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Sample records for dilatation sonographic screening

  1. [Pregnancy-conditioned dilatation of the calyceal system-sonographic diagnosis and urologic control (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bernaschek, G; Kratochwil, A

    1981-03-01

    Ultrasonic diagnosis provides the possibility without any irradiation hazards to follow-up the urinary excreting system in pregnancies as often as necessary. Thus it becomes possible to detect the true percentages of pregnant women with dilatation of the calyceal system, and to evaluate the course of dilatation in those women examined at different intervals. There exists as well the possibility to avoid urinary tract infections by an intensive urologic surveillance in such cases.

  2. Significance of Sonographically Demonstrated Ureteral Dilatation in Evaluation of Vesicoureteral Reflux Verified with Voiding Urosonography in Children with Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Carovac, Aladin; Zubovic, Sandra Vegar; Carovac, Marklena; Pasic, Irmina Sefic

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of sonographically demonstrated ureteral dilatation in detecting vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Methods: Ethical approval from the Ethical Committee of Clinical Center University of Sarajevo and parental consent were obtained for this prospective study involving 120 children with history of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Ultrasound examination included the evaluation of the urinary tract, with a special emphasis on evaluation of ureteral dilatation. Voiding urosonography (VUS) was carried out according to a standard protocol with the use of ultrasound contrast agent Sono Vue of second generation. Ureteral diameter greater than 3 mm was considered pathological. Proven VUR was graded into one of three stages. Results: Infectio tracti urinarii recidivans was referral diagnosis in the majority of patients. The average age of patients was 4.33 ± 3.88 years (from 2 months to 16 years of age). VUS findings were normal in 59 (49.2%), and pathological in 61 (50.8%) patients. Statistical analysis showed significant correlation between type and grade of VUR. Our data confirmed predominance of VUR in females and in children under the age of 5. Statistically significant correlation between ureteral dilatation and the existence of VUR was found, with relatively high sensitivity (67.2%), specificity (81.4%), and high positive (78.8%) and negative predictive value (70.6%), total diagnostic accuracy of 74.2% in detecting VUR, and significantly increased probability (20 – 25%) of detecting VUR in patients with sonographically confirmed ureteral dilatation. Conclusion: Sonographically confirmed ureteral dilatation can be used as a predictor of VUR in children with UTIs, and in combination with other predictors, might find a place in an evidence-based selective strategy in children with suspected VUR. PMID:26635432

  3. Diagnosis, prevalence, and screening of familial dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Mary; Taylor, Matthew R.G.; Mestroni, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most common cardiomyopathy and occurs often in families. As an inherited disease, understanding the significance of diagnostic procedures and genetic screening within families is of utmost importance. Areas covered Genetic studies have shown that in 30–40% of familial DCM (FDC) cases a causative genetic mutation can be identified. Successful genetic analysis is highly dependent on close examination of patient and family history, and clinical guidelines exist recommending genetic testing to aid in the evaluation of family members at risk of developing FDC. Clinical genetic testing offers a resource for families to identify the etiology of their disease, and in some cases may provide clinical prognostic insight. Expert Opinion As an inherited disease, future FCD studies will focus on elucidating the remaining 60–70% of genetic causes in inherited cases and the pathogenic mechanisms leading to the phenotype. Specifically, a focus on regulatory regions, copy number variation, genetic and environmental modifiers and functional confirmatory investigations will be essential. PMID:27547593

  4. Ectopia cordis in a first-trimester sonographic screening program for aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, Waldo; Wong, Amy E; Simonetti, Luis; Gomez, Enrique; Dezerega, Victor; Gutierrez, Jorge

    2013-05-01

    We review the sonographic features, antenatal course, and perinatal outcomes in 7 cases of ectopia cordis diagnosed in the first trimester. Four cases were associated with a large omphalocele (pentalogy of Cantrell) and 2 with a body stalk anomaly. The remaining fetus had isolated thoracic ectopia cordis. Two pregnancies were terminated; 2 fetuses died in utero; 2 infants died after delivery; and 1 died at 3 months of age. We conclude that the diagnosis of ectopia cordis can easily be established during the first trimester. In agreement with the currently available literature, the prognosis of ectopia cordis in our series was uniformly poor.

  5. Sonographic screening for urinary tract abnormalities in patients with Schistosoma haematobium infection: pitfalls in examining pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Richter, J; Wagatsuma, Y; Aryeetey, M; Feldmeier, H

    1996-01-01

    In areas where Schistosoma haematobium is endemic, urinary schistosomiasis and pregnancy are frequently concomitant; however, both these conditions may produce similar urinary tract changes in ultrasound scans and hence their differential diagnosis may be difficult. In patients with urinary schistosomiasis, focal and/or diffuse urinary bladder wall changes are frequently detected ultrasonically. Dilatation of one or both ureters and progressive hydronephrosis may be observed in more severe cases. Satisfactory ultrasound examination of the urinary bladders of pregnant women is generally not feasible because mechanical compression by the fetus or transitory lower urinary tract infection hampers adequate filling of the bladder. Pregnancy itself is frequently associated with dilatation of one or both ureters and/or hydronephrosis; this is due to hormonal factors, infection, or compression of one or both ureters by the enlarged uterus and growing fetus. Hence, when sonography of the urinary bladder is not feasible such pregnancy-associated changes are virtually indistinguishable from those caused by S. haematobium, and may be incorrectly attributed to the latter. Pregnant women, therefore, should be excluded from ultrasonic surveys of urinary schistosomiasis. In contrast, ultrasound scans of adolescents and of women with positive parasitological findings and/or pathological alterations in the urinary tract should include examination of the uterus in order to assess whether the woman is pregnant; thereby, misinterpretation of sonographic findings can be avoided. Pregnant women with significant hydronephrosis must be closely followed up by an obstetrician since this condition may indicate a complication of the pregnancy; in some cases only a postpartum examination will permit definitive diagnosis.

  6. Familial dilated cardiomyopathy: A multidisciplinary entity, from basic screening to novel circulating biomarkers.

    PubMed

    de Gonzalo-Calvo, D; Quezada, M; Campuzano, O; Perez-Serra, A; Broncano, J; Ayala, R; Ramos, M; Llorente-Cortes, V; Blasco-Turrión, S; Morales, F J; Gonzalez, P; Brugada, R; Mangas, A; Toro, R

    2017-02-01

    Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy has become one of the most prevalent inherited cardiomyopathies over the past decades. Genetic screening of first-degree relatives has revealed that 30-50% of the cases have a familial origin. Similar to other heart diseases, familial dilated cardiomyopathy is characterized by a high genetic heterogeneity that complicates family studies. Cli'nical screening, 12-lead electrocardiogram and transthoracic echocardiogram are recommended for patients and first-degree family members. Magnetic resonance also needs to be considered. Genetic technologies have become fundamental for the clinical management of this disease. New generation sequencing methods have made genetic testing feasible for extensive panels of genes related to the disease. Recently, new imaging modalities such as speckle-tracking, strain and strain rate or magnetic resonance, and circulating biomarkers such as non-coding RNAs, have emerged as potential strategies to help cardiologists in their clinical practice. Imaging, genetic and blood-based techniques should be considered together in the evaluation and testing of familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Here, we discuss the current procedures and novel approaches for the clinical management of familial dilated cardiomyopathy.

  7. Bowel Obstruction: Sonographic Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hollerweger, A; Wüstner, M; Dirks, K

    2015-06-01

    Learning objectives: Sonographic examination concept in the case of suspicion of bowel obstruction. Recognition of the sonographic criteria of a bowel obstruction. Ability to detect the level of a bowel obstruction. Sonographic detection of typical causes of bowel obstruction. Detection of sonographic signs of complicated bowel obstruction. Ability to sonographically define important differential diagnoses. Further diagnostic procedures in unclear situations.

  8. Shapelet analysis of pupil dilation for modeling visuo-cognitive behavior in screening mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alamudun, Folami; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Hammond, Tracy; Hudson, Kathy; Morin-Ducote, Garnetta; Tourassi, Georgia

    2016-03-01

    Our objective is to improve understanding of visuo-cognitive behavior in screening mammography under clinically equivalent experimental conditions. To this end, we examined pupillometric data, acquired using a head-mounted eye-tracking device, from 10 image readers (three breast-imaging radiologists and seven Radiology residents), and their corresponding diagnostic decisions for 100 screening mammograms. The corpus of mammograms comprised cases of varied pathology and breast parenchymal density. We investigated the relationship between pupillometric fluctuations, experienced by an image reader during mammographic screening, indicative of changes in mental workload, the pathological characteristics of a mammographic case, and the image readers' diagnostic decision and overall task performance. To answer these questions, we extract features from pupillometric data, and additionally applied time series shapelet analysis to extract discriminative patterns in changes in pupil dilation. Our results show that pupillometric measures are adequate predictors of mammographic case pathology, and image readers' diagnostic decision and performance with an average accuracy of 80%.

  9. Lithium nephropathy: unique sonographic findings.

    PubMed

    Di Salvo, Donald N; Park, Joseph; Laing, Faye C

    2012-04-01

    This case series describes a unique sonographic appearance consisting of numerous microcysts and punctate echogenic foci seen on renal sonograms of 10 adult patients receiving chronic lithium therapy. Clinically, chronic renal insufficiency was present in 6 and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in 2. Sonography showed numerous microcysts and punctate echogenic foci. Computed tomography in 5 patients confirmed microcysts and microcalcifications, which were fewer in number than on sonography. Magnetic resonance imaging in 2 patients confirmed microcysts in each case. Renal biopsy in 1 patient showed chronic interstitial nephritis, microcysts, and tubular dilatation. The diagnosis of lithium nephropathy should be considered when sonography shows these findings.

  10. Dilated eye examination screening guideline compliance among patients with diabetes without a diabetic retinopathy diagnosis: the role of geographic access

    PubMed Central

    Lee, David J; Kumar, Naresh; Feuer, William J; Chou, Chiu-Fang; Rosa, Potyra R; Schiffman, Joyce C; Morante, Alexis; Aldahan, Adam; Staropoli, Patrick; Fernandez, Cristina A; Tannenbaum, Stacey L; Lam, Byron L

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of, and factors associated with, dilated eye examination guideline compliance among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), but without diabetic retinopathy. Research design and methods Utilizing the computerized billing records database, we identified patients with International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 diagnoses of DM, but without any ocular diagnoses. The available medical records of patients in 2007–2008 were reviewed for demographic and ocular information, including visits through 2010 (n=200). Patients were considered guideline compliant if they returned at least every 15 months for screening. Participant street addresses were assigned latitude and longitude coordinates to assess their neighborhood socioeconomic status (using the 2000 US census data), distance to the screening facility, and public transportation access. Patients not compliant, based on the medical record review, were contacted by phone or mail and asked to complete a follow-up survey to determine if screening took place at other locations. Results The overall screening compliance rate was 31%. Patient sociodemographic characteristics, insurance status, and neighborhood socioeconomic measures were not significantly associated with compliance. However, in separate multivariable logistic regression models, those living eight or more miles from the screening facility were significantly less likely to be compliant relative to those living within eight miles (OR=0.36 (95% CI 0.14 to 0.86)), while public transit access quality was positively associated with screening compliance (1.34 (1.07 to 1.68)). Conclusions Less than one-third of patients returned for diabetic retinopathy screening at least every 15 months, with transportation challenges associated with noncompliance. Our results suggest that reducing transportation barriers or utilizing community-based screening strategies may improve compliance. PMID:25452871

  11. Progress with genetic cardiomyopathies: screening, counseling, and testing in dilated, hypertrophic, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Hershberger, Ray E; Cowan, Jason; Morales, Ana; Siegfried, Jill D

    2009-05-01

    This review focuses on the genetic cardiomyopathies: principally dilated cardiomyopathy, with salient features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy, regarding genetic etiology, genetic testing, and genetic counseling. Enormous progress has recently been made in identifying genetic causes for each cardiomyopathy, and key phenotype and genotype information is reviewed. Clinical genetic testing is rapidly emerging with a principal rationale of identifying at-risk asymptomatic or disease-free relatives. Knowledge of a disease-causing mutation can guide clinical surveillance for disease onset, thereby enhancing preventive and treatment interventions. Genetic counseling is also indicated for patients and their family members regarding the symptoms of their cardiomyopathy, its inheritance pattern, family screening recommendations, and genetic testing options and possible results.

  12. Screening for vesicoureteral reflux in children using real-time sonography.

    PubMed

    Schneider, K; Jablonski, C; Wiessner, M; Kohn, M; Fendel, H

    1984-01-01

    One hundred and ten children, ages 6 days to 14 years, were investigated for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) using ultrasound before voiding cystourethrography (VCU). Sonographically a VUR was assumed if a retrovesical dilated ureter and/or an increase of the separation of the central renal echo complex (CRC) could be detected. By means of sonography VUR grades III and IV were seen in 100%, grade II in 84% of all cases. There was a false positive rate of 10%. Sonographic reflux study is a sensitive and specific screening and follow-up procedure for VUR.

  13. Sonographic evaluation of athletic pubalgia.

    PubMed

    Morley, Nicholas; Grant, Thomas; Blount, Kevin; Omar, Imran

    2016-05-01

    Athletic pubalgia, or "sports hernia", represents a constellation of pathologic conditions occurring at and around the pubic symphysis. These injuries are primarily seen in athletes or those involved in athletic activity. In this article, we review the sonographic appearance of the relevant complex anatomy, scanning technique for ultrasound evaluation of athletic pubalgia, and the sonographic appearances of associated pathologic conditions.

  14. Gastroschisis: Antenatal Sonographic Predictors of Adverse Neonatal Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Zachary Michael; Moretti, Felipe; Fung Kee Fung, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this review was to identify clinically significant ultrasound predictors of adverse neonatal outcome in fetal gastroschisis. Methods. A quasi-systematic review was conducted in PubMed and Ovid using the key terms “gastroschisis,” “predictors,” “outcome,” and “ultrasound.” Results. A total of 18 papers were included. The most common sonographic predictors were intra-abdominal bowel dilatation (IABD), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and bowel dilatation not otherwise specified (NOS). Three ultrasound markers were consistently found to be statistically insignificant with respect to predicting adverse outcome including abdominal circumference, stomach herniation and dilatation, and extra-abdominal bowel dilatation (EABD). Conclusions. Gastroschisis is associated with several comorbidities, yet there is much discrepancy in the literature regarding which specific ultrasound markers best predict adverse neonatal outcomes. Future research should include prospective trials with larger sample sizes and use well-defined and consistent definitions of the adverse outcomes investigated with consideration given to IABD. PMID:25587450

  15. Sonographic evaluation of hindfoot disorders.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Douglas F; Grothe, Heather L; Bianchi, Stefano

    2014-06-01

    Foot pain is a common orthopedic condition that can have an impact on health-related quality of life. The evaluation of plantar hindfoot pain begins with history and physical examination. Imaging modalities, standard radiographs, sonography, MR, CT are often utilized to clarify the diagnosis. The article is a detailed description of the sonographic evaluation of the plantar fascia and its disorders as well as the common etiologies in the differential diagnosis of plantar fasciopathy.

  16. Dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Robert G; Semsarian, Christopher; Macdonald, Peter

    2017-02-09

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is defined by the presence of left ventricular dilatation and contractile dysfunction. Genetic mutations involving genes that encode cytoskeletal, sarcomere, and nuclear envelope proteins, among others, account for up to 35% of cases. Acquired causes include myocarditis and exposure to alcohol, drugs and toxins, and metabolic and endocrine disturbances. The most common presenting symptoms relate to congestive heart failure, but can also include circulatory collapse, arrhythmias, and thromboembolic events. Secondary neurohormonal changes contribute to reverse remodelling and ongoing myocyte damage. The prognosis is worst for individuals with the lowest ejection fractions or severe diastolic dysfunction. Treatment of chronic heart failure comprises medications that improve survival and reduce hospital admission-namely, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and β blockers. Other interventions include enrolment in a multidisciplinary heart failure service, and device therapy for arrhythmia management and sudden death prevention. Patients who are refractory to medical therapy might benefit from mechanical circulatory support and heart transplantation. Treatment of preclinical disease and the potential role of stem-cell therapy are being investigated.

  17. Sonographic markers for early diagnosis of fetal malformations

    PubMed Central

    Renna, Maria Daniela; Pisani, Paola; Conversano, Francesco; Perrone, Emanuele; Casciaro, Ernesto; Renzo, Gian Carlo Di; Paola, Marco Di; Perrone, Antonio; Casciaro, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Fetal malformations are very frequent in industrialized countries. Although advanced maternal age may affect pregnancy outcome adversely, 80%-90% of fetal malformations occur in the absence of a specific risk factor for parents. The only effective approach for prenatal screening is currently represented by an ultrasound scan. However, ultrasound methods present two important limitations: the substantial absence of quantitative parameters and the dependence on the sonographer experience. In recent years, together with the improvement in transducer technology, quantitative and objective sonographic markers highly predictive of fetal malformations have been developed. These markers can be detected at early gestation (11-14 wk) and generally are not pathological in themselves but have an increased incidence in abnormal fetuses. Thus, prenatal ultrasonography during the second trimester of gestation provides a “genetic sonogram”, including, for instance, nuchal translucency, short humeral length, echogenic bowel, echogenic intracardiac focus and choroid plexus cyst, that is used to identify morphological features of fetal Down’s syndrome with a potential sensitivity of more than 90%. Other specific and sensitive markers can be seen in the case of cardiac defects and skeletal anomalies. In the future, sonographic markers could limit even more the use of invasive and dangerous techniques of prenatal diagnosis (amniocentesis, etc.). PMID:24179631

  18. Dilating Eye Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Dilating Eye Drops En Español Read in Chinese What are dilating eye drops? Dilating eye drops contain medication to enlarge ( ...

  19. Toynbee revisited: eustachian tubal sonograph.

    PubMed

    Wilson, H L

    1982-01-01

    The ETS represents a modern version of the Toynbee tube. The ETS replaces the tube with sophisticated electronic equipment that amplifies and records the sounds of air entering the middle ear. The results of the test correlate well with the clinical behavior of the eustachian tube. The ETS does this by permitting the auditory tube to function in its normal state. It requires minimal patient response and does not require a soundproof room. It allows performance of the Toynbee, Politzer, and Valsalva maneuvers with the equipment in place and does not interfere with catheterization of the tubal orifice. Medications may be applied to the nose and nasopharynx or be given parenterally while the sonograph is in place. Thus far, it appears that the ETS is very useful in evaluating dysfunction of the eustachian tube.

  20. Sonographic diagnosis of biliary ascariasis.

    PubMed

    Schulman, A; Loxton, A J; Heydenrych, J J; Abdurahman, K E

    1982-09-01

    In a prospective 6 month study, sonographic diagnosis of biliary ascariasis was made in 12 patients: In five, the diagnosis was confirmed by other means, mainly intravenous cholangiography. In three, such confirmation was not sought, but all had proven intestinal infestation. One possible and three definite false-positive diagnoses were made. There were no established false-negative diagnoses. The echogenic, nonshadowing images of the worms were seen in the main bile duct and/or gallbladder as single strips (on one occasion with its digestive tract seen as an anechoic "inner tube"), as multiple strips giving a spaghettilike appearance, as coils, or as more amorphous fragments. Follow-up sonograms were obtained in six patients and showed expulsion of the worms by medical treatment.

  1. Diagnostic Medical Sonographers: Seeing with Sound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacey, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Explains how diagnostic medical sonographers use special equipment to direct high frequency sound waves into areas of a patient's body. Describes specialties within the occupation, working conditions, employment and outlook, earnings, and necessary training and qualifications. (JOW)

  2. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of urorectal septum malformation sequence and chromosomal microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Yan; Wu, Qingqing; Liu, Yan; Sun, Lijuan; Zhi, Wenxue; Zhang, Puqing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Urorectal septum malformation sequence (URSMS) is a rare congenital abnormal syndrome that is caused by the incomplete division of the cloaca. Based on whether the cloaca membrane breaks down or not, the URSMS are classified as full and partial forms. The prenatal diagnosis of URSMS remains challenging because of poor recognition to this malformation and the relatively non-specific sonographic features. We report a prenatally sonographic diagnosed case of the partial URSMS, and review the literature to summarize the prenatal features. Case report and review: A 37-year old woman was referred at 24 weeks of gestation for fetal abdominal cyst. Detailed sonographic examination was done and revealed the vesicocolic fistula, distended colon, absence of perianal hypoechoic ring, pyelectasis, and small stomach bubble. The URSMS was suspected. Amniocentesis was done and karyotyping revealed 46,XY. Furthermore, chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) was performed for the first time in URSMS and an alteration of 111.8Kb deletion was detected in 16p13.3 which was located inside the RBFOX1 gene. Parental studies showed that the deletion was inherited from the father who has nomal clinical phenotype. The woman elected to terminate the pregnancy at 25 weeks gestation and postmortem examination confirmed the diagnosis of partial URSMS. The published studies were reviewed and 28 cases of URSMS with conducted prenatal ultrasonography were collected in this report. The most common sonographic description, as suspicious signs of URSMS, were severe oligohydramnios or anhydramnios, urinary tract anomalies, fetal intra-abdominal cysts, and dilated bowel. Also, enterolithiasis and vesicocolic fistula were relatively infrequent but highly specific feature of URSMS. Conclusions: URSMS is difficult to be diagnosed prenatally. However, it has characteristic features that can be detected by fetal ultrasonography, and a precise prenatal sonographic examination is crucial

  3. Testicular Vasculitis: A Sonographic and Pathologic Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Hague, Cameron; Bicknell, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Very little has been published about single-organ vasculitis of the testicle in the radiological literature. Consequently, it is a diagnosis that is unfamiliar to most radiologists. This case report describes the sonographic, pathologic, and laboratory findings of testicular vasculitis and reviews the available literature with regard to this subject. PMID:28246567

  4. Neonatal dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Soares, Paulo; Rocha, Gustavo; Pissarra, Susana; Soares, Henrique; Flôr-de-Lima, Filipa; Costa, Sandra; Moura, Cláudia; Dória, Sofia; Guimarães, Hercília

    2017-03-01

    Cardiomyopathies are rare diseases of the heart muscle, of multiple causes, that manifest with various structural and functional phenotypes but are invariably associated with cardiac dysfunction. Dilated cardiomyopathy is the commonest cardiomyopathy in children, and the majority present before one year of age. Its etiology may be acquired or genetic. Myocarditis is an important cause and is responsible for the majority of acquired cases. Inherited (familial) forms of dilated cardiomyopathy may occur in 25-50% of patients. Echocardiographic and tissue Doppler studies are the basis for diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy in most patients. Marked dilatation of the left ventricle with global hypokinesis is the hallmark of the disease. This review will cover the classification, epidemiology and management of newborns with dilated cardiomyopathy. In particular, a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the genetic study of dilated cardiomyopathy and of detailed echocardiographic assessment of these patients will be presented.

  5. Genetic Variations Leading to Familial Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kae Won; Lee, Jongsung; Kim, Youngjo

    2016-10-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a major cause of death worldwide. Based on pathohistological abnormalities and clinical manifestation, cardiomyopathies are categorized into several groups: hypertrophic, dilated, restricted, arrhythmogenic right ventricular, and unclassified. Dilated cardiomyopathy, which is characterized by dilation of the left ventricle and systolic dysfunction, is the most severe and prevalent form of cardiomyopathy and usually requires heart transplantation. Its etiology remains unclear. Recent genetic studies of single gene mutations have provided significant insights into the complex processes of cardiac dysfunction. To date, over 40 genes have been demonstrated to contribute to dilated cardiomyopathy. With advances in genetic screening techniques, novel genes associated with this disease are continuously being identified. The respective gene products can be classified into several functional groups such as sarcomere proteins, structural proteins, ion channels, and nuclear envelope proteins. Nuclear envelope proteins are emerging as potential molecular targets in dilated cardiomyopathy. Because they are not directly associated with contractile force generation and transmission, the molecular pathways through which these proteins cause cardiac muscle disorder remain unclear. However, nuclear envelope proteins are involved in many essential cellular processes. Therefore, integrating apparently distinct cellular processes is of great interest in elucidating the etiology of dilated cardiomyopathy. In this mini review, we summarize the genetic factors associated with dilated cardiomyopathy and discuss their cellular functions.

  6. Genetic Variations Leading to Familial Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kae Won; Lee, Jongsung; Kim, Youngjo

    2016-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a major cause of death worldwide. Based on pathohistological abnormalities and clinical manifestation, cardiomyopathies are categorized into several groups: hypertrophic, dilated, restricted, arrhythmogenic right ventricular, and unclassified. Dilated cardiomyopathy, which is characterized by dilation of the left ventricle and systolic dysfunction, is the most severe and prevalent form of cardiomyopathy and usually requires heart transplantation. Its etiology remains unclear. Recent genetic studies of single gene mutations have provided significant insights into the complex processes of cardiac dysfunction. To date, over 40 genes have been demonstrated to contribute to dilated cardiomyopathy. With advances in genetic screening techniques, novel genes associated with this disease are continuously being identified. The respective gene products can be classified into several functional groups such as sarcomere proteins, structural proteins, ion channels, and nuclear envelope proteins. Nuclear envelope proteins are emerging as potential molecular targets in dilated cardiomyopathy. Because they are not directly associated with contractile force generation and transmission, the molecular pathways through which these proteins cause cardiac muscle disorder remain unclear. However, nuclear envelope proteins are involved in many essential cellular processes. Therefore, integrating apparently distinct cellular processes is of great interest in elucidating the etiology of dilated cardiomyopathy. In this mini review, we summarize the genetic factors associated with dilated cardiomyopathy and discuss their cellular functions. PMID:27802374

  7. Sinuplasty (Balloon Catheter Dilation)

    MedlinePlus

    ... development of the balloon dilating catheter and its adaptation to sinus surgery. In the 1980s, the field ... used in endoscopic sinus surgery. It is the adaptation or application of minimally-invasive balloon technology to ...

  8. Accuracy of sonographic fetal gender determination: predictions made by sonographers during routine obstetric ultrasound scans

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Karen; Garbett, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of sonographer predictions of fetal gender during routine ultrasounds. Primarily, the study sought to investigate the accuracy of predictions made in the first trimester, as requests from parents wanting to know the gender of their fetus at this early scan are becoming increasingly common. Second and third trimester fetuses were included in the study to confirm the accuracy of later predictions. In addition, the mother's decision to know the gender was recorded to determine the prevalence of women wanting prenatal predictions. Methods: A prospective, cross sectional study was conducted in a specialist private obstetric practice in the Illawarra, NSW. A total of 640 fetuses across three trimesters were examined collectively by seven sonographers. Fetal gender was predicted using the sagittal plane only in the first trimester and either the sagittal or transverse plane in later trimesters. Phenotypic gender confirmation was obtained from hospital records or direct telephone contact with women postnatally. Results: Results confirmed 100% accuracy in predictions made after 14 weeks gestation. The overall success rate in the first trimester group (11–14 weeks) was 75%. When excluding those scans where a prediction could not be made, success rates increased to 91%. Results were less accurate for fetuses younger than 12 weeks, with an overall success rate of 54%. Male fetuses under 13 weeks were more likely to have gender incorrectly or unable to be assigned. After 13 weeks, success rates for correctly predicting males exceeded that of female fetuses. Statistical differences were noted in the success rates of individual sonographers. Sixty seven percent of women were in favour of knowing fetal gender from ultrasound. Publicly insured women were more likely to request gender disclosure than privately insured women. Conclusions: Sonographic gender determination provides high success rates in the

  9. Chlamydia muridarum Induction of Glandular Duct Dilation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Yang, Zhangsheng; Zhang, Hongbo; Dai, Jin; Chen, Jianlin; Tang, Lingli; Rippentrop, Sheena; Xue, Min

    2015-01-01

    Although Chlamydia-induced hydrosalpinx in women and mice has been used as a surrogate marker for tubal infertility, the medical relevance of nontubal pathologies, such as uterine horn dilation, developed in mice following chlamydial infection remains unclear. We now report that the uterine horn dilation correlates with glandular duct dilation detected microscopically following Chlamydia muridarum infection. The dilated glandular ducts pushed the uterine horn lumen to closure or dilation and even broke through the myometrium to develop extrusion outside the uterine horn. The severity scores of uterine horn dilation observed macroscopically correlated well with the number of cross sections of the dilated glandular ducts counted under microscopy. Chlamydial infection was detected in the glandular epithelial cells, potentially leading to inflammation and dilation of the glandular ducts. Direct delivery of C. muridarum into the mouse uterus increased both uterine horn/glandular duct dilation and hydrosalpinx. However, the chlamydial plasmid, which is essential for the induction of hydrosalpinx, was not required for the induction of uterine horn/glandular duct dilation. Screening 12 strains of mice for uterine horn dilation following C. muridarum infection revealed that B10.D2, C57BL/10J, and C57BL/6J mice were most susceptible, followed by BALB/cJ and A/J mice. Deficiency in host genes involved in immune responses failed to significantly alter the C. muridarum induction of uterine horn dilation. Nevertheless, the chlamydial induction of uterine horn/glandular duct dilation may be used to evaluate plasmid-independent pathogenicity of Chlamydia in susceptible mice. PMID:25824829

  10. Bilateral bloody nipple discharge in a male infant: sonographic findings and proposed diagnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Djilas-Ivanovic, Dragana; Boban, Jasmina; Katanic, Dragan; Ivkovic-Kapicl, Tatjana; Lucic, Milos Alexandar

    2012-01-01

    Bloody nipple discharge is an uncommon finding in the pediatric population, without clear diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines established. We noted a case of a 3-month-old male infant who presented with bilateral blood-stained nipple discharge, with unremarkable medical history. Sonographic findings revealed bilaterally dilated ducts and cysts with mixed iso- and hypoechoic intraductal content. Possible causes of this condition include hyperlaxity syndrome with decreased function of elastic fibers and fibrocystic changes in breasts, and unusual response to maternal hormones, transferred to the neonate either transplacentally or through breastfeeding. Given the most probable benign etiology and self-limiting nature of the described condition, a conservative approach is suggested. Unnecessary invasive procedures should be avoided.

  11. Continuous controllable balloon dilation: a novel approach for cervix dilation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cervical dilation using mechanical dilators is associated with various complications, such as uterine perforation, cervical laceration, infections and intraperitoneal hemorrhage. To achieve safe and painless cervical dilation, we constructed a new medical device to achieve confident mechanical cervical dilation: a continuous controllable balloon dilator (CCBD). Methods Controlled pumping of incompressible fluid into the CCBD increases the pressure and outer diameter of the CCBD, continuously dilating the cervical canal. The reliability of the CCBD was confirmed in vitro (testing for consistency and endurance, with no detected risk for breakage) and in vivo. A multi-center clinical study was conducted,with 120 pregnant women randomly assigned to one of three groups: Group I,control group, no dilation;Group II,mechanical dilation, Hegar dilator (HeD); and Group III,CCBD. The tissue material for histological evaluation was obtained from the endocervical mucosa before and after dilation using the HeD or CCBD. Results The CCBD dilations were successful and had no complications in all 40 patients of Group III. The cervical tissue was markedly less damaged after CCBD dilation compared with HeD dilation (epithelium damage: 95% (HeD) vs. 45% (CCBD), P <0.001; basal membrane damage: 82.5% (HeD) vs. 27.5% (CCBD), P <0.001; stromal damage: 62.5% (HeD) vs. 37.5% (CCBD), P <0.01). Cervical hemorrhagia was observed in 90% of the patients after HeD dilation versus in 32.5% of the patients after CCBD dilation. Conclusions The CCBD should be used as a replacement for mechanical dilators to prevent uterine and cervical injury during cervical dilation. Trial registration ISRCTN54007498 PMID:23088906

  12. Sonographic findings in an isolated widened fetal subarachnoid space.

    PubMed

    Tongsong, Theera; Puntachai, Pongsun; Tongprasert, Fuanglada; Srisupundit, Kasemsri; Luewan, Suchaya; Traisrisilp, Kuntharee

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this series was to describe sonographic features of an isolated widened fetal subarachnoid space with a thin cerebral mantle and possible associations. Between January 2004 and December 2013, fetuses with a prenatal diagnosis of a widened subarachnoid space were prospectively recruited and followed. Histories of medical and familial diseases, as well as other demographic data such as drug exposure and lifestyles, were assessed and prospectively recorded. The women were investigated for possible associated factors. Ten pregnant women were recruited. Their fetuses showed various degrees of a widened subarachnoid space, ranging from 5 to 20 mm. Nearly all were diagnosed in the second half of pregnancy. Four cases had normal brain structures documented at midpregnancy anomaly screening. Only 1 case had a prenatal diagnosis of a widened subarachnoid space at 20 weeks' gestation. Two fetuses had exposure to alcohol in utero; 2 were proven to have cytomegalovirus infection; 1 had subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to maternal use of warfarin; and 1 had a diagnosis of lissencephaly. Only 1 case in this series had normal postnatal development. A prenatal series of fetal widened subarachnoid spaces with possible associated factors is described. Although such relationships were not fully proven, they should be index cases for future studies.

  13. Different Sonographic Faces of Ectopic Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Chanana, Charu; Gupta, Nishant; Bansal, Itisha; Hooda, Kusum; Sharma, Pranav; Gupta, Mohit; Gandhi, Darshan; Kumar, Yogesh

    2017-01-01

    Vaginal bleeding in the first trimester has wide differential diagnoses, the most common being a normal early intrauterine pregnancy, with other potential causes including spontaneous abortion and ectopic pregnancy. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy is approximately 2% of all reported pregnancies and is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality worldwide. Clinical signs and symptoms of ectopic pregnancy are often nonspecific. History of pelvic pain with bleeding and positive β-human chorionic gonadotropin should raise the possibility of ectopic pregnancy. Knowledge of the different locations of ectopic pregnancy is of utmost importance, in which ultrasound imaging plays a crucial role. This pictorial essay depicts sonographic findings and essential pitfalls in diagnosing ectopic pregnancy. PMID:28299234

  14. Different Sonographic Faces of Ectopic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chanana, Charu; Gupta, Nishant; Bansal, Itisha; Hooda, Kusum; Sharma, Pranav; Gupta, Mohit; Gandhi, Darshan; Kumar, Yogesh

    2017-01-01

    Vaginal bleeding in the first trimester has wide differential diagnoses, the most common being a normal early intrauterine pregnancy, with other potential causes including spontaneous abortion and ectopic pregnancy. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy is approximately 2% of all reported pregnancies and is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality worldwide. Clinical signs and symptoms of ectopic pregnancy are often nonspecific. History of pelvic pain with bleeding and positive β-human chorionic gonadotropin should raise the possibility of ectopic pregnancy. Knowledge of the different locations of ectopic pregnancy is of utmost importance, in which ultrasound imaging plays a crucial role. This pictorial essay depicts sonographic findings and essential pitfalls in diagnosing ectopic pregnancy.

  15. The additive value of transient left ventricular dilation using two-day dipyridamole 99mTc-MIBI SPET for screening coronary artery disease in patients with otherwise normal myocardial perfusion: a comparison between diabetic and non-diabetic cases.

    PubMed

    Fallahi, Babak; Beiki, Davood; Fard-Esfahani, Armaghan; Akbarpour, Saeed; Abolhassani, Arash; Kakhki, Vahid Reza Dabbagh; Eftekhari, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    The prognostic value of transient ischemic dilation (TID) has been previously confirmed; however, its clinical significance for screening coronary artery disease (CAD) with balanced ischemia, as a cause of false negative myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the additive diagnostic value of TID ratio for screening CAD in separate subgroups of diabetic and non-diabetics with normal perfusion. Eighty six patients with intermediate probability of CAD who had TID more than one in the presence of otherwise normal MPI using two-day technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile ((99m)Tc-MIBI) single photon emission tomography (SPET) and dipyridamole stress (summed stress score<3 and left ventricular cavity<90 mL) were included in a prospective cohort study comprising two subgroups of diabetic and non- diabetic patients. An inclusive work-up with multiple noninvasive tests was performed for all patients from whom 38 cases subsequently underwent coronary angiography and 48 cases were categorized in the group with a very low likelihood (<5%) of CAD on the basis of clinical and paraclinical data over a minimum of 18 months follow up. The TID ratio was calculated using automated software. Gensini score (GS) as an indicator of severity/extent of stenosis and coronary artery index (CAI) as the number of arteries with more than 50% narrowing were calculated based on angiographic findings. Our results showed that only in diabetic patients with three-vessel disease, TID ratio (1.47 ± 0.23) differs significantly from the other groups of CAD. In diabetic patients subgroup, TID ratio correlated strongly with GS (r=0.957, P<0.0001) and CAI (r=0.659, P=0.001), while such correlations were not seen in the non-diabetic patients. On the basis of receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for screening CAD in diabetic patients with normal myocardial perfusion, 100% sensitivity and 77.8% normalcy rate were achieved when TID more than 1

  16. Sonographic investigations of the gastrointestinal tract of granivorous birds.

    PubMed

    Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Stahl, Anja; Pees, Michael; Enders, Frank; Bartels, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the sonographic examination of the normal gastrointestinal tract of granivorous birds. Preliminary tests with dead birds were performed to get an idea of the sonographic echotexture of the avian gastrointestinal tract. Later, clinically healthy seedeaters of different weights were examined sonographically. As equipment a convex microcurved scanner with a particularly small coupling surface and an adjustable frequency from 5.5-7.5 MHz was used. For the investigation of the gastrointestinal tract, six sonographic approaches are described. After a starving time of 18 hours in the granivorous birds and water input, the best sonographic image quality could be obtained. Using this method, the crop, ventriculus, intestines, and cloaca could be demonstrated sonographically; whereas, it was not possible to visualize the normal proventriculus in granivorous birds. In contrast to mammals, the different layers of the wall of the gastrointestinal tract could not be visualized with the equipment used. Motility of individual parts of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), however, could be well demonstrated.

  17. Automated detection of dilated capillaries on optical coherence tomography angiography

    PubMed Central

    Dongye, Changlei; Zhang, Miao; Hwang, Thomas S.; Wang, Jie; Gao, Simon S.; Liu, Liang; Huang, David; Wilson, David J.; Jia, Yali

    2017-01-01

    Automated detection and grading of angiographic high-risk features in diabetic retinopathy can potentially enhance screening and clinical care. We have previously identified capillary dilation in angiograms of the deep plexus in optical coherence tomography angiography as a feature associated with severe diabetic retinopathy. In this study, we present an automated algorithm that uses hybrid contrast to distinguish angiograms with dilated capillaries from healthy controls and then applies saliency measurement to map the extent of the dilated capillary networks. The proposed algorithm agreed well with human grading. PMID:28271005

  18. The spectrum of sonographic findings of fibroadenoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Jackson, V P; Rothschild, P A; Kreipke, D L; Mail, J T; Holden, R W

    1986-01-01

    There are a number of sonographic findings seen in fibroadenoma of the breast. In a retrospective study, we examined the biopsy results of 59 masses given the sonographic diagnosis of fibroadenoma. We also reviewed the sonograms of an additional 26 biopsy-proven fibroadenomas that were not diagnosed as such with ultrasound. The ultrasound diagnosis was correct in 50 of 76 fibroadenomas (65.8%). Only 12 of the 76 biopsy-proven fibroadenomas had the classic sonographic appearance of a smooth round or oval mass with homogeneous internal echoes. Fourteen fibroadenomas were not visible on the sonograms, even in retrospect. The remaining 50 biopsy-proven fibroadenomas demonstrated one or more "atypical" signs of border irregularity, lobulation, inhomogeneous internal echo texture, or posterior shadowing. There were nine sonographic false positives: five patients had other benign lesions on histology, and four masses believed to be sonographically compatible with fibroadenoma were found to be carcinomas. While breast sonography is frequently a useful modality for breast mass detection, particularly as an adjunct to x-ray mammography, the common overlap in characteristics of benign and malignant masses makes histologic evaluation of all solid masses essential.

  19. Bootstrapping Time Dilation Decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooding, Cisco; Unruh, William G.

    2015-10-01

    We present a general relativistic model of a spherical shell of matter with a perfect fluid on its surface coupled to an internal oscillator, which generalizes a model recently introduced by the authors to construct a self-gravitating interferometer (Gooding and Unruh in Phys Rev D 90:044071, 2014). The internal oscillator evolution is defined with respect to the local proper time of the shell, allowing the oscillator to serve as a local clock that ticks differently depending on the shell's position and momentum. A Hamiltonian reduction is performed on the system, and an approximate quantum description is given to the reduced phase space. If we focus only on the external dynamics, we must trace out the clock degree of freedom, and this results in a form of intrinsic decoherence that shares some features with a proposed "universal" decoherence mechanism attributed to gravitational time dilation (Pikovski et al in Nat Phys, 2015). We note that the proposed decoherence remains present in the (gravity-free) limit of flat spacetime, emphasizing that the effect can be attributed entirely to proper time differences, and thus is not necessarily related to gravity. Whereas the effect described in (Pikovski et al in Nat Phys, 2015) vanishes in the absence of an external gravitational field, our approach bootstraps the gravitational contribution to the time dilation decoherence by including self-interaction, yielding a fundamentally gravitational intrinsic decoherence effect.

  20. Collaborating with cardiac sonographers to develop work-related musculoskeletal disorder interventions

    PubMed Central

    Sommerich, Carolyn M.; Lavender, Steven A.; Evans, Kevin; Sanders, Elizabeth; Joines, Sharon; Lamar, Sabrina; Umar, Radin Zaid Radin; Yen, Wei-Ting; Li, Jing; Nagavarapu, Shasank; Dickerson, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    For more than two decades, surveys of imaging technologists, including cardiac sonographers, diagnostic medical sonographers, and vascular technologists, have consistently reported high prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal discomfort (WRMSD). Yet, intervention research involving sonographers is limited. In this study, we used a participatory approach to identifying needs and opportunities for developing interventions to reduce sonographers’ exposures to WMSD risk factors. In this paper, we present some of those needs. We include descriptions of two interventions, targeted for cardiac sonographers, that were developed, through an iterative process, into functional prototypes that were evaluated in pilot tests by practicing sonographers. One of these interventions is now in daily use. We would like other engineers and ergonomists to recognize this area of opportunity to apply their knowledge of biomechanics and design in order to begin to address the high prevalence of WRMSDs in sonographers, by working with sonographers to develop useful and usable interventions. PMID:26642863

  1. Inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMI).

    PubMed

    Maisch, Bernhard; Richter, Anette; Sandmöller, Andrea; Portig, Irene; Pankuweit, Sabine

    2005-09-01

    Cardiomyopathies are heart muscle diseases, which have been defined by their central hemodynamics and macropathology and divided in five major forms: dilated (DCM), hypertrophic (HCM), restrictive (RCM), right ventricular (RVCM), and nonclassifiable cardiomyopathies (NCCM). Furthermore, the most recent WHO/WHF definition also comprises, among the specific cardiomyopathies, inflammatory cardiomyopathy as a distinct entity, defined as myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction. Idiopathic, autoimmune, and infectious forms of inflammatory cardiomyopathy were recognized. Viral cardiomyopathy has been defined as viral persistence in a dilated heart. It may be accompanied by myocardial inflammation and then termed inflammatory viral cardiomyopathy (or viral myocarditis with cardiomegaly). If no inflammation is observed in the biopsy of a dilated heart (< 14 lymphocytes and macrophages/mm(2)), the term viral cardiomyopathy or viral persistence in DCM should be applied according to the WHF Task Force recommendations. Within the German heart failure net it is the authors' working hypothesis, that DCM shares genetic risk factors with other diseases of presumed autoimmune etiology and, therefore, the same multiple genes in combination with environmental factors lead to numerous different autoimmune diseases including DCM. Therefore, the authors' primary goal is to acquire epidemiologic data of patients with DCM regarding an infectious and inflammatory etiology of the disease. Circumstantial evidence points to a major role of viral myocarditis in the etiology of DCM. The common presence of viral genetic material in the myocardium of patients with DCM provides the most compelling evidence, but proof of causality is still lacking. In addition, autoimmune reactions have been described in many studies, indicating them as an important etiologic factor. Nevertheless, data on the proportion of patients, in whom both mechanisms play a role are still missing.A pivotal role for

  2. [Sources of error in sonographic diagnosis of the rotator cuff].

    PubMed

    Casser, H R; Sulimma, H; Straub, A; Paus, R

    1991-12-01

    Sonography of the shoulder joint has developed into an established examination technique in the diagnosis of periarticular lesions of the shoulder. Sonographic diagnosis of the rotator cuff in particular contains a multitude of possible errors, which are gone into by this study by means of 149 clinically, radiologically and sonographically examined shoulder patients with an average age of 50.5 years. Besides errors made by wrong examination technique such of the transducer as incorrect adjustment of the equipment, insufficient contact of the transducer with the skin and unsuitable choice of the examination plane, there are sources of errors in the interpretation of the sonogram caused by lack of knowledge about physically caused artifacts and sonoanatomical qualities of the shoulder joint. Calcification inside the rotator cuff and the so-called "sonographic inhomogeneity of the rotator cuff" are numbered among the sources of error particular to the shoulder joint. Most errors in sonographic diagnosis of the rotator cuff can be avoided by careful examination of both shoulder joints with an exactly tuned ultrasound device, taking into account the sonoanatomical and ultrasonic qualities. Radiological examination of the affected shoulder joint cannot be replaced by ultrasound.

  3. Sonographic demonstration of stomach pathology: Reviewing the cases.

    PubMed

    Deslandes, Alison

    2013-11-01

    Introduction: The stomach can be the source of complaints for many patients attending for upper abdominal ultrasound. It is not routinely imaged as part of most upper abdominal ultrasound protocols, with sonographers and sonologists alike commonly muttering the line; "I can't see the stomach on ultrasound". However, this is incorrect, as the gastric antrum can almost always be visualised sonographically. Discussion: It is possible to detect a range of pathologies affecting the stomach sonographically, from common, largely tolerable conditions such as hiatus hernias through to life-threatening neoplasms. Conclusion: The stomach can easily be assessed during routine abdominal ultrasound providing the sonographer has knowledge of stomach anatomy, normal ultrasound appearances and limitations to its visualisation. While endoscopy is the gold standard for investigation of the stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract, many patients will initially present for abdominal ultrasound due to its easy, non-invasive nature, ready availability and low cost. For patients with mild abdominal symptoms, a normal abdominal ultrasound may be the extent of their imaging investigations meaning stomach pathologies may go undiagnosed.

  4. Sonographic training in rheumatology: a self teaching approach

    PubMed Central

    Filippucci, E; Unlu, Z; Farina, A; Grassi, W

    2003-01-01

    Methods: The novice was given short general training (two hours) by an experienced sonographer focusing on the approach to the ultrasound equipment, and asked to obtain the best sonographic images of different anatomical areas as similar as possible to the "gold standard" pictures in the online version of the guidelines for musculoskeletal ultrasonography in rheumatology (free access at http://www.sameint.it/eular/ultrasound). At the end of each scanning session, both novice and tutor scored "blindly" all the images from 0 (the lowest quality) to 10 (the highest quality), with a minimum quality score of 6 considered acceptable for standard clinical use. The tutor then explained how to improve the quality of the pictures. Fourteen consecutive inpatients (seven with rheumatoid arthritis, three with psoriatic arthritis, two with reactive arthritis, and two with osteoarthritis) and five healthy subjects were examined. Ultrasound examinations were performed with a Diasus (Dynamic Imaging Ltd, Livingston, Scotland, UK) using two broadband linear probes of 5–10 and 8–16 MHz frequency. Results: Sonographic training lasted one month and included 30 scanning sessions (24 hours of active scanning). 243 images were taken of the selected anatomical areas. The mean time required to produce each image was 6 minutes (SD 4.2; range 1–30). At the end of the training, the novice scored ⩾6 for each standard scan. Conclusion: A novice can obtain acceptable sonographic images in 24 non-consecutive hours of active scanning after an intensive self teaching programme. PMID:12759296

  5. Microstructural formulation of stress dilatancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Richard; Guo, Peijun

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we show that the well-known Rowe's stress-dilatancy relation can be readily recovered from a micromechanical analysis of an assembly of rigid particles as a purely dissipative system in the case of a regular packing. When the analysis is extended to a random packing, one can explicitly incorporate the dependence of fabric, density and stress level on dilatancy, a basic aspect of geomaterial behaviour. The resulting microstructurally based stress dilatancy relation can be easily implemented as a non-associated flow rule in any standard elastoplastic model. Some numerical simulations of stress-dilatancy with initial fabric as a controlling variable are presented to illustrate the developed model. xml:lang="fr"

  6. Esophageal dilation in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Richter, Joel E

    2015-10-01

    Tissue remodeling with scaring is common in adult EoE patients with long standing disease. This is the major factor contributing to their complaints of solid food dysphagia and recurrent food impactions. The best tests to define the degree of remodeling are barium esophagram, high resolution manometry and endoscopy. Many physicians are fearful to dilate EoE patients because of concerns about mucosal tears and perforations. However, multiple recent case series attest to the safety of esophageal dilation and its efficacy with many patients having symptom relief for an average of two years. This chapter will review the sordid history of esophageal dilation in EoE patients and outline how to perform this procedure safely. The key is graduated dilation over one to several sessions to a diameter of 15-18 mm. Postprocedural pain is to be expected and mucosal tears are a sign of successful dilation, not complications. In some healthy adults, occasional dilation may be preferred to regular use of medications or restricted diets. This approach is now supported by recent EoE consensus statements and societal guidelines.

  7. Dilatational band formation in bone

    PubMed Central

    Poundarik, Atharva A.; Diab, Tamim; Sroga, Grazyna E.; Ural, Ani; Boskey, Adele L.; Gundberg, Caren M.; Vashishth, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Toughening in hierarchically structured materials like bone arises from the arrangement of constituent material elements and their interactions. Unlike microcracking, which entails micrometer-level separation, there is no known evidence of fracture at the level of bone’s nanostructure. Here, we show that the initiation of fracture occurs in bone at the nanometer scale by dilatational bands. Through fatigue and indentation tests and laser confocal, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies on human and bovine bone specimens, we established that dilatational bands of the order of 100 nm form as ellipsoidal voids in between fused mineral aggregates and two adjacent proteins, osteocalcin (OC) and osteopontin (OPN). Laser microdissection and ELISA of bone microdamage support our claim that OC and OPN colocalize with dilatational bands. Fracture tests on bones from OC and/or OPN knockout mice (OC−/−, OPN−/−, OC-OPN−/−;−/−) confirm that these two proteins regulate dilatational band formation and bone matrix toughness. On the basis of these observations, we propose molecular deformation and fracture mechanics models, illustrating the role of OC and OPN in dilatational band formation, and predict that the nanometer scale of tissue organization, associated with dilatational bands, affects fracture at higher scales and determines fracture toughness of bone. PMID:23129653

  8. Breast abscess after nipple piercing: sonographic findings with clinical correlation.

    PubMed

    Leibman, A Jill; Misra, Monika; Castaldi, Maria

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this series was to review the spectrum of clinical and sonographic features associated with infection after nipple piercing. Between 2002 and 2010, 6 patients presented to our breast center with a breast abscess after nipple piercing. A retrospective analysis of the imaging findings was performed with clinical and pathologic correlation. Patients with breast infections after nipple piercing tend to be young, and the timing since piercing varies from 2 weeks to 17 months. Sonography showed a complex or hypoechoic mass in 5 of 6 patients. Treatment of breast abscesses included surgical incision and drainage, percutaneous drainage, and antibiotic therapy. Surgical evacuation is commonly performed; however, sonographically guided aspiration may be an appropriate management strategy.

  9. Peptic ulcer perforation: sonographic imaging of active fluid leakage.

    PubMed

    Minardos, Ioannis; Ioannis, Minardos; Ziogana, Dimitra; Dimitra, Ziogana; Hristopoulos, Hristos; Hristos, Hristopoulos; Dermitzakis, Ioannis; Ioannis, Dermitzakis

    2006-01-01

    Sonography is not the method of choice for the evaluation of suspected peptic ulcer perforation (PUP). However, indirect sonographic signs and direct visualization of PUP have been reported by several authors in recent years. We report a case of an elderly woman who presented with severe abdominal pain and positive rebound sign, in whom abdominal sonography demonstrated indirect signs of PUP, the site of perforation, and active air fluid leakage through the perforated anterior prepyloric antral wall.

  10. Cysticercosis of the masseter: MRI and sonographic correlation

    PubMed Central

    Nagarjuna, M; Belaval, V; Shetty, S; Salins, P C

    2015-01-01

    Cysticercal involvement of the masseter is an uncommon manifestation of a relatively common parasitic infestation. Sonographic evaluation of many isolated cases of cysticercosis has been extensively described. However, there are scanty reports on MRI appearance of cysticercal involvement of the masseter. This report presents classical imaging appearance of cysticercal involvement of the masseter on sonography and MRI. The pattern of the disease and MRI appearance of lesions in the masseter, highlighting the role of diffusion-weighted images, are described. PMID:25734242

  11. Pancreatic changes in cystic fibrosis: CT and sonographic appearances

    SciTech Connect

    Daneman, A.; Gaskin, K.; Martin, D.J.; Cutz, E.

    1983-10-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) and sonographic appearances of the late stages of pancreatic damage in three patients with cystic fibrosis are illustrated. All three had severe exocrine pancreatic insufficiency with steatorrhea. In two patients CT revealed complete fatty replacement of the entire pancreas. In the third, increased echogenicity of the pancreas on sonography and the inhomogeneous attenuation on CT were interpreted as being the result of a combination of fibrosis, fatty replacement, calcification, and probable cyst formation.

  12. Laryngeal schwannoma: a case report with emphasis on sonographic findings.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Luis Ronan Marquez Ferreira; De Nicola, Harley; Yamasaki, Rosiane; Pedroso, José Eduardo; do Brasil, Osíris de Oliveira Camponês; Yamashita, Hélio

    2014-01-01

    Schwannomas are benign nerve sheath tumors composed of Schwann cells, which normally produce the insulating myelin sheath covering peripheral, cranial and autonomic nerves. Twenty-five to forty-five percent of all schwannomas occur in the head and neck region, but location of such tumors in the larynx is rarely observed. The present report is aimed at describing a clinical case of laryngeal schwannoma, with emphasis on sonographic findings.

  13. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of the 49,XXXXY syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schluth, Caroline; Doray, Bérénice; Girard-Lemaire, Françoise; Kohler, Monique; Langer, Bruno; Gasser, Bernard; Lindner, Véronique; Flori, Elisabeth

    2002-12-01

    The 49,XXXXY syndrome is a rare sex chromosome anomaly with an approximate incidence of 1 in 85,000 male live births. The diagnosis is usually ascertained postnatally by the association of mental retardation, variable growth deficiency, Down syndrome-like facial dysmorphy, hypogenitalism and other malformations, especially involving the heart and skeleton. Prenatal diagnosis of the pentasomy 49,XXXXY is generally fortuitous and sonographic features have rarely been described in the literature. We report here on two cases of 49,XXXXY syndrome diagnosed prenatally because of sonographic abnormalities. In the first, amniocentesis was performed at 26 weeks' gestation for polyhydramnios, unilateral clubfoot and micropenis. In the second, a karyotype was carried out on chorionic villi at 13 weeks' gestation for cystic hygroma. These observations and the six previously reported cases demonstrate that cystic hygroma in first or second trimester of pregnancy may be associated with sex chromosome aneuploidy other than Turner syndrome. Moreover, they emphasize the importance of detailed sonographic examination in the second trimester, as small penis and abnormal posturing of the lower extremities are very suggestive of the 49,XXXXY syndrome.

  14. Genetic basis of dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Serra, Alexandra; Toro, Rocio; Sarquella-Brugada, Georgia; de Gonzalo-Calvo, David; Cesar, Sergi; Carro, Esther; Llorente-Cortes, Vicenta; Iglesias, Anna; Brugada, Josep; Brugada, Ramon; Campuzano, Oscar

    2016-12-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is a rare cardiac disease characterized by left ventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction leading to heart failure and sudden cardiac death. Currently, despite several conditions have been reported as aetiologies of the disease, a large number of cases remain classified as idiopathic. Recent studies determine that nearly 60% of cases are inherited, therefore due to a genetic cause. Progressive technological advances in genetic analysis have identified over 60 genes associated with this entity, being TTN the main gene, so far. All these genes encode a wide variety of myocyte proteins, mainly sarcomeric and desmosomal, but physiopathologic pathways are not yet completely unraveled. We review the recent published data about genetics of familial dilated cardiomyopathy.

  15. The Clinical Significance of Early (<20 Weeks) Versus Late (20–24 Weeks) Detection of a Sonographic Short Cervix in Asymptomatic Women in the Mid-Trimester

    PubMed Central

    Vaisbuch, Edi; Romero, Roberto; Erez, Offer; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Gotsch, Francesca; Romero, Vivian; Ward, Clara; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Mittal, Pooja; Sorokin, Yoram; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether the risk of early spontaneous preterm delivery (sPTD) in asymptomatic women with a sonographic cervical length ≤15 mm in the mid-trimester changes as a function of gestational age at diagnos Methods This cohort study included 109 asymptomatic patients with a sonographic sonographic cervical length ≤15 mm diagnosed at 14–24 weeks of gestation. Women with a multifetal gestation, cerclage, and those with a cervical dilatation >2 cm were excluded. The study population was stratified by gestational age at diagnosis (<20 weeks vs. 20–24 weeks) and by cervical length (≤10 mm vs. 11–15 mm). The primary outcome variables were PTD <28 and <32 weeks’ gestation and the diagnosis-to-delivery interval. Results 1) The median gestational age at diagnosis of a short cervix before 20 weeks and at 20–24 weeks was 18.9 and 22.7 weeks, respectively; 2) women diagnosed before 20 weeks had a higher rate of sPTD at <28 weeks (76.9% vs. 30.9%; p<0.001) and at <32 weeks (80.8% vs. 48.1%; p=0.004), and a shorter median diagnosis-to-delivery interval (21 vs. 61.5 days, p=0.003) than those diagnosed at 20–24 weeks; 3) The rate of amniotic fluid “sludge” was higher among patients diagnosed at <20 weeks of gestation than those diagnosed between 20 and 24 weeks (92.3% vs. 48.2%;p<0.001). Conclusions Asymptomatic women with a sonographic cervical length ≤15 mm diagnosed before 20 weeks have a dramatic and significantly higher risk of early preterm delivery than women diagnosed at 20–24 weeks. These findings can be helpful to physicians in counseling these patients, and may suggest different mechanisms of disease leading to a sonographic short cervix before or after 20 weeks of gestation. PMID:20503224

  16. Terms, definitions and measurements to describe sonographic features of myometrium and uterine masses: a consensus opinion from the Morphological Uterus Sonographic Assessment (MUSA) group.

    PubMed

    Van den Bosch, T; Dueholm, M; Leone, F P G; Valentin, L; Rasmussen, C K; Votino, A; Van Schoubroeck, D; Landolfo, C; Installé, A J F; Guerriero, S; Exacoustos, C; Gordts, S; Benacerraf, B; D'Hooghe, T; De Moor, B; Brölmann, H; Goldstein, S; Epstein, E; Bourne, T; Timmerman, D

    2015-09-01

    The MUSA (Morphological Uterus Sonographic Assessment) statement is a consensus statement on terms, definitions and measurements that may be used to describe and report the sonographic features of the myometrium using gray-scale sonography, color/power Doppler and three-dimensional ultrasound imaging. The terms and definitions described may form the basis for prospective studies to predict the risk of different myometrial pathologies, based on their ultrasound appearance, and thus should be relevant for the clinician in daily practice and for clinical research. The sonographic features and use of terminology for describing the two most common myometrial lesions (fibroids and adenomyosis) and uterine smooth muscle tumors are presented.

  17. Sonographers' Complex Communication during the Obstetric Sonogram Exam: An Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasseur, Lee

    2012-01-01

    A study of the oral communication experiences and training of obstetric sonographers can provide insight into the complex expectations these medical professionals face as they complete their technical tasks and communicate with patients. Unlike other diagnostic medical professionals, obstetric sonographers are expected to provide detailed…

  18. The student's dilemma, liver edition: incorporating the sonographer's language into clinical anatomy education.

    PubMed

    Hall, M Kennedy; Mirjalili, S Ali; Moore, Christopher L; Rizzolo, Lawrence J

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy students are often confused by multiple names ascribed to the same structure by different clinical disciplines. Increasingly, sonography is being incorporated into clinical anatomical education, but ultrasound textbooks often use names unfamiliar to the anatomist. Confusion is worsened when ultrasound names ascribed to the same structure actually refer to different structures. Consider the sonographic main lobar fissure (MLF). The sonographic MLF is a hyper-echoic landmark used by sonographers of the right upper quadrant. Found in approximately 70% of people, there is little consensus on what the sonographic MLF is anatomically. This structure appears to be related to the main portal fissure (aka principal plane of the liver or principal hepatic fissure), initially described by anatomists and surgeons as in intrahepatic division along the middle hepatic vein which in essence divides the territories of the left and right hepatic arteries and biliary systems. By exploring the relationship between the main portal fissure and the sonographic MLF in cadaveric livers ex vivo, the data suggest the sonographic MLF is actually an extrahepatic structure that parallels the rim of the main portal fissure. The authors recommend that this structure be renamed the "sonographic cystic pedicle," which includes the cystic duct and ensheathing fat and blood vessels. In the context of the redefined underlying anatomy, the absence of the sonographic cystic pedicle due to anatomic variation may serve an important clinical role in predicting complications from difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomies and is deserving of future study.

  19. Return of Viable Cardiac Function After Sonographic Cardiac Standstill in Pediatric Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Katherine; Thompson, W Reid; Pustavoitau, Aliaksei; Su, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Sonographic cardiac standstill during adult cardiac arrest is associated with failure to get return to spontaneous circulation. This report documents 3 children whose cardiac function returned after standstill with extracorporeal membranous oxygenation. Sonographic cardiac standstill may not predict cardiac death in children.

  20. 21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dilator is a device designed to dilate the anal sphincter and canal when the size of the anal opening may interfere with its function or the passage of an examining instrument. (b) Classification. Class I...

  1. Fetal Aortic Arch Anomalies: Key Sonographic Views for Their Differential Diagnosis and Clinical Implications Using the Cardiovascular System Sonographic Evaluation Protocol.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Coral; Gámez, Francisco; Pérez, Ricardo; Álvarez, Teresa; De León-Luis, Juan

    2016-02-01

    Aortic arch anomalies are present in 1% to 2% of the general population and are commonly associated with congenital heart disease, chromosomal defects, and tracheaesophageal compression in postnatal life. The sonographically based detection of aortic arch anomalies lies in the 3-vessel and trachea view. Although highly sensitive, this view alone does not allow identification of the aortic arch branching pattern, which prevents an accurate diagnosis. The systematic addition of a subclavian artery view as part of a standardized procedure may be useful in the differential diagnosis of these conditions. We describe the sonographic assessment of fetal aortic arch anomalies by combining 2 fetal transverse views: the 3-vessel and trachea view and the subclavian artery view, which are included in the cardiovascular system sonographic evaluation protocol. We also review the sonographic findings and the clinical implications of fetal aortic arch anomalies.

  2. Sonographic evaluation of pediatric localized scleroderma: preliminary disease assessment measures

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Our earlier work in the ultrasonograpy of localized scleroderma (LS) suggests that altered levels of echogenicity and vascularity can be associated with disease activity. Utrasound is clinically benign and readily available, but can be limited by operator dependence. We present our efforts to standardize image acquisition and interpretation of pediatric LS to better evaluate the correlation between specific sonographic findings and disease activity. Methods Several meetings have been held among our multi-center group (LOCUS) to work towards standardizing sonographic technique and image interpretation. Demonstration and experience in image acquisition were conducted at workshop meetings. Following meetings in 2007, an ultrasound measure was developed to standardize evaluation of differences in echogenicity and vascularity. Based upon our initial observations, we have labeled this an ultrasound disease activity measure. This preliminary measure was subsequently evaluated on over 180 scans of pediatric LS lesions. This review suggested that scoring levels should be expanded to better capture the range of observed differences. The revised levels and their definitions were formulated at a February 2009 workshop meeting. We have also developed assessments for scoring changes in tissue thickness and lesion size to better determine if these parameters aid evaluation of disease state. Results We have standardized our protocol for acquiring ultrasound images of pediatric LS lesions. A wide range of sonographic differences has been seen in the dermis, hypodermis, and deep tissue layers of active lesions. Preliminary ultrasound assessments have been generated. The disease activity measure scores for altered levels of echogenicity and vascularity in the lesion, and other assessments score for differences in lesion tissue layer thickness and changes in lesion size. Conclusions We describe the range of sonographic differences found in pediatric LS, and present our

  3. Co segregation of the m.1555A>G mutation in the MT-RNR1 gene and mutations in MT-ATP6 gene in a family with dilated mitochondrial cardiomyopathy and hearing loss: A whole mitochondrial genome screening.

    PubMed

    Alila-Fersi, Olfa; Chamkha, Imen; Majdoub, Imen; Gargouri, Lamia; Mkaouar-Rebai, Emna; Tabebi, Mouna; Tlili, Abdelaziz; Keskes, Leila; Mahfoudh, Abdelmajid; Fakhfakh, Faiza

    2017-02-26

    Mitochondrial disease refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting in defective cellular energy production due to dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which is responsible for the generation of most cellular energy. Because cardiac muscles are one of the high energy demanding tissues, mitochondrial cardiomyopathies is one of the most frequent mitochondria disorders. Mitochondrial cardiomyopathy has been associated with several point mutations of mtDNA in both genes encoded mitochondrial proteins and mitochondrial tRNA and rRNA. We reported here the first description of mutations in MT-ATP6 gene in two patients with clinical features of dilated mitochondrial cardiomyopathy. The mutational analysis of the whole mitochondrial DNA revealed the presence of m.1555A>G mutation in MT-RNR1 gene associated to the m.8527A>G (p.M>V) and the m.8392C>T (p.136P>S) variations in the mitochondrial MT-ATP6 gene in patient1 and his family members with variable phenotype including hearing impairment. The second patient with isolated mitochondrial cardiomyopathy presented the m.8605C>T (p.27P>S) mutation in the MT-ATP6 gene. The three mutations p.M1V, p.P27S and p.P136S detected in MT-ATP6 affected well conserved residues of the mitochondrial protein ATPase 6. In addition, the substitution of proline residue at position 27 and 136 effect hydrophobicity and structure flexibility conformation of the protein.

  4. Sonographic evaluation of visceral and subcutaneous fat in obese children*

    PubMed Central

    Sakuno, Telma; Tomita, Letícia Mary; Tomita, Carolina Mywa; Giuliano, Isabela de Carlos Back; Ibagy, Amanda; Perin, Nilza Maria Medeiros; Poeta, Lisiane Schilling

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate sonographic measurements of visceral and subcutaneous fat in children, and to investigate the usefulness of preperitoneal fat (PF) and the abdominal wall fat index (AFI) as parameters to determine visceral fat and presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. Materials and Methods A case-control study of a sample including 44 children (22 cases and 22 controls) matched by sex and age. The Student t test and the Fisher exact test were utilized in the descriptive and bivariate analysis. Results The sonographic parameters evaluated - subcutaneous cell tissue, PF and intraperitoneal fat, and NAFLD - presented high statistical association with body mass index. NAFLD was observed in eight obese patients (36.36%), and PF and AFI were the variables with highest statistical significance, with p < 0.0001. Conclusion Ultrasonography is useful tool in the differentiation and quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat in children. The measures of PF and AFI are useful in the assessment of visceral fat and NAFLD in obese children. PMID:25741071

  5. A ‘snapshot’ of the visual search behaviours of medical sonographers

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Patrick C; Pietrzyk, Mariusz; Clarke, Jillian; Chekaluk, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Visual search is a task that humans perform in everyday life. Whether it involves looking for a pen on a desk or a mass in a mammogram, the cognitive and perceptual processes that underpin these tasks are identical. Radiologists are experts in visual search of medical images and studies on their visual search behaviours have revealed some interesting findings with regard to diagnostic errors. In Australia, within the modality of ultrasound, sonographers perform the diagnostic scan, select images and present to the radiologist for reporting. Therefore the visual task and potential for errors is similar to a radiologist. Our aim was to explore and understand the detection, localisation and eye‐gaze behaviours of a group of qualified sonographers. Method: We measured clinical performance and analysed diagnostic errors by presenting fifty sonographic breast images that varied on cancer present and degree of difficulty to a group of sonographers in their clinical workplace. For a sub‐set of sonographers we obtained eye‐tracking metrics such as time‐to‐first fixation, total visit duration and cumulative dwell time heat maps. Results: The results indicate that the sonographers' clinical performance was high and the eye‐tracking metrics showed diagnostic error types similar to those found in studies on radiologist visual search. Conclusion: This study informs us about sonographer visual search patterns and highlights possible ways to improve diagnostic performance via targeted education. PMID:28191244

  6. Sonographic appearance of angioedema in local allergic reactions to insect bites and stings.

    PubMed

    Tay, Ee Tein; Tsung, James W

    2014-09-01

    Soft tissue infections and angioedema from insect bites and stings may be difficult to differentiate by inspection. We present sonographic findings of 4 cases of soft tissue swelling from insect bites and stings suggestive of angioedema. Sonographic features of soft tissue angioedema consist of thickened subcutaneous tissue layers with multiple linear, horizontal, striated, and hypoechoic lines following the tissue planes between soft tissue layers. In addition to the history and physical examination, sonographic findings may assist in differentiating between local allergic reactions and cellulitis in patients with insect bites and stings. Further study is warranted for clinical application.

  7. Antarctic analog for dilational bands on Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurford, T. A.; Brunt, K. M.

    2014-09-01

    Europa's surface shows signs of extension, which is revealed as lithospheric dilation expressed along ridges, dilational bands and ridged bands. Ridges, the most common tectonic feature on Europa, comprise a central crack flanked by two raised banks a few hundred meters high on each side. Together these three classes may represent a continuum of formation. In Tufts' Dilational Model ridge formation is dominated by daily tidal cycling of a crack, which can be superimposed with regional secular dilation. The two sources of dilation can combine to form the various band morphologies observed. New GPS data along a rift on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica is a suitable Earth analog to test the framework of Tufts' Dilational Model. As predicted by Tufts' Dilational Model, tensile failures in the Ross Ice Shelf exhibit secular dilation, upon which a tidal signal can be seen. From this analog we conclude that Tufts' Dilational Model for Europan ridges and bands may be credible and that the secular dilation is most likely from a regional source and not tidally driven.

  8. Antarctic Analog for Dilational Bands on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurford, T. A.; Brunt, K. M.

    2014-01-01

    Europa's surface shows signs of extension, which is revealed as lithospheric dilation expressed along ridges, dilational bands and ridged bands. Ridges, the most common tectonic feature on Europa, comprise a central crack flanked by two raised banks a few hundred meters high on each side. Together these three classes may represent a continuum of formation. In Tufts' Dilational Model ridge formation is dominated by daily tidal cycling of a crack, which can be superimposed with regional secular dilation. The two sources of dilation can combine to form the various band morphologies observed. New GPS data along a rift on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica is a suitable Earth analog to test the framework of Tufts' Dilational Model. As predicted by Tufts' Dilational Model, tensile failures in the Ross Ice Shelf exhibit secular dilation, upon which a tidal signal can be seen. From this analog we conclude that Tufts' Dilational Model for Europan ridges and bands may be credible and that the secular dilation is most likely from a regional source and not tidally driven.

  9. LMNA mutations in Polish patients with dilated cardiomyopathy: prevalence, clinical characteristics, and in vitro studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background LMNA mutations are most frequently involved in the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy with conduction disease. The goal of this study was to identify LMNA mutations, estimate their frequency among Polish dilated cardiomyopathy patients and characterize their effect both in vivo and in vitro. Methods Between January, 2008 and June, 2012 two patient populations were screened for the presence of LMNA mutations by direct sequencing: 66 dilated cardiomyopathy patients including 27 heart transplant recipients and 39 dilated cardiomyopathy patients with heart failure referred for heart transplantation evaluation, and 44 consecutive dilated cardiomyopathy patients, referred for a family evaluation and mutation screening. Results We detected nine non-synonymous mutations including three novel mutations: p.Ser431*, p.Val256Gly and p.Gly400Argfs*11 deletion. There were 25 carriers altogether in nine families. The carriers were mostly characterized by dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure with conduction system disease and/or complex ventricular arrhythmia, although five were asymptomatic. Among the LMNA mutation carriers, six underwent heart transplantation, fourteen ICD implantation and eight had pacemaker. In addition, we obtained ultrastructural images of cardiomyocytes from the patient carrying p.Thr510Tyrfs*42. Furthermore, because the novel p.Val256Gly mutation was found in a sporadic case, we verified its pathogenicity by expressing the mutation in a cellular model. Conclusions In conclusion, in the two referral centre populations, the screening revealed five mutations among 66 heart transplant recipients or patients referred for heart transplantation (7.6%) and four mutations among 44 consecutive dilated cardiomyopathy patients referred for familial evaluation (9.1%). Dilated cardiomyopathy patients with LMNA mutations have poor prognosis, however considerable clinical variability is present among family members. PMID:23702046

  10. Axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients: sonographic evaluation*

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Denise Joffily Pereira da Costa; Elias, Simone; Nazário, Afonso Celso Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Axillary staging of patients with early-stage breast cancer is essential in the treatment planning. Currently such staging is intraoperatively performed, but there is a tendency to seek a preoperative and less invasive technique to detect lymph node metastasis. Ultrasonography is widely utilized for this purpose, many times in association with fine-needle aspiration biopsy or core needle biopsy. However, the sonographic criteria for determining malignancy in axillary lymph nodes do not present significant predictive values, producing discrepant results in studies evaluating the sensitivity and specificity of this method. The present study was aimed at reviewing the literature approaching the utilization of ultrasonography in the axillary staging as well as the main morphological features of metastatic lymph nodes. PMID:25741091

  11. Sonographic synovial vascularity of synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fukae, Jun; Tanimura, Kazuhide; Atsumi, Tatsuya; Koike, Takao

    2014-04-01

    RA is a condition of multiple synovitis. Abnormal synovial vascularity (SV) is evident with the onset of joint inflammation. The idea of estimating the level of joint inflammation by sonographic SV was conceived with the advancement of US. The ideal treatment strategy, called treat to target (T2T), requires early diagnosis and assessment of RA. Detection of positive SV can be useful for proving the presence of synovitis and finally diagnosing RA. In the assessment of RA, US-based global scores aimed at assessing overall disease activity have the potential to be useful for the achievement of T2T because US can directly detect changes in synovitis. Remaining SV in local joints increases the risk of structural deterioration. RA requires both improvement of overall disease activity and the disappearance of local SV for remission. The evaluation of SV provides various information and contributes to the clinical treatment of RA.

  12. Role of Sonographic Imaging in Occupational Therapy Practice

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapy practice is grounded in the delivery of occupation-centered, patient-driven treatments that engage clients in the process of doing to improve health. As emerging technologies, such as medical imaging, find their way into rehabilitation practice, it is imperative that occupational therapy practitioners assess whether and how these tools can be incorporated into treatment regimens that are dually responsive to the medical model of health care and to the profession’s foundation in occupation. Most medical imaging modalities have a discrete place in occupation-based intervention as outcome measures or for patient education; however, sonographic imaging has the potential to blend multiple occupational therapy practice forms to document treatment outcomes, inform clinical reasoning, and facilitate improved functional performance when used as an accessory tool in direct intervention. Use of medical imaging is discussed as it relates to occupational foundations and the professional role within the context of providing efficient, effective patient-centered rehabilitative care. PMID:25871607

  13. Objective assessment of sonographic: quality II acquisition information spectrum.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nghia Q; Abbey, Craig K; Insana, Michael F

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes a task-based, information-theoretic approach to the assessment of image quality in diagnostic sonography. We expand the Kullback-Leibler divergence metric J, which quantifies the diagnostic information contained within recorded radio-frequency echo signals, into a spatial-frequency integral comprised of two spectral components: one describes patient features for low-contrast diagnostic tasks and the other describes instrumentation properties. The latter quantity is the acquisition information spectrum (AIS), which measures the density of object information that an imaging system is able to transfer to the echo data at each spatial frequency. AIS is derived based on unique properties of acoustic scattering in tissues that generate object contrast. Predictions made by the J integral expression were validated through Monte Carlo studies using echo-signal data from simulated lesions. Our analysis predicts the diagnostic performance of any sonographic system at specific diagnostic tasks based on engineering properties of the instrument that constitute image quality.

  14. The pupil dilation response to visual detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privitera, Claudio M.; Renninger, Laura W.; Carney, Thom; Klein, Stanley; Aguilar, Mario

    2008-02-01

    The pupil dilation reflex is mediated by inhibition of the parasympathetic Edinger-Westphal oculomotor complex and sympathetic activity. It has long been documented that emotional and sensory events elicit a pupillary reflex dilation. Is the pupil response a reliable marker of a visual detection event? In two experiments where viewers were asked to report the presence of a visual target during rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), pupil dilation was significantly associated with target detection. The amplitude of the dilation depended on the frequency of targets and the time of the detection. Larger dilations were associated with trials having fewer targets and with targets viewed earlier during the trial. We also found that dilation was strongly influenced by the visual task.

  15. Sonographic anatomy of the pubic symphysis in healthy nulliparous women.

    PubMed

    Becker, Ines; Stringer, Mark D; Jeffery, Ruth; Woodley, Stephanie J

    2014-10-01

    Pregnancy-related symphyseal pain is a condition commonly encountered by clinicians but its pathogenesis is poorly understood. The pubic symphysis is readily visualized with ultrasound, yet the normal sonographic anatomy of the joint has not been accurately documented. This study aimed to describe the anatomy of the pubic symphysis in healthy, nulliparous women using ultrasound. An experienced and inexperienced sonographer scanned the joint in 30 female volunteers (mean age 26 years). Interobserver and intraobserver reliability of ultrasound measurements were examined and the accuracy of these measurements was validated by ultrasound and dissection of six female cadaver pelves (mean age 75 years). In healthy young women, pubic symphysis morphology varied, and six categories of anterosuperior joint shape were defined. Mean values of several anatomic parameters were obtained in supine and standing positions: joint width (widest 10.1 mm, narrowest 2.6 mm); superior pubic ligament (SPL) length and depth (41.4 and 3.4 mm, respectively); and pubic crest length (left 24.4 mm, right 24.4 mm). Statistically significant relationships between SPL width and depth and anthropometric variables (body mass index, pelvic width, and body fat percentage) were established. Larger ultrasonographic measurements, such as wide joint width and SPL length, could be measured more reliably than smaller measurements, such as narrow joint width and SPL depth, in both healthy volunteers and cadavers. Findings from this study provide normative reference data for examination of the pubic symphysis in pregnant women and may therefore be relevant to understand pregnancy-related symphyseal pain.

  16. [Monitoring cervical dilatation by impedance].

    PubMed

    Salvat, J; Lassen, M; Sauze, C; Baud, S; Salvat, F

    1992-01-01

    Several different physics procedures have been tried to mechanize the recording of partograms. Can a measure of impedance of tissue Z using potential difference V, according to Ohm's law V = Z1, and 1 is a constant, be correlated with a measure of cervical dilatation using vaginal examination? This was our hypothesis. The tissue impedance meter was made to our design and applied according to a bipolar procedure. Our work was carried out on 28 patients. 10 patients were registered before labour started in order to test the apparatus and to record the impedance variations without labour taking place, and 18 patients were registered in labour to see whether there was any correlation. The level of impedance in the cervix without labour was 302.7 Ohms with a deviation of 8.2. Using student's t tests it was found that there was a significant correlation (p less than 0.001) in four measurements between the impedance measure and measures obtained by extrapolating the degrees of dilatation calculated from vaginal examination. This is a preliminary study in which we have defined the conditions that are necessary to confirm these first results and to further develop the method.

  17. Sonographic visibility of breast tissue markers: a tissue phantom comparison study

    PubMed Central

    Seow, James Han‐Su; Phillips, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rationale and objectives: Several commercially available breast tissue markers are promoted as being sonographically visible, allowing for subsequent targeting using ultrasound. The aim of this study was to compare the visibility of selected sonographic markers with the use of tissue phantoms. Materials and methods: Seven different markers were deployed into chicken and beef tissue phantoms, including a non‐sonographically enhanced marker used as a baseline. Six participants assessed their sonographic visibility and needle targeted the markers using ultrasound. The sonographic visibility of each marker was graded, with scores corrected for accuracy following mammographic review of needle targeting position. Results: Only four of the six “ultrasound enhanced” markers demonstrated statistically significant greater visibility than the non‐sonographically designed marker (P range < 0.001 to 0.04). Marker size (P < 0.001) and composition (P < 0.004) were shown to be contributing factors, with the composition of the BiomarC™ (Carbon Medical Technologies Inc, St Paul, MN, USA) demonstrating the highest conspicuity adjusted for length. Conclusion: There is significant variance in the visibility of breast tissue markers purported to be visible on ultrasound. Marker size, composition and possibly shape are contributory factors, with the utilisation of non‐metallic components associated with improved conspicuity. Our study provides a basis for further determination of optimal marker qualities, and we recommend evaluation with a larger sample size and an “in‐vivo” technique. PMID:28191161

  18. On turbulence in dilatant dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumert, Helmut Z.; Wessling, Bernhard

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a new theory on the behaviour of shear-thickening (dilatant) fluids under turbulent conditions. The structure of a dilatant colloidal fluid in turbulent motion may be characterized by (at least) four characteristic length scales: (i) the ‘statistically largest’ turbulent scale, {λ }0, labeling the begin of the inertial part of the wavenumber spectrum; (ii) the energy-containing scale, { L }; (iii) Kolmogorov’s micro-scale, {λ }{ K }, related with the size of the smallest vortices existing for a given kinematic viscosity and forcing; (iv) the inner (‘colloidal’) micro-scale, {λ }i, typically representing a major stable material property of the colloidal fluid. In particular, for small ratios r={λ }i/{λ }{ K }∼ { O }(1), various interactions between colloidal structures and smallest turbulent eddies can be expected. In the present paper we discuss particularly that for ρ ={λ }0/{λ }{ K }\\to { O }(1) turbulence (in the narrow, inertial sense) is strangled and chaotic but less mixing fluid motions remain. We start from a new stochastic, micro-mechanical turbulence theory without empirical parameters valid for inviscid fluids as seen in publications by Baumert in 2013 and 2015. It predicts e.g. von Karman’s constant correctly as 1/\\sqrt{2 π }=0.399. In its generalized version for non-zero viscosity and shear-thickening behavior presented in this contribution, it predicts two solution branches for the steady state: The first characterizes a family of states with swift (inertial) turbulent mixing and small {λ }{ K }, potentially approaching {λ }i. The second branch characterizes a state family with ρ \\to { O }(1) and thus strangled turbulence, ρ ≈ { O }(1). Stability properties and a potential dynamic commuting between the two solution branches had to be left for future research.

  19. Disparity between Clinical and Ultrasound Examinations in Neonatal Hip Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kyung, Bong Soo; Jeong, Woong Kyo; Park, Si Young

    2016-01-01

    Background For early detection of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), neonatal hip screening using clinical examination and/or ultrasound has been recommended. Although there have been many studies on the reliability of both screening techniques, there is still controversy in the screening strategies; clinical vs. selective or universal ultrasound screening. To determine the screening strategy, we assessed the agreement among the methods; clinical examination by an experienced pediatric orthopedic surgeon, sonographic morphology, and sonographic stability. Methods From January 2004 to June 2009, a single experienced pediatric orthopedic surgeon performed clinical hip screenings for 2,686 infants in the neonatal unit and 43 infants who were referred due to impressions of hip dysplasia before 3 months of age. Among them, 156 clinically unstable or high-risk babies selectively received bilateral hip ultrasound examinations performed by the same surgeon using the modified Graf method. The results were analyzed statistically to detect any correlations between the clinical and sonographic findings. Results Although a single experienced orthopedic surgeon conducted all examinations, we detected only a limited relationship between the results of clinical and ultrasound examinations. Ninety-three percent of the clinically subluxatable hips were normal or immature based on static ultrasound examination, and 74% of dislocating hips and 67% of limited abduction hips presented with the morphology below Graf IIa. A total of 80% of clinically subluxatable, 42% of dislocating and 67% of limited abduction hips appeared stable or exhibited minor instability on dynamic ultrasound examination. About 7% of clinically normal hips were abnormal upon ultrasound examination; 5% showed major instability and 3% showed dysplasia above Graf IIc. Clinical stability had small coefficients between ultrasound examinations; 0.39 for sonographic stability and 0.37 for sonographic morphology

  20. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  1. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  2. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  3. Carpal tunnel syndrome severity staging using sonographic and clinical measures

    PubMed Central

    Roll, Shawn C.; Volz, Kevin R.; Fahy, Christine M.; Evans, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ultrasonography may be valuable in staging carpal tunnel syndrome severity, especially by combining multiple measures. This study aimed to develop a preliminary severity staging model using multiple sonographic and clinical measures. Methods Measures were obtained in 104 participants. Multiple categorization structures for each variable were correlated to diagnostic severity based on nerve conduction. Goodness-of-fit was evaluated for models using iterative combinations of highly correlated variables. Using the best-fit model, a preliminary scoring system was developed, and frequency of misclassification was calculated. Results The severity staging model with best fit (Rho 0.90) included patient-reported symptoms, functional deficits, provocative testing, nerve cross-sectional area, and nerve longitudinal appearance. An 8-point scoring scale classified severity accurately for 79.8% of participants. Discussion This severity staging model is a novel approach to carpal tunnel syndrome evaluation. Including more sensitive measures of nerve vascularity, nerve excursion, or other emerging techniques may refine this preliminary model. PMID:25287477

  4. Dilational Response of Voided Polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Daniel J.; Cazacu, Oana; Knezevic, Marko

    2017-02-01

    Finite-element (FE) cell model computations have been used to gain insights into the ductile response of porous polycrystals. Generally, the behavior of the matrix is described by a J 2-plasticity model. In this article, we present a new computational approach to FE cell models for porous polycrystals deforming by slip based on crystal plasticity. The cell provides the homogenized dilational response, where the constitutive response of every integration point is based on a single-crystal visco-plasticity law. The calculations are performed for a body-centered cubic polycrystal with random texture. Axisymmetric tensile and compressive loadings are imposed corresponding to the fixed values of the stress triaxiality and to two possible values of the Lode parameter. The resulting numerical yield points are compared with those obtained using a J 2-FE cell and an analytical model. The predictions confirm the combined effects of the mean stress and third-invariant on yielding recently revealed by the analytical model.

  5. Dilated Cardiomyopathy Revealing Cushing Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marchand, Lucien; Segrestin, Bérénice; Lapoirie, Marion; Favrel, Véronique; Dementhon, Julie; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Raverot, Gérald

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular impairments are frequent in Cushing's syndrome and the hypercortisolism can result in cardiac structural and functional changes that lead in rare cases to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Such cardiac impairment may be reversible in response to a eucortisolaemic state. A 43-year-old man with a medical past of hypertension and history of smoking presented to the emergency department with global heart failure. Coronary angiography showed a significant stenosis of a marginal branch and cardiac MRI revealed a nonischemic DCM. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was estimated as 28% to 30%. Clinicobiological features and pituitary imaging pointed toward Cushing's disease and administration of adrenolytic drugs (metyrapone and ketoconazole) was initiated. Despite the normalization of cortisol which had been achieved 2 months later, the patient presented an acute heart failure. A massive mitral regurgitation secondary to posterior papillary muscle rupture was diagnosed as a complication of the occlusion of the marginal branch. After 6 months of optimal pharmacological treatment for systolic heart failure, as well as treatment with inhibitors of steroidogenesis, there was no improvement of LVEF. The percutaneous mitral valve was therefore repaired and a defibrillator implanted. The severity of heart failure contraindicated pituitary surgery and the patient was instead treated by stereotaxic radiotherapy. This is the first case reporting a Cushing's syndrome DCM without improvement of LVEF despite normalization of serum cortisol levels. PMID:26579807

  6. The genetics of dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dellefave, Lisa; McNally, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review More than forty different individual genes have been implicated in the inheritance of dilated cardiomyopathy. For a subset of these genes, mutations can lead to a spectrum of cardiomyopathy that extends to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and left ventricular noncompaction. In nearly all cases, there is an increased risk of arrhythmias. With some genetic mutations, extracardiac manifestations are likely to be present. The precise genetic etiology can usually not be discerned from the cardiac and/or extracardiac manifestations and requires molecular genetic diagnosis for prognostic determination and cardiac care. Recent findings Newer technologies are influencing genetic testing, especially cardiomyopathy genetic testing, where an increased number of genes are now routinely being tested simultaneously. While this approach to testing multiple genes is increasing the diagnostic yield, the analysis of multiple genes in one test is also resulting in a large amount of genetic information of unclear significance. Summary Genetic testing is highly useful in the care of patients and families, since it guides diagnosis, influences care and aids in prognosis. However, the large amount of benign human genetic variation may complicate genetic results, and often requires a skilled team to accurately interpret the findings. PMID:20186049

  7. Risk Score Model for Predicting Sonographic Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Sayed-Mohsen; Mousavi, Saeid; Poursafa, Parinaz; Kelishadi, Roya

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to develop and test the validity of a risk score to be used as a simple tool to identify those children at high risk of sonographic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 962 participants aged 6–18 years in Isfahan, Iran. They consisted of three groups of nearly equal number of normal-weight, overweight and obese individuals. Coefficients of the logistic regression models were used to assign a score value for each variable and the composite sonographic NAFLD risk score was calculated as the sum of those scores. Performance of model was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve procedure. Findings Data of 931 participants was included in the analysis. The sonographic findings of 16.8% of participants were compatible with NAFLD. Age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference and serum triglycerides level were diagnosed as factors associated with NAFLD. The risk score was calculated as 50 for sonographic NAFLD. Conclusion This study, to the best of our knowledge is the first of its kind in the pediatric age group, focuses on predicting sonographic NAFLD from easily-measured factors. It may suggest an association of hypertriglyceridemic-waist phenotype with NAFLD in the pediatric age group. PMID:23056785

  8. Genetics of hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Felix W; Carrier, Lucie

    2012-10-01

    Cardiomyopathies are categorized as extrinsic, being caused by external factors, such as hypertension, ischemia, inflammation, valvular dysfunction, or as intrinsic, which correspond to myocardial diseases without identifiable external causes. These so called primary cardiomyopathies can be categorized in four main forms: hypertrophic, dilated, restrictive, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Cardiomyopathies are diagnosed by clinical expression, echocardiography, electrocardiography, non-invasive imaging, and sometimes by cardiac catheterization to rule out external causes as ischemia. The two main forms of primary cardiomyopathies are the hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies. Most of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 20-50% of dilated cardiomyopathy are familial showing a wide genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. This review presents the current knowledge on the causative genes, molecular mechanisms and the genotype � phenotype relations of hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies.

  9. Nemaline myopathy with dilated cardiomyopathy in childhood.

    PubMed

    Gatayama, Ryohei; Ueno, Kentaro; Nakamura, Hideaki; Yanagi, Sadamitsu; Ueda, Hideaki; Yamagishi, Hiroyuki; Yasui, Seiyo

    2013-06-01

    We present a case of a 9-year-old boy with nemaline myopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy. The combination of nemaline myopathy and cardiomyopathy is rare, and this is the first reported case of dilated cardiomyopathy associated with childhood-onset nemaline myopathy. A novel mutation, p.W358C, in ACTA1 was detected in this patient. An unusual feature of this case was that the patient's cardiac failure developed during early childhood with no delay of gross motor milestones. The use of a β-blocker did not improve his clinical course, and the patient died 6 months after diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy. Congenital nonprogressive nemaline myopathy is not necessarily a benign disorder: deterioration can occur early in the course of dilated cardiomyopathy with neuromuscular disease, and careful clinical evaluation is therefore necessary.

  10. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and weighted with mercury or a metal olive-shaped weight that slides on a guide, such as a string or... esophageal or gastrointestinal bougies and the esophageal dilator (metal olive). (b) Classification. Class...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and weighted with mercury or a metal olive-shaped weight that slides on a guide, such as a string or... esophageal or gastrointestinal bougies and the esophageal dilator (metal olive). (b) Classification. Class...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and weighted with mercury or a metal olive-shaped weight that slides on a guide, such as a string or... esophageal or gastrointestinal bougies and the esophageal dilator (metal olive). (b) Classification. Class...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and weighted with mercury or a metal olive-shaped weight that slides on a guide, such as a string or... esophageal or gastrointestinal bougies and the esophageal dilator (metal olive). (b) Classification. Class...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and weighted with mercury or a metal olive-shaped weight that slides on a guide, such as a string or... esophageal or gastrointestinal bougies and the esophageal dilator (metal olive). (b) Classification. Class...

  15. An Erupted Dilated Odontoma: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Gaurav; Nagra, Amritpreet; Singh, Gurkeerat; Nagpal, Archna; Soin, Atul; Bhardwaj, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    A dilated odontoma is an extremely rare developmental anomaly represented as a dilatation of the crown and root as a consequence of a deep, enamel-lined invagination and is considered a severe variant of dens invaginatus. An oval shape of the tooth lacking morphological characteristics of a crown or root implies that the invagination happened in the initial stages of morphodifferentiation. Spontaneous eruption of an odontoma is a rare occurrence and the occurrence of a dilated odontoma in a supernumerary tooth is even rarer with only a few case reports documented in the English literature. We present an extremely rare case of erupted dilated odontoma occurring in the supernumerary tooth in anterior maxillary region in an 18-year-old male, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first ever case reported in English literature. PMID:26989523

  16. What Is a Comprehensive Dilated Eye Exam?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is a comprehensive dilated eye exam? Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? What You Should Know Protecting Against Vision Loss Staying on TRACK Diabetic Eye Disease FAQ ...

  17. Aortic dilatation in children with systemic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Devereux, Richard B; Dave, Archana; Bell, Cynthia; Portman, Ronald; Milewicz, Diana

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the presence of aortic dilatation in hypertensive children, the prevalence of which is 4% to 10% in hypertensive adults. Prospectively enrolled multiethnic children, untreated for their hypertension, underwent an echocardiogram to exclude congenital heart disease and evaluate for end-organ damage and aortic size. The aorta was measured in the parasternal long-axis view at three levels: the sinus of Valsalva, supra-tubular junction, and the ascending aorta. Aortic dilatation was determined by z-score >2 at any one of the levels measured. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure above the 95th percentile based on the Fourth Working Group criteria confirmed by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Among 142 consecutive hypertensive children (median age, 14 years; 45% females) aortic dilatation was detected in 2.8% (95% confidence interval, 1%-7%; median age, 16 years; 100% females). Children with aortic dilatation, when compared with those without, had significantly more aortic valve insufficiency (P = .005) and left ventricular hypertrophy (P = .018). Prevalence of aortic dilatation was 2.8% and was associated with significantly more aortic insufficiency and left ventricular hypertrophy in comparison to those without aortic dilatation.

  18. Aortic Dilatation in Children with Systemic Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Devereux, Richard B.; Dave, Archana; Bell, Cynthia; Portman, Ronald; Milewicz, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to determine presence of aortic dilatation in hypertensive children, the prevalence of which is 4–10% in hypertensive adults. Methods Prospectively enrolled multiethnic children untreated for their hypertension, underwent an echocardiogram to exclude congenital heart disease and evaluate for end-organ damage and aortic size. The aorta was measured in the parasternal long-axis view at 3 levels: the sinus of Valsalva, supra-tubular junction and the ascending aorta. Aortic dilatation was determined by z-score > 2 at any 1 of the levels measured. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure above the 95th percentile based on the Fourth Working Group criteria confirmed by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Results Among 142 consecutive hypertensive children (median age 14 years, 45% females) aortic dilatation was detected in 2.8% (95% CI 1% to 7%, median age 16 years, 100% females). Children with aortic dilatation, when compared to those without, had significantly more aortic valve insufficiency (p = 0.005) and left ventricular hypertrophy (p = 0.018). Conclusions Prevalence of aortic dilatation was 2.8% and was associated with significantly more aortic insufficiency and left ventricular hypertrophy in comparison to those without aortic dilatation. PMID:24507486

  19. Successful implementation of a performance-related audit tool for sonographers

    PubMed Central

    Byass, OR

    2015-01-01

    A robust, sustainable audit programme for diagnostic ultrasound is hard to implement and establish. It requires time and resources to develop and to be relevant to clinical practice. There is a need for all ultrasound practitioners to undertake continuing professional development that underpins their roles and responsibilities within the workplace. A project group was established to evaluate how sonographers undertake Continuing Professional Development, with a view to understanding if implementing a performance-related audit process could support Continuing Professional Development. The group reviewed their clinical practice with an aim of developing a clinical governance and audit programme that could support both the needs of the service and sonographers alike. Our project has demonstrated that the implementation of this audit and case review process has positively contributed to our service and provided a more transparent and tangible account of sonographer performance. PMID:27433243

  20. 21 CFR 884.4250 - Expandable cervical dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expandable cervical dilator. 884.4250 Section 884....4250 Expandable cervical dilator. (a) Identification. An expandable cervical dilator is an instrument with two handles and two opposing blades used manually to dilate (stretch open) the cervical os....

  1. 21 CFR 884.4260 - Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. 884.4260... Devices § 884.4260 Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. (a) Identification. A hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator is a device designed to dilate (stretch open) the cervical os by cervical insertion of...

  2. 21 CFR 884.4270 - Vibratory cervical dilators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vibratory cervical dilators. 884.4270 Section 884....4270 Vibratory cervical dilators. (a) Identification. A vibratory cervical dilator is a device designed to dilate the cervical os by stretching it with a power-driven vibrating probe head. The device...

  3. Sonographic appearance of pyomyositis of the sternocleidomastoid muscle: A case report.

    PubMed

    Sakaida, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Yasunori; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2016-11-22

    Pyomyositis in the neck has rarely been described. We present the sonographic findings in a case of pyomyositis of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. A 62-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes presented with an induration of the neck and fever. On gray-scale sonography, a part of the sternocleidomastoid muscle appeared swollen and contained irregularly shaped hypoechoic areas. Power Doppler imaging showed increased vascularity in the muscle. Sonographic-guided aspiration confirmed abscesses in the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Surgical drainage was successfully performed along with antibiotic treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2016.

  4. Sonographic identification of peripheral nerves in the forearm

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Saundra A.; Derr, Charlotte; De Lucia, Anthony; Harris, Marvin; Closser, Zuheily; Miladinovic, Branko; Mhaskar, Rahul; Jorgensen, Theresa; Green, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Background: With the growing utilization of ultrasonography in emergency medicine combined with the concern over adequate pain management in the emergency department (ED), ultrasound guidance for peripheral nerve blockade in ED is an area of increasing interest. The medical literature has multiple reports supporting the use of ultrasound guidance in peripheral nerve blocks. However, to perform a peripheral nerve block, one must first be able to reliably identify the specific nerve before the procedure. Objective: The primary purpose of this study is to describe the number of supervised peripheral nerve examinations that are necessary for an emergency medicine physician to gain proficiency in accurately locating and identifying the median, radial, and ulnar nerves of the forearm via ultrasound. Methods: The proficiency outcome was defined as the number of attempts before a resident is able to correctly locate and identify the nerves on ten consecutive examinations. Didactic education was provided via a 1 h lecture on forearm anatomy, sonographic technique, and identification of the nerves. Participants also received two supervised hands-on examinations for each nerve. Count data are summarized using percentages or medians and range. Random effects negative binomial regression was used for modeling panel count data. Results: Complete data for the number of attempts, gender, and postgraduate year (PGY) training year were available for 38 residents. Nineteen males and 19 females performed examinations. The median PGY year in practice was 3 (range 1–3), with 10 (27%) in year 1, 8 (22%) in year 2, and 19 (51%) in year 3 or beyond. The median number (range) of required supervised attempts for radial, median, and ulnar nerves was 1 (0–12), 0 (0–10), and 0 (0–17), respectively. Conclusion: We can conclude that the maximum number of supervised attempts to achieve accurate nerve identification was 17 (ulnar), 12 (radial), and 10 (median) in our study. The only

  5. Sonographic evaluation of thyroiditis with color flow study.

    PubMed

    Sultana, N; Rima, S; Rahman, S; Azad, S A; Karim, M E; Shawkat, S; Ahsan, M; Kamal, M M; Begum, M

    2014-01-01

    This cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Radiology and Imaging, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Bangladesh in collaboration with the Department of Endocrinology and Department of Histopathology of the same hospital during the period of March 2007 to February 2008 to determine efficacy of ultrasonogram in the evaluation of thyroiditis and to compare its results with color flow Doppler study. For this purpose, a total of 50 patients having clinical suspicion of thyroiditis were enrolled in this study. Ultrasound and color Doppler were done in all these patients. Then all patients underwent for FNAC in the Histopathology department. Correlation between sonographic diagnosis and histopathological diagnosis were observed. Out of these 50 patients 10(20%) were male and 40 (80%) were female with age ranging from 12 to 50 years, highest between 21 to 30 years. The mean age of the patients was 30.42±9.57 years. On unltrasonographic findings of thyroid gland 42.0% patients had regular and 58.0% had irregular margin. Seventy percent had fibrosis, 14.0% had feature of necrosis, 48.0% had lymphadenopathy. Out of all patients 6.0% had normal echogenic feature, 16.0% had increased and 78.0% decreased echogeneic feature. Twelve percent (12.0%) patients had homogeneous and 88.0% had heterogeneous pattern of echogenecity. Thirty eight percent (38%) patients had focal nodules. Sixty percent (60.0%) patients had focal swelling and 40.0% had diffuse swelling. On color flow Doppler 28.0% had normal, 38.0% had increased and 34.0% decreased vascular flow pattern. USG reports revealed that 48.0% had thyromegaly, 36.0% had thyroid nodule, 10.0% had multinodular goiter and 6.0% had thyroid abscess. FNAC diagnosis revealed that 34.0% patients had Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 24.0% had lymphocytic thyroiditis, 18.0% had granulomatous thyroiditis, 6.0% had abscess, 8.0% had goitre and 10.0% nonspecific. USG and CFD are recommended modalities for the diagnosis of

  6. Impairment of flow-mediated dilation correlates with aortic dilation in patients with Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Takata, Munenori; Amiya, Eisuke; Watanabe, Masafumi; Omori, Kazuko; Imai, Yasushi; Fujita, Daishi; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Kato, Masayoshi; Morota, Tetsuro; Nawata, Kan; Ozeki, Atsuko; Watanabe, Aya; Kawarasaki, Shuichi; Hosoya, Yumiko; Nakao, Tomoko; Maemura, Koji; Nagai, Ryozo; Hirata, Yasunobu; Komuro, Issei

    2014-07-01

    Marfan syndrome is an inherited disorder characterized by genetic abnormality of microfibrillar connective tissue proteins. Endothelial dysfunction is thought to cause aortic dilation in subjects with a bicuspid aortic valve; however, the role of endothelial dysfunction and endothelial damaging factors has not been elucidated in Marfan syndrome. Flow-mediated dilation, a noninvasive measurement of endothelial function, was evaluated in 39 patients with Marfan syndrome. Aortic diameter was measured at the aortic annulus, aortic root at the sinus of Valsalva, sinotubular junction and ascending aorta by echocardiography, and adjusted for body surface area (BSA). The mean value of flow-mediated dilation was 6.5 ± 2.4 %. Flow-mediated dilation had a negative correlation with the diameter of the ascending thoracic aorta (AscAd)/BSA (R = -0.39, p = 0.020) and multivariate analysis revealed that flow-mediated dilation was an independent factor predicting AscAd/BSA, whereas other segments of the aorta had no association. Furthermore, Brinkman index had a somewhat greater influence on flow-mediated dilation (R = -0.42, p = 0.008). Although subjects who smoked tended to have a larger AscAd compared with non-smokers (AscA/BSA: 17.3 ± 1.8 versus 15.2 ± 3.0 mm/m(2), p = 0.013), there was no significant change in flow-mediated dilation, suggesting that smoking might affect aortic dilation via an independent pathway. Common atherogenic risks, such as impairment of flow-mediated dilation and smoking status, affected aortic dilation in subjects with Marfan syndrome.

  7. First-trimester prenatal sonographic diagnosis of ectopia cordis in a twin gestation.

    PubMed

    Barbee, Kristen; Wax, Joseph R; Pinette, Michael G; Cartin, Angelina; Blackstone, Jacquelyn

    2009-01-01

    The 11-14-week ultrasound examination allows early pregnancy dating, detection of major anomalies and multiple gestations, and accurate chorionicity determination. We describe a rare case of first-trimester sonographic diagnosis of ectopia cordis in a dichorionic twin pregnancy, illustrating the benefits of early ultrasound in patient counseling and management.

  8. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of fetal death and hydranencephaly in two Chihuahua fetuses.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Robert De J; Alvarado, Manuel S; Sandoval, Jorge E; Vilchez, Eloina

    2003-01-01

    Hydranencephaly and fetal death was diagnosed in two of three fetuses during the abdominal sonographic examination of a 2.5-year-old, intact female Chihuahua that had clinical signs of dystocia 63 days after mating. A cesarean section was performed and one live normal puppy was present. Two dead puppies, each with a markedly enlarged and fluid filled skull were removed.

  9. Dilated cardiomyopathy and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    James, Stephanie; Waterhouse, Deirdre; McDonald, Kenneth; O'Hanlon, Rory

    2014-01-01

    This case is of a 29-year-old man with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 also known as Byler's disease. At the age of 21, our patient developed non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy. Cardiac MRI demonstrated global wall thinning, with significant areas of myocardial fibrosis in the mid and epicardial walls from base to apex on postgadolinium late contrast enhanced images. No shared genetic loci between dilated cardiomyopathy and Byler's or cholestatic liver disease have yet been found. This presents the first documented case of non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy, with evidence of mid wall fibrosis, in association with an established diagnosis of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 since childhood. PMID:24654243

  10. Dilated cerebral venous system observed in growth restricted fetuses.

    PubMed

    Baron, Joel; Mastrolia, Salvatore Andrea; Shelef, Ilan; Tirosh, Dan; Daniel-Spiegel, Etty; Hershkovitz, Reli

    2017-04-03

    The dilation of the fetal cerebral veins is a rare phenomena that may be associated to a bad obstetric outcome, and is usually connected to antenatal thrombosis of the posterior dural venous sinuses. There are several descriptions of cerebral vein distension on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but all of them are detected postnatally. We present herein two cases of fetal antenatal cerebral dilation of the venous system, without any association to any sign of vein thrombosis, and a systematic review of literature regarding pathogenesis, diagnosis and outcomes associated to the antenatal detection of this condition with the use of MRI. To identify potentially eligible studies, we searched PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library (all from inception to October 20(th), 2016) and applied no language restrictions. The electronic database search provided a total of 22843 results. After the exclusion of duplicates, manuscripts that resulted not relevant to the review based on title and abstract screening, and analysis of manuscripts eligible for full-text assessment, no papers were found related to the subject reported in the present manuscript.

  11. [Cardiomyopathies. I: classification of cardiomyopathies--dilated cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, H P; Noutsias, M; Kühl, U; Lassner, D; Gross, U; Poller, W; Pauschinger, M

    2005-11-01

    Cardiomyopathies are common causes of heart failure and sudden cardiac death. According to the WHO classification, "specific" cardiomyopathies are differentiated from "idiopathic" cardiomyopathies. Thus, this classification is primarily based on pathophysiological characteristics. The diagnostic spectrum in cardiomyopathies comprises the entire spectrum of non-invasive and invasive cardiological examination techniques. The exact verification of certain cardiomyopathies necessitates additionally investigations. For example, immunohistological and molecular biological investigations of endomyocardial biopsies may confirm inflammatory cardiomyopathy, which is often induced by viruses. Several studies have shown that specific immunomodulatory treatment options can halt the progressive course of the disease. Several gene mutations have been identified in genetic/familial dilated cardiomyopathy. First-degree relatives should be screened for early stages. Primary prevention of sudden cardiac death shows increasing superiority of the implantable defibrillator compared with pharmacological approaches (i.e. amiodarone).

  12. Mutation in δ-Sg Gene in Familial Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Asadi, Marzieh; Foo, Roger; Salehi, Ahmad Reza; Salehi, Rasoul; Samienasab, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mutations in different genes including dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex caused familial dilated cardiomyopathy which is a genetically heterogeneous disease. The δ-SG gene contains nine exons spanning a 433-kb region of genomic DNA. It encodes a 35-kDa, singlepass, and type II transmembrane glycoprotein. Materials and Methods: In this study for the first time in Iran we screened 6 patients of a large family that they had positive family history of MI or sudden death by next generation sequencing method. Results: By employing NGS method we found missense mutation (p.R97Q) of δ-SG gene in 2 of 6 patients. Conclusions: The missense mutation (p.R97Q) in familial DCM patients is reported for the first time in Iranian patients with cardiac disease. Although this mutation is already known in other populations in Iran, it is not reported before.

  13. Screening for fetal aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Rink, Britton D; Norton, Mary E

    2016-02-01

    Screening is currently recommended in pregnancy for a number of genetic disorders, chromosomal aneuploidy, and structural birth defects in the fetus regardless of maternal age or family history. There is an overwhelming array of sonographic and maternal serum-based options available for carrying out aneuploidy risk assessment in the first and/or second trimester. As with any screening test, the patient should be made aware that a "negative" test or "normal" ultrasound does not guarantee a healthy baby and a "positive" test does not mean the fetus has the condition. The woman should have both pre- and post-test counseling to discuss the benefits, limitations, and options for additional testing. Rapid advancements of genetic technologies have made it possible to screen for the common aneuploidies traditionally associated with advanced maternal age with improved levels of accuracy beyond serum and ultrasound based testing. Prenatal screening for fetal genetic disorders with cell-free DNA has transformed prenatal care with yet unanswered questions related to the financial, ethical, and appropriate application in the provision of prenatal risk assessment.

  14. Computed tomography of localized dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, T.; Itai Y.; Tasaka, A.

    1981-12-01

    Twenty-nine patients showed localized dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts on computed tomography, usually unaccompanied by jaundice. Congenital dilatation was diagnosed when associated with a choledochal cyst, while cholangiographic contrast material was helpful in differentiating such dilatation from a simple cyst by showing its communication with the biliary tract when no choledochal cyst was present. Obstructive dilatation was associated with intrahepatic calculi in 4 cases, hepatoma in 9, cholangioma in 5, metastatic tumor in 5, and polycystic disease in 2. Cholangioma and intrahepatic calculi had a greater tendency to accompany such localized dilatation; in 2 cases, the dilatation was the only clue to the underlying disorder.

  15. 21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urethral dilator. 876.5520 Section 876.5520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... flexibilities. The device may include a mechanism to expand the portion of the device in the urethra...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urethral dilator. 876.5520 Section 876.5520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... flexibilities. The device may include a mechanism to expand the portion of the device in the urethra...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urethral dilator. 876.5520 Section 876.5520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... flexibilities. The device may include a mechanism to expand the portion of the device in the urethra...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urethral dilator. 876.5520 Section 876.5520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... flexibilities. The device may include a mechanism to expand the portion of the device in the urethra...

  19. Stability under dilations of nonlinear spinor fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, Walter A.; Vázquez, Luis

    1986-07-01

    The stability problem of the localized solutions for classical Dirac fields with scalar self-interactions is considered in the framework of the Shatah-Strauss formalism. We study the stability and instability under dilations and provide an application to the Soler model.

  20. Stability under dilations of nonlinear spinor fields

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, W.A.; Va-acute-accentzquez, L.

    1986-07-15

    The stability problem of the localized solutions for classical Dirac fields with scalar self-interactions is considered in the framework of the Shatah-Strauss formalism. We study the stability and instability under dilations and provide an application to the Soler model.

  1. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A nasal... nasal airflow. The device decreases airway resistance and increases nasal airflow. The external...

  2. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A nasal... nasal airflow. The device decreases airway resistance and increases nasal airflow. The external...

  3. A Symmetry Approach to Time Dilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Outlines an approach to introduce students to special relativity using a discussion of stopclocks and measurement of the transmission of light pulses to produce a natural derivation of the time dilation factor. Aims at providing a frame of reference from which they can be tempted to explore special relativity at a more sophisticated level. (JRH)

  4. Genetics Home Reference: familial dilated cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 10.1056/NEJMoa1110186. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Hershberger RE, Hedges DJ, Morales A. Dilated cardiomyopathy: the complexity of a diverse genetic architecture. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2013 Sep;10(9):531- ...

  5. Surface dilatational viscosity of Langmuir monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Juan; Vogel, Michael; Hirsa, Amir

    2003-11-01

    With increased interest in microfluidic systems, interfacial phenomena is receiving more attention. As the length scales of fluid problems decrease, the surface to volume ratio increases and the coupling between interfacial flow and bulk flow becomes increasingly dominated by effects due to intrinsic surface viscosities (shear and dilatational), in comparison to elastic effects (due to surface tension gradients). The surface shear viscosity is well-characterized, as cm-scale laboratory experiments are able to isolate its effects from other interfacial processes (e.g., in the deep-channel viscometer). The same is not true for the dilatational viscosity, because it acts in the direction of surface tension gradients. Their relative strength scale with the capillary number, and for cm-scale laboratory flows, surface tension effects tend to dominate. In microfluidic scale flows, the scaling favors viscosity. We have devised an experimental apparatus which is capable of isolating and enhancing the effects of dilatational viscosity at the cm scales by driving the interface harmonically in time, while keeping the interface flat. In this talk, we shall present both the theory for how this works as well as experimental measurements of surface velocity from which we deduce the dilatational viscosity of several monolayers on the air-water interface over a substantial range of surface concentrations. Anomalous behavior over some range of concentration, which superficially indicates negative viscosity, maybe explained in terms of compositional effects due to large spatial and temporal variations in concentration and corresponding viscosity.

  6. Arterial microembolisation: an unusual presentation of dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, R L; Mullen, G M; Costanzo-Nordin, M R

    1990-01-01

    Systemic embolisation is common in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Microembolisation as a presenting sign of dilated cardiomyopathy, however, has not been reported before. A 37 year old woman in whom dilated cardiomyopathy presented as arterial microembolisation to the toes is described. Images PMID:2310647

  7. Sonographic cervical motion tenderness: A sign found in a patient with pelvic inflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    No single historical, physical, laboratory, or imaging finding is both sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Cervical motion tenderness (CMT), when present, is classically found on bimanual examination of the cervix and uterus. CMT is often associated with PID but can be present in other disease entities. We present a case report of a patient who was ultimately diagnosed with acute PID. The evaluating physician performed a trans-vaginal bedside ultrasound, and the operator appreciated ‘sonographic CMT’. In cases where the physical examination is equivocal or in patients where the exact location of tenderness is difficult to discern, performing a trans-vaginal bedside ultrasound examination can increase the physician's confidence that CMT is present as the cervix is being directly visualized as pressure is applied with the probe. Bedside ultrasound and specifically sonographic CMT may prove useful in diagnosing PID in patients with equivocal or unclear physical examination findings. PMID:22989255

  8. The sonographic appearance and detectability of nonopaque and semiopaque materials of military origin.

    PubMed

    Harcke, H Theodore; Levy, Angela D; Lonergan, Gael J

    2002-06-01

    The objective of our study was to characterize the sonographic appearance and detectability of nonopaque and semiopaque materials of military origin in soft tissue. Representative materials were obtained from combat boots used in land mine tests and from military-issue clothing and equipment. Sixty fragments from 3 to 30 mm were embedded in an in vitro tissue model (thawed turkey breasts). Real-time ultrasonography was used to search for the fragments and to characterize their sonographic qualities (surface echoes, acoustic shadowing) when visible. Fifty-eight fragments were identified successfully. Two 5-mm fragments in the group of smallest size were missed. All types of material tested were visible. Nonopaque fragments of military origin should be detectable by sonography when present as foreign bodies in soft tissue. This represents a potential application for sonography in military hospitals.

  9. Real-time three dimensional sonographic features of an early third trimester fetus with achondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wataganara, Tuangsit; Sutanthavibool, Anuwat; Limwongse, Chanin

    2006-10-01

    Generalized shortening of fetal long bones detected from prenatal sonographic examination usually raise a tentative diagnosis of skeletal dysplasia. Information obtained from grey-scale scan is frequently not sufficient to provide a definite diagnosis, and the images are not readily comprehensible for the parents-to-be. Lately, three-dimensional sonography has become increasing available in obstetric practice. The authors report here a rare case of fetal achondrogenesis, which is a lethal form of skeletal dysplasia, in a 30-week-old fetus using real-time three-dimensional ultrasound. The prenatal findings of fetal achondrogenesis from this technique were thoroughly described, along with postnatal radiography and autopsy results. Sonographic features from this imaging technique allow for an accurate diagnosis and better understanding of the parents. This facilitates the genetic counseling process, as well as the parental options for further care.

  10. The "dark tendon sign" (DTS): a sonographic indicator for idiopathic trigger finger.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Hannes; Peer, Siegfried; Loizides, Alexander

    2011-05-01

    Although the diagnosis of "idiopathic trigger finger" (stenosing tenovaginitis) is normally based on clinical examination alone, to date there is no reliable evaluation defining this idiopathic disease beyond an exclusion of secondary causes or an unnecessary sonographic certification of high-grade impairment. By standardized assessment of 32 patients who retrospectively fulfilled the study inclusion criteria and their comparison to a matched group of volunteers, we defined the diagnostic efficiency of the here newly proposed sonographic dark tendon sign (DTS) alone, of impaired tendon gliding alone and the combination of these two features. Pulley thickness in patients and volunteers was significantly different. The combination of clinically impaired tendon gliding plus the DTS reached a sensitivity and diagnostic efficiency of 100%. We propose this diagnostic combination as the new first line assessment features for the quick definition of idiopathic stenosing tendovaginitis during daily routine

  11. Assessment of ventricular function in dilated cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Pak, P H; Kass, D A

    1995-05-01

    Regardless of its cause, systolic dysfunction in dilated cardiomyopathy triggers a wide variety of compensatory responses resulting in cardiac dilatation, fluid retention, and systemic vasoconstriction. Standard therapy with vasodilators, digoxin, and diuretics can provide symptomatic relief in many patients. However, many others do not respond adequately, and mortality from heart failure remains high. This has driven the search for novel therapies. To evaluate the efficacy and decipher mechanisms of action of these treatments, accurate assessments of left ventricular function are valuable. In particular, one seeks indexes that are cardiac-specific, in that they are minimally influenced by vascular loading conditions. An increasingly used "gold standard" that can achieve this goal is the invasively measured pressure-volume relation. Newer noninvasive methods have yielded several surrogates that have the key advantage of being applicable to chronic disease assessment. In this report, we review the current state-of-the-art in left ventricular function assessment, and describe recent advances in its noninvasive evaluation.

  12. Sheehan syndrome with reversible dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Laway, Bashir A; Alai, Mohammad S; Gojwari, Tariq; Ganie, Mohd A; Zargar, Abdul Hamid

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac abnormalities in patients with Sheehan syndrome are uncommon. A case of Sheehan syndrome with dilated cardiomyopathy is presented in whom hormone replacement with levothyroxine and prednisolone resulted in complete recovery of cardiomyopathy. A 25-year-old woman presented with lactation failure, secondary amenorrhea, features of hypothyroidism and a hypocortisol state following severe postpartum hemorrhage after her last child birth. She also had smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis. After starting antitubercular treatment, she developed shock, suggestive of hypocortisol crisis. Hormonal investigations revealed evidence of panhypopitutarism and magnetic resonance imaging revealed partial empty sella. Meanwhile echocardiography revealed evidence of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The patient was given replacement therapy in the form of glucocorticoids and levothyroxine in addition to antitubercular treatment. She improved and on follow-up over a period of 7 months, the DCM completely reversed. To our knowledge this is the first report of reversible DCM in a patient with Sheehan syndrome.

  13. Comparative Study of Clinical and Sonographic Estimation of Foetal Weight at Term.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, L; Begum, H A; Khan, I; Dey, S K; Bhattacharjee, M; Bakshi, M K; Dey, S; Habib, A; Barman, K K

    2015-07-01

    A cross sectional comparative study was conducted at Dhaka National Medical College, Dhaka from January to June 2012, to observe the accuracy of clinical and ultrasonographic estimation of foetal weight at term in our environment. Seventy five pregnant women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria had their foetal weight estimated independently using clinical and ultrasonographic methods. Accuracy was determined by percentage error, absolute percentage error and proportion of estimates within 10% of actual birth weight (birth weight fetus of +10%). Statistical analysis was done using the paired t-test, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and the chi-square test. The study sample had an actual average birth weight of 2989.60 ± 408.76 (range 2310-4000 gm). Overall, the clinical method overestimated birth-weight, while ultrasound underestimated it. The mean absolute percentage error of the clinical method was more than that of the sonographic method, and the number of estimates within 10% of actual birth weight for the clinical method (41.3%) was less than for the sonographic method (57.3%); the difference was not statistically significant. In the low birth-weight (<2,500 gm) group, the mean absolute percentage error of sonographic estimates were significantly smaller. Significantly more sonographic estimates (75%) were within 10% of actual birth-weight than those of the clinical method (0%). No statistically significant difference was observed in all the measures of accuracy for the normal birth-weight range of 2,500-<4,000 gm and in the macrosomic group (≥ 4,000 gm). Clinical estimation of birth-weight is as accurate as routine ultrasonographic estimation, except in low-birth-weight babies.

  14. Sonographic diagnosis of a subclinical wandering spleen: role of the decubitus position.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jhih-Wei; Yeh, Da-Ming; Peng, Shu-Hui; Chen, Gwo-Shen; Tseng, Yi-Hsun; Lin, Ching-Wen; Tyan, Yeu-Sheng; Tsao, Teng-Fu

    2012-03-01

    A wandering spleen is a rare condition. It is usually diagnosed when abdominal pain develops secondary to splenic torsion. Although splenic hypermobility is the pathognomonic feature of a wandering spleen, it is rarely revealed by imaging in the subclinical stage. We report 3 patients with a subclinical wandering spleen who had incidental sonographic findings of splenomegaly. Gray scale and color Doppler sonography in the right decubitus position can easily show the migratory nature and perfusion status of a wandering spleen in real time.

  15. Sonographic Findings of Common Musculoskeletal Diseases in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Minho; Ahn, Sung Eun; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Park, So Young; Jin, Wook

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) can accompany many musculoskeletal (MSK) diseases. It is difficult to distinguish the DM-related MSK diseases based on clinical symptoms alone. Sonography is frequently used as a first imaging study for these MSK symptoms and is helpful to differentiate the various DM-related MSK diseases. This pictorial essay focuses on sonographic findings of various MSK diseases that can occur in diabetic patients. PMID:26957910

  16. Charged Dilation Black Holes as Particle Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2016-07-01

    We examine the possibility of arbitrarily high energy in the Center-of-mass frame of colliding neutral particles in the vicinity of the horizon of a charged dilation black hole(BH). We show that it is possible to achieve the infinite energy in the background of the dilation black hole without fine-tuning of the angular momentum parameter. It is found that the center-of-mass energy (E_{cm}) of collisions of particles near the infinite red-shift surface of the extreme dilation BHs are arbitrarily large while the non-extreme charged dilation BHs have the finite energy. We have also compared the E_{cm} at the horizon with the ISCO(Innermost Stable Circular Orbit) and MBCO (Marginally Bound Circular Orbit) for extremal RN BH and Schwarzschild BH. We find that for extreme RN BH the inequality becomes E_{cm}mid_{r_{+}}>E_{cm}mid_{r_{mb}}> E_{cm}mid_{r_{ISCO}} i.e. E_{cm}mid_{r_{+}=M}: E_{cm}mid_{r_{mb}= ({3+√{5}}/{2})M} : E_{cm}mid_{r_{ISCO}=4M} =∞ : 3.23 : 2.6 . While for Schwarzschild BH the ratio of CM energy is E_{cm}mid_{r_{+}=2M}: E_{cm}mid_{r_{mb}=4M} : E_{cm}mid_{r_{ISCO}=6M} = √{5} : √{2} : {√{13}}/{3}. Also for Gibbons-Maeda-Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger (GMGHS) BHs the ratio is being E_{cm}mid_{r_{+}=2M}: E_{cm}mid_{r_{mb}=2M} : E_{cm}mid_{r_{ISCO}=2M}=∞ : ∞ : ∞.

  17. Dilatancy Instability as a Possible Seismic Mechanism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    8217’ 1 I I -- I C=0 Department of Mining Engineering South Dakota School of Mines & Technology Rapid City, South DIlkta 57701 8, 01 08105 FINAL REPORT...Title: Dilatancy Instability as a Possible Seismic Mechanism Principal Investigator: James E. Russell Professor of Mining Engineering South Dakota ...School of Mines & Technology Rapid City, South Dakota 57701 Contract Period: April 10, 1972 to November 30, 1973 Sponsored by: The U. S. Geological Survey

  18. Improved Model of Rock Mass Dilatation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-29

    nonlinear partial differential equations of the hyperbolic type is involved. In both cases, the numerical procedures are discussed in detail : Runge-Kutta...34 ... .. .. .. ’ ................... ":"’’t_ . 2 Geometrical interpretation of the coefficient of friction p and the dilatancy factor 9.....9 3 Variable flow rule, characterized by a...increase of the crack space (porosity) but also by sliding along intergranular surfaces (cataclastic flow ). .- .. At high confining pressure

  19. Time dilation in quantum systems and decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikovski, Igor; Zych, Magdalena; Costa, Fabio; Brukner, Časlav

    2017-02-01

    Both quantum mechanics and general relativity are based on principles that defy our daily intuitions, such as time dilation, quantum interference and entanglement. Because the regimes where the two theories are typically tested are widely separated, their foundational principles are rarely jointly studied. Recent works have found that novel phenomena appear for quantum particles with an internal structure in the presence of time dilation, which can take place at low energies and in weak gravitational fields. Here we briefly review the effects of time dilation on quantum interference and generalize the results to a variety of systems. In addition, we provide an extended study of the basic principles of quantum theory and relativity that are of relevance for the effects and also address several questions that have been raised, such as the description in different reference frames, the role of the equivalence principle and the effective irreversibility of the decoherence. The manuscript clarifies some of the counterintuitive aspects arising when quantum phenomena and general relativistic effects are jointly considered.

  20. Dilatancy and shear thickening of particle suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonn, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Shear thickening is a fascinating subject, as 99.9% of complex fluids are thinning; thickening systems thus are the ``exception to the rule'' that needs to be understood. Moreover, such tunable systems show very promising applications, e.g. to block large underground pores in oil recovery to maintain a constant oil flow by plugging water filled pores (an approach used in oil recovery by e.g. Shell), or to manufacture bulletproof vests that are comfortable to wear, but stop bullets nonetheless. We study the rheology of non-Brownian particle suspensions (notably, cornstarch) that exhibit shear thickening. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the local properties of the flow are obtained by the determination of local velocity profiles and concentrations in a Couette cell. We also perform macroscopic rheology experiments in different geometries. The results suggest that the shear thickening is a consequence of dilatancy: the system under flow attempts to dilate but instead undergoes a jamming transition, because it is confined. This proposition is confirmed by an independent measurement of the dilation of the suspension as a function of the shear rate.

  1. Dilational surface rheology of polymer solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noskov, B. A.; Bykov, A. G.

    2015-06-01

    The review concerns main achievements in dilational rheology of polymer adsorption films at the gas/liquid interfaces reported in the last fifteen years. The theoretical foundations of methods of surface rheology and the key results obtained in studies of solutions of amphiphilic nonionic polymers, polyelectrolytes, proteins and their complexes with low-molecular-mass surfactants are discussed. Interest in the surface dilational rheology is mainly caused by a small number of available experimental methods for investigation of the surface of liquids, by the fact that traditional methods of measurement of the surface tension that are widely used in studies of solutions of low-molecular-mass surfactants provide little information when applied to polymer solutions owing to very slow establishment of equilibrium as well as by weak dependence of the surface tension on the polymer concentration. Progress in the surface rheology is driven by the recent studies of the stability of foams and emulsions that demonstrated a key role of the dilational surface rheological properties in the dynamics of liquid-phase disperse systems. The bibliography includes 191 references.

  2. Formation and interpretation of dilatant echelon cracks.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollard, D.D.; Segall, P.; Delaney, P.T.

    1982-01-01

    The relative displacements of the walls of many veins, joints, and dikes demonstrate that these structures are dilatant cracks. We infer that dilatant cracks propagate in a principal stress plane, normal to the maximum tensile or least compressive stress. Arrays of echelon crack segments appear to emerge from the peripheries of some dilatant cracks. Breakdown of a parent crack into an echelon array may be initiated by a spatial or temporal rotation of the remote principal stresses about an axis parallel to the crack propagation direction. Near the parent-crack tip, a rotation of the local principal stresses is induced in the same sense, but not necessarily through the same angle. Incipient echelon cracks form at the parent-crack tip normal to the local maximum tensile stress. Further longitudinal growth along surfaces that twist about axes parallel to the propagation direction realigns each echelon crack into a remote principal stress plane. The walls of these twisted cracks may be idealized as helicoidal surfaces. An array of helicoidal cracks sweeps out less surface area than one parent crack twisting through the same angle. Thus, many echelon cracks grow from a single parent because the work done in creating the array, as measured by its surface area decreases as the number of cracks increases. -from Authors

  3. Sonographic Evaluation of Structural Changes in Post-Stroke Hemiplegic Shoulders

    PubMed Central

    Idowu, Bukunmi Michael; Ayoola, Oluwagbemiga Oluwole; Adetiloye, Victor Adebayo; Komolafe, Morenikeji Adeyoyin

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Stroke and hemiplegia are frequent complications of stroke. This study was performed to sonographically evaluate post-stroke hemiplegic shoulders and explore possible relationship(s) between the sonographic findings and clinical indices. Material/Methods Forty-five stroke patients and 45 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Standard sonographic examination of both shoulders was performed to assess for joint subluxation, rotator cuff tears, tendinosis, subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis or effusion and adhesive capsulitis. Results Hemiplegic shoulders exhibited significantly higher number of pathologies compared to the unaffected shoulders and shoulders of controls (p=0.000). One or more structural abnormalities were found in all 45 (100%) hemiplegic shoulders, 25 (55.6%) unaffected shoulders of the stroke subjects, and 39 (43.3%) control shoulders. The most frequent pathologies in the hemiplegic shoulders were the following: tendinosis of the long head of bicep tendon (48.9%), inferior shoulder subluxation (44.4%), co-existing subacromial-subdeltoid bursa/long head of bicep tendon sheath effusion (44.4%), and long head of bicep tendon sheath effusion only (40%). Tendinosis of the long head of bicep tendon was commoner in hemiplegic shoulders with poor motor status than those with good motor status. Conclusions Hemiplegic shoulders have significantly higher number of structural abnormalities than unaffected shoulders and the shoulders of controls. Hemiplegic stroke patients should undergo ultrasonography of the hemiplegic shoulder to define the nature and extent of soft tissue injuries prior to physical therapy. PMID:28382186

  4. Familial Dilated Cardiomyopathy Caused by a Novel Frameshift in the BAG3 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo-Arlandi, Javier; Allegue, Catarina; Iglesias, Anna; Mangas, Alipio; Brugada, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Background Dilated cardiomyopathy, a major cause of chronic heart failure and cardiac transplantation, is characterized by left ventricular or biventricular heart dilatation. In nearly 50% of cases the pathology is inherited, and more than 60 genes have been reported as disease-causing. However, in 30% of familial cases the mutation remains unidentified even after comprehensive genetic analysis. This study clinically and genetically assessed a large Spanish family affected by dilated cardiomyopathy to search for novel variations. Methods and Results Our study included a total of 100 family members. Clinical assessment was performed in alive, and genetic analysis was also performed in alive and 1 deceased relative. Genetic screening included resequencing of 55 genes associated with sudden cardiac death, and Sanger sequencing of main disease-associated genes. Genetic analysis identified a frame-shift variation in BAG3 (p.H243Tfr*64) in 32 patients. Genotype-phenotype correlation identified substantial heterogeneity in disease expression. Of 32 genetic carriers (one deceased), 21 relatives were clinically affected, and 10 were asymptomatic. Seventeen of the symptomatic genetic carriers exhibited proto-diastolic septal knock by echocardiographic assessment. Conclusions We report p.H243Tfr*64_BAG3 as a novel pathogenic variation responsible for familial dilated cardiomyopathy. This variation correlates with a more severe phenotype of the disease, mainly in younger individuals. Genetic analysis in families, even asymptomatic individuals, enables early identification of individuals at risk and allows implementation of preventive measures. PMID:27391596

  5. Comparison of pneumatic dilation with pneumatic dilation plus botulinum toxin for treatment of achalasia.

    PubMed

    Bakhshipour, Alireza; Rabbani, Romina; Shirani, Shapoor; Soleimani, Hosein A S L; Mikaeli, Javad

    2010-01-01

    Among the therapeutic options for achalasia are pneumatic dilatation (PD), an appropriate long-term therapy, and botulinum toxin injection (BT) that is a relatively short-term therapy. This study aimed to compare therapeutic effect of repetitive pneumatic dilation with a combined method (botulinum toxin injection and pneumatic dilation) in a group of achalasia patients who are low responder to two initial pneumatic dilations. Thirty-four patients with documented primary achalasia that had low response to two times PD (<50% decrease in symptom score and barium height at 5 minute in timed esophagogram after 3 month of late PD) were randomized to receive pneumatic dilation (n=18) or botulinum toxin injection and pneumatic dilation by four weeks interval (n=16), PD and BT+PD groups respectively. Symptom scores were evaluated before and at 1, 6 and 12 months after treatment. Clinical remission was defined as a decrease in symptom score > or = 50% of baseline. There were no significant differences between the two groups in gender, age and achalasia type. Remission rate of patients in BT-PD group in comparison with PD group were 87.5% vs. 67.1% (P = 0.7), 87.5% vs. 61.1% (P = 0.59) and 87.5% vs. 55.5% (P = 0.53) at 1, 6 and 12 months respectively .There were no major complications in either group. The mean symptom score decreased by 62.71% in the BT-PD group (P < 0.002) and 50.77% in the PD group (P < 0.01) at the end of the first year. Despite a better response rate in BT+PD group, a difference was not statistically significant. A difference may be meaningful if a large numbers of patients are included in the study.

  6. Aerobic Capacity and Postprandial Flow Mediated Dilation.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Kevin D; Miller, James J; Robinson, James H; Olive, Jennifer L

    The consumption of a high-fat meal induces transient vascular dysfunction. Aerobic exercise enhances vascular function in healthy individuals. Our purpose was to determine if different levels of aerobic capacity impact vascular function, as measured by flow mediated dilation, following a high-fat meal. Flow mediated dilation of the brachial artery was determined before, two- and four-hours postprandial a high-fat meal in young males classified as highly trained (n = 10; VO2max = 74.6 ± 5.2 ml·kg·min(-1)) or moderately active (n = 10; VO2max = 47.3 ± 7.1 ml·kg·min(-1)). Flow mediated dilation was reduced at two- (p < 0.001) and four-hours (p < 0.001) compared to baseline for both groups but was not different between groups at any time point (p = 0.108). Triglycerides and insulin increased at two- (p < 0.001) and four-hours (p < 0.05) in both groups. LDL-C was reduced at four-hours (p = 0.05) in highly trained subjects, and two- and four-hours (p ≤ 0.01) in moderately active subjects. HDL-C decreased at two- (p = 0.024) and four-hours (p = 0.014) in both groups. Glucose increased at two-hours postprandial for both groups (p = 0.003). Our results indicate that a high-fat meal results in reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation in highly trained and moderately active individuals with no difference between groups. Thus, high aerobic capacity does not protect against transient reductions in vascular function after the ingestion of a single high-fat meal compared to individuals who are moderately active.

  7. Dilated cardiomyopathy and inclusion body myositis.

    PubMed

    Ballo, Piercarlo; Chiodi, Leandro; Cameli, Matteo; Malandrini, Alessandro; Federico, Antonio; Mondillo, Sergio; Zuppiroli, Alfredo

    2012-04-01

    Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is the most common inflammatory myopathy after 50 years of age. In contrast to polymyositis and dermatomyositis, in which cardiac involvement is relatively common, current evidences indicate that IBM is not associated with cardiac disease. We report the case of a patient with biopsy-proven IBM who developed heart failure and major ventricular arrhythmias secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy few months after the clinical onset of IBM, and in whom no pathophysiologic causes explaining cardiac enlargement and dysfunction were found by laboratory and instrumental investigations. The hypothesis of a pathophysiologic association between the two conditions is discussed.

  8. Superluminality in dilatationally invariant generalized Galileon theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolevatov, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    We consider small perturbations about homogeneous backgrounds in dilatationally invariant Galileon models. The issues we address are stability (absence of ghosts and gradient instabilities) and superluminality. We show that in the Minkowski background, it is possible to construct the Lagrangian in such a way that any homogeneous Galileon background solution is stable and small perturbations about it are subluminal. On the other hand, in the case of Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) backgrounds, for any Lagrangian functions there exist homogeneous background solutions to the Galileon equation of motion and time dependence of the scale factor, such that the stability conditions are satisfied, but the Galileon perturbations propagate with superluminal speed.

  9. Dilatation balloons: polymer selection, balloon design and assembly.

    PubMed

    Crittenden, J F

    1987-01-01

    The current status of coronary dilating instruments is presented from the designer's perspective. Catheter shaft design is considered by important features, common catheter materials and types of catheter construction. Among the seven companies manufacturing balloon dilating instruments, only three types of catheter and four materials are offered. Balloon design is presented by important features and by materials selected. Performance comparisons are made between the three materials used to fabricate dilating balloons: PVC, PE and PET.

  10. Exome sequencing establishes diagnosis of Alström syndrome in an infant presenting with non-syndromic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Long, Pamela A; Evans, Jared M; Olson, Timothy M

    2015-04-01

    Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy is a heritable, genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by progressive heart failure. Dilated cardiomyopathy typically exhibits autosomal dominant inheritance, yet frequently remains clinically silent until adulthood. We sought to discover the molecular basis of idiopathic, non-syndromic dilated cardiomyopathy in a one-month-old male presenting with severe heart failure. Previous comprehensive testing of blood, urine, and skin biopsy specimen was negative for metabolic, mitochondrial, storage, and infectious etiologies. Ophthalmologic examination was normal. Chromosomal microarray and commercial dilated cardiomyopathy gene panel testing failed to identify a causative mutation. Parental screening echocardiograms revealed no evidence of clinically silent dilated cardiomyopathy. Whole exome sequencing was carried out on the family trio on a research basis, filtering for rare, deleterious, recessive and de novo genetic variants. Pathogenic compound heterozygous truncating mutations were identified in ALMS1, diagnostic of Alström syndrome and prompting disclosure of genetic findings. Alström syndrome is a known cause for dilated cardiomyopathy in children yet delayed and mis-diagnosis are common owing to its rarity and age-dependent emergence of multisystem clinical manifestations. At six months of age the patient ultimately developed bilateral nystagmus and hyperopia, features characteristic of the syndrome. Early diagnosis is guiding clinical monitoring of other organ systems and allowing for presymptomatic intervention. Furthermore, recognition of recessive inheritance as the mechanism for sporadic disease has informed family planning. This case highlights a limitation of standard gene testing panels for pediatric dilated cardiomyopathy and exemplifies the potential for whole exome sequencing to solve a diagnostic dilemma and enable personalized care.

  11. Duodenal adenocarcinoma presenting as a mass with aneurismal dilatation.

    PubMed

    Mama, Nadia; Ben Slama, Aïda; Arifa, Nadia; Kadri, Khaled; Sriha, Badreddine; Ksiaa, Mehdi; Jemni, Hela; Tlili-Graiess, Kalthoum

    2014-01-01

    Duodenal adenocarcinoma is frequent. Aneurysmal dilatation of the small bowel is reported to be a lymphoma characteristic imaging finding. A 57-year-old male was found to have a duodenal adenocarcinoma with aneurismal dilatation on imaging which is an exceptional feature. On laparotomy, the wall thickening of the dilated duodenum extended to the first jejunal loop, with multiple mesenteric lymph nodes and ascites. Segmental palliative resection with gastro-entero-anastomosis was done. Histopathology revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with neuro-endocrine differentiation foci. Wide areas of necrosis and vascular emboli were responsible for the radiological feature of the dilated duodenum with wall thickening.

  12. [Sonographic follow-up of secondary fracture healing. Initial experiences with morphologic and semiquantitative assessment of periosteal callus formation].

    PubMed

    Hannesschläger, G; Reschauer, R

    1990-08-01

    We report on the contribution of real-time sonography in comparison to plain radiographs to the assessment of fracture healing of 121 patients suffering fractures of the long bones of the lower limbs. Sonographic morphology of periosteal callus metamorphosis shows basically a persistent increase of echogenicity representing the temporal range from fracture haematoma to the "woven bone". Further criteria are the homogeneity of structure and the development of a marginal interface. Nonunion radiologically classified into hypertrophic and atrophic types may also be differentiated by sonographic criteria and may influence proper orthopaedic management. Regarding sonographic methods using an A-mode amplitude signal, the morphologic assessment of callus metamorphosis is more likely to be translated into clinical practice. Although it yields a variety of information, sonography will be unable to replace radiography due to methodical limitations.

  13. Sonographic evaluation of the peripheral nerves in hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Hwa; Yang, Seung Nam; Yoon, Joon Shik; Park, Bum Jun

    2014-02-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that affects peripheral nerves by repeated focal pressure. HNPP can be diagnosed by clinical findings, electrodiagnostic studies, histopathological features, and genetic analysis. Ultrasonography is increasingly used for the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases; however, sonographic features of HNPP have not been clearly defined. We report the sonographic findings and comparative electrodiagnostic data in a 73-year-old woman with HNPP, confirmed by genetic analysis. The cross-sectional areas of peripheral nerves were enlarged at typical nerve entrapment sites, but enlargement at non-entrapment sites was uncommon. These sonographic features may be helpful for diagnosis of HNPP when electrodiagnostic studies are suspicious of HNPP and/or gene study is not compatible.

  14. Sonographic Evaluation of the Peripheral Nerves in Hereditary Neuropathy With Liability to Pressure Palsies: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se Hwa; Yoon, Joon Shik; Park, Bum Jun

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that affects peripheral nerves by repeated focal pressure. HNPP can be diagnosed by clinical findings, electrodiagnostic studies, histopathological features, and genetic analysis. Ultrasonography is increasingly used for the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases; however, sonographic features of HNPP have not been clearly defined. We report the sonographic findings and comparative electrodiagnostic data in a 73-year-old woman with HNPP, confirmed by genetic analysis. The cross-sectional areas of peripheral nerves were enlarged at typical nerve entrapment sites, but enlargement at non-entrapment sites was uncommon. These sonographic features may be helpful for diagnosis of HNPP when electrodiagnostic studies are suspicious of HNPP and/or gene study is not compatible. PMID:24639934

  15. A SONOGRAPHIC SHORT CERVIX AS THE ONLY CLINICAL MANIFESTATION OF INTRA-AMNIOTIC INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    HASSAN, SONIA; ROMERO, ROBERTO; HENDLER, ISRAEL; GOMEZ, RICARDO; KHALEK, NAHLA; ESPINOZA, JIMMY; NIEN, JYH KAE; BERRY, STANLEY M.; BUJOLD, EMMANUEL; CAMACHO, NATALIA; SOROKIN, YORAM

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE A sonographically short cervix is a powerful predictor of spontaneous preterm delivery. However, the etiology and optimal management of a patient with a short cervix in the mid-trimester of pregnancy remain uncertain. Microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and intra-amniotic inflammation are frequently present in patients with spontaneous preterm labor or acute cervical insufficiency. This study was conducted to determine the rate of MIAC and intra-amniotic inflammation in patients with a cervical length <25 mm in the mid-trimester. STUDY DESIGN A retrospective cohort study was conducted of patients referred to our high risk clinic because of a sonographic short cervix or a history of a previous preterm birth. Amniocenteses were performed for the evaluation of MIAC and for karyotype analysis in patients with a short cervix. Fluid was cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, as well as genital mycoplasmas. Patients with MIAC were treated with antibiotics selected by their physician. RESULTS Of 152 patients with a short cervix at 14–24 weeks, 57 had amniotic fluid analysis. The prevalence of MIAC was 9% (5/57). Among these patients, the rate of preterm delivery (<32 weeks) was 40% (2/5). Microorganisms isolated from amniotic fluid included Ureaplasma urealyticum (n=4) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (n=1). Patients with a positive culture for Ureaplasma urealyticum received intravenous Azithromycin. Three patients with Ureaplasma urealyticum had a sterile amniotic fluid culture after treatment, and subsequently delivered at term. The patient with Fusobacterium nucleatum developed clinical chorioamnionitis and was induced. CONCLUSION 1) Sub-clinical MIAC was detected in 9% of patients with a sonographically short cervix (<25 mm); and 2) maternal parenteral treatment with antibiotics can eradicate MIAC caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum. This was associated with delivery at term in the three patients whose successful treatment was documented by

  16. Sonographic diagnosis of spontaneous intramural small bowel hematoma in a case of warfarin overdose.

    PubMed

    Hou, Sheng-Wen; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chen, Kuo-Chih; Ko, Shih-Yu; Wong, Chung-Shun; Chong, Chee-Fah

    2008-01-01

    A 38-year-old man who had been treated with warfarin since mitral valve replacement 10 years earlier presented with acute onset of epigastralgia and melena. Coagulation tests were abnormal with a prolonged prothrombin time of >60 seconds and a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time of >120 seconds. Abdominal sonographic examination revealed duodenal intramural hematoma that was confirmed on CT. Warfarin therapy was stopped and the patient was treated conservatively with vitamin K and fresh frozen plasma. Recovery was uneventful, and the patient was re-warfarinized 2 weeks later. Duodenal hematoma can be readily diagnosed with bedside sonography.

  17. Stomach in Contact with the Bladder: A Sonographic Sign of Left Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Horacio; Meller, César; Vázquez, Lucía; Otaño, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of the characteristics of the fetal stomach should be part of every routine prenatal ultrasound after 11 weeks. A position that has not been previously described in the literature is the stomach in contact with the bladder. We describe 6 cases with the ultrasonographic finding of the stomach in contact with the bladder, all of them in fetuses with left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Even though the reasons for this striking position of the stomach are not clear, our series highlights the fact that the visualization of the stomach in contact with the bladder may be a specific sonographic marker of congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

  18. Mild fetal cerebral ventriculomegaly as a prenatal sonographic marker for Kartagener syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wessels, Marja W; den Hollander, Nicolette S; Willems, Patrick J

    2003-03-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), also referred to as immotile-cilia syndrome or Kartagener syndrome, is a group of genetic disorders caused by defective cilia leading to chronic sinupulmonary infection, situs inversus and reduced fertility. Some PCD patients also have cerebral ventriculomegaly or hydrocephalus. We report here two fetuses and one newborn with mild cerebral ventriculomegaly and a suspected and/or confirmed diagnosis of PCD. These cases demonstrate that mild fetal cerebral ventriculomegaly can be a prenatal sonographic marker of PCD, certainly in fetuses with situs inversus or a history of a previous sib with PCD.

  19. Metastatic neuroblastoma diagnosed on prenatal sonographic examination performed for decreased fetal movement.

    PubMed

    Chapa, Hector O; Geddie, Steven Gywnn; Flores, Rebecca

    2017-02-09

    We report a case of fetal neuroblastoma presenting with massive liver metastasis diagnosed during the biophysical profile sonographic examination performed for decreased fetal movement. The patient presented at 37 weeks' gestation with limited fetal movement over 24 hours. Biophysical profile showed marked polyhydramnios and an enlarged abdomen filled with a homogeneous mass lesion suspicious for liver metastasis. Primary urgent cesarean section was performed revealing a cachectic neonate with a rigid and grossly distended abdomen. Neonatal evaluation confirmed the etiology of the abdominal mass to be liver metastasis from neuroblastoma. The child died on the 46th day. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2017.

  20. Associations of sonographic abnormalities of the shoulder with various grades of biceps peritendinous effusion (BPE).

    PubMed

    Chang, Ke-Vin; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Wang, Tyng-Guey; Hung, Chen-Yu; Chien, Kuo-Liong

    2014-02-01

    Bicipital peritendinous effusion (BPE), a common ultrasonographic finding of the long head of the biceps tendon, may be associated with shoulder joint derangement, but supporting evidence from large-scale studies is lacking. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the strength of the association between BPE and sonographic abnormalities of the shoulder joint. We reviewed the sonographic reports of patients with suspected shoulder disorders investigated ultrasonographically between January 2011 and January 2012. BPE was graded according to its measured thickness as absent (<1 mm), mild (1-2 mm), moderate (2-3 mm) or severe (>3 mm). The associations between BPE and sonographic abnormalities were examined using multinomial logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, affected side and clinical diagnosis of frozen shoulder. The prevalence rates of absent, mild, moderate and severe BPE among the 907 shoulders examined were 64.1%, 17.8%, 10.4% and 7.7%, respectively. Frozen shoulder was associated with mild BPE (relative risk [RR] vs. participants without BPE = 1.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28-2.50). Sonographic findings of biceps tendinopathy, subdeltoid bursitis and full-thickness tears of the supraspinatus tendon were significantly associated with the entire spectrum of BPE, whereas subscapularis tendon tears were significantly associated with moderate (RR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.29-4.69) and severe (RR = 3.11, 95% CI = 1.51-6.33) BPE. Severe BPE was associated with articular-sided partial-thickness tears of the supraspinatus tendon (RR = 14.32, 95% CI = 4.30-34.35), posterior recess effusion (RR, 7.98, 95% CI = 1.44-34.93) and biceps medial subluxation (RR = 7.25, 95% CI = 1.90-22.33). Our study indicates that BPE is related to various shoulder abnormalities and that the strengths of these associations depend on the severity of BPE. Clinicians encountering BPE should grade its severity and be alert for hidden lesions of

  1. Clinical implications of anti-cardiac immunity in dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Caforio, A L P; Mahon, N G; McKenna, W J

    2006-01-01

    Criteria of organ-specific autoimmunity are fulfilled in a subset of patients with myocarditis/dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). In particular, circulating heart-reactive autoantibodies are found in such patients and symptom-free relatives. These autoantibodies are directed against multiple antigens, some of which are expressed in the heart (organ-specific), others in heart and some skeletal muscle fibres (partially heart-specific) or in heart and skeletal muscle (muscle-specific). Distinct autoantibodies have different frequency in disease and normal controls. Different techniques detect one or more antibodies, thus they cannot be used interchangeably for screening. It is unknown whether the same patients produce more antibodies or different patient groups develop autoimmunity to distinct antigens. IgG antibodies, shown to be cardiac- and disease-specific for myocarditis/DCM, can be used as autoimmune markers for relatives at risk as well as for identifying patients in whom immunosuppression may be beneficial. Some autoantibodies may also have a functional role, but further work is needed.

  2. Sonographic diagnosis of lateral asynclitism: a new subtype of fetal head malposition as a main determinant of early labor arrest.

    PubMed

    Ghi, T; Bellussi, F; Pilu, G

    2015-02-01

    We report on the sonographic appearance of a new type of fetal head malposition in labor that has not been previously described systematically. In some circumstances, the fetal lie is characterized by a lateral orientation of the head with respect to the trunk and, on suprapubic ultrasound, a transverse section of the fetal chest together with the facial profile can be seen on the same image. These sonographic findings were documented in five cases of first-stage labor arrest. This report illustrates how, in these circumstances, ultrasound might be helpful in clarifying the precise cause of obstructed labor.

  3. Intraventricular vortex properties in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Javier; Benito, Yolanda; Alhama, Marta; Yotti, Raquel; Martínez-Legazpi, Pablo; Del Villar, Candelas Pérez; Pérez-David, Esther; González-Mansilla, Ana; Santa-Marta, Cristina; Barrio, Alicia; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; Del Álamo, Juan C

    2014-03-01

    Vortices may have a role in optimizing the mechanical efficiency and blood mixing of the left ventricle (LV). We aimed to characterize the size, position, circulation, and kinetic energy (KE) of LV main vortex cores in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) and analyze their physiological correlates. We used digital processing of color-Doppler images to study flow evolution in 61 patients with NIDCM and 61 age-matched control subjects. Vortex features showed a characteristic biphasic temporal course during diastole. Because late filling contributed significantly to flow entrainment, vortex KE reached its maximum at the time of the peak A wave, storing 26 ± 20% of total KE delivered by inflow (range: 1-74%). Patients with NIDCM showed larger and stronger vortices than control subjects (circulation: 0.008 ± 0.007 vs. 0.006 ± 0.005 m(2)/s, respectively, P = 0.02; KE: 7 ± 8 vs. 5 ± 5 mJ/m, P = 0.04), even when corrected for LV size. This helped confining the filling jet in the dilated ventricle. The vortex Reynolds number was also higher in the NIDCM group. By multivariate analysis, vortex KE was related to the KE generated by inflow and to chamber short-axis diameter. In 21 patients studied head to head, Doppler measurements of circulation and KE closely correlated with phase-contract magnetic resonance values (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.82 and 0.76, respectively). Thus, the biphasic nature of filling determines normal vortex physiology. Vortex formation is exaggerated in patients with NIDCM due to chamber remodeling, and enlarged vortices are helpful for ameliorating convective pressure losses and facilitating transport. These findings can be accurately studied using ultrasound.

  4. Intraventricular vortex properties in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Benito, Yolanda; Alhama, Marta; Yotti, Raquel; Martínez-Legazpi, Pablo; del Villar, Candelas Pérez; Pérez-David, Esther; González-Mansilla, Ana; Santa-Marta, Cristina; Barrio, Alicia; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; del Álamo, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Vortices may have a role in optimizing the mechanical efficiency and blood mixing of the left ventricle (LV). We aimed to characterize the size, position, circulation, and kinetic energy (KE) of LV main vortex cores in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) and analyze their physiological correlates. We used digital processing of color-Doppler images to study flow evolution in 61 patients with NIDCM and 61 age-matched control subjects. Vortex features showed a characteristic biphasic temporal course during diastole. Because late filling contributed significantly to flow entrainment, vortex KE reached its maximum at the time of the peak A wave, storing 26 ± 20% of total KE delivered by inflow (range: 1–74%). Patients with NIDCM showed larger and stronger vortices than control subjects (circulation: 0.008 ± 0.007 vs. 0.006 ± 0.005 m2/s, respectively, P = 0.02; KE: 7 ± 8 vs. 5 ± 5 mJ/m, P = 0.04), even when corrected for LV size. This helped confining the filling jet in the dilated ventricle. The vortex Reynolds number was also higher in the NIDCM group. By multivariate analysis, vortex KE was related to the KE generated by inflow and to chamber short-axis diameter. In 21 patients studied head to head, Doppler measurements of circulation and KE closely correlated with phase-contract magnetic resonance values (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.82 and 0.76, respectively). Thus, the biphasic nature of filling determines normal vortex physiology. Vortex formation is exaggerated in patients with NIDCM due to chamber remodeling, and enlarged vortices are helpful for ameliorating convective pressure losses and facilitating transport. These findings can be accurately studied using ultrasound. PMID:24414062

  5. Aortic Root Dilatation in Mucopolysaccharidosis I–VII

    PubMed Central

    Bolourchi, Meena; Renella, Pierangelo; Wang, Raymond Y.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of aortic root dilatation (ARD) in mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is not well documented. We investigated aortic root measurements in 34 MPS patients at the Children’s Hospital of Orange County (CHOC). The diagnosis, treatment status, age, gender, height, weight and aortic root parameters (aortic valve annulus (AVA), sinuses of Valsalva (SoV), and sinotubular junction (STJ)) were extracted by retrospective chart review and echocardiographic measurements. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and paired post-hoc t-tests were used to summarize the aortic dimensions. Exact binomial 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were constructed for ARD, defined as a z-score greater than 2 at the SoV. The patient age ranged from 3.4–25.9 years (mean 13.3 ± 6.1), the height from 0.87–1.62 meters (mean 1.24 ± 0.21), and the weight from 14.1–84.5 kg (mean 34.4 ± 18.0). The prevalence of dilation at the AVA was 41% (14/34; 95% CI: 25%–59%); at the SoV was 35% (12/34; 95% CI: 20%–54%); and at the STJ was 30% (9/30; 95% CI: 15%–49%). The highest prevalence of ARD was in MPS IVa (87.5%). There was no significant difference between mean z-scores of MPS patients who received treatment with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) vs. untreated MPS patients at the AVA (z = 1.9 ± 2.5 vs. z = 1.5 ± 2.4; p = 0.62), SoV (z = 1.2 ± 1.6 vs. z = 1.3 ± 2.2; p = 0.79), or STJ (z = 1.0 ± 1.8 vs. z = 1.2 ± 1.6; p = 0.83). The prevalence of ARD was 35% in our cohort of MPS I–VII patients. Thus, we recommend screening for ARD on a routine basis in this patient population. PMID:27916847

  6. Dilated Canine Hearts: A Specimen for Teaching Cardiac Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Lee Anne

    2008-01-01

    Dilated canine hearts were used to teach undergraduate students internal and external cardiac anatomy. The specimens were dilated using hydrostatic pressure and then fixed using 5% formalin. These specimens provided the students with an alternative to prepackaged embalmed hearts and anatomical models for studying the external and internal cardiac…

  7. Significance of Main Pulmonary Artery Dilation on Imaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Timothy E.; Khabbaza, Joseph E.; Yadav, Ruchi

    2014-01-01

    Proper and early identification of patients who harbor serious occult illness is the first step in developing a disease-management strategy. Identification of illnesses through the use of noninvasive techniques provides assurance of patient safety and is ideal. PA dilation is easily measured noninvasively and is due to a variety of conditions, including pulmonary hypertension (PH). The clinician should be able to thoroughly assess the significance of PA dilation in each individual patient. This involves knowledge of the ability of PA dilation to accurately predict PH, understand the wide differential diagnosis of causes of PA dilation, and reverse its life-threatening complications. We found that although PA dilation is suggestive of PH, data remain inconclusive regarding its ability to accurately predict PH. At this point, data are insufficient to place PA dilation into a PH risk-score equation. Here we review the causes and complications of PA dilation, define normal and abnormal PA measurements, and summarize the data linking its association to PH, while suggesting an algorithm designed to assist clinicians in patient work-up after recognizing PA dilation. PMID:25406836

  8. 21 CFR 884.4260 - Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. 884.4260 Section 884.4260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Devices § 884.4260 Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. (a) Identification. A hygroscopic...

  9. 21 CFR 884.4260 - Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. 884.4260 Section 884.4260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Devices § 884.4260 Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. (a) Identification. A hygroscopic...

  10. 21 CFR 884.4260 - Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. 884.4260 Section 884.4260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Devices § 884.4260 Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. (a) Identification. A hygroscopic...

  11. 21 CFR 884.4260 - Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. 884.4260 Section 884.4260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Devices § 884.4260 Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. (a) Identification. A hygroscopic...

  12. Balloon catheter dilatation and thrombectomy for acute aortoiliac occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Archie, Joseph P.

    1981-01-01

    A case of acute distal aortic thrombosis in an elderly high-risk patient was successfully managed with intraoperative thrombectomy and balloon catheter dilatation of the common iliac arteries. Balloon catheter dilatation may be indicated prior to bypass grafting in high-risk patients with acute aortoiliac thrombosis. PMID:15216181

  13. The Tail and the String Sign: New Sonographic Features of Subcutaneous Melanoma Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Corvino, Antonio; Corvino, Fabio; Catalano, Orlando; Sandomenico, Fabio; Petrillo, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    No highly specific sonographic imaging findings to evaluate melanoma spread along the lymphatic vessels have ever been described. Between January 2009 and December 2012, a consecutive group of 531 melanoma patients at their initial stage or during follow-up for nodal or extra-nodal superficial metastasis were evaluated retrospectively to assess the presence of two sonographic findings demonstrating superficial lymphatic metastasis: a "tail" sign (a thin hypoechoic prolongation from one or both poles of a superficial metastasis) and a "string" sign (multiple in-transit lesions connected to each other in a rosary image). The total number of superficial metastatic lesions was 222. The tail sign was seen in 13 of the 222 lesions (5.9%). The string sign was detected in four patients (4.5%). These signs showed a low sensitivity with a very high specificity (100%). Tail and string signs may represent an additional finding of high specificity to be employed in the differential diagnosis of melanoma patients.

  14. In vivo and in vitro studies on the sonographical detection of Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, H; Kawooya, M; Esterre, P; Ravaoalimalala, V E; Roth, J; Thomas, A K; Roux, J; Seitz, H M; Doehring, E

    1997-03-01

    Intestinal ultrasound, a frequently applied diagnostic tool in industrialized nations, has recently also been introduced in tropical regions. This study attempts to describe the anatomical and sonographical features of Ascaris lumbricoides in the human intestine. In the course of a schistosomiasis morbidity study in Madagascar, 581 inhabitants of a rice-farming village on the high plateau of the island had their stools examined by means of a modified Kato-Katz thick smear technique (four slides per sample); 53% had eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides in their stools. Twenty-two individuals underwent intestinal ultrasound examination and, in six cases, Ascaris lumbricoides was visualized. All six patients showed eggs upon stool examination. At ultrasound, the parasite was seen as a large, curved echogenic strip (4-6 mm in diameter) with an inner, anechoic, longitudinal canal. The image resembled a winding highway, the central structure representing the pseudocoel of the parasite. Patients were treated with mebendazole. The excreted worms of one patient were scanned under water, showing the same characteristics as in vivo. We conclude that Ascaris lumbricoides has a characteristic sonographical appearance and should not be a confounding factor in studies using intestinal ultrasound.

  15. Sonographic and pathologic image analysis of pure mucinous carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Kaoku, Setsuko; Konishi, Eiichi; Fujimoto, Yasuhisa; Tohno, Eriko; Shiina, Tsuyoshi; Kondo, Kengo; Yamazaki, Sanae; Kajihara, Mariko; Shinkura, Nobuhiko; Yanagisawa, Akio

    2013-07-01

    The aims of this study were to elucidate sonographic and histologic features of pure mucinous carcinoma (P-MC) of the breast using quantitative analysis and to evaluate the relationship between quantitative analysis and visual qualitative assessment. Eleven P-MCs (nine patients) were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. Three experts assessed these sonographic images using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon. For assessment of internal echoes and posterior echoes, quantitative measures were determined using ImageJ software. Histologic thin sections were stained for classification into separate parts of the tumor (stroma, mucin and cancer cells) and were digitized. Internal echoes were isoechoic in 7 of 11 (63.6%) tumors and hypoechoic in 4 of 11 (36.4%); all P-MCs were "enhanced" in qualitative evaluation. As internal echoes increased, the proportion of stroma increased and that of mucin decreased. The high level of internal echoes is correlated with reflection and back-scattering, which are caused mainly by the interface between mucin and stroma.

  16. Sonographic and Clinical Features of Upper Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis in Critical Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Blaivas, Michael; Stefanidis, Konstantinos; Nanas, Serafim; Poularas, John; Wachtel, Mitchell; Cohen, Rubin; Karakitsos, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Background-Aim. Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) is an increasingly recognized problem in the critically ill. We sought to identify the prevalence of and risk factors for UEDVT, and to characterize sonographically detected thrombi in the critical care setting. Patients and Methods. Three hundred and twenty patients receiving a subclavian or internal jugular central venous catheter (CVC) were included. When an UEDVT was detected, therapeutic anticoagulation was started. Additionally, a standardized ultrasound scan was performed to detect the extent of the thrombus. Images were interpreted offline by two independent readers. Results. Thirty-six (11.25%) patients had UEDVT and a complete scan was performed. One (2.7%) of these patients died, and 2 had pulmonary embolism (5.5%). Risk factors associated with UEDVT were presence of CVC [(odds ratio (OR) 2.716, P = 0.007)], malignancy (OR 1.483, P = 0.036), total parenteral nutrition (OR 1.399, P = 0.035), hypercoagulable state (OR 1.284, P = 0.045), and obesity (OR 1.191, P = 0.049). Eight thrombi were chronic, and 28 were acute. We describe a new sonographic sign which characterized acute thrombosis: a double hyperechoic line at the interface between the thrombus and the venous wall; but its clinical significance remains to be defined. Conclusion. Presence of CVC was a strong predictor for the development of UEDVT in a cohort of critical care patients; however, the rate of subsequent PE and related mortality was low. PMID:22655181

  17. The patellar tendinopathy in athletes: a sonographic grading correlated to prognosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Gemignani, Michele; Busoni, Francesco; Tonerini, Michele; Scaglione, Mariano

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine in the athletes a sonographic grading of the patellar tendinopathy correlated to prognosis and therapy. The 298 patellar overuse tendinopathies were divided in four grades according to the extension of the injured area of the tendon in the axial sonograms. Grades 1, 2, and 3 were managed with medical and physical therapy. A surgical treatment was performed in grade 4 and in grades 1, 2, and 3 tendinopathies not responding to our conservative therapy. There were 21.8% injuries in grade 1 (100% responding; prognosis 20 days), 61.2% injuries in grade 2 (94.5% responding; prognosis 40 days), 16.4% injuries in grade 3 (85.7% responding; prognosis 90 days), and 0.6% injuries in grade 4. The sonographic study is fundamental to characterize adequately the patellar tendinopathy. The conservative therapy is the first option for grades 1, 2, and 3 as it determines a complete healing in most of cases.

  18. Dilation of fusion pores by crowding of SNARE proteins.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenyong; Bello, Oscar D; Thiyagarajan, Sathish; Auclair, Sarah Marie; Vennekate, Wensi; Krishnakumar, Shyam S; O'Shaughnessy, Ben; Karatekin, Erdem

    2017-03-27

    Hormones and neurotransmitters are released through fluctuating exocytotic fusion pores that can flicker open and shut multiple times. Cargo release and vesicle recycling depend on the fate of the pore, which may reseal or dilate irreversibly. Pore nucleation requires zippering between vesicle-associated v- and target membrane t-SNAREs, but the mechanisms governing the subsequent pore dilation are not understood. Here, we probed dilation of single fusion pores using v-SNARE-reconstituted ~23 nm diameter discoidal nanolipoprotein particles (vNLPs) as fusion partners with cells ectopically expressing cognate, 'flipped' t-SNAREs. Pore nucleation required a minimum of 2, and reached a maximum above ~4 copies per face, but the probability of pore dilation was far from saturating at 15 copies, the NLP capacity. Our experimental and computational results suggest SNARE availability may be pivotal in determining whether neurotransmitters or hormones are released through a transient (kiss & run) or an irreversibly dilating pore (full fusion).

  19. Dietary taurine deficiency and dilated cardiomyopathy in the fox.

    PubMed

    Moise, N S; Pacioretty, L M; Kallfelz, F A; Stipanuk, M H; King, J M; Gilmour, R F

    1991-02-01

    Taurine deficiency has been implicated as a potential cause of dilated cardiomyopathy. However, the relationship between taurine and myocardial function is presently unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dilated cardiomyopathy in the fox is associated with dietary taurine deficiency. A total of 68 foxes from farms with a history of death caused by dilated cardiomyopathy and 14 foxes from a farm with no history of dilated cardiomyopathy were studied. Dilated cardiomyopathy was diagnosed by echocardiography in 48% of the foxes from one farm with a positive history and in none of the foxes from the control farm. Foxes less than 9 months of age were more commonly affected than older foxes (p = 0.03). Plasma taurine concentrations were significantly less (p less than 0.01) in foxes that had dilated cardiomyopathy (26.8 +/- 16.4 nmol/ml) than in the control foxes (99.3 +/- 60.2 nmol/ml). A significantly higher (p less than 0.01) incidence of dilated cardiomyopathy was present in foxes with a history of a sibling or offspring that died of dilated cardiomyopathy than in foxes without a family history of cardiac death. In one fox with dilated cardiomyopathy that was tested, the myocardial taurine concentration was lower (1.7 mumol/gm wet weight) than that of control foxes (7.3 +/- 1.6 mumol/gm wet weight). Hepatic cysteinesulfinic acid decarboxylase activity was significantly less (p less than 0.001) in foxes with dilated cardiomyopathy (0.97 +/- 0.2 nmol/mm.mg protein) than in control foxes (2.11 +/- 0.07 nmol CO2/mm.mg protein).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. [Esophageal dilatation by Savary-Guillard bougies in children].

    PubMed

    Asensio Llorente, M; Broto Mangues, J; Gil-Vernet Huguet, J M; Acosta Farina, D; Marhuenda Irastorza, C; Boix-Ochoa, J

    1999-01-01

    Dilatations are considered the election treatment for esophageal stenosis of different etiologies. Different methods of dilatation have been used through the years. Security and effectiveness are the main subjects when we choose a dilatation method. We present the results of the last 3 years that Savary-Guilliard have been used, with a guide wire probe, under endoscopic control. Six patients with postsurgical stenosis and 10 with post lye ingestion stenosis were treated with the above mentioned method. The site of stenosis is localized under flexible endoscopy, and a special guide wire probe is introduced to the stomach. Once the wire is in place, different diameter bougies are introduced until a firm resistance is felt or the desired diameter is reach. In complicated cases the progression of the wire was controlled by X-rays. A total of 208 dilatations have done in 16 patients over the last three years. Six patients with postsurgical stenosis needed from two to six dilatations for their cure. Of the 10 patients who ingest lye, none of them had needed a gastrostomy. Three of them have no dysphagia after 9, 13 and 13 dilatations. The other 7 are under dilatations every 6 weeks in 6 cases and every 4 weeks in one case, been all of them in the second year of treatment. All the dilatations have been performed under general anesthesia, as outpatients. We have not had any complication under this treatment. We have found that the Savary-Guilliard method is adequate for esophageal dilatations in pediatric population. Security and effectiveness are the main points of this procedure, there is no need for a gastrostomy, and the child will have a better quality of life. This procedure is less aggressive, and this will give a shorter postop period, with no complications and the child will have a longer period of normal life between dilatations.

  1. Gelatin-agar lumbosacral spine phantom: a simple model for learning the basic skills required to perform real-time sonographically guided central neuraxial blocks.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia Wei; Karmakar, Manoj K; Li, Xiang; Kwok, Wing Hong; Ngan Kee, Warwick Dean

    2011-02-01

    This report describes the preparation of a gelatin-agar spine phantom that was used for spinal sonography and to practice the hand-eye coordination skills required to perform sonographically guided central neuraxial blocks. The phantom was prepared by embedding a lumbosacral spine model into a mixture of gelatin and agar in a plastic box. Cellulose powder and chlorhexidine were also added to the mixture, after which it was allowed to solidify. Sonography of the osseous elements of the lumbosacral spine in the phantom was then performed, and their sonographic appearances were compared to those in volunteers. Simulated real-time sonographically guided paramedian spinal needle insertions were also performed in the phantom. The texture and echogenicity of the phantom were subjectively comparable to those of tissue in vivo. The osseous elements of the spine in the phantom were clearly delineated, and their sonographic appearances were comparable to those seen in vivo in the volunteers. During the simulated sonographically guided spinal injections, the needle could be clearly visualized, but the phantom provided little tactile feedback. In conclusion, the gelatin-agar spine phantom is a simple and inexpensive sonographic spine model that has a tissuelike texture and echogenicity. It can be used to study the osseous anatomy of the lumbar spine and practice the skills required to perform sonographically guided central neuraxial blocks.

  2. Sonographic Evaluation of the Splenic Length in Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Hospital in Southern Nigeria: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ugboma, EW; Ugboma, HAA

    2013-01-01

    Background: The spleen is affected by the changes that occur in pregnancy. Ultrasound is the commonest imaging modality used in the evaluation of the abdominal organs in pregnancy; however, there is a paucity of information on the sonographic measurement of the splenic length in normal pregnancy in our environment. Aim: To establish sonographically the range of splenic length in normal pregnant women. Subjects and Methods: A prospective descriptive cross sectional study of the sonographic measurements of the splenic length was performed on 150 healthy normal pregnant women correlating this with the body mass index, gestational age and parity. Data were analyzed using software SPSS version 15 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Correlations and variance between variables were calculated. P values 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: A mean splenic length of 10.0 cm (SD) 1.8 throughout pregnancy was obtained with a range of 9.7-10.3 cm. The splenic length significantly correlated positively with the body mass index (r = 0.006, P < 0.01) but not with parity (r = 0.94, P < 0.01), and gestational age (r = 0.31, P < 0.01). Conclusion: This study was able to establish a range of sonographic measurement of the splenic length for the locality. PMID:24116308

  3. Ultrasound Guidance for Renal Tract Access and Dilation Reduces Radiation Exposure during Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purposes. To present our series of 38 prone percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures performed with renal access and tract dilation purely under ultrasound guidance and describe the benefits and challenges accompanying this approach. Methods. Thirty-eight consecutive patients presenting for percutaneous nephrolithotomy for renal stone removal were included in this prospective cohort study. Ultrasonographic imaging in the prone position was used to obtain percutaneous renal access and guide tract dilation. Fluoroscopic screening was used only for nephrostomy tube placement. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative procedural and patient data were collected for analysis. Results. Mean age of patients was 52.7 ± 17.2 years. Forty-five percent of patients were male with mean BMI of 26.1 ± 7.3 and mean stone size of 27.2 ± 17.6 millimeters. Renal puncture was performed successfully with ultrasonographic guidance in all cases with mean puncture time of 135.4 ± 132.5 seconds. Mean dilation time was 11.5 ± 3.8 min and mean stone fragmentation time was 37.5 ± 29.0 min. Mean total operative time was 129.3 ± 41.1. No patients experienced any significant immediate postoperative complication. All patients were rendered stone-free and no additional secondary procedures were required. Conclusions. Ultrasound guidance for renal access and tract dilation in prone percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a feasible and effective technique. It can be performed safely with significantly reduced fluoroscopic radiation exposure to the patient, surgeon, and intraoperative personnel. PMID:27042176

  4. Pupil Dilation to Explicit and Non-Explicit Sexual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Watts, Tuesday M; Holmes, Luke; Savin-Williams, Ritch C; Rieger, Gerulf

    2017-01-01

    Pupil dilation to explicit sexual stimuli (footage of naked and aroused men or women) can elicit sex and sexual orientation differences in sexual response. If similar patterns were replicated with non-explicit sexual stimuli (footage of dressed men and women), then pupil dilation could be indicative of automatic sexual response in fully noninvasive designs. We examined this in 325 men and women with varied sexual orientations to determine whether dilation patterns to non-explicit sexual stimuli resembled those to explicit sexual stimuli depicting the same sex or other sex. Sexual orientation differences in pupil dilation to non-explicit sexual stimuli mirrored those to explicit sexual stimuli. However, the relationship of dilation to non-explicit sexual stimuli with dilation to corresponding explicit sexual stimuli was modest, and effect magnitudes were smaller with non-explicit sexual stimuli than explicit sexual stimuli. The prediction that sexual orientation differences in pupil dilation are larger in men than in women was confirmed with explicit sexual stimuli but not with non-explicit sexual stimuli.

  5. On the Variable Dilatancy Angle in Rocks Around Underground Galleries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehnia, Fatemeh; Collin, Frédéric; Charlier, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Correct estimation of the dilatant behavior of a rock has an essential role in a realistic numerical simulation of the fracturing threshold during the rock deformation process and its post-failure response, based on experimental and field observations. This importance has been poorly treated in most of the numerical analyses dealing with the rock engineering common problems such as deep excavations. The dilatancy angle as a commonly used parameter for describing the dilatation response of a rock is mostly simplified to be a constant value. Contrarily, a literature review declares the inadequacy of this approach in those rock mechanics applications. In the present paper, a new formula for considering the variable dilatancy angle is presented which relates this parameter to the plastic shear strain in the course of a loading procedure. It is aimed at characterizing an evolution of the dilatant or contracting volumetric response of a rock as well as giving the possibility to simulate a dilatant/contracting transitional behavior. The model is applied to simulate the development of strain localization, in shear band mode, within the inevitable excavation damaged zone created around an underground opening in rock. It is illustrated that using the model of variable dilatancy angle in a deep excavation modeling could help to better reproduce the fractures development around the opening in the course of tunneling.

  6. The dilated bowel: a liability and an asset.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, A; Morabito, A

    2009-11-01

    The gastrointestinal tract responds to significant mechanical or functional obstruction by dilatation and hypertrophy of the segment proximal to the obstruction. Excessive dilatation compromises motility, and absorption and is associated with considerable morbidity (intraluminal stasis, sepsis) such that bowel dilatation represents a major liability that predisposes the patient to intestinal failure. The dilated bowel proximal to an obstruction provides valuable autologous material for reconstruction with "tissue appropriate to the part." Bowel elongation and dilatation are integral to the natural intestinal adaptation response to loss of small bowel and can also be induced through a structured "Bowel Expansion" program. The additional absorptive tissue that is progressively generated is essential for reconstruction of the bowel (tailoring and lengthening), to restore gastrointestinal dynamics (effective propulsion and absorption), and to reduce morbidity (intraluminal stasis, sepsis). In enhancing the prospects for enteral autonomy, dilatation and elongation of the residual autologous bowel are crucial to long-term survival and good quality life, and represent a most welcome asset. This paper reviews the impact and management of bowel dilatation along the gastrointestinal tract.

  7. Management of Intrauterine Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM) in 14 Patients by Sonographically Guided Tisseel Application.

    PubMed

    Bandura, P; Rawnaq, T; Holzknecht, A; Cetin, E; Reemts, P; Zoi, P; Schwärzler, P

    2015-11-13

    Purpose: AVMs are rare tumorous vascular lesions derived from placental tissue that may present with massive post-partum hemorrhage (PPH) causing potentially life-threatening anemic shock. Current treatment options include the embolization of uterine arteries and emergency postpartum hysterectomy. We present a new form of minimally invasive, highly specific sonographically guided treatment in the form of the application of a human fibrin sealant leading to the instant cease of blood loss. Materials and Methods: A management protocol was established and a case series of 14 patients is presented. Diagnosis by endovaginal color Doppler sonography is followed by the sonographically guided application of biological glue (TISSEEL(®)), thus allowing for super-selective occlusion of the feeding vessels. Results: The procedure was technically successful in all 14 patients, 3 of whom (21 %) had a repeated procedure after 4 - 7 days. The mean age (yrs.) of the patients was 31 (25 - 40), the gravity was median 2 (1 - 5) and the parity was median 1 (0 - 4), the lowest Hb value was on average 9.35 ± 2.25 (5.2 - 14.2) g/dl, the lowest Ht was on average 30.82 ± 6.02 (18 - 41 %). Spectral Doppler analysis revealed an average of 80.71 ± 11.2 (66 - 115) cm/sec for the maximal detectable PSV. In the period of 4 - 55 months after treatment, 7 patients (50 %) had 8 successful pregnancies and 2 miscarriages. Conclusion: In PPH there is vital interest in timely diagnosis of the underlying cause, thus allowing fertility-sparing, minimally invasive and super-selective emergency treatment. In AVMs causing PPH, a positive impact on perinatal morbidity and mortality may be achieved by sonographically guided application of this biological glue.

  8. Dilated cardiomyopathy update: infectious-immune theory revisited.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Chuichi; Matsumori, Akira

    2013-11-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is characterized by dilatation of the left or right ventricle, or both ventricles. The degree of myocardial dysfunction is not attributable to abnormal loading conditions. The infectious-immune theory has long been hypothesized to explain the pathogenesis of many etiologically unrecognized dilated cardiomyopathies. Inflammations followed by immune reactions, which may be excessive, in the myocardium, evoked by external triggers such as viral infections and/or autoimmune antibodies, continue insidiously, and lead to the process of cardiac remodeling with ventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction. This ultimately results in dilated cardiomyopathy. Hepatitis C virus-associated heart diseases are good examples of cardiac lesions definitely induced by viral infections in humans that progress to a chronic stage through complicated immune mechanisms. Therapeutic strategies for myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy have been obtained through analyses of the acute, subacute, and chronic phases of experimental viral myocarditis in mice. The appropriate modulation of excessive immune reactions during myocarditis, rather than their complete elimination, appears to be a key option in the prevention and treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy. The clinical application of an NF-κB decoy and immune adsorption of IgG3 cardiac autoantibodies have been used as immunomodulating therapies and may provide novel approaches for the treatment of refractory patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Conventional therapeutic agents for chronic heart failure such as β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldosterone antagonists in particular should be re-evaluated on the basis of their anti-inflammatory properties in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy.

  9. Genetic mutations and mechanisms in dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    McNally, Elizabeth M; Golbus, Jessica R; Puckelwartz, Megan J

    2013-01-01

    Genetic mutations account for a significant percentage of cardiomyopathies, which are a leading cause of congestive heart failure. In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), cardiac output is limited by the thickened myocardium through impaired filling and outflow. Mutations in the genes encoding the thick filament components myosin heavy chain and myosin binding protein C (MYH7 and MYBPC3) together explain 75% of inherited HCMs, leading to the observation that HCM is a disease of the sarcomere. Many mutations are "private" or rare variants, often unique to families. In contrast, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is far more genetically heterogeneous, with mutations in genes encoding cytoskeletal, nucleoskeletal, mitochondrial, and calcium-handling proteins. DCM is characterized by enlarged ventricular dimensions and impaired systolic and diastolic function. Private mutations account for most DCMs, with few hotspots or recurring mutations. More than 50 single genes are linked to inherited DCM, including many genes that also link to HCM. Relatively few clinical clues guide the diagnosis of inherited DCM, but emerging evidence supports the use of genetic testing to identify those patients at risk for faster disease progression, congestive heart failure, and arrhythmia.

  10. C-Reactive protein in dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, K; Kanda, T; Yamauchi, Y; Hasegawa, A; Iwasaki, T; Arai, M; Suzuki, T; Kobayashi, I; Nagai, R

    1999-01-01

    The prognosis for patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is poor, although clinical features are variable. Prediction of outcome has been difficult in individual patients based on laboratory data. In some patients with DCM, myocardial damage secondary to viral or immune-mediated myocardial inflammation may persist. To objectively assess inflammation, we measured plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) in 188 patients with idiopathic DCM over 5-8 years. All had dyspnea and fatigue at rest; all patients had a left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40% by echocardiography or by contrast or radionuclide ventriculography. We divided these patients into two groups: patients dying within 5 years following admission (n = 49) and the remainder surviving for at least 5 years (n = 139). CRP concentrations in the patients dying early were significantly higher than in the long-term survivors (1. 05 +/- 1.37 vs. 0.49 +/- 1.04 mg/dl, p < 0.05). Sixty-two percent of the patients with CRP>1.0 died within 5 years. In addition to other laboratory tests including electrocardiography and echocardiography, routine CRP measurements proved to be valuable for identifying high-risk patients who require special treatment strategies.

  11. Anticounterfeiting features of artistic screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostromoukhov, Victor; Rudaz, Nicolas; Amidror, Isaac; Emmel, Patrick; Hersch, Roger D.

    1996-12-01

    In a recent publication (Ostromoukhov95), a new image reproduction technique, artistic screening, was presented. It incorporates freely created artistic screen elements for generating halftones. Fixed predefined dot contours associated with given intensity levels determine the screen dot shape's growing behavior. Screen dot contours associated with each intensity level are obtained by interpolation between the fixed predefined dot contours. A user-defined mapping transforms screen elements from screen element definition space to screen element rendition space. This mapping can be tuned to produce various effects such as dilatations, contractions and non-linear deformations of the screen element grid. Although artistic screening has been designed mainly for performing the creation of graphic designs of high artistic quality, it also incorporates several important anti-counterfeiting features. For example, bank notes or other valuable printed matters produced with artistic screening may incorporate both full size and microscopic letters of varying shape into the image halftoning process. Furthermore, artistic screening can be used for generating screen dots at varying frequencies and orientations, which are well known for inducing strong moire effects when scanned by a digital color copier or a desktop scanner. However, it is less known that frequency-modulated screen dots have at each screen element size a different reproduction behavior (dot gain). When trying to reproduce an original by analog means, such as a photocopier, the variations in dot gain induce strong intensity variations at the same original intensity levels. In this paper, we present a method for compensating such variations for the target printer, on which the original security document is to be printed. Potential counterfeiters who would like to reproduce the original with a photocopying device may only be able to adjust the dot gain for the whole image and will therefore be unable to eliminate the

  12. Statistical analysis with dilatation for development process of human fetuses.

    PubMed

    Naito, Kanta; Notsu, Akifumi; Udagawa, Jun; Otani, Hiroki

    2017-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the development process of human fetuses. Though the development process of human fetuses still includes many unknown issues, it is known that a certain harmonious relationship between the organs can be observed. This knowledge is based on our intuition, but we have no theory which clarifies these harmonized developments. The paper aims to give a mathematical understanding of the notion of harmonized development through the use of dilatation, which is a measure of the departure from conformal mapping. The asymptotics for dilatation have been developed using certain efficient models of quasiconformal mapping. The proposed method of dilatation is effectively applied to the human fetus data.

  13. Dilatation of the Lower Cervical Esophagus in a Cow

    PubMed Central

    Kasari, T. R.

    1984-01-01

    Acquired megaesophagus of suspected neuromuscular origin was diagnosed in a six year old Holstein cow. The dilatation was restricted to the lower cervical esophagus. Signs included projectile regurgitation of chewed ingesta at variable periods of time after swallowing, nasal discharge of mucus and feed particles, and a cough. A secondary aspiration pneumonia was associated with this condition. The dilated portion of the esophagus was detected utilizing positive contrast radiography and fiberoptic endoscopy. Treatment consisted of feed management and antibiotics. Deglutition in the cow returned to normal over a three month period despite radiographic and fiberoptic endoscopic evidence of a persistent dilatation of the esophagus. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17422388

  14. Characterization and Long-Term Prognosis of Postmyocarditic Dilated Cardiomyopathy Compared With Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Marco; Anzini, Marco; Bussani, Rossana; Artico, Jessica; Barbati, Giulia; Stolfo, Davide; Gigli, Marta; Muça, Matilda; Naso, Paola; Ramani, Federica; Di Lenarda, Andrea; Pinamonti, Bruno; Sinagra, Gianfranco

    2016-09-15

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DC) is the final common pathway of different pathogenetic processes and presents a significant prognostic heterogeneity, possibly related to its etiologic variety. The characterization and long-term prognosis of postmyocarditic dilated cardiomyopathy (PM-DC) remain unknown. This study assesses the clinical-instrumental evolution and long-term prognosis of a large cohort of patients with PM-DC. We analyzed 175 patients affected with DC consecutively enrolled from 1993 to 2008 with endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) data available. PM-DC was defined in the presence of borderline myocarditis at EMB or persistent left ventricular dysfunction 1 year after diagnosis of active myocarditis at EMB. Other patients were defined as affected by idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC). Analysis of follow-up evaluations was performed at 24, 60, and 120 months. We found 72 PM-DC of 175 enrolled patients (41%). Compared with IDC, patients with PM-DC were more frequently females and less frequently presented a familial history of DC. No other baseline significant differences were found. During the long-term follow-up (median 154, first to third interquartile range 78 to 220 months), patients with PM-DC showed a trend toward slower disease progression. Globally, 18 patients with PM-DC (25%) versus 49 with IDC (48%) experienced death/heart transplantation (p = 0.045). The prognostic advantage for patients with PM-DC became significant beyond 40 months of follow-up. At multivariable time-dependent Cox analysis, PM-DC was confirmed to have a global independent protective role (hazard ratio 0.53, 95% confidence interval 0.28 to 0.97, p = 0.04). In conclusion, PM-DC is characterized by better long-term prognosis compared with IDC. An exhaustive etiologic characterization appears relevant in the prognostic assessment of DC.

  15. Newborn Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Activities Importance of Newborn Screening Newborn Screening and Molecular Biology Branch Pulse Oximetry Screening for CCHDs Sickle Cell Disease Laboratory SCID Quality Assurance Training and Resources ...

  16. Sonographic tracking of trunk nerves: essential for ultrasound-guided pain management and research

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ke-Vin; Lin, Chih-Peng; Lin, Chia-Shiang; Wu, Wei-Ting; Karmakar, Manoj K; Özçakar, Levent

    2017-01-01

    Delineation of architecture of peripheral nerves can be successfully achieved by high-resolution ultrasound (US), which is essential for US-guided pain management. There are numerous musculoskeletal pain syndromes involving the trunk nerves necessitating US for evaluation and guided interventions. The most common peripheral nerve disorders at the trunk region include thoracic outlet syndrome (brachial plexus), scapular winging (long thoracic nerve), interscapular pain (dorsal scapular nerve), and lumbar facet joint syndrome (medial branches of spinal nerves). Until now, there is no single article systematically summarizing the anatomy, sonographic pictures, and video demonstration of scanning techniques regarding trunk nerves. In this review, the authors have incorporated serial figures of transducer placement, US images, and videos for scanning the nerves in the trunk region and hope this paper helps physicians familiarize themselves with nerve sonoanatomy and further apply this technique for US-guided pain medicine and research. PMID:28115867

  17. Not all radiopaque foreign bodies shadow on ultrasound: unexpected sonographic appearance of a radiopaque magnet.

    PubMed

    Shiu-Cheung Chan, Sherwin; Russell, Marybeth; Ho-Fung, Victor M

    2014-12-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a common indication for imaging children. Ultrasound can be a useful adjunct to serial radiographs for evaluation of foreign bodies in the enteric tract. This case report describes a child who swallowed a single magnetic rock. Follow-up radiographs 4 days later could not determine progression of the foreign body beyond the stomach. Ultrasound was used to locate it, showing a structure with unexpected posterior reverberation artifact in the stomach. This was correlated with a similar magnet in a water bath demonstrating identical reverberation artifact. This report discusses the underlying factors for the different sonographic appearances and associated ultrasound artifacts of foreign bodies. This knowledge is important when performing sonography as adjunct modality for identification of foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract.

  18. Ground-truthing 6. 5-kHz side scan sonographs: What are we really imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.V.; Field, M.E.; Lee, H.; Edwards, B.E. ); Masson, D.G.; Kenyon, N. ); Kidd, R.B. )

    1991-04-10

    A 1,000-km{sup 2} area on the distal lobe of Monterey Fan shows a digitate pattern of juxtaposed high and low backscatter on GLORIA side scan sonographs. This area was investigated using stereo photography, high-resolution seismic profiles, and measurements of physical properties of cores to quantitatively evaluate the causes of backscatter from the 6.5-kHz side scan sonar. Stereo photography and bottom video were used to determine that the sediment-water interface typically has a bed roughness less than 10 cm over the entire ground truth area; consequently, bed roughness is not a significant contributor to the sonar backscatter. Vertical-incidence 3.5-kHz profiles reveal that high-backscatter areas allow less penetration and have slightly more relief than low-backscatter areas. Closely spaced measurements of {rho} wave velocity, density, and grain size made on transponder-navigated cores are used to investigate the geoacoustic properties of the sediment with the aid of a numerical model. The model results demonstrate that the sediment-water interface is, in most cases, acoustically transparent to the sonar energy and that most or all of the energy is refracted into the sediment to depths of at least a few meters rather than scattered from the surface. In this area, thick (up to 50 cm) sand deposits with thin interbeds of silty clay correlate with lower backscatter than do silty clay deposits with thin interbeds of sand. This suggests that volume inhomogeneities and complex constructive and destructive interferences caused by the subsurface volume inhomogeneities within the top few meters of the sediment ultimately modulate the intensity of backscatter. Although 6.5-kHz sonographs appear easy to interpret in a conventional and simplistic manner, caution should be used when interpreting lithofacies from backscatter intensities.

  19. Sonographic Findings in Gouty Arthritis: Diagnostic Value and Association with Disease Duration.

    PubMed

    Elsaman, Ahmed M; Muhammad, Eman M S; Pessler, Frank

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the sonographic features of gouty arthritis and correlate findings with disease duration. The study was conducted on 100 patients in ambulatory care aged ≥40 y. Inclusion criteria included mono- or oligo-arthritis with effusion of the knee or the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint and no known history of gout. A complete medical history was obtained with emphasis on the known risk factors or causes of gouty arthritis. A 12-MHz Medison linear probe was used for ultrasonography (US). Synovial fluid analysis with polarizing light microscopy was performed on all patients. Ninety-eight knee joints and 33 first MTP joints were examined. Gouty arthritis was found by US in four forms: (i) floating echogenic foci in effusion fluid or Baker cysts, (ii) deposits on the cartilage surface (double contour sign), (iii) erosions and (iv) mature tophus/tophi. These were found in 78.9%, 42.3%, 39.4% and 28.2% of patients, respectively. The overall sensitivity and specificity of US in detecting gout (as defined by the clinical gold standard, i.e., detection of urate crystals by polarizing light microscopy) were 85.9% and 86.7%, respectively. Detection of echogenic foci in effusion fluid was associated with the shortest duration of symptoms (median duration 2 y) followed by double contour sign (3.5 y), erosions (4 y) and tophus (12.5 y). Sonographic findings in gout can be assigned a temporal pattern, with echogenic foci being associated with the shortest and full tophus formation with the longest disease duration.

  20. Treatment of colonic anastomotic strictures with 'through the scope' balloon dilators.

    PubMed Central

    Dinneen, M D; Motson, R W

    1991-01-01

    Stricture occurs in 1.2-4.2% of colonic anastomoses. Symptomatic strictures have previously been treated by resection and re-anastomosis and more recently by radiographically guided dilatation by a modified Seldinger technique. This paper describes the endoscopic balloon dilatation of five symptomatic cases and three asymptomatic cases. Eight patients underwent balloon dilatation of colonic anastomotic strictures. Four patients had no symptoms post dilatation and the strictures remained patient on follow-up endoscopy. All the remaining patients required re-dilatation at approximately 2 months. One of these patients underwent dilatation but remained symptomatic, the dilatation was repeated and a colonic perforation occurred at this time. Of the other three, two continue to be followed up, and are well and one patient died of disseminated malignancy. Balloon dilatation with 'through the scope' dilators is a simpler technique than radiologically guided dilatation. These early results suggest that endoscopic dilatation may avoid further surgery in some patients with anastomotic stricture. PMID:2041001

  1. Osmotic self-expanding dilation technology for treatment of sinusitis: the Vent-Os sinus dilation system.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Peter; Hester, Jerome; Mandrusov, Evgenia

    2015-01-01

    The Vent-Os Sinus Dilation System is an osmotically driven device that provides a means to access the sinus space and to dilate the maxillary sinus ostia and associated spaces in adults for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Unlike balloon dilation devices that use rapid, high-pressure inflation, this self-expanding device is designed to gently and gradually open the maxillary ostia. The procedure can be safely and easily completed in-office with minimal anesthetics and analgesics on board. Clinical results support excellent patency and safety outcomes with the use of this product in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.

  2. Perceptual and not physical eye contact elicits pupillary dilation.

    PubMed

    Honma, Motoyasu; Tanaka, Yasuto; Osada, Yoshihisa; Kuriyama, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Eye contact is important to share communication during social interactions. However, how accurately humans can perceive the gaze direction of others toward themselves and whether pupils dilate when humans consciously or unconsciously perceive own eyes are looked by others remain unclear. In this study, we examined the relationship between the explicit perception of looking into each other's eyes and the implicit physiological response of pupillary dilation by using an original face-to-face method. We found that humans do not correctly detect the gaze direction of others. Furthermore, one's pupils dilated when one gazed at others' eyes. Awareness of others' gaze on one's eyes, rather than the actual focusing of other's gaze on one's eyes, enhanced pupillary dilation. Therefore, physiological responses are caused not when people actually look into each other's gaze, but when the consciousness of other's gaze is activated, which suggests that eye contact often involves one-way communication.

  3. Dilated hearts at high altitude: words from on high.

    PubMed

    Lankford, Harvey V; Swenson, Erik R

    2014-12-01

    From the time of the turn of the twentieth century, dilated hearts and presumed cardiac fatigue in expeditionary climbers and scientists have been the subject of much commentary in the medical and mountaineering literature. Although largely attributed by most, but not all, to left heart strain, the description of dilated hearts in these accounts is clearly that of right heart dilation as a consequence of high and sustained hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction with hypertensive remodeling. This essay will feature quotations from the writings of high altitude pioneers about dilated, strained, or enlarged hearts. It will give some brief physiology of the right side of the heart as background, but will focus on the words of mountaineers and mountaineering physicians as color commentary.

  4. Dilated cardiomyopathy: a preventable presentation of DiGeorge Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, A; Smith, C J

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cardiac failure require careful evaluation to determine the precise nature of the cause of their illness. Genetic causes of dilated cardiomyopathy are well known but inherited conditions may lead to unexpected consequences through intermediate mechanisms not readily recognised as a feature of the inherited disorder. We describe a case of dilated cardiomyopathy resulting from prolonged hypocalcaemia due to previously undiagnosed hypoparathyroidism resulting from DiGeorge Syndrome and describe the features of this case and the treatment of hypoparathyroidism.

  5. Congenital duodenal web: successful management with endoscopic dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Ujjal; Jain, Vikas; Yachha, Surender Kumar; Srivastava, Anshu

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Congenital duodenal web (CDW) is an uncommon cause of duodenal obstruction and endoscopic balloon dilatation has been reported in just eight pediatric cases to date. Here we are reporting three cases of CDW managed successfully with balloon dilatation. Cases and methods: In 2014 we diagnosed three cases of CDW on the basis of typical radiological and endoscopic findings. Endoscopic balloon dilatation was done under conscious sedation with a through-the-scope controlled radial expansion (CRE) balloon. Results: All three children presented late (median age 8 [range 2 – 9] years) with bilious vomiting, upper abdominal distension, and failure to thrive. One of them had associated Down syndrome and another had horseshoe kidney. In all cases, CDW was observed in the second part of the duodenum beyond the ampulla, causing partial duodenal obstruction. After repeated endoscopic dilatation (2 – 4 sessions), all three patients became asymptomatic. None of the patients experienced complications after balloon dilatation. Conclusions: Duodenal diaphragm should be suspected in patients with abdominal distension with bilious vomiting, even in relatively older children. Endoscopic balloon dilatation is a simple and effective method of treating this condition. PMID:27004237

  6. Clinical and echocardiographic determinants in bicuspid aortic dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Frederique E.C.M.; Van der Linden, Noreen; Thomassen, Alissa L.L.; Crijns, Harry J.G.M.; Meex, Steven J.R.; Kietselaer, Bas L.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease is associated with aortic dilatation. Timing of follow-up and surgery is challenging. Hence, there is an unmet clinical need for additional risk stratification. It is unclear whether valve morphology is associated with dilatation rates. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the association between clinical and echocardiographic determinants (including valve morphology) and aortic dimension and the progression rate of dilatation. Aortic dimensions were assessed on serial echocardiographic images between 1999 and 2014 in a population of 392 patients with BAVs in a tertiary care center in the Netherlands. Analyses using mixed linear models were performed. Mean age of participants was 48 ± 17 years and 69% were male. BAV morphology was associated with aortic dimensions, as well as age, sex, BSA, and valvular dysfunction. Tubular ascending aorta, sinus of Valsalva, and sinotubular junction showed a dilatation rate of 0.32, 0.18, and 0.06 mm/year, respectively. Dilatation rate was not associated with valve morphology. In the present study, there is no association between BAV morphology and aortic dilatation rates. Therefore, morphology is of limited use in prediction of aortic growth. Discovering fast progressors remains challenging. PMID:28033264

  7. Clusters, deformation, and dilation: Diagnostics for material accumulation regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntley, Helga S.; Lipphardt, B. L.; Jacobs, Gregg; Kirwan, A. D.

    2015-10-01

    Clusters of material at the ocean surface have been frequently observed. Such accumulations of material play an important role in a variety of applications, from biology to pollution mitigation. Identifying where clusters will form can aid in locating, for example, hotspots of biological activity or regions of high pollutant concentration. Here cluster strength is introduced as a new metric for defining clusters when all particle positions are known. To diagnose regions likely to contain clusters without the need to integrate millions of particle trajectories, we propose to use dilation, which quantifies area changes of Lagrangian patches. Material deformation is decomposed into dilation and area-preserving stretch processes to refine previous approaches based on finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) by splitting the FTLE into fundamental kinematic properties. The concepts are developed theoretically and illustrated in the context of a state-of-the-art data-assimilating predictive ocean model of the Gulf of Mexico. Regions of dilation less than one are shown to be much more likely (6 times more likely in the given example) to be visited by particles than those of dilation greater than one. While the relationship is nonlinear, dilation and cluster strength exhibit a fairly good correlation. In contrast, both stretch and Eulerian divergence are found to be uncorrelated with cluster strength. Thus, dilation maps can be used as guides for identifying cluster locations, while saving some of the computational cost of trajectory integrations.

  8. Spectral dilation of L(B,H)-valued measures and its application to stationary dilation for Banach space valued processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miamee, A. G.

    1989-01-01

    Let B be a Banach space and H and K to Hilbert spaces. The spectral dilation of L(B,H)-valued measures is studied and it is shown that the recent results of Makagon and Salehi (1986) and Rosenberg (1982) on the dilation of L(K,H)-valued measures can be extended to hold for the general Banach space setting of L(B,H)-valued measures. These L(B,H)-valued measures are closely connected to the Banach space valued processes. This connection is recalled and as application of spectral dilation of L(B,H)-valued measures the well known stationary dilation results for scalar valued processes is extended to the case of Banach space valued processes.

  9. Spectral dilation of L(B,H)-valued measures and its application to stationary dilation for Banach space valued processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miamee, A. G.

    1988-01-01

    Let B be a Banach space and H and K two Hilbert spaces. The spectral dilation of L(B,H)-valued measures is studied and it is shown that the recent results of Makagon and Salehi (1986) and Rosenberg (1982) on the dilation of L(K,H)-valued measures can be extended to hold for the general Banach space setting of L(B,H)-valued measures. These L(B,H)-valued measures are closely connected to the Banach space valued processes. This connection is recalled and as application of spectral dilation of L(B,H)-valued measures the well known stationary dilation results for scalar valued processes is extended to the case of Banach space valued processes.

  10. Outcomes of esophageal dilation in eosinophilic esophagitis: Safety, efficacy, and persistence of the fibrostenotic phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Runge, Thomas M.; Eluri, Swathi; Cotton, Cary; Burk, Caitlin M.; Woosley, John T.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Dellon, Evan S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Esophageal dilation is commonly performed in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), but there are few long-term data. The aims of this study were to assess the safety and long-term efficacy of esophageal dilation in a large cohort of EoE cases and determine the frequency and predictors of requiring multiple dilations. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study in the University of North Carolina EoE clinicopathological database from 2002-2014. Included subjects met consensus diagnostic criteria for EoE. Clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features were extracted, as were dilation characteristics (dilator type, change in esophageal caliber, total number of dilations) and complications. Patients with EoE who had undergone dilation were compared to those who did not and also stratified by whether they required single or multiple dilations. Results Of 509 EoE patients, 164 were dilated a total of 486 times. Those who underwent dilation had a longer duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis (11.1 vs. 5.4 yrs, p<0.001). 95 patients (58%) required >1 dilation (417 dilations total, mean of 4.4 ± 4.3 per patient). The only predictor of requiring multiple dilations was a smaller baseline esophageal diameter. Dilation was tolerated well, with no major bleeds, perforations, or deaths. The overall complication rate was 5%, primarily due to post-procedural pain. Of 164 individuals dilated, a majority (58%, or 95/164) required a second dilation. Of these individuals, 75% required dilation within 1 year. Conclusions Dilation in EoE is well-tolerated, with a very low risk of serious complications. Patients with long-standing symptoms prior to diagnosis are likely to require dilation. More than half of those dilated will require multiple dilations, often needing a second procedure within one year. These findings can be used to counsel patients with fibrostenotic complications of EoE. PMID:26753894

  11. Dilation Behavior of Thermal Spray Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejarano Lopez, Miryan Lorena

    Thermal Spray (TS) is a very versatile manufacturing process to deposit thick coatings on a variety of substrates. Coatings are used in protective (i.e. wear, chemical attack, high temperature, etc.) and functional (i.e. sensors) applications. TS coatings have a unique lamellar microstructure as a result of the overlapping of millions of molten and partially-molten particles. During processing, high deformation by impact, high temperature, and rapid solidification lead to a complex hierarchical material system that contains a high amount of microstructural defects. The presence of defects in the microstructure contribute to differences in property values in comparison to bulk materials. Thermal stresses and residual strains arise from processing, thermal gradients and thermal exposure. Evaluation of thermal properties, in this case, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is of vital importance to enhance coating performance. In this dissertation, expansion measurements of various metals, alloys, ceramics, and cermet coatings; were carried out using various techniques (push rod dilatometry, x-ray diffraction XRD, digital image correlation DIC, and curvature method) to determine the dilation behavior at the atomic, micro- and macro-scale levels. The main results were. 1) Mathematical models (Turner and Kerner) used for composite materials, successfully predicted the CTE property of a TS coating where the primary phase is the coating material and the secondary phases can be oxides, precipitates, etc. (formed as a byproduct of the spraying process). CTE was found not to be affected by porosity. 2) Despite the anisotropic behavior characteristic of TS coatings, the experimental results shown that CTE results to be reasonable isotropic within the scope of this study. 3) The curvature method was found to be an alternative technique to obtain the CTE, as well as the Young's modulus of coating in a bi-material strip, with good approximation. 4) An anomalous expansion

  12. Loeys-Dietz syndrome: life threatening aortic dissection diagnosed on routine family screening

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Claire A; Clowes, Virginia E; Cooper, John P

    2014-01-01

    A 52-year-old man was found to have a severely dilated aortic root and a Stanford type A dissection on familial screening echocardiography, following diagnosis of a dilated aorta in his son. The dissection required urgent surgical repair. Clinical examination suggested features of Loeys-Dietz syndrome type II, and subsequent demonstration of a mutation in the TGFBR1 gene in the patient and his son confirmed the diagnosis. This article highlights the high prevalence of inherited conditions in dilated aortic root presentations and the importance of family screening and surveillance to allow early surgical intervention. PMID:24495977

  13. Association of achondroplasia with Down syndrome: difficulty in prenatal diagnosis by sonographic and 3-D helical computed tomographic analyses.

    PubMed

    Kaga, Akimune; Murotsuki, Jun; Kamimura, Miki; Kimura, Masato; Saito-Hakoda, Akiko; Kanno, Junko; Hoshi, Kazuhiko; Kure, Shigeo; Fujiwara, Ikuma

    2015-05-01

    Achondroplasia and Down syndrome are relatively common conditions individually. But co-occurrence of both conditions in the same patient is rare and there have been no reports of fetal analysis of this condition by prenatal sonographic and three-dimensional (3-D) helical computed tomography (CT). Prenatal sonographic findings seen in persons with Down syndrome, such as a thickened nuchal fold, cardiac defects, and echogenic bowel were not found in the patient. A prenatal 3-D helical CT revealed a large head with frontal bossing, metaphyseal flaring of the long bones, and small iliac wings, which suggested achondroplasia. In a case with combination of achondroplasia and Down syndrome, it may be difficult to diagnose the co-occurrence prenatally without typical markers of Down syndrome.

  14. Treatment of Ureterointestinal Anastomotic Strictures by Diathermal or Cryoplastic Dilatation

    SciTech Connect

    Orsi, Franco; Penco, Silvia Matei, Victor; Bonomo, Guido; Vigna, Paolo Della; Monfardini, Lorenzo; Cobelli, Ottavio De

    2007-09-15

    Background. Ureterointestinal anastomotic strictures (UAS) complicate 10-15% of surgeries for urinary diversion and are the main cause of deterioration in renal function. Treatments are surgical revision, management with autostatic stent, balloon dilatation, endoscopic incision, and percutaneous transrenal diathermy (Acucise). A new option is cryoplastic dilatation (Polar-Cath). Purpose. To assess the feasibility, complications, and preliminary results of UAS treatment using the Acucise and Polar-Cath systems. Methods. Nineteen UAS, diagnosed by ultrasonography or computed tomography and sequential renal scintigraphy, occurred in 15 cancer patients after radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. Fifteen were managed with balloon diathermy and 4 by balloon cryoplasty in a three-stage procedure-percutaneous nephrostomy, diathermal or cryoplastic dilatation, and transnephrostomic control with nephrostomy removal-each separated by 15 days. All patients gave written informed consent. Results. Dilatations were successful in all cases. The procedure is simple and rapid (about 45 min) under fluoroscopic control and sedation. Procedural complications occurred in 1 (5%) patient with UAS after Wallace II uretero-ileocutaneostomy: a common iliac artery lesion was induced by diathermal dilatation, evident subsequently, and required surgical repair. Patency with balloon diathermy was good, with two restenoses developing over 12 months (range 1-22) of follow-up. With balloon cryoplastic dilatation, one restenosis developed in the short term; follow-up is too brief to assess the long-term efficacy. Conclusion. Our short-term results with diathermal and cryoplastic dilatation to resolve UAS are good. If supported by longer follow-up, the techniques may be considered as first-choice approaches to UAS. Surgery should be reserved for cases in which this minimally invasive technique fails.

  15. [Pneumatic dilatation of achalasia: local experience in treating 41 patients].

    PubMed

    Honein, Khalil; Slim, Rita; Yaghi, César; Kheir, Bahaa; Bou Jaoudé, Joseph; Sayegh, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    L'achalasia is the best known primary motor disorder of the esophagus in which the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) has abnormally high resting pressure and incomplete relaxation with swallowing. Pneumatic dilatation (PD) remains the first choice of treatment. Our aim was to report, in a retrospective way, our experience in treating with pneumatic dilatation 41 achalasia patients admitted to the gastroenterology unit at Hôtel-Dieu de France (HDF) hospital between 1994 and 2004. A total of 46 dilatations were performed in 41 patients with achalasia [20 males and 21 females, the mean age was 46.8 years (range, 15-90)]. All patients underwent an initial dilatation by inflating a 35 mm balloon to 7 psi three times successively under fluoroscopic control. The need for subsequent dilatation with the same technique or for surgical treatment was based on symptom assessment. The mean follow-up period was 36.7 months (3 mo-7 years). Among the patients whose follow-up information was available, a satisfactory result was achieved in 29 patients (80.5%) after only one or two sessions of pneumatic dilatation. Esophageal perforation as a short-term complication was observed in one patient (2.17%). Seven patients were referred for surgery (one for esophageal perforation and six for persistent or recurrent symptoms). In conclusion, performing balloon dilatation under fluoroscopic observation is simple, safe and efficacious for treating patients with achalasia. Referral to repeated PD or to surgical myotomy should be discussed in case of no response to a first session of PD.

  16. Current evaluation of sonography of the meniscus. Results of a comparative study of sonographic and arthroscopic findings.

    PubMed

    Casser, H R; Sohn, C; Kiekenbeck, A

    1990-01-01

    Sonography of the knee has gained in significance in the diagnosis of the meniscus; experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that the normal and pathological anatomy of the meniscus can be visualized on a sonogram. The aim of this comparative investigation is to evaluate sonographic lesion diagnosis in comparison with arthroscopic findings, using a standardized examination method. Two hundred and six knee joints were first scanned sonographically using a 7.5 MHz sector transducer. The examining doctor had neither anamnestic nor clinical information in advance. On the following day, the joints were examined arthroscopically, without the findings of the day before being available to the examiner. When the findings were compared, the sensitivity of sonographic diagnosis of lesions was found to be 82.2% and its specificity 87.6%. The patients were of varying ages and had varying anamneses. The results show that sonography of the meniscus is a valuable diagnostic help when the knee-joint symptoms are not clear, given that the correct technical equipment and sufficient experience with this form of examination are at hand. The advantage of sonography is that, in contrast to arthroscopy, it is noninvasive and easily available.

  17. Clinical Effect of Endoscopic Pneumatic Dilation for Achalasia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Peng; Shi, Hai; Zhang, Yanjie; Zhou, Huabang; Dong, Jinhua; Cai, Yiting; Hu, Xing; Dai, Qiang; Yang, Wenyan

    2015-07-01

    Although pneumatic dilation is an accepted method for the treatment of achalasia, this therapy has high recurrence and complication rates, and prolonged follow-up studies on the parameters associated with various outcomes are rare. In this prospective 10-year follow-up study, a satisfactory therapeutic effect was achieved without serious complications. We report the therapeutic experience with pneumatic dilation, having aimed to evaluate the long-term clinical safety and efficacy of pneumatic dilation. In total, 35 consecutive patients with idiopathic achalasia who underwent pneumatic dilation were followed up at regular intervals in person or by a phone interview over a 10-year period. The mean duration of the follow-up was 43.03 ± 26.34 months (range 6-120 months). Remission was assessed by the dysphagia classification and symptom scores. Patients' clinical symptom scores were calculated before and at 6 to 36  months, 37 to 60  months, and >60  months after therapy. The influence of the patients' age, gender, and disease duration on the therapeutic effect was analyzed. The success rate of the operation was 97.2% (35/36), without massive hemorrhaging, perforation or other serious complications. Dysphagia after the therapy was significantly eased (P < 0.01). In total, 35 patients have been followed up for 6 to 36  months after therapy, 21 cases for 37 to 60  months, and 5 cases for >60  months, and the patients' symptom scores separately decreased significantly compared with the pretherapy scores (P < 0.01). For these patients, the 6 to 36  months remission rate was 85.7% (30/35), the 37 to 60  months rate was 61.9% (13/21), and the >60  months rate was 40% (2/5). The dilation effect had no relationship to the patient's age, gender, and disease duration (P > 0.05). The patients in 30 cases (85.7%) were successfully treated with a single dilation, in 4 cases (11.4%) with 2 dilations, and in 1 case (2.9%) with 3 dilations. These

  18. Role of fault gouge dilatancy on aseismic deformation transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yajing; Rubin, Allan M.

    2010-10-01

    In the vicinity of episodic aseismic transients in several subduction zones, the presence of interstitial fluids and near-lithostatic pore pressure has been proposed to interpret seismic observations of high P to S wave speed ratio and high Poisson's ratio. Under such conditions, fault stabilization by dilatancy-induced suction during increased shear strain rates becomes very efficient. We analyze the frictional and hydraulic conditions for spontaneous transients on a fluid-infiltrated fault including dilatancy and pore compaction in the framework of rate and state friction with a "membrane diffusion" approximation. In both a simplified spectral model and a 2-D Cascadia-like subduction fault model, the fault response is mainly controlled by three nondimensional parameters: (1) W/h*, the along-dip width of the high pore pressure, velocity-weakening fault relative to a characteristic nucleation size, (2) a drainage parameter U, the relative time scales for fluid diffusion and friction evolution, and (3) a dilatancy parameter E, the relative contributions to stress drop from dilatancy and friction evolution. The incorporation of dilatancy enables aseismic transients at much larger values of W/h* than is possible under conditions of constant pore pressure. An analytic estimate of the maximum slip velocity as a function of W/h*, E, and U is derived and agrees reasonably well with the simulation results. The dependence of the properties of modeled transients on the drainage parameter U is similar to that on the dilatancy parameter E. For U (E) less than 1, maximum velocity decreases, while recurrence period remains relatively constant. For U (E) greater than 1, maximum velocity approaches the steady state velocity, and recurrence period approaches the period at neutral stability. In the subduction fault model using gabbro gouge friction properties, the slip per episode and the recurrence period increase with W/h*, generally following the trend defined without dilatancy

  19. Fixed and dilated: the history of a classic pupil abnormality.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Peter J; Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of ideas about the nature and mechanism of the fixed dilated pupil, paying particular attention to experimental conditions and clinical observations in the 19th century. Starting from Kocher's standard review in 1901, the authors studied German, English, and French texts for historical information. Medical and neurological textbooks from the 19th and 20th centuries were reviewed to investigate when and how this information percolated through neurological and neurosurgical practices. Cooper experimented with intracranial pressure (ICP) in a dog in the 1830s, but did not mention the pupils. He described dilated pupils in clinical cases without referring to the effect of light. Bright demonstrated to have some knowledge of the pupil sign (clinical observations). Realizing the unreliability of the pupil sign, Hutchinson in 1867-1868 tried to reason in which cases trepanation would be advisable. Von Leyden's 1866 animal experiments, in which he increased CSF volume by injecting protein solutions intracranially, was the first observation in which the association between fixed dilated pupils and increased ICP was established. Along with bradycardia and motor and respiratory effects, he noticed wide pupils were usually present in a comatose state. Asymmetrical dilation could not always be attributed to increased ICP, but to an oculomotor nerve lesion. Pagenstecher in 1871 extended knowledge by meticulously studying consecutive pupil phenomena with increasing pressure. In 1880, von Bergmann emphasized the significance of the ipsilateral dilation in experiments as well as in clinical cases. He distinguished the extent of pressure increase and its duration. Probably confusing irritation (epileptic head turning to the other side with pupil dilation) and lesion effects, he suggested a cortical area responsible for oculomotor phenomena, indicating what is now known as the frontal eye field. Naunyn and Schreiber (1881

  20. Clinical Effect of Endoscopic Pneumatic Dilation for Achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Peng; Shi, Hai; Zhang, Yanjie; Zhou, Huabang; Dong, Jinhua; Cai, Yiting; Hu, Xing; Dai, Qiang; Yang, Wenyan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although pneumatic dilation is an accepted method for the treatment of achalasia, this therapy has high recurrence and complication rates, and prolonged follow-up studies on the parameters associated with various outcomes are rare. In this prospective 10-year follow-up study, a satisfactory therapeutic effect was achieved without serious complications. We report the therapeutic experience with pneumatic dilation, having aimed to evaluate the long-term clinical safety and efficacy of pneumatic dilation. In total, 35 consecutive patients with idiopathic achalasia who underwent pneumatic dilation were followed up at regular intervals in person or by a phone interview over a 10-year period. The mean duration of the follow-up was 43.03 ± 26.34 months (range 6–120 months). Remission was assessed by the dysphagia classification and symptom scores. Patients’ clinical symptom scores were calculated before and at 6 to 36 months, 37 to 60 months, and >60 months after therapy. The influence of the patients’ age, gender, and disease duration on the therapeutic effect was analyzed. The success rate of the operation was 97.2% (35/36), without massive hemorrhaging, perforation or other serious complications. Dysphagia after the therapy was significantly eased (P < 0.01). In total, 35 patients have been followed up for 6 to 36 months after therapy, 21 cases for 37 to 60 months, and 5 cases for >60 months, and the patients’ symptom scores separately decreased significantly compared with the pretherapy scores (P < 0.01). For these patients, the 6 to 36 months remission rate was 85.7% (30/35), the 37 to 60 months rate was 61.9% (13/21), and the >60 months rate was 40% (2/5). The dilation effect had no relationship to the patient's age, gender, and disease duration (P > 0.05). The patients in 30 cases (85.7%) were successfully treated with a single dilation, in 4 cases (11.4%) with 2 dilations, and in 1 case (2.9%) with 3 dilations

  1. Treatment of denture-related stomatitis improves endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated vascular dilation

    PubMed Central

    Osmenda, Grzegorz; Maciąg, Joanna; Wilk, Grzegorz; Maciąg, Anna; Nowakowski, Daniel; Loster, Jolanta; Dembowska, Elżbieta; Robertson, Douglas; Guzik, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The presence of oral inflammation has recently been linked with the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. While numerous studies have described links between periodontitis and endothelial dysfunction, little is known about the influence of denture-related stomatitis (DRS) on cardiovascular risk. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the treatment of DRS can lead to improvement of the clinical measures of vascular dysfunction. Material and methods The DRS patients were treated with a local oral antifungal agent for 3 weeks. Blood pressure, flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and nitroglycerine-mediated vascular dilatation (NMD) were measured during three study visits: before treatment, one day and two months after conclusion of antifungal therapy. Results Flow-mediated dilatation measurements showed significant improvement of endothelial function 2 months after treatment (FMD median 5%, 95 CI: 3–8.3 vs. 11%, 95% CI: 8.8–14.4; p < 0.01), while there was no difference in control, endothelium-independent vasorelaxations (NMD; median = 15.3%, 95% CI: 10.8–19.3 vs. 12.7%, 95% CI: 10.6–15; p = 0.3). Other cardiovascular parameters such as systolic (median = 125 mm Hg; 95% CI: 116–129 vs. 120 mm Hg, 95% CI: 116–126; p = 0.1) as well as diastolic blood pressure and heart rate (median = 65.5 bpm, 95% CI: 56.7–77.7 vs. 71 bpm, 95% CI: 66.7–75; p = 0.5) did not change during or after the treatment. Conclusions Treatment of DRS is associated with improvement of endothelial function. Since endothelial dysfunction is known to precede the development of severe cardiovascular disorders such as atherosclerosis and hypertension, patients should be more carefully screened for DRS in general dental practice, and immediate DRS treatment should be advised. PMID:28144257

  2. Urethral Dilatation in Women: Urologists' Practice Patterns in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Masarani, M; Willis, RG

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Review of the literature reveals little evidence to prove the efficacy of urethral dilatation for adult women with various lower urinary tract complaints. We conducted a postal survey to ascertain the actual practice of urethral dilatation among urologists in the UK. MATERIALS AND METHODS A questionnaire was mailed to 428 consultant urologists listed as full members of the British Association of Urological Surgeons. The questionnaire consisted of 8 items about urologists' perception of indications, efficacy, and the need for repeated dilatation and anaesthesia. RESULTS The questionnaire response rate was 42%. Although urethral stenosis was the most common indication (97%), the majority of urologists (69%) indicated that fewer than 25% of patients had evidence of stenosis. Overall, 61% of urologists performed dilatation 7 times or more during the last year and 55% believed that less than half of the patients experienced long-term improvement. CONCLUSIONS Despite the lack of strong evidence to support the use of urethral dilatation in women, many urologists continue to find it a useful tool in approaching women with lower urinary tract complaints. PMID:17002859

  3. Relationships between tissue dilatation and differentiation in distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Elise F; Longaker, Michael T; Carter, Dennis R

    2006-03-01

    Mechanical factors modulate the morphogenesis and regeneration of mesenchymally derived tissues via processes mediated by the extracellular matrix (ECM). In distraction osteogenesis, large volumes of new bone are created through discrete applications of tensile displacement across an osteotomy gap. Although many studies have characterized the matrix, cellular and molecular biology of distraction osteogenesis, little is known about relationships between these biological phenomena and the local physical cues generated by distraction. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to characterize the local physical environment created within the osteotomy gap during long bone distraction osteogenesis. Using a computational approach, we quantified spatial and temporal profiles of three previously identified mechanical stimuli for tissue differentiation-pressure, tensile strain and fluid flow-as well as another candidate stimulus-tissue dilatation (volumetric strain). Whereas pressure and fluid velocity throughout the regenerate decayed to less than 31% of initial values within 20 min following distraction, tissue dilatation increased with time, reaching steady state values as high as 43% strain. This dilatation created large reductions and large gradients in cell and ECM densities. When combined with previous findings regarding the effects of strain and of cell and ECM densities on cell migration, proliferation and differentiation, these results indicate two mechanisms by which tissue dilatation may be a key stimulus for bone regeneration: (1) stretching of cells and (2) altering cell and ECM densities. These results are used to suggest experiments that can provide a more mechanistic understanding of the role of tissue dilatation in bone regeneration.

  4. Apoptosis in Endomyocardial Biopsies from Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Glumac, S; Pejić, S; Kostadinovic, S; Stojšić, Z; Vasiljevic, J

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is an active energy-consuming mechanism of cell death, which may contribute to heart failure in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Dilated cardiomyopathy is a common clinical outcome of many prolonged cardiac insults, and therefore is considered as the most prevalent form of cardiomyopathy. Loss of heart mass is highly correlated with the heart failure and mortality, thus the purpose of this study was to define the apoptotic index in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Apoptosis was detected by the TUNEL method in 30 patients. Biopsies were obtained from the left ventricle, and at least three specimens were taken. TUNEL-positive cardiomyocytes were found in 26 of 30 cases (86.7 %) and the mean apoptotic index for the entire specimen series was 5.41 ± 1.70 %. The analysis showed that patients with dilated cardiomyopathy had significantly higher apoptotic index (P < 0.001) than healthy subjects. One subject (man, 41 years old) had a markedly elevated apoptotic index of 52.2 %. In the remaining subjects, the percentage of cardiomyocyte death ranged from 0 % to 15.5 %. The high percentage of apoptosis found in our study may be in accordance with the clinically manifested cardiac failure in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy since in most patients we recorded the left ventricular ejection fraction values below 30 %.

  5. The Prevalence of and Risk Factors Associated with Musculoskeletal Disorders among Sonographers in Central China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Qingmin; Liu, Shenglin; Yang, Lei; Xie, Mingxing

    2016-01-01

    Objective Studies from industrialized countries show that musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) occur commonly in sonographers. However, little is known about sonographers in China, where the awareness of ergonomics and MSD, workload, and available equipment/facilities may differ. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of MSD and associated risk factors in sonographers in central China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 381 sonographers from 14 randomly selected tertiary hospitals in Hubei province, central China. Musculoskeletal symptoms (using the Nordic Questionnaire) and risk factors (mostly derived from the Health Benefit Trust survey instrument and the Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire) were recorded. Multivariate logistic regression was used to quantify associations between risk factors and MSD. Results The 12-month period prevalence of MSD was 98.3%, being highest in the neck (93.5%) and shoulder (92.2%), followed by the lower back (83.2%), wrist/hand, upper back, and elbow. Factors contributing to neck pain were psychological fatigue, shoulder abduction and trunk bend-and-twist posture. Height-adjustable tables and chairs were protective factors. Shoulder pain was associated with female sex, health status, mental stress, shoulder abduction, and trunk bend-and-twist posture. Height-adjustable chairs and the awareness of adjusting the workstation before scanning were protective factors. Elbow pain was associated with health status and height-adjustable tables. Wrist/hand pain was associated with female sex, bending the wrist, and working with obese patients. Upper back pain was associated with shoulder abduction, height-adjustable chairs, and device location. Lower back pain was associated with the number of scans performed per day, awkward postures, bending the trunk, twisting or bending the neck forward, and using a footrest. Conclusions This study suggests a high prevalence of MSD in sonographers in central China. Hence, it is necessary to

  6. Longitudinal shear wave and transverse dilatational wave in solids.

    PubMed

    Catheline, S; Benech, N

    2015-02-01

    Dilatation wave involves compression and extension and is known as the curl-free solution of the elastodynamic equation. Shear wave on the contrary does not involve any change in volume and is the divergence-free solution. This letter seeks to examine the elastodynamic Green's function through this definition. By separating the Green's function in divergence-free and curl-free terms, it appears first that, strictly speaking, the longitudinal wave is not a pure dilatation wave and the transverse wave is neither a pure shear wave. Second, not only a longitudinal shear wave but also a transverse dilatational wave exists. These waves are shown to be a part of the solution known as coupling terms. Their special motion is carefully described and illustrated.

  7. Negative pressure in shear thickening band of a dilatant fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Nakanishi, Hiizu

    2016-12-01

    We perform experiments and numerical simulations to investigate spatial distribution of pressure in a sheared dilatant fluid of the Taylor-Couette flow under a constant external shear stress. In a certain range of shear stress, the flow undergoes the shear thickening oscillation around 20 Hz. We find that, during the oscillation, a localized thickened band rotates around the axis with the flow. Based upon experiments and numerical simulations, we show that a major part of the thickened band is under negative pressure even in the case of discontinuous shear thickening, which indicates that the thickening is caused by Reynolds dilatancy; the dilatancy causes the negative pressure in interstitial fluid, which generates contact structure in the granular medium, then frictional resistance hinders rearrangement of the structure and solidifies the medium.

  8. Pupil dilation patterns reflect the contents of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Kang, Olivia; Wheatley, Thalia

    2015-09-01

    The study of human consciousness has historically depended on introspection. However, introspection is constrained by what can be remembered and verbalized. Here, we demonstrate the utility of high temporal resolution pupillometry to track the locus of conscious attention dynamically, over a single trial. While eye-tracked, participants heard several musical clips played diotically (same music in each ear) and, later, dichotically (two clips played simultaneously, one in each ear). During dichotic presentation, participants attended to only one ear. We found that the temporal pattern of pupil dilation dynamics over a single trial discriminated which piece of music was consciously attended on dichotic trials. Deconvolving these pupillary responses further revealed the real-time changes in stimulus salience motivating pupil dilation. Taken together, these results show that pupil dilation patterns during single-exposure to dynamic stimuli can be exploited to discern the contents of conscious attention.

  9. A Tension-Based Model Distinguishes Hypertrophic versus Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jennifer; Davis, L Craig; Correll, Robert N; Makarewich, Catherine A; Schwanekamp, Jennifer A; Moussavi-Harami, Farid; Wang, Dan; York, Allen J; Wu, Haodi; Houser, Steven R; Seidman, Christine E; Seidman, Jonathan G; Regnier, Michael; Metzger, Joseph M; Wu, Joseph C; Molkentin, Jeffery D

    2016-05-19

    The heart either hypertrophies or dilates in response to familial mutations in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins, which are responsible for contraction and pumping. These mutations typically alter calcium-dependent tension generation within the sarcomeres, but how this translates into the spectrum of hypertrophic versus dilated cardiomyopathy is unknown. By generating a series of cardiac-specific mouse models that permit the systematic tuning of sarcomeric tension generation and calcium fluxing, we identify a significant relationship between the magnitude of tension developed over time and heart growth. When formulated into a computational model, the integral of myofilament tension development predicts hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies in mice associated with essentially any sarcomeric gene mutations, but also accurately predicts human cardiac phenotypes from data generated in induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived myocytes from familial cardiomyopathy patients. This tension-based model also has the potential to inform pharmacologic treatment options in cardiomyopathy patients.

  10. Pulmonary artery dilatation: an overlooked mechanism for angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Ginghina, Carmen; Popescu, Bogdan A; Enache, Roxana; Ungureanu, Catalina; Deleanu, Dan; Platon, Pavel

    2008-07-01

    Dilatation of the pulmonary artery may lead to the compression of adjacent structures. Of those, the extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery is the most worrisome. We present the case of a 48-year-old woman who was diagnosed with pulmonary artery dilatation due to severe, thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. She also had angina and coronary angiography revealed a 70% ostial stenosis of the left main coronary artery. The presence of this isolated lesion in a young woman without risk factors for atherosclerosis suggests extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery by the dilated pulmonary artery as the likely mechanism. The patient underwent direct stenting of the left main coronary stenosis with a good result.

  11. Patient with Eating Disorder, Carnitine Deficiency and Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Fotino, A Domnica; Sherma, A

    2015-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is characterized by a dilated and poorly functioning left ventricle and can result from several different etiologies including ischemic, infectious, metabolic, toxins, autoimmune processes or nutritional deficiencies. Carnitine deficiency-induced cardiomyopathy (CDIM) is an uncommon cause of dilated cardiomyopathy that can go untreated if not considered. Here, we describe a 30-year-old woman with an eating disorder and recent percutaneous endoscopic gastrotomy (PEG) tube placement for weight loss admitted to the hospital for possible PEG tube infection. Carnitine level was found to be low. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) revealed ejection fraction 15%. Her hospital course was complicated by sepsis from a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). She was discharged on a beta-blocker and carnitine supplementation. One month later her cardiac function had normalized. Carnitine deficiency-induced myopathy is an unusual cause of cardiomyopathy and should be considered in adults with decreased oral intake or malabsorption who present with cardiomyopathy.

  12. Dilated Cardiomyopathy Induced by Chronic Starvation and Selenium Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) has been rarely documented as a cause of cardiovascular abnormalities, including dilated cardiomyopathy. Selenium is responsible for antioxidant defense mechanisms in cardiomyocytes, and its deficiency in the setting of PEM and disease related malnutrition (DRM) may lead to exacerbation of the dilated cardiomyopathy. We report a rare case of a fourteen-year-old boy who presented with symptoms of congestive heart failure due to DRM and PEM (secondary to chronic starvation) along with severe selenium deficiency. An initial echocardiogram showed severely depressed systolic function consistent with dilated cardiomyopathy. Aggressive nutritional support and replacement of selenium and congestive heart failure medications that included diuretics and ACE inhibitors with the addition of carvedilol led to normalization of the cardiac function within four weeks. He continues to have significant weight gain and is currently completely asymptomatic from a cardiovascular standpoint. PMID:27994905

  13. Using surface deformation to infer reservoir dilation induced by injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanayakkara, Asanga Sanjeewee

    Reservoir dilations occur due to variety of subsurface injection operations including waste disposal, waterflooding, steam injection, CO 2 sequestration and aquifer storage recovery. These reservoir dilations propagate to the surrounding formations and extend up to the ground surface resulting in surface deformations. The surface deformations can be measured by using various technologies such as tiltmeters and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and they can be inverted to infer reservoir dilations by solving an ill-posed inverse problem. This concept forms the basis of the research work presented in this thesis. Initially, the characteristics of the surface and subsurface deformations (induced by the injection operations) and correlations between them were investigated in detail by applying both analytical (based on center of dilatation approach) and numerical methods (fully coupled finite element method). Then, a simple set of guidelines to obtain quick estimates for the surface heave characteristics were proposed. The guidelines are in the form of simple analytical equations or charts and thereby they could be very useful in obtaining preliminary assessment for the surface deformation characteristics induced by the subsurface injection operations. Next, the mathematical aspects of the inverse problem were discussed in detail and the factors affecting the accuracy of the inverse solution were investigated through an extensive parametric study including both two-dimensional and three-dimensional problems. Then, a method was developed to infer reservoir dilation (with high accuracy and high spatial resolution) using a limited number of surface deformation measurements. The proposed method was applied to infer the reservoir dilation induced by a waste disposal operation conducted at Frog Lake, Alberta and the practical issues pertaining to the proposed method were discussed. Finally, guidelines for tiltmeter array design were proposed and

  14. Shared Genetic Predisposition in Peripartum and Dilated Cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Ware, James S; Li, Jian; Mazaika, Erica; Yasso, Christopher M; DeSouza, Tiffany; Cappola, Thomas P; Tsai, Emily J; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Kamiya, Chizuko A; Mazzarotto, Francesco; Cook, Stuart A; Halder, Indrani; Prasad, Sanjay K; Pisarcik, Jessica; Hanley-Yanez, Karen; Alharethi, Rami; Damp, Julie; Hsich, Eileen; Elkayam, Uri; Sheppard, Richard; Kealey, Angela; Alexis, Jeffrey; Ramani, Gautam; Safirstein, Jordan; Boehmer, John; Pauly, Daniel F; Wittstein, Ilan S; Thohan, Vinay; Zucker, Mark J; Liu, Peter; Gorcsan, John; McNamara, Dennis M; Seidman, Christine E; Seidman, Jonathan G; Arany, Zoltan

    2016-01-21

    Background Peripartum cardiomyopathy shares some clinical features with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, a disorder caused by mutations in more than 40 genes, including TTN, which encodes the sarcomere protein titin. Methods In 172 women with peripartum cardiomyopathy, we sequenced 43 genes with variants that have been associated with dilated cardiomyopathy. We compared the prevalence of different variant types (nonsense, frameshift, and splicing) in these women with the prevalence of such variants in persons with dilated cardiomyopathy and with population controls. Results We identified 26 distinct, rare truncating variants in eight genes among women with peripartum cardiomyopathy. The prevalence of truncating variants (26 in 172 [15%]) was significantly higher than that in a reference population of 60,706 persons (4.7%, P=1.3×10(-7)) but was similar to that in a cohort of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (55 of 332 patients [17%], P=0.81). Two thirds of identified truncating variants were in TTN, as seen in 10% of the patients and in 1.4% of the reference population (P=2.7×10(-10)); almost all TTN variants were located in the titin A-band. Seven of the TTN truncating variants were previously reported in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. In a clinically well-characterized cohort of 83 women with peripartum cardiomyopathy, the presence of TTN truncating variants was significantly correlated with a lower ejection fraction at 1-year follow-up (P=0.005). Conclusions The distribution of truncating variants in a large series of women with peripartum cardiomyopathy was remarkably similar to that found in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. TTN truncating variants were the most prevalent genetic predisposition in each disorder.

  15. Shared Genetic Predisposition in Peripartum and Dilated Cardiomyopathies

    PubMed Central

    Ware, James S.; Li, Jian; Mazaika, Erica; Yasso, Christopher M.; DeSouza, Tiffany; Cappola, Thomas P.; Tsai, Emily J.; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Kamiya, Chizuko A.; Mazzarotto, Francesco; Cook, Stuart A.; Halder, Indrani; Prasad, Sanjay K.; Pisarcik, Jessica; Hanley-Yanez, Karen; Alharethi, Rami; Damp, Julie; Hsich, Eileen; Elkayam, Uri; Sheppard, Richard; Kealey, Angela; Alexis, Jeffrey; Ramani, Gautam; Safirstein, Jordan; Boehmer, John; Pauly, Daniel F.; Wittstein, Ilan S.; Thohan, Vinay; Zucker, Mark J.; Liu, Peter; Gorcsan, John; McNamara, Dennis M.; Seidman, Christine E.; Seidman, Jonathan G.; Arany, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Peripartum cardiomyopathy shares some clinical features with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, a disorder caused by mutations in more than 40 genes, including TTN, which encodes the sarcomere protein titin. METHODS In 172 women with peripartum cardiomyopathy, we sequenced 43 genes with variants that have been associated with dilated cardiomyopathy. We compared the prevalence of different variant types (nonsense, frameshift, and splicing) in these women with the prevalence of such variants in persons with dilated cardiomyopathy and with population controls. RESULTS We identified 26 distinct, rare truncating variants in eight genes among women with peripartum cardiomyopathy. The prevalence of truncating variants (26 in 172 [15%]) was significantly higher than that in a reference population of 60,706 persons (4.7%, P = 1.3×10−7) but was similar to that in a cohort of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (55 of 332 patients [17%], P = 0.81). Two thirds of identified truncating variants were in TTN, as seen in 10% of the patients and in 1.4% of the reference population (P = 2.7×10−10); almost all TTN variants were located in the titin A-band. Seven of the TTN truncating variants were previously reported in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. In a clinically well-characterized cohort of 83 women with peripartum cardiomyopathy, the presence of TTN truncating variants was significantly correlated with a lower ejection fraction at 1-year follow-up (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS The distribution of truncating variants in a large series of women with peripartum cardiomyopathy was remarkably similar to that found in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. TTN truncating variants were the most prevalent genetic predisposition in each disorder. PMID:26735901

  16. Sonographic Lobe Localization of Alveolar-Interstitial Syndrome in the Critically Ill

    PubMed Central

    Stefanidis, Konstantinos; Dimopoulos, Stavros; Kolofousi, Chrysafoula; Cokkinos, Demosthenes D.; Chatzimichail, Katerina; Eisen, Lewis A.; Wachtel, Mitchell; Karakitsos, Dimitrios; Nanas, Serafim

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Fast and accurate diagnosis of alveolar-interstitial syndrome is of major importance in the critically ill. We evaluated the utility of lung ultrasound (US) in detecting and localizing alveolar-interstitial syndrome in respective pulmonary lobes as compared to computed tomography scans (CT). Methods. One hundred and seven critically ill patients participated in the study. The presence of diffuse comet-tail artifacts was considered a sign of alveolar-interstitial syndrome. We designated lobar reflections along intercostal spaces and surface lines by means of sonoanatomy in an effort to accurately localize lung pathology. Each sonographic finding was thereafter grouped into the respective lobe. Results. From 107 patients, 77 were finally included in the analysis (42 males with mean age = 61 ± 17 years, APACHE II score = 17.6 ± 6.4, and lung injury score = 1.0 ± 0.7). US exhibited high sensitivity and specificity values (ranging from over 80% for the lower lung fields up to over 90% for the upper lung fields) and considerable consistency in the diagnosis and localization of alveolar-interstitial syndrome. Conclusions. US is a reliable, bedside method for accurate detection and localization of alveolar-interstitial syndrome in the critically ill. PMID:22645669

  17. Comparison of Perineal Sonographically Measured and Functional Urodynamic Urethral Length in Female Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Janetzki, Nadine; Kennes, Lieven; Stickeler, Elmar; Serno, Julia; Behrendt, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To detect the anatomical insufficiency of the urethra and to propose perineal ultrasound as a useful, noninvasive tool for the evaluation of incontinence, we compared the anatomical length of the urethra with the urodynamic functional urethral length. We also compared the urethral length between continent and incontinent females. Methods. 149 female patients were enrolled and divided into four groups (stress, urge, or mixed incontinence; control). Sonographically measured urethral length (SUL) and urodynamic functional urethral length (FUL) were analyzed statistically. Standardized and internationally validated incontinence questionnaire ICIQ-SF results were compared between each patient group. Results. Perineal SUL was significantly longer in incontinent compared to continent patients (p < 0.0001). Pairwise comparison of each incontinent type (stress, urge, or mixed incontinence) with the control group showed also a significant difference (p < 0.05). FUL was significantly shorter in incontinent patients than in the control group (p = 0.0112). But pairwise comparison showed only a significant difference for the stress incontinence group compared with the control group (p = 0.0084) and not for the urge or mixed incontinent group. No clear correlation between SUL, FUL, and ICIQ-SF score was found. Conclusions. SUL measured by noninvasive perineal ultrasound is a suitable parameter in the assessment of female incontinence, since incontinent women show a significantly elongated urethra as a sign of tissue insufficiency, independent of the type of incontinence. PMID:27819004

  18. Surgeon-performed sonographic findings in a traumatic trans-anal rectal perforation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Early diagnosis and active management of trans-anal rectal injuries is essential for a favorable outcome. Intraperitoneal free air (IFA) is usually diagnosed by an erect Chest X-ray. Point-of-care ultrasound has been recently used to detect IFA. We report a 45-year-old male who presented to the Emergency Department with lower abdominal peritonitis. Surgeon-performed portable point-of-care ultrasound as an extension of the abdominal examination revealed an inflamed omentum with hypoechoic stranding, thickened non compressible small bowel, and free fluid in the pelvis. A transverse abdominal section of the right upper quadrant showed free intraperitoneal air. Rectal examination revealed a longitudinal rectal tear. Laparotomy has confirmed the sonographic findings. There was a 12 cm intraperitoneal tear of the anterior wall of the rectum which was necrotic. This case clearly demonstrates that portable point-of-care ultrasound gives very useful detailed information even when performed by a non radiologist. Surgeons should be encouraged to use point-of-care ultrasound after appropriate training. PMID:21838859

  19. Enlarged parathyroid glands with variable sonomorphology in a case of tertiary hyperparathyroidism: Sonographic-histopathologic correlation

    PubMed Central

    Aswani, Yashant; Dhume, Varsha; Varma, Ravi; Saifi, Shenaz

    2016-01-01

    The typical sonomorphology of homogeneously hypoechoic texture of an enlarged parathyroid gland (PG) is a reflection of uniform arrangement of the parathormone-producing chief cells. A variable cellular arrangement, hemorrhage, fibrosis, and adipocytes cause heterogeneous appearance. We describe a case of a 32-year-old male, a case of tertiary hyperparathyroidism, with increased serum parathormone levels, hypercalcemia, and enlargement of all four PGs, albeit with differing morphology. The left lower gland had two nodules, namely, superior and inferior. The inferior nodule of the left lower gland had an echogenic core surrounded by a sonolucent rim whereas the superior nodule was homogenously hyoechoic. The left upper gland had an echopattern exactly reverse of the inferior nodule of the left lower PG, i.e., hypoechoic gland surrounded by hyperechoic periphery. The appearance of the right-sided glands was that of the superior nodule of the left lower PG. On histopathology, the hypoechoic areas corresponded to numerous chief cells and congested vessels whereas edema gave rise to an increase in echogenicity. This report exemplifies atypical sonographic appearances of PG and their histopathologic correlation. PMID:28104949

  20. Solo Sonographically Guided PCNL under Spinal Anesthesia: Defining Predictors of Success

    PubMed Central

    Nouralizadeh, Akbar; Pakmanesh, Hamid; Basiri, Abbas; Aayanifard, Mohammad; Soltani, Mohammad Hossein; Tabibi, Ali; Sharifiaghdas, Farzaneh; Ziaee, Seyed Amir Mohsen; Shakhssalim, Naser; Valipour, Reza; Narouie, Behzad; Radfar, Mohammad Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Sonography has been brought in percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) as an adjunct to or substitute for X-ray to restrict radiation exposure. This study was designed to investigate the possible predictors for the success of the solo sonographically guided PCNL. Methods. 148 consecutive cases were prospectively enrolled. All steps of PCNL were performed solely with sonography guidance under spinal anesthesia. Residual stones were evaluated the day after surgery using sonography and plain radiography. Results. The mean age was 46 ± 15 years; 40% of kidneys had hydronephrosis. The mean stone burden was 504 ± 350 mm2. The mean duration of surgery was 43 ± 21 minutes. The early stone-free rate was 92% in inferior or middle calyceal stones, 89.5% in single pelvic stones, 81.5% in partial staghorn stones, and 61.9% in staghorn stones. The mean residual stone size was 13 ± 8 mm. Logistic regression showed that a lower age and a larger stone burden significantly predicted positive residual stones. Fifteen percent of patients presented with grade I or II and six percent showed grade III complication based on Clavien classification. There was no cases of organ injury or death. Conclusion. Solo ultrasonographically guided PCNL under spinal anesthesia is feasible with an acceptable stone-free rate and complication rate. PMID:27242949

  1. A new method for measurement of liquid dilatation parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondris, Lubomír; Rusina, Viktor

    1997-04-01

    A new user-friendly method for measuring dilatation parameters of non-volatile liquids, based on an optoelectronic hydrolevelling sensor, is described. The system is capable of measuring a liquid column height with an accuracy of about 0957-0233/8/4/004/img1 and allows determination of the temperature dilatation volume coefficient for transparent liquids with an accuracy that depends on the used thermometer accuracy. The method is also suitable for specific mass or density measurements with an accuracy comparable to that obtained with the pycnometric method.

  2. Balloon dilation of congenital supravalvular pulmonic stenosis in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Treseder, Julia R.

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty is considered the standard of care for treatment of valvular pulmonic stenosis, a common congenital defect in dogs. Supravalvular pulmonic stenosis is a rare form of pulmonic stenosis in dogs and standard treatment has not been established. Although, there have been reports of successful treatment of supravalvular pulmonic stenosis with surgical and stenting techniques, there have been no reports of balloon dilation to treat dogs with this condition. Here, a case of supravalvular pulmonic stenosis diagnosed echocardiographically and angiographically in which a significant reduction in pressure gradient was achieved with balloon dilation alone is presented. PMID:27297421

  3. Improved test of time dilation in special relativity.

    PubMed

    Saathoff, G; Karpuk, S; Eisenbarth, U; Huber, G; Krohn, S; Muñoz Horta, R; Reinhardt, S; Schwalm, D; Wolf, A; Gwinner, G

    2003-11-07

    An improved test of time dilation in special relativity has been performed using laser spectroscopy on fast ions at the heavy-ion storage-ring TSR in Heidelberg. The Doppler-shifted frequencies of a two-level transition in 7Li+ ions at v=0.064c have been measured in the forward and backward direction to an accuracy of Deltanu/nu=1 x 10(-9) using collinear saturation spectroscopy. The result confirms the relativistic Doppler formula and sets a new limit of 2.2 x 10(-7) for deviations from the time dilation factor gamma(SR)=(1-v2/c2)(-1/2).

  4. Dilated cardiomyopathy after electrical injury: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Buono, Lee M; DePace, Nicholas L; Elbaum, David M

    2003-05-01

    The specific etiologic factor and pathogenesis of most dilated cardiomyopathies have yet to be described definitively. Hypotheses of the etiologic factor of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) abound. This report describes two patients with electrical injury in whom DCM developed after the electrical insult in the absence of other precipitating causes. Further histologic examination of myocardial tissue after electrical injury may reveal clues regarding the pathophysiology behind electrically induced DCM. Because electrical injury may be associated with myocardial dysfunction, short- and long-term evaluation of left ventricular function may be warranted.

  5. Skin autoreactivity in Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients without urticaria: autologous serum skin test positivity correlation with thyroid antibodies, sonographical volume and grading.

    PubMed

    Turkoglu, Zafer; Zindanci, Ilkin; Turkoglu, Ozlem; Can, Burce; Kavala, Mukaddes; Tamer, Gonca; Ulucay, Vasfiye; Akyer, Erdal

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an association between anti-thyroid antibodies and autologous serum skin test (ASST) positive urticaria patients. However, a connection between thyroid and this reliable skin test for mast cell autoreactivity, ASST, has not been reported yet. We investigated ASST in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) without urticaria and compared the results with laboratory and sonographical findings of HT. 154 HT patients, 100 healthy volunteers without HT as a first control group and 46 patients with multinodular goitre but without autoimmune thyroid disease as a second control group underwent testing with ASST. ASST was applied to these groups according to two criteria, first as ASST(new): autologous serum red wheal response 1.5 mm bigger than negative control; second as ASST(old): serum red wheal response 5 mm bigger than negative control accepted as positive. Free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO) and thyroglobulin antibody (anti-Tg) levels were measured. ASST(old), ASST(new) scored positive in 51.3-60.4% of HT patients, with statistically significant differences. Thyroid volume grades were inversely proportional with ASST(old) and (new) positivity. Moderate (+) titers of anti-Tg in ASST(old) and (new) (+) cases were significantly higher than the same titers of anti-Tg in ASST(old) and (new) (-) cases. The prevalence of ASST positivity in HT patients was not affected by the following factors: gender, age at screening, laboratory measurements of thyroid function tests, anti-TPO antibodies and thyroid ultrasound (US) echogenicity. Positivity of ASST in HT has shown that there is a skin mast cell autoreactivity in HT patients independent of autoreactive chronic urticaria (ACU).

  6. Reversible Dilated Cardiomyopathy Caused by a High Burden of Ventricular Arrhythmias in Andersen-Tawil Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rezazadeh, Saman; Guo, Jiqing; Duff, Henry J; Ferrier, Raechel A; Gerull, Brenda

    2016-12-01

    Andersen-Tawil syndrome (ATS) is caused by mutations in KCNJ2 (Kir2.1). It remains unclear whether dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a primary feature of ATS. We studied a proband with typical physical features of ATS plus DCM and moderate to severe left ventricular dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction = 30.5%). Genetic screening revealed a novel mutation in Kir2.1 (c.665T>C, p.L222S). Functional studies showed that this mutation reduced ionic currents in a dominant-negative manner. Suppression of ventricular arrhythmias with bisoprolol led to normalization of left ventricular size and function. We conclude that DCM is likely a secondary phenotype in ATS and is caused by high ventricular arrhythmia burden.

  7. A patient with ascending aortic dilatation, similar to phenotypes of connective tissue disorders.

    PubMed

    Onrat, S T; Emmiler, M; Sivaci, Y; Söylemez, Z; Ozgöz, A; Imirzalioğlu, N

    2009-04-14

    We report on the clinical and molecular findings of a patient who presented alopecia, epicanthus, micrognathia, retrognathia, high arched palate, hypertelorism, Chiari type I malformation, mixed-type hearing loss but with normal heartbeat Q-T interval, malformed earlobes, down-slanted palpebral fissures, downturned corners of the mouth, syndactyly, atopic eczema, and seizures. The patient was a male adult, 23 years old, with short stature (153 cm) and low weight (50.5 kg), due to severe aortic insufficiency and dilatation of the ascending aorta. Conventional cytogenetic screening did not show any chromosomal gains or losses. Molecular genetic screening was conducted for gene mutations involved in various syndromes; the mutations found included [beta-fibrinogen -455 G>A wt/wt (wt/mut), PAI-1 4G/5G (4G/4G), HPA1 a/b (a/a), MTHFR C677T wt/wt (wt/mut), ACE I/D (I/I), and Apo E E3/E4]. Many clinical and molecular genetics findings overlapped with other conditions associated with arterial tortuosity and arterial aneurysms, including the Marfan, Ehler-Danlos, Shprintzen-Goldberg, and Loeys-Dietz syndromes. Although a diagnosis of Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome was based on clinical findings and radiographic findings indicate other syndromes, aortic root dilatation seems to be a new symptom, similar to phenotypes of connective tissue disorders. The unique grouping of clinical manifestations in this patient and the molecular genetics findings lead us to suggest that this case could be an example of a previously unrecognized syndrome.

  8. Arborescent vascular dilatation mimicking Lichtenberg figures from lightning.

    PubMed

    Tempark, Therdpong; Iwasaki, Julie; Shwayder, Tor

    2014-01-01

    The clinical presentation of arborizing vascular dilatation can resemble Lichtenberg figures from lightning. Both have a feather-like or ferning pattern. We report an interesting case of pressure-induced vasodilatation (PIV) caused by temporary vascular occlusion from jeans buttons.

  9. Thrombus formation in a dilated torcula following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Haynes, H R; Visca, A; Renowden, S; Malcolm, G

    2013-08-01

    A case of thrombus formation occurring within a dilation of the dural venous sinuses following aneurysmal sub-arachnoid haemorrhage is presented. Acute neurological deterioration accompanied propagation of the thrombus. The patient was anticoagulated on day 5 post-SAH with no haemorrhagic complications and made a full recovery. The optimum time to commence anticoagulation is not clear and is discussed.

  10. Omasal dilation and displacement in 4 Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Bicalho, Rodrigo C.; Mayers, Heather M.; Cheong, Soon Hon; Rosa, Brielle V.; Guard, Charles L.

    2009-01-01

    Cases of omasal dilation and displacement in 4 dairy cows are described. The disease was initially diagnosed by a combination of history and clinical signs that included right-sided abdominal distension, rectal palpation, and decreased milk production. The condition was confirmed by laparotomy or necropsy. PMID:19436447

  11. Cystic Dilatation of the Parotid Duct of a Goat

    PubMed Central

    Slocombe, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Cystic dilatation of the parotid duct of a goat was diagnosed by exploratory surgery and analysis of cyst contents. The cyst and its associated salivary gland were surgically removed. This case is compared with the more common salivary mucocele. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:7397617

  12. Operative balloon dilatation for pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, J R; Fonseka, S F; Wilson, N; Dickinson, D F; Walker, D R

    1987-01-01

    In six infants with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum operative balloon dilatation was used to achieve continuity between the right ventricle and the main pulmonary artery as the initial procedure. Two of the six subsequently needed an aortico pulmonary shunt. All six are alive and well. Images Fig PMID:3676024

  13. 21 CFR 884.4270 - Vibratory cervical dilators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vibratory cervical dilators. 884.4270 Section 884.4270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... used to gain access to the uterus or to induce abortion, but is not to be used during labor when...

  14. 21 CFR 884.4270 - Vibratory cervical dilators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vibratory cervical dilators. 884.4270 Section 884.4270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... used to gain access to the uterus or to induce abortion, but is not to be used during labor when...

  15. 21 CFR 884.4270 - Vibratory cervical dilators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vibratory cervical dilators. 884.4270 Section 884.4270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... used to gain access to the uterus or to induce abortion, but is not to be used during labor when...

  16. 21 CFR 884.4270 - Vibratory cervical dilators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vibratory cervical dilators. 884.4270 Section 884.4270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... used to gain access to the uterus or to induce abortion, but is not to be used during labor when...

  17. Novel Borna Virus in Psittacine Birds with Proventricular Dilatation Disease

    PubMed Central

    Honkavuori, Kirsi S.; Shivaprasad, H.L.; Williams, Brent L.; Quan, Phenix-Lan; Hornig, Mady; Street, Craig; Palacios, Gustavo; Hutchison, Stephen K.; Franca, Monique; Egholm, Michael; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2008-01-01

    Pyrosequencing of cDNA from brains of parrots with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), an unexplained fatal inflammatory central, autonomic, and peripheral nervous system disease, showed 2 strains of a novel Borna virus. Real-time PCR confirmed virus presence in brain, proventriculus, and adrenal gland of 3 birds with PDD but not in 4 unaffected birds. PMID:19046511

  18. Linkage of familial dilated cardiomyopathy to chromosome 9

    SciTech Connect

    Krajinovic, M.; Vatta, M.; Milasin, J.

    1995-10-01

    Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy is a heart muscle disease of unknown etiology, characterized by impaired myocardial contractility and ventricular dilatation. The disorder is an important cause of morbidity and mortality and represents the chief indication for heart transplantation. Familial transmission is often recognized (familial dilated cardiomyopathy, or FDC), mostly with autosomal dominant inheritance. In order to understand the molecular genetic basis of the disease, a large six-generation kindred with autosomal dominant FDC was studied for linkage analysis. A genome-wide search was undertaken after a large series of candidate genes were excluded and was then extended to two other families with autosomal dominant pattern of transmission and identical clinical features. Coinheritance of the disease gene was excluded for >95% of the genome, after 251 polymorphic markers were analyzed. Linkage was found for chromosome 9q13-q22, with a maximum multipoint lod score of 4.2. There was no evidence of heterogeneity. The FDC locus was placed in the interval between loci D9S153 and D9S152. Several candidate genes for causing dilated cardiomyopathy map in this region. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Aneurysmal dilatation of medium caliber arteries in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Polkampally, Pritam R; Matta, Jatin R; McAreavey, Dorothea; Bakalov, Vladimir; Bondy, Carolyn A; Gharib, Ahmed M

    2011-01-01

    Turner syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality in female subjects, affecting 1 in 2000 live births. The condition is associated with a generalized vasculopathy as well as congenital cardiac and other defects. We report aneurysmal dilation of medium caliber arteries involving the celiac axis and coronary vessels in two women with Turner syndrome.

  20. Prolonged idiopathic gastric dilatation following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gauci, Julia L; Stoven, Samantha; Szarka, Lawrence; Papadakis, Konstantinos A

    2014-01-01

    A 71-year-old female presented with nausea, emesis, early satiety, and abdominal distension following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia. Computed tomography angiogram showed gastric dilatation. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, small bowel follow through, and paraneoplastic panel were negative. Gastric emptying was delayed. Despite conservative management, she required a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy. The development of a prolonged gastroparetic state has not been previously described.

  1. Left coronary aneurysmal dilation and subaortic stenosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Juan L; Bélanger, Marie-Claude; Benoit-Biancamano, Marie-Odile; Girard, Christiane; Pibarot, Philippe

    2008-06-01

    A 6-month-old German shepherd dog was referred for evaluation of a cardiac murmur. Upon physical examination, the auscultated heart rate was 120 beats/min, and a grade IV/VI systolic heart murmur with a point of maximal intensity over the left heart base radiating up the neck was heard. The standard echocardiographic examination showed subaortic stenosis and an anechoic tubular structure extending from the sinus of Valsalva to the left ventricular posterior wall. Aneurysmal left coronary artery (CA) was confirmed by angiography. The dog was euthanized and post-mortem examination showed severe dilatation of the proximal left CA and confirmed the subaortic stenosis. Histopathology did not demonstrate abnormalities in the walls of the CA, aorta or pulmonary artery. The exact cause of the CA aneurysmal dilation remains unknown. Subaortic stenosis, elevated coronary vascular resistance or a congenital anomaly may have contributed to the dilation. To our knowledge, coronary aneurysmal dilation has never been described in dogs. Standard echocardiography provides reliable information on coronary anatomy.

  2. First trimester sonographic diagnosis of ectopia cordis: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hannoun, Antoine; Usta, Ihab M; Sawaya, Fadi; Nassar, Anwar H

    2011-06-01

    A case of ectopia cordis (EC) with gastroschisis in a 27-year-old primigravida was diagnosed at 10(3/7) weeks of gestation. The pregnancy was terminated by suction dilatation and curettage. With the increasing use of first trimester ultrasonography, early detection of fetal abnormalities is becoming more frequent. We review other published cases of EC detected in the first trimester and discuss the possible advantages of early diagnosis including options of termination at earlier gestational ages which might decrease the physical and psychological trauma on some patients.

  3. Open versus percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy: efficacy and cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Grover, A; Robbins, J; Bendick, P; Gibson, M; Villalba, M

    2001-04-01

    The economic advantages of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomies versus open tracheostomies in the operating room have been thoroughly evaluated. We are now reporting our comparison of the costs and charges of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomies with those of open bedside tracheostomies at our institution. The current literature comparing the two open techniques and the percutaneous method of placing tracheostomies was reviewed and the charges and costs for these procedures at our institution were compared. Patients were placed into one of three groups for analysis: open tracheostomies in the operating room (Group I), open tracheostomies in the intensive care unit (Group II), and percutaneous dilatational tracheostomies in the intensive care unit (Group III). Based on our own experience and a literature review it is evident that all three approaches to tracheostomies are safe. Economic analysis showed a savings of $180 in cost per procedure and a $658 savings in charges per procedure for the open method at the bedside when compared with the percutaneous method at the bedside. The professional fee for bronchoscopy was not included in this calculation; including this would lead to greater savings with the open method over the percutaneous method. Open tracheostomy in the operating room increased costs over the bedside procedure by $2194 and increased charges by $2871. For the 150 to 180 tracheostomies done each year at our institution utilization of the open technique at the bedside results in a cost savings of approximately $31,500 and a charge savings of $109,000 compared with the percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy. Both the open bedside and percutaneous dilatational methods are reasonable and safe options. However, the open bedside tracheostomy is a better utilization of resources and is more cost effective, and it is the procedure of choice at our institution.

  4. Development of dilated cardiomyopathy in Bmal1-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Lefta, Mellani; Campbell, Kenneth S.; Feng, Han-Zhong; Jin, Jian-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are approximate 24-h oscillations in physiology and behavior. Circadian rhythm disruption has been associated with increased incidence of hypertension, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemia, and other cardiovascular pathologies in both humans and animal models. Mice lacking the core circadian clock gene, brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)-like protein (Bmal1), are behaviorally arrhythmic, die prematurely, and display a wide range of organ pathologies. However, data are lacking on the role of Bmal1 on the structural and functional integrity of cardiac muscle. In the present study, we demonstrate that Bmal1−/− mice develop dilated cardiomyopathy with age, characterized by thinning of the myocardial walls, dilation of the left ventricle, and decreased cardiac performance. Shortly after birth the Bmal1−/− mice exhibit a transient increase in myocardial weight, followed by regression and later onset of dilation and failure. Ex vivo working heart preparations revealed systolic ventricular dysfunction at the onset of dilation and failure, preceded by downregulation of both myosin heavy chain isoform mRNAs. We observed structural disorganization at the level of the sarcomere with a shift in titin isoform composition toward the stiffer N2B isoform. However, passive tension generation in single cardiomyocytes was not increased. Collectively, these findings suggest that the loss of the circadian clock gene, Bmal1, gives rise to the development of an age-associated dilated cardiomyopathy, which is associated with shifts in titin isoform composition, altered myosin heavy chain gene expression, and disruption of sarcomere structure. PMID:22707558

  5. Black-white differences in mortality in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: the Washington, DC, dilated cardiomyopathy study.

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, S. S.; Gottdiener, J. S.; Baughman, K. L.; Wasserman, A.; Marx, E. S.; Tefft, M. C.; Gersh, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Racial, socioeconomic, and clinical factors were examined as predictors of survival in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy using cases from five Washington, DC-area hospitals. One hundred three (80.5%) of the patients were black and 25 (19.5%) were white. The black patients were less likely to have private health insurance, less educated on average, and more likely to have a household income of $15,000 or less (P < or = .05). No racial differences were found in cardiac medication usage, with the exception of beta blockers and antiarrhythmics. The cumulative survival among black patients at 12 and 24 months was 71.5% and 63.6%, respectively, as compared with 92.0% and 86.3% among whites. The 12-month survival of black patients with ventricular arrhythmias or an ejection fraction of less than 25% was particularly poor. Age, ventricular arrhythmias, ejection fraction, and cigarette usage were significant predictors of survival in univariate analysis using the proportional hazards model. The univariate association with black race was of borderline significance (P < or = .07). In multivariate analysis, age and race were statistically significant independent predictors of survival. A strong association with black race was observed with an estimated relative risk of mortality of 5.41 (P < or = .02) after adjustment for age, ejection fraction, ventricular arrhythmias, and educational attainment. Poorer survival among blacks may be caused by a greater severity of disease at the time of diagnosis or by racial differences in cardiac care, comorbid conditions, or biologic factors affecting survival. PMID:7932836

  6. Is Sonographic Assessment of Intratendinous Blood Flow in Achilles Tendinopathy Patients Reliable?

    PubMed Central

    Risch, L.; Cassel, M.; Messerschmidt, J.; Intziegianni, K.; Fröhlich, K.; Kopinski, S.; Mayer, F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the consistency between different Doppler ultrasound (DU) modes as well as the intra- and inter-observer reliability of investigators with different experience level in assessing intratendinous blood flow (IBF) in Achilles tendinopathy patients. Material and Methods: 18 participants (36 Achilles tendons, AT) with Achilles tendinopathy (24 AT) were examined with power Doppler ultrasound (PDU), colour Doppler ultrasound (CDU) and “Advanced Dynamic Flow” (ADF) (Toshiba Xario SSA-660 A; 14MHz transducer) by 2 investigators (experienced, EI; inexperienced, II) in a test-retest design (M1/M2). A modified Öhberg score was used to quantify IBF. Data was analysed descriptively (absolute and relative). Consistency of the 3 modes was presented by Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance (Kendall’s W). Intra- and inter-observer reliability were calculated by use of Kendall’s tau b correlation coefficient. Results: IBF was detected in 79–92% of symptomatic AT and in 33–50% of contralateral asymptomatic AT. Comparing the 3 modes, Kendall’s W ranged from 0.97–0.98. Analysis of intra-observer reliability resulted in Kendall’s tau 0.90–0.92 for EI and 0.84–0.87 for II. Inter-observer reliability resulted in Kendall’s tau 0.64–0.69 in M1 and 0.68–0.70 in M2. Conclusion: The very good consistency between PDU, CDU and ADF indicates a comparable applicability for assessing IBF in ATs. Intra-observer reliability was high for both investigators, independent of experience. The moderate inter-observer reliability reflects the challenge in sonographic detection of intratendinous blood flow (IBF) amount. PMID:27689161

  7. Normal sonographic anatomy of the abdomen of coatis (Nasua nasua Linnaeus 1766)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of ultrasound in veterinary medicine is widespread as a diagnostic supplement in the clinical routine of small animals, but there are few reports in wild animals. The objective of this study was to describe the anatomy, topography and abdominal sonographic features of coatis. Results The urinary bladder wall measured 0.11 ± 0.03 cm. The symmetrical kidneys were in the left and right cranial quadrant of the abdomen and the cortical, medullary and renal pelvis regions were recognized and in all sections. The medullary rim sign was visualized in the left kidney of two coatis. The liver had homogeneous texture and was in the cranial abdomen under the rib cage. The gallbladder, rounded and filled with anechoic content was visualized in all coatis, to the right of the midline. The spleen was identified in the left cranial abdomen following the greater curvature of the stomach. The parenchyma was homogeneous and hyperechogenic compared to the liver and kidney cortex. The stomach was in the cranial abdomen, limited cranially by the liver and caudo-laterally by the spleen. The left adrenal glands of five coatis were seen in the cranial pole of the left kidney showing hypoechogenic parenchyma without distinction of cortex and medulla. The pancreas was visualized in only two coatis. The left ovary (0.92 cm x 0.56 cm) was visualized on a single coati in the caudal pole of the kidney. The uterus, right adrenal, right ovary and intestines were not visualized. Conclusions Ultrasound examination of the abdomen of coatis may be accomplished by following the recommendations for dogs and cats. It is possible to evaluate the anatomical and topographical relationships of the abdominal organs together with the knowledge of the peculiarities of parenchymal echogenicity and echotexture of the viscera. PMID:23800301

  8. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part III: Peripheral nerves of the lower limb.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Berta; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2012-06-01

    The ultrasonographic examination is currently increasingly used in imaging peripheral nerves, serving to supplement the physical examination, electromyography and magnetic resonance imaging. As in the case of other USG imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive and well-tolerated by patients. The typical ultrasonographic picture of peripheral nerves as well as the examination technique have been discussed in part I of this article series, following the example of the median nerve. Part II of the series presented the normal anatomy and the technique for examining the peripheral nerves of the upper limb. This part of the article series focuses on the anatomy and technique for examining twelve normal peripheral nerves of the lower extremity: the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves, the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, the pudendal, sciatic, tibial, sural, medial plantar, lateral plantar, common peroneal, deep peroneal and superficial peroneal nerves. It includes diagrams showing the proper positioning of the sonographic probe, plus USG images of the successively discussed nerves and their surrounding structures. The ultrasonographic appearance of the peripheral nerves in the lower limb is identical to the nerves in the upper limb. However, when imaging the lower extremity, convex probes are more often utilized, to capture deeply-seated nerves. The examination technique, similarly to that used in visualizing the nerves of upper extremity, consists of locating the nerve at a characteristic anatomic reference point and tracking it using the "elevator technique". All 3 parts of the article series should serve as an introduction to a discussion of peripheral nerve pathologies, which will be presented in subsequent issues of the "Journal of Ultrasonography".

  9. Diagnostic value of hysteroscopy: correlation with histological findings after dilatation and curettage and hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Piccolboni, G; Arlacchi, E; Cattani, P; Zardini, R; Lavanda, E; Zardini, E

    1991-01-01

    The Authors carried out a comparative assessment of hysteroscopy diagnosis and histological findings obtained by dilatation and curettage and hysterectomy. Analysis of the data shows a good correlation between hysteroscopic diagnosis and histological findings obtained with dilatation and curettage.

  10. Sonographic confirmation of the correct placement of a nasoenteral tube in a woman with hyperemesis gravidarum: case report.

    PubMed

    Swartzlander, Ty K; Carlan, S J; Locksmith, Greg; Elms, Luke

    2013-01-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum is a serious systemic disorder of pregnant women characterized by intractable vomiting resulting in metabolic, biochemical, and hematologic changes. Enteral nutrition has been used successfully and has a lower complication rate than parenteral nutrition. Tube feeding requires location of the feeding tube tip before the infusion of nutritional substance is started. We report a case of assisted feeding tube tip location using real time sonography in a pregnant women treated for hyperemesis gravidarum. Sonographic examination may be used as an alternative to x-ray for the confirmation of feeding tube location in pregnant women and thus eliminate exposure of the fetus to ionizing radiation.

  11. Sterile Intra-amniotic Inflammation in Asymptomatic Patients with a Sonographic Short Cervix: Prevalence and Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Roberto; Miranda, Jezid; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Gotsch, Francesca; Dong, Zhong; Ahmed, Ahmed I.; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Hassan, Sonia S.; Kim, Chong J.; Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Yeo, Lami; Kim, Yeon Mee

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the frequency and clinical significance of sterile- and microbial-associated intra-amniotic inflammation in asymptomatic patients with a sonographic short cervix. Methods Amniotic fluid (AF) samples obtained by transabdominal amniocentesis from 231 asymptomatic women with a sonographic short cervix [cervical length (CL) ≤25 mm] were analyzed using cultivation techniques (for aerobic and anaerobic as well as genital mycoplasmas) and broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS). The frequency and magnitude of intra-amniotic inflammation [defined as an AF interleukin (IL)-6 concentration ≥2.6 ng/mL], acute histologic placental inflammation, spontaneous preterm delivery, and the amniocentesis-to-delivery interval were examined according to the results of AF cultures, PCR/ESI-MS and AF IL-6 concentrations. Results Ten percent (24/231) of patients with a sonographic short cervix had sterile intra-amniotic inflammation (an elevated AF IL-6 concentration without evidence of microorganisms using cultivation and molecular methods). Sterile intra-amniotic inflammation was significantly more frequent than microbial-associated intra-amniotic inflammation [10.4% (24/231) vs. 2.2% (5/231); p<0.001]. Patients with sterile intra-amniotic inflammation had a significantly higher rate of spontaneous preterm delivery <34 weeks of gestation [70.8% (17/24) vs. 31.6% (55/174); p<0.001] and a significantly shorter amniocentesis-to-delivery interval than patients without intra-amniotic inflammation [median 35, (IQR: 10 – 70) vs. median 71, (IQR: 47 – 98) days, (p<0.0001)]. Conclusion Sterile intra-amniotic inflammation is more common than microbial-associated intra-amniotic inflammation in asymptomatic women with a sonographic short cervix, and is associated with increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (<34 weeks). Further investigation is required to determine the causes of sterile

  12. Joint Symbolic Dynamics Analysis of Heart Rate and Systolic Blood Pressure Interactions in Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Abstract- The dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) induces important changes in the autonomic control. Measures of heart rate (HR) variability and systolic...rather simple physiological interpretations and seems to be particularly suitable for risk stratification in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy ...Keywords - Symbolic dynamics, heart rate variability, blood pressure variability I. INTRODUCTION Patients suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy

  13. Slip and Dilation Tendency Analysis of the Tuscarora Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-12-31

    Critically stressed fault segments have a relatively high likelihood of acting as fluid flow conduits (Sibson, 1994). As such, the tendency of a fault segment to slip (slip tendency; Ts; Morris et al., 1996) or to dilate (dilation tendency; Td; Ferrill et al., 1999) provides an indication of which faults or fault segments within a geothermal system are critically stressed and therefore likely to transmit geothermal fluids. The slip tendency of a surface is defined by the ratio of shear stress to normal stress on that surface: Ts = τ / σn (Morris et al., 1996). Dilation tendency is defined by the stress acting normal to a given surface: Td = (σ1-σn) / (σ1-σ3) (Ferrill et al., 1999). Slip and dilation were calculated using 3DStress (Southwest Research Institute). Slip and dilation tendency are both unitless ratios of the resolved stresses applied to the fault plane by ambient stress conditions. Values range from a maximum of 1, a fault plane ideally oriented to slip or dilate under ambient stress conditions to zero, a fault plane with no potential to slip or dilate. Slip and dilation tendency values were calculated for each fault in the focus study areas at, McGinness Hills, Neal Hot Springs, Patua, Salt Wells, San Emidio, and Tuscarora on fault traces. As dip is not well constrained or unknown for many faults mapped in within these we made these calculations using the dip for each fault that would yield the maximum slip tendency or dilation tendency. As such, these results should be viewed as maximum tendency of each fault to slip or dilate. The resulting along-fault and fault-to-fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault-to-fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson-Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes

  14. Health Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Screenings are tests that look for diseases before you have symptoms. Screening tests can find diseases early, when they're easier ... Overweight and obesity Prostate cancer in men Which tests you need depends on your age, your sex, ...

  15. Depression Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Diseases + Condition Centers Mental Health Medical Library Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  16. Peripartum cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy: different at heart

    PubMed Central

    Bollen, Ilse A. E.; Van Deel, Elza D.; Kuster, Diederik W. D.; Van Der Velden, Jolanda

    2015-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a severe cardiac disease occurring in the last month of pregnancy or in the first 5 months after delivery and shows many similar clinical characteristics as dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) such as ventricle dilation and systolic dysfunction. While PPCM was believed to be DCM triggered by pregnancy, more and more studies show important differences between these diseases. While it is likely they share part of their pathogenesis such as increased oxidative stress and an impaired microvasculature, discrepancies seen in disease progression and outcome indicate there must be differences in pathogenesis as well. In this review, we compared studies in DCM and PPCM to search for overlapping and deviating disease etiology, pathogenesis and outcome in order to understand why these cardiomyopathies share similar clinical features but have different underlying pathologies. PMID:25642195

  17. Data of methylome and transcriptome derived from human dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Jo, Bong-Seok; Koh, In-Uk; Bae, Jae-Bum; Yu, Ho-Yeong; Jeon, Eun-Seok; Lee, Hae-Young; Kim, Jae-Joong; Choi, Murim; Choi, Sun Shim

    2016-12-01

    Alterations in DNA methylation and gene expression have been implicated in the development of human dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Differentially methylated probes (DMPs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the left ventricle (LV, a pathological locus for DCM) and the right ventricle (RV, a proxy for normal hearts). The data in this DiB are for supporting our report entitled "Methylome analysis reveals alterations in DNA methylation in the regulatory regions of left ventricle development genes in human dilated cardiomyopathy" (Bong-Seok Jo, In-Uk Koh, Jae-Bum Bae, Ho-Yeong Yu, Eun-Seok Jeon, Hae-Young Lee, Jae-Joong Kim, Murim Choi, Sun Shim Choi, 2016) [1].

  18. Clinical management of dilated cardiomyopathy: current knowledge and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Marco; Cannatá, Antonio; Vitagliano, Alice; Zambon, Elena; Lardieri, Gerardina; Sinagra, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a primary heart muscle disease characterized by a progressive dilation and dysfunction of either the left or both ventricles. The management of DCM is currently challenging for clinicians. The persistent lack of knowledge about the etiology and pathophysiology of this disease continues to determine important fields of uncertainty in managing this condition. Molecular cardiology and genetics currently represent the most crucial horizon of increasing knowledge. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the disease allows clinicians to treat this disease more effectively and to further improve outcomes of DCM patients through advancements in etiologic characterization, prognostic stratification and individualized therapy. Left ventricular reverse remodeling predicts a lower rate of major cardiac adverse events independently from other factors. Optimized medical treatment and device implantation are pivotal in inducing left ventricular reverse remodeling. Newly identified targets, such as angiotensin-neprilysin inhibition, phosphodiesterase inhibition and calcium sensitizing are important in improving prognosis in patients affected by DCM.

  19. Measuring cervical dilatation in human parturition using the Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Kriewall, T J; Work, B A

    1977-01-01

    An instrument was developed to continuously measure cervical dilatation in human labor. The instrument utilizes a small magnetic field source, which is attached to one edge of the cervix while a magnetic field sensor is attached to the diametrically opposite edge of the cervix. The sensor, using two Hall generators, measures orthogonal components of the field to minimize the effects of angular orientation between the source and sensor. The instrument's characteristics indicate that it can measure dilation throughout the range of 1-10 cm, but because its clinical reliability is consistent from only 1-7 cm, the equipment needs to be improved in the ways outlined in the text. This measurement, especially when analyzed with the continous measurement of intrauterine pressure, can provide the obstetrician with new insight into the physiology of labor.

  20. Clinical comparison of the efficiency and security of balloon dilators versus fascial dilators in percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lingbo; Lu, Shuaiqi; Han, Xingtao; Wei, Pengtao; Yang, Jinhui; Hao, Tongtong

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficiency and security of the balloon dilators versus fascial dilators in percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL), We compared the difference of intraoperative and postoperative parameters of patients using these two different methods of expansion and having no significant statistic differences in peroperative parameters. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 134 patients undergoing PCNL with upper urinary calculi from January 2012 to January 2014 in Luoyang Central Hospital affiliated to Zhengzhou University. These patients meeting the inclusion criteria were divided into two groups: the group of balloon dilators (group A) and the group of fascial dilators (group B). Two groups were compared for success rate of first expansion, clearance of stone, duration of surgery, intraoperative hemorrhage, blood transfusion rate, postoperative hospitalization and the incidence of complications. Result: In Group A, a total of 91 patients (51 men and 40 women, mean age 51.22±8.96 years, ranged from 28 to 68 years, the calculi maximum diameter from 0.9 to 4.5cm, 28 cases with a history of gravel, mean Body mass index 24.20±2.34, 73 cases with hydronephrosis and 26 cases with underlying diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and the like) undergoing PCNL were retrospectively reviewed. Similarly, In Group B, a total of 43 patients (28 men and 15 women, mean age 49.64±10.62 years, ranged from 15 to 70 years, the calculi maximum diameter from 1.1 to 5.2cm, 18 cases with a history of gravel, mean Body mass index 24.40±2.70, 38 cases with hydronephrosis and 14 cases with underlying diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and the like) undergoing PCNL were retrospectively reviewed. Our results showed that there was a statistically significant better outcome in Group A than in Group B in terms of success rate of first exploration, duration of operation, intraoperative hemorrhage, postoperative hospitalization and the incidence of complications

  1. Ring cycle for dilating and constricting the nuclear pore

    PubMed Central

    Solmaz, Sozanne R.; Blobel, Günter; Melčák, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    We recently showed that the three “channel” nucleoporins, Nup54, Nup58, and Nup62, interact with each other through only four distinct sites and established the crystal structures of the two resulting “interactomes,” Nup54•Nup58 and Nup54•Nup62. We also reported instability of the Nup54•Nup58 interactome and previously determined the atomic structure of the relevant Nup58 segment by itself, demonstrating that it forms a twofold symmetric tetramer. Here, we report the crystal structure of the relevant free Nup54 segment and show that it forms a tetrameric, helical bundle that is structurally “conditioned” for instability by a central patch of polar hydrogen-bonded residues. Integrating these data with our previously reported results, we propose a “ring cycle” for dilating and constricting the nuclear pore. In essence, three homooligomeric rings, one consisting of eight modules of Nup58 tetramers, and two, each consisting of eight modules of Nup54 tetramers, are stacked in midplane and characterize a constricted pore of 10- to 20-nm diameter. In going to the dilated state, segments of one Nup58 and two Nup54 tetrameric modules reassort into a dodecameric module, eight of which form a single, heterooligomeric midplane ring, which is flexible in a diameter range of 40–50 nm. The ring cycle would be regulated by phenylalanine–glycine regions (“FG repeats”) of channel nups. Akin to ligand-gated channels, the dilated state of the midplane ring may be stabilized by binding of [cargo•transport-factor] complexes to FG repeats, thereby linking the ratio of constricted to dilated nuclear pores to cellular transport need. PMID:23479651

  2. Motor unit number in a small facial muscle, dilator naris

    PubMed Central

    Patel-Khurana, Nilam; Fregosi, Ralph F.

    2015-01-01

    A loss of functioning motor units underlies many neuromuscular disorders. The facial nerve innervates the muscles of facial expression, including nasal muscles, which also play an important role in the regulation of airflow resistance. It is difficult to accurately assess motor unit number in the facial muscles, because the muscles are difficult to activate in isolation. Here we apply the manual McComas method to estimate the number of motor units in a nasal dilator muscle. EMG of the dilator naris was recorded during graded stimulation of the zygomatic branch of the facial nerve in 26 subjects (12 M/14 F), aged 20–41 years. Each subject was studied twice, on separate days, to estimate method reproducibility. As a check on our use of the McComas method, we also estimated motor unit number in the first dorsal interosseus muscle (FDI) of 6 subjects, as the muscle is also small, and has been studied with the McComas method. Reproducibility was evaluated with a rigorous statistical approach, the Bland-Altman procedure. We estimate that dilator naris is composed of 75 ±15.6 (SD) motor units, compared to 144 ± 35.5 in FDI. The coefficient of variation for test-retest reproducibility of dilator naris motor unit estimates was 29.6%, similar to separate-day reproducibility reported for other muscles. Recording and stimulation were done with surface electrodes, and the recordings were of high quality and reproducible. This simple technique could be applied clinically to track motor neuron loss, and to monitor facial nerve integrity. PMID:26169101

  3. Kinematical and functional improvements of trigger digits after sonographically assisted percutaneous release of the A1 pulley.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Li-Chieh; Su, Fong-Chin; Tung, Wen-Lin; Lai, Kuan-Yin; Jou, I-Ming

    2009-07-01

    We present evidence of kinematic and functional improvements of the trigger digit after sonographically assisted percutaneous release using quantitative motion analyses and functional assessments, respectively. Twenty-two patients with idiopathic trigger digits, who received the surgery, were recruited. A motion tracking system was used to measure the assigned kinematics parameters at the presurgical visit and at 1, 4, and 12 weeks after surgery. The hand strength and functional outcome were also obtained using dynamometer and self-report questionnaire assessments. The hand strength, maximal workspace, and joint range of motion of the involved digit were significantly smaller than that of the intact finger on the contralateral hand before surgery. The triggering phenomenon of the involved digit was significantly higher than that of the corresponding finger in the intact hand using a subscribed angular acceleration factor. The repeated measures showed that the workspace, joint range of motion, hand strength, and triggering effect of the involved hand significantly improved in follow-up examinations after the surgical intervention. Painful movement or insufficient tendon excursion of the trigger digit can cause loss of movement and strength, thus interfering with functional performance. After the disappearance of the pain and triggering by sonographically assisted percutaneous release, improvements in kinematics and function were objectively quantified in this study.

  4. The Sonographic Features of the Thyroid Gland After Treatment with Radioiodine Therapy in Patients with Graves' Disease.

    PubMed

    English, Collette; Casey, Ruth; Bell, Marcia; Bergin, Diane; Murphy, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the typical sonographic features of the thyroid gland in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism after radioiodine therapy (RIT). Thirty patients (21 female and 9 male) with a mean age of 53 y (standard deviation [SD] ± 11.3) and with previous Graves' disease who had been successfully treated with RIT were enrolled in the study. All were hypothyroid or euthyroid after treatment. The thyroid ultrasound was carried out by a single experienced operator with an 8-MHz linear transducer. Volume, vascularity, echogenicity and echotexture of the glands were noted. The presence of nodules and lymph nodes was also documented. The mean volumes of the right lobe were 2.4 mL ± 2.9 SD (0.6-14) and the left lobe were 1.8 mL ± 1.9 SD (0.4-9.1), with a mean total volume of 4.2 mL ± 4.7 SD (1.3-19.1). Of those who had a pre-treatment ultrasound (23%), the percentage reduction in volume was 87% (p < 0.05); 93% of the glands were hypovascular, with the remaining 7% showing normal vascularity. The glands were hyperechoic and of coarse echotexture. Overall, the sonographic features of the post-RIT gland included a significantly reduced mean total volume of 4.2 mL, hypovascularity, coarse echotexture and hyperechogenicity.

  5. Oxytocin enhances pupil dilation and sensitivity to 'hidden' emotional expressions.

    PubMed

    Leknes, Siri; Wessberg, Johan; Ellingsen, Dan-Mikael; Chelnokova, Olga; Olausson, Håkan; Laeng, Bruno

    2013-10-01

    Sensing others' emotions through subtle facial expressions is a highly important social skill. We investigated the effects of intranasal oxytocin treatment on the evaluation of explicit and 'hidden' emotional expressions and related the results to individual differences in sensitivity to others' subtle expressions of anger and happiness. Forty healthy volunteers participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, which shows that a single dose of intranasal oxytocin (40 IU) enhanced or 'sharpened' evaluative processing of others' positive and negative facial expression for both explicit and hidden emotional information. Our results point to mechanisms that could underpin oxytocin's prosocial effects in humans. Importantly, individual differences in baseline emotional sensitivity predicted oxytocin's effects on the ability to sense differences between faces with hidden emotional information. Participants with low emotional sensitivity showed greater oxytocin-induced improvement. These participants also showed larger task-related pupil dilation, suggesting that they also allocated the most attentional resources to the task. Overall, oxytocin treatment enhanced stimulus-induced pupil dilation, consistent with oxytocin enhancement of attention towards socially relevant stimuli. Since pupil dilation can be associated with increased attractiveness and approach behaviour, this effect could also represent a mechanism by which oxytocin increases human affiliation.

  6. [Optimal indication for surgical ventricular restoration for dilated cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Wakasa, Satoru; Shingu, Yasushige; Kubota, Suguru; Minamida, Taro; Iijima, Makoto; Naito, Yuji; Ooka, Tomonori; Tachibana, Tsuyoshi; Matsui, Yoshiro

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we assessed mid-term results of surgical ventricular restoration (SVR) for dilated cardiomyopathy. The study subjects were 107 patients who underwent SVR for both ischemic (ischemic cardiomyopathy:ICM, n=57) and non-ischemic (dilated cardiomyopathy:DCM, n=50) dilated cardiomyopathy. In 49(86%)patients ICM was associated with New York heart Association(NYHA) class III or more. Preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular end-diastolic dimension(LVDd)were 22±6% and 67±9 mm, respectively. Hospital mortality was 14% and 5-year mortality was 40%. In contrast, 46( 92%) of the DCM patients presented with NYHA class III or more. Preoperative LVEF and LVDd were 20±6% and 74±9 mm, respectively. Hospital mortality was 28% and 5-year mortality was 63%. For NYHA class III or less, however, 5-year mortality rates were 23% and 39% in those with ICM and DCM, respectively. For those with NYHA functional class III or less, SVR was associated with a satisfactory survival rate and is recommended. For those with severe heart failure, however, ventricular assist devices or heart transplantation may have to be indicated.

  7. Slip and Dilation Tendency Analysis of the Patua Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-12-31

    Critically stressed fault segments have a relatively high likelihood of acting as fluid flow conduits (Sibson, 1994). As such, the tendency of a fault segment to slip (slip tendency; Ts; Morris et al., 1996) or to dilate (dilation tendency; Td; Ferrill et al., 1999) provides an indication of which faults or fault segments within a geothermal system are critically stressed and therefore likely to transmit geothermal fluids. The slip tendency of a surface is defined by the ratio of shear stress to normal stress on that surface: Ts = τ / σn (Morris et al., 1996). Dilation tendency is defined by the stress acting normal to a given surface: Td = (σ1-σn) / (σ1-σ3) (Ferrill et al., 1999). Slip and dilation were calculated using 3DStress (Southwest Research Institute). Slip and dilation tendency are both unitless ratios of the resolved stresses applied to the fault plane by ambient stress conditions. Values range from a maximum of 1, a fault plane ideally oriented to slip or dilate under ambient stress conditions to zero, a fault plane with no potential to slip or dilate. Slip and dilation tendency values were calculated for each fault in the focus study areas at, McGinness Hills, Neal Hot Springs, Patua, Salt Wells, San Emidio, and Tuscarora on fault traces. As dip is not well constrained or unknown for many faults mapped in within these we made these calculations using the dip for each fault that would yield the maximum slip tendency or dilation tendency. As such, these results should be viewed as maximum tendency of each fault to slip or dilate. The resulting along-fault and fault-to-fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault-to-fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson-Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes

  8. Developing a rat model of dilated cardiomyopathy with improved survival* #

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li-juan; Lu, Shu; Zhou, Yong-hua; Li, Lan; Xing, Qing-min; Xu, Yong-liang

    2016-01-01

    To compare the continuous infusion and intermittent bolus injection administration protocols of doxorubicin (Dox) under the same cumulative dose (12 mg/kg), and establish a rat dilated cardiomyopathy model with improved survival, a total of 150 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups: a control group, administered with normal saline; a Dox 1 group, administration twice a week at 1 mg/kg; a Dox 2, administration once a week at 2 mg/kg. Mortality rates in the Dox 1 and Dox 2 groups were 22% and 48%, respectively (P<0.05). As shown by echocardiography, both Dox groups exhibited significant chamber dilatation and reduced cardiac function (all P<0.05 vs. control). Plasma brain natriuretic peptide and C-reactive protein concentrations were significantly increased (P<0.05) with both Dox regimens. The concentrations of Caspase-3 in myocardial tissues of rats significantly increased in both doxorubicin regimens. Myocardial metabolism imaging by histology and 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (18FDG-PET) both revealed decreased myocardial viability and necrosis, and even interstitial fibrosis, in left ventricles (LVs) in both Dox groups. Serum creatinine and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations were significantly higher in the Dox 2 model than in the Dox 1 model. Doxorubicin given at both regimens induced dilated cardiomyopathy, while its administration at lower doses with more frequent infusions reduced the mortality rate. PMID:27921402

  9. Dilatation-dissipation corrections for advanced turbulence models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, David C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes dilatation-dissipation based compressibility corrections for advanced turbulence models. Numerical computations verify that the dilatation-dissipation corrections devised by Sarkar and Zeman greatly improve both the k-omega and k-epsilon model predicted effect of Mach number on spreading rate. However, computations with the k-gamma model also show that the Sarkar/Zeman terms cause an undesired reduction in skin friction for the compressible flat-plate boundary layer. A perturbation solution for the compressible wall layer shows that the Sarkar and Zeman terms reduce the effective von Karman constant in the law of the wall. This is the source of the inaccurate k-gamma model skin-friction predictions for the flat-plate boundary layer. The perturbation solution also shows that the k-epsilon model has an inherent flaw for compressible boundary layers that is not compensated for by the dilatation-dissipation corrections. A compressibility modification for k-gamma and k-epsilon models is proposed that is similar to those of Sarkar and Zeman. The new compressibility term permits accurate predictions for the compressible mixing layer, flat-plate boundary layer, and a shock separated flow with the same values for all closure coefficients.

  10. Congenital Intrahepatic Bile Duct Dilatation is a Potentially Curable Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mabrut, Jean-Yves; Partensky, Christian; Jaeck, Daniel; Oussoultzoglou, Elie; Baulieux, Jacques; Boillot, Olivier; Lerut, Jan; de Ville de Goyet, Jean; Hubert, Catherine; Otte, Jean-Bernard; Audet, Maxime; Ducerf, Christian; Gigot, Jean-François

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To report clinical presentation, perioperative outcome, and long-term results of surgical management of congenital intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD) dilatations (including Caroli disease) in a multi-institutional setting. Summary Background Data: Congenital IHBD dilatations are a rare congenital disorder predisposing to intrahepatic stones, cholangitis, and cholangiocarcinoma. The management remains difficult and controversial for bilobar forms of the disease or when concurrent congenital hepatic fibrosis is associated. Methods: From 1976 to 2004, 33 patients (range 11 to 79 years) were retrospectively enrolled. Disease extent into the liver was unilobar in 26 patients and bilobar in 7 patients (21%). Cholangiocarcinoma, congenital hepatic fibrosis, and intrahepatic stones were present in 2, 10, and 20 patients, respectively. Transplantations or liver resections were performed in 5 and 27 patients, respectively, whereas 1 asymptomatic patient was managed conservatively. Results: Postoperative mortality was nil. Postoperative complications occurred in 16 of 32 operated patients (50%) and additional procedures for residual stones were required in 5 patients. During a median follow-up of 80 months (1 patient being lost for follow-up) no patient developed metachronous carcinoma. Six patients (30%) developed recurrent intrahepatic stones but satisfactory late outcome was achieved in 27 patients (87%). Conclusions: Partial or total liver resection achieves satisfactory late outcome in congenital IHBD dilatations, when the affection is treated at an early stage and when the extent of liver resection is tailored to intrahepatic disease extent and takes into consideration the presence and severity of underlying chronic liver and renal diseases. PMID:17667502

  11. The analysis and modeling of dilatational terms in compressible turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkar, S.; Erlebacher, G.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Kreiss, H. O.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the dilatational terms that need to be modeled in compressible turbulence include not only the pressure-dilatation term but also another term - the compressible dissipation. The nature of these dilatational terms in homogeneous turbulence is explored by asymptotic analysis of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A non-dimensional parameter which characterizes some compressible effects in moderate Mach number, homogeneous turbulence is identified. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of isotropic, compressible turbulence are performed, and their results are found to be in agreement with the theoretical analysis. A model for the compressible dissipation is proposed; the model is based on the asymptotic analysis and the direct numerical simulations. This model is calibrated with reference to the DNS results regarding the influence of compressibility on the decay rate of isotropic turbulence. An application of the proposed model to the compressible mixing layer has shown that the model is able to predict the dramatically reduced growth rate of the compressible mixing layer.

  12. Case report of a dilated odontome in the posterior mandible

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Bruno; Silva, António; Pereira, Miguel; Silva, Mariana; Nunes, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dens invaginatus (dens in dente) is a developmental malformation resulting from an invagination of enamel organ into the dental papilla, beginning at the crown and sometimes extending into the root before calcification occurs. Dilated odontome is the most extreme form of dens invaginatus and it is extremely rare in the posterior mandible. Presentation of case A 47 years old female patient with occasional episodes of diffuse pain and discomfort in the left posterior mandibular region. The extra-oral examination showed slight facial asymmetry. Panoramic and intra-oral X-rays show an intraosseous circular formation with radiopaque external limits and radiolucent interior. Discussion Computerized tomography scan reveals the bone integrity around the formation, as well as the independence of the neuro-vascular structures of the region. The most likely diagnostic option was dilated odontome. The enucleation procedure was carried out, and the fragments were sent to histopathological examination that revealed a diagnosis consistent with a dilated odontome. Conclusion In this case, the conservative surgical approach after planning was effective and predictable in the treatment of the pathology and patient symptoms without major complications. PMID:26780470

  13. Dilated Basilar Arteries in Patients with Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajesh; Nguyen, Haidang D.; Macey, Paul M.; Woo, Mary A.; Harper, Ronald M.

    2009-01-01

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) patients show hypoventilation during sleep and severe autonomic impairments, including aberrant cardiovascular regulation. Abnormal sympathetic patterns, together with increased and variable CO2 levels, lead to the potential for sustained cerebral vasculature changes. We performed high-resolution T1-weighted imaging in 13 CCHS and 31 control subjects using a 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner, and evaluated resting basilar and bilateral middle cerebral artery cross-sections. Two T1-weighted image series were acquired; images were averaged and reoriented to common space, and regions containing basilar and both middle cerebral arteries were oversampled. Cross-sections of the basilar and middle cerebral arteries were manually outlined to calculate cross-sectional areas, and differences between and within groups were evaluated. Basilar arteries in CCHS were significantly dilated over control subjects, but both middle cerebral artery cross-sections were similar between groups. No significant differences appeared between left and right middle cerebral arteries within either group. Basilar artery dilation may result from differential sensitivity to high CO2 over other vascular beds, damage to serotonergic or other chemosensitive cells accompanying the artery, or enhanced microvascular resistance, and that dilation may impair tissue perfusion, leading to further neural injury in CCHS. PMID:19822189

  14. Demosaicking using geometric duality and dilated directional differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joohyeok; Jeon, Gwanggil; Jeong, Jechang

    This paper presents a new demosaicking algorithm which uses two cost terms: the interpolation error of a low resolution image based on geometric duality and the dilated directional differentiation of color differences. Since a given high resolution image and its low resolution image obtained by sampling have similar edge properties, the proposed algorithm computes the interpolation errors for the candidate directions in the low resolution image, and exploits them as a cost term for the direction. In addition, the interpolation direction can be determined accurately even in the vicinity of object boundaries by dilating the directional differentiation of the color difference values. Through dilation, some pixels, which are in the neighborhood of an edge but classified into a flat region by simple edge detection like the Sobel filter, are reclassified. By combining this edge classifier and the weighted sum of the estimates obtained by Taylor approximation, missing pixels are interpolated. Simulation results show that the proposed demosaicking algorithm is superior to other state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of visual and objective qualities. Furthermore, the computational complexity is comparable with the existing algorithms. Therefore, the proposed algorithm is suitable for real-time implementation.

  15. Dilated odontoma: A report of two cases from a radiological perspective.

    PubMed

    Jayachandran, S; Kayal, L; Sharma, Aatman; Priyanka, Khobre

    2016-01-01

    Dilated odontoma is the most extreme form of dens invaginatus. The lesion appears as a roughly spherical mass that does not resemble a tooth but in a way appears tooth - like on radiographs due to somewhat similar radiodensity. The lesion is mostly spherical in appearance and hence the term "dilated." Occasionally, we come across cases of simultaneous pathologies. Here, we report two cases of a dilated odontoma one of which is associated with dentigerous cyst and in other case dilated odontoma pushing the maxillary sinus superiorly. Histologically, the mass was composed of dentinal tubules. These morphological and histological features are compatible with those of a dilated odontoma.

  16. Dilated odontoma: A report of two cases from a radiological perspective

    PubMed Central

    Jayachandran, S.; Kayal, L.; Sharma, Aatman; Priyanka, Khobre

    2016-01-01

    Dilated odontoma is the most extreme form of dens invaginatus. The lesion appears as a roughly spherical mass that does not resemble a tooth but in a way appears tooth - like on radiographs due to somewhat similar radiodensity. The lesion is mostly spherical in appearance and hence the term “dilated.” Occasionally, we come across cases of simultaneous pathologies. Here, we report two cases of a dilated odontoma one of which is associated with dentigerous cyst and in other case dilated odontoma pushing the maxillary sinus superiorly. Histologically, the mass was composed of dentinal tubules. These morphological and histological features are compatible with those of a dilated odontoma. PMID:27041914

  17. Hybrid cutting balloon dilatation for treatment of cor triatriatum sinister in a cat.

    PubMed

    Stern, Joshua A; Tou, Sandra P; Barker, Piers C A; Hill, Kevin D; Lodge, Andrew J; Mathews, Kyle G; Keene, Bruce W

    2013-09-01

    A hybrid surgical approach and balloon dilatation were performed successfully in a cat with cor triatriatum sinister and clinical signs of congestive heart failure. Left lateral thoracotomy was used to access the heart and cutting balloon followed by standard balloon dilatation were utilized to dilate the perforation in the anomalous left atrial membrane. Clinical signs resolved completely after dilation of the anomalous left atrial membrane. Based upon the outcome of this case, balloon dilatation appears to be a viable treatment option for cats affected with cor triatriatum sinister.

  18. Early Detection of Drug-Induced Renal Hemodynamic Dysfunction Using Sonographic Technology in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fisch, Sudeshna; Liao, Ronglih; Hsiao, Li-Li; Lu, Tzongshi

    2016-01-01

    The kidney normally functions to maintain hemodynamic homeostasis and is a major site of damage caused by drug toxicity. Drug-induced nephrotoxicity is estimated to contribute to 19- 25% of all clinical cases of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients. AKI detection has historically relied on metrics such as serum creatinine (sCr) or blood urea nitrogen (BUN) which are demonstrably inadequate in full assessment of nephrotoxicity in the early phase of renal dysfunction. Currently, there is no robust diagnostic method to accurately detect hemodynamic alteration in the early phase of AKI while such alterations might actually precede the rise in serum biomarker levels. Such early detection can help clinicians make an accurate diagnosis and help in in decision making for therapeutic strategy. Rats were treated with Cisplatin to induce AKI. Nephrotoxicity was assessed for six days using high-frequency sonography, sCr measurement and upon histopathology of kidney. Hemodynamic evaluation using 2D and Color-Doppler images were used to serially study nephrotoxicity in rats, using the sonography. Our data showed successful drug-induced kidney injury in adult rats by histological examination. Color-Doppler based sonographic assessment of AKI indicated that resistive-index (RI) and pulsatile-index (PI) were increased in the treatment group; and peak-systolic velocity (mm/s), end-diastolic velocity (mm/s) and velocity-time integral (VTI, mm) were decreased in renal arteries in the same group. Importantly, these hemodynamic changes evaluated by sonography preceded the rise of sCr levels. Sonography-based indices such as RI or PI can thus be useful predictive markers of declining renal function in rodents. From our sonography-based observations in the kidneys of rats that underwent AKI, we showed that these noninvasive hemodynamic measurements may consider as an accurate, sensitive and robust method in detecting early stage kidney dysfunction. This study also

  19. Sonographic evaluation of the shoulder in asymptomatic elderly subjects with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence of rotator cuff tears increases with age and several studies have shown that diabetes is associated with symptomatic shoulder pathologies. Aim of our research was to evaluate the prevalence of shoulder lesions in a population of asymptomatic elderly subjects, normal and with non insulin - dependent diabetes mellitus. Methods The study was performed on 48 subjects with diabetes and 32 controls (mean age: 71.5 ± 4.8 and 70.7 ± 4.5, respectively), who did not complain shoulder pain or dysfunction. An ultrasound examination was performed on both shoulders according to a standard protocol, utilizing multiplanar scans. Results Tendons thickness was greater in diabetics than in controls (Supraspinatus Tendon: 6.2 ± 0.09 mm vs 5.2 ± 0.7 mm, p < 0.001; Biceps Tendon: 4 ± 0.8 mm vs 3.2 ± 0.4 mm, p < 0.001). Sonographic appearances of degenerative features in the rotator cuff and biceps were more frequently observed in diabetics (Supraspinatus Tendon: 42.7% vs 20.3%, p < 0.003; Biceps Tendon: 27% vs 7.8%, p < 0.002). Subjects with diabetes exhibited more tears in the Supraspinatus Tendon (Minor tears: 15 (15.8%) vs 2 (3.1%), p < 0.03; Major tears: 15 (15.8%) vs 5 (7.8%), p = ns), but not in the long head of Biceps. More effusions in subacromial bursa were observed in diabetics (23.9% vs 10.9%, p < 0.03) as well as tenosynovitis in biceps tendon (33.3% vs 10.9%, p < 0.001). In both groups, pathological findings were prevalent on the dominant side, but no difference related to duration of diabetes was found. Conclusions Our results suggest that age - related rotator cuff tendon degenerative changes are more common in diabetics. Ultrasound is an useful tool for discovering in pre - symptomatic stages the subjects that may undergo shoulder symptomatic pathologies. PMID:21138564

  20. Early Gastric Cancer Recurrence Following Curative Resection Presenting as Biliary Tract Dilatation, Pancreatic Duct Dilatation and Intestinal Wall Thickening.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yukiko; Tanaka, Eri; Noguchi, Kensaku; Yamamoto, Shinzo; Taniguchi, Hiroyoshi; Yoshida, Hideo; Kumasaka, Toshio; Nakata, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Early gastric cancer, especially cancer confined to the mucosa (stage T1a), is known to have a high cure rate with rare recurrence. We herein report the case of a 40-year-old female who initially presented with biliary tract dilatation, pancreatic duct dilatation and intestinal wall thickening 3 years after curative resection of pT1aN0 stage gastric cancer. The intestinal resection specimen revealed tumor cells spreading through the subserosa to the submucosa sparing mucosal membrane, which made exploratory laparotomy the only approach to confirm the diagnosis. It is always important to be aware of malignancy recurrence and clinicians should not hesitate to choose exploratory laparotomy to avoid any delay in the diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Gallium-67 imaging in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and biopsy-proven myocarditis

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, J.B.; Henkin, R.E.; Robinson, J.A.; Subramanian, R.; Scanlon, P.J.; Gunnar, R.M.

    1984-07-01

    Current standards for detection of myocarditis in a clinical setting rely on endomyocardial biopsy for accurate diagnosis. With this technique a subset of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy show unsuspected myocarditis histologically. Endomyocardial biopsy, despite its specificity, may lack sensitivity due to sampling error if the inflammation is patchy or focal. Therefore, inflammation-sensitive radioisotopic imaging may be a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of myocarditis. This study was designed to evaluate the applicability of gallium-67 (67Ga) myocardial imaging as an adjunct to endomyocardial biopsy in the diagnosis of myocarditis. Sixty-eight consecutive patients referred for evaluation of dilated cardiomyopathy underwent 71 parallel studies with 67Ga imaging and biopsies that served as the basis of comparison for this study. Histologic myocarditis was identified in 8% of biopsy specimens. Clinical and hemodynamic parameters could not be used to predict the presence of myocarditis. Five of six biopsy samples (87%) with myocarditis showed dense 67Ga uptake, whereas only nine of 65 negative biopsy samples (14%) were paired with equivocally positive 67Ga scans. The single patient with myocarditis and no myocardial 67Ga uptake had dense mediastinal lymph node uptake that may have obscured cardiac uptake. The incidence of myocarditis on biopsy with a positive 67Ga scan was 36% (5/14); however, the incidence of myocarditis with a negative 67Ga scan was only 1.8% (1/57). Follow-up scans for three patients showed close correlation of 67Ga uptake with myocarditis on biopsy. In conclusion 67Ga may be a useful screening test for identifying patients with a high yield of myocarditis on biopsy, and serial scans may eliminate the need for frequent biopsies in patients with proven myocarditis.

  2. Double screening

    SciTech Connect

    Gratia, Pierre; Hu, Wayne; Joyce, Austin; Ribeiro, Raquel H.

    2016-06-15

    Attempts to modify gravity in the infrared typically require a screening mechanism to ensure consistency with local tests of gravity. These screening mechanisms fit into three broad classes; we investigate theories which are capable of exhibiting more than one type of screening. Specifically, we focus on a simple model which exhibits both Vainshtein and kinetic screening. We point out that due to the two characteristic length scales in the problem, the type of screening that dominates depends on the mass of the sourcing object, allowing for different phenomenology at different scales. We consider embedding this double screening phenomenology in a broader cosmological scenario and show that the simplest examples that exhibit double screening are radiatively stable.

  3. Length to width ratio of the ductus venosus in simple screening for fetal congenital heart diseases in the second trimester

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Wei-Hsiu; Lee, Shy-Ming; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Tang, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Chen, Ran-Chou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Antenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) is still low even though screening was first introduced over 25 years ago. The purpose of our study was to determine the efficacy of a second-trimester prenatal ultrasonographic method of screening for CHD. From September 2012 to September 2013, the length and width of the fetal ductus venosus were measured sonographically in 1006 singleton fetuses, and the ratio of length to width was calculated. The accuracy of each fetal measurement and Doppler ultrasonography were determined. The standard fetal echocardiographic evaluations including 2-dimensional gray-scale imaging, color, and Doppler color flow mapping were performed. The transducer was aligned to the long axis of the fetal trunk to view the ductus venosus in its full length, including the inlet (isthmus) and outlet portions of the vessel. The diameters of the vessel inner wall and mid-point of the ductus venosus were measured using calipers. All scans and fetal measurements were conducted by a registered sonographer with more than 20 years of perinatal ultrasound screening experience. Of the 1006 singleton fetuses between 19+0 and 28+6 weeks’ gestation, 36 had CHD. The ductus venosus length/width ratio (DVR) for the first CHD screening was extremely sensitive at 88.90%, with a specificity of 99.10% for the cardiac abnormalities included in this study. Chromosomal anomalies accompanied CHD in 0.4% (4/1006) of all cases and 11.11% (4/36) of the CHD cases. The DVR differed significantly between fetuses with CHD and normal fetuses during the second trimester. Careful assessment of the ratio should be a part of the sonographic examination of every fetus. In the case of a small DVR, advanced echocardiography and karyotype analysis should be performed. The ratio is a helpful tool for screening CHD abnormalities prenatally in the Chinese population. PMID:27684831

  4. Ultrasound covers and sonographic gels are embryo-toxic and could be replaced by non-toxic polyethylene bags and paraffin oil.

    PubMed

    Van der Auwera, I; D'Hooghe, T M

    1998-08-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that ultrasound covers and sonographic gels, used during vaginal ultrasound, are toxic for mouse embryonic development in vitro. A prospective randomized design was used on pronucleate ova of F1 hybrid CBA x C57Bl female mice. The mice were superovulated with pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin and human chorionic gonadotrophin and mated with CBA x C57Bl males. The pronucleate ova were randomly divided between culture media with the addition of commercially available ultrasound covers and sonographic gels in different concentrations. As controls and potential alternatives, plastic polyethylene bags and paraffin oil were tested simultaneously. Embryo-toxicity was assessed by documenting cleavage capacity, blastocyst formation and embryo degeneration in vitro. Exposure of culture medium to the ultrasound covers and sonographic gels tested resulted in a severely reduced cleavage capacity, a high incidence of embryo degeneration and absent or impaired blastocyst formation. This toxic effect could be reduced by high dilutions in vitro. In contrast, plastic polyethylene bags and paraffin oil had no influence on in-vitro development of mouse ova. We conclude that commercially available ultrasound latex covers and sonographic gels are toxic for mouse embryos and can potentially influence embryonic development during infertility treatment. It is safer to perform vaginal ultrasonic measurements using non-toxic paraffin oil (as contact fluid) and plastic polyethylene bags (as ultrasonic cover).

  5. A Comparative Study of Sonographic Grading of Renal Parenchymal Changes and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) using Modified Diet in Renal Disease Formula

    PubMed Central

    Shivalli, Siddharudha; Pai, B.H. Santhosh; Acharya, Koteshwara Devadasa; Gopalakrishnan, Ravichandra; Srikanth, Vivek; Reddy, Vishwanath; Haris, Arafat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The sonographic findings are of help in evaluating the nephrological diseases. Glomerular filtration rate is another parameter for assessing the reserved renal function and an indicator of prognosis. In clinical practice GFR estimation (eGFR) is done by using a mathematical formula. In our study, we compared the sonographic grading of renal parenchymal changes with eGFR calculated using Modified Diet in Renal Diseases formula based on serum creatinine, age, gender and ethnicity. Aim To evaluate the relevance of sonographic grading of renal parenchymal changes in assessing the severity of the renal disease and comparing it to the eGFR calculated using MDRD formula based on the age, gender and serum creatinine value of the patient. Materials and Methods The adult patients with suspected kidney disease referred for sonography of abdomen were our study participants. As per our study design following strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, patients were selected as study participants and for each of the patient’s renal parenchymal status, serum creatinine, age, gender and ethnicity were documented. Results A total of 70 patients were our study participants, out of which 67.1% were males and 32.9% were females. Our study showed a linear correlation between sonographic grading of renal parenchymal changes with eGFR. Conclusion We conclude that by evaluating the kidneys with sonography and calculating eGFR using MDRD formula the renal status will be more accurately interpreted. PMID:27042555

  6. Colon cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  7. Sonographic imaging of extra-testicular focal lesions: comparison of grey-scale, colour Doppler and contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Rafailidis, Vasileios; Robbie, Hasti; Konstantatou, Eleni; Huang, Dean Y; Deganello, Annamaria; Sellars, Maria E; Cantisani, Vito; Isidori, Andrea M

    2016-01-01

    Extra-testicular lesions are usually benign but present with nonspecific grey-scale sonography findings. This study assesses conventional sonographic characteristics in the differentiation of extra-testicular tumoural from inflammatory lesions and whether contrast-enhanced ultrasound has a role. A retrospective database analysis was performed. All patients were examined by experienced sonographers employing standard techniques combining grey-scale, colour Doppler sonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Features recorded were: clinical symptoms, size, location, echogenicity, colour Doppler sonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound enhancement. Vascularity on colour Doppler sonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound was graded and compared. The lesions were classified as tumoural or inflammatory. The Chi-square test was used to analyse the sonographic patterns and kappa coefficient to measure the agreement between colour Doppler sonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound. A total of 30 lesions were reviewed (median diameter 12 mm, range 5–80 mm, median age 52 years, range 18–86 years), including 13/30 tumoural and 17/30 inflammatory lesions. Lesions were hypoechoic (n = 12), isoechoic (n = 6), hyperechoic (n = 2) or mixed (n = 10). Grey-scale characteristics of tumoural vs. inflammatory lesions differed significantly (P = 0.026). On colour Doppler sonography, lesions had no vessels (n = 16), 2–3 vessels (n = 10) and ≥4 vessels (n = 4). On contrast-enhanced ultrasound, lesions showed no vascularity (n = 17), perfusion similar to testis (n = 7) and higher (n = 6). All abscesses identified (n = 9) showed no vascularity on both colour Doppler sonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound. There was good agreement between these techniques in evaluating vascularity (κ = 0.719) and no significant difference between colour Doppler sonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound of tumoural vs. inflammatory

  8. Discontinuous Shear Thickening and Dilatancy: Frictional Effects in Viscous Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Jeffrey

    2015-03-01

    Shear thickening in concentrated suspensions has been well-known for quite a long time, yet a firm consensus on the basis for very abrupt or ``discontinuous'' shear thickening (DST) seen in suspensions of large solid fraction, ϕ, has not been reached. This work addresses the DST phenomenon, and proposes a simulation method based in the Stokesian Dynamics algorithm to explore the role of various forces between the particles, including hydrodynamic, conservative potential, and frictional interactions. This work shows that allowance for friction between spherical particles suspended in a viscous liquid causes a significant reduction in the jamming solid fraction of the mixture, ϕmax, taken as the maximum fraction at which the suspension will flow. A consequence of this is a shifting of the singularity in the effective viscosity, η, to smaller ϕmax, and the frictional suspension has a larger viscosity than does the frictionless suspension of the same solid fraction, as is clear from the standard empirical modeling of η (ϕ) =(1 - ϕ /ϕmax) - α , α ~ 2 . When a counterbalancing repulsive force between the particles, representative for example of charge-induced repulsion, is incorporated in the dynamics, the mixture undergoes a transition from frictionless to frictional interactions, and from low to high effective viscosity, at a critical shear rate. Comparison with experimental data shows remarkable agreement in the features of DST captured by the method. The basic algorithm and results of both rate-controlled and stress-controlled simulations will be presented. Like the shear stress, the magnitude of the normal stress exerted by the suspended particles also increases abruptly at the critical shear rate, consistent with the long-standing notion that dilatancy and shear-thickening are synonymous. We will show that considering all shear thickening materials as dilatant is a misconception, but demonstrate the validity of the connection of dilatancy with DST in

  9. Pregnancy related breast diseases in a developing African country: Initial Sonographic Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Adeniji-Sofoluwe, Adenike Temitayo; Obajimi, Gbolahan Oladele; Obajimi, Millicent Olubunmi

    2015-01-01

    Benign diseases are more common than malignant diseases in pregnant and lactating women. Fibroadenomas are the most commonly identified benign breast tumour in pregnant and lactating women. Pregnancy related breast cancer is defined as breast cancer that occurs during pregnancy or within 1 year of delivery. Its incidence is estimated at 1 in 3000 to 1 in 10 000 pregnancies. Several reproductive factors like age at menarche, age at menopause, age at full-term pregnancy, parity, age at any birth and spacing of pregnancies, breast feeding, characteristics of the menstrual cycle, infertility, spontaneous and induced abortions, characteristics of the menstrual cycle and infertility are some of the factors that have been incriminated as risk factors for breast cancer. We sought to describe the predominant breast pattern, sonographic array of pregnancy related breast diseases in women referred to the breast imaging unit in the department of Radiology at the University College Hospital, Ibadan south west Nigeria. Socio-demographic characteristics in these women were also evaluated. Archived images were reviewed and documented and data was analysed with SPSS version 17 and presented with descriptives. In this descriptive study, we retrospectively retrieved the sonomammographic records of 21 women (pregnant or lactating) referred to and imaged in the department of radiology, University college hospital Ibadan, between 2006 and 2013. Diagnostic breast sonograms performed by MO and ATS; Consultant radiologists with 7-10 years' experience utilized a 7-10 MHz transducer of the General electric GE Logiq P5 machine for the scans. Twenty-one women with ages between 22-42 years (Mean 31.4 ± 5.4 SD) pregnant or lactating were referred to the radiology department for sonomammographic evaluation. Majority of the women were in the 3rd decade. Referral was mainly (11) by family Physicians from the general outpatient clinic, 5 were self-referred, 2 from radiotherapy department, 2 from

  10. Endoluminal dilation technique to remove "stuck" tunneled hemodialysis catheters.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Stephen E; Hadziomerovic, Adnan; Aquino, Jose; Cunningham, Ian; O'Kelly, Kevin; Rasuli, Pasteur

    2012-08-01

    Most tunneled catheters can be easily removed after the retention cuff is dissected. Occasionally, these catheters can become resistant to removal even after application of potentially hazardous forceful traction. In addition, an infected catheter may cause life-threatening septicemia. Several methods have been described for their extraction, some of which may be available only in tertiary-care facilities. The present report describes the successful extraction of five such "stuck" catheters by using a recently described technique of endoluminal dilation. The technique appears safe and straightforward and can be performed in any interventional suite while allowing preservation of venous access.

  11. The dilatant-compactant transition in edifice-forming andesites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, Michael; Farquharson, Jamie; Baud, Patrick; Lavallée, Yan; Reuschlé, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    While the mechanical behaviour of rock is often classified as brittle or ductile, ductile behaviour, defined simply as the capacity of a material to deform to a substantial strain without the tendency to localise the flow into faults, can be the result of a variety of microstructural deformation mechanisms, including microcracking (in the case of cataclastic flow); the description of ductility holds no mechanistic connotation. However, due to instances of compaction localisation, and that ductile behaviour can be driven by microcracking (i.e., brittle on the microscale), we have simplified our classification of the failure mode of rock to "dilatant" and "compactant". The failure mode of lava -- dilatant or compactive -- depends on the physical attributes of the lava, primarily the porosity and pore size, and the conditions under which it deforms. The failure mode for edifice host rock has attendant implications for the structural stability of the edifice and the efficiency of sidewall outgassing of the volcanic conduit. In this contribution we present a systematic experimental study on the failure mode of edifice-forming andesitic rocks (porosity from 8 to 25%) from Volcán de Colima, Mexico. The experiments show that, at shallow depths (< 1 km), both low and high porosity lavas dilate and fail by shear fracturing. However, deeper in the edifice (> 1 km), while low porosity (< 10%) lava remains dilatant, the failure of high porosity lava is compactive and driven by cataclastic pore collapse. Although inelastic compaction is typically characterised by the absence of strain localisation, we observe compactive localisation features in our porous andesite lavas manifested as planes of collapsed pores. In terms of volcano stability, faulting in the upper edifice could destabilise the volcano, leading to an increased risk of flank or large-scale dome collapse, while compactive deformation deeper in the edifice emerges as a viable mechanism driving volcano subsidence and

  12. Localization of dilatancy in Ohshima granite under constant uniaxial stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagidani, Takashi; Ehara, Shoji; Nishizawa, Osamu; Kusunose, Kinichiro; Terada, Makoto

    1985-07-01

    The localization of dilatancy during creep of Ohshima granite under uniaxial compression was observed. Hypocenters of 3933 acoustic emission (AE) events were accurately located. It was found that the mechanical behavior of Ohshima granite was controlled by the localization of microcracks. During the stage of loading up to the creep stress, which is 83% of the average short-term fracture strength, the hypocenters of AE events were randomly distributed throughout the specimen. As soon as the primary creep began, abrupt migration and clustering of AE hypocenters into several near-surface zones were observed. AE events formed volumetric concentrations. This migration and clustering strongly suggested the rapid localized development of dilatancy at the very beginning of the primary creep stage. The distribution of AE hypocenters observed in this stage was unchanged until final faulting. By the end of the primary creep stage, AE events began to concentrate into one of these clusters, while the activities of other clusters gradually decayed. This change spread broadly and continuously in time during the creep. In the most active cluster, clustering of AE events by itself gave rise to more AE events. The shape of this cluster was spheroidal with the long axis parallel to the loading axis. No evidence directly related to planar focusing of dilatancy was found. Surface strains were mapped. The axial strain distributions in the loading interval showed that the state of stress within the sample was homogeneous. A large change in both axial and circumferential strain fields occurred during the early stage of the primary creep. After this drastic change, the pattern of strain distribution remained unchanged in the subsequent stage of the creep. The accelerated increase in one of the circumferential strain gauges during the tertiary creep stage showed strongly localized deformation preceding faulting. The development of localized dilatancy identified by hypocenter locations was

  13. Long term survival effect of metoprolol in dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Di, L; De Maria, R; Gavazzi, A; Gregori, D; Parolini, M; Sinagra, G; Salvatore, L; Longaro, F; Bernobich, E; Camerini, F

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To evaluate the additive effect of metoprolol treatment on long term incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiac events in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.
Design—586 patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy were prospectively enrolled in a multicentre registry and followed up for a mean (SD) of 52 (32) months. Metoprolol, carefully titrated to the maximum tolerated dose, was added to conventional heart failure treatment in 175 patients.
Results—Survival and transplant-free survival at seven years were significantly higher in the 175 metoprolol treated patients than in the remaining 411 on standard treatment (81% v 60%, p < 0.001, and 69% v 49%, p < 0.001, respectively). By multivariate analysis, metoprolol independently predicted survival and transplant-free survival (relative risk reduction values for all cause mortality and combined mortality or transplantation 51% (95% confidence interval 21% to 69%), p = 0.002, and 34% (5% to 53%), p = 0.01, respectively). New York Heart Association class, left ventricular end diastolic diameter, and pulmonary wedge pressure were also predictive. Seven year survival (80% v 62%, p = 0.004) and transplant-free survival (68% v 51%, p = 0.005) were significantly higher in 127 metoprolol treated cases than in 127 controls selected from the entire control cohort and appropriately matched. Metoprolol was associated with a 30% reduction in all cause mortality (7% to 48%, p = 0.015) and a 26% reduction in mortality or transplantation (7% to 41%, p = 0.009). 
Conclusions—The addition of metoprolol to standard heart failure treatment, including angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, was effective in the long term, reducing both all cause mortality and transplantation in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

 Keywords: β blockade;  dilated cardiomyopathy;  heart failure PMID:9616339

  14. Multiple Loci are associated with dilated cardiomyopathy in Irish wolfhounds.

    PubMed

    Philipp, Ute; Vollmar, Andrea; Häggström, Jens; Thomas, Anne; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a highly prevalent and often lethal disease in Irish wolfhounds. Complex segregation analysis indicated different loci involved in pathogenesis. Linear fixed and mixed models were used for the genome-wide association study. Using 106 DCM cases and 84 controls we identified one SNP significantly associated with DCM on CFA37 and five SNPs suggestively associated with DCM on CFA1, 10, 15, 21 and 17. On CFA37 MOGAT1 and ACSL3 two enzymes of the lipid metabolism were located near the identified SNP.

  15. Symmetrization of grey-scale images based on dilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuzikov, Alexander V.; Krivonos, O. V.

    1996-03-01

    We generalize set symmetrization transformations based on Minkowski addition to symmetrization transformations for numerical functions. For this purpose two types of function representation are used. The first one is umbra representation, when symmetrization transformations are performed to the set of points under the graph of a function. This corresponds to introducing of transformations using gray-scale dilation. The second representation of a function is based on a family of threshold sets. Flat function symmetrization transformations are generated by corresponding set transformations operating on threshold sets.

  16. Wavelet transforms with discrete-time continuous-dilation wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei; Rao, Raghuveer M.

    1999-03-01

    Wavelet constructions and transforms have been confined principally to the continuous-time domain. Even the discrete wavelet transform implemented through multirate filter banks is based on continuous-time wavelet functions that provide orthogonal or biorthogonal decompositions. This paper provides a novel wavelet transform construction based on the definition of discrete-time wavelets that can undergo continuous parameter dilations. The result is a transformation that has the advantage of discrete-time or digital implementation while circumventing the problem of inadequate scaling resolution seen with conventional dyadic or M-channel constructions. Examples of constructing such wavelets are presented.

  17. The effect of dilatancy on velocity anisotropy in Westerly granite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soga, N.; Mizutani, H.; Spetzler, H.; Martin, R. J., III

    1978-01-01

    Jacketed samples of Westerly granite were fractured at confining pressures up to 1 kbar, and compressional and horizontally as well as vertically polarized shear velocities were measured in orthogonal directions perpendicular to the compression axis. Changes occurring with increased strain are described, and the velocity data were analyzed by application of the Anderson et al (1974) approach. Observed and calculated velocities are found to be in good agreement, and the degree of dilatancy was determined from the differences between the strains measured perpendicularly to the compression axis and the estimated elastic strains in those directions.

  18. Dilated cardiomyopathy in acromegaly: Case report and anesthesia management

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Abhijit S.; Nirale, Anand M.; Sriprakash, K.; Gopal, T. V. S.

    2013-01-01

    Patients who are diagnosed having acromegaly develop a lot of cardiovascular Complications such as hypertension, arrhythmias, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, valvular dysfunction and heart failure. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) with systolic and diastolic dysfunction is relatively rare but is associated with an increased mortality. We report a case of acromegaly diagnosed at 52 years of age in a known diabetic, non-hypertensive male who had DCM with severe left ventricular dysfunction, global hypokinesia, moderate mitral regurgitation, and grade II diastolic dysfunction who was treated with diuretics, digitalis, and vasodilators. He was diagnosed with a growth hormone secreting pituitary macroadenoma and underwent endoscopic excision of the pituitary tumor under general anesthesia. PMID:25885996

  19. Sonographic assessment of the effect of vesicoureteral reflux and urinary tract infections on growth of the pediatric solitary kidney

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Ishai; Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Roelof, Brian; Barber, Theodore; Huynh, Virginia; Rockette, Alisha; Popovic, Mihailo; Chen, John J.; Steinhardt, George

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction Perusal of recent guidelines relating to proper evaluation of infants and children with urinary tract infection (UTI) suggests that the occurrence of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) may not have the clinical import previously ascribed to this anatomic abnormality. Patients with a solitary kidney uniquely allow investigation of the effects of both vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and urinary tract infection (UTI) on renal growth unencumbered with the inevitable questions of laterality that confound analysis in patients with two kidneys. Several previous studies with conflicting results have addressed whether vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) impacts ultimate renal size in children with a solitary kidney. Few published studies have considered the occurrence of both urinary tract infection (UTI) and VUR on the degree of compensatory hypertrophy. This is the largest series to date investigating the effect of both UTI and VUR on the degree of compensatory hypertrophy with time. Objective Our objective was to analyze sonographically determined renal growth in patients with a solitary kidney, stratifying for both the occurrence and severity of UTIs and the occurrence and severity of VUR. Study design We retrospectively reviewed the clinical history (including bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD)) and radiology reports of 145 patients identified as having either a congenital or acquired solitary kidney in our pediatric urology practice from the prior 10 years. UTIs were tabulated by severity, where possible, and the grade of VUR was recorded based on the initial cystogram. Sonographically determined renal length was tabulated for all ultrasounds obtained throughout the study. Based on a mixed-effects model, we investigated the influence of UTI and VUR on renal growth. Results Of the 145 patients analyzed, 105 had no VUR and 39 had VUR (16 = Gr I&II, 11 = GIII, 12 = GIV&V). Comparison showed that there was no difference in the occurrence of UTI between those without

  20. Cognitive effort and pupil dilation in controlled and automatic processes

    PubMed Central

    Querino, Emanuel; dos Santos, Lafaiete; Ginani, Giuliano; Nicolau, Eduardo; Miranda, Débora; Romano-Silva, Marco; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    The Five Digits Test (FDT) is a Stroop paradigm test that aims to evaluate executive functions. It is composed of four parts, two of which are related to automatic and two of which are related to controlled processes. It is known that pupillary diameter increases as the task’s cognitive demand increases. In the present study, we evaluated whether the pupillary diameter could distinguish cognitive effort between automated and controlled cognitive processing during the FDT as the task progressed. As a control task, we used a simple reading paradigm with a similar visual aspect as the FDT. We then divided each of the four parts into two blocks in order to evaluate the differences between the first and second half of the task. Results indicated that, compared to a control task, the FDT required higher cognitive effort for each consecutive part. Moreover, the first half of every part of the FDT induced dilation more than the second. The differences in pupil dilation during the first half of the four FDT parts were statistically significant between the parts 2 and 4 (p=0.023), and between the parts 3 and 4 (p=0.006). These results provide further evidence that cognitive effort and pupil diameter can distinguish controlled from automatic processes. PMID:28123801

  1. Cognitive effort and pupil dilation in controlled and automatic processes.

    PubMed

    Querino, Emanuel; Dos Santos, Lafaiete; Ginani, Giuliano; Nicolau, Eduardo; Miranda, Débora; Romano-Silva, Marco; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    The Five Digits Test (FDT) is a Stroop paradigm test that aims to evaluate executive functions. It is composed of four parts, two of which are related to automatic and two of which are related to controlled processes. It is known that pupillary diameter increases as the task's cognitive demand increases. In the present study, we evaluated whether the pupillary diameter could distinguish cognitive effort between automated and controlled cognitive processing during the FDT as the task progressed. As a control task, we used a simple reading paradigm with a similar visual aspect as the FDT. We then divided each of the four parts into two blocks in order to evaluate the differences between the first and second half of the task. Results indicated that, compared to a control task, the FDT required higher cognitive effort for each consecutive part. Moreover, the first half of every part of the FDT induced dilation more than the second. The differences in pupil dilation during the first half of the four FDT parts were statistically significant between the parts 2 and 4 (p=0.023), and between the parts 3 and 4 (p=0.006). These results provide further evidence that cognitive effort and pupil diameter can distinguish controlled from automatic processes.

  2. The computational power of time dilation in special relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biamonte, Jacob

    2014-03-01

    The Lorentzian length of a timelike curve connecting both endpoints of a classical computation is a function of the path taken through Minkowski spacetime. The associated runtime difference is due to time-dilation: the phenomenon whereby an observer finds that another's physically identical ideal clock has ticked at a different rate than their own clock. Using ideas appearing in the framework of computational complexity theory, time-dilation is quantified as an algorithmic resource by relating relativistic energy to an nth order polynomial time reduction at the completion of an observer's journey. These results enable a comparison between the optimal quadratic Grover speedup from quantum computing and an n=2 speedup using classical computers and relativistic effects. The goal is not to propose a practical model of computation, but to probe the ultimate limits physics places on computation. Parts of this talk are based on [J.Phys.Conf.Ser. 229:012020 (2010), arXiv:0907.1579]. Support is acknowledged from the Foundational Questions Institute (FQXi) and the Compagnia di San Paolo Foundation.

  3. Viral Myocarditis and Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Etiology and Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Huber, Sally A

    2016-01-01

    Myocarditis is an inflammation of the myocardium which often follows microbial infections and is a significant cause of sudden unexpected death in the young (<40 years of age) and an underlying cause of dilated cardiomyopathy. Although histologically, the disease is usually associated with infiltration of the myocardium with either eosinophils or leukocytes, use of immunosuppression is controversial outside of giant cell myocarditis and has been found to be of limited value in lymphocytic myocarditis. The relatively limited response might reflect the need for host immunity to control persistent virus infection in the heart which may be the predominant cause of the chronic myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. Treating the persistent virus infection with interferon-beta improved cardiac function in a clinical trial. However, classic immunosuppressive drugs, such as cyclosporine A and cyclophosphamide, are not effective against all types of immunity and experimental myocarditis models have shown that certain immunopathogenic forms of the disease are resistant to these immunosuppressive agents. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of this disease and the various infectious agents which can cause it will be essential for developing effective therapeutic agents.

  4. Adaptive pseudo dilation for gestalt edge grouping and contour detection.

    PubMed

    Papari, Giuseppe; Petkov, Nicolai

    2008-10-01

    We consider the problem of detecting object contours in natural images. In many cases, local luminance changes turn out to be stronger in textured areas than on object contours. Therefore, local edge features, which only look at a small neighborhood of each pixel, cannot be reliable indicators of the presence of a contour, and some global analysis is needed. We introduce a new morphological operator, called adaptive pseudo-dilation (APD), which uses context dependent structuring elements in order to identify long curvilinear structure in the edge map. We show that grouping edge pixels as the connected components of the output of APD results in a good agreement with the gestalt law of good continuation. The novelty of this operator is that dilation is limited to the Voronoi cell of each edge pixel. An efficient implementation of APD is presented. The grouping algorithm is then embedded in a multithreshold contour detector. At each threshold level, small groups of edges are removed, and contours are completed by means of a generalized reconstruction from markers. The use of different thresholds makes the algorithm much less sensitive to the values of the input parameters. Both qualitative and quantitative comparison with existing approaches prove the superiority of the proposed contour detector in terms of larger amount of suppressed texture and more effective detection of low-contrast contours.

  5. Dilated cardiomyopathy: the complexity of a diverse genetic architecture.

    PubMed

    Hershberger, Ray E; Hedges, Dale J; Morales, Ana

    2013-09-01

    Remarkable progress has been made in understanding the genetic basis of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Rare variants in >30 genes, some also involved in other cardiomyopathies, muscular dystrophy, or syndromic disease, perturb a diverse set of important myocardial proteins to produce a final DCM phenotype. Large, publicly available datasets have provided the opportunity to evaluate previously identified DCM-causing mutations, and to examine the population frequency of sequence variants similar to those that have been observed to cause DCM. The frequency of these variants, whether associated with dilated or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, is greater than estimates of disease prevalence. This mismatch might be explained by one or more of the following possibilities: that the penetrance of DCM-causing mutations is lower than previously thought, that some variants are noncausal, that DCM prevalence is higher than previously estimated, or that other more-complex genomics underlie DCM. Reassessment of our assumptions about the complexity of the genomic and phenomic architecture of DCM is warranted. Much about the genomic basis of DCM remains to be investigated, which will require comprehensive genomic studies in much larger cohorts of rigorously phenotyped probands and family members than previously examined.

  6. The locus for bovine dilated cardiomyopathy maps to chromosome 18.

    PubMed

    Guziewicz, K E; Owczarek-Lipska, M; Küffer, J; Schelling, C; Tontis, A; Denis, C; Eggen, A; Leeb, T; Dolf, G; Braunschweig, M H

    2007-06-01

    Bovine dilated cardiomyopathy (BDCMP) is a severe and terminal disease of the heart muscle observed in Holstein-Friesian cattle over the last 30 years. There is strong evidence for an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance for BDCMP. The objective of this study was to genetically map BDCMP, with the ultimate goal of identifying the causative mutation. A whole-genome scan using 199 microsatellite markers and one SNP revealed an assignment of BDCMP to BTA18. Fine-mapping on BTA18 refined the candidate region to the MSBDCMP06-BMS2785 interval. The interval containing the BDCMP locus was confirmed by multipoint linkage analysis using the software loki. The interval is about 6.7 Mb on the bovine genome sequence (Btau 3.1). The corresponding region of HSA19 is very gene-rich and contains roughly 200 genes. Although telomeric of the marker interval, TNNI3 is a possible positional and a functional candidate for BDCMP given its involvement in a human form of dilated cardiomyopathy. Sequence analysis of TNNI3 in cattle revealed no mutation in the coding sequence, but there was a G-to-A transition in intron 6 (AJ842179:c.378+315G>A). The analysis of this SNP using the study's BDCMP pedigree did not conclusively exclude TNNI3 as a candidate gene for BDCMP. Considering the high density of genes on the homologous region of HSA19, further refinement of the interval on BTA18 containing the BDCMP locus is needed.

  7. Finite-temperature corrections in the dilated chiral quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.; Lee, Hyun Kyu |; Rho, M. |

    1995-03-01

    We calculate the finite-temperature corrections in the dilated chiral quark model using the effective potential formalism. Assuming that the dilaton limit is applicable at some short length scale, we interpret the results to represent the behavior of hadrons in dense and hot matter. We obtain the scaling law, f{sub {pi}}(T)/f{sub {pi}} = m{sub Q}(T)/m{sub Q} {approx_equal} m{sub {sigma}}(T)/m{sub {sigma}}while we argue, using PCAC, that pion mass does not scale within the temperature range involved in our Lagrangian. It is found that the hadron masses and the pion decay constant drop faster with temperature in the dilated chiral quark model than in the conventional linear sigma model that does not take into account the QCD scale anomaly. We attribute the difference in scaling in heat bath to the effect of baryonic medium on thermal properties of the hadrons. Our finding would imply that the AGS experiments (dense and hot matter) and the RHIC experiments (hot and dilute matter) will ``see`` different hadron properties in the hadronization exit phase.

  8. Ventricular dilation as an instability of intracranial dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzerar, R.; Ambarki, K.; Balédent, O.; Kongolo, G.; Picot, J. C.; Meyer, M. E.

    2005-11-01

    We address the question of the ventricles’ dilation as a possible instability of the intracranial dynamics. The ventricular system is shown to be governed by a dynamical equation derived from first principles. This general nonlinear scheme is linearized around a well-defined steady state which is mapped onto a pressure-volume model with an algebraic effective compliance depending on the ventricles’ geometry, the ependyma’s elasticity, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surface tension. Instabilities of different natures are then evidenced. A first type of structural instability results from the compelling effects of the CSF surface tension and the elastic properties of the ependyma. A second type of dynamical instability occurs for low enough values of the aqueduct’s conductance. This last case is then shown to be accompanied by a spontaneous ventricle’s dilation. A strong correlation with some active hydrocephalus is evidenced and discussed. The transfer function of the ventricles, compared to a low-pass filter, are calculated in both the stable and unstable regimes and appear to be very different.

  9. Multiple Genetic Associations with Irish Wolfhound Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dunning, Mark D.; Brownlie, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in dogs and humans, with dilated cardiomyopathy being a large contributor to this. The Irish Wolfhound (IWH) is one of the most commonly affected breeds and one of the few breeds with genetic loci associated with the disease. Mutations in more than 50 genes are associated with human dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), yet very few are also associated with canine DCM. Furthermore, none of the identified canine loci explain many cases of the disease and previous work has indicated that genotypes at multiple loci may act together to influence disease development. In this study, loci previously associated with DCM in IWH were tested for associations in a new cohort both individually and in combination. We have identified loci significantly associated with the disease individually, but no genotypes individually or in pairs conferred a significantly greater risk of developing DCM than the population risk. However combining three loci together did result in the identification of a genotype which conferred a greater risk of disease than the overall population risk. This study suggests multiple rather than individual genetic factors, cooperating to influence DCM risk in IWH. PMID:28070514

  10. Surface dilational rheological properties in the nonlinear domain.

    PubMed

    Bykov, A G; Liggieri, L; Noskov, B A; Pandolfini, P; Ravera, F; Loglio, G

    2015-08-01

    The interfacial tension response to dilational deformation of interfacial area exhibits a (more or less) nonlinear behavior, depending on the amplitude of the deformation. Studies of such observable interfacial properties in the nonlinear domain suggest valuable information about the two-dimensional microstructure of the interfacial layer, as well as about the structure time-evolution. In this article, the emphasis is centered on the available mathematical methods for quantitatively analyzing and describing the magnitude and the characteristics of the nonlinear interfacial viscoelastic properties. Specifically, in periodic oscillation experiments the nonlinear behavior can be represented by the combination of a linear part (the surface dilational modulus), with an additional complementary Fourier analysis parameterizing the nonlinearity. Also asymmetric Lissajous plots, of interfacial tension versus deformation, are useful tools for expanding the response nonlinearity into four distinct components relevant to significant points of the cyclic loop. In connection with the mathematical methods, nonequilibrium thermodynamic formulations provide a powerful theoretical framework for investigating the interfacial dynamic properties of multiphase systems. Experimental results for adsorption layers of complex components, available in the literature, show notable nonlinear interfacial viscoelastic behavior. In particular in this review, data are illustrated for solutions of polymers and of polyelectrolyte/surfactant complexes. The observed nonlinear findings reveal formation of complexes, patches, and other different interfacial structures.

  11. Percutaneous transluminal balloon dilatation of the mitral valve in pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R; Brender, D; McCredie, M

    1989-01-01

    Pregnancy can cause life threatening complications in women with mitral stenosis, and there is a substantial risk of fetal death if valvotomy under cardiopulmonary bypass is required. A patient is described in whom pulmonary oedema developed after delivery of her first child by caesarean section 13 months previously. Subsequent cardiac catheterisation showed severe mitral stenosis (valve area 0.96 cm2, valve gradient 12 mm Hg, pulmonary artery pressure 30/16 mm Hg). Before valvotomy could be performed the patient again became pregnant and presented in pulmonary oedema at twenty two weeks' gestation. Medical treatment was unsuccessful and she underwent percutaneous transluminal balloon dilatation of the mitral valve. This increased the valve area to 1.78 cm2 and reduced the transmitral gradient to 6 mm Hg. The procedure was uncomplicated, and she remained symptom free on no medication. She delivered vaginally at 37 weeks' gestation. Percutaneous transluminal balloon dilatation of the mitral valve is a safe and effective alternative to mitral valvotomy in pregnancy. PMID:2757867

  12. Central Vein Dilatation Prior to Concomitant Port Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Krombach, Gabriele A. Plumhans, Cedric; Goerg, Fabian; Guenther, Rolf W.

    2010-04-15

    Implantation of subcutaneous port systems is routinely performed in patients requiring repeated long-term infusion therapy. Ultrasound- and fluoroscopy-guided implantation under local anesthesia is broadly established in interventional radiology and has decreased the rate of complications compared to the surgical approach. In addition, interventional radiology offers the unique possibility of simultaneous management of venous occlusion. We present a technique for recanalization of central venous occlusion and angioplasty combined with port placement in a single intervention which we performed in two patients. Surgical port placement was impossible owing to occlusion of the superior vena cava following placement of a cardiac pacemaker and occlusion of multiple central veins due to paraneoplastic coagulopathy, respectively. In both cases the affected vessel segments were dilated with balloon catheters and the port systems were placed thereafter. After successful dilatation, the venous access was secured with a 25-cm-long, 8-Fr introducer sheath, a subcutaneous pocket prepared, and the port catheter tunneled to the venipuncture site. The port catheter was introduced through the sheath with the proximal end connected to a 5-Fr catheter. This catheter was pulled through the tunnel in order to preserve the tunnel and, at the same time, allow safe removal of the long sheath over the wire. The port system functioned well in both cases. The combination of recanalization and port placement in a single intervention is a straightforward alternative for patients with central venous occlusion that can only be offered by interventional radiology.

  13. [Expansion dilatation balloons for cervical ripening in obstetric practice].

    PubMed

    Ducarme, G; Grange, J; Vital, M

    2016-02-01

    During recent decades, mechanical devices have been substituted by pharmacological methods. Their place in the therapeutic arsenal remains important with a renewed obstetrical interest for these devices. Due to a lack of data they are still not recommended as first-line. This review thus attempted to examine the use of expansion dilatation balloons (Foley catheter and double-balloons) to analyze their effectiveness in case of native uterus and previous cesarean section. Twenty-seven clinical trials had compared balloons catheter and prostaglandins in patients without a history of uterine scar. The risk of cesarean section did not differ. Mechanical methods seemed to be more effective in achieving delivery within 24hours, with fewer episodes of excessive uterine contractions, but they necessitated more oxytocin during labor. Ten clinical trials analyzed dilatation balloons in patients with previous cesarean section. More than 70% women had favorable cervical ripening (Bishop score>6), and vaginal delivery was reported between 35 and 70% of patients. The risk of uterine rupture was low between 0.64 and 0.72%, with neither increased risk of severe neonatal and maternal morbidity nor increased risk of infectious morbidity. Mechanical methods are effective and safe for third trimester cervical ripening, mainly in women with previous cesarean section. Potential advantages may include wide availability and reduction of some of the side effects.

  14. Reversible transition from a hypertrophic to a dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Spillmann, Frank; Kühl, Uwe; Van Linthout, Sophie; Dominguez, Fernando; Escher, Felicitas; Schultheiss, Heinz‐Peter; Pieske, Burkert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We report the case of a 17‐year‐old female patient with known hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and a Wolff‐Parkinson‐White syndrome. She came to our department for further evaluation of a new diagnosed dilated cardiomyopathy characterized by an enlargement of the left ventricle and a fall in ejection fraction. Clinically, she complained about atypical chest pain, arrhythmic episodes with presyncopal events, and dyspnea (NYHA III) during the last 6 months. Non‐invasive and invasive examinations including magnetic resonance imaging, electrophysiological examinations, and angiography did not lead to a conclusive diagnosis. Therefore, endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) were taken to investigate whether a specific myocardial disease caused the impairment of the left ventricular function. EMB analysis resulted in the diagnosis of a virus‐negative, active myocarditis. Based on this diagnosis, an immunosuppressive treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine was started, which led to an improvement of cardiac function and symptoms within 3 months after initiating therapy. In conclusion, we show that external stress triggered by myocarditis can induce a reversible transition from a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy to a dilated cardiomyopathy phenotype. This case strongly underlines the need for a thorough and invasive examination of heart failure of unknown causes, including EMB investigations as recommend by the actual ESC position statement. PMID:27774273

  15. Genetic screening

    PubMed Central

    Andermann, Anne; Blancquaert, Ingeborg

    2010-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To provide a primer for primary care professionals who are increasingly called upon to discuss the growing number of genetic screening services available and to help patients make informed decisions about whether to participate in genetic screening, how to interpret results, and which interventions are most appropriate. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE As part of a larger research program, a wide literature relating to genetic screening was reviewed. PubMed and Internet searches were conducted using broad search terms. Effort was also made to identify the gray literature. MAIN MESSAGE Genetic screening is a type of public health program that is systematically offered to a specified population of asymptomatic individuals with the aim of providing those identified as high risk with prevention, early treatment, or reproductive options. Ensuring an added benefit from screening, as compared with standard clinical care, and preventing unintended harms, such as undue anxiety or stigmatization, depends on the design and implementation of screening programs, including the recruitment methods, education and counseling provided, timing of screening, predictive value of tests, interventions available, and presence of oversight mechanisms and safeguards. There is therefore growing apprehension that economic interests might lead to a market-driven approach to introducing and expanding screening before program effectiveness, acceptability, and feasibility have been demonstrated. As with any medical intervention, there is a moral imperative for genetic screening to do more good than harm, not only from the perspective of individuals and families, but also for the target population and society as a whole. CONCLUSION Primary care professionals have an important role to play in helping their patients navigate the rapidly changing terrain of genetic screening services by informing them about the benefits and risks of new genetic and genomic technologies and empowering them to

  16. A novel locus for autosomal-dominant dilated cardiomyopathy maps to chromosome 7q22.3-31.1.

    PubMed

    Schönberger, Jost; Kühler, Leif; Martins, Elisabete; Lindner, Tom H; Silva-Cardoso, Jose; Zimmer, Michael

    2005-12-01

    Inherited dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a genetically and phenotypically very heterogeneous disease. DCM is caused by mutations in multiple genes encoding proteins that are involved in force generation, force transmission, energy production and several signalling pathways. Thus, the pathophysiology of heart failure is complex and not yet fully understood. Familial forms of DCM let the way to identify new key proteins by positional cloning and to study respective pathomechanisms that are critical for normal cardiac function, but may not have been correlated with heart disease before. Here we report a three-generation pedigree including 16 individuals affected by dilated cardiomyopathy without additional phenotypes. The pedigree is consistent with autosomal-dominant inheritance and age-related penetrance. A genome-wide linkage analysis excluded linkage to all known DCM genes and loci, whereas several close markers on chromosome 7q22.3-31.1 segregated with the disease (maximum logarithm of odds score, 4.20 at D7S471 and D7S501). The disease causing mutation lies in a 9.73 Mb interval between markers D7S2545 and D7S2554 that contains no known cytoskeletal genes. Coding exons of the candidate genes LAMB1, LAMB4 and PIK3CG were screened but no mutations were identified.

  17. [Dilated cardiomyopathy: a dynamic disease - clinical course, reverse remodeling and prognostic stratification].

    PubMed

    Merlo, Marco; Gigli, Marta; Poli, Stefano; Stolfo, Davide; Brun, Francesca; Lardieri, Gerardina; Pinamonti, Bruno; Zecchin, Massimo; Pivetta, Alberto; Vitrella, Giancarlo; Di Lenarda, Andrea; Sinagra, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a relatively rare primary heart muscle disease with genetic or post-inflammatory etiology. In the last decade, the incidence and prevalence of the disease have significantly increased as a consequence of an earlier diagnosis supported by extensive familial screening programs and by the improvement in diagnostic techniques. Moreover, current therapeutic strategies have deeply modified the prognosis of DCM with a dramatic reduction in mortality. A significant number of patients with DCM present an impressive response to pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapy in terms of left ventricular reverse remodeling (reduction in ventricular size with improvement of systolic function), which confers a more favorable prognosis in the long term. However, the identification of patients with an increased likelihood of improvement after therapeutic optimization remains a challenging issue; in particular the assessment of arrhythmic risk carries important implications. Finally, the long-term follow-up of patients showing a significant left ventricular functional recovery under optimal treatment is still poorly known. Hence, the aim of the present review is to provide an insight into the clinical evolution/long-term follow-up of DCM, which should be actually considered a dynamic process rather than a static and chronic disease. Left ventricular reverse remodeling should be considered a key therapeutic goal, mostly associated with a long-standing recovery, but cannot be considered the expression of permanent "healing", confirming the need for a systematic and careful follow-up over time in this setting.

  18. Diagnosis of Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Patient Reaction and Adaptation—Case Study and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Stavrou, Maria; Marley, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Heart failure remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Given that heart failure generally has a chronic course, it is important to appreciate the impact it can have on the quality of life of patients and also their partners or family carers. Method. Questionnaires were given to a patient newly diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy, during his hospital admission, as well as after discharge. The responses are summarised and explored in the discussion section, where we used review of the literature to discuss the implications of a new diagnosis of heart failure. Results. The patient's responses to the questionnaires suggest certain anxieties that are part of his adaptation to the diagnosis of heart failure. Conclusion. Depression is a common comorbid condition in patients with heart failure. Various tools can be used to screen for depression in patients with heart failure. Both pharmacological and nonpharmacological options are available. Rapid evaluation of ongoing problems and active participation by a psychiatrist can ensure that the patient receives the best possible clinical care. PMID:27822399

  19. Retinal Imaging Techniques for Diabetic Retinopathy Screening

    PubMed Central

    Goh, James Kang Hao; Cheung, Carol Y.; Sim, Shaun Sebastian; Tan, Pok Chien; Tan, Gavin Siew Wei; Wong, Tien Yin

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus, demand for diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening platforms is steeply increasing. Early detection and treatment of DR are key public health interventions that can greatly reduce the likelihood of vision loss. Current DR screening programs typically employ retinal fundus photography, which relies on skilled readers for manual DR assessment. However, this is labor-intensive and suffers from inconsistency across sites. Hence, there has been a recent proliferation of automated retinal image analysis software that may potentially alleviate this burden cost-effectively. Furthermore, current screening programs based on 2-dimensional fundus photography do not effectively screen for diabetic macular edema (DME). Optical coherence tomography is becoming increasingly recognized as the reference standard for DME assessment and can potentially provide a cost-effective solution for improving DME detection in large-scale DR screening programs. Current screening techniques are also unable to image the peripheral retina and require pharmacological pupil dilation; ultra-widefield imaging and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, which address these drawbacks, possess great potential. In this review, we summarize the current DR screening methods using various retinal imaging techniques, and also outline future possibilities. Advances in retinal imaging techniques can potentially transform the management of patients with diabetes, providing savings in health care costs and resources. PMID:26830491

  20. Quadruple screen test

    MedlinePlus

    Quad screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen; Down syndrome - quadruple; Trisomy 21 - quadruple; Turner syndrome - quadruple; Spina bifida - ...

  1. Hearing Profile in Patients with Dilated and Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathies

    PubMed Central

    El-Zarea, Gehan Abd El-Rahman; Hassan, Yasser Elsayed Mohamed; Mahmoud, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cardiomyopathy may cause disruptions in the micro-vascular system of the stria vascularis in the cochlea, and, subsequently, may result in cochlear degeneration. Degeneration in the stria vascularis affects the physical and chemical processes in the organ of Corti, thereby causing a possible hearing impairment. The objective of this study was to assess the hearing profiles of patients with dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathies to determine the relationship between the degree of hearing loss and the degree and duration of the disease and to compare the dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathies as regards hearing profile. Methods In this case control study, we studied 21 patients (cases/study group/group 1) and 15 healthy individuals (controls/group 2). Six patients (group 1a) had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and 15 patients (group 1b) had dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The data were analyzed using the t-test, chi-squared test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and the Multiple Mann-Whitney test. Results The results of this study showed that 80% of those patients with DCM (group 1b) had bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), and 100% of the patients with HCM (group 1a) had mild to severe bilateral sloping SNHL. Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions (DPOAEs) were present in 14% of the study group and in 100 % of the control group. The results of the measurements of auditory brainstem response (ABR) showed that 50% of the study group had abnormal latencies compared to the control group, and there was no correlation between the duration of the disease and the degree of hearing loss or DPOAE. Fifty percent of the patients with HCM and 35% of the patients with DCM had positive family histories of similar conditions, and 35% of those with HCM had a positive family history of sudden death. Conclusion The results of this study suggested that the link between heart disease and hearing loss and early identification of hearing loss in patients with

  2. Dilatation and Curettage Effect on the Endometrial Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Davar, Robab; Dehghani Firouzabadi, Razieh; Chaman Ara, Kefayat

    2013-01-01

    Background Endometrial receptivity is required for successful implantation and pregnancy. Despite the remaining controversy, many studies have shown that ultrasonographic endometrial thickness can be considered as an indicator of endometrial receptivity. Objective The study objective was to investigate the effect of dilatation and curettage on the endometrial thickness. Materials and Methods Enrolled in the study were 444 patients visited in Obstetrics & Gynecology clinic of Shahid Sadoughi hospital between Jan. 2011 to Sep. 2012. Only patients whose menstrual cycle was regular were included in study. Patients with myoma, adenomyosis, endometrial polyps or other uterine anomaly, those who smoked, whose BMI was greater than 30 and who were taking medications that could affect endometrial thickness were excluded. Endometrial thickness was measured one day before evolution (n = 444) and 5-7 days after it (n = 444) using transvaginal ultrasonography. The endometrial thicknesses were correlated to the patients’ history of dilatation and curettage. Data analysis was done through SPSS software version 16 and using descriptive statistics, independent T-test and Anova. Results Endometrial thickness in patients who had 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 D&C were 10.00 ± 0.58, 9.83 ± 0.47, 8.90 ± 0.92, 7.42 ± 0.18 and 7.40 ± 0.07, respectively one day before ovulation (spearman’s correlation coefficient = -0.33) and 10.62 ± 0.68, 9.64 ± 0.49, 8.48 ± 0.96, 6.32 ± 0.15 and 6.90 ± 0.04, respectively, 5-7 days after ovulation (spearman’s correlation coefficient = -0.66) estradiol and progesterone levels, measured in the day of 2nd ultrasonography had not statistic relation with endometrial thickness (P = 0.27 and 0.31). The relation of endometrial thickness and age was not significant (P = 0.54 and 0.06). Conclusions Dilatation and curettage has a significant effect on the endometrial thinning. PMID:24083012

  3. Induction of cervical dilation for transcervical embryo transfer in ewes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A major limitation in the application of assisted reproductive technologies in sheep arises from the inability to easily traverse the uterine cervix. The cervix of the non-pregnant ewe is a narrow and rigid structure, with 5–7 spiral folds and crypts that block its lumen. The first two folds closest to the vagina appear to be the greatest obstacle for the instrument insertion into the sheep cervix. Therefore, the dilation of the distal part of the cervix could provide the conformational change necessary to perform non-invasive transcervical procedures. The present study set out to assess the efficacy of Cervidil®, a patented dinoprostone (PgE2)-containing vaginal insert with a controlled-release mechanism, to safely induce sufficient cervical dilation for the purpose of transcervical embryo transfer (TCET) in cyclic ewes. Methods The transfer of frozen-thawed ovine embryos was attempted in 22 cross-bred Rideau Arcott x Polled Dorset ewes, with or without the pre-treatment with Cervidil® for 12 or 24 h prior to TCET. Results Cervical penetration rate was significantly improved after Cervidil® pre-treatment, with 55% (6/11) of treated versus 9% (1/11) of control animals successfully penetrated (χ2-test, p < 0.05). Within the treated ewes that were penetrated, 67% (4/6) had been exposed to Cervidil(R) for 24 h and 33% (2/6) had had a 12-h exposure (p > 0.05). Variations in the age, weight, genotype, parity, lifetime lamb production (LLP) and post-partum interval (PPI) between penetrated and non-penetrated ewes were not significant (p > 0.05). The time taken to traverse the uterine cervix was negatively correlated (p < 0.05) with the age, parity, LLP and PPI. Progesterone assays and ultrasonographic examinations performed 25 days after ET confirmed pregnancy in 2 of 7 penetrated ewes, but no fetuses were detected ultrasonographically 55 days post-TCET. Conclusions The present results indicate a significant benefit of using Cervidil

  4. MRSA Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising ... aureus Screening Related tests: Wound Culture All content on Lab Tests Online has been ...

  5. Hypertension screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  6. Developmental Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Learn More about Your Child’s Development: Developmental Monitoring and Screening Taking a first step, waving “bye-bye,” and pointing to something interesting are all developmental milestones, ...

  7. Get Screened

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Depending on your age, sex, and medical history, you may need to be screened for things like: Certain types of cancer High blood pressure or high cholesterol Diabetes Osteoporosis (weak bones) ...

  8. A Systematic Review of the Risk of Perforation During Esophageal Dilation for Patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, John William

    2011-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is associated with tissue remodeling that can result in esophageal mucosal fragility, and esophageal dilation for patients with EoE is known to cause painful mucosal lacerations. Clinicians have been admonished that patients with EoE may be exceptionally predisposed to perforation with esophageal dilation, a notion supported primarily by case reports. We have conducted a systematic review of literature on esophageal dilation in EoE in an attempt to better define the risk of perforation. Methods We searched PubMed and abstracts presented at the annual scientific meetings of the American Gastroenterological Association and the American College of Gastroenterology to identify reports on esophageal dilation in EoE. We analyzed reports meeting the following criteria: (1) the diagnosis was established from esophageal biopsy specimens revealing ≥15 eosinophils/hpf, (2) esophageal dilation was described, (3) esophageal perforations described were the result of esophageal dilation. Results We identified 18 reports for inclusion in our systematic review. The studies comprised 468 patients who underwent a total of 671 endoscopic dilations. Esophageal mucosal tears were described in most cases, but there was only one perforation among the 671 dilations (0.1%). Conclusions Our systematic review does not reveal an inordinate frequency of esophageal perforation from dilation in patients with EoE, and it is not clear that dilation is any more hazardous for patients with EoE than for patients with other causes of esophageal stricture. Although esophageal dilation must be performed with caution in all patients, the risk of perforation in EoE appears to have been exaggerated. PMID:20238250

  9. A prenatally sonographically diagnosed conotruncal anomaly with mosaic type trisomy 21 and 22q11.2 microdeletion/DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Balci, S; Altugan, F S; Alehan, D; Aypar, E; Baltaci, V

    2009-01-01

    A prenatally sonographically diagnosed conotruncal anomaly with mosaic type trisomy 21 and 22q11.2 microdeletion/DiGeorge syndrome: We report a prenatally sonographically diagnosed conotruncal and urogenital anomaly. Postnatally, the patient presented with seizures, hypocalcemia, hypoparathyroidism and thymic aplasia and diagnosed as DiGeorge syndrome. Echocardiography showed malalignment VSD, supravalvular pulmonary stenosis and overriding aorta. Chromosome and FISH studies showed the association of mosaic type trisomy 21 and 22q11.2 microdeletion. The present patient is the second case of mosaic type of Down syndrome associated with 22q11.2 microdeletion. In addition the patient also had clinical and laboratory features of DiGeorge syndrome.

  10. [HCC screening].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, T

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed tumour diseases throughout the world. In the vast majority of cases those affected are high-risk patients with chronic viral hepatitis and/or liver cirrhosis, which means there is a clearly identifiable target group for HCC screening. With resection, transplantation, and interventional procedures for local ablation, following early diagnosis curative treatment options are available with which 5-year survival rates of over 60% can be reached. Such early diagnosis is a reality only in a minority of patients, however, and in the majority of cases the disease is already in an advanced stage at diagnosis. One of the objects of HCC screening is diagnosis in an early stage when curative treatment is still possible. Precisely this is achieved by screening, so that the proportion of patients treated with curative intent is decisively higher. There is not yet any clear evidence as to whether this leads to a lowering of the mortality of HCC. As lower mortality is the decisive indicator of success for a screening programme the benefit of HCC screening has so far been neither documented nor refuted. Nonetheless, in large regions of the world it is the practice for high-risk patients to undergo HCC screening in the form of twice-yearly ultrasound examination and determination of AFP.

  11. Focal nodular hyperplasia with major sinusoidal dilatation: a misleading entity

    PubMed Central

    Laumonier, Hervé; Frulio, Nora; Laurent, Christophe; Balabaud, Charles; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette

    2010-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign liver lesion thought to be a non-specific response to locally increased blood flow. Although the diagnosis of FNH and hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) has made great progress over the last few years using modern imaging techniques, there are still in daily practice some difficulties concerning some atypical nodules. Here, the authors report the case of a 47-year-old woman with a single liver lesion thought to be, by imaging, an inflammatory HCA with major sinusoidal congestion. This nodule was revealed to be, at the microscopical level and after specific immunostaining and molecular analysis, an FNH with sinusoidal dilatation (so-called telangiectatic focal nodular hyperplasia). PMID:22798311

  12. Dilated cardiomyopathy in an American cocker spaniel with taurine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Gavaghan, B J; Kittleson, M D

    1997-12-01

    An American Cocker Spaniel with low plasma taurine concentration (< 2 nmol/mL) was presented with dyspnoea associated with pulmonary oedema and a left ventricular shortening fraction of 9%. Emergency therapy with furosemide, dobutamine, nitroglycerine and oxygen supplementation led to a good response. Chronic therapy was started with enalapril, furosemide, digoxin and taurine. Improvement in all echocardiographic indices were noted over a 22 week follow-up, most notably an increase in left ventricular shortening fraction to 20%, a decrease of E-point septal separation from 14 mm to 7 mm and marked left ventricular remodelling. This degree of improvement in myocardial function may represent a direct link between dilated cardiomyopathy in the American Cocker Spaniel and plasma taurine deficiency. Alternatively, this response may reflect a breed-related cardiomyopathy with a natural history and therapeutic response not commonly seen in the more common large breed cardiomyopathy presentations.

  13. Dilated intercellular spaces as a marker of GERD.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Lori A; Orlando, Roy C

    2009-06-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is typically heralded by the substernal burning pain of heartburn. On endoscopic examination, about one third of GERD subjects with heartburn have erosive disease, and the remainder have nonerosive reflux disease (NERD). Unlike patients with erosive disease, those with NERD (approximately 50%) often do not respond to therapy with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), raising the question of whether they have NERD and, if they do, whether the cause of their symptoms is similar to those who respond to PPIs. Recently, biopsies established that subjects with heartburn and PPI-responsive NERD, like those with erosive esophagitis, have lesions within the esophageal epithelium known as dilated intercellular space (DIS). In this article, we discuss the physicochemical basis for DIS in acid-injured esophageal epithelium and its significance in GERD. Although DIS is not pathognomic of GERD, it is a marker of a break in the epithelial (junctional) barrier reflecting an increase in paracellular permeability.

  14. Posttransplant Complex Inferior Venacava Balloon Dilatation After Hepatic Vein Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Kohli, Vikas; Wadhawan, Manav; Gupta, Subhash; Roy, Vipul

    2010-02-15

    Orthotopic and living related liver transplantation is an established mode of treatment of end-stage liver disease. One of the major causes of postoperative complications is vascular anastomotic stenosis. One such set of such complications relates to hepatic vein, inferior vena cava (IVC), or portal vein stenosis, with a reported incidence of 1-3%. The incidence of vascular complications is reported to be higher in living donor versus cadaveric liver transplants. We encountered a patient with hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction, where the hepatic vein had been previously stented, but the patient continued to have symptoms due to additional IVC obstruction. The patient required double-balloon dilatation of the IVC simultaneously from the internal jugular vein and IVC.

  15. Infant and adult pupil dilation in response to unexpected sounds.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Nicole; Buttelmann, David; Schieler, Andy; Widmann, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Surprisingly occurring sounds outside the focus of attention can involuntarily capture attention. This study focuses on the impact of deviant sounds on the pupil size as a marker of auditory involuntary attention in infants. We presented an oddball paradigm including four types of deviant sounds within a sequence of repeated standard sounds to 14-month-old infants and to adults. Environmental and noise deviant sounds elicited a strong pupil dilation response (PDR) in both age groups. In contrast, moderate frequency deviants elicited a significant PDR in adults only. Moreover, a principal component analysis revealed two components underlying the PDR. Component scores differ, depending on deviant types, between age groups. Results indicate age effects of parasympathetic inhibition and sympathetic activation of the pupil size caused by deviant sounds with a high arousing potential. Results demonstrate that the PDR is a sensitive tool for the investigation of involuntary attention to sounds in preverbal children.

  16. The inverse problem of estimating the gravitational time dilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A. V.; Litvinov, D. A.; Rudenko, V. N.

    2016-11-01

    Precise testing of the gravitational time dilation effect suggests comparing the clocks at points with different gravitational potentials. Such a configuration arises when radio frequency standards are installed at orbital and ground stations. The ground-based standard is accessible directly, while the spaceborne one is accessible only via the electromagnetic signal exchange. Reconstructing the current frequency of the spaceborne standard is an ill-posed inverse problem whose solution depends significantly on the characteristics of the stochastic electromagnetic background. The solution for Gaussian noise is known, but the nature of the standards themselves is associated with nonstationary fluctuations of a wide class of distributions. A solution is proposed for a background of flicker fluctuations with a spectrum (1/ f)γ, where 1 < γ < 3, and stationary increments. The results include formulas for the error in reconstructing the frequency of the spaceborne standard and numerical estimates for the accuracy of measuring the relativistic redshift effect.

  17. Time dilation in relativistic two-particle interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, B. T.; Morris, M. C.; Ware, M. R.; Su, Q.; Grobe, R.; Stefanovich, E. V.

    2010-11-15

    We study the orbits of two interacting particles described by a fully relativistic classical mechanical Hamiltonian. We use two sets of initial conditions. In the first set (dynamics 1) the system's center of mass is at rest. In the second set (dynamics 2) the center of mass evolves with velocity V. If dynamics 1 is observed from a reference frame moving with velocity -V, the principle of relativity requires that all observables must be identical to those of dynamics 2 seen from the laboratory frame. Our numerical simulations demonstrate that kinematic Lorentz space-time transformations fail to transform particle observables between the two frames. This is explained as a result of the inevitable interaction dependence of the boost generator in the instant form of relativistic dynamics. Despite general inaccuracies of the Lorentz formulas, the orbital periods are correctly predicted by the Einstein's time dilation factor for all interaction strengths.

  18. Dilatancy in the flow and fracture of stretched colloidal suspensions.

    PubMed

    Smith, M I; Besseling, R; Cates, M E; Bertola, V

    2010-11-16

    Concentrated particulate suspensions, commonplace in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries, display intriguing rheology. In particular, the dramatic increase in viscosity with strain rate (shear thickening and jamming), which is often observed at high-volume fractions, is of practical and fundamental importance. Yet, manufacture of these products and their subsequent dispensing often involves flow geometries substantially different from that of simple shear flow experiments. In this study, we show that the elongation and breakage of a filament of a colloidal fluid under tensile loading is closely related to the jamming transition seen in its shear rheology. However, the modified flow geometry reveals important additional effects. Using a model system with nearly hard-core interactions, we provide evidence of surprisingly strong viscoelasticity in such a colloidal fluid under tension. With high-speed photography, we also directly observe dilatancy and granulation effects, which lead to fracture above a critical elongation rate.

  19. Developmental dilatation of Virchow-Robin spaces: a genetic disorder?

    PubMed

    Bruna, Anne-Laure; Martins, Ilda; Husson, Beatrice; Landrieu, Pierre

    2009-10-01

    In childhood, widening of Virchow-Robin spaces is rarely secondary to specific progressive disorders, but more often appears in poorly characterized developmental conditions. From data collected in a neuropediatric department, we examined whether clinical data associated with "constitutional widening of Virchow-Robin spaces" allowed delineation of recognizable entities. Signs in 10 patients, mostly boys, suggested nonspecific cerebral dysfunctions, e.g., developmental delay, nonspecific epilepsy, headaches, or benign macrocephaly. Spaces were sometimes round, subsequently mimicking microcystic malacic lesions. In two patients, abnormal magnetic resonance imaging signals were evident in white matter contiguous to widened perivascular spaces, suggesting a broader disorder of fluid exchanges. Four cases occurred in two sibships. In two families, other patients exhibited early developmental difficulties. Long-term clinical and magnetic resonance imaging surveillance will clarify which cases of primary Virchow-Robin space dilatation imply a benign prognosis. Performance of magnetic resonance imaging on any relative exhibiting minor neuropsychologic handicaps would permit estimations of real genetic incidence.

  20. External nasal dilators: definition, background, and current uses

    PubMed Central

    Dinardi, Ricardo Reis; de Andrade, Cláudia Ribeiro; Ibiapina, Cássio da Cunha

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to revise the literature about external nasal dilators (ENDs) as to their definition, history, and current uses. We reviewed journals in the PubMed and MEDLINE databases. The current uses hereby presented and discussed are physical exercise, nasal congestion and sleep, snoring, pregnancy, cancer, and healthy individuals. Numerous studies have shown that ENDs increase the cross-sectional area of the nasal valve, reducing nasal resistance and transnasal inspiratory pressure and stabilizing the lateral nasal vestibule, avoiding its collapse during final inspiration. These effects also facilitate breathing and are beneficial to patients with nasal obstruction. Furthermore, END use is simple, noninvasive, painless, affordable, and bears minimum risk to the user. Most studies have limited sample size and are mainly focused on physical exercise. In conclusion, ENDs seem useful, so further studies involving potential effects on the performance of physical tests and improvements in sleep quality are necessary, especially in children and teenagers. PMID:25419156

  1. Pathologic aneurysmal dilation of the ascending aorta and dilation of the main pulmonary artery in patients with Kabuki syndrome: valve-sparing aortic root replacement.

    PubMed

    Dyamenahalli, Umesh; Abraham, Boban; Fontenot, Eudice; Prasad, Vinay; Imamura, Michiaki

    2007-01-01

    We report the aneurysmal dilation of the ascending aorta and the main pulmonary artery in 2 children with Kabuki syndrome. In 1 patient, there was progressive aneurysmal dilation of the ascending aorta necessitating aortoplasty. Histologic examination of the resected aorta revealed disrupted and fragmented elastic fibers in the medial layer, along with mucinous degeneration of the aortic wall. This is the first recognition and report of these findings as part of the Kabuki syndrome.

  2. Sonographic appearance of a cesarean scar pregnancy with placenta percreta invading the bladder in the first trimester and management with fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Rebarber, Andrei; Varrey, Aneesha; Scherr, Doug; Fox, Nathan; Sassoon, Robert; Ciorica, Doina; Saltzman, Daniel

    2017-03-04

    A 36-year-old, gravida 8, para 6, woman with six prior cesarean sections presented at 6 weeks with a cesarean scar pregnancy. Medical management was performed initially; however, subsequent three-dimensional sonographic examinations revealed trophoblastic invasion into the bladder. This led to robotic-assisted partial cystectomy, fulguration of invaded pregnancy, and repair of the uterine defect. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 45:163-167, 2017.

  3. Stress-Dilatancy for Soils. Part I: The Frictional State Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szypcio, Zenon

    2016-12-01

    An unconventional subdivision of volumetric strains, the newly formulated frictional and critical frictional states and some of energetic and stress condition assumptions result in new stress-plastic dilatancy relationships. These new stress-plastic dilatancy relationships are functions of the deformation mode and drainage conditions. The critical frictional state presented in this paper is a special case of the classical critical state.

  4. Acute limb heating improves macro- and microvascular dilator function in the leg of aged humans.

    PubMed

    Romero, Steven A; Gagnon, Daniel; Adams, Amy N; Cramer, Matthew N; Kouda, Ken; Crandall, Craig G

    2017-01-01

    Local heating of an extremity increases blood flow and vascular shear stress throughout the arterial tree. Local heating acutely improves macrovascular dilator function in the upper limbs of young healthy adults through a shear stress-dependent mechanism but has no such effect in the lower limbs of this age group. The effect of acute limb heating on dilator function within the atherosclerotic prone vasculature of the lower limbs of aged adults is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that acute lower limb heating improves macro- and microvascular dilator function within the leg vasculature of aged adults. Nine young and nine aged adults immersed their lower limbs at a depth of ~33 cm into a heated (~42°C) circulated water bath for 45 min. Before and 30 min after heating, macro (flow-mediated dilation)- and microvascular (reactive hyperemia) dilator functions were assessed in the lower limb, following 5 min of arterial occlusion, via Doppler ultrasound. Compared with preheat, macrovascular dilator function was unchanged following heating in young adults (P = 0.6) but was improved in aged adults (P = 0.04). Similarly, microvascular dilator function, as assessed by peak reactive hyperemia, was unchanged following heating in young adults (P = 0.1) but was improved in aged adults (P < 0.01). Taken together, these data suggest that acute lower limb heating improves both macro- and microvascular dilator function in an age dependent manner.

  5. Pupil dilation signals uncertainty and surprise in a learning gambling task

    PubMed Central

    Lavín, Claudio; San Martín, René; Rosales Jubal, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Pupil dilation under constant illumination is a physiological marker where modulation is related to several cognitive functions involved in daily decision making. There is evidence for a role of pupil dilation change during decision-making tasks associated with uncertainty, reward-prediction errors and surprise. However, while some work suggests that pupil dilation is mainly modulated by reward predictions, others point out that this marker is related to uncertainty signaling and surprise. Supporting the latter hypothesis, the neural substrate of this marker is related to noradrenaline (NA) activity which has been also related to uncertainty signaling. In this work we aimed to test whether pupil dilation is a marker for uncertainty and surprise in a learning task. We recorded pupil dilation responses in 10 participants performing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a decision-making task that requires learning and constant monitoring of outcomes’ feedback, which are important variables within the traditional study of human decision making. Results showed that pupil dilation changes were modulated by learned uncertainty and surprise regardless of feedback magnitudes. Interestingly, greater pupil dilation changes were found during positive feedback (PF) presentation when there was lower uncertainty about a future negative feedback (NF); and by surprise during NF presentation. These results support the hypothesis that pupil dilation is a marker of learned uncertainty, and may be used as a marker of NA activity facing unfamiliar situations in humans. PMID:24427126

  6. Pupil dilation signals uncertainty and surprise in a learning gambling task.

    PubMed

    Lavín, Claudio; San Martín, René; Rosales Jubal, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Pupil dilation under constant illumination is a physiological marker where modulation is related to several cognitive functions involved in daily decision making. There is evidence for a role of pupil dilation change during decision-making tasks associated with uncertainty, reward-prediction errors and surprise. However, while some work suggests that pupil dilation is mainly modulated by reward predictions, others point out that this marker is related to uncertainty signaling and surprise. Supporting the latter hypothesis, the neural substrate of this marker is related to noradrenaline (NA) activity which has been also related to uncertainty signaling. In this work we aimed to test whether pupil dilation is a marker for uncertainty and surprise in a learning task. We recorded pupil dilation responses in 10 participants performing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a decision-making task that requires learning and constant monitoring of outcomes' feedback, which are important variables within the traditional study of human decision making. Results showed that pupil dilation changes were modulated by learned uncertainty and surprise regardless of feedback magnitudes. Interestingly, greater pupil dilation changes were found during positive feedback (PF) presentation when there was lower uncertainty about a future negative feedback (NF); and by surprise during NF presentation. These results support the hypothesis that pupil dilation is a marker of learned uncertainty, and may be used as a marker of NA activity facing unfamiliar situations in humans.

  7. A force sensor and peak-reading recorder for measurement of cervical dilatation force.

    PubMed

    Crawford, A J; Plant, G R; Filshie, G M; Macpherson, M B; McCabe, A R

    1984-10-01

    Earlier dilatation force-sensing transducers, when subjected to side loads, suffered frictional losses which affected their accuracy. This new instrument incorporates a thermal-writing chart recorder and a digital readout of the peak force during dilatation of the cervix.

  8. Measurements of two types of dilatational waves in an air-filled unconsolidated sand

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, C.J.; Sabatier, J.M.

    1997-07-01

    This study consists of laboratory measurements of dilatational waves propagating through an air-filled unconsolidated sand. One excitation technique consists of a loudspeaker suspended in the air above the packing of sand. A second excitation technique uses a mechanical shaker in contact with the sand. The transmitted signals are received using microphones and geophones located at various depths within the sand. An interpretation based on measured phase speeds indicates that the transmitted energy from the suspended loudspeaker source is partitioned primarily but not exclusively into the type-II dilatational wave. This wave attenuates rapidly and is only detected at depths of less than about 15 cm for this particular sample. At the deeper depths the detected signal is associated with the type-I dilatational wave. The mechanical shaker produces only a type-I dilatational wave. Both the geophone and microphone sensors can detect both types of dilatational waves. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

  9. Evaluation of ventricular wall stress and cardiac function in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Scardulla, Francesco; Rinaudo, Antonino; Pasta, Salvatore; Scardulla, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is a heart disease characterized by both left ventricular dilatation and left ventricular systolic dysfunction, leading to cardiac remodeling and ultimately heart failure. We aimed to investigate the effect of dilated cardiomyopathy on the pump performance and myocardial wall mechanics using patient-specific finite element analysis. Results evinced pronounced end-systolic wall stress on left ventricular wall of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy as compared to that of normal hearts. In dilated cardiomyopathy, both end-diastolic and end-systolic pressure-volume relationships of left ventricle and right ventricle were shifted to the right compared to controls, suggesting reduced myocardial contractility. We hereby propose that finite element analysis represents a useful tool to assess the myocardial wall stress and cardiac work, which are responsible for progressive left ventricular deterioration and poor clinical course.

  10. The Eyes Have It: Sex and Sexual Orientation Differences in Pupil Dilation Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Gerulf; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research suggests profound sex and sexual orientation differences in sexual response. These results, however, are based on measures of genital arousal, which have potential limitations such as volunteer bias and differential measures for the sexes. The present study introduces a measure less affected by these limitations. We assessed the pupil dilation of 325 men and women of various sexual orientations to male and female erotic stimuli. Results supported hypotheses. In general, self-reported sexual orientation corresponded with pupil dilation to men and women. Among men, substantial dilation to both sexes was most common in bisexual-identified men. In contrast, among women, substantial dilation to both sexes was most common in heterosexual-identified women. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. Because the measure of pupil dilation is less invasive than previous measures of sexual response, it allows for studying diverse age and cultural populations, usually not included in sexuality research. PMID:22870196

  11. Flickering task–irrelevant distractors induce dilation of target duration depending upon cortical distance

    PubMed Central

    Okajima, Miku; Yotsumoto, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    Flickering stimuli are perceived to be longer than stable stimuli. This so-called “flicker-induced time dilation” has been investigated in a number of studies, but the factors critical for this effect remain unclear. We explored the spatial distribution of the flicker effect and examined how the flickering task-irrelevant distractors spatially distant from the target induce time dilation. In two experiments, we demonstrated that flickering distractors dilated the perceived duration of the target stimulus even though the target stimulus itself was stable. In addition, when the distractor duration was much longer than the target duration, a flickering distractor located ipsilateral to the target caused greater time dilation than did a contralateral distractor. Thus the amount of dilation depended on the distance between the cortical areas responsible for the stimulus locations. These findings are consistent with the recent study reporting that modulation of neural oscillators encoding the interval duration could explain flicker-induced time dilation. PMID:27577614

  12. [The scintigraphic assessment of the patients suffering from cardia achalasia, treated by pneumatic dilatation].

    PubMed

    Stan, Mărioara; Bălan, G; Rusu, Maria; Ciortescu, Irina; Popa, Florentina

    2002-01-01

    The esophageal scintigraphy is a technique used to evaluate the motility and the clearance of the esophagus. The patients with achalasia of the cardia were evaluated, before treating them with pneumatic dilatation and after. The reason is to evaluate the efficiency of the pneumatic dilatation technique in the treatment of esophageal achalasia. The pneumatic dilatation with an instrument type Rigiflex is a well/handled and used technique in our clinic. In the study 22 patients were included and we had in view the esophageal transit time and the residuary radioactivity before and after the pneumatic dilatation. We established an important statistical improvement of the data obtained after the dilatation comparative with the data before the treatment (p < 0.01).

  13. Pupil dilation in the Simon task as a marker of conflict processing

    PubMed Central

    van Steenbergen, Henk; Band, Guido P. H.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive demands in response conflict paradigms trigger negative affect and avoidance behavior. However, not all response conflict studies show increases in physiological indices of emotional arousal, such as pupil diameter. In contrast to earlier null-results, this study shows for the first time that small (about 0.02 mm) conflict-related pupil dilation can be observed in a Simon task when stimuli do not introduce a light reflex. Results show that response-conflict in Simon trials induces both pupil dilation and reaction-time costs. Moreover, sequential analyses reveal that pupil dilation mirrors the conflict-adaptation pattern observed in reaction time (RT). Although single-trial regression analyses indicated that pupil dilation is likely to reflect more than one process at the same time, in general our findings imply that pupil dilation can be used as an indirect marker of conflict processing. PMID:23754997

  14. Small Intestinal Submucosa Plug for Closure of Dilated Nephrostomy Tracts: A Pilot Study in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Kakizawa, Hideyaki; Conlin, M. J.; Pavcnik, Dusan Uchida, Barry T.; Loriaux, Marc; Kim, Young Hwan; Keller, Frederick S.; Roesch, Josef

    2010-06-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of a plug made of small intestinal submucosa (SIS) for closure of dilated nephrostomy tract in the kidney after nephroscopy. Ten kidneys in 5 swine had nephrostomy tracts dilated up to 8 mm. The SIS plug was placed into the dilated renal cortex under nephroscopic control. Follow-up arteriograms, retrograde pyelograms, and macroscopic and histologic studies at 24 h (n = 4), 6 weeks (n = 2), and 3 months (n = 4) were performed to evaluate the efficacy of the plug. The SIS plug effectively closed the dilated nephrostomy tract. Follow-up studies showed minimal changes of the kidneys, except for 1 small infarction, regarding inflammatory and foreign-body reactions and progressive scarring of the SIS. SIS plug is effective for occlusion of dilated nephrostomy tract after nephroscopy. Its efficacy should be compared with other therapeutic options.

  15. Relationship between colour flow Doppler sonographic assessment of corpus luteum activity and progesterone concentrations in mares after embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Brogan, P T; Henning, H; Stout, T A E; de Ruijter-Villani, M

    2016-03-01

    Colour-flow Doppler sonography has been described as a means of assessing corpus luteum (CL) function rapidly, because area of luteal blood vessels correlates well with circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations [P4] in oestrous cycling mares. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between CL size and vascularity, and circulating [P4] during early pregnancy in mares, and to determine whether luteal blood flow was a useful aid for selecting an embryo transfer recipient. Equine embryos (n=48) were recovered 8 days after ovulation and were transferred to available recipient mares as part of a commercial program with the degree of synchrony in timing of recipient ovulation ranging from 1 day before to 4 days after the donor. Immediately prior to embryo transfer (ET), maximum CL cross-section and blood vessel areas were assessed sonographically, and jugular blood was collected to measure plasma [P4]. Sonographic measurements and jugular blood collection were repeated at day 4 after ET for all mares, and again at days 11, 18 and 25 after ET in mares that were pregnant. The number of grey-scale and colour pixels within the CL was subsequently quantified using ImageJ software. The CL blood flow correlated significantly but weakly with plasma [P4] on the day of transfer and on day 4 after ET in all mares, and on days 11 and 25 after ET in pregnant mares (r=0.30-0.36). The CL area and plasma [P4] were also correlated on each day until day 11 after ET (r=0.49-0.60). The CL colour pixel area decreased significantly after day 18, whereas CL area was already decreasing by day 4 after ET. The CL area, area of blood flow, or [P4] was predictive of pregnancy. Findings in the present study suggest that both CL area and blood flow are correlated with circulating [P4] at the time of transfer and in early pregnancy. Evaluation of the CL using B-mode or CF sonography, although practical, provides no improvement in the selection of recipients or prediction of pregnancy

  16. Granular Dilatancy and its Effect on Debris-flow Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, R. M.; George, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Landslides and debris flows commonly exhibit the effects of variable granular dilatancy, but incorporation of these effects in predictive models of debris-flow dynamics has been lacking. We have developed a depth-averaged model of debris-flow initiation and motion that includes the effects of variable dilatancy without stipulating its influence on rheology. Instead, the apparent rheology of Coulomb-frictional debris evolves during coupled evolution of the grain concentration m, basal pore-fluid pressure, flow thickness, and flow velocity. The dilatancy angle ψ plays an intermediary role in this evolution and obeys the simple relationship tan ψ = m-meq, where meq is the grain concentration in equilibrium with the ambient stress state and flow rate. Results of recent stress-controlled rheometric experiments by Boyer et al. (DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.188301) provide our basis for estimating meq. Relaxation of m toward meq, coupled with evolution of pore pressure, allows our model to simulate a smooth transition from static limiting equilibrium of slopes to disequilibrium flow dynamics. Use of variable friction coefficients or dam-break initial conditions is unnecessary. We have evaluated predictions of our model in three ways: (1) by examining physical implications of exact solutions of simplified model equations, (2) by comparing numerical solutions with results of controlled experiments at the USGS debris-flow flume, and (3) by comparing numerical predictions with the behavior of a large (~50 million m3) debris flow that occurred at Mt. Meager, British Columbia, in 2010. Model predictions depend mostly on initial conditions, flow-path topography, and the value of a single dimensionless parameter that represents the ratio of two key timescales. One timescale governs downslope, gravity-driven motion of debris, and the other governs pore-pressure diffusion. Values of these timescales are readily calculated from source-area geometry and standard geotechnical

  17. Antenatal Diagnosis of Iniencephaly: Sonographic and MR Correlation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sainani, Nisha I.; Karnik, Alka S.; Mohanty, Prita H.; Lawande, Malini A.; Patkar, Deepak P.; Sinha, Shweta

    2007-01-01

    Iniencephaly is an uncommon and fatal neural tube defect involving the occiput and inion, this occurs together with rachischisis of the cervical and thoracic spine, and retroflexion of the head. We report the ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of a case of iniencephaly with clubfeet and arthrogryposis. The diagnosis of iniencephaly is easy to make on ultrasound due to the typical star-gazing fetus. However, the details of the fetal brain and spinal cord may not be adequately delineated on US. We found MR imaging to be superior for depicting central nervous system abnormalities. MR imaging has evolved as an imaging modality and it is complementary to fetal US, yet US remains the screening modality of choice. PMID:17673848

  18. Retrospective study of sonographic findings in bone involvement associated with rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy: preliminary results of a case series*

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H.; Gregio-Junior, Everaldo; Lorenzato, Mario Muller

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study was aimed at investigating bone involvement secondary to rotator cuff calcific tendonitis at ultrasonography. Materials and Methods Retrospective study of a case series. The authors reviewed shoulder ultrasonography reports of 141 patients diagnosed with rotator cuff calcific tendonitis, collected from the computer-based data records of their institution over a four-year period. Imaging findings were retrospectively and consensually analyzed by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists looking for bone involvement associated with calcific tendonitis. Only the cases confirmed by computed tomography were considered for descriptive analysis. Results Sonographic findings of calcific tendinopathy with bone involvement were observed in 7/141 (~ 5%) patients (mean age, 50.9 years; age range, 42-58 years; 42% female). Cortical bone erosion adjacent to tendon calcification was the most common finding, observed in 7/7 cases. Signs of intraosseous migration were found in 3/7 cases, and subcortical cysts in 2/7 cases. The findings were confirmed by computed tomography. Calcifications associated with bone abnormalities showed no acoustic shadowing at ultrasonography, favoring the hypothesis of resorption phase of the disease. Conclusion Preliminary results of the present study suggest that ultrasonography can identify bone abnormalities secondary to rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy, particularly the presence of cortical bone erosion. PMID:26811551

  19. Prevalence and sonographic changes compatible with fatty liver disease in patients referred for abdominal ultrasound examination in Aracaju, SE*

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Josilda Ferreira; Cruz, Mário Augusto Ferreira; Machado Neto, José; de Santana, Demetrius Silva; Oliveira, Cristiane Costa da Cunha; Lima, Sônia Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and evaluate sonographic findings compatible with changes consistent with hepatic steatosis in patients referred for abdominal ultrasonography at four reference centers in Aracaju, SE, Brazil. Materials and Methods Prospective, descriptive survey, with analytical and quantitative approach, comprising abdominal ultrasonography scans performed with a convex, dynamic 3.75 MHz transducer. Liver dimensions and parenchymal echotexture were evaluated, classifying hepatic steatosis into grades (1, 2 or 3). The SPSS® 22.0 software was used for statistical analysis, adopting p < 0.05 as significance level. Results A total of 800 individuals (561 women and 239 men) were evaluated. The prevalence of steatosis was 29.1%, and the male patients were most affected, presenting with more advanced grades of disease (p = 0.021), as follows: 119 grade 1 (51.0%); 94 grade 2 (40.4%); and 20 grade 3 (8.6%). The median age patients' was 46 years. Conclusion In the present study sample, the prevalence of hepatic steatosis was high, particularly in the male patients. Ultrasonography is suggested as a first choice for the diagnosis of this condition, considering its wide availability, low cost and absence of side effects or risks to the patient. PMID:26929453

  20. Hearing Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  1. Regulation of native collateral vessel dilation after coronary occlusion in the dog.

    PubMed

    Lamping, K G; Bloom, E N; Harrison, D G

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine mechanisms involved in the response of native collaterals to coronary occlusion. In anesthetized dogs native collaterals were identified as vessels coursing between the left anterior descending and left circumflex arteries using fluorescence angiography. After a left anterior descending occlusion in 12 dogs, collaterals < 100 microns in diameter progressively dilated by 21 +/- 4% (n = 12) 1 min after occlusion and by 39 +/- 6% 15 min after occlusion. Collaterals > 100 microns in diameter did not dilate after coronary occlusion. NG-nitro-L-arginine (1 mg/min intracoronary) caused constriction under basal conditions in collaterals < 100 microns but did not prevent the dilation of collaterals after occlusion. In contrast, glibenclamide (10(-5) M), an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive potassium channels, had no effect on baseline diameter of collaterals < 100 microns diameter but completely prevented dilation of collaterals after occlusion. We conclude that collaterals are not maximally dilated immediately after a coronary occlusion but rather progressively dilate for at least 15 min after an occlusion. This dilation of native collaterals after an occlusion is not mediated by release of an endothelium-derived relaxing factor derived from L-arginine but is mediated by activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels.

  2. Malignant Esophagogastric Junction Obstruction: Efficacy of Balloon Dilation Combined with Chemotherapy and/or Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Gi-Young; Song, Ho-Young Hong, Heuk-Jin; Sung, Kyu-Bo; Seo, Tae-Seok; Yoon, Hyun-Ki

    2003-04-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of balloon dilation combined with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy for palliation of dysphagia due to malignant esophagogastric junction strictures. Methods: Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation was attempted in 20 patients. The causes of strictures were gastric adenocarcinoma (n = 10) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (n = 10). Scheduled chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy followed balloon dilation in all patients. Results: There were no technical failures or major complications. After balloon dilation, 15 (75%) patients showed improvement of dysphagia. No patient complained of reflux esophagitis during the follow-up period. Among the 15 patients, seven needed no further treatment for palliation of dysphagia until their deaths. The remaining eight patients underwent repeat balloon dilation(n = 4) or stent placement (n = 4)3-43 weeks (mean 15 weeks) after the initial balloon dilation because of recurrent dysphagia. Conclusion: Balloon dilation combined with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy seems to be an easy and reasonably effective palliative treatment for malignant esophagogastric strictures.

  3. The impact of capillary dilation on the distribution of red blood cells in artificial networks.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Franca; Reichold, Johannes; Weber, Bruno; Jenny, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that pericytes around capillaries are contractile and able to alter the diameter of capillaries. To investigate the effects of capillary dilation on network dynamics, we performed simulations in artificial capillary networks of different sizes and complexities. The unequal partition of hematocrit at diverging bifurcations was modeled by assuming that each red blood cell (RBC) enters the branch with the faster instantaneous flow. Network simulations with and without RBCs were performed to investigate the effect of local dilations. The results showed that the increase in flow rate due to capillary dilation was less when the effects of RBCs are included. For bifurcations with sufficient RBCs in the parent vessel and nearly equal flows in the branches, the flow rate in the dilated branch did not increase. Instead, a self-regulation of flow was observed due to accumulation of RBCs in the dilated capillary. A parametric study was performed to examine the dependence on initial capillary diameter, dilation factor, and tube hematocrit. Furthermore, the conditions needed for an efficient self-regulation mechanism are discussed. The results support the hypothesis that RBCs play a significant role for the fluid dynamics in capillary networks and that it is crucial to consider the blood flow rate and the distribution of RBCs to understand the supply of oxygen in the vasculature. Furthermore, our results suggest that capillary dilation/constriction offers the potential of being an efficient mechanism to alter the distribution of RBCs locally and hence could be important for the local regulation of oxygen delivery.

  4. Mitogenic cardiomyopathy: a lethal neonatal familial dilated cardiomyopathy characterized by myocyte hyperplasia and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kenneth T E; Taylor, Glenn P; Meschino, Wendy S; Kantor, Paul F; Cutz, Ernest

    2010-07-01

    Pediatric cardiomyopathies are a heterogenous group of conditions of which dilated cardiomyopathies are the most common clinicomorphologic subtype. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of many cases of dilated cardiomyopathies remain unknown. We describe a series of 5 cases of a rare but clinically and histologically distinctive dilated cardiomyopathy that was uniformly lethal in early infancy. The 5 cases include 2 pairs of siblings. There was parental consanguinity in 1 of the 2 pairs of siblings. Death occurred in early infancy (range, 22-67 days; mean, 42 days) after a short history of general lethargy, decreased feeding, respiratory distress, or cyanosis. There was no specific birth or early neonatal problems. Autopsy revealed congestive cardiac failure and enlarged, dilated hearts with ventricular dilatation more pronounced than atrial dilatation, and endocardial fibroelastosis. Histology showed prominent hypertrophic nuclear changes of cardiac myofibers and markedly increased myocyte mitotic activity including occasional atypical mitoses. Immunohistochemical staining for Mib1 showed a markedly increased proliferative index of 10% to 20%. Ancillary investigations, including molecular studies, did not reveal a primary cause for the cardiomyopathies. This distinctive dilated cardiomyopathy characterized by unusual histologic features of myocyte nuclear hypertrophy and marked mitotic activity is lethal in early infancy. Its occurrence in 2 pairs of siblings suggests familial inheritance. Although the underlying molecular pathogenesis remains to be elucidated, it is important to recognize this distinctive entity for purposes of genetic counseling.

  5. Laparoscopic Heller Myotomy for Non-Dilated Esophageal Achalasia in Children with Intraoperative Stepped Dilation Under Image Guidance: Attempting Complete Myotomy.

    PubMed

    Miyano, Go; Miyake, Hiromu; Koyama, Mariko; Morita, Keiichi; Kaneshiro, Masakatsu; Nouso, Hiroshi; Yamoto, Masaya; Fukumoto, Koji; Urushihara, Naoto

    2016-05-01

    This study presents a modified surgical approach to laparoscopic myotomy for achalasia using stepped dilation with a Rigiflex balloon and contrast medium under image guidance. A 10-year-old boy with persistent dysphagia and vomiting had ingested only liquids for 3 months, losing >10 kg in body weight. Barium swallow and esophageal manometry diagnosed esophageal achalasia with mild esophageal dilatation. After failed pneumatic dilatation, laparoscopic Heller myotomy with Dor fundoplication was performed. Prior to surgery, a Rigiflex balloon dilator was placed within the esophagus near the diaphragmatic hiatus. A four-port technique was used, and mobilization of the esophagus was limited to the anterior aspect. A 5-cm Heller myotomy was performed, extending another 2 cm onto the anterior gastric wall. During myotomy, the Rigiflex balloon was serially dilated from 30 to 50 mL, and filled with contrast medium under fluoroscopic image guidance in order to maintain appropriate tension on the esophagus to facilitate myotomy, and to confirm adequate myotomy with sufficient release of lower esophageal sphincter by resecting residual circular muscle fibers. Residual circular muscle fibers can be simultaneously visualized under both fluoroscopic image guidance and direct observation through the laparoscope, and they were cut precisely until the residual notch fully disappeared. Dor fundoplication was completed. The operative time was 180 minutes, and oral intake was started after esophagography on postoperative day 1. As of the 12-month follow-up, the patient has not shown any symptoms, and his postoperative course appeared satisfactory.

  6. Stroke and dilated cardiomyopathy associated with celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Doğan, Murat; Peker, Erdal; Cagan, Eren; Akbayram, Sinan; Acikgoz, Mehmet; Caksen, Huseyin; Uner, Abdurrahman; Cesur, Yasar

    2010-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is manifested by a variety of clinical signs and symptoms that may begin either in childhood or adult life. Neurological symptoms without signs of malabsorption have been observed for a long time in CD. In this report, an 8-year-old girl with CD presented with rarely seen dilated cardiomyopathy and stroke. The girl was admitted with left side weakness. Her medical history indicated abdominal distention, chronic diarrhea, failure to thrive, and geophagia. On physical examination, short stature, pale skin and a grade 2 of 6 systolic murmur were detected. Muscle strength was 0/5 on the left side, and 5/5 on the right side. Coagulation examinations were normal. Tests for collagen tissue diseases were negative. Factor V Leiden and prothrombin GA20210 mutations were negative. Tandem mass spectrophotometry and blood carnitine profiles were normal. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and cerebral angiography showed an infarction area at the basal ganglia level. Examinations of serologic markers and intestinal biopsy revealed CD. We emphasize that in differential diagnosis of ischemic stroke, CD should be kept in mind. PMID:20458770

  7. Fatal proventricular dilatation disease in captive native psittacines in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Donatti, Rogério Venâncio; Resende, Maurício; Ferreira, Francisco Carlos Júnior; Marques, Marcus Vinícius Romero; Ecco, Roselene; Shivaprasad, H L; de Resende, José Sérgio; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva

    2014-03-01

    An outbreak of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a fatal inflammatory disease of psittacines (Aves: Psittaciformes), is described in native Brazilian psittacines. Twenty captive psittacines that died of suspected PDD were necropsied and 10 were submitted to histopathology, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for avian bornavirus (ABV). Examined species were one pileated parrot (Pionopsitta pileata), three vinaceous-breasted parrots (Amazona vinacea), two blue-winged macaws (Primolius maracana), one scarlet macaw (Ara macao), one chestnut-fronted macaw (Ara severa), one scaly-headed parrot (Pionus maximiliani), and one red-browed Amazon parrot (Amazona rhodocorytha). Gross examination and histopathology revealed typical PDD lesions in all birds. The presence of ABV was confirmed in four psittacines including one red-browed Amazon parrot, one blue-winged macaw, one scarlet macaw, and one chestnut-fronted macaw. In the red-browed Amazon parrot and in one blue-winged macaw, IHC demonstrated ABV antigens in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells in various organs. This is the first description of PDD by ABV in Brazilian psittacines and indicates the necessity for adopting a strategic control plan for reducing its impact in native birds.

  8. Familial dilated cardiomyopathy: a worse prognosis compared with sporadic forms.

    PubMed Central

    Csanády, M.; Högye, M.; Kallai, A.; Forster, T.; Szárazajtai, T.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To establish the time of onset of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) by review of annual chest x rays, which are obligatory in Hungary. DESIGN--A retrospective survey of chest x rays of a cohort of confirmed cases of DCM, to assess time of onset of cardiomegaly. Clinical course was compared by follow up over a mean of six years from the time of diagnosis. SUBJECTS--240 patients with DCM (31 familial, 209 non-familial). Diagnosis was made by echocardiography in all cases and confirmed by coronary angiography and heart biopsy in some cases. MAIN RESULTS--At diagnosis, the mean age of the patients was 31.8 years in the familial group and 39.6 years in the non-familial group (P < 0.05). The time between the onset of cardiomegaly (cardiothoracic ratio > 0.45) and clinical diagnosis was 8.0 and 10.1 years respectively (P < 0.05). The six year survival was 6% in the familial group and 23% in the non-familial group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS--The familial form of DCM is the more malignant form: it occurs at an earlier age and progresses more rapidly than non-familial DCM. Images PMID:7546997

  9. A conduit dilation model of methane venting from lake sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scandella, B.P.; Varadharajan, C.; Hemond, Harold F.; Ruppel, C.; Juanes, R.

    2011-01-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, but its effects on Earth's climate remain poorly constrained, in part due to uncertainties in global methane fluxes to the atmosphere. An important source of atmospheric methane is the methane generated in organic-rich sediments underlying surface water bodies, including lakes, wetlands, and the ocean. The fraction of the methane that reaches the atmosphere depends critically on the mode and spatiotemporal characteristics of free-gas venting from the underlying sediments. Here we propose that methane transport in lake sediments is controlled by dynamic conduits, which dilate and release gas as the falling hydrostatic pressure reduces the effective stress below the tensile strength of the sediments. We test our model against a four-month record of hydrostatic load and methane flux in Upper Mystic Lake, Mass., USA, and show that it captures the complex episodicity of methane ebullition. Our quantitative conceptualization opens the door to integrated modeling of methane transport to constrain global methane release from lakes and other shallow-water, organic-rich sediment systems, and to assess its climate feedbacks.

  10. Late Gadolinium Enhancement in Patients with Nonischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Memon, Sarfaraz; Ganga, Harsha V; Kluger, Jeffrey

    2016-07-01

    One-third of all patients with heart failure have nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDM). Five-year mortality from NIDM is as high as 20% with sudden cardiac death (SCD) as the cause in 30% of the deaths. Currently, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is used as the main criteria to risk stratify patients requiring an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) to prevent SCD. However, LVEF does not necessarily reflect myocardial propensity for electrical instability leading to ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF). Due to the differential risk in various subgroups of patients for arrhythmic death, it is important to identify appropriate patients for ICD implantation so that we can optimize healthcare resources and avoid the complications of ICDs in individuals who are unlikely to benefit. We performed a systematic search and review of clinical trials of NIDM and the use of ICDs and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) for risk stratification. LGE identifies patients with NIDM who are at high risk for SCD and enables optimized patient selection for ICD placement, while the absence of LGE may reduce the need for ICD implantation in patients with NIDM who are at low risk for future VF/VT or SCD.

  11. Molecular profiling of dilated cardiomyopathy that progresses to heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Michael A.; Chang, Stephen; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Gorham, Joshua M.; Conner, David A.; Christodoulou, Danos C.; Parfenov, Michael G.; DePalma, Steve R.; Eminaga, Seda; Konno, Tetsuo; Seidman, Jonathan G.; Seidman, Christine E.

    2016-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is defined by progressive functional and structural changes. We performed RNA-seq at different stages of disease to define molecular signaling in the progression from pre-DCM hearts to DCM and overt heart failure (HF) using a genetic model of DCM (phospholamban missense mutation, PLNR9C/+). Pre-DCM hearts were phenotypically normal yet displayed proliferation of nonmyocytes (59% relative increase vs. WT, P = 8 × 10–4) and activation of proinflammatory signaling with notable cardiomyocyte-specific induction of a subset of profibrotic cytokines including TGFβ2 and TGFβ3. These changes progressed through DCM and HF, resulting in substantial fibrosis (17.6% of left ventricle [LV] vs. WT, P = 6 × 10–33). Cardiomyocytes displayed a marked shift in metabolic gene transcription: downregulation of aerobic respiration and subsequent upregulation of glucose utilization, changes coincident with attenuated expression of PPARα and PPARγ coactivators -1α (PGC1α) and -1β, and increased expression of the metabolic regulator T-box transcription factor 15 (Tbx15). Comparing DCM transcriptional profiles with those in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) revealed similar and distinct molecular mechanisms. Our data suggest that cardiomyocyte-specific cytokine expression, early fibroblast activation, and the shift in metabolic gene expression are hallmarks of cardiomyopathy progression. Notably, key components of these profibrotic and metabolic networks were disease specific and distinguish DCM from HCM. PMID:27239561

  12. Deception in simplicity: hereditary phospholamban mutations in dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Young, Howard S; Ceholski, Delaine K; Trieber, Catharine A

    2015-02-01

    The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium pump (SERCA) and its regulator phospholamban are required for cardiovascular function. Phospholamban alters the apparent calcium affinity of SERCA in a process that is modulated by phosphorylation via the β-adrenergic pathway. This regulatory axis allows for the dynamic control of SR calcium stores and cardiac contractility. Herein we focus on hereditary mutants of phospholamban that are associated with heart failure, such as Arg(9)-Cys, Arg(9)-Leu, Arg(9)-His, and Arg(14)-deletion. Each mutant has a distinct effect on PLN function and SR calcium homeostasis. Arg(9)-Cys and Arg(9)-Leu do not inhibit SERCA, Arg(14)-deletion is a partial inhibitor, and Arg(9)-His is comparable to wild-type. While the mutants have distinct functional effects on SERCA, they have in common that they cannot be phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA). Arg(9) and Arg(14) are required for PKA recognition and phosphorylation of PLN. Thus, mutations at these positions eliminate β-adrenergic control and dynamic cardiac contractility. Hydrophobic mutations of Arg(9) cause more complex changes in function, including loss of PLN function and dominant negative interaction with SERCA in heterozygous individuals. In addition, aberrant interaction with PKA may prevent phosphorylation of wild-type PLN and sequester PKA from other local subcellular targets. Herein we consider what is known about each mutant and how the synergistic changes in SR calcium homeostasis lead to impaired cardiac contractility and dilated cardiomyopathy.

  13. Pupil dilation as an index of preferred mutual gaze duration

    PubMed Central

    Binetti, Nicola; Harrison, Charlotte; Coutrot, Antoine; Johnston, Alan; Mareschal, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Most animals look at each other to signal threat or interest. In humans, this social interaction is usually punctuated with brief periods of mutual eye contact. Deviations from this pattern of gazing behaviour generally make us feel uncomfortable and are a defining characteristic of clinical conditions such as autism or schizophrenia, yet it is unclear what constitutes normal eye contact. Here, we measured, across a wide range of ages, cultures and personality types, the period of direct gaze that feels comfortable and examined whether autonomic factors linked to arousal were indicative of people's preferred amount of eye contact. Surprisingly, we find that preferred period of gaze duration is not dependent on fundamental characteristics such as gender, personality traits or attractiveness. However, we do find that subtle pupillary changes, indicative of physiological arousal, correlate with the amount of eye contact people find comfortable. Specifically, people preferring longer durations of eye contact display faster increases in pupil size when viewing another person than those preferring shorter durations. These results reveal that a person's preferred duration of eye contact is signalled by physiological indices (pupil dilation) beyond volitional control that may play a modulatory role in gaze behaviour. PMID:27493767

  14. Genetics and genomics of dilated cardiomyopathy and systolic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Tayal, Upasana; Prasad, Sanjay; Cook, Stuart A

    2017-02-22

    Heart failure is a major health burden, affecting 40 million people globally. One of the main causes of systolic heart failure is dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), the leading global indication for heart transplantation. Our understanding of the genetic basis of both DCM and systolic heart failure has improved in recent years with the application of next-generation sequencing and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). This has enabled rapid sequencing at scale, leading to the discovery of many novel rare variants in DCM and of common variants in both systolic heart failure and DCM. Identifying rare and common genetic variants contributing to systolic heart failure has been challenging given its diverse and multiple etiologies. DCM, however, although rarer, is a reasonably specific and well-defined condition, leading to the identification of many rare genetic variants. Truncating variants in titin represent the single largest genetic cause of DCM. Here, we review the progress and challenges in the detection of rare and common variants in DCM and systolic heart failure, and the particular challenges in accurate and informed variant interpretation, and in understanding the effects of these variants. We also discuss how our increasing genetic knowledge is changing clinical management. Harnessing genetic data and translating it to improve risk stratification and the development of novel therapeutics represents a major challenge and unmet critical need for patients with heart failure and their families.

  15. Contemporary Outcome in Patients With Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Broch, Kaspar; Murbræch, Klaus; Andreassen, Arne Kristian; Hopp, Einar; Aakhus, Svend; Gullestad, Lars

    2015-09-15

    Outcome is better in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) than in ischemic heart failure (HF), but morbidity and mortality are nevertheless presumed to be substantial. Most data on the prognosis in IDC stem from research performed before the widespread use of current evidence-based treatment, including implantable devices. We report outcome data from a cohort of patients with IDC treated according to current HF guidelines and compare our results with previous figures: 102 consecutive patients referred to our tertiary care hospital with idiopathic IDC and a left ventricular ejection fraction <40% were included in a prospective cohort study. After extensive baseline work-up, follow-up was performed after 6 and 13 months. Vital status and heart transplantation were recorded. Over the first year of follow-up, the patients were on optimal pharmacological treatment, and 24 patients received implantable devices. Left ventricular ejection fraction increased from 26 ± 10% to 41 ± 11%, peak oxygen consumption increased from 19.5 ± 7.1 to 23.4 ± 7.8 ml/kg/min, and functional class improved substantially (all p values <0.001). After a median follow-up of 3.6 years, 4 patients were dead, and heart transplantation had been performed in 9 patients. According to our literature search, survival in patients with IDC has improved substantially over the last decades. In conclusion, patients with IDC have a better outcome than previously reported when treated according to current guidelines.

  16. Acetylcholine released by endothelial cells facilitates flow‐mediated dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Calum; Lee, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Key points The endothelium plays a pivotal role in the vascular response to chemical and mechanical stimuli.The endothelium is exquisitely sensitive to ACh, although the physiological significance of ACh‐induced activation of the endothelium is unknown.In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of flow‐mediated endothelial calcium signalling.Our data establish that flow‐mediated endothelial calcium responses arise from the autocrine action of non‐neuronal ACh released by the endothelium. Abstract Circulating blood generates frictional forces (shear stress) on the walls of blood vessels. These frictional forces critically regulate vascular function. The endothelium senses these frictional forces and, in response, releases various vasodilators that relax smooth muscle cells in a process termed flow‐mediated dilatation. Although some elements of the signalling mechanisms have been identified, precisely how flow is sensed and transduced to cause the release of relaxing factors is poorly understood. By imaging signalling in large areas of the endothelium of intact arteries, we show that the endothelium responds to flow by releasing ACh. Once liberated, ACh acts to trigger calcium release from the internal store in endothelial cells, nitric oxide production and artery relaxation. Flow‐activated release of ACh from the endothelium is non‐vesicular and occurs via organic cation transporters. ACh is generated following mitochondrial production of acetylCoA. Thus, we show ACh is an autocrine signalling molecule released from endothelial cells, and identify a new role for the classical neurotransmitter in endothelial mechanotransduction. PMID:27730645

  17. A conduit dilation model of methane venting from lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandella, Benjamin P.; Varadharajan, Charuleka; Hemond, Harold F.; Ruppel, Carolyn; Juanes, Ruben

    2011-03-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, but its effects on Earth's climate remain poorly constrained, in part due to uncertainties in global methane fluxes to the atmosphere. An important source of atmospheric methane is the methane generated in organic-rich sediments underlying surface water bodies, including lakes, wetlands, and the ocean. The fraction of the methane that reaches the atmosphere depends critically on the mode and spatiotemporal characteristics of free-gas venting from the underlying sediments. Here we propose that methane transport in lake sediments is controlled by dynamic conduits, which dilate and release gas as the falling hydrostatic pressure reduces the effective stress below the tensile strength of the sediments. We test our model against a four-month record of hydrostatic load and methane flux in Upper Mystic Lake, Mass., USA, and show that it captures the complex episodicity of methane ebullition. Our quantitative conceptualization opens the door to integrated modeling of methane transport to constrain global methane release from lakes and other shallow-water, organic-rich sediment systems, and to assess its climate feedbacks.

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Subthreshold Resonant Properties in Pyloric Dilator Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Vazifehkhah Ghaffari, Babak; Kouhnavard, Mojgan; Aihara, Takeshi; Kitajima, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Various types of neurons exhibit subthreshold resonance oscillation (preferred frequency response) to fluctuating sinusoidal input currents. This phenomenon is well known to influence the synaptic plasticity and frequency of neural network oscillation. This study evaluates the resonant properties of pacemaker pyloric dilator (PD) neurons in the central pattern generator network through mathematical modeling. From the pharmacological point of view, calcium currents cannot be blocked in PD neurons without removing the calcium-dependent potassium current. Thus, the effects of calcium (ICa) and calcium-dependent potassium (IKCa) currents on resonant properties remain unclear. By taking advantage of Hodgkin-Huxley-type model of neuron and its equivalent RLC circuit, we examine the effects of changing resting membrane potential and those ionic currents on the resonance. Results show that changing the resting membrane potential influences the amplitude and frequency of resonance so that the strength of resonance (Q-value) increases by both depolarization and hyperpolarization of the resting membrane potential. Moreover, hyperpolarization-activated inward current (Ih) and ICa (in association with IKCa) are dominant factors on resonant properties at hyperpolarized and depolarized potentials, respectively. Through mathematical analysis, results indicate that Ih and IKCa affect the resonant properties of PD neurons. However, ICa only has an amplifying effect on the resonance amplitude of these neurons. PMID:25960999

  19. Mathematical modeling of subthreshold resonant properties in pyloric dilator neurons.

    PubMed

    Vazifehkhah Ghaffari, Babak; Kouhnavard, Mojgan; Aihara, Takeshi; Kitajima, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Various types of neurons exhibit subthreshold resonance oscillation (preferred frequency response) to fluctuating sinusoidal input currents. This phenomenon is well known to influence the synaptic plasticity and frequency of neural network oscillation. This study evaluates the resonant properties of pacemaker pyloric dilator (PD) neurons in the central pattern generator network through mathematical modeling. From the pharmacological point of view, calcium currents cannot be blocked in PD neurons without removing the calcium-dependent potassium current. Thus, the effects of calcium (I(Ca)) and calcium-dependent potassium (I(KCa)) currents on resonant properties remain unclear. By taking advantage of Hodgkin-Huxley-type model of neuron and its equivalent RLC circuit, we examine the effects of changing resting membrane potential and those ionic currents on the resonance. Results show that changing the resting membrane potential influences the amplitude and frequency of resonance so that the strength of resonance (Q-value) increases by both depolarization and hyperpolarization of the resting membrane potential. Moreover, hyperpolarization-activated inward current (I(h)) and I(Ca) (in association with I(KCa)) are dominant factors on resonant properties at hyperpolarized and depolarized potentials, respectively. Through mathematical analysis, results indicate that I h and I(KCa) affect the resonant properties of PD neurons. However, I(Ca) only has an amplifying effect on the resonance amplitude of these neurons.

  20. Choledochal cyst with bile duct dilatation: sonography and /sup 99m/Tc IDA cholescintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B.K.; Babcock, D.S.; Gelfand, M.H.

    1981-06-01

    Three cases of choledochal cyst associated with intrahepatic biliary dilatation are presented. Findings on sonography included a large cystic mass in the porta hepatis separate from the gallbladder; a dilated common hepatic or common bile duct entering directly into the cyst; and smaller cystic masses of dilated central intrahepatic ducts. All three patients underwent operation with intraoperative cholangiography. Two patients had /sup 99m/Tc IDA cholescintigraphy which confirmed the diagnosis of choledochal cyst by demonstrating filling of the cyst with stasis and delayed intestinal activity. The accurate preoperative diagnosis of choledochal cyst, made by sonography combined with /sup 99m/Tc IDA cholescintigraphy, obviated invasive studies.

  1. Dilatational viscosity of dilute particle-laden fluid interface at different contact angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lishchuk, Sergey V.

    2016-12-01

    We consider a solid spherical particle adsorbed at a flat interface between two immiscible fluids and having arbitrary contact angle at the triple contact line. We derive analytically the flow field corresponding to dilatational surface flow in the case of a large ratio of dynamic shear viscosities of two fluids. Considering a dilute assembly of such particles we calculate numerically the dependence on the contact angle of the effective surface dilatational viscosity particle-laden fluid interface. The effective surface dilatational viscosity is proportional to the size and surface concentration of particles and monotonically increases with the increase in protrusion of particles into the fluid with larger shear viscosity.

  2. [Treatment of atresia ani type I by balloon dilatation in 5 kittens and one puppy].

    PubMed

    Tomsa, K; Major, A; Glaus, T M

    2011-06-01

    Atresia ani is the most common anorectal anomaly in small animals. In the present study, an anal stricture (atresia ani type I) in five 3 to 8 weeks old kittens and one 4 month old puppy was treated by balloon dilation. In 4 kittens and the puppy the stricture was eliminated permanently and without complications by a single intervention. Only the smallest kitten with the most severe stenosis developed a rectal fistula as a complication of repeated balloon dilation, which necessitated surgical correction. Balloon dilation proved to be an efficient therapeutic method for anal atresia type I, and can be recommended as the treatment of choice.

  3. Vision Screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Visi Screen OSS-C, marketed by Vision Research Corporation, incorporates image processing technology originally developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Its advantage in eye screening is speed. Because it requires no response from a subject, it can be used to detect eye problems in very young children. An electronic flash from a 35 millimeter camera sends light into a child's eyes, which is reflected back to the camera lens. The photorefractor then analyzes the retinal reflexes generated and produces an image of the child's eyes, which enables a trained observer to identify any defects. The device is used by pediatricians, day care centers and civic organizations that concentrate on children with special needs.

  4. Transparent screens.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, R J

    1988-01-01

    There is a kind of transitional phenomenon found among certain borderline patients which is quite distinct from Winnicott's transitional object. These are patients who are preoccupied with maintaining proper physical distance from their objects, in order to regulate anxieties about isolation on the one hand, and identity-annihilating closeness on the other. Since they believe the activity of looking to be intrusive and devouring, hence dangerous, transparent screens are interposed between self and other, and serve as protective barriers. These screens function intrapsychically as well, to split off or hide those aspects of the self felt to be unacceptable. The analyst may witness the failure of the screen in several ways: it may create too great a distance, isolating the individual and keeping him from life; it may become contaminated by projections and turn into a persecutor, or trap the individual, a state of intolerable claustrophobia; most dramatically, it may suddenly shatter. The latter is associated with psychosis and death, and its appearance may be a harbinger of suicide.

  5. A novel mitochondrial DNA tRNAIle (m.4322dupC) mutation associated with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Mahjoub, Sinda; Sternberg, Damien; Boussaada, Rafik; Filaut, Sandrine; Gmira, Fathi; Mechmech, Rachid; Jardel, Claude; Arab, Saïda Ben

    2007-12-01

    We identified a novel heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) (m.4322dupC) mutation in tRNA gene associated with isolated dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) as maternal trait. Mutation screening techniques and automated DNA sequencing were performed to identify mtDNA mutations and to assess heteroplasmy in family's proband and healthy control subjects. All family members tested had heteroplasmic mtDNA m.4322dupC mutation. We also screened 350 normal controls for this mutation and found no evidence of heteroplasmy. The m.4322dupC mutation was found in the skeletal tissue from the proband that exhibited slightly reduced deficiency of mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes (complex III). The present study reports the novel m.4322dupC mutation in tRNA gene, which is possibly associated to the disease, to isolated DCM. It was localized in a hot-spot region for mutations and is possibly pathogenic because of a cosegregation with the matrilineal transmission of DCM.

  6. Evolution of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) from idiopathic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (IHCM) vs. inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMi): a rare case of sudden death in an 8-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Schmidt, Peter; Kandolf, Reinhard; Madea, Burkhard

    2004-01-01

    In rare cases, the diagnosis of hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in children was established postmortem. Our case report deals with the sudden and unexpected death of an 8-year-old boy. The postmortem examination revealed non-obstructive hypertrophy with irregular arrangement of muscular fibers, dilatation of the ventricles, endocardial fibrosis, microfocal vacuolization with enlarged hyperchromatic nuclei, and signs of inflammation with interstitial fibrosis. We present an evolution from idiopathic cardiomyopathy to DCM. To some extent, there were morphologic signs of an inflammatory process that first led us to suspect a specific inflammatory DCM.

  7. Quality assurance and its impact on ovarian visualization rates in the multicenter United Kingdom Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS)

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, A.; Burnell, M.; Gentry‐Maharaj, A.; Campbell, S.; Amso, N. N.; Seif, M. W.; Fletcher, G.; Brunell, C.; Turner, G.; Rangar, R.; Ryan, A.; Jacobs, I.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To describe the quality assurance (QA) processes and their impact on visualization of postmenopausal ovaries in the ultrasound arm of a multicenter screening trial for ovarian cancer. Methods In the United Kingdom Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening, 50 639 women aged 50–74 years were randomized to the ultrasound arm and underwent annual transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) examinations. QA processes were developed during the course of the trial and included regular monitoring of the visualization rate (VR) of the right ovary. Non‐subjective factors identified previously as impacting on VR of the right ovary were included in a generalized estimating equation model for binary outcomes to enable comparison of observed vs adjusted VR between individual sonographers who had undertaken > 1000 scans during the trial and comparison between centers. Observed and adjusted VRs of sonographers and centers were ranked according to the highest VR. Analysis of annual VRs of sonographers and those of the included centers was undertaken. Results Between June 2001 and December 2010, 48 230 of 50 639 women attended one of 13 centers for a total of 270 035 annual TVS scans. One or both ovaries were seen in 228 145 (84.5%) TVS scans. The right ovary was seen on 196 426 (72.7%) of the scans. For the 78 sonographers included in the model, the median difference between observed and adjusted VR was −0.7% (range, −7.9 to 5.9%) and the median change in VR rank after adjustment was 3 (range, 0–18). For the 13 centers, the median difference between observed and adjusted VR was −0.5% (range, −2.2 to 1%), with no change in ranking after adjustment. The median adjusted VR was 73% (interquartile range (IQR), 65–82%) for sonographers and 74.7% (IQR, 67.1–79.0%) for centers. Despite the increasing age of the women being scanned, there was a steady decrease in the number of sonographers with VR < 60% (21.4% in 2002 vs 2.0% in 2010) and an increase in

  8. A theoretical derivation of the dilatancy equation for brittle rocks based on Maxwell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Huang, Houxu; Wang, Mingyang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the micro-cracks in the brittle rocks are assumed to be penny shaped and evenly distributed; the damage and dilatancy of the brittle rocks is attributed to the growth and expansion of numerous micro-cracks under the local tensile stress. A single crack's behaviour under the local tensile stress is generalized to all cracks based on the distributed damage mechanics. The relationship between the local tensile stress and the external loading is derived based on the Maxwell model. The damage factor corresponding to the external loading is represented using the p-alpha (p-α) model. A dilatancy equation that can build up a link between the external loading and the rock dilatancy is established. A test of dilatancy of a brittle rock under triaxial compression is conducted; the comparison between experimental results and our theoretical results shows good consistency.

  9. Eustachian Tube Dilation via a Transtympanic Approach in 6 Cadaver Heads: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Dean, Marc; Chao, Wei-Chieh; Poe, Dennis

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of endoscopic transtympanic balloon dilation of the cartilaginous eustachian tube. To accomplish this, transtympanic balloon dilation of the cartilaginous eustachian tube was performed on 11 eustachian tubes (6 cadaver heads). The balloon catheter was introduced and passed through the protympanic orifice of the eustachian tube transtympanically under endoscopic view and cannulated without incident in all cadavers. Computed tomography was then performed postprocedure to evaluate for inadvertent dilation of the bony eustachian tube, adverse placement of the balloon, or any bony fractures. The balloon was seen to be successfully inflated in the cartilaginous portion without damage to surrounding structures in all cases. This demonstrates that under endoscopic guidance, the protympanic orifice of the eustachian tube can be feasibly cannulated and reliably traversed, allowing for targeted dilation of the cartilaginous eustachian tube from a transtympanic approach.

  10. Choledochal cyst with bile duct dilatation: sonography and /sup 99/mTc IDA cholescintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B.K.; Babcock, D.S.; Gelfand, M.H.

    1981-06-01

    Three cases of choledochal cyst associated with intrahepatic biliary dilatation are presented. Findings on sonography included a large cystic mass in the porta hepatis separate from the gallbladder; a dilated common hepatic or common bile duct entering directly into the cyst; the smaller cystic masses of dilated central intrahepatic ducts. The dilatation of the central intrahepatic bile ducts was moderate in two patients and massive in one patient. All three patients underwent operation with intraoperative cholangiography. Two patients had /sup 99/mTc IDA cholescintigraphy which confirmed the diagnosis of choledochal cyst by demonstrating filling of the cyst with stasis and delayed intestinal activity. The accurate preoperative diagnosis of choledochal cyst, made by sonography combined with /sup 99/mTc IDA cholescintigraphy, obviated invasive studies.

  11. Rare variant mutations identified in pediatric patients with dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Rampersaud, Evadnie; Siegfried, Jill D; Norton, Nadine; Li, Duanxiang; Martin, Eden; Hershberger, Ray E

    2010-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in infants and children can be partially explained by genetic cause but the catalogue of known genes is limited. We reviewed our database of 41 cases diagnosed with DCM before 18 years of age who underwent detailed clinical and genetic evaluation, and summarize here the evidence for mutations causing DCM in these cases from 15 genes (PSEN1, PSEN2, CSRP3, LBD3, MYH7, SCN5A, TCAP, TNNT2, LMNA, MYBPC3, MYH6, TNNC1, TNNI3, TPM1, and RBM20). Thirty-five of the 41 pediatric cases had relatives with adult-onset DCM. More males (66%) were found among children diagnosed after 1 year of age with DCM. Nineteen mutations in 9 genes were identified among 15 out of 41 patients; 3 patients (diagnosed at ages 2 weeks, 9 and 13 years) had multiple mutations. Of the 19 mutations identified in 12 families, mutations in TPM1 (32%) and TNNT2 (21%) were the most commonly found. Of the 6 patients diagnosed before 1 year of age, 3 had mutations in TPM1 (including a set of identical twins), 1 in TNNT2, 1 in MYH7, and 1 with multiple mutations (MYH7 and TNNC1). Most DCM was accompanied by advanced heart failure and need for cardiac transplantation. We conclude that in some cases pediatric DCM has a genetic basis, which is complicated by allelic and locus heterogeneity as seen in adult-onset DCM. We suggest that future prospective comprehensive family-based genetic studies of pediatric DCM are indicated to further define mutation frequencies in known genes and to discover novel genetic cause. PMID:21483645

  12. Efficient algorithms for dilated mappings of binary trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iqbal, M. Ashraf

    1990-01-01

    The problem is addressed to find a 1-1 mapping of the vertices of a binary tree onto those of a target binary tree such that the son of a node on the first binary tree is mapped onto a descendent of the image of that node in the second binary tree. There are two natural measures of the cost of this mapping, namely the dilation cost, i.e., the maximum distance in the target binary tree between the images of vertices that are adjacent in the original tree. The other measure, expansion cost, is defined as the number of extra nodes/edges to be added to the target binary tree in order to ensure a 1-1 mapping. An efficient algorithm to find a mapping of one binary tree onto another is described. It is shown that it is possible to minimize one cost of mapping at the expense of the other. This problem arises when designing pipelined arithmetic logic units (ALU) for special purpose computers. The pipeline is composed of ALU chips connected in the form of a binary tree. The operands to the pipeline can be supplied to the leaf nodes of the binary tree which then process and pass the results up to their parents. The final result is available at the root. As each new application may require a distinct nesting of operations, it is useful to be able to find a good mapping of a new binary tree over existing ALU tree. Another problem arises if every distinct required binary tree is known beforehand. Here it is useful to hardwire the pipeline in the form of a minimal supertree that contains all required binary trees.

  13. A new sonographic method for the evaluation of skin permeability changes after irradiation with low-frequency ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novario, Raffaele; Tanzi, Fabio; Goddi, Alfredo; Monico, Roberto; Fachinetti, Camilla; Lega, Mario; Onori, Roberto; Pavani, Francesca

    2007-03-01

    The irradiation of the skin with low-frequency ultrasound (42 MHz) increases the skin permeability, allowing the US stimulated drug delivery (sonophoresis). The changes in the skin permeability is generally demonstrated with the measurement of corneometry and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). A novel ultrasound scanner with a 50 MHz probe was used for acquiring images of the skin (penetration depth few millimeters). The images show the different epidermal and dermis layers. A specially designed plexiglas basin containing an US transducer was used. Water was used as matching medium. The transducer was set to generate a 42 MHz continuous wave US beam with an intensity of 150 mW/cm2 for a chosen preset time. Ninety healthy volunteers were submitted to exposure of the back of the hand. The back of the hand of each person was scanned at 50 MHz before the irradiation and after 1, 15 and 60 minutes. A significant variation of the stratum corneum and the derma on the sonographic image was found. A particular software code was developed in order to quantify the amount of the variation in the image, using different parameters (entropy, energy, skewness, kurtosis, etc.) related to the pixel value in different regions of interest and to the cumulated profile along lines perpendicular to the skin surface. The variations in the parameters so defined were demonstrated to be statistically significant and with a sensibility much higher than corneometry and TEWL. This new approach allow to better understand the mechanism and quantify the changes in the skin permeability.

  14. Transformation of myocarditis and inflammatory cardiomyopathy to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: facts and fiction.

    PubMed

    Figulla, Hans R

    2004-05-01

    There is broad evidence that enteroviruses and adenoviruses can induce an acute inflammation of the myocardium without cardiac dysfunction (i.e. myocarditis) or with cardiac dysfunction (i.e. inflammatory cardiomyopathy) that can transform to a virus-negative dilated cardiomyopathy. In the adult patient neither other viruses (parvo-B 19 virus, hepatitis C virus, cytomegalovirus) nor post-infection autoimmunity are likely to induce idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

  15. Percutaneous drainage of gastric remnant dilatation after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Bibyan, M; Khandelwal, R G; Parmar, A K; Reddy, P K

    2012-05-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is a commonly performed bariatric procedure worldwide. Gastric remnant dilatation is an uncommon early complication of this procedure that can be fatal if treatment is delayed, as it can cause peritonitis and death. Herein we report a gastric bypass patient who presented with profound shock 3 months after the surgery. After resuscitation and evaluation, she was diagnosed as having a massive dilatation of gastric remnant, which we managed with percutaneous drainage.

  16. Segmental Dilatation of Intestine Presenting as Partial Intestinal Obstruction in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Khemakhem, Rachid; Elhassan, Elbager Othman

    2014-01-01

    Segmental dilatation of the intestine in pediatric age group is a rare entity. Patients usually present with partial intestinal obstruction which may delay surgical decision. Our case was an 18-month-old girl, who presented with partial intestinal obstruction, provisionally diagnosed as a case of Hirschsprung’s disease. Diagnostic evaluation with contrast study gave a clue of small intestinal obstruction with a dilated segment. PMID:25057472

  17. Breast cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  18. Depth inloop resampling using dilation filter for free viewpoint video system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seok; Lee, Seungsin; Wey, Hocheon; Lee, Jaejoon; Park, Dusik

    2013-03-01

    A depth dilation filter is proposed for free viewpoint video system based on mixed resolution multi-view video plus depth (MVD). By applying gray scale dilation filter to depth images, foreground regions are extended to background region, and synthesis artifacts occur out of boundary edge. Thus, objective and subjective quality of view synthesis result is improved. A depth dilation filter is applied to inloop resampling part in encoding/decoding, and post processing part after decoding. Accurate view synthesis is important in virtual view generation for autostereoscopic display, moreover there are many coding tools which use view synthesis to reduce interview redundancy in 3D video coding such as view synthesis prediction (VSP) and depth based motion vector prediction (DMVP), and compression efficiency can be improved by accurate view synthesis. Coding and synthesis experiments are performed for performance evaluation of a dilation filter with MPEG test sequences. Dilation filter was implemented on the top of the MPEG reference software for AVC based 3D video coding. By applying a depth dilation filter, BD-rate gains of 0.5% and 6.0% in terms of PSNR of decoded views and synthesized views, respectively.

  19. Relating Pupil Dilation and Metacognitive Confidence during Auditory Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Lempert, Karolina M; Chen, Yu Lin; Fleming, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    The sources of evidence contributing to metacognitive assessments of confidence in decision-making remain unclear. Previous research has shown that pupil dilation is related to the signaling of uncertainty in a variety of decision tasks. Here we ask whether pupil dilation is also related to metacognitive estimates of confidence. Specifically, we measure the relationship between pupil dilation and confidence during an auditory decision task using a general linear model approach to take into account delays in the pupillary response. We found that pupil dilation responses track the inverse of confidence before but not after a decision is made, even when controlling for stimulus difficulty. In support of an additional post-decisional contribution to the accuracy of confidence judgments, we found that participants with better metacognitive ability - that is, more accurate appraisal of their own decisions - showed a tighter relationship between post-decisional pupil dilation and confidence. Together our findings show that a physiological index of uncertainty, pupil dilation, predicts both confidence and metacognitive accuracy for auditory decisions.

  20. Transcatheter pulmonary valve perforation and balloon dilatation in neonates with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum

    PubMed Central

    Gerestein, C.G.; Berger, R.M.F.; Dalinghaus, M.; Bogers, A.J.J.C.; Witsenburg, M.

    2003-01-01

    Background Pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum is characterised by a great morphological variety. Treatment is not uniform. Objective To evaluate our experience with transcatheter valvotomy and balloon dilatation in neonates with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum. Design Retrospective. Methods Between January 1997 and September 2000 five neonates with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum underwent transcatheter valvotomy and balloon dilatation. Results The catheter intervention was performed at a mean age of 27 days (range 3-95 days). The atretic pulmonary valve was successfully perforated in all neonates. Subsequent balloon dilatation was successful in four neonates. Balloon dilatation was unsuccessful in one patient, who underwent an elective surgical valvotomy of the pulmonary valve after five days. Three patients needed a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt after a mean of 23 days. Four patients required repeated balloon dilatation after a mean of 227 days. Mean follow-up was 2.7 years (range 1-5 years). Conclusions Transcatheter perforation of the pulmonary valve membrane and balloon dilatation is a good, safe initial therapy in selected neonates with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum. This procedure can prevent open-heart surgery in these patients in the first months of life. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:25696158

  1. Surface dilational moduli of poly (ethylene oxide), poly (methyl methacrylate), and their blend films.

    PubMed

    Kato, Satoaki; Kawaguchi, Masami

    2012-10-15

    Surface dilational moduli of poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and compatible PEO/PMMA blend films spread at the air-water interface were investigated as a function of surface concentration. The surface dilational modulus of an expanded PEO film increased as the surface concentration increased to 0.4 mg/m(2), which corresponds to the limiting surface area of PEO. After peaking at this value, the surface dilational modulus decreased with an increase in the PEO concentration. Lissajous orbits of PEO films exhibited positive hysteresis loops for all surface concentration ranges. On the other hand, the surface dilational modulus of a condensed PMMA film steeply increased as the surface concentration increased. Lissajous orbits of PMMA films changed from positive hysteresis loops to negative loops at the surface concentration at which the surface pressure reached in the plateau region. The magnitude of the surface dilational modulus of PMMA was larger than that of PEO at a fixed surface concentration. The surface dilational moduli of the PEO/PMMA blend films increased with the total surface concentration and their magnitudes were less than those of the individual PMMA films and larger than those of the individual PEO films at fixed surface concentrations. Lissajous orbits of the PEO/PMMA blend films also changed from positive hysteresis loops to negative loops beyond the surface concentration at which the plateau surface pressure of PEO was attained.

  2. Effect of xylazine, isoxsuprine, and lidocaine on Doppler sonographic uterine and umbilical blood flow measurements in cows during the last month of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Waldvogel, D; Bleul, U

    2014-04-15

    The maternal portion of the bovine placenta receives blood mainly from the uterine arteries (AUT) and the fetal portion from the umbilical arteries (AUM). Placental perfusion is crucial for fetal development and undergoes adaptive changes during pregnancy according to the fetal requirements. One goal of this study was to investigate changes in Doppler sonographic measurements of blood vessels that supply blood to the placenta in cows during the last 4 weeks of pregnancy. Another goal was to examine how these measurements are affected by three drugs commonly used in cows at the time of parturition. Nine cows underwent Doppler sonographic examination of the AUT ipsilateral and contralateral to the pregnant horn and one AUM three times per week during the last 4 weeks of gestation. This was followed by the randomized administration of one of the three following experimental drugs per day: isoxsuprine (200 mg/cow, iv), xylazine (2 mg/100 kg, iv), and lidocaine for epidural anesthesia (100 mg/cow). Doppler sonographic examination was repeated 30 minutes after medication. Maternal pulse rate increased during the study period (P < 0.001), and the diameter of the contralateral AUT was smaller in the last week before birth than in the two preceding weeks. The resistance index (RI) of the ipsilateral AUT was smaller in the last week than in the first 2 weeks of the study period. Uterine blood flow volume increased after isoxsuprine by 5% and after epidural anesthesia by 6% (both P ≤ 0.05) and decreased after xylazine by 10% (P < 0.001). Isoxsuprine was the only drug that elevated the blood flow volume in the AUM (P ≤ 0.05). Xylazine increased the RI of both AUT (both P < 0.001) and significantly reduced maternal and fetal pulse frequencies, whereas isoxsuprine significantly reduced the RI of both AUT and the AUM and increased maternal and fetal pulse frequencies. The results reported that Doppler sonographic measurements of uterine and AUM change little in the last

  3. Terms, definitions and measurements to describe the sonographic features of the endometrium and intrauterine lesions: a consensus opinion from the International Endometrial Tumor Analysis (IETA) group.

    PubMed

    Leone, F P G; Timmerman, D; Bourne, T; Valentin, L; Epstein, E; Goldstein, S R; Marret, H; Parsons, A K; Gull, B; Istre, O; Sepulveda, W; Ferrazzi, E; Van den Bosch, T

    2010-01-01

    The IETA (International Endometrial Tumor Analysis group) statement is a consensus statement on terms, definitions and measurements that may be used to describe the sonographic features of the endometrium and uterine cavity on gray-scale sonography, color flow imaging and sonohysterography. The relationship between the ultrasound features described and the presence or absence of pathology is not known. However, the IETA terms and definitions may form the basis for prospective studies to predict the risk of different endometrial pathologies based on their ultrasound appearance.

  4. Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Normalized Multiparametric Myocardial Strain Predicts Contractile Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Henn, Matthew C.; Lawrance, Christopher P.; Kar, Julia; Cupps, Brian P.; Kulshrestha, Kevin; Koerner, Danielle; Wallace, Kathleen; Joseph, Susan; Ewald, Greg; Pasque, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Left ventricular (LV) contractile injury in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) may occur in a consistently heterogeneous distribution, suggesting that early injury “sentinel” regions may have prognostic significance. Heightened surveillance of these regions with high-resolution contractile metrics may predict recovery in DCM. Methods Multiple 3D strain parameters were calculated at each of 15,300 LV grid-points from systolic displacement data obtained from cardiac MRI in 124 test subjects. In 24 DCM patients, z-scores for two strain parameters at each grid-point were calculated by comparison of patient-specific strain values to respective point-specific mean and standard deviation values from a normal human strain database (n=100). Multiparametric strain z-scores were averaged over 6 LV regions at basilar, mid, and apical levels (18 sub-regions). DCM patients were stratified into 3 groups based on a blinded review of clinical contractile recovery (complete[n=7]; incomplete[n=7]; none[n=10]). Results Basilar-septal sub-regions were consistently heavily injured. Basilar-septal z-scores were significantly larger (worse) than those for the rest of the LV (2.73±1.27 vs 2.22±0.83; p=0.011) and lateral wall (2.73±1.27 vs 1.44±0.72; p<0.001). All patients with sentinel region average multiparametric strain z-scores <2 standard deviations (n=6) experienced complete recovery, while 17/18 DCM patients with z-scores >2 standard deviations experienced incomplete or no contractile recovery. Conclusions Contractile injury in DCM is heterogeneous with basilar-septal regions injured more than lateral regions. The targeting of early-injury sentinel regions for heightened surveillance with high-resolution metrics of micro-regional contractile function may accurately predict recovery on medical therapy. A 2 standard deviation z-score threshold may predict contractile recovery. PMID:26228597

  5. Constraining friction, dilatancy and effective stress with earthquake rates in the deep crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeler, N. M.; Thomas, A.; Burgmann, R.; Shelly, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Similar to their behavior on the deep extent of some subduction zones, families of recurring low-frequency earthquakes (LFE) within zones of non-volcanic tremor on the San Andreas fault in central California show strong sensitivity to stresses induced by the tides. Taking all of the LFE families collectively, LFEs occur at all levels of the daily tidal stress, and are in phase with the very small, ~200 Pa, shear stress amplitudes while being uncorrelated with the ~2 kPa tidal normal stresses. Following previous work we assume LFE sources are small, persistent regions that repeatedly fail during shear within a much larger scale, otherwise aseismically creeping fault zone and that the correlation of LFE occurrence reflects modulation of the fault creep rate by the tidal stresses. We examine the predictions of laboratory-observed rate-dependent dilatancy associated with frictional slip. The effect of dilatancy hardening is to damp the slip rate, so high dilatancy under undrained pore pressure reduces modulation of slip rate by the tides. The undrained end-member model produces: 1) no sensitivity to the tidal normal stress, as first suggested in this context by Hawthorne and Rubin [2010], and 2) fault creep rate in phase with the tidal shear stress. Room temperature laboratory-observed values of the dilatancy and friction coefficients for talc, an extremely weak and weakly dilatant material, under-predict the observed San Andreas modulation at least by an order of magnitude owing to too much dilatancy. This may reflect a temperature dependence of the dilatancy and friction coefficients, both of which are expected to be zero at the brittle-ductile transition. The observed tidal modulation constrains the product of the friction and dilatancy coefficients to be at most 5 x 10-7 in the LFE source region, an order of magnitude smaller than observed at room temperature for talc. Alternatively, considering the predictions of a purely rate-dependent talc friction would

  6. Spreading dilatation to luminal perfusion of ATP and UTP in rat isolated small mesenteric arteries

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Polly; Dora, Kim A

    2007-01-01

    Levels of ATP achieved within the lumen of vessels suggest a key autacoid role. P2Y receptors on the endothelium may represent the target for ATP, leading to hyperpolarization and associated relaxation of vascular smooth muscle through the endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) pathway. EDHF signals radially from the endothelium to cause dilatation, and appears mechanistically distinct from the axial spread of dilatation, which we showed occurs independently of a change in endothelial cell Ca2+ in rat mesenteric arteries. Here we have investigated the potential of P2Y receptor stimulation to evoke spreading dilatation in rat resistance small arteries under physiological pressure and flow. Triple cannulation of isolated arteries enables focal application of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides to the endothelium, avoiding potential complicating actions of these agents on the smooth muscle. Nucleotides were locally infused through one branch of a bifurcation, causing near maximal local dilatation attributable to EDHF. Dilatation then spread rapidly into the adjacent feed artery and upstream against the direction of luminal flow, sufficient to increase flow into the feed artery. The rate of decay of this spreading dilatation was identical between nucleotides, and matched that to ACh, which acts only on the endothelium. In contrast, focal abluminal application of either ATP or UTP at the downstream end of cannulated arteries evoked constriction, which only in the case of ATP was also associated with modest spread of dilatation. The non-hydrolysable ADP analogue, ADPβS, acting at P2Y1 receptors, caused robust local and spreading dilatation responses whether applied to the luminal or abluminal surface of pressurized arteries. Dilatation to nucleotides was sensitive to inhibition with apamin and TRAM-34, selective blockers of small- and intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, respectively. These data demonstrate that direct luminal stimulation of P

  7. Non-visualized aorta in abdominal aortic aneurysm screening: Screening outcomes and the influence of subject and programme characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Damien; Stewart, Diane; Kearns, Deirdre; Mairs, Adrian; Ellis, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To compare abdominal aortic aneurysm screening outcomes of men with non-visualized aorta at original scan with subsequent scans and to determine predictors of non-visualized aorta. Methods In the Northern Ireland Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm screening programme, outcomes (discharge, annual surveillance, three-monthly surveillance, or vascular referral) and patient and programme characteristics (age, deprivation quintile, family history, technician experience, and screening location) for men with non-visualized aorta were investigated at original scan, and first and second rescans. Results Non-visualized aorta proportions were 2.9, 11.4, and 4.7% at original, first, and second rescan, respectively. There were no differences in screening outcomes between scanning stages (98.4, 97.6, and 97.4% <3 cm). There were 42 men (0.13%) with aortas ≥5.5 cm at original scan, but none at first and second rescan. A significantly greater proportion with non-visualized aorta were from more deprived (5.0%) than less deprived areas (1.7%). Deprivation quintile and staff role were significant independent non-visualized aorta predictors at original scan, and staff role at first rescan. Men from less deprived areas were three times as likely to have aortas visualized than those from more deprived areas (OR = 3.0, CI = 2.4-3.8) at original scan. A man scanned by screening technician compared with lead sonographer was 51% less likely to have aorta visualized at original scan and 94% less likely at first rescan. Conclusions The risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm in men with non-visualized aorta on first or subsequent rescans is no more than for those with visualized aorta on original scanning. Men from deprived areas are much more likely to have non-visualized aorta at original scan.

  8. Pulmonary Artery Dilation and Right Ventricular Function in Acute Kawasaki Disease.

    PubMed

    Numano, Fujito; Shimizu, Chisato; Tremoulet, Adriana H; Dyar, Dan; Burns, Jane C; Printz, Beth F

    2016-03-01

    Coronary artery inflammation and aneurysm formation are the most common complications of Kawasaki disease (KD). Valvulitis and myocarditis are also well described and may lead to valvar regurgitation and left ventricular dysfunction. However, functional changes in the right heart have rarely been reported. We noted several acute KD patients with dilated pulmonary arteries (PA) and thus sought to systematically characterize PA size and right-heart function in an unselected cohort of KD patients cared for at a single clinical center. Clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic data from 143 acute KD subjects were analyzed. PA dilation was documented in 23 subjects (16.1 %); these subjects had higher median right ventricle myocardial performance index (RV MPI), higher ratio of early tricuspid inflow velocity to tricuspid annular early diastolic velocity (TV E/e'), and lower median TV e' velocity compared to the non-PA dilation group (0.50 vs 0.38 p < 0.01, 4.2 vs 3.6 p < 0.05, and 13.5 vs 15.2 cm/s p < 0.01, respectively). Almost all subjects with PA dilation had improved PA Z-score, RV MPI, and TV E/e' in the subacute phase (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in indices of left ventricle function between PA dilation group and non-PA dilation group. In summary, PA dilation was documented in 16 % of acute KD subjects. These subjects were more likely to have echocardiographic indices consistent with isolated RV dysfunction that improved in the subacute phase. The long-term consequence of these findings will require longitudinal studies of this patient population.

  9. Large Diameter Limbs for Dilated Common Iliac Arteries in Endovascular Aneurysm Repair. Is It Safe?

    SciTech Connect

    Malagari, Katerina Brountzos, Elias; Gougoulakis, Alexandros; Papathanasiou, Matilda; Alexopoulou, Efthymia; Mastorakou, Renata; Kelekis, Dimitris

    2004-09-15

    In this prospective study we examined whether dilated common iliac arteries (CIAs) can provide a safe distal seal in endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) with the use of bifurcated stent grafts with large diameter limbs. Sixteen patients with 26 dilated CIAs with a diameter of {>=}6 mm who were offered EVAR using stent grafts with large diameter limbs were included in the study (Group A). Forty-two patients who also underwent EVAR without iliac dilatation, matched for age, sex and surgical risk were used for comparison (controls-Group B). In group A mean CIA diameter was 18.2 mm (16-28) and mean abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) diameter was 6.87 {+-} 1.05 cm; mean age was 77.2 {+-} 4.8 yrs (67-81). Mean follow-up was 33.6 months (2.8 yrs). CIA diameter changes and development of endoleaks were assessed by CT angiography (CTA). Overall iliac dilatation was present in 16/58 of our patients (27.6%). In 10 patients dilatation was bilateral (17.3%). Partial or complete flow to the internal iliac artery (IIA) territories was preserved in all patients post-EVAR. On follow-up, stable caliber of the dilated CIAs was observed in 21 patients (84%), enlargement of 1mm in 3 (16%), and failure of the distal attachment in 1 (6.2%). Compared to the control group there was no statistical significance in the incidence of complications. Dilated common iliac arteries provide a safe distal seal in patients who have undergone EVAR, thus obviating the need for additional endovascular procedures and sparing flow in the IIA vascular bed.

  10. Total plasma proANP increases with atrial dilatation in horses.

    PubMed

    Van Der Vekens, N; Hunter, I; Timm, A; Decloedt, A; De Clercq, D; Deprez, P; Goetze, J P; van Loon, G

    2015-12-19

    Equine atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) plasma concentrations are correlated with left atrial size. However, species-specific assays are lacking and the results from human assays are poorly reproducible. A new methodology called processing independent analysis (PIA) that measures the total proANP product in plasma has proven to be successful in human medicine, but has never been used in horses. The aims were to establish an equine proANP reference interval by measurement of the total proANP product using PIA and to examine the proANP concentrations in horses with atrial dilatation. Sample stability was studied by comparison of storage at -80°C and -20°C. Plasma samples were obtained from 23 healthy horses, 12 horses with moderate or severe valvular regurgitation without atrial dilatation and 42 horses with valvular regurgitation and atrial dilatation. The proANP concentration was significantly (P<0.001) higher in horses with atrial dilatation (761.4 (442.1-1859.1) pmol/l) than in healthy horses (491.6 (429.5-765.9) pmol/l; P<0.001) or horses with cardiac disease but without atrial dilatation (544.4 (457.0-677.6) pmol/l). A cut-off value (573.8 pmol/l) for detection of atrial dilatation was calculated. Sample storage at -80°C did not differ from sample storage at -20°C. The measurement of total proANP in plasma detects atrial dilatation in horses and may be useful for clinical evaluation in equine medicine.

  11. Debye screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brydges, David C.; Federbush, Paul

    1980-10-01

    The existence and exponential clustering of correlation functions for a classical coulomb system at low density or high temperature are proven using methods from constructive quantum field theory, the sine gordon transformation and the Glimm, Jaffe, Spencer expansion about mean field theory. This is a vindication of a belief of long standing among physicists, known as Debye screening. That is, because of special properties of the coulomb potential, the configurations of significant probability are those in which the long range parts of r -1 are mostly cancelled, leaving an effective exponentially decaying potential acting between charge clouds. This paper generalizes a previous paper of one of the authors in which these results were obtained for a special lattice system. The present treatment covers the continuous mechanics situation, with essentially arbitrary short range forces and charge species. Charge symmetry is not assumed.

  12. Sonographic genital ambiguity in a fetus due to a mosaic 45,X/46,X,idic(Y)(qter-p11.32::p11.32-qter) karyotype.

    PubMed

    Marcus-Soekarman, D; Hamers, G; Mulder, A L M; Offermans, Jeanne; Offermans, Jos; Engelen, J; van Lent-Albrechts, J C M; Robben, S G F; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S; Wolffenbuttel, K P; Looijenga, L H J; Oosterhuis, J W; Schrander-Stumpel, C; Nijhuis, J

    2005-04-01

    Nowadays, improved ultrasound techniques enable the detection of more subtle congenital abnormalities at an earlier stage of fetal development. Current cytogenetic techniques can characterize a chromosomal abnormality in greater detail. These advancements in both diagnostic possibilities have helped to answer many questions but have also created new issues and dilemmas in counselling. This is illustrated by this case report of a 35-year-old woman, who presented at the end of the second trimester of her first pregnancy. Sonographic examination indicated an abnormal external genital in a male fetus. A differential diagnosis of hypospadia was made. During follow-up, an amniocentesis was performed, and this showed a 45,X/46,X,idic(Y)(qter-p11.32::p11.32-qter) karyotype as the cause of the sonographic findings. Cytogenetic characterization of the isodicentric Y chromosome and pre- and post-natal findings in the child are reported. Cases with a similar karyotype reported in the literature are reviewed.

  13. Current trends and perspectives for automated screening of cardiac murmurs

    PubMed Central

    Marascio, Giuseppe; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo

    2013-01-01

    Although in high income countries rheumatic heart disease is now rare, it remains a major burden in low and middle income countries. In these world areas, physicians and expert sonographers are rare, and screening campaigns are usually performed by nomadic caregivers who can only recognise patients in an advanced phase of heart failure with high economic and social costs. Therefore, great interest exists regarding the possibility of developing a simple, low-cost procedure for screening valvular heart disease. With the development of computer science, the cardiac sound signal can be analysed in an automatic way. More precisely, a panel of features characterising the acoustic signal are extracted and sent to a decision-making software able to provide the final diagnosis. Although no system is currently available in the market, the rapid evolution of these technologies recently led to the activation of clinical trials. The aim of this note is to review the state of advancement of this technology (trends in feature selection and automatic diagnostic strategies), data available regarding performance of the technology in the clinical setting and finally what obstacles still need to be overcome before automated systems can be clinically/commercially viable. PMID:27326133

  14. Robust Texture Analysis Using Multi-Resolution Gray-Scale Invariant Features for Breast Sonographic Tumor Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Min-Chun Yang; Woo Kyung Moon; Wang, Yu-Chiang Frank; Min Sun Bae; Chiun-Sheng Huang; Jeon-Hor Chen; Ruey-Feng Chang

    2013-12-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems in gray-scale breast ultrasound images have the potential to reduce unnecessary biopsy of breast masses. The purpose of our study is to develop a robust CAD system based on the texture analysis. First, gray-scale invariant features are extracted from ultrasound images via multi-resolution ranklet transform. Thus, one can apply linear support vector machines (SVMs) on the resulting gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM)-based texture features for discriminating the benign and malignant masses. To verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed texture analysis, breast ultrasound images obtained from three different platforms are evaluated based on cross-platform training/testing and leave-one-out cross-validation (LOO-CV) schemes. We compare our proposed features with those extracted by wavelet transform in terms of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The AUC values derived from the area under the curve for the three databases via ranklet transform are 0.918 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.848 to 0.961), 0.943 (95% CI, 0.906 to 0.968), and 0.934 (95% CI, 0.883 to 0.961), respectively, while those via wavelet transform are 0.847 (95% CI, 0.762 to 0.910), 0.922 (95% CI, 0.878 to 0.958), and 0.867 (95% CI, 0.798 to 0.914), respectively. Experiments with cross-platform training/testing scheme between each database reveal that the diagnostic performance of our texture analysis using ranklet transform is less sensitive to the sonographic ultrasound platforms. Also, we adopt several co-occurrence statistics in terms of quantization levels and orientations (i.e., descriptor settings) for computing the co-occurrence matrices with 0.632+ bootstrap estimators to verify the use of the proposed texture analysis. These experiments suggest that the texture analysis using multi-resolution gray-scale invariant features via ranklet transform is useful for designing a robust CAD system.

  15. Is endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation really a risk factor for post-ERCP pancreatitis?

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Toshio; Kagawa, Koichi; Hisatomi, Kantaro; Kubota, Kensuke; Nakajima, Atsushi; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation (EPBD) is useful for decreasing early complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP), including bleeding, biliary infection, and perforation, but it is generally avoided in Western countries because of a relatively high reported incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). However, as the efficacy of endoscopic papillary large-balloon dilatation (EPLBD) becomes widely recognized, EPBD is attracting attention. Here we investigate whether EPBD is truly a risk factor for PEP, and seek safer and more effective EPBD procedures by reviewing past studies. We reviewed thirteen randomised control trials comparing EPBD and endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) and ten studies comparing direct EPLBD and EST. Three randomized controlled trials of EPBD showed significantly higher incidence of PEP than EST, but no study of EPLBD did. Careful analysis of these studies suggested that longer and higher-pressure inflation of balloons might decrease PEP incidence. The paradoxical result that EPBD with small-calibre balloons increases PEP incidence while EPLBD does not may be due to insufficient papillary dilatation in the former. Insufficient dilatation could cause the high incidence of PEP through the use of mechanical lithotripsy and stress on the papilla at the time of stone removal. Sufficient dilation of the papilla may be useful in preventing PEP. PMID:27468185

  16. Adherence to Vaginal Dilation Following High Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Endometrial Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Lois C.; Abdallah, Rita; Schluchter, Mark; Panneerselvam, Ashok; Kunos, Charles A.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: We report demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors associated with adherence to vaginal dilation and describe the sexual and marital or nonmarital dyadic functioning of women following high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively evaluated women aged 18 years or older in whom early-stage endometrial (IAgr3-IIB) cancers were treated by HDR intravaginal brachytherapy within the past 3.5 years. Women with or without a sexual partner were eligible. Patients completed questionnaires by mail or by telephone assessing demographic and clinical variables, adherence to vaginal dilation, dyadic satisfaction, sexual functioning, and health beliefs. Results: Seventy-eight of 89 (88%) eligible women with early-stage endometrial cancer treated with HDR brachytherapy completed questionnaires. Only 33% of patients were adherers, based on reporting having used a dilator more than two times per week in the first month following radiation. Nonadherers who reported a perceived change in vaginal dimension following radiation reported that their vaginas were subjectively smaller after brachytherapy (p = 0.013). Adherers reported more worry about their sex lives or lack thereof than nonadherers (p = 0.047). Patients reported considerable sexual dysfunction following completion of HDR brachytherapy. Conclusions: Adherence to recommendations for vaginal dilator use following HDR brachytherapy for endometrial cancer is poor. Interventions designed to educate women about dilator use benefit may increase adherence. Although sexual functioning was compromised, it is likely that this existed before having cancer for many women in our study.

  17. Flexible microsensor technology for real-time navigation tracking in balloon sinus ostial dilation

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Kent; Bigcas, Jo-Lawrence; Luong, Amber; Yao, William

    2017-01-01

    Background: Microsensor navigation has the potential to aid balloon sinus ostial dilation by providing real-time tracking of balloon devices within the complex anatomy of the sinonasal cavities. Objective: This feasibility study evaluated the incorporation of a new microsensor technology into a flexible guidewire for use with current instruments in balloon sinus ostial dilation. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to include seven men and one woman (age range, 33–68 years), who underwent balloon sinus ostial dilation with flexible microsensor navigation in the operating room setting. All the procedures were performed at target sinuses with the patient under general anesthesia, in conjunction with subsequent endoscopic sinus surgery. Results: Balloon dilation was attempted at the maxillary (n = 3), frontal (n = 14), and sphenoid (n = 1) sinuses. In all the cases, the surgical navigation system displayed the flexible wire tip as it was advanced to the target sinus ostia; this visual feedback for wire position guided the balloon placement. Successful balloon dilation with assistance of flexible microsensor navigation was performed on most sinuses, except a single frontal sinus with adjacent type 2 frontal cells. Conclusion: Flexible navigation technology may be combined with balloon sinus technology to facilitate localization of instruments in the sinus anatomy. Additional optimization of both the device and software technology is warranted. PMID:28381323

  18. Neuromuscular alterations in the dilated ileum of an adult patient with segmental lymphangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Paggi, Silvia; Ferrero, Stefano; Braidotti, Paola; de Rai, Paolo; Conte, Dario; Basilisco, Guido

    2008-09-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare condition, which is characterized by the dilation of small bowel lymphatics and presents with signs and symptoms of protein-losing enteropathy. Some patients have complained of occlusive symptoms attributable to the mechanical obstruction caused by the considerable mucosal edema associated with the lymphatic dilation. On the basis of the hypothesis that alterations in the neuromuscular structures controlling clearance function or gut tone may play a role in ileal dilation, we examined the resected ileum of a 48-year-old male patient with segmental lymphangiectasia histologically, immunohistochemically (for S100 protein, PGP 9.5, Bcl-2, neuron-specific enolase, neurofilaments, synaptophysin, and CD117/C-kit), and by means of electron microscopy. Histology showed pseudocystic dilation of the mucosal, submucosal, and muscular lymphatics with fragmentation of the circular and longitudinal muscle layers. Hardly any neural expression of synaptophysin was observed, but the neural structures were otherwise morphologically normal and reacted normally to the other neural markers. This case shows that neuromuscular alterations can be found in the dilated ileum of patients with segmental lymphangiectasia.

  19. Pupil dilation reveals top-down attentional load during spatial monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lisi, Matteo; Bonato, Mario; Zorzi, Marco

    2015-12-01

    It has long been known that the diameter of human pupil enlarges with increasing effort during the execution of a task. This has been observed not only for purely mechanical effort but also for mental effort, as for example the computation of arithmetic problems with different levels of difficulty. Here we show that pupil dilation reflects changes in visuospatial awareness induced by attentional load during multi-tasking. In the single-task condition, participants had to report the position of lateralized, briefly presented, masked visual targets ("right", "left", or "both" sides). In the multitasking conditions, participants also performed additional tasks, either visual or auditory, to increase the attentional load. Sensory stimulation was kept constant across all conditions to rule out the influence of low-level factors. Results show that event-related pupil dilation strikingly increased with task demands, mirroring a concurrent decrease in visuospatial awareness. Importantly, pupil dilation significantly differed between two dual-task conditions that required to process the same number of stimuli but yielded differed levels of accuracy (difficulty). In contrast, pupil dilation did not differ between two conditions which were equally challenging but differed both in the modality of the dual task (auditory vs. visual) and in the number of stimuli to be attended. We conclude that pupil dilation genuinely reflects the top-down allocation of supramodal attentional resources.

  20. Treatment of dilated pores with 1410-nm fractional erbium-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong-Hye; Chang, Ka-Yeun; Lee, Sang-Jun; Song, Kye-Yong; Choi, Jeong Hwee; Shin, Min Kyung; Jeong, Ki-Heon

    2015-04-01

    Dilated pores can be an early sign of skin aging and are a significant cosmetic concern. The 1410-nm wavelength is optimal for superficial dermal treatments up to 650 μm deep. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of the fractional erbium-doped fiber 1410-nm laser in the treatment of dilated pores. Fifteen patients with dilated facial pores underwent three laser treatments at 3-week intervals. Posttreatment skin responses and side effects were assessed at treatment and follow-up visits by study physicians. Clinical effectiveness of treatment was assessed by both study physicians and patients 3 months after the final laser treatment using a quartile grading scale. Histological examination was performed using biopsy samples taken at baseline (pretreatment) and 3 months after the last treatment. This study showed that greater than 51 % improvement in dilated pores was demonstrated in 14 of 15 patients after three sessions of laser treatments. Improvements in skin texture, tone, and smoothness were reported in all patients. Treatment was well tolerated in all patients, with no unanticipated side effects. This study demonstrates that the 1410-nm fractional erbium fiber laser is effective and safe for treatment of dilated facial pores in Fitzpatrick skin types III-IV.

  1. Paediatric dilated cardiomyopathy: clinical profile and outcome. The experience of a tertiary centre for paediatric cardiology.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Joana O; Costa, Liane; Rodrigues, Esmeralda; Teles, Elisa L; Baptista, Maria J; Areias, José C

    2015-02-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most common form of cardiomyopathy in the paediatric population and an important cause of heart transplantation in children. The clinical profile and course of dilated cardiomyopathy in children have been poorly characterised. A retrospective review of 61 patients (37 female; 24 male) diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy from January, 2005 to June, 2012 at a single institution was performed. The median age at diagnosis was 15 months. Heart failure was present in 83.6% of patients and 44.3% required intensive care. The most prevalent causes were idiopathic (47.5%), viral myocarditis (18.0%) and inherited metabolic diseases (11.5%). In viral myocarditis, Parvovirus B19 was the most common identified agent, in concurrence with the increasing incidence documented recently. Inherited metabolic diseases were responsible for 11.5% of dilated cardiomyopathy cases compared with the 4-6% described in the literature, which reinforces the importance of considering this aetiology in differential diagnosis of paediatric dilated cardiomyopathy. The overall mortality rate was 16.1% and five patients underwent heart transplantation. In our series, age at diagnosis and aetiology were the most important prognosis factors. We report no mortality in the five patients who underwent heart transplantation, after 2 years of follow-up.

  2. An effective group psychoeducational intervention for improving compliance with vaginal dilation: A randomized controlled trial

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, Sherryl A.; Robinson, John W. . E-mail: johnrobi@cancerboard.ab.ca; Craighead, Peter S.; Keats, Melanie R.

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: Although vaginal dilation is often recommended to minimize or prevent vaginal scarring after pelvic radiotherapy, compliance with this recommendation has historically been very low. Therefore, effective intervention strategies are needed to enhance compliance with vaginal dilation after radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial of a psychoeducational intervention specifically designed to increase compliance with vaginal dilation. The information-motivation-behavioral skills model of enhancing compliance with behavioral change was the basis for the intervention design. Forty-two sexually active women, 21 to 65 years of age, diagnosed with Stages Ic-III cervical or endometrial cancer, who received pelvic radiotherapy, were randomized to either the experimental psychoeducational group or the information-only control group. Assessment via questionnaire occurred before treatment and at 6-week, 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Assessment via interview also occurred at 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Results: The psychoeducational intervention was successful in increasing compliance with vaginal dilation. Conclusions: This study is the first randomized controlled study to demonstrate the effectiveness of an intervention in increasing compliance with the use of vaginal dilators.

  3. A pseudo-sound constitutive relationship for the dilatational covariances in compressible turbulence: An analytical theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ristorcelli, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    The mathematical consequences of a few simple scaling assumptions about the effects of compressibility are explored using a simple singular perturbation idea and the methods of statistical fluid mechanics. Representations for the pressure-dilation and dilatational dissipation covariances appearing in single-point moment closures for compressible turbulence are obtained. While the results are expressed in the context of a second-order statistical closure they provide some interesting and very clear physical metaphors for the effects of compressibility that have not been seen using more traditional linear stability methods. In the limit of homogeneous turbulence with quasi-normal large-scales the expressions derived are - in the low turbulent Mach number limit - asymptotically exact. The expressions obtained are functions of the rate of change of the turbulence energy, its correlation length scale, and the relative time scale of the cascade rate. The expressions for the dilatational covariances contain constants which have a precise and definite physical significance; they are related to various integrals of the longitudinal velocity correlation. The pressure-dilation covariance is found to be a nonequilibrium phenomena related to the time rate of change of the internal energy and the kinetic energy of the turbulence. Also of interest is the fact that the representation for the dilatational dissipation in turbulence, with or without shear, features a dependence on the Reynolds number. This article is a documentation of an analytical investigation of the implications of a pseudo-sound theory for the effects of compressibility.

  4. Eosinophilic esophagitis: dilate or medicate? A cost analysis model of the choice of initial therapy.

    PubMed

    Kavitt, R T; Penson, D F; Vaezi, M F

    2014-07-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an increasingly recognized clinical entity. The optimal initial treatment strategy in adults with EoE remains controversial. The aim of this study was to employ a decision analysis model to determine the less costly option between the two most commonly employed treatment strategies in EoE. We constructed a model for an index case of a patient with biopsy-proven EoE who continues to be symptomatic despite proton-pump inhibitor therapy. The following treatment strategies were included: (i) swallowed fluticasone inhaler (followed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy [EGD] with dilation if ineffective); and (ii) EGD with dilation (followed by swallowed fluticasone inhaler if ineffective). The time horizon was 1 year. The model focused on cost analysis of initial treatment strategies. The perspective of the healthcare payer was used. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the robustness of the model. For every patient whose symptoms improved or resolved with the strategy of fluticasone first followed by EGD, if necessary, it cost an average of $1078. Similarly, it cost an average of $1171 per patient if EGD with dilation was employed first. Sensitivity analyses indicated that initial treatment with fluticasone was the less costly strategy to improve dysphagia symptoms as long as the effectiveness of fluticasone remains at or above 0.62. Swallowed fluticasone inhaler (followed by EGD with dilation if necessary) is the more economical initial strategy when compared with EGD with dilation first.

  5. Suppression of slip and rupture velocity increased by thermal pressurization: Effect of dilatancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urata, Yumi; Kuge, Keiko; Kase, Yuko

    2013-11-01

    investigated the effect of dilatancy on dynamic rupture propagation on a fault where thermal pressurization (TP) is in effect, taking into account permeability varying with porosity; the study is based on three-dimensional (3-D) numerical simulations of spontaneous ruptures obeying a slip-weakening friction law and Coulomb failure criterion. The effects of dilatancy on dynamic ruptures interacting with TP have been often investigated in one- or two-dimensional numerical simulations. The sole 3-D numerical simulation gave attention only to the behavior at a single point on a fault. Moreover, with the sole exception based on a single-degree-freedom spring-slider model, the previous simulations including dilatancy and TP have not considered changes in hydraulic diffusivity. However, the hydraulic diffusivity, which strongly affects TP, can vary as a power of porosity. In this study, we apply a power law relationship between permeability and porosity. We consider both reversible and irreversible changes in porosity, assuming that the irreversible change is proportional to the slip rate and dilatancy coefficient ɛ. Our numerical simulations suggest that the effects of dilatancy can suppress slip and rupture velocity increased by TP. The results reveal that the amount of slip on the fault decreases with increasing ɛ or exponent of the power law, and the rupture velocity is predominantly suppressed by ɛ. This was observed regardless of whether the applied stresses were high or low. The deficit of the final slip in relation to ɛ can be smaller as the fault size is larger.

  6. Contribution of Different Anatomical and Physiologic Factors to Iris Contour and Anterior Chamber Angle Changes During Pupil Dilation: Theoretical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jouzdani, Sara; Amini, Rouzbeh; Barocas, Victor H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the contribution of three anatomical and physiologic factors (dilator thickness, dynamic pupillary block, and iris compressibility) to changes in iris configuration and anterior chamber angle during pupil dilation. Methods. A mathematical model of the anterior segment based on the average values of ocular dimensions was developed to simulate pupil dilation. To change the pupil diameter from 3.0 to 5.4 mm in 10 seconds, active dilator contraction was applied by imposing stress in the dilator region. Three sets of parameters were varied in the simulations: (1) a thin (4 μm, 1% of full thickness) versus a thick dilator (covering the full thickness iris) to quantify the effects of dilator anatomy, (2) in the presence (+PB) versus absence of pupillary block (−PB) to quantify the effect of dynamic motion of aqueous humor from the posterior to the anterior chamber, and (3) a compressible versus an incompressible iris to quantify the effects of iris volume change. Changes in the apparent iris–lens contact and angle open distance (AOD500) were calculated for each case. Results. The thin case predicted a significant increase (average 700%) in iris curvature compared with the thick case (average 70%), showing that the anatomy of dilator plays an important role in iris deformation during dilation. In the presence of pupillary block (+PB), AOD500 decreased 25% and 36% for the compressible and incompressible iris, respectively. Conclusions. Iris bowing during dilation was driven primarily by posterior location of the dilator muscle and by dynamic pupillary block, but the effect of pupillary block was not as large as that of the dilator anatomy according to the quantified values of AOD500. Incompressibility of the iris, in contrast, had a relatively small effect on iris curvature but a large effect on AOD500; thus, we conclude that all three effects are important. PMID:23482467

  7. Identification of the molecular mechanisms underlying dilated cardiomyopathy via bioinformatic analysis of gene expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hu; Yu, Zhuo; He, Jianchao; Hua, Baotong; Zhang, Guiming

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, gene expression profiles of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) were re-analyzed with bioinformatics tools to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying DCM. Gene expression dataset GSE3585 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, which included seven heart biopsy samples obtained from patients with DCM and five healthy controls. Differential analysis was performed using a Limma package in R to screen for differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Functional enrichment analysis was subsequently conducted for DEGs using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integration Discovery. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using information from Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes software. A total of 89 DEGs were identified in the patients with DCM, including 67 upregulated and 22 downregulated genes. Functional enrichment analysis demonstrated that the downregulated genes predominantly encoded chromosomal proteins and transport-related proteins, which were significantly associated with the biological processes of ‘nucleosome assembly’, ‘chromatin assembly’, ‘protein-DNA complex assembly’, ‘nucleosome organization’ and ‘DNA packaging’ (H1 histone family member 0, histone cluster 1 H1c, histone cluster 1 H2bd and H2A histone family member Z). The upregulated genes detected in the present study encoded secreted proteins or phosphotransferase, which were associated with biological processes including ‘cell adhesion’ [connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)], ‘skeletal system development’ [CTGF and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3)], ‘muscle organ development’ (SMAD7) and ‘regulation of cell migration’ [SMAD7, IGFBP3 and insulin receptor (INSR)]. Notably, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, SMAD7, INSR, CTGF, exportin 1, IGFBP3 and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha were hub nodes with the

  8. [Anesthetic management of a child with dilated cardiomyopathy associated with congenital fiber-type disproportion].

    PubMed

    Kawaraguchi, Yoshitaka; Taniguchi, Akihiro; Fukumitsu, Kazuo; Kinouchi, Keiko; Miyamoto, Yoshikazu; Hirao, Osamu; Kitamura, Seiji

    2002-04-01

    A 3-year-old girl, who presented with dilated cardiomyopathy in conjunction with congenital fiber-type disproportion, underwent open reduction for congenital dislocation of the hip. Preoperative echocardiography demonstrated left ventricular dilatation with an ejection fraction (EF) of 0.33. Anesthesia was induced with intravenous ketamine and fentanyl, and maintained with fentanyl administered incrementally to a total dose of 10 micrograms.kg-1 and 1-1.5% isoflurane. During operation, we continuously monitored left ventricular wall motion and measured left ventricular diastolic dimension (LVDd), systolic dimension (LVDs), cardiac output (CO), EF, and fractional shortening (FS) with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). At the end of surgery, preload (LVDd) and LV contractility (CO, EF, FS) decreased, but LV wall motion remained almost stable throughout the procedure. In conclusion, TEE was useful for intraoperative management of a child with dilated cardiomyopathy.

  9. Pupil Mimicry Correlates With Trust in In-Group Partners With Dilating Pupils.

    PubMed

    Kret, M E; Fischer, A H; De Dreu, C K W

    2015-09-01

    During close interactions with fellow group members, humans look into one another's eyes, follow gaze, and quickly grasp emotion signals. The eye-catching morphology of human eyes, with unique eye whites, draws attention to the middle part, to the pupils, and their autonomic changes, which signal arousal, cognitive load, and interest (including social interest). Here, we examined whether and how these changes in a partner's pupils are processed and how they affect the partner's trustworthiness. Participants played incentivized trust games with virtual partners, whose pupils dilated, remained static, or constricted. Results showed that (a) participants trusted partners with dilating pupils and withheld trust from partners with constricting pupils, (b) participants' pupils mimicked changes in their partners' pupils, and (c) dilation mimicry predicted trust in in-group partners, whereas constriction mimicry did not. We suggest that pupil-contingent trust is in-group bounded and possibly evolved in and because of group life.

  10. Binge Eating Leading to Acute Gastric Dilatation, Ischemic Necrosis and Rupture –A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Sumanta; Marhual, Jogesh Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Acute gastric dilatation is a rarely encountered clinical scenario in our day to day practice. This is very rapidly progressing condition and can lead to ischemic necrosis and perforation/rupture of the stomach. It could be fatal if not timely intervened. We report such a case of a 17-year-old, otherwise healthy boy, who presented with pain and distension of abdomen following binge eating episode after 24 hours of prolonged fasting. On exploration, stomach was dilated with necrosis and perforation at fundus near greater curvature. He was managed with excision of all the devitalized area and primary repair with feeding jejunostomy. The case is presented due to its rarity. Acute gastric dilatation (AGD) leading to ischemic necrosis and perforation because of binge eating episode in an otherwise healthy person is an exceptional occurrence with only few cases reported in literature. The clinician should be aware of this condition for prompt and appropriate management. PMID:27134932

  11. Development of Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Impaired Calcium Homeostasis with Cardiac-Specific Deletion of ESRRβ.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Glenn C; Asimaki, Angeliki; Graham, Evan L; Martin, Kimberly D; Margulies, Kenneth B; Das, Saumya; Saffitz, Jeffrey E; Arany, Zoltan

    2017-01-27

    Mechanisms underlying the development of Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) remain poorly understood. Using transcription factor expression profiling, we identified estrogen-related receptor beta (ESRRβ), a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors, as highly expressed in murine hearts and other highly oxidative striated muscle beds. Mice bearing cardiac-specific deletion of ESRRβ (MHC-ERRB KO) develop dilated cardiomyopathy and sudden death at approximately 10 months of age. Isolated adult cardiomyocytes from the MHC-ERRB KO mice showed an increase in calcium sensitivity and impaired cardiomyocyte contractility, which preceded echocardiographic cardiac remodeling and dysfunction by several months. Histological analyses of myocardial biopsies from patients with various cardiomyopathies revealed that ESRRβ protein is absent from the nucleus of cardiomyocytes from patients with DCM, but not other forms of cardiomyopathy (ischemic, hypertrophic and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy). Taken together these observations suggest that ESRRβ is a critical component in the onset of dilated cardiomyopathy by affecting contractility and calcium balance.

  12. Hepatic sinusoidal dilatation with portal hypertension during azathioprine treatment after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gerlag, P G; Lobatto, S; Driessen, W M; Deckers, P F; Van Hooff, J P; Schröder, E; Assmann, K M; Van Haelst, U J

    1985-01-01

    An unusual hepatic disease developed in 3 patients with a well-functioning kidney graft 16-24 months after transplantation. Vague abdominal pain, increased bleeding tendency and edema were initial complaints, and hepato- or splenomegaly and ascites were found as well. Liver function tests were not or only mildly disturbed; hemolysis and pancytopenia were always present. Colloid uptake was absent at liver scintigraphy and the hepatic venous wedge pressure was increased. Esophageal varices were demonstrated. Liver biopsy showed extensive midzonal and pericentral sinusoidal dilatation. After discontinuation of azathioprine the symptoms and the extent of sinusoidal dilatation disappeared gradually, but after 1-3 years fibrosis or micronodular cirrhosis had developed and splenomegaly with hypersplenism remained. These observations strongly suggest an association between chronic use of azathioprine and the development of venous congestion of the liver with sinusoidal dilatation, eventually resulting in chronic liver disease.

  13. Measurement-induced-nonlocality for Dirac particles in Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger dilation space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Juan; Xu, Shuai; Ye, Liu

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the quantum correlation via measurement-induced-nonlocality (MIN) for Dirac particles in Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger (GHS) dilation space-time. It is shown that the physical accessible quantum correlation decreases as the dilation parameter increases monotonically. Unlike the case of scalar fields, the physical accessible correlation is not zero when the Hawking temperature is infinite owing to the Pauli exclusion principle and the differences between Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics. Meanwhile, the boundary of MIN related to Bell-violation is derived, which indicates that MIN is more general than quantum nonlocality captured by the violation of Bell-inequality. As a by-product, a tenable quantitative relation about MIN redistribution is obtained whatever the dilation parameter is. In addition, it is worth emphasizing that the underlying reason why the physical accessible correlation and mutual information decrease is that they are redistributed to the physical inaccessible regions.

  14. COSMOLOGICAL TIME DILATION IN DURATIONS OF SWIFT LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fu-Wen; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming; Shao, Lang

    2013-11-20

    Cosmological time dilation is a fundamental phenomenon in an expanding universe, which stresses that both the duration and wavelength of the emitted light from a distant object at the redshift z will be dilated by a factor of 1 + z at the observer. By using a sample of 139 Swift long gamma-ray bursts with known redshift (z ≤ 8.2), we measure the observed duration (T {sub 90}) in the observed energy range between 140/(1 + z) keV and 350/(1 + z) keV, corresponding to a fixed energy range of 140-350 keV in the rest frame. We obtain a significant correlation between the duration and the factor 1 + z, i.e., T {sub 90} = 10.5(1 + z){sup 0.94} {sup ±} {sup 0.26}, which is consistent with that expected from the cosmological time dilation effect.

  15. Bilateral congenital venous tortuosity and dilatation combined with cilioretinal artery: a photographic essay

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Nuo; Cui, Yi; Gao, Zhonghai

    2016-01-01

    To report the case of bilateral congenital venous tortuosity and dilatation combined with cilioretinal artery. A 48-year-old woman complained of headache and underwent routine ophthalmic examination. The best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes. The examination of the fundus through a dilated pupil revealed that the retinal veins were strikingly tortuous and slightly dilated in the posterior pole and mid-peripheral retina of both eyes. However, the course and shape of the veins were normally straight in the peripheral retina. There was no change in the appearance and shape of the vein. The visual acuity remained unaffected during a 2-year follow-up. PMID:27103843

  16. Dilated iris vasculature in the setting of the neonatal hypoxic encephelopathy.

    PubMed

    Gorovoy, Ian R; Vaccari, Jordan C

    2015-07-01

    The differential diagnosis of dilated iris vasculature in a neonate includes retinopathy of prematurity with anterior segment plus disease, persistent fetal vasculature, intrauterine cocaine exposure, maternal diabetes, and other pathologies associated with iris neovascularization and ischemia seen in adult populations, such as central retinal vein occlusions, ocular ischemic syndrome, and chronic retinal detachment. We present neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy as a new etiology of dilated iris vasculature in a male baby who suffered a large in-utero brain vasculature insult three weeks prior to delivery but with normal fundi, no risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity (normal birth weight, and gestational age), and no other explanatory etiologies. The mechanism of the dilated iris vasculature is likely also ischemic and therefore its presence likely portends a poor prognosis. We recommend that the neonatologist evaluate for this sign for this reason and consult ophthalmology to ensure its correct etiology.

  17. Dilation and Hypertrophy: A Cell-Based Continuum Mechanics Approach Towards Ventricular Growth and Remodeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulerich, J.; Göktepe, S.; Kuhl, E.

    This manuscript presents a continuum approach towards cardiac growth and remodeling that is capable to predict chronic maladaptation of the heart in response to changes in mechanical loading. It is based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into and elastic and a growth part. Motivated by morphological changes in cardiomyocyte geometry, we introduce an anisotropic growth tensor that can capture both hypertrophic wall thickening and ventricular dilation within one generic concept. In agreement with clinical observations, we propose wall thickening to be a stress-driven phenomenon whereas dilation is introduced as a strain-driven process. The features of the proposed approach are illustrated in terms of the adaptation of thin heart slices and in terms overload-induced dilation in a generic bi-ventricular heart model.

  18. On the mechanism of the coronary dilator effect of serotonin in the dog.

    PubMed

    Mena, M A; Vidrio, H

    1976-03-01

    In experiments designed to determine the nature of the coronary dilator effect of serotonin the influence of intracoronary administration of the amine on coronary perfusion pressure, heart rate and ventricular contractile force was assessed in anesthetized open-chest dogs in which the left coronary artery was perfused with blood at a constant rate. Serotonin elicited dose-related decreases in coronary perfusion pressure and increases in contractile force, and lowered heart rate slightly. The dilator response was antagonized by methysergide, slightly potentiated by practolol and unaffected by reserpine. The inotropic effect was partially antagonized by methysergide and completely blocked by practolol and reserpine. It is concluded that serotonin induces coronary dilatation by direct stimulation of specific receptors that this effect is independent of the cardiac stimulation produced by the amine, and the latter response is mediated through beta1-adrenoceptors activated by released norepinephrine.

  19. Comparison of mortality rates and progression of left ventricular dysfunction in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and dilated versus nondilated right ventricular cavities.

    PubMed

    Sun, J P; James, K B; Yang, X S; Solankhi, N; Shah, M S; Arheart, K L; Thomas, J D; Stewart, W J

    1997-12-15

    This study assesses the influence of right ventricular (RV) dilation on the progression of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and survival in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC). Using transthoracic echocardiography, we studied 100 patients with IDC aged 20 to 80 years (mean 55 +/- 14); 67% were men. In the apical 4-chamber view, diastolic LV and RV chamber area measurements classified patients into 2 groups: group RV enlargement+ (RV area/LV area > 0.5) included 54 patients; group RV enlargement- (no RV enlargement) had RV area/LV area < or = 0.5. Echocardiographic studies were repeated in all patients after a mean of 33 +/- 16 months. At the time of the initial study, the 2 groups did not differ in age, gender, incidence of atrial fibrillation and diabetes, left ventricular mass, and LV ejection fraction, but the RV enlargement+ group had more severe tricuspid regurgitation and less LV enlargement. After 47 +/- 22 months (range 12 to 96), patients in group RV enlargement+ had lower LV ejection fraction (29% vs 34%, p = 0.006) than patients with initial RV enlargement-. At clinical follow-up, mortality was higher (43%) in patients with initial RV enlargement+ than the RV enlargement- patients (15%), p = 0.002. For survivors, the mitral deceleration time averaged 157 +/- 36 ms; for nonsurvivors or patients who required transplant, the mitral deceleration time averaged 97 +/- 12 ms (p < 0.0001). With use of a multivariate Cox model adjusting for LV ejection fraction, LV size, and age, the relative risk ratio of mortality from initial RV enlargement+ was 4.4 (95% confidence limits 1.7 to 11.1) (p = 0.002). Thus, patients with significant RV dilation had nearly triple the mortality over 4 years and more rapidly deteriorating LV function than patients with less initial RV dilation. In IDC, RV enlargement is a strong marker for adverse prognosis that may represent a different morphologic subset.

  20. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy with Amplatz and Alken Dilators: An Eight-Year Single Tertiary Care Centre Experience

    PubMed Central

    Bryniarski, Piotr; Stelmach, Paweł; Taborowski, Piotr; Rajwa, Paweł; Adamkiewicz, Mateusz; Życzkowski, Marcin; Paradysz, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Background Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is the standard procedure for patients with renal stones over 2 cm in diameter. We analyzed complications after this procedure focusing on two different methods of tract dilation. Material/Methods Between August 2008 and April 2016 222 percutaneous nephrolithotomies were performed in a total of 208 patients. The Group I (n=123) comprised patients where Alken dilatators were used, while Group II (n=99) comprised patients where Amplatz dilators were used. Efficacy was examined based on ultrasound and x-ray examination one month after the procedure. Complications were recorded using Clavien Dindo classification. Results Efficacy was 85.3% and 86.8% in group I and II, respectively (p=0.77). Grade I complications were present in 14.6% and 3%, grade II were present in 9.7% and 8%, grade IIIa were present in 2.4% and 2%, grade IIIb were present in 1.6% and 2%, grade IVa were present in 1.6% and 7%, grade IVb were present in 3.2% and 1% in Group I and Group II, respectively. These differences were statistically significant (p=0.03). Conclusions Efficacy was comparable between Alken dilator and Amplatz dilator groups. In group I, there were more postoperative fevers >38.5 °C and a higher rate of urosepsis. On the other hand, in group II we observed more pleural injuries. All differences resulted from the type of access to the kidney (inter/infracostal), punctured calyx, and utilization (or not) of access sheath rather than type of dilators itself. PMID:27973459

  1. Dilatation Mechanism of Balloon Angioplasty in Children: Assessment by Angiography and Intravascular Ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Ino, Toshihiro; Kishiro, Masahiko; Okubo, Mataichi; Akimoto, Katsumi; Nishimoto, Kei; Yabuta, Keijiro; Kawasaki, Shiori; Hosoda, Yasuyuki

    1998-03-15

    Purpose: Little information is available about the dilatation mechanism in children. This prospective study aimed to (1) evaluate the dilatation mechanism of balloon angioplasty in children with arterial stenosis, and (2) compare the morphological changes seen by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and angiography. Methods: Twenty consecutive patients, who had undergone a total of 23 procedures, were examined before and immediately after balloon angioplasty with a 4.3 Fr, 30 MHz rotational tip IVUS system. The lesions for IVUS study had resulted from coarctation of the aorta in six patients, pulmonary arterial stenosis in five, Blalock-Taussig shunt stenosis in three, subclavian artery stenosis in two, renal artery stenosis in two, coronary artery stenosis in one and ductus arteriosus in one. Results: Four distinctive morphological types were identified: type I with arterial stretching, type IIa with superficial tearing, type IIb with deep intimal-medial tearing, type III with flap formation, and type IV with dissection. The diameter of the narrowest site before and after balloon angioplasty increased significantly from 2.1 {+-} 1.4 mm to 4.6 {+-} 3.4 mm (p < 0.001). Eighteen of the 23 angioplasty procedures (78%) were considered to be successful, with a dilatation ratio of more than 50%. In most patients with successful dilatation, non-stretch mechanisms such as tearing, flap formation, or dissection were found. The positive percent (70%) of non-stretch mechanisms seen by IVUS was significantly higher than the positive findings (39%) by angiography ({chi}{sup 2}= 6.47, p < 0.02). Conclusions: Non-stretch morphology of the arterial wall may be a common mechanism of dilatation after balloon angioplasty in children with arterial stenosis. IVUS is a useful modality for evaluating the effectiveness of balloon angioplasty and the mechanism of dilatation in individual cases.

  2. Evolution of dilatancy and permeability in rock salt during hydrostatic compaction and triaxial deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Till; Kern, Hartmut; Schulze, Otto

    2001-01-01

    Combined gas permeability and P and S wave velocity measurements were carried out on rock salt samples from the Gorleben salt dome and the Morsleben salt mine under hydrostatic and triaxial loading condions, mostly at room temperature. Permeabilities in the as-received samples vary between 10-16 and 2×10-20 m2. The initial permeability is primarily due to decompaction induced by drilling, core retrieval and sample preparation. Hydrostatic loading gives rise to a marked decrease of permeability and a coeval significant increase of P and S wave velocities due to progressive closure of grain boundary cracks, tending to approach the in situ matrix permeability (<10-20 m2). The pore space sensitivity of P and S wave velocities is used to monitor the in situ state of the microstructure. Their reversals define the boundary in the state of stresses between dilatant and compactive domains (dilatancy boundary). Dilatancy during triaxial deformation of the compacted rock salt samples is found to evolve stress dependent in various stages. The crack initiation stress increases from ˜18 MPa differential stress at 10 MPa confining pressure to ˜30 MPa at confining pressures above ˜70 MPa. Dilatancy is due to the opening of grain boundary and (100) cleavage cracks and depends on the applied confining pressure. The orientation of the open cracks is primarily controlled by the loading geometry system (compression, extension). As a consequence, permeability increases dramatically with progressive dilatancy, followed by a period of plus/minus constant permeability during strain hardening up to 10% axial strain or even more. This suggests that the evolution of permeability is not only a function of dilatancy but also of microcrack linkage. Importantly, the anisotropic crack array within the samples causes a strong directional dependence of permeability.

  3. Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: computerized anatomic study of relashionship between septal and free left ventricle wall

    PubMed Central

    Juliani, Paulo Sérgio; da Costa, Éder França; Correia, Aristides Tadeu; Monteiro, Rosangela; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A feature of dilated cardiomyopathy is the deformation of ventricular cavity, which contributes to systolic dysfunction. Few studies have evaluated this deformation bearing in mind ventricular regions and segments of the ventricle, which could reveal important details of the remodeling process, supporting a better understanding of its role in functional impairment and the development of new therapeutic strategies. Objective To evaluate if, in basal, equatorial and apical regions, increased internal transverse perimeter of left ventricle in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy occurs proportionally between the septal and non-septal segment. Methods We performed an anatomical study with 28 adult hearts from human cadavers. One group consisted of 18 hearts with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and another group with 10 normal hearts. After lamination and left ventricle digital image capture, in three different regions (base, equator and apex), the transversal internal perimeter of left ventricle was divided into two segments: septal and not septal. These segments were measured by proper software. It was established an index of proportionality between these segments, called septal and non-septal segment index. Then we determined whether this index was the same in both groups. Results Among patients with normal hearts and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, the index of proportionality between the two segments (septal and non-septal) showed no significant difference in the three regions analyzed. The comparison results of the indices NSS/SS among normal and enlarged hearts were respectively: in base 1.99 versus 1.86 (P=0.46), in equator 2.22 versus 2.18 (P=0.79) and in apex 2.96 versus 3.56 (P=0.11). Conclusion In the idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, the transversal dilatation of left ventricular internal perimeter occurs proportionally between the segments corresponding to the septum and free wall at the basal, equatorial and apical regions of this chamber

  4. Pupil Dilation: A Fingerprint of Temporal Selection During the “Attentional Blink”

    PubMed Central

    Zylberberg, Ariel; Oliva, Manuel; Sigman, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Pupil dilation indexes cognitive events of behavioral relevance, like the storage of information to memory and the deployment of attention. Yet, given the slow temporal response of the pupil dilation, it is not known from previous studies whether the pupil can index cognitive events in the short time scale of ∼100 ms. Here we measured the size of the pupil in the Attentional Blink (AB) experiment, a classic demonstration of attentional limitations in processing rapidly presented stimuli. In the AB, two targets embedded in a sequence have to be reported and the second stimulus is often missed if presented between 200 and 500 ms after the first. We show that pupil dilation can be used as a marker of cognitive processing in AB, revealing both the timing and amount of cognitive processing. Specifically, we found that in the time range where the AB is known to occur: (i) the pupil dilation was delayed, mimicking the pattern of response times in the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) paradigm, (ii) the amplitude of the pupil was reduced relative to that of larger lags, even for correctly identified targets, and (iii) the amplitude of the pupil was smaller for missed than for correctly reported targets. These results support two-stage theories of the Attentional Blink where a second processing stage is delayed inside the interference regime, and indicate that the pupil dilation can be used as a marker of cognitive processing in the time scale of ∼100 ms. Furthermore, given the known relation between the pupil dilation and the activity of the locus coeruleus, our results also support theories that link the serial stage to the action of a specific neuromodulator, norepinephrine. PMID:22973248

  5. Technique of percutaneous laser-assisted valve dilatation for valvar atresia in congenital heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, E; Qureshi, S A; Kakadekar, A P; Anjos, R; Baker, E J; Tynan, M

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the efficacy and safety of transcatheter laser-assisted valve dilatation for atretic valves in children with congenital heart disease. DESIGN--Prospective clinical study. SETTING--Supraregional paediatric cardiology centre. SUBJECTS--Eleven children (aged 1 day-11 years; weight 2.1-35.7 kg) with atresia of pulmonary (10) or tricuspid (one) valve underwent attempted laser-assisted valve dilatation as part of the staged treatment of their cyanotic heart disease. INTERVENTION--After delineating the atretic valve by angiography and/or echocardiography a 0.018 inch "hot tip" laser wire was used to perforate the atretic valve. Subsequently the valve was dilated with conventional balloon dilatation catheters up to the valve annulus diameter. RESULTS--Laser-assisted valve dilatation was successfully accomplished in nine children. In two neonates with pulmonary valve atresia, intact ventricular septum, and coexistent infundibular atresia the procedure resulted in cardiac tamponade: one died immediately and one later at surgery. During a follow up of 1-17 months (mean 11) two infants with pulmonary valve atresia and intact ventricular septum died (one with congestive cardiac failure). The remainder are either well palliated and do not require further procedures (three), or are awaiting further transcatheter or surgical procedures because of associated defects (four). CONCLUSIONS--Laser-assisted valve dilatation is a promising adjunct to surgery in this high risk group of patients. It may avoid surgery in some patients, and may reduce the number of surgical procedures in those requiring staged operations. Images PMID:8343325

  6. Physical dilatation of the nostrils lowers the thermal strain of exercising humans.

    PubMed

    White, M D; Cabanac, M

    1995-01-01

    Increased nasal air flow during exercise was examined as a possible heat loss avenue contributing to selective brain cooling in hyperthermic humans. On 2 separate days, eight subjects [mean (SE) age, 26.4 (1.2) years] exercised on a cycle ergometer in a warm room [28 (0.2) degrees C; 28 (5)% relative humidity] to induce a moderate level of hyperthermia. In one session the nostrils were physically dilatated [average dilatation 1.55 (0.17) times] and in the other they were not (control). Both sessions started with a 5-min resting period; then subjects pedaled at 60 W for 5 min, 100 W for 15 min, and 150 W for 20 min. During dilatation both tympanic temperature (Tty) and forehead skin blood flow, estimated by laser doppler velocimetry, were significantly lower than during the control exercise of 150 W. Rates of increase of Tty during the 100-W exercise were the same in both conditions; however, during the 150-W exercise with dilatated nostrils Tty increased at a rate significantly lower than during control [1.1 (0.3) degrees C.h-1 vs 1.5 (0.4) degrees C.h-1]. The change in the rate of increase of Tty between conditions was significantly correlated to the degree of nostril dilatation (r = -0.77, P = 0.02), suggesting that the lower Tty observed was due to nostril dilatation. Facial skin temperature was not significantly different between sessions. The results suggest that the nasal cavity may act as a heat exchanger in selective brain cooling of exercising humans.

  7. Experimental Investigation on Dilation Mechanisms of Land-Facies Karamay Oil Sand Reservoirs under Water Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Botao; Jin, Yan; Pang, Huiwen; Cerato, Amy B.

    2016-04-01

    The success of steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is strongly dependent on the formation of a homogeneous and highly permeable zone in the land-facies Karamay oil sand reservoirs. To accomplish this, hydraulic fracturing is applied through controlled water injection to a pair of horizontal wells to create a dilation zone between the dual wells. The mechanical response of the reservoirs during this injection process, however, has remained unclear for the land-facies oil sand that has a loosely packed structure. This research conducted triaxial, permeability and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tests on the field-collected oil sand samples. The tests evaluated the influences of the field temperature, confining stress and injection pressure on the dilation mechanisms as shear dilation and tensile parting during injection. To account for petrophysical heterogeneity, five reservoir rocks including regular oil sand, mud-rich oil sand, bitumen-rich oil sand, mudstone and sandstone were investigated. It was found that the permeability evolution in the oil sand samples subjected to shear dilation closely followed the porosity and microcrack evolutions in the shear bands. In contrast, the mudstone and sandstone samples developed distinct shear planes, which formed preferred permeation paths. Tensile parting expanded the pore space and increased the permeability of all the samples in various degrees. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that the range of injection propagation in the pay zone determines the overall quality of hydraulic fracturing, while the injection pressure must be carefully controlled. A region in a reservoir has little dilation upon injection if it remains unsaturated. Moreover, a cooling of the injected water can strengthen the dilation potential of a reservoir. Finally, it is suggested that the numerical modeling of water injection in the Karamay oil sand reservoirs must take into account the volumetric plastic strain in hydrostatic loading.

  8. Mutation analysis of the phospholamban gene in 315 South Africans with dilated, hypertrophic, peripartum and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathies

    PubMed Central

    Fish, Maryam; Shaboodien, Gasnat; Kraus, Sarah; Sliwa, Karen; Seidman, Christine E.; Burke, Michael A.; Crotti, Lia; Schwartz, Peter J.; Mayosi, Bongani M.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy is an important cause of heart failure in Sub-Saharan Africa, accounting for up to 30% of adult heart failure hospitalisations. This high prevalence poses a challenge in societies without access to resources and interventions essential for disease management. Over 80 genes have been implicated as a cause of cardiomyopathy. Mutations in the phospholamban (PLN) gene are associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and severe heart failure. In Africa, the prevalence of PLN mutations in cardiomyopathy patients is unknown. Our aim was to screen 315 patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (n = 111), DCM (n = 95), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 40) and peripartum cardiomyopathy (n = 69) for disease-causing PLN mutations by high resolution melt analysis and DNA sequencing. We detected the previously reported PLN c.25C > T (p.R9C) mutation in a South African family with severe autosomal dominant DCM. Haplotype analysis revealed that this mutation occurred against a different haplotype background to that of the original North American family and was therefore unlikely to have been inherited from a common ancestor. No other mutations in PLN were detected (mutation prevalence = 0.2%). We conclude that PLN is a rare cause of cardiomyopathy in African patients. The PLN p.R9C mutation is not well-tolerated, emphasising the importance of this gene in cardiac function. PMID:26917049

  9. Mutation analysis of the phospholamban gene in 315 South Africans with dilated, hypertrophic, peripartum and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Fish, Maryam; Shaboodien, Gasnat; Kraus, Sarah; Sliwa, Karen; Seidman, Christine E; Burke, Michael A; Crotti, Lia; Schwartz, Peter J; Mayosi, Bongani M

    2016-02-26

    Cardiomyopathy is an important cause of heart failure in Sub-Saharan Africa, accounting for up to 30% of adult heart failure hospitalisations. This high prevalence poses a challenge in societies without access to resources and interventions essential for disease management. Over 80 genes have been implicated as a cause of cardiomyopathy. Mutations in the phospholamban (PLN) gene are associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and severe heart failure. In Africa, the prevalence of PLN mutations in cardiomyopathy patients is unknown. Our aim was to screen 315 patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (n = 111), DCM (n = 95), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 40) and peripartum cardiomyopathy (n = 69) for disease-causing PLN mutations by high resolution melt analysis and DNA sequencing. We detected the previously reported PLN c.25C > T (p.R9C) mutation in a South African family with severe autosomal dominant DCM. Haplotype analysis revealed that this mutation occurred against a different haplotype background to that of the original North American family and was therefore unlikely to have been inherited from a common ancestor. No other mutations in PLN were detected (mutation prevalence = 0.2%). We conclude that PLN is a rare cause of cardiomyopathy in African patients. The PLN p.R9C mutation is not well-tolerated, emphasising the importance of this gene in cardiac function.

  10. A Role for Toll-like Receptor 3 Variants in Host Susceptibility to Enteroviral Myocarditis and Dilated Cardiomyopathy*

    PubMed Central

    Gorbea, Carlos; Makar, Kimberly A.; Pauschinger, Matthias; Pratt, Gregory; Bersola, Jeathrina L. F.; Varela, Jacquelin; David, Ryan M.; Banks, Lori; Huang, Chien-Hua; Li, Hua; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Towbin, Jeffrey A.; Vallejo, Jesús G.; Bowles, Neil E.

    2010-01-01

    The innate antiviral response is mediated, at least in part, by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLR3 signaling is activated in response to viral infection, and the absence of TLR3 in mice significantly increases mortality after infection with enteroviruses that cause myocarditis and/or dilated cardiomyopathy. We screened TLR3 in patients diagnosed with enteroviral myocarditis/cardiomyopathy and identified a rare variant in one patient as well as a significantly increased occurrence of a common polymorphism compared with controls. Expression of either variant resulted in significantly reduced TLR3-mediated signaling after stimulation with synthetic double-stranded RNA. Furthermore, Coxsackievirus B3 infection of cell lines expressing mutated TLR3 abrogated activation of the type I interferon pathway, leading to increased viral replication. TLR3-mediated type I interferon signaling required cellular autophagy and was suppressed by 3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1, by inhibitors of lysosomal proteolysis, and by reduced expression of Beclin 1, Atg5, or microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3β (MAP1LC3β). However, TLR3-mediated signaling was restored upon exogenous expression of Beclin 1 or a variant MAP1LC3β fusion protein refractory to RNA interference. These data suggest that individuals harboring these variants may have a blunted innate immune response to enteroviral infection, leading to reduced viral clearance and an increased risk of cardiac pathology. PMID:20472559

  11. Prostate cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Prostate cancer screening - PSA; Prostate cancer screening - digital rectal exam; Prostate cancer screening - DRE ... level of PSA could mean you have prostate cancer. But other conditions can also cause a high ...

  12. Mental Health Screening Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... confidential online depression screening Anxiety The Hamilton Anxiety Scale was authored by Max Hamilton. It is in ... mania screening Childhood Mania The Child Mania Rating Scale (CMRS) is a parent screening instrument for mania ...

  13. Health Screenings and Immunizations

    MedlinePlus

    ... your primary doctor. Blood Tests – A Common Screening Method (Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) Click ... tests, see What Are Blood Tests? Other Screening Methods Doctors can't screen for all diseases and ...

  14. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... for prostate cancer. It concluded that the expected harms of PSA screening are greater than the potential ... exam or other screening tests. Potential Benefits and Harms The main goal of a cancer screening test ...

  15. Alcohol Use Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Mental Health Medical Library Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions are a screening ... is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  16. Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Home For Patients Search FAQs Prenatal ... Screening Tests FAQ165, September 2016 PDF Format Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Pregnancy What is prenatal genetic testing? ...

  17. Screening for Specific Phobias

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anxiety FAQs Screen Yourself ADAA Online Support Group Personal Stories of Triumph "Triumph" E-News Webinars Blog ... Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Screening for Social Anxiety ... to fulfill responsibilities with work, school, or family? Yes No placed ...

  18. Massive multicystic dilatation of the uterine wall with myometrial venous thrombosis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Uotila, J; Dastidar, P; Martikainen, P; Kirkinen, P

    2004-09-01

    We present a pregnancy complicated by multicystic dilatation of the uterine wall during the second trimester, leading to massive uterine distension, anemia and preterm Cesarean section. The cystic changes detected by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging involved the whole uterine wall surrounding the entire amniotic cavity. Histopathological examination revealed the benign nature of the cystic changes, which represented dilated and thrombosed venous lacunae. Disturbed venous drainage, combined with local thrombosis, was likely to have led to the collection of a large volume of blood in the uterine wall and the subsequent multicystic change of the myometrium.

  19. Segmental dilatation of sigmoid colon in a neonate: atypical presentation and histology.

    PubMed

    Mahadevaiah, Shubha Attibele; Panjwani, Poonam; Kini, Usha; Mohanty, Suravi; Das, Kanishka

    2011-03-01

    Segmental dilatation of the colon is a rare disorder of colonic motility in children, often presenting with severe constipation in older infants, children, and occasionally adults. It may mimic the commoner Hirschsprung disease clinicoradiologically but differs in that the ganglion cell morphology and distribution are typically normal in the colon. We report a neonate with segmental dilatation of the sigmoid colon who had an atypical clinical presentation and describe certain abnormalities in bowel histology (hypertrophied muscularis propria, nerve plexus, and ganglion cells located within the circular layer rather than the normal myenteric location), for the first time in the English literature.

  20. Minimally invasive per-catheter occlusion and dilation procedures for congenital cardiovascular abnormalities in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Anthony H; Stauthammer, Christopher D

    2010-07-01

    With ever-increasing sophistication of veterinary cardiology, minimally invasive per-catheter occlusion and dilation procedures for the treatment of various congenital cardiovascular abnormalities in dogs have become not only available, but mainstream. Much new information about minimally invasive per-catheter patent ductus arteriosus occlusion has been published and presented during the past few years. Consequently, patent ductus arteriosus occlusion is the primary focus of this article. Occlusion of other less common congenital cardiac defects is also briefly reviewed. Balloon dilation of pulmonic stenosis, as well as other congenital obstructive cardiovascular abnormalities is discussed in the latter part of the article.

  1. Common Bile Duct Obstruction Due to Surgical Clips Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Treated with Percutaneous Balloon Dilatation.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Mehmet; Adıgüzel, Ünal; Şanal, Bekir; Zeren, Sezgin; Ekici, Mehmet Fatih

    2016-06-01

    Bile duct injury is a commonly seen complication of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) approach, which can even lead to a life-threatening condition and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the first-line choice in treatment. Beside this, it can be concluded that percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) and balloon dilatation methods may also constitute a reasonable selection with non-invasive, feasible and effective aspects prior to open surgery. In the present case, we report the management of a bile duct obstruction due to surgical clips following LC, treated with PTC and balloon dilatation instead of surgical procedure in a child patient.

  2. A micromechanics constitutive model for pure dilatant martensitic transformation of ZrO2-containing ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qingping, Sun; Shouwen, Yu; Kehchih, Hwang

    1990-05-01

    A new micromechanics constitutive model for pure dilatant transformation plasticity of structure ceramics is proposed in this paper. Based on the thermodynamics, micromechanics and microscale t→m transformation mechanism analysis of the TZP and PSZ ZrO2-containing ceramics, an analytic expressions of the Helmholtz and complementary free energy of the constitutive element for the case of pure dilatant transformation is derived for the first time in a self-consistent manner. By the analysis of energy dissipation in the forward and reverse transformations, the micromechanics constitutive law is derived in the framework of Hill-Rice's internal variable constitutive theory.

  3. Cardiac sarcoid: a chameleon masquerading as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy in the same patient.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anushree; Sulemanjee, Nasir Z; Cheema, Omar; Downey, Francis X; Tajik, A Jamil

    2014-05-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem, granulomatous disease of unknown etiology often seen in young adults, with cardiac involvement in more than one-quarter of sarcoid patients. The clinical presentation of cardiac sarcoid depends upon the location and extent of myocardium involved. Although cardiac sarcoid may produce asymmetrical septal hypertrophy, it is most commonly considered in the differential diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy. The hypertrophic stage of cardiac sarcoid is rarely seen. We describe a case of cardiac sarcoid in a young patient wherein a distinctive appearance of the cardiac sarcoid spectrum from "hypertrophic" stage to thinned/scarred stage, masquerading as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy followed by dilated cardiomyopathy, is demonstrated.

  4. Stress-Dilatancy for Soils. Part II: Experimental Validation for Triaxial Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szypcio, Zenon

    2016-12-01

    Different forms of the stress-dilatancy relations obtained based on the frictional theory for the triaxial condition are presented. The analysed test data show that the shear resistance of many soils is purely frictional. The angle Φ0 represents the resistance of the soil as a combined effect of sliding and particle rolling on the macro-scale during shear at the critical frictional state. The stress-plastic dilatancy relations differ not only for triaxial compression and extension but also for drained and undrained conditions. The experiment investigated shows the correctness of the frictional state theory in the triaxial condition.

  5. Varied Presentation of Congenital Segmental Dilatation of the Intestine in Neonates: Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Binod Kumar; Mirza, Bilal; Hashim, Imran; Saleem, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Congenital segmental dilatation (CSD) of the intestine is a rare developmental anomaly characterized by sharply demarcated dilatation of a gastrointestinal segment and may present with intestinal obstruction. We report three cases of CSD of the intestine in neonates with varied presentation. First patient was mistaken as pneumoperitoneum on abdominal radiograph, which led to initial abdominal drain placement. The 2nd patient was a case of anorectal malformation associated with congenital pouch colon (CPC) and CSD of ileum; and the third case presented as neonatal intestinal obstruction and found to have CSD of ileum. All the patients were successfully managed in our department. PMID:27896163

  6. Pharmacological mydriasis secondary to ipratropium bromide: a cause of unilateral dilated pupil.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neil S; Ooi, Ju-Lee; Papalkar, Daya; Sharma, Shanel; Francis, Ian C; Fung, Victor S C

    2008-03-01

    Ipratropium bromide is a commonly used bronchodilator which has been rarely reported to cause pharmacological mydriasis. We report a 22-year-old woman using 6-hourly nebulised ipratropium from a multi-dose preparation, who presented with a unilateral dilated pupil which resolved spontaneously over 24h after discontinuation of her ill-fitting nebuliser mask which had been directing the drug toward that eye. No alternative cause was found despite extensive investigations. Greater recognition of this iatrogenic cause of reversible pupillary dilatation may avoid the need for unnecessary investigations.

  7. Transthoracic ultrasound guided balloon dilation of cor triatriatum dexter in 2 Rottweiler puppies.

    PubMed

    Birettoni, F; Caivano, D; Bufalari, A; Giorgi, M E; Miglio, A; Paradies, P; Porciello, F

    2016-12-01

    Balloon dilation was performed in two Rottweiler puppies with cor triatriatum dexter and clinical signs of ascites using transthoracic echocardiographic guidance. The dogs were positioned on a standard echocardiography table in right lateral recumbency, and guide wires and balloon catheters were imaged by echocardiographic views optimized to allow visualization of the defect. The procedures were performed successfully without complications and clinical signs were resolved completely in both cases. Guide wires and balloon catheters appeared hyperechoic on transthoracic echocardiography image and could be clearly monitored and guided in real-time. These two cases demonstrate that it is possible to perform balloon catheter dilation of cor triatriatum dexter under transthoracic guidance alone.

  8. [The thickness/radius ratio (t/r) in patients with dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Guadalajara, J F; Valenzuela, F; Martínez Sánchez, C; Huerta, D

    1990-01-01

    We studied 17 patients with cardiomyopathy (10 hypertrophic and 7 dilated). With two-dimensional echocardiography, we obtained a short axis view at the level of papillary muscle. We calculated the ratio between thickness (h), of ventricular wall and cavity's radius (r) in diastole and systole (h/r ratio). Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has a high h/r ratio in diastole (inappropriate hypertrophy), hypercontractility and low and systolic wall stress. Dilated cardiomyopathy has a low diastolic h/r ratio (inadequate hypertrophy) with low contractility and elevated end-systolic, wall stress. We discuss the mechanisms and consequences of different patterns of hypertrophy on the ventricular performance.

  9. What Is Carrier Screening?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary care providers Specialists Getting covered Research Basic science research Research in people ... screening Diagnostic testing Direct-to-consumer genetic testing Newborn screening Pharmacogenomic testing ...

  10. Atrial natriuretic peptide affects cardiac remodeling, function, heart failure, and survival in a mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Gladysheva, Inna P; Fan, Tai-Hwang M; Sullivan, Ryan; Houng, Aiilyan K; Reed, Guy L

    2014-03-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is a frequent cause of heart failure and death. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a biomarker of dilated cardiomyopathy, but there is controversy whether ANP modulates the development of heart failure. Therefore, we examined whether ANP affects heart failure, cardiac remodeling, function, and survival in a well-characterized, transgenic model of dilated cardiomyopathy. Mice with dilated cardiomyopathy with normal ANP levels survived longer than mice with partial ANP (P<0.01) or full ANP deficiency (P<0.001). In dilated cardiomyopathy mice, ANP protected against the development of heart failure as indicated by reduced lung water, alveolar congestion, pleural effusions, etc. ANP improved systolic function and reduced cardiomegaly. Pathological cardiac remodeling was diminished in mice with normal ANP as indicated by decreased ventricular interstitial and perivascular fibrosis. Mice with dilated cardiomyopathy and normal ANP levels had better systolic function (P<0.001) than mice with dilated cardiomyopathy and ANP deficiency. Dilated cardiomyopathy was associated with diminished cardiac transcripts for NP receptors A and B in mice with normal ANP and ANP deficiency, but transcripts for NP receptor C and C-type natriuretic peptide were selectively altered in mice with dilated cardiomyopathy and ANP deficiency. Taken together, these data indicate that ANP has potent effects in experimental dilated cardiomyopathy that reduce the development of heart failure, prevent pathological remodeling, preserve systolic function, and reduce mortality. Despite the apparent overlap in physiological function between the NPs, these data suggest that the role of ANP in dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure is not compensated physiologically by other NPs.

  11. Ultrasound Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Clinical Need Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a localized abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm. In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 2% and 5.4%. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are found in 4% to 8% of older men and in 0.5% to 1.5% of women aged 65 years and older. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are largely asymptomatic. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. Often rupture may occur without warning, causing acute pain. Rupture is always life threatening and requires emergency surgical repair of the ruptured aorta. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. Over one-half of all deaths attributed to a ruptured aneurysm take place before the patient reaches hospital. In comparison, the rate of death in people undergoing elective surgery is 5% to 7%; however, symptoms of AAA rarely occur before rupture. Given that ultrasound can reliably visualize the aorta in 99% of the population, and its sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing AAA approaches 100%, screening for aneurysms is worth considering as it may reduce the incidence of ruptured aneurysms and hence reduce unnecessary deaths caused by AAA-attributable mortality. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases to determine the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Case reports, letters, editorials, nonsystematic reviews, non-human studies, and comments were excluded. Questions asked: Is population-based AAA screening effective in improving health outcomes in asymptomatic populations? Is AAA screening acceptable to the population? Does this affect the

  12. [Phantom studies using echo contrast media to improve the Doppler color sonographic imaging of the superficial femoral artery in the adductor canal].

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, P; Brassel, F; Roth, U; Froehlich, H; Wagner, H H

    1991-01-01

    The adductor canal was simulated using 2.6 cm muscular tissue and 2 fasciae to analyse the limits of colour-coded Doppler sonography (angiodynography) in this region. Defects in the spectral signal cause a significant underestimation of mean, peak systolic and peak diastolic (backflow) velocities and of calculated blood flow. Furthermore the pulsatility index is overestimated and the colour-coded visualisation of the arteries is almost lost. For the most part, these changes can be compensated by administration of a sonographic contrast agent (SH U 454). A minimum of 9 mg microbubbles/ml blood is required. Nevertheless, the adjustment of system controls (e.g. transducer power) becomes more difficult and an ideal setting impossible.

  13. Acute dilated cardiomyopathy in a patient with beriberi and cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis: an unusual potential complication of two rare disorders.

    PubMed

    Tejedor, Ana; Solé, Manel; Prieto-González, Sergio; Alba, Marco Antonio; Grau, Josep Maria; Cid, Maria Cinta; Hernández-Rodríguez, José

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 45-year-old patient who presented with acute dilated cardiomyopathy. During admission the patient was consecutively diagnosed with cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis and beriberi. In both diseases, cardiac involvement may occur as dilated cardiomyopathy. Thiamin deficiency was the final cause for the severe cardiac manifestations (cardiac acute beriberi or Shoshin syndrome), which returned to normal after thiamin supplementation.

  14. The use of end-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring to confirm intratracheal cannula placement prior to percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Coleman, N A; Power, B M; van Heerden, P V

    2000-04-01

    We tested the utility of intratracheal carbon dioxide monitoring (IT-CO2) in 10 patients undergoing percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT). We have found IT-CO2 monitoring reliable in confirming the correct position of the tracheal cannula prior to tracheal dilatation using the Portex technique.

  15. Flicker Adaptation of Low-Level Cortical Visual Neurons Contributes to Temporal Dilation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Laura; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    Several seconds of adaptation to a flickered stimulus causes a subsequent brief static stimulus to appear longer in duration. Nonsensory factors, such as increased arousal and attention, have been thought to mediate this flicker-based temporal-dilation aftereffect. In this study, we provide evidence that adaptation of low-level cortical visual…

  16. Unexpected death caused by rupture of a dilated aorta in an adult male with aortic coarctation.

    PubMed

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Knudsen, Peter Thiis

    2015-09-01

    Aortic coarctation (AC) is a congenital aortic narrowing. We describe for the first time the findings obtained by unenhanced post mortem computed tomography (PMCT) in a case where the death was caused by cardiac tamponade from a ruptured aneurysmal dilatation of the ascending aorta and the aortic arch without dissection combined with aortic coarctation. The patient, a 46-year-old man, was found dead at home. PMCT showed haemopericardium and dilatation of the ascending aorta and the aortic arch. This appearance led to the mistaken interpretation that the images represented a dissecting aneurysm. The autopsy showed instead a thin-walled and floppy dilatation of the ascending aorta and aortic arch with a coarctation just proximal to the ligamentum arteriosum. A longitudinal tear was found in the posterior aortic wall just above the valves. Blood in the surrounding soft tissue intersected with a large haematoma (1000ml) in the pericardial sac. Cardiac hypertrophy (556g) was observed in the patient, though no other cardiovascular abnormalities were found. Histological analysis showed cystic medial necrosis of the ascending aortic wall. A ruptured aneurysmal dilatation of the ascending aorta and the aortic arch without aortic dissection associated with AC is an uncommon cause of haemopericardium that has only been described a few times before. The case is discussed in relation to other reported cases and in the context of the present understanding of this condition.

  17. Facilitation of cervical dilatation by intracervical application of sulprostone gel prior to hysteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rath, W; Kuhn, W; Hilgers, R

    1985-09-01

    In a prospective, randomized study, 10 patients with primary sterility received an intracervical application of 0.1 mg Sulprostone-Tylose gel for cervical priming 12 hours prior to panoramic CO2-hysteroscopy and pelviscopy with chromopertubation. Ten patients who served as controls were not treated with the local prostaglandin. The force required to overcome the cervical canal was measured with a special tonometer for Hegar 3 before application of the gel in the group treated with Sulprostone and was 3-8 mm in both groups of patients immediately preoperatively. Cervical priming led to a significant reduction in the force required to dilate the cervix. After priming with Sulprostone, the cervical canal was freely passable for an average of 6.7 mm. In none of these patients was a force of 7 Newton exceeded for Hegar 8, whereas in the control group a mean force of 8.2 Newton was required to dilate the cervix for Hegar 6. Haemorrhage and epithelial lesions of the cervix caused by the dilatation can largely be avoided, and the risk of uterine damage reduced by local priming of the cervix. The intracervical application of prostaglandin gel is an easy, efficient and gentle method of dilatation for hysteroscopy, particularly in patients with a firmly closed and rigid cervix.

  18. Disruption of ROCK1 gene attenuates cardiac dilation and improves contractile function in pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianjian; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Summers, Lelia J; Dorn, Gerald W; Wei, Lei

    2008-03-01

    The development of left ventricular cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in response to increased hemodynamic load and neurohormonal stress is initially a compensatory response. However, persistent stress eventually leads to dilated heart failure, which is a common cause of heart failure in human hypertensive and valvular heart disease. We have recently reported that Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) homozygous knockout mice exhibited reduced cardiac fibrosis and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, while displaying a preserved compensatory hypertrophic response to pressure overload. In this study, we have tested the effects of ROCK1 deficiency on cardiac hypertrophy, dilation, and dysfunction. We have shown that ROCK1 deletion attenuated left ventricular dilation and contractile dysfunction, but not hypertrophy, in a transgenic model of Galphaq overexpression-induced hypertrophy which represents a well-characterized and highly relevant genetic mouse model of pathological hypertrophy. Although the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was not affected, ROCK1 deletion in Galphaq mice resulted in a concentric hypertrophic phenotype associated with reduced induction of hypertrophic markers indicating that ROCK1 deletion could favorably modify hypertrophy without inhibiting it. Furthermore, ROCK1 deletion also improved contractile response to beta-adrenergic stimulation in Galphaq transgenic mice. Consistent with this observation, ROCK1 deletion prevented down-regulation of type V/VI adenylyl cyclase expression, which is associated with the impaired beta-adrenergic signaling in Galphaq mice. The present study establishes for the first time a role for ROCK1 in cardiac dilation and contractile dysfunction.

  19. [Cochlear implant in a patient with dilatation of the endolymphatic sac and vestibular aqueduct].

    PubMed

    Clarós, P; Sanz, J J; Clavería, M A; Costa, C; Clarós, A

    2005-03-01

    We present an 8 years patient old with a giant dilatation of the vestibular aqueduct associated with profound and progressive bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. The patient received a cochlear implant and during the surgery a pulsatile clear fluid via the cochleostomy was observed, without gusher. We present all the problems, and offer some advices for this kind of surgery.

  20. Anaesthetic management of a case of dilated cardiomyopathy for emergency appendectomy.

    PubMed

    Raj, Ravi; Kumar, Mritunjay; Batra, Meenu

    2014-01-01

    The anesthetic management of a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) undergoing non-cardiac surgery poses a challenge for anesthesiologist either due to pre-existing or a risk of precipitating congestive heart failure. We report a successful use of combined spinal epidural for emergency appendicectomy in a patient of DCM. Different anesthetic concerns and agents, some recent advances are also discussed.