took place prior to the ODP and so is not on its own sufficient to suppress initiation of replication. Together, these results demonstrate a remarkable flexibility in sequence selection for initiating replication and implicate transcription as one important component of origin specification at the ODP.

  5. Replication in the amplified dihydrofolate reductase domain in CHO cells may initiate at two distinct sites, one of which is a repetitive sequence element.

    PubMed

    Anachkova, B; Hamlin, J L

    1989-02-01

    To study initiation of DNA replication in mammalian chromosomes, we have established a methotrexate-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell line (CHOC 400) that contains approximately 1,000 copies of the early replicating dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) domain. We have previously shown that DNA replication in the prevalent 243-kilobase (kb) amplicon type in this cell line initiates somewhere within a 28-kb region located downstream from the DHFR gene. In an attempt to localize the origin of replication with more precision, we blocked the progress of replication forks emanating from origins at the beginning of the S phase by the introduction of trioxsalen cross-links at 1- to 5-kb intervals in the parental double-stranded DNA. The small DNA fragments synthesized under these conditions (which should be centered around replication origins) were then used as hybridization probes on digests of cosmids and plasmids from the DHFR domain. These studies suggested that in cells synchronized by this regimen, DNA replication initiates at two separate sites within the previously defined 28-kb replication initiation locus, in general agreement with results described in the accompanying paper (T.-H. Leu and J. L. Hamlin, Mol. Cell. Biol. 9:523-531, 1989). One of these sites contains a repeated DNA sequence element that is found at or near many other initiation sites in the genome, since it was also highly enriched in the early replicating DNA isolated from cross-linked CHO cells that contain only two copies of the DHFR domain.

  6. The Chinese Hamster Dihydrofolate Reductase Replication Origin Decision Point Follows Activation of Transcription and Suppresses Initiation of Replication within Transcription Units

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Takayo; Ramanathan, Sunita; Okuno, Yukiko; Kumagai, Chiharu; Shaikh, Seemab S.; Gilbert, David M.

    2006-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells select specific replication origin sites within the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) locus at a discrete point during G1 phase, the origin decision point (ODP). Origin selection is sensitive to transcription but not protein synthesis inhibitors, implicating a pretranslational role for transcription in origin specification. We have constructed a DNA array covering 121 kb surrounding the DHFR locus, to comprehensively investigate replication initiation and transcription in this region. When nuclei isolated within the first 3 h of G1 phase were stimulated to initiate replication in Xenopus egg extracts, replication initiated without any detectable preference for specific sites. At the ODP, initiation became suppressed from within the Msh3, DHFR, and 2BE2121 transcription units. Active transcription was mostly confined to these transcription units, and inhibition of transcription by alpha-amanitin resulted in the initiation of replication within transcription units, indicating that transcription is necessary to limit initiation events to the intergenic region. However, the resumption of DHFR transcription after mitosis took place prior to the ODP and so is not on its own sufficient to suppress initiation of replication. Together, these results demonstrate a remarkable flexibility in sequence selection for initiating replication and implicate transcription as one important component of origin specification at the ODP. PMID:16428457

  7. Study of reactivity of cyanoacetohydrazonoethyl-N-ethyl-N-methyl benzenesulfonamide: preparation of novel anticancer and antimicrobial active heterocyclic benzenesulfonamide derivatives and their molecular docking against dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Debbabi, Khaled F; Al-Harbi, Sami A; Al-Saidi, Hamed M; Aljuhani, Enas H; Abd El-Gilil, Shimaa M; Bashandy, Mahmoud S

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the synthesis of some novel heterocyclic sulfonamides having biologically active thiophene 3, 4, 5, 6, coumarin 8, benzocoumarin 9, thiazole 7, piperidine 10, pyrrolidine 11, pyrazole 14 and pyridine 12, 13. Starting with 4-(1-(2-(2-cyanoacetyl)hydrazono)ethyl)-N-ethyl-N-methylbenzenesulfonamide (2), which was prepared from condensation of acetophenone derivative 1 with 2-cyanoacetohydrazide. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, (19)F NMR and MS spectral data. All the newly synthesized heterocyclic sulfonamides were evaluated as in-vitro anti-breast cancer cell line (MCF7) and as in-vitro antimicrobial agents. Compounds 8, 5 and 11 were more active than MTX reference drug and compounds 12, 7, 4, 14, 5 and 8 were highly potent against Klebsiella pneumonia. Molecular operating environment performed virtual screening using molecular docking studies of the synthesized compounds. The results indicated that some prepared compounds are suitable inhibitor against dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme (PDBSD:4DFR) with further modification.

  8. A search for sources of drug resistance by the 4D-QSAR analysis of a set of antimalarial dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Filho, Osvaldo Andrade; Hopfinger, Anton J.

    2001-01-01

    A set of 18 structurally diverse antifolates including pyrimethamine, cycloguanil, methotrexate, aminopterin and trimethoprim, and 13 pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines were studied using four-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (4D-QSAR) analysis. The corresponding biological activities of these compounds include IC50 inhibition constants for both the wild type, and a specific mutant type of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Two thousand conformations of each analog were sampled to generate a conformational ensemble profile (CEP) from a molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) of 100,000 conformer trajectory states. Each sampled conformation was placed in a 1 Å cubic grid cell lattice for each of five trial alignments. The frequency of occupation of each grid cell was computed for each of six types of pharmacophore groups of atoms of each compound. These grid cell occupancy descriptors (GCODs) were then used as a descriptor pool to construct 4D-QSAR models. Models for inhibition of both the `wild' type and the mutant enzyme were generated which provide detailed spatial pharmacophore requirements for inhibition in terms of atom types and their corresponding relative locations in space. The 4D-QSAR models indicate some structural features perhaps relevant to the mechanism of resistance of the Plasmodium falciparum DHFR to current antimalarials. One feature identified is a slightly different binding alignment of the ligands to the mutant form of the enzyme as compared to the wild type.

  9. Orientation and structure-building role of the water molecules bound at the contact surface of the dihydrofolate reductase-methotrexate complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, P.

    1988-04-01

    Orientation of ten water molecules bound strongly at the contact surface of the dihydrofolate reductase-methotrexate enzyme-inhibitor complex was determined theoretically. To optimize the orientation of the water molecules, a recent method based on a simple electrostatic model was applied. The electrostatic complementarity in the binary complex was investigated using the lock-and-key model, considering the effect of the water molecules as well. The strongly bound water molecules improve the electrostatic fit in the pteridine region of methotrexate. Their role in the benzoic amide and γ-glutamate region is to decrease the internal energy by creating water bridges among remote polar sites making it possible to form H-bonds. Some modifications in the inhibitor structure were proposed for achieving greater inhibitor potency. The presumably enhanced effect is ascribed to the free energy gain in repelling the water molecules from the contact surface to the bulk of the solvent, and, in other cases, to internal energy decreases due to better electrostatic fit in the enzyme-inhibitor complex.

  10. Short hairpin RNA targeted to dihydrofolate reductase enhances the immunoglobulin G expression in gene-amplified stable Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Suh-Chin; Hong, Willy W L; Liu, Jin-Hwang

    2008-09-08

    The dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr)/methotrexate (MTX) selection is a common method to conduct gene amplification in stable clones of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We previously reported the use of a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) vector targeted to the dhfr gene resulted in improving the intracellular antigen expression in gene-amplified stable CHO cells [Hong, W.W., Wu, S.C., 2007. A novel RNA silencing vector to improve antigen expression and stability in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Vaccine 25 (20), 4103-4111]. Here we investigated the use of the dhfr-targeted shRNA vector for immunoglobulin G (IgG) expression in gene-amplified stable CHO cells. With the use of the dhfr-targeted shRNA vector, the gene-amplified CHO/dhFr(-) cells were found to increase IgG expression at 1.0 microM MTX by more than 100% and to improve the genomic stability of IgG expression in MTX-free cultures by approximately 30%. The use of the dhfr-targeted shRNA vector can enhance the IgG expression in the gene-amplified stable CHO cells and uphold the IgG expression in MTX-free cultures. Utilizing the dhfr-targeted shRNA vector may provide an alternative way to maneuver CHO cell factories for IgG production in cultures.

  11. Towards understanding the origins of the different specificities of binding the reduced (NADPH) and oxidised (NADP +) forms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate coenzyme to dihydrofolate reductase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polshakov, Vladimir I.; Biekofsky, Rodolfo R.; Birdsall, Berry; Feeney, James

    2002-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) binds more than a thousand times tighter to NADPH than to NADP +. The origins of the difference in binding affinity to DHFR between NADPH and NADP + are investigated in the present study using experimental NMR data and hybrid density functional, B3LYP, calculations. Certain protein residues (Ala 6, Gln 7, Ile 13 and Gly 14) that are directly involved in hydrogen bonding with the nicotinamide carboxamide group show consistent differences in 1H and 15N chemical shift between NADPH and NADP + in a variety of ternary complexes. B3LYP calculations in model systems of protein-coenzyme interactions show differences in the H-bond geometry and differences in charge distribution between the oxidised and reduced forms of the nicotinamide ring. GIAO isotropic nuclear shieldings calculated for nuclei in these systems reproduce the experimentally observed trends in magnitudes and signs of the chemical shifts. The experimentally observed reduction in binding of NADP + compared with NADPH results partly from NADP + having to change its nicotinamide amide group from a cis- to a trans-conformation on binding and partly from the oxidised nicotinamide ring of NADP + being unable to take up its optimal hydrogen bonding geometry in its interactions with protein residues.

  12. Prevailing Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase 108-asparagine in Hodeidah, Yemen: a questionable sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine partner within the artemisinin-based combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Farag, Hoda F; Allam, Amal F; Shawky, Sherine M

    2014-04-01

    Given that the evolution and spread of resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) have been documented at a quick pace worldwide, the present study investigated the mutant Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase 108-asparagine (dhfr 108 N) as a key marker of resistance to the combination among parasite isolates from Hodeidah. The association of parasitologic indices with the dhfr 108 N mutant allele was also studied. Ninety patients with microscopically confirmed P. falciparum infection from Hodeidah were included in the present study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism approach was adopted for the molecular detection of this marker. The dhfr 108 N was detected among about 61% of P. falciparum isolates, in its pure and mixed-type forms, from Hodeidah. Age, gender and residence of patients were not significant predictors for the presence of the mutant allele among parasite isolates. In contrast, a history of malaria and antimalarial drug intake in the year preceding the study as well as frequent antimalarial drug intake were significantly associated with this mutant allele. The high frequency of dhfr 108 N among parasites isolates makes the role of SP questionable as a partner with outstanding effectiveness within the ACT, at least, in the near future. SP plus artesunate should be monitored for its antimalarial efficacy at regular intervals, preferably through the molecular detection of resistance-associated mutations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dihydrofolate Reductase Deficiency Due to a Homozygous DHFR Mutation Causes Megaloblastic Anemia and Cerebral Folate Deficiency Leading to Severe Neurologic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cario, Holger; Smith, Desirée E.C.; Blom, Henk; Blau, Nenad; Bode, Harald; Holzmann, Karlheinz; Pannicke, Ulrich; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Rump, Eva-Maria; Ayric, Zuleya; Kohne, Elisabeth; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Smulders, Yvo; Schwarz, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The importance of intracellular folate metabolism is illustrated by the severity of symptoms and complications caused by inborn disorders of folate metabolism or by folate deficiency. We examined three children of healthy, distantly related parents presenting with megaloblastic anemia and cerebral folate deficiency causing neurologic disease with atypical childhood absence epilepsy. Genome-wide homozygosity mapping revealed a candidate region on chromosome 5 including the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) locus. DHFR sequencing revealed a homozygous DHFR mutation, c.458A>T (p.Asp153Val), in all siblings. The patients' folate profile in red blood cells (RBC), plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, was compatible with DHFR deficiency. DHFR activity and fluorescein-labeled methotrexate (FMTX) binding were severely reduced in EBV-immortalized lymphoblastoid cells of all patients. Heterozygous cells displayed intermediate DHFR activity and FMTX binding. RT-PCR of DHFR mRNA revealed no differences between wild-type and DHFR mutation-carrying cells, whereas protein expression was reduced in cells with the DHFR mutation. Treatment with folinic acid resulted in the resolution of hematological abnormalities, normalization of CSF folate levels, and improvement of neurological symptoms. In conclusion, the homozygous DHFR mutation p.Asp153Val causes DHFR deficiency and leads to a complex hematological and neurological disease that can be successfully treated with folinic acid. DHFR is necessary for maintaining sufficient CSF and RBC folate levels, even in the presence of adequate nutritional folate supply and normal plasma folate. PMID:21310277

  14. Design, Synthesis, and X-ray Crystal Structures of 2,4-Diaminofuro[2,3-d]pyrimidines as Multireceptor Tyrosine Kinase and Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gangjee, Aleem; Li, Wei; Lin, Lu; Zeng, Yibin; Ihnat, Michael; Warnke, Linda A.; Green, Dixy W.; Cody, Vivian; Pace, Jim; Queener, Sherry F.

    2009-01-01

    To optimize dual receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibition, the E- and Z-isomers of 5-[2-(2-methoxyphenyl)prop-1-en-1-yl]furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4-diamines (1a and 1b) were separated by HPLC and the X-ray crystal structures (2.0 Å and 1.4 Å respectively) with mouse DHFR and NADPH as well as 1b with human DHFR (1.5 Å) were determined. The E- and Z-isomers adopt different binding modes when bound to mouse DHFR. A series of 2,4-diaminofuro[2,3-d]pyrimidines 2–13 were designed and synthesized using the X-ray crystal structures of 1a and 1b with DHFR to increase their DHFR inhibitory activity. Wittig reactions of appropriate 2-methoxyphenyl ketones with 2,4-diamino-6-chloromethyl furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine afforded the C8–C9 unsaturated compounds 2–7 and catalytic reduction gave the saturated 8–13. Homologation of the C9-methyl analog maintains DHFR inhibitory activity. In addition, inhibition of EGFR and PDGFR-β were discovered for saturated C9-homologated analogs 9 and 10 that were absent in the saturated C9-methyl analogs. PMID:19748785

  15. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of a series of novel 6-substituted pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidines as potential nonclassical lipophilic antifolates targeting dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Yang, Jiajia; Yuan, Mengmeng; Xue, Liangmin; Li, Hao; Tian, Chao; Wang, Xiaowei; Liu, Junyi; Zhang, Zhili

    2017-03-10

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) has been a well-recognized target for the treatment of many diseases. Based on 8,10-dideazaminopterins, which are classical antifolates that potently inhibit DHFR, we have designed a series of novel 2,4-diamino-6-substituted pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidines. By removing the glutamate moiety and introducing lipophilic groups, we hoped to improve passive diffuse through the cell membranes. The target compounds were efficiently synthesized using one-pot procedure and evaluated in vitro for DHFR inhibition and antitumor activity. Compounds 5e, 5h, 5i and 5k were the most potent inhibitors of recombinant human DHFR (rhDHFR) with IC50 values in the range 0.2-1.0 μM. Analysis using flow cytometric indicated that the effect of compound 5k on cell cycle progression was linked to induction of S phase arrest. Compounds 5g, 5h, 5i and 5k showed broad spectrum antitumor activity against four different tumor cell lines, with IC50 values in the range 0.07-23 μM. Molecular docking investigations showed that the trimethoyphenyl ring of compound 5k occupied a position near the cofactor-binding site in the rhDHFR-inhibitor complex, with close intermolecular contacts with Asp21, Phe31, Ser59, Ile60 and Pro61. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XI. Geographic distribution of Plasmodium falciparum isolates with dihydrofolate reductase gene mutations in southern and central Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Basco, Leonardo K; Ndounga, Mathieu; Tejiokem, Mathurin; Ngane, Vincent Foumane; Youmba, Jean-Christian; Ringwald, Pascal; Soula, Georges

    2002-10-01

    The DNA sequence of the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) gene, a molecular marker for pyrimethamine resistance, was determined for 178 field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum collected along the east-west axis in southern Cameroon. The proportion of isolates having the wild-type dhfr allele varied from 48.1% in the east (city of Bertoua) to 11.3-15.7% in central provinces (Yaounde and Eseka) and 0% in the littoral region (port city of Douala). Isolates with a single Asn-108 mutation or double mutations (Ile-51 or Arg-59 and Asn-108) constituted approximately 10% of the samples. Isolates with triple mutations (Ile-51, Arg-59, and Asn-108) were present in an equal proportion (48.1%) as the wild-type isolates in the east (Bertoua), while triple mutations predominated in Yaounde (62.3%), Eseka (62.7%), and Douala (78.9%). The distribution of triple dhfr mutations along the east-west axis in southern Cameroon suggests the presence of a decreasing gradient from the west coastal region to the central region and then to the east towards the interior of the country.

  17. Cyclophilin-promoted folding of mouse dihydrofolate reductase does not include the slow conversion of the late-folding intermediate to the active enzyme.

    PubMed

    von Ahsen, O; Lim, J H; Caspers, P; Martin, F; Schönfeld, H J; Rassow, J; Pfanner, N

    2000-03-31

    Cyclophilins accelerate slow protein folding reactions in vitro by catalyzing the cis/trans isomerization of peptidyl-prolyl bonds. Cyclophilins were reported to be involved in a variety of cellular functions, including the promotion of protein folding by use of the substrate mouse dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). The interaction of cyclophilin with DHFR has only been studied under limited conditions so far, not taking into account that native DHFR exists in equilibrium with a non-native late-folding intermediate. Here we report a systematic analysis of catalysis of DHFR folding by cyclophilins. The specific ligand methotrexate traps DHFR in its native state, permitting a specific analysis of the action of cyclophilin on both denatured DHFR with non-native prolyl bonds and denatured DHFR with all-native prolyl bonds. Cyclophilins from yeast and Neurospora crassa as well as the related prolyl isomerase b from Escherichia coli promote the folding of different forms of DHFR to the enzymatically active form, demonstrating the generality of cyclophilin-catalyzed folding of DHFR. The slow equilibrium between the late-folding intermediate and native DHFR suggests that prolyl isomerization may be required for this final phase of conversion to native DHFR. However, by reversible trapping of the intermediate, we analyze the slow interconversion between native and late-folding conformations in the backward and forward reactions and show a complete independence of cyclophilin. We conclude that cyclophilin catalyzes folding of DHFR, but surprisingly not in the last slow folding step. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  18. Particular interaction between pyrimethamine derivatives and quadruple mutant type dihydrofolate reductase of Plasmodium falciparum: CoMFA and quantum chemical calculations studies.

    PubMed

    Maitarad, Phornphimon; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart; Hannongbua, Supa; Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee; Tarnchompoo, Bongkoch; Yuthavong, Yongyuth

    2009-04-01

    Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) was performed on twenty-three pyrimethamine (pyr) derivatives active against quadruple mutant type (Asn51Ile, Cys59Arg, Ser108Asn, Ile164Leu) dihydrofolate reductase of Plasmodium falcipaarum (PfDHFR). The represented CoMFA models were evaluated based on the various three different probe atoms, C(sp3) (+1), O(sp3) (-1) and H (+1), resulting in the best model with combined three types of probe atoms. The statistical results were r(2)(cv) = 0.702, S(press) = 0.608, r(2)(nv) = 0.980, s = 0.156, and r(2)(test-set) = 0.698 which can explain steric contribution of about 50%. In addition, an understanding of particular interaction energy between inhibitor and surrounding residues in the binding pocket was performed by using MP2/6-31G(d,p) quantum chemical calculations. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that Asn108 is the cause of pyr resistance with the highest repulsive interaction energy. Therefore, CoMFA and particular interaction energy analyses can be useful for identifying the structural features of potent pyr derivatives active against quadruple mutant type PfDHFR.

  19. Increased incidence of cycloguanil resistance in malaria cases entering France from Africa, determined as point mutations in the parasites' dihydrofolate-reductase genes.

    PubMed

    Durand, R; di Piazza, J P; Longuet, C; Sécardin, Y; Clain, J; le Bras, J

    1999-01-01

    The incidence of cycloguanil resistance in 501 Plasmodium falciparum isolates from individuals entering France from Africa was estimated by a method based on PCR-restriction-fragment-length polymorphisms. None of the subjects had taken antifol prophylaxis. Annual incidence of the resistance, detected as a point mutation at codon 108 in the parasite's dihydrofolate-reductase gene, increased from 19.8% in 1995 to 43.6% in 1997 (P < 0.001). The proportion of isolates found to be susceptible (i.e. wild-type) among travellers returning from the African countries known as Group 2 in France (i.e. Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tchad and Togo) was reasonably high (62.9%) and much higher than in the other subjects returning from other identifiable countries in Africa (35.3%). The antimalarial prophylaxis recommended in France to those travelling to Group-2 countries, chloroquine-proguanil, therefore still seems reasonable, although cycloguanil resistance may seriously undermine the efficacy of this drug combination in the future.

  20. Biochemical characterization of the minimal polyketide synthase domains in the lovastatin nonaketide synthase LovB.

    PubMed

    Ma, Suzanne M; Tang, Yi

    2007-06-01

    The biosynthesis of lovastatin in Aspergillus terreus requires two megasynthases. The lovastatin nonaketide synthase, LovB, synthesizes the intermediate dihydromonacolin L using nine malonyl-coenzyme A molecules, and is a reducing, iterative type I polyketide synthase. The iterative type I polyketide synthase is mechanistically different from bacterial type I polyketide synthases and animal fatty acid synthases. We have cloned the minimal polyketide synthase domains of LovB as standalone proteins and assayed their activities and substrate specificities. The didomain proteins ketosynthase-malonyl-coenzyme A:acyl carrier protein acyltransferase (KS-MAT) and acyl carrier protein-condensation (ACP-CON) domain were expressed solubly in Escherichia coli. The monodomains MAT, ACP and CON were also obtained as soluble proteins. The MAT domain can be readily labeled by [1,2-(14)C]malonyl-coenzyme A and can transfer the acyl group to both the cognate LovB ACP and heterologous ACPs from bacterial type I and type II polyketide synthases. Using the LovB ACP-CON didomain as an acyl acceptor, LovB MAT transferred malonyl and acetyl groups with k(cat)/K(m) values of 0.62 min(-1).mum(-1) and 0.032 min(-1).mum(-1), respectively. The LovB MAT domain was able to substitute the Streptomyces coelicolor FabD in supporting product turnover in a bacterial type II minimal polyketide synthase assay. The activity of the KS domain was assayed independently using a KS-MAT (S656A) mutant in which the MAT domain was inactivated. The KS domain displayed no activity towards acetyl groups, but was able to recognize malonyl groups in the absence of cerulenin. The relevance of these finding to the priming mechanism of fungal polyketide synthase is discussed.

  1. Identification of novel sesterterpene/triterpene synthase from Bacillus clausii.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tsutomu; Yamaga, Hiroaki; Kashima, Shoji; Murata, Yusuke; Shinada, Tetsuro; Nakano, Chiaki; Hoshino, Tsutomu

    2013-05-10

    Basic enzyme: The tetraprenyl-β-curcumene synthase homologue from the alkalophilic Bacillus clausii catalyses conversions of a geranylfarnesyl diphosphate and a hexaprenyl diphosphate into novel head-to-tail acyclic sesterterpene and triterpene. Tetraprenyl-β-curcumene synthase homologues represent a new family of terpene synthases that form not only sesquarterpene but also sesterterpene and triterpene.

  2. Producing dicarboxylic acids using polyketide synthases

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-10-29

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a dicarboxylic acid (diacid). Such diacids include diketide-diacids and triketide-diacids. The invention includes recombinant nucleic acid encoding the PKS, and host cells comprising the PKS. The invention also includes methods for producing the diacids.

  3. Producing dicarboxylic acids using polyketide synthases

    DOEpatents

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2015-05-26

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a dicarboxylic acid (diacid). Such diacids include diketide-diacids and triketide-diacids. The invention includes recombinant nucleic acid encoding the PKS, and host cells comprising the PKS. The invention also includes methods for producing the diacids.

  4. Nitric oxide synthase in tiger salamander retina.

    PubMed

    Kurenni, D E; Thurlow, G A; Turner, R W; Moroz, L L; Sharkey, K A; Barnes, S

    1995-10-23

    Previous studies have indicated that nitric oxide, a labile freely diffusible biological messenger synthesized by nitric oxide synthase, may modulate light transduction and signal transmission in the retina. In the present work, the large size of retinal cells in tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) allowed the utilization of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase histochemistry and nitric oxide synthase immunocytochemistry to delineate the cell-specific intracellular localization of nitric oxide synthase. NADPH-diaphorase activity was highly concentrated in the outer retina, in rod and cone inner segment ellipsoids, and between and adjacent to the photoreceptor cell bodies in the outer nuclear layer. Examination of enzymatically isolated retinal cells indicated that outer nuclear layer NADPH-diaphorase activity was localized to the distal processes of the retinal glial (Müller) cells and to putative bipolar cell Landolt clubs. Less intense NADPH-diaphorase activity was seen in the photoreceptor inner segment myoid region, in a small number of inner nuclear layer cells, in cap-like configurations at the distal poles of cells in the ganglion cell layer and surrounding ganglion cell layer somata, and in punctate form within both plexiform layers, the pigment epithelium, and the optic nerve. Nitric oxide synthase-like immunoreactivity was similarly localized, but was also concentrated along a thin sublamina centered within the inner plexiform layer. The potential for nitric oxide generation at multiple retinal sites suggests that this molecule may play a number of roles in the processing of visual information in the retina.

  5. Lessons from 455 Fusarium polyketide synthases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In fungi, polyketide synthases (PKSs) synthesize a structurally diverse array of secondary metabolites (SMs) with a range of biological activities. The most studied SMs are toxic to animals and/or plants, alter plant growth, have beneficial pharmaceutical activities, and/or are brightly colored pigm...

  6. Trichinella pseudospiralis vs. T. spiralis thymidylate synthase gene structure and T. pseudospiralis thymidylate synthase retrogene sequence.

    PubMed

    Jagielska, Elżbieta; Płucienniczak, Andrzej; Dąbrowska, Magdalena; Dowierciał, Anna; Rode, Wojciech

    2014-04-09

    Thymidylate synthase is a housekeeping gene, designated ancient due to its role in DNA synthesis and ubiquitous phyletic distribution. The genomic sequences were characterized coding for thymidylate synthase in two species of the genus Trichinella, an encapsulating T. spiralis and a non-encapsulating T. pseudospiralis. Based on the sequence of parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis thymidylate synthase cDNA, PCR techniques were employed. Each of the respective gene structures encompassed 6 exons and 5 introns located in conserved sites. Comparison with the corresponding gene structures of other eukaryotic species revealed lack of common introns that would be shared among selected fungi, nematodes, mammals and plants. The two deduced amino acid sequences were 96% identical. In addition to the thymidylate synthase gene, the intron-less retrocopy, i.e. a processed pseudogene, with sequence identical to the T. spiralis gene coding region, was found to be present within the T. pseudospiralis genome. This pseudogene, instead of the gene, was confirmed by RT-PCR to be expressed in the parasite muscle larvae. Intron load, as well as distribution of exon and intron phases in thymidylate synthase genes from various sources, point against the theory of gene assembly by the primordial exon shuffling and support the theory of evolutionary late intron insertion into spliceosomal genes. Thymidylate synthase pseudogene expressed in T. pseudospiralis muscle larvae is designated a retrogene.

  7. A clinically-identified emergent source of antibiotic resistance: the integron-associated DfrB4, a previously uncharacterized member of the trimethoprim-resistant dihydrofolate reductase B family.

    PubMed

    Toulouse, Jacynthe L; Edens, Thaddeus J; Alejaldre, Lorea; Manges, Amee R; Pelletier, Joelle N

    2017-02-27

    Whole genome sequencing of trimethoprim-resistant E. coli clinical isolates has identified a member of the trimethoprim-resistant type II dihydrofolate reductase gene family (dfrB). The dfrB4 gene was located within a class I integron flanked by multiple resistance genes. This arrangement was previously reported in a 130.6 kb multi-resistance plasmid. The DfrB4 protein conferred a > 2,000-fold increased trimethoprim resistance upon overexpression in E. coli Our results are consistent with dfrB4 contributing to clinical trimethoprim resistance.

  8. Geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit, and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney B.; Burke, Charles C.; Wildung, Mark R.

    2001-10-16

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit). In another aspect, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit. In yet another aspect, the present invention provides isolated, recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase protein comprising an isolated, recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit protein and an isolated, recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase small subunit protein. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase.

  9. Expression, Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Mouse Translation Initiation factor eIF-4E as a Dihydrofolate Reductase (DHFR) Fusion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Phalguni; Cheng, Jilin; Chou, Tsui-Fen; Jia, Yan; Avdulov, Svetlana; Bitterman, Peter B.; Polunovsky, Vitaly A.; Wagner, Carston R.

    2008-01-01

    One of the earliest steps in translation initiation is recognition of the mRNA cap structure (m7GpppX) by the initiation factor eIF4E. Studies of interactions between purified eIF4E and its binding partners provide important information for understanding mechanisms underlying translational control in normal and cancer cells. Numerous impediments of the available methods used for eIF4E purification led us to develop a novel methodology for obtaining fractions of eIF4E free from undesired by-products. Herein we report methods for bacterial expression of eIF4E tagged with mutant dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) followed by isolation and purification of the DHFR-eIF4E protein by using affinity and anion-exchange chromatography. Fluorescence quenching experiments indicated the cap analogue, 7MeGTP, bound to DHFR-eIF4E and eIF4E with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 6±5 and 10±3 nM, respectively. Recombinant eIF4E and DHFR-eIF4E were both shown to significantly enhance in vitro translation in dose dependent manner by 75% at 0.5 uM. Nevertheless increased concentrations of eIF4E and DHFR-eIF4E significantly inhibited translation in a dose dependent manner by a maximum at 2 uM of 60% and 90%, respectively. Thus, we have demonstrated that we have developed an expression system for fully functional recombinant eIF4E. We have also shown that the fusion protein DHFR-eIF4E is functional and thus may be useful for cell based affinity tag studies with fluorescently labeled trimethoprim analogs. PMID:18479935

  10. Site-specific bioconjugation of a murine dihydrofolate reductase enzyme by copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition with retained activity.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sung In; Mizuta, Yukina; Takasu, Akinori; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kwon, Inchan

    2014-01-01

    Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) is an efficient reaction linking an azido and an alkynyl group in the presence of copper catalyst. Incorporation of a non-natural amino acid (NAA) containing either an azido or an alkynyl group into a protein allows site-specific bioconjugation in mild conditions via CuAAC. Despite its great potential, bioconjugation of an enzyme has been hampered by several issues including low yield, poor solubility of a ligand, and protein structural/functional perturbation by CuAAC components. In the present study, we incorporated an alkyne-bearing NAA into an enzyme, murine dihydrofolate reductase (mDHFR), in high cell density cultivation of Escherichia coli, and performed CuAAC conjugation with fluorescent azide dyes to evaluate enzyme compatibility of various CuAAC conditions comprising combination of commercially available Cu(I)-chelating ligands and reductants. The condensed culture improves the protein yield 19-fold based on the same amount of non-natural amino acid, and the enzyme incubation under the optimized reaction condition did not lead to any activity loss but allowed a fast and high-yield bioconjugation. Using the established conditions, a biotin-azide spacer was efficiently conjugated to mDHFR with retained activity leading to the site-specific immobilization of the biotin-conjugated mDHFR on a streptavidin-coated plate. These results demonstrate that the combination of reactive non-natural amino acid incorporation and the optimized CuAAC can be used to bioconjugate enzymes with retained enzymatic activity.

  11. Site-Specific Bioconjugation of a Murine Dihydrofolate Reductase Enzyme by Copper(I)-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition with Retained Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung In; Mizuta, Yukina; Takasu, Akinori; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kwon, Inchan

    2014-01-01

    Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) is an efficient reaction linking an azido and an alkynyl group in the presence of copper catalyst. Incorporation of a non-natural amino acid (NAA) containing either an azido or an alkynyl group into a protein allows site-specific bioconjugation in mild conditions via CuAAC. Despite its great potential, bioconjugation of an enzyme has been hampered by several issues including low yield, poor solubility of a ligand, and protein structural/functional perturbation by CuAAC components. In the present study, we incorporated an alkyne-bearing NAA into an enzyme, murine dihydrofolate reductase (mDHFR), in high cell density cultivation of Escherichia coli, and performed CuAAC conjugation with fluorescent azide dyes to evaluate enzyme compatibility of various CuAAC conditions comprising combination of commercially available Cu(I)-chelating ligands and reductants. The condensed culture improves the protein yield 19-fold based on the same amount of non-natural amino acid, and the enzyme incubation under the optimized reaction condition did not lead to any activity loss but allowed a fast and high-yield bioconjugation. Using the established conditions, a biotin-azide spacer was efficiently conjugated to mDHFR with retained activity leading to the site-specific immobilization of the biotin-conjugated mDHFR on a streptavidin-coated plate. These results demonstrate that the combination of reactive non-natural amino acid incorporation and the optimized CuAAC can be used to bioconjugate enzymes with retained enzymatic activity. PMID:24887377

  12. X-ray structure of the ternary MTX·NADPH complex of the anthrax dihydrofolate reductase: A pharmacophore for dual-site inhibitor design

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Brad C.; Wan, Qun; Ahmad, Md Faiz; Langan, Paul; Dealwis, Chris G.

    2009-11-18

    For reasons of bioterrorism and drug resistance, it is imperative to identify and develop new molecular points of intervention against anthrax. Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a highly conserved enzyme and an established target in a number of species for a variety of chemotherapeutic programs. Recently, the crystal structure of B. anthracis DHFR (baDHFR) in complex with methotrexate (MTX) was determined and, based on the structure, proposals were made for drug design strategies directed against the substrate binding site. However, little is gleaned about the binding site for NADPH, the cofactor responsible for hydride transfer in the catalytic mechanism. In the present study, X-ray crystallography at 100 K was used to determine the structure of baDHFR in complex with MTX and NADPH. Although the NADPH binding mode is nearly identical to that seen in other DHFR ternary complex structures, the adenine moiety adopts an off-plane tilt of nearly 90 deg. and this orientation is stabilized by hydrogen bonds to functionally conserved Arg residues. A comparison of the binding site, focusing on this region, between baDHFR and the human enzyme is discussed, with an aim at designing species-selective therapeutics. Indeed, the ternary model, refined to 2.3{angstrom} resolution, provides an accurate template for testing the feasibility of identifying dual-site inhibitors, compounds that target both the substrate and cofactor binding site. With the ternary model in hand, using in silico methods, several compounds were identified which could potentially form key bonding contacts in the substrate and cofactor binding sites. Ultimately, two structurally distinct compounds were verified that inhibit baDHFR at low {mu}M concentrations. The apparent K{sub d} for one of these, (2-(3-(2-(hydroxyimino)-2-(pyridine-4-yl)-6,7-dimethylquinoxalin-2-yl)-1-(pyridine-4-yl)ethanone oxime), was measured by fluorescence spectroscopy to be 5.3 {mu}M.

  13. X-ray structure of the ternary MTX•NADPH complex of the anthrax dihydrofolate reductase: a pharmacophore for dual-site inhibitor design

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Brad C.; Wan, Qun; Ahmad, Md Faiz; Dealwis, Chris G.

    2009-01-01

    For reasons of bioterrorism and drug resistance, it is imperative to identify and develop new molecular points of intervention against anthrax. Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a highly conserved enzyme and an established target in a number of species for a variety of chemotherapeutic programs. Recently, the crystal structure of B. anthracis DHFR (baDHFR) in complex with methotrexate (MTX) was determined and, based on the structure, proposals were made for drug design strategies directed against the substrate binding site. However, little is gleaned about the binding site for NADPH, the cofactor responsible for hydride transfer in the catalytic mechanism. In the present study, X-ray crystallography at 100 K was used to determine the structure of baDHFR in complex with MTX and NADPH. Although the NADPH binding mode is nearly identical to that seen in other DHFR ternary complex structures, the adenine moiety adopts an off-plane tilt of nearly 90° and this orientation is stabilized by hydrogen bonds to functionally conserved Arg residues. A comparison of the binding site, focusing on this region, between baDHFR and the human enzyme is discussed, with an aim at designing species-selective therapeutics. Indeed, the ternary model, refined to 2.3Å resolution, provides an accurate template for testing the feasibility of identifying dual-site inhibitors, compounds that target both the substrate and cofactor binding site. With the ternary model in hand, using in silico methods, several compounds were identified which could potentially form key bonding contacts in the substrate and cofactor binding sites. Ultimately, two structurally distinct compounds were verified that inhibit baDHFR at low μM concentrations. The apparent Kd for one of these, (2-(3-(2-(hydroxyimino)-2-(pyridine-4-yl)-6,7-dimethylquinoxalin-2-yl)-1-(pyridine-4-yl)ethanone oxime), was measured by fluorescence spectroscopy to be 5.3 μM. PMID:19374017

  14. A 19-base pair deletion polymorphism in dihydrofolate reductase is associated with increased unmetabolized folic acid in plasma and decreased red blood cell folate.

    PubMed

    Kalmbach, Renee D; Choumenkovitch, Silvina F; Troen, Aron P; Jacques, Paul F; D'Agostino, Ralph; Selhub, Jacob

    2008-12-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) catalyzes the reduction of folic acid to tetrahydrofolate (THF). A 19-bp noncoding deletion allele maps to intron 1, beginning 60 bases from the splice donor site, and has been implicated in neural tube defects and cancer, presumably by influencing folate metabolism. The functional impact of this polymorphism has not yet been demonstrated. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of the DHFR mutation with respect to folate status and assess influence of folic acid intake on these relations. The relationship between DHFR genotype and plasma concentrations of circulating folic acid, total folate, total homocysteine, and concentrations of RBC folate was determined in 1215 subjects from the Framingham Offspring Study. There was a significant interaction between DHFR genotype and folic acid intake with respect to the prevalence of high circulating unmetabolized folic acid (defined as >85th percentile). Folic acid intake of >or=500 microg/d increased the prevalence of high circulating unmetabolized folic acid in subjects with the deletion (del/del genotype (47.0%) compared with the wild type (WT)/del (21.4%) and wild type (WT)/WT genotypes (24.4%) (P for interaction = 0.03). Interaction between the DHFR polymorphism and folic acid intake was also seen with respect to RBC folate (P for interaction = 0.01). When folic acid intake was <250 microg/d, the del/del genotype was associated with significantly lower RBC folate (732.3 nmol/L) compared with the WT/WT genotype (844.4 nmol/L). Our results suggest the del/del polymorphism in DHFR is a functional polymorphism, because it limits assimilation of folic acid into cellular folate stores at high and low folic acid intakes.

  15. Synthesis and molecular docking against dihydrofolate reductase of novel pyridin-N-ethyl-N-methylbenzenesulfonamides as efficient anticancer and antimicrobial agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debbabi, Khaled F.; Bashandy, Mahmoud S.; Al-Harbi, Sami A.; Aljuhani, Enas H.; Al-Saidi, Hamed M.

    2017-03-01

    This article describes the synthesis of some novel sulfonamides having biologically active pyridine 21-28. Starting with 4-(1-(2-(2-cyanoacetyl)hydrazono)ethyl)-N-ethyl-N-methylbenzenesulfonamide (2), which was prepared from condensation of acetophenone derivative 1 with 2-cyanoacetohydrazide. Interaction of compound 2 with different aldehydes namely 4-fluorobenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-N,N-dimethylbenzaldehyde afforded the corresponding hydrazono-ethyl-N-ethyl-N-methylbenzene sulfonamides 18-20 respectively, which when reacted with malononitrile and ethyl cyanoacetate afforded compounds 21-26 respectively. These compounds 21-26 can be prepared by another reaction route by interaction of compounds 2 with arylidine malononitrile and arylidine ethyl cyanoacetate in refluxing dioxane in the presence of trimethylamine as catalyst. Interaction of compound 2 with malononitrile and ethyl cyanoacetate afforded oxopyridine derivatives 27 and 28 respectively. All the new prepared compounds were evaluated for their antitumor activities against the cell lines MCF-7 in comparison with the reference drug Doxorubicin using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay. Compounds 25, 21, 23 with SI values of 9.72, 9.71, 8.81 respectively, exhibited better activity than doxorubicin (Dox) as a reference drug with SI value of 8.49. In addition, compounds 25, 27 and 22 exhibited anti-bacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae) with inhibition zones 22.6, 20.3 and 19.3 mm respectively, which were more active than gentamicin as a reference drug with inhibition zone 17.3 mm. Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) performed virtual screening using molecular docking studies of the synthesized compounds. The results indicated that some synthesized compounds suitable inhibitor against dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme (PDB SD: 4DFR) with further modification.

  16. Molecular dynamics of interactions between rigid and flexible antifolates and dihydrofolate reductase from pyrimethamine-sensitive and pyrimethamine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Mokmak, Wanwimon; Chunsrivirot, Surasak; Hannongbua, Supa; Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Tongsima, Sissades; Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee

    2014-10-01

    Currently, the usefulness of antimalarials such as pyrimethamine (PYR) is drastically reduced due to the emergence of resistant Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) caused by its dihydrofolate reductase (PfDHFR) mutations, especially the quadruple N51I/C59R/S108N/I164L mutations. The resistance was due to the steric conflict of PYR with S108N. WR99210 (WR), a dihydrotriazine antifolate with a flexible side chain that can avoid such conflict, can overcome this resistance through tight binding with the mutant. To understand factors contributing to different binding affinities of PYR/WR to the wild type (WT) and quadruple mutant (QM), we performed simulations on WR-WT, WR-QM, PYR-WT, and PYR-QM complexes and found that Ile14 and Asp54 were crucial for PYR/WR binding to PfDHFR due to strong hydrogen bonds. The quadruple mutations cause PYR to form, on average, fewer hydrogen bonds with Ile14 and Leu164, and to be displaced from its optimal orientation for Asp54 interaction. The predicted binding affinity ranking (WR-QM ≈ WR-WT ≈ PYR-WT > PYR-QM) reasonably agrees with the inhibition constant (K(i)) ranking. Our results reveal important residues for tight binding of PYR/WR to WT/QM, which may be used to evaluate the inhibition effectiveness of antimalarials and to provide fundamental information for designing new drugs effective against drug-resistant P. falciparum. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Preliminary in vitro studies on two potent, water-soluble trimethoprim analogues with exceptional species selectivity against dihydrofolate reductase from Pneumocystis carinii and Mycobacterium avium.

    PubMed

    Forsch, Ronald A; Queener, Sherry F; Rosowsky, Andre

    2004-04-05

    2,4-Diamino-5-[3',4'-dimethoxy-5'-(5-carboxy-1-pentynyl)]benzylpyrimidine (6) and 2,4-diamino-5-[3',4'-dimethoxy-5'-(4-carboxyphenylethynyl)benzylpyrimidine (7) were synthesized from 2,4-diamino-5-(5'-iodo-3',4'-dimethoxybenzyl)pyrimidine (9) via a Sonogashira reaction with appropriate acetylenic esters followed by saponification, and were tested as inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Pneumocystis carinii (Pc), Toxoplasma gondii (Tg), Mycobacterium avium (Ma), and rat in comparison with the widely used antibacterial agent 2,4-diamino-5-(3',4',5'-trimethoxybenzyl)pyrimidine (trimethoprim, TMP). The selectivity index (SI) for each compound was calculated by dividing its 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) against rat DHFR by its IC(50) against Pc, Tg, or Ma DHFR. The IC(50) of 6 against Pc DHFR was 1.0 nM, with an SI of 5000. Compound 7 had an IC(50) of 8.2 nM against Ma DHFR, with an SI of 11000. By comparison, the IC(50) of TMP was 12000 nM against Pc, 300 nM against Ma, and 180000 against rat DHFR. The potency and selectivity values of 6 and 7 were not as high against Tg as they were against Pc or Ma DHFR, but nonetheless exceeded those of TMP. Because of the outstanding selectivity of 6 against Pc and of 7 against Ma DHFR, these novel analogues may be viewed as promising leads for further structure-activity optimization.

  18. Crystal Structures of Wild-type and Mutant Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Dihydrofolate Reductase Reveal an Alternative Conformation of NADPH that may be Linked to Trimethoprim Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, K.; Liu, J; Lombardo, M; Bolstad, D; Wright, D; Anderson, A

    2009-01-01

    Both hospital- and community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections have become major health concerns in terms of morbidity, suffering and cost. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) is an alternative treatment for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections. However, TMP-resistant strains have arisen with point mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), the target for TMP. A single point mutation, F98Y, has been shown biochemically to confer the majority of this resistance to TMP. Using a structure-based approach, we have designed a series of novel propargyl-linked DHFR inhibitors that are active against several trimethoprim-resistant enzymes. We screened this series against wild-type and mutant (F98Y) S. aureus DHFR and found that several are active against both enzymes and specifically that the meta-biphenyl class of these inhibitors is the most potent. In order to understand the structural basis of this potency, we determined eight high-resolution crystal structures: four each of the wild-type and mutant DHFR enzymes bound to various propargyl-linked DHFR inhibitors. In addition to explaining the structure-activity relationships, several of the structures reveal a novel conformation for the cofactor, NADPH. In this new conformation that is predominantly associated with the mutant enzyme, the nicotinamide ring is displaced from its conserved location and three water molecules complete a network of hydrogen bonds between the nicotinamide ring and the protein. In this new position, NADPH has reduced interactions with the inhibitor. An equilibrium between the two conformations of NADPH, implied by their occupancies in the eight crystal structures, is influenced both by the ligand and the F98Y mutation. The mutation induced equilibrium between two NADPH-binding conformations may contribute to decrease TMP binding and thus may be responsible for TMP resistance.

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of interaction of ligands with Streptococcus faecium dihydrofolate reductase labeled with (. gamma. -/sup 13/C)tryptophan

    SciTech Connect

    London, R.E.; Groff, J.P.; Cocco, L.; Blakley, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase from Streptococcus faecium has been labeled with (..gamma..-/sup 13/C)tryptophan. We have determined changes occurring in the chemical shifts and line widths of the four resonances of the /sup 13/C NMR spectrum of the labeled enzyme, due to its interaction with various ligands. These include the coenzyme, NPDPH and related nucleotides, folate and its polyglutamate derivatives, and many inhibitors including methotrexate and trimethoprim. In addition, paramagnetic relaxation effects produced by a bound spin-labeled analogue of 2'-phosphoadenosine-5'-diphosphoribose on the tryptophan C/sup ..gamma../ carbons have been measured. Distances calculated from the relaxation data have been compared with corresponding distances in the crystallographic model of the NADPH-methotrexate ternary complex of Lactobacillus casei reductase. The paramagnetic relaxation data indicate that the two downfield resonances (1 and 2) correspond to tryptophans (W/sub A/ and W/sub B/) that are more remote from the catalytic site, and from the crystallographic model these are seen to be Trp-115 and Trp-160. The upfield resonances (3 and 4) that show broadening due to chemical exchange correspond to closer residues (W/sub C/ and W/sub D/), and these are identified with Trp-6 and Trp-22. However, the relaxation data do not permit specific assignments within the nearer and farther pairs. Although resonance 3, which is split due to chemical exchange, was formerly assigned to Trp-6, data obtained for the enzyme in the presence of various ligands are better interpreted if resonance 3 is assigned to Trp-22, which is located on a loop that joins elements of secondary structure and forms one side of the ligand-binding cavity.

  20. Changes in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) mRNA levels can account fully for changes in DHFR synthesis rates during terminal differentiation in a highly amplified myogenic cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, E E; Merrill, G F

    1991-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme is preferentially synthesized in proliferative cells. A mouse muscle cell line resistant to 300 microM methotrexate was developed to investigate the molecular levels at which DHFR is down-regulated during myogenic withdrawal from the cell cycle. H- alpha R300T cells contained 540 copies of the endogenous DHFR gene and overexpressed DHFR mRNA and DHFR protein. Despite DHFR gene amplification, the cells remained diploid. As H- alpha R300T myoblasts withdrew from the cell cycle and committed to terminal differentiation, DHFR mRNA levels and DHFR synthesis rates decreased with closely matched kinetics. After 15 to 24 h, committed cells contained 5% the proliferative level of DHFR mRNA (80 molecules per committed cell) and synthesized DHFR protein at 6% the proliferative rate. At no point during the commitment process did the decrease in DHFR synthesis rate exceed the decrease in DHFR message. The decrease in DHFR mRNA levels during commitment was sufficient to account fully for the decrease in rates of DHFR synthesis. Furthermore, DHFR mRNA remained polysomal, and the average number of ribosomes per message remained constant (five to six ribosomes per DHFR mRNA). The constancy of polysome size, along with the uniform rate of DHFR synthesis per message, indicated that DHFR mRNA was efficiently translated in postreplicative cells. The results support a model wherein replication-dependent changes in DHFR synthesis rates are determined exclusively by changes in DHFR mRNA levels. Images PMID:2046674

  1. The Dihydrofolate Reductase 19 bp Polymorphism Is Not Associated with Biomarkers of Folate Status in Healthy Young Adults, Irrespective of Folic Acid Intake.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Mari; Molloy, Anne M; Mills, James L; Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Gibney, Eileen R; Shane, Barry; Brody, Lawrence C; Parle-McDermott, Anne

    2015-10-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is essential for the conversion of folic acid to active folate needed for one-carbon metabolism. Common genetic variation within DHFR is restricted to the noncoding regions, and previous studies have focused on a 19 bp deletion/insertion polymorphism (rs70991108) within intron 1. Reports of an association between this polymorphism and blood folate biomarker concentrations are conflicting. In this study, we evaluated whether the DHFR 19 bp deletion/insertion polymorphism affects circulating folate biomarkers in, to our knowledge, the largest cohort to address this question to date. Healthy young Irish individuals (n = 2507) between 19 and 36 y of age were recruited between February 2003 and February 2004. Folic acid intake from supplements and fortified foods was assessed with the use of a customized food intake questionnaire. Concentrations of serum folate and vitamin B-12, red blood cell (RBC) folate, and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) were measured. Data were analyzed with the use of linear regression models. Folic acid intake was positively associated with serum (P < 0.0001) and RBC (P = 0.0005) folate concentration and was inversely associated with plasma tHcy (P = 0.001) as expected. The DHFR 19 bp polymorphism was not significantly associated with either serum (P = 0.82) or RBC (P = 0.21) folate, or plasma tHcy (P = 0.20), even in those within the highest quintile of folic acid intake (>326 μg folic acid/d; P = 0.96). A nonsignificant trend toward lower RBC folate by genotype (P = 0.09) was observed in the lowest folic acid intake quintile (0-51 μg/d). In this cohort of healthy young individuals, the DHFR 19 bp deletion allele did not significantly affect circulating folate status, irrespective of folic acid intake. Our data rule out a strong functional effect from this polymorphism on blood folate concentrations. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTR), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), and thymidylate synthase (TYMS) in multiple myeloma risk.

    PubMed

    Lima, Carmen S P; Ortega, Manoela M; Ozelo, Margareth C; Araujo, Renato C; De Souza, Cármino A; Lorand-Metze, Irene; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce M; Costa, Fernando F

    2008-03-01

    We tested whether the polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene, MTHFR C677T and A1298C, the methionine synthase gene, MTR A2756G, the methionine synthase reductase gene, MTRR A66G, and the thymidylate synthase gene, TYMS 2R-->3R, involved in folate and methionine metabolism, altered the risk for multiple myeloma (MM). Genomic DNA from 123MM patients and 188 controls was analysed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction digestion for the polymorphism analyses. The frequency of the MTR 2756 AG plus GG genotype was higher in patients than in controls (39.8% versus 23.4%, P=0.001). Individual carriers of the variant allele G had a 2.31 (95% CI: 1.38-3.87)-fold increased risk for MM compared with others. In contrast, similar frequencies of the MTHFR, the MTRR and the TYMS genotypes were seen in patients and controls. These results suggest, for the first time, a role for the MTR A2756G polymorphism in MM risk in our country, but should be confirmed by large-scale epidemiological studies with patients and controls age matched.

  3. Benzophenone synthase from Garcinia mangostana L. pericarps.

    PubMed

    Nualkaew, Natsajee; Morita, Hiroyuki; Shimokawa, Yoshihiko; Kinjo, Keishi; Kushiro, Tetsuo; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Abe, Ikuro

    2012-05-01

    The cDNA of a benzophenone synthase (BPS), a type III polyketide synthase (PKS), was cloned and the recombinant protein expressed from the fruit pericarps of Garcinia mangostana L., which contains mainly prenylated xanthones. The obtained GmBPS showed an amino acid sequence identity of 77-78% with other plant BPSs belonging to the same family (Clusiaceae). The recombinant enzyme produced 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzophenone as the predominant product with benzoyl CoA as substrate. It also accepted other substrates, such as other plant PKSs, and used 1-3 molecules of malonyl CoA to form various phloroglucinol-type and polyketide lactone-type compounds. Thus, providing GmBPS with various substrates in vivo might redirect the xanthone biosynthetic pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Caffeine synthase and related methyltransferases in plants.

    PubMed

    Misako, Kato; Kouichi, Mizuno

    2004-05-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a purine alkaloid present in high concentrations in tea and coffee and it is also found in a number of beverages such as coca cola. It is necessary to elucidate the caffeine biosynthetic pathway and to clone the genes related to the production of caffeine not only to determine the metabolism of the purine alkaloid but also to control the content of caffeine in tea and coffee. The available data support the operation of a xanthosine-->7-methylxanthosine-->7-methylxanthine-->theobromine-->caffeine pathway as the major route to caffeine. Since the caffeine biosynthetic pathway contains three S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) dependent methylation steps, N-methyltransferases play important roles. This review focuses on the enzymes and genes involved in the methylation of purine ring. Caffeine synthase, the SAM-dependent methyltransferase involved in the last two steps of caffeine biosynthesis, was originally purified from young tea leaves (Camellia sinensis). The isolated cDNA, termed TCS1, consists of 1,483 base pairs and encodes a protein of 369 amino acids. Subsequently, the homologous genes that encode caffeine biosynthetic enzymes from coffee (Coffea arabica) were isolated. The recombinant proteins are classified into the three types on the basis of their substrate specificity i.e. 7-methylxanthosine synthase, theobromine synthase and caffeine synthase. The predicted amino acid sequences of caffeine biosynthetic enzymes derived from C. arabica exhibit more than 80% homology with those of the clones and but show only 40% homology with TCS1 derived from C. sinensis. In addition, they share 40% homology with the amino acid sequences of salicylic carboxyl methyltransferase, benzoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase and jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase which belong to a family of motif B' methyltransferases which are novel plant methyltransferases with motif B' instead of motif B as the conserved region.

  5. Chrysanthemyl Diphosphate Synthase Operates in Planta as a Bifunctional Enzyme with Chrysanthemol Synthase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ting; Gao, Liping; Hu, Hao; Stoopen, Geert; Wang, Caiyun; Jongsma, Maarten A.

    2014-01-01

    Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CDS) is the first pathway-specific enzyme in the biosynthesis of pyrethrins, the most widely used plant-derived pesticide. CDS catalyzes c1′-2-3 cyclopropanation reactions of two molecules of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) to yield chrysanthemyl diphosphate (CPP). Three proteins are known to catalyze this cyclopropanation reaction of terpene precursors. Two of them, phytoene and squalene synthase, are bifunctional enzymes with both prenyltransferase and terpene synthase activity. CDS, the other member, has been reported to perform only the prenyltransferase step. Here we show that the NDXXD catalytic motif of CDS, under the lower substrate conditions prevalent in plants, also catalyzes the next step, converting CPP into chrysanthemol by hydrolyzing the diphosphate moiety. The enzymatic hydrolysis reaction followed conventional Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a Km value for CPP of 196 μm. For the chrysanthemol synthase activity, DMAPP competed with CPP as substrate. The DMAPP concentration required for half-maximal activity to produce chrysanthemol was ∼100 μm, and significant substrate inhibition was observed at elevated DMAPP concentrations. The N-terminal peptide of CDS was identified as a plastid-targeting peptide. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing CDS emitted chrysanthemol at a rate of 0.12–0.16 μg h−1 g−1 fresh weight. We propose that CDS should be renamed a chrysanthemol synthase utilizing DMAPP as substrate. PMID:25378387

  6. Oligosaccharide Binding in Escherichia coli Glycogen Synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Fang; Yep, Alejandra; Feng, Lei; Preiss, Jack; Geiger, James H.

    2010-11-17

    Glycogen/starch synthase elongates glucan chains and is the key enzyme in the synthesis of glycogen in bacteria and starch in plants. Cocrystallization of Escherichia coli wild-type glycogen synthase (GS) with substrate ADPGlc and the glucan acceptor mimic HEPPSO produced a closed form of GS and suggests that domain-domain closure accompanies glycogen synthesis. Cocrystallization of the inactive GS mutant E377A with substrate ADPGlc and oligosaccharide results in the first oligosaccharide-bound glycogen synthase structure. Four bound oligosaccharides are observed, one in the interdomain cleft (G6a) and three on the N-terminal domain surface (G6b, G6c, and G6d). Extending from the center of the enzyme to the interdomain cleft opening, G6a mostly interacts with the highly conserved N-terminal domain residues lining the cleft of GS. The surface-bound oligosaccharides G6c and G6d have less interaction with enzyme and exhibit a more curled, helixlike structural arrangement. The observation that oligosaccharides bind only to the N-terminal domain of GS suggests that glycogen in vivo probably binds to only one side of the enzyme to ensure unencumbered interdomain movement, which is required for efficient, continuous glucan-chain synthesis.

  7. Threonine Synthase of Lemna paucicostata Hegelm. 6746

    PubMed Central

    Giovanelli, John; Veluthambi, K.; Thompson, Gregory A.; Mudd, S. Harvey; Datko, Anne H.

    1984-01-01

    Threonine synthase (TS) was purified approximately 40-fold from Lemna paucicostata, and some of its properties determined by use of a sensitive and specific assay. During the course of its purification, TS was separated from cystathionine γ-synthase, establishing the separate identity of these enzymes. Compared to cystathionine γ-synthase, TS is relatively insensitive to irreversible inhibition by propargylglycine (both in vitro and in vivo) and to gabaculine, vinylglycine, or cysteine in vitro. TS is highly specific for O-phospho-l-homoserine (OPH) and water (hydroxyl ion). Nucleophilic attack by hydroxyl ion is restricted to carbon-3 of OPH and proceeds sterospecifically to form threonine rather than allo-threonine. The Km for OPH, determined at saturating S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), is 2.2 to 6.9 micromolar, two orders of magnitude less than values reported for TS from other plant tissues. AdoMet markedly stimulates the enzyme in a reversible and cooperative manner, consistent with its proposed role in regulation of methionine biosynthesis. Cysteine (1 millimolar) caused a slight (26%) reversible inhibition of the enzyme. Activities of TS isolated from Lemna were inversely related to the methionine nutrition of the plants. Down-regulation of TS by methionine may help to limit the overproduction of threonine that could result from allosteric stimulation of the enzyme by AdoMet. No evidence was obtained for feedback inhibition, repression, or covalent modification of TS by threonine and/or isoleucine. PMID:16663833

  8. Structure of a modular polyketide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Somnath; Whicher, Jonathan R.; Hansen, Douglas A.; Hale, Wendi A.; Chemler, Joseph A.; Congdon, Grady R.; Narayan, Alison R.; Håkansson, Kristina; Sherman, David H.; Smith, Janet L.

    2014-01-01

    Polyketide natural products constitute a broad class of compounds with diverse structural features and biological activities. Their biosynthetic machinery, represented by type I polyketide synthases, has an architecture in which successive modules catalyze two-carbon linear extensions and keto group processing reactions on intermediates covalently tethered to carrier domains. We employed electron cryo-microscopy to visualize a full-length module and determine sub-nanometer resolution 3D reconstructions that revealed an unexpectedly different architecture compared to the homologous dimeric mammalian fatty acid synthase. A single reaction chamber provides access to all catalytic sites for the intra-module carrier domain. In contrast, the carrier from the preceding module uses a separate entrance outside the reaction chamber to deliver the upstream polyketide intermediate for subsequent extension and modification. This study reveals for the first time the structural basis for both intra-module and inter-module substrate transfer in polyketide synthases, and establishes a new model for molecular dissection of these multifunctional enzyme systems. PMID:24965652

  9. Progress towards clinically useful aldosterone synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Matthew A

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the high degree of similarity between aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) and cortisol synthase (CYP11B1), the design of selective inhibitors of one or the other of these two enzymes was, at one time, thought to be impossible. Through development of novel enzyme screening assays and significant medicinal chemistry efforts, highly potent inhibitors of CYP11B2 have been identified with selectivities approaching 1000-fold between the two enzymes. Many of these molecules also possess selectivity against other steroidogenic cytochromes P450 (e.g. CYP17A1 and CYP19A1) as well as hepatic drug metabolizing P450s. Though not as well developed or explored, inhibitors of CYP11B1, with selectivities approaching 50-fold, have also been identified. The therapeutic benefits of affecting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have been well established with the therapeutically useful angiotensin-converting enzymes inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. Data regarding the additional benefits of an aldosterone synthase inhibitor (ASi) are beginning to emerge from animal models and human clinical trials. Despite great promise and much progress, additional challenges still exist in the path towards development of a therapeutically useful ASi.

  10. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Gou, Ke-Mian; Chang, Chia-Chun; Shen, Qing-Ji; Sung, Li-Ying; Liu, Ji-Long

    2014-04-15

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus.

  11. Sandalwood Fragrance Biosynthesis Involves Sesquiterpene Synthases of Both the Terpene Synthase (TPS)-a and TPS-b Subfamilies, including Santalene Synthases*

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher G.; Moniodis, Jessie; Zulak, Katherine G.; Scaffidi, Adrian; Plummer, Julie A.; Ghisalberti, Emilio L.; Barbour, Elizabeth L.; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Sandalwood oil is one of the worlds most highly prized fragrances. To identify the genes and encoded enzymes responsible for santalene biosynthesis, we cloned and characterized three orthologous terpene synthase (TPS) genes SaSSy, SauSSy, and SspiSSy from three divergent sandalwood species; Santalum album, S. austrocaledonicum, and S. spicatum, respectively. The encoded enzymes catalyze the formation of α-, β-, epi-β-santalene, and α-exo-bergamotene from (E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate (E,E-FPP). Recombinant SaSSy was additionally tested with (Z,Z)-farnesyl diphosphate (Z,Z-FPP) and remarkably, found to produce a mixture of α-endo-bergamotene, α-santalene, (Z)-β-farnesene, epi-β-santalene, and β-santalene. Additional cDNAs that encode bisabolene/bisabolol synthases were also cloned and functionally characterized from these three species. Both the santalene synthases and the bisabolene/bisabolol synthases reside in the TPS-b phylogenetic clade, which is more commonly associated with angiosperm monoterpene synthases. An orthologous set of TPS-a synthases responsible for formation of macrocyclic and bicyclic sesquiterpenes were characterized. Strict functionality and limited sequence divergence in the santalene and bisabolene synthases are in contrast to the TPS-a synthases, suggesting these compounds have played a significant role in the evolution of the Santalum genus. PMID:21454632

  12. Mutational analysis of a monoterpene synthase reaction: altered catalysis through directed mutagenesis of (-)-pinene synthase from Abies grandis.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, David C; Croteau, Rodney

    2005-07-15

    Two monoterpene synthases, (-)-pinene synthase and (-)-camphene synthase, from grand fir (Abies grandis) produce different product mixtures despite having highly homologous amino acid sequences and, presumably, very similar three-dimensional structures. The major product of (-)-camphene synthase, (-)-camphene, and the major products of (-)-pinene synthase, (-)-alpha-pinene, and (-)-beta-pinene, arise through distinct mechanistic variations of the electrophilic reaction cascade that is common to terpenoid synthases. Structural modeling followed by directed mutagenesis in (-)-pinene synthase was used to replace selected amino acid residues with the corresponding residues from (-)-camphene synthase in an effort to identify the amino acids responsible for the catalytic differences. This approach produced an enzyme in which more than half of the product was channeled through an alternative pathway. It was also shown that several (-)-pinene synthase to (-)-camphene synthase amino acid substitutions were necessary before catalysis was significantly altered. The data support a model in which the collective action of many key amino acids, located both in and distant from the active site pocket, regulate the course of the electrophilic reaction cascade.

  13. Biochemical characterization and homology modeling of methylbutenol synthase and implications for understanding hemiterpene synthase evolution in plants.

    PubMed

    Gray, Dennis W; Breneman, Steven R; Topper, Lauren A; Sharkey, Thomas D

    2011-06-10

    2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) is a five-carbon alcohol produced and emitted in large quantities by many species of pine native to western North America. MBO is structurally and biosynthetically related to isoprene and can have an important impact on regional atmospheric chemistry. The gene for MBO synthase was identified from Pinus sabiniana, and the protein encoded was functionally characterized. MBO synthase is a bifunctional enzyme that produces both MBO and isoprene in a ratio of ~90:1. Divalent cations are required for activity, whereas monovalent cations are not. MBO production is enhanced by K(+), whereas isoprene production is inhibited by K(+) such that, at physiologically relevant [K(+)], little or no isoprene emission should be detected from MBO-emitting trees. The K(m) of MBO synthase for dimethylallyl diphosphate (20 mm) is comparable with that observed for angiosperm isoprene synthases and 3 orders of magnitude higher than that observed for monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MBO synthase falls into the TPS-d1 group (gymnosperm monoterpene synthases) and is most closely related to linalool synthase from Picea abies. Structural modeling showed that up to three phenylalanine residues restrict the size of the active site and may be responsible for making this a hemiterpene synthase rather than a monoterpene synthase. One of these residues is homologous to a Phe residue found in the active site of isoprene synthases. The remaining two Phe residues do not have homologs in isoprene synthases but occupy the same space as a second Phe residue that closes off the isoprene synthase active site.

  14. Geranyl diphosphate synthase molecules, and nucleic acid molecules encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Burke, Charles Cullen

    2008-06-24

    In one aspect, the present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules that each encode a geranyl diphosphate synthase protein, wherein each isolated nucleic acid molecule hybridizes to a nucleic acid molecule consisting of the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1 under conditions of 5.times.SSC at 45.degree. C. for one hour. The present invention also provides isolated geranyl diphosphate synthase proteins, and methods for altering the level of expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase protein in a host cell.

  15. Structure-based design of selective inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase: synthesis and antiparasitic activity of 2, 4-diaminopteridine analogues with a bridged diarylamine side chain.

    PubMed

    Rosowsky, A; Cody, V; Galitsky, N; Fu, H; Papoulis, A T; Queener, S F

    1999-11-18

    As part of a larger search for potent as well as selective inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzymes from opportunistic pathogens found in patients with AIDS and other immune disorders, N-[(2,4-diaminopteridin-6-yl)methyl]dibenz[b,f]azepine (4a) and the corresponding dihydrodibenz[b,f]azepine, dihydroacridine, phenoxazine, phenothiazine, carbazole, and diphenylamine analogues were synthesized from 2, 4-diamino-6-(bromomethyl)pteridine in 50-75% yield by reaction with the sodium salts of the amines in dry tetrahydrofuran at room temperature. The products were tested for the ability to inhibit DHFR from Pneumocystis carinii (pcDHFR), Toxoplasma gondii (tgDHFR), Mycobacterium avium (maDHFR), and rat liver (rlDHFR). The member of the series with the best combination of potency and species selectivity was 4a, with IC(50) values against the four enzymes of 0. 21, 0.043, 0.012, and 4.4 microM, respectively. The dihydroacridine, phenothiazine, and carbazole analogues were also potent, but nonselective. Of the compounds tested, 4a was the only one to successfully combine the potency of trimetrexate with the selectivity of trimethoprim. Molecular docking simulations using published 3D structural coordinates for the crystalline ternary complexes of pcDHFR and hDHFR suggested a possible structural interpretation for the binding selectivity of 4a and the lack of selectivity of the other compounds. According to this model, 4a is selective because of a unique propensity of the seven-membered ring in the dibenz[b,f]azepine moiety to adopt a puckered orientation that allows it to fit more comfortably into the active site of the P. carinii enzyme than into the active site of the human enzyme. Compound 4a was also evaluated for the ability to be taken up into, and retard the growth of, P. carinii and T. gondii in culture. The IC(50) of 4a against P. carinii trophozoites after 7 days of continuous drug treatment was 1.9 microM as compared with previously observed IC(50

  16. Dihydrofolate reductase 19-bp deletion polymorphism modifies the association of folate status with memory in a cross-sectional multi-ethnic study of adults123

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Dana; Buch, Assaf; Moorthy, Denish; Scott, Tammy M; Parnell, Laurence D; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Ordovás, José M; Selhub, Jacob; Rosenberg, Irwin H; Tucker, Katherine L; Troen, Aron M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Folate status has been positively associated with cognitive function in many studies; however, some studies have observed associations of poor cognitive outcomes with high folate. In search of an explanation, we hypothesized that the association of folate with cognition would be modified by the interaction of high-folate status with a common 19-bp deletion polymorphism in the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene. To our knowledge, the cognitive effects of this gene have not been studied previously. Objective: We examined the association between cognitive outcomes with the 19-bp deletion DHFR polymorphism, folate status, and their interaction with high or normal plasma folate. Design: This was a pooled cross-sectional study of the following 2 Boston-based cohorts of community living adults: the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study and the Nutrition, Aging, and Memory in Elders study. Individuals were genotyped for the DHFR 19-bp deletion genotype, and plasma folate status was determined. Cognitive outcomes included the Mini-Mental State Examination, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and factor scores for the domains of memory, executive function, and attention from a set of cognitive tests. Results: The prevalence of the homozygous deletion (del/del) genotype was 23%. In a multivariable analysis, high folate status (>17.8 ng/mL) was associated with better memory scores than was normal-folate status (fourth–fifth quintiles compared with first–third quintiles: β ± SE = −0.22 ± 0.06, P < 0.01). Carriers of the DHFR del/del genotype had worse memory scores (β ± SE = −0.24 ± 0.10, P < 0.05) and worse executive scores (β = −0.19, P < 0.05) than did those with the del/ins and ins/ins genotypes. Finally, we observed an interaction such that carriers of the del/del genotype with high folate had significantly worse memory scores than those of both noncarriers with high-folate and del/del carriers with normal-folate (β-interaction = 0

  17. Frequencies distribution of dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthetase mutant alleles associated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum population from Hadhramout Governorate, Yemen.

    PubMed

    Bamaga, Omar A A; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2015-12-22

    Malaria in Yemen is mainly caused by Plasmodium falciparum and 25% of the population is at high risk. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) had been used as monotherapy against P. falciparum. Emergence of chloroquine resistance led to the shift in anti-malarial treatment policy in Yemen to artemisinin-based combination therapy, that is artesunate (AS) plus SP as first-line therapy for uncomplicated malaria and artemether-lumefantrine as second-line treatment. This study aimed to screen mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps) genes associated with SP resistance among P. falciparum population in Hadhramout governorate, Yemen. Genomic DNA was extracted from dried blood spots of 137 P. falciparum isolates collected from a community-based study. DNA was amplified using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequently sequenced for Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes. Sequences were analysed for mutations in Pfdhfr gene codons 51, 59, 108, and 164 and in Pfdhps gene codons 436, 437, and 540. A total of 128 and 114 P. falciparum isolates were successfully sequenced for Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes, respectively. Each Pfdhfr mutant allele (I51 and N108) in P. falciparum population had a frequency of 84%. Pfdhfr R59 mutant allele was detected in one isolate. Mutation at codon 437 (G437) in the Pfdhps gene was detected in 44.7% of falciparum malaria isolates. Frequencies of Pfdhfr double mutant genotype (I51C59N108I164) and Pfdhfr/Pfdhps triple mutant genotype (I51C59N108I164-S436G437K540) were 82.8 and 39.3%, respectively. One isolate harboured Pfdhfr triple mutant genotype (I51, R59, N108, I164) and Pfdhfr/Pfdhps quadruple mutant genotype (I51R59N108I164-S436G437K540). High frequencies of Pfdhfr and Pfdhps mutant alleles and genotypes in P. falciparum population in Hadhramout, Yemen, highlight the risk of developing resistance for SP, the partner drug of AS, which subsequently will expose the parasite to AS monotherapy increasing then the

  18. Structural comparison of complexes of methotrexate analogues with Lactobacillus casei dihydrofolate reductase by two-dimensional /sup 1/H NMR at 500 MHz

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, S.J.; Birdsall, B.; Feeney, J.; Searle, M.S.; Roberts, G.C.K.; Cheung, H.T.A.

    1987-12-29

    The authors have used two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods to examine complexes of Lactobacillus casei dihydrofolate reductase and methotrexate (MTX) analogues having structural modifications of the benzoyl ring and also the glutamic acid moiety. Assignments of the /sup 1/H signals in the spectra of the various complexes were made by comparison of their 2D spectra with those complexes containing methotrexate where we have previously assigned resonances from 32 of the 162 amino acid residues. In the complexes formed with the dihalomethotrexate analogues, the glutamic acid and pteridine ring moieties were shown to bind to the enzyme in a manner similar to that found in the methotrexate-enzyme complex. Perturbations in /sup 1/H chemical shifts of protons in Phe-49, Leu-54, and Leu-27 and the methotrexate H7 and NMe protons were observed in the different complexes and were accounted for by changes in orientation of the benzoyl ring in the various complexes. Binding of oxidized or reduced coenzyme to the binary complexes did not result in different shifts for Leu-27, Leu-54, or Leu-19 protons, and thus, the orientation of the benzoyl ring of the methotrexate analogues is not perturbed greatly by the presence of either oxidized or reduced coenzyme. In the complex with the ..gamma..-monoamide analog, the /sup 1/H signals of assigned residues in the protein had almost identical shifts with the corresponding protons in the methotrexate-enzyme complex for all residues except His-28 and, to a lesser extent, Leu-27. This indicates that while the His-28 interaction with the MTX ..gamma..-CO/sub 2//sup -/ is no longer present in this complex with the ..gamma..-amide, there has not been a major change in the overall structure of the two complexes. This behavior contrasts to that of the ..cap alpha..-amide complex where /sup 1/H signals from protons in several amino acid residues are different compared with their values in the complex formed with methotrexate.

  19. Cellulose synthase interacting protein: a new factor in cellulose synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ying; Somerville, Chris

    2010-12-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on earth. The great abundance of cellulose places it at the forefront as a primary source of biomass for renewable biofuels. However, the knowledge of how plant cells make cellulose remains very rudimentary. Cellulose microfibrils are synthesized at the plasma membrane by hexameric protein complexes, also known as cellulose synthase complexes. The only known components of cellulose synthase complexes are cellulose synthase (CESA) proteins until the recent identification of a novel component. CSI1, which encodes CESA interacting protein 1 (CSI1) in Arabidopsis. CSI1, as the first non-CESA proteins associated with cellulose synthase complexes, opens up many opportunities.

  20. Molecular Diversity of Terpene Synthases in the Liverwort Marchantia polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Kempinski, Chase; Zhuang, Xun; Norris, Ayla; Mafu, Sibongile; Zi, Jiachen; Bell, Stephen A; Nybo, Stephen Eric; Kinison, Scott E; Jiang, Zuodong; Goklany, Sheba; Linscott, Kristin B; Chen, Xinlu; Jia, Qidong; Brown, Shoshana D; Bowman, John L; Babbitt, Patricia C; Peters, Reuben J; Chen, Feng; Chappell, Joe

    2016-10-01

    Marchantia polymorpha is a basal terrestrial land plant, which like most liverworts accumulates structurally diverse terpenes believed to serve in deterring disease and herbivory. Previous studies have suggested that the mevalonate and methylerythritol phosphate pathways, present in evolutionarily diverged plants, are also operative in liverworts. However, the genes and enzymes responsible for the chemical diversity of terpenes have yet to be described. In this study, we resorted to a HMMER search tool to identify 17 putative terpene synthase genes from M. polymorpha transcriptomes. Functional characterization identified four diterpene synthase genes phylogenetically related to those found in diverged plants and nine rather unusual monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthase-like genes. The presence of separate monofunctional diterpene synthases for ent-copalyl diphosphate and ent-kaurene biosynthesis is similar to orthologs found in vascular plants, pushing the date of the underlying gene duplication and neofunctionalization of the ancestral diterpene synthase gene family to >400 million years ago. By contrast, the mono- and sesquiterpene synthases represent a distinct class of enzymes, not related to previously described plant terpene synthases and only distantly so to microbial-type terpene synthases. The absence of a Mg(2+) binding, aspartate-rich, DDXXD motif places these enzymes in a noncanonical family of terpene synthases. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  1. Divinyl ether synthase gene, and protein and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Howe, Gregg A.; Itoh, Aya

    2006-12-26

    The present invention relates to divinyl ether synthase genes, proteins, and methods of their use. The present invention encompasses both native and recombinant wild-type forms of the synthase, as well as mutants and variant forms, some of which possess altered characteristics relative to the wild-type synthase. The present invention also relates to methods of using divinyl ether synthase genes and proteins, including in their expression in transgenic organisms and in the production of divinyl ether fatty acids, and to methods of suing divinyl ether fatty acids, including in the protection of plants from pathogens.

  2. Divinyl ether synthase gene and protein, and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Howe, Gregg A [East Lansing, MI; Itoh, Aya [Tsuruoka, JP

    2011-09-13

    The present invention relates to divinyl ether synthase genes, proteins, and methods of their use. The present invention encompasses both native and recombinant wild-type forms of the synthase, as well as mutants and variant forms, some of which possess altered characteristics relative to the wild-type synthase. The present invention also relates to methods of using divinyl ether synthase genes and proteins, including in their expression in transgenic organisms and in the production of divinyl ether fatty acids, and to methods of suing divinyl ether fatty acids, including in the protection of plants from pathogens.

  3. Genomic Analysis of Terpene Synthase Family and Functional Characterization of Seven Sesquiterpene Synthases from Citrus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Alquézar, Berta; Rodríguez, Ana; de la Peña, Marcos; Peña, Leandro

    2017-01-01

    Citrus aroma and flavor, chief traits of fruit quality, are derived from their high content in essential oils of most plant tissues, including leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits. Accumulated in secretory cavities, most components of these oils are volatile terpenes. They contribute to defense against herbivores and pathogens, and perhaps also protect tissues against abiotic stress. In spite of their importance, our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of citrus terpene volatiles is still limited. The availability of the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) genome sequence allowed us to characterize for the first time the terpene synthase (TPS) family in a citrus type. CsTPS is one of the largest angiosperm TPS families characterized so far, formed by 95 loci from which just 55 encode for putative functional TPSs. All TPS angiosperm families, TPS-a, TPS-b, TPS-c, TPS-e/f, and TPS-g were represented in the sweet orange genome, with 28, 18, 2, 2, and 5 putative full length genes each. Additionally, sweet orange β-farnesene synthase, (Z)-β-cubebene/α-copaene synthase, two β-caryophyllene synthases, and three multiproduct enzymes yielding β-cadinene/α-copaene, β-elemene, and β-cadinene/ledene/allo-aromandendrene as major products were identified, and functionally characterized via in vivo recombinant Escherichia coli assays. PMID:28883829

  4. Genomic Analysis of Terpene Synthase Family and Functional Characterization of Seven Sesquiterpene Synthases from Citrus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Alquézar, Berta; Rodríguez, Ana; de la Peña, Marcos; Peña, Leandro

    2017-01-01

    Citrus aroma and flavor, chief traits of fruit quality, are derived from their high content in essential oils of most plant tissues, including leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits. Accumulated in secretory cavities, most components of these oils are volatile terpenes. They contribute to defense against herbivores and pathogens, and perhaps also protect tissues against abiotic stress. In spite of their importance, our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of citrus terpene volatiles is still limited. The availability of the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) genome sequence allowed us to characterize for the first time the terpene synthase (TPS) family in a citrus type. CsTPS is one of the largest angiosperm TPS families characterized so far, formed by 95 loci from which just 55 encode for putative functional TPSs. All TPS angiosperm families, TPS-a, TPS-b, TPS-c, TPS-e/f, and TPS-g were represented in the sweet orange genome, with 28, 18, 2, 2, and 5 putative full length genes each. Additionally, sweet orange β-farnesene synthase, (Z)-β-cubebene/α-copaene synthase, two β-caryophyllene synthases, and three multiproduct enzymes yielding β-cadinene/α-copaene, β-elemene, and β-cadinene/ledene/allo-aromandendrene as major products were identified, and functionally characterized via in vivo recombinant Escherichia coli assays.

  5. Low prevalence of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) but high prevalence of pneumocystis dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) gene mutations in HIV-infected persons in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steve M; Meshnick, Steven R; Worodria, William; Andama, Alfred; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Davis, J Lucian; Yoo, Samuel D; Byanyima, Patrick; Kaswabuli, Sylvia; Goodman, Carol D; Huang, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is an important opportunistic infection in patients infected with HIV, but its burden is incompletely characterized in those areas of sub-Saharan Africa where HIV is prevalent. We explored the prevalence of both PCP in HIV-infected adults admitted with pneumonia to a tertiary-care hospital in Uganda and of putative P. jirovecii drug resistance by mutations in fungal dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) and dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr). In 129 consecutive patients with sputum smears negative for mycobacteria, 5 (3.9%) were diagnosed with PCP by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Concordance was 100% between Giemsa stain and PCR (dhps and dhfr). PCP was more prevalent in patients newly-diagnosed with HIV (11.4%) than in patients with known HIV (1.1%; p = 0.007). Mortality at 2 months after discharge was 29% overall: 28% among PCP-negative patients, and 60% (3 of 5) among PCP-positive patients. In these 5 fungal isolates and an additional 8 from consecutive cases of PCP, all strains harbored mutant dhps haplotypes; all 13 isolates harbored the P57S mutation in dhps, and 3 (23%) also harbored the T55A mutation. No non-synonymous dhfr mutations were detected. PCP is an important cause of pneumonia in patients newly-diagnosed with HIV in Uganda, is associated with high mortality, and putative molecular evidence of drug resistance is prevalent. Given the reliability of field diagnosis in our cohort, future studies in sub-Saharan Africa can investigate the clinical impact of these genotypes.

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of isomultiflorenol synthase, a new triterpene synthase from Luffa cylindrica, involved in biosynthesis of bryonolic acid.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, H; Huang, P; Inoue, K; Hiraoka, N; Ikeshiro, Y; Yazaki, K; Tanaka, S; Kushiro, T; Shibuya, M; Ebizuka, Y

    2001-12-01

    An oxidosqualene cyclase cDNA, LcIMS1, was isolated from cultured cells of Luffa cylindrica Roem. by heterologous hybridization with cDNA of Glycyrrhiza glabra beta-amyrin synthase. Expression of LcIMS1 in yeast lacking endogenous oxidosqualene cyclase activity resulted in the accumulation of isomultiflorenol, a triterpene. This is consistent with LcIMS1 encoding isomultiflorenol synthase, an oxidosqualene cyclase involved in bryonolic acid biosynthesis in cultured Luffa cells. The deduced amino-acid sequence of LcIMS1 shows relatively low identity with other triterpene synthases, suggesting that isomultiflorenol synthase should be classified into a new group of triterpene synthases. The levels of isomultiflorenol synthase and cycloartenol synthase mRNAs, which were measured with gene-specific probes, correlated with the accumulation of bryonolic acid and phytosterols over a growth cycle of the Luffa cell cultures. Isomultiflorenol synthase mRNA was low during the early stages of cell growth and accumulated to relatively high levels in the late stages. Induction of this mRNA preceded accumulation of bryonolic acid. In contrast, cycloartenol synthase mRNA accumulated in the early stages of the culture cycle, whereas phytosterols accumulated at the same relative rate throughout the whole growth cycle. These results suggest independent regulation of these two genes and of the accumulation of bryonolic acid and phytosterols.

  7. Novel family of terpene synthases evolved from trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthases in a flea beetle.

    PubMed

    Beran, Franziska; Rahfeld, Peter; Luck, Katrin; Nagel, Raimund; Vogel, Heiko; Wielsch, Natalie; Irmisch, Sandra; Ramasamy, Srinivasan; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G; Köllner, Tobias G

    2016-03-15

    Sesquiterpenes play important roles in insect communication, for example as pheromones. However, no sesquiterpene synthases, the enzymes involved in construction of the basic carbon skeleton, have been identified in insects to date. We investigated the biosynthesis of the sesquiterpene (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene in the crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta striolata, a compound previously identified as a male-produced aggregation pheromone in several Phyllotreta species. A (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene-producing sesquiterpene synthase activity was detected in crude beetle protein extracts, but only when (Z,E)-farnesyl diphosphate [(Z,E)-FPP] was offered as a substrate. No sequences resembling sesquiterpene synthases from plants, fungi, or bacteria were found in the P. striolata transcriptome, but we identified nine divergent putative trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthase (trans-IDS) transcripts. Four of these putative trans-IDSs exhibited terpene synthase (TPS) activity when heterologously expressed. Recombinant PsTPS1 converted (Z,E)-FPP to (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene and other sesquiterpenes observed in beetle extracts. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PsTPS1 mRNA in P. striolata males led to reduced emission of aggregation pheromone, confirming a significant role of PsTPS1 in pheromone biosynthesis. Two expressed enzymes showed genuine IDS activity, with PsIDS1 synthesizing (E,E)-FPP, whereas PsIDS3 produced neryl diphosphate, (Z,Z)-FPP, and (Z,E)-FPP. In a phylogenetic analysis, the PsTPS enzymes and PsIDS3 were clearly separated from a clade of known coleopteran trans-IDS enzymes including PsIDS1 and PsIDS2. However, the exon-intron structures of IDS and TPS genes in P. striolata are conserved, suggesting that this TPS gene family evolved from trans-IDS ancestors.

  8. Novel family of terpene synthases evolved from trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthases in a flea beetle

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Franziska; Rahfeld, Peter; Luck, Katrin; Nagel, Raimund; Vogel, Heiko; Wielsch, Natalie; Irmisch, Sandra; Ramasamy, Srinivasan; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G.; Köllner, Tobias G.

    2016-01-01

    Sesquiterpenes play important roles in insect communication, for example as pheromones. However, no sesquiterpene synthases, the enzymes involved in construction of the basic carbon skeleton, have been identified in insects to date. We investigated the biosynthesis of the sesquiterpene (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene in the crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta striolata, a compound previously identified as a male-produced aggregation pheromone in several Phyllotreta species. A (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene–producing sesquiterpene synthase activity was detected in crude beetle protein extracts, but only when (Z,E)-farnesyl diphosphate [(Z,E)-FPP] was offered as a substrate. No sequences resembling sesquiterpene synthases from plants, fungi, or bacteria were found in the P. striolata transcriptome, but we identified nine divergent putative trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthase (trans-IDS) transcripts. Four of these putative trans-IDSs exhibited terpene synthase (TPS) activity when heterologously expressed. Recombinant PsTPS1 converted (Z,E)-FPP to (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene and other sesquiterpenes observed in beetle extracts. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PsTPS1 mRNA in P. striolata males led to reduced emission of aggregation pheromone, confirming a significant role of PsTPS1 in pheromone biosynthesis. Two expressed enzymes showed genuine IDS activity, with PsIDS1 synthesizing (E,E)-FPP, whereas PsIDS3 produced neryl diphosphate, (Z,Z)-FPP, and (Z,E)-FPP. In a phylogenetic analysis, the PsTPS enzymes and PsIDS3 were clearly separated from a clade of known coleopteran trans-IDS enzymes including PsIDS1 and PsIDS2. However, the exon–intron structures of IDS and TPS genes in P. striolata are conserved, suggesting that this TPS gene family evolved from trans-IDS ancestors. PMID:26936952

  9. Evolution and function of phytochelatin synthases.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Stephan

    2006-02-01

    Both essential and non-essential transition metal ions can easily be toxic to cells. The physiological range for essential metals between deficiency and toxicity is therefore extremely narrow and a tightly controlled metal homeostasis network to adjust to fluctuations in micronutrient availability is a necessity for all organisms. One protective strategy against metal excess is the expression of high-affinity binding sites to suppress uncontrolled binding of metal ions to physiologically important functional groups. The synthesis of phytochelatins, glutathione-derived metal binding peptides, represents the major detoxification mechanism for cadmium and arsenic in plants and an unknown range of other organisms. A few years ago genes encoding phytochelatin synthases (PCS) were cloned from plants, fungi and nematodes. Since then it has become apparent that PCS genes are far more widespread than ever anticipated. Searches in sequence databases indicate PCS expression in representatives of all eukaryotic kingdoms and the presence of PCS-like proteins in several prokaryotes. The almost ubiquitous presence in the plant kingdom and beyond as well as the constitutive expression of PCS genes and PCS activity in all major plant tissues are still mysterious. It is unclear, how the extremely rare need to cope with an excess of cadmium or arsenic ions could explain the evolution and distribution of PCS genes. Possible answers to this question are discussed. Also, the molecular characterization of phytochelatin synthases and our current knowledge about the enzymology of phytochelatin synthesis are reviewed.

  10. Activities and regulation of peptidoglycan synthases.

    PubMed

    Egan, Alexander J F; Biboy, Jacob; van't Veer, Inge; Breukink, Eefjan; Vollmer, Waldemar

    2015-10-05

    Peptidoglycan (PG) is an essential component in the cell wall of nearly all bacteria, forming a continuous, mesh-like structure, called the sacculus, around the cytoplasmic membrane to protect the cell from bursting by its turgor. Although PG synthases, the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), have been studied for 70 years, useful in vitro assays for measuring their activities were established only recently, and these provided the first insights into the regulation of these enzymes. Here, we review the current knowledge on the glycosyltransferase and transpeptidase activities of PG synthases. We provide new data showing that the bifunctional PBP1A and PBP1B from Escherichia coli are active upon reconstitution into the membrane environment of proteoliposomes, and that these enzymes also exhibit DD-carboxypeptidase activity in certain conditions. Both novel features are relevant for their functioning within the cell. We also review recent data on the impact of protein-protein interactions and other factors on the activities of PBPs. As an example, we demonstrate a synergistic effect of multiple protein-protein interactions on the glycosyltransferase activity of PBP1B, by its cognate lipoprotein activator LpoB and the essential cell division protein FtsN.

  11. Acetylation of prostaglandin synthase by aspirin.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, G J; Stanford, N; Majerus, P W

    1975-01-01

    When microsomes of sheep or bovine seminal vesicles are incubated with [acetyl-3H]aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid), 200 Ci/mol, we observe acetylation of a single protein, as measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The protein has a molecular weight of 85,000 and corresponds to a similar acetylated protein found in the particulate fraction of aspirin-treated human platelets. The aspirin-mediated acetylation reaction proceeds with the same time course and at the same concentration as does the inhibition of prostaglandin synthase (cyclo-oxygenase) (EC 1.14.99.1; 8,11,14-eicosatrienoate, hydrogen-donor:oxygen oxidoreductase) by the drug. At 100 muM aspirin, 50% inhibition of prostaglandin synthase and 50% of maximal acetylation are observed after 15 min at 37 degrees. Furthermore, the substrate for cyclo-oxygenase, arachidonic acid, inhibits protein acetylation by aspirin at concentrations (50% inhibition at 10-30 muM) which correlate with the Michaelis constant of arachidonic acid as a substrate for cyclooxygenase. Arachidonic acid analogues and indomethacin inhibit the acetylation reaction in proportion to their effectiveness as cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors. The results suggest that aspirin acts as an active-site acetylating agent for the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase. This action of aspirin may account for its anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet action. PMID:810797

  12. Rows of ATP Synthase Dimers in Native Mitochondrial Inner Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Buzhynskyy, Nikolay; Sens, Pierre; Prima, Valerie; Sturgis, James N.; Scheuring, Simon

    2007-01-01

    The ATP synthase is a nanometric rotary machine that uses a transmembrane electrochemical gradient to form ATP. The structures of most components of the ATP synthase are known, and their organization has been elucidated. However, the supramolecular assembly of ATP synthases in biological membranes remains unknown. Here we show with submolecular resolution the organization of ATP synthases in the yeast mitochondrial inner membranes. The atomic force microscopy images we have obtained show how these molecules form dimers with characteristic 15 nm distance between the axes of their rotors through stereospecific interactions of the membrane embedded portions of their stators. A different interaction surface is responsible for the formation of rows of dimers. Such an organization elucidates the role of the ATP synthase in mitochondrial morphology. Some dimers have a different morphology with 10 nm stalk-to-stalk distance, in line with ATP synthases that are accessible to IF1 inhibition. Rotation torque compensation within ATP synthase dimers stabilizes the ATP synthase structure, in particular the stator-rotor interaction. PMID:17557793

  13. Subcellular localization and regulation of coenzyme A synthase.

    PubMed

    Zhyvoloup, Alexander; Nemazanyy, Ivan; Panasyuk, Ganna; Valovka, Taras; Fenton, Tim; Rebholz, Heike; Wang, Mong-Lien; Foxon, Richard; Lyzogubov, Valeriy; Usenko, Vasylij; Kyyamova, Ramziya; Gorbenko, Olena; Matsuka, Genadiy; Filonenko, Valeriy; Gout, Ivan T

    2003-12-12

    CoA synthase mediates the last two steps in the sequence of enzymatic reactions, leading to CoA biosynthesis. We have recently identified cDNA for CoA synthase and demonstrated that it encodes a bifunctional enzyme possessing 4'-phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase and dephospho-CoA kinase activities. Molecular cloning of CoA synthase provided us with necessary tools to study subcellular localization and the regulation of this bifunctional enzyme. Transient expression studies and confocal microscopy allowed us to demonstrate that full-length CoA synthase is associated with the mitochondria, whereas the removal of the N-terminal region relocates the enzyme to the cytosol. In addition, we showed that the N-terminal sequence of CoA synthase (amino acids 1-29) exhibits a hydrophobic profile and targets green fluorescent protein exclusively to mitochondria. Further analysis, involving subcellular fractionation and limited proteolysis, indicated that CoA synthase is localized on the mitochondrial outer membrane. Moreover, we demonstrate for the first time that phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, which are the main components of the mitochondrial outer membrane, are potent activators of both enzymatic activities of CoA synthase in vitro. Taken together, these data provide the evidence that the final stages of CoA biosynthesis take place on mitochondria and the activity of CoA synthase is regulated by phospholipids.

  14. Argininosuccinate synthase: at the center of arginine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Haines, Ricci J; Pendleton, Laura C; Eichler, Duane C

    2011-01-01

    The levels of L-arginine, a cationic, semi-essential amino acid, are often controlled within a cell at the level of local availability through biosynthesis. The importance of this temporal and spatial control of cellular L-arginine is highlighted by the tissue specific roles of argininosuccinate synthase (argininosuccinate synthetase) (EC 6.3.4.5), as the rate-limiting step in the conversion of L-citrulline to L-arginine. Since its discovery, the function of argininosuccinate synthase has been linked almost exclusively to hepatic urea production despite the fact that alternative pathways involving argininosuccinate synthase were defined, such as its role in providing arginine for creatine and for polyamine biosynthesis. However, it was the discovery of nitric oxide that meaningfully extended our understanding of the metabolic importance of non-hepatic argininosuccinate synthase. Indeed, our knowledge of the number of tissues that manage distinct pools of arginine under the control of argininosuccinate synthase has expanded significantly.

  15. Ubiquitination and filamentous structure of cytidine triphosphate synthase

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Li-Mei; Wang, Pei-Yu; Lin, Wei-Cheng; Chakraborty, Archan; Yeh, Chau-Ting; Lin, Yu-Hung

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Living organisms respond to nutrient availability by regulating the activity of metabolic enzymes. Therefore, the reversible post-translational modification of an enzyme is a common regulatory mechanism for energy conservation. Recently, cytidine-5′-triphosphate (CTP) synthase was discovered to form a filamentous structure that is evolutionarily conserved from flies to humans. Interestingly, induction of the formation of CTP synthase filament is responsive to starvation or glutamine depletion. However, the biological roles of this structure remain elusive. We have recently shown that ubiquitination regulates CTP synthase activity by promoting filament formation in Drosophila ovaries during endocycles. Intriguingly, although the ubiquitination process was required for filament formation induced by glutamine depletion, CTP synthase ubiquitination was found to be inversely correlated with filament formation in Drosophila and human cell lines. In this article, we discuss the putative dual roles of ubiquitination, as well as its physiological implications, in the regulation of CTP synthase structure. PMID:27116391

  16. Trinuclear Metal Clusters in Catalysis by Terpenoid Synthases

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, Julie A.; Christianson, David. W.

    2011-01-01

    Terpenoid synthases are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the formation of structurally and stereochemically diverse isoprenoid natural products. Many isoprenoid coupling enzymes and terpenoid cyclases from bacteria, fungi, protists, plants, and animals share the class I terpenoid synthase fold. Despite generally low amino acid sequence identity among these examples, class I terpenoid synthases contain conserved metal binding motifs that coordinate to a trinuclear metal cluster. This cluster not only serves to bind and orient the flexible isoprenoid substrate in the precatalytic Michaelis complex, but it also triggers the departure of the diphosphate leaving group to generate a carbocation that initiates catalysis. Additional conserved hydrogen bond donors assist the metal cluster in this function. Crystal structure analysis reveals that the constellation of three metal ions required for terpenoid synthase catalysis is generally identical among all class I terpenoid synthases of known structure. PMID:21562622

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Synthase Assays.

    PubMed

    Shin, Daniel; Frane, Nicole D; Brecht, Ryan M; Keeler, Jesse; Nagarajan, Rajesh

    2015-12-01

    Quorum sensing is cell-to-cell communication that allows bacteria to coordinate attacks on their hosts by inducing virulent gene expression, biofilm production, and other cellular functions, including antibiotic resistance. AHL synthase enzymes synthesize N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones, commonly referred to as autoinducers, to facilitate quorum sensing in Gram-negative bacteria. Studying the synthases, however, has proven to be a difficult road. Two assays, including a radiolabeled assay and a colorimetric (DCPIP) assay are well-documented in literature to study AHL synthases. In this paper, we describe additional methods that include an HPLC-based, C-S bond cleavage and coupled assays to investigate this class of enzymes. In addition, we compare and contrast each assay for both acyl-CoA- and acyl-ACP-utilizing synthases. The expanded toolkit described in this study should facilitate mechanistic studies on quorum sensing signal synthases and expedite discovery of antivirulent compounds.

  18. Functional Contribution of Chorismate Synthase, Anthranilate Synthase, and Chorismate Mutase to Penetration Resistance in Barley-Powdery Mildew Interactions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant processes resulting from primary or secondary metabolism have been hypothesized to contribute to defense against microbial attack. Barley chorismate synthase (HvCS), anthranilate synthase alpha subunit 2 (HvASa2) and chorismate mutase 1 (HvCM1) occupy pivotal branch-points downstream of the s...

  19. A Comparison of the Effects of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition on Cartilage Damage.

    PubMed

    Gokay, Nevzat Selim; Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Komur, Baran; Demiroz, Ahu Senem; Gokce, Alper; Dervisoglu, Sergülen; Gokay, Banu Vural

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selective inducible nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on cartilage regeneration. The study involved 27 Wistar rats that were divided into five groups. On Day 1, both knees of 3 rats were resected and placed in a formalin solution as a control group. The remaining 24 rats were separated into 4 groups, and their right knees were surgically damaged. Depending on the groups, the rats were injected with intra-articular normal saline solution, neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (50 mg/kg), inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor amino-guanidine (30 mg/kg), or nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (200 mg/kg). After 21 days, the right and left knees of the rats were resected and placed in formalin solution. The samples were histopathologically examined by a blinded evaluator and scored on 8 parameters. Although selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition exhibited significant (P = 0.044) positive effects on cartilage regeneration following cartilage damage, it was determined that inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition had no statistically significant effect on cartilage regeneration. It was observed that the nitric oxide synthase activation triggered advanced arthrosis symptoms, such as osteophyte formation. The fact that selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors were observed to have mitigating effects on the severity of the damage may, in the future, influence the development of new agents to be used in the treatment of cartilage disorders.

  20. A Comparison of the Effects of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition on Cartilage Damage

    PubMed Central

    Gokay, Nevzat Selim; Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Demiroz, Ahu Senem; Gokce, Alper; Dervisoglu, Sergülen; Gokay, Banu Vural

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selective inducible nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on cartilage regeneration. The study involved 27 Wistar rats that were divided into five groups. On Day 1, both knees of 3 rats were resected and placed in a formalin solution as a control group. The remaining 24 rats were separated into 4 groups, and their right knees were surgically damaged. Depending on the groups, the rats were injected with intra-articular normal saline solution, neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (50 mg/kg), inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor amino-guanidine (30 mg/kg), or nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (200 mg/kg). After 21 days, the right and left knees of the rats were resected and placed in formalin solution. The samples were histopathologically examined by a blinded evaluator and scored on 8 parameters. Although selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition exhibited significant (P = 0.044) positive effects on cartilage regeneration following cartilage damage, it was determined that inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition had no statistically significant effect on cartilage regeneration. It was observed that the nitric oxide synthase activation triggered advanced arthrosis symptoms, such as osteophyte formation. The fact that selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors were observed to have mitigating effects on the severity of the damage may, in the future, influence the development of new agents to be used in the treatment of cartilage disorders. PMID:27382570

  1. Conversion of anthranilate synthase into isochorismate synthase: implications for the evolution of chorismate-utilizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Plach, Maximilian G; Löffler, Patrick; Merkl, Rainer; Sterner, Reinhard

    2015-09-14

    Chorismate-utilizing enzymes play a vital role in the biosynthesis of metabolites in plants as well as free-living and infectious microorganisms. Among these enzymes are the homologous primary metabolic anthranilate synthase (AS) and secondary metabolic isochorismate synthase (ICS). Both catalyze mechanistically related reactions by using ammonia and water as nucleophiles, respectively. We report that the nucleophile specificity of AS can be extended from ammonia to water by just two amino acid exchanges in a channel leading to the active site. The observed ICS/AS bifunctionality demonstrates that a secondary metabolic enzyme can readily evolve from a primary metabolic enzyme without requiring an initial gene duplication event. In a general sense, these findings add to our understanding how nature has used the structurally predetermined features of enzyme superfamilies to evolve new reactions.

  2. Identification of cystathionine γ-synthase and threonine synthase from Cicer arietinum and Lens culinaris.

    PubMed

    Morneau, Dominique J K; Jaworski, Allison F; Aitken, Susan M

    2013-04-01

    In plants, cystathionine γ-synthase (CGS) and threonine synthase (TS) compete for the branch-point metabolite O-phospho-L-homoserine. These enzymes are potential targets for metabolic engineering studies, aiming to alter the flux through the competing methionine and threonine biosynthetic pathways, with the goal of increasing methionine production. Although CGS and TS have been characterized in the model organisms Escherichia coli and Arabidopsis thaliana, little information is available on these enzymes in other, particularly plant, species. The functional CGS and TS coding sequences from the grain legumes Cicer arietinum (chickpea) and Lens culinaris (lentil) identified in this study share approximately 80% amino acid sequence identity with the corresponding sequences from Glycine max. At least 7 active-site residues of grain legume CGS and TS are conserved in the model bacterial enzymes, including the catalytic base. Putative processing sites that remove the targeting sequence and result in functional TS were identified in the target species.

  3. Structure-activity correlations for three pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine antifolates binding to human and Pneumocystis carinii dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Cody, Vivian; Pace, Jim; Namjoshi, Ojas A; Gangjee, Aleem

    2015-06-01

    To further define the interactions that enhance the selectivity of binding and to directly compare the binding of the most potent analogue {N(6)-methyl-N(6)-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4,6-triamine; compound 26} in the series of bicyclic pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine analogues of piritrexim (PTX) with native human (h), Pneumocystis carinii (pc) and Pneumocystis jirovecii (pj) dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzymes, the crystal structures of hDHFR complexed with N(6)-methyl-N(6)-(4-isopropylphenyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4,6-triamine (compound 22), of hDHFR complexed with compound 26 and of pcDHFR complexed with N(6)-methyl-N(6)-1-naphthylpyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4,6-triamine (compound 24) are reported as ternary complexes with NADPH. This series of bicyclic pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines were designed in which there was a transposition of the 5-methyl group of PTX to the N9 position of the pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine. It was hypothesized that the N9-methyl group would preferentially interact with Ile123 of pcDHFR (and Ile123 of pjDHFR), but not with the shorter Val115 in hDHFR. Structure-activity data for this series of antifolates revealed that a trifluoro derivative (26) was the most selective against pjDHFR compared with mammalian DHFR (h/pj = 35.7). Structural data for the hDHFR-26 complex revealed that 26 binds in a different conformation from that observed in the pcDHFR-26 complex. In the hDHFR-26 complex the trifluorophenyl ring of 26 occupies a position near the cofactor-binding site, with close intermolecular contacts with Asp21, Ser59 and Ile60, whereas this ring in the pcDHFR-26 complex is positioned away from the cofactor site and near Ile65, with weaker contacts with Ile65, Phe69 and Ile123. Comparison of the intermolecular contacts between the N9-methyl group with Val115/Ile123 validates the hypothesis that the N9-methyl substituent preferentially interacts with Ile123 compared with Val115 of hDHFR, as the weaker contact with Val115 in the h

  4. Heterologous expression in Saccharopolyspora erythraea of a pentaketide synthase derived from the spinosyn polyketide synthase.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christine J; Timoney, Máire C; Sheridan, Rose M; Kendrew, Steven G; Wilkinson, Barrie; Staunton, James C; Leadlay, Peter F

    2003-12-07

    A truncated version of the spinosyn polyketide synthase comprising the loading module and the first four extension modules fused to the erythromycin thioesterase domain was expressed in Saccharopolyspora erythraea. A novel pentaketide lactone product was isolated, identifying cryptic steps of spinosyn biosynthesis and indicating the potential of this approach for the biosynthetic engineering of spinosyn analogues. A pathway for the formation of the tetracyclic spinosyn aglycone is proposed.

  5. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiaohong; Keller, T.C. Stevenson; Begandt, Daniela; Butcher, Joshua T.; Biwer, Lauren; Keller, Alexander S.; Columbus, Linda; Isakson, Brant E.

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, NOS3) is responsible for producing nitric oxide (NO) - a key molecule that can directly (or indirectly) act as a vasodilator and anti-inflammatory mediator. In this review, we examine the structural effects of regulation of the eNOS enzyme, including post-translational modifications and subcellular localization. After production, NO diffuses to surrounding cells with a variety of effects. We focus on the physiological role of NO and NO-derived molecules, including microvascular effects on vessel tone and immune response. Regulation of eNOS and NO action is complicated; we address endogenous and exogenous mechanisms of NO regulation with a discussion of pharmacological agents used in clinical and laboratory settings and a proposed role for eNOS in circulating red blood cells. PMID:26390975

  6. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xiaohong; Keller, T C Stevenson; Begandt, Daniela; Butcher, Joshua T; Biwer, Lauren; Keller, Alexander S; Columbus, Linda; Isakson, Brant E

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, NOS3) is responsible for producing nitric oxide (NO)--a key molecule that can directly (or indirectly) act as a vasodilator and anti-inflammatory mediator. In this review, we examine the structural effects of regulation of the eNOS enzyme, including post-translational modifications and subcellular localization. After production, NO diffuses to surrounding cells with a variety of effects. We focus on the physiological role of NO and NO-derived molecules, including microvascular effects on vessel tone and immune response. Regulation of eNOS and NO action is complicated; we address endogenous and exogenous mechanisms of NO regulation with a discussion of pharmacological agents used in clinical and laboratory settings and a proposed role for eNOS in circulating red blood cells.

  7. Kinetic studies on muscle glycogen synthase.

    PubMed

    Salsas, E; Larner, J

    1975-05-10

    Using the I form of rabbit muscle glycogen synthase essentially free of glycogen, the kinetics and mechanism of action was investigated. No evidence for an exchange between [14C]UDP and UDP-glucose was found. The bisubstrate kinetics of the enzyme for UDP-glucose and glycogen, as well as for UDP-glucose and maltose, was determined. An intersecting pattern in the double reciprocal plot (velocity versus substrate concentration) suggestive of a sequential mechanism (ordered or random) was found in all cases. The K-m for UDP-glucose (45 to 48 mM) was the same with either maltose or glycogen as acceptor. The K-m for maltose (230 mM) and for glycogen (1.5 mug/ml) differed.

  8. Inducible nitric oxide synthase: Good or bad?

    PubMed

    Lind, Maggie; Hayes, Alan; Caprnda, Martin; Petrovic, Daniel; Rodrigo, Luis; Kruzliak, Peter; Zulli, Anthony

    2017-09-01

    Nitric oxide synthases (NOS) are a family of isoforms responsible for the synthesis of the potent dilator nitric oxide (NO). Expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) occurs in conditions of inflammation, and produces large amounts of NO. In pathological conditions iNOS is regarded as a harmful enzyme and is proposed to be a major contributor to diseases of the cardiovascular system such as atherosclerosis. In this review, we address the notion that iNOS is a detrimental enzyme in disease and discuss its potentially beneficial roles. Additionally, we describe other molecules associated with iNOS in diseases such as atherosclerosis, and current research on therapeutic inhibitors tested to reduced pathology associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Nitric Oxide Synthases and Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla, Ingrid M.; Sridhar, Arun; Györke, Sandor; Cardounel, Arturo J.; Carnes, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. There are multiple systems in the myocardium which contribute to redox homeostasis, and loss of homeostasis can result in oxidative stress. Potential sources of oxidants include nitric oxide synthases (NOS), which normally produce nitric oxide in the heart. Two NOS isoforms (1 and 3) are normally expressed in the heart. During pathologies such as heart failure, there is induction of NOS 2 in multiple cell types in the myocardium. In certain conditions, the NOS enzymes may become uncoupled, shifting from production of nitric oxide to superoxide anion, a potent free radical and oxidant. Multiple lines of evidence suggest a role for NOS in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. Therapeutic approaches to reduce atrial fibrillation by modulation of NOS activity may be beneficial, although further investigation of this strategy is needed. PMID:22536189

  10. The Rotary Mechanism of the ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Robert K.; Scanlon, Joanne A. Baylis; Al-Shawi, Marwan K.

    2008-01-01

    The FOF1 ATP synthase is a large complex of at least 22 subunits, more than half of which are in the membranous FO sector. This nearly ubiquitous transporter is responsible for the majority of ATP synthesis in oxidative and photo-phosphorylation, and its overall structure and mechanism have remained conserved throughout evolution. Most examples utilize the proton motive force to drive ATP synthesis except for a few bacteria, which use a sodium motive force. A remarkable feature of the complex is the rotary movement of an assembly of subunits that plays essential roles in both transport and catalytic mechanisms. This review addresses the role of rotation in catalysis of ATP synthesis/hydrolysis and the transport of protons or sodium. PMID:18515057

  11. Nuclear glycogen and glycogen synthase kinase 3.

    PubMed

    Ragano-Caracciolo, M; Berlin, W K; Miller, M W; Hanover, J A

    1998-08-19

    Glycogen is the principal storage form of glucose in animal cells. It accumulates in electron-dense cytoplasmic granules and is synthesized by glycogen synthase (GS), the rate-limiting enzyme of glycogen deposition. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a protein kinase that phosphorylates GS. Two nearly identical forms of GSK-3 exist: GSK-3 alpha and GSK-3 beta. Both are constitutively active in resting cells and their activity can be modulated by hormones and growth factors. GSK-3 is implicated in the regulation of many physiological responses in mammalian cells by phosphorylating substrates including neuronal cell adhesion molecule, neurofilaments, synapsin I, and tau. Recent observations point to functions for glycogen and glycogen metabolism in the nucleus. GSK-3 phosphorylates several transcription factors, and we have recently shown that it modifies the major nuclear pore protein p62. It also regulates PK1, a protein kinase required for maintaining the interphase state and for DNA replication in cycling Xenopus egg extracts. Recently, glycogen was shown to be required for nuclear reformation in vitro using ovulated Xenopus laevis egg lysates. Because neither glycogen nor GSK-3 has been localized to the nuclear envelope or intranuclear sites, glycogen and GSK-3 activites were measured in rat liver nuclei and nuclear reformation extracts. Significant quantities of glycogen-like material co-purified with the rat-liver nuclear envelope. GSK-3 is also highly enriched in the glycogen pellet of egg extracts of Xenopus that is required for nuclear assembly in vitro. Based on the finding that enzymes of glycogen metabolism copurify with glycogen, we propose that glycogen may serve a structural role as a scaffold for nuclear assembly and sequestration of critical kinases and phosphatases in the nucleus. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  12. CLYBL is a polymorphic human enzyme with malate synthase and β-methylmalate synthase activity

    PubMed Central

    Strittmatter, Laura; Li, Yang; Nakatsuka, Nathan J.; Calvo, Sarah E.; Grabarek, Zenon; Mootha, Vamsi K.

    2014-01-01

    CLYBL is a human mitochondrial enzyme of unknown function that is found in multiple eukaryotic taxa and conserved to bacteria. The protein is expressed in the mitochondria of all mammalian organs, with highest expression in brown fat and kidney. Approximately 5% of all humans harbor a premature stop polymorphism in CLYBL that has been associated with reduced levels of circulating vitamin B12. Using comparative genomics, we now show that CLYBL is strongly co-expressed with and co-evolved specifically with other components of the mitochondrial B12 pathway. We confirm that the premature stop polymorphism in CLYBL leads to a loss of protein expression. To elucidate the molecular function of CLYBL, we used comparative operon analysis, structural modeling and enzyme kinetics. We report that CLYBL encodes a malate/β-methylmalate synthase, converting glyoxylate and acetyl-CoA to malate, or glyoxylate and propionyl-CoA to β-methylmalate. Malate synthases are best known for their established role in the glyoxylate shunt of plants and lower organisms and are traditionally described as not occurring in humans. The broader role of a malate/β-methylmalate synthase in human physiology and its mechanistic link to vitamin B12 metabolism remain unknown. PMID:24334609

  13. A Single Amino Acid Substitution Converts Benzophenone Synthase into Phenylpyrone Synthase*

    PubMed Central

    Klundt, Tim; Bocola, Marco; Lütge, Maren; Beuerle, Till; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2009-01-01

    Benzophenone metabolism provides a number of plant natural products with fascinating chemical structures and intriguing pharmacological activities. Formation of the carbon skeleton of benzophenone derivatives from benzoyl-CoA and three molecules of malonyl-CoA is catalyzed by benzophenone synthase (BPS), a member of the superfamily of type III polyketide synthases. A point mutation in the active site cavity (T135L) transformed BPS into a functional phenylpyrone synthase (PPS). The dramatic change in both substrate and product specificities of BPS was rationalized by homology modeling. The mutation may open a new pocket that accommodates the phenyl moiety of the triketide intermediate but limits polyketide elongation to two reactions, resulting in phenylpyrone formation. 3-Hydroxybenzoyl-CoA is the second best starter molecule for BPS but a poor substrate for PPS. The aryl moiety of the triketide intermediate may be trapped in the new pocket by hydrogen bond formation with the backbone, thereby acting as an inhibitor. PPS is a promising biotechnological tool for manipulating benzoate-primed biosynthetic pathways to produce novel compounds. PMID:19710020

  14. Enhanced gastric nitric oxide synthase activity in duodenal ulcer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Rachmilewitz, D; Karmeli, F; Eliakim, R; Stalnikowicz, R; Ackerman, Z; Amir, G; Stamler, J S

    1994-01-01

    Nitric oxide, the product of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory cells, may have a role in tissue injury through its oxidative metabolism. Nitric oxide may have a role in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer and may be one of the mechanisms responsible for the association between gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and peptic disease. In this study, calcium independent nitric oxide synthase activity was detected in human gastric mucosa suggesting expression of the inducible isoform. In 17 duodenal ulcer patients gastric antral and fundic nitric oxide synthase activity was found to be two and 1.5-fold respectively higher than its activity in the antrum and fundus of 14 normal subjects (p < 0.05). H pylori was detected in the antrum of 15 of 17 duodenal ulcer patients and only in 7 of 14 of the control subjects. Antral nitric oxide synthase activity in H pylori positive duodenal ulcer patients was twofold higher than in H pylori positive normal subjects (p < 0.05). In duodenal ulcer patients antral and fundic nitric oxide synthase activity resumed normal values after induction of ulcer healing with ranitidine. Eradication of H pylori did not further affect gastric nitric oxide synthase activity. These findings suggest that in duodenal ulcer patients stimulated gastric mucosal nitric oxide synthase activity, though independent of the H pylori state, may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:7525417

  15. Regulation of phosphatidylserine synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by phospholipid precursors.

    PubMed Central

    Poole, M A; Homann, M J; Bae-Lee, M S; Carman, G M

    1986-01-01

    The addition of ethanolamine or choline to inositol-containing growth medium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild-type cells resulted in a reduction of membrane-associated phosphatidylserine synthase (CDPdiacylglycerol:L-serine O-phosphatidyltransferase, EC 2.7.8.8) activity in cell extracts. The reduction of activity did not occur when inositol was absent from the growth medium. Under the growth conditions where a reduction of enzyme activity occurred, there was a corresponding qualitative reduction of enzyme subunit as determined by immunoblotting with antiserum raised against purified phosphatidylserine synthase. Water-soluble phospholipid precursors did not effect purified phosphatidylserine synthase activity. Phosphatidylserine synthase (activity and enzyme subunit) was not regulated by the availability of water-soluble phospholipid precursors in S. cerevisiae VAL2C(YEp CHO1) and the opi1 mutant. VAL2C(YEp CHO1) is a plasmid-bearing strain that over produces phosphatidylserine synthase activity, and the opi1 mutant is an inositol biosynthesis regulatory mutant. The results of this study suggest that the regulation of phosphatidylserine synthase by the availability of phospholipid precursors occurs at the level of enzyme formation and not at the enzyme activity level. Furthermore, the regulation of phosphatidylserine synthase is coupled to inositol synthesis. Images PMID:3023284

  16. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus.

    PubMed

    Gou, Ke-Mian; Chang, Chia-Chun; Shen, Qing-Ji; Sung, Li-Ying; Liu, Ji-Long

    2014-04-15

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Class IV polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases and PHA-producing Bacillus.

    PubMed

    Tsuge, Takeharu; Hyakutake, Manami; Mizuno, Kouhei

    2015-08-01

    This review highlights the recent investigations of class IV polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases, the newest classification of PHA synthases. Class IV synthases are prevalent in organisms of the Bacillus genus and are composed of a catalytic subunit PhaC (approximately 40 kDa), which has a PhaC box sequence ([GS]-X-C-X-[GA]-G) at the active site, and a second subunit PhaR (approximately 20 kDa). The representative PHA-producing Bacillus strains are Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus cereus; the nucleotide sequence of phaC and the genetic organization of the PHA biosynthesis gene locus are somewhat different between these two strains. It is generally considered that class IV synthases favor short-chain-length monomers such as 3-hydroxybutyrate (C4) and 3-hydroxyvalerate (C5) for polymerization, but can polymerize some unusual monomers as minor components. In Escherichia coli expressing PhaRC from B. cereus YB-4, the biosynthesized PHA undergoes synthase-catalyzed alcoholytic cleavage using endogenous and exogenous alcohols. This alcoholysis is thought to be shared among class IV synthases, and this reaction is useful not only for the regulation of PHA molecular weight but also for the modification of the PHA carboxy terminus. The novel properties of class IV synthases will open up the possibility for the design of new PHA materials.

  18. Purification and Characterization of Chorismate Synthase from Euglena gracilis 1

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, Andreas; van Afferden, Manfred; Windhofer, Volker; Bülow, Sven; Abel, Gernot; Schmid, Jürg; Amrhein, Nikolaus

    1991-01-01

    Chorismate synthase was purified 1200-fold from Euglena gracilis. The molecular mass of the native enzyme is in the range of 110 to 138 kilodaltons as judged by gel filtration. The molecular mass of the subunit was determined to be 41.7 kilodaltons by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Purified chorismate synthase is associated with an NADPH-dependent flavin mononucleotide reductase that provides in vivo the reduced flavin necessary for catalytic activity. In vitro, flavin reduction can be mediated by either dithionite or light. The enzyme obtained from E. gracilis was compared with chorismate synthases purified from a higher plant (Corydalis sempervirens), a bacterium (Escherichia coli), and a fungus (Neurospora crassa). These four chorismate synthases were found to be very similar in terms of cofactor specificity, kinetic properties, isoelectric points, and pH optima. All four enzymes react with polyclonal antisera directed against chorismate synthases from C. sempervirens and E. coli. The closely associated flavin mononucleotide reductase that is present in chorismate synthase preparations from E. gracilis and N. crassa is the main difference between those synthases and the monofunctional enzymes from C. sempervirens and E. coli. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:16668543

  19. Subcellular localization of the homocitrate synthase in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Bañuelos, O; Casqueiro, J; Steidl, S; Gutiérrez, S; Brakhage, A; Martín, J F

    2002-01-01

    There are conflicting reports regarding the cellular localization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and filamentous fungi of homocitrate synthase, the first enzyme in the lysine biosynthetic pathway. The homocitrate synthase (HS) gene (lys1) of Penicillium chrysogenum was disrupted in three transformants (HS(-)) of the Wis 54-1255 pyrG strain. The three mutants named HS1(-), HS2(-) and HS3(-) all lacked homocitrate synthase activity and showed lysine auxotrophy, indicating that there is a single gene for homocitrate synthase in P. chrysogenum. The lys1 ORF was fused in frame to the gene for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene of the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. Homocitrate synthase-deficient mutants transformed with a plasmid containing the lys1-GFP fusion recovered prototrophy and showed similar levels of homocitrate synthase activity to the parental strain Wis 54-1255, indicating that the hybrid protein retains the biological function of wild-type homocitrate synthase. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the HS-GFP fusion protein is maintained intact and does not release the GFP moiety. Fluorescence microscopy analysis of the transformants showed that homocitrate synthase was mainly located in the cytoplasm in P. chrysogenum; in S. cerevisiae the enzyme is targeted to the nucleus. The control nuclear protein StuA was properly targeted to the nucleus when the StuA (targeting domain)-GFP hybrid protein was expressed in P. chrysogenum. The difference in localization of homocitrate synthase between P. chrysogenum and S. cerevisiae suggests that this protein may play a regulatory function, in addition to its catalytic function, in S. cerevisiae but not in P. chrysogenum.

  20. Thioredoxin-insensitive plastid ATP synthase that performs moonlighting functions

    PubMed Central

    Kohzuma, Kaori; Dal Bosco, Cristina; Kanazawa, Atsuko; Dhingra, Amit; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Meurer, Jörg; Kramer, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The chloroplast ATP synthase catalyzes the light-driven synthesis of ATP and acts as a key feedback regulatory component of photosynthesis. Arabidopsis possesses two homologues of the regulatory γ subunit of the ATP synthase, encoded by the ATPC1 and ATPC2 genes. Using a series of mutants, we show that both these subunits can support photosynthetic ATP synthesis in vivo with similar specific activities, but that in wild-type plants, only γ1 is involved in ATP synthesis in photosynthesis. The γ1-containing ATP synthase shows classical light-induced redox regulation, whereas the mutant expressing only γ2-ATP synthase (gamma exchange-revised ATP synthase, gamera) shows equally high ATP synthase activity in the light and dark. In situ redox titrations demonstrate that the regulatory thiol groups on γ2-ATP synthase remain reduced under physiological conditions but can be oxidized by the strong oxidant diamide, implying that the redox potential for the thiol/disulphide transition in γ2 is substantially higher than that for γ1. This regulatory difference may be attributed to alterations in the residues near the redox-active thiols. We propose that γ2-ATP synthase functions to catalyze ATP hydrolysis-driven proton translocation in nonphotosynthetic plastids, maintaining a sufficient transthylakoid proton gradient to drive protein translocation or other processes. Consistent with this interpretation, ATPC2 is predominantly expressed in the root, whereas modifying its expression results in alteration of root hair development. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that γ2 originated from ancient gene duplication, resulting in divergent evolution of functionally distinct ATP synthase complexes in dicots and mosses. PMID:22328157

  1. Geranylfarnesyl diphosphate synthase from Methanosarcina mazei: Different role, different evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Takuya; Yoshimura, Tohru; Hemmi, Hisashi

    2010-02-26

    The gene of (all-E) geranylfarnesyl diphosphate synthase that is responsible for the biosynthesis of methanophenazine, an electron carrier utilized for methanogenesis, was cloned from a methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei Goe1. The properties of the recombinant enzyme and the results of phylogenetic analysis suggest that the enzyme is closely related to (all-E) prenyl diphosphate synthases that are responsible for the biosynthesis of respiratory quinones, rather than to the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of archaeal membrane lipids, including (all-E) geranylfarnesyl diphosphate synthase from a thermophilic archaeon.

  2. Generation and Functional Evaluation of Designer Monoterpene Synthases.

    PubMed

    Srividya, N; Lange, I; Lange, B M

    2016-01-01

    Monoterpene synthases are highly versatile enzymes that catalyze the first committed step in the pathways toward terpenoids, the structurally most diverse class of plant natural products. Recent advancements in our understanding of the reaction mechanism have enabled engineering approaches to develop mutant monoterpene synthases that produce specific monoterpenes. In this chapter, we are describing protocols to introduce targeted mutations, express mutant enzyme catalysts in heterologous hosts, and assess their catalytic properties. Mutant monoterpene synthases have the potential to contribute significantly to synthetic biology efforts aimed at producing larger amounts of commercially attractive monoterpenes. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase in CAM plants.

    PubMed

    Zafra, M F; Segovia, J L; Alejandre, M J; García-Peregrín, E

    1981-12-01

    Citrate synthase wa studied for the first time in peroxisomes and mitochondria of crassulacean acid metabolism plants. Cellular organelles were isolated from Agave americana leaves by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and characterized by the use of catalase and cytochrome oxidase as marker enzymes, respectively. 48,000 X g centrifugation caused the breakdown of the cellular organelles. The presence of a glyoxylate cycle enzyme (citrate synthase) and a glycollate pathway enzyme (catalase) in the same organelles, besides the absence of another glyoxalate cycle enzyme (malate synthase) is reported for the first time, suggesting that peroxisomal and glyoxysomal proteins are synthesized at the same time and housed in he same organelle.

  4. O-Nucleoside, S-Nucleoside, and N-Nucleoside Probes of Lumazine Synthase and Riboflavin Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Arindam; Zhao, Yujie; Lv, Wei; Bacher, Adelbert; Illarionov, Boris; Fischer, Markus; Cushman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Lumazine synthase catalyzes the penultimate step in the biosynthesis of riboflavin, while riboflavin synthase catalyzes the last step. O-Nucleoside, S-nucleoside and N-nucleoside analogues of hypothetical lumazine biosynthetic intermediates have been synthesized in order to obtain structure and mechanism probes of these two enzymes, as well as inhibitors of potential value as antibiotics. Methods were devised for the selective cleavage of benzyl protecting groups in the presence of other easily reduced functionality by controlled hydrogenolysis over Lindlar catalyst. The deprotection reaction was performed in the presence of other reactive functionality including nitro groups, alkenes, and halogens. The target compounds were tested as inhibitors of lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase obtained from a variety of microorganisms. In general, the S-nucleosides and N-nucleosides were more potent than the corresponding O-nucleosides as lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase inhibitors, while the C-nucleosides were the least potent. A series of molecular dynamics simulations followed by free energy calculations using the Poisson-Boltzmann/surface area (MM-PBSA) method were carried out in order to rationalize the results of ligand binding to lumazine synthase, and the results provide insight into the dynamics of ligand binding as well as the molecular forces stabilizing the intermediates in the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. PMID:22780198

  5. Characterization of chitin synthases from Entamoeba.

    PubMed

    Campos-Góngora, Eduardo; Ebert, Frank; Willhoeft, Ute; Said-Fernández, S; Tannich, Egbert

    2004-09-01

    A major component of the Entamoeba cyst wall is chitin, a homopolymer of beta-(1,4)-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Polymerization of chitin requires the presence of active chitin synthases (CHS), a group of enzymes belonging to the family of beta-glycosyl transferases. CHS have been described for fungi, insects, and nematodes; however, information is lacking about the structure and expression of this class of enzymes in protozoons such as Entamoeba. In this study, the primary structures of two putative E. histolytica CHS (EhCHS-1 and EhCHS-2) were determined by gene cloning and homologous proteins were identified in databases from E. dispar and the reptilian parasite E. invadens. The latter constitutes the widely used model organism for the study of Entamoeba cyst development. The two ameba enzymes revealed between 23% and 33% sequence similarity to CHS from other organisms with full conservation of all residues critically important for CHS activity. Interestingly, EhCHS-1 and EhCHS-2 differed substantially in their predicted molecular weights (73 kD vs. 114 kD) as well as in their isoelectric points (5.04 vs. 8.05), and homology was restricted to a central stretch of about 400 amino acid residues containing the catalytic domain. Outside the catalytic domain, EhCHS-1 was predicted to have seven transmembrane helices (TMH) of which the majority is located within the C-terminal part, resembling the situation found in yeast; whereas, EhCHS-2 is structurally related to nematode or insect chitin synthases, as it contained 17 predicted TMHs of which the majority is located within the N-terminal part of the molecule. Northern blot analysis revealed that genes corresponding to CHS-1 and CHS-2 are not expressed in Entamoeba trophozoites, but substantial amounts of CHS-1 and CHS-2 RNA were present 4 to 8 hours after induction of cyst formation by glucose deprivation of E. invadens. The time-courses of expression differed slightly between the two ameba CHS genes, as in

  6. Rare structural variants of human and murine uroporphyrinogen I synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Meisler, M.H.; Carter, M.L.C.

    1980-05-01

    An isoelectric focusing method for detection of structural variants of the enzyme uroporphyrinogen I synthase (porphobilinogen ammonia-lyase (polymerizing), EC 4.3.1.8) in mammalian tissues has been developed. Mouse and human erythrocytes contain one or two major isozymes of uroporphyrinogen I synthase, respectively. Other tissues contain a set of more acidic isozymes that are encoded by the same structural gene as the erythrocyte isozymes. Mouse populations studied with this method were monomorphic for uroporphyrinogen I synthase, with the exception of one feral mouse population. The pedigree of a human family with a rare structural variant is consistent with autosomal linkage of the structural gene. This system provides a convenient isozyme marker for genetic studies and will facilitate determination of the chromosomal location of the uroporphyrinogen I synthase locus.

  7. Thymoquinone Inhibits Escherichia coli ATP Synthase and Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Laughlin, Thomas F; Kady, Ismail O

    2015-01-01

    We examined the thymoquinone induced inhibition of purified F1 or membrane bound F1FO E. coli ATP synthase. Both purified F1 and membrane bound F1FO were completely inhibited by thymoquinone with no residual ATPase activity. The process of inhibition was fully reversible and identical in both membrane bound F1Fo and purified F1 preparations. Moreover, thymoquinone induced inhibition of ATP synthase expressing wild-type E. coli cell growth and non-inhibition of ATPase gene deleted null control cells demonstrates that ATP synthase is a molecular target for thymoquinone. This also links the beneficial dietary based antimicrobial and anticancer effects of thymoquinone to its inhibitory action on ATP synthase.

  8. Thymoquinone Inhibits Escherichia coli ATP Synthase and Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Laughlin, Thomas F.; Kady, Ismail O.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the thymoquinone induced inhibition of purified F1 or membrane bound F1FO E. coli ATP synthase. Both purified F1 and membrane bound F1FO were completely inhibited by thymoquinone with no residual ATPase activity. The process of inhibition was fully reversible and identical in both membrane bound F1Fo and purified F1 preparations. Moreover, thymoquinone induced inhibition of ATP synthase expressing wild-type E. coli cell growth and non-inhibition of ATPase gene deleted null control cells demonstrates that ATP synthase is a molecular target for thymoquinone. This also links the beneficial dietary based antimicrobial and anticancer effects of thymoquinone to its inhibitory action on ATP synthase. PMID:25996607

  9. Myocardial Regulation of Lipidomic Flux by Cardiolipin Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Kiebish, Michael A.; Yang, Kui; Sims, Harold F.; Jenkins, Christopher M.; Liu, Xinping; Mancuso, David J.; Zhao, Zhongdan; Guan, Shaoping; Abendschein, Dana R.; Han, Xianlin; Gross, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    Lipidomic regulation of mitochondrial cardiolipin content and molecular species composition is a prominent regulator of bioenergetic efficiency. However, the mechanisms controlling cardiolipin metabolism during health or disease progression have remained elusive. Herein, we demonstrate that cardiac myocyte-specific transgenic expression of cardiolipin synthase results in accelerated cardiolipin lipidomic flux that impacts multiple aspects of mitochondrial bioenergetics and signaling. During the postnatal period, cardiolipin synthase transgene expression results in marked changes in the temporal maturation of cardiolipin molecular species during development. In adult myocardium, cardiolipin synthase transgene expression leads to a marked increase in symmetric tetra-18:2 molecular species without a change in total cardiolipin content. Mechanistic analysis demonstrated that these alterations result from increased cardiolipin remodeling by sequential phospholipase and transacylase/acyltransferase activities in conjunction with a decrease in phosphatidylglycerol content. Moreover, cardiolipin synthase transgene expression results in alterations in signaling metabolites, including a marked increase in the cardioprotective eicosanoid 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid. Examination of mitochondrial bioenergetic function by high resolution respirometry demonstrated that cardiolipin synthase transgene expression resulted in improved mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency as evidenced by enhanced electron transport chain coupling using multiple substrates as well as by salutary changes in Complex III and IV activities. Furthermore, transgenic expression of cardiolipin synthase attenuated maladaptive cardiolipin remodeling and bioenergetic inefficiency in myocardium rendered diabetic by streptozotocin treatment. Collectively, these results demonstrate the unanticipated role of cardiolipin synthase in maintaining physiologic membrane structure and function even under metabolic

  10. Biosynthesis of riboflavin: an unusual riboflavin synthase of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum.

    PubMed Central

    Eberhardt, S; Korn, S; Lottspeich, F; Bacher, A

    1997-01-01

    Riboflavin synthase was purified by a factor of about 1,500 from cell extract of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. The enzyme had a specific activity of about 2,700 nmol mg(-1) h(-1) at 65 degrees C, which is relatively low compared to those of riboflavin synthases of eubacteria and yeast. Amino acid sequences obtained after proteolytic cleavage had no similarity with known riboflavin synthases. The gene coding for riboflavin synthase (designated ribC) was subsequently cloned by marker rescue with a ribC mutant of Escherichia coli. The ribC gene of M. thermoautotrophicum specifies a protein of 153 amino acid residues. The predicted amino acid sequence agrees with the information gleaned from Edman degradation of the isolated protein and shows 67% identity with the sequence predicted for the unannotated reading frame MJ1184 of Methanococcus jannaschii. The ribC gene is adjacent to a cluster of four genes with similarity to the genes cbiMNQO of Salmonella typhimurium, which form part of the cob operon (this operon contains most of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of vitamin B12). The amino acid sequence predicted by the ribC gene of M. thermoautotrophicum shows no similarity whatsoever to the sequences of riboflavin synthases of eubacteria and yeast. Most notably, the M. thermoautotrophicum protein does not show the internal sequence homology characteristic of eubacterial and yeast riboflavin synthases. The protein of M. thermoautotrophicum can be expressed efficiently in a recombinant E. coli strain. The specific activity of the purified, recombinant protein is 1,900 nmol mg(-1) h(-1) at 65 degrees C. In contrast to riboflavin synthases from eubacteria and fungi, the methanobacterial enzyme has an absolute requirement for magnesium ions. The 5' phosphate of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine does not act as a substrate. The findings suggest that riboflavin synthase has evolved independently in eubacteria and methanobacteria. PMID:9139911

  11. Type III polyketide synthases in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Katsuyama, Yohei; Ohnishi, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) are simple homodimers of ketosynthases which catalyze the condensation of one to several molecules of extender substrate onto a starter substrate through iterative decarboxylative Claisen condensation reactions. Type III PKSs have been found in bacteria and fungi, as well as plants. Microbial type III PKSs, which are involved in the biosynthesis of some lipidic compounds and various secondary metabolites, have several interesting characteristics that are not shared by plant type III PKSs. Further, many compounds produced by microbial type III PKSs have significant biological functions and/or important pharmaceutical activities. Thus, studies on this class of enzymes will expand our knowledge of the biosynthetic machineries that generate natural products and generate new findings about microbial physiology. The recent development of next-generation DNA sequencing has allowed for an increase in the number of microbial genomes sequenced and the discovery of many microbial type III PKS genes. Here, we describe basic methods to study microbial type III PKSs whose genes are easy to clone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Human Isoprenoid Synthase Enzymes as Therapeutic Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaeok; Matralis, Alexios; Berghuis, Albert; Tsantrizos, Youla

    2014-07-01

    The complex biochemical network known as the mevalonate pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of all isoprenoids in the human body, which consists of a vast array of metabolites that are vital for proper cellular functions. Two key isoprenoids, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) are responsible for the post-translational prenylation of small GTP-binding proteins, and serve as the biosynthetic precursors to numerous other biomolecules. The down-stream metabolite of FPP and GGPP is squalene, the precursor to steroids, bile acids, lipoproteins and vitamin D. In the past, interest in prenyl synthase inhibitors focused mainly on the role of the FPP in lytic bone diseases. More recently, pre-clinical and clinical studies have strongly implicated high levels of protein prenylation in a plethora of human diseases, including non-skeletal cancers, the progression of neurodegenerative diseases and cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we focus mainly on the potential therapeutic value of down-regulating the biosynthesis of FPP, GGPP and squalene. We summarize the most recent drug discovery efforts and the structural data available that support the current on-going studies.

  13. Structure of Leishmania major cysteine synthase

    PubMed Central

    Fyfe, Paul K.; Westrop, Gareth D.; Ramos, Tania; Müller, Sylke; Coombs, Graham H.; Hunter, William N.

    2012-01-01

    Cysteine biosynthesis is a potential target for drug development against parasitic Leishmania species; these protozoa are responsible for a range of serious diseases. To improve understanding of this aspect of Leishmania biology, a crystallographic and biochemical study of L. major cysteine synthase has been undertaken, seeking to understand its structure, enzyme activity and modes of inhibition. Active enzyme was purified, assayed and crystallized in an orthorhombic form with a dimer in the asymmetric unit. Diffraction data extending to 1.8 Å resolution were measured and the structure was solved by molecular replacement. A fragment of γ-poly-d-glutamic acid, a constituent of the crystallization mixture, was bound in the enzyme active site. Although a d-­glutamate tetrapeptide had insignificant inhibitory activity, the enzyme was competitively inhibited (K i = 4 µM) by DYVI, a peptide based on the C-­terminus of the partner serine acetyltransferase with which the enzyme forms a complex. The structure surprisingly revealed that the cofactor pyridoxal phosphate had been lost during crystallization. PMID:22750854

  14. Inverted stereocontrol of iridoid synthase in snapdragon

    PubMed Central

    Kries, Hajo; Kellner, Franziska; Kamileen, Mohamed Omar; O'Connor, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    The natural product class of iridoids, found in various species of flowering plants, harbors astonishing chemical complexity. The discovery of iridoid biosynthetic genes in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus has provided insight into the biosynthetic origins of this class of natural product. However, not all iridoids share the exact five- to six-bicyclic ring scaffold of the Catharanthus iridoids. For instance, iridoids in the ornamental flower snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus, Plantaginaceae family) are derived from the C7 epimer of this scaffold. Here we have cloned and characterized the iridoid synthase enzyme from A. majus (AmISY), the enzyme that is responsible for converting 8-oxogeranial into the bicyclic iridoid scaffold in a two-step reduction–cyclization sequence. Chiral analysis of the reaction products reveals that AmISY reduces C7 to generate the opposite stereoconfiguration in comparison with the Catharanthus homologue CrISY. The catalytic activity of AmISY thus explains the biosynthesis of 7-epi-iridoids in Antirrhinum and related genera. However, although the stereoselectivity of the reduction step catalyzed by AmISY is clear, in both AmISY and CrISY, the cyclization step produces a diastereomeric mixture. Although the reduction of 8-oxogeranial is clearly enzymatically catalyzed, the cyclization step appears to be subject to less stringent enzyme control. PMID:28701463

  15. Transmembrane topology of ceramide synthase in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kageyama-Yahara, Natsuko; Riezman, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Ceramide plays a crucial role as a basic building block of sphingolipids, but also as a signalling molecule mediating cell-fate decisions. Three genes, LAG1, LAC1 and LIP1, have been shown to be required for ceramide synthase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [Guillas, Kirchman, Chuard, Pfefferli, Jiang, Jazwinski and Conzelman (2001) EMBO J. 20, 2655–2665; Schorling, Vallee, Barz, Reizman and Oesterhelt (2001) Mol. Biol. Cell 12, 3417–3427; Vallee and Riezman (2005) EMBO J. 24, 730–741]. In the present study, the topology of the Lag1p and Lac1p subunits was investigated. The N- and C-termini of the proteins are in the cytoplasm and eight putative membrane-spanning domains were identified in Lag1p and Lac1p by insertion of glycosylation and factor Xa cleavage sites at various positions. The conserved Lag motif, potentially containing the active site, is most likely embedded in the membrane. We also present evidence that histidine and aspartic acid residues in the Lag motif are essential for the function of Lag1p in vivo. PMID:16756512

  16. Human isoprenoid synthase enzymes as therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaeok; Matralis, Alexios N.; Berghuis, Albert M.; Tsantrizos, Youla S.

    2014-01-01

    In the human body, the complex biochemical network known as the mevalonate pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of all isoprenoids, which consists of a vast array of metabolites that are vital for proper cellular functions. Two key isoprenoids, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) are responsible for the post-translational prenylation of small GTP-binding proteins, and serve as the biosynthetic precursors to numerous other biomolecules. The down-stream metabolite of FPP and GGPP is squalene, the precursor to steroids, bile acids, lipoproteins, and vitamin D. In the past, interest in prenyl synthase inhibitors focused mainly on the role of the FPP in lytic bone diseases. More recently pre-clinical and clinical studies have strongly implicated high levels of protein prenylation in a plethora of human diseases, including non-skeletal cancers, the progression of neurodegenerative diseases and cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we focus mainly on the potential therapeutic value of down-regulating the biosynthesis of FPP, GGPP, and squalene. We summarize the most recent drug discovery efforts and the structural data available that support the current on-going studies. PMID:25101260

  17. Nitric Oxide Synthases in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Carnicer, Ricardo; Crabtree, Mark J.; Sivakumaran, Vidhya

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The regulation of myocardial function by constitutive nitric oxide synthases (NOS) is important for the maintenance of myocardial Ca2+ homeostasis, relaxation and distensibility, and protection from arrhythmia and abnormal stress stimuli. However, sustained insults such as diabetes, hypertension, hemodynamic overload, and atrial fibrillation lead to dysfunctional NOS activity with superoxide produced instead of NO and worse pathophysiology. Recent Advances: Major strides in understanding the role of normal and abnormal constitutive NOS in the heart have revealed molecular targets by which NO modulates myocyte function and morphology, the role and nature of post-translational modifications of NOS, and factors controlling nitroso-redox balance. Localized and differential signaling from NOS1 (neuronal) versus NOS3 (endothelial) isoforms are being identified, as are methods to restore NOS function in heart disease. Critical Issues: Abnormal NOS signaling plays a key role in many cardiac disorders, while targeted modulation may potentially reverse this pathogenic source of oxidative stress. Future Directions: Improvements in the clinical translation of potent modulators of NOS function/dysfunction may ultimately provide a powerful new treatment for many hearts diseases that are fueled by nitroso-redox imbalance. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1078–1099. PMID:22871241

  18. The Eucalyptus terpene synthase gene family.

    PubMed

    Külheim, Carsten; Padovan, Amanda; Hefer, Charles; Krause, Sandra T; Köllner, Tobias G; Myburg, Alexander A; Degenhardt, Jörg; Foley, William J

    2015-06-11

    Terpenoids are abundant in the foliage of Eucalyptus, providing the characteristic smell as well as being valuable economically and influencing ecological interactions. Quantitative and qualitative inter- and intra- specific variation of terpenes is common in eucalypts. The genome sequences of Eucalyptus grandis and E. globulus were mined for terpene synthase genes (TPS) and compared to other plant species. We investigated the relative expression of TPS in seven plant tissues and functionally characterized five TPS genes from E. grandis. Compared to other sequenced plant genomes, Eucalyptus grandis has the largest number of putative functional TPS genes of any sequenced plant. We discovered 113 and 106 putative functional TPS genes in E. grandis and E. globulus, respectively. All but one TPS from E. grandis were expressed in at least one of seven plant tissues examined. Genomic clusters of up to 20 genes were identified. Many TPS are expressed in tissues other than leaves which invites a re-evaluation of the function of terpenes in Eucalyptus. Our data indicate that terpenes in Eucalyptus may play a wider role in biotic and abiotic interactions than previously thought. Tissue specific expression is common and the possibility of stress induction needs further investigation. Phylogenetic comparison of the two investigated Eucalyptus species gives insight about recent evolution of different clades within the TPS gene family. While the majority of TPS genes occur in orthologous pairs some clades show evidence of recent gene duplication, as well as loss of function.

  19. Concerted versus Stepwise Mechanism in Thymidylate Synthase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TSase) catalyzes the intracellular de novo formation of thymidylate (a DNA building block) in most living organisms, making it a common target for chemotherapeutic and antibiotic drugs. Two mechanisms have been proposed for the rate-limiting hydride transfer step in TSase catalysis: a stepwise mechanism in which the hydride transfer precedes the cleavage of the covalent bond between the enzymatic cysteine and the product and a mechanism where both happen concertedly. Striking similarities between the enzyme-bound enolate intermediates formed in the initial and final step of the reaction supported the first mechanism, while QM/MM calculations favored the concerted mechanism. Here, we experimentally test these two possibilities using secondary kinetic isotope effect (KIE), mutagenesis study, and primary KIEs. The findings support the concerted mechanism and demonstrate the critical role of an active site arginine in substrate binding, activation of enzymatic nucleophile, and the hydride transfer studied here. The elucidation of this reduction/substitution sheds light on the critical catalytic step in TSase and may aid future drug or biomimetic catalyst design. PMID:24949852

  20. Electric Field Driven Torque in ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Miller, John H.; Rajapakshe, Kimal I.; Infante, Hans L.; Claycomb, James R.

    2013-01-01

    FO-ATP synthase (FO) is a rotary motor that converts potential energy from ions, usually protons, moving from high- to low-potential sides of a membrane into torque and rotary motion. Here we propose a mechanism whereby electric fields emanating from the proton entry and exit channels act on asymmetric charge distributions in the c-ring, due to protonated and deprotonated sites, and drive it to rotate. The model predicts a scaling between time-averaged torque and proton motive force, which can be hindered by mutations that adversely affect the channels. The torque created by the c-ring of FO drives the γ-subunit to rotate within the ATP-producing complex (F1) overcoming, with the aid of thermal fluctuations, an opposing torque that rises and falls with angular position. Using the analogy with thermal Brownian motion of a particle in a tilted washboard potential, we compute ATP production rates vs. proton motive force. The latter shows a minimum, needed to drive ATP production, which scales inversely with the number of proton binding sites on the c-ring. PMID:24040370

  1. Electric field driven torque in ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Miller, John H; Rajapakshe, Kimal I; Infante, Hans L; Claycomb, James R

    2013-01-01

    FO-ATP synthase (FO) is a rotary motor that converts potential energy from ions, usually protons, moving from high- to low-potential sides of a membrane into torque and rotary motion. Here we propose a mechanism whereby electric fields emanating from the proton entry and exit channels act on asymmetric charge distributions in the c-ring, due to protonated and deprotonated sites, and drive it to rotate. The model predicts a scaling between time-averaged torque and proton motive force, which can be hindered by mutations that adversely affect the channels. The torque created by the c-ring of FO drives the γ-subunit to rotate within the ATP-producing complex (F1) overcoming, with the aid of thermal fluctuations, an opposing torque that rises and falls with angular position. Using the analogy with thermal Brownian motion of a particle in a tilted washboard potential, we compute ATP production rates vs. proton motive force. The latter shows a minimum, needed to drive ATP production, which scales inversely with the number of proton binding sites on the c-ring.

  2. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in the myocard.

    PubMed

    Buchwalow, I B; Schulze, W; Karczewski, P; Kostic, M M; Wallukat, G; Morwinski, R; Krause, E G; Müller, J; Paul, M; Slezak, J; Luft, F C; Haller, H

    2001-01-01

    Recognition of significance of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) in cardiovascular regulations has led to intensive research and development of therapies focused on NOS as potential therapeutic targets. However, the NOS isoform profile of cardiac tissue and subcellular localization of NOS isoforms remain a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate the localization of an inducible NOS isoform (NOS2) in cardiomyocytes. Employing a novel immunocytochemical technique of a catalyzed reporter deposition system with tyramide and electron microscopical immunocytochemistry complemented with Western blotting and RT-PCR, we detected NOS2 both in rat neonatal and adult cultured cardiomyocytes and in the normal myocard of adult rats as well as in the human myocard of patients with dilative cardiomyopathy. NOS2 was targeted predominantly to a particulate component of the cardiomyocyte--along contractile fibers, in the plasma membrane including T-tubules, as well as in the nuclear envelope, mitochondria and Golgi complex. Our results point to an involvement of NOS2 in maintaining cardiac homeostasis and contradict to the notion that NOS2 is expressed in cardiac tissue only in response to various physiological and pathogenic factors. NOS2 targeting to mitochondria and contractile fibers suggests a relationship of NO with contractile function and energy production in the cardiac muscle.

  3. Structures of human constitutive nitric oxide synthases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huiying; Jamal, Joumana; Plaza, Carla; Pineda, Stephanie Hai; Chreifi, Georges; Jing, Qing; Cinelli, Maris A.; Silverman, Richard B.; Poulos, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Mammals produce three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS): neuronal NOS (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS). The overproduction of NO by nNOS is associated with a number of neurodegenerative disorders; therefore, a desirable therapeutic goal is the design of drugs that target nNOS but not the other isoforms. Crystallography, coupled with computational approaches and medicinal chemistry, has played a critical role in developing highly selective nNOS inhibitors that exhibit exceptional neuroprotective properties. For historic reasons, crystallography has focused on rat nNOS and bovine eNOS because these were available in high quality; thus, their structures have been used in structure–activity–relationship studies. Although these constitutive NOSs share more than 90% sequence identity across mammalian species for each NOS isoform, inhibitor-binding studies revealed that subtle differences near the heme active site in the same NOS isoform across species still impact enzyme–inhibitor interactions. Therefore, structures of the human constitutive NOSs are indispensible. Here, the first structure of human neuronal NOS at 2.03 Å resolution is reported and a different crystal form of human endothelial NOS is reported at 1.73 Å resolution. PMID:25286850

  4. Nitric oxide synthase in the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    López-Figueroa, M O; Møller, M

    1996-10-01

    The recent discovery of nitric oxide (NO) as a biological messenger molecule with unique characteristics has opened a new field in pineal research. This free radical gas is synthesized by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from L-arginine. The activation of adrenoreceptors in the membrane of the pinealocytes mediates the increase in NO through a mechanism that involves G proteins. In the pinealocyte, NO stimulates guanylyl cyclase resulting in an increased intracellular content of cGMP. The role of cGMP in pineal metabolism, however, is still enigmatic. Using enzyme histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, the presence of NOS has been confirmed in the pineal gland of some species. In the rat and especially in the sheep, NOS is located in nerve fibres innervating the gland. These nerve fibres also contain the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI), and are probably of parasympathetic origin. In cell cultures and tissue sections NOS immunoreactivity has been shown to be present in pinealocytes of the rat and bovine but not in the sheep. Finally, NOS is also present in the endothelial cells of the blood vessels of the pineal gland. Accordingly, in the mammalian pineal gland, NO is synthesized in both presynaptic nerve fibers and pinealocytes, as well as in blood vessels. However, the anatomical location of NO synthesis varies considerably among species. NO released in the pineal gland, might influence both the pineal metabolism and the blood flow of the gland.

  5. Anthranilate synthase subunit organization in Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Carminatti, C A; Oliveira, I L; Recouvreux, D O S; Antônio, R V; Porto, L M

    2008-09-16

    Tryptophan is an aromatic amino acid used for protein synthesis and cellular growth. Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 uses two tryptophan molecules to synthesize violacein, a secondary metabolite of pharmacological interest. The genome analysis of this bacterium revealed that the genes trpA-F and pabA-B encode the enzymes of the tryptophan pathway in which the first reaction is the conversion of chorismate to anthranilate by anthranilate synthase (AS), an enzyme complex. In the present study, the organization and structure of AS protein subunits from C. violaceum were analyzed using bioinformatics tools available on the Web. We showed by calculating molecular masses that AS in C. violaceum is composed of alpha (TrpE) and beta (PabA) subunits. This is in agreement with values determined experimentally. Catalytic and regulatory sites of the AS subunits were identified. The TrpE and PabA subunits contribute to the catalytic site while the TrpE subunit is involved in the allosteric site. Protein models for the TrpE and PabA subunits were built by restraint-based homology modeling using AS enzyme, chains A and B, from Salmonella typhimurium (PDB ID 1I1Q).

  6. Alendronate is a specific, nanomolar inhibitor of farnesyl diphosphate synthase.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, J D; Bostedor, R G; Masarachia, P J; Reszka, A A; Rodan, G

    2000-01-01

    Alendronate, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, is a potent inhibitor of bone resorption used for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. Recent findings suggest that alendronate and other N-containing bisphosphonates inhibit the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway and interfere with protein prenylation, as a result of reduced geranylgeranyl diphosphate levels. This study identified farnesyl disphosphate synthase as the mevalonate pathway enzyme inhibited by bisphosphonates. HPLC analysis of products from a liver cytosolic extract narrowed the potential targets for alendronate inhibition (IC(50) = 1700 nM) to isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase and farnesyl diphosphate synthase. Recombinant human farnesyl diphosphate synthase was inhibited by alendronate with an IC(50) of 460 nM (following 15 min preincubation). Alendronate did not inhibit isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase or GGPP synthase, partially purified from liver cytosol. Recombinant farnesyl diphosphate synthase was also inhibited by pamidronate (IC(50) = 500 nM) and risedronate (IC(50) = 3.9 nM), negligibly by etidronate (IC50 = 80 microM), and not at all by clodronate. In osteoclasts, alendronate inhibited the incorporation of [(3)H]mevalonolactone into proteins of 18-25 kDa and into nonsaponifiable lipids, including sterols. These findings (i) identify farnesyl diphosphate synthase as the selective target of alendronate in the mevalonate pathway, (ii) show that this enzyme is inhibited by other N-containing bisphosphonates, such as risendronate, but not by clodronate, supporting a different mechanism of action for different bisphosphonates, and (iii) document in purified osteoclasts alendronate inhibition of prenylation and sterol biosynthesis.

  7. Understanding structure, function, and mutations in the mitochondrial ATP synthase

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ting; Pagadala, Vijayakanth; Mueller, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial ATP synthase is a multimeric enzyme complex with an overall molecular weight of about 600,000 Da. The ATP synthase is a molecular motor composed of two separable parts: F1 and Fo. The F1 portion contains the catalytic sites for ATP synthesis and protrudes into the mitochondrial matrix. Fo forms a proton turbine that is embedded in the inner membrane and connected to the rotor of F1. The flux of protons flowing down a potential gradient powers the rotation of the rotor driving the synthesis of ATP. Thus, the flow of protons though Fo is coupled to the synthesis of ATP. This review will discuss the structure/function relationship in the ATP synthase as determined by biochemical, crystallographic, and genetic studies. An emphasis will be placed on linking the structure/function relationship with understanding how disease causing mutations or putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding the subunits of the ATP synthase, will affect the function of the enzyme and the health of the individual. The review will start by summarizing the current understanding of the subunit composition of the enzyme and the role of the subunits followed by a discussion on known mutations and their effect on the activity of the ATP synthase. The review will conclude with a summary of mutations in genes encoding subunits of the ATP synthase that are known to be responsible for human disease, and a brief discussion on SNPs. PMID:25938092

  8. The chloroplast ATP synthase features the characteristic redox regulation machinery.

    PubMed

    Hisabori, Toru; Sunamura, Ei-Ichiro; Kim, Yusung; Konno, Hiroki

    2013-11-20

    Regulation of the activity of the chloroplast ATP synthase is largely accomplished by the chloroplast thioredoxin system, the main redox regulation system in chloroplasts, which is directly coupled to the photosynthetic reaction. We review the current understanding of the redox regulation system of the chloroplast ATP synthase. The thioredoxin-targeted portion of the ATP synthase consists of two cysteines located on the central axis subunit γ. The redox state of these two cysteines is under the influence of chloroplast thioredoxin, which directly controls rotation during catalysis by inducing a conformational change in this subunit. The molecular mechanism of redox regulation of the chloroplast ATP synthase has recently been determined. Regulation of the activity of the chloroplast ATP synthase is critical in driving efficiency into the ATP synthesis reaction in chloroplasts. The molecular architecture of the chloroplast ATP synthase, which confers redox regulatory properties requires further investigation, in light of the molecular structure of the enzyme complex as well as the physiological significance of the regulation system.

  9. Effect of chronologic age on induction of cystathionine synthase, uroporphyrinogen I synthase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Gartler, S M; Hornung, S K; Motulsky, A G

    1981-01-01

    The activities of cystathionine synthase [L-serine hydro-lyase (adding homocysteine), EC 4.2.1.22], uroporphyrinogen I synthase [porphobilinogen ammonia-lyase (polymerizing), EC 4.3.1.8], and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (D-glucose-6-phosphate:NADP+ 1-oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.49) have been measured in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes of young and old human subjects. A significant decrease in activity with age was observed for cystathionine synthase and uroporphyrinogen I synthase but not for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. These changes could not be related to declining phytohemagglutinin response with aging. Age-related decreases in activity of some enzymes may be relevant for an understanding of the biology of aging. False assignment of heterozygosity, and even homozygosity, for certain genetic disorders, such as homocystinuria, may result when low enzyme levels are detected in the lymphocytes of older people. PMID:6940198

  10. Binding modes of zaragozic acid A to human squalene synthase and staphylococcal dehydrosqualene synthase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-I; Jeng, Wen-Yih; Chang, Wei-Jung; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Wang, Andrew H-J

    2012-05-25

    Zaragozic acids (ZAs) belong to a family of fungal metabolites with nanomolar inhibitory activity toward squalene synthase (SQS). The enzyme catalyzes the committed step of sterol synthesis and has attracted attention as a potential target for antilipogenic and antiinfective therapies. Here, we have determined the structure of ZA-A complexed with human SQS. ZA-A binding induces a local conformational change in the substrate binding site, and its C-6 acyl group also extends over to the cofactor binding cavity. In addition, ZA-A effectively inhibits a homologous bacterial enzyme, dehydrosqualene synthase (CrtM), which synthesizes the precursor of staphyloxanthin in Staphylococcus aureus to cope with oxidative stress. Size reduction at Tyr(248) in CrtM further increases the ZA-A binding affinity, and it reveals a similar overall inhibitor binding mode to that of human SQS/ZA-A except for the C-6 acyl group. These structures pave the way for further improving selectivity and development of a new generation of anticholesterolemic and antimicrobial inhibitors.

  11. Identification of a Dolabellane Type Diterpene Synthase and other Root-Expressed Diterpene Synthases in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Jia, Meirong; Huh, Jung-Hyun; Muchlinski, Andrew; Peters, Reuben J.; Tholl, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana maintains a complex metabolism for the production of secondary or specialized metabolites. Such metabolites include volatile and semivolatile terpenes, which have been associated with direct and indirect defensive activities in flowers and leaves. In comparison, the structural diversity and function of terpenes in Arabidopsis roots has remained largely unexplored despite a substantial number of root-expressed genes in the Arabidopsis terpene synthase (TPS) gene family. We show that five root-expressed TPSs of an expanded subfamily-a type clade in the Arabidopsis TPS family function as class I diterpene synthases that predominantly convert geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) to different semi-volatile diterpene products, which are in part detectable at low levels in the ecotypes Columbia (Col) and Cape Verde Island (Cvi). The enzyme TPS20 produces a macrocyclic dolabellane diterpene alcohol and a dolabellane-related diterpene olefin named dolathaliatriene with a so far unknown C6-C11 bicyclic scaffold besides several minor olefin products. The TPS20 compounds occur in all tissues of Cvi but are absent in the Col ecotype because of deletion and substitution mutations in the Col TPS20 sequence. The primary TPS20 diterpene products retard the growth of the root rot pathogen Pythium irregulare but only at concentrations exceeding those in planta. Together, our results demonstrate that divergence and pseudogenization in the Arabidopsis TPS gene family allow for structural plasticity in diterpene profiles of above- and belowground tissues. PMID:27933080

  12. Cloning and characterization of squalene synthase and cycloartenol synthase from Siraitia grosvenorii.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huan; Tang, Qi; Mo, Changming; Bai, Longhua; Tu, Dongping; Ma, Xiaojun

    2017-03-01

    Mogrosides and steroid saponins are tetracyclic triterpenoids found in Siraitia grosvenorii. Squalene synthase (SQS) and cycloartenol synthase (CAS) are key enzymes in triterpenoid and steroid biosynthesis. In this study, full-length cDNAs of SgSQS and SgCAS were cloned by a rapid amplification of cDNA-ends with polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR) approach. The SgSQS cDNA has a 1254 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 417 amino acids, and the SgCAS cDNA contains a 2298 bp ORF encoding 765 amino acids. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the deduced SgSQS protein has two transmembrane regions in the C-terminal. Both SgSQS and SgCAS have significantly higher levels in fruits than in other tissues, suggesting that steroids and mogrosides are competitors for the same precursors in fruits. Combined in silico prediction and subcellular localization, experiments in tobacco indicated that SgSQS was probably in the cytoplasm or on the cytoskeleton, and SgCAS was likely located in the nucleus or cytosol. These results will provide a foundation for further study of SgSQS and SgCAS gene functions in S. grosvenorii, and may facilitate improvements in mogroside content in fruit by regulating gene expression.

  13. The rice ent-KAURENE SYNTHASE LIKE 2 encodes a functional ent-beyerene synthase.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Daisuke; Ito, Akira; Mitsuhashi, Wataru; Toyomasu, Tomonobu; Imai, Ryozo

    2015-05-08

    The rice genome contains a family of kaurene synthase-like (OsKSL) genes that are responsible for the biosynthesis of various diterpenoids, including gibberellins and phytoalexins. While many OsKSL genes have been functionally characterized, the functionality of OsKSL2 is still unclear and it has been proposed to be a pseudogene. Here, we found that OsKSL2 is drastically induced in roots by methyl jasmonate treatment and we successfully isolated a full-length cDNA for OsKSL2. Sequence analysis of the OsKSL2 cDNA revealed that the open reading frame of OsKSL2 is mispredicted in the two major rice genome databases, IRGSP-RAP and MSU-RGAP. In vitro conversion assay indicated that recombinant OsKSL2 catalyzes the cyclization of ent-CDP into ent-beyerene as a major and ent-kaurene as a minor product. ent-Beyerene is an antimicrobial compound and OsKSL2 is induced by methyl jasmonate; these data suggest that OsKSL2 is a functional ent-beyerene synthase that is involved in defense mechanisms in rice roots.

  14. Functional analysis of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SS) in sugarcane (Saccharum) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Verma, A K; Upadhyay, S K; Verma, P C; Solomon, S; Singh, S B

    2011-03-01

    Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14) and sucrose synthase (SS; EC 2.4.1.13) are key enzymes in the synthesis and breakdown of sucrose in sugarcane. The activities of internodal SPS and SS, as well as transcript expression were determined using semi-quantitative RT-PCR at different developmental stages of high and low sucrose accumulating sugarcane cultivars. SPS activity and transcript expression was higher in mature internodes compared with immature internodes in all the studied cultivars. However, high sugar cultivars showed increased transcript expression and enzyme activity of SPS compared to low sugar cultivars at all developmental stages. SS activity was higher in immature internodes than in mature internodes in all cultivars; SS transcript expression showed a similar pattern. Our studies demonstrate that SPS activity was positively correlated with sucrose and negatively correlated with hexose sugars. However, SS activity was negatively correlated with sucrose and positively correlated with hexose sugars. The present study opens the possibility for improvement of sugarcane cultivars by increasing expression of the respective enzymes using transgene technology. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Nitric oxide synthase in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Xu, K Y; Huso, D L; Dawson, T M; Bredt, D S; Becker, L C

    1999-01-19

    NO. is a free radical that modulates heart function and metabolism. We report that a neuronal-type NO synthase (NOS) is located on cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane vesicles and that endogenous NO. produced by SR-associated NOS inhibits SR Ca2+ uptake. Ca2+-dependent biochemical conversion of L-arginine to L-citrulline was observed from isolated rabbit cardiac SR vesicles in the presence of NOS substrates and cofactors. Endogenous NO. was generated from the vesicles and detected by electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping measurements. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated labeling of cardiac SR vesicles by using anti-neuronal NOS (nNOS), but not anti-endothelial NOS (eNOS) or anti-inducible NOS (iNOS) antibodies, whereas skeletal muscle SR vesicles had no nNOS immunoreactivity. The nNOS immunoreactivity also displayed a pattern consistent with SR localization in confocal micrographs of sections of human myocardium. Western blotting demonstrated that cardiac SR NOS is larger than brain NOS (160 vs. 155 kDa). No immunodetection was observed in cardiac SR vesicles from nNOS knockout mice or with an anti-nNOS mu antibody, suggesting the possibility of a new nNOS-type isoform. 45Ca uptake by cardiac SR vesicles, catalyzed by Ca2+-ATPase, was inhibited by NO. produced endogenously from cardiac SR NOS, and 7-nitroindazole, a selective nNOS inhibitor, completely prevented this inhibition. These results suggest that a cardiac muscle nNOS isoform is located on SR of cardiac myocytes, where it may respond to intracellular Ca2+ concentration and modulate SR Ca2+ ion active transport in the heart.

  16. Nitric oxide synthase in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kai Y.; Huso, David L.; Dawson, Ted M.; Bredt, David S.; Becker, Lewis C.

    1999-01-01

    NO⋅ is a free radical that modulates heart function and metabolism. We report that a neuronal-type NO synthase (NOS) is located on cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane vesicles and that endogenous NO⋅ produced by SR-associated NOS inhibits SR Ca2+ uptake. Ca2+-dependent biochemical conversion of l-arginine to l-citrulline was observed from isolated rabbit cardiac SR vesicles in the presence of NOS substrates and cofactors. Endogenous NO⋅ was generated from the vesicles and detected by electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping measurements. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated labeling of cardiac SR vesicles by using anti-neuronal NOS (nNOS), but not anti-endothelial NOS (eNOS) or anti-inducible NOS (iNOS) antibodies, whereas skeletal muscle SR vesicles had no nNOS immunoreactivity. The nNOS immunoreactivity also displayed a pattern consistent with SR localization in confocal micrographs of sections of human myocardium. Western blotting demonstrated that cardiac SR NOS is larger than brain NOS (160 vs. 155 kDa). No immunodetection was observed in cardiac SR vesicles from nNOS knockout mice or with an anti-nNOSμ antibody, suggesting the possibility of a new nNOS-type isoform. 45Ca uptake by cardiac SR vesicles, catalyzed by Ca2+-ATPase, was inhibited by NO⋅ produced endogenously from cardiac SR NOS, and 7-nitroindazole, a selective nNOS inhibitor, completely prevented this inhibition. These results suggest that a cardiac muscle nNOS isoform is located on SR of cardiac myocytes, where it may respond to intracellular Ca2+ concentration and modulate SR Ca2+ ion active transport in the heart. PMID:9892689

  17. Tertiary model of a plant cellulose synthase

    PubMed Central

    Sethaphong, Latsavongsakda; Haigler, Candace H.; Kubicki, James D.; Zimmer, Jochen; Bonetta, Dario; DeBolt, Seth; Yingling, Yaroslava G.

    2013-01-01

    A 3D atomistic model of a plant cellulose synthase (CESA) has remained elusive despite over forty years of experimental effort. Here, we report a computationally predicted 3D structure of 506 amino acids of cotton CESA within the cytosolic region. Comparison of the predicted plant CESA structure with the solved structure of a bacterial cellulose-synthesizing protein validates the overall fold of the modeled glycosyltransferase (GT) domain. The coaligned plant and bacterial GT domains share a six-stranded β-sheet, five α-helices, and conserved motifs similar to those required for catalysis in other GT-2 glycosyltransferases. Extending beyond the cross-kingdom similarities related to cellulose polymerization, the predicted structure of cotton CESA reveals that plant-specific modules (plant-conserved region and class-specific region) fold into distinct subdomains on the periphery of the catalytic region. Computational results support the importance of the plant-conserved region and/or class-specific region in CESA oligomerization to form the multimeric cellulose–synthesis complexes that are characteristic of plants. Relatively high sequence conservation between plant CESAs allowed mapping of known mutations and two previously undescribed mutations that perturb cellulose synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana to their analogous positions in the modeled structure. Most of these mutation sites are near the predicted catalytic region, and the confluence of other mutation sites supports the existence of previously undefined functional nodes within the catalytic core of CESA. Overall, the predicted tertiary structure provides a platform for the biochemical engineering of plant CESAs. PMID:23592721

  18. Allosteric inhibition of human porphobilinogen synthase.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Sarah H; Ramirez, Ursula D; Selwood, Trevor; Stith, Linda; Jaffe, Eileen K

    2009-12-18

    Porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS) catalyzes the first common step in tetrapyrrole (e.g. heme, chlorophyll) biosynthesis. Human PBGS exists as an equilibrium of high activity octamers, low activity hexamers, and alternate dimer configurations that dictate the stoichiometry and architecture of further assembly. It is posited that small molecules can be found that inhibit human PBGS activity by stabilizing the hexamer. Such molecules, if present in the environment, could potentiate disease states associated with reduced PBGS activity, such as lead poisoning and ALAD porphyria, the latter of which is associated with human PBGS variants whose quaternary structure equilibrium is shifted toward the hexamer (Jaffe, E. K., and Stith, L. (2007) Am. J. Hum. Genet. 80, 329-337). Hexamer-stabilizing inhibitors of human PBGS were identified using in silico prescreening (docking) of approximately 111,000 structures to a hexamer-specific surface cavity of a human PBGS crystal structure. Seventy-seven compounds were evaluated in vitro; three provided 90-100% conversion of octamer to hexamer in a native PAGE mobility shift assay. Based on chemical purity, two (ML-3A9 and ML-3H2) were subjected to further evaluation of their effect on the quaternary structure equilibrium and enzymatic activity. Naturally occurring ALAD porphyria-associated human PBGS variants are shown to have an increased susceptibility to inhibition by both ML-3A9 and ML-3H2. ML-3H2 is a structural analog of amebicidal drugs, which have porphyria-like side effects. Data support the hypothesis that human PBGS hexamer stabilization may explain these side effects. The current work identifies allosteric ligands of human PBGS and, thus, identifies human PBGS as a medically relevant allosteric enzyme.

  19. Allosteric Inhibition of Human Porphobilinogen Synthase*

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Sarah H.; Ramirez, Ursula D.; Selwood, Trevor; Stith, Linda; Jaffe, Eileen K.

    2009-01-01

    Porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS) catalyzes the first common step in tetrapyrrole (e.g. heme, chlorophyll) biosynthesis. Human PBGS exists as an equilibrium of high activity octamers, low activity hexamers, and alternate dimer configurations that dictate the stoichiometry and architecture of further assembly. It is posited that small molecules can be found that inhibit human PBGS activity by stabilizing the hexamer. Such molecules, if present in the environment, could potentiate disease states associated with reduced PBGS activity, such as lead poisoning and ALAD porphyria, the latter of which is associated with human PBGS variants whose quaternary structure equilibrium is shifted toward the hexamer (Jaffe, E. K., and Stith, L. (2007) Am. J. Hum. Genet. 80, 329–337). Hexamer-stabilizing inhibitors of human PBGS were identified using in silico prescreening (docking) of ∼111,000 structures to a hexamer-specific surface cavity of a human PBGS crystal structure. Seventy-seven compounds were evaluated in vitro; three provided 90–100% conversion of octamer to hexamer in a native PAGE mobility shift assay. Based on chemical purity, two (ML-3A9 and ML-3H2) were subjected to further evaluation of their effect on the quaternary structure equilibrium and enzymatic activity. Naturally occurring ALAD porphyria-associated human PBGS variants are shown to have an increased susceptibility to inhibition by both ML-3A9 and ML-3H2. ML-3H2 is a structural analog of amebicidal drugs, which have porphyria-like side effects. Data support the hypothesis that human PBGS hexamer stabilization may explain these side effects. The current work identifies allosteric ligands of human PBGS and, thus, identifies human PBGS as a medically relevant allosteric enzyme. PMID:19812033

  20. Nitric oxide synthases: structure, function and inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Alderton, W K; Cooper, C E; Knowles, R G

    2001-01-01

    This review concentrates on advances in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) structure, function and inhibition made in the last seven years, during which time substantial advances have been made in our understanding of this enzyme family. There is now information on the enzyme structure at all levels from primary (amino acid sequence) to quaternary (dimerization, association with other proteins) structure. The crystal structures of the oxygenase domains of inducible NOS (iNOS) and vascular endothelial NOS (eNOS) allow us to interpret other information in the context of this important part of the enzyme, with its binding sites for iron protoporphyrin IX (haem), biopterin, L-arginine, and the many inhibitors which interact with them. The exact nature of the NOS reaction, its mechanism and its products continue to be sources of controversy. The role of the biopterin cofactor is now becoming clearer, with emerging data implicating one-electron redox cycling as well as the multiple allosteric effects on enzyme activity. Regulation of the NOSs has been described at all levels from gene transcription to covalent modification and allosteric regulation of the enzyme itself. A wide range of NOS inhibitors have been discussed, interacting with the enzyme in diverse ways in terms of site and mechanism of inhibition, time-dependence and selectivity for individual isoforms, although there are many pitfalls and misunderstandings of these aspects. Highly selective inhibitors of iNOS versus eNOS and neuronal NOS have been identified and some of these have potential in the treatment of a range of inflammatory and other conditions in which iNOS has been implicated. PMID:11463332

  1. Modulation of ceramide synthase activity via dimerization.

    PubMed

    Laviad, Elad L; Kelly, Samuel; Merrill, Alfred H; Futerman, Anthony H

    2012-06-15

    Ceramide, the backbone of all sphingolipids, is synthesized by a family of ceramide synthases (CerS) that each use acyl-CoAs of defined chain length for N-acylation of the sphingoid long chain base. CerS mRNA expression and enzymatic activity do not always correlate with the sphingolipid acyl chain composition of a particular tissue, suggesting post-translational mechanism(s) of regulation of CerS activity. We now demonstrate that CerS activity can be modulated by dimer formation. Under suitable conditions, high M(r) CerS complexes can be detected by Western blotting, and various CerS co-immunoprecipitate. CerS5 activity is inhibited in a dominant-negative fashion by co-expression with catalytically inactive CerS5, and CerS2 activity is enhanced by co-expression with a catalytically active form of CerS5 or CerS6. In a constitutive heterodimer comprising CerS5 and CerS2, the activity of CerS2 depends on the catalytic activity of CerS5. Finally, CerS dimers are formed upon rapid stimulation of ceramide synthesis by curcumin. Together, these data demonstrate that ceramide synthesis can be regulated by the formation of CerS dimers and suggest a novel way to generate the acyl chain composition of ceramide (and downstream sphingolipids), which may depend on the interaction of CerS with each other.

  2. In vivo enzyme immobilization by use of engineered polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase.

    PubMed

    Peters, Verena; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2006-03-01

    This study demonstrated that engineered polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases can be employed as molecular tools to covalently immobilize enzymes at the PHA granule surface. The beta-galactosidase was fused to the N terminus of the class II PHA synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The open reading frame was confirmed to encode the complete fusion protein by T7 promoter-dependent overexpression. Restoration of PHA biosynthesis in the PHA-negative mutant of P. aeruginosa PAO1 showed a PHA synthase function of the fusion protein. PHA granules were isolated and showed beta-galactosidase activity. PHA granule attached proteins were analyzed and confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Surprisingly, the beta-galactosidase-PHA synthase fusion protein was detectable at a high copy number at the PHA granule, compared with PHA synthase alone, which was barely detectable at PHA granules. Localization of the beta-galactosidase at the PHA granule surface was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using anti-beta-galactosidase antibodies. Treatment of these beta-galactosidase-PHA granules with urea suggested a covalent binding of the beta-galactosidase-PHA synthase to the PHA granule. The immobilized beta-galactosidase was enzymologically characterized, suggesting a Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetics. A Km of 630 microM and a Vmax of 17.6 nmol/min for orthonitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside as a substrate was obtained. The immobilized beta-galactosidase was stable for at least several months under various storage conditions. This study demonstrated that protein engineering of PHA synthase enables the manufacture of PHA granules with covalently attached enzymes, suggesting an application in recycling of biocatalysts, such as in fine-chemical production.

  3. The Tomato Terpene Synthase Gene Family1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Falara, Vasiliki; Akhtar, Tariq A.; Nguyen, Thuong T.H.; Spyropoulou, Eleni A.; Bleeker, Petra M.; Schauvinhold, Ines; Matsuba, Yuki; Bonini, Megan E.; Schilmiller, Anthony L.; Last, Robert L.; Schuurink, Robert C.; Pichersky, Eran

    2011-01-01

    Compounds of the terpenoid class play numerous roles in the interactions of plants with their environment, such as attracting pollinators and defending the plant against pests. We show here that the genome of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) contains 44 terpene synthase (TPS) genes, including 29 that are functional or potentially functional. Of these 29 TPS genes, 26 were expressed in at least some organs or tissues of the plant. The enzymatic functions of eight of the TPS proteins were previously reported, and here we report the specific in vitro catalytic activity of 10 additional tomato terpene synthases. Many of the tomato TPS genes are found in clusters, notably on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 8, and 10. All TPS family clades previously identified in angiosperms are also present in tomato. The largest clade of functional TPS genes found in tomato, with 12 members, is the TPS-a clade, and it appears to encode only sesquiterpene synthases, one of which is localized to the mitochondria, while the rest are likely cytosolic. A few additional sesquiterpene synthases are encoded by TPS-b clade genes. Some of the tomato sesquiterpene synthases use z,z-farnesyl diphosphate in vitro as well, or more efficiently than, the e,e-farnesyl diphosphate substrate. Genes encoding monoterpene synthases are also prevalent, and they fall into three clades: TPS-b, TPS-g, and TPS-e/f. With the exception of two enzymes involved in the synthesis of ent-kaurene, the precursor of gibberellins, no other tomato TPS genes could be demonstrated to encode diterpene synthases so far. PMID:21813655

  4. Genetic organization of the cellulose synthase operon in Acetobacter xylinum.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, H C; Fear, A L; Calhoon, R D; Eichinger, G H; Mayer, R; Amikam, D; Benziman, M; Gelfand, D H; Meade, J H; Emerick, A W

    1990-01-01

    An operon encoding four proteins required for bacterial cellulose biosynthesis (bcs) in Acetobacter xylinum was isolated via genetic complementation with strains lacking cellulose synthase activity. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicated that the cellulose synthase operon is 9217 base pairs long and consists of four genes. The four genes--bcsA, bcsB, bcsC, and bcsD--appear to be translationally coupled and transcribed as a polycistronic mRNA with an initiation site 97 bases upstream of the coding region of the first gene (bcsA) in the operon. Results from genetic complementation tests and gene disruption analyses demonstrate that all four genes in the operon are required for maximal bacterial cellulose synthesis in A. xylinum. The calculated molecular masses of the proteins encoded by bcsA, bcsB, bcsC, and bcsD are 84.4, 85.3, 141.0, and 17.3 kDa, respectively. The second gene in the operon (bcsB) encodes the catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase. The functions of the bcsA, bcsC, and bcsD gene products are unknown. Bacterial strains mutated in the bcsA locus were found to be deficient in cellulose synthesis due to the lack of cellulose synthase and diguanylate cyclase activities. Mutants in the bcsC and bcsD genes were impaired in cellulose production in vivo, even though they had the capacity to make all the necessary metabolic precursors and cyclic diguanylic acid, the activator of cellulose synthase, and exhibit cellulose synthase activity in vitro. When the entire operon was present on a multicopy plasmid in the bacterial cell, both cellulose synthase activity and cellulose biosynthesis increased. When the promoter of the cellulose synthase operon was replaced on the chromosome by E. coli tac or lac promoters, cellulose production was reduced in parallel with decreased cellulose synthase activity. These observations suggest that the expression of the bcs operon is rate-limiting for cellulose synthesis in A. xylinum. Images PMID:2146681

  5. Plasticity and evolution of (+)-3-carene synthase and (-)-sabinene synthase functions of a sitka spruce monoterpene synthase gene family associated with weevil resistance.

    PubMed

    Roach, Christopher R; Hall, Dawn E; Zerbe, Philipp; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2014-08-22

    The monoterpene (+)-3-carene is associated with resistance of Sitka spruce against white pine weevil, a major North American forest insect pest of pine and spruce. High and low levels of (+)-3-carene in, respectively, resistant and susceptible Sitka spruce genotypes are due to variation of (+)-3-carene synthase gene copy number, transcript and protein expression levels, enzyme product profiles, and enzyme catalytic efficiency. A family of multiproduct (+)-3-carene synthase-like genes of Sitka spruce include the three (+)-3-carene synthases, PsTPS-3car1, PsTPS-3car2, PsTPS-3car3, and the (-)-sabinene synthase PsTPS-sab. Of these, PsTPS-3car2 is responsible for the relatively higher levels of (+)-3-carene in weevil-resistant trees. Here, we identified features of the PsTPS-3car1, PsTPS-3car2, PsTPS-3car3, and PsTPS-sab proteins that determine different product profiles. A series of domain swap and site-directed mutations, supported by structural comparisons, identified the amino acid in position 596 as critical for product profiles dominated by (+)-3-carene in PsTPS-3car1, PsTPS-3car2, and PsTPS-3car3, or (-)-sabinene in PsTPS-sab. A leucine in this position promotes formation of (+)-3-carene, whereas phenylalanine promotes (-)-sabinene. Homology modeling predicts that position 596 directs product profiles through differential stabilization of the reaction intermediate. Kinetic analysis revealed position 596 also plays a role in catalytic efficiency. Mutations of position 596 with different side chain properties resulted in a series of enzymes with different product profiles, further highlighting the inherent plasticity and potential for evolution of alternative product profiles of these monoterpene synthases of conifer defense against insects. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Expression and characterization of glycogen synthase kinase-3 mutants and their effect on glycogen synthase activity in intact cells.

    PubMed Central

    Eldar-Finkelman, H; Argast, G M; Foord, O; Fischer, E H; Krebs, E G

    1996-01-01

    In these studies we expressed and characterized wild-type (WT) GSK-3 (glycogen synthase kinase-3) and its mutants, and examined their physiological effect on glycogen synthase activity. The GSK-3 mutants included mutation at serine-9 either to alanine (S9A) or glutamic acid (S9E) and an inactive mutant, K85,86MA. Expression of WT and the various mutants in a cell-free system indicated that S9A and S9E exhibit increased kinase activity as compared with WT. Subsequently, 293 cells were transiently transfected with WT GSK-3 and mutants. Cells expressing the S9A mutant exhibited higher kinase activity (2.6-fold of control cells) as compared with cells expressing WT and S9E (1.8- and 2.0-fold, respectively, of control cells). Combined, these results suggest serine-9 as a key regulatory site of GSK-3 inactivation, and indicate that glutamic acid cannot mimic the function of the phosphorylated residue. The GSK-3-expressing cell system enabled us to examine whether GSK-3 can induce changes in the endogenous glycogen synthase activity. A decrease in glycogen synthase activity (50%) was observed in cells expressing the S9A mutant. Similarly, glycogen synthase activity was suppressed in cells expressing WT and the S9E mutant (20-30%, respectively). These studies indicate that activation of GSK-3 is sufficient to inhibit glycogen synthase in intact cells, and provide evidence supporting a physiological role for GSK-3 in regulating glycogen synthase and glycogen metabolism. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8816781

  7. ATP synthases: cellular nanomotors characterized by LILBID mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Jan; Sokolova, Lucie; Preiss, Laura; Hicks, David B.; Krulwich, Terry A.; Morgner, Nina; Wittig, Ilka; Schägger, Hermann; Meier, Thomas; Brutschy, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometry of membrane protein complexes is still a methodological challenge due to hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts of the species and the fact that all subunits are bound non-covalently together. The present study with the novel laser induced liquid bead ion desorption mass spectrometry (LILBID-MS) reports on the determination of the subunit composition of the F1Fo-ATP synthase from Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4, that of both bovine heart and, for the first time, of human heart mitochondrial F1Fo-ATP synthases. Under selected buffer conditions the mass of the intact F1Fo-ATP synthase of B. pseudofirmus OF4 could be measured, allowing the analysis of complex subunit stoichiometry. The agreement with theoretical masses derived from sequence databases is very good. A comparison of the ATP synthase subunit composition of 5 different ATPases reveals differences in the complexity of eukaryotic and bacterial ATP synthases. However, whereas the overall construction of eukaryotic enzymes is more complex than the bacterial ones, functionally important subunits are conserved among all ATPases. PMID:20820587

  8. Insulin stimulation of glycogen synthase in cultured human diploid fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, H; Howard, B V; Kosmakos, F C; Fields, R M; Craig, J W; Bennett, P H; Larner, J

    1980-10-01

    The effect of insulin on glycogen synthase activity in human diploid fibroblasts has been studied. As little as 2 X 10(-10) M insulin increased the glycogen synthase / activity without changing the total activity. Stimulation occurred within 5 min and became maximal in 30 min. A half-maximal increase of / activity was achieved at 3 X 10(-9) M insulin. Glucose starvation increased the magnitude of response of glycogen synthase to insulin but did not change the insulin concentration necessary to give a half-maximal stimulation. Glucose increased the basal level of / activity in human diploid fibroblasts; the effect of insulin was additive. During in vitro senescence the total glycogen synthase activity declined, but the concentration of insulin that produced a half-maximal stimulation remained unchanged. These data indicate that regulation of glycogen synthase activity in human diploid fibroblasts is responsive to physiologic insulin levels and that the system provides a useful model for the in vitro study of insulin sensitivity.

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two functional citrate synthase genes.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, K S; Rosenkrantz, M S; Guarente, L

    1986-01-01

    The tricarboxylic acid cycle occurs within the mitochondria of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A nuclear gene encoding the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme citrate synthase has previously been isolated (M. Suissa, K. Suda, and G. Schatz, EMBO J. 3:1773-1781, 1984) and is referred to here as CIT1. We report here the isolation, by an immunological method, of a second nuclear gene encoding citrate synthase (CIT2). Disruption of both genes in the yeast genome was necessary to produce classical citrate synthase-deficient phenotypes: glutamate auxotrophy and poor growth on rich medium containing lactate, a nonfermentable carbon source. Therefore, the citrate synthase produced from either gene was sufficient for these metabolic roles. Transcription of both genes was maximally repressed in medium containing both glucose and glutamate. However, transcription of CIT1 but not of CIT2 was derepressed in medium containing a nonfermentable carbon source. The significance of the presence of two genes encoding citrate synthase in S. cerevisiae is discussed. Images PMID:3023912

  10. Heterologous expression of an active chitin synthase from Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Lugo, Holjes; Sánchez-Arreguín, Alejandro; Ruiz-Herrera, José

    2016-12-01

    Chitin synthases are highly important enzymes in nature, where they synthesize structural components in species belonging to different eukaryotic kingdoms, including kingdom Fungi. Unfortunately, their structure and the molecular mechanism of synthesis of their microfibrilar product remain largely unknown, probably because no fungal active chitin synthases have been isolated, possibly due to their extreme hydrophobicity. In this study we have turned to the heterologous expression of the transcript from a small chitin synthase of Rhizopus oryzae (RO3G_00942, Chs1) in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was active, but accumulated mostly in inclusion bodies. High concentrations of arginine or urea solubilized the enzyme, but their dilution led to its denaturation and precipitation. Nevertheless, use of urea permitted the purification of small amounts of the enzyme. The properties of Chs1 (Km, optimum temperature and pH, effect of GlcNAc) were abnormal, probably because it lacks the hydrophobic transmembrane regions characteristic of chitin synthases. The product of the enzyme showed that, contrasting with chitin made by membrane-bound Chs's and chitosomes, was only partially in the form of short microfibrils of low crystallinity. This approach may lead to future developments to obtain active chitin synthases that permit understanding their molecular mechanism of activity, and microfibril assembly.

  11. Identification of two distinct Bacillus subtilis citrate synthase genes.

    PubMed

    Jin, S; Sonenshein, A L

    1994-08-01

    Two distinct Bacillus subtilis genes (citA and citZ) were found to encode citrate synthase isozymes that catalyze the first step of the Krebs cycle. The citA gene was cloned by genetic complementation of an Escherichia coli citrate synthase mutant strain (W620) and was in a monocistronic transcriptional unit. A divergently transcribed gene, citR, could encode a protein with strong similarity to the bacterial LysR family of regulatory proteins. A null mutation in citA had little effect on citrate synthase enzyme activity or sporulation. The residual citrate synthase activity was purified from a citA null mutant strain, and the partial amino acid sequence for the purified protein (CitZ) was determined. The citZ gene was cloned from B. subtilis chromosomal DNA by using a PCR-generated probe synthesized with oligonucleotide primers derived from the partial amino acid sequence of purified CitZ. The citZ gene proved to be the first gene in a tricistronic cluster that also included citC (coding for isocitrate dehydrogenase) and citH (coding for malate dehydrogenase). A mutation in citZ caused a substantial loss of citrate synthase enzyme activity, glutamate auxotrophy, and a defect in sporulation.

  12. Diversity of sesquiterpene synthases in the basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus

    PubMed Central

    Agger, Sean; Lopez-Gallego, Fernando; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Fungi are a rich source of bioactive secondary metabolites and mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes) are especially known for the synthesis of numerous bioactive and often cytotoxic sesquiterpenoid secondary metabolites. Compared to the large number of sesquiterpene synthases identified in plants, less than a handful of unique sesquiterpene synthases have been described from fungi. Here we describe the functional characterization of six sesquiterpene synthases (Cop1 to Cop6) and two terpene oxidizing cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (Cox1 and Cox2) from Coprinus cinereus. The genes were cloned and, except for cop5, functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and/or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cop1 and Cop2 each synthesize germacrene A as the major product. Cop3 was identified as a α-muurolene synthase, an enzyme that has not been described previously, while Cop4 synthesizes δ-cadinene as its major product. Cop6 was originally annotated as a trichodiene synthase homolog, but instead was found to catalyze highly specific the synthesis of α-cuprenene. Co-expression of cop6 and the two monooxygenase genes next to it yields oxygenated α-cuprenene derivatives, including cuparophenol, suggesting that these genes encode the enzymes for the biosynthesis of antimicrobial quinone sesquiterpenoids (known as lagopodins) that were previously isolated from C. cinereus and other Coprinus species. PMID:19400802

  13. Diversity of sesquiterpene synthases in the basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus.

    PubMed

    Agger, Sean; Lopez-Gallego, Fernando; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2009-06-01

    Fungi are a rich source of bioactive secondary metabolites, and mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes) are especially known for the synthesis of numerous bioactive and often cytotoxic sesquiterpenoid secondary metabolites. Compared with the large number of sesquiterpene synthases identified in plants, less than a handful of unique sesquiterpene synthases have been described from fungi. Here we describe the functional characterization of six sesquiterpene synthases (Cop1 to Cop6) and two terpene-oxidizing cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (Cox1 and Cox2) from Coprinus cinereus. The genes were cloned and, except for cop5, functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and/or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cop1 and Cop2 each synthesize germacrene A as the major product. Cop3 was identified as an alpha-muurolene synthase, an enzyme that has not been described previously, while Cop4 synthesizes delta-cadinene as its major product. Cop6 was originally annotated as a trichodiene synthase homologue but instead was found to catalyse the highly specific synthesis of alpha-cuprenene. Coexpression of cop6 and the two monooxygenase genes next to it yields oxygenated alpha-cuprenene derivatives, including cuparophenol, suggesting that these genes encode the enzymes for the biosynthesis of antimicrobial quinone sesquiterpenoids (known as lagopodins) that were previously isolated from C. cinereus and other Coprinus species.

  14. Methionine synthase and thymidylate synthase gene polymorphisms and colorectal adenoma risk: the self defense forces study.

    PubMed

    Yoshimitsu, Shinichiro; Morita, Makiko; Hamachi, Tadamichi; Tabata, Shinji; Abe, Hiroshi; Tajima, Osamu; Uezono, Kousaku; Ohnaka, Keizo; Kono, Suminori

    2012-10-01

    Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism has been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. We investigated associations of functional genetic polymorphisms of methionine synthase (MTR), MTR reductase (MTRR), and thymidylate synthase (TS) with colorectal adenomas. The study subjects were 455 cases of colorectal adenomas and 1052 controls with no polyp at colonoscopy. Genotypes were determined for MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G and two polymorphisms in the TS gene, 28-bp tandem repeat polymorphism in the promoter enhancer region (TSER) and 6-bp deletion polymorphism at position 1494 in the 3' untranslated region (TS 1494del6). We also examined the alcohol-genotype and gene-gene interactions on adenoma risk. The GG genotype of MTR A2756G was associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenomas; odds ratios for AG and GG versus AA genotype were 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.78-1.26) and 1.72 (1.04-2.82), respectively. The increase in the risk associated with MTR 2756GG genotype was evident in men with high alcohol consumption (≥30 mL/d), but not in those with low alcohol consumption (interaction P = 0.03). Men who were homozygous for the TSER double-repeat allele had a slightly decreased risk of colorectal adenomas as compared with those homozygous for the TSER triple-repeat allele. Neither MTRR A66G nor TS 1494del6 was associated with colorectal adenomas. There was no measurable interaction either between MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G or between TSER and TS 1494del6. MTR A2756G appears to be associated with colorectal adenoma risk differently according to alcohol consumption. The MTR-catalyzed reaction may play an important role in the development of colorectal adenomas.

  15. Bornyl-diphosphate synthase from Lavandula angustifolia: A major monoterpene synthase involved in essential oil quality.

    PubMed

    Despinasse, Yolande; Fiorucci, Sébastien; Antonczak, Serge; Moja, Sandrine; Bony, Aurélie; Nicolè, Florence; Baudino, Sylvie; Magnard, Jean-Louis; Jullien, Frédéric

    2017-05-01

    Lavender essential oils (EOs) of higher quality are produced by a few Lavandula angustifolia cultivars and mainly used in the perfume industry. Undesirable compounds such as camphor and borneol are also synthesized by lavender leading to a depreciated EO. Here, we report the cloning of bornyl diphosphate synthase of lavender (LaBPPS), an enzyme that catalyzes the production of bornyl diphosphate (BPP) and then by-products such as borneol or camphor, from an EST library. Compared to the BPPS of Salvia officinalis, the functional characterization of LaBPPS showed several differences in amino acid sequence, and the distribution of catalyzed products. Molecular modeling of the enzyme's active site suggests that the carbocation intermediates are more stable in LaBPPS than in SoBPPS leading probably to a lower efficiency of LaBPPS to convert GPP into BPP. Quantitative RT-PCR performed from leaves and flowers at different development stages of L. angustifolia samples show a clear correlation between transcript level of LaBPPS and accumulation of borneol/camphor, suggesting that LaBPPS is mainly responsible of in vivo biosynthesis of borneol/camphor in fine lavender. A phylogenetic analysis of terpene synthases (TPS) pointed out the basal position of LaBPPS in the TPSb clade, suggesting that LaBPPS could be an ancestor of others lavender TPSb. Finally, borneol could be one of the first monoterpenes to be synthesized in the Lavandula subgenus. Knowledge gained from these experiments will facilitate future studies to improve the lavender oils through metabolic engineering or plant breeding. Accession numbers: LaBPPS: KM015221.

  16. Comparative hydrogen-deuterium exchange for a mesophilic vs thermophilic dihydrofolate reductase at 25 °C: identification of a single active site region with enhanced flexibility in the mesophilic protein.

    PubMed

    Oyeyemi, Olayinka A; Sours, Kevin M; Lee, Thomas; Kohen, Amnon; Resing, Katheryn A; Ahn, Natalie G; Klinman, Judith P

    2011-09-27

    The technique of hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) has been applied to a mesophilic (E. coli) dihydrofolate reductase under conditions that allow direct comparison to a thermophilic (B. stearothermophilus) ortholog, Ec-DHFR and Bs-DHFR, respectively. The analysis of hydrogen-deuterium exchange patterns within proteolytically derived peptides allows spatial resolution, while requiring a series of controls to compare orthologous proteins with only ca. 40% sequence identity. These controls include the determination of primary structure effects on intrinsic rate constants for HDX as well as the use of existing 3-dimensional structures to evaluate the distance of each backbone amide hydrogen to the protein surface. Only a single peptide from the Ec-DHFR is found to be substantially more flexible than the Bs-DHFR at 25 °C in a region located within the protein interior at the intersection of the cofactor and substrate-binding sites. The surrounding regions of the enzyme are either unchanged or more flexible in the thermophilic DHFR from B. stearothermophilus. The region with increased flexibility in Ec-DHFR corresponds to one of two regions previously proposed to control the enthalpic barrier for hydride transfer in Bs-DHFR [Oyeyemi et al. (2010) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 10074].

  17. Screening for dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors using MOLPRINT 2D, a fast fragment-based method employing the naïve Bayesian classifier: limitations of the descriptor and the importance of balanced chemistry in training and test sets.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andreas; Mussa, Hamse Y; Glen, Robert C

    2005-10-01

    A fragment-based similarity searching method, MOLPRINT 2D, was employed for virtual screening of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors. Using the original training set of 50,000 compounds, only marginal enrichment factors (between 1 and 3) could be achieved on the test library. The active structures contained in the training and test libraries represented different types of "chemistry", that is, different substructural features associated with activity. Training and test sets were pooled in a 2nd step and randomly split into training and test of equal size, with the objective of smoothing out the different chemical characteristics of both libraries. In a 10-fold cross-validation study on the new training and test sets, typically 10-fold enrichment could be found in the first 96 positions, 4-fold enrichment in the first 384 positions, and 3-fold enrichment in the first 1536 positions, corresponding to 6, 10, and 28 hits, respectively (out of a total of 307; activity defined as average residual activity of less than 80%). The conclusions are 2-fold. On one hand, the exact fragment-matching similarity searching method employed here is not capable of finding completely novel hit structures. On the other hand, this study emphasizes the requirement for a comparable distribution of chemical features of the training and test sets. MOLPRINT 2D is freely downloadable from http://www.cheminformatics.org.

  18. Nucleotide sequence of the chicken 5-aminolevulinate synthase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, D J; Day, A R; Borthwick, I A; Srivastava, G; Wigley, P L; May, B K; Elliott, W H

    1986-01-01

    5-Aminolevulinate synthase, the first and rate-controlling enzyme of heme biosynthesis, is regulated in the liver by the end-product heme. To study this negative control mechanism, we have isolated the chicken gene for ALA-synthase and determined the nucleotide sequence. The structural gene is 6.9 kb long and contains 10 exons. The transcriptional start site for ALA-synthase was determined by primer extension analysis. A fragment of 291 bp from the 5' flanking region including 34 bp of the first exon shows promoter activity when introduced upstream of a chicken histone H2B gene and injected into the nuclei of Xenopus laevis oocytes. Images PMID:3005973

  19. Synthase-dependent exopolysaccharide secretion in Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Whitney, J C; Howell, P L

    2013-02-01

    The biosynthesis and export of bacterial cell-surface polysaccharides is known to occur through several distinct mechanisms. Recent advances in the biochemistry and structural biology of several proteins in synthase-dependent polysaccharide secretion systems have identified key conserved components of this pathway in Gram-negative bacteria. These components include an inner-membrane-embedded polysaccharide synthase, a periplasmic tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)-containing scaffold protein, and an outer-membrane β-barrel porin. There is also increasing evidence that many synthase-dependent systems are post-translationally regulated by the bacterial second messenger bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP). Here, we compare these core proteins in the context of the alginate, cellulose, and poly-β-D-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) secretion systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthase-dependent exopolysaccharide secretion in Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, J.C.; Howell, P.L.

    2014-01-01

    The biosynthesis and export of bacterial cell-surface polysaccharides is known to occur through several distinct mechanisms. Recent advances in the biochemistry and structural biology of several proteins in synthase-dependent polysaccharide secretion systems have identified key conserved components of this pathway in Gram-negative bacteria. These components include an inner-membrane-embedded polysaccharide synthase, a periplasmic tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)-containing scaffold protein, and an outer-membrane β-barrel porin. There is also increasing evidence that many synthase-dependent systems are post-translationally regulated by the bacterial second messenger bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP). Here, we compare these core proteins in the context of the alginate, cellulose, and poly-β-D-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) secretion systems. PMID:23117123

  1. Properties of peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase from Agave americana.

    PubMed

    Segovia, J L; Zafra, M F; Alejandre, M J; García-Peregrín, E

    1982-09-01

    Adenine nucleotides were tested as effectors of peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase from Agave americana leaves in the presence of different concentrations of acetyl-CoA and oxalacetate substrates. ATP inhibited both enzyme activities but with a different inhibition profile. 1.0-7.5 mM ADP did not inhibit the peroxisomal citrate synthase in the presence of high substrate concentrations, while the mitochondrial enzyme was strongly inhibited by 1.0 mM ADP in the same conditions. Likewise, a different pattern was obtained with AMP on both peroxisomal and mitochondrial activities. The rate of citrate formation as function of acetyl-CoA and oxalacetate concentration was also studied in both fractions. Maximal velocity was highest in the peroxisomal fraction, whether acetyl-CoA or oxalacetate were the variable substrates. These differences indicate that peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthases seem to be two different isoenzymes.

  2. The hyaluronate synthase from a eukaryotic cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Klewes, L; Turley, E A; Prehm, P

    1993-01-01

    The hyaluronate synthase complex was identified in plasma membranes from B6 cells. It contained two subunits of molecular masses 52 kDa and 60 kDa which bound the precursor UDP-GlcA in digitonin solution and partitioned into the aqueous phase, together with nascent hyaluronate upon Triton X-114 phase separation. The 52 kDa protein cross-reacted with poly- and monoclonal antibodies raised against the streptococcal hyaluronate synthase and the 60 kDa protein was recognized by monoclonal antibodies raised against a hyaluronate receptor. The 52 kDa protein was purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography with monoclonal anti-hyaluronate synthase. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:8457208

  3. Directed evolution of squalene synthase for dehydrosqualene biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Furubayashi, Maiko; Li, Ling; Katabami, Akinori; Saito, Kyoichi; Umeno, Daisuke

    2014-09-17

    Squalene synthase (SQS) catalyzes the first step of sterol/hopanoid biosynthesis in various organisms. It has been long recognized that SQSs share a common ancestor with carotenoid synthases, but it is not known how these enzymes selectively produce their own product. In this study, SQSs from yeast, human, and bacteria were independently subjected to directed evolution for the production of the C30 carotenoid backbone, dehydrosqualene. This was accomplished via high-throughput screening with Pantoea ananatis phytoene desaturase, which can selectively convert dehydrosqualene into yellow carotenoid pigments. Genetic analysis of the resultant mutants revealed various mutations that could effectively convert SQS into a "dehydrosqualene synthase." All of these mutations are clustered around the residues that have been proposed to be important for NADPH binding. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Kinetic characteristics of nitric oxide synthase from rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, R G; Palacios, M; Palmer, R M; Moncada, S

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the rate of synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and guanylate cyclase stimulation was used to characterize the kinetics of the NO synthase from rat forebrain and of some inhibitors of this enzyme. The NO synthase had an absolute requirement for L-arginine and NADPH and did not require any other cofactors. The enzyme had a Vmax. of 42 pmol of NO formed.min-1.mg of protein-1 and a Km for L-arginine of 8.4 microM. Three analogues of L-arginine, namely NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, NG-nitro-L-arginine and NG-iminoethyl-L-ornithine inhibited the brain NO synthase. All three compounds were competitive inhibitors of the enzyme with Ki values of 0.7, 0.4 and 1.2 microM respectively. PMID:1695842

  5. Utility of Aspergillus niger citrate synthase promoter for heterologous expression.

    PubMed

    Dave, Kashyap; Punekar, Narayan S

    2011-09-10

    Citrate synthase is a central player in the acidogenic metabolism of Aspergillus niger. The 5' upstream sequence (0.9kb DNA) of citrate synthase gene (citA) from A. niger NCIM 565 was analyzed and its promoter function demonstrated through the heterologous expression of two proteins. The cloned citrate synthase promoter (PcitA) sequence was able to express bar coding sequence thereby conferring phosphinothricin resistance. This sequence was further analyzed by systematic deletions to define an effective but compact functional promoter. The PcitA driven egfp expression showed that PcitA was active in all differentiation cell-stages of A. niger. EGFP expression was highest on non-repressible carbon sources like acetate and glycerol. Mycelial EGFP levels increased during acidogenic growth suggesting that PcitA is functional throughout this cultivation. A. niger PcitA is the first Krebs cycle gene promoter used to express heterologous proteins in filamentous fungi.

  6. Evolutionary and functional analysis of mulberry type III polyketide synthases.

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Liang, Jiubo; Chen, Hu; Ding, Guangyu; Ma, Bi; He, Ningjia

    2016-08-04

    Type III polyketide synthases are important for the biosynthesis of flavonoids and various plant polyphenols. Mulberry plants have abundant polyphenols, but very little is known about the mulberry type III polyketide synthase genes. An analysis of these genes may provide new targets for genetic improvement to increase relevant secondary metabolites and enhance the plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Eighteen genes encoding type III polyketide synthases were identified, including six chalcone synthases (CHS), ten stilbene synthases (STS), and two polyketide synthases (PKS). Functional characterization of four genes representing most of the MnCHS and MnSTS genes by coexpression with 4-Coumaroyl-CoA ligase in Escherichia coli indicated that their products were able to catalyze p-coumaroyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA to generate naringenin and resveratrol, respectively. Microsynteny analysis within mulberry indicated that segmental and tandem duplication events contributed to the expansion of the MnCHS family, while tandem duplications were mainly responsible for the generation of the MnSTS genes. Combining the evolution and expression analysis results of the mulberry type III PKS genes indicated that MnCHS and MnSTS genes evolved mainly under purifying selection to maintain their original functions, but transcriptional subfunctionalization occurred during long-term species evolution. Moreover, mulberry leaves can rapidly accumulated oxyresveratrol after UV-C irradiation, suggesting that resveratrol was converted to oxyresveratrol. Characterizing the functions and evolution of mulberry type III PKS genes is crucial for advancing our understanding of these genes and providing the basis for further studies on the biosynthesis of relevant secondary metabolites in mulberry plants.

  7. Solubilization of microsomal-associated phosphatidylinositol synthase from germinating soybeans.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M L; Carman, G M

    1982-01-01

    CDP-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol (CDP-diacylglycerol):myo-inositol phosphatidyltransferase (EC 2.7.8.11, phosphatidylinositol synthase) catalyzes the final step in the de novo synthesis of phosphatidylinositol in the endoplasmic reticulum fraction of germinating soybeans (Glycine max L. var Cutler 71). A variety of solubilization agents were examined for their ability to release phosphatidylinositol synthase activity from the microsome fraction. The most effective agent to solubilize the enzyme was the nonionic detergent Brij W-1. A 2.1-fold increase in specific activity was achieved using 1% Brij W-1 with 69% activity solubilized.Maximal solubilization of phosphatidylinositol synthase was completely dependent on Brij W-1 (1%), potassium ions (0.3 m), and manganese ions (0.5 mm). Solubilization of the enzyme was not affected by the protein concentration of microsomes between 3 to 20 milligrams per milliliter. Solubilization was not affected by the pH of solubilization buffer between 6.5 to 8.5. To our knowledge, this is the first phospholipid biosynthetic enzyme solubilized from plant membranes. The Brij W-1-solubilized phosphatidylinositol synthase remained at the top of a glycerol gradient, whereas the membrane-associated enzyme sedimented to the bottom of the gradient. Maximal activity of the Brij W-1-solubilized phosphatidylinositol synthase was dependent on manganese (5 mm) or magnesium (30 mm) ions, and Triton X-100 (3.6 mm) at pH 8.0 with Tris-HCl buffer. The apparent K(m) values for CDP-diacylglycerol and myo-inositol for the solubilized enzyme was 0.1 mm and 46 mum, respectively. Solubilized phosphatidylinositol synthase activity was thermally inactivated at temperatures above 30 degrees C.

  8. Phosphorylation of Yeast Phosphatidylserine Synthase by Protein Kinase A

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyeon-Son; Han, Gil-Soo; Carman, George M.

    2010-01-01

    The CHO1-encoded phosphatidylserine synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is phosphorylated and inhibited by protein kinase A in vitro. CHO1 alleles bearing Ser46 → Ala and/or Ser47 → Ala mutations were constructed and expressed in a cho1Δ mutant lacking phosphatidylserine synthase. In vitro, the S46A/S47A mutation reduced the total amount of phosphorylation by 90% and abolished the inhibitory effect protein kinase A had on phosphatidylserine synthase activity. The enzyme phosphorylation by protein kinase A, which was time- and dose-dependent and dependent on the concentration of ATP, caused a electrophoretic mobility shift from a 27-kDa form to a 30-kDa form. The two electrophoretic forms of phosphatidylserine synthase were present in exponential phase cells, whereas only the 27-kDa form was present in stationary phase cells. In vivo labeling with 32Pi and immune complex analysis showed that the 30-kDa form was predominantly phosphorylated when compared with the 27-kDa form. However, the S46A/S47A mutations abolished the protein kinase A-mediated electrophoretic mobility shift. The S46A/S47A mutations also caused a 55% reduction in the total amount of phosphatidylserine synthase in exponential phase cells and a 66% reduction in the amount of enzyme in stationary phase cells. In phospholipid composition analysis, cells expressing the S46A/S47A mutant enzyme exhibited a 57% decrease in phosphatidylserine and a 40% increase in phosphatidylinositol. These results indicate that phosphatidylserine synthase is phosphorylated on Ser46 and Ser47 by protein kinase A, which results in a higher amount of enzyme for the net effect of stimulating the synthesis of phosphatidylserine. PMID:20145252

  9. Mapping a kingdom-specific functional domain of squalene synthase.

    PubMed

    Linscott, Kristin B; Niehaus, Thomas D; Zhuang, Xun; Bell, Stephen A; Chappell, Joe

    2016-09-01

    Squalene synthase catalyzes the first committed step in sterol biosynthesis and consists of both an amino-terminal catalytic domain and a carboxy-terminal domain tethering the enzyme to the ER membrane. While the overall architecture of this enzyme is identical in eukaryotes, it was previously shown that plant and animal genes cannot complement a squalene synthase knockout mutation in yeast unless the carboxy-terminal domain is swapped for one of fungal origin. This implied a unique component of the fungal carboxy-terminal domain was responsible for the complementation phenotype. To identify this motif, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a squalene synthase knockout mutation, and expressed intact and chimeric squalene synthases originating from fungi, plants, and animals. In contrast to previous observations, all enzymes tested could partially complement the knockout mutation when the genes were weakly expressed. However, when highly expressed, non-fungal squalene synthases could not complement the yeast mutation and instead led to the accumulation of a toxic intermediate(s) as defined by mutations of genes downstream in the ergosterol pathway. Restoration of the complete complementation phenotype was mapped to a 26-amino acid hinge region linking the catalytic and membrane-spanning domains specific to fungal squalene synthases. Over-expression of the C-terminal domain containing a hinge domain from fungi, not from animals or plants, led to growth inhibition of wild-type yeast. Because this hinge region is unique to and highly conserved within each kingdom of life, the data suggests that the hinge domain plays an essential functional role, such as assembly of ergosterol multi-enzyme complexes in fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Allosteric regulation of glycogen synthase in liver. A physiological dilemma.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, F Q; Gannon, M C

    1993-06-25

    Glycogen synthase catalyzes the transfer of the glucosyl moiety from UDP-glucose to the terminal branch of the glycogen molecule and is considered to be the rate-limiting enzyme for glycogen synthesis. However, under ideal assay conditions, i.e. 37 degrees C with saturating concentrations of UDP-glucose and the activator, glucose-6-P, the maximal catalytic activity of glycogen synthase was only 78% of the in vivo glycogen synthetic rate. Using concentrations of UDP-glucose and glucose-6-P likely to be present in vivo, the rate was only approximately 30%. This prompted us to reassess a possible role of allosteric effectors on synthase activity. Glycogen synthase was assayed at 37 degrees C using dilute, pH 7.0, buffered extracts, initial rate conditions, and UDP-glucose and glucose-6-P concentrations, which approximate those calculated to be present in total liver cell water. Several allosteric effectors were tested. Magnesium and AMP had little effect on activity. Pi, ADP, ATP, and UTP inhibited activity. When a combination of effectors were added at concentrations approximating those present in cell water, synthase activity could account for only 2% of the glycogen synthetic rate. Thus, although allosteric effectors are likely to be playing a major role in regulating synthase enzymic activity in liver cells, to date, a metabolite that can stimulate activity and/or overcome nucleotide inhibition has yet to be identified. If such a metabolite cannot be identified, an additional or alternative pathway for glycogen synthesis must be considered.

  11. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-31

    targeting. Ursolic acid , a pentacyclic triterpenoid acid , as well as the tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate...2007,  6(7), 2120‐2126.  73.  Liu, Y., Tian, W., Ma, X., and Ding, W. Evaluation of  inhibition of  fatty  acid  synthase by  ursolic   acid : positive...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-1-0204 TITLE: Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for

  12. Engineered biosynthesis of plant polyketides: manipulation of chalcone synthase.

    PubMed

    Abe, Ikuro; Watanabe, Tatsuya; Morita, Hiroyuki; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2006-02-02

    [reaction: see text]. Chalcone synthase (CHS) is a plant-specific type III polyketide synthase catalyzing condensation of 4-coumaroyl-CoA with three molecules of malonyl-CoA. Surprisingly, it was demonstrated that S338V mutant of Scutellaria baicalensis CHS produced octaketides SEK4/SEK4b from eight molecules of malonyl-CoA. Further, the octaketides-forming activity was dramatically increased in a CHS triple mutant (T197G/G256L/S338T). The functional conversion is based on the simple steric modulation of a chemically inert residue lining the active-site cavity.

  13. Molecular aspects of beta-ketoacyl synthase (KAS) catalysis.

    PubMed

    von Wettstein-Knowles, P; Olsen, J; Arnvig Mcguire, K; Larsen, S

    2000-12-01

    Crystal structure data for Escherichia coli beta-ketoacyl synthase (KAS) I with C(10) and C(12) fatty acid substrates bound in conjunction with results from mutagenizing residues in the active site leads to a model for catalysis. Differences from and similarities to the other Claisen enzymes carrying out decarboxylations reveal two catalytic mechanisms, one for KAS I and KAS II, the other for KAS III and chalcone synthase. A comparison of the structures of KAS I and KAS II does not reveal the basis of chain-length specificity. The structures of the Arabidopsis thaliana KAS family are compared.

  14. Twisting and subunit rotation in single FOF1-ATP synthase

    PubMed Central

    Sielaff, Hendrik; Börsch, Michael

    2013-01-01

    FOF1-ATP synthases are ubiquitous proton- or ion-powered membrane enzymes providing ATP for all kinds of cellular processes. The mechanochemistry of catalysis is driven by two rotary nanomotors coupled within the enzyme. Their different step sizes have been observed by single-molecule microscopy including videomicroscopy of fluctuating nanobeads attached to single enzymes and single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer. Here we review recent developments of approaches to monitor the step size of subunit rotation and the transient elastic energy storage mechanism in single FOF1-ATP synthases. PMID:23267178

  15. Brucella spp. lumazine synthase: a novel antigen delivery system.

    PubMed

    Sciutto, Edda; Toledo, Andrea; Cruz, Carmen; Rosas, Gabriela; Meneses, Gabriela; Laplagne, Diego; Ainciart, Natalia; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Fragoso, Gladis; Goldbaum, Fernando A

    2005-04-15

    Lumazine synthase from Brucella spp. (BLS) was evaluated as a protein carrier to improve antigen delivery of KETc1, one of the peptides of the anti-cysticercosis vaccine. KETc1 becomes antigenic, preserved its immunogenicity and its protective capacity when expressed as a recombinant chimeric protein using Brucella spp. lumazine synthase. KETc1 and BLS-KETc1 were not MHC H-2(d), H-2(k) nor H-2(b) haplotype-restricted albeit KETc1 is preferentially presented in the H-2(b) haplotype. These findings support that BLS is a potent new delivery system for the improvement of subunit vaccines.

  16. Enzymatic proof for the identity of the S-sulfocysteine synthase and cysteine synthase B of Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, T; Iwahashi, H; Eguchi, Y

    1984-01-01

    S-Sulfocysteine synthase was isolated from Salmonella typhimurium LT-2 to homogeneous form with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight of this enzyme was determined to be ca. 55,000. The enzyme consisted of two identically sized subunits, and it contained one pyridoxal phosphate per subunit. The enzyme catalyzed the biosynthesis of cysteine or S-methylcysteine from sulfide or methanethiol and O-acetylserine, respectively, in addition to the formation of S-sulfocysteine from thiosulfate and O-acetylserine. The enzyme is identical to cysteine synthase B. The intracellular level of this enzyme was regulated by lesser extents of the same factors as those effective for cysteine synthase A. Images PMID:6373737

  17. The CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE A and CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE C families: recent advances and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Liepman, Aaron H.; Cavalier, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The CELLULOSE SYNTHASE (CESA) superfamily of proteins contains several sub-families of closely related CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE (CSL) sequences. Among these, the CSLA and CSLC families are closely related to each other and are the most evolutionarily divergent from the CESA family. Significant progress has been made with the functional characterization of CSLA and CSLC genes, which have been shown to encode enzymes with 1,4-β-glycan synthase activities involved in the biosynthesis of mannan and possibly xyloglucan backbones, respectively. This review examines recent work on the CSLA and CSLC families from evolutionary, molecular, and biochemical perspectives. We pose a series of questions, whose answers likely will provide further insight about the specific functions of members of the CSLA and CSLC families and about plant polysaccharide biosynthesis is general. PMID:22654891

  18. Benzophenone Synthase and Chalcone Synthase Accumulate in the Mesophyll of Hypericum perforatum Leaves at Different Developmental Stages

    PubMed Central

    Belkheir, Asma K.; Gaid, Mariam; Liu, Benye; Hänsch, Robert; Beerhues, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    The active medicinal constituents in Hypericum perforatum, used to treat depression and skin irritation, include flavonoids and xanthones. The carbon skeletons of these compounds are formed by chalcone synthase (CHS) and benzophenone synthase (BPS), respectively. Polyclonal antisera were raised against the polyketide synthases from Hypericum androsaemum and their IgG fractions were isolated. Immunoblotting and immunotitration were used to test the IgGs for crossreactivity and monospecificity in H. perforatum leaf protein extract. Immunofluorescence localization revealed that both CHS and BPS are located in the mesophyll. The maximum fluorescence levels were observed in approx. 0.5 and 1 cm long leaves, respectively. The fluorescence intensity observed for CHS significantly exceeded that for BPS. Using histochemical staining, flavonoids were detected in the mesophyll, indicating that the sites of biosynthesis and accumulation coincide. Our results help understand the biosynthesis and underlying regulation of active H. perforatum constituents. PMID:27446151

  19. Benzophenone Synthase and Chalcone Synthase Accumulate in the Mesophyll of Hypericum perforatum Leaves at Different Developmental Stages.

    PubMed

    Belkheir, Asma K; Gaid, Mariam; Liu, Benye; Hänsch, Robert; Beerhues, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    The active medicinal constituents in Hypericum perforatum, used to treat depression and skin irritation, include flavonoids and xanthones. The carbon skeletons of these compounds are formed by chalcone synthase (CHS) and benzophenone synthase (BPS), respectively. Polyclonal antisera were raised against the polyketide synthases from Hypericum androsaemum and their IgG fractions were isolated. Immunoblotting and immunotitration were used to test the IgGs for crossreactivity and monospecificity in H. perforatum leaf protein extract. Immunofluorescence localization revealed that both CHS and BPS are located in the mesophyll. The maximum fluorescence levels were observed in approx. 0.5 and 1 cm long leaves, respectively. The fluorescence intensity observed for CHS significantly exceeded that for BPS. Using histochemical staining, flavonoids were detected in the mesophyll, indicating that the sites of biosynthesis and accumulation coincide. Our results help understand the biosynthesis and underlying regulation of active H. perforatum constituents.

  20. Analysis of the cercosporin polyketide synthase CTB1 reveals a new fungal thioesterase function

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Adam G.; Vagstad, Anna L.; Belecki, Katherine; Scheerer, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    The polyketide synthase CTB1 is demonstrated to catalyze pyrone formation thereby expanding the known biosynthetic repertoire of thioesterase domains in iterative, non-reducing polyketide synthases. PMID:23108075

  1. The Remarkable Character of Porphobilinogen Synthase.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Eileen K

    2016-11-15

    Porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS), also known as 5-aminolevulinate dehydratase, is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of all tetrapyrroles, which function in respiration, photosynthesis, and methanogenesis. Throughout evolution, PBGS adapted to a diversity of cellular niches and evolved to use an unusual variety of metal ions both for catalytic function and to control protein multimerization. With regard to the active site, some PBGSs require Zn(2+); a subset of those, including human PBGS, contain a constellation of cysteine residues that acts as a sink for the environmental toxin Pb(2+). PBGSs that do not require the soft metal ion Zn(2+) at the active site instead are suspected of using the hard metal Mg(2+). The most unexpected property of the PBGS family of enzymes is a dissociative allosteric mechanism that utilizes an equilibrium of architecturally and functionally distinct protein assemblies. The high-activity assembly is an octamer in which intersubunit interactions modulate active-site lid motion. This octamer can dissociate to dimer, the dimer can undergo a hinge twist, and the twisted dimer can assemble to a low-activity hexamer. The hexamer does not have the intersubunit interactions required to stabilize a closed conformation of the active site lid. PBGS active site chemistry benefits from a closed lid because porphobilinogen biosynthesis includes Schiff base formation, which requires deprotonated lysine amino groups. N-terminal and C-terminal sequence extensions dictate whether a specific species of PBGS can sample the hexameric assembly. The bulk of species (nearly all except animals and yeasts) use Mg(2+) as an allosteric activator. Mg(2+) functions allosterically by binding to an intersubunit interface that is present in the octamer but absent in the hexamer. This conformational selection allosteric mechanism is purported to be essential to avoid the untimely accumulation of phototoxic chlorophyll precursors in plants. For those PBGSs that do

  2. Characterization of spermidine synthase and spermine synthase--The polyamine-synthetic enzymes that induce early flowering in Gentiana triflora.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Tomohiro; Fujita, Kohei; Tasaki, Keisuke; Higuchi, Atsumi; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2015-08-07

    Polyamines are essential for several living processes in plants. However, regulatory mechanisms of polyamines in herbaceous perennial are almost unknown. Here, we identified homologs of two Arabidopsis polyamine-synthetic enzymes, spermidine synthase (SPDS) and spermine synthase (SPMS) denoted as GtSPDS and GtSPMS, from the gentian plant, Gentiana triflora. Our results showed that recombinant proteins of GtSPDS and GtSPMS possessed SPDS and SPMS activities, respectively. The expression levels of GtSPDS and GtSPMS increased transiently during vegetative to reproductive growth phase and overexpression of the genes hastened flowering, suggesting that these genes are involved in flowering induction in gentian plants.

  3. Benzophenone synthase and chalcone synthase from Hypericum androsaemum cell cultures: cDNA cloning, functional expression, and site-directed mutagenesis of two polyketide synthases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Benye; Falkenstein-Paul, Hildegard; Schmidt, Werner; Beerhues, Ludger

    2003-06-01

    Benzophenone derivatives, such as polyprenylated benzoylphloroglucinols and xanthones, are biologically active secondary metabolites. The formation of their C13 skeleton is catalyzed by benzophenone synthase (BPS; EC 2.3.1.151) that has been cloned from cell cultures of Hypericum androsaemum. BPS is a novel member of the superfamily of plant polyketide synthases (PKSs), also termed type III PKSs, with 53-63% amino acid sequence identity. Heterologously expressed BPS was a homodimer with a subunit molecular mass of 42.8 kDa. Its preferred starter substrate was benzoyl-CoA that was stepwise condensed with three malonyl-CoAs to give 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzophenone. BPS did not accept activated cinnamic acids as starter molecules. In contrast, recombinant chalcone synthase (CHS; EC 2.3.1.74) from the same cell cultures preferentially used 4-coumaroyl-CoA and also converted CoA esters of benzoic acids. The enzyme shared 60.1% amino acid sequence identity with BPS. In a phylogenetic tree, the two PKSs occurred in different clusters. One cluster was formed by CHSs including the one from H. androsaemum. BPS grouped together with the PKSs that functionally differ from CHS. Site-directed mutagenesis of amino acids shaping the initiation/elongation cavity of CHS yielded a triple mutant (L263M/F265Y/S338G) that preferred benzoyl-CoA over 4-coumaroyl-CoA.

  4. The polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, methionine synthase, methionine synthase reductase, and the risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Daijun; Mei, Qiang; Luo, Han; Tang, Bo; Yu, Peiwu

    2012-01-01

    Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism may modulate the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but data from published studies are conflicting. The current meta-analysis was performed to address a more accurate estimation. A total of 41 (17,552 cases and 26,238 controls), 24(8,263 cases and 12,033 controls), 12(3,758 cases and 5,646 controls), and 13 (5,511 cases and 7,265 controls) studies were finally included for the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1289C, methione synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G, methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G polymorphisms and the risk of CRC, respectively. The data showed that the MTHFR 677T allele was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC (OR = 0.93, 95%CI 0.90-0.96), while the MTRR 66G allele was significantly associated with increased risk of CRC (OR = 1.11, 95%CI 1.01-1.18). Sub-group analysis by ethnicity revealed that MTHFR C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC in Asians (OR = 0.80, 95%CI 0.72-0.89) and Caucasians (OR = 0.84, 95%CI 0.76-0.93) in recessive genetic model, while the MTRR 66GG genotype was found to significantly increase the risk of CRC in Caucasians (GG vs. AA: OR = 1.18, 95%CI 1.03-1.36). No significant association was found between MTHFR A1298C and MTR A2756G polymorphisms and the risk of CRC. Cumulative meta-analysis showed no particular time trend existed in the summary estimate. Probability of publication bias was low across all comparisons illustrated by the funnel plots and Egger's test. Collectively, this meta-analysis suggested that MTHFR 677T allele might provide protection against CRC in worldwide populations, while MTRR 66G allele might increase the risk of CRC in Caucasians. Since potential confounders could not be ruled out completely, further studies were needed to confirm these results.

  5. The Polymorphisms in Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase, Methionine Synthase, Methionine Synthase Reductase, and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Daijun; Mei, Qiang; Luo, Han; Tang, Bo; Yu, Peiwu

    2012-01-01

    Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism may modulate the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but data from published studies are conflicting. The current meta-analysis was performed to address a more accurate estimation. A total of 41 (17,552 cases and 26,238 controls), 24(8,263 cases and 12,033 controls), 12(3,758 cases and 5,646 controls), and 13 (5,511 cases and 7,265 controls) studies were finally included for the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1289C, methione synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G, methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G polymorphisms and the risk of CRC, respectively. The data showed that the MTHFR 677T allele was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC (OR = 0.93, 95%CI 0.90-0.96), while the MTRR 66G allele was significantly associated with increased risk of CRC (OR = 1.11, 95%CI 1.01-1.18). Sub-group analysis by ethnicity revealed that MTHFR C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC in Asians (OR = 0.80, 95%CI 0.72-0.89) and Caucasians (OR = 0.84, 95%CI 0.76-0.93) in recessive genetic model, while the MTRR 66GG genotype was found to significantly increase the risk of CRC in Caucasians (GG vs. AA: OR = 1.18, 95%CI 1.03-1.36). No significant association was found between MTHFR A1298C and MTR A2756G polymorphisms and the risk of CRC. Cumulative meta-analysis showed no particular time trend existed in the summary estimate. Probability of publication bias was low across all comparisons illustrated by the funnel plots and Egger's test. Collectively, this meta-analysis suggested that MTHFR 677T allele might provide protection against CRC in worldwide populations, while MTRR 66G allele might increase the risk of CRC in Caucasians. Since potential confounders could not be ruled out completely, further studies were needed to confirm these results. PMID:22719222

  6. Sucrose synthase in wild tomato Lycopersicon chmielewskii and tomato fruit sink strength

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; T. Loboda; S.S. Sung; C.C. Black

    1992-01-01

    Here it is reported that sucrose synthase can be readily measured in growing wild tomato fruits (Lycopersicon chmielewskii) when suitable methods are adopted during fruit extraction. The enzyme also was present in fruit pericarp tissues, in seeds, and in flowers.In mature, nongrowing fruits, sucrose synthase activities approached nil values.Therefore, sucrose synthase...

  7. Isoelectric focusing of wound-induced tomato ACC synthase

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.A.; Kende, H. )

    1990-05-01

    Several techniques of electrofocusing have been used to determine whether 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase isolated from wounded tomato pericarp tissue exists in different isoforms, each with its characteristic isoelectric point (pI). The pI of the native enzyme was found to be 6.0 {plus minus} 0.2. When radiolabeled, denatured ACC synthase was electrofocused by non-equilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis (NEpHGE), the enzyme separated into four discernible spots which, upon reaching equilibrium, ranged in pI from 6.6 to 6.9. Immunopurified ACC synthase from four tomato cultivars (Duke, Cornell, Mountain Pride and Pik Red) migrated in each case as a 50-kDa protein on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE). We propose that native ACC synthase in extracts of tomato pericarp tissue exists in one single form and that the charge heterogenei