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Sample records for diisopropyl-ida tc 99m

  1. The normal fasting and postprandial diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m hepatobiliary study

    SciTech Connect

    Klingensmith, W.C.; Spitzer, V.M.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Kuni, C.C.

    1981-12-01

    Diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m imaging studies were performed in 11 normal subjects in both the fasting and postprandial states. In 5- to 60-minute analog images obtained in both fasting and postprandial studies, the cardiac blood pool was almost never seen, renal pelvic radioactivity was commonly seen, the extrahepatic biliary tract was always seen, and the left hepatic duct was always more prominent than the right hepatic duct. The biliary tract was visualized by ten minutes in nine of 11 fasting studies and 10 of 11 postprandial studies. The gallbladder was visualized in all eleven fasting studies, but in only four postprandial studies. The gallbladder was visualized in all eleven fasting studies, but in only four postprandial studies (p less than 0.05). The zero- to sixty-minute digital data indicated a greater hepatocyte clearance, an earlier time of peak parenchymal radioactivity, and a faster parenchymal washout in the postprandial studies compared with fasting studies (p less than 0.05). Approximately nine percent of the injected dose was recovered in the urine during the first three hours in fasting and postprandial studies. The normal diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m study in the fasting and postprandial states is defined; significant differences exist between the two states.

  2. Normal fasting and postprandial diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m hepatobiliary stud

    SciTech Connect

    Klingensmith, W.C.; Spitzer, W.M.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Kuni, C.C.

    1981-12-01

    Diisopropyl-IDA TC 99m imaging studies were performed in 11 normal subjects in both the fasting and postprandial states. In 5- to 60-minute analog images obtained in both fasting and postprandial studies, the cardiac blood pool was almost never seen, renal pelvic radioactivity was commonly seen, the extrahepatic biliary tract was always seen, and the left hepatic duct was always more prominent than the right hepatic duct. The billiary tract was visualized by ten minutes in nine of 11 fasting studies and 10 of 11 postprandial studies. The gallbladder was visualized in all eleven fasting studies, but in only four postprandial studies (p<0.05). The zero- to sixty-minute digital data indicated a greater hepatocyte clearance, an earlier time of peak parenchymal radioactivity, and a faster parenchymal washout in the postprandial studies compared with fasting studies (p<0.05). Approximately nine percent of the injected dose was recovered in the urine during the first three hours in fasting and postprandial studies. The normal diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m study in the fasting and postprandial states is defined; significant differences exist between the two states.

  3. Tc-99m Labeled carrier for imaging

    DOEpatents

    Henze, Eberhard

    1984-01-01

    Novel radionuclide imaging agents, having particular application for lymphangiography are provided by non-covalently binding Tc-99m to a pharmaceutically acceptable cross-linked polysaccharide. Upon injection of the Tc-99m labeled polysaccharide into the blood stream, optimum contrast can be obtained within one hour.

  4. Direct 99m Tc labeling of Herceptin (trastuzumab) by 99m Tc(I) tricarbonyl ion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wan-Jou; Yen, Chao-Liang; Lo, Su-Tang; Chen, Kuo-Ting; Lo, Jem-Mau

    2008-03-01

    By simply incubating Herceptin (trastuzumab) with [99m Tc(CO)3(OH2)3]+ ion in saline, a significant yield of 99m Tc-labeled trastuzumab was found to be achievable. The effective labeling may be based on that trastuzumab is inherent with endogenous histidine group to which 99m Tc(I) tricarbonyl ion can be strongly bound. For practical 99m Tc labeling processing, trastuzumab was purified beforehand from the commercial product, Herceptin (Genentech) via size exclusion chromatography to remove the excipient, alpha-histidine and a high-labeled yield could be obtained by incubating the purified trastuzumab with [99m Tc(CO)3(OH2)3]+. Retention of bioactivity of the 99m Tc(I)-labeled trastuzumab was validated using a cell binding test.

  5. Radionuclide cholescintigraphic imaging: an evaluation of several 99mTc labelled hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    van Aswegen, A; van Wyk, J; Roodt, J P; Lötter, M G; Otto, A C; Minnaar, P C

    1986-01-01

    Recently, much interest has been shown in the development of 99mTc labelled cholescintigraphic agents for imaging the hepatobiliary tract. In this study six cholescintigraphic agents were compared in rabbits with respect to transit efficiency through the liver and the halftime on the washout portion of the liver time-activity curve. The agents compared were p-butyl-IDA (PBIDA), diisopropyl-IDA (DISIDA), two mebrofenin (MBF) agents and two pyridoxylaminates (PDA). Best transit efficiencies were obtained with MBF (34.1 and 31.2%) followed by PDA (27.7 and 24.9%) while DISIDA (23%) and PBIDA (19.3%) were the lowest. The same phenomenon was observed regarding the washout halftime, with MBF the most rapid (6.3 and 5.9 min), PDA more prolonged (10.1 and 12.0 min) and DISIDA and PBIDA the slowest (23.0 and 23.2 min). This study confirms the difference in physiological behaviour of the various cholescintigraphic agents and shows identical flow patterns for locally produced and imported compounds.

  6. Renal uptakes of 99mTc-MAG3, 99mTc-DTPA, and 99mTc-DMSA in rabbits with unilateral ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Guk; Kim, Joong-Hyun; Kim, Jong Min; Shim, Kyung Mi; Kang, Seong Soo; Chae, Hong In; Choi, Seok Hwa

    2010-01-01

    Renal function measurements using (99m)Tc-DTPA and (99m)Tc-MAG(3) dynamic scintigraphs were compared to those obtained using (99m)Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy. Eighteen experimental rabbits were randomly divided into (99m)Tc-DTPA-, (99m)Tc-MAG(3)-, and (99m) Tc-DMSA-injected groups. Experimental unilateral renal damage was induced by ligating a unilateral right ureter in 18 rabbits. Scintigraphic images were obtained at 2 and 5 h after intravenous injection of (99m)Tc-DMSA, or immediately after administration of (99m)Tc-DTPA or (99m)Tc-MAG(3). For the dynamic images using (99m)Tc-DTPA and (99m)Tc-MAG(3), rapid sequential images were obtained every 2 s for 30 images up to 1 min. The three groups presented different relative renal functions between the left normal and the right abnormal kidneys at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks post-ligation (p<0.05). However, the between-group comparisons showed no significant differences at any time. These results suggest that dynamic images of (99m)Tc-DTPA and (99m)Tc-MAG(3) can be used to measure the relative renal function in place of the static image of (99m)Tc-DMSA.

  7. [Research of 99mTcO4- and 99mTcO2- in injectable solutions of 99mTc-HMDP by inverse phase HPTLC].

    PubMed

    Jacquot, Y; Zoubir, Br; Xicluna, A; Bidet, A-Cl

    2006-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy allows the diagnostic of many pathologies related to bone through the intravenous administration of a phosphonate bone marker complexed to 99 metastable technetium (99mTc). The instability of these injectable solutions on contact with air can lead to a mixture of pertechnetate VII (99mTcO4-) and technetium IV (99mTcO2-, xH2O), technetium IV being the only derivative to fix bone. A qualitative control of the purity of these solutions proved to be consequently important before administration. We report here the perfecting of a new chromatographic test based on reverse phase high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). This test, simple, rapid and reproductive allows without ambiguity the detection of 99mTcO4-(VII) and 99mTcO2-(IV), xH2O in hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP) injectable solutions ready to use.

  8. Retention of 99mTc-DMSA(III) and 99mTc-nanocolloid in different syringes affects imaging quality.

    PubMed

    Bauwens, Matthias; Pooters, Ivo; van der Pol, Jochen; Mottaghy, Felix M; van Kroonenburgh, Marinus

    2014-04-01

    (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid [DMSA(III)] and colloidal human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-nanocolloid) are widely used radiopharmaceuticals. Recently, in our institution we encountered image quality problems in DMSA scans after changing the brand of syringes we were using, which triggered us to look into the adsorption properties of syringes from different brands for (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid. We also describe a clinical case in which adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) caused inferior imaging quality. DMSA and nanocolloid were labeled with (99m)Tc following manufacturer guidelines. After synthesis, syringes with (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid were stored for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. We evaluated Luer Lock syringes manufactured by different brands such as Artsana, Henke-Sass-Wolf, B. Braun Medical N.V., CODAN Medizinische Geräte GmbH & Co KG, Becton Dickinson and Company, and Terumo Europe. Adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid was acceptably low for all syringes (<13%), except for two brands with (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) adsorption rates of 36 and 30%, respectively, and for one brand with a (99m)Tc-nanocolloid adsorption rate of 27%. Adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid reaches critical levels in syringes produced by two brands, potentially causing poor image quality--for example, in DMSA scans using pediatric radiopharmaceutical doses. It is advised to check the compatibility of any radiopharmaceutical with syringes as an integral part of the quality assurance program.

  9. sup 99m Tc renal tubular function agents: Current status

    SciTech Connect

    Eshima, D.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Taylor, A. Jr. )

    1990-01-01

    Orthoiodohippuric (OIH) acid labeled with 131I is a widely used renal radiopharmaceutical agent and has been the standard radiopharmaceutical agent for the measurement of effective renal plasma flow (EPRF). Limitations to the routine clinical use of 131I OIH are related to the suboptimal imaging properties of the 131I radionuclide and its relatively high radiation dose. 123I has been substituted for 131I; however, its high cost and short shelf-life have limited its widespread use. Recent work has centered on the development of a new 99mTc renal tubular function agent, which would use the optimal radionuclidic properties and availability of 99mTc and combine the clinical information provided by OIH. The search for a suitable 99mTc renal tubular function agent has focused on the diamide dithiolate (N2S2), the paraaminohippuric iminodiacetic acid (PAHIDA), and the triamide mercaptide (N3S) donor ligand systems. To date, the most promising 99mTc tubular function agent is the N3S complex: 99mTc mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc MAG3). Studies in animal models in diuresis, dehydration, acid or base imbalance, ischemia, and renal artery stenosis demonstrate that 99mTc MAG3 behaves similarly to 131I OIH. A simple kit formulation is available that yields the 99mTc MAG3 complex in high radiochemical purity. Studies in normal subjects and patients indicate that 99mTc MAG3 is an excellent 99mTc renal tubular agent, but its plasma clearance is only 50% to 60% that of OIH. In an effort to develop an improved 99mTc renal tubular function agent, changes have been made in the core N3S donor ligand system, but to date no agent has been synthesized that is clinically superior to 99mTc MAG3. 61 references.

  10. 99mTc-ciprofloxacin for diagnosis of bacterial infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aungurarat, A.; Ngamprayad, T.; Dangprasert, M.; Phumkem, S.; Jowanaridhi, B.

    2015-05-01

    Preparation of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin for diagnosis of bacterial infection was investigated by varying factors which affected this compound. The optimum conditions for preparation of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin and a lyophilized kit for Tc-99m labelling were studied. The results from biodistribution study showed that the percentages of the injected dose per gram tissues of infected area at 1 and 3 hours after injection were around 0.25-0.56. 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was found sterile, pyrogen-free and non-toxic. Radiochemical purity was greater than 90% with greater than 6 hours of stability.

  11. Comparison of Tc-99m maraciclatide and Tc-99m sestamibi molecular breast imaging in patients with suspected breast cancer.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Michael K; Morrow, Melissa M B; Hunt, Katie N; Boughey, Judy C; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L; Conners, Amy Lynn; Rhodes, Deborah J; Hruska, Carrie B

    2017-12-01

    Molecular breast imaging (MBI) performed with (99m)Tc sestamibi has been shown to be a valuable technique for the detection of breast cancer. Alternative radiotracers such as (99m)Tc maraciclatide may offer improved uptake in breast lesions. The purpose of this study was to compare relative performance of (99m)Tc sestamibi and (99m)Tc maraciclatide in patients with suspected breast cancer, using a high-resolution dedicated gamma camera for MBI. Women with breast lesions suspicious for malignancy were recruited to undergo two MBI examinations-one with (99m)Tc sestamibi and one with (99m)Tc maraciclatide. A radiologist interpreted MBI studies in a randomized, blinded fashion to assign an assessment score (1-5) and measured lesion size. Lesion-to-background (L/B) ratio was measured with region-of-interest analysis. Among 39 analyzable patients, 21 malignant tumors were identified in 21 patients. Eighteen of 21 tumors (86%) were seen on (99m)Tc sestamibi MBI and 19 of 21 (90%) were seen on (99m)Tc maraciclatide MBI (p = 1). Tumor extent measured with both radiopharmaceuticals correlated strongly with pathologic size ((99m)Tc sestamibi, r = 0.84; (99m)Tc maraciclatide, r = 0.81). The L/B ratio in detected breast cancers was similar for the two radiopharmaceuticals: 1.55 ± 0.36 (mean ± S.D.) for (99m)Tc sestamibi and 1.62 ± 0.37 (mean ± S.D.) for (99m)Tc maraciclatide (p = 0.53). No correlation was found between the L/B ratio and molecular subtype for (99m)Tc sestamibi (r s  = 0.12, p = 0.63) or (99m)Tc maraciclatide (r s  = -0.12, p = 0.64). Of 20 benign lesions, 10 (50%) were seen on (99m)Tc sestamibi and 9 of 20 (45%) were seen on (99m)Tc maraciclatide images (p = 0.1). The average L/B ratio for benign lesions was 1.34 ±0.40 (mean ±S.D.) for (99m)Tc sestamibi and 1.41 ±0.52 (mean ±S.D.) for (99m)Tc maraciclatide (p = 0.75). Overall diagnostic performance was similar for both radiopharmaceuticals

  12. Imaging of irradiated liver with Tc-99m-sulfur colloid and Tc-99m-IDA

    SciTech Connect

    Gelfand, M.J.; Saha, S.; Aron, B.S.

    1981-09-01

    In three cases, irradiated regions of liver failed to concentrate Tc-99m-sulfur colloid. In two of these three, imaging with Tc-99m-acetanilide iminodiacetic acid (IDA) agents within five days showed near normal hepatic uptake of this hepatobiliary imaging agent. The hepatic parenchymal cells may be imaged with Tc-99m-IDA in some irradiated regions of liver, despite loss of reticuloendothelial cell function.

  13. The role of Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary and Tc-99m colloid hepatic imaging in primary biliary cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Aburano, T.; Yokoyama, K.; Shuke, N.; Kinuya, S.; Takayama, T.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K. )

    1991-01-01

    To assess the presence of primary biliary cirrhosis, 15 patients at various histopathologic stages were studied by Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary and/or Tc-99m colloid hepatic imaging. In the earlier stages (I and II), seven of eight patients (88%) showed uniform hepatic retention of Tc-99m IDA. Of seven patients in the same stage, however, four (57%) showed no abnormality on Tc-99m colliod imaging. In three of these four negative patients (75%), uniform hepatic retention of Tc-99m IDA was noted. In the later stages (III and IV), all seven patients showed decreased clearance with or without delayed tracer appearance in the intestine and prominent hepatic retention on Tc-99m IDA imaging; with Tc-99m colloid imaging there was enlargement of the spleen and increased activity in the spleen and bone marrow. Thus, Tc-99m IDA imaging is considered to be more useful in revealing this functional disorder at the earlier stage of primary biliary cirrhosis and in evaluating progression from an earlier to a later stage of disease. Tc-99m colloid imaging also effectively evaluated progression.

  14. Electron impact ionisation of encapsulated 99mTc@C 60 and 99mTc@C 70

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Đustebek, J. B.; Đorđević, V. R.; Cvetićanin, J. M.; Veličković, S. R.; Veljković, M. V.; Nešković, O. M.; Rakočević, Z. L.; Bibić, N. M.

    2010-03-01

    The present study shows simultaneous surface ionisation and electron impact ionisation during the formation and investigation of endohedral fullerenes 99mTc@C 60 and 99mTc@C 70. The endohedral fullerenes were generated using a mass spectrometer with a triple rhenium filament as an ion source. The ionisation energies (IE) determined were: 8.52 ± 0.25 eV for 99mTc@C 60 and 9.57 ± 0.25 eV for 99mTc@ C 70.

  15. A Tc-99m labeled laminin derived peptide, Tc-99m-YIGSR for thrombus specific imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.

    1994-05-01

    Laminin derived adhesive peptides were studied as potential agents for thrombus specific imaging. Using a novel peptide Tc-99m labeling method studies were performed in vitro using human whole blood clots and platelets, and in vivo scintigraphy in animals with experimental thrombi. Aliquots of 0.1 ml human blood were placed in inclined Petri dishes until clot was well formed. Clots were rinsed 3x with phosphate buffer and 10 {mu}Ci Tc-99m YIGSR II was added. After incubation at room temperature for 1 hr, clots were again washed 3x. Residual activity was measured. Platelets were harvested using routine methods and incubated with Tc-99m YIGSR II, washed and assayed. Blocking experiments using cold YIGSR II showed that the Tc-99m labeled peptide preparation YIGSR II binds specifically and selectively to clot and platelets as compared to control experiments using nonspecific human Tc-99m IgG. Tissue distribution studies showed rapid blood clearance, urinary excretion and to a lesser degree GI tract excretion. Tc-99m YIGSR II was lower in all organs except kidneys compared to Tc-99m 50 H.19, Tc-99m IgG and Tc-99m YIGSR I. Tc-99m-YIGSR II consistently visualized thrombi within 30 min p.i. In vivo scintigraphic (thrombus/contralateral side) ratio was 3:1 and ex vivo direct counting (thrombosed to nonthrombosed vessel segment) was 5.4: 1. Compared to monoclonal antibodies peptide preparations are non- or minimally immunogenic, preparation is probably less expensive and there is also less danger of viral DNA contamination. These considerations and our data indicate that the Tc-99m-YIGSR II peptide has significant potential as a thrombus imaging agent.

  16. Radioactive equilibrium: 99Mo/99mTc decay characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chechev, Valery P; Bé, Marie-Martine

    2014-05-01

    Within the Decay Data Evaluation Project, as an example of a radioactive equilibrium with isomer, the (99)Mo/(99m)Tc equilibrium mixture decay characteristics are examined. The results of a new decay data evaluation are presented for (99)Mo/(99m)Tc decay to nuclear levels in (99)Tc. These evaluated data have been obtained using information published up to 2013. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Production of medical 99 m Tc isotope via photonuclear reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, M.; Nakai, K.; Takahashi, N.; Hayakawa, T.; Shizuma, T.; Miyamoto, S.; Fan, G. T.; Takemoto, A.; Yamaguchi, M.; Nishimura, M.

    2017-01-01

    99 m Tc with a 6 hour half-life is one of the most important medical isotopes used for the Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) inspection in hospitals of US, Canada, Europe and Japan. 99 m Tc isotopes are extracted by the milking method from parent 99Mo isotopes with a 66 hour half-life. The supply of 99Mo isotopes now encounters a serious crisis. Hospitals may not suitably receive 99Mo medical isotopes in near future, due to difficulties in production by research nuclear reactors. Many countries are now looking for alternative ways to generate 99Mo isotopes other than those with research reactors. We discuss a sustained availability of 99 m Tc isotopes via the nat Mo(γ, n) photonuclear reaction, and discuss to solve technical problems for extracting pure 99 m Tc isotopes from other output materials of photonuclear reactions.

  18. Poor Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid uptake, re-evaluation with Tc-99m MAG3 scintigraphy in Lowe syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koca, Gokhan; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Demirel, Koray; Diri, Akif; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2011-10-01

    Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is filtered through the glomeruli and reabsorbed by the proximal tubules as low molecular weight proteins. In Lowe syndrome this mechanism is impaired and so poor DMSA uptake is seen. Poor DMSA uptake was shown in very few studies, but none mentioned normal Tc-99m MAG3 uptake. In this case, the patient had poor DMSA uptake, normal MAG3 uptake and a neurogenic bladder in anterior to the left kidney that attenuates left kidney.

  19. Comparison of the tumor-seeking agent Tc-99m(V) dimercaptosuccinic acid and the renal imaging agent Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, H.; Ishii, M.; Yoshizumi, M.; Endo, K.; Sakahara, H.; Nakajima, T.; Yomoda, I.; Masuda, H.; Horiuchi, K.; Hata, N.

    1985-03-01

    Being aware of the ideal nuclear properties of Tc-99m, interest has been focused on the design of the (+5) oxidation state Tc-99m(V) dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc(V)-DMSA) as a tumor-seeking agent. Tc-99m(V) DMSA holds a TcO4(3-) core and, like PO4(3-), has excellent characteristics for tumor uptake, but has a different distribution than the well-known renal scanning agent, Tc-99m DMSA. The differences in chemical behavior of Tc-99m(V) DMSA and Tc-99m DMSA are discussed. Three cases in which neoplasms were studied with Tc-99m(V) DMSA and Tc-99m DMSA are presented. Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m(V) DMSA, having a common ligand and tracer but, with the metal ion core in a different oxidation state, the uptake characteristics are altered markedly.

  20. Rim sign in Tc-99m sulfur colloid hepatic scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Usha A; Barron, Bruce J; Lamki, Lamk M

    2005-04-01

    A case of pericholecystic hyperperfusion on Tc-99m sulfur colloid (SC) flow images with a pericholecystic rim of increased activity (PCHA) on delayed planar and single-photon emission computed tomography images of the liver was seen in a patient with a history of multiple renal transplants admitted with cramping right lower quadrant abdominal pain. Laparotomy performed 5 days after the scan revealed an acutely perforated gangrenous gallbladder and occluded cystic duct. The secondary findings of gallbladder hyperperfusion and PCHA or "rim sign" have been frequently reported with Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary imaging. These secondary findings in conjunction with a nonvisualized gallbladder on an IDA scan suggest a complicated or advanced stage of acute cholecystitis and usually require urgent surgical intervention. The rim sign on Tc-99m SC scintigraphy also likely indicates the same grave diagnosis.

  1. Radionuclide imaging of myocardial infarction using Tc-99m TBI

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, B.L.; Campbell, S.; Kirshenbaum, J.M.; Lister-James, J.; Jones, A.G.; Davison, A.; Antman, E.

    1985-05-01

    The cationic complex Tc-99m t-butylisonitrile (TBI) concentrates in the myocardial tissue of several animal species. Its myocardial distribution is proportional to blood flow both in zones of ischemia and in normal myocardium at rest. Planar, tomographic, and gated myocardial images have been obtained using Tc-99m TBI in the human. The authors investigated the potential application of Tc-99m TBI imaging to detect and localize myocardial infarction. Four subjects without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease and five patients with ECG evidence of previous myocardial infarction were studied. Tc-99m TBI (10mCi) was injected intravenously with the patient in a resting state with planar imaging in the anterior, 30 and 70 degree LAO projections beginning one hr after injection. The distribution of the tracer was homogeneous throughout the left ventricular wall in the normal subjects. Regional perfusion defects were present in 4/5 of the patients with myocardial infarction. Location of the defects corresponded to the location of the infarct using ECG criteria (2 inferoposterior and 2 anterior). The patient in whom the Tc-99m TBI image appeared normal had sustained a subendocardial myocardial infarct which could not be localized by ECG; the other 4 pts had transmural infarcts. Anterior and 30 degree LAO images were of excellent quality in all cases; there was overlap of the liver on the inferior wall of the left ventricle on the 70 degree LAO views. The authors conclude that accurate perfusion imaging may be possible using Tc-99m TBI in patients with transmural myocardial infarction.

  2. Results of hepatobiliary imaging using Tc-99m EHIDA

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, S.M.; Ahmed, R.; Rok

    1989-05-01

    Tc-99m labelled 2,6-diethylphenylcarbamoylmethyliminodiacetic acid (EHIDA) is a non-toxic radiopharmaceutical that was found to undergo rapid biliary excretion in a normal human, with accumulation of radioactivity in the gall bladder and intestine. Images in normal subjects and nonjaundiced patients showed rapid concentration of tracer by the liver and the passage of the same into the intestine within 15 to 40 minutes, with or without visualization of the gall bladder. In the jaundiced patient, the tracer blood clearance was delayed and urinary excretion was increased. Tc-99m EHIDA has been extensively investigated in 1634 patients to evaluate its performance in the diagnosis of hepatobiliary disorders.

  3. Development of Tc-99m Imaging Agents for Abeta Plaques

    SciTech Connect

    Zhi-Ping, Zhuang; Mei-Ping Kung; Catherihne Hou; Hank F. Kung

    2008-09-26

    Development of SPECT imaging agents based on Tc-99m targeting Aβ plaques is useful for diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A stilbene derivative, [11C]SB-13, showing promise in detecting senile plaques present in AD patients has been reported previously1,2. Based on the 4’-amino-stilbene core structure we have added substituted groups through which a chelating group, N2S2, was conjugated. We report herein a series of Tc-99m labeled stilbene derivative conjugated with a TcO[N2S2] core. The syntheses of stilbenes containing a N2S2 chelating ligand are achieved by a scheme shown. Lipophilic 99mTc stilbene complexes were successfully prepared and purified through HPLC. Preliminary results of in vitro labeling of brain sections from transgenic mice showed very promising plaque labeling. These 99mTc stilbene derivatives are warranted for further evaluations as potential imaging agents targeting amyloid plaques.

  4. [Renal scintigraphy with 99mTc-penicillamine].

    PubMed

    Lichte, H; Hör, G

    1975-02-01

    By application of 99mTc-Penicillamine in renal scintigraphy excellent scintigraphies of the kidneys, especially by using the gamma-camera, can be obtained, even in case of damaged renal function, up to an increase of creatinine in serum of about 7 mg %.

  5. Amyloid goiter: preoperative scintigraphic diagnosis using Tc-99m pyrophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.W.; Rubinow, A.; Pehrson, J.; Skinner, M.; Cohen, A.S.

    1984-04-01

    Amyloid goiter is a rare clinical entity. The diagnosis is rarely made preoperatively because clinical and laboratory findings are nonspecific. The authors report two cases of amyloid goiter in whom the diagnosis was made preoperatively using Tc-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy.

  6. Statistical parametric mapping demonstrates asymmetric uptake with Tc-99m ECD and Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT in normal brain

    PubMed Central

    Brinkmann, Benjamin H; Jones, David T; Stead, Matt; Kazemi, Noojan; O'Brien, Terence J; So, Elson L; Blumenfeld, Hal; Mullan, Brian P; Worrell, Gregory A

    2012-01-01

    Tc-99m ethyl cysteinate diethylester (ECD) and Tc-99m hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (HMPAO) are commonly used for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies of a variety of neurologic disorders. Although these tracers have been very helpful in diagnosing and guiding treatment of neurologic disease, data describing the distribution and laterality of these tracers in normal resting brain are limited. Advances in quantitative functional imaging have demonstrated the value of using resting studies from control populations as a baseline to account for physiologic fluctuations in cerebral perfusion. Here, we report results from 30 resting Tc-99m ECD SPECT scans and 14 resting Tc-99m HMPAO scans of normal volunteers with no history of neurologic disease. Scans were analyzed with regions of interest and with statistical parametric mapping, with comparisons performed laterally (left vs. right), as well as for age, gender, and handedness. The results show regions of significant asymmetry in the normal controls affecting widespread areas in the cerebral hemispheres, but most marked in superior parietotemporal region and frontal lobes. The results have important implications for the use of normal control SPECT images in the evaluation of patients with neurologic disease. PMID:21934696

  7. [Assessment of obstructive nephropathy using diuretic 99mTc-DTPA renogram and 99mTc-DMSA renoscintigraphy].

    PubMed

    Okamura, K; Takaba, H; Ito, K; Shimoji, T

    1987-12-01

    99mTc-DMSA and diuretic 99mTc-DTPA renoscintigraphy were performed on 51 kidneys suspected of obstructive nephropathy based on excretory urography to evaluate the residual renal function and the degree of urinary flow impairment respectively. We classified the response to diuretics into 6 patterns: I. normal, IIa. severely damaged renal function, IIb. slow RI excretion without urinary tract visualization (pattern II had no response to furosemide), IIIa. rapid elimination of tracer from the obstructed upper tract, IIIb. slow elimination, and IV. gradual tracer accumulation in the pelvicalyceal system with fairly well preserved renal function but no response. Hydronephrosis varied according to pattern type, in the ascending order of I, IIIa, IIIb and IV (p less than 0.05). Degree of hydronephrosis was inversely related to 99mTc-DMSA uptake, but without statistical significance. 99mTc-DMSA uptake was lower for pattern III as a whole (IIIa + (IIIb) than for pattern I (p less than 0.005), but there was no difference between IIIa and IIIb. Pattern IIa exhibited a significantly lower uptake than any of the other groups. (p less than 0.005) In contrast to previous views, we believe that pattern IIIa indicates a mild obstruction of urinary flow and impaired renal function. Consequently, assessment of obstructive nephropathy should not be based only on urodynamic study but also on differential renal function test.

  8. Novel (99m)Tc(III) Complexes [(99m)TcCl(CDO)(CDOH)2B-R] (CDOH2 = Cyclohexanedione Dioxime) Useful as Radiotracers for Heart Imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Fang, Wei; Liu, Shuang

    2016-11-16

    In this study, we evaluated seven new (99m)Tc(III) complexes [(99m)TcCl(CDO)(CDOH)2B-R] ((99m)Tc-2Fboroxime: R = 2-formylfuran-3-yl (2F); (99m)Tc-3Fboroxime: R = furan-3-yl (3F); (99m)Tc-5Fboroxime: R = 5-formyfuran-2-yl (5F); (99m)Tc-HPboroxime: R = 6-hydroxylpyridin-2-yl (HP); (99m)Tc-MPYboroxime: R = 5-methoxypyridin-3-yl (MPY); (99m)Tc-PMboroxime: R = 1,5-pyrimidin-3-yl (PM); and (99m)Tc-4PYboroxime: R = pyridin-4-yl (4PY)) for their potential as heart imaging agents. All new (99m)Tc(III) radiotracers except (99m)Tc-2Fboroxime were prepared with high radiochemical purity (RCP > 95%). The low RCP (∼75%) for (99m)Tc-2Fboroxime is most likely caused by steric hindrance from the 3-formyl group. Biodistribution and imaging studies were performed in SD rats. Planar image quantification was performed to compare their myocardial retention times. We found that the myocardial washout curves of new (99m)Tc(III) radiotracers were best fitted the biexponential decay function. The AUC (area under the curve) values followed the general trend: (99m)Tc-5Fboroxime (129 ± 6) > (99m)Tc-3Fboroxime (114 ± 11) > (99m)Tc-Teboroxime (104 ± 16) > (99m)Tc-MPYboroxime (92 ± 18) > (99m)Tc-4PYboroxime (77 ± 10) > (99m)Tc-PMboroxime (68 ± 14) ≈ (99m)Tc-HPboroxime (62 ± 14). The 2 min heart uptake values from biodistribution studies follow the ranking order of (99m)Tc-5Fboroxime (3.75 ± 0.15%ID/g) ≈ (99m)Tc-MPYboroxime (3.73 ± 0.24%ID/g) > (99m)Tc-PMboroxime (3.47 ± 0.15%ID/g) ≈ (99m)Tc-3Fboroxime ≈ (3.25 ± 0.77%ID/g). The 5 min heart uptake of (99m)Tc-5Fboroxime (3.91 ± 0.09%ID/g) was almost identical to its 2 min heart uptake (3.75 ± 0.15%ID/g), and its 15 min heart uptake value (2.83 ± 0.08%ID/g) compared well to the 2 min heart uptake of (99m)Tc-Teboroxime (3.00 ± 0.37%ID/g). It took ∼5 min for (99m)Tc-5Fboroxime to approach the 1 min heart uptake value of (99m)Tc-Teboroxime (∼3.5% ID/g) and ∼9.5 min to reach the 2 min heart uptake value of (99m)Tc

  9. Focal uptake of Tc-99m MDP in a gossypiboma.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Bejoy G; Silverman, Eugene D

    2008-04-01

    A 51-year-old Korean woman with a history of breast cancer underwent screening bone scintigraphy, which revealed minimal soft tissue uptake of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) in the right lower quadrant. CT and plain films confirmed that the uptake was due to a retained surgical sponge or gossypiboma. The incidence of gossypibomas has been reported at high as 1 in 1000 to 15,000 intra-abdominal operations. The natural progression of an aseptic gossypiboma is a foreign body reaction and granuloma formation. This inflammatory granulomatous reaction is the most likely cause of the extraosseous accumulation of Tc-99m MDP. This entity should be added to the already extensive list of etiologies of extraosseous MDP accumulation.

  10. Bone metastasis on Tc99-m sestamibi myocardial perfusion scan

    PubMed Central

    Hatemi, Lachin; Jabi, Feraas

    2015-01-01

    A 75-year-old woman presented to our department for a stress myocardial perfusion imaging study with Tc99m-sestamibi. Incidental focal uptake, found in the left upper anterior chest, was initially felt to be located in the left breast. After additional single-photon CT imaging was performed the same day, extracardiac foci within the ribs, spine, and left lung (worrisome for active metastases) were shown to be present, with the initial focus located within a left rib rather than a breast. A review of previous radiographic and nuclear imaging studies confirmed metastatic disease from recurrent follicular thyroid cancer. Atypical focal extracardiac activity must be closely scrutinized for the possibility of malignancy, as Tc99m-sestamibi (in addition to being myocardium-avid) is tumor-avid. PMID:27190553

  11. Tc-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scanning in Chagas' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Goncalves da Rocha, A.F.; Meguerian, B.A.; Harbert, J.C.

    1981-04-01

    Chagas' disease is a serious protozoan infection affecting up to 20% of populations in some endemic areas. Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy occur in 50% of patients who go on to develop chronic Chagas's disease. We have studied a patient with no overt cardiac symptoms who revealed intense myocardial uptake of Tc-99m pyrophosphate. The significance of this finding in relation to early detection and progress of therapy is explored.

  12. Tc-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scanning in Chagas' disease

    SciTech Connect

    da Rocha, A.F.; Meguerian, B.A.; Harbert, J.C.

    1981-04-01

    Chagas' disease is a serious protozoan infection affecting up to 20% of populations in some endemic areas. Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy occur in 50% of patients who go on to develop chronic Chagas' disease. We have studied a patient with no overt cardiac symptoms who revealed intense myocardial uptake of Tc-99m pyrophosphate. The significance of this finding in relation to early detection and progress of therapy is explored.

  13. Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphy in segmental biliary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, R.K.; Gold, J.A.; Gluck, L.; Caride, V.J.; Burrell, M.; Hoffer, P.B.

    1981-05-01

    Segmental biliary obstruction as a result of primary or secondary hepatic malignancy has been reported with increasing frequency. For two representative patients, the clinical and Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphic findings in segmetal biliary obstruction are described. The presence of photon-deficient dilated bile ducts in one segment of the biliary tree is highly suggestive of localized biliary obstruction and should be considered in the patient with suspected or proven hepatic malignancy despite the absence of jaundice.

  14. Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphy in segmental biliary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, R.K.; Gold, J.A.; Gluck, L.; Caride, V.J.; Burrell, M.; Hoffer, P.B.

    1981-05-01

    Segmental biliary obstruction as a result of primary or secondary hepatic malignancy has been reported with increasing frequency. For two representative patients, the clinical and Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphic findings in segmental biliary obstruction are described. The presence of photon-deficient dilated bile ducts in one segment of the biliary tree is highly suggestive of localized biliary obstruction and should be considered in the patient with suspected or proven hepatic malignancy despite the absence of jaundice.

  15. Clinical evaluation of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA renogram

    SciTech Connect

    Van Poppel, H.; Vereecken, R.; Vekemans, K.; Verduyn, H.; Mortelmans, L.; de Roo, M.

    1985-04-01

    Two hundred-two /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA renograms for urologic problems were evaluated. Some technical aspects of the examination and the value of the scintigraphic depth estimation are discussed. Pre- and postoperative uptake values in patients with renal surgery and sequential postoperative examinations are considered. The value of DMSA renograms in predicting recovery in obstructive uropathy and in deciding to opt for conservative therapy or nephrectomy is discussed.

  16. (99m)Tc-MAG3: Image Wisely.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew T; Folks, Russell D; Rahman, A K M Fazlur; Polsani, Aruna; Dubovsky, Eva V; Halkar, Raghuveer; Manatunga, Amita

    2017-02-17

    Purpose To determine if commonly administered doses of technetium 99m ((99m)Tc) mertiatide (MAG3) in the range of 300-370 MBq (approximately 8-10 mCi) contribute to image interpretation and justify the resulting radiation exposure. Materials and Methods The respective institutional review boards approved this HIPAA-compliant study and waived informed consent. Baseline and furosemide (99m)Tc-MAG3 imaging examinations in 50 patients suspected of having renal obstruction and 48 patients suspected of having renovascular hypertension (RVH) were randomly selected from archived databases and were independently scored by three experienced readers without access to 2-second flow images. Readers were blinded to their original scores, and then they rescored each examination with access to high-activity 2-second flow images. Relative renal function was determined after a low activity (62.9 MBq ± 40.7) baseline acquisition for RVH and a high activity (303.4 MBq ± 48.1) acquisition after administration of enalaprilat. Data were analyzed by using random effects analysis of variance and mean and standard error of the mean for the difference between sets of scores and the difference between relative function measurements. Results There was no significant difference in the scores without flow images compared with blinded scores with high-activity flow images for patients suspected of having obstruction (P = .80) or RVH (P = .24). Moreover, there was no significant difference in the relative uptake measurements after administration of low and high activities (P > .99). Conclusion Administered doses of (99m)Tc-MAG3 in the range of 300-370 MBq (approximately 8-10 mCi) do not affect the relative function measurements or contribute to interpretation of images in patients suspected of having RVH or obstruction compared with administration of lower doses; unnecessary radiation exposure can be avoided by administering doses in the range of 37-185 MBq as recommended incurrent guidelines

  17. The determination of relative renal function in a pediatric population using Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m DMSA

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, P.R.; Kuruc, A.; Treves, S.T.

    1985-05-01

    Three methods for evaluating relative renal function in a pediatric population were compared. The clinical and nuclear medicine data of 73 patients were reviewed. Pertinent data included patient age, serum creatinine and the referral diagnosis (reflux, hypertension, obstructive uropathy). Time activity curves for renal regions of interest (ROI) were obtained by renography with Tc-99m DTPA, and deconvolved by an externally detected blood pool curve Furosemide was then administered to evaluate the renal collecting system (if indicated). This was followed by DMSA administration. Relative function was determined in 3 ways: 1) Accumulated renal DTPA activity 60-120 sec. following injection. 2) Amplitude of the tubular phase of the deconvolved renal curve and, 3) Accumulated Tc-99m DMSA activity in renal ROI 4 or 24 hrs. post-injection. Regression analysis revealed: 1) The basic relationship of relative functional data obtained by all three methods was not affected by creatinine, age or other factors. 2) The relationship between the three methods is linear and highly correlated. 3) The DMSA values may be predicted from either method of analyzing the DTPA study using appropriate predictor equations. The authors conclude that Tc-99m DMSA, due to its higher cost and more radiation exposure should not be used for the routine evaluation of relative renal function.

  18. Comparative evaluation of Tc-99m cystine and Tc-99m MAG3 in normals and patients with renal functional impairment.

    PubMed

    Misra, Mridula; Pradhan, Prasanta K; De, Kakali; Chandra, Susmita; Das, Birendra K

    2009-03-01

    Tc-99m cystine has been proved to be a good renal agent in animals for morphologic as well as the functional status of the kidney. In this study, we compared Tc-99m cystine with Tc-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine, which is used for evaluation of renal function in normal patients, and those with various degrees of renal functional impairment. The clearance values and static images are compared with Tc-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine. The results show that Tc-99m cystine has good radiopharmaceutical characteristics suitable for evaluation of both renal function as well as morphology.

  19. 99mTc-LHRH in tumor receptor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Dawei; Sun, Lingfei; Hu, Xiang; Hao, Xiaowen

    2017-01-01

    Detection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) also known as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) in the relevant tumor tissue and normal tissues and organs in vivo expression was investigated. To examine the method of direct radio labeling of LHRH by 99mTc with relatively high radiochemical purity and stability, screening the best labeling conditions, to establish a simple and reliable method of preparation of 99mTc-LHRH was undertaken. The detection of radioisotope-labeled LHRH distribution in mice, LHRH receptor imaging for the study and treatment of cancer basis were evaluated. i) Immunohistochemical staining test was used in 23 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 20 patients with breast cancer, 10 patients with prostate cancer, 20 patients with lung cancer, 20 patients with endometrial cancer tumor cells and normal tissue LHRH-R De Biaoda levels; ii) pre-tin method use direct labeling of LHRH, marking completion of saline or human serum were added at room temperature, the chromatography was measured at different times, to calculate the rate of labeled product and the radiochemical purity of the label, in vivo observation of its stability, and comparative analysis of selected optimal condition; iii) rat pituitary cell membrane protein, the product of in vitro radio-receptor marker analysis, through the saturation and inhibition experiments, was used to test its receptor binding activity; iv) Ch-T method labeled 125I-LHRH, tail vein injection of normal mice at different times were sacrificed, blood and major organs were determined and calculated per gram organization percentage injected dose rate (%, ID/g). Detected by immunohistochemistry in 23 cases of HCC in the LHRH-positive rate was 82.61%, in the corresponding normal tissues, the positive rate was 15%; 20 cases of breast cancer positive rate of 95%, the corresponding normal tissues, the positive rate was 20%; 10 cases of prostate cancer positive rate of 70%, the corresponding normal

  20. Initial direct comparison of 99mTc-TOC and 99mTc-TATE in identifying sites of disease in patients with proven GEP NETs.

    PubMed

    Cwikla, Jaroslaw B; Mikolajczak, Renata; Pawlak, Dariusz; Buscombe, John R; Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna; Bator, Andrzej; Maecke, Helmut R; Walecki, Jerzy

    2008-07-01

    The imaging of neuroendocrine tumors has become one of the most significant areas in nuclear oncology. In an attempt to provide high-quality imaging and possible sensitivity at a reduced cost, time, and radiation dose, several (99m)Tc agents have been proposed. The aim of this initial study was to compare the tumor uptake and biodistribution of 2 new 6-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC)-derivatized Tyr(3)-octreotide analogs, (99m)Tc-[HYNIC,Tyr(3)]octreotide ((99m)Tc-TOC) and (99m)Tc-[HYNIC,Tyr(3),Thr(8)]octreotide ((99m)Tc-TATE), in patients with somatostatin receptor-expressing tumors. Each of 12 patients with proven gastrointestinal pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors received a mean activity of 520 MBq of (99m)Tc-TOC and (99m)Tc-TATE. Scintigraphy with both tracers was performed 3-4 h after their injection using standard whole-body and SPECT imaging. The images were reviewed subjectively by 2 readers, who reported tumor uptake lesion by lesion. Both radiotracers demonstrated concordance between the results in 7 patients (58%). In total, 110 sites of disease were identified with (99m)Tc-TOC, compared with 115 with (99m)Tc-TATE. There was 1 case in which (99m)Tc-TOC identified sites of disease not seen on (99m)Tc-TATE imaging but 4 cases in which some sites of disease were seen with (99m)Tc-TATE and not (99m)Tc-TOC. In this initial study, both tracers seem to show similar sites of tumor, with (99m)Tc-TATE having a slight edge in the total number of lesions seen, especially in lymph node metastases.

  1. Study on 99mTc-MAG3 and 99mTc-DMSA renal accumulation using in vitro cellular model.

    PubMed

    Nový, Zbynĕk; Mandíková, Jana; Trejtnar, Frantisek

    2011-02-01

    Mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) labelled with technetium-99m belongs to standard renal radiodiagnostics. However, the renal transport mechanisms responsible for their high renal uptake have not been fully explained. In addition, no in vitro experimental study comparing the renal uptake of these radiopharmaceuticals at the cellular level has not been performed. The investigation compared the 99mTc-MAG3 and 99mTc-DMSA renal uptake using primary rat renal cells and evaluated contribution of active and passive transport processes to the renal accumulation. The renal cells were isolated from the rat kidneys by means of the two-phase collagenase perfusion method. The used experimental model showed to be useful tool for such type of investigation. The results documented significant quantitative and qualitative differences in the accumulation of 99mTc-DMSA and 99mTc-MAG3 in the rat isolated cells. The found experimental data indicated several times higher uptake of 99mTc-MAG3 than that found in 99mTc-DMSA. 99mTc-MAG3 cellular uptake was substantially decreased when active, energy-dependent processes were inhibited. However, 99mTc-DMSA accumulation in the renal cells demonstrated only a minor dependency on energy. These findings demonstrate a very different character of the membrane transport determining 99mTc-DMSA and 99mTc-MAG3 renal accumulation.

  2. Sclerosing cholangitis: cholescintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled DISIDA

    SciTech Connect

    Ament, A.E.; Bick, R.J.; Miraldi, F.D.; Haaga, J.R.; Wiedenmann, S.D.

    1984-04-01

    Four patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PCS) were examined with the hepatobiliary agent Tc-99m-labeled DISIDA (diisopropylphenylcarbamoyl iminodiacetic acid), and the results correlated with those of invasive cholangiography. Cholescintigraphy is superior to cholangiography in cases of suspected PSC where there is nonfilling of biliary radicals due to high-grade stenosis. The finding of delayed hepatic parenchymal clearance can allow estimation of the degree of obstruction of the various branches of the major bile ducts. Cholescintigraphy offers a noninvasive method of investigating patients with suspected sclerosing chloangitis, leading to earlier diagnosis. Confirmation with invasive cholangiographic procedures is recommended.

  3. Tc-99m glucoheptonate is poor man's fluorodeoxyglucose.

    PubMed

    Lele, Ramchandra D

    2011-10-01

    While fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) has emerged as an important radiotracer for imaging tumors, myocardial viability and infection, the role of other glucose analogues should also be explored. Tc-99m Glucoheptonate (GHA) has been used for imaging brain tumors and lung tumors. The uptake mechanism may be linked to GLUT-1 (Glucose transporter) and GLUT-4 expression similar to FDG. GHA is easily available and cheap. With the availability of single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT), GHA imaging should be re-explored as a tumor agent and also for imaging myocardial viability.

  4. Infected knee prosthesis: diagnosis with In-111 leukocyte, Tc-99m sulfur colloid, and Tc-99m MDP imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Palestro, C.J.; Swyer, A.J.; Kim, C.K.; Goldsmith, S.J. )

    1991-06-01

    Forty-one possible cases of infected total knee prostheses studied with indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-four of the prostheses were studied with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy and 19 with Tc-99m sulfur colloid marrow scintigraphy. Nine prostheses were infected, and 32 were uninfected. The accuracy of combined labeled leukocyte and sulfur colloid marrow imaging (95%) was higher than that of labeled leukocyte scintigraphy alone (78%), bone scintigraphy alone (74%), or combined labeled leukocyte and bone scintigraphy (75%). The authors conclude that combined labeled leukocyte and sulfur colloid imaging is an accurate method for diagnosis of infected knee prostheses. In this series, this technique was superior to labeled leukocyte and bone imaging, alone or in combination.

  5. A novel ternary ligand system useful for preparation of cationic (99m)Tc-diazenido complexes and (99m)Tc-labeling of small biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Seung; He, Zhengjie; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Liu, Shuang

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a novel ternary ligand system composed of a phenylhydrazine, a crown ether-containing dithiocarbamate (DTC), and a PNP-type bisphosphine (PNP). The combination of three different ligands with (99m)Tc results in cationic (99m)Tc-diazenido complexes, [(99m)Tc(NNAr)(DTC)(PNP)]+, with potential radiopharmaceuticals for heart imaging. Synthesis of cationic (99m)Tc-diazenido complexes can be accomplished in two steps. For example, the reaction of phenylhydrazine with (99m)TcO4- at 100 degrees C in the presence of excess stannous chloride and 1,2-diaminopropane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (PDTA) results in the [(99m)Tc(NNPh)(PDTA)n] intermediate, which then reacts with sodium N-(dithiocarbamato)-2-aminomethyl-15-Crown-5 (L4) and N,N-bis[2-(bis(3-ethoxypropyl)phosphino)ethyl]ethoxyethylamine (PNP6) at 100 degrees C for 15 min to give the complex, [(99m)Tc(NNPh)(L4)(PNP6)]+ in high yield (>90%). Cationic complexes [(99m)Tc(NNPh)(DTC)(PNP)]+ are stable for > or = 6 h. Their composition was determined to be 1:1:1:1 for Tc:NNPh:DTC:PNP using the mixed-ligand experiments on the tracer ((99m)Tc) level and was further confirmed by the ESI-MS spectral data of a model compound [Re(NNPh)(L4)(L6)]+. It was found that both DTCs and bisphosphines have a significant impact on the lipophilicity of their cationic (99m)Tc-diazenido complexes. Results from a (99m)Tc-labeling efficiency experiment showed that 4-hydrazinobenzoic acid (HYBA) might be useful as a bifunctional coupling agent for (99m)Tc-labeling of small biomolecules. However, the (99m)Tc-labeling efficiency of HYBA is much lower than that of 6-hydrazinonicotinic acid (HYNIC) with tricine and trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3',3''-trisulfonate (TPPTS) as coligands.

  6. 99mTc: Labeling Chemistry and Labeled Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberto, R.; Abram, U.

    This chapter reviews the radiopharmaceutical chemistry of technetium related to the synthesis of perfusion agents and to the labeling of receptor-binding biomolecules. To understand the limitations of technetium chemistry imposed by future application of the complexes in nuclear medicine, an introductory section analyzes the compulsory requirements to be considered when facing the incentive of introducing a novel radiopharmaceutical into the market. Requirements from chemistry, routine application, and market are discussed. In a subsequent section, commercially available 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals are treated. It covers the complexes in use for imaging the most important target organs such as heart, brain, or kidney. The commercially available radiopharmaceuticals fulfill the requirements outlined earlier and are discussed with this background. In a following section, the properties and perspectives of the different generations of radiopharmaceuticals are described in a general way, covering characteristics for perfusion agents and for receptor-specific molecules. Technetium chemistry for the synthesis of perfusion agents and the different labeling approaches for target-specific biomolecules are summarized. The review comprises a general introduction to the common approaches currently in use, employing the N x S4-x , [3+1] and 2-hydrazino-nicotinicacid (HYNIC) method as well as more recent strategies such as the carbonyl and the TcN approach. Direct labeling without the need of a bifunctional chelator is briefly reviewed as well. More particularly, recent developments in the labeling of concrete targeting molecules, the second generation of radiopharmaceuticals, is then discussed and prominent examples with antibodies/peptides, neuroreceptor targeting small molecules, myocardial imaging agents, vitamins, thymidine, and complexes relevant to multidrug resistance are given. In addition, a new approach toward peptide drug development is described. The section

  7. Lymphoscintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled dextran

    SciTech Connect

    Henze, E.; Schelbert, H.R.; Collins, J.D.; Najafi, A.; Barrio, J.R.; Bennett, L.R.

    1982-10-01

    Current agents for lymphoscintigraphy have limitations because of slow migration of the colloidal tracer from the injection site and the unknown effect of phagocytosis on the removal of the labelled particles. The usefulness of Tc-99m dextran (TcDx) with a molecular weight of 110,000 has been tested for lymphoscintigraphy. Computer-assisted dynamic imaging and serial blood sampling in 13 dog experiments demonstrated that the tracer cleared only by lymph drainage from an interstitial injection site. Following interdigital injection of 1.0 ml (0.5-5.0 mCi), TcDx reached the knee or elbow lymph nodes in 12.4 +/- 6.5 (1 s.d.) sec, and the inguinal or axillary lymph nodes in 98.0 +/- 42.3 sec. It cleared from the injection site with a half-time of 31.5 min. In a dog with surgically induced lymphedema, tracer migration was markedly delayed in the edematous leg and the radionuclide lymphoscintigram resembled the contrast lymphangiogram. Initial studies in man yielded high-quality radionuclide lymphograms of the leg, and the pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes. We concluded that TcDx is very promising for lymphoscintigraphy.

  8. Lymphoscintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled dextran

    SciTech Connect

    Henze, E.; Schelbert, H.R.; Collins, J.D.; Najafi, A.; Barrio, J.R.; Bennett, L.R.

    1982-10-01

    Current agents for lymphoscintigraphy have limitations because of slow migration of the colloidal tracers from the injection site and the unknown effect of phagocytosis on the removal of the labeled particles. The usefulness of Tc-99m dextran (TcDx) with a molecular weight of 110,000 has been tested for lymphoscintigraphy. Computer-assisted dynamic imaging and serial blood sampling in 13 dog experiments demonstrated that the tracer cleared only by lymph drainage from an interstitial injection site. Following interdigital injection of 1.0 ml (0.5-5.0 mCi), TcDx reached the knee or elbow lymph nodes in 12.4 +/- 6.5 (1 s.d.) sec, and the inguinal or axillary lymph nodes in 98.0 +/- 42.3 sec. It cleared from the injection site with a half-time of 31.5 min. In a dog with surgically induced lymphedema, tracer migration was markedly delayed in the edematous leg and the radionuclide lymphoscintigram resembled the contrast lymphangiogram. Initial studies in man yielded high-quality radionuclide lymphograms of the leg, and the pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes. We conclude that TcDx is very promising for lymphoscintigraphy.

  9. Different uptake of 99mTc-ECD adn 99mTc-HMPAO in the same brains: analysis by statistical parametric mapping.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Y; Lee, J S; Rha, J H; Lee, I K; Ha, C K; Lee, D S

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) uptake in the same brains by means of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. We examined 20 patients (9 male, 11 female, mean age 62+/-12 years) using 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain less than 7 days after onset of stroke. MRI showed no cortical infarctions. Infarctions in the pons (6 patients) and medulla (1), ischaemic periventricular white matter lesions (13) and lacunar infarction (7) were found on MRI. Split-dose and sequential SPET techniques were used for 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPET, without repositioning of the patient. All of the SPET images were spatially transformed to standard space, smoothed and globally normalized. The differences between the 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO SPET images were statistically analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 96 software. The difference between two groups was considered significant at a threshold of uncorrected P values less than 0.01. Visual analysis showed no hypoperfused areas on either 99mTc-ECD or 99mTc-HMPAO SPET images. SPM analysis revealed significantly different uptake of 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO in the same brains. On the 99mTc-ECD SPET images, relatively higher uptake was observed in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes, in the left superior temporal lobe and in the superior region of the cerebellum. On the 99mTc-HMPAO SPET images, relatively higher uptake was observed in the medial temporal lobes, thalami, periventricular white matter and brain stem. These differences in uptake of the two tracers in the same brains on SPM analysis suggest that interpretation of cerebral perfusion is possible using SPET with 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO.

  10. Discrepancies in brain perfusion SPECT findings between Tc-99m HMPAO and Tc-99m ECD: evaluation using dynamic SPECT in patients with hyperemia.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, N; Koizumi, K; Mitsuka, S; Nukui, H

    1998-10-01

    Discrepancies have been reported between the findings of Tc-99m HMPAO and Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT imaging. This study investigated the discrepancies in the accumulation of these tracers using dynamic SPECT to detect the super early phase of distribution. Thirteen patients with luxury perfusion or high flow states were studied with both dynamic and standard SPECT using Tc-99m HMPAO and Tc-99m ECD within 1-3 days. Standard SPECT showed discrepancies in 6 of 13 patients. Patients with meningioma and cerebral thrombosis had increased accumulation of Tc-99m HMPAO and decreased uptake of Tc-99m ECD. Patients with arteriovenous malformation, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and cavernous angioma had decreased accumulation of both tracers, but to different degrees. Dynamic SPECT showed increased or normal accumulation (i.e., essentially no discrepancy) in the first few minutes. However, Tc-99m HMPAO had a longer retention time than Tc-99m ECD in the ensuing 5-10 minutes. Dynamic SPECT revealed a similar accumulation pattern but different washout rates for the two tracers. Tc-99m HMPAO might be a more suitable tracer to detect high flow states or luxury perfusion because the findings on standard SPECT were more in agreement with those of dynamic SPECT using this tracer.

  11. Tc-99m sestamibi bone marrow scintigraphy in Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Aharoni, Dvora; Krausz, Yodphat; Elstein, Deborah; Hadas-Halpern, Irith; Zimran, Ari

    2002-07-01

    No imaging technique has been found to be adequate to assess the severity and extent of bone involvement in patients with Gaucher disease. Marrow involvement, as determined by Tc-99m sulfur colloid, correlated well with the clinical and radiologic changes of the skeleton, but a normal pattern was found in the early stages of the disease. Subsequently, Tc-99m sestamibi (MIBI) has been suggested for direct visualization of glycolipid deposits in the bone marrow. This study was initiated as a pilot using MIBI to detect various forms of bone disease in patients with Gaucher disease of varying severity. Eleven patients (9 men; median age, 39.9; age range, 21 to 61 years) were evaluated. The clinical severity of disease was scored at presentation, and four patients with moderate to severe disease were treated with enzyme replacement therapy. Each patient underwent a radiographic skeletal survey, bone densitometry, and MIBI scintigraphy. The scan included static images of the lower limbs, with a whole-body scan acquired between the early and late acquisition. Tracer uptake in the bone marrow was graded and correlated with clinical and objective variables. All but one patient had increased MIBI uptake in the bone marrow. No correlation was noted between MIBI uptake and severity score, radiographic changes, densitometry z score, or treatment status. MIBI scanning is a sensitive technique for detecting bone marrow deposits in Gaucher disease, but it is inadequate for early identification of patients at high risk for skeletal complications or for the follow-up of patients treated with enzyme replacement.

  12. Development of 99mTc-neomannosyl human serum albumin (99mTc-MSA) as a novel receptor binding agent for sentinel lymph node imaging.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae Min; Hong, Mee Kyung; Kim, Young Joo; Lee, Jaetae; Kang, Joo Hyun; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2004-12-01

    Various mannose receptor-binding agents, for example 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-mannosyl-polymer, have been developed for sentinel lymph node (SLN) imaging. In order to simplify the synthesis and labelling procedure and to improve the biological properties, we developed a novel mannose receptor-binding agent, 99mTc-neomannosyl human serum albumin (99mTc-MSA), for SLN imaging. MSA was synthesized by conjugating mannopyranosylphenylisothiocyanate to human serum albumin (HSA). After reducing MSA with beta-mercaptoethanol and PD-10 column purification, a medronate solution containing stannous fluoride was added, divided into aliquots and freeze-dried. Reduced MSA was labelled with 99mTc-pertechnetate solution. The stability was checked for 24 h at 37 degrees C in human serum. The biodistribution of 99mTc-MSA in mice was investigated by intravenous injection through the tail vein and subcutaneous injection into the foot pad. The biodistributions of 99mTc-HSA and 99mTc-antimony sulphur colloid (99mTc-ASC) were also investigated for comparison. Dynamic whole-body images were obtained for 30 min after subcutaneous injection into the rats' foot pads. The number of mannose molecules conjugated per MSA was 15.9. The number of thiol groups produced was 19.4 per MSA after reduction with beta-mercaptoethanol. Labelling yields were always higher than 97%. 99mTc-MSA was stable for 24 h at 37 degrees C in human serum. The biodistribution in mice after intravenous injection showed high liver uptake (50.7+/-5.5% and 42.7+/-3.7% injected dose per gram at 10 and 60 min, respectively). 99mTc-MSA and 99mTc-ASC showed high accumulation in the lymph nodes after subcutaneous injection, whereas 99mTc-HSA and Tc-tin colloid did not, in both biodistribution and imaging studies. We have successfully developed a novel 99mTc-MSA for lymphoscintigraphy. The results of animal studies show that 99mTc-MSA has promising properties for SLN imaging.

  13. Generation of parametric images during routine Tc-99m PYP inhalation/Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scintigraphy. Technical note.

    PubMed

    Miron, S D; Wiesen, E J; Feiglin, D H; Cohen, A M; Bellon, E M

    1991-07-01

    A simple technique is described for generating ventilation/perfusion ratio and perfusion/ventilation ratio images from the posterior Tc-99m PYP aerosol inhalation and Tc-99m MAA perfusion images obtained during routine lung scintigraphy. These images highlight areas of ventilation/perfusion incongruence--mismatch or reverse mismatch--that may sometimes be difficult to detect on conventional images.

  14. Evaluation of 99mTc-labeled cyclic RGD dimers: impact of cyclic RGD peptides and 99mTc chelates on biological properties.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Kim, Young-Seung; Lu, Xin; Liu, Shuang

    2012-03-21

    The main objective of this study is to explore the impact of cyclic RGD peptides and (99m)Tc chelates on biological properties of (99m)Tc radiotracers. Cyclic RGD peptide conjugates, HYNIC-K(NIC)-RGD(2) (HYNIC = 6-hydrazinonicotinyl; RGD(2) = E[c(RGDfK)](2) and NIC = nicotinyl), HYNIC-K(NIC)-3G-RGD(2) (3G-RGD(2) = Gly-Gly-Gly-E[Gly-Gly-Gly-c(RGDfK)](2)), and HYNIC-K(NIC)-3P-RGD(2) (3P-RGD(2) = PEG(4)-E[PEG(4)-c(RGDfK)](2)), were prepared. Macrocyclic (99m)Tc complexes [(99m)Tc(HYNIC-K(NIC)-RGD(2))(tricine)] (1), [(99m)Tc(HYNIC-K(NIC)-3G-RGD(2))(tricine)] (2), and [(99m)Tc(HYNIC-K(NIC)-3P-RGD(2))(tricine)] (3) were evaluated for their biodistribution and tumor-targeting capability in athymic nude mice bearing MDA-MB-435 human breast tumor xenografts. It was found that 1, 2, and 3 could be prepared with high specific activity (∼111 GBq/μmol). All three (99m)Tc radiotracers have two major isomers, which show almost identical uptake in tumors and normal organs. Replacing the bulky and highly charged [(99m)Tc(HYNIC)(tricine)(TPPTS)] (TPPTS = trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3',3″-trisulfonate) with a smaller [(99m)Tc(HYNIC-K(NIC))(tricine)] resulted in less uptake in the kidneys and lungs for 3. Surprisingly, all three (99m)Tc radiotracers shared a similar tumor uptake (1, 5.73 ± 0.40%ID/g; 2, 5.24 ± 1.09%ID/g; and 3, 4.94 ± 1.71%ID/g) at 60 min p.i. The metabolic stability of (99m)Tc radiotracers depends on cyclic RGD peptides (3P-RGD(2) > 3G-RGD(2) ∼ RGD(2)) and (99m)Tc chelates ([(99m)Tc(HYNIC)(tricine)(TPPTS)] > [(99m)Tc(HYNIC-K(NIC))(tricine)]). Immunohistochemical studies revealed a linear relationship between the α(v)β(3) expression levels and tumor uptake or tumor/muscle ratios of 3, suggesting that 3 is useful for monitoring the tumor α(v)β(3) expression. Complex 3 is a very attractive radiotracer for detection of integrin α(v)β(3)-positive tumors.

  15. Differential Lung Uptake of 99mTc-HMPAO and 99mTc-Duramycin in the Chronic Hyperoxia Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Clough, Anne V.; Audi, Said H.; Haworth, Steven T.; Roerig, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive radionuclide imaging has the potential to identify and assess mechanisms involved in particular stages of lung injury which occur with acute respiratory distress syndrome, for example. Lung uptake of 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) is reported to be partially dependent on the redox status of the lung tissue while 99mTc-duramycin, a new marker of cell injury, senses cell death via apoptosis and/or necrosis. Thus, we investigated changes in lung uptake of these agents in rat exposed to hyperoxia for prolonged periods, a common model of acute lung injury. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-exposed to either normoxia (21% O2) or hyperoxia (85% O2) for up to 21 days. For imaging, the rats were anesthetized, injected i.v. with either 99mTc-HMPAO or 99mTc-duramycin (37-74 MBq) and planar images were acquired using a high sensitivity modular gamma camera. Subsequently, 99mTc-macroagreggated albumin (37 MBq, diam=10-40 μm) was injected i.v., imaged, and used to define a lung region-of-interest. The lung to background ratio was used as a measure of lung uptake. Results Hyperoxia exposure resulted in a 74% increase in 99mTc-HMPAO lung uptake, which peaked at 7 days and persisted for the 21 days of exposure. 99mTc-duramycin lung uptake was also maximal at 7 days of exposure but decreased to near control levels by 21 days. The sustained elevation of 99mTc-HMPAO uptake suggests ongoing changes in lung redox status whereas cell death appears to have subsided by 21 days. Conclusion These results suggest the potential use of 99mTc-HMPAO and 99mTc-duramycin as redox and cell-death imaging biomarkers, respectively, for in vivo identification and assessment of different stages of lung injury. PMID:23086010

  16. A Novel Ternary Ligand System Useful for Preparation of Cationic 99mTc-Diazenido Complexes and 99mTc-Labeling of Small Biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Seung; He, Zhengjie; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Liu, Shuang

    2008-01-01

    This report describes a novel ternary ligand system composed of a phenylhydrazine, a crown ether-containing dithiocarbamate (DTC) and a PNP-type bisphosphine (PNP). The combination of three different ligands with 99mTc results in cationic 99mTc-diazenido complexes,[99mTc(NNAr)(DTC)(PNP)]+, with potential radiopharmaceuticals for heart imaging. Synthesis of cationic 99mTc-diazenido complexes can be accomplished in two steps with high yield. For example, the reaction of phenylhydrazine with 99mTcO4− at 100 °C in the presence of excess stannous chloride and 1,2-diaminopropane-N,N,N’,N’-tetraacetic acid (PDTA) results in the [99mTc(NNPh)(PDTA)n] intermediate, which then reacts with sodium N-(dithiocarbamato)-2-aminimethyl-15-Crown-5 (L4) and N,N-bis[2-(bis(3-ethoxypropyl)phosphino)ethyl]ethoxy-ethylamine (PNP6) at 100 °C for 15 min to give the complex, [99mTc(NNPh)(L4)(PNP6)]+ in high yield (> 90%). Cationic complexes [99mTc(NNPh)(DTC)(PNP)]+ are stable for ≥6 h. Their composition was determined to be 1:1:1:1 for Tc:NNPh:DTC:PNP using the mixed-ligand experiments on the tracer (99mTc) level, and was further confirmed by the ESI-MS spectral data of a model compound [Re(NNPh)(L4)(L6)]+. It was found that both DTCs and bisphosphines have a significant impact on the lipophilicity of their cationic 99mTc-diazenido complexes. Results from a 99mTc-labeling efficiency experiment showed that 4-hydrazinobenzoic acid (HYBA) might be useful as a bifunctional coupling agent for 99mTc-labeling of small biomolecules. However, the 99mTc-labeling efficiency of HYBA is much lower than that of 6-hydrazinonicotinic acid (HYNIC) with tricine and trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3’,3”-trisulfonate (TPPTS) as coligands. PMID:16536480

  17. Importance of the two ester functions for the brain retention of 99mTc-labelled ethylene dicysteine diethyl ester (99mTc-ECD).

    PubMed

    Vanbilloen, H P; Cleynhens, B J; Verbruggen, A M

    1998-08-01

    99mTc-ethylene dicysteine diethyl ester (99mTc-L,L-ECD) is a neutral lipophilic tracer agent that crosses the blood-brain barrier and is retained in the brain of primates following enzymatic hydrolysis of one of the ester functions to the ionized mono-ester, mono-acid metabolite. Up to now, it is not clear whether the second ethylcarboxylate group is essential for brain uptake and retention. Therefore, we have synthesized and studied two derivatives of 99mTc-L,L-ECD that contain only one ethylcarboxylate function, namely 99mTc-labelled L- and D-ethylene cysteamine cysteine ethyl ester (99mTc-ECCE). Direct labelling of L- or D-ECCE at neutral pH and room temperature resulted for each of them in the formation of two probably diastereomeric 99mTc-complexes in a 1:1 ratio. This means that four different isomers could be isolated. The 99mTc-labelled complexes formed after labelling ECCE (A and B, in order of elution during HPLC) are slightly less lipophilic than 99mTc-L,L-ECD. In mice, all four isomers show a low brain activity at 10 min post injection (p.i.), approximately 0.1% to 0.3% of the injected dose versus 0.9% for 99mTc-L,L-ECD. The clearance from the blood is comparable with (isomers LA and LB) or slower (isomers DA and DB) than that of 99mTc-L,L-ECD. Isomers LA and DA show high liver uptake and rapid excretion to the intestines. Both 99mTc-ECCE-LB and 99mTc-ECCE-DB, the most lipophilic isomers, are cleared from the blood mainly by the kidneys and excreted more efficiently to the urine. 99mTc-ECCE-LB is characterized by a surprisingly high heart uptake (about 1.5% of i.d.) at 10 min p.i. versus 1.0% for 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) and 0.2-0.3% for the other isomers, but also lung uptake is relatively high. In the baboon, brain and heart uptake of isomers LA and LB of 99mTc-ECCE were negligible. Activity concentrated mostly in the hepatobiliary system for isomer LA and in the renal system for isomer LB. The results indicate a clear difference

  18. Congenital renal anomaly: evaluation with 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, S; Kawamura, J; Tomoyoshi, T; Yoshida, O

    1983-05-01

    Technetium 99m-2,3, dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) preferentially accumulates in the renal cortex, demonstrating functioning cortical mass. We used 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in ten patients with horseshoe kidneys and five patients with unilateral fused kidneys. The results show that 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy reliably establishes the diagnosis of horseshoe kidney and clearly shows the isthmus, which is very essential for proper management. The technique also aids in the definitive assessment of separate kidney function and of total radionuclide uptake is possible using 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy.

  19. Congenital renal anomaly: evaluation with 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokawa, S.; Kawamura, J.; Tomoyoshi, T.; Yoshida, O.

    1983-05-01

    Technetium 99m-2,3, dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) preferentially accumulates in the renal cortex, demonstrating functioning cortical mass. We used 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in ten patients with horseshoe kidneys and five patients with unilateral fused kidneys. The results show that 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy reliably establishes the diagnosis of horseshoe kidney and clearly shows the isthmus, which is very essential for proper management. The technique also aids in the definitive assessment of separate kidney function and of total radionuclide uptake is possible using 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy.

  20. Comparison of efficacy of Tc-99m HIG and Tc-99m nanocolloid on sentinel lymph node mapping in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, Hulya; Gençoglu, Esra Arzu; Yagmurdur, Mahmut; Aras, Murat; Ozen, Aynur; Aktas, Ayse

    2010-10-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of Tc-99m human polyclonal immunoglobulin (HIG) and Tc-99m nanocolloid at detecting sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) with lymphoscintigraphy and an intraoperative gamma-probe (IGP) in patients with early breast cancer. The study group consisted of 50 women; 25 patients each were given Tc-99m HIG or Tc-99m nanocolloid for lymphoscintigraphy. Then, intraoperative SLN localization with IGP was performed. The results of IGP, lymphoscintigraphy, blue dye injected just before surgery, and pathology were compared. In the Tc-99m HIG group, one patient had tumours in both breasts. In two patients, we could not detect SLNs with lymphoscintigraphy, although they were detected with IGP and blue dye. We found SLNs for all tumours with IGP. With the intraoperative blue dye, SLNs were identified for 25 tumours; for one tumour, no SLN was detected with blue dye. In the histopathological examination, 13 tumours showed metastasis in the SLN and in 11 of these 13, there were also metastases in the axilla. One patient had a skip metastasis. In the Tc-99m nanocolloid group, SLNs were identified in 24 patients with lymphoscintigraphy. IGP found SLNs in 24 patients. The blue dye detected SLNs in all patients. On histopathological examination, 10 patients had metastasis in the SLN and there were also metastases in the axilla in all of these patients. Tc-99m HIG can be used in SLN detection with preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and IGP in early-stage breast cancer patients.

  1. Tc-99m MDP, thallium-201 chloride and Tc-99m MAG3 renal uptake in subacute and chronic radiation nephritis compared.

    PubMed

    Degirmenci, B; Uysal, K; Bekis, R; Cetingoz, R; Kaya, G C; Durak, H

    2001-10-01

    The authors present a comparison of the findings for thallium-201 (Tl-201), Tc-99m MAG3 and Tc-99m MDP in subacute and chronic radiation nephritis in a 9-yr-old boy who was treated by radiation therapy for alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the left chest wall by a radiation port that partially included the left kidney. Tl-201 imaging three and six months later showed a cortical defect in the left kidney due to radiation nephritis. Tc-99m MDP scan showed increased uptake on both occasions, but more marked in the subacute period than in the chronic period. Tc-99m MAG3 showed decreased concentration and increased cortical retention three months later. Six months after the radiation therapy, a cortical defect corresponding to the cortical area that showed increased parenchymal retention was more prominent in the Tc-99m MAG3 scan. In the present case, Tc-99m MDP, Tl-201 and Tc-99m MAG3 findings may provide useful information for understanding pathophysiological damage in the kidney after radiation.

  2. Tc-99m Ethylenedicysteine and Tc-99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid Scintigraphy-Comparison of the Two for Detection of Scarring and Differential Cortical Function.

    PubMed

    Dharmalingam, Anitha; Pawar, Shwetal U; Parelkar, Sandesh V; Shetye, Suruchi S; Ghorpade, Mangala K; Tilve, Gundu H

    2017-01-01

    The differential cortical function obtained by Tc-99m EC is comparable to that of Tc-99m DMSA. However, identification of scars on Tc-99m EC images needs to be studied. The aim of the study is to evaluate role of Tc-99m EC for detection of scarring and differential cortical function by comparing with Tc-99m DMSA. Prospective observational study of recurrent UTI; minimum 6 weeks after acute episode; when urine examination is negative for pus cells. Forty-seven children with normal positioned kidneys underwent Tc-99m EC and DMSA scintigraphy. The DRF and cortical phase images of both studies in the same image matrix size were evaluated by two independent observers for scarring; Tc-99m DMSA was considered as the gold standard. MS Excel 2007 and GraphPad Instat V3.1 and ROC analysis. There was no significant difference in the detection of scarring using two studies with Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ) 0.932. The sensitivity and specificity of Tc-99m EC for detection of scarring was 98.75% and 99.15%, respectively. There was good agreement between the differential cortical function calculated using two studies. The summed Tc-99m EC images with an acceptable high image contrast allow detection of cortical scarring in patients with normal kidney positions. It is an excellent single-modality comprehensive investigational agent for renal parenchymal defects, function, and excretion evaluation with the added advantages of lower cost, convenience, and low radiation exposure to the child.

  3. (99m)Tc sulfur colloid and (99m)Tc mebrofenin hepatobiliary functional liver imaging in normal and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Saeedi, Fatma; Loutfi, Issa

    2011-01-01

    To use (99m)Tc sulfur colloid ((99m)Tc-SC) and (99m)Tc mebrofenin ((99m)Tc-BrIDA) to study liver function in normal and diabetic rats. Radionuclide imaging was performed on 2 groups of rats, using (99m)Tc-SC for one group and (99m)Tc-BrIDA for the other (20 rats per group) before and after induction of diabetes mellitus (DM) using streptozotocin administration (55 mg/kg i.p.). Dynamic acquisition was obtained for 1 h after the injection of 37 MBq of radiotracer. For the (99m)Tc-SC group, organ/tissue uptake was determined by drawing regions of interest (ROI) over the heart, liver, spleen and also the whole body (WB). The ratio of the ROI of each organ to the WB ROI was calculated. For (99m)Tc-BrIDA, ratios of cumulative count rates in liver, liver parenchyma, biliary tree and abdomen ROI to a WB ROI were also calculated. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the ratios of organ/tissue uptake to WB uptake before and after DM induction using the paired t test. (99m)Tc-SC uptake ratios (means ±SD) showed a lower liver-to-WB uptake ratio (0.75 ± 0.05) in the rats after DM induction compared to baseline (0.81 ± 0.06), while the cardiac blood pool showed higher uptake ratios in the rats after DM induction (p = 0.026). For (99m)Tc-BrIDA, there was no significant difference in radiotracer uptake ratios obtained from the rats before and after DM induction (p = 0.41). Using functional liver imaging, there was a statistically significant decrease in the liver phagocytic/reticuloendothelial system function after DM induction, as evidenced by decreased (99m)Tc-SC liver uptake and increased blood pool compared to prediabetes, while the hepatobiliary function remained unchanged after DM induction using (99m)Tc-BrIDA imaging. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Differential uptake of Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC in renal tubular disorders: Report of two cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Reddy Gorla, Arun Kumar; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2014-01-01

    Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC studies are invaluable functional imaging modalities for renal structural and functional assessment. Normally, the relative renal function estimated by the two methods correlates well with each other. We here present two patients with renal tubular acidosis who showed impaired/altered DMSA uptake with normal EC renal dynamic study depicting the pitfall of DMSA imaging in tubular disorders. The two presented cases also depict distinct pattern of Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphic findings in patients with proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis, thus highlighting the factors affecting DMSA kinetics. PMID:25210282

  5. Differential uptake of Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC in renal tubular disorders: Report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Reddy Gorla, Arun Kumar; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2014-07-01

    Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC studies are invaluable functional imaging modalities for renal structural and functional assessment. Normally, the relative renal function estimated by the two methods correlates well with each other. We here present two patients with renal tubular acidosis who showed impaired/altered DMSA uptake with normal EC renal dynamic study depicting the pitfall of DMSA imaging in tubular disorders. The two presented cases also depict distinct pattern of Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphic findings in patients with proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis, thus highlighting the factors affecting DMSA kinetics.

  6. 99mTc-HMPAO-labeled WBC scan for the diagnosis of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Tyler A; Berven, Michael D; Vroman, Penny J

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this teaching case study is to demonstrate the novel use of (99m)Tc-HMPAO-labeled white blood cells (WBCs) in diagnosing chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO). (99m)Tc-HMPAO-labeled white blood cells were utilized to diagnose CRMO. Classically, CRMO is evaluated scintigraphically using (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate/hydroxymethylene diphosphonate. (99m)Tc-HMPAO-labeled WBCs were chosen over (111)In-labeled WBCs because of the former's improved imaging characteristics and decreased radiation dose. (99m)Tc-HMPAO-labeled WBCs were successful in diagnosing CRMO. (99m)Tc-HMPAO-labeled WBC scanning is specific for the diagnosis of CRMO. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  7. 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 Scintimammography in the Assessment of Breast Lesions: Comparative Study with 99mTc-MIBI

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shi; Ji, Tiefeng; Wen, Qiang; Song, Yan; Zhu, Lei; Xu, Zheli; Liu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the potential application of 99mTc-3P-Arg-Gly-Asp (99mTc-3P4-RGD2) scintimammography (SMM) and 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) SMM for the differentiation of malignant from benign breast lesions. Method Thirty-six patients with breast masses on physical examination and/or suspicious mammography results that required fine needle aspiration cytology biopsy (FNAB) were included in the study. 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 and 99mTc-MIBI SMM were performed with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at 60 min and 20 min respectively after intravenous injection of 738±86 MBq radiotracers on a separate day. Images were evaluated by the tumor to non-tumor localization ratios (T/NT). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed on each radiotracer to calculate the cut-off values of quantitative indices and to compare the diagnostic performance for the ability to differentiate malignant from benign diseases. Results The mean T/NT ratio of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 in malignant lesions was significantly higher than that in benign lesions (3.54±1.51 vs. 1.83±0.98, p<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SMM were 89.3%, 90.9% and 89.7%, respectively, with a T/NT cut-off value of 2.40. The mean T/NT ratio of 99mTc-MIBI in malignant lesions was also significantly higher than that in benign lesions (2.86±0.99 vs. 1.51±0.61, p<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 99mTc-MIBI SMM were 87.5%, 72.7% and 82.1%, respectively, with a T/NT cut-off value of 1.45. According to the ROC analysis, the area under the curve for 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SMM (area = 0.851) was higher than that for 99mTc-MIBI SMM (area = 0.781), but the statistical difference was not significant. Conclusion 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SMM does not provide any significant advantage over the established 99mTc-MIBI SMM for the detection of primary breast cancer. The T/NT ratio of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SMM was significantly higher than that of 99mTc

  8. Evaluation of residual functional lung volume on Tc-99m DTPA aerosol ventilation and Tc-99m MAA perfusion scintigraphy in primary ciliary dyskinesia (Kartagener syndrome).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Chang, Chin-Chuan; Lai, Yung-Chuang; Lu, Chia-Ying; Dai, Zen-Kong

    2008-12-01

    Kartagener syndrome is diagnosed as sinusitis, bronchitis (bronchiectasis), and situs inversus by the clinical features. It is a subclass of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) disease. A 12-year-old girl who had frequent upper and lower airway infections since birth, which was confirmed as Kartagener syndrome by HRCT imaging. We present the residual functional lung volume and mucociliary clearance findings seen on Tc-99m DTPA aerosol ventilation and Tc-99m MAA perfusion scintigraphy.

  9. Tc-99m DTPA uptake in extramedullary plasmacytoma of the retroperitoneum

    SciTech Connect

    Aburano, T.; Yokoyama, K.; Michigishi, T.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K.

    1988-12-01

    A case is presented in which uptake of Tc-99m DTPA has been demonstrated in an extramedullary plasmacytoma of the retroperitoneum. Because Ga-67 citrate does not concentrate in the same areas as Tc-99m DTPA, a radionuclide-specific uptake mechanism may be present. Extramedullary plasmacytoma should be included in the list of possible causes if extrarenal or extracentral nervous system uptake of Tc-99m DTPA occurs.

  10. Usage of radiopharmaceuticals in the development of pharmaceutical drug delivery systems: validation of [99mTc]DTPA and [99mTc]ECD.

    PubMed

    Terán, Mariella; Savio, Eduardo; Paolino, Andrea; Frier, Malcolm

    2004-03-01

    Tablets containing drugs of different lipophilicity, ranitidine and cinarizine, and placebo were prepared and their in vitro behaviour was studied by dissolution and disintegration tests. [(99m)Tc]Diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid ([(99m)Tc]DTPA) and [(99m)Tc]ethyl cysteinate dimer ([(99m)Tc]ECD) were used as tracers of the process. Both of them were added to tablets during wet granulation. Dissolution and disintegration profiles were assessed at different pH values (1, 4 and 7). Radioactivity was evaluated in filtered samples and scintigraphic studies were carried out in gamma camera. Stability in dissolution media was confirmed for both tracers under these conditions. Dissolution and disintegration velocity constants were calculated. [(99m)Tc]DTPA proved to be an appropriate tracer for polar drugs such as ranitidine. Nevertheless, it was not a suitable tracer for lipophilic active drugs such as cinarizine. On the other hand, the most lipophilic tracer, [(99m)Tc]ECD, exhibited the opposite behaviour. Scintigraphic studies of the disintegration process did not show significant differences between placebos and tablets containing active drugs. As disintegration is a physical process it does not discriminate between chemical differences in tablet formulations. Both methods complement each other because the dissolution process can be followed when a suitable radiotracer is chosen according to the physicochemical characteristics of the active drug.

  11. Lessons from the Tc-99m shortage: implications of substituting Tl-201 for Tc-99m single-photon emission computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Small, Gary R; Ruddy, Terrence D; Simion, Oana; Alam, Mohammed; Fuller, Lyanne; Chen, Li; Beanlands, Rob S; Chow, Benjamin J W

    2013-09-01

    In 2009, the Chalk River nuclear reactor closed for repairs that led to a critical shortage of technetium-99m (Tc-99m). Several centers used thallium-201 (Tl-201) as an alternative radiotracer for myocardial perfusion imaging. Because Tl-201 is considered by many as a suboptimal radiotracer, we sought to understand the impact of using Tl-201 (during the Tc-99m shortage) on downstream resource utilization. We performed a retrospective study at the Ottawa Heart Institute of 7402 patients (60% men; mean age, 62.6 ± 11.8 years), patients were referred for myocardial perfusion imaging between May 2008 and January 2011 (PRE_Tc-99m [2938 patients]), during (DURING_Tl-201 [2959 patients]), and after (POST_Tc-99m [1505 patients]) the Tc-99m shortage. Patients were followed for 6 months after their index myocardial perfusion imaging to determine subsequent rates of cardiac catheterization or noninvasive imaging. More downstream testing was seen in the Tl-201 cohort (639 [21.4%] patients) than the Tc-99m cohort (537 [12.1%] patients; P<0.001). After adjustment using propensity scores, differences in downstream referral rates were maintained. The downstream investigations resulted in an estimated increase in per-patient costs ($165.22; 95% confidence interval, 153.00-177.42) in the DURING_Tl-201 cohort compared with the Tc-99m cohort ($90.97; 95% confidence interval, 83.42-98.90; P<0.001). As well, the mean effective radiation dose per-patient was higher in DURING_Tl-201 (23.57 mSv; 95% confidence interval, 23.16-23.96) than in Tc-99m (12.92 mSv; 95% confidence interval, 12.55-13.40; P<0.001). In this single-center study, the use of Tl-201 during the Tc-99m shortage was associated with an increase in downstream testing, cost, and patient radiation exposure, but these findings may not be generalizable to other centers. Although Tl-201 provided a short-term solution to the unexpected Tc-99m shortage, long-term cost-effective solutions should be areas of future study.

  12. Tc-99m hexamethylpropylene-amine oxine (HM-PAO) uptake in a bone metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshi, H.; Jinnouchi, S.; Sameshima, M.; Uwada, O.; Watanabe, K.

    1988-08-01

    Uptake of Tc-99m Hexamethylpropylene-amine Oxine (HM-PAO) was seen in bone metastases from carcinoma of the lung. The uptake was prominent when compared to Tc-99m MDP, I-123 IMP, and Ga-67 citrate. Brain imaging with Tc-99m HM-PAO and N-isopropyl-p-(I-123) iodoamphetamine (IMP) is now frequently performed. Uptake of these agents has been reported in brain tumors and melanomas. In this report, uptake of Tc-99m HM-PAO in a metastatic lesion in bone is discussed.

  13. Studies on the separation of 99mTc from large excess of molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Wojdowska, Wioletta; Pawlak, Dariusz; Parus, Józef L; Mikołajczak, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Due to aging and unexpected prolonged shutdown of nuclear reactors producing ⁹⁹Mo for ⁹⁹Mo/ 99mTc generators it was necessary to explore the alternative methods of technetium-99m production. The first choice were the accelerators. Three years ago IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) initiated the Coordinated Research Project "Accelerator-based Alternatives to Non-HEU production of Mo-99 /Tc-99m" aimed at direct production of 99mTc in proton accelerators using the ¹⁰⁰Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction. POLATOM is participating in this enterprise together with the Heavy Ion Laboratory of Warsaw University and the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. ⁹⁹Mo/99mTc solutions and pure 99mTc used for generators production or milked from ready to use generators were used in experiments. Commercial chromatographic and laboratory-prepared columns were used for separation. The peristaltic pumps were used for solutions delivery onto the columns. Radioactivity of eluted ⁹⁹Mo and 99mTc was measured using high resolution gamma spectrometry or ionisation chamber in case of high radioactivity. For separation, three different chromatographic methods were used, one based on ion exchange and two on extraction. Synthetic mixtures simulating the real solutions were used. 99mTc is quantitatively bound in the Dowex-1 × 8 column whereas molybdenum is only slightly retained and totally rinsed with 2M NaOH. 99mTc is eluted with TBAB. The elution yield has been reproducible and amounted to 78%. The AnaLig Tc-02 resin column was used for 99mTc retention. Residual Mo was removed by rinsing with 2M NaOH and 99mTc eluted using small volume of water. The recovery was equal to about 85%. Using C-18 column coated with PEG over 80% of 99mTc was recovered in about 50 mL of water. The reduction of volume was necessary. The recovery of 99mTc was the highest using AnaLig Tc-02 resin. Time of 99mTc separation is the shortest for AnaLig Tc-02 resin and it is not higher than 100

  14. 99mTc-labeled HYNIC-DAPI causes plasmid DNA damage with high efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kotzerke, Joerg; Punzet, Robert; Runge, Roswitha; Ferl, Sandra; Oehme, Liane; Wunderlich, Gerd; Freudenberg, Robert

    2014-01-01

    (99m)Tc is the standard radionuclide used for nuclear medicine imaging. In addition to gamma irradiation, (99m)Tc emits low-energy Auger and conversion electrons that deposit their energy within nanometers of the decay site. To study the potential for DNA damage, direct DNA binding is required. Plasmid DNA enables the investigation of the unprotected interactions between molecules and DNA that result in single-strand breaks (SSBs) or double-strand breaks (DSBs); the resulting DNA fragments can be separated by gel electrophoresis and quantified by fluorescent staining. This study aimed to compare the plasmid DNA damage potential of a (99m)Tc-labeled HYNIC-DAPI compound with that of (99m)Tc pertechnetate ((99m)TcO4(-)). pUC19 plasmid DNA was irradiated for 2 or 24 hours. Direct and radical-induced DNA damage were evaluated in the presence or absence of the radical scavenger DMSO. For both compounds, an increase in applied activity enhanced plasmid DNA damage, which was evidenced by an increase in the open circular and linear DNA fractions and a reduction in the supercoiled DNA fraction. The number of SSBs elicited by 99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI (1.03) was twice that caused by (99m)TcO4(-) (0.51), and the number of DSBs increased fivefold in the (99m)Tc-HYNIC-DAPI-treated sample compared with the (99m)TcO4(-) treated sample (0.02 to 0.10). In the presence of DMSO, the numbers of SSBs and DSBs decreased to 0.03 and 0.00, respectively, in the (99m)TcO4(-) treated samples, whereas the numbers of SSBs and DSBs were slightly reduced to 0.95 and 0.06, respectively, in the (99m)Tc-HYNIC-DAPI-treated samples. These results indicated that (99m)Tc-HYNIC-DAPI induced SSBs and DSBs via a direct interaction of the (99m)Tc-labeled compound with DNA. In contrast to these results, (99m)TcO4(-) induced SSBs via radical formation, and DSBs were formed by two nearby SSBs. The biological effectiveness of (99m)Tc-HYNIC-DAPI increased by approximately 4-fold in terms of inducing SSBs and by

  15. 99mTc-Labeled HYNIC-DAPI Causes Plasmid DNA Damage with High Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kotzerke, Joerg; Punzet, Robert; Runge, Roswitha; Ferl, Sandra; Oehme, Liane; Wunderlich, Gerd; Freudenberg, Robert

    2014-01-01

    99mTc is the standard radionuclide used for nuclear medicine imaging. In addition to gamma irradiation, 99mTc emits low-energy Auger and conversion electrons that deposit their energy within nanometers of the decay site. To study the potential for DNA damage, direct DNA binding is required. Plasmid DNA enables the investigation of the unprotected interactions between molecules and DNA that result in single-strand breaks (SSBs) or double-strand breaks (DSBs); the resulting DNA fragments can be separated by gel electrophoresis and quantified by fluorescent staining. This study aimed to compare the plasmid DNA damage potential of a 99mTc-labeled HYNIC-DAPI compound with that of 99mTc pertechnetate (99mTcO4−). pUC19 plasmid DNA was irradiated for 2 or 24 hours. Direct and radical-induced DNA damage were evaluated in the presence or absence of the radical scavenger DMSO. For both compounds, an increase in applied activity enhanced plasmid DNA damage, which was evidenced by an increase in the open circular and linear DNA fractions and a reduction in the supercoiled DNA fraction. The number of SSBs elicited by 99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI (1.03) was twice that caused by 99mTcO4− (0.51), and the number of DSBs increased fivefold in the 99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI-treated sample compared with the 99mTcO4− treated sample (0.02 to 0.10). In the presence of DMSO, the numbers of SSBs and DSBs decreased to 0.03 and 0.00, respectively, in the 99mTcO4– treated samples, whereas the numbers of SSBs and DSBs were slightly reduced to 0.95 and 0.06, respectively, in the 99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI-treated samples. These results indicated that 99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI induced SSBs and DSBs via a direct interaction of the 99mTc-labeled compound with DNA. In contrast to these results, 99mTcO4− induced SSBs via radical formation, and DSBs were formed by two nearby SSBs. The biological effectiveness of 99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI increased by approximately 4-fold in terms of inducing SSBs and by approximately 10-fold in terms of

  16. Differential receptor targeting of liver cells using 99mTc-neoglycosylated human serum albumins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungeun; Jeong, Jae Min; Hong, Mee Kyung; Jang, Ja-June; Lee, Jaetae; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2008-01-01

    Neolactosyl human serum albumin (LSA) targets asialoglycoprotein receptor and shows high liver uptake due to accumulation in hepatocytes. Although neomannosyl human serum albumin (MSA) also shows high liver uptake, it has been reported to be taken up by Kupffer cells and endothelial cells. We compared the biological properties of LSA and MSA. 99mTc-LSA and 99mTc-MSA biodistribution in mice were investigated after intravenous injection. In vivo localization of rhodaminisothiocyanate (RITC)-LSA and fluoresceineisothiocyanate (FITC)-MSA were investigated in mouse liver. Excretion routes of 99mTc-LSA and 99mTc-MSA metabolites were examined. Both 99mTc-LSA and 99mTc-MSA showed high liver uptakes. RITC-LSA was taken up by hepatocytes whereas FITC-MSA was taken up by Kupffer cells and endothelial cells. 99mTc-MSA showed higher spleen and kidney uptakes than 99mTc-LSA. 99mTc-LSA metabolites excreted in urine and feces accounted for 44.4 and 50.0% of 99mTc-LSA injected, respectively, while 99mTc-MSA metabolites accounted for 51.5 and 10.3%, respectively. In conclusion, LSA is specifically taken up by hepatcytes while MSA by Kupffer cells and endothelial cells. After taken up by the liver, LSA is metabolized by the hepatocytes and then excreted through both the hepatobiliary tract and kidney, whereas MSA is metabolized by Kupffer cells and endoghelial cells and then excreted mainly through the kidney.

  17. Recent achievements in Tc-99m radiopharmaceutical direct production by medical cyclotrons.

    PubMed

    Boschi, Alessandra; Martini, Petra; Pasquali, Micol; Uccelli, Licia

    2017-09-01

    (99m)Tc is the most commonly used radionuclide in the field of diagnostic imaging, a noninvasive method intended to diagnose a disease, assess the disease state and monitor the effects of treatments. Annually, the use of (99m)Tc, covers about 85% of nuclear medicine applications. This isotope releases gamma rays at about the same wavelength as conventional X-ray diagnostic equipment, and owing to its short half-life (t½ = 6 h) is ideal for diagnostic nuclear imaging. A patient can be injected with a small amount of (99m)Tc and within 24 h almost 94% of the injected radionuclide would have decayed and left the body, limiting the patient's radiation exposure. (99m)Tc is usually supplied to hospitals through a (99)Mo/(99m)Tc radionuclide generator system where it is produced from the β decay of the parent nuclide (99)Mo (t½ = 66 h), which is produced in nuclear reactors via neutron fission. Recently, the interruption of the global supply chain of reactor-produced (99)Mo, has forced the scientific community to investigate alternative production routes for (99m)Tc. One solution was to consider cyclotron-based methods as potential replacement of reactor-based technology and the nuclear reaction (100)Mo(p,2n)(99m)Tc emerged as the most worthwhile approach. This review reports some achievements about (99m)Tc produced by medical cyclotrons. In particular, the available technologies for target design, the most efficient extraction and separation procedure developed for the purification of (99m)Tc from the irradiated targets, the preparation of high purity (99m)Tc radiopharmaceuticals and the first clinical studies carried out with cyclotron produced (99m)Tc are described.

  18. Effective detection of the tumors causing osteomalacia using [Tc-99m]-HYNIC-octreotide (99mTc-HYNIC-TOC) whole body scan.

    PubMed

    Jing, Hongli; Li, Fang; Zhuang, Hongming; Wang, Zhenghua; Tian, Jian; Xing, Xiaoping; Jin, Jin; Zhong, Dingrong; Zhang, Jingjing

    2013-11-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is an endocrine disorder caused by tumors producing excessive fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23). The causative tumors are generally small, slow-growing benign mesenchymal tumors. The only cure of the disease depends on resection of the tumors, which are extremely difficult to localize due to their small sizes and rare locations. Since these tumors are known to express somatostatin receptors, this research was undertaken to evaluate efficacy of [Tc-99m]-HYNIC-octreotide (99mTc-HYNIC-TOC) whole body imaging in this clinical setting Images of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scans and clinical chart from 183 patients with hypophosphatemia and clinically suspected TIO were retrospectively reviewed. The scan findings were compared to the results of histopathological examinations and clinical follow-ups. Among 183 patients, 72 were confirmed to have TIO while 103 patients were found to have other causes of hypophosphatemia. The possibility of TIO could not be either diagnosed or excluded in the remaining 8 patients. For analytical purposes, these 8 patients who could neither be diagnosed nor excluded as having TIO were regarded as having the disease, bringing the total of TIO patients to 80. The 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scan identified 69 tumors in 80 patients with TIO, which rendered a sensitivity of 86.3% (69/80). 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy excluded 102 patients without TIO with a specificity of 99.1% (102/103). The overall accuracy of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC whole body scan in the localization of tumors responsible for osteomalacia is 93.4% (171/183). Whole body 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC imaging is effective in the localization of occult tumors causing TIO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental study of 99mTc-aluminum oxide use for sentinel lymph nodes detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, V. I.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V.; Medvedeva, A. A.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.; Bragina, O. D.; Varlamova, N. V.; Skuridin, V. S.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was a comparative research in the possibility of using the radiopharmaceuticals 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for visualizing sentinel lymph nodes. The measurement of the sizes of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis colloidal particles was performed in seven series of radiopharmaceuticals. The pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis was researched on 50 white male rats. The possibility of the use of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for lymphoscintigraphy was studied in the experiments on 12 white male rats. The average dynamic diameter of the sol particle was 52-77 nm for 99mTc-Al2O3 and 16.7-24.5 nm for 99mTc-Nanocis. Radiopharmaceuticals accumulated in the inguinal lymph node in 1 hour after administration; the average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 was 8.6% in it, and the accumulation of 99mTc-Nanocis was significantly lower—1.8% (p < 0.05). In all study points the average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 in the lymph node was significantly higher than 99mTc-Nanocis accumulation. The results of dynamic scintigraphic studies in rats showed that 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis actively accumulated into the lymphatic system. By using 99mTc-Al2O3 inguinal lymph node was determined in 5 minutes after injection and clearly visualized in all the animals in the 15th minute, when the accumulation became more than 1% of the administered dose. Further observation indicated that the 99mTc-Al2O3 accumulation reached a plateau in a lymph node (average 10.5%) during 2-hour study and then its accumulation remained practically at the same level, slightly increasing to 12% in 24 hours. In case of 99mTc-Nanocis inguinal lymph node was visualized in all animals for 15 min when it was accumulated on the average 1.03% of the administered dose. Plateau of 99mTc-Nanocis accumulation in the lymph node (average 2.05%) occurred after 2 hours of the study and remained almost on the same level (in average 2.3%) for 24 hours. Thus, the experimental study of a new domestic

  20. Experimental study of {sup 99m}Tc-aluminum oxide use for sentinel lymph nodes detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chernov, V. I. Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V.; Medvedeva, A. A.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.; Bragina, O. D.; Varlamova, N. V.; Skuridin, V. S.

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of the study was a comparative research in the possibility of using the radiopharmaceuticals {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis for visualizing sentinel lymph nodes. The measurement of the sizes of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis colloidal particles was performed in seven series of radiopharmaceuticals. The pharmacokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis was researched on 50 white male rats. The possibility of the use of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis for lymphoscintigraphy was studied in the experiments on 12 white male rats. The average dynamic diameter of the sol particle was 52–77 nm for {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 16.7–24.5 nm for {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis. Radiopharmaceuticals accumulated in the inguinal lymph node in 1 hour after administration; the average uptake of {sup 99}mTc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was 8.6% in it, and the accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis was significantly lower—1.8% (p < 0.05). In all study points the average uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the lymph node was significantly higher than {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis accumulation. The results of dynamic scintigraphic studies in rats showed that {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis actively accumulated into the lymphatic system. By using {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} inguinal lymph node was determined in 5 minutes after injection and clearly visualized in all the animals in the 15th minute, when the accumulation became more than 1% of the administered dose. Further observation indicated that the {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} accumulation reached a plateau in a lymph node (average 10.5%) during 2-hour study and then its accumulation remained practically at the same level, slightly increasing to 12% in 24 hours. In case of {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis inguinal lymph node was visualized in all animals for 15 min when it was accumulated on the average 1.03% of the administered dose

  1. 99mTc-DMSA scanning to diagnose pyelonephritic scarring in children

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, B.A.; Kay, R.; Wasnick, R.J.; Carty, H.

    1983-06-01

    99mTechnetium-labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) scanning provides superior quality images of renal parenchymal detail, which makes it highly sensitive for the diagnosis of pyelonephritic scarring. Unlike most other imaging techniques, radionuclide scanning is not affected by bowel gas or bony structures overlying the kidneys. This makes it particularly useful in children. Furthermore, renal scarring can be demonstrated by 99mTc-DMSA even before the classic gross anatomic and radiologic changes are present. The use of 99mTc-DMSA scanning in over 300 children has demonstrated its benefits and advantages over standard radiographic techniques.

  2. Simulation of the direct production of 99mTc at a small cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslami, M.; Kakavand, T.

    2014-06-01

    Usually 99mTc is produced indirectly through generator 99Mo/99mTc. In the present study, the direct production of this radioisotope by charged particle irradiation was investigated using Monte Carlo method. After scouting of the reactions that produce 99mTc, excitation functions of these reactions were predicted by optical model components in the TALYS-1.6 code. Suitable energy range of projectile for this production was selected by spotting of maximum cross section and minimum impurity due to other emission channels. Then target geometry was designed based on stopping power calculation by the SRIM code. Thick target yield of 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc, 98Mo(p,γ)99mTc and natMo(p,x)99mTc reactions was predicted by the result of excitation function and stopping power calculations. Finally, 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction was selected as a primary reaction for the direct production of 99mTc and its process was simulated by employing the MCNPX code to calculate the energy distribution of proton in the 100Mo target body and estimation of residual nuclei during irradiation. Good agreement was obtained between the experimental, the theoretical, and the simulation-based (analytical and directly) production yields. This study demonstrated that Monte Carlo provides a method for the design and optimization of targets for the radionuclide production purposes.

  3. Lung clearance of intratracheally instilled 99mTc-tobramycin using pulmonary surfactant as vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Van 't Veen, Annemarie; Gommers, Diederik; Verbrugge, Serge J C; Wollmer, Per; Mouton, Johan W; Kooij, Peter P M; Lachmann, Burkhard

    1999-01-01

    The use of pulmonary exogenous surfactant as a vehicle for intratracheally administered antibiotics to improve local antimicrobial therapy has been proposed. The present study investigated lung clearance rates in the rat of intratracheally instilled technetium labelled tobramycin with and without the addition of surfactant to the antibiotic solution. The influence of surfactant on 99mTc-tobramycin lung clearance rates was studied dynamically with a gamma-camera in anaesthetized spontaneously breathing animals and in mechanically ventilated animals. The results show that instillation of 99mTc-tobramycin with use of surfactant as vehicle significantly increases 99mTc-tobramycin lung clearance compared to instillation of 99mTc-tobramycin solution alone (P=0.006 between the two spontaneously breathing groups of animals and P=0.02 between the two ventilated groups of animals, ANOVA for repeated time measurements). The half life (t½) of composite clearance curves in spontaneous breathing animals was 147 min for animals receiving 99mTc-tobramycin versus 61 min for animals receiving 99mTc-tobramycin with surfactant. In mechanically ventilated animals this was 163 min versus 51 min, respectively. It is concluded that exogenous surfactant, used as vehicle for intratracheally instilled 99mTc-tobramycin, increases lung clearance rate of 99mTc-tobramycin in rats. PMID:10204995

  4. Imaging of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy with Bivalent 99mTc-Hydroxamamide Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iikuni, Shimpei; Ono, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Kenji; Yoshimura, Masashi; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Okamoto, Yoko; Ihara, Masafumi; Saji, Hideo

    2016-05-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), characterized by the deposition of amyloid aggregates in the walls of cerebral vasculature, is a major factor in intracerebral hemorrhage and vascular cognitive impairment and is also associated closely with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We previously reported 99mTc-hydroxamamide (99mTc-Ham) complexes with a bivalent amyloid ligand showing high binding affinity for β-amyloid peptide (Aβ(1-42)) aggregates present frequently in the form in AD. In this article, we applied them to CAA-specific imaging probes, and evaluated their utility for CAA-specific imaging. In vitro inhibition assay using Aβ(1-40) aggregates deposited mainly in CAA and a brain uptake study were performed for 99mTc-Ham complexes, and all 99mTc-Ham complexes with an amyloid ligand showed binding affinity for Aβ(1-40) aggregates and very low brain uptake. In vitro autoradiography of human CAA brain sections and ex vivo autoradiography of Tg2576 mice were carried out for bivalent 99mTc-Ham complexes ([99mTc]SB2A and [99mTc]BT2B), and they displayed excellent labeling of Aβ depositions in human CAA brain sections and high affinity and selectivity to CAA in transgenic mice. These results may offer new possibilities for the development of clinically useful CAA-specific imaging probes based on the 99mTc-Ham complex.

  5. /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate uptake in a thymoma: case report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.L.; Cowan, R.J.

    1982-04-01

    A case is reported to /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate accumulation within an anterior mediastinal thymoma during a search for substernal goiter. This reemphasizes the non-specificity of /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate uptake and the need for caution in using this agent to detect ectopic thyroid tissue.

  6. Imaging endocarditis with Tc-99m-labeled antibody--an experimental study: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.W.; Dhawan, V.K.; Tanaka, T.; Mishkin, F.S.; Reese, I.C.; Thadepalli, H.

    1982-03-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of Tc-99m-labeled antibacterial antibody (Tc-99m Ab) for detecting bacterial endocarditis were evaluated in an experimental model. Rabbit-produced antistaphylococcal antibody was extracted using Rivanol and chemically labeled with Tc-99m. This Tc-99m Ab was injected intravenously in New Zealand rabbits 24 hr after producing Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis of the aortic valve. Imaging and tissue analyses were performed on the following day. All 11 animals developed S. aureus aortic-valve vegetations and showed increased uptake of Tc-99m Ab at the aortic valve, 118 times higher than at the uninfected tricuspid valve. Although high hepatic radioactivity and anatomic uncertainties interfered with in vivo delineation of these lesions, images of the excised hearts showed all affected valves. Two rabbits inoculated with Escherichia coli did not develop endocarditis and had little uptake of Tc-99m Ab, while six rabbits with enterococcal endocarditis had no uptake of the Tc-99m Ab in their vegetations. The findings suggest potential value of Tc-99m Ab on the rapid diagnosis of endocarditis.

  7. Clearance of Tc-99m DTPA in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Wainer, E.; Boner, G.; Lubin, E.; Rosenfeld, J.B.

    1981-09-01

    The clearance of Tc-99m DTPA was studied in 14 patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). Mean Tc-99m DTPA clearance during HD was 37.8% +/- 10.1 of creatinine clearance. Mean Tc-99m DTPA clearance in PD was 65.1% +/- 10.3 of creatinine clearance. Tc-99m DTPA, with a larger molecular weight than that of creatinine, is cleared relatively better during PD than during HD. Thus Tc-99m DTPA may be used in the assessment of the effectiveness of different dialytic treatments for substances of similar molecular weight. In addition, our study shows that clearance of DTPA both in HD and PD is sufficiently high to allow the removal of this chelating agent in patients with renal failure.

  8. Diversification of 99Mo/99mTc separation: non–fission reactor production of 99Mo as a strategy for enhancing 99mTc availability.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Maroor R A; Dash, Ashutosh; Knapp, Furn F Russ

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the benefits of obtaining (99m)Tc from non-fission reactor-produced low-specific-activity (99)Mo. This scenario is based on establishing a diversified chain of facilities for the distribution of (99m)Tc separated from reactor-produced (99)Mo by (n,γ) activation of natural or enriched Mo. Such facilities have expected lower investments than required for the proposed chain of cyclotrons for the production of (99m)Tc. Facilities can receive and process reactor-irradiated Mo targets then used for extraction of (99m)Tc over a period of 2 wk, with 3 extractions on the same day. Estimates suggest that a center receiving 1.85 TBq (50 Ci) of (99)Mo once every 4 d can provide 1.48-3.33 TBq (40-90 Ci) of (99m)Tc daily. This model can use research reactors operating in the United States to supply current (99)Mo needs by applying natural (nat)Mo targets. (99)Mo production capacity can be enhanced by using (98)Mo-enriched targets. The proposed model reduces the loss of (99)Mo by decay and avoids proliferation as well as waste management issues associated with fission-produced (99)Mo.

  9. Comparison of Tc-99m pertechnetate images with dual-phase Tc 99m MIBI and SPECT images in primary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Sager, Sait; Shafipour, Hojjat; Asa, Sertac; Yılmaz, Sabire; Teksöz, Serkan; Önsel, Çetin

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of Tc-99m pertechnetate planar, dual-phase MIBI and MIBI-SPECT images in the determination and localization of parathyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: In this study, 38 patients who underwent operation for primary hyperparathyroidism were included. Tc-99m pertechnetate planar-pinhole imaging of the neck and then MIBI planar and SPECT images in supine position was performed. Late SPECT images were acquired 120 minutes after the injection. Early and late MIBI images were quantitatively evaluated. Results: Of the 38 patients, 30 of them had adenoma, 2 patients had hyperplasia and 6 of them were normal on planar images. Thirty-four of 38 patients were positive on SPECT images. SPECT images of the patients with positive results were matched with pathology results. Conclusion: As a result, Tc-99m pertechnetate planar-pinhole, Tc-99m MIBI planar and SPECT images are useful for localization of parathyroid lesions especially in multinodular thyroid gland. However, US or CT images are necessary for more accurate localization and Tc-99m pertechnetate images are useful for interpreting and comparing with the early and late MIBI images. PMID:25143912

  10. Comparison of Tc-99m pertechnetate images with dual-phase Tc 99m MIBI and SPECT images in primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Sager, Sait; Shafipour, Hojjat; Asa, Sertac; Yılmaz, Sabire; Teksöz, Serkan; Onsel, Cetin

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of Tc-99m pertechnetate planar, dual-phase MIBI and MIBI-SPECT images in the determination and localization of parathyroid lesions. In this study, 38 patients who underwent operation for primary hyperparathyroidism were included. Tc-99m pertechnetate planar-pinhole imaging of the neck and then MIBI planar and SPECT images in supine position was performed. Late SPECT images were acquired 120 minutes after the injection. Early and late MIBI images were quantitatively evaluated. Of the 38 patients, 30 of them had adenoma, 2 patients had hyperplasia and 6 of them were normal on planar images. Thirty-four of 38 patients were positive on SPECT images. SPECT images of the patients with positive results were matched with pathology results. As a result, Tc-99m pertechnetate planar-pinhole, Tc-99m MIBI planar and SPECT images are useful for localization of parathyroid lesions especially in multinodular thyroid gland. However, US or CT images are necessary for more accurate localization and Tc-99m pertechnetate images are useful for interpreting and comparing with the early and late MIBI images.

  11. Imaging Angiogenesis Using 99mTc-Macroaggregated Albumin Scintigraphy in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Gen; Miyamoto, Masaaki; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Yasutake, Masahiro; Tara, Shuhei; Takagi, Ikuyo; Seki, Naoki; Kumita, Shinichiro; Shimizu, Wataru

    2016-02-01

    One problem of vascular angiogenesis therapy is the lack of reliable methods for evaluating blood flow in the microcirculation. We aimed to assess whether (99m)Tc-macroaggregated albumin perfusion scintigraphy ((99m)Tc-MAA) predicts quantitated blood flow after therapeutic angiogenesis in patients with peripheral artery disease. Forty-six patients with peripheral artery disease were treated with bone marrow mononuclear cell implantation (BMCI). Before and 4 wk after BMCI, blood flow was evaluated via transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcPO2), ankle-brachial index, intravenous (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin perfusion scintigraphy ((99m)Tc-TF), and intraaortic (99m)Tc-MAA. Four weeks after BMCI, TcPO2 improved significantly (20.4 ± 14.4 to 36.0 ± 20.0 mm Hg, P < 0.01), but ankle-brachial index did not (0.65 ± 0.30 to 0.76 ± 0.24, P = 0.07). Improvement in (99m)Tc-TF count (0.60 ± 0.23 to 0.77 ± 0.29 count ratio/pixel, P < 0.01) and (99m)Tc-MAA count (5.21 ± 3.56 to 10.33 ± 7.18 count ratio/pixel, P = 0.02) was observed in the foot region but not the lower limb region, using both methods. When these data were normalized by subtracting the pixel count of the untreated side, the improvements in (99m)Tc-TF count (-0.04 ± 0.26 to 0.08 ± 0.32 count ratio/pixel, P = 0.04) and (99m)Tc-MAA count (1.49 ± 3.64 to 5.59 ± 4.84 count ratio/pixel, P = 0.03) in the foot remained significant. (99m)Tc-MAA indicated that the newly developed arteries were approximately 25 μm in diameter. BMCI induced angiogenesis in the foot, which was detected using (99m)Tc-TF and (99m)Tc-MAA. (99m)Tc-MAA is a useful method to quantitate blood flow, estimate vascular size, and evaluate flow distribution after therapeutic angiogenesis. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  12. Clinical comparison of I-131 orthoiodohippurate and the kit formulation of Tc-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Ziffer, J.A.; Steves, A.; Eshima, D.; Delaney, V.B.; Welchel, J.D.

    1989-03-01

    Previous studies in animals and humans have shown that technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) purified by high-performance liquid chromatography is a renal tubular agent with characteristics similar to those of iodine-131 orthoiodohippurate (OIH). A kit formulation for Tc-99m MAG3 has been developed and compared with I-131 OIH in 17 patients with suspected renal dysfunction and three potential kidney donors. There were no adverse reactions. Tc-99m MAG3 images were of good quality and consistently better than I-131 OIH images. There was no significant difference in the relative renal uptake of Tc-99m MAG3 and I-131 OIH. The 30-minute urinary excretion of Tc-99m MAG3 was 36.4%, versus 40.4% for I-131 OIH. The average plasma clearance of Tc-99m MAG3 (138 mL/min +/- 117) was less than that of I-131 OIH (272 mL/min +/- 205) (P less than .001); however, there was good correlation between the Tc-99m MAG3 and I-131 OIH clearances (r = .87). The volume of distribution of Tc-99m MAG3 (5.96 L +/- 1.94) was less than that of I-131 OIH (9.41 L +/- 3.73) (P less than .001). These characteristics and the advantages of a simple kit formulation should lead to widespread clinical use.

  13. Accumulation of 99mTc-PMT in renal metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shiozaki, Toshiki; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Tanikake, Masato; Oida, Tomoyuki; Hida, Shuichi; Yasui, Hiroshi; Urata, Yoji; Tanaka, Akira; Morimoto, Taisuke

    2003-06-01

    We describe here a case in which 99mTc-Sn-N-pyridoxy-5-methyltryptophan (99mTc-PMT) scintigraphy was useful in diagnosing renal metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A 62-year-old man who had undergone hepatectomy for HCC presented 6 years after initial diagnosis with left flank pain and was found on CT and MRI to have a tumor in the left kidney. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy using 99Tc-PMT was performed, and 99mTc-PMT accumulation was found in the tumor. Nephrectomy was performed and metastasis of HCC was confirmed.

  14. A new approach for manufacturing and processing targets to produce 99mTc with cyclotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matei, L.; McRae, G.; Galea, R.; Niculae, D.; Craciun, L.; Leonte, R.; Surette, G.; Langille, S.; Louis, C. St.; Gelbart, W.; Abeysekera, B.; Johnson, R. R.

    2017-06-01

    The most important radioisotope for nuclear medicine is 99mTc. After the supply crisis of 99Mo starting in 2008, the availability of 99mTc became a worldwide concern. Alternative methods for producing the medical imaging isotope 99mTc are actively being developed around the world. The reaction 100Mo(p, 2n)99mTc provides a direct route that can be incorporated into routine production in nuclear medicine centers that possess medical cyclotrons for production of other isotopes, such as those used for Positron Emission Tomography. This paper describes a new approach for manufacturing targets for the (p, 2n) nuclear reaction on 100Mo and the foundation for the subsequent commercial separation and purification of the 99mTc produced. Two designs of targets are presented. The targets used to produce 99mTc are subject to a number of operational constraints.They must withstand the temperatures generated by the irradiation, accommodate temperature gradients from cooling system of the target, must be resilient and must be easily post-processed to separate the 99mTc. After irradiation, the separation of Tc from Mo was carried out using an innovative two-step approach. The process described in this paper can be automated with modules that easily fit in standard production hot cells found in nuclear medicine facilities.

  15. 99mTc-Tetraethylenepentamine-Folate--a new 99mTc-based folate derivative for the detection of folate receptor positive tumors: synthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Panwar, Puja; Shrivastava, Vibha; Tandon, Vibha; Mishra, Pushpa; Chuttani, Krishna; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Chandra, Ramesh; Mishra, Anil K

    2004-10-01

    A new radiopharmaceutical, 99mTc-Tetraethylenepentamine(TEPA)-Folate has been synthesized introducing TEPA to the gamma-carboxyl group of folic acid. This binds with 99mTc high efficiency at ambient temperature. The resulting 99mTc-N5-Folate is stable under physiological conditions at least for 24 h after radiocomplexation. TEPA is a known open chain pentamine (N5) chelator, its four-nitrogen act as the binding site for 99mTc. The folate membrane receptor binding of the 99mTc-TEPA-Folate by established human tumor cell lines (KB, U-87MG and MDA-MB-468) showed Kd in microM range in normal DMEM (10% serum, 10 microM folic acid). The blood kinetic studies showed more than 70% clearance within five minutes from the circulation. The KB cell line tumors in mice were readily identifiable in the gamma images and revealed major accumulation of radiotracer in liver, kidneys and intestines. High tumor uptake was shown in the tumor bearing nude mice; tumorto-blood ratios reached 2.68 +/- 0.52 and 5.5 +/- 1.47 at 1 and 4 h after post injection respectively. Surviving fractions as obtained in clonogenic assay were 1.02 +/- 0.07 and 1.03 +/- 0.05 in U-87MG and MDA-MB-468 cell lines respectively. The 99mTc-N5-Folate conjugate have promising utility as a receptor specific radiopharmaceutical for imaging neoplastic tissues known to over express folate-binding protein.

  16. Tc-99m sestamibi parathyroid gland scintigraphy: added value of Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid imaging for increasing interpretation confidence and avoiding additional testing.

    PubMed

    Powell, Daniel K; Nwoke, Franklin; Goldfarb, Richard C; Ongseng, Fukiat

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the benefit of adding a pertechnetate parathyroid scan (dual-isotope imaging) in the interpretation of sestamibi dual-phase parathyroid scintigraphy. One hundred and sixteen dual Tc-99m sestamibi (MIBI) and Tc-99m pertechnetate subtraction parathyroid studies, performed between January 2000 and February 2006, were retrospectively reviewed. Dual-phase technetium sestamibi examinations were initially interpreted, with blinding to the technetium pertechnetate findings. Subsequently, technetium pertechnetate scan findings were added, and changes in interpretation were recorded. By adding Tc-99m pertechnetate imaging, the interpretation of 17 scans (17/116=14.6%) was substantially altered. This included 5 scans (4%) that changed from negative to positive and 9 scans (8%) that changed from equivocal to positive, excluding ectopic tissue and directing minimally invasive surgery, without the need for further imaging, such as ultrasound, in 12% of cases. One examination changed from positive to negative. In addition, 2 scans changed from equivocal to negative, necessitating further preoperative imaging for the evaluation of additional pathology such as thyroid nodules and lymph nodes and the consideration of hyperplasia. Among the remaining 99 patients, Tc-99m pertechnetate scans may also have contributed to the diagnosis in the 66 positive Tc-99m MIBI scans by increasing confidence in the interpretation and obviating additional imaging. Ten cases remained equivocal. By adding Tc-99m pertechnetate imaging, scan interpretation was changed in 14.6% of cases, and interpretation confidence was enhanced in all but 10 remaining equivocal cases. The addition of a dual-isotope subtraction also eliminated the need for additional testing, such as ultrasound, in 12% of our cases. Increased confidence in interpretation that comes with dual-isotope subtraction may come at the cost of slight lengthening of imaging time but likely simplifies preoperative localization and

  17. Incidental detection of gastrointestinal stromal tumor by Tc-99m MDP bone scan.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Timothy M; Idakoji, Ibrahim A; Pampaloni, Miguel H

    2012-02-01

    This case demonstrates extraosseous 99m-technetium methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP) accumulation from a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. A 75-year-old woman underwent a temporal bone CT for conductive hearing loss that showed sclerosis in the right occipital condyle. Follow-up Tc-99m MDP bone scan for osseous metastases instead showed a mass-like extraosseous accumulation of Tc-99m MDP in the anterior left upper quadrant. Differential diagnoses included gastric cancer, lymphoma, metastatic melanoma, systemic hypercalcemia, or heterotopic mesenteric ossification. Contrast CT showed a well-circumscribed mass arising from the stomach, and subsequent pathology confirmed gastrointestinal stromal tumor. These tumors rarely can contain osteoclast-like giant cells and should be considered for extraosseous Tc-99m MDP accumulation.

  18. Methods for MAG3 conjugation and 99mTc radiolabeling of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Liu, Guozheng; Hnatowich, Donald J

    2006-01-01

    The chelator mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) forms a single stable chelate with technetium-99m (99mTc) oxotechnetate. The bifunctional N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester of mercaptoacetyltriglycine with S-acetyl protection of the sulfhydryl group may be used to conjugate MAG3 to primary amine functionalized biomolecules for the purpose of radiolabeling with 99mTc for gamma detection or single photon emission computed tomography imaging (SPECT). We report here an improved MAG3 conjugation and 99mTc radiolabeling method capable of generating high radiochemical yield and high specific radioactivity. Post-labeling purification will not be needed if the protocol is followed as presented. Apart from the preparation of reagents, the conjugation and purification requires about 4 h, while the labeling with 99mTc requires about an additional 30 min.

  19. Preparation and evaluation of (99m)Tc-DMSA lyophilized kit for renal imaging.

    PubMed

    Jan, Syed Umer; Abbass, Hafiz Ghulam

    2013-05-01

    Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) has been evaluated and used with technetium 99m ((99m)Tc) in imaging of kidneys. DMSA lyophilized kits were prepared and radiolabelled with (99m)Tc. Paper and thin-layer chromatography have been employed using various eluent systems for the radiochemical analysis, percentage labeling and binding capacity of (99m)Tc-DMSA. Female albino rabbits were used for this study. Biological data obtained after intravenous injection of radiolabelled DMSA to female albino rabbits revealed 32.42% uptake and long retention time in the kidneys. On the basis of animal biodistribution data, it is suggested that DMSA when labeled with (99m)Tc is useful complex for renal imaging and can be successfully applied as a diagnostic tool in nuclear medicine. Clinical biodistribution and radiation dosimetry studies are planned in future.

  20. Demonstrating alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver by Tc-99m BIDA scintigram

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; DeLand, F.H.; Domstad, P.A.

    1984-08-01

    Six patients with decompensated cirrhosis of the liver underwent Tc-99m BIDA studies. All demonstrated 1) persistently high blood pool activity in the heart, lung, and soft tissue, 2) slow hepatic tracer uptake, 3) prolonged liver-to-bowel transit time, and 4) visualization of an enlarged spleen. Four of the six patients demonstrated evidence of ascites and in one patient there were visible collateral veins of the abdomen. These findings are due primarily to hepatic dysfunction and retaining Tc-99m BIDA in blood pool because of Tc-99m BIDA exclusively hepatic excretion and little or no alternative renal excretion. All six Tc-99m sulfur colloid studies were performed concomitantly. Except for bone marrow uptake and reversal of the normal liver-spleen ratio of radioactivity, the imaging abnormalities observed with Tc-99m BIDA were similar to those seen by Tc-99m SC. It is concluded that with Tc-99m BIDA studies, three of six abnormal findings, as described, suggest a decompensated stage of cirrhosis of the liver.

  1. Optical imaging of Tc-99m-based tracers: in vitro and in vivo results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Antonello E.; Meo, Sergio Lo; Calandrino, Riccardo; Sbarbati, Andrea; Boschi, Federico

    2011-11-01

    It has been recently shown that optical imaging (OI) methods can be used to image the in vivo biodistribution of several radiopharmaceuticals labeled with beta or alpha emitters. In this work particular attention has been focused on investigating the weaker optical signal induced by an almost pure gamma emitter like Tc-99m. Visible light emission measurements of a water solution containing Tc-99m were performed using a small animal OI system. A sequence of images was acquired for 24 h in order to study the decay of the luminescence signal. The difference between the luminescence decay half life and well-known Tc-99m half life was equal to 1%. in vivo imaging was performed by injecting one control nude mice with Tc-99m-MDP. Optical images obtained with equipment designed for bioluminescence imaging showed that a visible light emission was distinguishable and correctly localized in the bladder region where a higher concentration of Tc-99m-MDP was expected. The bladder to background ratio was always greater than 1. We conclude that the experimental data presented in this paper show that it is possible to detect in vivo luminescence optical photons induced by Tc-99m. This is important especially considering the large number of Tc-99m-based radiopharmaceutical currently available.

  2. Mapping lymph nodes in cancer management – role of 99mTc-tilmanocept injection

    PubMed Central

    Tausch, Christoph; Baege, Astrid; Rageth, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Two decades ago, lymphatic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) was introduced into surgical cancer management and was termed sentinel node navigated surgery. Although this technique is now routinely performed in the management of breast cancer and malignant melanoma, it is still under investigation for use in other cancers. The radioisotope technetium (99mTc) and vital blue dyes are among the most widely used enhancers for SLN mapping, although near-infrared fluorescence imaging of indocyanine green is also becoming more commonly used. 99mTc-tilmanocept is a new synthetic radioisotope with a relatively small molecular size that was specifically developed for lymphatic mapping. Because of its small size, 99mTc-tilmanocept quickly migrates from its site of injection and rapidly accumulates in the SLN. The mannose moieties of 99mTc-tilmanosept facilitate its binding to mannose receptors (CD206) expressed in reticuloendothelial cells of the SLN. This binding prevents transit to second-echelon lymph nodes. In Phase III trials of breast cancer and malignant melanoma, and Phase II trials of other malignancies, 99mTc-tilmanocept had superior identification rates and sensitivity compared with blue dye. Trials comparing 99mTc-tilmanocept with other 99mTc-based agents are required before it can be routinely used in clinical settings. PMID:25028560

  3. 99mTc-d-penicillamine-glucuronide: synthesis, radiolabeling, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Teksöz, Serap; Içhedef, Ciğdem Acar; Ozyüncü, Seniha; Müftüler, Fazilet Zümrüt Biber; Unak, Perihan; Medine, Ilker Emin; Ertay, Türkan; Eren, Mine Şencan

    2011-10-01

    The current study was aimed at synthesizing a glucuronide derivative of D-penicillamine (D-PA) to be used for imaging purposes. First of all, D-PA-glucuronide (D-PA-Glu) was synthesized by experimental treatments starting with uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase enzyme rich microsome preparate. Then, the synthesized compound was labeled with technetium ((99m)Tc) by using a reduction method with stannous chloride. Quality controls were performed by using high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer radio chromatography (TLRC). Radiolabeling yield of (99m)Tc-D-PA-Glu was more than 98% according to TLRC results. In vitro evaluations of radiolabeled complexes were investigated on PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. (99m)Tc-D-PA-Glu exhibited more accumulation on PC-3 cells versus (99m)Tc-D-PA at 240 minutes. In order to determine its radiopharmaceutical potential, biodistribution studies were carried out in male Albino Wistar rats. The biodistribution results of (99m)Tc-D-PA-Glu, showed the highest uptake in prostate at 120 minutes postinjection with the main excretion route being through kidneys and bladder. (99m)Tc-D-PA-Glu and (99m)Tc-D-PA have exhibited different biodistribution results.

  4. 99Mo/(99m)Tc separation: an assessment of technology options.

    PubMed

    Dash, Ashutosh; Knapp, F F Russ; Pillai, M R A

    2013-02-01

    Several strategies for the effective separation of (99m)Tc from (99)Mo have been developed and validated. Due to the success of column chromatographic separation using acidic alumina coupled with high specific activity fission (99)Mo (F (99)Mo) for production of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generators, however, most technologies until recently have generated little interest. The reduced availability of F (99)Mo and consequently the shortage of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc column generators in the recent past have resurrected interest in the production of (99)Mo as well as (99m)Tc by alternate routes. Most of these alternative production processes require separation techniques capable of providing clinical grade (99m)Tc from low specific activity (99)Mo or irradiated Mo targets. For this reason there has been renewed interest in alternate separation routes. This paper reviews the reported separation technologies which include column chromatography, solvent extraction, sublimation and gel systems that have been traditionally used for the fabrication of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator systems. The comparative advantage, disadvantage, and technical challenges toward adapting the emerging requirements are discussed. New developments such as solid-phase column extraction, electrochemical separation, extraction chromatography, supported liquid membrane (SLM) and thermochromatographic techniques are also being evaluated for their potential application in the changed scenario of providing (99m)Tc from alternate routes. Based on the analysis provided in this review, it appears that some proven separation technologies can be quickly resurrected for the separation of clinical grade (99m)Tc from macroscopic levels of reactor or cyclotron irradiated molybdenum targets. Furthermore, emerging technologies can be developed further to respond to the expected changing modes of (99m)Tc production.

  5. Tracheal blood flow and luminal clearance of [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Hanafi, Z.; Corfield, D.R.; Webber, S.E.; Widdicombe, J.G. )

    1992-10-01

    Tracheal blood flow and [sup 99m][Tc]-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) clearance were measured in the sheep trachea in vivo. The tracheal arteries were isolated and perfused. An isolated segment of tracheal lumen was filled with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA, and radioactivity was measured in blood from a catheterized tracheal vein. Infusions at constant pressure of methacholine (n=5), albuterol (n=6), and histamine (n=5) increased arterial inflow and venous outflow but decreased [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output and concentration. Phenylephrine (n=9) decreased arterial inflow and venous outflow but increased [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output and concentration. When the tracheal arteries were initially perfused at constant flow and the flow rate was then changed, 50% increases in flow (n=5) increased perfusion pressure and venous outflow but decreased [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output and concentration. Decreases in flow of 50% (n=3) and 100% (n=10) decreased perfusion pressure and venous outflow but increased [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output and concentration. Infusion of the same drugs at constant flow produced significant changes in perfusion pressure but no significant changes in venous outflow or, except for histamine, in [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output. Thus [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output was inversely related to both mechanically and drug-induced changes in tracheal blood flow but, except for histamine, was not directly affected by the drugs. The results may be due to redistribution of blood between collateral circuits and altered interstitial fluid volume affecting [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA transport across the interstitium. 24 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Assessment of antiangiogenic effect using 99mTc-EC-endostatin.

    PubMed

    Yang, David J; Kim, Kil-Dong; Schechter, Naomi R; Yu, Dong-Fang; Wu, Peng; Azhdarinia, Ali; Roach, Jennifer S; Kalimi, Saady K; Ozaki, Kaoru; Fogler, William E; Bryant, Jerry L; Herbst, Roy; Abbruzzes, James; Kim, E Edmund; Podoloff, Donald A

    2002-04-01

    Tumor vascular density may provide a prognostic indicator of metastatic potential or survival. The purpose of this study was to develop 99mTc-ethylenedicysteine-endostatin (99mTc-EC-endostatin) for the evaluation of anti-angiogenesis therapy. 99mTc-EC-endostatin was prepared by conjugating ethylenedicysteine (EC) to endostatin, followed by adding pertechnetate and tin chloride. Radiochemical purity was > 95%. In vitro cell viability, affinity and TUNEL assays were performed. Tissue distribution and planar imaging of radiolabeled endostatin were determined in tumor-bearing rats. To assess anti-angiogenic treatment response, rats were treated with endostatin, paclitaxel and saline, followed by imaging with 99mTc-EC-endostatin. Tumor response to endostatin therapy in tumor-bearing animal models was assessed by correlating tumor uptake dose with microvessel density, VEGF, bFGF and IL-8 expression during endostatin therapy. In vitro cell viability and TUNEL assays indicated no marked difference between EC-endostatin and endostatin. Cellular uptake assay suggests that endostatin binds to endostatin receptor. Biodistribution of 99mTc-EC-endostatin in tumor-bearing rats showed increased tumor-to-tissue count density ratios as a function of time. Tumor uptake (%ID/g) of 99mTc-EC-endostatin was 0.2-0.5. Planar images confirmed that the tumors could be visualized clearly with 99mTc-EC-endostatin. The optimal time for imaging using radiolabeled endostatin was 2 hrs. 99mTc-EC-endostatin could assess treatment response. There was a correlation between tumor uptake and cellular targets expression. The results indicate that it is feasible to use 99mTc-EC-endostatin to assess efficiency of anti-angiogenesis therapy.

  7. Mo-99/Tc-99m Separation: An Assessment of Technical Options

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, A; Pillai, M R A; Knapp Jr, Russ F

    2013-01-01

    Several strategies for the effective separation of 99mTc from 99Mo have been developed and validated. Due to the success of column chromatographic separation using acidic alumina coupled with high specific activity fission 99Mo (F 99Mo) for production of 99Mo/99mTc generators, however, most technologies until recently have generated little interest. The reduced availability of F 99Mo and consequently the shortage of 99Mo/99mTc column generators in the recent past have resurrected interest in the production of 99Mo as well as 99mTc by alternate routes. Most of these alternative production processes require separation techniques capable of providing clinical grade 99mTc from low specific activity 99Mo or irradiated Mo targets. For this reason there has been renewed interest in alternate separation routes. This paper reviews the reported separation technologies which include column chromatography, solvent extraction, sublimation and gel systems that have been traditionally used for the fabrication of 99Mo/99mTc generator systems. The comparative advantage, disadvantage, and technical challenges toward adapting the emerging requirements are discussed. New developments such as solid-phase column extraction, electrochemical separation, extraction chromatography, supported liquid membrane (SLM) and thermochromatographic techniques are also being evaluated for their potential application in the changed scenario of providing 99mTc from alternate routes. Based on the analysis provided in this review, it appears that some proven separation technologies can be quickly resurrected for the separation of clinical grade 99mTc from macroscopic levels of reactor or cyclotron irradiated molybdenum targets. Furthermore, emerging technologies can be developed further to respond to the expected changing modes of 99mTc production.

  8. Detection of atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE-deficient mice using (99m)Tc-duramycin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhonglin; Larsen, Brandon T; Lerman, Lilach O; Gray, Brian D; Barber, Christy; Hedayat, Ahmad F; Zhao, Ming; Furenlid, Lars R; Pak, Koon Y; Woolfenden, James M

    2016-08-01

    Apoptosis of macrophages and smooth muscle cells is linked to atherosclerotic plaque destabilization. The apoptotic cascade leads to exposure of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) on the outer leaflet of the cell membrane, thereby making apoptosis detectable using probes targeting PE. The objective of this study was to exploit capabilities of a PE-specific imaging probe, (99m)Tc-duramycin, in localizing atherosclerotic plaque and assessing plaque evolution in apolipoprotein-E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice. Atherosclerosis was induced in ApoE(-/-) mice by feeding an atherogenic diet. (99m)Tc-duramycin images were acquired using a small-animal SPECT imager. Six ApoE(-/-) mice at 20weeks of age (Group I) were imaged and then sacrificed for ex vivo analyses. Six additional ApoE(-/-) mice (Group II) were imaged at 20 and 40weeks of age before sacrifice. Six ApoE wild-type (ApoE(+/+)) mice (Group III) were imaged at 40weeks as controls. Five additional ApoE(-/-) mice (40weeks of age) (Group IV) were imaged with a (99m)Tc-labeled inactive peptide, (99m)Tc-LinDUR, to assess (99m)Tc-duramycin targeting specificity. Focal (99m)Tc-duramycin uptake in the ascending aorta and aortic arch was detected at 20 and 40weeks in the ApoE(-/-) mice but not in ApoE(+/+) mice. (99m)Tc-duramycin uptake in the aortic lesions increased 2.2-fold on quantitative imaging in the ApoE(-/-) mice between 20 and 40weeks. Autoradiographic and histological data indicated significantly increased (99m)Tc-duramycin uptake in the ascending aorta and aortic arch associated with advanced plaques. Quantitative autoradiography showed that the ratio of activity in the aortic arch to descending thoracic aorta, which had no plaques or radioactive uptake, was 2.1 times higher at 40weeks than at 20weeks (6.62±0.89 vs. 3.18±0.29, P<0.01). There was barely detectable focal uptake of (99m)Tc-duramycin in the aortic arch of ApoE(+/+) mice. No detectable (99m)Tc-LinDUR uptake was observed in the aortas of ApoE(-/-) mice. PE

  9. Popliteal cysts and deep venous thrombosis: Tc-99m red blood cell venography

    SciTech Connect

    Littlejohn, G.O.; Brand, C.A.; Ada, A.; Wong, C.

    1985-04-01

    Thirty-four patients who clinically were suspected of having deep venous thrombosis (DVT) underwent Tc-99m red blood cell (RBC) venography followed by contrast venography. The sensitivity (88%) and specificity (94%) of Tc-99m RBC venography of DVT confirmed findings of previous studies. Twenty-four patients who had proved popliteal cysts and swollen calves also were examined using Tc-99m RBC venography. Large cysts showed lack of DVT features, photon deficient cold areas in the popliteal fossa, and diversion of venous flow around the photon deficient area. These features were seen in 25% of the study population (six patients), and assisted in the distinction between the two conditions.

  10. Use of 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine to evaluate renal function in horses.

    PubMed

    Woods, P R; Drost, W T; Clarke, C R; Rodebush, C J

    2000-01-01

    Ten healthy horses were injected intravenously with 99mTc-MAG3 and the disappearance of radioactivity from the blood was measured. The total body clearance (Cl(B)) and elimination half-life (t1/2(beta)) were 7.9 +/- 1.5 ml/kg/minute and 32.8 +/- 4.1 minutes, respectively. The disappearance of 99mTc-MAG3 from the blood of 2 horses with compromised renal function was also measured. The data suggest that 99mTc-MAG3 is a useful and clinically applicable radiopharmaceutical for measurement of effective renal blood flow in the horse.

  11. /sup 99m/Tc-aprotinin: A new tracer for kidney morphology and function

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, C.; Donadio, C.; Tramonti, G.; Lorusso, P.; Bellitto, L.; Lunghi, F.

    1984-01-01

    Aprotinin (Ap), a low molecular weight polyeptide (6500 dalton), is a protease inhibitor which is electively and stably accumulated in the kidney. In 112 adult patients, with either uni- or bilateral renal disease with different degrees of renal impairment (from normal GFR to advanced renal failure), renal scans were performed by means of Ap labelled with /sup 99m/Tc. Highly satisfactory renal scans were obtained in all patients. In 20 patients with renal failure (serum creatinine 1.8 - 8.5 mg/dl, mean 4.7) a comparison was made of the renal scans obtained with /sup 99m/Tc-Ap and with /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA. /sup 99m/Tc-Ap was slightly better than /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA, especially in patients with far advanced renal failure. Some aspects of the pharmacokinetics of /sup 99m/Tc-Ap were studied in 72 cases. In 22 of these patients plasma clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-Ap was determined by the single injection method using a two-compartment model. In patients with GFR>90 ml/min plasma cl of /sup 99m/Tc-Ap was 67.6 +- 8.4 SD ml/min. A good correlation was observed between plasma clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-Ap and GFR (r = 0.74). After i.v. injection /sup 99m/Tc-Ap was stably fixed by the kidney. Renal radioactivity remained stable between the 2nd and the 8th hour after the injection. Urinary excretion of radioactivity measured in 35 patients in the first and in the second 2-hour interval after i.v. injection of /sup 99m/Tc-Ap was negligible in all patients (2.7 +- 1.5 SD percent of the dose in the fist 2 hours; 2.8 +- 1.4 SD between the 2nd and the 4th hour). Conclusions. /sup 99m/Tc-Ap is an excellent agent for renal imaging. It also seems promising for renal function studies.

  12. 99mTc MIBI in neurofibromatosis imaging diagnosis: case report.

    PubMed

    Stefănescu, C; Meignan, M; Volkenstein, P; Rusu, V

    1996-01-01

    99mTc MIBI has been shown to accumulate in different cancer cells types, in vitro and malignant tumours in vivo, making evidence of the scintigraphic diagnostic of them. We report two cases of neurofibromatosis type I, which has realised high levels of 99mTc MIBI uptake, primary to all chemo- or radiotherapy. Only certain zones of tumorous localisation have been seen, but a relation with the lesion histology was not really established. In conclusion, 99mTc MIBI scintigraphy may be usefull in the investigation of type I neurofibromatosis.

  13. Conveniently prepared Tc-99m resin for semisolid gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, N.; Shapiro, B.; Nakajo, M.; Coffey, J.L.; Eckhauser, F.; Owyang, C.

    1983-06-01

    A polystyrene resin, suitable for semi-solid gastric emptying studies, was rapidly (<20 min) and coveniently prepared using commercially available reagents. Using the outlined procedure, Chelex-100 resin bound Tc-99m with greater than 98% labeling efficiency. The resulting Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin demonstrated excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The clinical application of Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin, mixed with oatmeal, was tested in normal subjects and in various patient groups, including diabetic autonomic neuropathy, pyloric obstruction, postoperative dumping syndrome, and morbidly obese patients before and after gastroplasty.

  14. A conveniently prepared Tc-99m resin for semisolid gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, N.; Swanson, D.; Shapiro, B.; Nakajo, M.; Coffey, J.L.; Eckhauser, F.; Owyang, C.

    1983-06-01

    A polystyrene resin, suitable for semi-solid gastric emptying studies, was rapidly (less than 20 min) and conveniently prepared using commercially available reagents. Using the outlined procedure, Chelex-100 resin bound Tc-99m with greater than 98% labeling efficiency. The resulting Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin demonstrated excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The clinical application of Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin, mixed with oatmeal, was tested in normal subjects and in various patient groups, including diabetic autonomic neuropathy, pyloric obstruction, postoperative dumping syndrome, and morbidly obese patients before and after gastroplasty.

  15. Assessment of radionuclidic impurities in cyclotron produced (99m)Tc.

    PubMed

    Lebeda, Ondřej; van Lier, Erik J; Štursa, Jan; Ráliš, Jan; Zyuzin, Alexander

    2012-11-01

    The commercial viability of cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc as an alternative to generator-produced (99m)Tc depends on several factors. These include: production yield, ease of target processing and recycling of (100)Mo, radiochemical purity, specific activity as well as the presence of other radionuclides, particularly various Tc radioisotopes that cannot be separated chemically and will remain in the final clinical preparation. These Tc radionuclidic impurities are derived from nuclear interactions of the accelerated protons with other stable Mo isotopes present in the enriched (100)Mo target. The aim of our study was to determine experimentally the yields of Tc radioisotopes produced from these stable Mo isotopes as a function of incident beam energy in order to predict radionuclidic purity of (99m)Tc produced in highly enriched (100)Mo targets of known isotopic composition. Enriched molybdenum targets of (95)Mo, (96)Mo, (97)Mo, (98)Mo and (100)Mo were prepared by pressing powdered metal into an aluminum target support. The thick targets were bombarded with 10 to 24MeV protons using the external beam line of the U-120M cyclotron of the Nuclear Physics Institute, Řež. The thick target yields of (94)Tc, (94m)Tc, (95)Tc, (95m)Tc, (96m+g)Tc and (97m)Tc were derived from their activities measured by γ spectrometry using a high purity Ge detector. These data were then used to assess the effect of isotopic composition of highly enriched (100)Mo targets on the radionuclidic purity of (99m)Tc as a function of proton beam energy. Estimates were validated by comparison to measured activities of Tc radioisotopes in proton irradiated, highly enriched (100)Mo targets of known isotopic composition. The measured thick target yields of (94)Tc, (94m)Tc, (95)Tc, (95m)Tc, (96m+g)Tc and (97m)Tc correspond well with recently published values calculated via the EMPIRE-3 code. However, the measured yields are more favourable with regard to achievable radionuclidic purity of (99m)Tc

  16. [Use of a gamma probe for intraoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas with Tc-99m-tetrofosmin and Tc-99m-sestamibi].

    PubMed

    Gallowitsch, H J; Fellinger, J; Kresnik, E; Mikosch, P; Pipam, W; Unterweger, O F; Lind, P

    1997-01-01

    Especially ectopic adenomas may be problematic in intraoperative localization despite preoperative imaging resulting in a longer operating time and more extensive surgical preparation. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possibility of intraoperative scintimetric detection of parathyroid adenomas with cationic, Tc-99m labelled tracers for its usefulness in ectopic adenomas. 12 women with biochemically confirmed hyperparathyroidism were included in our study. After injection of 370 MBq Tc-99m Tetrofosmin respectively Sestamibi, preoperative scintigraphy (double phase study and SPECT) was performed and T/NT ratios were evaluated for early, delayed and SPECT images. Surgery was performed using a hand-held gamma probe after preoperative injection of 555-925 MBq Tc-99m Tetrofosmin or Sestamibi. Count rates (cts/10 sec) were measured and used for calculating in situ- and ex situ-T/NT ratios. In 9 out of 12 patients, adenoma could be detected on static images. Three cases could only be detected with SPECT. 11 of 12 parathyroid adenomas could be confirmed intraoperatively. Intraoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma with Tc-99m-labelled cationic complexes and a gamma probe is possible and may be useful in case of ectopic adenoma by influencing surgical approach and operating time.

  17. Discrepant 99mTc-ECD images of CBF in patients with subacute cerebral infarction: a comparison of CBF, CMRO2 and 99mTc-HMPAO imaging.

    PubMed

    Shishido, F; Uemura, K; Inugami, A; Ogawa, T; Fujita, H; Shimosegawa, E; Nagata, K

    1995-08-01

    Three patients with subacute ischemic cerebral infarction examined by SPECT with 99mTc-ECD and PET within the same day showed signs of luxury perfusion in the subacute phase, which is between 9 to 20 days after the onset. A 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT study was also performed within 2 days of the ECD-SPECT study. ECD-SPECT images of three patients displayed a focal decreased uptake in the infarcted lesions, while in infarcted foci, there was almost equivalent or increased CBF compared to normal and unaffected areas, decreased CMRO2, and high HMPAO uptake. The ECD-SPECT results were similar to those of CMRO2 rather than CBF, though the HMPAO-SPECT image was similar to that of CBF. In one patient, HMPAO images revealed hyperfixation of the tracer. In the chronic phase and in the acute phase before 5 days after the onset, there were no discrepancies among the ECD-SPECT, CBF, HMPAO-SPECT, and CMRO2 images. These observations indicated that 99mTc-ECD is a good indicator of damaged brain tissues in subacute ischemic infarction. They also suggested that 99mTc-ECD is a potential agent with which to evaluate cerebral tissue viability in some pathological states of cerebrovascular disease. The characteristics may be suitable for confirming the effects of thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemia, because these conditions often show signs of luxury perfusion when the therapy is successful.

  18. Activity measurements of the radionuclide 99mTc for the IFIN-HH, Romania in the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Sahagia, M.; Ioan, M. R.; Antohe, A.; Luca, A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, a comparison of activity measurements of 99mTc using the Transfer Instrument of the International Reference System (SIRTI) took place at the Institutul National de Cercetare - Dezvoltare in Fizica si Inginerie Nucleara - 'Horia Hulubei' (IFIN-HH, Romania). Ampoules containing about 21 kBq and 40 kBq of a 99mTc solution were measured in the SIRTI for, respectively, one and three half-lives. The comparison, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m, is linked to the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison and the degrees of equivalence with the key comparison reference value and between the present IFIN-HH result, the other K4 participants and the six participants in the K1 comparison have been evaluated. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  19. Activity measurements of the radionuclide 99mTc for the NIM, China in the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Nonis, M.; Liang, J. C.; Chen, J.; Liu, H. R.; Zhang, M.; Zhao, Q.; Yang, Y. D.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the fourth comparison of activity measurements of 99mTc using the Transfer Instrument of the International Reference System (SIRTI) took place at the Chinese National Institute of Metrology (NIM). An ampoule containing about 70 kBq of 99mTc traceable to the NIM primary standard was measured in the SIRTI for more than three half-lives. The comparison, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m, is linked to the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison and the degrees of equivalence with the key comparison reference value and between the present NIM result, the other K4 participant and the six participants in the K1 comparison have been evaluated. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  20. Incidental detection of a bleeding gastrointestinal stromal tumor on Tc-99m red blood cell scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Sampath; Bhattacharya, Anish; Gupta, Vikas; Singh, Rajinder; Radotra, Bishan Dass; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2012-10-01

    The role of 99m-technetium labeled red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy in acute gastro-intestinal bleed is well-established. The authors report a case of a bleeding gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) incidentally discovered on Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy.

  1. Radiosynthesis and evaluation of a (99m)Tc-folic acid radiotracer prepared using [(99m)TcN(PNP)](2+) metal fragment.

    PubMed

    Vats, Kusum; Subramanian, Suresh; Mathur, Anupam; Sarma, Haladhar Dev; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2017-03-01

    Folate receptors (FR) are over-expressed on a wide variety of tumor cells and are a potential molecular target for radiolabeled folates. In this respect, several SPECT and PET based radiofolates have been evaluated in the past albeit with their high renal uptake posing limitation towards their clinical use. To overcome this, a new (99m)Tc labeled folic acid was synthesized via the use of [(99m)TcN(PNP)](2+) metal fragment, where the presence of the latter pharmacophore redirects in vivo clearance via the hepatobiliary pathway. In this respect, folic acid was derivatized at the γ-acid group with a cysteine BFCA (bifunctional chelating agent) and subsequently reacted with the preformed [(99m)TcN](2+) intermediate in presence of PNP2 (bisphosphine) ligand, to yield the final complex. While preliminary, in vivo distribution of the complex exhibited high association of activity with liver and intestines and provided support to the rationality of the present design as clearance of labeled folic acid could be effected via the hepatic route, the in vitro studies of the folic acid-cysteine conjugate carried out in KB-31 cells, did not show much promise with reduction in receptor affinity in comparison with the native folic acid. The route followed herein to prepare a folic-acid based radiotracer constitutes the first report of radiolabeling folic acid using the [(99m)TcN(PNP)](2+) as a radiosynthon. Modification in the structure of conjugate by linking the BFCA through a long-chain linker can be envisaged to improve the affinity of [(99m)TcN(PNP)]-folic acid complex towards FRs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 99mTc(CO)3-labeled pamidronate and alendronate for bone imaging.

    PubMed

    Palma, Elisa; Correia, João D G; Oliveira, Bruno L; Gano, Lurdes; Santos, Isabel C; Santos, Isabel

    2011-03-28

    Bone scintigraphy with (99m)Technetium-methylenediphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) or (99m)Technetium-hydroxymethylenediphosphonate ((99m)Tc-HMDP) presents several limitations, namely low specificity, uncertainty in the radiopharmaceutical's molecular structure and long acquisition time after injection. Aiming to find bone-seeking radiotracers based on the core fac-[(99m)Tc(CO)(3)](+) with improved chemical and biological properties, we synthesized new conjugates (pz-PAM and pz-ALN), comprising a pyrazolyl-diamine chelating unit (pz: N,N,N donor atom set) for metal stabilization and a pendant pamidronate (PAM) or alendronate (ALN) moiety for bone targeting. The reaction of the conjugates with fac-[(99m)Tc(CO)(3)](+) yielded (> 95%) the stable complexes fac-[(99m)Tc(CO)(3)(pz-PAM)](-) (2a) and fac-[(99m)Tc(CO)(3)(pz-ALN)](-) (3a), which have been characterized by comparing their HPLC gamma-traces with the UV-vis traces of the Re surrogates 2 and 3, respectively. 2a and 3a bind strongly onto hydroxyapatite. The biodistribution studies in Balb-c mice have shown that 2a and 3a presented an high bone uptake (2a 18.3 ± 0.6% I.D./g, 3a 17.3 ± 6.1% I.D./g, at 1 h post injection), similar to (99m)Tc-MDP (17.1 ± 2.4% I.D./g, at 1 h post injection), with comparable clearance from most tissues and increased total excretion (2a 66% I.D., 3a 67% I.D. and (99m)Tc-MDP 49% I.D., at 1 h post injection). The bone-to-blood (2a 86.2, 3a 74.7) and the bone-to-muscle ratios (2a 77.7, 3a 79.0) are higher than the ones found for (99m)Tc-MDP (70.9, 47.9), at 4 h post injection. Planar whole-body gamma camera images of the rats injected with the (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-labeled pamidronate (2a) and alendronate (3a) confirmed the overall adequate biological profile of the new radiotracers for bone imaging.

  3. Tc-99m labeled leukocytes: preparation and use in identification of abscess and tissue rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Farid, N.A.; White, S.M.; Heck, L.L.; Van Hove, E.D.

    1983-09-01

    A simple and reproducible method for the preparation and labeling of leukocytes with Tc-99m has been developed. Leukocytes were separated from blood, incubated with stannous pyrophosphate, and then with 20-30 mCi (740-1110 MBq) of /sup 99m/TcO-4. In leukocytes separated from human blood, the labeling efficiency was 81% +/- 6% (n . 4). Experiments on dogs with abscesses showed accumulation of the Tc-99m-labeled leukocytes in the infected sites, indicating the viability of the labeled leukocytes. Additional studies showed that rat lymphocytes that were labeled with Tc-99m, using the same technique, localized in heart transplant tissue that was being rejected.

  4. Tc-99m labeled leukocytes: preparation and use in identification of abscess and tissue rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Farid, N.A.; White, S.M.; Heck, L.L.; Van Hove, E.D.

    1983-09-01

    A simple and reproducible method for the preparation and labeling of leukocytes with Tc-99m, has been developed. Leukocytes were separated from blood, incubated with stannous pyrophosphate, and then with 20-30 mCi (740-1110 M Bq) of /sup 99m/TcO/sub 4//sup -/. In leukocytes separated from human blood, the labeling efficiency was 81% +/- 6% (n=4). Experiments on dogs with abscesses showed accumulation of the Tc-99m-labeled leukocytes in the infected sites, indicating the viability of the labeled leukocytes. Additional studies showed that rat lymphocytes that were labeled with Tc-99m, using the same technique, localized in heart transplant tissue that was being rejected.

  5. Synthesis and biological assessment of folate-accepted developer (99m)Tc-DTPA-folate-polymer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Shao, Kejing; Zhu, Bao; Jiang, Mengjun

    2016-05-15

    A novel cancer-targetable folate-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PFDH) copolymer containing DTPA segment was prepared by conventional chemical synthesis and labeled with (99m)Tc subsequently. The (99m)Tc-labled PFDH could be produced easily with high radiochemical yield of 91% and radiochemical purity of 95%. The LogP octanol-water value for the (99m)Tc-labled PFDH was -2.19 and the radiotracer was stable in phosphate-buffered saline and human serum for 2h (>95% in PBS or ∼90% in human serum). To investigate (99m)Tc-labled PFDH tumor targeting, the in vitro and in vivo stability, cell uptake, in vivo biodistribution, and SPECT imaging were evaluated, respectively. These preliminary results strongly suggest that the novel folate conjugated dendrimer maybe developed to be potential for delivery of therapeutic radionuclides.

  6. Limitations and pitfalls of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC (Tektrotyd) scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Garai, Ildikó; Barna, Sandor; Nagy, Gabor; Forgacs, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Tektrotyd kit was developed by Polatom company for 99mTc labeling to make an alternative tracer of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy available. Since 2005, 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-Octreotide has been used in clinical imaging and achieved high impact in management of patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Knowing the limitations and pitfalls is essential to provide ac-curate diagnosis. Therefore, the potential pitfalls associated with the use of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC are reviewed on the basis of own experience. Data were analyzed of 310 patients who underwent somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with 99mTc-Tektrotyd. Pitfalls during radiolabeling process or acquisition can worsen the sensitivity of SRS (somatostatin receptor scintigraphy). Recognizing physi-ological and clinical pitfalls, the diagnostic accuracy will improve.

  7. Visualization of cutaneous hemangioma with Tc-99m tagged red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L.; Vujic, I.; Spicer, K.M.

    1981-10-01

    Scintigraphy with Tc-99m labeled red blood cells (RBCs) was used to evaluate a patient with a large cutaneous hemangioma. The usefulness of this procedure when combined with arteriography is discussed.

  8. .sup.100Mo compounds as accelerator targets for production of .sup.99mTc

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Vernal; Lapi, Suzanne

    2016-09-20

    Methods of synthesizing .sup.100Mo.sub.2C and .sup.99mTcO.sub.4.sup.- are disclosed. Methods of .sup.100Mo.sub.2C generation involve thermally carburizing .sup.100MoO.sub.3. Methods of .sup.99mTcO.sub.4 generation involve proton bombardment of .sup.100Mo.sub.2C in a cyclotron. Yields of .sup.99mTcO.sub.4 can be increased by sintering .sup.100Mo.sub.2C prior to bombardment. The methods also include recycling of .sup.100Mo.sub.2C to form .sup.100MoO.sub.3. SPECT images obtained using .sup.99mTcO.sub.4 generated by the disclosed methods are also presented.

  9. Evaluation of (99m)Tc(i)-tricarbonyl complexes of fluoroquinolones for targeting bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Dipak Kumar; Baishya, Rinku; Halder, Kamal Krishna; Sen, Tuhinadri; Sarkar, Bharat R; Ganguly, Shantanu; Das, M K; Debnath, Mita Chatterjee

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-labeled fluoroquinolones as novel SPECT radiopharmaceuticals for imaging bacterial infection. Fluoroquinolones, e.g., ofloxacin (OFX), levofloxacin (LVX), lomefloxacin (LMX) and norfloxacin (NFX) were labeled with a fac-[(99m)Tc(CO)(3)(H(2)O)(3)](+) precursor. The radiochemical purity of the radiopharmaceuticals exceeded 97% as determined by thin layer chromatography and HPLC. No further purification was necessary before injection. The Re(CO)(3) complex of one of the fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin) was synthesized using [Re(CO)(3)(H(2)O)(3)]OTf and Re(CO)(5)Br precursors in separate experiments and characterized by IR, NMR and mass spectroscopic analysis. These studies revealed the formation of a single species in which the piperazinyl nitrogen and the -COOH group attached to the benzoxazine ring system of quinolone were involved in co-ordination to the Re(CO)(3) core. The HPLC elution pattern and retention time of the Re(CO)(3)-LVX complex were comparable to those of the corresponding (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-complex proving their similarity. When incubated in isotonic saline and serum up to 24 h (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-labeled fluoroquinolones exhibited good in vitro stability. Biodistribution studies performed at different time points on rats intramuscularly infected with S. aureus as well as on rats with sterile inflammation revealed a higher uptake in the infected area than the turpentine induced inflamed area. The uptake in infected thigh was significant with (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-OFX followed by (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-LVX. The mean ratios of the uptake in infected/non-infected thighs were 4.75 and 4.27 at 8 h and 24 h, respectively, for (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-OFX and 4.42 and 4.18 at 24 h and 8 h, respectively, for (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-LVX. The above abscess to muscle ratios were higher than reported for (99m)Tc-ciprofloxacin and other (99m)Tc-labeled fluoroquinolones. Scintigraphy studies also showed a significant uptake in the infectious lesions

  10. Lymphatic mapping with 99mTc-Evans Blue dye in sheep.

    PubMed

    Tsopelas, Chris; Bellon, Max; Bevington, Elaine; Kollias, James; Shibli, Sabah; Chatterton, Barry E

    2008-11-01

    99mTc-Evans Blue (EB) is an agent that contains both radioactive and color signals in a single dose. Earlier studies in animal models have suggested that this agent when compared with the dual-injection technique of radiocolloid/blue dye can successfully discriminate the sentinel lymph node. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of 99mTc-EB as an agent to map the lymphatic system in an ovine model. Doses of 99mTc-EB (23 MBq) containing EB dye (4 mg) were administered intradermally to the limbs of four anesthetized sheep, and they were then imaged over 20-30 min using a gamma camera. The study protocol was repeated using 99mTc-antimony trisulfide colloid (ATC) and Patent Blue V dye. The lymph nodes (popliteal, inguinal, and iliac for hind limbs or prescapular for fore limbs) were identified with a gamma probe during the operative exposure, then dissected and counted in a large volume counter. Simple and complex (dual) drainage patterns were visible on the scans, and the sentinel node was more radioactive than higher tier nodes in a chain, for both radiotracers. For 99mTc-EB, maximum radioactive uptake was achieved at 3-6 min for popliteal lymph nodes, 12-14 min for iliac nodes, and 13-14 min for prescapular nodes. 99mTc-ATC resulted in maximum radioactive uptake at 4-6 min for popliteal lymph nodes, 13 min for an inguinal node, 13-20 min for iliac nodes, and 18 min for a prescapular node. Following 99mTc-EB injection, 15/15 lymph nodes harvested were all radioactive and blue. For 99mTc-radiocolloid/Patent Blue V injection, 8/14 nodes were radioactive and blue, and 6/14 nodes were radioactive only. The soluble radiotracer 99mTc-EB appeared to be a useful lymphoscintigraphic agent in sheep, in which radioactive counts from superficial lymphatic channels and lymph nodes were sufficient for planar imaging. In comparison with 99mTc-antimony trisulfide colloid, both tracers discriminated the sentinel lymph node up to 50 min after administration; however

  11. Regional brain uptake and retention of Tc-99m-propylene amine oxime derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Chaplin, S.B.; Oberle, P.O.; Hoffman, T.J.; Volkert, W.A.; Holmes, R.A.; Nowotnik, D.P.; Pickett, R.D.; Neirinckx, R.

    1985-05-01

    Tc-99m-propylene amine oxime (Tc-99m-PnAO) is a neutral lipophilic chelate that rapidly and passively enters the cerebral cortex (80% on first pass in baboon brain) and then clears exponentially leaving inadequate activity to perform conventional SPECT brain imaging. When side chains are attached to the PnAO backbone lipophilicity is increased, as well as brain retention. In this work the authors evaluated regional brain uptake and retention of Tc-99m-PnAO and several of its derivatives in rat brain using serial autoradiography (ARG). Autoradiographs of each Tc-99m chelate at 5 sec. post peak brain uptake demonstrate discrete grey to white matter differentiation. White matter tracts are well delineated and the darker areas of grey matter appearing in the midbrain and thalamus, corresponding to areas of high capillary density and high blood flow documented with C-14-iodoantipyrine, are easily distinguished. Within 5 min. of the peak uptake the regional uptake and grey/white differentiation is lost on the Tc-99m-PnAO ARG. In contrast the 5 min. ARG of the more lipophilic Tc-99m, chelate with dimethyl-PnAO (DMPnAO) shows the complete reverse of the 5 sec. ARG, with greater activity in the white matter tracts than in the grey matter. One of the derivatives, tetramethyl-PAO (TMPAO) complexed with Tc-99m is retained in the grey matter of rat brain and shows persistent grey to white localization for at least 60 min., analogous to what has been reported with I-123-IMP. These results suggest that Tc-99m-TMPAO or one of its derivatives may be appropriate for SPECT imaging of cerebral blood flow abnormalities.

  12. [Imaging of hyperparathyroidism-Ultrasonography and 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy-].

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Joji; Higashiyama, Shigeaki; Yoshida, Atsushi; Kotani, Kohei; Shiomi, Susumu

    2016-06-01

    Treatments for primary hyperparathyroidism due to adenoma, hyperplasia and carcinoma and secondary hyperparathyroidism are mainly surgical resections of them. Accurate imaging diagnoses of the existences and the regions are very important for reductions of invasiveness. We describe ultrasonography and (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy of hyperparathyroidism. We explain an advantage, a disadvantage and diagnosability of these modalities. We mention utilities of SPECT/CT, too. We show echogram and (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy images about 3 cases of hyperparathyroidism.

  13. Intense splenic 99mTc-MDP uptake in a patient with myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Liu, Chun; Yang, Jigang

    2013-12-01

    99mTc-MDP bone scan was performed in a 49-year-old woman with breast cancer. Whole-body bone scan showed multiple foci of increased MDP activity in the bone and intense splenic 99mTc-MDP uptake. Initial bone marrow aspiration in multiple locations yielded no blood cells. A subsequent bone marrow biopsy in the left anterior superior iliac spine showed myelofibrosis in addition to the known bone metastasis.

  14. Dual pathway clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA from the bronchial mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, W.D.; Ilowite, J.S.

    1989-05-01

    Many studies have reported clearance rates of 99mTc-DTPA from the alveolar epithelial surface, but few have measured clearance of this solute from the bronchial mucosa. Those that have attempted such measurements have discounted the possibility that 99mTc-DTPA may be removed from the bronchial airways by mucocilliary transport as well as by absorption through the epithelium. This study was designed to better approximate the rate of 99mTc-DTPA absorption across the bronchial epithelium by correcting the measurements of total 99mTc-DTPA clearance for mucus transport. On two separate study days, each normal, nonsmoking subject (n = 8) breathed an aqueous aerosol (2.0 microns MMAD, sigma g = 2.0) containing 99mTc bound to DTPA or human serum ablumin (HSA) (a relatively nonpermeable solute that is cleared only by mucus transport over the period of measured clearance) while seated in front of a gamma camera. Breathing pattern was standardized to produce a similar central deposition of particles on both study days. From measurements of retention versus time over a 1-h period, exponential rate constants (Ktot and Km) were determined for the clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-HSA, respectively. By modeling the airways as a single compartment with two possible routes of clearance, we determined the permeability rate constant, Kp, as Ktot minus Km. Results showed that mucus clearance (Km) accounted for two thirds of the total rate of 99mTc-DTPA clearance (Ktot) (mean Ktot = 0.00985, Km = 0.00698, and Kp = 0.00287/min).

  15. Dose calibrator linearity test: 99mTc versus 18F radioisotopes*

    PubMed Central

    Willegaignon, José; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Garcez, Alexandre Teles; Alves, Carlos Eduardo Gonzalez Ribeiro; Cardona, Marissa Anabel Rivera; Gutterres, Ricardo Fraga; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study was aimed at evaluating the viability of replacing 18F with 99mTc in dose calibrator linearity testing. Materials and Methods The test was performed with sources of 99mTc (62 GBq) and 18F (12 GBq) whose activities were measured up to values lower than 1 MBq. Ratios and deviations between experimental and theoretical 99mTc and 18F sources activities were calculated and subsequently compared. Results Mean deviations between experimental and theoretical 99mTc and 18F sources activities were 0.56 (± 1.79)% and 0.92 (± 1.19)%, respectively. The mean ratio between activities indicated by the device for the 99mTc source as measured with the equipment pre-calibrated to measure 99mTc and 18F was 3.42 (± 0.06), and for the 18F source this ratio was 3.39 (± 0.05), values considered constant over the measurement time. Conclusion The results of the linearity test using 99mTc were compatible with those obtained with the 18F source, indicating the viability of utilizing both radioisotopes in dose calibrator linearity testing. Such information in association with the high potential of radiation exposure and costs involved in 18F acquisition suggest 99mTc as the element of choice to perform dose calibrator linearity tests in centers that use 18F, without any detriment to the procedure as well as to the quality of the nuclear medicine service. PMID:25798005

  16. 99mTc-Tetrofosmin Uptake Correlates with the Sensitivity of Glioblastoma Cell Lines to Temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    Alexiou, George A.; Xourgia, Xanthi; Gerogianni, Paraskevi; Vartholomatos, Evrysthenis; Kalef-Ezra, John A.; Fotopoulos, Andreas D.; Kyritsis, Athanasios P.

    2017-01-01

    99mTc-tetrofosmin (99mTc-TF) is a single-photon emission computed tomography tracer that has been used for brain tumor imaging. The aim of the study was to assess if 99mTc-TF uptake by glioblastoma cells correlates with their response to temozolomide (TMZ). We investigated the correlation of TMZ antitumor effect with the 99mTc-TF uptake in two glioblastoma cell lines. The U251MG cell line is sensitive to TMZ, whereas T98G is resistant. Viability and proliferation of the cells were examined by trypan blue exclusion assay and xCELLigence system. Cell cycle was analyzed with flow cytometry. The radioactivity in the cellular lysate was measured with a gamma scintillation counter. TMZ induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in U251MG cells, whereas there was no effect on cell cycle in T98G cells. Lower 99mTc-TF uptake was observed in U251MG cells that were exposed to TMZ compared to control (P = 0.0159). No significant difference in respect to 99mTc-TF uptake was found in T98G cells when exposed to TMZ compared to control (P = 0.8). With 99mTc-TF, it was possible to distinguish between TMZ-sensitive and resistant glioblastoma cells within 6 h of treatment initiation. Thus, 99mTc-TF uptake may consist a novel approach to assess an early response of glioblastoma to chemotherapy and deserves further investigation. PMID:28217019

  17. (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy in evaluation of active Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO).

    PubMed

    Sun, Hua; Jiang, Xu-Feng; Wang, Shu; Chen, Hao-Yan; Sun, Jiao; Li, Pei-Yong; Ning, Guang; Zhao, Yong-Ju

    2007-06-01

    A promising radiopharmaceutical (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC ((99m)Tc-HYNIC-Octreotide) can be applied for somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with the potential to replace Indium-111 labeled somatostatin analogus. Here we evaluate whether orbital (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy can be used as a Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) activity parameter to predict the retrobulbar irradiation response. Orbital (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy was performed on 14 consecutive patients demonstrating moderated to severe Graves' ophthalmopathy. The patients were treated with retrobulbar irradiation following the octreoscan and the response to this therapy was assessed at 3 months after the start of treatment. The orbital (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC uptake was calculated to assess the effects of treatment. Among the 14 GO patients, eight (57.1%) responded to retrobulbar radiotherapy; six (42.9%) showed no change. We compared the eight responders and six non-responders in terms of orbital (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC uptake, using the orbital/occipital ratio. On the 4-h (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy, responders had a higher orbital/occipital uptake ratio than the no-responders (P = 0.001). A significant correlation was found between the orbital/occipital ratio and the clinical activity score (CAS) (P = 0.034). The Receiving-Operator-Characteristic curve showed the best threshold for discriminating active and inactive disease was 1.40 (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 83.3%). In the responders group, all these eight patients had positive scintigraphy. While there were five patients who had negative scintigraphy in the non-responders group. Orbital (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy can be a useful method for the estimation of disease activity and prediction the response to subsequent radiotherapy in GO patient. And the patients with positive octreoscan were more likely to respond to irradiation.

  18. Evaluation of 99mTc-MAMA-chrysamine G as an in vivo probe for amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Dezutter, N A; Landman, W J; Jager, P L; de Groot, T J; Dupont, P J; Tooten, P C; Zekarias, B; Gruys, E; Verbruggen, A M

    2001-09-01

    To date, systemic amyloidosis is diagnosed histologically using Congo red staining or in vivo using iodine-123 labelled serum amyloid P component (123I-SAP) scintigraphy. We developed 99mTc-MAMA-CG, a 99mTc-labelled derivative of the lipophilic Congo red analogue chrysamine G (CG), as a possible alternative to 123I-SAP. In vivo 99mTc-MAMA-CG scintigraphy, performed in chickens with spontaneous joint amyloidosis, resulted as soon as 10 min after injection in scintigraphic images showing uptake of activity in amyloid-loaded organs (liver, joints). One of these chickens was studied also with 123I-SAP resulting in scintigraphic images revealing 123I-SAP binding to amyloid deposits in the liver. However, up to 11 h after injection no radioactivity was visible in the amyloid positive joints. In vitro autoradiography, performed on sections of chicken joints with Enterococcus faecalis induced amyloid arthropathy (chjAA), demonstrated the failure of 99mTc-MAMA-CG to bind significantly to amyloid deposits in the presence of 10 microM Congo red The specificity of 99mTc-MAMA-CG localisation was also established by the absence of 99mTc-MAMA-CG binding in non-amyloidotic organs in vitro and in vivo. 99mTc-MAMA-CG did not show any sign of acute toxicity. These findings establish the usefulness of 99mTc-MAMA-CG as a non-invasive in vivo diagnostic probe in chickens with amyloid arthropathy and suggest that it may also be applicable to human amyloidosis.

  19. MO Tripeptide Diastereomers (M = 99/99mTc, Re): Models To Identify the Structure of 99mTc Peptide Targeted Radiopharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Cantorias, Melchor V.; Howell, Robertha C.; Todaro, Louis; Cyr, John E.; Berndorff, Dietmar; Rogers, Robin D.; Francesconi, Lynn C.

    2007-01-01

    Biologically active molecules, such as many peptides, serve as targeting vectors for radiopharmaceuticals based on 99mTc. Tripeptides can be suitable chelates and are easily and conveniently synthesized and linked to peptide targeting vectors through solid-phase peptide synthesis and form stable TcVO complexes. Upon complexation with [TcO]3+, two products form; these are syn and anti diastereomers, and they often have different biological behavior. This is the case with the approved radiopharmaceutical [99mTcO]depreotide ([99mTcO]P829, NeoTect) that is used to image lung cancer. [99mTcO]depreotide indeed exhibits two product peaks in its HPLC profile, but assignment of the product peaks to the diastereomers has proven to be difficult because the metal peptide complex is difficult to crystallize for structural analysis. In this study, we isolated diastereomers of [99TcO] and [ReO] complexes of several tripeptide ligands that model the metal chelator region of [99mTcO]depreotide. Using X-ray crystallography, we observed that the early eluting peak (A) corresponds to the anti diastereomer, where the Tc═O group is on the opposite side of the plane formed by the ligand backbone relative to the pendant groups of the tripeptide ligand, and the later eluting peak (B) corresponds to the syn diastereomer, where the Tc═O group is on the same side of the plane as the residues of the tripeptide. 1H NMR and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy report on the metal environment and prove to be diagnostic for syn or anti diastereomers, and we identified characteristic features from these techniques that can be used to assign the diastereomer profile in 99mTc peptide radiopharmaceuticals like [99mTcO]depreotide and in 188Re peptide radiotherapeutic agents. Crystallography, potentiometric titration, and NMR results presented insights into the chemistry occurring under physiological conditions. The tripeptide complexes where lysine is the second amino acid crystallized in a

  20. [99mTc-ECD dynamic SPECT in "luxury perfusion" of subacute stroke].

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, K; Fujiwara, S; Yoshimoto, T

    1995-11-01

    To evaluate the cerebral pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) at blood flow levels beyond the normal range, we investigated "luxury perfusion" in subacute stroke, ictal hyperperfusion in epilepsy and post-decompressive hyperemia in head trauma. All 7 patients showed a hyperactive area on SPECT studies using 99mTc-HM-PAO. 99mTc-ECD static image demonstrated a hyperactive area in both epilepsy and head trauma, and a hypoactive area in "luxury perfusion." On the dynamic SPECT of 99mTc-ECD in both epilepsy and head trauma, brain distribution of the tracer was determined within 2 min. postinjection and remained stable for up to 1 hour; however, "luxury perfusion" area showed a change from initial hyperactivity to late hypoactivity with the passage of time. The time activity curve in "luxury perfusion" area demonstrated a steep decrease of counts/pixel for up to 4-5 minutes postinjection, and a moderate decrease in the following phase. The early wash-out mechanism of 99mTc-ECD from "luxury perfusion" area can be described by a biexponential function including an initial steep decrease representing the rapid loss of the lipophilic complexes which were not metabolized in injured brain tissue.

  1. An incidental detection of aortic aneurysm on Tc-99m MAG3 renal scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Sadic, Murat; Demirel, Koray; Koca, Gökhan; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2013-01-01

    A 71-year-old man with newly diagnosed hypertension was referred for Technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (Tc-99m MAG3) renal scintigraphy to evaluate the recent onset of impairment in renal functions. Dynamic imaging revealed activity flow which was suspicious for aortic aneurysm (AA) with a concurrent decrease in left renal blood flow. CT angiography of the thoracoabdominal aorta confirmed that this area corresponded to AA. The purpose of this report was to present the first case of incidental detection of AA on Tc-99m MAG3 scintigraphy and highlight the importance of correlative imaging for the diagnosis of abnormal radioactivity accumulation in the region of vascular structures.

  2. Neurofibromas: location by scanning with Tc-99m DTPA. Work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, G.A.; Herrick, W.C.; Harcke, H.T.; Sharkey, C.; Brooks, K.M.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1985-12-01

    The accumulation of technetium-99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA) in benign soft-tissue neurofibromatosis tumors is reported. In a series of 16 patients with clinical stigmata of neurofibromatosis, 28 sites of abnormal soft-tissue localization of the isotope observed scintigraphically were documented to be sites of soft-tissue tumor by clinical and/or radiographic (predominantly computed tomographic) correlations. The smallest lesion detected was a 1.5-cm subcutaneous neurofibroma. Normal physiologic nonrenal distribution of the Tc-99m DTPA was established by scintigraphic imaging of a control population.

  3. Evaluating {sup 99m}Tc Auger electrons for targeted tumor radiotherapy by computational methods

    SciTech Connect

    Tavares, Adriana Alexandre S.; Tavares, Joao Manuel R. S.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) has been widely used as an imaging agent but only recently has been considered for therapeutic applications. This study aims to analyze the potential use of {sup 99m}Tc Auger electrons for targeted tumor radiotherapy by evaluating the DNA damage and its probability of correct repair and by studying the cellular kinetics, following {sup 99m}Tc Auger electron irradiation in comparison to iodine-131 ({sup 131}I) beta minus particles and astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) alpha particle irradiation. Methods: Computational models were used to estimate the yield of DNA damage (fast Monte Carlo damage algorithm), the probability of correct repair (Monte Carlo excision repair algorithm), and cell kinetic effects (virtual cell radiobiology algorithm) after irradiation with the selected particles. Results: The results obtained with the algorithms used suggested that {sup 99m}Tc CKMMX (all M-shell Coster-Kroning--CK--and super-CK transitions) electrons and Auger MXY (all M-shell Auger transitions) have a therapeutic potential comparable to high linear energy transfer {sup 211}At alpha particles and higher than {sup 131}I beta minus particles. All the other {sup 99m}Tc electrons had a therapeutic potential similar to {sup 131}I beta minus particles. Conclusions: {sup 99m}Tc CKMMX electrons and Auger MXY presented a higher probability to induce apoptosis than {sup 131}I beta minus particles and a probability similar to {sup 211}At alpha particles. Based on the results here, {sup 99m}Tc CKMMX electrons and Auger MXY are useful electrons for targeted tumor radiotherapy.

  4. Novel (99m)Tc(III)-azide complexes [(99m)Tc(N3)(CDO)(CDOH)2B-R] (CDOH2=cyclohexanedione dioxime) as potential radiotracers for heart imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Zheng, Yumin; Avcibasi, Ugur; Liu, Shuang

    2016-11-01

    In this study, novel (99m)Tc(III)-azide complexes [(99m)Tc(N3)(CDO)(CDOH)2B-R] ((99m)Tc-ISboroxime-N3: R=IS; (99m)Tc-MPboroxime-N3: R=MP; (99m)Tc-PAboroxime-N3: R=PA; (99m)Tc-PYboroxime-N3: R=PY; and (99m)Tc-Uboroxime-N3: R=5U) were evaluated as heart imaging agents. Complexes [(99m)Tc(N3)(CDO)(CDOH)2B-R] (R=IS, MP, PA, PY and 5U) were prepared by ligand exchange between NaN3 and [(99m)TcCl(CDO)(CDOH)2B-R]. Biodistribution and imaging studies were carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats. Image quantification was performed to compare their initial heart uptake and myocardial retention. (99m)Tc-ISboroxime-N3, (99m)Tc-PYboroxime-N3 and (99m)Tc-Uboroxime-N3 were prepared with high RCP (93-98%) while the RCP of (99m)Tc-MPboroxime-N3 and (99m)Tc-PAboroxime-N3 was 80-85%. The myocardial retention curves of (99m)Tc-ISboroxime-N3, (99m)Tc-PYboroxime-N3 and (99m)Tc-Uboroxime-N3 were best fitted to the bi-exponential decay function. The half-time of the fast component was 1.6±0.4min for (99m)Tc-ISboroxime-N3, 0.7±0.1min for (99m)Tc-PYboroxime-N3 and 0.9±0.4min for (99m)Tc-Uboroxime-N3. The 2-min heart uptake from biodistribution studies followed the ranking order of (99m)Tc-ISboroxime-N3 (3.60±0.68%ID/g)>(99m)Tc-PYboroxime-N3 (2.35±0.37%ID/g)≫(99m)Tc-Uboroxime-N3 (1.29±0.06%ID/g). (99m)Tc-ISboroxime-N3 had the highest 2-min heart uptake among (99m)Tc radiotracers revaluated in SD rats. High quality SPECT images were obtained with the right and left ventricular walls being clearly delineated. The best image acquisition window was 0-5min for (99m)Tc-ISboroxime-N3. Both azide coligand and boronate caps had significant impact on the heart uptake and myocardial retention of complexes [(99m)Tc(N3)(CDO)(CDOH)2B-R]. Among the radiotracers evaluated in SD rats, (99m)Tc-ISboroxime-N3 has the highest initial heart uptake with the heart retention comparable to that of (99m)Tc-Teboroxime. (99m)Tc-ISboroxime-N3 is a promising alternative to (99m)Tc-Teboroxime for SPECT MPI. Copyright

  5. The kidney: Imaging with Tc-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine, a technetium-labeled analog of iodohippurate

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.D.; Thorstad, B.L.; Stutzman, M.E.; Yester, M.V.; Fowler, D.; Dubovsky, E.V.

    1989-08-01

    A new renal imaging agent, technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3, mertiatide), is currently undergoing clinical trials. Like iodine-131 orthoiodohippurate (OIH)--and unlike all other available agents--it is avidly secreted by the renal tubules. Fifty patients underwent simultaneous renal imaging studies with I-131 OIH and Tc-99m MAG3. The superior physical properties of the Tc-99m label led to better image quality in all cases, largely due to count rates that were 50-fold better. In two patients, lesions were seen with MAG3 that were not visible with OIH. The biological properties of the two agents were found to be so similar that conventional diagnostic criteria for I-131 OIH could be used for Tc-99m MAG3 with only minor modifications.

  6. Scintigraphy with 99mTc(V)-DMSA in monitoring patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Hamid; Amiriani, Taghi; Mirkarimi, HoneySadat; Besharat, Sima; Semnani, Shahriar; Abedi, Jamshid; Seyedabadi, Mohammad; Assadi, Majid

    2013-01-01

    The clinical significance of pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc(V)-DMSA) scintigraphy in diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of this prospective paper was to study the above. This study included 54 patients, 22 females and 32 males (mean age: 36.68±11.49; range: 18-63 years) with IBD who came to our clinics for follow-up and were examined clinically by colonoscopy and 99mTc(V)-DMSA scintigraphy. On the follow-up studies, five patients (9.25%) relapsed, and 49 (90.74%) remained at a steady condition. There was a good correlation between the scintigraphic results and the clinical and colonoscopy data of the patients (P<0.05). In conclusion, our results indicated that 99mTc(V)DMSA scintigraphy can be complementary to colonoscopy for the diagnostic evaluation of IBD.

  7. Decreased renal uptake of (99m)Tc-DMSA in patients with tubular proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Beom Hee; Lee, So Hee; Choi, Hyun Jin; Kang, Hee Gyung; Oh, So Won; Lee, Dong Soo; Ha, Il Soo; Choi, Yong; Cheong, Hae Il

    2009-11-01

    Although technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA) renal scans are widely used to evaluate renal tubular mass function, the mechanism by which renal uptake of DMSA occurs is still the subject of debate. Patients with various proximal tubular disorders show markedly decreased renal DMSA uptake, even when there is normal creatinine clearance. We measured the renal uptake of (99m)Tc-DMSA 3 h after its injection in 13 patients with Dent disease or Lowe syndrome, both of which are typical proximal tubular disorders with defective megalin and cubilin-mediated endocytosis. Serial images of three patients were also obtained at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 h post-injection. The correlations between renal uptake of (99m)Tc-DMSA and creatinine clearance and the degrees of acidemia and tubular proteinuria were then evaluated. The renal uptake of (99m)Tc-DMSA was markedly decreased in all patients, and the decreased uptake was detected in all serial images. In contrast, bladder radioactivity was higher than normal in all of the serial images when compared to renal radioactivity. Additionally, the uptake of (99m)Tc-DMSA was inversely proportional to the amount of urine beta(2)-microglobulin. These results strongly suggest that DMSA is filtered in the glomeruli and subsequently undergoes megalin- and cubilin-mediated endocytosis in the proximal tubules.

  8. The role of 99mTc pertechnetate uptake in the evaluation of thyroid function.

    PubMed

    Sucupira, M S; Camargo, E E; Nickoloff, E L; Alderson, P O; Wagner, H N

    1983-01-01

    To investigate the usefulness of the 20 min 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake test, the records of 246 consecutive patients were reviewed. Of these, 192 patients (151 females, 41 males; 10 weeks to 78 years) had at least one year clinical follow-up or a confirmed diagnosis by biopsy or surgery and were included in our study. In these patients, the 99mTc pertechnetate uptake and hormonal values (T3 resin uptake, T4 RIA, T-index) were obtained. These results were then compared to the clinical diagnosis at the time of the uptake and one year later. All patients received an i.v. injection of 5 mCi of 99mTc pertechnetate. Imaging was performed using a pinhole collimator and a scintillation camera interfaced to a computer. Regions of interest for the thyroid and the background were used to calculate the 20 min 99mTc pertechnetate uptake as a percentage of the injected dose. 99mTc uptake and hormonal values were confirmatory in 158 patients (82.3%): 138 were euthyroid, 18 were hyperthyroid and 2 were hypothyroid. In 29 other patients (15.1%) the pertechnetate uptake provided useful additional information and helped to identify Hashimoto's thyroiditis (8 patients); thyroid suppression by exogenous iodide, steroids or T4 (7 patients); overtreated hyperthyroidism (1 patient); persistent hyperthyroidism (5 patients); different stages of Grave's disease (4 patients); and toxic nodular goiter (4 patients). The 99mTc uptake was misleading in 5 euthyroid patients (2.6%). We have found the 99mTc pertechnetate uptake a useful adjunct to measurement of hormonal levels in patients with suspected thyroid disease.

  9. Evaluation of Tc-99m (V) DMSA binding to human plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bi-Fang; Yeh, Jwu-Lai; Chiu, Nan-Tsing; Liu, Gin-Chung; Yu, Hsin-Su; Wang, Mei-Hui; Shen, Lie-Hang

    2008-01-01

    As a critical step toward elucidating the mechanism of localization of Tc-99m (V) dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), we investigated its binding and transport in blood in comparison with Ga-67 citrate. The studies were performed in vitro by incubating Tc-99m (V) DMSA with blood (one sample at 4 degrees Celcius and another at 37 degrees Celcius) to assess its binding to plasma proteins using ultrafiltration, dialysis, electrophoresis, gel filtration chromatography and affinity chromatography. A parallel experiment for determining the blood binding of Ga-67 citrate was performed using the same procedures. Using ultrafiltration, dialysis, electrophoresis and gel filtration chromatography, labeled plasma samples showed that protein binding for Tc-99m (V) DMSA was 45-54% at 37 degrees Celcius and 73-80% at 4 degrees Celcius. The figures for Ga-67 citrate were 43-53% at 37 degrees Celcius and 75-81% at 4 degrees Celcius. Electrophoresis showed that Tc-99m (V) DMSA was mostly bound to plasma albumin (36.05 +/- 2.48% at 37 degrees Celcius and 60.04 +/- 1.87% at 4 degrees Celcius), and that the proportion of Ga-67 radioactivity associated with beta-globulin was 34.23 +/- 1.37% at 37 degrees Celcius and 55.71 +/- 3.69% at 4 degrees Celcius. In affinity chromatography experiments, Tc-99m (V) DMSA did not bind to transferrin, unlike Ga-67 citrate. This study demonstrates that, at the radiopharmaceutical tracer level, most Tc-99m (V) DMSA in blood is protein-bound, primarily to albumin, but not to transferrin. In contrast, Ga-67 citrate was bound primarily to transferrin. The knowledge that albumin is the main transport protein of Tc-99m (V) DMSA may contribute to a better understanding of its biodistribution and pharmacokinetics.

  10. Chemistry and biology of Tc-99m renal function radiopharmaceuticals. Final report, May 1, 1982-January 15, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Progress is reported on research conducted during the period May 1, 1982 to January 15, 1983. The chemistry and biology of two possible renal function radiopharmaceuticals, Tc-99m N, N'-bis (mercaptoacetyl)-2,3-diamino-propanoate (Tc-99m CO/sub 2/DADS, 1(X=OH)) and the Tc-99m complex of penicillamine. (ACR)

  11. Preparation of (99m)Tc-isosulfan blue for lymph node localization in rats (99m)Tc-isosulfan blue for lymph node localization.

    PubMed

    İlem-Özdemir, Derya; Yararbas, Ulkem; Zengel, Baha; Ertan, Gökhan; Asikoglu, Makbule

    2016-12-01

    The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as the first regional lymph node to receive lymphatic drainage from a malignant tumor. Therefore, this node is a "sentinel" for second metastatic lymph node stations and for labeling regional tumor spread. For SLN detection, many surgeons preferred a combination of a preoperative injection of radiolabeled colloid and the intraoperative injection of blue dye. Under this combination protocol, nodes are considered to be "sentinel nodes" if they are radioactive and blue. The aim of this study is to develop a new single agent that combines both detection methods. For this purpose Isosulfan Blue (ISB) was radiolabeled by (99m)Tc with high labeling yield and stability. In vivo gamma scintigraphy studies were performed with rats. According to the scintigraphic studies, (99m)Tc-ISB shows rapid and high accumulation in both axillary (ALN) and popliteal lymph node (PLN). After the imaging study, extremity was opened and nodes were scanned for the radioactivity. According to performed study the lymph nodes were clearly seen to become blue and carried compound was sufficient to allow identification with a gamma probe. In conclusion, (99m)Tc-ISB has the potential to facilitate lymphatic mapping and subsequent sentinel node biopsy for solid malignancies such as breast cancer and melanoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A novel approach to infection imaging using a synthetic Tc-99m-labeled leukotactic peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P.; Oster, Z.H.; Sharma, S. ||

    1996-05-01

    RMT1, a synthetic peptide binding to PMN and macrophage receptors was labeled with Tc-99m and investigated as a potential imaging agent for abscess and inflammation. Experimental abscesses were induced in rabbits and dogs by turpentine and E.coli injection. After injection of Tc-99m-RMT1 two and twelve day old abscesses were visualized within 20 min. In initial studies, a dose of 30 {mu}g of peptide/3 mCi was used. This amount was subsequently reduced to 1.5 {mu}g peptide with same amount of Tc-99m yielding similar imaging results. Technetium-99m-IgG and Tc-99m-MAG-3 were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. After injection of IgG abscesses were visualized but activity in blood was always higher than in abscess. When using Tc-99m RMT1 rapid abscess visualization and faster blood clearance was observed. The accumulation of RMT1 was monophasic, i.e., following the initial visualization, activity continued to build up continuously for 1{1/2} hr. Tc-99m-MAG3 accumulated initially in abscess, but activity washed out. In dogs, RMT1 blood clearance showed three components: a fast component with t{1/2}=1.9 min, 73%, intermediate t{1/2}=22 min, 24.5% and slow component, t{1/2}=115, 9.5% with 3 hours cumulative urine excretion of 40-51%. RMT1 appears to be more advantageous than currently available methods because of rapidity of imaging, simpler preparation before injection and will probably be less expensive and time consuming compared to labeled WBC. These results indicate that clinical experiments are warranted.

  13. Assessment of 99mTc-succimer residual activity using inert nonreactive syringes.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, Wendy; Chen, Xinlian; Talley, Katie; Grantham, Vesper

    2015-03-01

    It has been widely reported that (99m)Tc-succimer adsorbs to plastic syringes significantly (up to 50%), often resulting in a lower administered dose than intended or inaccurate dosing. This adsorption rate is especially problematic in the pediatric population. To improve (99m)Tc-succimer dosing, we compared the adsorption of (99m)Tc-succimer with 2 types of syringes: silicone-coated syringes with nonlatex rubber on the plunger and inert nonreactive syringes with no silicone coating and no rubber on the plunger. (99m)Tc-succimer kits were compounded according to the manufacturer's instructions. (99m)Tc-succimer doses (37-185 MBq) were drawn into 3-mL (silicone-coated or inert nonreactive) syringes in a 1-mL volume. Thirty min, 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h later, the syringes were assayed in a dose calibrator and assayed again after being emptied and rinsed with saline. In addition, we examined the data collected from 129 (99m)Tc-succimer doses administered in a pediatric department, in which 52 were dispensed in silicone-coated syringes and 77 were dispensed in inert nonreactive syringes. The doses were assayed immediately before and after injection. The syringes were flushed with normal saline. The labeling efficiency of the (99m)Tc-succimer kits was more than 95%. Residual activity left in the inert nonreactive syringes was 0.73% (SD, ±0.18%), which was significantly lower than the activity left in the silicone-coated syringes, 20.9% (SD, ±5.6%; P < 0.0001). The extent of adsorption did not change significantly between 30 min and 4 h of incubation. The clinical data showed that the residual activity was 30.6% (SD, ±12.5%) from doses dispensed in silicone-coated syringes and 6.38% (SD, ±2.95%) from doses dispensed in inert nonreactive syringes (P < 0.001). The inert nonreactive syringes had significantly less residual of (99m)Tc-succimer than silicone-based syringes, making it possible to accurately administer calculated doses of (99m)Tc-succimer to pediatric patients.

  14. Quantitative simultaneous In-111/Tc-99m planar imaging in a long-bone infection phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xuping; Park, Mi-Ae; Gerbaudo, Victor H.; Moore, Stephen C.

    2007-12-01

    In-111-white-blood-cell and Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid dual-radionuclide imaging are frequently utilized in the evaluation of patients with suspected osteomyelitis. We have developed a quantitative planar imaging method in which Tc-99m and In-111 scans are acquired simultaneously in accurate spatial registration. Long, thin tubes containing only In-111 or Tc-99m were first imaged in a list mode within a water bath inclined with respect to the water surface; from these, 12 energy spectra corresponding to different Tc/In ratios were synthesized. Triple-energy-window (TEW) parameters for scatter and radionuclide crosstalk correction, including scatter windows and weights, were optimized using 100 noise realizations of each of the spectra (1200 total). A long-bone phantom containing a simulated infection site was then imaged in water with five In/Tc ratios; 100 noise realizations of two conjugate-view images were generated from each acquisition (500 total). Two regions of interest (ROIs) were defined, and the ratio of In/Tc count ratios in these two ROIs was evaluated with and without the TEW scatter correction and geometric mean attenuation compensation. The average bias improved from 17.2% to 5.3%, with comparable precision. TEW corrections with non-optimized but practical energy windows also improved the bias to 6.4%. Compared with subjective visual assessment, quantitation of In-111/Tc-99m ratios may improve diagnostic accuracy and could eventually permit grading of osteomyelitis.

  15. Quantitative simultaneous In-111/Tc-99m planar imaging in a long-bone infection phantom.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuping; Park, Mi-Ae; Gerbaudo, Victor H; Moore, Stephen C

    2007-12-21

    In-111-white-blood-cell and Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid dual-radionuclide imaging are frequently utilized in the evaluation of patients with suspected osteomyelitis. We have developed a quantitative planar imaging method in which Tc-99m and In-111 scans are acquired simultaneously in accurate spatial registration. Long, thin tubes containing only In-111 or Tc-99m were first imaged in a list mode within a water bath inclined with respect to the water surface; from these, 12 energy spectra corresponding to different Tc/In ratios were synthesized. Triple-energy-window (TEW) parameters for scatter and radionuclide crosstalk correction, including scatter windows and weights, were optimized using 100 noise realizations of each of the spectra (1200 total). A long-bone phantom containing a simulated infection site was then imaged in water with five In/Tc ratios; 100 noise realizations of two conjugate-view images were generated from each acquisition (500 total). Two regions of interest (ROIs) were defined, and the ratio of In/Tc count ratios in these two ROIs was evaluated with and without the TEW scatter correction and geometric mean attenuation compensation. The average bias improved from 17.2% to 5.3%, with comparable precision. TEW corrections with non-optimized but practical energy windows also improved the bias to 6.4%. Compared with subjective visual assessment, quantitation of In-111/Tc-99m ratios may improve diagnostic accuracy and could eventually permit grading of osteomyelitis.

  16. Accumulation of 99mTc-low-density lipoprotein in human malignant glioma.

    PubMed Central

    Leppälä, J.; Kallio, M.; Nikula, T.; Nikkinen, P.; Liewendahl, K.; Jääskeläinen, J.; Savolainen, S.; Gylling, H.; Hiltunen, J.; Callaway, J.

    1995-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake in gliomas was studied to find out if LDL has potential as a drug carrier of boron, especially for boron neutron capture therapy. Single photon emission tomography (SPET) was performed 2 h and 20 h after intravenous injection of autologous 99mTc-labelled LDL in four patients with untreated and five patients with recurrent glioma. 99mTc-LDL uptake was compared with the uptake of 99mTc-labelled human serum albumin (HSA), an established blood pool marker. The intra- and peritumoral distributions of radioactivity in the SPET images were not identical for radiolabelled LDL and HSA. The mean LDL tumour to brain ratio, determined from transversal SPET slices at 20 h post injection, was 1.5 in untreated and 2.2 in recurrent gliomas; the corresponding ratios for HSA were 1.6 and 3.4. The brain to blood ratio remained constant at 2 h and 20 h in both types of tumours. These data are not consistent with highly selective, homogeneous uptake of LDL in gliomas. However, the different tumoral distribution and rate of uptake of 99mTc-LDL, as compared with 99mTc-HSA, indicate that the uptake of LDL is different from that of HSA and that further studies on the mechanism of LDL uptake in glioma are warranted. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7841057

  17. /sup 99m/Tc diphosphonate imaging in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, A.R.; Wellman, H.N.; Park, H.M.; Burney, B.T.

    1982-08-01

    Early /sup 99m/Tc diphosphonate (DP) imaging was performed in 122 patients with cold thyroid nodules in an effort to differentiate benign nodules from malignant. Immediately upon completion of the routine 24-hour /sup 123/I uptake and multiview pinhole imaging, /sup 99m/Tc DP was injected intravenously and three serial 3-minute anterior images of the thyroid gland were obtained. Follow-up information was available in 85 patients. All cystic lesions had less /sup 99m/Tc uptake as compared with the uptake in the normal parts of the thyroid. However, 48 of 50 solid nodules had /sup 99m/Tc DP uptake to the same or greater degree than did the normal gland. The other two had mixed pattern on ultrasound examination. Most of the carcinomas (8 of 10) and benign adenomas (15 of 22) had identical appearance on /sup 99m/Tc scans, i.e., uptake in the lesion being the same as in the normal thyroid. It appears that by using this technique it is possible to separate solid nodules from cystic, but not benign from malignant.

  18. Biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of the (99m)Tc labeled human elastase inhibitor, elafin, in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaschwich, Mark; Lützen, Ulf; Zhao, Yi; Tjiong, Angelina; Marx, Marlies; Haenisch, Sierk; Wiedow, Oliver; Preuss, Stefanie; Culman, Juraj; Zuhayra, Maaz

    2016-04-01

    Elafin is a potent reversible inhibitor of the pro-inflammatory proteases leukocyte elastase and protease 3. It is currently in clinical development for the use in postoperative inflammatory diseases. We investigated the pharmacokinetics of (99m)Tc-labeled elafin ((99m)Tc-Elafin) in blood and individual organs in rat after bolus intravenous injection using the single photon emission tomography (SPECT). (99m)Tc-Elafin predominantly accumulated in the kidney reaching a maximum of 8.5% ± 0.1% of the injected dose per gram (ID/g) at 5 min post injection (p.i) and decreased only slowly during 24 h. In contrast, the initially high radio activity recorded in the other organs rapidly decreased parallel to the radioactivity detected in blood. The blood kinetics fits to a two compartment kinetics model. The radio activity in the dissected kidney was 4.98 ± 1.24%ID/g 24 h p.i, while in other organs, including the brain, no accumulation of (99m)Tc-Elafin was detected. At this time point 30% of the detected radioactivity in the kidney was identified to be not metabolized (99m)Tc-Elafin. In conclusion, the blood and organ-specific kinetic data provide a basis for planning of adequate dosing regimens and the high accumulation of intact elafin in the kidney favors clinical developments targeting inflammatory kidney diseases, such as chronic allograft nephropathy after kidney transplantation.

  19. Vesicoureteral Reflux Detected with 99mTc-DTPA Renal Scintigraphy during Evaluation of Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Manevska, Nevena; Stojanoski, Sinisa; Majstorov, Venjamin; Pop-Gjorcheva, Daniela; Zdraveska, Nikolina; Kuzmanovska, Dafina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radionuclide techniques, as direct radionuclide cystography and 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy, have been used in evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and reflux nephropathy (RN) in children. Dynamic 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy is reserved for evaluation of differential renal function and obstruction in children, where hydronephrosis is detected by ultrasonography (US) pre- or postnatally. CASE REPORT: Six year old boy was prenatally diagnosed with bilateral hydronephrosis. Postnatal, severe bilateral VUR was detected by voiding urethrocytography. US and 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy performed in the first month of life showed small left kidney that participated with 2% in the global renal function. Bilateral cutaneous ureterostomy has been performed in order to obtain good renal drainage and promote optimal renal growth. Twelve months later, classic antireflux procedure was done. Control 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy, 5 ys after antireflux surgery, revealed persisting radioactivity during the diuretic phase, in the left kidney that indicated antireflux procedure failure with VUR reappearance. CONCLUSION: 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy is the first method of choice for long-term monitoring of individual kidney function in children with VUR and other congenital urinary tract anomalies. Additionally, it can be used as indirect radionuclide cystography when rising of radioactivity in the kidney region, during the diuretic phase can indicate presence of VUR. PMID:27275347

  20. Biokinetics and dosimetric studies about 99mTc(V)-DMSA distribution.

    PubMed

    Correia, M B L; Magnata, S S L P; Silva, I M S; Catanho, M T J A; Lima, F F

    2010-05-10

    Research for radiodiagnostic agents should considerate biological critical parameters which will give own contribution on the absorbed dose. The dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) labeled with (99m)Tc(V) is a radiopharmaceutical which has well established role in medullar thyroid carcinoma and has been proposed in evaluation of bone metastasis. This work studied the biokinetics and dosimetry of (99m)Tc(V)-DMSA by animal model. The (99m)Tc(V)-DMSA was prepared from a (III)DMSA kit alkalized. Mice (n=5) received (99m)Tc(V)DMSA i.v., they were sacrificed (30 min, 1h, 5h and 12h), the organs excised and the activities measured by a gamma counter. The results were evaluated based on %activity/g and the absorbed dose was estimated (MIRDOSE 3.0 program) by extrapolation of data from animal to human scale. The results showed the majority of organs reached the top uptake at 30 min, the greatest kidney uptake was (4.81 +/- 1.38)% activity/g, while the bone presented its highest uptake at 1h (5.49+/- 0.47)% activity/g, after 1h all the organs had activity exponential decrease. The biokinetic profile of (99m)Tc(V)-DMSA was well established, allowing quantifying of residence time, and the radiation dose estimates were made for this agent. About the absorbed dose, the preliminary results showed higher value to bone, being the soft tissue dose relatively low.

  1. The importance of the incidental thyroid gland uptake during Tc-99m MIBI myocardial perfusion scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Karacavus, S; Ede, H; Sarikaya, S; Delibas, N; Kaya, E; Erbay, A R

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of study was to investigate whether incidental thyroid gland uptake had an important during Tc-99m sestamibi (MIBI) myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (SPECT). In the presented study, 968 consecutive patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of thyroid gland uptake in the raw data of the Tc-99m MIBI SPECT. All of the patients had thyroid gland uptake of the Tc-99m MIBI underwent laboratory evaluation of thyroid function, ultrasonographic imaging, and hystopathological examination. The thyroid gland uptake was detected in 14 of 968 (1.4%) consecutive patients during the evaluation of raw images of Tc-99m MIBI SPECT studies. Among these 14 patients, 4 had subacute thyroiditis, 7 multinodular goiter, 3 Graves disease by ultrasonographic imaging and hystopathological examination. TSH levels of all of these patients were < 0.01 U/ml. Tc-99m MIBI uptake by thyroid gland has been explained with associated clinical thyrotoxicosis. Although the primary goal of myocardial perfusion imaging is the evaluation of myocardial perfusion, the interpretation of myocardial perfusion imaging should not be limited to the heart. Because, it is possible to observe extracardiac radioactivity accumulation, which may then lead to the diagnosis of a noncardiac disease during this detailed examination.

  2. Tc-99m macro aggregated albumin scintigraphy – indications other than pulmonary embolism: A pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Sunny J; Babu, Sanjay; Subramanyam, Padma; Shanmuga Sundaram, Palaniswamy

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Tc-99m macro aggregated albumin (MAA) is synonymous for lung perfusion scintigraphy and is part of the study in the evaluation of pulmonary thromboembolism. We wanted to highlight the utilities of Tc-99m MAA other than pulmonary embolism as a pictorial assay. Materials and Methods: Patients referred for Tc-99m MAA scintigraphy under various indications were included in this pictorial essay. Commercially available TechneScan LyoMAA cold kit from Mallinckrodt Medical B.V., Holland was used. Acquisition protocols for different indications are described in this article. Different clinical indications (e.g., pulmonary artery stenosis, hepatopulmonary syndrome, FEV1 calculation in lung surgery planning, selective internal radiation therapy planning, venography for deep venous thrombosis, left to right cardiac shunts, etc.) where Tc-99m MAA scintigraphy was asked for; how it helped in different clinical scenarios and how it can be used clinically is explained with unique and interesting case examples and images. We also reviewed the literature to look for certain remote indications of MAA imaging for the sake of completion like – (shunt scintigraphy, peritoneopleural communication, etc.) Conclusion: Tc-99m MAA is a very useful radiopharmaceutical, which can be used for many other indications apart from the commonly used indication of lung perfusion scan in pulmonary embolism. It can provide useful clinical information in other indications, which we try to highlight in this article. PMID:24250023

  3. A large renal pelvic diverticulum, presenting incomplete excretion during tc-99m MAG-3 scintigraphy and tracer accumulation on tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy; a case report.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Bulent; Erselcan, Taner; Ozdemir, Semra; Hasbek, Zekiye; Tosun, H Bayram; Topaktas, Seher

    2004-12-01

    This case report illustrates the dynamic and static renal scintigraphic images of a patient with an unusual large diverticulum of the renal pelvis. The initial diagnosis by intravenous pyelography (IVP) and ultrasonographic (US) examination was a renal pelvic diverticulum of the left kidney, and the patient was referred to the nuclear medicine department for exploration of the effect of the pelvic diverticulum on renal functions. We performed dynamic renal scintigraphy with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) labeled mercaptoacetyl triglycine (MAG-3) and static renal scintigraphy with Tc-99m labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). In dynamic renal scintigraphy, bilaterally normal concentration function was observed. While right kidney excretion function was normal, an incomplete excretion pattern was seen on the left side. Complete urinary flow obstruction occurred approximately at the 10th minute of the acquisition, which did not seem to respond to the i.v. furosemide application. However, when only the renal cortex was included in the region of interest, the obstructive pattern disappeared. In static renal scintigraphy, a large renal pelvic diverticulum localized antero-medially was clearly visualized in the left-anterior oblique projection, most probably due to accumulation of radiopharmaceutical inside it. This case showed that a renal pelvic diverticulum should be thought of when an incomplete excretion pattern is seen on dynamic renal scintigraphy. Using only a cortical region of interest may also help to distinguish other types of obstructive pattern from diverticulum. Additionally, Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy may show diverticulum localization with antero-oblique projections in addition to routine projections.

  4. Gastrobiliary fistula: pre- and postoperative assessment with /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.W.; Telfer, N.; Halls, J.M.

    1981-07-01

    Demonstration of bile leakage through fistulas with hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals was first done with /sup 131/I rose bengal. The improved anatomic detail provided by technetium-99m-labeled iminodiacetic acid compounds gives more detailed information. We present a case with an unusual fistulous connection from a left proximal biliary radical to the gastric body in which /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA (paraisopropyliminodiacetic acid) studies were helpful in both pre- and postoperative assessment of biliary drainage.

  5. The study of interaction of modified fatty acid with 99mTc in alcoholic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuridin, V. S.; Stasyuk, E. S.; Varlamova, N. V.; Nesterov, E. A.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Sadkin, V. L.; Rogov, A. S.; Ilina, E. A.; Larionova, L. A.; Sazonova, S. I.; Zelchan, R. V.; Villa, N. E.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the results of laboratory research aimed at the development of methods of synthesis of new radiodiagnostic agents based on modified fatty acid labelled with technetium-99m intended for scintigraphic evaluation of myocardial metabolism. In particular, the interaction of substance with 99mTc in alcoholic media and the use of ethanol as solvent in the synthesis of the radiopharmaceutical were studied.

  6. Scintigraphic head-to-head comparison between 99mTc-WBCs and 99mTc-LeukoScan in the evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Stokkel, Marcel P M; Reigman, HennaI E; Pauwels, Ernest K J

    2002-02-01

    Scintigraphy with technetium-99m labelled white blood cells (WBCs) is routinely used in our hospital for the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The main disadvantages of this diagnostic tool are its time-consuming nature and the handling of blood itself. 99mTc-LeukoScan is a relatively new, easily prepared agent that is used for the detection of osteomyelitis. To assess its value in IBD, a scintigraphic head-to-head comparison was performed between 99mTc-LeukoScan and 99mTc-WBCs. 99mTc-LeukoScan scintigraphy was performed in six patients with clinically active IBD and increased uptake on 99mTc-WBC images. The interval between the scintigraphic studies ranged from 2 to 7 days, and endoscopy was subsequently performed to confirm active IBD. In three out of six patients with increased uptake on the 99mTc-WBC scans, 99mTc-LeukoScan images showed very discreet activity in the bowel, but the sites did not correspond with the inflammation sites seen on 99mTc-WBC scintigraphy and found at endoscopy. In the other three patients, 99mTc-LeukoScan scintigraphy revealed a physiological distribution but no abnormalities. In conclusion, 99mTc-LeukoScan is not an alternative agent for the assessment of IBD. A prospective study is not justified owing to the false-negative results.

  7. Effect of Co-Ligands on Chemical and Biological Properties of 99mTc(III) Complexes [99mTc(L)(CDO)(CDOH)2BMe] (L = Cl, F, SCN and N3; CDOH2 = Cyclohexanedione Dioxime)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yumin; Ji, Shundong; Tomaselli, Elena; Ernest, Carley; Freiji, Tom; Liu, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction 99mTc-Teboroxime ([99mTcCl(CDO)(CDOH)2BMe]) is a member of the BATO (boronic acid adducts of technetium dioximes) class of 99mTc(III) complexes. This study sought to explore the impact of co-ligands on solution stability, heart uptake and myocardial retention of [99mTc(L)(CDO)(CDOH)2BMe] (99mTc-Teboroxime: L = Cl; 99mTc-Teboroxime(F): L = F; 99mTc-Teboroxime(SCN): L = SCN; and 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3): L = N3). Methods Radiotracers 99mTc-Teboroxime(L) (L = F, SCN and N3) were prepared by reacting 99mTc-Teboroxime with NaF, NaSCN and NaN3, respectively. Biodistribution and imaging studies were carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats. Image quantification was performed to compare their heart retention and liver clearance kinetics. Results Complexes 99mTc-Teboroxime(L) (L = F, SCN and N3) were prepared in high yield with high radiochemical purity. All new radiotracers were stable for >6 h in the kit matrix. In its HPLC chromatogram, 99mTc-Teboroxime showed one peak at ~15.5 min, which was shorter than that of 99mTc-Teboroxime(F) (~16.4 min). There were two peaks for 99mTc-Teboroxime(SCN) at 16.5 and 18.3 min. 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3) appeared as a single peak at 18.4 min. Their heart retention and liver clearance curves were best fitted to the bi-exponential decay function. The half-times of fast/slow components were 1.6 ± 0.4/60.7±8.9 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime, 0.8±0.2/101.7±20.7 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime(F), 1.2±0.3/84.8±16.6 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime(SCN), and 2.9±0.9/51.6±5.0 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3). The 2-min heart uptake followed the order of 99mTc-Teboroxime (3.00±0.37%ID/g) > 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3) (2.66±0.01 %ID/g) ≈ 99mTc-Sestamibi (2.55±0.46 %ID/g) > 99mTcN-MPO (2.38±0.15 %ID/g). 99mTc-Teboroxime remains the best in first-pass extraction. The best image acquisition window is 0 – 5 min for 99mTc-Teboroximine and 0 – 15 min for 99mTc-Teboroximine(N3). Conclusion Co-ligands had significant impact on the heart uptake and myocardial retention

  8. Molybdenum target specifications for cyclotron production of 99mTc based on patient dose estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, X.; Tanguay, J.; Buckley, K.; Schaffer, P.; Bénard, F.; Ruth, T. J.; Celler, A.

    2016-01-01

    In response to the recognized fragility of reactor-produced 99Mo supply, direct production of 99mTc via 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction using medical cyclotrons has been investigated. However, due to the existence of other Molybdenum (Mo) isotopes in the target, in parallel with 99mTc, other technetium (Tc) radioactive isotopes (impurities) will be produced. They will be incorporated into the labeled radiopharmaceuticals and result in increased patient dose. The isotopic composition of the target and beam energy are main factors that determine production of impurities, thus also dose increases. Therefore, they both must be considered when selecting targets for clinical 99mTc production. Although for any given Mo target, the patient dose can be predicted based on complicated calculations of production yields for each Tc radioisotope, it would be very difficult to reverse these calculations to specify target composition based on dosimetry considerations. In this article, a relationship between patient dosimetry and Mo target composition is studied. A simple and easy algorithm for dose estimation, based solely on the knowledge of target composition and beam energy, is described. Using this algorithm, the patient dose increase due to every Mo isotope that could be present in the target is estimated. Most importantly, a technique to determine Mo target composition thresholds that would meet any given dosimetry requirement is proposed.

  9. Mitochondrial Cardiomyopathy with a Unique 99mTc-MIBI/123I-BMIPP Mismatch Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, Ryosuke; Onoue, Noriko; Rikimaru, Hiroya; Tsukita, Kenichi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Nobuhiro; Ishizuka, Takeshi; Suzuki, Yasushi; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Shinozaki, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    A 42-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to chest pain, diabetes mellitus, and sensorineural hearing loss. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed diffuse left ventricular hypokinesis. He was diagnosed with mitochondrial disease and a c.A3243G mutation was identified in his mitochondrial DNA. This case of mitochondrial cardiomyopathy demonstrated a low uptake of 123I-BMIPP, while the uptake of 99mTc-MIBI was preserved. In contrast, previous reports have noted the increased uptake of123I-BMIPP and the decreased uptake of 99mTc-MIBI. This is the first study to show this unique 99mTc-MIBI/123I-BMIPP mismatch pattern. We also discuss the relationships among the cardiac scintigraphy, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and histopathology findings. PMID:28154277

  10. Photo-production of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc with electron linear accelerator beam.

    PubMed

    Avagyan, R; Avetisyan, A; Kerobyan, I; Dallakyan, R

    2014-09-01

    We report on the development of a relatively new method for the production of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc. The method involves the irradiation of natural molybdenum using high-intensity bremsstrahlung photons from the electron beam of the LUE50 linear electron accelerator located at the Yerevan Physics Institute (YerPhi). The production method has been developed and shown to be successful. The linear electron accelerator at YerPhi was upgraded to allow for significant increases of the beam intensity and spatial density. The LUE50 was also instrumented by a remote control system for ease of operation. We have developed and tested the (99m)Tc extraction from the irradiation of natural MoO3. This paper reports on the optimal conditions of our method of (99)Mo production. We show the success of this method with the production and separation of the first usable amounts of (99m)Tc.

  11. 99mTc-HMPAO perfusion SPECT/CT in the diagnosis of brain death.

    PubMed

    Derlin, Thorsten; Weiberg, Desiree

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a case of brain death (BD) evaluated by 99mTc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). A 16-year-old boy with a history of rapid unexpected brain herniation due to pilocytic astrocytoma underwent 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT/CT for evaluation of brain death in the context of organ donation. Flow images demonstrated lack of blood flow to the brain, and delayed images showed absence of demonstrable radionuclide activity within the brain. SPECT/CT confirmed absence of tracer accumulation, and was deemed helpful for evaluation of the brain stem. 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT/CT is a valuable tool enabling imaging-based confirmation of BD.

  12. Quality audit programme for (99m)Tc and (131)I radioactivity measurements with radionuclide calibrators.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Leena; Anuradha, R; Kulkarni, D B

    2008-01-01

    The use of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine for diagnosis and therapy has increased over the years with (99m)Tc and (131)I being most widely used. Quality audit programmes for radioactivity measurements of (131)I have been ongoing and the 12th audit was recently conducted among seventy nuclear medicine centres (NMC) in India. An audit for the activity measurements of (99m)Tc was conducted for the first time among ten NMCs in Mumbai, India. These programmes for radioactivity measurements have become very important to establish traceability of measurements to national and international standards and ensure accurate calibration of radionuclide calibrators. The results of both the audits are very encouraging. Ninety-four percent of the NMCs for (131)I activity measurements were within a window of +/-10% and for (99m)Tc one NMC was deviating more than +/-10%. The methodology adopted for the audit and results are discussed in detail in this paper.

  13. Diagnosis of hepatobiliary disease in infants and children with Tc-99m-diethyl-IDA imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, R.; Klingensmith, W.C.; Lilly, J.R.

    1981-07-01

    Thirteen infants and children from 42 days to 14 years old with hepatobiliary disease underwent Tc-99m-diethyl-IDA hepatobiliary imaging. Five patients had biliary atresia, four had biliary hypoplasia, two had neonatal hepatitis, and there were single examples of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and congenital hepatic fibrosis. Tc-99m-diethyl-IDA imaging accurately differentiated biliary atresia (complete bile duct obstruction) from other forms of childhood hepatobiliary disease by demonstrating no intestinal radioactivity in the former and the presence of intestinal radioactivity in the latter. In addition, two of four patients with biliary hypoplasia had nonhomogeneous parenchymal transit, and the one patient with congenital hepatic fibrosis showed possible intrahepatic cysts. In conclusion, these preliminary data indicate that Tc-99m-diethyl-IDA provides information not previously available with I-131-rose bengal; this information is likely to be useful in the noninvasive evaluation of childhood hepatobiliary disease.

  14. Chocolate intake associated with failed labeling of (99m)Tc red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Bustani, Hussam; Colavolpe, Cecile; Imbert-Joscht, Isabelle; Havlik, Patrick; Pisano, Pascale; Guillet, Benjamin Alain

    2009-06-01

    Red blood cells (RBC) labeled in vivo with (99m)Tc-pertechnetate are used worldwide in nuclear medicine departments. Here, we present a case of (99m)Tc-RBC labeling failure associated with chocolate intake in a 25-y-old woman, resulting in uninterpretable images. Because of this clinical observation, we performed in vitro RBC labeling on blood samples from volunteers after they consumed chocolate. Chocolate intake inhibited the labeling rate, compared with the control condition, and significantly increased the (99m)Tc free fraction (34.1% +/- 11.3% vs. 14.0% +/- 1.2%). We cannot explain how this interaction could occur, but cacao components are known to modulate red cell and plasma oxidoreductive status and to modify red cell membrane permeability and plasticity. Therefore, for patients who can be considered likely to consume chocolate, such as young patients, we recommend that they limit their consumption of chocolate for 12 h before RBC labeling.

  15. Synthesis of 99mTc-nimotuzumab with tricarbonyl ion: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Maria Fernanda; Camacho, Ximena; Calzada, Victoria; Fernandez, Marcelo; Porcal, Williams; Alonso, Omar; Gambini, Juan Pablo; Cabral, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    The Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family plays an important role in carcinogenesis. CIMAher® (Nimotuzumab), is a humanized monoclonal antibody, which recognizes EGFR with high affinity. The aim of this work was to perform the direct labeling of Nimotuzumab with [99mTc(CO)3(H2O)3]+ as precursor and to evaluate its labeling conditions, in vitro and in vivo stability and biodistrution in normal C57 BL/6J mice. 99mTc(CO3)-Nimotuzumab labeling yields were up to 90%. More than 90% of the complex remained intact after 24 h of incubation with L-Histidine (1/300 molar ratio). Biodistribution studies in normal mice were also performed. Inmunoreactivity was confirmed by cell binding assays with A431cells. These results encourage the evaluation of the potential role of 99mTc(CO)3-Nimotuzumab as a novel tumor-avid radiotracer for targeting in vivo EGFR expression.

  16. Abdominal and hepatic uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

    SciTech Connect

    Caride, V.J.; Touloukian, R.J.; Ablow, R.C.; Lange, R.C.; Matthews, T.

    1981-04-01

    Abdominal /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PYP) scans were obtained in 15 neonates: 12 with neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), two with osteomyelitis, and one with myocarditis. Ten of the babies with NEC had at least one positive scan; of these 10 studies, seven (Group A) showed both diffuse abdominal uptake and localized hepatic activity, two (Group B) showed abdominal uptake and questionable hepatic uptake, and one (Group C) demonstrated diffuse abdominal uptake only. The other two babies with NEC had normal scans (Group D). All NEC patients had normal scans. A patient with myocarditis had hepatic uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-PYP while the abdominal scan in the two infants with osteomyelitis was normal. These preliminary observations suggest that further study of a relationship between abdominal scan findings and the course of NEC is warranted.

  17. SPECT measurements with /sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO in focal epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Ryding, E.; Rosen, I.; Elmqvist, D.; Ingvar, D.H.

    1988-12-01

    The ability of SPECT measurements with (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO (Ceretec) to find the location of the epileptic focus was studied in patients under consideration for neurosurgical treatment for therapy-resistant focal epilepsy. The location of low (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO uptake regions found at interictal measurements, and of high (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO uptake regions found at ictal measurements, was compared to the findings of extensive ictal and interictal EEG examinations, and to the results of CT and MRT. While EEG revealed focal epileptic activity in all of the 14 patients, SPECT showed regional abnormalities in 13 (93%). CT and MRT showed abnormal findings in 30%.

  18. OAT3-mediated extrusion of the 99mTc-ECD metabolite in the mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Okamura, Toshimitsu; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Okada, Maki; Odaka, Kenichi; Yui, Joji; Tsuji, Atsushi B; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2014-01-01

    After administration of the 99mTc complex with N,N'-1,2-ethylenediylbis-L-cysteine diethyl ester (99mTc-ECD), a brain perfusion imaging agent, the radioactive metabolite is trapped in primate brain, but not in mouse and rat. Here, we investigate the involvement of metabolite extrusion by organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3), which is highly expressed at the blood–brain barrier in mice, in this species difference. The efflux rate of radioactivity in the cerebrum of Oat3−/− mice at later phase was 20% of that of control mice. Thus, organic anion transporters in mouse brain would be involved in the low brain retention of radioactivity after 99mTc-ECD administration. PMID:24496177

  19. Assessment of Using 99Mo and 99mTc Isotopes in Kuwait Medical Sector

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Ministry of Health (MOH) in the state of Kuwait currently depends on importing the radioisotope molybdenum (Mo) in its isotopic form (99Mo) to fulfill its demands. The present study was conducted on all nuclear medicine departments in the state of Kuwait. Daily, weekly, and monthly data were analyzed to statistically determine the current and future demands for the isotope 99mTc. This analysis was performed by collecting and analyzing data on MOH consumption of 99mTc for different diagnostic applications. The overall results indicate a partial decrease of 1.012% in the overall total demand for 99mTc up to the year 2018 for the state of Kuwait. PMID:26910031

  20. Preparation of (99m)Tc-C(60)(OH)(x) and its biodistribution studies.

    PubMed

    Qingnuan, Li; yan, Xiu; Xiaodong, Zhang; Ruili, Liu; qieqie, Du; Xiaoguang, Shun; Shaoliang, Chen; Wenxin, Li

    2002-08-01

    The biological behavior of fullerene derivatives shows their considerable potential for medical applications. In order to provide a C(60) derivative for biodistriburtion studies, the (99m)Tc-labeling of C(60)(OH)(x) was optimized. Gamma counting and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were used to assess the biodistribution of the (99m)Tc-labeled compound in mice and rabbits. Biodistribution studies in mice and imaging of rabbits indicated that (99m)Tc-C(60)(OH)(x) was widely distributed in all tissues. A significant percentage of total activity was retained for 48 h, particularly in the kidneys, bone, spleen, and liver. All tissues displayed a slow clearance over 48 h, except for bone, which showed slightly increasing localization within 24 h.

  1. Abdominal masses in children: multiorgan imaging with /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, A.R.; Cohen, M.; Moran, D.P.

    1982-07-01

    /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphonate (/sup 99m/Tc MDP) imaging was performed in 29 consecutive children with abdominal masses. Dynamic images of the inferior vena cava were obtained by injecting the radiotracer in the feet. Serial renal images were obtained for the next 30 min. Routine bone imaging was performed at about 3 hr. The radionuclide studies of the inferior vena cava accurately diagnosed total obstruction and displacement to the left but not partial obstruction and displacement to the right. The abnormalities on early renal imaging included displacement (14), distortion (seven), obstruction (eight), and nonvisualization (one). All patients with Wilms tumor (eight) had either nonvisualized or distorted renal parenchyma. Patients with neuroblastoma (17) and other tumors (four) had displacement and obstruction. Soft-tissue accumulation of /sup 99m/Tc MDP was noted in two Wilms tumors and 12 neuroblastomas.

  2. Use of 99mTc-doxorubicin scintigraphy in females with breast cancer: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, F I; Proença, F P P; Ferreira, C G; Ventilari, S C; Rosado de Castro, P H; Moreira, R D; Fonseca, L M B; Gutfilen, B

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Doxorubicin (Eurofarma, São Paulo, Brazil) is an antitumour agent widely used in the treatment of breast cancer and can be used for tumour tracking when labelled with a radionuclide. Here, we present the results obtained with technetium-99m (99mTc)-doxorubicin, using the direct method, to evaluate its uptake in breast cancer. Methods: Four females with confirmed breast carcinoma diagnosis and breast image reporting and data system Category 5 on mammography underwent whole-body and thorax single-photon emission CT/CT imaging 1 and 3 h after 99mTc-doxorubicin administration. Results: We observed increased uptake in breast carcinoma lesions and elimination via renal and hepatic pathways. Conclusion: These preliminary results suggest that 99mTc-doxorubicin may be a promising radiopharmaceutical for the evaluation of patients with breast cancer. Further studies are ongoing. Advances in knowledge: To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the use of a directly labelled doxorubicin tracer in humans. 99mTc-doxorubicin could provide information on the response of tumours to doxorubicin. PMID:26111270

  3. The washout rate of a subcutaneous 99mTc-HSA depot in lower extremity lymphoedema.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Mads R; Simonsen, Lene; Karlsmark, Tonny; Bülow, Jens

    2012-03-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy is currently the leading diagnostic modality of lower extremity lymphoedema but has been criticized for being unreliable. Washout rate constants have been investigated and proven to be of diagnostic value in several studies of breast-cancer-related lymphoedema; however, the applicability in lower extremity lymphoedema needs further evaluation. The aim of the study was to verify if washout of (99m) Tc-human serum albumin ((99m) Tc-HSA) is a reliable diagnostic tool in lower extremity lymphoedema. Twenty healthy volunteers and eight patients (11 legs) with lymphoscintigraphy verified lower extremity lymphoedema participated in the study. A depot consisting of 0.1 ml 10 MBq/ml (99m) Tc-HSA was injected subcutaneously into the dorsum of each foot. The depot washout rate was measured using a portable scintillation detector system and time-activity curves were generated. After 30 min of supine rest and 10 min of standardized ergometric exercise, measurements were recorded for 20 min. Following correction for physical decay of (99m) Tc, the depot washout rate constant was calculated using linear regression analysis. Finally depot half-life was calculated from the washout rate constant. Median half-life for healthy volunteers was 9.4 h (range 2.5-28.3 h). Median half-life for lymphoedema patients was 10.7 h (range 1.5-35.1 h). No statistical significant difference could be detected between healthy volunteers and lymphoedema patients (P = 0.78). The washout rate of a subcutaneous (99m) Tc-HSA depot is not a reliable diagnostic tool in examination of lower extremity lymphoedema. Additional examinations revealed in vivo instability of the utilized (99m) Tc-HSA as the likely reason. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2011 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  4. Radiochemical studies of 99mTc complexes of modified cysteine ligands and bifunctional chelating agents.

    PubMed

    Pillai, M R; Kothari, K; Banerjee, S; Samuel, G; Suresh, M; Sarma, H D; Jurisson, S

    1999-07-01

    The synthesis of four novel ligands using the amino-acid cysteine and its ethyl carboxylate derivative is described. The synthetic method involves a two-step procedure, wherein the intermediate Schiff base formed by the condensation of the amino group of the cysteine substrate and salicylaldehyde is reduced to give the target ligands. The intermediates and the final products were characterized by high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Complexation studies of the ligands with 99mTc were optimized using stannous tartrate as the reducing agent under varying reaction conditions. The complexes were characterized using standard quality control techniques such as thin layer chromatography, paper electrophoresis, and paper chromatography. Lipophilicities of the complexes were estimated by solvent extraction into chloroform. Substantial changes in net charge and lipophilicity of the 99mTc complexes were observed on substituting the carboxylic acid functionality in ligands I and II with the ethyl carboxylate groups (ligands II and IV). All the ligands formed 99mTc complexes in high yield. Whereas the complexes with ligands I and II were observed to be hydrophilic in nature and not extractable into CHCl3, ligands III and IV resulted in neutral and lipophilic 99mTc complexes. The 99mTc complex with ligand II was not stable and on storage formed a hydrophilic and nonextractable species. The biodistribution of the complexes of ligands I and II showed that they cleared predominantly through the kidneys, whereas the complexes with ligands III and IV were excreted primarily through the hepatobiliary system. No significant brain uptake was observed with the 99mTc complexes with ligands III and IV despite their favorable properties of neutrality, lipophilicity, and conversion into a hydrophilic species. These ligands offer potential for use as bifunctional chelating agents.

  5. Potential Ways to Address Shortage Situations of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc.

    PubMed

    Filzen, Leah M; Ellingson, Lacey R; Paulsen, Andrew M; Hung, Joseph C

    2017-03-01

    (99m)Tc, the most common radioisotope used in nuclear medicine, is produced in a nuclear reactor from the decay of (99)Mo. There are only a few aging nuclear reactors around the world that produce (99)Mo, and one of the major contributors, the National Research Universal (Canada), ceased production on October 31, 2016. The National Research Universal produced approximately 40% of the world's (99)Mo supply, so with its shut down, shortages of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc are expected. Methods: Nuclear pharmacies and nuclear medicine departments throughout the United States were contacted and asked to provide their strategies for coping with a shortage of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc. Each of these strategies was evaluated on the basis of its effectiveness for conserving (99m)Tc while still meeting the needs of the patients. Results: From the responses, the following 6 categories of strategies, in order of importance, were compiled: contractual agreements with commercial nuclear pharmacies, alternative imaging protocols, changes in imaging schedules, software use, generator management, and reduction of ordered doses or elimination of backup doses. Conclusion: The supply chain of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc is quite fragile; therefore, being aware of the most appropriate coping strategies is crucial. It is essential to build a strong collaboration between the nuclear pharmacy and nuclear medicine department during a shortage situation. With both nuclear medicine departments and nuclear pharmacies implementing viable strategies, such as the ones proposed, the amount of (99m)Tc available during a shortage situation can be maximized. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  6. Tc-99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid (DMSA) Renal Scintigraphy in Patients with Acute Pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang Wook; Bin, Ki Tae; Jeong, Min Soo; Shong, Min Ho; Shin, Young Tai; Ro, Heung Kyu

    1995-01-01

    Objectives Recently, several authors reported that Tc-99m DMSA renal scan frequently showed cortical defects of the involved kidneys even in the patients with acute pyelonephritis who did not show abnormal findings in the ultrasonography and intravenous pyelography IVP). Methods In order to evaluate the utilities of Tc-99m DMSA renal scan and the clinical meanig of cortical defects in the Tc-99m DMSA renal scan of the patients with acute pyelonephritis, ninety two patients with acute pyelonephritis, from March 1991 to February 1994 in Chungnam National University Hospital(CNUH), were included in this study. Patients were subdivided as Group A:Patients showing normal Tc-99m DMSA renal scan(n=42) and Group B:Patients with definit cortical defects on the Tc-99m DMSA renal scan(n=50). We compared clinical characteristics such as age and sex, recurrency, duration of fever, bacterial culture study, incidence of renal insufficiency and the results of renal ultrasonography and intravenous pyelography between the two groups. Results Fifty four percents of 92 patients with acute pyelonephritis showed a significantly longer febrile period after admission, higher positive rates on the urine and blood culture studies and higher incidence of renal insufficiency than those of the Group A patients. Sixty nine percents of Group B patients showed normal results in ultrasonography or IVP study. Conclusions Tc-99m DMSA renal scan was a more sensitive imaging test than ultrasonography in kidneys and IVP to detect pyelonephritis lesions and may be useful to predict the patient group with a severe disease course. These patients may need more careful management and further studies to evaluate the possibility of complications. PMID:7626556

  7. 99mTc-stannous colloid white cell scintigraphy in childhood inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Kenneth; Porn, Ute; Howman-Giles, Robert; O'Loughlin, Edward; Uren, Roger; Gaskin, Kevin; Dorney, Stuart; Kamath, Ramanand

    2004-02-01

    99mTc-Labeled white cell scintigraphy (WCS) has been used for the investigation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in adults, but data on children are limited. The most common agent used is (99m) Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO); however, this agent has limitations. In a retrospective study, we assessed the use of (99m)Tc-stannous colloid WCS for the initial evaluation of children with suspected IBD. Diagnostic, endoscopic, and contrast radiography results were retrospectively collected from the medical records. Two experienced nuclear physicians unaware of the patient data interpreted the WCS results, with agreement reached by consensus. Statistical analysis was performed on the ability of WCS to detect active disease and localize it topographically and on a comparison of diagnostic methods, using a combination of clinical features and endoscopy as the reference standard. Between 1996 and 1999, 64 patients (35 male and 29 female; mean age, 12.5 y; age range, 2-19 y) had WCS performed, with IBD subsequently diagnosed in 34 patients. (99m)Tc-Stannous colloid WCS had an 88% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and 8.8 likelihood ratio for initial investigation of IBD. Agreement was poor for topographic localization of disease. Small-bowel series had a 75% sensitivity, 50% specificity, and 1.5 likelihood ratio for detecting endoscopic disease of the terminal ileum and proximal colon. Our results confirm that WCS is a useful imaging technique for the initial evaluation of patients with suspected IBD. (99m)Tc-Stannous colloid had results at least comparable to those of other WCS agents, and in children, (99m)Tc-stannous colloid WCS should be preferred in view of lower cost, shorter preparation time, and the smaller blood volumes required.

  8. Efficacy of (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT scintigraphy in Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rong; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Jinglan; Yang, Weidong; Wang, Jing

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive role of the orbital somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC ((99m)Tc-TOC) to detect clinical stage of Graves' ophthalmopathy and the response to corticosteroid therapy. The subjects of the experiment were 46 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) and four volunteers without eye disease or GO as the normal group (NG). Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT) and the left and right lateral position planar imaging of the heads of the all subjects were obtained 4 h after the intravenous injection of 555 MBq of (99m)Tc-TOC. The (99m)Tc-TOC SPECT/CT was repeated 3 months later. 35 (35/46) patients were received corticosteroid therapy (prednisolone, 10 mg po tid ) for 3 months, however, the other 11 patients as control groups did not receive any treatment. The treatment effect was evaluated both by the orbital (99m)Tc-TOC uptake and NOSPECS. A significant decrease in the O/OC ratio was observed in 22 GO patients between pre- and post-treatment (1.64 ± 0.13 vs. 1.21 ± 0.09, P < 0.05). There were neither significant difference of the O/OC ratio in 13 GO patients between pre- and post-treatment periods, nor significant difference in the 9 (9/11) patients before and after three months. Orbital (99m)Tc-TOC scintigraphy is a feasible technique to estimate the Graves' ophthalmopathy activity and predict the response to subsequent corticosteroid therapy in GO patients. The technique could be a useful tool for physicians not familiar with CAS determination.

  9. Ibogaine labeling with 99mTc-tricarbonyl: synthesis and transport at the mouse blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Tournier, Nicolas; André, Pascal; Blondeel, Sandy; Rizzo-Padoin, Nathalie; du Moulinet d'Hardemarre, Amaury; Declèves, Xavier; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Cisternino, Salvatore

    2009-12-01

    The (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl core may be used as an ideal tool for gamma-labeling ligands in noninvasive SPECT imaging. However, most (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl-labeled agents have difficulty crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We radiolabeled the neuroactive indole ibogaine with (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl and measured its transport into the mouse brain by in situ brain perfusion. We measured the interactions of [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)-ibogaine](+) and (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl with the main BBB efflux transporters P-gp and BCRP in vitro and in vivo. Ibogaine was radiolabeled (yield: over 95%). [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)-ibogaine](+) entered the brain (K(in)) poorly (0.18 microL/g/s), at about the same rate as (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl (0.16 microL/g/s) and [(99m)Tc-sestamibi](+) (0.10 microL/g/s). The CNS tracer [(99m)Tc-HMPAO](0) entered the brain approximately 70-times higher than [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)-ibogaine](+). In vitro studies revealed that neither [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)-ibogaine](+) nor (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl ion were substrates for P-gp or BCRP. But lowering the membrane dipole potential barrier with phloretin enhanced the brain transport of [(99m)Tc(OH(2))(3)(CO)(3)](+) approximately 3-fold. Thus, ibogaine directly labeled with (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl is not suitable for CNS imaging because of its poor uptake. Brain transport is not restricted by efflux transporters but is reduced by its lipophilicity and interaction with the membrane-positive dipole potential.

  10. (99m)Tc-prulifloxacin in artificially infected animals. Radiosynthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Shah, S Q; Khan, A U; Khan, M R

    2011-01-01

    The radiosynthesis of 99mTc-Prulifloxacin ((99m)Tc-PRN) was assessed in terms of stability, binding with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), biodistribution in rats (RT) and scintigraphic profile in rabbits (RB). ANIMALS, MATERIAL, METHODS: 99mTc-PRN was synthesized by mixing 25 µg of stannous fluoride (SnF2) with 18.5 MBq of sodium pertechnetate. Thereafter, 0.5 mg of the prufloxacin (PRN) was added to the reaction mixture and the pH was set at 5.1 with 0.01 mol/l HCl. The reaction mixture was incubated at room temperature. The same process was repeated by increasing the concentration of the stannous fluoride from 25 to 250 µg, sodium pertechnetate from 18,5 to 185 MBq and the PRN from 0.5 to 5 mg. The radiochemical stability of the 99mTc-PRN was investigated in higher concentration of the cystein. In-vitro binding investigation was performed using living and heat killed S. aureus to verify specificity of the 99mTc-PRN. Biodistribution was evaluated in artificially infected rats and scintigraphic precision in rabbits at different interval. The 99mTc-RPN prepared by mixing 2 mg of PRN, 74 MBq sodium pertechnetate, 100 µg stannous fluoride at pH 5.4, appeared to be more than 90% stable with a maximum radiochemical yield of 98.15 ± 0.25% at 30 min. The 99mTc-PRN showed higher stability in serum and satisfactory in-vitro binding to living as compared to heat killed S. aureus. 14.25 ± 0.15% of the injected dose was accumulated in the infected muscle of the model RT. Infected to normal muscle ratio was 5.12 and inflamed to normal muscle was 1.2. The biodistribution was validated by the scintigraphic localization of infection in rabbits. This investigation of 99mTc-PRN confirmed its momentous radiochemical immovability in saline, serum, preferential in-vitro binding to living bacteria, higher uptake in the infected muscle of model RT and precise localization in the infected muscle of model RB.

  11. A rapid radiochemical purity testing method for 99mTc-tetrofosmin.

    PubMed

    Eggert, Laura A; Dick, Michael D; Mahoney, Douglas W; Olson, Joseph P; Werner, Gregory L; Hung, Joseph C

    2010-06-01

    The standard radiochemical purity (RCP) testing method for (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin as described in the package insert requires extensive time (20-30 min) and considerable skill to achieve accurate results. Additionally, the instant thin-layer chromatography strip impregnated with silica gel (2x20 cm) used in the standard method will not be commercially available in the future. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a method developed by our laboratory for RCP testing of (99m)Tc-sestamibi could also be used as an alternative method for the RCP assay of (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin. The alternative RCP testing system consisted of a precut paper strip (1x8.5 cm) from solvent saturation pads (Pall Corp.) as the stationary phase, with 1:1 chloroform:tetrahydrofuran used as the mobile phase. To validate the reliability of the alternative method, RCP values from 17 kit preparations were compared with the 2 methods. Kits were reconstituted according to the package insert instructions, and 4 additions of (99m)Tc-sodium pertechnetate were purposely added to create trials with RCP values below the accepted limit of 90% purity. Two hundred four trials (100 of which were replicated) were run from the 17 kit preparations. Sixty-four (31%) of the 204 trials were below 90% purity based on the standard method. The overall agreement between the standard and alternative methods was 94% (192/204). The sensitivity of the alternative method for unacceptable RCP limits was 86% (55/64), and the specificity for acceptable RCP values was 98% (137/140). The agreement between the replicated trials of the alternative method was 99% (99/100), and for the standard method it was 92% (92/100). The standard method proved to be a much slower method and requires much more precision and attention. The alternative method is much faster, is easier, requires less attention to the solvent-development process, and can be used for RCP testing of both (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin and (99m)Tc-sestamibi. Furthermore, the

  12. Choledochal cyst with bile duct dilatation: sonography and /sup 99m/Tc IDA cholescintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B.K.; Babcock, D.S.; Gelfand, M.H.

    1981-06-01

    Three cases of choledochal cyst associated with intrahepatic biliary dilatation are presented. Findings on sonography included a large cystic mass in the porta hepatis separate from the gallbladder; a dilated common hepatic or common bile duct entering directly into the cyst; and smaller cystic masses of dilated central intrahepatic ducts. All three patients underwent operation with intraoperative cholangiography. Two patients had /sup 99m/Tc IDA cholescintigraphy which confirmed the diagnosis of choledochal cyst by demonstrating filling of the cyst with stasis and delayed intestinal activity. The accurate preoperative diagnosis of choledochal cyst, made by sonography combined with /sup 99m/Tc IDA cholescintigraphy, obviated invasive studies.

  13. A computerized compact module for separation of (99m)Tc-radionuclide from molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Barua, Luna; De, Anirban; Saha Das, Sujata; Kuniyil, Remashan; Bhaskar, Partha; Pal, Sasanka Shekhar; Sarkar, Sishir Kumar; Das, Malay Kanti

    2012-11-01

    An automated closed cycle module for the separation and recovery of various isotopes, radioactive or non-radioactive, using solvent extraction and column chromatography techniques, and in particular, for separation and recovery of (99m)Tc from low-medium specific activity (99)Mo, is described. The module may also be applicable for separation of (99m)Tc produced in a cyclotron. The module is safe and reliable to avoid human interference and hazards posed by handling of radioactive and hazardous chemicals. The entire system of automation includes a user-friendly PC based graphical user interface (GUI) that actually supervises the process via an embedded system based electronic controller.

  14. Renal accumulation of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA in the artificially perfused isolated rat kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Goldraich, N.P.; Alvarenga, A.R.; Goldraich, I.H.; Ramos, O.L.; Sigulem, D.

    1985-12-01

    In order to investigate aspects of the renal handling of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA, 68 isolated rat kidneys were artificially perfused. The experimental groups were: Group 1 (no. = 32)-oxygenated filtering kidneys; Group 2 (no. = 29)-oxygenated non-filtering kidneys; Group 3 (no. = 7)-anaerobic non-filtering kidneys. The authors conclude that the /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA complex is strongly bound to albumin, is not filtered and is removed from perfusion fluid through the renal peritubular capillary route and that this occurs by an active process which depends upon aerobic metabolism. This process has a high capacity and is not inhibited by probenecid.

  15. Extrarenal abnormalities in Tc-99m-DTPA renal blood flow studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.

    1985-01-01

    The authors observed extrarenal abnormalities during renal flow scintigraphy and retrospectively reviewed 90 patient studies to determine the types and frequencies of such abnormal findings. For each routine Tc-99m-DTPA renal flow study, they obtained nine 2-second sequential images, which included the heart, abdominal aorta, spleen and kidneys. Eighty abnormalities, observed in 62 patients, were divided into three categories: aortic, 37 cases; splenic, 40 cases; and miscellaneous, 3 cases. Other correlative studies including Tc-99m sulfur colloid-spleen scintigraphy, ultrasonography (US), CT, aortography, and surgical and/or autopsy findings were available for corroboration in 56 of 80 lesions.

  16. Validation of alternative methods of preparing 99mTc-MAG3.

    PubMed

    Seetharaman, Shankar; Sosabowski, Michael H; Ballinger, James R

    2007-11-01

    Parameters in the preparation of 99mTc-mertiatide (99mTc-MAG3) were investigated to determine the importance of total activity, activity concentration, boiling time, and delay before boiling for the radiochemical purity (RCP) and stability of the product. Satisfactory RCP results (>90%) were obtained over a range of concentrations including a dilute preparation for paediatric use. RCP was not affected by the time between the addition of pertechnetate and boiling, but low RCP (<60%) resulted when the kit was boiled for less than 10 min.

  17. Failure to diagnose cardiac treatment rejection with Tc99m-PYP images

    SciTech Connect

    McKillop, J.H.; McDougall, I.R.; Goris, M.L.; Mason, J.W.; Reitz, B.A.

    1981-08-01

    The possibility of diagnosing transplant rejection using Tc-99m-PYP imaging was examined in 12 cardiac transplant recipients. Two patients were studied on two occasions. The presence or absence of active rejection was established by endomyocardial biopsy. The intensity and pattern of myocardial uptake of the tracer did not differ significantly in the two patients studied at the time of rejection compared to the remainder. It is concluded that a single Tc-99m-PYP study cannot be used to diagnose cardiac transplant rejection.

  18. Unusual Tc-99m MDP and I-123 MIBG images in focal pyelonephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, A.; Lenoir, P.; Delree, M.; Ramet, J.; Piepsz, A. )

    1990-11-01

    A 6-year-old boy presented with an inflammatory syndrome. Because Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy revealed increased tracer uptake at the upper pole of the right kidney, further studies were oriented towards a diagnosis of renal or adrenal pathology. I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) accumulated at the site of the abnormal MDP uptake. The diagnosis of neuroblastoma or allied disorder was excluded on the basis of other investigations and further evaluation, suggesting that the MIBG uptake was a false-positive. Findings on clinical imaging, laboratory findings, Tc-99m DMSA imaging, sonography, and CT scanning were highly suggestive of acute focal pyelonephritis.

  19. Impact of bidentate chelators on lipophilicity, stability, and biodistribution characteristics of cationic 99mTc-nitrido complexes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Seung; He, Zhengjie; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Liu, Shuang

    2007-01-01

    This report describes synthesis and evaluation of novel cationic 99mTc-nitrido complexes, [99mTcN(L)(PNP)](+) (L = ma, ema, tma, etma and mpo; PNP = PNP5, PNP6, and L6), as potential radiotracers for heart imaging. Cationic complexes [99mTcN(L)(PNP)](+) were prepared in two steps. For example, reaction of succinic dihydrazide with 99mTcO4(-) in the presence of excess stannous chloride and PDTA resulted in the [99mTcN(PDTA)n] intermediate, which then reacted Hmpo and PNP6 at 100 degrees C for 10-15 min to give [99mTcN(mpo)(PNP6)](+) in >90% yield. It was found that bidentate chelators have a significant impact on lipophilicity, solution stability, biodistribution, and metabolic stability of cationic 99mTc-nitrido complexes. The fact that [99mTcN(ema)(PNP6)](+) decomposes rapidly in the presence of cysteine (1 mg/mL) while [99mTcN(etma)(PNP6)](+) and [99mTcN(mpo)(PNP6)](+) remain stable for >6 h under the same conditions strongly suggests that thione-S donors in bidentate chelators increase the solution stability of their cationic 99mTc-nitrido complexes. Biodistribution studies were performed on four cationic 99mTc-nitrido complexes in Sprague-Dawley rats. [99mTcN(etma)(PNP5)](+) is of particular interest due to its high initial heart uptake (1.81 +/- 0.35 %ID/g at 5 min postinjection), and long myocardial retention (1.99 +/- 0.47 %ID/g at 120 min postinjection). The heart/liver ratio of [99mTcN(etma)(PNP5)](+) (6.06 +/- 1.48) at 30 min postinjection is almost identical that of 99mTcN-DBODC5 (6.01 +/- 1.45), and is >2 times better than that of 99mTc-sestamibi (2.90 +/- 0.22). Results from metabolism studies show that [99mTcN(etma)(PNP5)](+) has no significant metabolism in the urine, but it does show significant metabolism in feces samples at 120 min postinjection. Planar imaging studies suggest that [99mTcN(etma)(PNP5)](+) might be able to give clinically useful images of the heart as early as 30 min postinjection. [99mTcN(etma)(PNP5)](+) is a very promising

  20. Impact of Bidentate Chelators on Lipophilicity, Stability and Biodistribution Characteristics of Cationic 99mTc-Nitrido Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuang; He, Zhengjie; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Kim, Yong-Seung

    2008-01-01

    This report describes synthesis and evaluation of novel cationic 99mTc-nitrido complexes, [99mTcN(L)(PNP)]+ (L = ma, ema, tma, etma and mpo; PNP = PNP5, PNP6 and L6), as potential radiotracers for heart imaging. Cationic complexes [99mTcN(L)(PNP)]+ were prepared in two steps. For example, reaction of succinic dihydrazide with 99mTcO4− in the presence of excess stannous chloride and PDTA resulted in the [99mTcN(PDTA)n] intermediate, which then reacted Hmpo and PNP6 at 100 °C for 10 – 15 min to give [99mTcN(mpo)(PNP6)]+ in >90% yield. It was found that bidentate chelators have a significant impact on lipophilicity, solution stability, biodistribution and metabolic stability of cationic 99mTc-nitrido complexes. The fact that [99mTcN(ema)(PNP6)]+ decomposes rapidly in presence of cysteine (1 mg/mL) while [99mTcN(etma)(PNP6)]+ and [99mTcN(mpo)(PNP6)]+ remain stable for >6 h under the same conditions strongly suggests that thione-S donors in bidentate chelators increase the solution stability of their cationic 99mTc-nitrido complexes. Biodistribution studies were performed on four cationic 99mTc-nitrido complexes in Sprague-Dawley rats. [99mTcN(etma)(PNP5)]+ is of particular interest due to its high initial heart uptake (1.81±0.35 %ID/g at 5 min postinjection), and long myocardial retention (1.99±0.47 %ID/g at 120 min postinjection). The heart/liver ratio of [99mTcN(etma)(PNP5)]+ (6.06±1.48) at 30 min postinjection is almost identical that of 99mTcN-DBODC5 (6.01±1.45), and is >2 times better than that of 99mTc-sestamibi (2.90±0.22). Results from metabolism studies show that [99mTcN(etma)(PNP5)]+ has no significant metabolism in the urine; but it does show significant metabolism in feces samples at 120 min postinjection. Planar imaging studies suggest that [99mTcN(etma)(PNP5)]+ might be able to give clinically useful images of the heart as early as 30 min postinjection. [99mTcN(etma)(PNP5)]+ is a very promising candidate for more pre-clinical evaluations in

  1. Quantitative simultaneous 111In/99mTc SPECT-CT of osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Cervo, Morgan; Gerbaudo, Victor H.; Park, Mi-Ae; Moore, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A well-established approach for diagnostic imaging of osteomyelitis (OM), a bone infection, is simultaneous SPECT-CT of 99mTc sulfur colloid (SC) and 111In white blood cells (WBC). This method provides essentially perfect spatial registration of the tracers within anatomic sites of interest. Currently, diagnosis is based purely on a visual assessment—where relative discordance between 99mTc and 111In uptake in bone, i.e., high 111In and low 99mTc, suggests OM. To achieve more quantitative images, noise, scatter, and crosstalk between radionuclides must be addressed through reconstruction. Here the authors compare their Monte Carlo-based joint OSEM (MC-JOSEM) algorithm, which reconstructs both radionuclides simultaneously, to a more conventional triple-energy window-based reconstruction (TEW-OSEM), and to iterative reconstruction with no compensation for scatter (NC-OSEM). Methods: The authors created numerical phantoms of the foot and torso. Multiple bone-infection sites were modeled using high-count Monte Carlo simulation. Counts per voxel were then scaled to values appropriate for 111In WBC and 99mTc SC imaging. Ten independent noisy projection image sets were generated by drawing random Poisson deviates from these very low-noise images. Data were reconstructed using the two iterative scatter-compensation methods, TEW-OSEM and MC-JOSEM, as well as the uncorrected method (NC-OSEM). Mean counts in volumes of interest (VOIs) were used to evaluate the bias and precision of each method. Data were also acquired using a phantom, approximately the size of an adult ankle, consisting of regions representing infected and normal bone marrow, within a bone-like attenuator and surrounding soft tissue; each compartment contained a mixture of 111In and 99mTc. Low-noise data were acquired during multiple short scans over 29 h on a Siemens Symbia T6 SPECT-CT with medium-energy collimators. Pure 99mTc and 111In projection datasets were derived by fitting the acquired

  2. Quantitative simultaneous 111In∕99mTc SPECT-CT of osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Cervo, Morgan; Gerbaudo, Victor H; Park, Mi-Ae; Moore, Stephen C

    2013-08-01

    A well-established approach for diagnostic imaging of osteomyelitis (OM), a bone infection, is simultaneous SPECT-CT of 99mTc sulfur colloid (SC) and 111In white blood cells (WBC). This method provides essentially perfect spatial registration of the tracers within anatomic sites of interest. Currently, diagnosis is based purely on a visual assessment-where relative discordance between 99mTc and 111In uptake in bone, i.e., high 111In and low 99mTc, suggests OM. To achieve more quantitative images, noise, scatter, and crosstalk between radionuclides must be addressed through reconstruction. Here the authors compare their Monte Carlo-based joint OSEM (MC-JOSEM) algorithm, which reconstructs both radionuclides simultaneously, to a more conventional triple-energy window-based reconstruction (TEW-OSEM), and to iterative reconstruction with no compensation for scatter (NC-OSEM). The authors created numerical phantoms of the foot and torso. Multiple bone-infection sites were modeled using high-count Monte Carlo simulation. Counts per voxel were then scaled to values appropriate for 111In WBC and 99mTc SC imaging. Ten independent noisy projection image sets were generated by drawing random Poisson deviates from these very low-noise images. Data were reconstructed using the two iterative scatter-compensation methods, TEW-OSEM and MC-JOSEM, as well as the uncorrected method (NC-OSEM). Mean counts in volumes of interest (VOIs) were used to evaluate the bias and precision of each method. Data were also acquired using a phantom, approximately the size of an adult ankle, consisting of regions representing infected and normal bone marrow, within a bone-like attenuator and surrounding soft tissue; each compartment contained a mixture of 111In and 99mTc. Low-noise data were acquired during multiple short scans over 29 h on a Siemens Symbia T6 SPECT-CT with medium-energy collimators. Pure 99mTc and 111In projection datasets were derived by fitting the acquired projections to the sum

  3. Preparation of (99m)Tc-PQQ and preliminary biological evaluation for the NMDA receptor.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yanyan; Zhou, Xingqin; Cao, Guoxian; Xu, Xijie; Zou, Meifen; Qin, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Rongjun

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), an essential nutrient, antioxidant, redox modulator and nerve growth factor found in a class of enzymes called quinoproteins, was labeled with (99m)Tc by using stannous fluoride (SnF2) method. Radiolabeling qualification, quality control and characterization of (99m)Tc-PQQ and its biodistribution studies in mice were performed and discussed. Effects of pH values, temperature, time and reducing agents concentration on the radiolabeling yield were investigated. The quality control procedure of (99m)Tc-PQQ was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC), radio high-performance liquid chromatography (RHPLC) and paper electrophoresis methods. The average radiolabeling yield was 94 ± 1% under optimum conditions of 0.99 mg of PQQ, 30 μg of SnF2, 0.5 mg of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA-2Na) and 18.5 MBq of Na(99m)TcO4 at pH 6 and 25 °C with a response volume of 1 ± 0.1 mL. (99m)Tc-PQQ was stable and anionic. Lipid-water partition coefficient of (99m)Tc-PQQ was -1.49 ± 0.16. The pharmacokinetics parameters of (99m)Tc-PQQ were t1/2α = 18.16 min, t1/2β = 100.45 min, K12 = 0.013 min(-1), K21 = 0.017 min(-1), Ke = 0.016 min(-1), AUC (area under the curve) = 1040.78 ID% g(-1) min and CL (plasma clearance) = 0.096 mL min(-1). The dual-exponential equation was Y = 10.88e(-0.038t)  + 5.21e(-0.0069t) . The biodistribution of (99m)Tc-PQQ was studied in ICR (Institute for Cancer Research 7701 Burhelme Are., Fox Chase, Philadelphia, PA 1911 USA) mice. In vitro autoradiographic studies clearly showed that the (99m)Tc-PQQ radioactivity accumulated predominantly in the hippocampus and cortex, which had a high density of N-methyl-d-aspartate Receptor (NMDAR). The enrichment can be blocked by NMDAR redox modulatory site antagonists-ebselen (EB) and (99m)Tc-PQQ is therefore a promising candidate for the molecular imaging of NMDAR. To date, however, there have been no studies characterizing

  4. /sup 99m/Tc-glucoheptonate for quantitation of differential renal function

    SciTech Connect

    Ziessman, H.A.; Balseiro, J.; Fahey, F.H.; Le, T.V.; Dubiansky, V.

    1987-05-01

    Differential renal function was calculated by using /sup 99m/Tc-glucoheptonate (Tc-GH) in 51 patients. Computer-acquired background-corrected individual renal function was calculated by using both the 1-3-min uptake counts and the 2-4-hr delayed static counts. The degree of correlation between the two was high (r = .96). An equally high correlation was noted in 16 children who were 12 years old or younger, in 15 patients with renal size disparity greater than 60/40%, and in six patients with abnormal creatinine clearances. Ten patients had a 30-min dynamic /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA study followed immediately by the injection of Tc-GH and acquisition of delayed static images 2-4 hr later. A high degree of correlation (r = .99) was seen between the 1-3-min differential function obtained by using Tc-DTPA and the 2-4-hr delayed differential function obtained by using Tc-GH. This study shows that Tc-GH is a clinically useful and valid tool for calculation of differential renal function and that Tc-GH combines many of the best aspects of Tc-DTPA and Tc-DMSA.

  5. Osteomalacia-inducing renal clear cell carcinoma uncovered by 99mTc-Hydrazinonicotinyl-Tyr3-octreotide (99mTc-HYNIC-TOC) scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaona; Jing, Hongli; Li, Fang; Zhuang, Hongming

    2013-11-01

    Most osteomalacia-causing tumors are small, benign mesenchymal neoplasms, which are commonly located in the extremities or craniofacial regions. An 18-year-old male patient with suspicion of tumor-induced osteomalacia underwent (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy to search potential culprit tumor. The images showed a large activity in the region of the left kidney. The lesion was resected and a clear cell renal cell carcinoma was found. One year after the left nephrectomy, the patient was tumor-free without symptoms of osteomalacia.

  6. 99mTc Labeled Glucagon-Like Peptide-1-Analogue (99mTc-GLP1) Scintigraphy in the Management of Patients with Occult Insulinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sowa-Staszczak, Anna; Trofimiuk-Müldner, Małgorzata; Stefańska, Agnieszka; Tomaszuk, Monika; Buziak-Bereza, Monika; Gilis-Januszewska, Aleksandra; Jabrocka-Hybel, Agata; Głowa, Bogusław; Małecki, Maciej; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Kamiński, Grzegorz; Kowalska, Aldona; Mikołajczak, Renata; Janota, Barbara; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess the utility of [Lys40(Ahx-HYNIC-99mTc/EDDA)NH2]-exendin-4 scintigraphy in the management of patients with hypoglycemia, particularly in the detection of occult insulinoma. Materials and Methods Forty patients with hypoglycemia and increased/confusing results of serum insulin and C-peptide concentration and negative/inconclusive results of other imaging examinations were enrolled in the study. In all patients GLP-1 receptor imaging was performed to localise potential pancreatic lesions. Results Positive results of GLP-1 scintigraphy were observed in 28 patients. In 18 patients postsurgical histopathological examination confirmed diagnosis of insulinoma. Two patients had contraindications to the surgery, one patient did not want to be operated. One patient, who presented with postprandial hypoglycemia, with positive result of GLP-1 imaging was not qualified for surgery and is in the observational group. Eight patients were lost for follow up, among them 6 patients with positive GLP-1 scintigraphy result. One patient with negative scintigraphy was diagnosed with malignant insulinoma. In two patients with negative scintigraphy Munchausen syndrome was diagnosed (patients were taking insulin). Other seven patients with negative results of 99mTcGLP-1 scintigraphy and postprandial hypoglycemia with C-peptide and insulin levels within the limits of normal ranges are in the observational group. We would like to mention that 99mTc-GLP1-SPECT/CT was also performed in 3 pts with nesidioblastosis (revealing diffuse tracer uptake in two and a focal lesion in one case) and in two patients with malignant insulinoma (with the a focal uptake in the localization of a removed pancreatic headin one case and negative GLP-1 1 scintigraphy in the other patient). Conclusions 99mTc-GLP1-SPECT/CT could be helpful examination in the management of patients with hypoglycemia enabling proper localization of the pancreatic lesion and effective

  7. Alternative chromatographic system for the quality control of lipophilic technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals such as [99mTc(MIBI)6]+

    PubMed Central

    Faria, D.P.; Buchpiguel, C.A.; Marques, F.L.N.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals is mandatory and can be evaluated by several methods and techniques. Planar chromatography is the technique normally employed in nuclear medicine since it is simple, rapid and usually of low cost. There is no standard system for the chromatographic technique, but price, separation efficiency and short time for execution must be considered. We have studied an alternative system using common chromatographic stationary phase and alcohol or alcohol:chloroform mixtures as the mobile phase, using the lipophilic radiopharmaceutical [99mTc(MIBI)6]+ as a model. Whatman 1 modified phase paper and absolute ethanol, Whatman 1 paper and methanol:chloroform (25:75), Whatman 3MM paper and ethanol:chloroform (25:75), and the more expensive ITLC-SG and 1-propanol:chloroform (10:90) were suitable systems for the direct determination of radiochemical purity of [99mTc(MIBI)6]+ since impurities such as99mTc-reduced-hydrolyzed (RH),99mTcO4 - and [99mTc(cysteine)2]-complex were completely separated from the radiopharmaceutical, which moved toward the front of chromatographic systems while impurities were retained at the origin. The time required for analysis was 4 to 15 min, which is appropriate for nuclear medicine routines. PMID:26445333

  8. Alternative chromatographic system for the quality control of lipophilic technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals such as [(99m)Tc(MIBI)₆].

    PubMed

    Faria, D P; Buchpiguel, C A; Marques, F L N

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge of the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals is mandatory and can be evaluated by several methods and techniques. Planar chromatography is the technique normally employed in nuclear medicine since it is simple, rapid and usually of low cost. There is no standard system for the chromatographic technique, but price, separation efficiency and short time for execution must be considered. We have studied an alternative system using common chromatographic stationary phase and alcohol or alcohol:chloroform mixtures as the mobile phase, using the lipophilic radiopharmaceutical [(99m)Tc(MIBI)₆]⁺ as a model. Whatman 1 modified phase paper and absolute ethanol, Whatman 1 paper and methanol:chloroform (25:75), Whatman 3MM paper and ethanol:chloroform (25:75), and the more expensive ITLC-SG and 1-propanol:chloroform (10:90) were suitable systems for the direct determination of radiochemical purity of [(99m)Tc(MIBI)₆]⁺ since impurities such as (99m)Tc-reduced-hydrolyzed (RH), (99m)TcO(4)(-) and [(99m)Tc(cysteine)₂]⁻ complex were completely separated from the radiopharmaceutical, which moved toward the front of chromatographic systems while impurities were retained at the origin. The time required for analysis was 4 to 15 min, which is appropriate for nuclear medicine routines.

  9. The role of 99mTc(V)-DMSA scan as compared to 99mTc-MDP and CT scans in imaging the primary tumor and metastases of osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Zissimopoulos, Athanassios; Zanglis, Antonios; Andreopoulos, Dimitrios; Baziotis, Nikolaos

    2005-01-01

    The oncophilic complex of technetium-99m labeled pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc(V)-DMSA) has been successfully used for the detection of primary and metastatic medullary thyroid cancer and for imaging various soft tissue tumors like lung, brain and prostate cancer. In this article, the role of 99mTc(V)-DMSA in the diagnosis of the primary tumor and metastases of osteosarcoma patients as compared to the 99mTc-MDP scan and the CT scan was studied. Twenty-eight patients with bone disease were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of Saint Savas Oncology Hospital in Athens from the Orthopedics Department of the same Hospital. From them, 18 (Group A) had osteosarcoma, 7 (Group B) osteomyelitis and 3 (Group C) bone fractures. The final diagnosis was made after fine needle aspiration biopsy. All patients were subjected to the 99mTc(V)-DMSA scan, the standard bone scan (99mTc-MDP) and CT scan. Group A patients showed a selective uptake of 99mTc(V)-DMSA in the primary tumor region. No abnormal 99mTc(V)-DMSA uptake was observed in the patients of Groups B and C. The 99mTc(V)-DMSA scan was found to be superior to the 99mTc-MDP and the CT scans in identifying metastases of osteosarcoma. Sensitivity was 100%, 86% and 98% respectively.

  10. Detection of gastritis by /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red-blood-cell scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Wilton, G.P.; Wahl, R.L.; Juni, J.E.; Froelich, J.W.

    1984-10-01

    Gastritis is a common condition, with a variety of causes, that is diagnosed most often by barium upper gastrointestinal tract series or endoscopy. The authors report a case in which gastritis without active bleeding was apparent in scintiscans obtained during the evaluation of GI bleeding using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red blood cells (TcRBC). The scintigraphic findings that suggest gastritis are described.

  11. New method for the selective labeling of erythrocytes in whole blood with Tc-99m

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Babich, J.W.; Straub, R.; Richards, P.

    1984-01-27

    Method and kit are described for the preparation of /sup 99m/Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for the reduction of technetium.

  12. Diversification in the Supply Chain of (99)Mo Ensures a Future for (99m)Tc.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Cathy S; Schwarz, Sally W

    2014-07-01

    The uncertain availability of (99m)Tc has become a concern for nuclear medicine departments across the globe. An issue for the United States is that currently it is dependent on a supply of (99m)Tc (from (99)Mo) that is derived solely by production outside the United States. Since the United States uses half the world's (99)Mo production, the U.S. (99)Mo supply chain would be greatly enhanced if a producer were located within the United States. The fragility of the old (99)Mo supply chain is being addressed as new facilities are constructed and new processes are developed to produce (99)Mo without highly enriched uranium. The conversion to low-enriched uranium is necessary to minimize the potential misuse of highly enriched uranium in the world for nonpeaceful means. New production facilities, new methods for the production of (99)Mo, and a new generator elution system for the supply of (99m)Tc are currently being pursued. The progress made in all these areas will be discussed, as they all highlight the need to embrace diversity to ensure that we have a robust and reliable supply of (99m)Tc in the future. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  13. Effect of ketamine, pentobarbital, and morphine on Tc-99m-DISIDA hepatobiliary kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Durakovic, A.; Dubois, A.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate hapatobiliary kinetics of Tc-99m-DISIDA in dogs after administration of anesthetic sedative or narcotic agents. Four groups of six male Beagle dogs were studied as a non-treated control group and after parenteral administration of ketamine (30 mg/kg IM), pentobarbital (25 mg/kg IV) or morphine (1 mg/kg IV). Each animal was injected with 4 mCi Tc-99m-DISIDA and hepatobiliary scintigraphic studies were obtained using a gamma camera with parallel hole multipurpose collimator and an A/sup 3/ MDS computer. The authors determined; peak activity of Tc-99m-DISIDA in the liver, visualization and peak activity of gallbladder, and intestinal visualization of Tc-99m-DISIDA. Total bilirubin, LDH, SGOT and SGPT were not modified significantly after any drug compared to control. The results showed that two commonly used anesthetics and sedatives (ketamine and pentobarbital) have dramatic and opposite effects on extrahepatic biliary kinetics. Furthermore, ketamine, but not pentobarbital, significantly accelerates intrahepatic biliary kinetics. Finally, as expected, morphine delayed extrahepatic biliary kinetics. Thus, studies of biliary kinetics should be interpreted with caution when measurements are made after administration of anesthetic, sedative or narcotic agents.

  14. 99mTc-bioorthogonal click chemistry reagent for in vivo pretargeted imaging

    PubMed Central

    García, María Fernanda; Zhang, Xiuli; Shah, Manankumar; Newton-Northup, Jessica; Cabral, Pablo; Cerecetto, Hugo; Quinn, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Metal-free click chemistry has become an important tool for pretargeted approaches in the molecular imaging field. The application of bioorthogonal click chemistry between a pretargeted trans-cyclooctene (TCO) derivatized monoclonal antibody (mAb) and a 99mTc-modified 1,2,4,5-tetrazine for tumor imaging was examined in vitro and in vivo. The HYNIC tetrazine compound was synthesized and structurally characterized, confirming its identity. Radiolabeling studies demonstrated that the HYNIC tetrazine was labeled with 99mTc at an efficiency of >95% and was radiochemically stable. 99mTc-HYNIC tetrazine reacted with the TCO-CC49 mAb in vitro demonstrating its selective reactivity. In vivo biodistribution studies revealed non-specific liver and GI uptake due to the hydrophobic property of the compound, however pretargeted SPECT imaging studies demonstrated tumor visualization confirming the success of the cycloaddition reaction in vivo. These results demonstrated the potential of 99mTc- HYNIC-tetrazine for tumor imaging with pretargeted mAbs. PMID:26875936

  15. Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy in a case of Touraine-Solente-Gole syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mudalsha, Ravina; Jacob, MJ; Jora, Charu; Pandit, AG

    2011-01-01

    Pachydermoperiostosis is a form of primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, also known as Touraine-Solente-Gole syndrome. It is a rare disease. In this report, we present the case of a 29-year-old man with this rare disorder, having significant findings on Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan. PMID:21969783

  16. (99m)Tc-bioorthogonal click chemistry reagent for in vivo pretargeted imaging.

    PubMed

    García, María Fernanda; Zhang, Xiuli; Shah, Manankumar; Newton-Northup, Jessica; Cabral, Pablo; Cerecetto, Hugo; Quinn, Thomas

    2016-03-15

    Metal-free click chemistry has become an important tool for pretargeted approaches in the molecular imaging field. The application of bioorthogonal click chemistry between a pretargeted trans-cyclooctene (TCO) derivatized monoclonal antibody (mAb) and a (99m)Tc-modified 1,2,4,5-tetrazine for tumor imaging was examined in vitro and in vivo. The HYNIC tetrazine compound was synthesized and structurally characterized, confirming its identity. Radiolabeling studies demonstrated that the HYNIC tetrazine was labeled with (99m)Tc at an efficiency of >95% and was radiochemically stable. (99m)Tc-HYNIC tetrazine reacted with the TCO-CC49 mAb in vitro demonstrating its selective reactivity. In vivo biodistribution studies revealed non-specific liver and GI uptake due to the hydrophobic property of the compound, however pretargeted SPECT imaging studies demonstrated tumor visualization confirming the success of the cycloaddition reaction in vivo. These results demonstrated the potential of (99m)Tc-HYNIC-tetrazine for tumor imaging with pretargeted mAbs.

  17. Pharmacologic alterations in Tc-99m binding by red blood cells: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.B.; Wexler, J.P.; Scharf, S.C.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1983-05-01

    The effect of two antihypertensive agents (captopril and prazosin) and of digoxin on the efficiency of Tc-99m binding to RBCs was evaluated in the rat. RBCs were labeled with Tc-99m in vivo in six groups of rats: I-normotensive controls Wistar rat (WR), II-prazosin treated WR, III-spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), IV-prazosin-treated SHR, V-digoxin-treated WR, and VI-captopril-treated WR. The percentage of intravascular Tc-99m bound to RBC (%T) and the percentage of injected dose remaining intravascular 5 min after injection (%i.v.) were determined. Mean %T was 94.2, 83.8, 94.9, 86.1, 79.7, and 93.3 for groups I-VI respectively. Mean %I.V. was 96.4, 74.6, 94.9, 79.0, 74.4, and 87.4 for groups I-VI respectively. The findings demonstrate a significant reduction of RBC tagging with Tc-99m in rats treated with prazosin and digoxin but not with captopril. The data suggest a potential interference by patient medication with the performance of blood-pool studies.

  18. Role of 99mTc-ECD SPECT in the Management of Children with Craniosynostosis

    PubMed Central

    Barik, Mayadhar; Bajpai, Minu; Das, Rashmi Ranajn; Malhotra, Arun; Panda, Shasanka Shekhar; Sahoo, Manas Kumar; Dwivedi, Sadanand

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the Report. There is a paucity of data on correlation of various imaging modalities with clinical findings in craniosynostosis. Moreover, no study has specifically reported the role of 99mTc-ECD SPECT in a large number of subjects with craniosynostosis. Materials and Methods. We prospectively analyzed a cohort of 85 patients with craniosynostosis from year 2007 to 2012. All patients underwent evaluation with 99mTc-ECD SPECT and the results were correlated with radiological and surgical findings. Results. 99mTc-ECD SPECT revealed regional perfusion abnormalities in the cerebral hemisphere corresponding to the fused sutures preoperatively that disappeared postoperatively in all the cases. Corresponding to this, the mean mental performance quotient (MPQ) increased significantly (P < 0.05) postoperatively only in those children with absent perfusion defect postoperatively. Conclusions. Our study suggests that early surgery and release of craniosynostosis in patients with preoperative perfusion defects (absent on 99mTc-ECD SPECT study) are beneficial, as theylead to improved MPQ after surgery. PMID:24987670

  19. Synthesis and Evaluation of (99m)Tc-Labeled Dimeric Folic Acid for FR-Targeting.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhide; Gao, Mengna; Song, Manli; Shi, Changrong; Zhang, Pu; Xu, Duo; You, Linyi; Zhuang, Rongqiang; Su, Xinhui; Liu, Ting; Du, Jin; Zhang, Xianzhong

    2016-06-22

    The folate receptor (FR) is overexpressed in a wide variety of human tumors. In our study, the multimeric concept was used to synthesize a dimeric folate derivative via a click reaction. The novel folate derivative (HYNIC-D₁-FA₂) was radiolabeled with (99m)Tc using tricine and trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3',3″-trisulfonate (TPPTS) as coligands ((99m)Tc-HYNIC-D₁-FA₂) and its in vitro physicochemical properties, ex vivo biodistribution and in vivo micro-SPECT/CT imaging as a potential FR targeted agent were evaluated. It is a hydrophilic compound (log P = -2.52 ± 0.13) with high binding affinity (IC50 = 19.06 nM). Biodistribution in KB tumor-bearing mice showed that (99m)Tc-HYNIC-D₁-FA₂ had high uptake in FR overexpressed tumor and kidney at all time-points, and both of them could obviously be inhibited when blocking with free FA in the blocking studies. From the in vivo micro-SPECT/CT imaging results, good tumor uptake of (99m)Tc-HYNIC-D₁-FA₂ was observed in KB tumor-bearing mice and it could be blocked obviously. Based on the results, this new radiolabeled dimeric FA tracer might be a promising candidate for FR-targeting imaging with high affinity and selectivity.

  20. Benign Brenner tumor of the ovary detected on Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, J.B.; McCartney, W.H.

    1984-11-01

    Many disease states, including neoplasia, have been detected by bone scanning. Among the neoplastic processes detected by bone imaging agents are ovarian tumors, both benign and malignant. This report is concerned with the visualization of a benign Brenner tumor during routine Tc-99m MDP bone scanning.

  1. Perisplenic halo on /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid scintigraphy: a sign of mild ascites

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; Domstad, P.A.; Deland, F.H.

    1982-04-01

    A patient with acute parenchymal liver disease whose /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid (SC) liver/spleen scan showed a perisplenic halo in the posterior view (supine position) proved to have mild ascites at the time of autopsy. The signs of mild and massive ascites are briefly discussed.

  2. /sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate accumulation in ascitic fluid due to neoplasm

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L.; Schabel, S.I.; Holland, R.D.; Cooper, J.F.

    1981-06-01

    /sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) was found to accumulate in the abdomen in 7 patients with ascites due to a primary tumor of the ovary, testis, stomach, or urethra, leukemia, or lymphoma. This finding should strongly suggest malignancy.

  3. Tc-99m colloid lung uptake in a rare case of toxoplasmosis with liver involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, I.; Tal, I.; Kaynan, A.

    1984-06-01

    Intensive lung accumulation of colloid (Tc-99m phytate) was demonstrated in a child suffering from acquired toxoplasmosis with a rare manifestation of severe liver damage. The possible mechanism and clinical importance of colloid lung concentration in this case is briefly discussed, including a review of the literature on this subject.

  4. Effects of concurrent drug therapy on technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate biodistribution

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkle, G.H.; Basmadjian, G.P.; Peek, C.; Barker, K.K.; Ice, R.D.

    1982-11-01

    Drug interactions with /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate resulting in altered biodistribution were studied using chart review and animal tests. Charts of nine patients who had abnormal gallbladder uptake of technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate during a two-year period were reviewed to obtain data such as concurrent drug therapy, primary diagnosis, and laboratory values. Adult New Zealand white rabbits were then used for testing the biodistribution of technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate when administered concurrently with possibly interacting drugs identified in the chart review--penicillamine, penicillin G potassium, penicillin V potassium, acetaminophen, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Chart review revealed no conclusive patterns of altered biodistribution associated with other factors. The data did suggest the possibility that the five drugs listed above might cause increased hepatobiliary clearance of the radiopharmaceutical. Animal tests showed that i.v. penicillamine caused substantial distribution of radioactivity into the gallbladder and small bowel. Minimally increased gallbladder radioactivity occurred when oral acetaminophen and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were administered concurrently. Oral and i.v. penicillins did not increase gallbladder activity. Penicillamine may cause substantial alteration of the biodistribution of technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate.

  5. Effects of broccoli extract on biodistribution and labeling blood components with 99mTc-GH.

    PubMed

    Cekic, Betul; Muftuler, Fazilet Zumrut Biber; Kilcar, Ayfer Yurt; Ichedef, Cigdem; Unak, Perihan

    2011-10-01

    People consume vegetables without the knowledge of the side effects of the biological and chemical contents and interactions between radiopharmaceuticals and herbal extract. To this end, current study is focused on the effects of broccoli extract on biodistribution of radiolabeled glucoheptonate ((99m)Tc-GH) and radiolabeling of blood components. GH was labeled with (99m)Tc. Quality control studies were done utilizing TLC method. Biodistribution studies were performed on male rats which were treated via gavage with either broccoli extract or SF as control group for 15 days. Blood samples were withdrawn from rats' heart. Radiolabeling of blood constituents performed incubating with GH, SnCl2 and (99m) Tc. Radiochemical yield of (99m)Tc-GH is 98.46±1.48 % (n=8). Biodistribution studies have shown that according to the control, the treated group with broccoli has approximately 10 times less uptake in kidney. The percentage of the radioactivity ratios of the blood components is found to be same in both groups. Although there is no considerable effect on the radiolabeling of blood components, there is an outstanding change on the biodistribution studies especially on kidneys. The knowledge of this change on kidney uptake may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in Nuclear Medicine.

  6. Localization of /sup 99m/Tc methylene disphosphonate within synovial fluid in osteosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sandler, M.S.; Heyman, S.; Watts, H.

    1984-08-01

    Extraosseous uptake of /sup 99m/Tc phosphate bone scanning agents has been reported in a wide variety of lesions, including malignant effusions. A case of uptake of bone scanning agent within synovial fluid in a joint involved with osteosarcoma is reported.

  7. Biliary excretion disorders in infants: evaluation using /sup 99m/Tc PIPIDA

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.; Sinatra, F.R.; Thomas, D.W.

    1980-07-01

    A new class of hepatobiliary imaging agents has become available-the N-substituded iminodiacetic acids. After intravenous administration, these compounds are quickly extracted by the hepatocytes and rapidly excreted into the biliary tree. By using a /sup 99m/Tc label, sufficient activity may be given to allow excellent gamma-camera imaging, /sup 99m/Tc-labeled p-isopropylacetanilido-iminodiacetic acid (PIPIDA) has been used in the evaluation of infants with biliary excretion disorders, including two infants with neonatal hepatitis, three with intrahepatic cholestatic jaundice, and 10 with biliary atresia. Follow-up evaluation of surgically created portoenterostomies has been performed as well. In comparison with the previously available agent (/sup 131/I rose bengal), the marked reduction in radiation to the liver alone should predicate the use of /sup 99m/Tc PIPIDA. In addition, the speed of handling of this agent by the liver and the vastly improved imaging statistics make /sup 99m/Tc PIPIDA a desirable agent for the evaluation of biliary excretion disorders in infancy.

  8. /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA cholescintigraphy in children with Dubin-Johnson syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Bujanover, Y.; Bar-Meir, S.; Hayman, I.; Baron, J.

    1983-05-01

    /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA cholescintigraphy in Dubin-Johnson syndrome (DJS) demonstrates intense prolonged homogeneous visualization of the liver, together with delayed visualization of the gall bladder and extrahepatic ducts. Such a cholescintigram has not been described for any other hyperbilirubinemic state. Because it is a noninvasive and easy technique, it is recommended for the evaluation of children suspected of having DJS.

  9. Unexplained transient splenic uptake of Tc-99m MDP in bronchogenic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sirotta, P.; Nelp, W.B.

    1984-09-01

    A patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung had splenic uptake of Tc-99m MDP on two consecutive bone scans, but not on a third. There was no intervening therapy. At autopsy the spleen was grossly and microscopically normal.

  10. Changes in biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals due to impurities - Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, A.; Horiuchi, K.

    1981-06-01

    In this review the influence of impurities in RP such as Tc-99m complexes of bleomycin, pyridoxylidene-glutamate, DMSA, phosphate derivatives, and Ga-67 citrate will be further discussed from the point of view of their preparation as a way to understanding the labeling reaction of the useful form of a given RP.

  11. Tc-99m DMSA renal uptake: influence of biochemical and physiologic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, C.A.; Lee, H.B.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1981-12-01

    Thirty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were studied to determine the effects of (a) tubular blockade and (b) commonly encountered changes in hydration and acid-base balance, on the urinary excretion and renal localization of Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Ten additional rats were studied to quantitate the in vivo protein binding of Tc-99m DMSA, and a final group of 12 animals was used to quantitate DMSA distribution in animals with diminished functional renal mass. Both osmotic diuresis and dehydration by water deprivation for 24 hr resulted in a plasma clearance of DMSA slower than in control animals. Acid-base imbalances significantly affected the renal accumulation of DMSA, and acidosis was associated with markedly increased background due to increased liver accumulation. The protein-bound portion of Tc-99m DMSA in the plasma was high, reaching 89% within the first 5 min, and rising very slightly (n.s.) with time. The unbound portion of DMSA had a plasma clearance slightly higher than the GFR. Ablation of large amounts of renal tissue, resulting in significant decreases in GFR, did not significantly affect the renal localization of DMSA in the intact portions of the kidneys. These data demonstrate that commonly encountered changes in acid-base balance and hydration will significantly alter the biologic distribution of Tc-99m DMSA. These factors should be controlled when carrying out clinical studies.

  12. 99mTc DMSA renal uptake: influence of biochemical and physiologic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, C.A.; Lee, H.B.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1981-12-01

    Thirty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were studied to determine the effects of (a) tubular blockade and (b) commonly encountered changes in hydration and acid-base balance, on the urinary excretion and renal localization of 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Ten additional rats were studied to quantitate the in vivo protein binding of 99mTc DMSA, and a final group of 12 animals was used to quantitate DMSA distribution in animals with diminished functional renal mass. Both osmotic diuresis and dehydration by water deprivation for 24 hr resulted in a plasma clearance of DMSA slower than in control animals. Acid-base imbalances significantly affected the renal accumulation of DMSA, and acidosis was associated with markedly increased background due to increased liver accumulation. The protein-bound portion of 99mTc DMSA in the plasma was high, reaching 89% within the first 5 min, and rising very slightly (n.s.) ith time. The unbound portion of DMSA had a plasma clearance slightly higher than the GFR. Ablation of large amounts of renal tissue, resulting in significant decreases in GFR, did not significantly affect the renal localization of DMSA in the intact portions of the kidneys. These data demonstrate that commonly encountered changes in acid-base balance and hydration will significantly alter the biologic distribution of 99mTc DMSA. These factors should be controlled when carrying out clinical studies.

  13. Current Outlook for 99mTc Distribution Based on Electron Accelerator Production

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin L. Nelson; W. David Bence; John R. Snyder

    2007-07-01

    In 1999 a practical example illustrating the economical and reliable production of 99mTc from an accelerator was developed. It included the realistic costs involved in establishing and operating the accelerator facility and the distribution of the 99mTc to regions in Florida. However, the technology was never commercialized. Recent political and economic developments prompted this second look at accelerator produced 99mTc. The practicality of this system in 2007 dollars was established to account for inflation and current demand. The same distribution model and production schedule from the Global ‘99 study were used. Numbers were found using current rates and costs where possible and indexed estimations when necessary. Though several of the costs increased significantly and the sale price remains at approximately 35¢/mCi, the unit cost of 99mTc throughput only increased from 12.8¢/mCi to 15.0¢/mCi or approximately 17.2% from 1999 to 2007 thus continuing to be economically viable. This study provides ground work for creating business development models at additional locations within the U.S.

  14. Clinical translation of a PSMA inhibitor for (99m)Tc-based SPECT.

    PubMed

    Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; Luna-Gutiérrez, Myrna; Ocampo-García, Blanca; Santos-Cuevas, Clara; Azorín-Vega, Erika; Jiménez-Mancilla, Nallely; Orocio-Rodríguez, Emmanuel; Davanzo, Jenny; García-Pérez, Francisco O

    2017-05-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is highly over-expressed in advanced prostate cancers. (68)Ga-labeled PSMA inhibitors (iPSMA) are currently used for prostate cancer detection by PET imaging. The availability of simple, efficient and reproducible radiolabeling procedures is essential for developing new SPECT radiopharmaceuticals for clinical translation. The aim of this research was to prepare (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Lys(Nal)-Urea-Glu ((99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA) obtained from lyophilized kit formulations and evaluate the in vitro and in vivo radiopharmaceutical binding to prostate cancer cells over-expressing PSMA, as well as the (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA normal biodistribution in humans and the preliminary uptake in patients with prostate cancer. (99m)Tc labeling was performed by adding sodium pertechnetate solution and a 0.2M phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) to a lyophilized formulation containing HYNIC-iPSMA, EDDA, tricine, mannitol and stannous chloride. The radiochemical purity was evaluated by reversed-phase HPLC and ITLC-SG analyses. Stability studies in human serum were performed by size-exclusion HPLC. In vitro cell uptake was tested using prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) with blocked and non-blocked receptors. Biodistribution and tumor uptake were determined in LNCaP tumor-bearing nude mice with blocked and non-blocked receptors, and images were obtained using a micro-SPECT/CT. Whole-body images from three healthy men and two patients with histologically-confirmed prostate cancer (one of them with a previous (68)Ga-PSMA-617scan) were acquired at 1h and 3h after (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA administration with radiochemical purities of >98%. In vitro and in vivo studies showed high radiopharmaceutical stability in human serum, specific recognition for PSMA, high tumor uptake (10.22±2.96% ID/g at 1h) with rapid blood clearance and mainly kidney elimination. Preliminary images in patients demonstrated the ability of (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA to detect tumors and

  15. Detection of pulmonary metastases with the novel radiolabeled molecular probe, 99mTc-RRL

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ning; Yan, Ping; Wang, Rong-Fu; Zhang, Chun-Li; Ma, Chao; Chen, Xue-Qi; Zhao, Qian; Hao, Pan

    2015-01-01

    Background: To improve the detection of pulmonary metastases, experimental blood-borne pulmonary metastasis mouse models were established using three intravenously administered cell lines. In a previous study we demonstrated that 99mTc-radiolabeled arginine-arginine-leucine (RRL) could be used to non-invasively image malignant tumors. Methods: 99mTc-RRL was prepared and injected intravenously in mice with pulmonary metastases that arose from the intravenous injection of HepG2, B16, and Hela cells. The bio-distribution and imaging of 99mTc-RRL were determined in different pulmonary metastases mouse models and in normal mice. Results: 99mTc-RRL exhibited higher uptake values in the lungs of pulmonary metastatic mice compared to normal mice (P<0.05; 3.92±0.48% ID/g 2 h post-injection and 3.89±0.36% ID/g 4 h post-injection in metastatic hepatic carcinoma [HepG2]-bearing lungs; 5.49±0.84% ID/g 2 h post-injection and 5.11±0.75% ID/g 4 h post-injection in metastatic melanoma [B16]-bearing lungs; 3.72±0.52% ID/g 2 h post-injection and 3.51±0.35% ID/g 4 h post-injection in metastatic cervical carcinoma [Hela]-bearing lungs; 2.38±0.20% ID/g 2 h post-injection and 2.11±0.24% ID/g 4 h post-injection in normal lungs). The pulmonary metastatic lesions were clearly visualized using 99mTc-RRL. Conclusions: 99mTc-RRL exhibited favorable metastatic tumor targeting and imaging properties, thus highlighting its potential as an effective imaging probe for detection of pulmonary metastases. 99mTc-RRL can be used as a reasonable supplement to 18F-FDG imaging in the non-invasive imaging of tumor angiogenesis. PMID:25932101

  16. Detection of P-glycoprotein activity in endotoxemic rats by 99mTc-sestamibi imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Hung; Scollard, Deborah A; Teng, Shirley; Reilly, Raymond M; Piquette-Miller, Micheline

    2005-09-01

    (99m)Tc-sestamibi is a widely used radiopharmaceutical agent for myocardial and oncologic imaging. Because of its unique role as a P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-specific substrate, this compound can be used to examine Pgp functional activity in vitro and in vivo under pathologic conditions. Our objective was to use (99m)Tc-sestamibi as a tool to investigate whether systemic inflammation induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) would affect in vivo Pgp function in the brain, heart, liver, and kidneys of rats. Moreover, we also wanted to examine LPS-mediated effects in the placenta of pregnant rats because of the limited amount of in vivo data on this tissue. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with LPS or an equal volume of saline as controls. After certain time periods (6 or 24 h), animals were administered 20 MBq of (99m)Tc-sestamibi intravenously, and then images were taken at 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 h. Tissues of rats were excised for (99m)Tc-sestamibi biodistribution analysis by gamma-counting and messenger RNA (mRNA) analysis by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Western blot analysis with antibody C-219 was used to detect Pgp levels. LPS treatment for 6 h caused a significant downregulation of mdr1a mRNA levels in the brain, heart, and liver, whereas 24 h of LPS treatment significantly reduced mdr1a mRNA levels only in the liver. A significant downregulation of mdr1a mRNA was seen in the brain, heart, and liver within 6 h after LPS administration. Imaging and biodistribution studies demonstrated a higher accumulation of (99m)Tc-sestamibi in the brain, heart, and liver of LPS-treated rats. In the brain, LPS-imposed downregulation of mdr1a mRNA levels was transient, with significant suppression at 4, 6, and 12 h, and the levels recovered to nearly normal by 24 h. This time-dependent downregulation of mRNA correlated with protein levels determined by Western blot analysis. Biodistribution studies of pregnant rats demonstrated a 3.5-fold

  17. Pentavalent technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid [Tc-99m (V) DMSA] brain SPECT: does it have a place in predicting survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme?

    PubMed

    Amin, Amr; Mustafa, M; Abd El-Hadi, E; Monier, A; Badwey, A; Saad, E

    2015-01-01

    Pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-99m (V) DMSA) is reported as a useful tool for detection of residual or recurrent gliomas. We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of Tc-99m (V) DMSA brain SPECT in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). 40 patients [21 males and 19 females; mean age 48.6 ± 12.2 years] with GBM were included. Tc-99m (V) DMSA brain SPECT was done after surgery and before onset of radiation therapy or chemotherapy (Baseline study), at 4-6 weeks and at 6 months as a follow-up after therapy. The end point of the study was clinical follow-up for 2 years and/or death. 4-6 weeks after therapy, 40 and 60 % had negative and positive Tc-99m (V) DMSA for viable tumor tissues respectively (P = 0.09). At 6 months follow-up, 62.5 % of (V) DMSA negative patients and 12.5 % of the positive subjects were responders (P = 0.001). The median over-all survival (OS) of all patients was 12.3 month [range 5-24 month]. Patients with positive (V) DMSA had worse survival (8.87 month) compared to the negative ones (16.67 month) (P = 0.0001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that Tc-99m (V) DMSA brain SPECT studies at 4-6 weeks and 6-months follow-up were independent prognostic factors for survival [OR 1.069; 95 % CI 1.417-2.174; P = 0.03 and OR 1.055; 95 % CI 0.821-1.186; P = 0.01 respectively]. Stratification of tumors into risk groups based on prognostic parameters may improve outcome by altering or intensifying treatment methods. Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid brain SPECT may have an additional prognostic role in patients with GBM which needs further evaluation in larger future series.

  18. Physical phantom evaluation of simultaneous 99mTc/ 123I SPECT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bang-Hung; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Lee, Jhih-Shian; Jan, Meei-Ling; Chang, Chia-Jung; Chen, Jyh-Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Simultaneous dual-isotope imaging from two different energy gamma rays such as 99mTc and 123I is a promising technology in nuclear medicine. Its advantages are to abbreviate the acquisition procedure with an identical geometrical registration of the different isotope images, the same physiological condition without motion artifacts, and help patient throughput and comfort. However, the energy photopeaks of 99mTc and 123I radionuclides are very close. We had developed a new approach for accurate cross-talk and scatter corrections in simultaneous 99mTc/ 123I based on independent components analysis (ICA). Nevertheless, a large number of input energy windows are required as ICA input components, which is not useful in clinical application because commercial cameras have only 3-8 energy windows. The aim of this work was to design a new method through wavelet transformation followed by ICA with multiple energy windows (W_eICA) for cross-talk and scatter correction using a smaller number of energy windows in clinical use. There were three cylinders (A-C) with identical volume of 20 ml. Cylinder A was filled with 99mTc solution of 18.5 MBq, cylinder B with 123I solution of 18.5 MBq, and cylinder C with 99mTc solution of 55.5 MBq. The Image matrix size was 128×128 and pixel size was 3.9 mm. Three kinds of images were acquired by energy window setting. (1) For single-isotope imaging only, energy windows of 20% centered at 140 keV for 99mTc and at 159 keV for 123I were used. (2) In the asymmetric energy window method (AEW), energy window of 15% centered at 140 keV for 99mTc in conjunction with 10% asymmetric energy window in an upper bound at 159 keV for 123I was acquired. (3) Then we set six energy windows with 15 keV width ranging from 83 to 173 keV to form six images as input components of ICA. After the W_eICA method derived 99mTc/ 123I images alone, we compared the images from the W_eICA approach and the AEW method. In the results, the recovery rate of 99mTc was 1

  19. Intraarticular and intravenous administration of (99M)Tc-HMPAO-labeled human mesenchymal stem cells ((99M)TC-AH-MSCS): In vivo imaging and biodistribution.

    PubMed

    Meseguer-Olmo, Luis; Montellano, Antonio Jesús; Martínez, Teresa; Martínez, Carlos M; Revilla-Nuin, Beatriz; Roldán, Marta; Mora, Cristina Fuente; López-Lucas, Maria Dolores; Fuente, Teodomiro

    2017-03-01

    Therapeutic application of intravenous administered (IV) human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ahMSCs) appears to have as main drawback the massive retention of cells in the lung parenchyma, questioning the suitability of this via of administration. Intraarticular administration (IAR) could be considered as an alternative route for therapy in degenerative and traumatic joint lesions. Our work is outlined as a comparative study of biodistribution of (99m)Tc-ahMSCs after IV and IAR administration, via scintigraphic study in an animal model. Isolated primary culture of adult human mesenchymal stem cells was labeled with (99m)Tc-HMPAO for scintigraphic study of in vivo distribution after intravenous and intra-articular (knee) administration in rabbits. IV administration of radiolabeled ahMSCs showed the bulk of radioactivity in the lung parenchyma while IAR images showed activity mainly in the injected cavity and complete absence of uptake in pulmonary bed. Our study shows that IAR administration overcomes the limitations of IV injection, in particular, those related to cells destruction in the lung parenchyma. After IAR administration, cells remain within the joint cavity, as expected given its size and adhesion properties. Intra-articular administration of adult human mesenchymal stem cells could be a suitable route for therapeutic effect in joint lesions. Local administration of adult human mesenchymal stem cells could improve their therapeutic effects, minimizing side effects in patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tc-99m Labeled HMPAO white Blood Cell Scintigraphy in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Funda; Kın Cengiz, Arzu; Güngör, Fırat

    2012-04-01

    (99m)Tc labeled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy is a frequently used option for acute infection, particularly in pediatric patients. This scintigraphy is applied to detect sites of infection/inflammation in patients with fever of unknown origin, to find and follow up osteomyelitis, and to detect suspicion of acute appendicitis. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the value of (99m)Tc-HMPAO labeled WBC scintigraphy in pediatric patients. The study was conducted between January 2006 and December 2008 and included 13 patients (5 boys, 8 girls; mean age 6.9±6.2 years). Those patients who had suspicion of bone infection (n=7), fever of unknown origin (n=3), and suspicion of acute appendicitis (n=3) were evaluated retrospectively. (99m)Tc-HMPAO labeled WBC scintigraphy imaging was performed to all patients. Diagnosis was done according to operation and pathological results or clinical follow-up. (99m)Tc-HMPAO labeled WBC scintigraphy has been found to be true positive in 6 cases, true negative in 6 cases, and false negative in one patient who had fewer unknown origin. The false negative case has been found to have encephalitis with MRI. Leukocyte scintigraphy has been described as a useful diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of suspicion of bone infection, fever of unknown origin and suspicion of acute appendicitis. (99m)Tc-HMPAO labeled WBC scintigraphy is a rapid and very accurate method for detecting those pathologies. Our results showed that WBC scintigraphy might be reliably used for diagnosis of suspected bone infection and acute appendicitis, fever of unknown origin, and acute appendicitis, in pediatric patient population. None declared.

  1. (99m)Tc-DPD uptake reflects amyloid fibril composition in hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Pilebro, Björn; Suhr, Ole B; Näslund, Ulf; Westermark, Per; Lindqvist, Per; Sundström, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    Aims In transthyretin amyloid (ATTR) amyloidosis various principal phenotypes have been described: cardiac, neuropathic, or a mixed cardiac and neuropathic. In addition, two different types of amyloid fibrils have been identified (type A and type B). Type B fibrils have thus far only been found in predominantly early-onset V30M and in patients carrying the Y114C mutation, whereas type A is noted in all other mutations currently examined as well as in wild-type ATTR amyloidosis. The fibril type is a determinant of the ATTR V30M disease phenotype. (99m)Tc-DPD scintigraphy is a highly sensitive method for diagnosing heart involvement in ATTR amyloidosis. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between ATTR fibril composition and (99m)Tc-DPD scintigraphy outcome in patients with biopsy-proven ATTR amyloidosis. Methods Altogether 55 patients with biopsy-proven diagnosis of ATTR amyloidosis and amyloid fibril composition determined were examined by (99m)Tc-DPD scintigraphy. The patients were grouped and compared according to their type of amyloid fibrils. Cardiovascular evaluation included ECG, echocardiography, and cardiac biomarkers. The medical records were scrutinized to identify subjects with hypertension or other diseases that have an impact on cardiac dimensions. Results A total of 97% with type A and none of the patients with type B fibrils displayed (99m)Tc-DPD uptake at scintigraphy (p < 0.001). Findings from analyses of cardiac biomarkers, ECG, and echocardiography, though significantly different, could not differentiate between type A and B fibrils in individual patients. Conclusion In ATTR amyloidosis, the outcome of (99m)Tc-DPD scintigraphy is strongly related to the patients' transthyretin amyloid fibril composition.

  2. Rapid diagnosis of occult abscesses using sup 99m Tc-labeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Coons, T.A.; Rhodes, B.A. ); Thakur, M.L. ); Marcus, C.S. ); Ballou, B. )

    1991-01-01

    Acute infections, such as appendicitis and occult infections in AIDS patients, can be diagnosed within two hours by gamma scintigraphy after i.v. administration of {sup 99m}Tc labeled antibodies reactive with human granulocytes. The antibody, murine IgM anti-SSEA-1, is partially reduced using Sn(II) to expose and protect reactive sulfide groups. The antibody is then purified, stannous tartrate and stabilizers are added, and the mixture is lyophilized. To label, sodium pertechnetate is added. After a 15 minute incubation the tracer drug is injected. The rate of accumulation and degree of concentration at the site of infection is presumptively determinative of the severity of the infection. Acceptance criteria and tests for the {sup 99m}Tc labeled antibody product have been established and validated. Greater than 93% of the {sup 99m}Tc is firmly bound to the protein as determined by quantitative HPLC. Radiochemical impurities, colloidal {sup 99m}Tc and free pertechnetate are together less than 4% as determined by thin layer chromatography. The immunoreactive fraction, measured by binding to solid phase antigen, and affinity measured be ELISA, are unchanged by the {sup 99m}Tc-direct labeling process. Two hour blood clearance in rats is within 90% of the value of the {sup 125}I labeled analog. The immunoreactive fraction decreases less than 10% when incubated in human plasma for 24 hours. This method has been compared to other direct labeling methods, and found to give higher radiochemical yields. 5 figs.

  3. Technical problems associated with the production of technetium Tc 99m tin(II) pyrophosphate kits

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalsky, R.J.; Dalton, D.R.

    1981-11-01

    The amount of tin(II) required for adequate reduction, complexation, and stability of technetium Tc 99m pertechnetate in radiopharmaceutical kits, and methods of preventing the loss of tin(II) during formulation of these lyophilized kits are investigated. Tin(II) loss from stannous chloride solutions was studied under several conditions, including room air versus nitrogen atmospheres, during vial filling in a laminar-flow hood with samples frozen on dry ice versus samples at room temperature, during lyophilization, and during storage under refrigerated, ambient, and elevated temperatures. Various amounts of stannous chloride, ranging from 5 to 1000 microgram/ml, were used in formulating sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m kits containing 100 mCi technetium Tc 99m and 0.4 microgram total technetium. Samples were removed at various times; hydrolyzed technetium, pertechnetate, and technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate were isolated on instant thin-layer chromatography-silica gel and quantified with a scintillation counter. The time necessary to deoxygenate distilled water by nitrogen purging was measured. Several sources of stannous chloride were assayed for tin(II) content. Tin(II) loss occurs rapidly in solution (15% in one hour) unless continuously protected with nitrogen, and during vial filling in a laminar-flow hood unless frozen with dry ice. No substantial loss of tin(II) was detected during lyophilization or during storage of lyophilized product at any of the three temperatures. A minimum of 400 microgram tin(II) was required to provide 90% technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate at six hours after preparation. Adequate deoxygenation of small quantities (450 ml) of water was accomplished in less than one hour. Some stannous chloride salts were highly oxidized in the dry state, and only high-purity elemental tin wire gave acceptable yields of tin(II).

  4. Technical problems associated with the production of technetium Tc 99m tin(II) pyrophosphate kits.

    PubMed

    Kowalsky, R J; Dalton, D R

    1981-11-01

    The amount of tin(II) required for adequate reduction, complexation, and stability of technetium Tc 99m pertechnetate in radiopharmaceutical kits, and methods of preventing the loss of tin(II) during formulation of these lyophilized kits are investigated. Tin(II) loss from stannous chloride solutions was studied under several conditions, including room air versus nitrogen atmospheres, during vial filling in a laminar-flow hood with samples frozen on dry ice versus samples at room temperature, during lyophilization, and during storage under refrigerated, ambient, and elevated temperatures. Various amounts of stannous chloride, ranging from 5 to 1000 microgram/ml, were used in formulating sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m kits containing 100 mCi technetium Tc 99m and 0.4 microgram total technetium. Samples were removed at various times; hydrolyzed technetium, pertechnetate, and technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate were isolated on instant thin-layer chromatography-silica gel and quantified with a scintillation counter. The time necessary to deoxygenate distilled water by nitrogen purging was measured. Several sources of stannous chloride were assayed for tin(II) content. Tin(II) loss occurs rapidly in solution (15% in one hour) unless continuously protected with nitrogen, and during vial filling in a laminar-flow hood unless frozen with dry ice. No substantial loss of tin(II) was detected during lyophilization or during storage of lyophilized product at any of the three temperatures. A minimum of 400 microgram tin(II) was required to provide 90% technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate at six hours after preparation. Adequate deoxygenation of small quantities (450 ml) of water was accomplished in less than one hour. Some stannous chloride salts were highly oxidized in the dry state, and only high-purity elemental tin wire gave acceptable yields of tin(II).

  5. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of (99m)Tc/Re-tricarbonyl quinolone complexes.

    PubMed

    Kydonaki, Theocharis E; Tsoukas, Evangelos; Mendes, Filipa; Hatzidimitriou, Antonios G; Paulo, António; Papadopoulou, Lefkothea C; Papagiannopoulou, Dionysia; Psomas, George

    2016-07-01

    New rhenium(I) tricarbonyl complexes with the quinolone antimicrobial agents oxolinic acid (Hoxo) and enrofloxacin (Herx) and containing methanol, triphenylphosphine (PPh3) or imidazole (im) as unidentate co-ligands, were synthesized and characterized. The crystal structure of complex [Re(CO)3(oxo)(PPh3)]∙0.5MeOH was determined by X-ray crystallography. The deprotonated quinolone ligands are bound bidentately to rhenium(I) ion through the pyridone oxygen and a carboxylate oxygen. The binding of the rhenium complexes to calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) was monitored by UV spectroscopy, viscosity measurements and competitive studies with ethidium bromide; intercalation was suggested as the most possible mode and the DNA-binding constants of the complexes were calculated. The rhenium complex [Re(CO)3(erx)(im)] was assayed for its topoisomerase IIα inhibition activity and was found to be active at 100μM concentration. The interaction of the rhenium complexes with human or bovine serum albumin was investigated by fluorescence emission spectroscopy (through the tryptophan quenching) and the corresponding binding constants were determined. The tracer complex [(99m)Tc(CO)3(erx)(im)] was synthesized and identified by comparative HPLC analysis with the rhenium analog. The (99m)Tc complex was found to be stable in solution. Upon injection in healthy mice, fast tissue clearance of the (99m)Tc complex was observed, while both renal and hepatobiliary excretion took place. Preliminary studies in human K-562 erythroleukemia cells showed cellular uptake of the (99m)Tc tracer with distribution primarily in the cytoplasm and the mitochondria and less in the nucleus. These preliminary results indicate that the quinolone (99m)Tc/Re complexes show promise to be further evaluated as imaging or therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dosimetry of (99m)Tc (DTPA, DMSA and MAG3) used in renal function studies of newborns and children.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Marcial Vásquez; Caballero, Víctor Murillo; Rengifo, Kelman Marín

    2017-07-28

    The dose to kidneys of newborns and 1-year old children was calculated using the MIRD methodology. In order to perform renal studies radiopharmaceutical like (99m)Tc-DTPA, (99m) Tc-MAG3 and (99m)Tc-DMSA are used. Here, besides the anatomic and structure information of kidneys another data are provided in benefit of patient, however during the radioisotope decay emitted radiations delivers, totally or partially, their energy. Therefore is important to estimate the internal radiation dose of the organs. The largest dose to kidneys comes from the self-dose and it is due to the charged particles emitted during (99m)Tc decay. From the three radiopharmaceutical here used the largest dose to kidneys is due to (99m)Tc-DMSA, and the smaller dose is due to (99m)Tc-MAG3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Occult breast cancer. Detection and radioguided surgery with 99mTc-MIBI].

    PubMed

    Barberá, L; Illanes, L; Terrier, F; Dopta, G

    2003-01-01

    We include those patients who present with an isolated metastasis of axillary adenopathy in the occult primary breast cancer group. Presumably, the primary tumor is a primitive breast carcinoma, unsuspected until this moment and not clinically demonstrable by mammography or ultrasonography. When no method succeeds in confirming the primary breast lesion, the patients are usually treated assuming the existing of breast cancer. Several diagnostic methods have been used to find the primary breast lesion. Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI), Positron Emission (PET) and Doppler sonography have been used in this way and several papers present the results reached with them. Our group incorporates detection and radioguided surgery with 99mTechnetium (99mTc) methoxyisobutil isonitrile into the study of these patients. We perform a planar scintimammography and SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) with 99mTc-MIBI. If the radioisotopic method shows a functional image compatible with a carcinoma, a gamma detecting probe is then used to locate the lesion and guide its surgical removal. In this paper, we present the application of the technique in 5 cases and describe the technique and its possibilities. Its advantages are explained in comparison with other methods. The dosimetric values found in the performance of the technique are reported. We consider that detection and radioguided surgery with 99mTc-MIBI in the diagnosis and treatment of occult breast cancer adds an effective tool and means progress in the approach to this disease.

  8. Effect of cimetidine on blood clearance, gastric uptake, and secretion of /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Sagar, V.V.; Piccone, J.M.

    1981-06-01

    The effect of cimetidine, an H/sub 2/-receptor blocking agent, on the secretion of /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate was studied in 11 dogs. In cimetidine-treated animals, there was increased retention of /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate by the gastric wall as compared with the untreated animals. The results indicate the potential use of cimetidine for enhanced visualization of Meckel's diverticulum, Barrett's esophagus, and the stomach, with /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate.

  9. Quantitative simultaneous 99mTc/123I cardiac SPECT using MC-JOSEM.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Jinsong; Zhu, Xuping; Trott, Cathryn M; El Fakhri, Georges

    2009-02-01

    Simultaneous rest 99mTc-Sestamibi/ 123I-BMIPP cardiac SPECT imaging has the potential to replace current clinical 99mTc-Sestamibi rest/stress imaging and therefore has great potential in the case of patients with chest pain presenting to the emergency department. Separation of images of these two radionuclides is difficult, however, because their emission energies are close. The authors previously developed a fast Monte Carlo (MC)-based joint ordered-subset expectation maximization (JOSEM) iterative reconstruction algorithm (MC-JOSEM), which simultaneously compensates for scatter and cross talk as well as detector response within the reconstruction algorithm. In this work, the authors evaluated the performance of MC-JOSEM in a realistic population of 99mTc/123I studies using cardiac phantom data on a Siemens e.cam system using a standard cardiac protocol. The authors also compared the performance of MC-JOSEM for estimation tasks to that of two other methods: standard OSEM using photopeak energy windows without scatter correction (NSC-OSEM) and standard OSEM using a Compton-scatter energy window for scatter correction (SC-OSEM). For each radionuclide the authors separately acquired high-count projections of radioactivity in the myocardium wall, liver, and soft tissue background compartments of a water-filled torso phantom, and they generated synthetic projections of various dual-radionuclide activity distributions. Images of different combinations of myocardium wall/background activity concentration ratios for each radionuclide were reconstructed by NSC-OSEM, SC-OSEM, and MC-JOSEM. For activity estimation in the myocardium wall, MC-JOSEM always produced the best relative bias and relative standard deviation compared with NSC-OSEM and SC-OSEM for all the activity combinations. On average, the relative biases after 100 iterations were 8.1% for 99mTc and 3.7% for 123I with MC-JOSEM, 39.4% for 99mTc and 23.7% for 123I with NSC-OSEM, and 20.9% for 99mTc with SC-OSEM. The

  10. [Preparation of (99m)Tc-EDTA-MN and Its Bioimaging in Mouse].

    PubMed

    Qi, Yongshuai; Li, Guiping; Chi, Xiaohua; Du, Li; Huang, Kai; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Baodan

    2015-07-01

    Hypoxia is an important biological characteristics of solid tumor, it is not sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy for which is the presence of hypoxic cell, thus increasing their resistance to conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy, therefore, the detection of hypoxia degree of tumor tissue is of great significance. The hypoxia imaging of nuclear medicine can reflect the degree of tissue hypoxia, which can selectively retained on the hypoxic cells or tissues, including nitroimidazole and non nitroimidazole; the nitroimidazole is widely and deeply researched as hypoxic celles developer in China and abroad at present. The research about application of radionuclide labelled technique has clinical application value to develop the hypoxia imaging agent EDTA-MN complexes which was labeled. To study the feasibility of (99m)Tc by direct labeling method, the radiochemical properties evaluation of (99m)Tc-EDTA-MN, and observe the distribution characteristics of (99m)Tc radiolabeled EDTA-MN in the xenograft lung cancer nude mice bearing non-small cell lung cancer cell (A549), and provide experimental evidence for its further research and application. The radiolabeling of EDTA-MN with (99m)Tc was performed with direct labeling method, respectively, on the reaction dosage (10 mg, 5 mg, 2 mg), stannous chloride dosage (8 mg/mL, 4 mg/mL, 2 mg/mL), mark system pH (2, 4, 5, 6) one by one test, using orthogonal design analysis, to find the optimal labeling conditions. Labelling rate, radiochemical purity, lipid-water partition coefficient and in vitro stability in normal saline (NS) were determined by TLC and HPLC, and the preliminary study on the distribution of (99m)Tc-EDTA-MN in nude mice. The labeling rate of 99mTc-EDTA-MN with the best labeling conditions was (84.11±2.83)%, and the radiochemical purity was higher than 90% by HPLC purification, without any notable decomposition at room temperature over a period of 12 h. The partition coefficient was lgP=-3

  11. Development of a 99Mo/99mTc generator using alumina microspheres for industrial radiotracer applications.

    PubMed

    Dash, Ashutosh; Chakravarty, Rubel; Ram, Ramu; Pillai, K T; Yadav, Yugandhara Y; Wagh, D N; Verma, Rakesh; Biswas, Sujoy; Venkatesh, Meera

    2012-01-01

    A chromatographic (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator for industrial applications has been developed using alumina microspheres synthesized through sol-gel process to obtain (99m)Tc in both aqueous and non-aqueous media. The sorbent was mesoporous, mechanically strong and possessed high surface area. (99m)Tc could be eluted from generator system using either acetone or 0.9% NaCl solution with appreciably high yields and high radiochemical as well as radionuclidic purity. The facile, versatile generator provides an efficient way to access (99m)Tc at industrial sites for radiotracer applications.

  12. Tc-99m-labeled red blood cells for the measurement of red cell mass in newborn infants: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Linderkamp, O.; Betke, K.; Fendel, H.; Klemm, J.; Lorenzen, K.; Riegel, K.P.

    1980-07-01

    In vitro and in vivo investigations were performed to examine the binding of Tc-99m to neonatal red blood cells (RBC). Labeling efficiency was about 90%, and unbound Tc-99m less than 3% after one washing, in premature and full-term newborns and in children. Thus presence of high percentages of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) did not influence the labeling of RBCs with Tc-99m. RBCs of 11 newborns were hemolysed and the distribution of Tc-99m on RBC components was analyzed. Although Hb F percentage averaged (60.0 +- 8.10)% (s.d.), only (11.9 +- 3.7)% of Tc-99m was bound by Hb F, whereas (45.0 +- 6.1)% was associated with Hb A. RBC membranes bound (13.7 +- 4.3)% and (29.3 +- 4.0)% were found unbound in hemolysates. These results indicate that Tc-99m preferentially binds to beta chains. In vivo equilibration of Tc-99m RBCs and of albumin labeled with Evans blue was investigated in five newborn infants. Tc-99m RBCs were stable in each case during the first hour after injection. Elution of Tc-99m from RBCs was (3.4 +- 1.5)% per h. Body-to-venous hematocrit ratio averaged 0.86 +- 0.03.

  13. Size Control of (99m)Tc-tin Colloid Using PVP and Buffer Solution for Sentinel Lymph Node Detection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong

    2015-06-01

    Colloidal particle size is an important characteristic that allows mapping sentinel nodes in lymphoscintigraphy. This investigation aimed to introduce different ways of making a (99m)Tc-tin colloid with a size of tens of nanometers. All agents, tin fluoride, sodium fluoride, poloxamer-188, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), were mixed and labeled with (99m)Tc. Either phosphate or sodium bicarbonate buffers were used to adjust the pH levels. When the buffers were added, the size of the colloids increased. However, as the PVP continued to increase, the size of the colloids was controlled to within tens of nanometers. In all samples, phosphate buffer added PVP (30 mg) stabilized tin colloid ((99m)Tc-PPTC-30) and sodium bicarbonate solution added PVP (50 mg) stabilized tin colloid ((99m)Tc-BPTC-50) were chosen for in vitro and in vivo studies. (99m)Tc-BPTC-50 (<20 nm) was primarily located in bone marrow and was then secreted through the kidneys, and (99m)Tc-PPTC-30 (>100 nm) mainly accumulated in the liver. When a rabbit was given a toe injection, the node uptake of (99m)Tc-PPTC-30 decreased over time, while (99m)Tc-BPTC-50 increased. Therefore, (99m)Tc-BPTC-50 could be a good candidate radiopharmaceutical for sentinel node detection. The significance of this study is that nano-sized tin colloid can be made very easily and quickly by PVP.

  14. Molecular Imaging of Mesothelioma with 99mTc-ECG and 68Ga-ECG

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin-Han; Bryant, Jerry; Kong, Fan-Lin; Yu, Dong-Fang; Mendez, Richard; Edmund Kim, E.; Yang, David J.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed ethylenedicysteine-glucosamine (ECG) as an alternative to 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) for cancer imaging. ECG localizes in the nuclear components of cells via the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. This study was to evaluate the feasibility of imaging mesothelioma with 99mTc-ECG and 68Ga-ECG. ECG was synthesized from thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid and 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-amino-D-glucopyranose, followed by reduction in sodium and liquid ammonia to yield ECG (52%). ECG was chelated with 99mTc/tin (II) and 68Ga/69Ga chloride for in vitro and in vivo studies in mesothelioma. The highest tumor uptake of 99mTc-ECG is 0.47 at 30 min post injection, and declined to 0.08 at 240 min post injection. Tumor uptake (%ID/g), tumor/lung, tumor/blood, and tumor/muscle count density ratios for 99mTc-ECG (30–240 min) were 0.47 ± 0.06 to 0.08 ± 0.01; 0.71 ± 0.07 to 0.85 ± 0.04; 0.47 ± 0.03 to 0.51 ± 0.01, and 3.49 ± 0.24 to 5.06 ± 0.25; for 68Ga-ECG (15–60 min) were 0.70 ± 0.06 to 0.92 ± 0.08; 0.64 ± 0.05 to 1.15 ± 0.08; 0.42 ± 0.03 to 0.67 ± 0.07, and 3.84 ± 0.52 to 7.00 ± 1.42; for 18F-FDG (30–180 min) were 1.86 ± 0.22 to 1.38 ± 0.35; 3.18 ± 0.44 to 2.92 ± 0.34, 4.19 ± 0.44 to 19.41 ± 2.05 and 5.75 ± 2.55 to 3.33 ± 0.65, respectively. Tumor could be clearly visualized with 99mTc-ECG and 68Ga-ECG in mesothelioma-bearing rats. 99mTc-ECG and 68Ga-ECG showed increased uptake in mesothelioma, suggesting they may be useful in diagnosing mesothelioma and also monitoring therapeutic response. PMID:22645409

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of 99mTc/99Tc-MAG3-biotin conjugates for antibody pretargeting strategies.

    PubMed

    van Gog, F B; Visser, G W; Gowrising, R W; Snow, G B; van Dongen, G A

    1998-10-01

    Four 99mTc-MAG3-biotin conjugates were synthesized to determine their potential use in antibody pretargeting strategies for radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS). To use these 99mTc-MAG3-biotin conjugates as model compounds for 186Re-MAG3-biotin conjugates for radioimmunotherapy (RIT), nanomolar amounts of 99Tc were added as carrier to 99mTc. The biotin derivatives used for the preparation of the conjugates-biocytin, biotin hydrazide, biotinyl-piperazine, and biotinyl-diaminosuccinic acid-differed at the site that is regarded to be susceptible to hydrolysis by biotinidase present in human plasma. All four conjugates were produced with high radiochemical purity, were stable in PBS, and demonstrated full binding capacity to streptavidin. The 99mTc/99Tc-MAG3-labeled biotinyl-piperazine and biotinyl-diaminosuccinic acid conjugates were stable in mouse as well as human plasma, whereas the corresponding biocytin and biotin hydrazide conjugates were rapidly degraded. The biodistribution in nude mice at 30 min after injection was similar for all conjugates, and a rapid blood clearance and high intestinal excretion were both observed. It is concluded that the metabolic routing of a conjugate containing biotin and MAG3 is dominated by these two moieties. For this reason, MAG3-biotin conjugates do not seem suited for pretargeted RIT, for which quantitative and fast renal excretion is a prerequisite to minimize radiation toxicity. However, in a pretargeted RIS approach the 99mTc-MAG3-biotin conjugates might have potential.

  16. False triggering of an ultraviolet flame detector after 99mTc-MDP injection.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Hisashi; Starkey, Jay

    2016-06-01

    We report a patient who set off a restroom's ultraviolet-spectrum flame detector, occurring 2.5 h after administration of radioisotope 99mTc-MDP (740 MBq) for bone scintigraphy. The radiation dose rate emitted from the patient was estimated to be about 11.82 μSv/h at a distance of 100 cm. To date, many cases have been reported of radiation detector false alarms triggered by radioisotopes administered to patients, presumably due to strengthened security measures and increased radioisotope use. Only one other case of false flame detector triggering in relation to radioisotope administration has been reported, in that case due to therapeutic radioiodine; there have been no prior reports of diagnostic (99m)Tc triggering flame detectors.

  17. Detection of gastrointestinal bleeding with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Winzelberg, G.G.; McKusick, K.A.; Froelich, J.W.; Callahan, R.J.; Strauss, H.W.

    1982-04-01

    Using a modified in vivo /sup 99m/Tc red cell labeling technique, gastrointestinal bleeding scintigraphy was performed in 100 patients with GI bleeding. Sixty-two patients with melena or bright red blood per rectum had positive scintiscans. In comparison to results of angiography, endoscopy, surgery and contrast radiography, radionuclide scintigraphy correctly located the site of bleeding in 83% of patients. The procedures could be performed over a 24 hr period which increased the sensitivity of the test since 85% of the scintiscans were positive at one hr or greater after the onset of imaging. The procedure was more sensitive than angiography in detecting sources of GI bleeding. We conclude that GI bleeding scintigraphy /sup 99m/Tc-red cells in an accurate and effective method to detect upper and lower GI bleeding in patients with acute intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding.

  18. Lung mass appearing as a dilated left ventricle on Tc-99m tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Williams, Robert; Mclean, Emma; O' Connell, Rachel; Nunan, Thomas O; O'Doherty, Michael J

    2009-09-01

    Tc-99m tetrofosmin is a common tracer used in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Several benign and malignant tumors also take up tetrofosmin. We present a case of a 60-year-old woman with a history of a left lung mass awaiting resection. The patient was referred for a myocardial perfusion scan for preoperative risk assessment. The myocardial perfusion scan revealed a large cavitated lesion mimicking a dilated left ventricle and the CT scan revealed a large mass in the left lung with central necrosis displacing the heart and mediastinum. The patient underwent thoracotomy with resection of the mass and the histology confirmed atypical carcinoid. This case highlights noncardiac uptake of Tc-99m tetrofosmin in an atypical carcinoid.

  19. Tc-99m-labeled somatostatin receptor-binding peptide imaging for a pulmonary nodule.

    PubMed

    Morehead, R S; Shih, W J

    2001-11-01

    A 76-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a smoking history had a 2-cm solitary pulmonary nodule that was likely to be malignant. He underwent Tc-99m-labeled somatostatin receptor-binding peptide SPECT. A computed tomographic-guided transthoracic needle biopsy performed before the SPECT was nondiagnostic. SPECT showed increased uptake of the tracer by the nodule, which was subsequently found to be adenocarcinoma by surgical resection. Differentiation of malignant from benign nodules by Tc-99m-labeled somatostatin imaging may be a reasonable approach in patients at high risk for cancer and concurrently at increased risk for complications from invasive diagnostic procedures or surgical resection.

  20. Effect of phenobarbital on 99mTc-IDA scintigraphy in the evaluation of neonatal jaundice

    SciTech Connect

    Majd, M.; Reba, R.C.; Altman, R.P.

    1981-07-01

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy with 99mTc-IDA derivatives was used to evaluate 40 neonates with mixed jaundice. Fourteen patients proved to have biliary atresia. The remaining 26 patients had intrahepatic cholestasis with patent extrahepatic ducts. Sixteen of the 40 patients underwent examinations without phenobarbital stimulation. Sixteen patients had two examinations, one before and one after 3-7 days of phenobarbital therapy. The remaining 8 patients had their initial examinations after phenobarbital therapy. The results of this study show that administration of phenobarbital in a dose of 5 mg/kg/day for at least 5 days prior to the examination enhances and accelerates biliary excretion of IDA compounds and thereby significantly increases the accuracy of 99mTc-IDA scintigraphy in differentiating extrahepatic biliary atresia from neonatal hepatitis. Its routine use in the evaluation of neonatal jaundice is therefore highly recommended.

  1. Choledochal cyst with bile duct dilatation: sonography and /sup 99/mTc IDA cholescintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B.K.; Babcock, D.S.; Gelfand, M.H.

    1981-06-01

    Three cases of choledochal cyst associated with intrahepatic biliary dilatation are presented. Findings on sonography included a large cystic mass in the porta hepatis separate from the gallbladder; a dilated common hepatic or common bile duct entering directly into the cyst; the smaller cystic masses of dilated central intrahepatic ducts. The dilatation of the central intrahepatic bile ducts was moderate in two patients and massive in one patient. All three patients underwent operation with intraoperative cholangiography. Two patients had /sup 99/mTc IDA cholescintigraphy which confirmed the diagnosis of choledochal cyst by demonstrating filling of the cyst with stasis and delayed intestinal activity. The accurate preoperative diagnosis of choledochal cyst, made by sonography combined with /sup 99/mTc IDA cholescintigraphy, obviated invasive studies.

  2. Radiolabeling of rituximab with (188)Re and (99m)Tc using the tricarbonyl technology.

    PubMed

    Dias, Carla Roberta; Jeger, Simone; Osso, João Alberto; Müller, Cristina; De Pasquale, Christine; Hohn, Alexander; Waibel, Robert; Schibli, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The most successful clinical studies of immunotherapy in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) use the antibody rituximab (RTX) targeting CD20(+) B-cell tumors. Rituximab radiolabeled with β(-) emitters could potentiate the therapeutic efficacy of the antibody by virtue of the particle radiation. Here, we report on a direct radiolabeling approach of rituximab with the (99m)Tc- and (188)Re-tricarbonyl core (IsoLink technology). The native format of the antibody (RTX(wt)) as well as a reduced form (RTX(red)) was labeled with (99m)Tc/(188)Re(CO)(3). The partial reduction of the disulfide bonds to produce free sulfhydryl groups (-SH) was achieved with 2-mercaptoethanol. Radiolabeling efficiency, in vitro human plasma stability as well as transchelation toward cysteine and histidine was investigated. The immunoreactivity and binding affinity were determined on Ramos and/or Raji cells expressing CD20. Biodistribution was performed in mice bearing subcutaneous Ramos lymphoma xenografts. The radiolabeling efficiency and kinetics of RTX(red) were superior to that of RTX(wt) ((99m)Tc: 98% after 3 h for RTX(red) vs. 70% after 24 h for RTX(wt)). (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-RTX(red) was used without purification for in vitro and in vivo studies whereas (188)Re(CO)(3)-RTX(red) was purified to eliminate free (188)Re-precursor. Both radioimmunoconjugates were stable in human plasma for 24 h at 37 °C. In contrast, displacement experiments with excess cysteine/histidine showed significant transchelation in the case of (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-RTX(red) but not with pre-purified (188)Re(CO)(3)-RTX(red). Both conjugates revealed high binding affinity to the CD20 antigen (K(d) = 5-6 nM). Tumor uptake of (188)Re(CO)(3)-RTX(red) was 2.5 %ID/g and 0.8 %ID/g for (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-RTX(red) 48 h after injection. The values for other organs and tissues were similar for both compounds, for example the tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-liver ratios were 0.4 and 0.3 for (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-RTX(red) and for (188)Re(CO)(3)-RTX

  3. Reexamination of cross sections of the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, S.; Hermanne, A.; Ditrói, F.; Tárkányi, F.; Aikawa, M.

    2015-03-01

    The nuclear medicine community has been expressing concerns world wide regarding shortages of 99mTc supply based on fission production of 99Mo from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to prepare 99Mo/99mTc generators. As an alternative to reactor produced 99Mo/99mTc generator technology, the direct production of 99mTc on accelerators is considered. There are a number of methods of using accelerators to produce 99mTc and/or 99Mo. Direct production of 99mTc on highly enriched 100Mo target using cyclotrons is interesting for energies up to 20 MeV, so as to minimize the impurities from additional open reaction channels. To estimate the quality of the accelerator produced 99mTc all the possible reaction routes should be mapped which could be potentially involved in this technology. However, a well defined excitation function for the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc primary reaction is needed, in order to achieve acceptable good results in assessing the quality of the accelerator-produced 99mTc by theoretical calculations. Most of the available experimental cross section data series for the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction have the same general shape while their amplitudes are different. A large difference more than a factor of two may, indeed, be observed between the lowest and the highest datasets values. The aim of this study was therefore to get a new evaluation for the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc cross section, through three independent experiments, aiming at a more confident estimation about the amplitude of the excitation function.

  4. 99mTc-DTPA-amino acids conjugate as specific SPECT pharmaceuticals for tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Deepa; Shukla, Gauri; Tiwari, Anjani K; Chaturvedi, Shubhra; Chuttani, Krishna; Chandra, Harish; Mishra, Anil K

    2009-08-01

    (99m)Tc-Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid-bis (amide) conjugates have been synthesized and evaluated as a potential radiopharmaceutical for tumor imaging. The compounds were synthesized by the condensation reaction of DTPA bis(anhydride) with different l-amino acids (methyl tryptophan, and 5-hydroxy tryptophan) and were characterized on the basis of IR, NMR, and Mass spectroscopy. (99m)Tc-labeled compounds were found stable for about 24 h under physiological conditions with more than 95% radiolabeling yield. Blood kinetic studies of all these complexes showed a bi-exponential pattern as well as quick wash out from the blood circulation. The biological t(1/2)(F) and t(1/2)(S) were found to be 20 +/- 0.001 min for DTPA-(Me-Trp)(2) and 18 +/- 0.001 min for DTPA-(5HT)(2) and t(1/2) (slow) 5 h 45 min +/- 0.001, 5 h 30 +/- 0.001 min for DTPA-(Me-Trp)(2), and DTPA-(5HT)(2), respectively. Imaging and biodistribution studies were performed in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) tumors in right thigh. Radioconjugate derived from l-5-hydroxytryptophan exhibited remarkable localization at tumor site; whereas radiotracer derived from l-methyl tryptophan shows relatively less accumulation at the tumor site. Tumor-to-muscles ratios were 5.07 +/- 0.001, and 4.2 +/- 0.001 at 1 and 4 h for (99m)Tc-DTPA-(Me trp)(2) and 4.97 +/- 0.001 and 5.8 +/- 0.001 at 1 and 4 h after postinjection for (99m)Tc-DTPA-(5HT)(2), respectively. The preliminary results with these amino acid based ligands are encouraging to carrying out further in vivo experiments for targeted tumor imaging.

  5. 99mTc-UBI Biokinetics: A Specific Peptide for Infection Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Cortés, J.; Meléndez-Alafort, L.; Herrera-Rodríguez, R.; Ferro-Flores, G.; Mitsoura, E.; Martínez-Duncker, C.

    2003-09-01

    Recently, antimicrobial peptides have been proposed as new agents to distinguish between bacterial infections and sterile inflammatory processes. Based on these considerations, Ubiquicidin peptide 29-41 (UBI) has been labeled with 99mTc using a new direct method showing a radiochemical purity > 97 %, high stability in human serum, and low protein binding. In addition 99mTc-UBI showed a specific in vitro and in vivo binding to bacteria. However its biokinetic parameters have not been evaluated since it is one of the new generation radiopharmaceuticals based on peptide structures. Therefore the aim of this project was to establish the biokinetic model for 99mTc-UBI. An activity from 74 to 148 MBq was injected to patients with bone infection and 5 whole body scans were taken at 1, 30, 120, 240 min and 24 h after radiopharmaceutical administration, with a dual head scanner. Urine was collected for 24 h. An antropomorphic phantom was previously used to calculate the effect of attenuation and scattered radiation on the gamma camera acquisition images. ROIs of the selected organs in patients (kidney, liver, heart, bone, soft tissue and lesion) were drawn, and attenuation and scatter corrected. The % urine elimination at 24 h and time integrated ROIs (cpm/pixel/ROIs) were used to obtain the residence time (τ) in each tissue and to establish the biokinetic model. Pharmacokinetic data show that blood clearance is biexponential with a mean residence time in the central compartment of 0.52 h. The images showed non-accumulation in metabolic organs. More than 75 % of the injected activity was eliminated by renal clearance 4 h after 99mTc-UBI administration. The mean radiation dose calculated according to the MIRD formalism was 0.130 mGy/MBq for kidney and the effective dose was 4.29 × 10-3 mSv/MBq.

  6. Tc-99m HIDA cholescintigraphy: the distended photon-deficient gallbladder

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, R.K.; Segal, H.B.; Caride, V.J.

    1981-01-01

    Four patients with distended, photon-deficient gallbladders are presented. Markedly delayed appearance of Tc-99m HIDA in a distended gallbladder may represent chronic cholecystitis, partial obstruction of the common bile duct, or physiologic gallbladder distention. Obtaining delayed images is important in this group of patients to avoid premature diagnosis of cystic-duct obstruction. If the distended gallbladder fails to visualize within 24 hr, hydrops with cysic-duct obstruction is suggested.

  7. Tc-99m HIDA cholescintigraphy: the distended photon-deficient gallbladder

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, R.K.; Segal, H.B.; Caride, V.J.

    1981-01-01

    Four patients with distended, photon-deficient gallbladders are presented. Markedly delayed appearance of Tc-99m HIDA in a distended gallbladder may represent chronic cholescystitis, partial obstruction of the common bile duct or physiologic gallbladder distention. Obtaining delayed images is important in this group of patients to avoid premature diagnosis of cystic-duct obstruction. If the distended gallbladder fails to visualize within 24 h, hydrops with cystic-duct obstruction is suggested.

  8. Gamma scintigraphy using Tc-99m labeled antibody to human chorionic gonadotropin

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, R.T.; Lyster, D.M.; Alcorn, L.N.; Rhodes, B.A.; Breslow, K.; Burchiel, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    A case report is presented describing a 27-year-old woman with invasive trophoblastic hydatidiform mole metastatic to the lung. Gamma scintiscanning, using a polyclonal and monoclonal antibody specific to human chorionic gonadotropin, hCG, and labeled with Tc-99m, is described. The area of the primary lesion in the uterus was demonstrated with both antibodies tested without computer subtraction techniques; metastatic deposits in the lung were detected only with the aid of blood pool subtraction techniques.

  9. Detection of pleural effusions and increased lung water by Tc-99m DTPA imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, E.C.; Karelitz, J.R.; Bennett, L.R.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to report a systematic observation of uptake or retention of Tc-99m DTPA in pleural effusions and other abnormal states of increased lung water. 24 patients who underwent renal imaging with 10 mCi Tc-99m DTPA were included. Imaging was performed with a large field of view camera for 0-03 minutes after injection and delayed images acquired 2-4 hours later. The images encompassed the mid and lower thorax as well as kidneys. 15 patients showed, at 0-5 minutes, cold areas at lung bases that later showed relatively increased activity at 2-4 hours (hot on delayed images). 14 of these 15 patients showed pleural effusions on chest x-ray. Small bilateral effusions were more clearly demonstrated by scan than by x-ray in 8 of 15 patients. One patient with pneumonia showed an immediate hot area in the infected lobe, and two with pulmonary edema and congestive failure showed diffuse lung retention of Tc-99m on delayed images. Among 9 patients who did not demonstrate abnormal cold or hot areas in their lungs on DTPA images, none had clinical or x-ray evidence of pleural effusion, pneumonia, or congestive failure (100% negative predictive value). Differences in rate constants for diffusion into vs. out of pleural fluid provide a plausible explanation for the observed retention of tracer in effusions, as seen on delayed images. This study indicates that imaging with Tc-99m DTPA provides information of diagnostic value in the detection of pleural effusions. Futhermore, the data suggests that DTPA imaging may also be useful as a simple, cost-effective method to detect other conditions in which regional lung water is abnormally increased.

  10. Tc-99m glucoheptonate scintigraphy in a case of renal vein thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sfakianakis, G.N.; Zilleruelo, G.; Thompson, T.; Al-Sheikh, W.; Strauss, J.

    1985-02-01

    Tc-99m glucoheptonate flow and static studies with computer-assisted analysis provided specific diagnostic information in unilateral renal vein thrombosis complicating a case of nephrotic syndrome. Decreased flow with congestion, a large kidney with parenchymal thickening, pelvocalyceal thinning, good function, and no obstruction in the proper clinical settings indicated the diagnosis of a chronic form of renal vein thrombosis with compensating collateralization. The differential diagnosis is discussed.

  11. Imaging necrotic myocardium: Detection with 99mTc-pyrophosphate and radiolabeled antimyosin

    SciTech Connect

    Khaw, B.A.; Haber, E. )

    1989-08-01

    The major value of hot-spot imaging of the myocardium is its ability to define areas of necrosis rather than areas of diminished blood flow or cellular function. Applications of hot-spot imaging include the diagnosis and quantitation of myocardial infarction, myocarditis, and cardiac transplant rejection. The two agents in clinical use, 99mTc-Pyrophosphate and radiolabeled antimyosin, are discussed. 52 references.

  12. Early diagnosis of testicular tumor using Tc-99m pertechnetate scrotal imaging.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, G D; Prezio, J A; Ricci, P E

    1983-12-01

    Two patients who originally presented with clinical symptoms of epididymo-orchitis, with compatible findings on the Tc-99m pertechnetate scrotal images, had temporary remission of their symptoms with antibiotic therapy. After two months, both patients had repeat scrotal images, because of persistent testicular enlargement. Both now demonstrated a "cold spot" in the otherwise increased activity on the affected side. Both patients underwent orchiectomy; patient 1 had a tissue diagnosis of malignant mixed germ cell tumor and patient 2 showed teratocarcinoma.

  13. Avid thyroid uptake of (Tc-99m) sodium pertechnetate in children with goitrous cretinism

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Domstad, P.A.; Choy, Y.C.; DeLand, F.H.

    1981-07-01

    Three children with goitrous hypothyroidism had thyroid scans with (Tc-99m) sodium pertechnetate, which showed symmetrically enlarged thyroid glands with uniformly increased activities compared to little activities in the salivary glands and low body background activities. These scan findings, simulating those of Graves' disease, reflect acid trapping of this tracer, analogous to that seen with I-131. Perchlorate discharge test was positive in two patients, indicating an organification defect.

  14. Magnesium-Molybate Compounds as Matrix for 99Mo/99mTc Generators

    PubMed Central

    Monroy-Guzman, Fabiola; Jimenez Martinez, Thania Susana; Arriola, Humberto; Longoria Gandara, Luis Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the preparation of a 99mTc generator based on conversion of 99Mo produced by neutron irradiation, into insoluble magnesium 99Mo-molybdates compounds as matrix. The effect of magnesium salt types and concentration, Mg:Mo molar ratios, pH of molybdate solutions, eluate volume as well as the addition order of molybdate and magnesium solutions' influences on the final 99mTc were evaluated. Polymetalates and polymolybdates salts either crystallized or amorphous were obtained depending on the magnesium salt and Mg:Mo molar ratio used in matrix preparation. 99Mo/99mTc generator production based on magnesium-99Mo molybdate compounds allow reduction of preparation time and eliminates the use of specialized installations. The best generator performances were attained using matrices prepared from 0.1 mol/L MgCl2·6H2O solutions, ammonium molybdate solutions at pH 7 and at a Mg:Mo molar ratio of 1:1.

  15. Clearance of [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA and experimentally increased alveolar surfactant content

    SciTech Connect

    Bos, J.A.H.; Wollmer, P.; Bakker, W.; Hannappel, E.; Lachmann, B. Univ. of Lund Univ. of Erlangen )

    1992-04-01

    The authors measured clearance of [sup 99m]Tc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ([sup 99m]Tc-DTPA) in rabbits with experimentally increased alveolar surfactant content. In one group of animals, surfactant production was increased by treatment with ambroxol, and another group of animals was treated with tracheal instillation of natural surfactant. A group of untreated control animals and animals treated with instillation of saline were also studied. Clearance was measured during standard conditions of mechanical ventilation and during ventilation with large tidal volumes. In ambroxol- and surfactant-treated groups, clearance rate was reduced compared with untreated control animals. In contrast, clearance rate increased after saline instillation. The differences were observed at both modes of ventilation. The findings indicate that the pulmonary surfactant system is a rate-limiting factor for the clearance of [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA and that the volume dependence of clearance is not explained by stretching of the alveolar wall only. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Evaluation of (99m) Tc-resveratrol as a colon cancer targeting probe.

    PubMed

    Kamal, R; Dhawan, D K; Chadha, V D

    2017-09-01

    The study aimed to evaluate cancer-targeting potential of a newly synthesised radiopharmaceutical, (99m) Tc-resveratrol in vivo, using colon cancer model. Colon cancer was induced in 20 male Sprague-Dawley rats by subcutaneous administration of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), dissolved in 1 mM EDTA-normal saline, at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight twice a week for first 4 weeks and once a week for next 12 weeks. A control group containing normal rats was used for result comparison. Colon cancer in DMH-treated group was confirmed by gross analysis of the colon, by histopathological analysis and molecular marker study in tumour tissue. At the end of the treatment period, the animals from the two groups were used for bio-distribution evaluation of (99m) Tc-resveratrol at different time intervals. High uptake of (99m) Tc-resveratrol was recorded in rat liver, spleen and kidneys, and the ratio of colon tumour uptake to normal colon uptake in DMH-treated rats increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01) with time, to reach a maximum value at 2 h but decreased thereafter. High uptake at the tumour site as compared to normal colon tissue was observed; however, the uptake by cancer cells at the target site was limited by high reticulo-endothelial uptake and rapid metabolism. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effects of sustained exercise on pulmonary clearance of aerosolized sup 99m Tc-DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Lorino, A.M.; Meignan, M.; Bouissou, P.; Atlan, G. )

    1989-11-01

    The effects of intensive prolonged exercise on the pulmonary clearance rate of aerosolized {sup 99m}Tc-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ({sup 99m}Tc-DTPA) and pulmonary mechanics were studied in seven healthy nonsmoking volunteers. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA clearance and pulmonary mechanics (lung volumes and compliance) were assessed before and after 75 min of constant-load exercise performed on a treadmill, corresponding to 75% of maximal O{sub 2} uptake. Because both clearance measurements were made in similar conditions of pulmonary blood flow, respiratory rate, and tidal volume, changes in clearance rate can be assumed to represent changes of alveolar epithelial permeability. After exercise, total, apical, and basal clearance were significantly increased (P less than 0.01, 0.05, and 0.05, respectively) and the increases in total clearance and tidal volume observed during exercise were significantly correlated (P less than 0.05). In contrast, no significant change was found in pulmonary mechanics. These results show that prolonged intensive exercise induces an increase in epithelial permeability, which appears to be related to the mechanical effects of sustained increased ventilation. Because no change was evidenced in pulmonary volumes or in lung elasticity, our results suggest that this increase may result from alteration of the intercellular tight junctions rather than from a surfactant deficiency.

  18. 99mTc(I) scorpionate complexes for brain imaging: synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Moura, Carolina; Gano, Lurdes; Santos, Isabel C; Paulo, António; Santos, Isabel

    2012-04-01

    The new dihydrobis(azolyl)borate ligand Na[H2B(tim(Me))(3,5-Me2pz)] (L1) was synthesized and used to prepare the complexes fac-[M(κ(3)-H(μ-H)B(tim(Me))(3,5-Me2-pz))(CO)3] (M = Re (4), 99mTc (4a)). L1 and 4 were characterized by common analytical techniques, including X-ray diffraction analysis for 4. The successful synthesis of complex 4a, obtained with high radiochemical purity, has shown for the first time that dihydrobis(azolyl)borate ligands combining 2- mercaptoimidazolyl and pyrazolyl rings are capable of stabilizing the fac-[99mTc(CO)3]+ unit. Complex 4a displays a high in vitro stability, in PBS (pH 7.4), indicating that the B-H...99mTc bond is retained even under physiological conditions. Biodistribution studies in mice have shown that 4a can cross the blood-brain barrier, emerging as a good alternative for the design of radiopharmaceuticals for brain imaging.

  19. Evaluation of peritoneovenous shunt patency with Tc-99m labeled microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Madeddu, G.; D'Ovidio, N.G.; Casu, A.R.; Mura, R.; Costanza, C.; Lai, N.; LeVeen, H.H.

    1983-04-01

    The LeVeen peritoneovenous shunt (PVS) was investigated in 40 cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites. Five millicuries of Tc-99m-tagged human albumin microspheres (15-36 microns) were injected into the peritoneal cavity between the umbilicus and the left anterior superior iliac spine. The radiotracer was always detectable by scintigram in the lungs when the shunt was patent. In case of malfunction, by contrast, the radioactivity was either restricted to the venous tube or confined below the diaphragm for at least 4 hr. In the presence of complete obstruction, whereas the tube was not visualized after peritoneal injection, it was outlined by direct injection of 2 mCi of Tc-99m albumin microspheres into its subcutaneous tract, where it crossed the 12th rib, immediately above the valve. This technique sufficed to establish whether the site of obstruction was at the valve or in the tubing itself. In one patient, poor visualization of the tube and a delayed image of the lungs was caused by partial occlusion of the valve with fibrinoid debris. This radiotracer method proved simple, quick, and led to an immediate selective replacement when the shunt was not patent. Therefore, the use of this test is recommended for a definitive diagnosis, since there were neither false negatives nor false positives. No complications such as embolism or bacterial infection were encountered with Tc-99m human albumin microspheres, which are excellent tracers.

  20. Novel Approach to Prepare {sup 99m}Tc-Based Multivalent RGD Peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Shuang Liu

    2012-10-24

    This project presents a novel approach to prepare the {sup 99m}Tc-bridged multivalent RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartate) peptides. This project will focus on fundamentals of {sup 99m}Tc radiochemistry. The main objective of this project is to demonstrate the proof-of-principle for the proposed radiotracers. Once a kit formulation is developed for preparation of the {sup 99m}Tc-bridged multivalent RGD peptides, various tumor-bearing animal models will be used to evaluate their potential for SPECT (single photon-emission computed tomography) imaging of cancer. We have demonstrated that (1) multimerization of cyclic RGD peptides enhances the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} bonding affinity and radiotracer tumor uptake; (2) addition of G{sub 3} or PEG{sub 4} linkers makes it possible for two RGD motifs in 3P-RGD{sub 2} and 3G-RGD{sub 2} to achieve simultaneous integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} binding; and (3) multimers are actually bivalent (not multivalent), the presence of extra RGD motifs can enhance the tumor retention time of the radiotracer.

  1. Possibilities of optical imaging of the (99m)Tc-based radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Kondakov, Anton K; Gubskiy, Ilya L; Znamenskiy, Igor A; Chekhonin, Vladimir P

    2014-04-01

    In vivo optical imaging is widely used in preclinical studies. Recently, the application of optical imaging systems for preclinical visualization of gamma-emitting isotopes has become of interest since the evaluation of various organs relies on (99m)Tc-based radiopharmaceuticals (RPs). In vitro radioluminescence of (99m)Tc-based RPs, including pertechnetate, albumin macroaggregates, dimercaptosuccinic acid, phytate colloid, and ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid, was studied with IVIS Spectrum CT™ optical imaging system. The distribution of phytate colloid was also studied in vivo with and without scintillating materials and the results were compared with those obtained with a conventional scintigraphy. The visible light emission appeared to be due to the radioluminescence of water and luminophores contained in RPs rather than from Cherenkov radiation. Weak air luminescence affected the background. The radioluminescence of fluids induced by (99m)Tc-based tracers could be detected using charge-coupled device optical imaging systems. The radioluminescence intensity and its spectral distribution depend on the surrounding fluid and known luminophores present. Thus, in some cases the in vivo optical imaging is possible but the use of scintillator, e.g., borosilicate glass or bismuth germanate, is preferred.

  2. Quantitative evaluation of bile diversion surgery utilizing /sup 99m/Tc HIDA scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Wickremesinghe, P.C.; Dayrit, P.Q.; Manfredi, O.L.; Fazio, R.A.; Fagel, V.L.

    1983-02-01

    This is a report of 21 patients presenting with epigastric pain, bilious vomiting, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, iron-deficiency anemia, and weight loss, who had undergone Billroth II gastrectomy from 3 to 35 yr earlier. Eighteen of 21 patients were found to have significant enterogastric reflux indices varying from 60% to 95% demonstrated by /sup 99m/Tc HIDA scintigraphy. Thirteen patients had diversion antireflux surgery in the form of a Roux-en-Y procedure, and 1 patient had a Henley loop jejunal interposition. Postoperative /sup 99m/Tc HIDA scintigraphic studies showed the enterogastric reflux indices to have decreased significantly to a range of 2%-26% (p less than 0.00001). There was marked improvement of symptoms, including correction of anemia and weight gain in those patients who had been anemic or who had sustained earlier weight loss. The enterogastric reflux indices of 10 asymptomatic control patients after Billroth II gastrectomy ranged from 4% to 45%. /sup 99m/Tc HIDA scintigraphy is useful in evaluating patients before and after bile diversion surgery, and demonstrates the quantitative decrease in enterogastric reflux after such surgery.

  3. Physiological expression of pancreatic somatostatin receptors in 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    de la Cueva, L; Lloro, P; Sangrós, M J; López Vélez, L; Navarro, P; Sarria, L; Álvarez, S; Abós, D

    2017-07-01

    To describe the frequency of head and/or pancreas uncinate process uptake of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC, to study its nature, and analyze its diagnostic value. Retrospective evaluation of 47 consecutive 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC examinations was conducted. Head and/or pancreas uncinate process uptake was considered to be physiological in patients with normal CT at the same episode and in follow-up. It was analyzed if age or diabetes mellitus was justifying the existence or not of uptake. 32.5% patients showed uptake; 73% of them were mild. 84.6% patients with uptake have no pathology and 4% had neuroendocrine pancreatic disease at CT. Neither the age nor the diabetes mellitus established differences in patients without lesion. Near one-third of patients show physiological uptake by head and/or pancreas uncinate process at 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy. It seems that neither the diabetes nor the ages are factors that determine this physiological uptake.

  4. Cancer Targeting Potential of (99m)Tc-Finasteride in Experimental Model of Prostate Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jan, Gowsia; Passi, Neelima D; Dhawan, Devinder Kumar; Chadha, Vijayta Dani

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to radiolabel finasteride, a novel 5α-reductase inhibitor, to evaluate its cancer targeting potential in experimental model of prostate carcinogenesis. Finasteride was effectively radiolabeled with (99m)Tc and showed >90% labeling efficiency. The radiopharmaceutical was found to be stable up to 6 hours in rat serum at 37°C. The blood kinetics of the (99m)Tc-finasteride followed a biphasic release pattern, whereby fast-release phase was observed at 15 seconds and a slow-release phase was observed after 30 minutes of administration. The plasma protein binding of the radio complex observed was 83.89%. For biodistribution studies, the rats were divided into two groups. Group I served as normal controls, while group II was subjected to carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and hormone testosterone propionate (T) for induction of prostate carcinogenesis, which was confirmed histopathologically. The biodistribution studies on control and carcinogen-treated rats revealed a significant percent-specific uptake in prostate, which was found to be increased significantly as a function of time. The most significant finding of the study was an increase in the percent-specific uptake in prostate of carcinogen-treated animals when compared to the percent-specific uptake in prostate of normal rats after 2 and 4 hours postinjection. The study concludes that (99m)Tc-finasteride possesses selectively toward prostate cancer tissue and can be explored further for its role in detection of prostate cancer.

  5. Lung amyloid nodule detected by 99mTc-aprotinin scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Satoru; Kubota, Kazuo; Minamimoto, Ryogo; Kouketu, Rikiya; Morooka, Miyako; Kawai, Shigeo; Takeda, Yuichiro; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Sugiyama, Haruhito

    2012-07-01

    We present a case in which an amyloid lung nodule was diagnosed preoperatively by amyloid scintigraphy (99m)Tc-aprotinin. A 65-year-old man complained of marked weight loss (9 kg) over a period of 6 months. An abnormal shadow in the middle field of the right lung was detected on chest X-ray, corresponding to a 16-mm nodule in the right middle lobe on thoracic computed tomography (CT). Total protein and immunoglobulin G levels were elevated to 8.3 and 2245 mg/dl, respectively, but other blood tests including several tumor marker levels and Cryptococcus antibodies were all within normal range. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed no uptake by the lung nodule, so lung amyloidosis was considered as differential diagnosis. To avoid risk of bleeding on bronchoscopy, noninvasive amyloid scintigraphy using (99m)Tc-aprotinin was first performed. A nodular, abnormal accumulation was observed in the right middle lung lobe. Diagnostic imaging strongly suggested amyloidosis, so video-assisted thoracic surgery was performed rather than bronchoscopy. Pathological samples showed positive staining with Congo red, and A-λ amyloidosis was diagnosed on the basis of immunostaining. Scintigraphy using (99m)Tc-aprotinin offers a useful, noninvasive method for assessing lung amyloidosis.

  6. Imaging study of using radiopharmaceuticals labeled with cyclotron-produced 99mTc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, X.; Tanguay, J.; Vuckovic, M.; Buckley, K.; Schaffer, P.; Bénard, F.; Ruth, T. J.; Celler, A.

    2016-12-01

    Cyclotron-produced 99mTc (CPTc) has been recognized as an attractive and practical substitution of reactor/generator based 99mTc. However, the small amount of 92-98Mo in the irradiation of enriched 100Mo could lead to the production of other radioactive technetium isotopes (Tc-impurities) which cannot be chemically separated. Thus, these impurities could contribute to patient dose and affect image quality. The potential radiation dose caused by these Tc-impurities produced using different targets, irradiation conditions, and corresponding to different injection times have been investigated, leading us to create dose-based limits of these parameters for producing clinically acceptable CPTc. However, image quality has been not considered. The aim of the present work is to provide a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of image quality for CPTc. The impact of Tc-impurities in CPTc on image resolution, background noise, and contrast is investigated by performing both Monte-Carlo simulations and phantom experiments. Various targets, irradiation, and acquisition conditions are employed for investigating the image-based limits of CPTc production parameters. Additionally, the relationship between patient dose and image quality of CPTc samples is studied. Only those samples which meet both dose- and image-based limits should be accepted in future clinical studies.

  7. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis: assessment with Tc-99m labeled red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Front, D.; Israel, O.; Even-Sapir, E.; Feinsud, M.

    1986-02-01

    The diagnostic value of scintigraphy with technetium-99m labeled red blood cells (Tc-RBC) was assessed in 19 patients with clinical suggestion of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis (SSST). Comparison of Tc-RBC static images with dynamic flow studies in the brain showed a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 86%, and accuracy of 94% for static studies and values of 87%, 20%, and 61%, respectively, for the flow studies. Tc-RBC scintigraphy enables direct visualization of the integrity of the superior sagittal sinus, whereas CT scanning shows various but nonspecific changes in the brain associated with SSST. Single-photon emission CT study using Tc-RBC, performed in six patients, appears to have potential in the diagnosis of SSST, allowing separation of vascular structures that are superimposed on the superior sagittal sinus in planar scintigraphy study.

  8. The Study of 99mTc-Aluminum Oxide Using for Sentinel Lymph Nodes Detection in Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedeva, A. A.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V.; Chernov, V. I.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.; Bragina, O. D.; Varlamova, N. V.; Skuridin, V. S.; Dergilev, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was a comparative research of the possibility of using the radiopharmaceuticals 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for visualizing sentinel lymph nodes in the experiment. Measurement of the sizes of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis colloidal particles was performed in seven series of radiopharmaceuticals. Pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis was researched on 50 white male rats. The possibility of the use of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for lymphoscintigraphy was studied in the experiments on 12 white male rats. Average dynamic diameter of the sol particle was 52-77 nm for 99mTc-Al2O3 and 16.7-24.5 nm for 99mTc-Nanocis. Radiopharmaceuticals accumulated in the inguinal lymph node - at 1 hour after administration the average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 was 8.6% in it and the accumulation of 99mTc-Nanocis was significantly lower - 1,8% (p <0,05). In all study point average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 in the lymph node was significantly higher 99mTc-Nanocis accumulation. The results dynamic scintigraphic studies in rats showed that 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis actively accumulated into the lymphatic system. By using 99mTc-Al2O3 inguinal lymph node was determined in 5 minutes after injection and clearly visualize in all the animals in the 15th minute, when the accumulation became more than 1% of the administered dose. Further observation indicated that the 99mTc-Al2O3 accumulation reaches a plateau in a lymph node (average 10.5%) for 2 hour study and then its accumulation remains practically at the same level, slightly increasing to 12% at 24 hours. In the case of 99mTc-Nanocis inguinal lymph node visualized in all animals for 15 minutes when it was accumulated on the average 1.03% of the administered dose. Plateau of 99mTc-Nanocis accumulation in the lymph node (average 2.05%) occurred at 2 hour of the study and remained almost on the same level (in average 2.3%) to 24 hours. Thus, the experimental study of a new domestic radiopharmaceutical showed

  9. Left-ventricular dyssynchrony evaluated by Tl-201 gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging: a comparison with Tc-99m sestamibi.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Cheng; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Hung, Guang-Uei; Chen, Wan-Chen; Kao, Chia-Hung; Chen, Ji

    2013-03-01

    Phase analysis of gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) has been validated as a reliable tool to assess left-ventricular (LV) mechanical dyssynchrony. The initial results were all confirmed from studies using technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi or tetrofosmin as the radiotracers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of phase analysis in thallium-201 (Tl-201) gated SPECT MPI. Seventeen patients referred from a cardiology clinic for evaluation of coronary artery disease were studied. All patients underwent both Tl-201 and Tc-99m sestamibi gated SPECT MPI within 1 week. An additional 34 patients with Tl-201 gated SPECT and 22 patients with Tc-99m sestamibi gated SPECT, who had a low likelihood of coronary artery disease, normal LV function, and normal perfusion on MPI, were used as normal controls. LV dyssynchrony parameters, including phase standard deviation (PSD) and phase histogram bandwidth (PHB), were measured using a standard phase analysis tool and compared between Tl-201 and Tc-99m sestamibi images. The LV dyssynchrony parameters correlated well (r=0.93 for PSD and r=0.84 for PHB) between Tl-201 and Tc-99m sestamibi images. The dyssynchrony parameters of Tl-201 were significantly larger than those of Tc-99m sestamibi (PSD: 24.5±12.0 vs. 17.4±9.7, P<0.001; PHB: 74.7±35.5 vs. 50.6±25.0, P<0.001). In comparison with normal controls, Tl-201 and Tc-99m sestamibi images showed concordant results. LV dyssynchrony parameters correlated well between Tl-201 and Tc-99m sestamibi images, even though the values were significantly larger for Tl-201 than for Tc-99m sestamibi. Tl-201 images showed results similar to those of Tc-99m sestamibi in the diagnosis of LV dyssynchrony.

  10. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of a New Nitroimidazole-99mTc-Complex for Imaging of Hypoxia in Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Qing; Guan, Yanxing; Liu, Shaozheng; Chen, Qingjie; Li, Xiangmin

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was specifically designed to develop a new 99mTc compound with 3-amino-4-[2-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol)-ethylamino]-4-oxo-butyrate (5-ntm-asp) and to verify whether this compound is feasible to be a radiopharmaceutical for hypoxic tumors. Material/Methods Metronidazole derivative 5-ntm-asp was synthesized and then radio-labeled by Na [99mTcO4], forming 99mTc-5-ntm-asp. Another two complexes of 99mTc-2- and 99mTc-5-nitroimidazole-iminodiacetic acid (99mTc-2-ntm-IDA and 99mTc-5-ntm-IDA) were also synthesized based on previous studies. Physicochemical properties (stability, lipophilicity, protein binding) of the compounds were compared, and we also assessed the accumulation status of the compounds within A549 cells under both hypoxic and aerobic conditions. Distribution of the complex was also studied in vivo using BALB/c nude mice that were injected with A549 cells. Results Compared with 99mTc-2-ntm-IDA and 99mTc-5-ntm-IDA, 99mTc-5-ntm-asp was more stable in both phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer and human plasma (P<0.05). Besides that, 99mTc-5-ntm-asp offered lower lipophilicity and protein-binding rate than the two complexes (P<0.05). During assessment of hypoxic uptake status and high hypoxic/aerobic ratio in mice injected with A549 cells, 99mTc-5-ntm-asp exhibited a more favorable profile than 9mTc-2-ntm-IDA and 99mTc-5-ntm-IDA, including uptake ratio of tumor/blood and uptake ratio of tumor/muscle. Conclusions With overall consideration of physicochemical properties and biological uptake behavior, it is feasible to use 99mTc-5-ntm-asp as an imaging agent for tumor hypoxia. PMID:27752036

  11. Choledochal cyst complicated by acute cholecystitis and bypass obstruction: diagnostic role of Tc-99m-HIDA cholescintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Weissmann, H.S.; Gold, M.; Goldstein, R.D.; Sugarman, L.A.; Freeman, L.M.

    1981-09-01

    An unusual case of malignant degeneration of a choledochal cyst is presented. The presence of acute cholecystitis with the cystic duct originating from the cyst as well as the subsequent obstruction of the cyst-jejunal surgical anastomosis was readily detected with Tc-99m-dimethyl-iminodiacetic (Tc-99m-HIDA) cholescintigraphy.

  12. Clinical Utility of Tc-99m MIBI SPECT/CT for Preoperative Localization of Parathyroid Lesions.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Zeynep Gozde; Unal, Seher Nilgun; Kuyumcu, Serkan; Sanli, Yasemin; Gecer, Mehmet Fatih; Ozcinar, Beyza; Giles, Yasemin Senyurek; Erbil, Yesim

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to demonstrate the role of SPECT/CT in preoperative localization of parathyroid lesions in patients with hyperparathyroidism who had technetium-99m (Tc-99m) methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) dual-phase parathyroid scintigraphy. We evaluated retrospectively the scintigraphic data of 103 patients who had parathyroidectomy after Tc-99m MIBI dual-phase parathyroid scintigraphy with SPECT/CT. The planar and SPECT/CT images were evaluated separately to determine their efficacy in localizing parathyroid lesions. These results were then compared with surgical data. There were 84 female and 19 male patients whose mean age was 54 ± 12 years. A total of 115 parathyroid lesions in 103 patients were resected during operations. In 87 patients, with both planar and SPECT/CT images, a total of 100 lesions could be detected correctly. In 11 patients, only SPECT/CT images could show 13 subcentimetric lesions. In three patients, three lesions were evaluated as parathyroid lesions both with planar and SPECT/CT images, but according to histopathologic evaluation, they came out to be nonparathyroidal lesions. In two patients, two parathyroid lesions could not be detected preoperatively neither with planar nor with SPECT/CT images. The lesion-based sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were 87 %, 99 %, 97.1 %, 95.3 %, and 95.8 % for planar images and 98.3 %, 99 %, 97.4 %, 99.4 %, and 98.8 % for SPECT/CT images, respectively. Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scintigraphy should be a diagnostic modality of choice in preoperative evaluation of patients with hyperparathyroidism. SPECT/CT has an incremental value both in demonstrating subcentimetric lesions and in accurately localizing lesions anatomically.

  13. Fab(nimotuzumab)-HYNIC-99mTc: Antibody Fragmentation for Molecular Imaging Agents.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Victoria; García, María Fernanda; Alonso-Martínez, Luis Michel; Camachoc, Ximena; Goicochea, Enzo; Fernández, Marcelo; Castillo, Abmel Xiques; Díaz-Miqueli, Arlhee; Iznaga-Escobar, Normando; Montaña, René Leyva; Alonso, Omar; Gambini, Juan Pablo; Cabral, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Finally, fast blood clearance nimotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that recognise, with high specific affinity, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) which play an important role in the growth process associated with many solid tumors. In this work, the whole antibody was digested with papain in order to generate a Fab fragment, derivatized with NHS-HYNIC-Tfa and radiolabel with technetium-99m (99mTc) as a potential agent of molecular imaging of cancer. Both, whole and fragment radiolabels were in-vivo and in-vitro characterized. Radiolabeling conditions with Tricine as coligand and quality controls were assessed to confirm the integrity of the labeled fragment. Biodistribution and imaging studies in normal and spontaneous adenocarcinoma mice were performed at different times to determine the in-vivo characteristics of the radiolabel fragment. Tumor localization was visualized by conventional gamma camera imaging studies, and the results were compared with the whole antibody. Also, an immunoreactivity assay was carried out for both. The results showed clearly the integrity of the nimotuzumab fragment and the affinity by the receptor was verified. Fab(nimotuzumab)-HYNIC was obtained with high purity and a simple strategy of radiolabeling was performed. Finally, a fast blood clearance was observed in the biodistribution studies increasing the tumor uptake of Fab(nimotuzumab)- HYNIC-99mTc over time, with tumor/muscle ratios of 3.81 ± 0.50, 5.16 ± 1.97 and 6.32 ± 1.98 at 1 h, 4 h and 24 h post injection. Urinary excretion resulted in 32.89 ± 3.91 %ID eliminated at 24 h. Scintigraphy images showed uptake in the tumor and the activity in non-target organs was consistent with the biodistribution data at the same time points. Hence, these preliminary results showed important further characteristic of Fab(nimotuzumab)-HYNIC-99mTc as a molecular imaging agent of cancer.

  14. Adsorption of (99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals onto injection vials and syringes.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Ahmad; Ur Rehman, Taj; Safdar Mansur, Muhammad; Jehangir, Mustanser

    2008-06-01

    Many groups have reported the adsorption or retention of (99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals on injection vials and disposable plastic syringes. Such an enormously high loss of radioactivity would result in poor images, radiation exposure, waste, and economic burdens. We therefore decided to investigate the extent of adsorption or retention of several (99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals on injection vials, rubber stoppers, and plastic syringes. These radiopharmaceuticals are produced as lyophilized kits in our department and supplied to various hospitals practicing nuclear medicine in Pakistan. A vial containing lyophilized material was reconstituted with 3 mL of freshly eluted Na(99m)TcO(4). A 1-mL aliquot of the resulting solution was withdrawn into a syringe at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 h after preparation. All preparations were stored at room temperature ( approximately 22 degrees C). After each withdrawal, the vial was reweighed and the activity remaining in the vial was measured using a radioisotope calibrator. The sample was reinjected into the vial. From the original weight and activity of solution in the vial, the initial activity per gram was calculated. From the weight and activity remaining in the vial after withdrawal of the sample, the activity per gram of the sample was calculated. From the difference between the initial activity per gram and the activity per gram of the sample, the percentage of (99m)Tc adsorbed on the vial was calculated. All preparations were kept in the syringe for 15 min, and the activity was measured before and after the syringe was emptied. The needle and plunger of the syringe were separated, and activity in the needle and plunger was also measured. The labeling efficiency of all radiopharmaceuticals used during these studies was more than 95%. In most cases, the activity of (99m)Tc found on the rubber stopper was less than 1%. Adsorption of (99m)Tc onto vials increased gradually with storage time. Adsorption was minimal at the initial stages

  15. Influence of drying conditions of zirconium molybdate gel on performance of (99m)Tc gel generator.

    PubMed

    Davarpanah, M R; Attar Nosrati, S; Fazlali, M; Kazemi Boudani, M; Khoshhosn, H; Ghannadi Maragheh, M

    2009-10-01

    (99m)Tc can be produced from (99)Mo/(99m)Tc gel generators. These gels are part of the generator and the (99)Mo/(99m)Tc gel generator performance is directly related with gel structure. In this work a series of zirconium molybdate gels have been synthesized and dried under different conditions and characterized using thermal analysis (TGA, DTA), SEM, XRD and porosity measurements. It is found that the water content of the gel determines the structure porosity which allows the diffusion of the (99m)TcO(4)(-) ions inside the gel and was directly connected with performance of the (99)Mo/(99m)Tc gel generators. Drying conditions of the gel is as an important factor that influence water content and physical-chemical properties of this gel and must be carefully studied to optimize the properties of the gel generators.

  16. Hypertension in children. Increased efficacy of technetium Tc/sup 99m/ succimer in screening for renal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, P.R.; Treves, S.; Ingelfinger, J.

    1985-02-01

    Renal scintigraphy with technetium Tc-99m succimer (DMSA) and technetium Tc-99m pentetate (DTPA) was used to study 80 hypertensive pediatric and adolescent patients. Renal abnormalities such as asymmetry of function, size, or shape were identified in 13 patients. Both excretory urography and technetium Tc-99m pentetate studies were successful in detecting 54% of the abnormalities in patients studied; technetium Tc-99m succimer identified 92%. The accuracy of the latter was 96%, with a specificity of 97%. The ability of technetium Tc-99m succimer renal scintigraphy to identify accurately the presence or absence of renal abnormalities warrants its inclusion in the initial examination of pediatric and adolescent patients with hypertension.

  17. Role of 99mTc-Sulesomab Immunoscintigraphy in the Management of Infection following Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Real, Raquel; Linhares, Paulo; Fernandes, Hélder; Rosas, Maria José; Gago, Miguel F.; Pereira, Jorge; Vaz, Rui

    2011-01-01

    Infection constitutes a serious adverse event in patients submitted to deep brain stimulation, often leading to removal of the device. We set to evaluate the potential role of immunoscintigraphy with 99mTc-labelled antigranulocyte antibody fragments (99mTc-sulesomab) in the management of infection following DBS. 99mTc-sulesomab immunoscintigraphy seems to correlate well with the presence and extent of infection, thus contributing to differentiate between patients who should remove the hardware entirely at presentation and those who could undergo a more conservative approach. Also, 99mTc-sulesomab immunoscintigraphy has a role in determining the most appropriate timing for reimplantation. Finally, we propose an algorithm for the management of infection following DBS surgery, based on the results of the 99mTc-sulesomab immunoscintigraphy. PMID:22028965

  18. TC-99m MIBI SPECT imaging in patients with lung carcinoma: is it a functional probe of multidrug resistance genes?

    PubMed

    Ak, Ilknur; Gülbaş, Zafer; Ocak, Suna; Kaya, Eser; Alataş, Füsun; Vardareli, Erkan; Metintaş, Muzaffer

    2007-01-01

    Multidrug-resistance (MDR) phenotype concerns altered membrane transport that results in lower cell concentrations of cytotoxic drug in many cancer types, including lung cancer, and is related to the overexpression of a variety of proteins that act as adenosine triphosphate-dependent extrusion pumps. Tc-99m Sestamibi (MIBI) is a transport substrate for P-glycoprotein (Pgp) pump. In this study, we assessed the uptake and clearance of technetium-99m-2-hexakis 2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (Tc-99m MIBI) from the tumor and its correlation with messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of Pgp, MDR-associated protein (MRP1), and lung resistance protein (LRP) in lung carcinoma. This study was carried out on 19 patients (mean age, 60.1 +/- 2.07 years) with advanced-stage lung carcinoma. The tumor samples obtained by bronchoscopy were assessed to estimate the levels of Pgp, MRP1, and LRP expression on mRNA level by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Tc-99m MIBI chest imaging was performed 15 and 180 minutes after injection of 740 MBq Tc-99m MIBI. The early (T/Be) and delayed (T/Bd) Tc-99m MIBI uptakes and washout rate (WR) of Tc-99m MIBI from the tumor were measured. No correlation was found between the T/Be Tc-99m MIBI uptake of tumors (T/Be) and the levels of Pgp mRNA, MRP1 mRNA, and LRP mRNA by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. There was a correlation between the mean T/Bd Tc-99m MIBI uptake and Pgp expression of the tumors (P = 0.001, Spearman rho = - 0.702). There was a correlation between the WR of Tc-99m MIBI from the tumor and Pgp expression of the tumor (P = 0.000, Spearman rho = 0.875). Washout rate of Tc-99m MIBI was not related to the levels of MRP1 mRNA (P = 0.93, Spearman rho = 0.02) or LRP mRNA (P = 0.47, Spearman rho = 0.177). Increased WR of Tc-99m MIBI is related in Pgp over expression of the tumor. Tc-99m MIBI single photon emission computed tomography imaging may be a functional probe of overexpression of Pgp in

  19. Understanding the in vivo uptake kinetics of a phosphatidylethanolamine-binding agent (99m)Tc-Duramycin.

    PubMed

    Audi, Said; Li, Zhixin; Capacete, Joseph; Liu, Yu; Fang, Wei; Shu, Laura G; Zhao, Ming

    2012-08-01

    (99m)Tc-Duramycin is a peptide-based molecular probe that binds specifically to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The goal was to characterize the kinetics of molecular interactions between (99m)Tc-Duramycin and the target tissue. High level of accessible PE is induced in cardiac tissues by myocardial ischemia (30 min) and reperfusion (120 min) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Target binding and biodistribution of (99m)Tc-duramycin were captured using SPECT/CT. To quantify the binding kinetics, the presence of radioactivity in ischemic versus normal cardiac tissues was measured by gamma counting at 3, 10, 20, 60 and 180 min after injection. A partially inactivated form of (99m)Tc-Duramycin was analyzed in the same fashion. A compartment model was developed to quantify the uptake kinetics of (99m)Tc-Duramycin in normal and ischemic myocardial tissue. (99m)Tc-duramycin binds avidly to the damaged tissue with a high target-to-background radio. Compartment modeling shows that accessibility of binding sites in myocardial tissue to (99m)Tc-Duramycin is not a limiting factor and the rate constant of target binding in the target tissue is at 2.2 ml/nmol/min/g. The number of available binding sites for (99m)Tc-Duramycin in ischemic myocardium was estimated at 0.14 nmol/g. Covalent modification of D15 resulted in a 9-fold reduction in binding affinity. (99m)Tc-Duramycin accumulates avidly in target tissues in a PE-dependent fashion. Model results reflect an efficient uptake mechanism, consistent with the low molecular weight of the radiopharmaceutical and the relatively high density of available binding sites. These data help better define the imaging utilities of (99m)Tc-Duramycin as a novel PE-binding agent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis of 99mTc(CO)3-deoxyuridine derivatives as potential HSV1-tk gene expression imaging agents.

    PubMed

    Young Kim, Jung; Jun Oh, Seung; Sook Ryu, Jin; Choi, Seon-Joo; Ha, Hyun-Joon; Hyuk Moon, Dae

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we synthesized (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-2'-aminomethylpyridyl-2'-deoxyuridine ((99m)Tc(CO)(3)-AMPDU) and (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-aminoethylpyridyl-2'-deoxyuridine ((99m)Tc(CO)(3)-AEPDU) as potential agents for imaging the expression of the non-invasive herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase. AMPDU and AEPDU were synthesized from uridine in five chemical steps and then labeled with [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)(H(2)O)(3)](+) (370MBq/0.5 mL) at 100 degrees C for 10 min. Under optimal conditions (0.5 and 1.0mg for AMPDU and AEPDU and heating for 10 min), the labeling efficiency was 95.3+/-2.8% for AMPDU and 94.2+/-5.1% for AEPDU. To validate the chemical structure of (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-labeled compounds, we also synthesized ReBr(CO)(3)-AMPDU and ReBr(CO)(3)-AEPDU by reacting [Et(4)N][ReBr(3)(CO)(3)] and AMPDU or AEPDU in methanol at 25 degrees C for 6h. (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-AMPDU and (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-AEPDU had the same retention time on HPLC analysis as ReBr(CO)(3)-AMPDU and ReBr(CO)(3)-AEPDU. (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-AMPDU and (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-AEPDU had high radiochemical stabilities of 98.1+/-1.5% and 98.0+/-1.7% for 6h, respectively.

  1. Evaluation of Tc-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine in patients with impaired renal function

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Eshima, D.; Christian, P.E.; Milton, W.

    1987-02-01

    Technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3), a new radiopharmaceutical shown to have biological properties similar to iodine-131 o-iodohippurate (OIH) in animals and healthy volunteers, was compared with OIH in 15 patients with varying degrees of renal impairment. The Tc-99m MAG3 images were uniformly superior, regardless of the serum creatinine level. There was no significant difference in the 30-minute blood clearance of OIH and MAG3. MAG3 protein binding (78.6%) was greater than that of OIH (53.1%) (P less than or equal to .01), and the volume of distribution of MAG3 (7.06 liters) was less than that of OIH (10.78 liters) (P less than or equal to .01). In six patients the 30-minute urinary excretion of the two agents was essentially identical. The time to the peak height of the renogram curves was more rapid for MAG3 than for OIH using both cortical and whole-kidney regions of interest (P less than or equal to .02). In summary, preliminary results suggest that Tc-99m MAG3 performs well in patients with impaired renal function and may well be an acceptable replacement for OIH. A kit formulation is currently undergoing clinical evaluation.

  2. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy with 99mTc-PIPIDA in the evaluation of neonatal jaundice

    SciTech Connect

    Majd, M.; Reba, R.C.; Altman, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy with technetium 99m-labeled p-isopropylacetanilido iminodiacetic acid (99mTc-PIPIDA) was used to evaluate 22 neonates with mixed jaundice. Ten patients were proved to have biliary atresia; ten others were diagnosed as having neonatal hepatitis. In the remaining two, jaundice was secondary to prolonged hyperalimentation. Initial studies in all ten patients with biliary atresia showed no evidence of excretion of the tracer into the intestinal tract. Following three to seven days of oral administration of phenobarbital, repeat studies were performed in six of the ten patients. None showed evidence of excretion. Initial studies of the 12 patients with intrahepatic cholestasis showed definite excretion in five, questionable evidence of excretion in two, and no demonstrable excretion in five. Studies after phenobarbital therapy in five of the seven patients with questionable or no excretion on the initial studies showed definite excretion in four. Only in one patient who had poor hepatic extraction did the phenobarbital therapy not change the scintigraphic pattern. The authors conclude that hepatobiliary scintigraphy with 99mTc-PIPIDA after three to seven days of phenobarbital therapy is a highly accurate test for differentiating biliary atresia from other causes of neonatal jaundice.

  3. Regional respiratory clearance of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA: posture and smoking effects

    SciTech Connect

    Dusser, D.J.; Minty, B.D.; Collignon, M.A.; Hinge, D.; Barritault, L.G.; Huchon, G.J.

    1986-06-01

    We studied 10 healthy nonsmokers and 8 healthy smokers, in both the upright and supine position, to investigate whether regional differences in respiratory clearance of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (RC-DTPA) existed and to assess the influence of posture and smoking on the regional RC-DTPA. RC-DTPA was assessed by the lung clearance rates (%/min) of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (0.8 micron MMD; 2.4 GSD), using data corrected for recirculating radioactivity, in the upper (zone 1), middle (zone 2), and lower (zone 3) posterior lung fields. In nonsmokers, RC-DTPA in zone 1 was faster than in zone 2 or 3 in both the upright (P less than 0.001) and supine positions (P less than 0.0). No effect was produced by changes in posture on the regional RC-DTPA. In smokers, RC-DTPA was increased in all zones compared with the nonsmokers (P = 0.004), with a further increase in RC-DTP in zone 1 in the upright posture compared with the other regions (P less than 0.001). We conclude that in nonsmokers regional RC-DTPA is faster in zone 1 than in other zones, and this is not related to recirculation of radioactivity; posture does not modify the regional RC-DTPA of nonsmokers; smoking increases RC-DTPA in all zones and more in zone 1 in the upright posture.

  4. Preparation and primary bioevaluation of 99mTc-labeled-1-thio-β-D-glucose as melanoma targeting agent.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Romina; Fernández, Marcelo; Porcal, Williams; Gambini, Juan Pablo; Alonso, Omar; Chabalgoity, Alejandro; Moreno, María; Cabral, Pablo

    2011-10-01

    The development of specific radiolabeled probes towards molecular markers in vivo has gained interest as targeted imaging agents for a more accurate detection of diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate early detection of melanoma tumor based on 1-thio-β-D-glucose (1-TG) radiolabeled with technetium-99m. 99mTc-1-TG has been synthesized and evaluated in vitro and in vivo for melanoma uptake. Tumor-cell uptake of the 99mTc complex was performed with cultured B16F1 murine melanoma cells which were also used for the in vivo studies. The methodology consisted in radiopharmaceutical synthesis followed by intravenous administration of 99mTc-1-TG in melanoma bearing mice and scintigraphic imaging. 1-thio-β-D-glucose was labeled with 99mTc under reductive conditions using SnCl2. Radiolabeling efficiency was > 96%. 99mTc-1-TG showed high melanoma uptake in vitro. This was confirmed in vivo since a significant difference of 99mTc-1- TG uptake between melanoma model and the control joint was observed. General biodistribution showed renal uptake. The scintigraphic images showed tumor selective uptake of the 1-TG labeled, in tumor-bearing mice This study indicates effective labeling of 1-thio-β-D-glucose with 99mTc that shows potential as a new type of specific probe for melanoma detection.

  5. Successful Labeling of \\text{99mTc-MDP Using \\text{99mTc Separated from 99Mo Produced by 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Yasuki; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Kin, Tadahiro; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Motoishi, Shoji; Konno, Chikara; Ochiai, Kentaro; Takakura, Kosuke; Sato, Yuichi; Kawauchi, Yukimasa; Sato, Norihito; Ohta, Akio; Yamabayashi, Hisamichi; Tanase, Masakazu; Fujisaki, Saburo; Teranaka, Tomoyuki; Takeuchi, Nobuhiro; Igarashi, Takashi

    2011-08-01

    We have for the first time succeeded in separating \\text{99mTc from a MoO3 sample irradiated with accelerator neutrons free from any radioactive impurities and in formulating \\text{99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (\\text{99mTc-MDP). 99Mo, the mother nuclide of \\text{99mTc, was produced by the 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo reaction using about 14 MeV neutrons provided by the 3H(d,n)4He reaction at the Fusion Neutronics Source of Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The \\text{99mTc was separated from 99Mo by sublimation and its radionuclide purity was confirmed to be higher than 99.99% by γ-spectroscopy. The labeling efficiency of \\text{99mTc-MDP was shown to be higher than 99% by thin-layer chromatography. These values exceed the United States Pharmacopeia requirements for a fission product, 99Mo. Consequently, a \\text{99mTc radiopharmaceutical preparation formed by using the mentioned 99Mo can be a promising substitute for the fission product 99Mo, which is currently produced using a highly enriched uranium target in aging research reactors. A longstanding problem to ensure a reliable and constant supply of 99Mo in Japan can be partially mitigated.

  6. Muscle necrosis in the extremities: evaluation with Tc-99m pyrophosphate scanning--a retrospective review

    SciTech Connect

    Timmons, J.H.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.J.; Cawthon, M.A.; Bauman, J.M.

    1988-04-01

    A retrospective review was done of 34 extremities studied between 1981 and 1985 with technetium-99m pyrophosphate scanning; 22 were subsequently amputated. Results of detailed pathologic examination or immediate postoperative examination of the resected extremity were available in 16 cases. In these cases, scanning had allowed correct prediction of the level of amputation and of the specific areas of muscle infarction in 13 cases. In the one case in which amputation was performed for infection rather than muscle necrosis, the lack of necrosis was correctly predicted with the scan. The limited results of this study indicate that the Tc-99m pyrophosphate scan allows the location of necrotic muscle to be predicted accurately and may therefore be a useful adjunct in determining the best level for ultimate amputation. Special caution is required in those cases in which muscle necrosis is due to acute causes (e.g., traumatic thrombosis) rather than chronic vascular disease.

  7. (99m)Tc-human serum albumin nanocolloids: particle sizing and radioactivity distribution.

    PubMed

    Persico, Marco G; Lodola, Lorenzo; Buroni, Federica E; Morandotti, Marco; Pallavicini, Piersandro; Aprile, Carlo

    2015-07-01

    Several parameters affect the biodistribution of administered nanocolloids (NC) for Sentinel Lymph Node (SLN) detection: particle size distribution, number of Tc atoms per particle and specific activity (SA). Relatively few data are available with frequently conflicting results. (99m)Tc-NC-human serum albumin (HSA) Nanocoll®, Nanoalbumon® and Nanotop® were analysed for particles' dimensional and radioactivity distribution, and a mathematical model was elaborated to estimate the number of particles involved. Commercially available kits were reconstituted at maximal SA of 11 MBq/µg HSA. Particles size distribution was evaluated by Dynamic Light Scattering. These data were related to the radioactivity distribution analysis passing labelled NC through three polycarbonate filters (15-30-50-nm pore size) under vacuum. Highest radioactivity was carried by 30-50 nm particles. The smallest ones, even though most numerous, carried only the 10% of (99m)Tc atoms. Nanocoll and Nanotop are not significantly different, while Nanoalbumon is characterized by largest particles (>30 nm) that carried the most of radioactivity (80%). Smallest particles could saturate the clearing capacity of macrophages; therefore, if the tracer is used for SLN detection, more node tiers could be visualized, reducing accuracy of SLN mapping. Manufacturers could implement technical leaflets with particle size distribution and could improve the labelling protocol to provide clinicians useful information. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. (99)mTc-3PRGD2 scintimammography in palpable and nonpalpable breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Song, Yan; Gao, Shi; Ji, Tiefeng; Zhang, Haishan; Ji, Bin; Chen, Ben; Jia, Bing; Wang, Fan; Xu, Zheli; Ma, Qingjie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the diagnostic performance of 99mTc-3(poly-(ethylene glycol),PEG)4-RGD2 (99mTc-3PRGD2) scintimammography (SMM) in patients with either palpable or nonpalpable breast lesions and compare SMM to mammography to assess the possible incremental value of SMM in breast cancer detection. We also investigated the αvβ3 expression in malignant and benign breast lesions. Ninety-four patients with 110 lesions were included in this study. Mammograms were evaluated according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) by a specialized imaging radiologist. Prone SMM was performed 1 hour after injection of 99mTc-3PRGD2. Scintigraphic images were interpreted independently by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians using a three-point system, and the kappa value was calculated to determine the interreader agreement. The McNemar test was used to compare SMM and mammography with respect to sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Diagnostic values for breast cancer detection were evaluated for each lesion. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate integrin αvβ3 expression. Histopathology revealed 46 malignant lesions and 64 benign lesions. The overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of SMM were 83%, 73%, 77%, 69%, and 85%, respectively. The kappa value between the two reviewers was 0.63. The diagnostic values of SMM were higher than those of mammography in evaluating overall breast lesions. A sensitivity of 91% was achieved when SMM and mammography results were combined with 60% of all false-negative mammography findings classified as true-positive results by SMM. Integrin αvβ3 expression was positively identified using SMM imaging. SMM is a promising tool to avoid unnecessary biopsies when used in addition to mammography and can be used to image αvβ3 expression in breast cancer with good image quality.

  9. Comparative in vivo evaluation of two novel 99mTc labelled bombesin derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourni, Eleni; Bouziotis, Penelope; Zikos, Christos; Loudos, George; Xanthopoulos, Stavros; Fani, Melpomeni; Archimandritis, Spyridon C.; Varvarigou, Alexandra D.

    2006-12-01

    Bombesin (BN), a 14 amino acid peptide, is an analogue of human gastrin-releasing-peptide (GRP) that binds to GRP receptors (GRP-R) with high affinity and specificity. In addition to this physiological role, GRP, through its interaction with GRP-R, promotes tumour growth in a number of human cancer cell lines. The GRP receptors are over-expressed on a variety of human cancer cells. Aim of the present work is the study of two novels BN-like peptides, by investigating the radiochemical and radiopharmacological behaviour of their complexes with metals. The derivatives under study are: Gly-Gly-Cys-Aca-BN [2-14] where Aca: 6-amino-hexanoic acid. Pyroglutamic acid in the bombesin molecule has been replaced by the chemical group Gly-Gly-Cys-Aca, which bears an amino-acid combination capable of complexing a variety of radiometals. The other derivative under study is: Gly-Gly-Cys-Aca-BN [7-14]. This moiety of the peptide has been chosen because it has been proven to be a potent GRP agonist. The peptide derivatives were synthesized by SPPS, according to the Fmoc strategy and were identified by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Radiolabelling with 99mTc was performed via the precursor 99mTc-gluconate. The stability of the radiolabelled species was examined with time. In vivo studies of the two 99mTc-labelled derivatives were performed, comparatively, in normal mice, attention being focused on GRP receptor-bearing organs, and in experimentally induced prostate cancer models. Experimental tumours were imaged in a small field-of-view animal gamma camera.

  10. In vivo crossmatching with Tc-99m-RBC's and In-111-oxine-RBC's

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, C.S.; Myhre, B.A.; Angulo, M.C.; Salk, R.D.; Essex, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    In vitro crossmatching techniques are often inadequate for patients who have received multiple prior transfusions. These patients usually have multiple antibodies to minor blood groups, not all of which are necessarily important to vivo. It becomes increasingly difficult to obtain appropriate units for transfusion, and often units are used with hopes that a minor group antibody will not be significantly active in vivo. If a transfusion reaction occurs, the unit is stopped. The authors have developed and successfully tested a method whereby 1.5 to 3c of potential donor RBC's are labeled with 25-50 ..mu..Ci of Tc-99m using the BNL kits. After injection, samples are drawn at 10, 20, 60, and 120 minutes and the RBC survival is measured. If it is desirable to test 2 units simultaneously, the authors use 400 ..mu..Ci Tc-99m to label an RBC aliquot of one unit and 25 ..mu..Ci In-111-oxine to label the other; both labeled aliquots are injected together. The method is simple and reliable. In addition to assessing compatibility, the authors may also estimate the % viability of transfused, compatible RBC's by starting with 400 ..mu..Ci of Tc-99m and multiplying % survival at 24 hours by 1.2. For 24 hr. survival measurements of IN-111-oxine-RBC's, 25 ..mu..Ci is adequate and no multiplication factor is necessary. The authors have performed 13 in vivo crossmatches, 4 of which were double, in 6 patients. One documented mild transfusion reaction occurred. There were no false positive or false negative results.

  11. Tc-99m glucoheptonate (GHA) renal uptake: Influence of biochemical and physiologic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.B.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    Tc-99m-GHA is widely used for renal imaging but little is known about its handling by the kidney. Simultaneous single injection clearances of Tc-99m-GHA and I-125 Iothalamate were performed on 60 Sprague-Dawley female rats divided among six groups: I Control; II Dehydrated; III Mannitol infusion; IV Probenecid; V Alkaline urine (sodium bicarbonate); and VI Acid urine (ammonium chloride). Plasma concentration and urine excretion were followed during 80 minutes post injection. The livers and kidneys were removed and counted 120 minutes post injection. Total clearance of GHA was lower than Iothalamate in controls (0.90 +- 0.24 S.D. ml/min/100gr vs 1.47 +- 0.18, p < 0.005) but clearance of the protein free supernate was higher (1.67 +- 0.28 p=N.S.) raising a possibility of degree of tubular secretion. Unlike Tc-99m-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) acidification of the urine appeared to have no effect on the amount of GHA in the urine (66.1 +- 6.35% Inj. dose vs 67.19 +- 6.05 p=n.s.) and hepatic uptake was minimal in all groups averaging less than 1%. Kidney uptake of GHA was 11.16 +- 1.53 (% Inj. dose) in controls. This varied slightly among groups but was markedly reduced by Probenecid blockade (4.08 +- 1.75, p < 0.0005). It appears that liver uptake of GHA is minimal, the non-protein bound fraction is freely filtered and its clearance correlates significantly with the GFR. Importantly renal accumulation of GHA is blocked by probenecid suggesting that it is actively concentrated in the proximal tubule by the enzyme system involved in PAH and Hippuran transport. It thus appears that measurement of renal function with GHA represents a different aspect of function than DMSA.

  12. Sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m antral scan in the diagnosis of retained gastric antrum

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.H.; P'eng, F.K.; Yeh, P.H.

    1984-03-01

    Retained gastric antrum (RGA) is a major factor in recurrent peptic ulcer. We studied 121 patients with proven anastomotic ulcers following subtotal gastrectomy and Billroth II reconstruction with sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m to determine the presence of RGA. Of the patients, 59 required surgery, 22 had RGA, and 16 had a positive scan for RGA. This noninvasive examination has 100% specificity. If RGA is identified before operation, minimal time is wasted in exploration of the abdomen, which is especially important in dealing with emergency cases. When an antral scan is negative for RGA, the surgeon is still advised to search for this condition.

  13. Spectrum of 99m-Tc-IDA cholescintigraphic patterns in acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Weissmann, H.S.; Badia, J.; Sugarman, L.A.; Kluger, L.; Rosenblatt, R.; Freeman, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Cholescintigraphy with 99m-Tc labeled iminodiacetic acid (IDA) derivatives has proved to be extremely reliable in the evaluation of suspected acute cholecystitis. The major diagnostic feature of the study is the presence (cystic dust patency) or absence (cystic duct obstruction) of gallbladder visualization. Secondary findings include degree and rate of liver uptake, visualization and caliber of the intrahepatic and common bile ducts, and the presence of intestinal activity as well as rapidity of biliary tract-to-bowel transit of the radiotracer. Various combinations of these secondary parameters result in a spectrum of cholescintigraphic patterns which can assist in determining the cause of the patient's acute clinical problem.

  14. Conceptual design of a new homogeneous reactor for medical radioisotope Mo-99/Tc-99m production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liem, Peng Hong; Tran, Hoai Nam; Sembiring, Tagor Malem; Arbie, Bakri

    2014-09-01

    To partly solve the global and regional shortages of Mo-99 supply, a conceptual design of a nitrate-fuel-solution based homogeneous reactor dedicated for Mo-99/Tc-99m medical radioisotope production is proposed. The modified LEU Cintichem process for Mo-99 extraction which has been licensed and demonstrated commercially for decades by BATAN is taken into account as a key design consideration. The design characteristics and main parameters are identified and the advantageous aspects are shown by comparing with the BATAN's existing Mo-99 supply chain which uses a heterogeneous reactor (RSG GAS multipurpose reactor).

  15. Kit for the rapid preparation of .sup.99m Tc red blood cells

    DOEpatents

    Richards, Powell; Smith, Terry D.

    1976-01-01

    A method and sample kit for the preparation of .sup.99m Tc-labeled red blood cells in a closed, sterile system. A partially evacuated tube, containing a freeze-dried stannous citrate formulation with heparin as an anticoagulant, allows whole blood to be automatically drawn from the patient. The radioisotope is added at the end of the labeling sequence to minimize operator exposure. Consistent 97% yields in 20 minutes are obtained with small blood samples. Freeze-dried kits have remained stable after five months.

  16. Spatially resolved assessment of hepatic function using 99mTc-IDA SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hesheng; Cao, Yue

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: 99mTc-iminodiacetic acid (IDA) hepatobiliary imaging is usually quantified for hepatic function on the entire liver or regions of interest (ROIs) in the liver. The authors presented a method to estimate the hepatic extraction fraction (HEF) voxel-by-voxel from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT with a 99mTc-labeled IDA agent of mebrofenin and evaluated the spatially resolved HEF measurements with an independent physiological measurement.Methods: Fourteen patients with intrahepatic cancers were treated with radiation therapy (RT) and imaged by 99mTc-mebrofenin SPECT before and 1 month after RT. The dynamic SPECT volumes were with a resolution of 3.9 × 3.9 × 2.5 mm{sup 3}. Throughout the whole liver with approximate 50 000 voxels, voxelwise HEF quantifications were estimated and compared between using arterial input function (AIF) from the heart and using vascular input function (VIF) from the spleen. The correlation between mean of the HEFs over the nontumor liver tissue and the overall liver function measured by Indocyanine green clearance half-time (T1/2) was assessed. Variation of the voxelwise estimation was evaluated in ROIs drawn in relatively homogeneous regions of the livers. The authors also examined effects of the time range parameter on the voxelwise HEF quantification.Results: Mean of the HEFs over the liver estimated using AIF significantly correlated with the physiological measurement T1/2 (r= 0.52, p= 0.0004), and the correlation was greatly improved by using VIF (r= 0.79, p < 0.0001). The parameter of time range for the retention phase did not lead to a significant difference in the means of the HEFs in the ROIs. Using VIF and a retention phase time range of 7–30 min, the relative variation of the voxelwise HEF in the ROIs was 10%± 6% of respective mean HEF.Conclusions: The voxelwise HEF derived from 99mTc-IDA SPECT by the deconvolution analysis is feasible to assess the spatial distribution of hepatic function in the

  17. 99mTc DPD is the preferential bone tracer for diagnosis of cardiac transthyretin amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Pascal; Tessonnier, Laurent; Frances, Yves; Mundler, Olivier; Granel, Brigitte

    2012-08-01

    We emphasize the role of Tc-99m-3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanodicarboxylicacid (DPD) scintigraphy as a noninvasive tool to distinguish transthyretin (TTR)-related cardiac amyloidosis from other forms of cardiac amyloidosis. We report the case of a 76-year-old male patient suffering from congestive heart failure in whom imaging investigation by DPD scintigraphy showed a strong cardiac uptake highly suggestive of TTR amyloidosis variant. TTR-related cardiac amyloidosis was confirmed on myocardial biopsies by immunohistochemistry analysis. This case supports the growing interest in DPD scintigraphy for typing cardiac amyloidosis and for its contribution in the place of invasive myocardial biopsy.

  18. Standardization of (99m)Tc by means of a software coincidence system.

    PubMed

    Brito, A B; Koskinas, M F; Litvak, F; Toledo, F; Dias, M S

    2012-09-01

    The procedure followed by the Nuclear Metrology Laboratory, at IPEN, for the primary standardization of (99m)Tc is described. The primary standardization has been accomplished by the coincidence method. The beta channel efficiency was varied by electronic discrimination using a software coincidence counting system. Two windows were selected for the gamma channel: one at 140 keV gamma-ray and the other at 20 keV X-ray total absorption peaks. The experimental extrapolation curves were compared with Monte Carlo simulations by means of code ESQUEMA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Survey of /sup 99m/Tc contamination of laboratory personnel: hand decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, H.; Van Tuinen, R.J.; Lukes, S.J.; Feller, P.A.

    1980-11-01

    Decontamination after exposure to various /sup 99m/Tc radiopharmaceuticals was tested with serial hand washings both with and without soap. All radiopharmaceuticals were removed more effectively with soap and the degree of decontamination related closely to the number of washings. The affinity of the radiopharmaceuticals for the skin varied, depending upon the labeled material, and only macroaggregated albumin was effectively removed to less than 1% of its original activity with soap. Activity transfer to the opposite hand could be substantial with macroaggregated albumin and sulfur colloid if soap is not used.

  20. Indirect evidence of intravesical ureterocele on 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid scan

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepa; Sethi, Ravinder Singh; Misra, Ritu; Ali, Md Izhar

    2016-01-01

    Ureterocele is a common ureteric anomaly detected in pediatric population. Ureterocele diagnosis and evaluation need a variety of radiological methods. We report a case of 5-year-old female child sent for 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid scan for evaluation of glomerular filtration rate and excretory function of kidneys in view of right-sided hydroureteronephrosis and pyonephrosis with percutaneous tube in situ. Incidental photopenia was noted in the urinary bladder. On ultrasonography of abdomen cause of this photopenia was found to be an intravesical ureterocele. PMID:27095867

  1. Lung and leg scanning with 99mTc-labelled albumin macroaggregates

    PubMed Central

    Driedger, Albert A.; Reid, Brian D.; Heagy, Fred C.

    1974-01-01

    The routine injection of 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin into dorsal foot veins for lung scanning allows en passant assessment to be made regarding the presence of deep venous phlebitis. The radiopharmaceutical adhered to fibrin deposits in veins of calves and thighs in 103 of 386 examinations. In the 103 patients with a presumptive diagnosis of thrombophlebitis, microembolization from labelled thrombi, producing “hot spots” in the lungs, occurred in 25 cases. It is inferred that pulmonary microembolization is a very common event in patients with phlebitis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:4414524

  2. CT/99mTc-GSA SPECT fusion images demonstrate functional differences between the liver lobes

    PubMed Central

    Sumiyoshi, Tatsuaki; Shima, Yasuo; Tokorodani, Ryoutarou; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Kozuki, Akihito; Hata, Yasuhiro; Noda, Yoshihiro; Murata, Yoriko; Nakamura, Toshio; Uka, Kiminori

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the functional differences between the 2 liver lobes in non-cirrhotic patients by using computed tomography/99mTc-galactosyl human serum albumin (CT/99mTc-GSA) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) fusion images. METHODS: Between December 2008 and March 2012, 264 non-cirrhotic patients underwent preoperative liver function assessment using CT/99mTc-GSA SPECT fusion images. Of these, 30 patients, in whom the influence of a tumor on the liver parenchyma was estimated to be negligible, were selected. Specifically, the selected patients were required to meet either of the following criteria: (1) the presence of an extrahepatic tumor; or (2) presence of a single small intrahepatic tumor. These 30 patients were retrospectively analyzed to calculate the percentage volume (%Volume) and the percentage function (%Function) of each lobe. The ratio between the %Function and %Volume (function-to-volume ratio) of each lobe was also calculated, and the ratios were compared between the 2 lobes. Furthermore, the correlations between the function-to-volume ratio and each of 2 liver parameters [lobe volume and diameter ratio of the left portal vein to the right portal vein (LPV-to-RPV diameter ratio)] were investigated. RESULTS: The median values of %Volume and %Function were 62.6% and 67.1% in the right lobe, with %Function being significantly higher than %Volume (P < 0.01). The median values of %Volume and %Function were 31.0% and 28.7% in the left lobe, with %Function being significantly lower than %Volume (P < 0.01). The function-to-volume ratios of the right lobe (1.04-1.14) were significantly higher than those of the left lobe (0.74-0.99) (P < 0.01). The function-to-volume ratio showed no significant correlation between the lobe volume in either lobe. In contrast, the function-to-volume ratio showed significant correlations with the LPV-to-RPV diameter ratio in both lobes (right lobe: negative correlation, rs = -0.37, P = 0.048; left lobe: positive

  3. Two year experience with /sup 99m/TC HIDA cholescintigraphy in teaching hospital practice

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson, N.V.; Friend, P.J.; Wraight, E.P.

    1986-07-01

    One hundred and thirty-four sequential patients who underwent /sup 99m/TC HIDA cholescintigraphy have been studied. Patients were investigated for suspected acute cholecystitis, chronic cholelithiasis, enterogastric reflux or jaundice, and in the assessment of biliary tract drainage after transplantation of the liver and other operations of the biliary tract. The technique is most valuable in the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis when its accuracy rate is 96 per cent; it is also useful in the assessment of postoperative biliary drainage. It is least helpful in the investigation of jaundice and suspected chronic cholelithiasis.

  4. Clinical experience with 99mTc-disofenin as a cholescintigraphic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Stadalnik, R.C.; Matolo, N.M.; Jansholt, A.L.; Vera, D.R.

    1981-09-01

    99mTc-disofenin, a derivative of iminodiacetic acid, was used for cholescintigraphy in 6 volunteers (in addition to assessment of blood and urine clearance) and in 82 patients referred for evaluation of hepatobiliary tract disease. This radionuclide was cleared rapidly from the blood by the hepatocytes, which permitted satisfactory to excellent images of the hepatobiliary system; interference by renal activity was seen in only 9/82 patients (11%). Acute cholecystitis was correctly diagnosed in 20 patients, although 9 (45%) had jaundice; bilirubin levels ranged from 1.2 to 7.6 mg/dl. The biliary tract was normal in 16 of the 27 patients with jaundice (60%).

  5. Disappearance of Soft Tissue 99mTc Diphosphonate Activity Following Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Lawrence T.

    1981-01-01

    The appearance of soft tissue concentrations of technitium labeled phosphate compounds has been observed in a variety of pathological conditions. The mechanism and pathophysiology of this phenomenon remain unclear. Seven new patients diagnosed with lung cancer received 99mTc diphosphonate bone scans during the period of January 1975 to November 1975. Three of the seven subjects showed a significant accumulation of isotope in the region of the chest infiltrate at the time of diagnosis. Upon repeat technitium bone scans six months post radiation, two patients showed a sharp reduction in the soft tissue activity previously observed. The material is presented and a possible explanation of this phenomenon is offered. PMID:7328686

  6. Detection of Thymoma on 99mTc MIBI Scintigraphy: Revisiting the Past

    PubMed Central

    Parida, Girish Kumar; Roy, Shambo Guha; Sharma, Anshul; Patel, Chetan D.

    2017-01-01

    Although thymoma is a rare tumor, it is the most common anterior mediastinal tumor, usually affecting the adults in their fifth and sixth decade. We present a case of 68-year-old man with history of myocardial infarction, who presented to the cardiology OPD with recent onset of exertional dyspnea. On 99mTc MIBI myocardial perfusion SPECT, there was an extra cardiac accumulation of radiotracer in the anterior mediastinum just above the heart, which later was diagnosed as thymoma on histopathology. PMID:28242989

  7. Hepatorenal cutaneous syndrome demonstrated by 99mTc macro aggregated albumin whole-body scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Padma, S; Palaniswamy, Shanmuga Sundaram; Gandhi, Sunny; Babu K, Sanjay

    2014-09-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome, also known as hepatorenal syndrome, is a triad of liver disease, impaired oxygenation, and intrapulmonary vascular abnormalities. Forty-seven percent of patients with end-stage liver disease may have hepatopulmonary syndrome, an independent predictor of poor prognosis. Gross dilatation of pulmonary precapillary and capillary vessels, as well as an absolute increase in the number of dilated vessels, is the classic pathological description. We report a young man with cirrhosis demonstrating extrapulmonary shunting of 99mTc-MAA to kidneys with extensive peripheral arteriovenous (cutaneous) vasodilation, which we prefer to name as the "mosaic sign" in the absence of spider nevi or erythema.

  8. Optimisation of simultaneous tl-201/tc-99m dual isotope reconstruction with monte-carlo-based scatter correction.

    PubMed

    Kangasmaa, Tuija; Kuikka, Jyrki; Sohlberg, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous Tl-201/Tc-99m dual isotope myocardial perfusion SPECT is seriously hampered by down-scatter from Tc-99m into the Tl-201 energy window. This paper presents and optimises the ordered-subsets-expectation-maximisation-(OS-EM-) based reconstruction algorithm, which corrects the down-scatter using an efficient Monte Carlo (MC) simulator. The algorithm starts by first reconstructing the Tc-99m image with attenuation, collimator response, and MC-based scatter correction. The reconstructed Tc-99m image is then used as an input for an efficient MC-based down-scatter simulation of Tc-99m photons into the Tl-201 window. This down-scatter estimate is finally used in the Tl-201 reconstruction to correct the crosstalk between the two isotopes. The mathematical 4D NCAT phantom and physical cardiac phantoms were used to optimise the number of OS-EM iterations where the scatter estimate is updated and the number of MC simulated photons. The results showed that two scatter update iterations and 10(5) simulated photons are enough for the Tc-99m and Tl-201 reconstructions, whereas 10(6) simulated photons are needed to generate good quality down-scatter estimates. With these parameters, the entire Tl-201/Tc-99m dual isotope reconstruction can be accomplished in less than 3 minutes.

  9. Tc-99m-tetrofosmin scintigraphy: an alternative scintigraphic method for following up differentiated thyroid carcinoma--preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Gallowitsch, H J; Kresnik, E; Mikosch, P; Pipam, W; Gomez, I; Lind, P

    1996-12-01

    The usefulness of the myocardial perfusion agent, Tc-99m-tetrofosmin (Myoview) in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma was evaluated in a clinical study of 15 patients, primary treated with thyroidectomy and high-dose I-131-therapy (2960-3700 MBq). 12 with suspected recurrence and metastases and three patients without any suspicion and compared with other non-specific tracers like TI-201 and Tc-99m-sestamibi. Twelve patients with elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) levels of more than 10 ng/ml (group A), four of these had negative I-131 scans, and three patients with Tg levels less than 10 ng/ml (group B) were examined under TSH suppressive L-Thyroxine treatment. Whole body scans were taken with Tl-201 (74 MBq: 20 mn post injection), Tc-99m-sestamibi (370 MBq: 20-60 min post injection) and Tc-99m-tetrofosmin (370 MBq: 20-60 min post injection). Tumor/background ratios and optional time/activity analyses (up to 150 min post injection) were evaluated using the region of interest approach. Compared with Tl-201 (T/BG: 1.59, +/- 0.396). Tc-99m-tetrofosmin showed slightly but not significant better T/BG ratios and detection rates (T/BG: 1.76, +/- 0.345). Tc-99m-sestamibi (1.51, +/- 0.31 p = 0.05) showed significantly lower values than Tc-99m-tetrofosmin In the light of these results, scintigraphy with Tc-99m-tetrofosmin seems to be a possibly sensitive imaging modality in the follow-up of DTC with possible advantages concerning T/Bg ratio, background clearance, detection rate and dosimetry compared with Tl-201 and Tc-99m-sestamibi, especially in patients with elevated Tg level and no iodine uptake, but further investigations are needed to confirm our preliminary results.

  10. Pixelized Measurement of (99m)Tc-HDP Micro Particles Formed in Gamma Correction Phantom Pinhole Scan: a Reference Study.

    PubMed

    Jung, Joo-Young; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lee, Yun-Sang; Ha, Seunggyun; Chae, Mi-Hye; Chung, Yong-An; Yoon, Do Kyun; Bahk, Yong-Whee

    2016-09-01

    Currently, traumatic bone diseases are diagnosed by assessing the micro (99m)Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HDP) uptake in injured trabeculae with ongoing osteoneogenesis demonstrated by gamma correction pinhole scan (GCPS). However, the mathematic size quantification of micro-uptake is not yet available. We designed and performed this phantom-based study to set up an in-vitro model of the mathematical calculation of micro-uptake by the pixelized measurement. The micro (99m)Tc-HDP deposits used in this study were spontaneously formed both in a large standard flood and small house-made dish phantoms. The processing was as follows: first, phantoms were flooded with distilled water and (99m)Tc-HDP was therein injected to induce micro (99m)Tc-HDP deposition; second, the deposits were scanned using parallel-hole and pinhole collimator to generally survey (99m)Tc-HDP deposition pattern; and third, the scans underwent gamma correction (GC) to discern individual deposits for size measurement. In original naïve scans, tracer distribution was simply nebulous in appearance and, hence, could not be measured. Impressively, however, GCPS could discern individual micro deposits so that they were calculated by pixelized measurement. Phantoms naturally formed micro (99m)Tc-HDP deposits that are analogous to (99m)Tc-HDP uptake on in-vivo bone scan. The smallest one we measured was 0.414 mm. Flooded phantoms and therein injected (99m)Tc-HDP form nebulous micro (99m)Tc-HDP deposits that are rendered discernible by GCPB and precisely calculable using pixelized measurement. This method can be used for precise quantitative and qualitative diagnosis of bone and joint diseases at the trabecular level.

  11. (99m)Tc-zolmitriptan: radiolabeling, molecular modeling, biodistribution and gamma scintigraphy as a hopeful radiopharmaceutical for lung nuclear imaging.

    PubMed

    Rashed, H M; Marzook, F A; Farag, H

    2016-12-01

    Lung imaging radiopharmaceuticals are helpful agents for measuring pulmonary blood flow and allow detection of pulmonary embolism and lung cancer. The goal of this study was to develop a novel potential radiopharmaceutical for lung imaging. Zolmitriptan (a selective serotonin receptor agonist) was successfully labeled with (99m)Tc via direct labeling method under reductive conditions studying different factors affecting the labeling efficiency. (99m)Tc-zolmitriptan was obtained with a maximum labeling yield of 92.5 ± 0.61 % and in vitro stability up to 24 h. Molecular modeling was done to predict the structure of (99m)Tc-zolmitriptan and ensure that radiolabeling did not affect binding ability of zolmitriptan to its receptor. Biodistribution studies showed that maximum lung uptake of (99m)Tc-zolmitriptan was 23.89 ± 1.2 % injected dose/g tissue at 15 min post-injection and retention in lungs remained high up to 1 h, whereas the clearance from mice appeared to proceed mainly via the renal pathway. Scintigraphic images confirmed the biodistribution results showing a high resolution lung image with low accumulation of radioactivity in other organs except kidneys and urinary bladder. (99m)Tc-zolmitriptan is not a blood product and so it is more safe than the currently available (99m)Tc-MAA, and its lung uptake is higher than that of the recently discovered (123)I-IPMPD, (99m)Tc(CO)5I and (99m)Tc-DHPM. So, (99m)Tc-zolmitriptan could be used as a hopeful radiopharmaceutical for lung scintigraphic imaging.

  12. High 99mTc-DPD myocardial uptake in a patient with apolipoprotein AI-related amyloidotic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Quarta, Candida Cristina; Obici, Laura; Guidalotti, Pier Luigi; Pieroni, Maurizio; Longhi, Simone; Perlini, Stefano; Verga, Laura; Merlini, Giampaolo; Rapezzi, Claudio

    2013-03-01

    Amyloidotic cardiomyopathy is still a widely underdiagnosed condition that usually requires endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) for a definite diagnosis. 99mTc-3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanodicarboxylic acid (99mTc-DPD) has proven highly sensitive for detecting amyloidotic cardiomyopathy due to transthyretin-related amyloid deposition. Herein we report the first description of the (99mTc-DPD scintigraphy profile in a patient with suspected amyloidotic cardiomyopathy and a final EMB- and genetically-proven diagnosis of familial apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis due to Leu174Ser variant.

  13. Initial Evaluation of (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) as a Renal Tracer in Healthy Human Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Lipowska, Malgorzata; Klenc, Jeffrey; Folks, Russell D; Taylor, Andrew T

    2014-09-01

    Preclinical studies in rats showed that two of (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) isomers (rac- and L-ASMA) had pharmacokinetic properties equivalent to that of (131)I-OIH, the radiopharmaceutical standard for the measurement of effective renal plasma flow. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) isomers in healthy human subjects. Three ASMA ligands (rac-, L- and D-ASMA) were labeled with (99m)Tc(CO)3 using an IsoLink kit (Covidien), and each formed (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) tracer was co-injected with (131)I-OIH into healthy human subjects followed by sequential imaging, plasma clearance measurements and timed urine collection. Plasma protein binding, red cell uptake and percent injected dose in the urine were determined. Urine from each group of volunteers was analyzed for metabolites by HPLC. Image quality was excellent with all three agents. Each (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) preparation was excreted unchanged in the urine. The plasma clearance ratio ((99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA)/(131)I-OIH) was 81 ± 3 % for D-ASMA compared to only 20 ± 4 % for L-ASMA and 37 ± 7 % for rac-ASMA; the 81 % clearance ratio for D-ASMA isomer is still ∼ 30 % higher than the (99m)Tc-MAG3/(131)I-OIH clearance ratio (∼50-60 %). Red cell uptake was similar for all three tracers (6-9 %), and all tracers had a relatively rapid renal excretion; at 3 h, the (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA)/(131)I-OIH urine ratio was 100 ± 3 % for D-ASMA, 80 ± 2 % for L-ASMA and 88 ± 1 % for rac-ASMA. The renal excretion characteristics of (99m)Tc(CO)3(D-ASMA) in humans are superior to those of the other two (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) isomers studied, but are still inferior to (131)I-OIH, even though there was no difference in the clearance of two of (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) isomers and (131)I-OIH in rats. The work described here demonstrates the sensitivity in in vivo biological behavior of (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) isomers to their subtle structural differences.

  14. Assessment of resistance to paclitaxel of murine tumors by (99m)Tc-MIBI/(201)Tl dual-radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Oriuchi, N; Jibu, T; Milas, L; Choe, J; Kuang, L; Kim, E E; Hunter, N R; Wallace, S; Podoloff, D A

    2000-02-01

    This study investigated P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expression by murine tumors with and without resistance to paclitaxel and the role of (99m)Tc-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI)/(201)Tl imaging in predicting the effect of paclitaxel. Antitumor effect of paclitaxel and biodistribution of the radiopharmaceuticals were evaluated in mice bearing four tumor types. Pgp expression did not correlate with the antitumor efficacy of paclitaxel. Although the absolute uptake of (99m)Tc-MIBI did not correlate with Pgp expression, (99m)Tc-MIBI could predict paclitaxel sensitivity by its higher uptake.

  15. Preclinical evaluation of 99mTc(CO)3-aspartic-N-monoacetic acid, 99mTc(CO)3(ASMA), a new renal radiotracer with pharmacokinetic properties comparable to 131I-OIH

    PubMed Central

    Lipowska, Malgorzata; Klenc, Jeffrey; Marzilli, Luigi G.; Taylor, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    In an ongoing effort to develop a renal tracer with pharmacokinetic properties comparable to PAH and superior to those of both 99mTc-MAG3 and 131I-OIH, we evaluated a new renal tricarbonyl radiotracer based on the aspartic-N-monoacetic acid ligand, 99mTc(CO)3(ASMA). The ASMA ligand features two carboxyl groups and an amine function for the coordination of the {99mTc(CO)3}+ core as well as a dangling carboxylate to facilitate rapid renal clearance. Methods rac-ASMA and L-ASMA were labeled with a 99mTc-tricarbonyl precursor and radiochemical purity of the labeled products was determined by HPLC. Using 131I-OIH as an internal control, we evaluated biodistribution in normal rats with 99mTc(CO)3(ASMA) isomers and in rats with renal pedicle ligation with 99mTc(CO)3(rac-ASMA). Clearance studies were conducted in 4 additional rats. In vitro radiotracer stability was determined in PBS buffer pH 7.4 and in challenge studies with cysteine and histidine. 99mTc(CO)3(ASMA) metabolites in urine were analyzed by HPLC. Results Both 99mTc(CO)3(ASMA) preparations had > 99% radiochemical purity and were stable in PBS buffer pH 7.4 for 24 h. Challenge studies on both revealed no significant displacement of the ligand. In normal rats, % injected dose in urine at 10 and 60 min for both preparations averaged 103% and 106% that of 131I-OIH, respectively. The renal clearances of 99mTc(CO)3(rac-ASMA) and 131I-OIH were comparable (P = 0.48). The tracer was excreted unchanged in the urine, proving its in vivo stability. In pedicle-ligated rats, 99mTc(CO)3(rac-ASMA) had less excretion into the bowel (P < 0.05) and was better retained in the blood (P < 0.05) than 131I-OIH. Conclusion Both 99mTc(CO)3(ASMA) complexes have pharmacokinetic properties in rats comparable to or superior to those of 131I-OIH, and human studies are warranted for their further evaluation. PMID:22717977

  16. 99mTc-MAMA-chrysamine G, a probe for beta-amyloid protein of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dezutter, N A; Dom, R J; de Groot, T J; Bormans, G M; Verbruggen, A M

    1999-11-01

    Chrysamine G (CG), an analogue of Congo red, is known to bind in vitro to the beta-amyloid protein (Abeta 10-43) and to homogenates of several regions of the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We synthesised a conjugate of 2-(acetamido)-CG with a bis-S-trityl protected monoamide-monoaminedithiol (MAMA-Tr(2)) tetraligand, which was efficiently deprotected and labelled with a 75% yield with technetium-99m, to obtain (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG. In mice, (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG was cleared mainly by the hepatobiliary system, resulting in a fast blood clearance. Brain uptake of (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG was low. Co-injection with the blood pool tracer iodine-125 human serum albumin ((125)I-HSA) demonstrated a brain/blood activity ratio for (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG that was significantly higher than that for (125)I-HSA (t test for dependent samples, P<0.02), indicating the ability of (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG to cross the blood-brain barrier. In vitro autoradiography demonstrated pronounced binding of (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG to beta-amyloid deposits in autopsy sections of the parietal and occipital cortex of an AD patient as compared with controls. Adding 10 microM Congo red during incubation displaced the binding of (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG. Congo red staining and autoradiography identified the same lesions. (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG seems to bind selectively to beta-amyloid deposition in human brain parenchyma and blood vessels in vitro and thus might be a lead compound for further development of a useful tracer agent for the in vivo diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

  17. ( sup 99m Tc)diphosphonate uptake and hemodynamics in arthritis of the immature dog knee

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E.S.; Soballe, K.; Henriksen, T.B.; Hjortdal, V.E.; Buenger, C. )

    1991-03-01

    The relationship between (99mTc)diphosphonate uptake and bone hemodynamics was studied in canine carrageenan-induced juvenile chronic arthritis. Blood flow was determined with microspheres, plasma and red cell volumes were measured by labeled fibrinogen and red cells, and the microvascular volume and mean transit time of blood were calculated. Normal femoral epiphyses had lower central and higher subchondral blood flow and diphosphonate uptake values. Epiphyseal vascular volume was uniform, resulting in a greater transit time of blood centrally. In arthritis, blood flow and diphosphonate uptake were increased subchondrally and unaffected centrally, while epiphyseal vascular volume was increased throughout, leading to prolonged transit time centrally. The normal metaphyses had low blood flow and diphosphonate uptake values in cancellous bone and very high values in growth plates, but a large vascular volume throughout. The mean transit time therefore was low in growth plates and high in adjacent cancellous bone. Arthritis caused decreased blood flow and diphosphonate uptake in growth plates but increased vascular volume and transit time of blood. Diphosphonate uptake correlated positively with blood flow and plasma volume and negatively with red cell volume in a nonlinear fashion. Thus, changes in diphosphonate uptake and microvascular hemodynamics occur in both epiphyseal and metaphyseal bone in chronic synovitis of the immature knee. The (99mTc)diphosphonate bone scan seems to reflect blood flow, plasma volume, and red cell volume of bone.

  18. (99m)Tc thyroid imaging system using multiple imaging plates.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shigeki; Saze, Takuya; Ariga, Eiji; Deji, Shizuhiko; Hirota, Masahiro; Nishizawa, Kunihide

    2009-06-01

    A system for taking static thyroid (99m)Tc images was devised by using multiple imaging plates (IPs) and a low-energy high resolution collimator. System spatial resolution of the IP systems and the gamma camera was determined by referring to standards set by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association. Sensitivity was represented by using lower detection limits (LDLs). The sensitivity and resolution of IP systems using 16 IP probes connecting two collimators and 9 IPs were determined by using a 20 ml thyroid phantom, and compared with the sensitivity of gamma cameras. The sensitivity of the IP systems increased in proportion to the number of IPs. The sensitivity and resolution of a probe using 6 IPs and a high resolution collimator were equivalent to or superior to the gamma camera for taking static thyroid (99m)Tc images. IP systems can be applied clinically as mobile static nuclear imaging devices. The performance of IP systems should be thoroughly investigated for combinations of various collimators and the number of IPs in order to verify their efficacy for imaging all organs.

  19. Preparation of Tc-99m-macroaggregated albumin from recombinant human albumin for lung perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Hunt, A P; Frier, M; Johnson, R A; Berezenko, S; Perkins, A C

    2006-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) extracted from pooled blood taken from human donors is used in the production of (99m)Tc-labelled macroaggregated albumin (MAA) for lung perfusion imaging. However, concerns for the safety of blood-derived products due to potential contamination by infective agents (e.g. new variant CJD), make alternative production methods necessary. Recombinant DNA technology is a promising method of albumin production avoiding problems associated with human-derived HSA. This paper presents results comparing MAA prepared from recombinant human albumin (rHA, Recombumin) (rMAA) with in-house produced HSA MAA (hMAA) and commercially available MAA (cMAA). (99m)Tc-MAA was prepared using previously published production methods by heating a mixture of albumin and stannous chloride in acetate buffer (pH 5.4) at 70 degrees C for 20 min. Parameters investigated include aggregate size, radiolabelling efficiency, radiochemical and aggregate stability at 4 degrees C and in vitro (in whole human blood) at 37 degrees C and biodistribution studies. Results showed that rMAA could be produced with similar morphology, labelling efficiency and stability to hMAA and cMAA. Our findings confirm that rHA shows significant potential as a direct replacement for HSA in commercially available MAA.

  20. /sup 99m/Tc red blood cell scintigraphy in evaluating focal liver lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, S.A.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-07-01

    To determine the accuracy of blood-pool imaging in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas, 39 patients with various focal hepatic lesions were studied. The diagnoses in these patients were made by biopsy, angiography, surgical exploration, or clinical stability for a minimum of 14 months. The diagnoses were: hemangiomas (13 patients), hepatoma (three), metastases (19), abscesses (two), and liver cysts (two). After modified in vivo labeling of red blood cells with 20 mCi (740 MBq) of /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate, an initial flow study and early (1-15 min) and delayed (1-2 hr) static images were obtained. Increased blood-pool activity with a discordant flow pattern was seen in 11 of 13 patients with hemangiomas. False-negative scans occurred in two hemangiomas with extensive fibrosis. None of the metastatic, abscess, or cystic lesions had increased blood-pool activity at any time after injection. It is concluded that /sup 99m/Tc red blood cell imaging can distinguish hemangiomas from other focal liver lesions.

  1. 99mTc red blood cell scintigraphy in evaluating focal liver lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, S.A.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-07-01

    To determine the accuracy of blood-pool imaging in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas, 39 patients with various focal hepatic lesions were studied. The diagnoses in these patients were made by biopsy, angiography, surgical exploration, or clinical stability for a minimum of 14 months. The diagnoses were: hemangiomas (13 patients), hepatoma (three), metastases (19), abscesses (two), and liver cysts (two). After modified in vivo labeling of red blood cells with 20 mCi (740 MBq) of 99mTc pertechnetate, an initial flow study and early (1-15 min) and delayed (1-2 hr) static images were obtained. Increased blood-pool activity with a discordant flow pattern was seen in 11 of 13 patients with hemangiomas. False-negative scans occurred in two hemangiomas with extensive fibrosis. Two of three hepatomas had increased blood-pool activity associated with increased flow in a pattern identical to the increased blood-pool activity. None of the metastatic, abscess, or cystic lesions had increased blood-pool activity at any time after injection. It is concluded that 99mTc red blood cell imaging can distinguish hemangiomas from other focal liver lesions.

  2. Differentiation of focal intrahepatic lesions with /sup 99m/Tc-red blood cell imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, M.A.; Marks, D.S.; Sandler, M.A.; Shetty, P.

    1983-03-01

    The appearance of focal hepatic lesions on /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid images is nonspecific. As it is important to distinguish hemangiomas from other lesions prior to biopsy, a prospective study was performed using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red blood cells. Dynamic perfusion and delayed blood-pool images (1-2 hours) were obtained and lesion activity categorized as increased, equal, or decreased compared with the liver. Of 21 patients studied, 9 (43%) had one or more hepatic hemangiomas, and 8 of these 9 patients (89%) demonstrated increased blood-pool activity. The 12 nonhemangiomatous lesions consisted of 7 metastatic tumors, 2 hepatomas, 1 cirrhotic nodule, and 2 hepatic cysts. None of these 12 patients had increased activity on delayed blood-pool images. Early dynamic images of hepatic hemangiomas demonstrated variable activity (vascularity) and were not useful in differentiating hemangiomas from other lesions. Sensitivity was 89% and specificity 100%. Although liver enzymes are usually normal with hepatic hemangiomas, they may also be normal in metastatic disease. The authors recommend that delayed blood-pool imaging be performed prior to biopsy, particularly in patients without a known primary tumor or those with normal liver enzyme levels.

  3. Differentiation of focal intrahepatic lesions with 99mTc-red blood cell imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, M.A.; Marks, D.S.; Sandler, M.A.; Shetty, P.

    1983-03-01

    The appearance of focal hepatic lesions on 99mTc-sulfur colloid images is nonspecific. As it is important to distinguish hemangiomas from other lesions prior to biopsy, a prospective study was performed using 99mTc-labeled red blood cells. Dynamic perfusion and delayed blood-pool images (1-2 hours) were obtained and lesion activity categorized as increased, equal, or decreased compared with the liver. Of 21 patients studied, 9 (43%) had one or more hepatic hemangiomas, and 8 of these 9 patients (89%) demonstrated increased blood-pool activity. The 12 nonhemangiomatous lesions consisted of 7 metastatic tumors, 2 hepatomas, 1 cirrhotic nodule, and 2 hepatic cysts. None of these 12 patients had increased activity on delayed blood-pool images. Early dynamic images of hepatic hemangiomas demonstrated variable activity (vascularity) and were not useful in differentiating hemangiomas from other lesions. Sensitivity was 89% and specificity 100%. Although liver enzymes are usually normal with hepatic hemangiomas, they may also be normal in metastatic disease. The authors recommend that delayed blood-pool imaging be performed prior to biopsy, particularly in patients without a known primary tumor or those with normal liver enzyme levels.

  4. Exanthema after a stress Tc-99m sestamibi study: continue with a rest sestamibi study?

    PubMed

    Hesse, Birger; Vinberg, Niels; Mosbech, Holger

    2011-05-01

      A mild allergic reaction assumed to be caused by injection of Tc-99m sestamibi for a stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is presented. We want to discuss the risk involved in completing the MPI with another sestamibi injection, and the precautions and possible treatment in case of a further reaction.   A patient experienced a maculo-papular exanthema, i.e. a mild, probably allergic, adverse event (AE) after a stress MPI including administration of a dose of Tc-99m sestamibi. A rest MPI was needed to decide whether coronary bypass surgery should be performed. After prophylactic treatment with antihistamine and corticosteroid, an uneventful rest MPI was performed.   International recommendations or guidelines related to treatment of AEs after nuclear medicine studies do not exist. Serious AEs in nuclear medicine are very rare, but anaphylactic reactions have been reported and may be life threatening. If repeated administration of the radio-pharmaceutical must be given, the prophylactic and therapeutic interventions should follow general international guidelines for allergic reactions. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2011 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  5. SUV measurement of normal vertebrae using SPECT/CT with Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate

    PubMed Central

    Kaneta, Tomohiro; Ogawa, Matsuyoshi; Daisaki, Hiromitsu; Nawata, Shintaro; Yoshida, Keisuke; Inoue, Tomio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform quantitative measurement based on the standardized uptake value (SUV) of the uptake of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) in the normal vertebrae using a single photon emission tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) scanner. A retrospective study of patients with cancer or joint disorders was performed. We acquired data for a group of 29 patients (8 women and 21 men; mean age, 68.2 ± 6.7 years; age range, 44-87 years) undergoing bone SPECT/CT scans with Tc-99m MDP between September and October 2015. Various SUVs were calculated based on body-weight, lean-body-weight (lbw), Japanese lean-body-weight (jlbw) and Japanese bone-mineral-content (jbmc). SUVs of normal vertebrae showed a wide range of values. Among these, the maximum body-weight based SUV showed the lowest coefficient of variation. The SUVs also showed relatively small intra-subject variability. In addition, all SUVs showed moderate and significant correlation with height. Moreover, lbw-, jlbw-, and jbmc-based SUVs of men were significantly higher than those of women. In conclusions, SUVs of normal vertebrae showed a relatively large inter-individual variability and small intra-individual variability. As a quantitative imaging biomarker, SUVs might require standardization with adequate reference data for the same subject to minimize variability. PMID:27766184

  6. Evaluation of neuroendocrine tumors with 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC TOC.

    PubMed

    Artiko, Vera; Afgan, Aida; Petrović, Jelena; Radović, Branislava; Petrović, Nebojša; Vlajković, Marina; Šobić-Šaranović, Dragana; Obradović, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the short review of our preliminary results obtained with 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC. The total of 495 patients with different neuroendocrine tumors were investigated during last few years. There have been 334 true positive (TP), 73 true negative (TN), 6 false positive (FP) and 82 false negative findings (FN). Diagnosis was made according to SPECT findings in 122 patients (25%). The mean T/NT ratio for TP cases was significantly higher (p < 0.01) on SPECT (3.12 ± 1.13) than on whole body scan (2.2 ± 0.75). According to our results, overall sensitivity of the method is 80%, specificity 92%, positive predictive value 98%, negative predictive value 47% and accuracy 82%. Fifteen TP patients underwent therapy with 90Y-DOTATATE. Scintigraphy of neuroendocrine tumors with 99mTc-Tektrotyd is a useful method for diagnosis, staging and follow up of the patients suspected to have neuroendocrine tumors. SPECT had important role in diagnosis. It is also helpful in the appropriate choice of the therapy, including the peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. In the absence of 68Ga-labeled peptides and PET/CT, the special emphasize should be given to application of SPECT/CT as well as to the radioguided surgery.

  7. 99mTc-MDP bone SPECT in evaluation of the knee in asymptomatic soccer players

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, M; Gursoy, R; Varoglu, E; Oztasyonar, Y; Cogalgil, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate stress fractures in leg (particularly around the knee, tibia, and femur) and knee pathology in active asymptomatic (no symptoms in the preceding month) soccer players. Method: The study included 42 asymptomatic soccer players (21 women, 21 men; age range 19–31 years). Players from seven teams in the major female professional and amateur male soccer leagues were examined by technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) bone scintigraphy during the soccer season. Four hours after intravenous injection of 20 mCi 99mTc-MDP, standard imaging included anterior planar spot images of the legs, lateral images of the knee, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Results: Although the players were asymptomatic, increased tracer uptake, indicating stress fracture, was found in 28 (66%). Most of the stress fractures were in the tibia (62%) and femur (5%). In the 42 subjects (84 legs), 35 sites (42%) showed rupture of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus and bone bruising of the tibial plateau, 16 sites (19%) showed rupture of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus, 11 sites (13%) showed bone bruising of the lateral femoral condyle, eight sites (10%) showed bone bruising of the medial femoral condyle, and there was avulsion injury to the infrapatellar tendon insertion in the anterior tibia in 34 sites (40%). There were 11 anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Conclusion: Bone SPECT is very accurate, easy to perform, cost effective, may give valuable information before magnetic resonance imaging studies in the detection of meniscal tears, and may be used successfully when magnetic resonance imaging is unavailable. PMID:14751939

  8. Activity measurements of the radionuclide 99mTc for the VNIIM, Russian Federation and ENEA-INMRI, Italy, in the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m and KCRV update in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michottea, C.; Nonisa, M.; Alekseevb, I. V.; Kharitonovb, I. A.; Tereshchenkob, E. E.; Zanevskiyb, A. V.; Capognic, M.; De Felicec, P.; Fazioc, A.; Carconic, P.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, comparisons of activity measurements of 99mTc using the Transfer Instrument of the International Reference System (SIRTI) took place at the VNIIM (Russian Federation) and at the ENEA-INMRI (Italy), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m. Ampoules containing about 32 kBq of 99mTc solutions were measured in the SIRTI for three half-lives. There are now nine results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m comparison. This comparison is linked to the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison and the key comparison reference value (KCRV) of the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m has been updated to include eligible results from BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR or the SIRTI and the KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  9. Technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scan. False-normal findings in elderly patients with hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaeffer, F.; Mikolich, D.J.; Mates, S.M.

    1987-11-01

    Hematogenous osteomyelitis is usually diagnosed by an abnormal technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scan in symptomatic patients who have positive blood cultures. False-normal 99mTc bone scans have been described recently in neonates with biopsy-proved osteomyelitis. This phenomenon seems to be extremely rare in adults. Two elderly patients with hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis had normal technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scans when first evaluated. In both cases the bone scans became abnormal four to six weeks after onset of symptoms and two to four weeks after the initial normal results of the study. When suggested by the clinical picture, hematogenous osteomyelitis cannot be ruled out by a normal 99mTc bone scan at any age. Gallium scan, computed tomographic scan, or bone biopsy can be helpful in such cases.

  10. Scintigraphy of hepatic hemangiomas: the value of Tc-99m-labeled red blood cells - concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Front, D.; Royal, H.D.; Israel, O; Parker, J.A.; Kolodny, G.M.

    1981-08-01

    Fourteen patients with hepatic hemangiomas were evaluated by Tc-99m colloid scintigraphy and Tc-99m RBC angiography, including flow studies and early and delayed static studies. On colloid scintigraphy, the liver appeared enlarged, with single or multiple focal defects. During the flow and early static Tc-99m RBC studies, the lesions showed poor perfusion and were filled only partially or not at all. Delayed Tc-99m RBC studies demonstrated the whole extent of the lesion and all the lesions when multiple hemangiomas were present. A flow study showing decreased perfusion and a late blood-pool study showing increased local blood volume appear characteristic of hemangiomas. Liver biopsy should not be attempted in such cases.

  11. Scintigraphy of hepatic hemangiomas: the value of Tc-99m-labeled red blood cells: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Royal, H.D.; Israel, O.; Parker, J.A.; Kolodny, G.M.

    1981-08-01

    Fourteen patients with hepatic hemangiomas were evaluated by Tc-99m colloid scintigraphy and Tc-99m RBC angiography, including flow studies and early and delayed static studies. On colloid scintigraphy, the liver appeared enlarged, with single or multiple focal defects. During the flow and early static Tc-99m RBC studies, the lesions showed poor perfusion and were filled only partially or not at all. Delayed Tc-99m RBC studies demonstrated the whole extent of the lesion and all the lesions when multiple hemangiomas were present. A flow study showing decreased perfusion and a late blood-pool study showing increased local blood volume appear characteristic of hemangiomas. Liver biopsy should not be attempted in such cases.

  12. Quantitative analysis of relationships between irradiation parameters and the reproducibility of cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc yields.

    PubMed

    Tanguay, J; Hou, X; Buckley, K; Schaffer, P; Bénard, F; Ruth, T J; Celler, A

    2015-05-21

    Cyclotron production of (99m)Tc through the (100)Mo(p,2n) (99m)Tc reaction channel is actively being investigated as an alternative to reactor-based (99)Mo generation by nuclear fission of (235)U. An exciting aspect of this approach is that it can be implemented using currently-existing cyclotron infrastructure to supplement, or potentially replace, conventional (99m)Tc production methods that are based on aging and increasingly unreliable nuclear reactors. Successful implementation will require consistent production of large quantities of high-radionuclidic-purity (99m)Tc. However, variations in proton beam currents and the thickness and isotopic composition of enriched (100)Mo targets, in addition to other irradiation parameters, may degrade reproducibility of both radionuclidic purity and absolute (99m)Tc yields. The purpose of this article is to present a method for quantifying relationships between random variations in production parameters, including (100)Mo target thicknesses and proton beam currents, and reproducibility of absolute (99m)Tc yields (defined as the end of bombardment (EOB) (99m)Tc activity). Using the concepts of linear error propagation and the theory of stochastic point processes, we derive a mathematical expression that quantifies the influence of variations in various irradiation parameters on yield reproducibility, quantified in terms of the coefficient of variation of the EOB (99m)Tc activity. The utility of the developed formalism is demonstrated with an example. We show that achieving less than 20% variability in (99m)Tc yields will require highly-reproducible target thicknesses and proton currents. These results are related to the service rate which is defined as the percentage of (99m)Tc production runs that meet the minimum daily requirement of one (or many) nuclear medicine departments. For example, we show that achieving service rates of 84.0%, 97.5% and 99.9% with 20% variations in target thicknesses requires producing on average

  13. A Novel 99mTc-Labeled Molecular Probe for Tumor Angiogenesis Imaging in Hepatoma Xenografts Model: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qian; Yan, Ping; Wang, Rong Fu; Zhang, Chun Li; Li, Ling; Yin, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Visualization of tumor angiogenesis using radionuclide targeting provides important diagnostic information. In previous study, we proved that an arginine-arginine-leucine (RRL) peptide should be a tumor endothelial cell specific binding sequence. The overall aim of this study was to evaluate whether 99mTc-radiolabeled RRL could be noninvasively used for imaging of malignant tumors in vivo, and act as a new molecular probe targeting tumor angiogenesis. Methods The RRL peptide was designed and radiosynthesized with 99mTc by a one-step method. The radiolabeling efficiency and radiochemical purity were then characterized in vitro. 99mTc-RRL was injected intravenously in HepG2 xenograft-bearing BALB/c nude mice. Biodistribution and in vivo imaging were performed periodically. The relationship between tumor size and %ID uptake of 99mTc-RRL was also explored. Results The labeling efficiencies of 99mTc-RRL reached 76.9%±4.5% (n = 6) within 30–60 min at room temperature, and the radiochemical purity exceeded 96% after purification. In vitro stability experiment revealed the radiolabeled peptide was stable. Biodistribution data showed that 99mTc-RRL rapidly cleared from the blood and predominantly accumulated in the kidneys and tumor. The specific uptake of 99mTc-RRL in tumor was significantly higher than that of unlabeled RRL blocking and free pertechnetate control test after injection (p<0.05). The ratio of the tumor-to-muscle exceeded 6.5, tumor-to-liver reached 1.98 and tumor-to-blood reached 1.95. In planar gamma imaging study, the tumors were imaged clearly at 2–6 h after injection of 99mTc-RRL, whereas the tumor was not imaged clearly in blocking group. The tumor-to-muscle ratio of images with 99mTc-RRL was comparable with that of 18F-FDG PET images. Immunohistochemical analysis verified the excessive vasculature of tumor. There was a linear relationship between the tumor size and uptake of 99mTc-RRL with R2 = 0.821. Conclusion 99mTc-RRL can

  14. Quantitative analysis of relationships between irradiation parameters and the reproducibility of cyclotron-produced 99mTc yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguay, J.; Hou, X.; Buckley, K.; Schaffer, P.; Bénard, F.; Ruth, T. J.; Celler, A.

    2015-05-01

    Cyclotron production of 99mTc through the 100Mo(p,2n) 99mTc reaction channel is actively being investigated as an alternative to reactor-based 99Mo generation by nuclear fission of 235U. An exciting aspect of this approach is that it can be implemented using currently-existing cyclotron infrastructure to supplement, or potentially replace, conventional 99mTc production methods that are based on aging and increasingly unreliable nuclear reactors. Successful implementation will require consistent production of large quantities of high-radionuclidic-purity 99mTc. However, variations in proton beam currents and the thickness and isotopic composition of enriched 100Mo targets, in addition to other irradiation parameters, may degrade reproducibility of both radionuclidic purity and absolute 99mTc yields. The purpose of this article is to present a method for quantifying relationships between random variations in production parameters, including 100Mo target thicknesses and proton beam currents, and reproducibility of absolute 99mTc yields (defined as the end of bombardment (EOB) 99mTc activity). Using the concepts of linear error propagation and the theory of stochastic point processes, we derive a mathematical expression that quantifies the influence of variations in various irradiation parameters on yield reproducibility, quantified in terms of the coefficient of variation of the EOB 99mTc activity. The utility of the developed formalism is demonstrated with an example. We show that achieving less than 20% variability in 99mTc yields will require highly-reproducible target thicknesses and proton currents. These results are related to the service rate which is defined as the percentage of 99mTc production runs that meet the minimum daily requirement of one (or many) nuclear medicine departments. For example, we show that achieving service rates of 84.0%, 97.5% and 99.9% with 20% variations in target thicknesses requires producing on average 1.2, 1.5 and 1.9 times the

  15. Vesicoureteral Reflux Detected on Post-void Image of (99m)Tc MAG3 Renal Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Nizar, Naureen; Ahmed, Akhtar

    2013-05-01

    (99m)Tc MAG3 scintigraphic scan is sensitive at depicting focal parenchymal abnormalities and can be used for the measurement of overall renal function. We experienced a 5-year-old boy presenting with bilateral flank fain, intermittent urinary stream and dysuria. On the post-void delayed image of (99m)Tc MAG3 scintigraphic scan vesicoureteral reflux was detected in left non-functioning kidney, which was missed on voiding cystourethrography.

  16. Comparison of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC and HYNIC-TATE octreotide scintigraphy with FDG PET and 99mTc-MIBI in local recurrent or distant metastatic thyroid cancers.

    PubMed

    Sager, Sait; Kabasakal, Levent; Halac, Metin; Maecke, Helmut; Uslu, Lebriz; Önsel, Çetin; Kanmaz, Bedii

    2013-05-01

    There have been various studies for early diagnosis of local recurrent or distant metastatic thyroid cancers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical utility of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC and 99mTc-HYNIC-TATE, octreotide derivatives, to detect recurrences or distant metastases in 131I-negative thyroglobulin positive thyroid cancer patients and to compare the lesions with FDG PET and 99mTc-MIBI studies in the same patient group. Twenty differentiated thyroid cancer patients, 7 male and 13 female, mean age 54.6 ± 15.3 (range 13-78 years), were included in this study. Eighteen patients had papillary thyroid cancer and 2 had follicular thyroid cancer. Fifteen patients received HYNIC-TOC and 5 patients received HYNIC-TATE as a radiopharmaceutical. All patients underwent whole-body scan 1 and 4 hours after injection of octreotide derivatives and SPECT imagings were performed from the suspicious sites. The lesions that were seen in 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC and 99mTc-HYNIC-TATE studies were compared with 99mTc-MIBI and FDG-PET studies. Among 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC and 99mTc-HYNIC-TATE scintigraphies, 15 patient studies were evaluated as true positive (75%) and 5 were false negative (25%). The total number of lesions in octreotide scintigraphy was 48 in 20 patients. Of 20 patients, 19 had FDG-PET study, 15 of them were evaluated as true positive (78.9%), and 4 them were evaluated as false negative (21.1%). Total number of lesions in FDG PET was 74. 99mTc-MIBI study was positive in 11 patients (55%) and negative in 9 patients (45%). Total number of lesions in 99mTc-MIBI was 25. Technetium-labeled somatostatin receptor scintigraphy analogues HYNIC-TOC and HYNIC-TATE are useful imaging alternatives in somatostatin receptor expressing thyroid cancer patients. Radiolabeling is easy and they are readily available for routine use.

  17. In vivo behavior of 99mTc-fibrinogen and its potential as a thrombus-imaging agent.

    PubMed

    Harwig, S S; Harwig, J F; Coleman, R E; Welch, M J

    1976-01-01

    We have investigated the in vivo behavior of 99mTc-fibrinogen, prepared by a mild and efficient electrolytic method employing tin electrodes. The clearance mechanisms of this agent were studied, and its efficacy for imaging deep-vein thrombi in dogs with an Anger camera was determined. The 99mTc-fibrinogen preparations, which are stable in vitro, undergo partial rapid exchange of the technetium with other plasma proteins and with anions of the blood buffer system in vivo, resulting in an early drop in the percent of radioactivity associated with clottable protein. However, very little or no oxidation to pertechnetate occurs. The nonclottable material is much more rapidly cleared from the blood than the remaining 99mTc-fibrinogen, and the proportion of clottable protein activity increases with time. The fraction of 99mTc-fibrinogen that remains intact in vivo is biologically active and will incorporate into thrombi. Higher thrombus-to-blood activity ratios are obtained with 99mTc-fibrinogen than with radioidinated fibrinogen when both agents are injected into dogs 4 hr after induction of femoral vein thrombosis. Clearly delineated images of the thrombi are obtained, beginning about 2.5 hr after injection. Thus, 99mTc-fibrinogen may be of clinical use as a thrombus-imaging agent in patients under-going active thrombosis, especially in regions of high blood pool.

  18. Method for the production of {sup 99m}Tc compositions from {sup 99}Mo-containing materials

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, R.G.; Christian, J.D.; Grover, S.B.; Petti, D.A.; Terry, W.K.; Yoon, W.Y.

    1998-09-01

    An improved method is described for producing {sup 99m}Tc compositions from {sup 99}Mo compounds. {sup 100}Mo metal or {sup 100}MoO{sub 3} is irradiated with photons in a particle (electron) accelerator to ultimately produce {sup 99}MoO{sub 3}. This composition is then heated in a reaction chamber to form a pool of molten {sup 99}MoO{sub 3} with an optimum depth of 0.5--5 mm. A gaseous mixture thereafter evolves from the molten {sup 99}MoO{sub 3} which contains vaporized {sup 99}MoO{sub 3}, vaporized {sup 99m}TcO{sub 3}, and vaporized {sup 99m}TcO{sub 2}. This mixture is then combined with an oxidizing gas (O{sub 2(g)}) to generate a gaseous stream containing vaporized {sup 99m}Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7} and vaporized {sup 99}MoO{sub 3}. Next, the gaseous stream is cooled in a primary condensation stage in the reaction chamber to remove vaporized {sup 99}MoO{sub 3}. Cooling is undertaken at a specially-controlled rate to achieve maximum separation efficiency. The gaseous stream is then cooled in a sequential secondary condensation stage to convert vaporized {sup 99m}Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7} into a condensed {sup 99m}Tc-containing reaction product which is collected. 1 fig.

  19. (99m)Tc-daunorubicin a potential brain imaging and theranostic agent: synthesis, quality control, characterization, biodistribution and scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Faheem, A R; Bokhari, T H; Roohi, S; Mushtaq, A; Sohaib, M

    2013-01-01

    Daunorubicin is a chemotherapeutic antibiotic of the anthracycline family used for the treatment of many type of cancers when doxorubicin or other less effective drugs cannot be used. The aim of the present study was labeling of Daunorubicin with (99m)Tc, quality control, characterization, and biodistribution of radiolabeled Daunorubicin. Labeling efficiency was determined by ascending paper chromatography. All the experiments were performed at room temperature (25°C±2°C). More than 96% labeling efficiency with (99m)Tc was achieved at pH 5-6, 2-4 μg stannous chloride and 300 μg of ligand in few minutes. The characterization of the compound was performed by using HPLC, electrophoresis and shake flask assay. Electrophoresis indicates that Tc-99m-Daunorubicin is neutral, HPLC confirms the single specie of the labeled compound, while shake flask assay confirms high lipophilicity. The biodistribution studies of (99m)Tc-Daunorubicin were performed in rats. Significantly higher accumulation of (99m)Tc-Daunorubicin was seen in brain of normal rats. Scintigraphy was also indicating higher accumulation of (99m)Tc-Daunorubicin in brain of normal rabbits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Monitoring Apoptosis of Breast Cancer Xenograft After Paclitaxel Treatment With 99mTc-Labeled Duramycin SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Luo, Rui; Niu, Lei; Qiu, Fan; Fang, Wei; Fu, Tong; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Ying-Jian; Hua, Zi-Chun; Li, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to validate the feasibility of(99m)Tc-duramycin as a potential apoptosis probe for monitoring tumor response to paclitaxel in breast cancer xenografts. The binding of(99m)Tc-duramycin to phosphatidylethanolamine was validated in vitro using paclitaxel-treated human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells. Female BALB/c mice (n = 5) bearing breast cancer xenografts were randomized into 2 groups and intraperitoneally injected with 40 mg/kg paclitaxel or phosphate-buffered saline.(99m)Tc-duramycin (37-55.5 MBq) was injected at 72 hours posttreatment, and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography was performed at 2 hours postinjection. Apoptotic cells and activated caspase 3 in explanted tumor tissue were measured by flow cytometry. Cellular ultrastructural changes were assessed by light and transmission electron microscopy.(99m)Tc-duramycin with radiochemical purity of >90% exhibited rapid blood clearance and predominantly renal clearance. The tumor-to-muscle ratio in the paclitaxel-treated group (5.29 ± 0.62) was significantly higher than that in the control. Tumor volume was decreased dramatically, whereas tumor uptake of(99m)Tc-duramycin (ex vivo) significantly increased following paclitaxel treatment, which was consistent with apoptotic index, histological findings, and ultrastructural changes. Our data demonstrated the feasibility of(99m)Tc-duramycin for early detection of apoptosis after paclitaxel chemotherapy in breast carcinoma xenografts. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Gamma scintigraphy and biodistribution of (99m)Tc-cefotaxime sodium in preclinical models of bacterial infection and sterile inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ilem-Ozdemir, Derya; Asikoglu, Makbule; Ozkilic, Hayal; Yilmaz, Ferda; Hosgor-Limoncu, Mine; Ayhan, Semin

    2016-03-01

    (99m)Tc-cefotaxime sodium ((99m)Tc-CEF) was developed and standardized under varying conditions of reducing and antioxidant agent concentration, pH, radioactivity dose, and reducing agent type. Labeling studies were performed by changing the selected parameters one by one, and optimum labeling conditions were determined. After observing the conditions for maximum labeling efficiency and stability, lyophilized freeze dry kits were prepared accordingly. Simple method for radiolabeling of CEF with (99m)Tc has been developed and standardized. Labeling efficiency of (99m)Tc-CEF was assessed by both radio thin-layer chromatography and radio high-performance liquid chromatography and found higher than 90%. The labeled compound was found to be stable in saline and human serum up to 24 h. Two different freeze dry kits were developed and evaluated. Based on the data obtained from this study, both products were stable for 6 months with high labeling efficiency. The prepared cold kit was found sterile and pyrogen free. The bacterial infection and sterile inflammation imaging capacity of (99m)Tc-CEF was evaluated. Based on the in vivo studies, (99m)Tc-CEF has higher uptake in infected and inflamed thigh muscle than healthy thigh muscle. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. (99m)Tc-ixolaris targets glioblastoma-associated tissue factor: in vitro and pre-clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Thiago; Gomes, Tainá; Mizurini, Daniella M; Monteiro, Robson Q; König, Sandra; Francischetti, Ivo M B; Signoretti, Paula V P; Ramos, Isalira P; Gutfilen, Bianca; Souza, Sergio A L

    2015-08-01

    The clotting initiator protein tissue factor (TF) has recently been described as a potential target that can be exploited to image aggressive tumors. Ixolaris is a specific TF inhibitor that blocks tumor cell procoagulant activity and tumor growth. Herein we evaluated the ability of (99m)Tc-ixolaris to target tumor-derived TF using an orthotopic glioblastoma (GBM) model in mice. The right forebrains of Swiss mice were stereotactically inoculated with U87-MG human GBM cells. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on the resulting tumors after 35-45 days. The biodistribution of (99m)Tc-ixolaris was evaluated by semi-quantitative whole-body scintigraphy and a quantitative analysis of radioactivity in isolated organs. No (99m)Tc-ixolaris uptake was observed in brain of tumor-free mice, independently of the integrity of brain-blood barrier. In contrast, the presence of TF-expressing brain tumor masses determined a significant (99m)Tc-ixolaris uptake. (99m)Tc-ixolaris recognized TF-expressing GBM cells in vivo. Given the proposed role of TF in tumor progression, (99m)Tc-ixolaris is a promising radiopharmaceutical agent for quantifying cancer-associated TF in aggressive tumors, including GBM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of 99mTc-MIBI SPECT-CT in reoperation therapy of persistent hyperparathyroidism patients

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Lijie; Guo, Dandan; Liu, Jie; Yan, Jue

    2015-01-01

    To compare the role of 99mTc-MIBI SPECT-CT image and US in reoperation of persistent secondary hyperparathyroidism patients. A total of 8 persistent secondary hyperparathyroidism patients underwent parathyroidectomy. The sensitivity and accuracy of US and 99mTc-MIBI images before operation were determined. 9 of 14 surgical resection tissues from 8 persistent secondary hyperparathyroidism patients were confirmed to parathyroid hyperplasia. The results showed that the sensitivities were 77.8% and 100%, respectively, for US and 99mTc-MIBI SPECT-CT images. And the accuracies of US and 99mTc-MIBI dual time planar image and SPECT-CT were 50%, 78.6%, respectively. There was significantly difference between two procedures (P=0.021). The superior and inferior localization of glands were both detected by the ultrasound and scintigraphy. Two ectopic parathyroidism nodules were found by 99mTc-MIBI SPECT-CT imaging, while US provided no consistent findings. There was no significantly difference between two procedures (P=0.3). Although two cases of them were not confirmed by pathology, the iPTH of them (800 and 1429 respectively) were much higher than other four cases (<400) pg/ml. PTX is a safe and effective treatment for the patients with persistent SHPT. 99mTc-MIBI planar and SPECT-CT imaging may provide more helps for clinician’s localization the hyperparathyroidism glands accurately.

  4. The effect of maleate induced proximal tubular dysfunction on the renal handling of Tc-99m DMSA in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Provoost, A.P.; Van Aken, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the healthy kidney Tc-99m DMSA accumulates in the proximal tubular cells. Consequently, impairment of the reabsorptive function of these cells may alter the renal handling of this static renal imaging agent. The authors investigated in rats the effects of a sodiummaleate (Ma) (2mmol/kg iv) induced proximal tubular dysfunction on the renal accumulation and excretion of Tc-99m DMSA. Such a treatment results in a moderate fall of the glomerular filtration rate, glycosuria, aminoaciduria and a tubular proteinuria. In 7 adult male Wistar rats, Tc-99m DMSA scans were taken before Ma, on the day of treatment, and 1 week thereafter. The accumulation of Tc-99m DMSA in kidneys (Ki) and bladder (Bl) was determined at 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours after i.v. injection. The results, expressed as a percentage of the injected dose, are presented. The findings show that a reversible Ma induced impairment of the proximal reabsorptive capacity severely alters the renal tubular handling of Tc-99m DMSA. In contrast to the control situation, only a small fraction of the DMSA is retained in the kidney and the majority is transported directly to the urinary bladder. When similar alterations are observed in clinical Tc-99m DMSA scans, this may be an indication of an impairment of the proximal tubular function.

  5. Method for the production of .sup.99m Tc compositions from .sup.99 Mo-containing materials

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Ralph G.; Christian, Jerry D.; Grover, S. Blaine; Petti, David A.; Terry, William K.; Yoon, Woo Y.

    1998-01-01

    An improved method for producing .sup.99m Tc compositions from .sup.99 Mo compounds. .sup.100 Mo metal or .sup.100 MoO.sub.3 is irradiated with photons in a particle (electron) accelerator to ultimately produce .sup.99 MoO.sub.3. This composition is then heated in a reaction chamber to form a pool of molten .sup.99 MoO.sub.3 with an optimum depth of 0.5-5 mm. A gaseous mixture thereafter evolves from the molten .sup.99 MoO.sub.3 which contains vaporized .sup.99 MoO.sub.3, vaporized .sup.99m TcO.sub.3, and vaporized .sup.99m TcO.sub.2. This mixture is then combined with an oxidizing gas (O.sub.2(g)) to generate a gaseous stream containing vaporized .sup.99m Tc.sub.2 O.sub.7 and vaporized .sup.99 MoO.sub.3. Next, the gaseous stream is cooled in a primary condensation stage in the reaction chamber to remove vaporized .sup.99 MoO.sub.3. Cooling is undertaken at a specially-controlled rate to achieve maximum separation efficiency. The gaseous stream is then cooled in a sequential secondary condensation stage to convert vaporized .sup.99m Tc.sub.2 O.sub.7 into a condensed .sup.99m Tc-containing reaction product which is collected.

  6. Evaluation of lung epithelial permeability in the volatile substance abuse using Tc-99m DTPA aerosol scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Cayir, Derya; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha; Koca, Gokhan

    2011-10-01

    Chronic inhalant use is associated with significant toxic effects, including neurological, renal, hepatic, and pulmonary damage. However, there is a paucity of reports regarding respiratory complications in inhalant abusers. The aim of this study was to evaluate pulmonary epithelial permeability in the volatile substance abuse (VSA) using Tc-99m DTPA aerosol scintigraphy. This study included 18 patients with volatile substance abuse and 18 volunteer controls. All of patients and controls were smokers. Tc-99m DTPA aerosol scintigraphy was performed in all cases. Time-activity curves from each lung were generated and clearance half-time (T(1/2)) of Tc-99m DTPA were calculated. T(1/2) of whole lung was calculated as a mean of the T(1/2) of left and right lung. The T(1/2) values of Tc-99m DTPA clearance in the substance abusers were significantly decreased as compared to the control group with respective mean values of 28.86 ± 8.44, and 62.14 ± 26.12 min (p = 0.001). It was seen Tc-99m DTPA clearance from lung was faster as the duration of substance abuse was increased. Tc-99m DTPA pulmonary clearance is markedly accelerated in the volatile substance abuse. This suggests that inhalant abuse of substance may produce abnormalities in pulmonary alveolo-capillary membrane function.

  7. Streptozotocin (STZ) and schistosomiasis mansoni change the biodistribution of radiopharmaceutical sodium (99m)Tc-pertechnetate in mice.

    PubMed

    Góes, Vanessa Coelho; Neves, Renata Heisler; Arnóbio, Adriano; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Machado-Silva, José Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) is a radionuclide commonly used in nuclear medicine to obtain (99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals, which can be used to evaluate either physiological processes or changes related to diseases. It is also used in some experimental studies. Streptozotocin (STZ) administration to rodents causes lesions in very early stages and induces severe and permanent diabetes. Most morbidity of schistosomiasis mansoni is attributed to a granulomatous inflammatory response and associated liver fibrosis. This study was designed to investigate whether STZ administration and schistosomiasis modify the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium (99m)Tc-pertechnetate. Adult female mice were infected by exposure to 100Schistosoma mansoni cercariae (BH strain, Belo Horizonte, Brazil) and euthanized after nine weeks. STZ was administered by a single intraperitoneal injection of 100mg/kg body weight, 3 or 15days before euthanasia. Each animal received 100μl of sodium (Na) (99m)Tc-pertechnetate ((99m)TcO4(-)) (740kBq). The animals were divided into four groups: A, uninfected; B, infected; C, uninfected + STZ; and D, infected + STZ. Blood, brain, thyroid, heart, lungs, liver, spleen, pancreas and kidneys were removed. The radioactivity was counted and the percentage of the injected dose of Na(99m)TcO4 per gram of the organ (% ID/g) was determined. Three days after the STZ injection, there was a decrease of Na(99m)TcO4 uptake by the liver, lungs, pancreas and kidneys (p<0.05) in group D when compared with group A. After 15days, the decrease of Na(99m)TcO4 uptake occurred also in the brain, thyroid, heart, spleen and blood (p<0.05) in group D. We demonstrated modifications on the biodistribution of Na(99m)TcO4 due to STZ administration and schistosomiasis, possibly due to physiological alterations in some organs. The biodistribution of radiopharmaceutical Na(99m)TcO4 should be carefully evaluated in subjects with diabetes and/or schistosomiasis infection. Copyright

  8. Radionuclide imaging of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) using 99mTc-labeled neurotensin peptide 8-13.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaijun; An, Rui; Gao, Zairong; Zhang, Yongxue; Aruva, Mohan R

    2006-05-01

    To prepare 99m technetium (99mTc)-labeled neurotensin (NT) peptide and to evaluate the feasibility of imaging oncogene NT receptors overexpressed in human small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells. The NT analogue (Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) was synthesized such that histidine was attached at the N-terminus. The analogue was labeled with [99mTc(H2O)3(CO)3] at pH 7. 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) in vitro stability was determined by challenging it with 100 times the molar excess of DTPA, human serum albumin (HSA) and cysteine. The affinity, 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) binding to SCLC cell line NCI-H446, was studied in vitro. Biodistribution and imaging with 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) were performed at 4 and 12 h postinjection, and tissue distribution and imaging after receptor blocking were carried out at 4 h in nude mice bearing human SCLC tumor. Blood clearance was determined in normal mice. The affinity constant (Kd) of 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) to SCLC cells was 0.56 nmol/L. When challenged with 100 times the molar excess of DTPA, HSA or cysteine, more than 97+/-1.8% radioactivity remained as 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13). Tumor-to-muscle ratio was 3.35+/-1.01 at 4 h and 4.20+/-1.35 at 12 h postinjection. The excretory route of 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) was chiefly through the renal pathway. In the receptor-blocking group treated with unlabeled (Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13), tumor-to-muscle ratio at 4 h was 1.25+/-0.55. The results suggest that 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) specifically binds to the SCLC cells and made 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) a desirable compound for further studies in planar or SPECT imaging of oncogene receptors overexpressed in SCLC cells.

  9. Structural Investigation of Technetium-Diphosphonate Complex 99mTc-MDP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ling; Lin, Jian-guo; Ju, Xue-hai; Gong, Xue-dong; Luo, Shi-neng

    2011-06-01

    Density functional theory method has been employed to investigate the structures of the prototypical technetium-labeled diphosphonate complex 99mTc-MDP, where MDP represents methylenediphosphonic acid. A total of 14 trial structures were generated by allowing for the geometric, conformational, charge, and spin isomerism. Based on the optimized structures and calculated energies at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level, two stable isomers were determined for the title complex. And they were further studied systematically in comparison with the experimental structure. The basis sets 6-31G*(LANL2DZ for Tc), 6-31G*(cc-pVDZ-pp for Tc), and DGDZVP have also been employed in combination with the B3LYP functional to study the basis set effect on the geometries of isomers. The optimized structures agree well with the available experimental data, and the bond lengths are more sensitive to the basis set than the bond angles. The charge distributions were studied by the Mulliken population analysis and natural bond orbital analysis. The results reflect a significant ligand-to-metal electron donation.

  10. Significance of /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid splenic image in malignant melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Berjian, R.A.; Parthasarathy, K.L.; Didolkar, M.S.; Bakshi, S.P.; Moore, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur-colloid (TcSC) spleen scan findings in patients with malignant melanoma, a retrospective study was undertaken. Eighty-one patients with histologically proven malignant melanoma who received treatment in Roswell Park during a five-year period were included in this study. The scans were analyzed for spleen size, differential uptake of the tracer in liver and spleen, and for the presence of metastases in these two organs. These data were compared with stage of disease, survival, and autopsy findings. Significant correlation was found between the splenic size as measured on the scintiscan and at autopsy examination. The spleen size was found to be normal in 92% of the patients in early melanoma. The median survival of patients who had a normal-sized spleen by scan criteria was found to be longer than those who had splenomegaly. No significant difference in survival was noted between the patients with and without augmented splenic uptake of TcSC. Only a small number (17.7%) of patients with augmented splenic uptake had splenic metastases; hence, the possible role of immunological factors was considered.

  11. Tc-99m-diethyl-IDA imaging: clinical evaluation in jaundiced patients

    SciTech Connect

    Pauwels, S.; Piret, L.; Schoutens, A.; Vandermoten, G.; Beckers, C.

    1980-11-01

    Hepatobiliary imaging with Tc-99m-N,..cap alpha..-(2,6-diethylacetanilide)-iminodiacetic acid (Tc-diethyl-IDA) was performed in 91 jaundiced patients with documented hepatobiliary damage and serum total bilirubin up to 35 mg/dl. There were 56 patients with obstructive jaundice and 35 with hepatocellular disease. Correct discrimination between hepatocellular and obstructive jaundice was possible with an overall accuracy of 90%. Agreement with the final clinical diagnosis was obtained in 97% of patients with hepatocellular disease, and in 86% of patients with obstructive jaundice. The reliability of the test was inversely related to the serum bilirubin levels below 10 mg/dl to 83% for bilirubin between 10 and 20 mg/dl. Above 20 mg/dl, the demonstration of a mechanical obstruction was possible in only one out of the four patients with obstructive jaundice. The high predictive values of the test illustrate that Tc-diethyl-IDA imaging constitutes a reliable method to demonstrate an obstructive cause for the jaundice as long as the bilirubin level remains below 20 mg/dl.

  12. [Current developments in SPECT/CT systems using 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals].

    PubMed

    Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; de Murphy, Consuelo Arteaga

    2007-01-01

    The 3 foundations of nuclear medicine are radiation conscious personnel, specific radiopharmaceuticals and equipment. The trend in molecular radiopharmacy is to develop new radiopharmaceuticals targeting peptides and receptors. 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals give important clinical and molecular information especially in endocrinology, oncology and cardiology. The basic equipment has relied on crystal scintillation detector gamma cameras and the obtained images represent organ function provided by the specific radiopharmaceutical. Gamma cameras for single emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be added to an X-ray computed tomography (CT) equipment to form a hybrid (SPECT/ CT). The system is coupled to computer algorithms and special software to acquire and process the separate studies and fuse the two images to give a 3-D image of organ function plus anatomy. The new semiconductor or solid state detectors are a big improvement in commercial hybrid scintillation cameras and micro-SPECT/CT. Fused images obtained with SPECT/CT have been very useful in almost all medical areas and play an important role in preclinical research. The aim of this work is to present the current status and future trends of SPECT/CT systems in the clinical practice of nuclear medicine using technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals. The development of molecular, functional and genetic imaging tools aided by new technology and SPECT/CT image fusion will enhance accurate diagnoses, and understanding of molecular mechanisms of disease and their respective response to radiopharmaceutical therapy.

  13. Acute osteomyelitis in children: combined Tc-99m and Ga-67 imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, J.S.; Rosenfield, N.S.; Hoffer, P.B.; Downing, D.

    1986-03-01

    This retrospective study was done to determine the value of combined bone (technetium-99m methylene-diphosphonate) and gallium-67 citrate imaging in selected children with complicated clinical situations. Thirty-one children were evaluated for suspected osteomyelitis by bone scan followed within 4 days by a gallium scan. These 31 children represented a subpopulation in whom the Tc-99m scan is known to be potentially unreliable in diagnosing acute osteomyelitis. Eight children had acute osteomyelitis by strict criteria, while 23 did not. The bone scan successfully identified five of the eight with osteomyelitis but was positive in ten of the other 23. The gallium scan correctly identified all eight with osteomyelitis but was positive in seven of the other 23. The gallium scan was significantly less specific when the suspected lesion was in the extremities compared with central locations; causes of false-positive gallium scans included fracture and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Combined gallium and bone scanning increased accuracy of the scintigraphic diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis. Both tests may, however, be abnormal in conditions other than osteomyelitis. These findings emphasize the importance of correlating all imaging studies in detection of osteomyelitis.

  14. Radionuclide imaging in myocardial sarcoidosis. Demonstration of myocardial uptake of /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate and gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, M.B.; Sandler, M.P.; Sacks, G.A.; Kronenberg, M.W.; Powers, T.A.

    1983-03-01

    A patient had severe congestive cardiomyopathy secondary to myocardial sarcoidosis. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by radionuclide ventriculography, /sup 201/Tl, /sup 67/Ga, and /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate (TcPYP) scintigraphy. Myocardial TcPYP uptake has not been reported previously in sarcoidosis. In this patient, TcPYP was as useful as gallium scanning and thallium imaging in documenting the myocardial process.

  15. Intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis: appearance on /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid marrow scan

    SciTech Connect

    Bronn, L.J.; Paquelet, J.R.; Tetalman, M.R.

    1980-06-01

    Imaging of the bone marrow by radionuclide scanning was performed using colloids, which are phagocytized by the reticuloendothelial cells of the marrow, or radioiron, which is incorporated into reticulocytes. The use of the former radiopharmaceutical is based on the assumption, generally valid except in aplastic states or after irradiation, that the distribution of hematopoietic and reticuloendothelial tissue in the marrow is similar. Regardless of the method used, active adult marrow is normally distributed only in the axial skeleton and proximal humeri and femurs. Marrow imaging has been used in the evaluation of myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, lymphoma, aplastic states, malignancy metastatic to marrow, and hemolytic anemia. We report a case of thalassemia major in which the diagnosis of intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis was confirmed with the /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid bone marrow scan.

  16. Incidental thyroid 99mTc-MDP uptake in a patient affected by differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Albano, Domenico; Magri, Gian Carlo; Treglia, Giorgio; Bertagna, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of incidental uptake of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate in the thyroid in a 62-year-old female with a history of breast cancer treated with quadrantectomy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, who underwent total-body-bone scintigraphy during follow up. Planar scintigraphy was followed by neck SPECT-CT that demonstrated an area of increased tracer uptake in the neck at the left lobe of the thyroid. Neck ultrasonography showed a nodule corresponding to SPECT-CT finding and the ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration documented the presence of papillary carcinoma. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy and ipsilateral lymphadenectomy; histological examination confirmed the presence of a papillary carcinoma and the patient underwent ablation therapy with iodine-131.

  17. 99mTc-trimethyl-BrIDA scintigraphy in HIV-related cholangiopathy.

    PubMed

    Bair, H J; Behr, T; Rubbert, A; Becker, W; Wolf, F

    1995-12-01

    A HIV-infected 37-year-old man with diffuse mid-abdominal pain and elevated liver enzymes was sequentially studied by sonography, computed tomography (CT), 99mTc-trimethyl-BrIDA scintigraphy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). CT and sonography did not lead to a final diagnosis. Cholescintigraphy showed signs of cholecystitis and sclerosing cholangitis with intra- and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation. These findings could be confirmed by ERCP, rendering HIV-associated cholepathy probable. Cytomegalovirus infection was demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction from bile fluid and the presence of cryptosporidia infection in a histology specimen isolated by ERCP. Therefore, biliary scintigraphy seems promising for screening for HIV-associated cholangio- and cholecystopathy, being less invasive and less bothering for the patient than ERCP.

  18. Abnormal /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scans mistaken for common duct obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Kipper, M.S.; Witztum, K.; Greenspan, G.; Kan, M.

    1982-07-01

    /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scans were obtained in three patients with acute abdominal pain. The appearance of the scans suggested partial common duct obstruction. Two patients underwent surgery. One had acute appendicitis and the second had infarction of the distal ileum. In both cases, the gallbladder and biliary tract were normal. The third patient had been treated with morphine, which is known to increase biliary tract pressure and may cause contraction of the sphincter of Oddi. An ultrasound study of the gallbladder was normal and all symptoms resolved within 24 hours. Subsequently, three additional patients without biliary disease have been seen who had similar hepatobiliary scans. All three had received meperidine prior to the study. It is concluded that acute abdominal disease or the administration of morphine sulfate or meperidine can result in a scan pattern suggesting partial distal common duct obstruction in the absence of gallbladder or biliary tract disease.

  19. Dumbbell Gallbladder Cholecystitis on Tc-99m Diisopropyliminodiacetic acid Hepatobiliary Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Asif Ali; Rodrigue, Paul David; Hussain, Aun; Taiyebi, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of a 79-year-old immunocompromised female admitted for abdominal pain and sepsis, who had an abdominal computed tomography (CT) showing distal gallbladder fundus wall thickening, pericholecystic edema, and a right posteroinferior hepatic abscess. Subsequent hepatobiliary scintigraphy with Tc-99m diisopropyliminodiacetic acid showed gallbladder filling of the proximal gallbladder fundus, yet no radiotracer filling of the distal gallbladder fundus. Further correlation with the initial CT showed a partial gallbladder stricture and a resultant altered morphology resembling a dumbbell-shaped gallbladder. Percutaneous cholangiogram also confirmed this dumbbell morphology. Nonfilling of radiotracer into the distal end of the dumbbell gallbladder correlating with CT findings of focal gallbladder inflammation indicated that there was a focal inflammation suggesting a distal dumbbell gallbladder cholecystitis. This case demonstrates a unique finding of focal inflammatory pathology involving an anatomic variant - the dumbbell-shaped gallbladder, and the challenges this anatomic variant presents in hepatobiliary scintigraphy image interpretation. PMID:28242983

  20. Scintigraphic diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding with /sup 99/mTc-labeled blood-pool agents

    SciTech Connect

    Miskowiak, J.; Nielsen, S.L.; Munck, O.

    1981-01-01

    Abdominal scintigraphy with /sup 99/mTc-labeled albumin or red blood cells was used in 68 patients to localize gastrointestinal bleeding or confirm that it had stopped. Acute, active bleeding was identified in 33 patients; characteristic patterns of bleeding from the stomach, biliary passages, small intestine, and colon are shown. Sensitivity was 0.86 (95% confidence limits, 0.57-0.98) and specificity was 1.0 (95% confidence limits, 0.82-1.0) in 33 patients who had scintigraphy and endoscopy performed in succession. Abdominal scintigraphy appears to be a valuable supplement to conventional diagnostic methods. In upper gastrointestinal bleeding, scintigraphy should be considered when endoscopy fails. In lower intestinal bleeding, scintigraphy should be the method of choice.

  1. Ozone-induced changes in the pulmonary clearance of (99m)Tc-DTPA in man

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrl, H.R.; Vincent, L.M.; Kowalsky, R.J.; Horstman, D.H.; O'Neil, J.J.

    1988-05-01

    Ozone is a respiratory irritant that has been shown in animals to increase the premeability of the respiratory epithelium. In the study the authors have recently reported that respiratory epithelial permeability was similarly affected in eight healthy non-smoking young men exposed to ozone (ARRD, 135 (1987) 1124-8). Permeability was evaluated by determining the pulmonary clearance of inhaled aerosolized 99mTc-DTPA with sequential posterior lung imaging by a computer-assisted gamma camera. In a randomized crossover design, 16 young men were exposed for 2 h to purified air and 0.4 ppm ozone while performing intermittent high intensity treadmill exercise; forced vital capacity (FVC) was measured before and at the end of exposures. The results demonstrate that ozone exposure increased respiratory epithelial permeability. Such an increase may be a manifestation of direct ozone-induced epithelial-cell injury, lung inflammation, or both.

  2. Use of (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO in the diagnosis of primary degenerative dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Testa, H.J.; Snowden, J.S.; Neary, D.; Shields, R.A.; Burjan, A.W.; Prescott, M.C.; Northen, B.; Goulding, P.

    1988-12-01

    The clinical value of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the differential diagnosis of dementia due to cerebral atrophy was evaluated by comparing the pattern of distribution (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO in three dementing conditions. Imaging was carried out in 26 patients with suspected Alzheimer's disease, 14 with dementia of the frontal-lobe type, and 13 with progressive supranuclear palsy. Images were evaluated and reported without knowledge of clinical diagnosis with respect to regions of reduced uptake of tracer. Reduced uptake in the posterior cerebral hemispheres was characteristic of Alzheimer's disease, while selective anterior hemisphere abnormalities characterized both dementia of the frontal-lobe type and progressive supranuclear palsy. The latter conditions could be distinguished on the basis of the appearance of integrity of the rim of the frontal cortex. The technique has an important role in the differentiation of degenerative dementias.

  3. Localization of myocardial disorders other than infarction with 99mTc-labeled phosphate agents.

    PubMed

    Perez, L A; Hayt, D B; Freeman, L M

    1976-04-01

    Myocardial studies with 99mTc-labeled phosphate agents were obtained in 20 patients without demonstrable cardiovascular disease, 24 patients with unstable arteriosclerotic heart disease (ASHD) without acute infarction, and six patients with myocardiopathy. The patients without cardiovascular disease showed no localization or tracer; the patients with unstable ASHD and without acute infarction showed nonfocal ill-defined accumulation of tracer; and the patients with myocardiopathy showed diffuse accummulation of tracer throughout the confines of an enlarged cardiac outline. Careful evaluation of both the distribution and intensity of the activity, in conjunction with the clinical picture, allows differentiation among these disease processes. Since ischemic areas around infarcted tissue may show increased activity, the value of this technique for sizing acute myocardial infarction may be limited.

  4. Relative decreased splenic uptake of Tc-99m-sulfur colloid in patients with pancreatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tatum, J.L.; Burke, T.S.; Fratkin, M.J.; Sharpe, A.R. Jr.; Goodrich, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    Relative spleen/liver activity ratio was determined from posterior projection images using a photodensitometric method. Ratios from scans of 22 patients with proven pancreatic carcinoma (12 from rectilinear scans and 10 from scintillation camera images) were determined and compared to studies from patients documented as normal and to randomly selected liver/spleen imaging studies which had been previously interpreted as normal. The mean ratio from the pancreatic carcinoma group was significantly lower than the means of the respective normal groups (p(t) less than .0001 for rectilinear scans and p(t) less than .001 for scintigrams). There was no significant difference between the means of the proven normal and randomly selected normal groups or between the two pancreatic carcinoma groups. Splenic vascular alteration is discussed as a possible reason for decreased splenic distribution of Tc-99m-sulfur colloid in this patient group.

  5. [99mTc-MAA peritoneal scintigraphy in pleuroperitoneal comunication in peritoneal dialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Hernández Martínez, A C; Marín Ferrer, M D; Coronado Poggio, M; Escabias Del Pozo, C; Coya Viña, J; Martín Curto, L

    2010-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis is a fully-contrasted alternative for the treatment of end-stage renal disease although it is not exempt of complications. Peritonitis and exit-site infections are among the most frequent complications found. Pleural effusion secondary to pleuroperitoneal communication (PPC) is a serious and uncommon complication in these patients. We present the case of a 50-year old man diagnosed of end-stage renal disease undergoing treatment with peritoneal dialysis who presented progressive dyspnea and right pleural effusion. The peritoneal scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-MAA makes it possible to confirm communication of intraperitoneal dialysis fluid to the pleural cavity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  6. Liver cysts associated with polycystic kidney disease: Role of Tc-99m hepatobiliary imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Salam, M.; Keeffe, E.B. )

    1989-11-01

    A 42-year-old woman with multiple hepatic cysts associated with autosomal polycystic kidney disease was evaluated for abdominal discomfort and new liver test abnormalities following blind aspirations of her liver cysts. Tc-99m mebrofenin hepatobiliary imaging revealed a markedly enlarged liver with multiple photon deficient areas, focal retention of isotope in the left hepatic ductal system, no accumulation of radionuclide in cysts, and an unusual medial gallbladder position. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography confirmed all of these findings. Abdominal discomfort and liver biochemical abnormalities were attributed to cyst compression of nearby structures, including bile ducts. Hepatobiliary imaging is useful to exclude communication of bile ducts with hepatic cysts, to detect incidental abnormalities such as partial bile duct obstruction, and to distinguish the gallbladder from nearby hepatic cysts.

  7. [Standardization of gastric emptying scintigraphy with egg white labeled with 99mTc-sulfur colloid].

    PubMed

    Contreras-Contreras, Keren; Villanueva-Pérez, Rosa María; Menez-Díaz, Diana Graciela; Iwasaki-Otake, Laura Elena; González-Díaz, Jorge Iván; Mendoza-Vásquez, Raúl Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la gammagrafía de vaciamiento gástrico (VG) es el estándar de oro para determinar el porcentaje de VG. La estandarización del método permite la obtención de resultados reproducibles. La dieta estandarizada se compone de un sándwich de albúmina de huevo en polvo reconstituida y marcada con 99mTc sulfuro coloidal (SC). El objetivo fue estandarizar y determinar el porcentaje de vaciamiento gástrico tras la ingesta del sándwich de albúmina de huevo y compararlo con el porcentaje de ingesta de una hamburguesa, ambos marcados con 99mTc sulfuro coloidal. Método: se incluyeron 30 pacientes a los que se les realizó estudio de gammagrafía de vaciamiento gástrico con las dos dietas propuestas. Resultados: los porcentajes de vaciamiento y retención con ambos tipos de alimentos fueron similares a la hora y a las dos horas; sin embargo, hubo diferencias significativas a las tres horas con un valor de p = 0.26, calculado mediante t de Student para muestras independientes. Conclusiones: los tiempos de vaciamiento gástrico con ambas dietas estuvieron dentro de rangos normales. La dieta estandarizada con albúmina de huevo reconstituida aporta ventajas en cuanto al estudio de las posibles alteraciones de la motilidad gástrica, como sus características organolépticas y de volumen.

  8. Retention of {sup 99m}{Tc}-bicisate in the human brain after intracarotid injection

    SciTech Connect

    Friberg, L.; Lassen, N.A.; Andersen, A.R.; Dam, M.

    1994-01-01

    {sup 99m}{Tc}-bicisate (ECD) was injected as a bolus into the internal carotid artery, and cerebral uptake and retention were recorded with fast-rotating single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) equipment in four patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy. Quantitative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured tomographically with the {sup 133}Xe inhalation technique. The authors applied a three-compartment kinetic model and algorithms modified from a previous analysis of {sup 99m}{Tc} d,l-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxide (HM-PAO) kinetics. The bicisate brain uptake and retention curve was very similar to that of HM-PAO, and it can be described by a triexponential function including an initial steep component representing the vascular transmitted spike, a second less steep component representing back-diffusion from brain tissue to blood, and a third, very slow component, representing the very slow loss due to incomplete retention of the deesterified hydrophilic metabolites. Computerized curve-fitting on data from three patients gave average kinetic values for the first-passage (unilateral) extraction of E = 0.60 (range, 0.59-0.61); the overall retained fraction of the tracer supplied was R = 0.44 (0.43-0.45), and the conversion/clearance ratio was {alpha} = k{sub 3}/k{sub 2} = 2.59 (2.38-2.77). This {alpha} is higher than that for HM-PAO, and therefore bicisate uptake as a function of blood flow is more linear than in HM-PAO. Less correction for backdiffusion is therefore needed. From 1 to 24 h there was an average loss of hydrophilic tracer of 3.5%/h, but the late distribution images were essentially unchanged over time, pointing to practically the same rate of loss in all regions. 18 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Diagnosis of Raynaud's phenomenon by (99m)Tc-pertechnetate hand perfusion scintigraphy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pavlov-Dolijanovic, Slavica; Petrovic, Nebojsa; Vujasinovic Stupar, Nada; Damjanov, Nemanja; Radunovic, Goran; Babic, Dragan; Sobic-Saranovic, Dragana; Artiko, Vera

    2016-12-01

    We assess the usefulness of (99m)Tc-pertechnetate hand perfusion scintigraphy in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (RP). The study population consisted of 18 patients with primary RP, 25 patients with secondary RP within systemic sclerosis (SSc), and ten healthy individuals. Gamma camera dynamic first-pass study during the first 60 s and a static scintigraphy after 5 min were recorded following a bolus injection of (99m)Tc-pertechnetate via a cubital vein. Regions of interest were drawn on the summed images around the fingers and the palmar region. The fingers-to-palm ratios were then calculated. The mean fingers-to-palm ratio for dynamic study (blood flow) was 0.58 ± 0.19 for the healthy group, 0.45 ± 0.18 for the primary RP, and 0.43 ± 0.21 for the SSc patients. The mean fingers-to-palm ratio for static study (blood pool) was 0.44 ± 0.06 for the healthy group, 0.42 ± 0.06 for the primary RP, and 0.36 ± 0.07 for the SSc patients. Analysis of variance showed these differences to be significant (p = 0.039 from blood flow and p = 0.004 from blood pool). The receiver operating characteristic curve showed sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 60% when using cutoff values of 0.40 for blood flow and sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 70% when using cutoff values of 0.37 for blood pool. Our method is able to differentiate between patients with normal and those with abnormal microcirculation of the hands. Dynamic study separates the healthy subjects from patients with RP, while static study separates primary from secondary RP.

  10. Complicating osteomyelitis imaged with Tc-99m MDP, In-111 granulocytes, and Ga-67 citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Schauwecker, D.S.; Park, H.M.; Mock, B.H.; Burt, R.W.; Kernick, C.B.; Ruoff, A.C. III; Sinn, H.J.; Wellman, H.N.; Vamc, R.L.R.

    1984-01-01

    Gallium-67 and 3-phase bone scan (3P) studies, though very sensitive, are not very specific in evaluating suspected osteomyelitis (OM) which is superimposed upon other diseases that cause increased bone turnover (IBT). The authors compared In-111 acetylacetone labeled granulocytes (In-111) GRAN) with 3P in 57 such patients; 29 of these patients had Ga-67 studies as well. In-111 GRAN had a sensitivity of 100% in acute OM, 62% in chronic OM, and a specificity of 96%. Gallium-67 ruled out OM when the study was normal; it diagnosed OM when the relative uptake of Ga-67 exceeded the uptake of Tc-99m MDP, or when the skeletal distribution of Ga-67 was different from that of the TC-99m MDP. Unfortunately, these criteria were met in only 28% of the subjects. The simple approach of increased Ga-67 activity meant OM gave a sensitivity of 100%, but an unacceptable specificity of 38%. Chronic cellulitis or long-standing decubiti were seldom detected by IN-111 GRAN. Clinically obvious soft tissue infections or cellulitis were seen with In-111 GRAN 27% of the time, and 17% of the time with Ga-67. The authors conclude that when added to 3P, In-111 GRAN provided more useful information than did Ga-67. A combination of all 3 studies did not significantly increase the diagnostic yield. Performing In-111 GRAN without 3P in patients with IBT is not recommended since the 3P provides anatomic information that aids in the differentiation of OM from soft tissue infections.

  11. New series of Tc-99m-labeled hepatobiliary tracers: N'-acyl- and N'-sulfonyl ethylenediamine-N,N-diacetic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Karube, Y.; Kono, A.; Maeda, T.; Ohya, M.; Matsushima, Y.

    1981-07-01

    Various Tc-99m-labeled N'-substituted derivatives of ethylenediamine-N,N-diacetic acid (EDDA) are evaluated as hepatobiliary imaging agents. N'-substituted aromatic acyl and aromatic sulfonyl derivatives of EDDA, labeled with Tc-99m, were administered to rabbits and golden hamsters, and the distribution indicated clearance by the hepatobiliary system. N'-aromatic sulfonyl EDDAs were labeled with Tc-99m by the SnCl/sub 2/ method with more than 99% yield. Clearance of Tc-99m-p-toluenesulfonyl EDDA from the blood and the liver was as rapid as that of Tc-99m N-(2,6-diethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl)iminodiacetic acid (Tc-99m diethyl IDA). Substitution of a bulky group at the aromatic ring in Tc-99m benzene-sulfonyl EDDA lowered urinary excretion. It is concluded that the sulfonyl EDDAs provide a fruitful source for Tc-99m-labeled hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals.

  12. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 with anterior mediastinal parathyroid adenoma: successful localization using Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT/CT

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Lim; Kim, Sung Hoon; Lee, Sohee

    2016-01-01

    The most common manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is hyperparathyroidism. Treatment of hyperparathyroidism in MEN patients is surgical removal of the parathyroid glands, however ectopic parathyroid gland is challenging for treatment. A 51-year-old female, the eldest of 3 MEN1 sisters, had hyperparathyroidism with ectopic parathyroid adenoma in the mediastinal para-aortic region, which was detected by technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). She underwent total parathyroidectomy with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery on an anterior mediastinal mass. Anterior mediastinal parathyroid adenoma in MEN1 patients is rare. Precise localization of an ectopic parathyroid gland with Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT/CT can lead to successful treatment of hyperparathyroidism. This is the first reported case in the literature of mediastinal parathyroid adenoma in MEN1 patient visualized by Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT/CT. PMID:27904855

  13. Surfactant protein B labelled with [(99m)Tc(CO)3(H20)3](+) retains biological activity in vitro..

    PubMed

    Amann, A; Decristoforo, C; Ott, I; Wenger, M; Bader, D; Alberto, R; Putz, G

    2001-04-01

    Labelling of the hydrophobic surfactant protein B (SP-B) under non-reducing conditions was achieved with [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)(H2O)(3)](+) prepared according to Alberto et al. (JACS, 1998). The binding of radioactivity was protein-specific, with an overall radiochemical yield of 50%. Gel electrophoresis and Westernblot analyses showed no structural changes of SP-B. Spreading properties and surface activity of (99m)Tc-labelled SP-B in an air/water interface coincided with those of unlabelled SP-B. (99m)Tc-SP-B seems to be a promising agent to observe surfactant spreading under clinical conditions. Therapeutic results for surfactant instillation in clinical trials are conflicting. The (99m)Tc-labelling of surfactant would allow to observe its spreading in the lung under clinical conditions. [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)(H2O)(3)](+) was prepared as described by Alberto et al. (JACS, 1998). This carbonyl complex was used for the direct labelling of surfactant protein B (SP-B) under non-reductive conditions by direct incubation with SP-B at elevated temperature followed by extraction into CHCl(3)/MeOH. The hydrophobic protein SP-B was labelled with [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)(H2O)(3)](+). An overall radiochemical yield of about 50% was achieved. HPLC-analysis revealed a single radiolabelled species according to UV elution profile of SP-B, supported by paper and size exclusion chromatography. Gel electrophoresis confirmed that the dimer structure of SP-B was preserved. Spreading properties of (99m)Tc-labelled SP-B in an air/water interface coincided with those of unlabelled SP-B. Spreading of radioactivity observed in a glass trough of 26 cm x 27 cm with a gamma camera was completed during the first 7-9 sec after application of (99m)Tc-labelled SP-B. The corresponding decrease of surface tension to 45 mN/m at the peripheral surface tension sensors took 7 sec +/- 2 sec (MEAN +/- STD; n = 3). Direct and specific (99m)Tc-labelling of the hydrophobic surfactant protein B was achieved using the [(99m)Tc

  14. Use of /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid for assessment of renal function in dogs with suspected renal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, D.R.; Twardock, A.R.; Badertscher, R.R. II; Daniel, G.B.; Dugan, S.J.

    1988-04-15

    The effectiveness of technetium /sup 99m/-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc DTPA) to assess renal function in 13 dogs with suspected renal disease was evaluated. Glomerular filtration rates (actual GFR) were determined on the basis of endogenous creatinine clearance. Predicted GFR were determined by using /sup 99m/Tc DTPA within 72 hours after the determination of creatinine clearance. The percentage of an IV administered dose of /sup 99m/Tc DTPA in the kidneys (percentage dose) was determined. Two equations were used to calculate predicted GFR, which were derived from previously reported linear regression analysis of inulin (In) and creatinine (Cr) GFR vs percentage dose /sup 99m/Tc DTPA in dog kidneys. The correlations of actual GFR vs predicted GFR (In) and actual GFR vs predicted GFR (Cr) were both r = 0.92. The dogs' mean actual GFR was 1.73 +/- 1.35 ml/min/kg. Their mean predicted GFR (In) and predicted GFR (Cr) were 1.92 +/- 1.42 ml/min/kg and 1.85 +/- 1.27 ml/min/kg, respectively. Therefore, /sup 99m/Tc DTPA can be used with high accuracy as an agent to predict GFR in dogs with suspected renal disease. The procedure for determining GFR by use of nuclear medicine was rapid and noninvasive and appeared to induce little stress in the animals evaluated.

  15. Preparation and biological evaluation of (99m)Tc-ropinirole as a novel radiopharmaceutical for brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Motaleb, M A; Ibrahem, I T; Ayoub, V R; Geneidi, A S

    2016-04-01

    Noninvasive brain imaging is a process that allows scientists and physicians to view and monitor the areas of the brain. The aim of this study was to formulate a novel radiopharmaceutical for the detection of brain disorders at early stages in susceptible patients. (99m) Tc-ropinirole was prepared by the direct complexation of ropinirole with technetium-99m. The results showed that the radiochemical yield (99m) Tc-ropinirole was 92 ± 2.87% and the radiochemical yield was evaluated by paper chromatography and HPLC. In vitro studies showed that the formed complex was stable for up to 6 h. In vivo uptake of (99m) Tc-ropinirole in the brain was 4.87 ± 0.15% injected dose/g organ at 30 min post-injection, which cleared from the brain with time till it reaches 2.3% at 2 h post-injection indicating that the brain uptake of (99m) Tc-ropinirole is higher than that of the commercially available (99m) Tc-HMPAO, which is 2.25% at 30 min. Pre-dosing mice with cold ropinirole reduced the brain uptake to 0.26 ± 0.01% injected dose/g organ, so this confirms the high specificity and selectivity of this radiotracer for the assessment of the dopamine receptors.

  16. Pulmonary 99mTc-DTPA aerosol clearance and survival in usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP)

    PubMed Central

    Mogulkoc, N; Brutsche, M; Bishop, P; Murby, B; Greaves, M; Horrocks, A; Wilson, M; McCullough, C; Prescott, M; Egan, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Clearance of inhaled technetium 99m-labelled diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) from the lungs is a potential indicator of disease progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).
METHODS—We prospectively analysed the usefulness of this technique for predicting survival in 106 non-smoking patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern IPF diagnosed by high resolution CT (HRCT) scanning or histological examination (M/F 65/41, mean (SD) age 61 (11) years). DTPA clearance was analysed according to both mono-exponential and bi-exponential models. Half times for the fast (t0.5F) and slow (t0.5S) components of clearance, the percentage contribution of the fast component (fF), and half time for mono-exponential approximation to the early part of the clearance curve (t0.5) were calculated.
RESULTS—The patients had substantially faster t0.5 (mean 23.9 (9.6) minutes) than normal values (>45 minutes). Thirty seven patients (35%) died during follow up (median 15 months). Univariate Cox regression analysis identified significant predictors of survival as age, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC), % predicted TLC, carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO), % predicted TLCO, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2), oxygen saturation, t0.5F, and HRCT fibrosis score. Multiple stepwise Cox regression analysis identified t0.5F (p=0.03, hazard ratio 0.747, 95% CI 0.578 to 0.964), % predicted TLC (p=0.02, hazard ratio 0.976, 95% CI 0.956 to 0.995), % predicted TLCO (p=0.003, hazard ratio 0.960, 95% CI 0.935 to 0.986), and age (p=0.003, hazard ratio 1.062, 95% CI 1.021 to 1.104) as independent predictors of survival.
CONCLUSION—These data suggest that 99mTc-DTPA clearance t0.5F measurement may predict survival in patients with UIP pattern IPF.

 PMID:11713353

  17. Comparing the hybrid fluorescent-radioactive tracer indocyanine green-99mTc-nanocolloid with 99mTc-nanocolloid for sentinel node identification: a validation study using lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Oscar R; Buckle, Tessa; Vermeeren, Lenka; Klop, W Martin C; Balm, Alfons J M; van der Poel, Henk G; van Rhijn, Bas W; Horenblas, Simon; Nieweg, Omgo E; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B; Valdés Olmos, Renato A

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the lymphoscintigraphic drainage patterns of a hybrid sentinel node tracer consisting of the fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid with the drainage pattern of (99m)Tc-nanocolloid alone, the current standard tracer in many European countries. Twenty-five patients with a melanoma in the head and neck region (n = 10), a melanoma on the trunk (n = 6), or penile carcinoma (n = 9) who were scheduled for sentinel node biopsy were prospectively included. First, the standard (99m)Tc-nanocolloid procedure was performed. After injection at the lesion site, lymphoscintigraphy was performed with a 10-min dynamic study and static planar images at 10 min and 2 h after injection, followed by SPECT/CT. The same scintigraphic procedure was repeated after injection of hybrid ICG-(99m)Tc-nanocolloid the same afternoon in 10 patients or the next morning in 15 patients. The paired images of both injections were evaluated, and count rates in the sentinel nodes were calculated and compared. Sentinel nodes were surgically localized using blue dye, a γ-ray detection probe, a portable γ-camera, and a fluorescence camera. Lymphatic drainage was visualized in all 25 patients using (99m)Tc-nanocolloid, leading to the identification of 66 sentinel nodes in total. These same sentinel nodes were also identified during the second scintigraphic procedure with ICG-(99m)Tc-nanocolloid. Moreover, a high correlation between the radioactive counting rates in the sentinel nodes of both scintigraphic studies was observed (mean R(2) = 0.83). Intraoperatively (4-23 h after the second injection), all preoperatively identified sentinel nodes could be localized using radio- and fluorescence guidance combined. In total, 95% of the sentinel nodes could be intraoperatively visualized by means of fluorescence imaging, whereas merely 54% stained blue. Ex vivo, all radioactive sentinel nodes were fluorescent and vice versa. No adverse reactions

  18. Evaluation of Simultaneous Dual-radioisotope SPECT Imaging Using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and 99mTc-tetrofosmin

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Mochiki, Mizuki; Koyama, Keiko; Ino, Toshihiko; Yamaji, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Use of a positron emission tomography (PET)/single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system facilitates the simultaneous acquisition of images with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and technetium (99mTc)-tetrofosmin. However, 18F has a short half-life, and 511 keV Compton-scattered photons are detected in the 99mTc energy window. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the consequences of these facts. Methods: The crosstalk correction for images in the 99mTc energy window involved the dual energy window (DEW) subtraction method. In phantom studies, changes in the count of uniform parts in a phantom (due to attenuation from decay), signal detectability in the hot-rod part of the phantom, and the defect contrast ratio in a cardiac phantom were examined. Results: For 18F-FDG in the step-and-shoot mode, nearly a 9% difference was observed in the count of projection data between the start and end positions of acquisition in the uniform part of the phantom. Based on the findings, the detectability of 12 mm hot rods was relatively poor. In the continuous acquisition mode, the count difference was corrected, and detectability of the hot rods was improved. The crosstalk from 18F to the 99mTc energy window was approximately 13%. In the cardiac phantom, the defect contrast in 99mTc images from simultaneous dual-radionuclide acquisition was improved by approximately 9% after DEW correction; the contrast after correction was similar to acquisition with 99mTc alone. Conclusion: Based on the findings, the continuous mode is useful for 18F-FDG acquisition, and DEW crosstalk correction is necessary for 99mTc-tetrofosmin imaging. PMID:27408894

  19. Development of Kit Formulations for 99mTcN-MPO: A Cationic Radiotracer for Myocardial Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yumin; Ji, Shundong; Tomaselli, Elena; Liu, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a kit formulation for 99mTcN-MPO to support its clinical evaluations as a SPECT radiotracer. Radiolabeling studies were performed using three different formulations (two-vial formulation and single-vial formulations with/without SnCl2) to explore the factors influencing radiochemical purity (RCP) of 99mTcN-MPO. We found that the most important factor affecting the RCP of 99mTcN-MPO was the purity of PNP5. 99mTcN-MPO was prepared >98% RCP (n = 20) using the two-vial formulation. For single-vial formulations with/without SnCl2, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) is particularly useful as a stabilizer for PNP5. The RCP of 99mTcN-MPO was 95 – 98% using β-CD, but its RCP was only 90 – 93% with γ-CD. It seems that PNP5 fits better into the inner cavity of β-CD, which forms more stable inclusion complex than γ-CD in the single-vial formulations. The results from biodistribution and imaging studies in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats clearly demonstrated biological equivalence of three different formulations. SPECT data suggested that high quality images could be obtained at 0 – 30 min post-injection without significant interference from the liver radioactivity. Considering the ease for 99mTc-labeling and high RCP of 99mTcN-MPO, the non-SnCl2 single-vial formulation is an attractive choice for future clinical studies. PMID:25070025

  20. Power Doppler sonography versus Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy for diagnosing acute pyelonephritis in children: are these two methods comparable?

    PubMed

    Bykov, Sergey; Chervinsky, Leonid; Smolkin, Vladislav; Halevi, Rafi; Garty, Izak

    2003-03-01

    PURPOSE This study assessed the role of renal power Doppler ultrasonography (PDU) to identify acute pyelonephritis (APN) and to determine whether PDU can replace Tc-99m DMSA renal scintigraphy in the diagnosis of APN in children. METHODS A prospective study was conducted in 40 infants and young children (78 kidneys were evaluated) with a mean age of 25.9 months (range, 1 to 68 months) who were hospitalized with a first episode of high fever and bacteruria, possibly APN. All children were examined by PDU and Tc-99m DMSA within the first 3 days after admission. Patients with congenital abnormalities, hydronephrosis, and urinary reflux were excluded. RESULTS Twenty-seven of the 78 kidneys appeared abnormal on Tc-99m DMSA, and 20 of them were abnormal on PDU. Fifty-one of 78 kidneys were normal on Tc-99m DMSA, and 3 of 51 appeared diseased on PDU. The accuracy of PDU was 87%, sensitivity was 74%, and specificity was 94%. The positive predictive and negative predictive values were both 87%. When considering the numbers of lesions in 27 kidneys with positive Tc-99m DMSA studies (38 lesions), PDU did not disclose 16 lesions (false-negative results). Thus, the sensitivity of PDU for diagnosing lesions of APN decreased to 58%. CONCLUSIONS A positive PDU finding should obviate the use of Tc-99m DMSA in patients thought to have possible APN. However, because of a large number of false-negative results (26%) and underestimation of the number of pyelonephritic lesions (low sensitivity of 58%), PDU cannot replace Tc-99m DMSA in the diagnosis of APN in children.

  1. The effect of reperfusion and hyperemia on the biodistribution of the myocardial imaging agent, Tc-99m TBI

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, B.L.; Campbell, C.I.; Lister-James, J.; Jones, A.G.; Kloner, R.A.

    1985-05-01

    The behavior of Tc-99m t-butylisonitrile (TBI) was studied in the dog at rest and under conditions of hyperemia and reperfusion. After permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD), the correlation between the relative myocardial concentration of Tc-99m TBI and regional myocardial blood flow (MBF) was excellent (y=0.97x-1.03 (r=0.98)). In a dog model of transient hyperemia, Tc-99m TBI underestimated MBF (53 +- 10% at 3.0 +- 0.2 times normal flow and 41 +- 10% at 6.1 +- 4 times normal flow). When Tc-99m TBI was injected 3 min before reperfusion of the LAD in dogs sacrificed 10, 30 and 60 min after reperfusion, TBI and T1-201 concentrations (as a percentage of concentration in normal tissue) were 75% and 65% at 10 min after reperfusion; 79% and 73% at 30 min; and 38% and 31% at 60 min in regions where flow was reduced to 38%, 15% and 10% of normal MBF prior to reperfusion. There was no significant reduction in the rate of reperfusion when Tc-99m TBI was injected 10 min prior to reperfusion. When TBI was injected directly into the canine LAD, washout was slow (86% of maximum at 50 min and 79% at 120 min after injection. The authors conclude that Tc-99m TBI reflects regional MBF accurately in ischemic and normal resting myocardium and underestimates MBF at high values. The rate of myocardial redistribution for Tc-99m TBI after reperfusion in the animal model is similar to that for T1-201.

  2. Neuroblastoma: Imaging evaluation by sequential Tc-99m MDP, I-131 MIBG, and Ga-67 citrate studies

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, I.; Friedman, A.; Sandler, M.P.; Kedar, A. )

    1989-07-01

    Fourteen children with histopathologically confirmed neuroblastoma underwent sequential correlative imaging studies using I-131 MIBG, Tc-99m MDP, and Ga-67 citrate during various stages of the disease. Of the patients 86% showed I-131 MIBG accumulation in the primary tumoral site, whereas 71% showed Tc-99m MDP and 79% Ga-67 citrate uptake. In 86% at least one of the two latter radiopharmaceuticals concentrated in the primary tumor. The use of all three radiopharmaceuticals raised the detection rate to 93%. Of the osseous or extraosseous metastases 100% were detected by Tc-99m MDP studies. The I-131 MIBG studies were positive in 71% of the osseous metastases and in 70% of the extraosseous metastases. No Ga-67 citrate uptake was demonstrated in osseous metastases, although one extraosseous lung metastasis concentrated this radiopharmaceutical. Tc-99m MDP bone imaging was the best method for diagnosing metastatic spread of the disease and for monitoring the results of treatment. Primary tumor uptake was best indicated by I-131 MIBG. Both Ga-67 citrate and I-131 MIBG were superior to Tc-99m MDP with regard to accurately demonstrating the extent of primary tumors. Only Tc-99m MDP indicated the relationship of these tumors to the kidneys and neighboring osseous structures, providing early screening of kidney compression. Ga-67 citrate study was mainly indicated in tumors with catecholamine depletion, which failed to concentrate the other two radiopharmaceuticals. I-131 MIBG proved especially useful in detecting neuroblastoma with negative Tc-99m MDP and Ga-67 citrate studies and also proved to be helpful with those cases in which I-131 MIBG was planned for therapy. The following strategy is suggested for evaluating neuroblastoma.

  3. Permeability of ferret trachea in vitro to {sup 99m}{Tc}-DTPA and [{sup 14}C]antipyrine

    SciTech Connect

    Hanafi, Z.; Webber, S.E.; Widdicombe, J.G.

    1994-09-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) and vasoactive drugs were tested on permeability of ferret trachea in vitro by measuring fluxes of {sup 99m}{Tc}-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ({sup 99m}{Tc}-DTPA; hydrophilic) and [{sup 14}C]antipyrine ([{sup 14}C]AP; lipophilic) across the tracheal wall. Tracheae were bathed on both sides with Krebs-Henseleit buffer, with luminal buffer containing either {sup 99m}{Tc}-DTPA or [{sup 14}C]AP. Luminal and abluminal radioactivities, potential difference, and tracheal smooth muscle tone were measured. Baseline {sup 99m}{Tc}-DTPA and [{sup 14}C]AP permeability coefficients were - 4.7 {+-} 0.6 (SE) x 10{sup {minus}7} and -2.2 {+-} 0.1 x 10{sup {minus}5} cm/s, respectively. PAF (10 {mu}M) increased permeability to {sup 99m}{Tc}-DTPA to -35.3 {+-} 7.6 x 10{sup {minus}7} cm/s (P < 0.05), but permeability to [{sup 14}C]AP did not change, suggesting that paracellular but not transcellular transport was affected. Abluminal and luminal applications of methacholine (MCh, 20 {mu}M), phenylephrine (PE, 100 {mu}M), and albuterol (Alb, 100 {mu}M) caused no change in permeability to {sup 99m}{Tc}-DTPA before or after exposure to luminal PAF, but abluminal histamine (Hist, 10 {mu}M) significantly increased permeability. Abluminal Hist decreased permeability to [{sup 14}C]AP before and after exposure to PAF. MCh, PE, and Hist increased smooth muscle tone; Alb and PAF had no effect. Thus, only PAF and Hist altered permeability to {sup 99m}{Tc}-DTPA, and MCh, PE, and Hist changed smooth muscle tone. Tracheal permeability changes were greater for the hydrophilic than for the lipophilic agent. 37 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy using 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Czepczyński, Rafał; Parisella, Maria Gemma; Kosowicz, Jerzy; Mikołajczak, Renata; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna; Gryczyńska, Maria; Sowiński, Jerzy; Signore, Alberto

    2007-10-01

    Several new somatostatin analogues have been developed for the diagnosis and therapy of different tumours. Since somatostatin receptors are often over-expressed in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), the aim of our study was to evaluate the utility of scintigraphy with the somatostatin analogue (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC in MTC in comparison with other diagnostic techniques. Forty-five patients with MTC, aged 14-83 years, were investigated. Scintigraphy using (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC (Tektrotyd) was performed 2 and 4 h post injection of 740 MBq (20 mCi) of the tracer. Other imaging techniques were also applied and analysed in individual cases (ultrasonography, computed tomography, (99m)Tc(V)-DMSA, (131)I-MIBG, (99m)Tc-MDP, (111)In-DTPA-octreotide and (18)F-FDG-PET) and compared with (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC. In group 1 (eight patients before thyroidectomy), uptake of the tracer was found in the primary tumours. In group 2 (six patients with remission), a false positive result was found in one patient; in the remaining five patients, no pathological foci were visualised. In group 3 (31 patients with post-surgical hypercalcitoninaemia), scintigraphy was true positive in 23 patients (74.2%): uptake in the thyroid bed was found in five patients, in the lymph nodes in 18 and in bone metastases in four. Using (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy, the overall sensitivity was 79.5%, specificity 83.3%, accuracy 80.0%, positive predictive value 96.9% and negative predictive value 38.5%. (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC is clinically useful for scintigraphy in the follow-up of patients with MTC. It can be used in clinical practice for preoperative evaluation, for localisation of local recurrence or distant metastases and particularly for therapy decision making.

  5. Tc-99m radio-guided completion thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Karyağar, Savaş; Karatepe, Oğuzhan; Bender, Ömer; Mulazımoğlu, Mehmet; Özpaçaci, Tevfik; Uyanık, Ercan; Karyağar, Sevda S; Yalçın, Orhan; Özdenkaya, Yaşar

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether or not radio-guided surgery has any beneficial effects on completion thyroidectomy (CT) and the associated complication rates. Patients and Methods: Twenty-seven patients were scheduled for CT, for thyroid carcinoma, from December 2004 to June 2005, and were included in the study. All the patients had had initial thyroid surgery in other centers and been referred to our clinic for CT. Operation findings and the effectiveness of Tc-99m radio-guided CT were analyzed. Results: The intraoperative mean ratio of thyroid activity to background activity counted with a gamma probe was 1.3 ± 0.3. Average operation timing was 74 ± 9 minutes. Postoperatively, no residual tissue was detected in any of the patients with ultrasonography and thyroid scintigraphy. In the first postoperative month, serum TSH level was 61 ± 16.4 mIU / L, when preoperatively it was 7.3 ± 3.1 mIU / L (P < 0.001). In the postoperative period, one patient experienced temporary hypoparathyroidism (3.9%). Permanent hypoparathyroidism or recurrent laryngeal nerve damage was not detected in any patient. Conclusion: Tc-99 radio-guided CT is a reliable surgical method, which provides the detection and removal of residual thyroid tissues with minimal complications. PMID:20844663

  6. Separation of [(99m)Tc]pertechnetate and molybdate using polyethylene glycol coated C18 and C30 resins.

    PubMed

    Andersson, J D; Wilson, J S; Romaniuk, J A; McEwan, A J B; Abrams, D N; McQuarrie, S A; Gagnon, K

    2016-04-01

    Hydrophobic adsorbents such as C18 and C30 were coated with PEG and subsequently used for the separation of Mo/Tc. The most effective resin for adsorbing PEG was the C18-U resin, which demonstrated a coating capacity of 97.6±2.8mg PEG per g of resin. The ability to adsorb pertechnetate was proportional to the amount of PEG coated on the hydrophobic resin. The [(99m)Tc]pertechnetate recovery during the separation of cyclotron produced (99m)Tc from (100)Mo was 91.8±0.3% (n=2). The resultant product met relevant USP monograph specifications.

  7. Synthesis of a novel antiestrogen radioligand (99mTc-TOR-DTPA).

    PubMed

    Yurt, Ayfer; Muftuler, Fazilet Zumrut B; Unak, Perihan; Yolcular, Seniha; Acar, Cigdem; Enginar, Huseyin

    2009-12-01

    This study was aimed at developing a hydrophilic radioligand as an antiestrogen drug derivative to be used for imaging breast tumors. Toremifene [TOR; 4-chloro-1,2-diphenyl-1-(4-(2-(N,N-di-methylamino)ethoxy)phenyl)-1-butene, as citrate salt] was selected as the starting material to be derived, since it has been used extensively as an antiestrogen drug for treatment and prevention of human breast cancer. An antiestrogen drug derivative, TOR attached to diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), was synthesized by two experimental treatments, including a purification and a reaction step. We described the synthesis of this TOR derivative, (3Z)-4-{4-[2-(dimethylamino) ethoxy] phenyl}-3,4-diphenylbut-3-en-1-ylN,N-bis[2-(2,6-dioxomorpholin-4-yl)ethyl]glycinate (TOR-DTPA), in detail. Mass spectroscopy confirmed the expected structures. TOR-DTPA was labeled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc), using stannous chloride (SnCl(2)) as the reducing agent. Biodistribution studies were performed on female Albino Wistar rats. Quality controls, radiochemical yield, and stability studies were done utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography, radioelectrophoresis, thin-layer chromatography, and thin-layer radiochromatography methods. The synthesized compound was found to be hydrophilic and anionic, with high stability for the duration of the testing period in vitro. The results indicated that the radiolabeled compound has estrogen-receptor specificity, especially for the breast tissue. It is highly possible that this compound could be used for imaging breast tumors as a novel technetium-labeled hydrophilic estrogen derivative radioligand.

  8. Free craniotomy versus osteoplastic craniotomy, assessment of flap viability using 99mTC MDP SPECT.

    PubMed

    Shelef, Ilan; Golan, Haim; Merkin, Vladimir; Melamed, Israel; Benifla, Mony

    2016-09-01

    There are currently two accepted neurosurgical methods to perform a bony flap. In an osteoplastic flap, the flap is attached to surrounding muscle. In a free flap, the flap is not attached to adjacent tissues. The former is less common due to its complexity and the extensive time required for the surgery; yet the rate of infection is significantly lower, a clear explanation for which is unknown. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the osteoplastic flap acts as a live implant that resumes its blood flow and metabolic activity; contrasting with the free flap, which does not have sufficient blood flow, and therefore acts as a foreign body. Seven patients who underwent craniotomy with osteoplastic flaps and five with free flaps had planar bone and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans of the skull at 3-7days postoperative, after injection of the radioisotope, 99m-technetium-methylene diphosphonate (99m-Tc-MDP). We compared radioactive uptake as a measure of metabolic activity between osteoplastic and free flaps. Mean normalized radioactive uptakes in the centers of the flaps, calculated as the ratios of uptakes in the flap centers to uptakes in normal contralateral bone, were [mean: 1.7 (SD: 0.8)] and [0.6 (0.1)] for the osteoplastic and free flap groups respectively and were [2.4 (0.8)] and [1.3 (0.4)] in the borders of the flaps. Our analyses suggest that in craniotomy, the use of an osteoplastic flap, in contrast to free flap, retains bone viability.

  9. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC in management of patients with head and neck somatostatin receptor positive tumors.

    PubMed

    Trogrlic, Mate; Tezak, Stanko

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study was to determine the value of technetium-99m-hydrazinonicotinyl-Tyr3-octreotide (99mTc-ED-DA/HYNIC-TOC) in patients with somatostatin receptor (SSR) positive tumors of head and neck region. A total number of 16 patients were enrolled in this study. Planar whole body (WB) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images were acquired at 2 and 4 hours after the injection of approximately 670 MBq of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC. Additional single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) images of the head and neck region were acquired at 4h post tracer injection. Clinical and imaging follow up were taken as the reference standard. There were 10 female and 6 male patients of age 57.7 ± 12.9 years (58.5; 32-78) years. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) was TP in 13 patients, TN in two and FP in one. Follow up period for SRS was 31.1 ± 19.4 (29; 2-63) months. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy provided additional information in 50% of patients, with impact on patient management in the same percentage of patients. Distant metastases were found in nine out of 16 patients (56%). 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC SRS had sensitivity of 100% (75.3-100%), specificity of 66.7% (9.4-99.2%), accuracy of 93.7%, positive predictive value of 92.9% (66.1-99.8%), and negative predictive value of 100% (15.8-100%). Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy using 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC is very useful imaging method in the evalu-ation of patients with SSR positive tumors of head and neck region.

  10. The presence of sodium nitrate in generator eluate decreases the radiochemical purity of 99mTc-sestamibi.

    PubMed

    Métayé, Thierry; Rosenberg, Thierry; Guilhot, Joëlle; Bouin-Pineau, Marie-Hélène; Perdrisot, Rémy

    2012-09-01

    A high radiochemical purity (RCP) is recommended for radiopharmaceutical compounds used in the clinical practice of nuclear medicine. However, some preparations of (99m)Tc-sestamibi contain excess impurities (>6%). To understand the origin of these impurities, we investigated the effect of sodium nitrate on the RCP of sestamibi preparations by testing eluates from 3 commercially available (99m)Tc generators. The sestamibi kits (Stamicis) were reconstituted with (99m)Tc eluate from nitrate-containing wet-column (NCWC), nitrate-free wet-column (NFWC), and nitrate-free dry-column (NFDC) generators. Sodium nitrate was 0.05 mg/mL in eluates from the NCWC generators. The RCP was determined using aluminum oxide sheets as the stationary phase and absolute ethanol as the mobile phase. Succimer, tetrofosmin, oxidronate, exametazine, albumin nanocolloid, and soluble albumin were also tested for their RCP values with eluates from the 3 different (99m)Tc generators. The RCP assessment of (99m)Tc-sestamibi was performed on 127 Stamicis preparations. Significantly lower RCP values were found for Stamicis kits prepared with the NCWC generator than for Stamicis prepared with the NFWC (P < 0.0001) and NFDC (P < 0.0001) generators. The number of Stamicis preparations with an RCP under 94% was greater with the NCWC generator (32 of 53 kits) than with the NFDC (2 of 51 kits) or NFWC (0 of 23 kits) generator. Furthermore, the addition of a 0.05 mg/mL concentration of nitrate in NFWC generator eluates significantly decreased the RCP of the Stamicis preparation. In the absence of nitrate in (99m)Tc eluate, no difference was observed between the RCP values of Stamicis kits prepared with the NFWC and NFDC generators. The (99m)Tc impurities generated by nitrates did not modify the quality of myocardial imaging (normal heart-to-lung ratio, 2.2), probably because these impurities are not in the heart field of view. No other tested (99m)Tc-radiopharmaceutical interfered with nitrates. We

  11. Preparation of (99m)Tc carbonyl DTPA-bevacizumab and its bioevaluation in a melanoma model.

    PubMed

    Kameswaran, Mythili; Pandey, Usha; Sarma, Haladhar Dev; Samuel, Grace

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the potential of (99m)Tc carbonyl labeled DTPA-bevacizumab as a tumor imaging agent. Bevacizumab (Avastin) is a humanized monoclonal antibody (MoAb) that inhibits the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Bevacizumab was conjugated with paraisothiocyanatobenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (p-SCN-Bn-DTPA) and subsequently radiolabeled with (99m)Tc via the (99m)Tc carbonyl synthon. The radioconjugate after purification was characterized by SE-HPLC and its in vitro stability was determined by histidine challenge experiments. Biodistribution studies to determine the uptake by tumors were carried out in melanoma model. The radiochemical purity of (99m)Tc carbonyl labeled antibody was >98 %. The radiolabeled antibody exhibited good stability in the histidine challenge experiments up to 24 h when stored at 37 °C. Biodistribution studies in mice bearing melanoma showed significant tumor uptake (6.9 ± 2.2 % ID/g at 24 h p.i.) which was reduced to 1.6 ± 0.4 % ID/g on co-injection with cold Bevacizumab. The (99m)Tc carbonyl-DTPA-bevacizumab conjugate with good radiochemical purity, excellent stability and good specificity for VEGF indicates its potential as a radioimmunoscintigraphy agent for various cancers.

  12. Comparison of Tl-201 renal uptake with Tc-99m DTPA angiorenography in patients with hypertension. Measures of renal asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, G A; Powe, J E; Wesolowski, C A; Mattar, A G

    1992-06-01

    Renal uptake of Tl-201 reflects renal perfusion and may have a role in defining renal asymmetry in patients with hypertension who are referred for myocardial scintigraphy. The authors compared two methods of quantitating differential renal uptake of Tl-201, with similar data obtained from the angiographic and renal uptake (RU) phases of Tc-99m DTPA scintigraphy in 35 patients with hypertension. For Tl-201, asymmetry in renal counts was quantitated based on a simple outline technique or on interpolative background subtraction of 5-minute posterior images. Inter-observer and intra-observer variability among duplicate measurements were lower for Tl-201, particularly with interpolative background subtraction, than for Tc-99m DTPA. Renal/background ratios were similar for Tl-201 and RU-phase Tc-99m DTPA images when considering liver, spleen, or inter-renal regions as background; however, paraspinal uptake was relatively higher with Tl-201 (P less than 0.01). Qualitatively, renal asymmetry scores with the two radiotracers agreed (r = 0.89, blinded readings by four observers), although asymmetry was more marked with Tl-201 (P = 0.06). Measurements with Tl-201 agreed with both phases of Tc-99m DTPA (r = 0.96 to 0.98), but interpolative background subtraction systematically yielded greater inter-renal asymmetry than RU (P less than 0.01), reflecting the qualitative impression. Thus, ancillary Tl-201 imaging reflects differences between the kidneys in a fashion similar but not identical to Tc-99m DTPA scintigraphy.

  13. Simultaneous Tc-99m/Tl-201 imaging using energy-based estimation of the spatial distributions of contaminant photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, S. C.; English, R. J.; Syravanh, C.; Tow, D. E.; Zimmerman, R. E.; Chan, K. H.; Kijewski, M. F.

    1995-08-01

    The advantages of simultaneous acquisition of Tc-99m and Tl-201 myocardial perfusion SPECT images can be fully realized only if the effects of the Tc-99m agent can be accurately removed from the Tl-201 image. We and others have previously reported simultaneous dual-isotope techniques for cardiac studies which make use of a third energy-window to estimate the Tc-99m scatter to be subtracted from the TI-201 window. We have recently demonstrated, however, using a Monte Carlo program which simulates all details of the photon transport, that lead X-rays produced in the collimator may also contribute significantly to contamination in the Tl-201 window. The spatial distribution of the Tc-99m scattered photons differs from that of the lead X-rays. Therefore, we modified our correction technique so that, at each projection angle, the contaminant image to be subtracted from the image in the Tl-201 window was estimated as a linear combination of a scatter-window (90-110 keV) image, blurred by a 2D Gaussian filter, and the Tc-99m photopeak image, blurred by a different Gaussian filter. For simulated data which included 'liver' activity and non-uniform 'lung' attenuation, the improved dual-window subtraction technique provided a more accurate estimate of the true TI-201 image, with less image noise, than did the single-window correction.

  14. Feasibility studies towards future self-sufficient supply of the 99Mo-99mTc isotopes with Japanese accelerators

    PubMed Central

    NAKAI, Kozi; TAKAHASHI, Naruto; HATAZAWA, Jun; SHINOHARA, Atsushi; HAYASHI, Yoshihiko; IKEDA, Hayato; KANAI, Yasukazu; WATABE, Tadashi; FUKUDA, Mitsuhiro; HATANAKA, Kichiji

    2014-01-01

    In order to establish a self-sufficient supply of 99mTc, we studied feasibilities to produce its parent nucleus, 99Mo, using Japanese accelerators. The daughter nucleus, 99mTc, is indispensable for medical diagnosis. 99Mo has so far been imported from abroad, which is separated from fission products generated in nuclear reactors using enriched 235U fuel. We investigated 99mTc production possibilities based on the following three scenarios: (1) 99Mo production by the (n, 2n) reaction by spallation neutrons at the J-PARC injector, LINAC; (2) 99Mo production by the (p, pn) reaction at Ep = 50–80 MeV proton at the RCNP cyclotron; (3) 99mTc direct production with a 20 MeV proton beam from the PET cyclotron. Among these three scenarios, scenario (1) is for a scheme on a global scale, scenario (2) works in a local area, and both cases take a long time for negotiations. Scenario (3) is attractive because we can use nearly 50 PET cyclotrons in Japan for 99mTc production. We here consider both the advantages and disadvantages among the three scenarios by taking account of the Japanese accelerator situation. PMID:25504230

  15. The study of interaction of modified fatty acid with {sup 99m}Tc in alcoholic media

    SciTech Connect

    Skuridin, V. S.; Stasyuk, E. S.; Varlamova, N. V.; Nesterov, E. A.; Sadkin, V. L.; Rogov, A. S. Ilina, E. A.; Larionova, L. A.; Villa, N. E.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V.; Sazonova, S. I.

    2016-08-02

    The paper presents the results of laboratory research aimed at the development of methods of synthesis of new radiodiagnostic agents based on modified fatty acid labelled with technetium-99m intended for scintigraphic evaluation of myocardial metabolism. In particular, the interaction of substance with {sup 99m}Tc in alcoholic media and the use of ethanol as solvent in the synthesis of the radiopharmaceutical were studied.

  16. Evaluation of 99mTc-peptide-ZHER2:342 Affibody® molecule for in vivo molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J-M; Zhao, X-M; Ren, X-C; Wang, N; Han, J-Y; Jia, L-Z

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop an improved method for labelling ZHER2:342 with Technetium-99m (99mTc) using Gly-(d) Ala-Gly-Gly as a chelator and to evaluate the feasibility of its use for visualization of HER2 expression in vivo. Methods: The Affibody® molecule ZHER2:342 was synthesized by Fmoc/tBu solid phase synthesis. The chelator, Gly-(d) Ala-Gly-Gly, was introduced by manual synthesis as the N-terminal extensions of ZHER2:342. ZHER2:342 was labelled with 99mTc. The labelling efficiency, radiochemical purity and in vitro stability of the labelled molecular probe were analysed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Biodistribution and molecular imaging using 99mTc-peptide-ZHER2:342 were performed. Results: The molecular probe was successfully synthesized and labelled with 99mTc with the labelling efficiency of 98.10 ± 1.73% (n = 5). The radiolabelled molecular probe remained highly stable in vitro. The molecular imaging showed high uptake in HER2-expressing SKOV-3 xenografts, whereas the MDA-MB-231 xenografts with low HER2 expression were not clearly imaged at any time after the injection of 99mTc-peptide-ZHER2:342. The predominant clearance pathway for 99mTc-peptide-ZHER2:342 was through the kidneys. Conculsion: 99mTc-peptide-ZHER2:342 using Gly-(d) Ala-Gly-Gly as a chelator is a promising tracer agent with favourable biodistribution and imaging properties that may be developed as a radiopharmaceutical for the detection of HER2-positive malignant tumours. Advances in knowledge: The 99mTc-peptide-ZHER2:342 molecular probe is a promising tracer agent, and the results in this study provide a foundation for future development of protocols for earlier visual detection of cancer in the clinical setting. PMID:24273251

  17. Comparison of 99mTc-UBI 29-41, 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin, 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin dithiocarbamate and 111In-biotin for targeting experimental Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli foreign-body infections: an ex-vivo study.

    PubMed

    Auletta, Sveva; Baldoni, Daniela; Varani, Michela; Galli, Filippo; Hajar, Iman A; Duatti, Adriano; Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; Trampuz, Andrej; Signore, Alberto

    2017-08-28

    Diagnosis of implant-associated infection is challenging. Several radiopharmaceuticals have been described but direct comparisons are limited. Here we compared in vitro and in an animal model 99mTc-UBI, 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin, 99mTcN-CiproCS2 and 111In-DTPA-biotin for targeting E. coli (ATCC 25922) and S. aureus (ATCC 43335). Stability controls were performed with the labelled radiopharmaceuticals during 6 h in saline and serum. The in vitro binding to viable or killed bacteria was evaluated at 37 °C and 4 °C. For in vivo studies, Teflon cages were subcutaneously implanted in mice, followed by percutaneous infection. Biodistribution of i.v. injected radiolabelled radiopharmaceuticals were evaluated during 24 h in cages and dissected tissues. Labelling efficiency of all radiopharmaceuticals ranged between 94% and 98%, with high stability both in saline and in human serum. In vitro binding assays displayed a rapid but poor bacterial binding for all tested agents. Similar binding kinetic occurred also with heat-killed and ethanol-killed bacteria. In the tissue cage model, infection was detected at different time points: 99mTc-UBI and 99mTcN-CiproCS2 showed higher infected cage/sterile cage ratio at 24 h for both E. coli and S. aureus; 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin at 24 h for both E. coli and at 4 h for S. aureus; 111In-DTPA-biotin accumulates faster in both E. coli and S. aureus infected cages. 99mTc-UBI, 99mTcN-CiproCS2 showed poor in vitro binding but good in vivo binding to E. coli only. 111In-DTPA-biotin showed poor in vitro binding but good in vivo binding to S. aureus and poor to E. coli. 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin showed poor in vitro binding but good in vivo binding to all tested bacteria. The mechanism of accumulation in infected sites remains to be elucidated.

  18. Incidental pathologic extracardiac uptake of (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin in myocardial perfusion imaging: Importance of patient background evaluation.

    PubMed

    González García, B; García Vicente, A M; Palomar Muñoz, A; Poblete García, V M; Jiménez Londoño, G A; Soriano Castrejón, A M

    2015-01-01

    (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin single photon emission computed tomography ((99m)Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT) has an important role in the assessment of coronary artery disease. Despite being its main indication, this study does not only evaluate myocardial perfusion, but much more. Moreover, during the SPECT acquisition, the field area covered includes many important organs of the thorax and abdomen, so extracardiac abnormalities can be observed. The correct etiologic diagnosis of them is only possible if we understand how (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin works and make a comprehensive investigation of the clinical history of the patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  19. Update on radionuclide imaging in hepatobiliary disease. [/sup 99m/Tc-labelled acetanilide iminodracetic acid analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthall, L.

    1981-05-01

    The recent introduction of technetium Tc 99m-labeled acetanilide iminodiacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-IDA) analogues has facilitated the clincal study of the bile flow pathways. A variety of /sup 99m/Tc-IDA derivaties are under investigation. Basically all are metabolized by the hepatocyte and immediately thereafter excreted unconjugated into the biliary tract. Of the various derivatives tested, e.g., dimethyl (lidofenin), diethyl, paraisopropyl (iprofenin), parabutyl (butilfenin), and diisopropyl (disofenin), the last named is the best universal agent at this time. By serial liver imaging the patency of the cystic duct and the integrity of altered cholangiointestinal anatomy can be assessed, leakage of bile and gastric reflux can be disclosed, and medical and surgical jaundice can be distinguished.

  20. Measurement of gastric mucosal blood flow in dogs by the /sup 99m/Tc 4-methylaminophenazone clearance technique

    SciTech Connect

    Doebroente, Z.; Lang, J.; Sagi, I.; Varro, V.

    1982-07-01

    In anesthetized dogs, correlation was found between the /sup 99m/Tc 4-methylaminophenazone and aminopyrine clearance measured in the same animal after administration of the gastric secretory stimulants vasopressin or glucagon. Similar correlation was observed between the /sup 99m/Tc 4-methylaminophenazone and /sup 14/C aminopyrine clearance during histamine administration. The clearance values were always corrected by the actual degree of dissociation of the radioactive molecules. The results suggest that /sup 99m/Tc 4-methylaminophenazone is suitable to study circulatory changes in human gastric mucosa. Advantages of this compound include a much lower dose of radiation absorbed by the patient and his surroundings, a simplified measurement technique, and considerably reduced expenses.

  1. Importance of Heparin Provocation and SPECT/CT in Detecting Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding on 99mTc-RBC Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Haghighatafshar, Mahdi; Gheisari, Farshid; Ghaedian, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We presented a pediatric case with a history of intermittent melena for 3 years because of angiodyplasia of small intestine. The results of frequent upper gastrointestinal endoscopies and colonoscopies as well as both 99mTc-red blood cell (RBC) and Meckel's scintigraphies for several times were negative in detection of bleeding site. However, 99mTc-RBC scintigraphy with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) after heparin augmentation detected a site of bleeding in the distal ileum which later was confirmed during surgery with final diagnosis of angiodysplasia. It could be stated that heparin provocation of bleeding before 99mTc-RBC scintigraphy accompanied by fused SPECT/CT images should be kept in mind for management of intestinal bleeding especially in difficult cases. PMID:26313771

  2. New series of Tc-99m-labeled hepatobiliary tracers: N'-acyl- and N'-sulfonyl ethylenediamine-N,N-diacetic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Karube, Y.; Kono, A.; Maeda, T.; Ohya, M.; Matsushima, Y.

    1981-07-01

    Various Tc-99m-labeled N'-substituted derivatives of ethylenediamine-N,N-diacetic acid (EDDA) are evaluated as hepatobiliary imaging agents. N-substituted aromatic acyl and aromatic sulfonyl derivatives of EDDA, labeled with Tc-99m, were administered to rabbits and golden hamsters, and the distribution indicated clearance by the hepatobiliary system. N'-aromatic sulfonyl EDDAs were labeled with Tc-99m by the SnCl/sub 2/ method with more than 99% yield. Clearance of Tc-99m-p-toluenesulfonyl EDDA from the blood and the liver was as rapid as that of TC-99m N-(2,6-diethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl)iminodiacetic acid (Tc-99m benzenesulfonyl EDDA lowered urinary excretion. It is concluded that the sulfonyl EDDAs provide a fruitful source for Tc-99m-labeled hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals.

  3. Analysis of the Reconstructibility and Noise Properties of Scattered Photons in Tc-99m SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Kadrmas, Dan J; Frey, Eric C; Tsui, Benjamin M W

    2009-01-01

    Since scattered photons carry degraded spatial information, scatter is typically considered a source of contamination in SPECT. However, with the advent of scatter modeling methods and reconstruction-based scatter compensation (RBSC), it may be possible to utilize scattered data in a productive manner. In this work we analyze the reconstructibility of scattered photon projection data and investigate the potential for using scattered photons to reduce the noise levels of SPECT images. We have simulated projection data for an elliptical phantom containing three cold rods in a uniform background of Tc-99m activity. A variety of photopeak and scatter energy windows were formed, as well as corresponding RBSC transfer matrices. Each statistically weighted matrix was decomposed using SVD and analyzed in terms of reconstructibility and noise properties. Results indicate that scattered photons contain sufficient information to reconstruct the source activity, but the scatter-only matrices are very poorly conditioned. We have also evaluated several methods of utilizing scattered events via RBSC, and compared them with other, idealized methods of handling scatter. It was found that scattered photons can be used productively when photopeak and non-photopeak data are separated through the use of multiple energy windows. The RBSC methods outperformed ideal scatter subtraction, but fell short of methods which assume perfect discrimination between scattered and primary events. The knowledge gained by this study may help guide future research and lead to better approaches to handling scatter in SPECT. PMID:9434303

  4. Evaluation of causes of false positive Tc-99m IDA scintigraphy in biliary atresia

    SciTech Connect

    Kumura, D.; Miller, J.H.; Sinatra, F.

    1985-05-01

    Forty-four patients between 1 1/2 and 25 weeks of age with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia were evaluated by Tc-99m IDA scintigraphy for possible biliary atresia (BA). There were 21 true positives, defined as no GI activity by twenty-four hours after pretreatment with phenobarbital 5 mg/kg/day for three days. There were 15 true negatives, eight false positives and no false negatives. Causes for false positives included five neonatal hepatitis and three patients with of cholestasis associated with septo-optic dyplasia. Sensitivity of this procedure was 100% and specificity was 65% with an accuracy of 82%. Recognizing septo-optic dysplasia as a cause of cholestasis clinically further increases specificity to 79% and an accuracy of 90%. In the remaining false positives with neonatal hepatitis, four had poor hepatic uptake, however two of sixteen BA cases also had poor hepatic uptake. If reduced hepatic activity is used as a criterion against BA, specificity increases to 95% but sensitivity decreases to 88%. Septo-optic dysplasia is an unusual syndrome characterized by absent septum pellucidum, hypoplasia of one or both optic nerves, and hypothalamic pituitary dysfunction. Recognition of this entity will reduce false positive interpretation. Poor hepatic uptake with no twenty-four hour GI activity is helpful in excluding BA.

  5. Differential diagnosis of regional cerebral hyperfixation of TC-99m HMPAO on SPECT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Shirazi, P.; Konopka, L.; Crayton, J.W.

    1994-05-01

    Accurate diagnostic evaluation of patients with neurologic and neuropsychiatric disease is important because early treatment may halt disease progression and prevent impairment or disability. Cerebral hyperfixation of HMPAO has been ascribed to luxury perfusion following ischemic infarction. The present study sought to identify other conditions that also display radiotracer hyperfixation in order to develop a differential diagnosis of this finding on SPECT imaging. Two hundred fifty (n=250) successive cerebral SPECT images were reviewed for evidence of HMPAO hyperfixation. Hyperfixation was defined as enhanced focal perfusion surrounded by a zone of diminished or normal cerebral perfusion. All patients were scanned after intravenous injection of 25 mCi Tc-99m HMPAO. Volume-rendered and oblique images were obtained with a Trionix triple-head SPECT system using ultra high resolution fan beam collimators. Thirteen (13/250; 5%) of the patients exhibited regions of HMPAO hyperfixation. CT or MRI abnormalities were detected in 6/13 cases. Clinical diagnoses in these patients included intractable psychosis, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol and narcotic dependence, major depression, acute closed-head trauma, hypothyroidism, as well as subacute ischemic infarction. A wide variety of conditions may be associated with cerebral hyperfixation of HMPAO. These conditions include neurologic and psychiatric diagnoses, and extend the consideration of hyperfixation beyond ischemic infarction. Consequently, a differential diagnosis of HMPAO hyperfixation may be broader than originally considered, and this may suggest a fundamental role for local cerebral hyperperfusion. Elucidation of the fundamental mechanism(s) for cerebral hyperperfusion requires further investigation.

  6. Evaluation of molecular breast imaging in women undergoing myocardial perfusion imaging with Tc-99m sestamibi.

    PubMed

    Hruska, Carrie B; Rhodes, Deborah J; Collins, Douglas A; Tortorelli, Cindy L; Askew, J Wells; O'Connor, Michael K

    2012-07-01

    Our objective was to explore the potential benefits of molecular breast imaging (MBI) as a screening technique in women undergoing stress myocardial perfusion studies. MBI was offered to women receiving Tc-99m sestamibi injection for myocardial perfusion stress testing. During the required waiting period after stress isotope injection, MBI was performed using a dedicated breast imaging gamma camera system. MBI examinations were interpreted by breast radiologists, with review of a recent mammogram in cases with positive MBI. Of 322 women enrolled, 313 completed MBI, comprising 5 with known breast cancer, 2 with known high-risk benign breast lesions, and 306 who were asymptomatic for breast disease with a recent negative mammogram. Analysis was limited to the 306 patients with no known breast disease. MBI was positive in 22 of 306, giving a recall rate of 7.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.8-10.6]. MBI detected 4 new cancers, resulting in a supplemental diagnostic yield of 13.1/1000 women screened (95% CI 5.1-33.2). The number of cancers diagnosed per abnormal MBI examinations (PPV(1)) was 18% (4 of 22) (95% CI 7.3-38.5), and the number diagnosed per MBI-prompted biopsies (PPV(3)) was 44% (4 of 9) (95% CI 18.9-73.3). The addition of MBI to clinically indicated stress myocardial perfusion imaging studies in women results in a high diagnostic yield of newly detected breast cancers while generating a low rate of additional unnecessary workup.

  7. Microcirculation of the fingers in Raynaud's syndrome: (99m)Tc-DTPA imaging.

    PubMed

    Csiki, Z; Garai, I; Varga, J; Szücs, G; Galajda, Z; András, C; Zeher, M; Galuska, L

    2005-02-01

    We investigated the circulatory characteristics of patients suffering of primary and secondary Raynaud's syndrome. We examined 106 patients presenting with the classical symptoms of Raynaud's syndrom (47 primary, 59 secondary) by hand perfusion scintigraphy developed by our Department of Nuclear Medicine. After visual evaluation we analyzed the images semiquantitatively, using the finger to palm ratio. We statistically compared the patients with primary and those with secondary Raynaud's syndrome. By visual evaluation we constated regional perfusion disturbances in 42 from 59 patients with secondary Raynaud's syndrome. However, this was observed in only 3 from 47 patients with the primary form of this disease. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). Semiquantitative analysis showed that the finger/palm ratios (FPR) were significantly lower (p<0.05) for the patients with primary Raynaud's syndrome. No differences in the FPR values concerning sex or right and left side. The hand perfusion scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-DTPA is a noninvasive, cost effective diagnostic tool, which objectively reflects the global and regional microcirculatory abnormalities of the hands, and provides quantitative data for follow-up.

  8. Evaluation of the postoperative patient with /sup 99m/Tc-IDA cholescintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Weissmann, H.S.; Gliedman, M.L.; Wilk, P.J.; Sugarman, L.A.; Badia, J.; Guglielmo, K.; Freeman, L.M.

    1982-01-01

    In order to assess the role of /sup 99m/Tc-iminodiacetic acid (IDA) cholescintigraphy in evaluating postoperative patients, a total of 213 studies were performed in 189 patients over a 3-year time period. Of these, 130 studies were obtained in 125 cases with signs and/or symptoms suggesting postcholecystectomy syndrome. A normal sized duct that emptied within an hour ruled out significant pathology with a high degree of accuracy (97%). A less reliable finding of normalcy was the combination of ductal dilatation with functional patency in that three of 20 patients (15%) who exhibited this pattern were proven to have nonobstructing calculi in their common bile duct. AZ spectrum of abnormal findings was encountered. Ductal dilatation was a most significant indicator of partial or intermittent ductal obstruction when it was associated with altered time-activity dynamics in the ducts and secondarily, delayed biliary-to-bowel transit time of the radiotracer. Patterns indicating complete common duct obstruction, cystic duct remnants, and bile leaks also proved to be very sensitive. Seventy-three studies in 56 patients very accurately evaluated the integrity of biliary-enteric bypass anastomosis. Complete and partial obstructive patterns were similar in appearance to those encountered in postcholecystectomy syndrome. Several leaks were also detected in this patient population. Ten studies were performed in eight patients who underwent Billroth II gastroenterostomies primarily to see if afferent loop obstruction was present. Three of these patients did demonstrate dilated A-loops with stasis, thereby making a positive diagnosis possible.

  9. Clearance of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol from coal miners' lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Susskind, H.; Brill, A.B.; Harold, W.H.

    1985-07-01

    Alterations in regional epithelial permeability were assessed in 22 retired West Virginia coal miners' lungs by measuring the clearance of inhaled 0.5-..mu..m Tc-99m DTPA aerosol. Activity was measured in both lungs and in regions of interest placed over the lung periphery in the apical, middle, and basal portions of each lung. Clearance rates (T/sub 1/2/) for 5 nonsmokers, 8 ex-smokers, and 9 smokers were significantly faster than for comparable subjects measured elsewhere, who were not coal miners. Regional apex-to-base distributions of DTPA were measured as a function of clearance time and compared with regional ventilation and perfusion. Regional, as well as overall lung clearance curves of 8 smokers and 4 ex-smokers had two components, with overall T/sub 1/2/ of <7 min for the faster one. No correlations were found between T/sub 1/2/ and DLCO or with P(A-a)O/sub 2/. The results of our study suggest that measurement of DTPA clearance is a potentially useful noninvasive technique to assess lung injury in miners exposed to coal dust. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Retention and distribution of two 99mTc-DTPA labelled vaginal dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Chatterton, Barry E; Penglis, Stan; Kovacs, Julie C; Presnell, Bernardine; Hunt, Barry

    2004-03-01

    To objectively evaluate the performance of new vaginal dosage forms, it is important to determine their time of residence and their distribution. This paper describes the in vivo characteristics of a reference and test product in this situation. A randomised cross-over study was performed in the same phase of the menstrual cycle in eight pre-menopausal women. The retention and distribution of a commercially available vaginal clotrimazole cream and a test gel product, each "labelled" with 99mTc-DTPA was assessed by gamma scintigraphy for 24 h after administration of the products. Mass balance analysis was attempted by collecting and counting sanitary napkins worn for the study time. Within individuals there was little variation in the clearance of the formulations, but wide variation between individuals with a range between 81 and 1% of the administered doses retained by 24 h. The losses appeared to occur mainly at times of urination with 12 +/- 8% (cream) and 20 +/- 23% (gel) collected on the sanitary napkins, but 46 +/- 34% (cream) and 38 +/- 22% gel activity not accounted for by 24 h. The intravaginal distribution of activity was similar for each product. Radioactive tracer methods are useful in assessing and comparing vaginal dosage forms.

  11. Improved diagnostic accuracy of lung perfusion imaging using Tc-99m MAA SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, J.K.; Golish, J.A.; Go, R.T.; Risius, B.; Graor, R.A.; MacIntyre, W.J.; Feiglin, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    The addition of emission tomography (SPECT) to pulmonary perfusion imaging should improve diagnostic accuracy by detecting perfusion defects otherwise masked by superimposition of normal lung activity and by reducing problems with interpretation of defects that result from overlying soft tissue or pleural effusions. In order to examine the contribution of SPECT in the scintigraphic evaluation for pulmonary embolus (PE), the authors have obtained both planar and SPECT studies in 94 cases of suspected PE. All studies employed 3-4 mCi of Tc-99m MAA and standard six-view planar image acquisition. SPECT raw data of 64 images were then acquired over a 360 degree transaxial rotation with subsequent computer reconstruction. Xe-133 ventilation studies were performed when clinically indicated and tolerated by the patient. For 19 studies angiographic (AN) correlation was obtained within 24 hours. In 16/19 planar and SPECT both gave a high probability of PE but SPECT gave better segmental localization and showed better agreement with the number of defects seen at AN. In 3 indeterminate planar scans, 2 were low probability with SPECT and had negative AN. The third, a patient with Wegener's vasculitis, remained indeterminate with SPECT and had negative AN. Five patients with PE had repeat planar/SPECT/AN studies to evaluate response to treatment. SPECT correlated better with AN findings in each case. The authors conclude that SPECT perfusion imaging provides better anatomic accuracy for defects representing PE and is the non-invasive technique of choice for documenting response to therapy.

  12. Phantom Validation of Tc-99m Absolute Quantification in a SPECT/CT Commercial Device

    PubMed Central

    Leite Ferreira, Paulo; Malterre, Jerome; Laub, Priscille; Prior, John O.; Verdun, Francis R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Similar to PET, absolute quantitative imaging is becoming available in commercial SPECT/CT devices. This study's goal was to assess quantitative accuracy of activity recovery as a function of image reconstruction parameters and count statistics in a variety of phantoms. Materials and Methods. We performed quantitative 99mTc-SPECT/CT acquisitions (Siemens Symbia Intevo, Erlangen, Germany) of a uniform cylindrical, NEMA/IEC, and an anthropomorphic abdominal phantom. Background activity concentrations tested ranged: 2–80 kBq/mL. SPECT acquisitions used 120 projections (20 s/projection). Reconstructions were performed with the proprietary iterative conjugate gradient algorithm. NEMA phantom reconstructions were obtained as a function of the iteration number (range: 4–48). Recovery coefficients, hot contrast, relative lung error (NEMA phantom), and image noise were assessed. Results. In all cases, absolute activity and activity concentration were measured within 10% of the expected value. Recovery coefficients and hot contrast in hot inserts did not vary appreciably with count statistics. RC converged at 16 iterations for insert size > 22 mm. Relative lung errors were comparable to PET levels indicating the efficient integration of attenuation and scatter corrections with adequate detector modeling. Conclusions. The tested device provided accurate activity recovery within 10% of correct values; these performances are comparable to current generation PET/CT systems. PMID:28096891

  13. Improved method for the direct labeling of antibodies with Tc-99m

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, B.A.; Hawkins, E.; Budd, P. ); Deleide, G.; Seccamani, E.; Bonino, C. )

    1990-01-01

    Antibodies and antibody fragments have been treated with stannous chloride or organic reducing agents to reduce disulfide bonds, providing sulfhydryl groups for binding reduced Tc-99m. The reduced antibody, additives and stannous salts are lyophilized. To radiolabel, sodium pertechnetate solution is added, which dissolves the protein and other reagents. The pertechnetate is reduced by the stannous ions and becomes bound to the antibody. After radiolabeling the shelf-life of the product exceeds the half-life of the radionuclide. One of the more effective additives is human serum albumin, which serves as a carrier protein, agent to protect against autoradiolysis and possibly as a transfer ligand. Many different antibodies have been labeled using this method. The most widely studied antibody is an anti-melanoma fragment which has now been used clinically in more than 1000 cases and has been proven effective for the diagnostic localization of melanoma. In summary, a single vial, one step procedure for the direct labeling of antibodies in the presence of human serum albumin has been developed, extensively characterized, and clinically validated. The method is used with murine monoclonal IgG fragments, IgM and human gamma globulin. 4 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Improved SPECT reconstruction of Tc-99m sestamibi distribution in breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krol, Andrzej; Feiglin, David H.; Gagne, George M.; Huda, Walter; Tillapough-Fay, Gwen M.; Hellwig, Bradford J.; Thomas, Deaver F.

    1998-06-01

    This paper describes a new image reconstruction method to reduce the presence of image artifacts in scintimammography. SPECT data are mathematically modified prior to conventional image processing, followed by an inverse transform, which permits the tomographic visualization of low signals in the presence of large background intensities observed in scintimammography. Images of Tc-99m sestamibi distribution were obtained in a modeled `breast tissue', with a high activity in the `myocardium' as compared to the `breast tissue' (i.e. 20:1). Image reconstruction with the modified algorithm were qualitatively correct and demonstrated the regions of enhanced uptake (lesions) with no evidence of artifacts from the background counts in the heart. Comparison with MRI demonstrated that the hot regions were properly located and correlated with the MRI data. In contrast, a standard (i.e. Filtered Back Projection) reconstruction resulted in streak artifacts in place of `breast tissue' which rendered them clinically useless. This new approach to scintimammography offers the prospect of significantly reducing image artifacts and improving imaging accuracy.

  15. Radioactive excretion in human milk following administration of /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Pittard, W.B.; Merkatz, R.; Fletcher, B.D.

    1982-08-01

    Albumin-tagged sodium pertechnetate (technetium) is routinely used in nuclear medicine for scanning procedures of the lung. The rate of excretion of this radionuclide into breast milk and the resultant potential radiation hazard to the nursing infant have received little attention. Therefore the milk from a nursing mother who required a lung scan because of suspected pulmonary emboli using an intravenous injection of 4 mCi of /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated human serum albumin was monitored. Albumin tagging severely limited the entrance of technetium into her milk and the radioactivity of the milk returned to base line by 24 hours. A total of 2.02 muCi of technetium was measured in the 24-hour milk collection after technetium injection and 94% of this amount was excreted by 15.5 hours. This amount of technetium administered orally to a newborn would deliver a total body radiation dose of .3 mrad. Therefore, an infant would receive trivial doses of radiation if breast-feeding were resumed 15.5 hours after administration of the radionuclide to the mother and nursing can clearly be resumed safely 24 hours after injection.

  16. (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO SPECT in Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzolato, G.; Dam, M.; Borsato, N.; Saitta, B.; Da Col, C.; Perlotto, N.; Zanco, P.; Ferlin, G.; Battistin, L.

    1988-12-01

    Thirty-six patients affected by Parkinson's disease were studied using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO as a tracer. The scanning procedure was performed 16-24 h after discontinuation of specific therapy. Tracer activity ratios were determined in 10 pairs of cerebellar, cortical, and subcortical regions. Data were compared with those of 10 age-matched controls. Most of the regions examined did not show any relevant change between parkinsonian and control subjects. Notably, mean activity in striatal regions were similar in the two groups. Increased activity in caudate-putamen was found in patients who were on chronic DOPA therapy. Side-to-side asymmetries in the basal ganglia increased with the severity of the disease. Significant reductions of tracer uptake, from control values, were observed bilaterally in the parietal cortex. These deficits were more pronounced in patients with mental deterioration and in subjects who had been chronically treated with anticholinergic drugs. Parietal perfusion deficits in parkinsonian patients resemble those described in Alzheimer's dementia. These findings suggest that the heterogeneous alterations of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in parkinsonian patients reflect the multifactorial pathophysiology of the disease.

  17. Role of cholecystokinetic agents in 99mTc-IDA cholescintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Sugarman, L.A.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1981-07-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) and its C-terminal octapeptide analog, Sincalide, have been utilized in two separate roles for the evaluation of gallbladder disease. These are: (1) prior to cholescintigraphy to evacuate the gallbladder and optimized subsequent filling with radiotracers, and (2) to study contractile function of visualizing gallbladders on cholecystography and cholescintigraphy. As a preparation for 99mTc-IDA studies, it clearly facilitates earlier gallbladder filling in patients with chronic cholecystitis, thereby ruling out complete cystic duct obstruction. The problem lies in the fact that the use of CCK as a premedication markedly decreases the sensitivity of the study to detect chronic cholecystitis, since the findings become indistinguishable from patients with normal gallbladders. For this reason, the authors prefer to obtain delayed images, since chronic cholecystitis is frequently associated with gallbladder filling beyond the first hour. The role of CCK in detecting abnormal gallbladder function in the normally visualizing gallbladder also is controversial. Other studies as well as the author's experience suggests that as much as one-forth of positive cases may be associated with normal gallbladders at surgery and often even on microscopic examination. However, most importantly, the great majority of these patients are relieved of their symptoms following surgery. It appears reasonable that CCK or Sincalide cholecystography or cholescintigraphy may be detecting functional abnormalities before anatomic changes occur and can, therefore, serve as a useful examination in selecting symptomatic patients who may benefit from cholecystectomy.

  18. Quantitation of left ventricular ejection fraction reserve from early gated regadenoson stress Tc-99m high efficiency SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Brodov, Yafim; Fish, Mathews; Rubeaux, Mathieu; Otaki, Yuka; Gransar, Heidi; Lemley, Mark; Gerlach, Jim; Berman, Daniel; Germano, Guido; Slomka, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Background Ejection fraction (EF) reserve has been found to be a useful adjunct for identifying high risk coronary artery disease in cardiac positron emission tomography (PET). We aimed to evaluate EF reserve obtained from technetium-99m sestamibi (Tc-99m) high-efficiency (HE) SPECT. Methods Fifty patients (mean age 69 y) undergoing regadenoson same-day rest (8–11 mCi)/stress (32–42mCi) Tc-99m gated HE SPECT were enrolled. Stress imaging was started one min after sequential intravenous regadenoson 0.4mg and Tc-99m injection, and was composed of five 2 min supine gated acquisitions followed by two 4 min supine and upright images. Ischemic total perfusion deficit (ITPD) ≥ 5 % was considered as significant ischemia. Results Significantly lower mean EF reserve was obtained in the 5th and 9th min after regadenoson bolus in patients with significant ischemia versus patients without (5th min: −4.2 ± 4.6% vs. 1.3 ± 6.6%, p = 0.006; 9th min: −2.7 ± 4.8% vs. 2.0 ± 6.6%, p = 0.03). Conclusions Negative EF reserve obtained between 5th and 9th min of regadenoson stress demonstrated best concordance with significant ischemia and may be a promising tool for detection of myocardial stunning with Tc-99m HE-SPECT. PMID:27387521

  19. Imaging of the peritoneum evaluated by 99mTc-icodextrin scintigraphy in peritoneal dialysis patients: preliminary data.

    PubMed

    Argentino, Gennaro; Russo, Roberta; Maresca, Immacolata Daniela; Strazzullo, Tommasina; Memoli, Andrea; Sodo, Maurizio; Celentano, Luigi; Memoli, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we proposed a peritoneal scintigraphy with a different marker, the 99mTechnetium-Icodextrin, to evaluate the distribution of the dialysate within the peritoneal cavity in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. 99mTc-Icodextrin scintigraphy was performed in 16 PD patients. 0.5 ml of 7.5% Icodextrin solution was labeled with 74 megabecquerel (MBq) of 99mTc and then added to 2,000 ml of dialysate solution (2.5% dextrose). The peritoneum scintigraphy was performed by a SPECT gamma camera with the peritoneal cavity filled and after the complete drainage of the radio compound-dialysate mixture. The images were reviewed for evidence of peritoneal leaks, hernias, loculated fluid collections, and peritoneal membrane adhesions. Abnormal findings were detected by 99mTc-Icodextrin scintigraphy in 4 (25%) out of 16 patients and included retroperitoneal (n = 1), diaphragmatic (n = 1) and inguinal (n = 1) leakages and peritoneal membrane adhesions (n = 1). Peritoneum scintigraphy with 99mTc-Icodextrin is a useful method to detect some complications occurring during peritoneal dialysis; it offers excellent imaging to assess these complications. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Production optimization of 99Mo/99mTc zirconium molybate gel generators at semi-automatic device: DISIGEG.

    PubMed

    Monroy-Guzman, F; Rivero Gutiérrez, T; López Malpica, I Z; Hernández Cortes, S; Rojas Nava, P; Vazquez Maldonado, J C; Vazquez, A

    2012-01-01

    DISIGEG is a synthesis installation of zirconium (99)Mo-molybdate gels for (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator production, which has been designed, built and installed at the ININ. The device consists of a synthesis reactor and five systems controlled via keyboard: (1) raw material access, (2) chemical air stirring, (3) gel dried by air and infrared heating, (4) moisture removal and (5) gel extraction. DISIGEG operation is described and dried condition effects of zirconium (99)Mo- molybdate gels on (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator performance were evaluated as well as some physical-chemical properties of these gels. The results reveal that temperature, time and air flow applied during the drying process directly affects zirconium (99)Mo-molybdate gel generator performance. All gels prepared have a similar chemical structure probably constituted by three-dimensional network, based on zirconium pentagonal bipyramids and molybdenum octahedral. Basic structural variations cause a change in gel porosity and permeability, favouring or inhibiting (99m)TcO(4)(-) diffusion into the matrix. The (99m)TcO(4)(-) eluates produced by (99)Mo/(99m)Tc zirconium (99)Mo-molybdate gel generators prepared in DISIGEG, air dried at 80°C for 5h and using an air flow of 90mm, satisfied all the Pharmacopoeias regulations: (99m)Tc yield between 70-75%, (99)Mo breakthrough less than 3×10(-3)%, radiochemical purities about 97% sterile and pyrogen-free eluates with a pH of 6.

  1. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of a (99m) Tc-labeled folate-PAMAM dendrimer for FR imaging.

    PubMed

    Song, Manli; Guo, Zhide; Gao, Mengna; Shi, Changrong; Xu, Duo; You, Linyi; Wu, Xiaowei; Su, Xinhui; Zhuang, Rongqiang; Pan, Weimin; Liu, Ting; Zhang, Xianzhong

    2017-05-01

    Folate receptor is an ideal target for tumor-specific diagnostic and therapeutic. The aim of this study was to synthesize (99m) Tc-labeled folate-polyamidoamine dendrimer modified with 2-hydrazinonicotinic acid ((99m) Tc-HP3 FA) for FR imaging. The (99m) Tc-HP3 FA conjugate was prepared using N-tris-(hydroxymethyl)-methylglycine and trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3',3″-trisulfonate as coligands. Physicochemical properties, in vitro cell uptake study, and in vivo micro-single-photon emission computed tomography/CT imaging were performed. The radiolabeled (99m) Tc-HP3 FA conjugate was prepared with high radiolabeling yield, good stability, and water solubility (logP = -1.70 ± 0.21). In cell uptake study, the radiolabeled conjugate showed high uptakes in the FR-abundant KB cells and could be blocked significantly by excess folic acid. The 7721 cells which served as control group substantially had no uptakes. The results of micro-single-photon emission computed tomography/CT imaging exhibited that high accumulation of activity was found in FR-overexpressed KB tumor, and the tumor-to-muscle ratio was approximately 25.78, while, using free FA as inhibitor, the uptakes of (99m) Tc-HP3 FA in KB tumor and kidney were obviously inhibited. In summary, a new radiocompound was synthesized successfully with specific FR targeting ability. The feasibility of (99m) Tc-HP3 FA for early diagnosis of FR-positive tumors with non-invasive single-photon emission computed tomography imaging was demonstrated and the possibility of imaging-guided drug delivery based on multifunctional polyamidoamine will be studied in the future. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Technetium Tc 99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy in children with acute pyelonephritis: correlation with other imaging tests.

    PubMed

    Mohkam, Masoumeh; Maham, Saiid; Rahmani, Afrand; Naghi, Ilana; Otokesh, Babak; Raiiati, Hamid; Mohseni, Nima; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza; Sharifian, Mostafa; Dalirani, Reza; Ghazi, Ruhollah; Ahoopai, Majid

    2010-10-01

    INTRODUCTION. Urinary tract infection is the most common serious bacterial infection in children. The aim of this study was to compare the value of different laboratory and imaging techniques in detecting renal involvement in acute pyelonephritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS. In a cross-sectional study of patients 1 month to 14 years of age diagnosed with urinary tract infection were examined with systemic inflammatory markers, renal ultrasonography, voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), and technetium Tc 99m dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA) renal scintigraphy. A total of 1467 pediatric patients were eligible for treatment of pyelonephritis. Evaluations included a complete blood count, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), urinalysis, urine culture, and measurement of serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels. RESULTS. The results of (99m)Tc-DMSA scans were normal in 20.2%, mild decreased cortical uptake in 45.0%, moderate decreased cortical uptake in 12.3%, severe decreased cortical uptake in 12.0%, and decreased cortical function plus irregularity or scar formation in 10.5%. Voiding cystourethrography showed vesicoureteral reflux in 25.9%. The sensitivity of (99m)Tc-DMSA for prediction of vesicoureteral reflux was 84.1% with a negative predictive value of 80.6%. Significant differences were found in the level of blood leukocyte count (P = .03), urine leukocyte count (P = .003), ESR (P = .008), and age (P = .04) between patients with normal and abnormal (99m)Tc-DMSA scan results. CONCLUSIONS. We found that in patient with clinical signs of pyelonephritis, (99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy can detect pyelonephritis more accurately than the other inflammatory and imaging tests.

  3. Factors influencing the uptake of 99mTc-sestamibi in breast tissue on molecular breast imaging.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Michael K; Hruska, Carrie B; Tran, Thuy D; Swanson, Tiffinee; Conners, Amy Lynn; Jones, Katie; Rhodes, Deborah J

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of changes to a patient's prandial status, metabolic status (rest vs. exercise), and peripheral blood flow (via caffeine or warming) on the uptake of (99m)Tc-sestamibi in breast tissue. A total of 154 subjects participated in 1 of 4 study groups that evaluated the effects of 4 types of intervention on the uptake of (99m)Tc-sestamibi in breast tissue (effect of fasting, light exercise, caffeine, and peripheral warming). Molecular breast imaging was performed before and after each intervention. Count density was assessed in counts/cm(2)/MBq from the mediolateral oblique view in all studies. Uptake of (99m)Tc-sestamibi in breast tissue increased by approximately 25% from 6.6 counts/cm(2)/MBq in the fed state to 8.3 counts/cm(2)/MBq with fasting. Peripheral warming also resulted in an approximately 20% increase in count density from 9.1 to 10.9 counts/cm(2)/MBq. Conversely, exercise caused a 35% drop in count density relative to the resting state. Uptake did not seem to be influenced by caffeine and did not correlate with a patient's height, weight, or breast thickness. There was only a weak correlation between breast activity and body surface area. The combined effects of fasting and warming resulted in an approximately 50% increased uptake of (99m)Tc-sestamibi in breast tissue relative to that observed in a reference group to whom no preparatory instructions had been given. Optimal patient preparation before administration of (99m)Tc-sestamibi should permit a corresponding reduction in either acquisition time or required dose of (99m)Tc-sestamibi. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  4. [99mTc-octreotide receptor scintigraphy in NCI-H446 small cell lung cancer nude mice model].

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Zuo, Shuyao; Wang, Xufu; Liu, Xinfeng; Wang, Guoming; Wu, Fengyu

    2015-01-01

    For highly aggressive small cell lung cancer (SCLC), early diagnosis is important for its prognosis, but the current inspection methods are more limited, with poor specificity of the traditional imaging methods, and the high cost of PET/CT, difficult to popularization and application. SCLC is kind of neuroendocrine tumors, high expression of somatostatin receptors, which is the cornerstone of its early molecular imaging diagnosis. The aim of this study is to observe the biodistribution and metabolism of 99mTc-octreotide in normal and the human SCLC bearing nude mice. Dynamic and static scintigraphy at 0.5 h, 2 h, 3 h, 4 h were performed in both normal and tumor bearing nude mice after intravenous injection of 99mTc-octreotide. The technique of drawing region of interest (ROI) was used to obtain the averaged pixel counts and the activity-time (A-T) curve of brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney, tumor, respectively. ① The biodistribution study in normal nude mice showed highest uptake in kidney and liver, lower in lung and heart, lowest in brain. Most 99mTc-octreotide was excreted via kidney. ② All tumors were displayed clearly at 3 h postinjection of 99mTc-octreotide. The averaged T/N ratio at 0.5 h, 2 h, 3 h, 4 h postinjection of 99mTc-octreotide was 1.163 ± 0.03, 2.08 ± 0.12, 3.03 ± 0.23, 2.689 ± 0.31, respectively (F=51.69, P<0.000,1). The radioactivity of tumor was lower than liver, and similar with the lung. The curve of tumor showed a radioactivity peak at 2 min-3 min postinjection. 99mTc-octreotide receptor imaging on nude mice bearing SCLC shares high positive rate, especially at 3 h postinjection.

  5. Early detection of rheumatoid arthritis in rats and humans with 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy: imaging synovial neoangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu; Zhang, Guojian; Wang, Xiangcheng; Zhao, Zhenfang; Wang, Tao; Wang, Xuemei; Li, Xiao-Feng

    2017-01-24

    To validate 99mTc-labeled arginylglycylaspartic acid (99mTc-3PRGD2) scintigraphy as a means to image synovial neoangiogenesis in joints afflicted by rheumatoid arthritis and to investigate its potential in the early detection and management of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis were generated in Sprague Dawley rats by type II collagen immunization and papain injection, respectively. Rats were imaged with 99mTc-3PRGD2 and 99mTc- methyl diphosphonate (99mTc MDP). X-ray images were also obtained and assessed by a radiologist. Immunohistochemistry of αvβ3 and CD31confirmed the onset of synovial neoangiogenesis. The effect of bevacizumab on rheumatoid arthritis was followed with 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy. A patient with rheumatoid arthritis and a healthy volunteer were scanned with 99mTc-3PRGD2. Two weeks after immunization, a significant increase in 99mTc-3PRGD2 was observed in the joints of the rheumatoid arthritis model though uptake in osteoarthritis model and untreated controls was low. 99mTc-MDP whole body scans failed to distinguish early rheumatoid arthritis joints from healthy controls. The expression of αvβ3 and CD31was significantly higher in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis rats compared to normal controls. In serial 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy studies, 99mTc-3PRGD2 uptake increased in parallel with disease progression. Bevacizumab anti-angiogenetic therapy both improved the symptoms of the rheumatoid arthritis rats and significantly decreased 99mTc-3PRGD2 uptake. Significantly higher 99mTc-3PRGD2 accumulation was also observed in rheumatoid arthritis joints in the patient. Our findings indicate that 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy could detect early rheumatoid arthritis by imaging the associated synovial neoangiogenesis, and may be useful in disease management.

  6. Detection of orchitis and sacroiliitis due to brucellosis by 99mTc polyclonal human immunoglobulin scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Kadanali, Ayten; Uslu, Hatice; Bayraktar, Rezan; Varoglu, Erhan

    2012-07-01

    Here, we report 1 case of Brucella orchitis detected by 99mTc human immunoglobulin scintigraphy and confirmed by testicular ultrasound. A 29-year-old farmer was admitted to our hospital with fever, fatigue, arthralgia, and painful scrotal swelling that had appeared 12 days before admission. Clinically, right sacroiliitis was recorded through the Fabere test Unilateral sacroiliitis and orchitis were detected by 99mTc human immunoglobulin scintigraphy. Hypoechoic left testicular lesions and swelling of the concurrent epididymis were seen on a testicular ultrasound examination. Wright agglutination test and blood specimen culture for Brucella species were positive.

  7. Dual radioisotopes simultaneous SPECT of 99mTc-tetrofosmin and 123I-BMIPP using a semiconductor detector

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Miyagawa, Masao; Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Kawaguchi, Naoto; Ishimura, Hayato; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The energy resolution of a cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) solid-state semiconductor detector is about 5%, and is superior to the resolution of the conventional Anger type detector which is 10%. Also, the window width of the high-energy part and of the low-energy part of a photo peak window can be changed separately. In this study, we used a semiconductor detector and examined the effects of changing energy window widths for 99mTc and 123I simultaneous SPECT. Methods: The energy “centerline” for 99mTc was set at 140.5 keV and that for 123I at 159.0 keV. For 99mTc, the “low-energy-window width” was set to values that varied from 3% to 10% of 140.5 keV and the “high-energy-window width” were independently set to values that varied from 3% to 6% of 140.5 keV. For 123I, the “low energy-window-width” varied from 3% to 6% of 159.0 keV and the high-energy-window width from 3% to 10% of 159 keV. In this study we imaged the cardiac phantom, using single or dual radionuclide, changing energy window width, and comparing SPECT counts as well as crosstalk ratio. Results: The contamination to the 123I window from 99mTc (the crosstalk) was only 1% or less with cutoffs of 4% at lower part and 6% at upper part of 159KeV. On the other hand, the crosstalk from 123I photons into the 99mTc window mostly exceeded 20%. Therefore, in order to suppress the rate of contamination to 20% or less, 99mTc window cutoffs were set at 3% in upper part and 7% at lower part of 140.5 KeV. The semiconductor detector improves separation accuracy of the acquisition inherently at dual radionuclide imaging. In, this phantom study we simulated dual radionuclide simultaneous SPECT by 99mTc-tetrofosmin and 123I-BMIPP. Conclusion: We suggest that dual radionuclide simultaneous SPECT of 99mTc and 123I using a CZT semiconductor detector is possible employing the recommended windows. PMID:27408880

  8. Glucagon in the scintigraphic diagnosis of small-bowel hemorrhage by Tc-99m-labeled red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Froelich, J.W.; Juni, J.

    1984-04-01

    Twelve patients undergoing scintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled red blood cells (RBC) exhibited abnormal small-bowel activity and were given glucagon to assess its role in detecting bleeding from the small bowel. Six demonstrated focal accumulation of activity which was not identified prior to glucagon. Endoscopy, barium studies, angiography, and colonoscopy located the small-bowel bleeding site in 4 patients; in the other 2, studies of the colon failed to show the bleeding site and the origin was presumed to be the small bowel. The authors suggest that intravenous glucagon can be beneficial as an adjuvant to Tc-99m-RBC when diagnosing bleeding from the small bowel.

  9. Preliminary clinical experience with /sup 99m/Tc disofenin as a biliary imaging agent in pediatrics

    SciTech Connect

    Sty, J.R.; Starshak, R.J.; Thorp, S.M.

    1982-05-01

    /sup 99m/Tc disofenin, a derivative of iminodiacetic acid, was used to evaluate the biliary tract of 28 children who had a total of 33 examinations. This radiopharmaceutical was rapidly cleared from the blood by the hepatocytes and yielded excellent images of the biliary system. Renal activity did not present difficulty in image interpretation. It provided clinically useful information in a bilirubin range of 0.3 to 14.1 mg/dl. The major categories of acquired and congenital biliary tract abnormalities in children presented no diagnostic difficulty with /sup 99m/Tc disofenin.

  10. Tumor imaging in patients with advanced tumors using a new (99m) Tc-radiolabeled vitamin B12 derivative.

    PubMed

    Sah, Bert-Ram; Schibli, Roger; Waibel, Robert; von Boehmer, Lotta; Bläuenstein, Peter; Nexo, Ebba; Johayem, Anass; Fischer, Eliane; Müller, Ennio; Soyka, Jan D