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Sample records for dilute magnetic semiconductor

  1. Diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires exhibiting magnetoresistance

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; Choi, Heonjin; Lee, Sangkwon; He, Rongrui; Zhang, Yanfeng; Kuykendal, Tevye; Pauzauskie, Peter

    2011-08-23

    A method for is disclosed for fabricating diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanowires by providing a catalyst-coated substrate and subjecting at least a portion of the substrate to a semiconductor, and dopant via chloride-based vapor transport to synthesize the nanowires. Using this novel chloride-based chemical vapor transport process, single crystalline diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires Ga.sub.1-xMn.sub.xN (x=0.07) were synthesized. The nanowires, which have diameters of .about.10 nm to 100 nm and lengths of up to tens of micrometers, show ferromagnetism with Curie temperature above room temperature, and magnetoresistance up to 250 Kelvin.

  2. Diluted magnetic semiconductors with narrow band gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Bo; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2016-10-01

    We propose a method to realize diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) with p - and n -type carriers by choosing host semiconductors with a narrow band gap. By employing a combination of the density function theory and quantum Monte Carlo simulation, we demonstrate such semiconductors using Mn-doped BaZn2As2 , which has a band gap of 0.2 eV. In addition, we found a nontoxic DMS Mn-doped BaZn2Sb2 , of which the Curie temperature Tc is predicted to be higher than that of Mn-doped BaZn2As2 , the Tc of which was up to 230 K in a recent experiment.

  3. Terahertz radiation from magnetic excitations in diluted magnetic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Rungsawang, R; Perez, F; Oustinov, D; Gómez, J; Kolkovsky, V; Karczewski, G; Wojtowicz, T; Madéo, J; Jukam, N; Dhillon, S; Tignon, J

    2013-04-26

    We probed, in the time domain, the THz electromagnetic radiation originating from spins in CdMnTe diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum wells containing high-mobility electron gas. Taking advantage of the efficient Raman generation process, the spin precession was induced by low power near-infrared pulses. We provide a full theoretical first-principles description of spin-wave generation, spin precession, and of emission of THz radiation. Our results open new perspectives for improved control of the direct coupling between spin and an electromagnetic field, e.g., by using semiconductor technology to insert the THz sources in cavities or pillars.

  4. EDITORIAL: Focus on Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors FOCUS ON DILUTE MAGNETIC SEMICONDUCTORS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Scott A.; Gallagher, Bryan

    2008-05-01

    This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is devoted to the materials science of dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). A DMS is traditionally defined as a diamagnetic semiconductor doped with a few to several atomic per cent of some transition metal with unpaired d electrons. Several kinds of dopant-dopant interactions can in principle couple the dopant spins leading to a ferromagnetic ground state in a dilute magnetic system. These include superexchange, which occurs principally in oxides and only between dopants with one intervening oxygen, and double exchange, in which dopants of different formal charges exchange an electron. In both of these mechanisms, the ferromagnetic alignment is not critically dependent on free carriers in the host semiconductor because exchange occurs via bonds. A third mechanism, discovered in the last few years, involves electrons associated with lattice defects that can apparently couple dopant spins. This mechanism is not well understood. Finally, the most desirable mechanism is carrier-mediated exchange interaction in which the dopant spins are coupled by itinerant electrons or holes in the host semiconductor. This mechanism introduces a fundamental link between magnetic and electrical transport properties and offers the possibility of new spintronic functionalities. In particular electrical gate control of ferromagnetism and the use of spin polarized currents to carry signals for analog and digital applications. The spin light emitting diode is a prototypical device of this kind that has been extensively used to characterize the extent of spin polarization in the active light emitting semiconductor heterostructure. The prototypical carrier mediated ferromagnetic DMS is Mn-doped GaAs. This and closely related narrow gap III-V materials have been very extensively studied. Their properties are generally quite well understood and they have led to important insights into fundamental properties of ferromagnetic systems with strong spin

  5. Current density and state density in diluted magnetic semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Merchancano, S. T.; Paredes Gutiérrez, H.; Zuñiga, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    We study in this paper the spin-polarized current density components in diluted magnetic semiconductor tunnelling diodes with different sample geometries. We calculate the resonant JxV and the density of states. The differential conductance curves are analyzed as functions of the applied voltage and the magnetic potential strength induced by the magnetic ions.

  6. Theory of ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductor heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byounghak

    In this thesis, we explore the magnetic and transport properties of ferromagnetic semiconductors and their heterostructures. First, we introduce diluted magnetic semiconductors and their properties. The unique features of diluted magnetic semiconductors are originated from their position in the parameter space. We compare diluted magnetic semiconductors with similar physical systems and discuss the difference between them. Next, we briefly review the background theories, such as k · p methods, density functional methods, and envelope function methods. These methods serve as the background on which our theory is based. Third, we develop a mean-field theory in the framework of the self-consistent field method. Our approach improves the RKKY model, allowing spatial inhomogeneity of the system, free-carrier spin polarization, finite temperatures, and free-carrier exchange and correlation to be accounted for self-consistently. As an example, we calculate the electronic structure of a MnxGa 1-xAs/GaAs superlattice with alternating ferromagnetic and paramagnetic layers and demonstrate the possibility of semiconductor magnetoresistance systems with designed properties. Fourth, we present a mean-field theory of ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum wells. Ignoring subband mixing due to exchange interactions between quantum well free carriers and magnetic impurities, we obtain an analytic result for the dependence of the critical temperature and the spontaneous magnetization on the distribution of magnetic impurities and on the quantum well width. Fifth, we predict that a novel bias-voltage assisted magnetization reversal process will occur in Mn doped II-VI semiconductor quantum wells or heterojunctions with carrier induced ferromagnetism. We analyze the interplay between kinetic exchange coupling and quantum confinement effects, and show that magnetization reversal is due to strong exchange-coupling induced subband mixing. Finally, we apply the mean

  7. Orbital magnetization in dilute ferromagnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Śliwa, Cezary; Dietl, Tomasz

    2014-07-01

    The relationship between the modern and classical Landau's approach to carrier orbital magnetization is studied theoretically within the envelope function approximation, taking ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As as an example. It is shown that while the evaluation of hole magnetization within the modern theory does not require information on the band structure in a magnetic field, the number of basis wave functions must be much larger than in the Landau approach to achieve the same quantitative accuracy. A numerically efficient method is proposed, which takes advantages of these two theoretical schemes. The computed magnitude of orbital magnetization is in accord with experimental values obtained by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in (III,Mn)V compounds. The direct effect of the magnetic field on the hole spectrum is studied too, and employed to interpret a dependence of the Coulomb blockade maxima on the magnetic field in a single electron transistor with a (Ga,Mn)As gate.

  8. XPS Study of Some Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhal, R. K.; Sharma, S. C.; Jakhar, N.

    2011-10-01

    In search for room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) in nominally doped oxides like ZnO, CeO2, TiO2 etc., several research attempts have been made in recent years. Unfortunately, these could not reach definite conclusions owing to controversial reports and the mechanism of FM ordering continues to remain illusive. We have synthesized Cr and Ni doped (5% each) ZnO bulk samples and studied their structural, electronic and magnetic properties. The magnetization and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) studies on these samples are presented and the electronic structure findings are correlated with magnetic properties.

  9. Uniform Doping in Quantum-Dots-Based Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Saha, Avijit; Shetty, Amitha; Pavan, A R; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Shibata, Tomohiro; Viswanatha, Ranjani

    2016-07-07

    Effective manipulation of magnetic spin within a semiconductor leading to a search for ferromagnets with semiconducting properties has evolved into an important field of dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). Although a lot of research is focused on understanding the still controversial origin of magnetism, efforts are also underway to develop new materials with higher magnetic temperatures for spintronics applications. However, so far, efforts toward quantum-dots(QDs)-based DMS materials are plagued with problems of phase separation, leading to nonuniform distribution of dopant ions. In this work, we have developed a strategy to synthesize highly crystalline, single-domain DMS system starting from a small magnetic core and allowing it to diffuse uniformly inside a thick CdS semiconductor matrix and achieve DMS QDs. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy-scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM-EDX) indicates the homogeneous distribution of magnetic impurities inside the semiconductor QDs leading to superior magnetic property. Further, the versatility of this technique was demonstrated by obtaining ultra large particles (∼60 nm) with uniform doping concentration as well as demonstrating the high quality magnetic response.

  10. Ferromagnetism in dilute magnetic semiconductors and new materials for spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. A.; Ugolkova, E. A.; Pashkova, O. N.; Sanygin, V. P.; Padalko, A. G.

    2006-05-01

    Spintronics materials may be classified under concentrated magnetic semiconductors, semimetals and half-metals, semimagnetic semiconductors, and dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). The nature of ferromagnetism, that occurs in p-type DMS with an increase in the transition metal content, is governed by the proposed kinematic exchange involving the kinetic energy gain of the heavy hole carriers caused by their hybridization with 3d electrons of impurities. The synthesis of DMS (In,Mn)Sb is proposed on the basis of hint at its TC from kinematic mechanism. The effect of the dimensionality-driven TC increase is derived for spintronics materials such as delta-doped DMS (DDMS) and DMS heterostructures. The state-of-the-art in the field of synthesis and research of "new" DMS with announced "high TC" is also outlined with particular attention to chalcopyrite-based systems.

  11. Magnetism in dilute iron doped YN semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Ramesh; Dwievdi, Shalini; Sharma, Yamini

    2016-05-23

    The full potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FP-LAPW) scheme of computation is used to explore the electronic and magnetic properties of Fe doped into YN. Band structure calculations show that YN is a semicon ductor with a narrow indirect band gap of 0.08 eV along Γ-X direction. Optical properties such as reflectivity, absorption coefficient are reported and are discussed on the basis of corresponding electronic structure. Spin polarized results indicate that the ground state of Y{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}N (x=0.06, 0.12, 0.25) is ferromagnetic with a high moment on Fe-atom and zero moment on Y and N atoms, except in the case of 25 % doping. A discussion of the transport properties of YN and Y{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}N is given in order to get insights of the Fe substitution effects.

  12. Scanning Hall probe microscopy of a diluted magnetic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Kweon, Seongsoo; Samarth, Nitin; Lozanne, Alex de

    2009-05-01

    We have measured the micromagnetic properties of a diluted magnetic semiconductor as a function of temperature and applied field with a scanning Hall probe microscope built in our laboratory. The design philosophy for this microscope and some details are described. The samples analyzed in this work are Ga{sub 0.94}Mn{sub 0.06}As films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We find that the magnetic domains are 2-4 mum wide and fairly stable with temperature. Magnetic clusters are observed above T{sub C}, which we ascribe to MnAs defects too small and sparse to be detected by a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer.

  13. Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors from Electrodeposited ZnO Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Athavan, Nadarajah; Konenkamp, R.

    2011-02-02

    We present experimental results on the magnetic properties of doped ZnO nanowires grown at 80 8C in electrodeposition. We show that impurities such as Al, Mn, Co, and Cu can be incorporated in the nanowires by adding the corresponding metal salts to the electrolyte solution. At concentration levels of a few atomic percent we find the impurity concentration in the solid to be approximately proportional to the precursor concentration in solution. ZnO nanowrires doped with Cu, Co, and Mn show superparamagnetic response at room temperature, while undoped and Al-doped wires show no discernible magnetic response. The results indicate that with Cu, Mn, and Co doping dilute magnetic semiconductors can be prepared.

  14. Magnetic Exchange Interactions in Long Range Ordered Diluted Organometallic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Naveen; Manning, Lane; Furis, Madalina

    2015-03-01

    Exchange Interactions in diluted organometallic crystalline thin films of Phthalocyanines made of a mixture of organo-soluble derivatives of metal-free (H2Pc) molecule and MnPc is investigated. The tuning of optical and magnetic properties in organometallics is driven by their emergence in optoelectronic applications involving flexible electronics. Thin films with metal to metal-free Pc ratios ranging from 1: 1 to 1:10 were fabricated using solution processing that produces macroscopic grains. In the case of Mn-Pc, our previos measurements showed enhanced hybridization of ligand π-electronic states with the Mn d-orbitals as well as indirect exchange interaction similar to that of RKKY type exchange. The evolution of Zeeman splitting of specific MCD-active states resulted in enhanced effective π-electrons g-factors, analogous to diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) systems. Recent Variable temperature Magnetic Circular Dichroism (VTVH-MCD) measurements has now revealed that the exchange interaction is Antiferromagnetic. Recent MCD data for mixed derivatives will be presented along with their temperature dependance that further probes this exchange interaction. NSF award 1056589

  15. EPR and Ferromagnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Jürgen; MacDonald, Allan H.

    2003-08-01

    Motivated by recent measurements of electron paramagnetic resonance spectra in modulation-doped CdMnTe quantum wells [

    F. J. Teran et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-9007 91, 077201 (2003)
    ], we develop a theory of collective spin excitations in quasi-two-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductors. Our theory explains the anomalously large Knight shift found in these experiments as a consequence of collective coupling between Mn-ion local moments and itinerant-electron spins. We use this theory to discuss the physics of ferromagnetism in (II,Mn)VI quantum wells and to speculate on the temperature at which it is likely to be observed in n-type modulation-doped systems.

  16. Realizing ferromagnetic coupling in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wensheng; Liu, Qinghua; Wang, Chao; Yang, Xiaoyu; Yao, Tao; He, Jingfu; Sun, Zhihu; Pan, Zhiyun; Hu, Fengchun; Wu, Ziyu; Xie, Zhi; Wei, Shiqiang

    2014-01-22

    Manipulating the ferromagnetic interactions in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots (DMSQDs) is a central theme to the development of next-generation spin-based information technologies, but this remains a great challenge because of the intrinsic antiferromagnetic coupling between impurity ions therein. Here, we propose an effective approach capable of activating ferromagnetic exchange in ZnO-based DMSQDs, by virtue of a core/shell structure that engineers the energy level of the magnetic impurity 3d levels relative to the band edge. This idea has been successfully applied to Zn(0.96)Co(0.04)O DMSQDs covered by a shell of ZnS or Ag2S. First-principles calculations further indicate that covering a ZnS shell around the Co-doped ZnO core drives a transition of antiferromagnetic-to-ferromagnetic interaction, which occurs within an effective depth of 1.2 nm underneath the surface in the core. This design opens up new possibility for effective manipulation of exchange interactions in doped oxide nanostructures for future spintronics applications.

  17. Charge and Spin Transport in Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Ullrich, Carsten A.

    2009-07-23

    This proposal to the DOE outlines a three-year plan of research in theoretical and computational condensed-matter physics, with the aim of developing a microscopic theory for charge and spin dynamics in disordered materials with magnetic impurities. Important representatives of this class of materials are the dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS), which have attracted great attention as a promising basis for spintronics devices. There is an intense experimental effort underway to study the transport properties of ferromagnetic DMS such as (Ga,Mn)As, and a number of interesting features have emerged: negative magnetoresistance, anomalous Hall effect, non-Drude dynamical conductivity, and resistivity maxima at the Curie temperature. Available theories have been able to account for some of these features, but at present we are still far away from a systematic microscopic understanding of transport in DMS. We propose to address this challenge by developing a theory of charge and spin dynamics based on a combination of the memory-function formalism and time-dependent density functional theory. This approach will be capable of dealing with two important issues: (a) the strong degree of correlated disorder in DMS, close to the localization transition (which invalidates the usual relaxation-time approximation to the Boltzmann equation), (b) the essentially unknown role of dynamical many-body effects such as spin Coulomb drag. We will calculate static and dynamical conductivities in DMS as functions of magnetic order and carrier density, which will advance our understanding of recent transport and infrared absorption measurements. Furthermore, we will study collective plasmon excitations in DMS (3D, 2D and quantum wells), whose linewidths could constitute a new experimental probe of the correlation of disorder, many-body effects and charge and spin dynamics in these materials.

  18. Magnetic Field Modulated Photoreflectance Study of the Electron Effective Mass in Dilute Nitride Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, N.; Hiejima, K.; Kubo, H.; Patane, A.; Eaves, L.

    2011-12-23

    Magnetic field modulated photoreflectance measurements are performed on the dilute nitride semiconductor Ga(AsN) in quantizing magnetic fields. From the measured cyclotron energies, the conduction band effective mass and its dependence on the nitrogen content are determined. The effective mass is found to become significantly heavier in samples with high nitrogen composition (>0.1%).

  19. Spin selector based on periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ping-Fan; Guo, Yong; Zhu, Rui

    2015-07-15

    We propose a spin selector based on periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier (DMS/NB) superlattices subjected to an external magnetic field. We find that the periodic DMS/NB superlattices can achieve 100% spin filtering over a dramatically broader range of incident energies than the diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/semiconductor (DMS/S) case studied previously. And the positions and widths of spin-filtering bands can be manipulated effectively by adjusting the geometric parameters of the system or the strength of external magnetic field. Such a compelling filtering feature stems from the introduction of nonmagnetic barrier and the spin-dependent giant Zeeman effect induced by the external magnetic field. We also find that the external electric field can exert a significant influence on the spin-polarized transport through the DMS/NB superlattices.

  20. Electronic structure theory of wide gap dilute magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Linhui; Freeman, A. J.

    2007-03-01

    The recent exciting reports that wide gap semiconductors, most notably ZnO, TiO2 and GaN, when doped with transition metal elements, may have Tc's that are higher than room temperature have attracted great interest. When interpreted with care, highly precise first principles FLAPW calculations such as used here, are now providing insights into the nature of their strong ferromagnetism (FM). Here, we present an analysis to the electronic structures of several typical wide gap DMS's and illustrate how first principles calculations can lead to correct predictions of their magnetic properties for both Cr:TiO2 and Mn:GaN. The results demonstrate the importance of defect compensation in the determination of the magnetism. A comparison between Mn:ZnO and Co:ZnO highlights the fundamental difference in their electronic structures which explains why their FM is dependent on carriers of different polarity. Correct predictions of their magnetism are found to be due to the correct treatment of the LDA band gap problem. Finally, we provide semi-quantitative discussions of Co doped TiO2, and illustrate why it is highly non- trivial to fully explain its FM based on first principles calculations. E.Wimmer,H.Krakauer,M.Weinert,A.J.Freeman, PRB 24, 864(1981)

  1. Electrically driven magnetization of diluted magnetic semiconductors actuated by the Overhauser effect.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, L; Zainuddin, A N M; Datta, S

    2010-06-02

    It is well known that the Curie temperature, and hence the magnetization, in diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) like Ga(1-x)Mn(x)As can be controlled by changing the equilibrium density of holes in the material. Here, we propose that even with a constant hole density, large changes in the magnetization can be obtained with a relatively small imbalance in the quasi-Fermi levels for up-spin and down-spin electrons. We show, by coupling the mean field theory of diluted magnetic semiconductor ferromagnetism with master equations governing the Mn spin-dynamics, that a mere splitting of the up-spin and down-spin quasi-Fermi levels by 0.1 meV will produce the effect of an external magnetic field as large as 1 T as long as the alternative relaxation paths for Mn spins (i.e. spin-lattice relaxation) can be neglected. The physics is similar to the classic Overhauser effect, also called the dynamic nuclear polarization, with the Mn impurities playing the role of the nucleus. We propose that a lateral spin-valve structure in an anti-parallel configuration with a DMS as the channel can be used to demonstrate this effect, as quasi-Fermi level splitting of such magnitude, inside the channel of similar systems, has already been experimentally demonstrated to produce polarization of paramagnetic impurity spins.

  2. Spin-dependent tunneling time in periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ping-Fan; Guo, Yong

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the tunneling time (dwell time) in periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier (DMS/NB) superlattices subjected to an external magnetic field. It is found that spin-dependent resonant bands form in the spectra of dwell time, which can be effectively manipulated by not only the external magnetic field but also the geometric parameters of the system. Moreover, an intuitive semiclassical delay is defined to illustrate the behavior of the dwell time, and the former one is shown to be the result of “smoothing out” the latter one. We also find that the dwell time in diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/semiconductor superlattices behaves surprisingly different from the DMS/NB case, especially for spin-down electrons.

  3. Hall effect in gallium manganese arsenide-diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzmetov, Dmitry A.

    A series of GaMnAs samples with various Mn concentrations and thicknesses is extensively studied in this thesis. The influence of annealing on the magnetic, lattice, and electron transport properties of GaMnAs is investigated. X-ray analysis allowed the lattice constants and the strains due to the lattice mismatch between the GaMnAs film and a GaAs substrate for each sample to be determined. Magnetometric measurements confirm the expected anisotropic ferromagnetic characteristics of these semiconductors, and the measured magnetization in hard and easy axis directions indicates that only around 40% of Mn ions contribute to the ferromagnetism. As a result of the study of the electron transport in GaMnAs at high temperatures, we found that the anomalous contribution to the Hall resistivity dominates over the ordinary contribution up to 380 K in our samples. The measured Hall coefficient of metallic samples with low Mn content above the Curie temperature (TC) can be fit with a model that takes into account the ordinary and anomalous contributions to the Hall resistivity. According to our model, the spontaneous Hall coefficient (RS) in our samples is proportional to the square of the longitudinal resistivity above TC, which corresponds to a temperature-independent Hall conductivity, and we checked for one sample that this form of RS holds also at the liquid He temperature. This indicates that the physical mechanism responsible for the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) remains unchanged in the transition from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phases of the semiconductor. It is found that the temperature dependence of the AHE above TC can be described except for RS(T) with the Curie-Weiss law for the paramagnetic susceptibility with the inclusion of a small, negative, temperature and Mn content independent correction to the susceptibility, which may originate from the diamagnetism of the GaAs matrix. The good agreement between the measured and fitting Hall data suggests that the

  4. Study of magnetism in dilute magnetic semiconductors based on III-V nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaram, Rekha

    Spin based electronics, commonly referred to as "spintronics", seeks to expand the functionalities of microelectronic devices by introducing the ability to manipulate the carrier's spin, in addition to or instead of its charge. Key steps in spintronic devices include the injection, manipulation and detection of the carrier's spin. Metal-based spintronic devices such as spin valves have already found applications in high capacity hard disk drive read heads and have potential in non-volatile solid state memories. However, in order to realize the full potential of spintronics, spin manipulation must be introduced into semiconductor devices. This in turn, requires the development of magnetic semiconductors. Dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) are a class of magnetic semiconductors in which a fraction of the cations are substitutionally replaced by magnetic ions. The exchange interaction between the spin of the dopant atoms and the carriers in the semiconductor host is expected to bring about global ferromagnetic order in the entire lattice in these materials. The search for novel DMS candidates has been driven by two cardinal requirements - a material system with well-developed growth technology, and a high Curie temperature. In this work, we have investigated the growth and characteristics of one such promising candidate, transition-metal doped InN. InN films were deposited on c-sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy, employing GaN underlayers to reduce the lattice mismatch between the film and substrate. The films were doped from 0.1-6% Cr with no noticeable trace of crystalline secondary phases detected by X-ray diffraction. However, Mn-doping led to segregation of manganese nitride. Hall effect measurements revealed n-type behavior in both undoped as well as Cr-doped films. A magnetic hysteresis, with a small remanence and coercivity was observed in Cr:InN up to room temperature, confirming long-range magnetic order in this material. X-ray magnetic circular

  5. Tuning magnetic disorder in diluted magnetic semiconductors using high fields to 89 Tesla

    SciTech Connect

    Crooker, Scott A; Samarth, Nitin

    2008-01-01

    We describe recent and ongoing studies at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Los Alamos using the new '100 Tesla Multi-Shot Magnet', which is presently delivering fields up to {approx}89 T during its commissioning. We discuss the first experiments performed in this magnet system, wherein the linewidth of low-temperature photoluminescence spectra was used to directly reveal the degree of magnetic alloy disorder 'seen' by excitons in single Zn{sub 0.80}Cd{sub 0.22}Mn{sub 0.08}Se quantum wells. The magnetic potential landscape in II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) is typically smoothed when the embedded Mn{sup 2+} spins align in an applied field. However, an important (but heretofore untested) prediction of current models of compositional disorder is that magnetic alloy fluctuations in many DMS compounds should increase again in very large magnetic fields approaching 100 T. We observed precisely this increase above {approx}70 T, in agreement with a simple model of magnetic alloy disorder.

  6. Exploration of oxide-based diluted magnetic semiconductors toward transparent spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumura, T.; Yamada, Y.; Toyosaki, H.; Hasegawa, T.; Koinuma, H.; Kawasaki, M.

    2004-02-01

    A review is given for the recent progress of research in the field of oxide-based diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS), which was triggered by combinatorial discovery of transparent ferromagnet. The possible advantages of oxide semiconductor as a host of DMS are described in comparison with conventional compound semiconductors. Limits and problems for identifying novel ferromagnetic DMS are described in view of recent reports in this field. Several characterization techniques are proposed in order to eliminate unidentified ferromagnetism of oxide-based DMS unidentified ferromagnetic oxide (UFO). Perspectives and possible devices are also given.

  7. Low temperature nano-spin filtering using a diluted magnetic semiconductor core-shell quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Saikat; Sen, Pratima; Andrews, Joshep Thomas; Sen, Pranay Kumar

    2014-07-01

    The spin polarized electron transport properties and spin polarized tunneling current have been investigated analytically in a diluted magnetic semiconductor core-shell quantum dot in the presence of applied electric and magnetic fields. Assuming the electron wave function to satisfy WKB approximation, the electron energy eigenvalues have been calculated. The spin polarized tunneling current and the spin dependent tunneling coefficient are obtained by taking into account the exchange interaction and Zeeman splitting. Numerical estimates made for a specific diluted magnetic semiconductor, viz., Zn1-xMnxSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dot establishes the possibility of a nano-spin filter for a particular biasing voltage and applied magnetic field. Influence of applied voltage on spin polarized electron transport has been investigated in a CSQD.

  8. Spin-Induced Optical Phenomena in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeyama, Shojiro

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * GENERAL FEATURES * Materials * Crystal Structures * Band Structure at ěc{k}≃ 0 * sp-d Exchange Interaction * Magnetic Properties and Parameters * Magnetization Steps due to Nearest-Neighbor Spin Pairs * The Physical Origin of the sp-d Exchange Constants * OPTICAL RESPONSE OF THE LOW-DIMENSIONAL DMSs * Anisotropy of the Zeeman Effect in Two-Dimensional DMSs * Magneto-Optical Method of Interface Characterization * MAGNETIC POLARONS * Bound Magnetic Polarons * Free Magnetic Polarons * OPTICAL OBSERVATION OF MAGNETIC POLARONS * A Selective Excitation Photoluminescence Study * Optical Survey of Free Magnetic Polarons * Two-Dimensional Exciton Free Magnetic Polarons * SUMMARY * REFERENCES

  9. Multiple-scattering corrections in diluted magnetic semiconductors: A plane-wave expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalbert, D.; Ghazali, A.; Benoit à la Guillaume, C.

    1993-12-01

    Energy levels of band edges in diluted magnetic semiconductors are calculated in the effective-mass approximation, retaining off-diagonal terms in the exchange interaction and using a plane-wave expansion. This model accounts qualitatively for the observed asymmetry in the splitting of the A exciton in a magnetic field in Cd1-xMnxS for which multiple-scattering corrections are expected to be important.

  10. Magnetic properties of layered III-VI Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekarek, Thomas; Miotkowski, I.; Ramdas, A. K.

    2015-03-01

    The new class of quasi-two-dimensional III-VI Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS) exhibits a rich collection of magnetic behavior. The Ga1-xMnxS system exhibits a 3-D spin-glass transition, which was unexpected given its four atom thick two dimensional structure. The best scaling fit was found for critical exponents (γ = 4.0, β = 0.8, and δ = 5.5) similar to the three dimensional Zn1-xMnxTe system. Ga1-xFexSe exhibits a prominent magnetic anisotropy over the temperature range from 10 to 400 K. Theoretical models for In1-xMnxSe, In1-xMnxS, and Ga1-xMnxS provide good agreement with experimental results over a wide range of temperatures and fields. The mechanism behind an unusually large thermal hysteresis (ΔT ~ 200 K) in In1-xMnxSe, which extends up to room temperature, is not completely understood at this time. Typically, thermal hysteresis in most materials has a ΔT ~ 20 K occurring well below room temperature. The host III-VI semiconductors themselves are among the best non-linear optical materials. This research was supported by the UNF Terry Presidential Professorship, the Florida Space Grant Consortium, A Purdue U. Academic Reinvestment Program, and by NSF Grant Nos. DMR-07-06593 and DMR-14-29428.

  11. Structural, morphological and magnetic analysis of Cd-Co-S dilute magnetic semiconductor nanofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Suresh; Negi, N. S.; Katyal, S. C.; Sharma, Pankaj; Sharma, Vineet

    2014-10-01

    Cd1-xCoxS dilute magnetic semiconductor nanofilms (0≤x≤0.08 at%) deposited by chemical bath deposition have been investigated using grazing angle x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The introduction of Co2+ ions in CdS structure induces structural disorders and hence, results in degradation of crystallinity. The crystallite size, interplanar spacing and lattice parameter ratio decrease with increasing Co2+ concentration in CdS. The diamagnetic state of CdS disappears with increase in Co concentration and films with x>0.02 exhibit ferromagnetism. This may be explained in terms of the spin-orbit interactions and Co2+ ion induced the lattice defects and phase separation.

  12. Alloyed Mn-Cu-In-S nanocrystals: a new type of diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qinghui; Deng, Ruiping; Ji, Xiangling; Pan, Daocheng

    2012-06-29

    A new type of Mn-Cu-In-S diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots was synthesized and reported for the first time. The quantum dots, with no highly toxic elements, not only show the same classic diluted magnetic behavior as Mn-doped CdSe, but also exhibit tunable luminescent properties in a relatively large window from 542 to 648 nm. An absolute photoluminescence quantum yield up to 20% was obtained after the shell growth of ZnS. This kind of magnetic/luminescent bi-functional Mn-Cu-In-S/ZnS core/shell quantum dot might serve as promising nanoprobes for use in dual-mode optical and magnetic resonance imaging techniques.

  13. Alloyed Mn-Cu-In-S nanocrystals: a new type of diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qinghui; Deng, Ruiping; Ji, Xiangling; Pan, Daocheng

    2012-06-01

    A new type of Mn-Cu-In-S diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots was synthesized and reported for the first time. The quantum dots, with no highly toxic elements, not only show the same classic diluted magnetic behavior as Mn-doped CdSe, but also exhibit tunable luminescent properties in a relatively large window from 542 to 648 nm. An absolute photoluminescence quantum yield up to 20% was obtained after the shell growth of ZnS. This kind of magnetic/luminescent bi-functional Mn-Cu-In-S/ZnS core/shell quantum dot might serve as promising nanoprobes for use in dual-mode optical and magnetic resonance imaging techniques.

  14. Preparation, Characterization, Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Mn-Doped Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Samiksha; Mohite, Komal; Naik, Pranav; Tangsali, R. B.

    2016-10-01

    Nanoparticle dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) are becoming increasingly important due to their possible applications in spintronics, an emerging field where the conduction process in the materials is a spin-based process. Nanoparticles of Mn-doped ZnO (DMS) material with general formula Zn1-xMnxO (x=0.05,0.15,0.2) were prepared by opting single stage combustion synthesis process. The samples characterized, exhibited formation of monophasic nanoparticles of the sample with average particle size ranging between 17 nm to 23 nm. The calculations of energy bandgap made from UV absorption spectra showed variation of the bandgap from 2.18 eV to 2.32 eV. The magnetic measurements (VSM) made on the samples confirmed formation of a single diamagnetic (Zn0.95Mn0.05O) and two namely (Zn0.85Mn0.15O) (Zn0.8Mn0.2O) paramagnetic samples. It is interesting to see that all the three magnetic profiles exhibit hysteresis type behavior both in diamagnetic form and paramagnetic form. The resistivity of the samples was of the order of 1010 Ohm-cm (Ω-cm) at lower temperatures. Temperature-dependent resistivity curves exhibited peaking behavior for all the three samples which is very interesting. Temperature-dependent thermo-power profiles give an indication of n-type semiconductor behavior with significantly deep and broad minima around 100∘C which becomes sharper for sample with higher Mn concentration.

  15. Investigation into the physical properties of the diluted magnetic semiconductor galliuma manganese arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potashnik, Stephen J.

    Over the past decade, a new field termed "spintronics" has emerged in which the spin of a particle rather then just its charge is used to process and store information. Diluted magnetic semiconductors may play a prominent role in this field, because they can be used to align spins and can be grown epitaxially within hetrostructures; however, current Curie temperatures are too low to make room temperature devices. This dissertation examines the possibility of improving the magnetic and transport properties of the diluted magnetic semiconductor Ga1-xMnxAs. In our first study, low temperature annealing was found to significantly increase Tc. A variety of studies were performed in attempts to discern the mechanism by which this enhancement occurred. It was found that annealing leads to a complex interplay between the defects associated with the low temperature growth conditions of the epilayers and possibly a free surface in the material. To test the several different theories of magnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors, a series of Ga1-xMnxAs samples was grown spanning the possible range of Mn concentrations. The magnetic properties of annealed samples were consistent with mean-field models, but a decreasing magnetization contribution per Mn atom was found with increasing Mn concentration. The resulting magnetization deficit persisted to fields up to 3 T, which supports reports of antiferromagnetic Mn pairs in the material. Thin domain wall widths, modeled as Neel walls, were found to be constant over the range of Mn concentrations, which should facilitate device fabrication. Finally, the prospects for further increases in the Tc of Ga1-xMnxAs have been considered. Tc is observed to increase with carrier concentration roughly as predicted by mean-field models. The high carrier concentrations that would be required for room temperature ferromagnetism in Ga1-xMnxAs suggest other diluted magnetic semiconductors may be needed to obtain Tc of 300 K. Because Ga 1-x

  16. High pressure phase transition and variation of elastic constants of diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshney, Dinesh; Sharma, P.; Kaurav, N.; Shah, S.; Singh, R. K.

    2004-11-01

    A theoretical study of the high-pressure phase transition and elastic behavior in diluted magnetic semiconductors Zn0.83Mn0.17Se, using a three-body interaction (TBI) potential caused by the electron-shell deformation of the overlapping ions is carried out. The estimated values of phase transition pressure and the vast volume discontinuity in pressure-volume (PV) phase diagram indicate the structural phase transition from zincblende (B3) to rock salt (B1). The variation of second-order elastic constants with pressure resembles that observed in some binary semiconductors. The inconsistency in the deduced value of pressure derivative of second order elastic constant with the available data is attributed to the fact that we derive expressions neglecting thermal effects and assuming the overlap repulsion significant only up to nearest neighbors. The vdW interaction is effective in obtaining the thermodynamical parameters such as Debye temperature, Gruneisen parameter, thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility as well phase stability in diluted magnetic semiconductors. It is revealed that TBI model has a promise to predict the phase transition pressure and the pressure variation of elastic constants of other semiconductors as well.

  17. Organic analogues of diluted magnetic semiconductors: bridging quantum chemistry to condensed matter physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furis, Madalina; Rawat, Naveen; Cherian, Judy G.; Wetherby, Anthony; Waterman, Rory; McGill, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    The selective coupling between polarized photons and electronic states in materials enables polarization-resolved spectroscopy studies of exchange interactions, spin dynamics, and collective magnetic behavior of conduction electrons in semiconductors. Here we report on Magnetic Circular Dichroism (MCD) studies of magnetic properties of electrons in crystalline thin films of small molecule organic semiconductors. Specifically, the focus was on the magnetic exchange interaction properties of d-shell ions (Cu2+, Co2+ and Mn2+) metal phthalocyanine (Pc) thin films that one may think of as organic analogues of diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS). These films were deposited in-house using a recently developed pen-writing method that results in crystalline films with macroscopic long range ordering and improved electronic properties, ideally suited for spectroscopy techniques. Our experiments reveal that, in analogy to DMS, the extended π-orbitals of the Pc molecule mediate the spin exchange between highly localized d-like unpaired spins. We established that exchange mechanisms involve different electronic states in each species and/or hybridization between d-like orbitals and certain delocalized π-orbitals. Unprecedented 25T MCD and PL conducted in the unique 25T Split Florida HELIX magnet at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) will prove useful in probing these exchange interactions.

  18. Ferromagnetic clusters induced by a nonmagnetic random disorder in diluted magnetic semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Bui, Dinh-Hoi; Phan, Van-Nham

    2016-12-15

    In this work, we analyze the nonmagnetic random disorder leading to a formation of ferromagnetic clusters in diluted magnetic semiconductors. The nonmagnetic random disorder arises from randomness in the host lattice. Including the disorder to the Kondo lattice model with random distribution of magnetic dopants, the ferromagnetic–paramagnetic transition in the system is investigated in the framework of dynamical mean-field theory. At a certain low temperature one finds a fraction of ferromagnetic sites transiting to the paramagnetic state. Enlarging the nonmagnetic random disorder strength, the paramagnetic regimes expand resulting in the formation of the ferromagnetic clusters.

  19. Experimental studies of spin dependent phenomena in giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodoropoulou, Nikoleta

    The dissertation consists of two research subjects; Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) and Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS). Their common thread is the electronic spin. Both of these subjects are important components of the field of spintronics. In the first GMR study, using temperature-dependent magnetoresistance and magnetization measurements on Fe/Cr multilayers, we identified hysteretic and time-dependent behavior that denotes the presence of a glassy antiferromagnetic (GAF) phase. Pronounced irreversible behavior with logarithmic time dependence manifests itself below an identified "de Almeida and Thouless" (AT) line and confirms the important role of an underlying disordered magnetic domain structure stemming from inter- and intralayer dipolar couplings. Our identification of a field-independent spin-glass temperature associated with this GAF phase sets an energy scale (140K) below which interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) dominates. At room temperature, where the GMR effect is still robust, IEC plays only a minor role in forcing the antiparallel interlayer domain orientations that give rise to the high resistance state in zero magnetic fields. In the DMS study, by using the method of ion implantation to incorporate magnetic ions into a variety of semiconducting substrates, we investigated the nature of magnetism in magnetic semiconductor systems. The magnetic ions Mn, Fe, and Ni were implanted into each of the epitaxially grown semiconductors GaN, GaP, and SiC to achieve volume concentrations between 1 and 5 atomic %. The implanted samples were examined with both x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to characterize their microstructure (in most cases, no secondary phases were found) and with SQUID magnetometry to determine their magnetic properties (hysteresis, coercive fields, and differences between field-cooled (FC) and zero-field cooled (ZFC) magnetizations). We discovered room temperature ferromagnetism in p-GaP: C with high

  20. Monte Carlo simulations of diluted magnetic semiconductors using ab initio exchange parameters.

    PubMed

    Nayak, S K; Ogura, M; Hucht, A; Akai, H; Entel, P

    2009-02-11

    Co doped ZnO (Zn(1-x)Co(x)O) is studied as a prototype material for transition metal doped II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) from first-principles and Monte Carlo simulations. The exchange interactions are calculated using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) Green's function method. The exchange coupling constants thus obtained are treated in the classical Heisenberg model and the magnetic phase transitions are studied by the Monte Carlo technique. Our results show that the defect free substitutional DMSs of Zn(1-x)Co(x)O do not sustain magnetization at low concentration. At high concentration, we find layered magnetic structures. Ferromagnetism, with Curie temperature below room temperature, is stable at intermediate Co concentrations. First-principles studies with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the GGA together with the Hubbard U are discussed with respect to structural and electronic properties of ZnO.

  1. Carrier States in Ferromagnetic Semiconductors and Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors—Coherent Potential Approach—

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Masao

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical study of magnetic semiconductors using the dynamical coherent potential approximation (dynamical CPA) is briefly reviewed. First, we give the results for ferromagnetic semiconductors (FMSs) such as EuO and EuS by applying the dynamical CPA to the s-f model. Next, applying the dynamical CPA to a simple model for A1−xMnxB-type diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs), we show the results for three typical cases to clarify the nature and properties of the carrier states in DMSs. On the basis of this model, we discuss the difference in the optical band edges between II-V DMSs and III-V-based DMSs, and show that two types of ferromagnetism can occur in DMSs when carriers are introduced. The carrier-induced ferromagnetism of Ga1−xMnxAs is ascribed to a double-exchange (DE)-like mechanism realized in the magnetic impurity band/or in the band tail.

  2. Domain walls in the (Ga,Mn)as diluted magnetic semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Akira; Kasai, H; Tonomura, A; Brown, P D; Campion, R P; Edmonds, K W; Gallagher, B L; Zemen, J; Jungwirth, T

    2008-02-01

    We report experimental and theoretical studies of magnetic domain walls in an in-plane magnetized (Ga,Mn)As dilute moment ferromagnetic semiconductor. Our high-resolution electron holography technique provides direct images of domain wall magnetization profiles. The experiments are interpreted based on microscopic calculations of the micromagnetic parameters and Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert simulations. We find that the competition of uniaxial and biaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropies in the film is directly reflected in orientation dependent wall widths, ranging from approximately 40 to 120 nm. The domain walls are of the Néel type and evolve from near-90 degrees walls at low temperatures to large angle [11[over ]0]-oriented walls and small angle [110]-oriented walls at higher temperatures.

  3. Spin-polarization effects in homogeneous and non-homogeneous diluted magnetic semiconductor heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Sara C P; Sipahi, Guilherme M; Scolfaro, Luísa M R; da Silva, Eronides F

    2010-09-17

    Spin polarization is a key characteristic in developing spintronic devices. Diluted magnetic heterostructures (DMH), where subsequent layers of conventional and diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) are alternate, are one of the possible ways to obtain it. Si being the basis of modern electronics, Si or other group-IV DMH can be used to build spintronic devices directly integrated with conventional ones. In this work we study the physical properties and the spin-polarization effects of p-type DMH based in group-IV semiconductors (Si, Ge, SiGe, and SiC), by performing self-consistent [Formula: see text] calculations in the local spin density approximation. We show that high spin polarization can be maintained in these structures below certain values of the carrier concentrations. Full spin polarization is attained in the low carrier concentration regime for carrier concentrations in the DMS layer up to approximately 2.0 x 10(19) cm(-3) for Si and up to approximately 6.0 x 10(19) cm(-3) for SiC. Partial, but still important spin polarization can be achieved for all studied group-IV DMH, with the exception of Ge for carrier concentrations up to 6.0 x 10(19) cm(-3). The role played by the effective masses and the energy splitting of the spin-orbit split-off hole bands is also discussed throughout the paper.

  4. Preparation of dilute magnetic semiconductor films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nouhi, Akbar (Inventor); Stirn, Richard J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A method for preparation of a dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) film is provided, wherein a Group II metal source, a Group VI metal source and a transition metal magnetic ion source are pyrolyzed in the reactor of a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system by contact with a heated substrate. As an example, the preparation of films of Cd.sub.1-x Mn.sub.x Te, wherein 0.ltoreq..times..ltoreq.0.7, on suitable substrates (e.g., GaAs) is described. As a source of manganese, tricarbonyl (methylcyclopentadienyl) maganese (TCPMn) is employed. To prevent TCPMn condensation during the introduction thereof int the reactor, the gas lines, valves and reactor tubes are heated. A thin-film solar cell of n-i-p structure, wherein the i-type layer comprises a DMS, is also described; the i-type layer is suitably prepared by MOCVD.

  5. Origin of ferromagnetism in ZnO/CoFe multilayers: Diluted magnetic semiconductor or clustering effect?

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.C.A.; Hsu, H.S.; Hu, Y.M.; Lee, C.H.; Huang, Y.H.; Lin, M.Z.

    2004-10-25

    Epitaxial growth of (0001) oriented [ZnO(20 A)/Co{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.3}(x A)]{sub 25} multilayers (MLs) with nominal thickness x=1, 2 and 5 has been prepared on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) substrate by ion-beam sputtering. The magnetic properties over a temperature range of 6-350 K and structures probing by x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) are reported. Above room-temperature ferromagnetism has been observed for x=1 and x=2 MLs, while superparamagnetic behavior dominates for x=5 ML. The field-cooled magnetization-temperature M(T) curves of x=1 and x=5 MLs can be fitted by a standard three-dimensional (3D) spin-wave and a Curie-Weiss model, respectively. For x=2 ML, however, neither a 3D spin-wave nor a Curie-Weiss model, but a combination of the two fits the M-T curve. The XAS studies together with the magnetic measurements further reveal that x=1 sample behaves as a diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) ML, while x=2 ML shows a mixed structure consisting of a minor component of DMS and a major component of CoFe clusters. A predominant clustering phase appears for x=5 ML.

  6. Cd0.9375Mn0.0625S diluted magnetic semiconductor: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Anita; Kaur, Kulwinder; Kumar, Ranjan

    2015-08-01

    We studied the spin polarized electronic band structures and magnetic properties of the diluted magnetic semiconductor Cd1-xMnxS in Zinc Blende phase (B3) with 0.0625 Mn by using ab initio method. The calculations were performed by using Density Functional Theory as implemented in the Spanish Initiative for Electronic Simulations with Thousands of Atoms code using local density approximation (LDA). Calculated electronic band structures and magnetic properties of Cd1-xMnxS are discussed in terms of contribution of Mn 3d5 4s2, Cd 4d10 5s2, S 3s2 3p4 orbitals. The total magnetic moment is found to be 5.00 µb for Cd1-xMnxS at x=0.0625. This value indicate that Mn atom adds no hole carrier to the perfect CdS crystal. We found that Mn doped systems are ferromagnetic. Calculated results are in good agreement with previous studies.

  7. Exploration of the new class of layered III-VI Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekarek, Thomas; Miotkowski, I.; Ramdas, A. K.

    2014-03-01

    We have explored a new class of quasi-two-dimensional III-VI Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS) exhibiting a wide range of magnetic behavior. Several are good candidates for potential device applications. In In1-xMnxSe, we found a remarkably large thermal hysteresis (Delta T is approximately 200 K) extending up to room temperature. This is an important material because a typical thermal hysteresis in most materials has a Delta T approximately 20 K occurring well below room temperature. The thermal hysteresis is also seen in transport measurements for In1-xMnxSe. To date, we have found good agreement between experiment and theory for the 1st three III-VI DMS systems (In1-xMnxSe, In1-xMnxS, and Ga1-xMnxS). Ga1-xFexSe is unique amount the III-VI DMS exhibiting substantial magnetic anisotropy. In Ga1-xMnxS, we have found a spin glass transition and critical exponents (γ = 4.0, β = 0.8, and δ = 5.5) that are in agreement with the theory. We surprisingly found that the spin glass transition in the 2-D IIIVI DMS similar to spin glass in 3-D II-VI DMS. [This research was supported by the UNF Terry Presidential Professorship, a Purdue University Academic Reinvestment Program and by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant Nos. DMR-07-06593 and DMR-04-05082.

  8. Local atomic and magnetic structure of dilute magnetic semiconductor (Ba,K)(Zn,Mn)2As2

    DOE PAGES

    Frandsen, Benjamin A.; Gong, Zizhou; Terban, Maxwell W.; ...

    2016-09-06

    We studied the atomic and magnetic structure of the dilute ferromagnetic semiconductor system (Ba,K)(Zn,Mn)2As2 through atomic and magnetic pair distribution function analysis of temperature-dependent x-ray and neutron total scattering data. Furthermore, we detected a change in curvature of the temperature-dependent unit cell volume of the average tetragonal crystallographic structure at a temperature coinciding with the onset of ferromagnetic order. We also observed the existence of a well-defined local orthorhombic structure on a short length scale of ≲5Å, resulting in a rather asymmetrical local environment of the Mn and As ions. Finally, the magnetic PDF revealed ferromagnetic alignment of Mn spinsmore » along the crystallographic c axis, with robust nearest-neighbor ferromagnetic correlations that exist even above the ferromagnetic ordering temperature. Finally, we discuss these results in the context of other experiments and theoretical studies on this system.« less

  9. X-ray magnetic dichroism in (Zn,Mn)O diluted magnetic semiconductors: First-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, V. N.; Bekenov, L. V.; Mazur, D. V.; Germash, L. P.

    2012-06-01

    The electronic structure of (Zn,Mn)O diluted magnetic semiconductors was investigated theoretically from first principles by using the fully-relativistic Dirac linear muffin-tin orbital band structure method with the local spin-density approximation (LSDA) and the LSDA+ U approach. The X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectra at the Mn, Zn, and O K and Mn L 2,3 edges were investigated theoretically from first principles. The origin of the XMCD spectra in these compounds was examined. The effect of oxygen vacancy atoms was found to be crucial for the X-ray magnetic dichroism at the Mn L 2,3 edges. The calculated results are compared with available experimental data.

  10. Unraveling the nature of carrier-mediated ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzerar, Georges; Bouzerar, Richard

    2015-10-01

    After more than a decade of intensive research in the field of diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS), the nature and origin of ferromagnetism, especially in III-V compounds, is still controversial. Many questions and open issues are under intensive debates. Why after so many years of investigations, Mn-doped GaAs remains the candidate with the highest Curie temperature among the broad family of III-V materials doped with transition metal (TM) impurities? How can one understand that these temperatures are almost two orders of magnitude larger than that of hole-doped (Zn,Mn)Te or (Cd,Mn)Se? Is there any intrinsic limitation or is there any hope to reach room-temperature ferromagnetism in the dilute regime? How can one explain the proximity of (Ga,Mn)As to the metal-insulator transition and the change from Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) couplings in II-VI compounds to double-exchange type in (Ga,Mn)N? In spite of the great success of density functional theory-based studies to provide accurately the critical temperatures in various compounds, till very lately a theory that provides a coherent picture and understanding of the underlying physics was still missing. Recently, within a minimal model, it has been possible to show that among the physical parameters, the key one is the position of the TM acceptor level. By tuning the value of that parameter, one is able to explain quantitatively both magnetic and transport properties in a broad family of DMS. We will see that this minimal model explains in particular the RKKY nature of the exchange in (Zn,Mn)Te/(Cd,Mn)Te and the double exchange type in (Ga,Mn)N and simultaneously the reason why (Ga,Mn)As exhibits the highest critical temperature among both II-VI and III-V DMS's.

  11. Preparation of dilute magnetic semiconductor films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nouhi, Akbar (Inventor); Stirn, Richard J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A method for preparation of a dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) film is provided, in which a Group II metal source, a Group VI metal source and a transition metal magnetic ion source are pyrolyzed in the reactor of a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system by contact with a heated substrate. As an example, the preparation of films of Cd(sub 1-x)Mn(sub x)Te, in which 0 is less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.7, on suitable substrates (e.g., GaAs) is described. As a source of manganese, tricarbonyl (methylcyclopentadienyl) manganese (TCPMn) is employed. To prevent TCPMn condensation during its introduction into the reactor, the gas lines, valves and reactor tubes are heated. A thin-film solar cell of n-i-p structure, in which the i-type layer comprises a DMS, is also described; the i-type layer is suitably prepared by MOCVD.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of Mn-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Galil, A.; Balboul, M. R.; Sharaf, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the present work undoped and Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO:Mn), diluted magnetic semiconductors, were successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method at room temperature. The morphology of ZnO nanoparticles constituted by flower-like structures with hexagonal morphologies that changed significantly after the incorporation of Mn. Rietveld refinements results showed that Mn ions are successfully doped into ZnO matrix without altering its wurtzite phase. Meanwhile, Raman spectroscopy analyses confirm the wurtzite structure of undoped ZnO and ZnO:Mn nanoparticles. The lattice parameters increase with increasing Mn content due to the large ionic radius of Mn2+ compared to that of Zn2+. Electron spin resonance measurements were performed to gain information about oxidation state and site occupancy of the magnetic Mn ions in the ZnO lattice. Moreover, UV-vis absorption spectra have been utilized to calculate the optical band gap of the undoped ZnO and ZnO:Mn nanoparticles before and after different γ-irradiation doses. The band gap of ZnO:Mn (2%) is 2.62 eV which is noticeably smaller than the 3.26 eV of undoped ZnO. The thermal decomposition properties of the prepared nanoparticle samples were also studied using simultaneous Thermogravimetric analysis in temperature range from 30 to 500 °C.

  13. Generation of diluted magnetic semiconductor nanostructures by pulsed laser ablation in liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchuk, Ol. A.; Savchuk, A. I.; Stolyarchuk, I. D.; Tkachuk, P. M.; Garasym, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    Results of study of two members of diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) family, namely Cd1-xMnxTe and Zn1-xMnxO, which are in form of micro- and nanoparticles generated by pulsed laser ablation in liquid medium (PLAL), have been presented. The structural analysis using X-ray diffraction (XRD) of nanocrystals indicated that Mn has entered the AIIBVI lattice without changing the crystal structure and systematically substituted the A2+ ions in the lattice. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) gives information about surface morphology of the formed nanostructures. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) clearly illustrates flower-like particles of Zn1-xMnxO, which consist of nanosheets and nanoleaves with average thickness about (5-8) nm. Obviously, these nanoobjects are responsible for the observed blue shift of the absorption edge in DMS nanostructures. In magneto-optical Faraday rotation spectra of both Cd1-xMnxTe and Zn1-xMnxO nanostructures there were exhibited peculiarities associated with s,p-d spin exchange interactions and confinement effect. It was observed almost linear dependence of the Faraday rotation as function of magnetic field strength for nanoparticles in contrast to the dependence with saturation in bulk case.

  14. The local magnetic moment and electron transfer of ZnO-based dilute magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Bin; Yang, Yanmin; Zhong, Kehua; Zhang, Jian-Min; Xu, Guigui; Huang, Zhigao

    2017-05-01

    The electronic structures and magnetic properties of ZnO semiconductors doped with Cu, Co, C, Al and S are studied by first-principles calculation. The electronic transfer among Zn, O and doped atoms, and the differences of the number of electron between spin-up and spin-down, Δs, Δp, Δd for s, p and d orbits of these atoms, are analyzed in detail. It is found that, the ferromagnetic ground state is stabilized by its half-metallic electronic structure, and the strong local magnetic moments in Zn1-xCoxO, Zn1-xCuxO and ZnO1-xCx (x = 5.55%) DMSs originate mainly from the strong hybridizations between Cu-3d and O-2p, Co-3d and O-2p, Zn-3d and C-2p electrons. It is considered that the requirements to give rise to the ferromagnetism in the DMSs are the strong local magnetic moment and the electron transfer. The magnetic coupling in Zn1-xCoxO, Zn1-xCuxO and ZnO1-xCx is also considered to be a RKKY interaction.

  15. Copper ion implanted aluminum nitride dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) prepared by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A.; Ahmad, Jamil; Ahmad, Ishaq; Mehmood, Mazhar; Mahmood, Arshad; Rasheed, Muhammad Asim

    2014-10-01

    Diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) AlN:Cu films were fabricated by implanting Cu+ ions into AlN thin films at various ion fluxes. AlN films were deposited on c-plane sapphire by molecular beam epitaxy followed by Cu+ ion implantation. The structural and magnetic characterization of the samples was performed through Rutherford backscattering and channeling spectrometry (RBS/C), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and SQUID. Incorporation of copper into the AlN lattice was confirmed by RBS, while XRD revealed that no new phase was formed as a result of ion implantation. RBS also indicated formation of defects as a result of implantation process and the depth and degree of damage increased with an increase in ion fluence. Raman spectra showed only E2 (high) and A1 (LO) modes of wurtzite AlN crystal structure and confirmed that no secondary phases were formed. It was found that both Raman modes shift with Cu+ fluences, indicating that Cu ion may go to interstitial or substitutional sites resulting in distortion or damage of lattice. Although as implanted samples showed no magnetization, annealing of the samples resulted in appearance of room temperature ferromagnetism. The saturation magnetization increased with both the annealing temperature as well as with ion fluence. FC/ZFC measurements indicated that the ferromagnetic effect was not related with superparamagnetic phase formation. In spite, it was due to the formation of AlN based DMS material. The Curie temperature (TC) of the sample prepared at an ion fluence of 5 × 1015 cm-2 and an annealing temperature of 950 °C was found to lie above 340 K.

  16. Ab initio description of the diluted magnetic semiconductor Ga1-xMnxAs: Ferromagnetism, electronic structure, and optical response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craco, L.; Laad, M. S.; Müller-Hartmann, E.

    2003-12-01

    Motivated by a study of various experiments describing the electronic and magnetic properties of the diluted magnetic semiconductor Ga1-xMnxAs, we investigate its physical response in detail using a combination of first-principles band structure with methods based on dynamical mean field theory to incorporate strong, dynamical correlations, and intrinsic as well as extrinsic disorder in one single theoretical picture. We show how ferromagnetism is driven by double exchange (DE), in agreement with very recent observations, along with a good quantitative description of the details of the electronic structure, as probed by scanning tunneling microscopy and optical conductivity. Our results show how ferromagnetism can be driven by DE even in diluted magnetic semiconductors with small carrier concentration.

  17. Extended coherence length of spatially oscillating electron-spin polarization in dilute-magnetic-semiconductor quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchiya, Takuma

    2013-12-04

    We have investigated the possibility that the coherence length of spatially oscillating electron-spin polarization is improved in dilute magnetic semiconductors. In usual nonmagnetic quantum wells, the spin polarization of the electrons injected from a ferromagnetic source electrode oscillates spatially because of the spin precession due to spin-orbit effective magnetic fields, i.e., the Rashba and Dresselhaus fields. However, the polarization is damped within an oscillation period by the D’yakonov-Perel’ spin relaxation. In paramagnetic dilute magnetic semiconductors, impurity spin polarization is induced under the electron-spin polarization, and this impurity polarization influences the electron-spin precession and possibly improves the spatial electron-spin coherence. The validity of this effect is demonstrated by a numerical simulation for a CdMnTe quantum well.

  18. Magnetic properties of clusters in IV-VI and II-IV-V2 diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górska, M.; Kilanski, L.; Podgórni, A.; Dobrowolski, W.; Szymczak, R.; Anderson, J. R.; Fedorchenko, I. V.; Marenkin, S. F.; Slynko, V. E.; Slynko, E. I.

    2016-12-01

    We have been studying magnetic properties of magnetic ion clusters in ternary, quaternary, and quinary IV-VI and II-IV-V2 diluted magnetic semiconductors with varying concentrations of different magnetic and non-magnetic cations. We observed clusters of different types, from non-random distribution of magnetic ions in the host lattice to precipitates with the crystalline structure different from that of the host. The size of such precipitates varied from 200 nm to 20 μm. Depending on the type and size of clusters we observed different magnetic properties of the compounds, such as paramagnetic, spin-glass, spin-glass-like, or ferromagnetic states. For example, Zn1-xMnxGeAs2 compounds with x ≤ 0.053 were paramagnetic with evidence of small short-range magnetic interactions, while in the same material with x ≥ 0.078 we observed room-temperature ferromagnetism. In IV-VI DMS clusters usually created a spin-glass or spinglass- like state. However, in some Ge1-x-yPbxMnyTe crystals we observed a co-existence of two very different spin-glasslike states with transition temperatures T1 ≈ 5 K and T2 ≈ 90 K.

  19. Half-metallic diluted antiferromagnetic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Akai, H; Ogura, M

    2006-07-14

    The possibility of half-metallic antiferromagnetism, a special case of ferrimagnetism with a compensated magnetization, in the diluted magnetic semiconductors is highlighted on the basis of the first-principles electronic structure calculation. As typical examples, the electrical and magnetic properties of II-VI compound semiconductors doped with 3d transition metal ion pairs--(V, Co) and (Fe, Cr)--are discussed.

  20. Intrinsic ferromagnetic properties in Cr-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yang; Yang Yanting; Yang Jinghai; Guan Qingfeng; Liu Huilian; Yang Lili; Zhang Yongjun; Wang Yaxin; Wei Maobin; Liu Xiaoyan; Fei Lianhua; Cheng Xin

    2011-05-15

    The Cr-doped zinc oxide (Zn{sub 1-x}Cr{sub x}O, 0{<=}x{<=}0.08) diluted magnetic semiconductors have been synthesized successfully by the sol-gel method. Investigations on magnetic, optical and structural properties of the produced samples have been done. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) shows the existence of Cr ion in the Cr-doped ZnO. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), the transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) indicate that the Cr ions are at least partially substitutionally incorporated into the crystal lattice of ZnO. The produced samples show good high-T{sub c} (Curie temperature) ferromagnetism (FM) in Cr-doped ZnO nanoparticles with Cr concentration of less than 5 at%. The results of photoluminescence (PL) further testify that FM is an intrinsic property of the Cr-doped ZnO nanoparticles. And the occurrence of FM should mainly contribute to the Cr doping. -- Graphical Abstract: As can be seen from the magnetic hysteresis loops of Zn{sub 1-x}Cr{sub x}O (x=0.01, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.08) at room temperature under 10 KOe, the samples show good high-T{sub c} ferromagnetism with Cr concentration of less than 5 at%. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} Zn{sub 1-x}Cr{sub x}O(0{<=}x{<=}0.08) nanoparticles are successfully synthesized by sol-gel method. {yields} The Cr ions are substitutionally incorporated into the crystal lattice of ZnO. {yields} The Cr-doped ZnO nanoparticles show good high-T{sub c} ferromagnetism. {yields} The ferromagnetism is an intrinsic property of the Cr-doped ZnO nanoparticles.

  1. Crossover from impurity to valence band in diluted magnetic semiconductors: Role of Coulomb attraction by acceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, Florentin; Sen, Cengiz; Dagotto, Elbio R; Moreo, Adriana

    2007-01-01

    The crossover between an impurity band (IB) and a valence band (VB) regime as a function of the magnetic impurity concentration in a model for diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) is studied systematically by taking into consideration the Coulomb attraction between the carriers and the magnetic impurities. The density of states and the ferromagnetic transition temperature of a spin-fermion model applied to DMSs are evaluated using dynamical mean-field theory and Monte Carlo (MC) calculations. It is shown that the addition of a square-well-like attractive potential can generate an IB at small enough Mn doping x for values of the p-d exchange J that are not strong enough to generate one by themselves. We observe that the IB merges with the VB when x>=xc where xc is a function of J and the Coulomb strength V. Using MC simulations, we demonstrate that the range of the Coulomb attraction plays an important role. While the on-site attraction, which has been used in previous numerical simulations, effectively renormalizes J for all values of x, an unphysical result, a nearest-neighbor range attraction renormalizes J only at very low dopings, i.e., until the bound holes wave functions start to overlap. Thus, our results indicate that the Coulomb attraction can be neglected to study Mn-doped GaSb, GaAs, and GaP in the relevant doping regimes, but it should be included in the case of Mn-doped GaN, which is expected to be in the IB regime.

  2. Spatially resolved inhomogeneous ferromagnetism in (Ga,Mn)as diluted magnetic semiconductors: a microscopic study by muon spin relaxation.

    PubMed

    Storchak, Vyacheslav G; Eshchenko, Dmitry G; Morenzoni, Elvezio; Prokscha, Thomas; Suter, Andreas; Liu, Xinyu; Furdyna, Jacek K

    2008-07-11

    Thin epitaxial films of the diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) GaMnAs have been studied by low energy muon spin rotation and relaxation (LE-microSR) as well as by transport and magnetization measurement techniques. LE-microSR allows measurements of the distribution of magnetic field on the nanometer scale inaccessible to traditional macroscopic techniques. The spatial inhomogeneity of the magnetic field is resolved: although homogeneous above Tc, below Tc the DMS consists of ferromagnetic and paramagnetic regions of comparable volumes. In the ferromagnetic regions the local field inhomogeneity amounts to 0.03 T.

  3. Hubbard U calculations for gap states in dilute magnetic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, T; Katayama-Yoshida, H; Sato, K; Bihlmayer, G; Mavropoulos, P; Bauer, D S G; Zeller, R; Dederichs, P H

    2014-07-09

    On the basis of constrained density functional theory, we present ab initio calculations for the Hubbard U parameter of transition metal impurities in dilute magnetic semiconductors, choosing Mn in GaN as an example. The calculations are performed by two methods: (i) the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) Green function method for a single Mn impurity in GaN and (ii) the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FLAPW) method for a large supercell of GaN with a single Mn impurity in each cell. By changing the occupancy of the majority t2 gap state of Mn, we determine the U parameter either from the total energy differences E(N + 1) and E(N - 1) of the (N ± 1)-electron excited states with respect to the ground state energy E(N), or by using the single-particle energies for n(0) ± 1/2 occupancies around the charge-neutral occupancy n0 (Janak's transition state model). The two methods give nearly identical results. Moreover the values calculated by the supercell method agree quite well with the Green function values. We point out an important difference between the 'global' U parameter calculated using Janak's theorem and the 'local' U of the Hubbard model.

  4. Magnetism and Transport in the Group-IV Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor Germanium(1-x) Manganese(x)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolph, Melissa Ann Commisso

    Dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) have gained interest over the past decade because of their potential applications in spintronics. DMS systems exhibit carriermediated ferromagnetism, a property which enables electric-field control over the magnetization. In this thesis, the DMS Ge1-xMn x was studied. Germanium (Ge) is a desirable semiconductor because of its high hole mobility and its compatibility with silicon. Manganese (Mn) was chosen for its exhibition of indirect ferromagnetic coupling. These properties are deemed necessary for the realization of a magnetic quantum-dot based device such as a magnetic spin switch. Ion implantation of Mn into Ge-on-insulator and molecular beam expitaxy (MBE) were two methods utilized to synthesize the studied Ge1-x Mnx thin films. Several of the Ge1-xMn x films were treated with rapid thermal annealing (RTA) or pulsed laser melting (PLM) in an attempt to improve the crystallinity and make more of the Mn ferromagnetically active. Of all the Ge1-xMn x systems studied, those that exhibited correlated magnetic and magneto-transport properties were those with hole concentrations on the order of 1019 --1020 holes/cm3. Although these systems exhibited robust magneto-transport properties, electric-field biasing proved ineffective at modulating the carrier concentration and ultimately the magnetization as monitored by the ordinary and anomalous Hall effects and the resistivity. The inefficiency of the electric gating was attributed to localized trap states which reside in the energy band gap of the defect-plagued Ge semiconductor. If crystallinity is a prerequisite for gatability, PLM may prove useful as it was found to restore the single crystal structure damaged during Mn implantation. However, PLM resulted in an undesirable segregation of Mn toward the surface of the film (as observed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)); a decrease in the saturation magnetization after PLM was attributed to this segregation. The information

  5. Optical properties of diluted magnetic semiconductor Cu:ZnS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imam, N. G.; Bakr Mohamed, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Herein quantum dots (QDs) of diluted magnetic semiconductor Cu:ZnS have been synthesized via a simple chemical synthesis method. A single phase solid solution is formed up to x = 0.1 which confirmed by using X-ray diffraction. Crystal structure and microstructure analyses were performed by Rietveld refinement. Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra were recorded for pure and Cu doped ZnS QDs excited at 268 and 228 nm respectively. PL emission and excitation spectra were investigated in different wavelength regions within the range of 200-900 nm. PL results in the range of 220-300 nm emission band reveals that the band gap of pure ZnS QDs is about 4.43 eV which greater than that of bulk ZnS (3.7 eV). The band gap of Cu:ZnS QDs is tunable with Cu content (x) as well as the crystalline size, and it is peaked around 4.47 eV. PL emission in the range of 350-650 nm exhibits a green fluorescence band peaking around 552 nm for pure ZnS QDs, which confirms the characteristic feature of Zn2+ as luminescent centers in the lattice, while blue emission bands peaked around 471 nm for Cu:ZnS QDs that is attributed to the transition of electrons from conduction band of ZnS to the Cu impurity level. The blue shift of the absorption peak directly reflects the effect of quantum confinement. The PL results have been supported by X-ray phase analysis, high-resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM and SEM), compositional evaluation (EDX) and magnetic measurements (VSM).

  6. Room-temperature decay and light reactivation of high-Tc ferromagnetism in an oxide-diluted magnetic semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Pan, Dengyu; Wan, Jianguo; Xu, Guoliang; Lv, Liya; Wu, Yujie; Min, Han; Liu, Junming; Wang, Guanghou

    2006-10-04

    We present a novel route for manipulation of the ferromagnetic order in Co-doped TiO2 using UV laser irradiation. The ferromagnetic order of the nanocrystal films decays with aging in air at room temperature, which can be reactivated and enhanced by UV irradiation, whereas the coercive force reduces with irradiation time. Photoinduced trapped electrons were suggested to induce the ferromagnetic order. We believe that light manipulation is a general method for tuning the magnetic properties of oxide-based diluted magnetic semiconductors, which can find practical applications in future integrated magneto-optical nanoelectronics.

  7. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: A Green's function model for ferromagnetism and spin excitations of (Ga, Mn)As diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gui-Bin; Liu, Bang-Gui

    2009-11-01

    We study (Ga, Mn)As diluted magnetic semiconductors in terms of the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida quantum spin model in Green's function approach. Random distributions of the magnetic atoms are treated by using an analytical average of magnetic configurations. Average magnetic moments and spin excitation spectra as functions of temperature can be obtained by solving self-consistent equations, and the Curie temperature TC is given explicitly. TC is proportional to magnetic atomic concentration, and there exists a maximum for TC as a function of carrier concentration. Applied to (Ga, Mn)As, the theoretical results are consistent with experiment and the experimental TC can be obtained with reasonable parameters. This modelling can also be applied to other diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  8. Origin and control of ferromagnetism in dilute magnetic semiconductors and oxides (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietl, Tomasz

    2008-04-01

    The author reviews the present understanding of the hole-mediated ferromagnetism in magnetically doped semiconductors and oxides as well as the origin of high temperature ferromagnetism in materials containing no valence band holes. It is argued that in these systems spinodal decomposition into regions with a large and a small concentration of magnetic component takes place. This self-organized assembling of magnetic nanocrystals can be controlled by codoping and growth conditions. Functionalities of these multicomponent systems are described together with prospects for their applications in spintronics, nanoelectronics, photonics, plasmonics, and thermoelectrics.

  9. Large positive magnetoresistance effects in the dilute magnetic semiconductor (Zn,Mn)Se in the regime of electron hopping

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, F. Wiemer, M.; Gebhard, F.; Baranovskii, S. D.; Nenashev, A. V.; Petznick, S.; Klar, P. J.; Hetterich, M.

    2014-08-28

    Magnetoresistance in dilute magnetic semiconductors is studied in the hopping transport regime. Measurements performed on Cl-doped Zn{sub 1–x}Mn{sub x}Se with x < 8% are compared with simulation results obtained by a hopping transport model. The energy levels of the Cl donors are affected by the magnetization of Mn atoms in their vicinity via the s-d exchange interaction. Compositional disorder, in particular, the random distribution of magnetic atoms, leads to a magnetic-field induced broadening of the donor energy distribution. As the energy distribution broadens, the electron transport is hindered and a large positive contribution to the magnetoresistance arises. This broadening of the donor energy distribution is largely sufficient to account for the experimentally observed magnetoresistance effects in n-type (Zn,Mn)Se with donor concentrations below the metal–insulator transition.

  10. A new diluted magnetic semiconductor: The half-metallic ferromagnet CoTi1-xFexSb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balke, Benjamin; Kroth, Kristian; Fecher, Gerhard H.; Felser, Claudia

    2008-04-01

    C1b compounds with 18 valence electrons are semiconducting. It will be shown that doping with electrons results in half-metallic ferromagnets, similar to the case of diluted semiconductors. CoTiSb is known to be a semiconducting C1b compound. Doping by Fe is expected to result in ferromagnetic order. It was found that Ti can be replaced by up to about 10% Fe while its crystal structure still remains C1b, which was proved by x-ray powder diffraction. Superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry revealed a magnetic moment of 0.32μB/unit cell at 5K.

  11. Excitations and magnetization density distribution in the dilute ferromagnetic semiconductor Yb14MnSb11

    DOE PAGES

    Stone, M. B.; Garlea, V. O.; Gillon, B.; ...

    2017-01-23

    One rare example of a Kondo lattice compound with ferromagnetic dominated RKKY interactions is Ybmore » $$_{14}$$MnSb$$_{11}$$. As a ferromagnetic semiconductor with $$T_c \\approx 53$$~K, it is also a potential compound for exploration of spintronic devices. This material is furthermore one of the most efficient high temperature thermoelectrics. We describe measurements which answer remaining questions regarding the energy scales of the exchange interactions, the valence and the magnetization density distribution in this system. We also find that the system consists of RKKY exchange coupled Mn$$^{2+}$$ sites with nearest and next nearest exchange interactions dominating the magnetic spectrum with no significant magnetization density localized on other atomic sites. The extended spread of a negative magnetization around each of the Mn ions supports a Kondo screening cloud scenario for Yb$$_{14}$$MnSb$$_{11}$$.« less

  12. Excitations and magnetization density distribution in the dilute ferromagnetic semiconductor Yb14MnSb11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, M. B.; Garlea, V. O.; Gillon, B.; Cousson, A.; Christianson, A. D.; Lumsden, M. D.; Nagler, S. E.; Mandrus, D.; Sales, B. C.

    2017-01-01

    Yb14MnSb11 is a rare example of a Kondo lattice compound with ferromagnetic dominated RKKY interactions. As a ferromagnetic semiconductor with Tc≈53 K, it is also a potential compound for exploration of spintronic devices. Here we describe measurements which answer remaining questions regarding the energy scales of the exchange interactions, the valence, and the magnetization density distribution in this system. We find that the system consists of RKKY exchange coupled Mn2 + sites with nearest and next nearest exchange interactions dominating the magnetic spectrum with no significant magnetization density localized on other atomic sites. The extended spread of a negative magnetization around each of the Mn ions supports a Kondo screening cloud scenario for Yb14MnSb11 .

  13. Probing the magnetic profile of diluted magnetic semiconductors using polarized neutron reflectivity.

    PubMed

    Luo, X; Tseng, L T; Lee, W T; Tan, T T; Bao, N N; Liu, R; Ding, J; Li, S; Lauter, V; Yi, J B

    2017-07-24

    Room temperature ferromagnetism has been observed in the Cu doped ZnO films deposited under an oxygen partial pressure of 10(-3) and 10(-5) torr on Pt (200 nm)/Ti (45 nm)/Si (001) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. Due to the deposition at relatively high temperature (873 K), Cu and Ti atoms diffuse to the surface and interface, which significantly affects the magnetic properties. Depth sensitive polarized neutron reflectometry method provides the details of the composition and magnetization profiles and shows that an accumulation of Cu on the surface leads to an increase in the magnetization near the surface. Our results reveal that the presence of the copper at Zn sites induces ferromagnetism at room temperature, confirming intrinsic ferromagnetism.

  14. New Fluoride-arsenide Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor (Ba,K)F(Zn,Mn)As with Independent Spin and Charge Doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bijuan; Deng, Zheng; Li, Wenmin; Gao, Moran; Liu, Qingqing; Gu, C. Z.; Hu, F. X.; Shen, B. G.; Frandsen, Benjamin; Cheung, Sky; Lian, Liu; Uemura, Yasutomo J.; Ding, Cui; Guo, Shengli; Ning, Fanlong; Munsie, Timothy J. S.; Wilson, Murray Neff; Cai, Yipeng; Luke, Graeme; Guguchia, Zurab; Yonezawa, Shingo; Li, Zhi; Jin, Changqing

    2016-11-01

    We report the discovery of a new fluoride-arsenide bulk diluted magnetic semiconductor (Ba,K)F(Zn,Mn)As with the tetragonal ZrCuSiAs-type structure which is identical to that of the “1111” iron-based superconductors. The joint hole doping via (Ba,K) substitution & spin doping via (Zn,Mn) substitution results in ferromagnetic order with Curie temperature up to 30 K and demonstrates that the ferromagnetic interactions between the localized spins are mediated by the carriers. Muon spin relaxation measurements confirm the intrinsic nature of the long range magnetic order in the entire volume in the ferromagnetic phase. This is the first time that a diluted magnetic semiconductor with decoupled spin and charge doping is achieved in a fluoride compound. Comparing to the isostructure oxide counterpart of LaOZnSb, the fluoride DMS (Ba,K)F(Zn,Mn)As shows much improved semiconductive behavior that would be benefit for further application developments.

  15. New Fluoride-arsenide Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor (Ba,K)F(Zn,Mn)As with Independent Spin and Charge Doping

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bijuan; Deng, Zheng; Li, Wenmin; Gao, Moran; Liu, Qingqing; Gu, C. Z.; Hu, F. X.; Shen, B. G.; Frandsen, Benjamin; Cheung, Sky; Lian, Liu; Uemura, Yasutomo J.; Ding, Cui; Guo, Shengli; Ning, Fanlong; Munsie, Timothy J. S.; Wilson, Murray Neff; Cai, Yipeng; Luke, Graeme; Guguchia, Zurab; Yonezawa, Shingo; Li, Zhi; Jin, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new fluoride-arsenide bulk diluted magnetic semiconductor (Ba,K)F(Zn,Mn)As with the tetragonal ZrCuSiAs-type structure which is identical to that of the “1111” iron-based superconductors. The joint hole doping via (Ba,K) substitution & spin doping via (Zn,Mn) substitution results in ferromagnetic order with Curie temperature up to 30 K and demonstrates that the ferromagnetic interactions between the localized spins are mediated by the carriers. Muon spin relaxation measurements confirm the intrinsic nature of the long range magnetic order in the entire volume in the ferromagnetic phase. This is the first time that a diluted magnetic semiconductor with decoupled spin and charge doping is achieved in a fluoride compound. Comparing to the isostructure oxide counterpart of LaOZnSb, the fluoride DMS (Ba,K)F(Zn,Mn)As shows much improved semiconductive behavior that would be benefit for further application developments. PMID:27874044

  16. New Fluoride-arsenide Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor (Ba,K)F(Zn,Mn)As with Independent Spin and Charge Doping.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bijuan; Deng, Zheng; Li, Wenmin; Gao, Moran; Liu, Qingqing; Gu, C Z; Hu, F X; Shen, B G; Frandsen, Benjamin; Cheung, Sky; Lian, Liu; Uemura, Yasutomo J; Ding, Cui; Guo, Shengli; Ning, Fanlong; Munsie, Timothy J S; Wilson, Murray Neff; Cai, Yipeng; Luke, Graeme; Guguchia, Zurab; Yonezawa, Shingo; Li, Zhi; Jin, Changqing

    2016-11-22

    We report the discovery of a new fluoride-arsenide bulk diluted magnetic semiconductor (Ba,K)F(Zn,Mn)As with the tetragonal ZrCuSiAs-type structure which is identical to that of the "1111" iron-based superconductors. The joint hole doping via (Ba,K) substitution &spin doping via (Zn,Mn) substitution results in ferromagnetic order with Curie temperature up to 30 K and demonstrates that the ferromagnetic interactions between the localized spins are mediated by the carriers. Muon spin relaxation measurements confirm the intrinsic nature of the long range magnetic order in the entire volume in the ferromagnetic phase. This is the first time that a diluted magnetic semiconductor with decoupled spin and charge doping is achieved in a fluoride compound. Comparing to the isostructure oxide counterpart of LaOZnSb, the fluoride DMS (Ba,K)F(Zn,Mn)As shows much improved semiconductive behavior that would be benefit for further application developments.

  17. Robust Manipulation of Magnetism in Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As by Organic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolei; Wang, Hailong; Pan, Dong; Keiper, Timothy; Li, Lixia; Yu, Xuezhe; Lu, Jun; Lochner, Eric; von Molnár, Stephan; Xiong, Peng; Zhao, Jianhua

    2015-12-22

    Surface adsorption of organic molecules provides a new method for the robust manipulation of ferromagnetism in (Ga,Mn)As. Electron acceptor and donor molecules yield significant enhancement and suppression, respectively, of ferromagnetism with modulation of the Curie temperature spanning 36 K. Dip-pen nanolithography is employed to directly pattern monolayers on (Ga,Mn)As, which is presented as a novel pathway toward producing magnetic nanostructures.

  18. Magnetic field induced optical gain in a dilute nitride quaternary semiconductor quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mageshwari, P. Uma; Peter, A. John; Lee, Chang Woo

    2016-10-01

    Effects of magnetic field strength on the electronic and optical properties are brought out in a Ga0.661In0.339N0.0554As0.9446/GaAs quantum dot for the applications of desired wavelength in opto-electronic devices. The band alignment is obtained using band anticrossing model and the model solid theory. The magnetic field dependent electron-heavy hole transition energies with the dot radius in a GaInNAs/GaAs quantum dot are investigated. The magnetic field induced oscillator strength as a function of dot radius is studied. The resonant peak values of optical absorption coefficients and the changes of refractive index with the application of magnetic field strength in a GaInNAs/GaAs quantum dot are obtained. The magnetic field induced threshold current density and the maximum optical gain are found in a GaInNAs/GaAs quantum dot. The results show that the optimum wavelength for fibre optical communication networks can be obtained with the variation of applied magnetic field strength and the outcomes may be useful for the design of efficient lasers based on the group III-N-V semiconductors.

  19. A sensitive and label-free photoelectrochemical aptasensor using Co-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductor nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongbo; Qiao, Yunfei; Li, Jing; Fang, Hailin; Fan, Dahe; Wang, Wei

    2016-03-15

    Co-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductor as a novel photoelectric beacon was first constructed for photoelectrochemical (PEC) aptasensor of acetamiprid. The fabricated PEC sensing is based on the specific binding of acetamiprid and its aptamer, which induces the decreasement of enhanced photocurrent produced by the electron donor of quercetin. Co(2+) doping has a beneficial effect in extending the band width of light absorption of ZnO into the visible region and to promote the separation of the photoinduced carriers due to the sp-d exchange interactions existing between the band electrons and the localized d electrons of Co(2+). The fabricated aptasensor was linear with the concentration of acetamiprid in the range of 0.5-800 nmolL(-1) with the detection limit of 0.18 nmolL(-1). The presence of same concentration of other conventional pesticides did not interfere in the detection of acetamiprid and the recovery is between 96.2% and 103.7%. This novel PEC aptasensor has good performances with high sensitivity, good selectivity, low cost and portable features. The strategy of Co-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductor paves a new way to improve the performances of PEC aptasensor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural, optical, magnetic and photocatalytic properties of Co doped CuS diluted magnetic semiconductor nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreelekha, N.; Subramanyam, K.; Amaranatha Reddy, D.; Murali, G.; Ramu, S.; Rahul Varma, K.; Vijayalakshmi, R. P.

    2016-08-01

    Pristine and Co doped covellite CuS nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous solution by facile chemical co-precipitation method with Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA) as a stabilizing agent. EDAX measurements confirmed the presence of Co in the CuS host lattice. Hexagonal crystal structure of pure and Co doped CuS nanoparticles were authenticated by XRD patterns. TEM images indicated that sphere-shape of nanoparticles through a size ranging from 5 to 8 nm. The optical absorption edge moved to higher energies with increase in Co concentration as indicated by UV-vis spectroscopy. Magnetic measurements revealed that bare CuS sample show sign of diamagnetic character where as in Co doped nanoparticles augmentation of room temperature ferromagnetism was observed with increasing doping precursor concentrations. Photocatalytic performance of the pure and Co doped CuS nanoparticles were assessed by evaluating the degradation rate of rhodamine B solution under sun light irradiation. The 5% Co doped CuS nanoparticles provide evidence for high-quality photocatalytic activity.

  1. Influence of nonmagnetic impurity scattering on spin dynamics in diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cygorek, M.; Ungar, F.; Tamborenea, P. I.; Axt, V. M.

    2017-01-01

    The doping of semiconductors with magnetic impurities gives rise not only to a spin-spin interaction between quasifree carriers and magnetic impurities but also to a local spin-independent disorder potential for the carriers. Based on a quantum kinetic theory for the carrier and impurity density matrices as well as the magnetic and nonmagnetic carrier-impurity correlations, the influence of the nonmagnetic scattering potential on the spin dynamics in DMS after optical excitation with circularly polarized light is investigated using the example of Mn-doped CdTe. It is shown that non-Markovian effects, which are predicted in calculations where only the magnetic carrier-impurity interaction is accounted for, can be strongly suppressed in the presence of nonmagnetic impurity scattering. This effect can be traced back to a significant redistribution of carriers in k -space which is enabled by the build-up of large carrier-impurity correlation energies. A comparison with the Markov limit of the quantum kinetic theory shows that, in the presence of an external magnetic field parallel to the initial carrier polarization, the asymptotic value of the spin polarization at long times is significantly different in the quantum kinetic and the Markovian calculations. This effect can also be attributed to the formation of strong correlations, which invalidates the semiclassical Markovian picture and it is stronger when the nonmagnetic carrier-impurity interaction is accounted for. In an external magnetic field perpendicular to the initial carrier spin, the correlations are also responsible for a renormalization of the carrier spin precession frequency. Considering only the magnetic carrier-impurity interaction, a significant renormalization is predicted for a very limited set of material parameters and excitation conditions. Accounting also for the nonmagnetic interaction, a relevant renormalization of the precession frequency is found to be more ubiquitous.

  2. Cobalt doped titanium dioxide, a possible candidate for dilute magnetic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumaiz, Abdul K.

    Semiconductor spintronics is a promising new area of research where both the spin and transport of mobile charge carriers are manipulated in a quest to make faster electronic devices. The most important challenge in this exciting field is the integration of spintronics into conventional semiconductor devices. This requires a successful fabrication of a room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductor into which we can effectively generate and inject spin-polarized currents. In the first part of this study, it is our goal to investigate the structural, magnetic, transport, and electronic properties of Co doped and undoped TiO 2 thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). For that purpose, TiO2 was doped with different Co concentrations and the role of oxygen vacancies in determining the structural, magnetic, and electronic properties wad studied. Four different doping levels (starting target composition 1,2,3 and 6%) of Co in TiO2 films have been prepared. All the targets for laser ablation were prepared by standard solid-state route. In each doping level, different vacancy levels are also investigated by ablating the films under two different oxygen partial pressures. All the samples prepared have shown room temperature ferromagnetism. Crystal structure, transport, and magnetic properties of CoxTi1-xO2-delta (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.06) thin films are investigated and are found to have a strong dependence on the oxygen partial pressure. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) data reveal the presence of mixed phase material containing both anatase and rutile. However, these phases intertransform with the change in the oxygen partial pressure during the growth of the films. Both X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) confirm the oxidation state of Co as +2, suggesting a well-substituted Co in the TiO2 matrix. In addition to that, the asymmetry in the O 1s core level peak also suggests the presence of oxygen vacancies. The transport

  3. First principles study of Fe in diamond: A diamond-based half metallic dilute magnetic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Benecha, E. M.; Lombardi, E. B.

    2013-12-14

    Half-metallic ferromagnetic ordering in semiconductors, essential in the emerging field of spintronics for injection and transport of highly spin polarised currents, has up to now been considered mainly in III–V and II–VI materials. However, low Curie temperatures have limited implementation in room temperature device applications. We report ab initio Density Functional Theory calculations on the properties of Fe in diamond, considering the effects of lattice site, charge state, and Fermi level position. We show that the lattice sites and induced magnetic moments of Fe in diamond depend strongly on the Fermi level position and type of diamond co-doping, with Fe being energetically most favorable at the substitutional site in p-type and intrinsic diamond, while it is most stable at a divacancy site in n-type diamond. Fe induces spin polarized bands in the band gap, with strong hybridization between Fe-3d and C-2s,2p bands. We further consider Fe-Fe spin interactions in diamond and show that substitutional Fe{sup +1} in p-type diamond exhibits a half-metallic character, with a magnetic moment of 1.0 μ{sub B} per Fe atom and a large ferromagnetic stabilization energy of 33 meV, an order of magnitude larger than in other semiconductors, with correspondingly high Curie temperatures. These results, combined with diamond's unique properties, demonstrate that Fe doped p-type diamond is likely to be a highly suitable candidate material for spintronics applications.

  4. Effective equations for the precession dynamics of electron spins and electron-impurity correlations in diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cygorek, M.; Axt, V. M.

    2015-08-01

    Starting from a quantum kinetic theory for the spin dynamics in diluted magnetic semiconductors, we derive simplified equations that effectively describe the spin transfer between carriers and magnetic impurities for an arbitrary initial impurity magnetization. Taking the Markov limit of these effective equations, we obtain good quantitative agreement with the full quantum kinetic theory for the spin dynamics in bulk systems at high magnetic doping. In contrast, the standard rate description where the carrier-dopant interaction is treated according to Fermi’s golden rule, which involves the assumption of a short memory as well as a perturbative argument, has been shown previously to fail if the impurity magnetization is non-zero. The Markov limit of the effective equations is derived, assuming only a short memory, while higher order terms are still accounted for. These higher order terms represent the precession of the carrier-dopant correlations in the effective magnetic field due to the impurity spins. Numerical calculations show that the Markov limit of our effective equations reproduces the results of the full quantum kinetic theory very well. Furthermore, this limit allows for analytical solutions and for a physically transparent interpretation.

  5. ZnMnO diluted magnetic semiconductor nanoparticles: Synthesis by laser ablation in liquids, optical and magneto-optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchuk, A. I.; Perrone, A.; Lorusso, A.; Stolyarchuk, I. D.; Savchuk, O. A.; Shporta, O. A.

    2014-05-01

    Nanoparticles of ZnO and Zn1-xMnxO were synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in liquid medium (PLAL). Metal zinc target was used for preparing of pure ZnO nanostructures and Zn1-xMnxO ceramic plates served for preparing of ternary nanoparticles. As synthesized nanomaterials are characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis (EDS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-vis absorption, photoluminescence and Faraday rotation spectroscopy. SEM images showed a well-defined flower-like nanostructures. Absorption edge of Zn0.95Mn0.05O nanoparticles in colloid solution exhibits blue shift due to confinement effect. The observed photoluminescence peaks are attributed to the band-edge transitions and vacancies or defects. The Faraday rotation as a function of photon energy demonstrates behavior typical for diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) in paramagnetic state.

  6. Properties of II-VI Semiconductors: Bulk Crystals, Epitaxial Films, Quantum Well Structures, and Dilute Magnetic Systems. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings. Volume 161

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-21

    quantum well (MQW) structures, which can confine electrons and holes in a two-dimensional well , fabricated by MBE [2] and MOCVD [3]. Despite the...N Pie MA’ FERIA -LS - RESEAR(--’H -)CIFFY VOLUME 161 Properties of 11-VI Semiconductors: Bulk Crystals, Epitaxial Films, Quantum Well Structures...Semiconductors: Bulk Crystals, Epitaxial Films, Quantum Well Structures, and Dilute Magnet;-- Systems :1ity CodeS JLECTE0 Nov 15 1990 SDISTRI:7UTICN SAT EM~

  7. Cd{sub 0.9375}Mn{sub 0.0625}S diluted magnetic semiconductor: A DFT study

    SciTech Connect

    Rani, Anita; Kaur, Kulwinder; Kumar, Ranjan

    2015-08-28

    We studied the spin polarized electronic band structures and magnetic properties of the diluted magnetic semiconductor Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}S in Zinc Blende phase (B3) with 0.0625 Mn by using ab initio method. The calculations were performed by using Density Functional Theory as implemented in the Spanish Initiative for Electronic Simulations with Thousands of Atoms code using local density approximation (LDA). Calculated electronic band structures and magnetic properties of Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}S are discussed in terms of contribution of Mn 3d{sup 5} 4s{sup 2}, Cd 4d{sup 10} 5s{sup 2}, S 3s{sup 2} 3p{sup 4} orbitals. The total magnetic moment is found to be 5.00 µb for Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}S at x=0.0625. This value indicate that Mn atom adds no hole carrier to the perfect CdS crystal. We found that Mn doped systems are ferromagnetic. Calculated results are in good agreement with previous studies.

  8. Li(Zn,Co,Mn)As: A bulk form diluted magnetic semiconductor with Co and Mn co-doping at Zn sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bijuan; Deng, Zheng; Li, Wenmin; Gao, Moran; Zhao, Jianfa; Zhao, Guoqiang; Yu, Shuang; Wang, Xiancheng; Liu, Qingqing; Jin, Changqing

    2016-11-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a series of bulk forms of diluted magnetic semiconductors Li(Zn1-x-yCoxMny)As with a crystal structure close to that of III-V diluted magnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As. No ferromagnetic order occurs with single (Zn,Co) or (Zn, Mn) substitution in the parent compound LiZnAs. Only with co-doped Co and Mn ferromagnetic ordering can occur at the Curie temperature ˜40 K. The maximum saturation moment of the this system reached to 2.17 μB /Mn , which is comparable to that of Li (Zn,Mn)As. It is the first time that a diluted magnetic semiconductor with co-doping Co and Mn into Zn sites is achieved in "111" LiZnAs system, which could be utilized to investigate the basic science of ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors. In addition, ferromagnetic Li(Zn,Co,Mn)As, antiferromagnetic LiMnAs, and superconducting LiFeAs share square lattice at As layers, which may enable the development of novel heterojunction devices in the future.

  9. First-principles study of structural, electronic and magnetic properties in Cd 1- xFe xS diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourouis, Ch.; Meddour, A.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we report theoretical investigations of structural, electronic and magnetic properties of ordered dilute ferromagnetic semiconductors Cd1-xFexS with x=0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 in zinc blende (B3) phase using all-electron full-potential linear muffin tin orbital (FP-LMTO) calculations within the density functional theory and the generalized gradient approximation. The analysis of band structures, density of states, total energy, exchange interactions and magnetic moments reveals that both the alloys may exhibit a half-metallic ferromagnetism character. The value of calculated magnetic moment per Fe impurity atom is found to be 4 μB. Moreover, we found that p-d hybridization reduces the local magnetic moment of Fe from its free space charge value of 4 μB and produces small local magnetic moments on Cd and S sites.

  10. Quantum kinetic equations for the ultrafast spin dynamics of excitons in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum wells after optical excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungar, F.; Cygorek, M.; Axt, V. M.

    2017-06-01

    Quantum kinetic equations of motion for the description of the exciton spin dynamics in II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum wells with laser driving are derived. The model includes the magnetic as well as the nonmagnetic carrier-impurity interaction, the Coulomb interaction, Zeeman terms, and the light-matter coupling, allowing for an explicit treatment of arbitrary excitation pulses. Based on a dynamics-controlled truncation scheme, contributions to the equations of motion up to second order in the generating laser field are taken into account. The correlations between the carrier and the impurity subsystems are treated within the framework of a correlation expansion. For vanishing magnetic field, the Markov limit of the quantum kinetic equations formulated in the exciton basis agrees with existing theories based on Fermi's golden rule. For narrow quantum wells excited at the 1 s exciton resonance, numerical quantum kinetic simulations reveal pronounced deviations from the Markovian behavior. In particular, the spin decays initially with approximately half the Markovian rate and a nonmonotonic decay in the form of an overshoot of up to 10 % of the initial spin polarization is predicted.

  11. Magnetic mechanism investigations on K and Mn co-doped diluted magnetic semiconductor (Sr,K)(Zn,Mn)2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun-Tao; Luo, Shi-Jun; Xiong, Yong-Chen

    2016-06-01

    On the basic of the first-principles calculations with strong-correlated correction, the electronic structures and magnetic properties of a II-II-V based diluted magnetic semiconductor (Sr,K)(Zn,Mn)2As2 are investigated within Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof generalized gradient approximation. With local spins doped via isovalent (Zn2+, Mn2+) substitutions, Sr(Zn,Mn)2As2 system prefers antiferromagnetic ground state, caused by Mn-Mn superexchange interactions. Via off-stoichiometry (Sr2+, K+) substitutions, holes are introduced into (Sr,K)(Zn,Mn)2As2 system, resulting in the ferromagnetic spin responses for local moments, except for the most nearest neighboring Mn-Mn pair. The ferromagnetism of this diluted magnetic semiconductor originates from the competition between the direct anti-ferromagnetic superexchange interaction and the indirect ferromagnetic coupling mediated by Zener's p - d exchange interaction. Our calculations show that Zener's p - d exchange interaction depends on the location of K dopants. From the investigation on the magnetic properties of Mn clusters, it is found that the reduction of the measured Mn saturation moments is caused by the counteraction of the local moments of the most nearest neighboring Mn-Mn pair.

  12. Tunable electronic structure in dilute magnetic semiconductor Sr{sub 3}SnO/c-YSZ/Si (001) epitaxial heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y. F.; Narayan, J.; Schwartz, J.

    2014-10-28

    We report a systematic study of the structural, physical, and chemical properties of epitaxial thin films of emerging dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) Sr{sub 3}SnO (SSO) integrated with Si (100) prepared by various post-growth annealing treatments. The transport properties of these films are primarily governed by oxygen vacancies and the results are explained with the variable-range hopping model. The increased oxygen vacancy concentration generated by post-growth vacuum annealing results in a shorter hopping distance and reduced hopping energy and Coulomb gap, leading to lower resistivity; oxygen annealing shows the opposite effects. The work function ranges from 4.54 to 4.02 eV and shows a negative linear relationship with oxygen vacancy concentration, accompanied by a 0.42 eV shift in the surface Fermi level. The transport and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy probes agree quantitatively on measurement of the resistivity and surface electronic structure. The results provide a direct and consistent explanation that the property changes in the bulk and at the surface are primarily attributed to oxygen vacancies, which are believed to be the carriers in the SSO thin films. The ability to manipulate the work function and oxygen vacancy concentration in epitaxial DMS SSO thin films offers great potential for the development of spintronic devices.

  13. Effect of oxygen vacancy on half metallicity in Ni-doped CeO{sub 2} diluted magnetic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Saini, Hardev S. Saini, G. S. S.; Singh, Mukhtiyar; Kashyap, Manish K.

    2015-05-15

    The electronic and magnetic properties of Ni-doped CeO{sub 2} diluted amgentic semiconductor (DMS) including the effect of oxygen vacancy (V{sub o}) with doping concentration, x = 0.125 have been calculated using FPLAPW method based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) as implemented in WIEN2k. In the present supercell approach, the XC potential was constructed using GGA+U formalism in which Coulomb correction is applied to standard GGA functional within the parameterization of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE). We have found that the ground state properties of bulk CeO{sub 2} compound have been modified significantly due to the substitution of Ni-dopant at the cation (Ce) site with/without V{sub O} and realized that the ferromagnetism in CeO{sub 2} remarkably depends on the V{sub o} concentrations. The presence of V{sub o}, in Ni-doped CeO{sub 2}, can leads to strong ferromagnetic coupling between the nearest neighboring Ni-ions and induces a HMF in this compound. Such ferromagnetic exchange coupling is mainly attributed to spin splitting of Ni-d states, via electrons trapped in V{sub o}. The HMF characteristics of Ni-doped CeO{sub 2} including V{sub o} makes it an ideal material for spintronic devices.

  14. Magnetic properties of the layered III-VI diluted magnetic semiconductor Ga1-xFexTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekarek, T. M.; Edwards, P. S.; Olejniczak, T. L.; Lampropoulos, C.; Miotkowski, I.; Ramdas, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic properties of single crystalline Ga1-xFexTe (x = 0.05) have been measured. GaTe and related layered III-VI semiconductors exhibit a rich collection of important properties for THz generation and detection. The magnetization versus field for an x = 0.05 sample deviates from the linear response seen previously in Ga1-xMnxSe and Ga1-xMnxS and reaches a maximum of 0.68 emu/g at 2 K in 7 T. The magnetization of Ga1-xFexTe saturates rapidly even at room temperature where the magnetization reaches 50% of saturation in a field of only 0.2 T. In 0.1 T at temperatures between 50 and 400 K, the magnetization drops to a roughly constant 0.22 emu/g. In 0 T, the magnetization drops to zero with no hysteresis present. The data is consistent with Van-Vleck paramagnetism combined with a pronounced crystalline anisotropy, which is similar to that observed for Ga1-xFexSe. Neither the broad thermal hysteresis observed from 100-300 K in In1-xMnxSe nor the spin-glass behavior observed around 10.9 K in Ga1-xMnxS are observed in Ga1-xFexTe. Single crystal x-ray diffraction data yield a rhombohedral space group bearing hexagonal axes, namely R3c. The unit cell dimensions were a = 5.01 Å, b = 5.01 Å, and c = 17.02 Å, with α = 90°, β = 90°, and γ = 120° giving a unit cell volume of 369 Å3.

  15. Resonant inelastic scattering in dilute magnetic semiconductors by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lawniczak-Jablonska, K. |; Jia, J.J.; Underwood, J.H.

    1997-04-01

    As modern, technologically important materials have become more complex, element specific techniques have become invaluable in studying the electronic structure of individual components from the system. Soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) and absorption (SXA) spectroscopies provide a unique means of measuring element and angular momentum density of electron states, respectively, for the valence and conducting bands in complex materials. X-ray absorption and the decay through x-ray emission are generally assumed to be two independent one-photon processes. Recent studies, however have demonstrated that SXF excited near the absorption threshold generate an array of spectral features that depend on nature of materials, particularly on the localization of excited states in s and d-band solids and that these two processes can no be longer treated as independent. Resonant SXF offers thus the new way to study the dynamics of the distribution of electronic valence states in the presence of a hole which is bound to the electron low lying in the conduction band. This process can simulate the interaction between hole-electron pair in wide gap semiconductors. Therefore such studies can help in understanding of transport and optics phenomena in the wide gap semiconductors. The authors report the result of Mn and S L-resonant emission in Zn{sub 1{minus}x}Mn{sub x}S (with x=0.2 and 0.3) and MnS as the energy of exciting radiation is tuned across the Mn and S L{sub 3,2} absorption edge, along with the resonant excited spectra from elemental Mn as a reference.

  16. Ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic ordering in the wurtzite-type diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaev, Yu. E.; Tronc, P.

    2012-03-01

    We determined the magnetic symmetry groups (Shubnikov groups) of the wurtzite-type crystals doped with magnetic atoms periodically distributed at cation sites. The magnetic groups of doped crystals with ferro- or antiferromagnetic properties arise from the P63 mc ( C {6/v 4}), P3 m1 ( C {3/v 1}), C {/s 3} ( Cm) or C {1/1} ( P1) ordinary space groups. Those arising from the P63 mc or P3 m1 group can present macroscopic ferromagnetic polarization only along the wurtzite symmetry axis whereas those arising from the C {/s 3} ( Cm) group can present ferromagnetic polarization only in the symmetry plane and those arising from the C {1/1} ( P1) group can present polarization along any direction. Actual structures do not keep in general long-range order for magnetic atom distribution but the samples with macroscopic polarization should present local symmetries close to those listed above. Therefore, orientation of easy magnetization can provide information about the most frequent local symmetry.

  17. Diluted magnetic semiconductors based on II-VI, III-VI, and IV-VI compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashkarev, G. V.; Sichkovskiyi, V. I.; Radchenko, M. V.; Karpina, V. A.; Butorin, P. E.; Dmitriev, O. I.; Lazorenko, V. I.; Slyn'ko, E. I.; Lytvyn, P. M.; Jakiela, R.; Knoff, W.; Story, T.; Aleshkevych, P.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and phase composition, magnetic susceptibility, SIMS, magnetic force microscopy, and neutron diffraction data for Ge1-x-ySnxMnyTe, InSe⟨Mn⟩, and ZnO⟨Co, Mn⟩ single crystals are investigated over a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields. For Ge1-x-ySnxMnyTe the existence of ferromagnetic (FM) ordering with a Curie temperature TC˜50K, due to an indirect exchange interaction between Mn ions via the degenerate hole gas, is established. It is shown that at T <50K the ferromagnetic regions of the crystal form a spin-glass phase. In InSe⟨Mn⟩ it is found that hysteresis loops of the magnetic moment M(H ) are observed up to 350K. They attest to the existence of ferromagnetic ordering, which is apparently due to ferromagnetic clusters in which a superexchange of the Mn ions via the Se anions is proposed, and to an indirect interaction via the 2D electron gas. At T <70K a period doubling of the magnetic sublattice of α-MnSe second-phase inclusions is observed, and their distribution in the layered structure of the InSe⟨Mn⟩ host matrix has a regular character, forming a self-organized FM/AFM superlattice. In ZnO⟨Co, Mn⟩ the temperature dependence of M obeys a Curie law. When the solubility limit of Co in ZnO is exceeded, hysteresis loops are observed as a consequence of the appearance of a ferromagnetic second phase. In ZnO⟨Mn⟩ samples and also in some ZnO⟨Co⟩ samples with Co content below the solubility limit an antiferromagnetic (AFM) interaction takes place.

  18. Raman Scattering Studies in Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor Zn(1-x)Co(x)O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samanta, K.; Bhattacharya, P.; Katiyar, R. S.; Iwamoto, W.; Pagiluso, P. G.; Rettori, C.

    2006-01-01

    Raman spectra of ZnO and Co substituted Zn1-xCoxO (ZCO) were carried out using the Raman microprobe system with an p.,+ ion laser source of 514.5 nm wavelength. The shift towards the lower frequency side of the nonpolar E210w mode and the broadening due to Co substitution in ZnO were analyzed using the phonon confinement model. The magnetic measurements showed ferromagnetic behavior with the maximum saturation magnetization (1.2micron Beta/ErCo) for 10% Co substitution, which decreased wi th at further increase in Co concentrations. The intensities of E1(LO) at 584 cm-1 and multiphonon modes at 540 cm-1 were increased with an increase in Co substitution. The additional Raman modes in ceramic targets of ZCO spectra for higher concentration of Co substitution (x=15%-20%) were identified to be due to the spinel ZnCo2O4 secondary phase.

  19. Raman Scattering Studies in Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor Zn(1-x)Co(x)O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samanta, K.; Bhattacharya, P.; Katiyar, R. S.; Iwamoto, W.; Pagiluso, P. G.; Rettori, C.

    2006-01-01

    Raman spectra of ZnO and Co substituted Zn1-xCoxO (ZCO) were carried out using the Raman microprobe system with an p.,+ ion laser source of 514.5 nm wavelength. The shift towards the lower frequency side of the nonpolar E210w mode and the broadening due to Co substitution in ZnO were analyzed using the phonon confinement model. The magnetic measurements showed ferromagnetic behavior with the maximum saturation magnetization (1.2micron Beta/ErCo) for 10% Co substitution, which decreased wi th at further increase in Co concentrations. The intensities of E1(LO) at 584 cm-1 and multiphonon modes at 540 cm-1 were increased with an increase in Co substitution. The additional Raman modes in ceramic targets of ZCO spectra for higher concentration of Co substitution (x=15%-20%) were identified to be due to the spinel ZnCo2O4 secondary phase.

  20. Chemical trend of exchange coupling in II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanier, Thomas; Hayn, Roland; Virot, François

    2010-03-01

    We present an ab-initio study of the magnetic couplings in Mn- and Co-doped II-VI DMS ZnA (A=O,S,Se,Te). We show the necessity of taking into account the strong electron correlation on the transition metal (TM) 3d level to reproduce correctly the experimental chemical trend. Within the LSDA+U (local spin density approximation with a Hubbard-type correction to TM 3d electrons), we find (i) the d-d exchange couplings between nearest-neighbor magnetic ions to be antiferromagnetic (AFM) of the order of -1 meV and (ii) the sp-d exchange constants between magnetic ions and conduction (valence) band electrons (holes) Nα (Nβ) to be FM (AFM) of the order of 0.1 eV (-1 eV). In ZnMnO and ZnCoO, the strong p-d hybridisation leads to the presence of a bound state above the valence band, the failure of the commonly-used Larson perturbation theory formulae for p-d and d-d exchange interactions [1] and prevents high-Tc ferromagnetism [2]. [1] B. Larson et al. , PRB 37, 4137 (1988) [2] T. Chanier et al. , PRB 79, 205204 (2009)

  1. Dilute ferromagnetic semiconductors: Physics and spintronic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietl, Tomasz; Ohno, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    This review compiles results of experimental and theoretical studies on thin films and quantum structures of semiconductors with randomly distributed Mn ions, which exhibit spintronic functionalities associated with collective ferromagnetic spin ordering. Properties of p-type Mn-containing III-V as well as II-VI, IV-VI, V2-VI3, I-II-V, and elemental group IV semiconductors are described, paying particular attention to the most thoroughly investigated system (Ga,Mn)As that supports the hole-mediated ferromagnetic order up to 190 K for the net concentration of Mn spins below 10%. Multilayer structures showing efficient spin injection and spin-related magnetotransport properties as well as enabling magnetization manipulation by strain, light, electric fields, and spin currents are presented together with their impact on metal spintronics. The challenging interplay between magnetic and electronic properties in topologically trivial and nontrivial systems is described, emphasizing the entangled roles of disorder and correlation at the carrier localization boundary. Finally, the case of dilute magnetic insulators is considered, such as (Ga,Mn)N, where low-temperature spin ordering is driven by short-ranged superexchange that is ferromagnetic for certain charge states of magnetic impurities.

  2. The search for new spintronic materials: half-metallic antiferromagnets and diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, B. I.; Park, Min Sik; Park, J. H.

    2004-12-01

    Based on the electronic structure studies, we propose that the double perovskite LaV O3/ARuO3 superlattice (A = Ca,Sr and Ba) and thiospinel Mn(CrV)S4 and Fe0.5Cu0.5(V0.5Ti1.5)S4 are potential candidates for half-metallic antiferromagnets (HM-AFMs). We have also explored the effect of the Li intercalation on the electronic and magnetic properties of transition-metal (TM) doped anatase TiO2. We propose a potential spintronic and electrochromic device made of Li intercalated Mn-doped TiO2, which is controlled by the electric field. For (Fe, Cu) co-doped ZnO, the charge transfer between Fe and Cu leads to ferromagnetism via a type of the double-exchange mechanism.

  3. Femtosecond optical characterization and applications in cadmium(manganese) telluride diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Daozhi

    This thesis is devoted to the optical characterization of Cd(Mn)Te single crystals. I present the studies of free-carrier dynamics and generation and detection of coherent acoustic phonons (CAPS) using time-resolved femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The giant Faraday effect and ultrafast responsivity of Cd(Mn)Te to sub-picosecond electromagnetic transients are also demonstrated and discussed in detail. The first, few-picosecond-long electronic process after the initial optical excitation exhibits very distinct characteristic dependence on the excitation condition, and in case of Cd(Mn)Te, it has been attributed to the collective effects of band filling, band renormalization, and two-photon absorption. A closed-form, analytic expression for the differential reflectivity induced by the CAPs is derived based on the propagating-strain-pulse model and it accounts very well for our experimental observations. The accurate values of the Mn concentration and longitudinal sound velocity nu s in Cd(Mn)Te were obtained by fitting the data of the refractive index dependence on the probe wavelength to the Schubert model. In Cd 0.91Mn0.09Te, nus was found to be 3.6x103 m/s. Our comparison studies from the one-color and two-color experiments reveal that the intrinsic phonon lifetime in Cd(Mn)Te was at least on the order of nanoseconds, and the observed exponential damping of the CAP oscillations was due to the finite absorption depth of the probe light. Optically-induced electronic stress has been demonstrated to be the main generation mechanism of CAPs. We also present the giant Faraday effect in the Cd(Mn)Te and the spectra of the Verdet constant, which is mainly due to the exchange interaction between the Mn ions and band electrons. The spectral characteristics of the Verdet constant in Cd(Mn)Te exhibit very unique features compared to that in pure semiconductors. In our time-resolved sampling experiments at the room temperature, the response of the Cd(Mn)Te, particularly

  4. Dependence of the magnetic properties of the dilute magnetic semiconductor Zn1-xMnxO nanorods on their Mn doping levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongjamroon, S.; Ding, J.; Herng, T. S.; Tang, I. M.; Thongmee, S.

    2017-10-01

    The effects of Mn doping on the ferromagnetic properties of the dilute magnetic semiconductor Zn1-xMnxO nanorods (NR's) having the nominal composit-ions x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05 grown by a low temperature hydrothermal method are studied. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) is used to determine the actual amounts of the elements in each NR's. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence and vibrating sample magnetometer measurements are used to observe the effects of the Mn substitution on the properties of the doped ZnO and to relate the changes in the properties to changes in the defect content. It is observed that the saturation magnetization of the Mn ions in the wurtzite structure varies from 0.0210 μB/Mn2+ to 0.0234 μB/Mn2+ reaching a high of 0.0251 μB/Mn2+ as the Mn concentrations is varied from 0.9 to 7.36 atomic%. It is argued that the changes in the saturation magnetization are due to the competition between the direct Mn-Mn exchange interaction and the indirect Mn-O-Mn exchange interaction in the doped Mn ZnO NP's.

  5. Spin-polarized structural, electronic and magnetic properties of diluted magnetic semiconductors Cd 1- xMn xTe in zinc blende phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, U. P.; Sharma, Sonu; Devi, Nisha; Bisht, P. S.; Rajaram, P.

    2011-03-01

    We have investigated the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of the diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) Cd 1- xMn xTe (for x=0.75 and 1.0) in the zinc blende (B3) phase by employing the ab-initio method. Calculations were performed by using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-L/APW+lo) method within the frame work of spin-polarized density functional theory (SP-DFT). The electronic exchange-correlation energy is described by generalized gradient approximation (GGA). We have calculated the lattice parameters, bulk modulii and the first pressure derivatives of the bulk modulii, spin-polarized band structures, and total and local densities of states. We estimated the spin-exchange splitting energies Δx( d) and Δx( pd) produced by the Mn3 d states, and we found that the effective potential for the minority spin is more attractive than that of the majority spin. We determine the s-d exchange constant N0α (conduction band) and p-d exchange constant N0β (valence band) and these somewhat agree with a typical magneto-optical experiment. The value of calculated magnetic moment per Mn impurity atom is found to be 4.08 μ B for Cd 0.25Mn 0.75Te and 4.09 μ B for Cd 0.0Mn 1.0Te. Moreover, we found that p-d hybridization reduces the local magnetic moment of Mn from its free space charge value of 5.0 μ B and produces small local magnetic moments on the nonmagnetic Cd and Te sites.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of three-dimensional transition metal ions doped zinc oxide based dilute magnetic semiconductor thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Kousik

    Dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS), especially 3d-transition metal (TM) doped ZnO based DMS materials are the most promising candidates for optoelectronics and spintronics applications; e.g. in spin light emitting diode (SLED), spin transistors, and spin field effect transistors (SFET), etc. In the present dissertation, thin films of Zn1-xTMxO (TM = Co2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+) were grown on (0001) oriented Al2O3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The films were highly c-axis oriented, nearly single crystalline, and defects free for a limited concentration of the dilution of transition metal ions. In particular, we have obtained single crystalline phases of Zn1-xTMxO thin films for up to 10, 3, and 5 stoichiometric percentages of Co2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+ respectively. Raman micro-probe system was used to understand the structural and lattice dynamical properties at different physical conditions. The confinement of optical phonons in the disorder lattice was explained by alloy potential fluctuation (APF) using a spatial correlation (SC) model. The detailed analysis of the optical phonon behavior in disorder lattice confirmed the substitution of the transition metal ions in Zn 2+ site of the ZnO host lattice. The secondary phases of ZnCo 2O4, CuO, and ZnMn2O4 were detected in higher Co, Cu, and Mn doped ZnO thin films respectively; where as, XRD did not detect these secondary phases in the same samples. Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in Co2+ and Cu2+ ions doped ZnO thin films with maximum saturation magnetization (Ms) of 1.0 and 0.76 muB respectively. The origin of the observed ferromagnetism in Zn1-xCoxO thin films was tested by the controlled introduction of shallow donors (Al) in Zn0.9-x Co0.1O:Alx (x = 0.005 and 0.01) thin films. The saturation magnetization for the 10% Co-doped ZnO (1.0 muB /Co) at 300K reduced (˜0.25 muB/Co) due to Al doping. The observed ferromagnetism and the reduction due to Al doping can be explained by the Bound

  7. A first principles study of half-metallic ferromagnetism in In{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}P (x = 0.06) diluted magnetic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Saini, Hardev S. Saini, G. S. S.; Singh, Mukhtiyar; Thakur, Jyoti; Kashyap, Manish K.

    2016-05-23

    A first principles approach has been used to calculate the electronic and magnetic properties of In{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}P (x = 0.06) diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) compound. The calculations have been carried out using the highly precise all electron full potential Linear Augmented Plane Wave (FPLAPW) method within generalized gradient approximation (GGA) as exchange-correlation (XC) potentials. The estimated results show that the Ti-doping generate robust half metallic ferromagnetism with the 100% spin polarization at Fermi level (E{sub F}) in InP. Due to this peculiar property, the resultant compound behaves as true half-metallic ferromagnet which is best suited for spintronic applications. The total magnetic moments of this compound are mainly due to Ti-d states present at E{sub F} with almost negligible contribution from other atoms.

  8. Structural, optical, and magnetic properties of Cu- and Ni-codoped CdO dilute magnetic nanocrystalline semiconductor: effect of hydrogen post-treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dakhel, A. A.; Bououdina, M.

    2015-06-01

    Cadmium oxide codoped with Cu and Ni ions powders was synthesised by thermal co-decomposition of a mixture of cadmium, copper, and nickel acetylacetonates. The mass ratio of Cu/Cd was fixed, while the Ni/Cd mass ratio was varied systematically. The purpose of the present study is to prepare powders having room-temperature ferromagnetic (RT-FM) properties. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirm the purity and the formation of single nanocrystalline structure of the as-prepared powders. The energy bandgap of the as-prepared powders was found to vary slightly and then increases by 3.96-38.02 % after post-H2-treatment. Magnetic measurements reveal that all as-prepared doped CdO powders gained partial (RT-FM) properties. Furthermore, the created RT-FM is dependent on the Ni% doping level. After annealing under H2 gas, a strong enhancement of RT-FM was observed, especially for 1.2 % Ni-doping-level powder where the whole powder became ferromagnetic with coercivity, remanence, and saturation magnetisation of 249.2 Oe, 4.52 memu/g, and 14.57 memu/g, respectively, representing an increase by ~241.3, 1062, and 1700 %, respectively, in comparison with the as-prepared sample. Thus, it was proved, for the first time, the possibility of producing of codoped CdO with RT-FM, where the magnetic characteristics can be tailored by doping and post-treatment under H2 atmosphere, thus a new potential candidate for dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS).

  9. Microstructures, magnetic and electric properties of diluted magnetic semiconductors InTe{sub 1−x} Fe{sub x} (Co{sub x})

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sayed, Karimat; Sedeek, K.; Heiba, Z.K.; Hantour, H.H.

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► The prepared InTe{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1} was found to be ferromagnetic at room temperature and can be characterized as diluted magnetic semiconductors. ► The presence of staking faults, various types of defects, strained lattice, grain boundaries and the impurity of minor non-magnetic phase were suggested to participate in high temperature ferromagnetism. - Abstract: InTe compound doped by 10% of Fe or Co respectively was synthesized. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and Kiethley electrometer were used for characterizing the prepared samples. XRD show the presence of InTe{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1} or InTe{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.1} together with minor In{sub 4}Te{sub 3} phase. InTe{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1} is ferromagnetic with high Curie and high blocking temperature, while InTe{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.1} is antiferromagnetic with two high Neels temperatures. σRT of InTe{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1} and InTe{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.1} are greater than those of InTe. The higher conductivity is due to the higher carrier's density obtained from the interaction of the sp-d orbitals, of the electric and magnetic system. The presence of In{sub 4}Te{sub 3} minor phase and different kinds of defects are taking major roles in the formation of high Tc ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism.

  10. Room temperature ferromagnetism in single-phase Zn1- x Mn x S diluted magnetic semiconductors fabricated by co-precipitation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, M.; Younas, S.; Sher, F.; Husain, S. S.; Riaz, S.; Naseem, S.

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we have prepared Mn-doped zinc sulfide diluted magnetic semiconductors with varying manganese concentrations ( x Mn = 0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10 mol%) using co-precipitation method. The single-phase nano-crystalline Zn1 - x Mn x S powders have been confirmed with X-ray diffraction. The residual strains also have been calculated, and have been observed to affect the lattice constants. The surface morphology is investigated with scanning electron microscopy, which illustrates the presence of smaller grains, which coalescence to form larger grains. The presence of the ferromagnetism at room temperature has been observed; however, significant paramagnetic contribution is also present. The observed weak ferromagnetism might be due to the structural and surface imperfections. The single-phase Zn1 - x Mn x S exhibiting magnetism at room temperature evidences the potential spintronic applications.

  11. Influence of Fe doping on the structural, optical and magnetic properties of ZnS diluted magnetic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, D.; Raland, RD.; Borah, J. P.

    2016-09-01

    Fe doped ZnS nanoparticles with different concentrations of Fe, synthesized by microwave assisted co-precipitation method have been reported. The incorporation of Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions into ZnS lattice are confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Electron Paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study. XRD and High Resolution Transmission electron Microscope (HRTEM) results confirm the phase purity of the samples and indicate a reduction of the particle size with increase in Fe concentration. EDAX analysis confirms the presence of Zn, S and Fe in the samples. A yellow-orange emission peak is observed in Photoluminescence (PL) spectra which exhibits the Characteristic 4T2 (4G)-6A1 (6S) transition of Fe3+ ion. The room temperature magnetic studies as analyzed from M-H curves were investigated from vibrating samples magnetometer (VSM) which shows a weak ferro and superparamagnetic like behavior in 1% and 3% Fe-doped ZnS nanocrystals, whereas; at 10% Fe-doping concentrations, antiferromagnetism behavior is achieved. The ZFC-FC measurement reveals that the blocking temperature of the nanoparticle is above the room temperature.

  12. Enhancement of two photon absorption with Ni doping in the dilute magnetic semiconductor ZnO crystalline nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Amit Kumar; J, Aneesh; Kumar, Yogendra; M. S, Arjunan; Adarsh, K. V.; Sen, Somaditya; Shirage, Parasharam M.

    2015-12-01

    In this letter, we have investigated the third-order optical nonlinearities of high-quality Ni doped ZnO nanorods crystallized in wurtzite lattice, prepared by the wet chemical method. In our experiments, we found that the two photon absorption coefficient (β) increases by as much as 14 times, i.e., 7.6 ± 0.4 to 112 ± 6 cm/GW, when the Ni doping is increased from 0% to 10%. The substantial enhancement in β is discussed in terms of the bandgap scaling and Ni doping. Furthermore, we also show that the optical bandgap measured by UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopies, continuously redshift with increasing Ni doping concentration. We envision that the strong nonlinear optical properties together with their dilute magnetic effects, they form an important class of materials for potential applications in magneto-optical and integrated optical chips.

  13. Enhancement of two photon absorption with Ni doping in the dilute magnetic semiconductor ZnO crystalline nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Yogendra; Arjunan, M.S.; Sen, Somaditya; Shirage, Parasharam M. E-mail: paras.shirage@gmail.com; J, Aneesh; Adarsh, K. V.

    2015-12-07

    In this letter, we have investigated the third-order optical nonlinearities of high-quality Ni doped ZnO nanorods crystallized in wurtzite lattice, prepared by the wet chemical method. In our experiments, we found that the two photon absorption coefficient (β) increases by as much as 14 times, i.e., 7.6 ± 0.4 to 112 ± 6 cm/GW, when the Ni doping is increased from 0% to 10%. The substantial enhancement in β is discussed in terms of the bandgap scaling and Ni doping. Furthermore, we also show that the optical bandgap measured by UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopies, continuously redshift with increasing Ni doping concentration. We envision that the strong nonlinear optical properties together with their dilute magnetic effects, they form an important class of materials for potential applications in magneto-optical and integrated optical chips.

  14. Exchange couplings for Mn ions in CdTe: Validity of spin models for dilute magnetic II-VI semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linneweber, Thorben; Bünemann, Jörg; Löw, Ute; Gebhard, Florian; Anders, Frithjof

    2017-01-01

    We employ density-functional theory (DFT) in the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and its extensions GGA +U and GGA+Gutzwiller to calculate the magnetic exchange couplings between pairs of Mn ions substituting Cd in a CdTe crystal at very small doping. DFT(GGA) overestimates the exchange couplings by a factor of 3 because it underestimates the charge-transfer gap in Mn-doped II-VI semiconductors. Fixing the nearest-neighbor coupling J1 to its experimental value in GGA +U , in GGA+Gutzwiller, or by a simple scaling of the DFT(GGA) results provides acceptable values for the exchange couplings at second-, third-, and fourth-neighbor distances in Cd(Mn)Te, Zn(Mn)Te, Zn(Mn)Se, and Zn(Mn)S. In particular, we recover the experimentally observed relation J4>J2,J3 . The filling of the Mn 3 d shell is not integer, which puts the underlying Heisenberg description into question. However, using a few-ion toy model the picture of a slightly extended local moment emerges so that an integer 3 d -shell filling is not a prerequisite for equidistant magnetization plateaus, as seen in experiment.

  15. Band-edge exciton transitions in (Ga 1- xMn x)N diluted magnetic semiconductor films with above room temperature ferromagnetic transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, H. C.; Kang, T. W.; Kim, T. W.; Cho, Y. H.

    2006-06-01

    (Ga 1- xMn x)N thin films grown on GaN buffer layers by using molecular beam epitaxy were investigated with the goal of producing diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) with band-edge exciton transitions for applications in optomagnetic devices. The magnetization curve as a function of the magnetic field at 5 K indicated that ferromagnetism existed in the (Ga 1- xMn x)N thin films, and the magnetization curve as a function of the temperature showed that the ferromagnetic transition temperature of the (Ga 1- xMn x)N thin film was above room temperature. Photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectra showed that band-edge exciton transitions in (Ga 1- xMn x)N thin films appeared. These results indicate that the (Ga 1- xMn x)N DMSs with a magnetic single phase hold promise for potential applications in spin optoelectronic devices in the blue region of the spectrum.

  16. Out-of-plane easy-axis in thin films of diluted magnetic semiconductor Ba1-xKx(Zn1-yMny)2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R.; Huang, Z. X.; Zhao, G. Q.; Yu, S.; Deng, Z.; Jin, C. Q.; Jia, Q. J.; Chen, Y.; Yang, T. Y.; Jiang, X. M.; Cao, L. X.

    2017-04-01

    Single-phased, single-oriented thin films of Mn-doped ZnAs-based diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) Ba1-xKx(Zn1-yMny)2As2 (x = 0.03, 0.08; y = 0.15) have been deposited on Si, SrTiO3, LaAlO3, (La,Sr)(Al,Ta)O3, and MgAl2O4 substrates, respectively. Utilizing a combined synthesis and characterization system excluding the air and further optimizing the deposition parameters, high-quality thin films could be obtained and be measured showing that they can keep inactive-in-air up to more than 90 hours characterized by electrical transport measurements. In comparison with films of x = 0.03 which possess relatively higher resistivity, weaker magnetic performances, and larger energy gap, thin films of x = 0.08 show better electrical and magnetic performances. Strong magnetic anisotropy was found in films of x = 0.08 grown on (La,Sr)(Al,Ta)O3 substrate with their magnetic polarization aligned almost solely on the film growth direction.

  17. Microstructural and Optical properties of transition metal (Cu) doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductor nano thin films fabricated by sol gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Ozgur; Asikuzun, Elif; Tasci, A. Tolga; Arda, Lutfi; Demirozu Senol, Sevim; Celik, Sukru; Terzioglu, Cabir

    Undoped and Cu (Copper) doped ZnO (Zn1-xCuxO) semiconductor thin films were produced by using sol-gel method. Cu was doped 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% ratio. Methanol and monoethanolamine (MEA) were used as solvent and stabilizer. In this study, the effect of Cu doping was investigated on microstructural and optical properties of ZnO DMS thin films. XRD, SEM, AFM and UV-VIS spectrometer measurements were performed for the microstructural and optical characterization. XRD, SEM and AFM results were showed that all of Cu doped ZnO based thin films have a hexagonal structure. The grain size of Cu doped ZnO thin films and morphology of surface were changed with increasing Cu doping. The optical transmittance of transition metal (Cu) doped ZnO thin films were decreased with doping. Keywords:Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor (DMS), Thin Film, Cu-doping, Bandgap Energy, ZnO. This research has been supported by the Kastamonu University Scientific Research Projects Coordination Department under the Grant No. KU-BAP-05/2015-12 and the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) Project No. 114F259.

  18. Enhanced ferromagnetic transition temperature induced by a microscopic structural rearrangement in the diluted magnetic semiconductor Ge1 -xMnxTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriener, M.; Nakajima, T.; Kaneko, Y.; Kikkawa, A.; Hashizume, D.; Kato, K.; Takata, M.; Arima, T.; Tokura, Y.; Taguchi, Y.

    2017-06-01

    The correlation between magnetic properties and microscopic structural aspects in the diluted magnetic semiconductor Ge1 -xMnxTe is investigated by x-ray diffraction and magnetization as a function of the Mn concentration x . The occurrence of high ferromagnetic-transition temperatures in the rhombohedrally distorted phase of slowly cooled Ge1 -xMnxTe is shown to be directly correlated with the formation and coexistence of strongly distorted Mn-poor and weakly distorted Mn-rich regions. It is demonstrated that the weakly distorted phase fraction is responsible for the occurrence of high-transition temperatures in Ge1 -xMnxTe . When the Mn concentration becomes larger, the Mn-rich regions start to switch into the undistorted cubic structure, and the transition temperature is suppressed concurrently. By identifying suitable annealing conditions, we successfully increased the transition temperature to above 200 K for Mn concentrations close to the cubic phase. Structural data indicate that the weakly distorted phase fraction can be restored at the expense of the cubic regions upon the enhancement of the transition temperature, clearly establishing the direct link between high-transition temperatures and the weakly distorted Mn-rich phase fraction.

  19. Hole doping and pressure effects on the II-II-V-based diluted magnetic semiconductor (Ba1-xKx)(Zn1-yMny)2As2

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, F.; Zhao, G. Q.; Escanhoela, Jr., C. A.; ...

    2017-03-13

    We investigate doping- and pressure-induced changes in the electronic state of Mn 3d and As 4p orbitals in II-II-V based diluted magnetic semiconductor (Ba1-x,Kx)(Zn1-y,Mny)2As2 to shed light into the mechanism of indirect exchange interactions leading to high ferromagnetic ordering temperature (Tc = 230 K in optimally doped samples). A suite of x-ray spectroscopy experiments (emission, absorption and dichroism) show that the emergence, and further enhancement of ferromagnetic interactions with increased hole doping into the As 4p band is accompanied by a decrease in local 3d spin density at Mn sites. This is a result of increasing Mn 3d - Asmore » 4p hybridization with hole doping which enhances indirect exchange interactions between Mn dopants and gives rise to induced magnetic polarization in As 4p states. On the contrary, application of pressure suppresses exchange interactions. While Mn Kβ emission spectra show a weak response of 3d state to pressure, clear As 4p band broadening (hole delocalization) is observed under pressure ultimately leading to loss of ferromagnetism concomitant with a semiconductor to metal transition. The pressure response of As 4p and Mn 3d states is intimately connected with the evolution of the As-As interlayer distance and the geometry of the MnAs4 tetrahedral units, which we probed with X-ray diffraction. Our results indicate that hole doping increases the degree of covalency between the anion (As) p states and cation (Mn) d states in the MnAs4 tetrahedron, a crucial ingredient to promote indirect exchange interactions between Mn dopants and high Tc ferromagnetism. As a result, the instability of ferromagnetism and semiconducting state against pressure is mainly dictated by delocalization of anion p states.« less

  20. Weak ferromagnetism and temperature dependent dielectric properties of Zn{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 0.1}O diluted magnetic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Raju; Moslehuddin, A.S.M.; Mahmood, Zahid Hasan; Hossain, A.K.M. Akther

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Single phase wurtzite structure was confirmed from XRD analysis. • Weak ferromagnetic behaviour at room temperature. • Pure semiconducting properties confirmed from temperature dependent conductivity. • Smaller dielectric properties at higher frequency. • Possible potential application in high frequency spintronic devices. - Abstract: In this study the room temperature ferromagnetic behaviour and dielectric properties of ZnO based diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) have been investigated using nominal chemical composition Zn{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 0.1}O. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed formation of single phase hexagonal wurtzite structure. An increase in grain size with increasing sintering temperature was observed from scanning electron microscopy. Field dependent DC magnetization values indicated dominant paramagnetic ordering along with a slight ferromagnetic behaviour at room temperature. Frequency dependent complex initial permeability showed some positive values around 12 at room temperature. In dielectric measurement, an increasing trend of complex permittivity, loss tangent and ac conductivity with increasing temperature were observed. The temperature dependent dispersion curves of dielectric properties revealed clear relaxation at higher temperature. Frequency dependent ac conductivity was found to increase with frequency whereas complex permittivity and loss tangent showed an opposite trend.

  1. Generalized gradient calculations of magneto-electronic properties for diluted magnetic semiconductors ZnMnS and ZnMnSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méçabih, S.; Benguerine, K.; Benosman, N.; Abbar, B.; Bouhafs, B.

    2008-10-01

    Using the first-principles method, we investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of the diluted magnetic semiconductors Zn 1-xMn xS and Zn 1-xMn xSe with 25% of Mn. The calculations are performed by a developed full-potential augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-L/APW+lo) method within the spin density functional theory. As exchange-correlation potential we used the new generalized gradient approximation GGA form. Structural properties are determined from the total energy calculations. We show that the cohesive energy of ZnMnS and ZnMnSe exceeds that of the parent elements ZnS and ZnSe. We discuss the electronic structures, total and partial densities of states and local moments. We have calculated the Mn 3d spin-exchange splitting energies Δ x( d), which reflect the effective potential of the majority and the minority spin. From the charge spin densities calculations, we study the nature of the bonding and the effect of the Mn 3d states on these densities. Furthermore, we found that p-d hybridization reduces the local moment of Mn from its free space value of 5.0 μB.

  2. K and Mn co-doped BaCd{sub 2}As{sub 2}: A hexagonal structured bulk diluted magnetic semiconductor with large magnetoresistance

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Pan; Jiang, Hao; Luo, Yongkang; Chen, Qian; Feng, Chunmu; Tao, Qian; Cao, Guanghan; Xu, Zhu-An; Li, Yuke; Cao, Chao; Dai, Jianhui

    2013-12-14

    A bulk diluted magnetic semiconductor was found in the K and Mn co-doped BaCd{sub 2}As{sub 2} system. Different from recently reported tetragonal ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-structured II-II-V based (Ba,K)(Zn,Mn){sub 2}As{sub 2}, the Ba{sub 1−y}K{sub y}Cd{sub 2−x}Mn{sub x}As{sub 2} system has a hexagonal CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structure with the Cd{sub 2}As{sub 2} layer forming a honeycomb-like network. The Mn concentration reaches up to x ∼ 0.4. Magnetization measurements show that the samples undergo ferromagnetic transitions with Curie temperature up to 16 K. With low coercive field of less than 10 Oe and large magnetoresistance of about −70%, the hexagonal structured Ba{sub 1−y}K{sub y}Cd{sub 2−x}Mn{sub x}As{sub 2} can be served as a promising candidate for spin manipulations.

  3. Energy states, transport, and magnetotransport in diluted magnetic semiconductor (Ga, Mn)As with quantum well InGaAs.

    PubMed

    Shchurova, L Yu; Kulbachinskii, V A

    2011-03-01

    We investigate energy levels, thermodynamic, transport and magnetotransport properties of holes in GaAs structure with quantum well InGaAs delta-doped by C and Mn. We present self-consistent calculations for energy levels in the quantum well for different degrees of ionization of Mn impurity. The magnetoresistance of holes in the quantum well is calculated. We explain observed negative magnetoresistance by the reduction of spin-flip scattering on magnetic ions due to aligning of spins with magnetic field.

  4. Interchange core/shell assembly of diluted magnetic semiconductor CeO2 and ferromagnetic ferrite Fe3O4 for microwave absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiaheng; Zhu, Pengfei; Wang, Jiaqi; Or, Siu Wing; Ho, S. L.; Tan, Jun

    2017-05-01

    Core/shell-structured CeO2/Fe3O4 and Fe3O4/CeO2 nanocapsules are prepared by interchange assembly of diluted magnetic semiconductor CeO2 and ferromagnetic ferrite Fe3O4 as the core and the shell, and vice versa, using a facile two-step polar solvothermal method in order to utilize the room-temperature ferromagnetism and abundant O-vacancies in CeO2, the large natural resonance in Fe3O4, and the O-vacancy-enhanced interfacial polarization between CeO2 and Fe3O4 for new generation microwave absorbers. Comparing to Fe3O4/CeO2 nanocapsules, the CeO2/Fe3O4 nanocapsules show an improved real permittivity of 3-10% and an enhanced dielectric resonance of 1.5 times at 15.3 GHz due to the increased O-vacancy concentration in the CeO2 cores of larger grains as well as the O-vacancy-induced enhancement in interfacial polarization between the CeO2 cores and the Fe3O4 shells, respectively. Both nanocapsules exhibit relatively high permeability in the low-frequency S and C microwave bands as a result of the bi-magnetic core/shell combination of CeO2 and Fe3O4. The CeO2/Fe3O4 nanocapsules effectively enhance permittivity and permeability in the high-frequency Ku band with interfacial polarization and natural resonance at ˜15 GHz, thereby improving absorption with a large reflection loss of -28.9 dB at 15.3 GHz. Experimental and theoretical comparisons with CeO2 and Fe3O4 nanoparticles are also made.

  5. Rutile-type Co doped SnO2 diluted magnetic semiconductor nanoparticles: Structural, dielectric and ferromagnetic behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehraj, Sumaira; Shahnawaze Ansari, M.; Alimuddin

    2013-12-01

    Nanoparticles of basic composition Sn1-xCoxO2 (x=0.00, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.1) were synthesized through the citrate-gel method and were characterized for structural properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). XRD analysis of the powder samples sintered at 500 °C for 12 h showed single phase rutile type tetragonal structure and the crystallite size decreased as the cobalt content was increased. FT-IR spectrum displayed various bands that came due to fundamental overtones and combination of O-H, Sn-O and Sn-O-Sn entities. The effect of Co doping on the electrical and magnetic properties was studied using dielectric spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) at room temperature. The dielectric parameters (ε, tan δ and σac) show their maximum value for 10% Co doping. The dielectric loss shows anomalous behavior with frequency where it exhibits the Debye relaxation. The variation of dielectric properties and ac conductivity with frequency reveals that the dispersion is due to the Maxwell-Wagner type of interfacial polarization in general and hopping of charge between Sn2+ and Sn4+ as well as between Co2+ and Co3+ ions. The complex impedance analysis was used to separate the grain and grain boundary contributions in the system which shows that the conduction process in grown nanoparticles takes place predominantly through grain boundary volume. Hysteresis loops were observed clearly in M-H curves from 0.01 to 0.1% Co doped SnO2 samples. The saturation magnetization of the doped samples increased slightly with increase of Co concentration. However pure SnO2 displayed paramagnetism which vanished at higher values of magnetic field.

  6. Observation of Strong-Coupling Effects in a Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor Ga1-xFexN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacuski, W.; Kossacki, P.; Ferrand, D.; Golnik, A.; Cibert, J.; Wegscheider, M.; Navarro-Quezada, A.; Bonanni, A.; Kiecana, M.; Sawicki, M.; Dietl, T.

    2008-01-01

    The giant Zeeman splitting of free excitons is measured in Ga1-xFexN. Magneto-optical and magnetization data imply the ferromagnetic sign and a reduced magnitude of the effective p-d exchange energy governing the interaction between Fe3+ ions and holes in GaN, N0β(app)=+0.5±0.2eV. This finding corroborates the recent suggestion that the strong p-d hybridization specific to nitrides and oxides leads to significant renormalization of the valence band exchange splitting.

  7. The effects of group-I elements co-doping with Mn in ZnO dilute magnetic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liqiang; Zhang, Yinzhu; Ye, Zhizhen; Lu, Jianguo; Lu, Bin; He, Bo

    2012-06-01

    Mn-Li codoped ZnO (Zn(Mn,Li)O), Mn-Na codoped ZnO (Zn(Mn,Na)O), and Mn-K codoped ZnO (Zn(Mn,K)O) thin films were deposited on quartz substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The doping effects of group-I elements (e.g., Li, Na, and K) on the structural, magnetic, and optical properties of the Mn doped ZnO (ZnMnO) films were discussed. X-ray diffraction and K-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements revealed that all the films showed a hexagonal wurtzite ZnO structure, and no other clusters, precipitates, or second phases were detected. Zn(Mn,Na)O and Zn(Mn,Li)O films showed a weak p-type conductivity, while the Zn(Mn,K)O film appeared a highly resistivity. The saturation magnetization of Zn(Mn,Na)O and Zn(Mn,Li)O films was 1.2 and 0.18 μB/Mn, respectively. The hole-related defects, induced by doping with a low content of Li or Na, contributed to the room temperature ferromagnetism in the ZnMnO system.

  8. Local structure analysis of diluted magnetic semiconductor Co and Al co-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Hyodo, K.; Morimoto, S.; Yamazaki, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Ichiyanagi, Y.; Utsumi, J.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Co and Al ions co-doped ZnO nanoparticles (Zn(Al, Co)O NPs) were prepared by our original chemical preparation method. The obtained samples prepared by this method, were encapsulated in amorphous SiO{sub 2}. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed Zn(Al, Co)O NPs had a single-phase nature with hexagonal wurtzite structure. These particle sizes could be controlled to be approximately 30 nm. We investigate the effect that the increase in the carrier has on the magnetization by doping Al to Co-doped ZnO NPs. The local structures were qualitatively analyzed using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements.

  9. Enhanced Room Temperature Ferromagnetism by Fe Doping in Zn0.96Cu0.04O Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukumaran, S.; Ashokkumar, M.

    2016-02-01

    Zn0.96- x Cu0.04Fe x O (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.04) nanoparticles synthesized via the sol-gel technique had a hexagonal wurtzite ZnO structure without any Fe/Cu-related secondary phases. The crystallite size was reduced from Fe = 0% (23 nm) to Fe = 4% (16 nm) due to the suppression of grain surface growth by foreign impurities. Doping of higher Fe concentrations into Zn-Cu-O suppressed the ultra-violet (UV) emission band and balanced the defect-related visible emissions. The decrease of the UV and green emission intensity ratio ( I UV/ I green) and the UV and blue emission intensity ratio ( I UV/ I blue) in photoluminescence spectra implied an increase of defect states with the increase of Fe concentrations. All the samples showed clear room temperature ferromagnetism. The saturation magnetization was increased by Fe co-doping which was attributed to the interaction between Fe-Fe ions. X-ray photoelectron spectra confirmed the absence of secondary phases like Fe3O4.

  10. Magnetic properties of the layered III-VI diluted magnetic semiconductor Ga{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Te

    SciTech Connect

    Pekarek, T. M.; Edwards, P. S.; Olejniczak, T. L.; Lampropoulos, C.; Miotkowski, I.; Ramdas, A. K.

    2016-05-15

    Magnetic properties of single crystalline Ga{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Te (x = 0.05) have been measured. GaTe and related layered III-VI semiconductors exhibit a rich collection of important properties for THz generation and detection. The magnetization versus field for an x = 0.05 sample deviates from the linear response seen previously in Ga{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Se and Ga{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}S and reaches a maximum of 0.68 emu/g at 2 K in 7 T. The magnetization of Ga{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Te saturates rapidly even at room temperature where the magnetization reaches 50% of saturation in a field of only 0.2 T. In 0.1 T at temperatures between 50 and 400 K, the magnetization drops to a roughly constant 0.22 emu/g. In 0 T, the magnetization drops to zero with no hysteresis present. The data is consistent with Van-Vleck paramagnetism combined with a pronounced crystalline anisotropy, which is similar to that observed for Ga{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Se. Neither the broad thermal hysteresis observed from 100-300 K in In{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Se nor the spin-glass behavior observed around 10.9 K in Ga{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}S are observed in Ga{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Te. Single crystal x-ray diffraction data yield a rhombohedral space group bearing hexagonal axes, namely R3c. The unit cell dimensions were a = 5.01 Å, b = 5.01 Å, and c = 17.02 Å, with α = 90°, β = 90°, and γ = 120° giving a unit cell volume of 369 Å{sup 3}.

  11. Ab initio calculation and analysis of the properties of digital magnetic heterostructures and diluted magnetic semiconductors of IV and III-V groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspenskii, Yu. A.; Kulatov, E. T.

    2009-04-01

    We present the first-principles calculations of digital magnetic heterostructures Si/M, Ge/M. GaAs/M, GaSb/M, GaN/M and GaN/M (50%) with M=Cr, Mn, Fe, and Co. The interaction between magnetic dopants results in a wide spin-polarized two-dimensional band inside the gap. It is found that beginning occupation of the minority-spin band greatly increases the energy of the ferromagnetic (FM) state and leads, as a rule, to the antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin ordering. This mechanism causes transition to the AFM state, when interaction between magnetic atoms is too strong, and defines the optimum of Curie temperature as a function of transition element concentration in magnetic layers.

  12. Atomically thin dilute magnetism in Co-doped phosphorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seixas, L.; Carvalho, A.; Castro Neto, A. H.

    2015-04-01

    Two-dimensional dilute magnetic semiconductors can provide fundamental insights into the very nature of magnetic order and their manipulation through electron and hole doping. Besides the fundamental interest, due to the possibility of control of charge density, they can be extremely important in spintronics applications such as spin valve and spin-based transistors. In this paper, we studied a two-dimensional dilute magnetic semiconductor consisting of a phosphorene monolayer doped with cobalt atoms in substitutional and interstitial defects. We show that these defects can be stabilized and are electrically active. Furthermore, by including holes or electrons by a potential gate, the exchange interaction and magnetic order can be engineered, and may even induce a ferromagnetic-to-antiferromagnetic phase transition in p -doped phosphorene. At a Co concentration of 2.7%, we estimate a Curie temperature of TCMF A=466 K in the mean-field approximation.

  13. Electronic bandstructure of semiconductor dilute bismide structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erucar, T.; Nutku, F.; Donmez, O.; Erol, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this work electronic band structure of dilute bismide GaAs/GaAs1-xBix quantum well structures with 1.8% and 3.75% bismuth compositions have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements reveal that effective bandgap of the samples decreases approximately 65 meV per bismuth concentration. Temperature dependence of the effective bandgap is obtained to be higher for the sample with higher bismuth concentration. Moreover, both asymmetric characteristic at the low energy tail of the PL and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of PL peak increase with increasing bismuth composition as a result of increased Bi related defects located above valence band (VB). In order to explain composition dependence of the effective bandgap quantitatively, valence band anti-crossing (VBAC) model is used. Bismuth composition and temperature dependence of effective bandgap in a quantum well structure is modeled by solving Schrödinger equation and compared with experimental PL data.

  14. Calculated electronic structures and Néel temperatures of half-metallic diluted antiferromagnetic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Ogura, M; Takahashi, C; Akai, H

    2007-09-12

    The possibility of half-metallic diluted antiferromagnetic semiconductors of II-VI compounds is investigated on the basis of first-principles electronic structure calculation. The electronic structures of ZnS, ZnSe, ZnO, CdS and CdSe doped with two kinds of 3d transition metal ions are calculated using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) method and their magnetic transition temperatures are determined using a cluster-type approximation. It is predicted that II-VI compound semiconductors doped with two kinds of magnetic ions might be good candidates for half-metallic antiferromagnets.

  15. Particles size distribution in diluted magnetic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerin, Constantine V.

    2017-06-01

    Changes in particles and aggregates size distribution in diluted kerosene based magnetic fluids is studied by dynamic light scattering method. It has been found that immediately after dilution in magnetic fluids the system of aggregates with sizes ranging from 100 to 250-1000 nm is formed. In 50-100 h after dilution large aggregates are peptized and in the sample stationary particles and aggregates size distribution is fixed.

  16. (Sr1-xNax)(Cd1-xMnx)2As2: A new charge and spin doping decoupled diluted magnetic semiconductors with CaAl2Si2-type structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bijuan; Deng, Zheng; Li, Wenmin; Gao, Moran; Li, Zhi; Zhao, Guoqiang; Yu, Shuang; Wang, Xiancheng; Liu, Qingqing; Jin, Changqing

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a new bulk diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor via Na and Mn co-doping in SrCd2As2 with a hexagonal CaAl2Si2-type structure. Together with carrier doping via (Sr,Na) substitution, spin doping via (Cd,Mn) substitution results in ferromagnetic order with Curie temperature of TC up to 13 K. Negative magnetoresistance is assigned to weak localization at low temperatures, where the magnetization of samples becomes saturated. The hexagonal structure of (Sr1-xNax)(Cd1-xMnx)2As2 can be acted as a promising candidate for spin manipulations owing to its relatively small coercive field of less than 24 Oe.

  17. (Ba1-xKx)(Cu2-xMnx)Se2: A copper-based bulk form diluted magnetic semiconductor with orthorhombic BaCu2S2-type structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shengli; Man, Huiyuan; Gong, Xin; Ding, Cui; Zhao, Yao; Chen, Bin; Guo, Yang; Wang, Hangdong; Ning, F. L.

    2016-02-01

    A new copper-based bulk form diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) (Ba1-xKx)(Cu2-xMnx)Se2 (x=0.075, 0.10, 0.125, and 0.15) with TC ∼18 K has been synthesized. K substitution for Ba introduces hole-type carriers, while Mn substitution for Cu provides local spins. Different from previous reported DMSs, this material crystallizes into orthorhombic BaCu2S2-type crystal structure. No ferromagnetism is observed when only doping Mn, and clear ferromagnetic transition and hysteresis loop have been observed as K and Mn are codoped into the parent compound BaCu2Se2.

  18. Photoemission and x-ray absorption studies of the isostructural to Fe-based superconductors diluted magnetic semiconductor Ba1 -xKx(Zn1 -yMny)2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, H.; Zhao, K.; Shibata, G.; Takahashi, Y.; Sakamoto, S.; Yoshimatsu, K.; Chen, B. J.; Kumigashira, H.; Chang, F.-H.; Lin, H.-J.; Huang, D. J.; Chen, C. T.; Gu, Bo; Maekawa, S.; Uemura, Y. J.; Jin, C. Q.; Fujimori, A.

    2015-04-01

    The electronic and magnetic properties of a new diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) Ba1 -xKx (Zn1 -yMny )2As2 , which is isostructural to so-called 122-type Fe-based superconductors, are investigated by x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and resonance photoemission spectroscopy (RPES). Mn L2 ,3-edge XAS indicates that the doped Mn atoms have a valence 2+ and strongly hybridize with the 4 p orbitals of the tetrahedrally coordinating As ligands. The Mn 3 d partial density of states obtained by RPES shows a peak around 4 eV and is relatively high between 0 and 2 eV below the Fermi level (EF) with little contribution at EF, similar to that of the archetypal DMS Ga1 -xMnxAs . This energy level creates a d5 electron configuration with S =5 /2 local magnetic moments at the Mn atoms. Hole carriers induced by K substitution for Ba atoms go into the top of the As 4 p valence band and are weakly bound to the Mn local spins. The ferromagnetic correlation between the local spins mediated by the hole carriers induces ferromagnetism in Ba1 -xKx (Zn1 -yMny )2As2 .

  19. Hole doping and pressure effects on the II-II-V-based diluted magnetic semiconductor (B a1 -xKx ) (Zn1-yM ny ) 2A s2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, F.; Zhao, G. Q.; Escanhoela, C. A.; Chen, B. J.; Kou, R. H.; Wang, Y. G.; Xiao, Y. M.; Chow, P.; Mao, H. K.; Haskel, D.; Yang, W. G.; Jin, C. Q.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate doping- and pressure-induced changes in the electronic state of Mn 3 d and As 4 p orbitals in II-II-V-based diluted magnetic semiconductor (B a1 -xKx ) (Zn1-yM ny ) 2A s2 to shed light into the mechanism of indirect exchange interactions leading to high ferromagnetic ordering temperature (T c =230 K in optimally doped samples). A suite of x-ray spectroscopy experiments (emission, absorption, and dichroism) show that the emergence and further enhancement of ferromagnetic interactions with increased hole doping into the As 4 p band is accompanied by a decrease in local 3 d spin density at Mn sites. This is a result of increasing Mn 3 d -As 4 p hybridization with hole doping, which enhances indirect exchange interactions between Mn dopants and gives rise to induced magnetic polarization in As 4 p states. On the contrary, application of pressure suppresses exchange interactions. While Mn K β emission spectra show a weak response of 3 d states to pressure, clear As 4 p band broadening (hole delocalization) is observed under pressure, ultimately leading to loss of ferromagnetism concomitant with a semiconductor to metal transition. The pressure response of As 4 p and Mn 3 d states is intimately connected with the evolution of the As-As interlayer distance and the geometry of the MnA s4 tetrahedral units, which we probed with x-ray diffraction. Our results indicate that hole doping increases the degree of covalency between the anion (As) p states and cation (Mn) d states in the MnA s4 tetrahedron, a crucial ingredient to promote indirect exchange interactions between Mn dopants and high T c ferromagnetism. The instability of ferromagnetism and semiconducting states against pressure is mainly dictated by delocalization of anion p states.

  20. On exchange interaction between shallow impurity centers in diluted semiconductors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotkov, Pavel; Gor'kov, Lev

    2003-03-01

    We generalize the method developed in [1,2] to obtain asymptotically exact expressions for the exchange splitting in semiconductors of the levels of carriers localized on shallow impurities at small impurity concentrations (large inter-center separations). Our approach takes into account degeneracy inherent to shallow centers in most semiconductors. We also consider the effects of spin-orbital interaction and of an external magnetic field. [1] L.P. Gor'kov and L.P. Pitaevskii, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 151, 822 (1963) [Sov. Phys. Dokl. 8, 788 (1964)]. [2] C. Herring and M. Flicker, Phys. Rev. 134, A362 (1964)].

  1. Ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic orderings in wurtzite diluted magnetic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tronc, P.; Kitaev, Yu. E.; Hayn, R.; Strelchuk, V.; Kolomys, O.

    2017-10-01

    Using a new approach based on symmetry analysis, we have determined the magnetic symmetry groups (Shubnikov groups) of ferro- and antiferromagnetic wurtzite nanostructures doped with magnetic atoms periodically distributed at cation sites as well as the direction of the spontaneous magnetic field. Quantum wells, nanorods (nanowires), nanotubes, and quantum dots have been considered. The direction of the spontaneous magnetic field is determined by magnetic atoms with higher C3v (3m) or Cs (m) site symmetry group (the site symmetry group is defined with respect to the doped nanostructure). When the magnetic-atom distribution becomes more or less disordered (Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors), it seems reasonable to assume that, in most of the cases, the symmetry in regions with a size of some wurtzite unit-cells remains close to that of a periodic one, hence possibly inducing local ferro- or antiferromagnetic properties. The regions can induce overall ferro- or antiferromagnetic states when they have common spontaneous magnetic field direction or, possibly, induce easy-magnetization direction or plane (direction or plane of maximal magnetization intensity for a given external magnetic field strength) when disorder imposes a spread of spontaneous magnetic field direction over the various regions. Of course, such an effect adds itself to magnetic properties eventually induced by grain boundaries, other crystalline phases, and defects such as vacancies, dislocations or interstitial atoms.

  2. Structural and Optical properties of Er doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductor nano thin films produced by sol gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasci, A. Tolga; Ozturk, Ozgur; Asikuzun, Elif; Arda, Lutfi; Celik, Sukru; Terzioglu, Cabir

    Undoped and Er doped ZnO (Zn1-xErxO) transparent semiconductor thin films were coated using sol-gel method on non-alkali glass. Erbium was doped 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% ratio. Methanol and monoethanolamine were used as solvent and stabilizer. In this study, the effect of Er doping was examined on the structural and optical properties of ZnO DMS thin films. XRD, SEM and UV-VIS-NIR spectrometer measurements were performed for the structural and optical characterization. XRD results showed that, all of Er doped ZnO thin films have a hexagonal structure. The optical transmittance of rare earth element (Er) doped ZnO thin films were increased. The Er doped ZnO thin films showed high transparency (>84) in the visible region (400-700 nm). This research has been supported by the Kastamonu University Scientific Research Projects Coordination Department under the Grant No. KUBAP-03/2013-41 and the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) Project No. 114F259.

  3. Magnetism of Semiconductor-Based Magnetic Tunnel Junctions under Electric Field from First Principles

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, E.; Xiang, H.; Yang, J.; Whangbo, M. H.

    2009-06-01

    Semiconductor magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), composed of diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) sandwiching a semiconductor barrier, have potential applications in spintronics but their development has been slow due to the difficulty of controlling the magnetism of DMSs. In terms of density functional calculations for model semiconductor MTJs, (Zn,Co)O/ZnO/(Zn,Co)O and (Ga,Mn)N/GaN/(Ga,Mn)N, we show that the magnetic coupling between the transition metal ions in each DMS electrode of such semiconductor MTJs can be switched from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic, or vice versa, under the application of external electric field across the junctions. Our results suggest a possible avenue for the application of semiconductor MTJs.

  4. Experimentally evaluating the origin of dilute magnetism in nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, L. M. C.

    2017-10-01

    Reports of room-temperature ferromagnetism continue to emerge for an ever-growing range of nanomaterials with a small or even vanishing concentration of magnetic atoms. Dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) are the most representative class of such materials, but similar magnetic properties have been reported in many others. Challenging our understanding of magnetic order in solids, as well as our ability to experimentally assess it, these remarkable magnetic phenomena have become one of the most controversial topics in magnetism. Various non-intrinsic sources of ferromagnetism (e.g. instrumental artifacts and magnetic contamination) are becoming well documented, and rarely are all of them taken into account when room-temperature ferromagnetism is reported. This topical review is intended to serve as a guide when evaluating to what extent a given data set supports the claim of intrinsic ferromagnetism in dilute nanomaterials. It compiles the most relevant sources of non-intrinsic ferromagnetism which have been reported, as well as guidelines for how to minimize them. It also provides an overview of complementary structural and magnetic characterization techniques which can be combined to provide different levels of scrutiny of the intrinsic nature of experimentally observed ferromagnetism. In particular, it gives some notable examples of how comprehensive studies based on those techniques have led to a remarkably detailed understanding of model DMS materials, with strong evidence of absence of room-temperature ferromagnetism. Although mostly based on DMS research, this review provides a set of guidelines and cautionary notes of broader relevance, including some emerging new fields of dilute nanomagnetism such as magnetically doped 3D topological insulators, 3D Dirac semimetals, and 2D materials.

  5. Local atomic and magnetic structure of dilute magnetic semiconductor (Ba,K)(Zn,Mn)2As2

    SciTech Connect

    Frandsen, Benjamin A.; Gong, Zizhou; Terban, Maxwell W.; Banerjee, Soham; Chen, Bijuan; Jin, Changqing; Feygenson, Mikhail; Uemura, Yasutomo J.; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2016-09-06

    We studied the atomic and magnetic structure of the dilute ferromagnetic semiconductor system (Ba,K)(Zn,Mn)2As2 through atomic and magnetic pair distribution function analysis of temperature-dependent x-ray and neutron total scattering data. Furthermore, we detected a change in curvature of the temperature-dependent unit cell volume of the average tetragonal crystallographic structure at a temperature coinciding with the onset of ferromagnetic order. We also observed the existence of a well-defined local orthorhombic structure on a short length scale of ≲5Å, resulting in a rather asymmetrical local environment of the Mn and As ions. Finally, the magnetic PDF revealed ferromagnetic alignment of Mn spins along the crystallographic c axis, with robust nearest-neighbor ferromagnetic correlations that exist even above the ferromagnetic ordering temperature. Finally, we discuss these results in the context of other experiments and theoretical studies on this system.

  6. Local atomic and magnetic structure of dilute magnetic semiconductor (Ba,K)(Zn,Mn)2As2

    SciTech Connect

    Frandsen, Benjamin A.; Gong, Zizhou; Terban, Maxwell W.; Banerjee, Soham; Chen, Bijuan; Jin, Changqing; Feygenson, Mikhail; Uemura, Yasutomo J.; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2016-09-06

    We studied the atomic and magnetic structure of the dilute ferromagnetic semiconductor system (Ba,K)(Zn,Mn)2As2 through atomic and magnetic pair distribution function analysis of temperature-dependent x-ray and neutron total scattering data. Furthermore, we detected a change in curvature of the temperature-dependent unit cell volume of the average tetragonal crystallographic structure at a temperature coinciding with the onset of ferromagnetic order. We also observed the existence of a well-defined local orthorhombic structure on a short length scale of ≲5Å, resulting in a rather asymmetrical local environment of the Mn and As ions. Finally, the magnetic PDF revealed ferromagnetic alignment of Mn spins along the crystallographic c axis, with robust nearest-neighbor ferromagnetic correlations that exist even above the ferromagnetic ordering temperature. Finally, we discuss these results in the context of other experiments and theoretical studies on this system.

  7. Sol-gel derived Zn1-xFexS diluted magnetic semiconductor thin films: Compositional dependent room or above room temperature ferromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goktas, A.

    2015-06-01

    Zn1-xFexS (where x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2) thin films were synthesized by sol-gel method. To investigate the origin of room or above room temperature ferromagnetism in these films several tools such as XRD, SEM, XPS, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and SQUİD magnetometer were used. The XRD studies showed that the phase singularity of ZnS zinc blende (hexagonal) structure. The SEM images indicated the homogeneous film surface with no cracking and increased particle size with increasing Fe-doping ratio except for 1 at.% Fe dopant. The presence of Zn, Fe, S, Si and O atoms in the films was observed in EDS spectrum. The XPS studies confirmed that the existence of Fe3+ ions in host ZnS thin films. In the UV-Vis measurements the band gap energy corresponding to the absorption edge was estimated to be approximately in the range of 3.59-2.08 eV, depending on the Fe doping level. The magnetization measurements revealed that the films had paramagnetic or ferromagnetic order depending on Fe doping ratio at 5, 100, 200, 300 and 350 K. The observed room or above room temperature ferromagnetism can be attributed to the strong p-d exchange interaction between Fe3+ d and anion (S2-) p orbitals as well as impurities.

  8. Effects of hydrogen annealing and codoping (Mn, Fe, Ni, Ga, Y) of nanocrystalline Cu-doped ZnO dilute magnetic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bououdina, Mohamed; Aziz Dakhel, Aqeel

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) codoped with Cu and M ions (M = Mn, Fe, Ni, Ga, Y) powders were synthesised by simultaneous thermal co-decomposition of a mixture of zinc and metal complexes. The synthesised chemical formula for the prepared solid solution is Zn0.97Cu0.01M0.02O. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirms the formation of single nanocrystalline structure of the as-prepared powders, thus, both Cu and M ions were incorporated into ZnO lattice forming solid solutions. Magnetic measurements reveal that all the as-synthesised doped ZnO powders gained partial (RT-FM) properties but with different strength and BH-behaviour depends on the nature of the doping (M). Furthermore, H2 post-treatment was subsequently carried out and it was found that the observed RT-FM is enhanced. Very interestingly, in case of Ni dopant, the whole powder becomes completely ferromagnetic with coercivity (Hc), remanence (Mr) and saturation magnetisation (Ms) of 133.6 Oe, 1.086 memu/g and 4.959 memu/g, respectively. The value of Ms was increased by ~ 95% in comparison with as-prepared.

  9. Optical and transport studies of magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Shaoping

    In this thesis, various studies of magneto-transport and magneto-optical effects in III-V and II-V magnetic semiconductors are presented. The magneo-transport study involved the investigation of the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in (Ga,Mn)As epilayers with low Mn concentration, grown in ultra-high vacuum molecular beam epitaxy (UHV MBE) chamber. Experiments were carried out in National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) on a series of samples with same Mn concentrations (x = 1.4%) but with various Be co-doping levels. We observed a sublinear relationship between the transverse resistivity rhoxy and the longitudinal resistivity rhoxx with a scaling factor n = 0.5, which has not been predicted theoretically. We also investigated the magneto-optical and magnetic properties of two quaternary diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) alloys, Cd1- x-yMnxCryTe and Cd1-x-yMnxCo yTe grown by the vertical Bridgman method, with a fixed Mn concentration x ˜ 0.37 and, respectively, with concentrations of Cr in the range 0 < y < 0.07 and Co in the range 0 < y < 0.009. The introduction of Cr and Co leads to very different behaviors, including the occurrence of ferromagnetic order in the case of Cd1-x-yMn xCryTe and several interesting optical transitions for Cd1-x-yMn xCoyTe. We discuss the possible origins of these observed behaviors. Last, we focused on DMS based nano-structures. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) studies have been carried out on a series of 1.4 nm thick CdSe:Mn nano-ribbons synthesized via colloidal chemical route. MCD spectra have been used for investigating the Zeeman splitting in these one-dimensional (1D) quantum confined diluted magnetic semiconductor nanostructures. In all samples, a strong MCD signal was found at about 2.9 eV due to a large Zeeman splitting of the exciton confined in the nano-ribbon. The Zeeman splitting is a result of strong sp-d exchange interaction between the electronic holes of the nano-ribbons and localized magnetic moment of Mn2

  10. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine-B by Fe doped CuS diluted magnetic semiconductor nanoparticles under the simulated sunlight irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreelekha, N.; Subramanyam, K.; Amaranatha Reddy, D.; Murali, G.; Rahul Varma, K.; Vijayalakshmi, R. P.

    2016-12-01

    The present work is planned for a simple, inexpensive and efficient approach for the synthesis of Cu1-xFexS (x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07) nanoparticles via simplistic chemical co-precipitation route by using ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) as a capping molecules. As synthesized nanoparticles were used as competent catalysts for degradation of rhodamine-B organic dye pollutant. The properties of prepared samples were analyzed with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible optical absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, Raman spectra and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). EDAX spectra corroborated the existence of Fe in prepared nanoparticles within close proximity to stoichiometric ratio. XRD, FTIR and Raman patterns affirmed that configuration of single phase hexagonal crystal structure as that of (P63/mmc) CuS, without impurity crystals. The average particle size estimated by TEM scrutiny is in the assortment of 5-10 nm. UV-visible optical absorption measurements showed that band gap narrowing with increasing the Fe doping concentration. VSM measurements revealed that 3% Fe doped CuS nanoparticles exhibited strong ferromagnetism at room temperature and changeover of magnetic signs from ferromagnetic to the paramagnetic nature with increasing the Fe doping concentration in CuS host lattice. Among all Fe doped CuS nanoparticles, 3% Fe inclusion CuS sample shows better photocatalytic performance in decomposition of RhB compared with the pristine CuS. Thus as synthesized Cu0·97Fe0·03S nanocatalysts are tremendously realistic compounds for photocatalytic fictionalization in the direction of organic dye degradation under visible light.

  11. Structural, magnetic and optical properties of a dilute magnetic semiconductor based on Ce{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O{sub 2} thin film grown on LaAlO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoud, Waleed E.; Al-Ghamdi, A.A.; Al-Agel, F.A.; Al-Arfaj, E.; Shokr, F.S.; Al-Gahtany, S.A.; Alshahrie, Ahmed; Jalled, Ouissem; Bronstein, L.M.; Beall, Gary W.

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Co doped CeO{sub 2} was grown on LaAlO{sub 3} (0 0 1) via a modified sol–gel spin-coating technique. • The concentration of the Co ions was varied from 1 to 15 at.%. • The incorporation of 5 at.% of Mn ions was found to provide formation of exceptionally magnetic moment. • This amount demonstrated a giant magnetic moment of 1.09 μ{sub B}/Co. • This amount reduced the optical band gap and enhanced the optical performance. - Abstract: The enhancement of the room temperature ferromagnetism and optical properties of the dilute magnetic metal oxides is a crucial clue to construct spin-based optoelectronic devices. In this work, Ce{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O{sub 2} (0.01 ≤ x ≤0.15) thin films were prepared via ethylene glycol modified sol–gel spin coating technique on the LaAlO{sub 3} (0 0 1) substrate to enhance their room temperature ferromagnetism and optical properties. The structures, magnetic and optical properties of the prepared films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, SQUID magnetometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV–vis spectrophotometer. The results demonstrated that a single phase cubic structure was formed, implying the substitution of Co ions into the Ce ions sites. The prepared films showed room temperature ferromagnetism with saturation magnetic moment of 1.09 μ{sub B}/Co was achieved for 5 at.% Co-doped CeO{sub 2}. This film exhibited high optical transparency of 85% and low optical band energy gap of 3.39 eV. The improved magnetic and optical properties are argued to the increase of the density of the oxygen vacancies into the cerium oxide crystal structure due to the incorporation of Co ions.

  12. Dilution effects on the antiferromagnetic Kondo semiconductor CeOs2Al10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Y.; Kawabata, J.; Yamada, Y.; Muro, Y.; Takabatake, T.

    2017-04-01

    We have studied the effects of dilution of Ce sublattice on the unusual antiferromagnetic (AFM) order in the Kondo semiconductor CeOs2Al10 at 28.5 K by the magnetic, transport and specific-heat measurements of single crystals of Ce1-zLazOs2Al10. The effective magnetic moment and paramagnetic Curie temperature hardly change with z up to 0.5, indicating that the 4f state remains unchanged at high temperatures. The suppression of the Néel temperature TN is much weaker than that in 5d hole doped system, Ce(Os1-yRey)2Al10. Therefore, the AFM interaction is robust against the violation of the coherent Ce sublattice. The activation energy in the resistivity decreases in parallel with TN, confirming the argument that the presence of the c-f hybridization gap is a requisite for the unusual AFM order in this system.

  13. Percolation quantum phase transitions in diluted magnets.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Thomas; Schmalian, Jörg

    2005-12-02

    We show that the interplay of geometric criticality and quantum fluctuations leads to a novel universality class for the percolation quantum phase transition in diluted magnets. All critical exponents involving dynamical correlations are different from the classical percolation values, but in two dimensions they can nonetheless be determined exactly. We develop a complete scaling theory of this transition, and we relate it to recent experiments in La2Cu(1-p)(Zn,Mg)(p)O4. Our results are also relevant for disordered interacting boson systems.

  14. Photoemission and magnetic circular dichroism studies of magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimori, Atsushi

    2005-03-01

    Recently, a series of novel ferromagnetic semiconductors have been synthesized using MBE and related techniques and have attracted much attention because of unknown mechanisms of carrier-induced ferromagnetism and potential applications as "spin electronics" devices. Some new materials show ferromagnetism even well above room temperature. Photoemission spectroscopy has been used to study the d orbitals of the dilute transition-metal atoms, mostly Mn, and their hybridization with the host band states [1]. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) at the transition-metal 2p-3d absorption edges are useful techniques to study the valence and spin states of the transition-metal atoms. Furthermore, since MCD has different sensitivities to the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic components at different temperatures and magnetic fileds, if the sample is a mixture of ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic transition- metal atoms, it can be used to separate the two components and to study their electronic structures. In this talk, results are presented for the prototypical diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga1-xMnxAs [2] and the room-temperature ferromagnets Zn1-xCoxO and Ti1-xCoxO2.I acknowledge collaboration with Y. Ishida, J.-I. Hwang, M. Kobayashi, Y. Takeda, Y. Saitoh, J. Okamoto, T. Okane, Y. Muramatsu, K. Mamiya, T. Koide, A. Tanaka, M. Tanaka, Hayashi, S. Ohya, T. Kondo, H. Munekata, H. Saeki, H. Tabata, T. Kawai, Y. Matsumoto, H. Koinuma, T. Fukumura and M. Kawasaki. This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research in Priority Area "Semiconductor nano-spintronics" (14076209) from MEXT, Japan.1. J. Okabayashi et al., Phys. Rev. B 64, 125304 (2001).2. A. Fujimori et al., J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., in press.

  15. Electronic structures and magnetic properties of a II-II-V based diluted magnetic semiconductor Ba 1-x K x (Cd 1-y Mn y )2 As 2 with decoupled charge and spin doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Juntao; Luo, Shijun; Cheng, ZhenXiang; Wang, Xiaotian; Xiong, Yongchen; Amel, Laref

    2016-10-01

    By using the density functional theory within Perdew-Burke-Ernzerh of generalized gradient approximation, the electronic structures and magnetic properties of {{Ba}}1-x{K}x{({{Cd}}1-y{{Mn}}y)}2{{As}}2 system were investigated. Undoped compound {{BaCd}}2{{As}}2 is a semiconductor crystallized with a hexagonal {{CaAl}}2{{Si}}2-type structure. After local moments doping via isovalent (Cd2+, Mn2+) substitutions, {Ba}{({{Cd}}1-y{{Mn}}y)}2{{As}}2 is antiferromagnetic system, which is attributed to the superexchange interactions between the Mn2+ ions in the high spin state. With itinerant holes introduced via off-stoichiometry (Ba2+, {{{K}}}+) substitutions, {{Ba}}1-x{K}x{({{Cd}}1-y{{Mn}}y)}2{{As}}2 system (except for the system doped with the most nearest neighbor Mn-Mn pair) changes from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic, resulted from the indirect exchange interactions based on p - d exchange coupling between As 4p and Mn 3d orbitals. Moreover, hypothetical supercells {{Ba}}10{K}2{{Cd}}22{{Mn}}2{{As}}24 with different lattice parameters under mechanical compression and expansion were calculated to study the effect of itinerant holes on the Curie temperature. Our results reveal that the {{Ba}}1-x{K}x{({{Cd}}1-y{{Mn}}y)}2{{As}}2 system with small lattice has more holes amount and better holes mobility, leading to a higher Curie temperature for the {{CaAl}}2{{Si}}2-type structure DMSs.

  16. Dilute ferromagnetic semiconductors prepared by the combination of ion implantation with pulse laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shengqiang

    2015-07-01

    Combining semiconducting and ferromagnetic properties, dilute ferromagnetic semiconductors (DFS) have been under intensive investigation for more than two decades. Mn doped III-V compound semiconductors have been regarded as the prototype of DFS from both experimental and theoretic investigations. The magnetic properties of III-V:Mn can be controlled by manipulating free carriers via electrical gating, as for controlling the electrical properties in conventional semiconductors. However, the preparation of DFS presents a big challenge due to the low solubility of Mn in semiconductors. Ion implantation followed by pulsed laser melting (II-PLM) provides an alternative to the widely used low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy (LT-MBE) approach. Both ion implantation and pulsed-laser melting occur far enough from thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Ion implantation introduces enough dopants and the subsequent laser pulse deposit energy in the near-surface region to drive a rapid liquid-phase epitaxial growth. Here, we review the experimental study on preparation of III-V:Mn using II-PLM. We start with a brief description about the development of DFS and the physics behind II-PLM. Then we show that ferromagnetic GaMnAs and InMnAs films can be prepared by II-PLM and they show the same characteristics of LT-MBE grown samples. Going beyond LT-MBE, II-PLM is successful to bring two new members, GaMnP and InMnP, into the family of III-V:Mn DFS. Both GaMnP and InMnP films show the signature of DFS and an insulating behavior. At the end, we summarize the work done for Ge:Mn and Si:Mn using II-PLM and present suggestions for future investigations. The remarkable advantage of II-PLM approach is its versatility. In general, II-PLM can be utilized to prepare supersaturated alloys with mismatched components.

  17. Polaronic trapping in magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raebiger, Hannes

    2012-02-01

    GaN doped with iron is an interesting candidate material for magnetic semiconductors, as p-d coupling between the localized Fe-d and extended N-p hole states is expected to facilitate long-range ferromagnetic alignment of the Fe spins [1]. This picture of extended states in GaN:Fe, however, falls apart due to a polaronic localization of the hole carriers nearby the Fe impurities. To elucidate the carrier localization in GaN:Fe and related iron doped III-V semiconductors, I present a systematic study using self-interaction corrected density-functional calculations [2]. These calculations predict three distinct scenarios. (i) Some systems do sustain extended host-like hole states, (ii) some exhibit polaronic trapping, (iii) and some exhibit carrier trapping at Fe-d orbitals. These behaviors are described in detail to give an insight as to how to distinguish them experimentally. I thank T. Fujita, C. Echeverria-Arrondo, and A. Ayuela for their collaboration.[4pt] [1] T. Dietl et al, Science, 287, 1019 (2000).[0pt] [2] S. Lany and A. Zunger, Phys. Rev. B, 80, 085202 (2009).

  18. A room-temperature magnetic semiconductor from a ferromagnetic metallic glass

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenjian; Zhang, Hongxia; Shi, Jin-an; Wang, Zhongchang; Song, Cheng; Wang, Xiangrong; Lu, Siyuan; Zhou, Xiangjun; Gu, Lin; Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Chen, Mingwei; Yao, Kefu; Chen, Na

    2016-01-01

    Emerging for future spintronic/electronic applications, magnetic semiconductors have stimulated intense interest due to their promises for new functionalities and device concepts. So far, the so-called diluted magnetic semiconductors attract many attentions, yet it remains challenging to increase their Curie temperatures above room temperature, particularly those based on III–V semiconductors. In contrast to the concept of doping magnetic elements into conventional semiconductors to make diluted magnetic semiconductors, here we propose to oxidize originally ferromagnetic metals/alloys to form new species of magnetic semiconductors. We introduce oxygen into a ferromagnetic metallic glass to form a Co28.6Fe12.4Ta4.3B8.7O46 magnetic semiconductor with a Curie temperature above 600 K. The demonstration of p–n heterojunctions and electric field control of the room-temperature ferromagnetism in this material reflects its p-type semiconducting character, with a mobility of 0.1 cm2 V−1 s−1. Our findings may pave a new way to realize high Curie temperature magnetic semiconductors with unusual multifunctionalities. PMID:27929059

  19. A room-temperature magnetic semiconductor from a ferromagnetic metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenjian; Zhang, Hongxia; Shi, Jin-An; Wang, Zhongchang; Song, Cheng; Wang, Xiangrong; Lu, Siyuan; Zhou, Xiangjun; Gu, Lin; Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Chen, Mingwei; Yao, Kefu; Chen, Na

    2016-12-01

    Emerging for future spintronic/electronic applications, magnetic semiconductors have stimulated intense interest due to their promises for new functionalities and device concepts. So far, the so-called diluted magnetic semiconductors attract many attentions, yet it remains challenging to increase their Curie temperatures above room temperature, particularly those based on III-V semiconductors. In contrast to the concept of doping magnetic elements into conventional semiconductors to make diluted magnetic semiconductors, here we propose to oxidize originally ferromagnetic metals/alloys to form new species of magnetic semiconductors. We introduce oxygen into a ferromagnetic metallic glass to form a Co28.6Fe12.4Ta4.3B8.7O46 magnetic semiconductor with a Curie temperature above 600 K. The demonstration of p-n heterojunctions and electric field control of the room-temperature ferromagnetism in this material reflects its p-type semiconducting character, with a mobility of 0.1 cm2 V-1 s-1. Our findings may pave a new way to realize high Curie temperature magnetic semiconductors with unusual multifunctionalities.

  20. Introducing and manipulating magnetic dopant exchange interactions in semiconductor nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, Manu; Hosein, Ian D.; Sabergharesou, Tahereh; Farvid, Shokouh S.; Radovanovic, Pavle V.

    2013-09-01

    The ability to control both spin and charge degrees of freedom in semiconductor nanostructrures is at heart of spintronic and quantum information technologies. Magnetically-doped semiconductor nanowires have emerged as a promising platform for spintronics, which warrants the exploration of their synthesis, electronic structure, and magnetic properties. Here we demonstrate the preparation of manganese-doped GaN and SnO2 nanowires by chemical vapor deposition and solvothermal methods, respectively. The investigation of both systems by electron microscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy at ensemble and single nanowire levels indicates that manganese dopants exist in a dual oxidation state, Mn2+ and Mn3+, with Mn2+ being the majority species. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies of individual nanowires suggest ferromagnetic interactions of manganese dopants, and the nanowire orientation-dependent magnetization owing to the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The results of these studies demonstrate quantitative determination of the dopant electronic structure at the molecular level, and allow for a prediction of the magnetic properties of diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires based on their orientation and geometry.

  1. Lieb-Mattis ferrimagnetism in magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzian, R. O.; Richter, J.; Kuz'min, M. D.; Hayn, R.

    2016-06-01

    We show the possibility of long-range ferrimagnetic ordering with a saturation magnetization of ˜1 μB per spin for arbitrarily low concentration of magnetic impurities in semiconductors, provided that the impurities form a superstructure satisfying the conditions of the Lieb-Mattis theorem. Explicit examples of such superstructures are given for the wurtzite lattice, and the temperature of ferrimagnetic transition is estimated from a high-temperature expansion. Exact diagonalization studies show that small fragments of the structure exhibit enhanced magnetic response and isotropic superparamagnetism at low temperatures. A quantum transition in a high magnetic field is considered and similar superstructures in cubic semiconductors are discussed as well.

  2. (Sr{sub 1-x}Na{sub x})(Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2}: A new charge and spin doping decoupled diluted magnetic semiconductors with CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structure

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Bijuan; Deng, Zheng; Li, Wenmin; Gao, Moran; Zhao, Guoqiang; Yu, Shuang; Wang, Xiancheng; Liu, Qingqing; Li, Zhi; Jin, Changqing

    2016-08-28

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a new bulk diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor via Na and Mn co-doping in SrCd{sub 2}As{sub 2} with a hexagonal CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structure. Together with carrier doping via (Sr,Na) substitution, spin doping via (Cd,Mn) substitution results in ferromagnetic order with Curie temperature of T{sub C} up to 13 K. Negative magnetoresistance is assigned to weak localization at low temperatures, where the magnetization of samples becomes saturated. The hexagonal structure of (Sr{sub 1−x}Na{sub x})(Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} can be acted as a promising candidate for spin manipulations owing to its relatively small coercive field of less than 24 Oe.

  3. Engineering Dilute Nitride Semiconductor Alloys for Intermediate Band Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luce, Alexander Vallejo

    The growth and characterization of GaAs nanowires and GaNPAs thin-films is discussed within the context of finding a material system that is suitable as an intermediate band solar cell (IBSC) absorber. The IBSC is an attractive concept proposed to exceed the Shockley-Queisser detailed balance limit for photovoltaic efficiency. These solar cells have an additional intermediate band, allowing for the absorption of below bandgap photons, thus resulting in an increase in photocurrent and higher efficiency. Suitable materials systems for the implementation of the IBSC concept, however, are presently lacking. Recent work on the highly-mismatched alloy (HMA) GaAsN has shown that the unique features of the electronic band structure demonstrate optical activity of three energy bands and have led to the realization of a proof-of-concept IBSC. GaAsN, however, is not without shortcomings. Another HMA material, GaNPAs, which offers a wide range of bandgap tunability and is better matched to the solar spectrum is proposed. This work covers the optical characterization of both GaAs nanowires and GaAsPN using traditional visible-light semiconductor characterization techniques including optical absorption spectroscopy, photo-modulated reflectance, steady-state photoluminescence, and spectral photoconductivity. Additionally, photovoltaic devices based on GaNPAs are demonstrated and assessed as potential IBSCs.

  4. Progress in the growth and optical properties of dilute bismide III-V semiconductor alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaton, Daniel A.; Christian, T.; Lewis, R. B.; Alberi, K.; Mascarenhas, A.

    2015-03-01

    The dilute bismuth containing III-V semiconducting alloys of have great potential for application in many areas of semiconductor technology, such as multijunction photvoltaics and solid-state lighting. There is a large reduction of the fundamental bandgap of GaAs with bismuth incorporation resultant from the raising of the valence band maximum. Dilute bismide alloys have long been compared to the dilute nitride alloy because bismuth introduces a state near the valence band edge of the host GaAs (instrad of near the conduction band edge in the nitride alloys) that affects its optical and electronic properties. Here I will discuss some recent advances in our understanding of the surface processes involved in dilute bismide alloy growth by molecular beam epitaxy which have lead to improved film quality and the growth of new bismide alloys. The improved film quality has made it possible to further explore the properties of this material.

  5. (Magnetic properties of doped semiconductors)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Research continued on the transport behavior of doped semiconductors on both sides of the metal-insulator transition, and the approach to the transition from both the insulating and the metallic side. Work is described on magneto resistance of a series of metallic Si:B samples and CdSe. (CBS)

  6. Magnetization and Hysteresis of Dilute Magnetic-Oxide Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skomski, Ralph; Balamurugan, B.; Sellmyer, D. J.

    2014-03-01

    Real-structure imperfections in dilute magnetic oxides tend to create small concentrations of local magnetic moments that are coupled by fairly long-range exchange interactions, mediated by p-electrons. The robustness of these interactions is caused by the strong overlap of the p orbitals, as contrasted to the much weaker interatomic exchange involving iron-series 3d electrons. The net exchange between defect moments can be positive or negative, which gives rise to spin structures with very small net moments. Similarly, the moments exhibit magnetocrystalline anisotropy, reinforced by electron hopping to and from 3d states and generally undergoing some random-anuisotropy averaging. Since the coercivity scales as 2K1/M and M is small, this creates pronounced and -- in thin films -- strongly anisotropic hysteresis loops. In finite systems with N moments, both K1 and M are reduced by a factor of order N1/2 due to random anisotropy and moment compensation, respectively, so that that typical coercivities are comparable to bulk magnets. Thermal activation readily randomizes the net moment of small oxide particles, so that the moment is easier to measure in compacted or aggregated particle ensembles. This research is supported by DOE (BES).

  7. Magnetic-field-controlled reconfigurable semiconductor logic.

    PubMed

    Joo, Sungjung; Kim, Taeyueb; Shin, Sang Hoon; Lim, Ju Young; Hong, Jinki; Song, Jin Dong; Chang, Joonyeon; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Rhie, Kungwon; Han, Suk Hee; Shin, Kyung-Ho; Johnson, Mark

    2013-02-07

    Logic devices based on magnetism show promise for increasing computational efficiency while decreasing consumed power. They offer zero quiescent power and yet combine novel functions such as programmable logic operation and non-volatile built-in memory. However, practical efforts to adapt a magnetic device to logic suffer from a low signal-to-noise ratio and other performance attributes that are not adequate for logic gates. Rather than exploiting magnetoresistive effects that result from spin-dependent transport of carriers, we have approached the development of a magnetic logic device in a different way: we use the phenomenon of large magnetoresistance found in non-magnetic semiconductors in high electric fields. Here we report a device showing a strong diode characteristic that is highly sensitive to both the sign and the magnitude of an external magnetic field, offering a reversible change between two different characteristic states by the application of a magnetic field. This feature results from magnetic control of carrier generation and recombination in an InSb p-n bilayer channel. Simple circuits combining such elementary devices are fabricated and tested, and Boolean logic functions including AND, OR, NAND and NOR are performed. They are programmed dynamically by external electric or magnetic signals, demonstrating magnetic-field-controlled semiconductor reconfigurable logic at room temperature. This magnetic technology permits a new kind of spintronic device, characterized as a current switch rather than a voltage switch, and provides a simple and compact platform for non-volatile reconfigurable logic devices.

  8. Towards diluted magnetism in TaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Li, Zhilin; Guo, Liwei; Chen, Xiaolong; Yuan, Ye; Xu, Chi; Hübner, René; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.; N'Diaye, Alpha T.; Arenholz, Elke; Helm, Manfred; Zhou, Shengqiang

    2017-09-01

    Magnetism in Weyl semimetals is desired to investigate the interaction between the magnetic moments and Weyl fermions, e.g., to explore anomalous quantum Hall phenomena. Here we demonstrate that proton irradiation is an effective tool to induce ferromagnetism in the Weyl semimetal TaAs. The intrinsic magnetism is observed with a transition temperature above room temperature. The magnetic moments from d states are found to be localized around Ta atoms. Further, the first-principles calculations indicate that the d states localized on the nearest-neighbor Ta atoms of As vacancy sites are responsible for the observed magnetic moments and the long-ranged magnetic order. The results show the feasibility of inducing ferromagnetism in Weyl semimetals so that they may facilitate the applications of this material in spintronics.

  9. Magnetic and Electrical Properties of Ferromagnetic Semiconductors,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    magnetism and of the mechanism of the electronic conductivity of ferromagnetic semiconductors in connection with their chemical composition and crystalline ... structure . The basic groups of oxide compounds of 4f- and 3d-transition metals with maximum spin values were selected for the studies in this work. The

  10. The criterion of magnetism in semiconductor nanoobjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspenskii, Yu. A.; Tikhonov, E. V.; Matsko, N. L.

    2015-06-01

    The Stoner criterion is known as a useful tool predicting the ferromagnetic state (FM) in metals. This criterion is not applied to nanoobjects, because of their discrete electron spectrum. In our paper we consider a generalization of this criterion, which can be applied to magnetism in semiconductor nanoobjects. To derive it, we compare total energies of the FM and non-magnetic states using many-body perturbation theory. The derived criterion has compact form and may be useful for prediction of ferromagnetism in nanoobjects. To check its precision, we performed first-principle calculations of several semiconductor nanoobjects in the FM and non-magnetic states and compared their results with predicted ones.

  11. DFT calculations of magnetic anisotropy energy of Ge(1-x)Mn(x)Te ferromagnetic semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Łusakowski, A; Bogusławski, P; Story, T

    2015-06-10

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the energy of magnetic anisotropy for diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor Ge(1-x)Mn(x)Te were performed using OpenMX package with fully relativistic pseudopotentials. The influence of hole concentration and magnetic ion neighbourhood on magnetic anisotropy energy is presented. Analysis of microscopic mechanism of magnetic anisotropy is provided, in particular the role of spin-orbit coupling, spin polarization and spatial changes of electron density are discussed. The calculations are in accordance with the experimental observation of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in rhombohedral Ge(1-x)Mn(x)Te (1 1 1) thin layers.

  12. DFT calculations of magnetic anisotropy energy of Ge1-xMnxTe ferromagnetic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łusakowski, A.; Bogusławski, P.; Story, T.

    2015-06-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the energy of magnetic anisotropy for diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor Ge1-xMnxTe were performed using OpenMX package with fully relativistic pseudopotentials. The influence of hole concentration and magnetic ion neighbourhood on magnetic anisotropy energy is presented. Analysis of microscopic mechanism of magnetic anisotropy is provided, in particular the role of spin-orbit coupling, spin polarization and spatial changes of electron density are discussed. The calculations are in accordance with the experimental observation of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in rhombohedral Ge1-xMnxTe (1 1 1) thin layers.

  13. Semiconductor Crystal Growth in Static and Rotating Magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic fields have been applied during the growth of bulk semiconductor crystals to control the convective flow behavior of the melt. A static magnetic field established Lorentz forces which tend to reduce the convective intensity in the melt. At sufficiently high magnetic field strengths, a boundary layer is established ahead of the solid-liquid interface where mass transport is dominated by diffusion. This can have a significant effect on segregation behavior and can eliminate striations in grown crystals resulting from convective instabilities. Experiments on dilute (Ge:Ga) and solid solution (Ge-Si) semiconductor systems show a transition from a completely mixed convective state to a diffusion-controlled state between 0 and 5 Tesla. In HgCdTe, radial segregation approached the diffusion limited regime and the curvature of the solid-liquid interface was reduced by a factor of 3 during growth in magnetic fields in excess of 0.5 Tesla. Convection can also be controlled during growth at reduced gravitational levels. However, the direction of the residual steady-state acceleration vector can compromise this effect if it cannot be controlled. A magnetic field in reduced gravity can suppress disturbances caused by residual transverse accelerations and by random non-steady accelerations. Indeed, a joint program between NASA and the NHMFL resulted in the construction of a prototype spaceflight magnet for crystal growth applications. An alternative to the suppression of convection by static magnetic fields and reduced gravity is the imposition of controlled steady flow generated by rotating magnetic fields (RMF)'s. The potential benefits of an RMF include homogenization of the melt temperature and concentration distribution, and control of the solid-liquid interface shape. Adjusting the strength and frequency of the applied magnetic field allows tailoring of the resultant flow field. A limitation of RMF's is that they introduce deleterious instabilities above a

  14. Bipolar magnetic semiconductor in silicene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farghadan, Rouhollah

    2017-08-01

    A theoretical study was presented on generation of spin polarization in silicene nanoribbons using the single-band tight-binding approximation and the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. We focused on the effect of electric and exchange magnetic fields on the spin-filter capabilities of zigzag-edge silicene nanoribbons in the presence of the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. The results show that a robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps can be obtained when exchange magnetic and electric field strengths are both larger than the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. Therefore, zigzag silicene nanoribbons could act as bipolar and perfect spin filter devices with a large spin-polarized current and a reversible spin polarization in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. We also investigated the effect of edge roughness and found that the bipolar magnetic semiconductor features are robust against edge disorder in silicene nanoribbon junctions. These results may be useful in multifunctional spin devices based on silicene nanoribbons.

  15. Electrically-Generated Spin Polarization in Non-Magnetic Semiconductors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0143 Electrically-generated spin polarization in non-magnetic semiconductors Vanessa Sih UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Final Report 03...SUBTITLE (YIP) - Electrically-generated spin polarization in non-magnetic semiconductors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0258 5c...that produced electrically-generated electron spin polarization in non-magnetic semiconductor heterostructures. Electrically-generated electron spin

  16. Instability of Homogeneous State in Magnetic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkkonen, J.; Kuivalainen, P.; Stubb, T.

    1982-06-01

    The instability of the homogeneous state in a ferromagnetic semiconductor is studied. The electronic part of the free energy is determined using Thomas-Fermi statistical model and the magnetic part is calculated by the molecular field approximation including the RKKY-interaction. The inhomogeneity consists of a small magnetically polarized region with a high electron density surrounded by a less polarized positively charged depletion layer. The inhomogeneous state is found to be stable in a relatively broad temperature range around the Curie temperature at low and intermediate doping densities. The stability range shrinks in an applied magnetic field. At fields exceeding about 3 T or at doping densities larger than 1021 cm-3 the inhomogeneous state is no more stable.

  17. Magnetoresistive properties of nanostructured magnetic metals, manganites, and magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solin, N. I.; Romashev, L. N.; Naumov, S. V.; Saranin, A. A.; Zotov, A. V.; Olyanich, D. A.; Kotlyar, V. G.; Utas, O. A.

    2016-02-01

    We consider methods for controlling magnetoresistive parameters of magnetic metal superlattices, manganites, and magnetic semiconductors. By reducing the thickness of ferromagnetic layers in superlattices (e.g., Fe layers in Fe/Cr superlattices), it is possible to form superparamagnetic clustered-layered nanostructures with a magnetoresistance weakly depending on the direction of the external magnetic field, which is very important for applications of such type of materials. Producing Mn vacancies and additionally annealing lanthanum manganites in the oxygen atmosphere, it is possible to increase their magnetoresistance by more than four orders of magnitude. By changing the thickness of p- n junction in the structure of ferromagnetic semiconductors, their magnetoresistance can be increased by 2-3 orders of magnitude.

  18. Optically pumped nuclear magnetic resonance of semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Sophia E; Mui, Stacy; Ramaswamy, Kannan

    2008-02-07

    Optically pumped NMR (OPNMR) of direct gap and indirect gap semiconductors has been an area of active research interest, motivated by both basic science and technological perspectives. Proposals to enhance and to spatially localize nuclear polarization have stimulated interest in this area. Recent progress in OPNMR has focused on exploring the experimental parameter space in order to elucidate details of the underlying photophysics of optical pumping phenomena. The focus of this review is on recent studies of bulk samples of GaAs and InP, namely, the photon energy dependence, the magnetic field dependence, and the phase dependence of OPNMR resonances. Models for the development of nuclear polarization are discussed.

  19. First-principles calculation on dilute magnetic alloys in zinc blend crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Hamid; Inayat, Kalsoom; Khan, S. A.; Mohammad, S.; Ali, A.; Alahmed, Z. A.; Reshak, A. H.

    2015-07-01

    Ab-initio calculations are performed to investigate the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of spin-polarized diluted magnetic alloys in zinc blende structure. The first-principles study is carried out on Mn doped III-V semiconductors. The calculated band structures, electronic properties and magnetic properties of Ga1-xMnxX (X=P, As) compounds reveal that Ga0.75Mn0.25P is half metallic turned to be metallic with increasing x to 0.5 and 0.75, whereas substitute P by As cause to maintain the half-metallicity nature in both of Ga0.75Mn0.25As and Ga0.5Mn0.5As and tune Ga0.25Mn0.75As to be metallic. Calculated total magnetic moments and the robustness of half-metallicity of Ga0.75Mn0.25P, Ga0.75Mn0.25As and Ga0.5Mn0.5As with respect to the variation in lattice parameters are also discussed. The predicted theoretical evidence shows that some Mn-doped III-V semiconductors can be effectively used in spintronic devices.

  20. Effects of a semiconductor matrix on the band anticrossing in dilute group II-VI oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wełna, M.; Kudrawiec, R.; Nabetani, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Jaquez, M.; Dubon, O. D.; Yu, K. M.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2015-08-01

    The effect of a semiconductor matrix on the band anticrossing interaction is studied for four different dilute-oxide material systems: ZnSO, ZnSeO, ZnTeO, and ZnCdTeO. The choice of host material allows for independent control of the energy separation between the conduction band edge and the O energy level as well as the coupling parameter. The transition energies measured by photoreflectance and optical absorption are well explained by the band anticrossing model with the coupling parameter increasing from 1.35 eV for ZnSO to 2.8 eV for ZnTeO and showing approximately linear dependence on the electronegativity difference between O and the host anion.

  1. Magnetic Damping of Solid Solution Semiconductor Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szofran, Frank R.; Benz, K. W.; Corell, Arne; Dold, Peter; Cobb, Sharon D.; Volz, Martin P.; Motakef, Shariar

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct the Earth-based research sufficient to successfully propose a flight experiment (1) to experimentally test the validity of the modeling predictions applicable to the magnetic damping of convective flows in conductive melts as this applies to the bulk growth of solid solution semiconducting materials in the reduced gravitational levels available in low Earth orbit and (2) to assess the effectiveness of steady magnetic fields in reducing the fluid flows occurring in these materials during space processing. To achieve the objectives of this investigation, we are carrying out a comprehensive program in the Bridgman and floating-zone configurations using the solid solution alloy system Ge-Si. This alloy system was chosen because it has been studied extensively in environments that have not simultaneously included both low gravity and an applied magnetic field. Also, all compositions have a high electrical conductivity, and the materials parameters permit high growth rates compared to many other commonly studied alloy semiconductors. An important supporting investigation is determining the role, if any, that thermoelectromagnetic convection (TEMC) plays during growth of these materials in a magnetic field. Some compositional anomalies observed by us in magnetic grown crystals can only be explained by TEMC; this has significant implications for the deployment of a Magnetic Damping Furnace in space. This effect will be especially important in solid solutions where the growth interface is, in general, neither isothermal nor isoconcentrational. It could be important in single melting point materials, also, if faceting takes place producing a non-isothermal interface.

  2. Optical investigation of effective permeability of dilute magnetic dielectrics with magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Ananya Sarkar, A.

    2016-05-06

    The prime objective of this paper is to investigate the magnetic nature of dilute magnetic dielectrics (DMD) under variation of external magnetic field. The said variation is studied over developed nano-sized Gadolinium Oxide as a DMD system. The observed experimental field variation of the effective magnetic permeability is analyzed results of optical experiment. The experiment records the variation of Brewster angle of incident polarized LASER beam from the surface of developed DMD specimen with applied out of plane external magnetic field. The effective refractive index and hence relative magnetic permeability were estimated following electro-magnetic theory. The overall results obtained and agreement between theory and experiment are good.

  3. Computational Studies of Magnetically Doped Semiconductor Nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutsev, Lavrenty Gennady

    Spin-polarized unrestricted density functional theory is used to calculate the molecular properties of magnetic semiconductor quantum dots doped with 3d-metal atoms. We calculate total energies of the low spin antiferromagnetically coupled states using a spin-flipping algorithm leading to the broken-symmetry states. Given the novel nature of the materials studied, we simulate experimental observables such as hyperfine couplings, ionization/ energies, electron affinities, first and second order polarizabilities, band gaps and exchange coupling constants. Specifically, we begin our investigation with pure clusters of (CdSe )16 and demonstrate the dependence of molecular observables on geometrical structures. We also show that the many isomers of this cluster are energetically quite closely spaced, and thus it would be necessary to employ a battery of tests to experimentally distinguish them. Next, we discuss Mn-doping into the cage (CdSe)9 cluster as well as the zinc-blende stacking type cluster (CdSe)36. We show that the local exchange coupling mechanism is ligand-mediated superexchange and simulate the isotropic hyperfine constants. Finally, we discuss a novel study where (CdSe)9 is doped with Mn or Fe up to a full replacement of all the Cd's and discuss the transition points for the magnetic behavior and specifically the greatly differing band-gap shifts. We also outline an unexpected pattern in the polarizability of the material as metals are added and compare our results with the results from theoretical studies of the bulk material.

  4. X-ray absorption and diffraction study of II VI dilute oxide semiconductor alloy epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscherini, F.; Malvestuto, M.; Ciatto, G.; D'Acapito, F.; Bisognin, G.; DeSalvador, D.; Berti, M.; Felici, M.; Polimeni, A.; Nabetani, Y.

    2007-11-01

    Dilute oxide semiconductor alloys obtained by adding oxygen to a II-VI binary compound are of potential applicative interest for blue-light emitters in which the oxygen content could be used to tune the band gap. Moreover, their properties can be usefully compared to the more thoroughly studied dilute nitrides in order to gain insight into the common mechanisms which give rise to their highly non-linear physical properties. Recently, it has been possible to deposit ZnSeO and ZnSeOS epilayers on GaAs(001), which exhibit a red-shift of the band gap and giant optical bowing. In order to provide a structural basis for an understanding of their physical properties, we have performed a study of a set of ZnSeO and ZnSeOS epilayers on GaAs by high resolution x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption fine structure. We have found that the strain goes from compressive to tensile with increasing O and S concentration and that, while all epilayers are never found to be pseudomorphic, the ternary ones exhibit a low relaxed fraction if compared to the ZnSe/GaAs sample. O K-edge x-ray absorption near edge spectra and corresponding simulations within the full multiple-scattering regime show that O is substitutionally incorporated in the host lattice. Zn and Se K-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure detect the formation of Zn-O and Zn-S bonds; the analysis of these spectra within multiple-scattering theory has allowed us to measure the local structural parameters. The value of Zn-Se bond length is found to be in agreement with estimates based on models of local distortions in strained and relaxed epilayers; an increase of the mean-square relative displacement is detected at high O and S concentration and is related to both intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

  5. Multifractality in dilute magnetorheological fluids under an oscillating magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Moctezuma, R E; Arauz-Lara, J L; Donado, F

    2014-12-01

    A study of the multifractal characteristics of the structure formed by magnetic particles in a dilute magnetorheological fluid is presented. A quasi-two-dimensional magnetorheological fluid sample is simultaneously subjected to a static magnetic field and a sinusoidal magnetic field transverse to each other. We analyzed the singularity spectrum f(α) and the generalized dimension D(q) of the whole structure to characterize the distribution of the aggregates under several conditions of particle concentration, magnetic field intensities, and liquid viscosity. We also obtained the fractal dimension D(g), calculated from the radius of gyration of the chains, to describe the internal distribution of the particles. We present a thermodynamic interpretation of the multifractal analysis, and based on this, we discussed the characteristics of the structure formed by the particles and its relation with previous studies of the average chain length. We have found that this method is useful to quantitatively describe the structure of magnetorheological fluids, especially in systems with high particle concentration where the aggregates are more complex than simple chains or columns.

  6. Chemical vapor deposition of magnetic oxide semiconductors for spintronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falco, Lucas

    2005-11-01

    Moore's law, which states that the number of transistor's per square inch on integrated circuits doubles every 18 months, has set the pace of progress for the electronics industry since the 1970's. This in turn has led to a significant reduction in the cost of computers and communications devices. However, because of quantum mechanic effects, a limit in the miniaturization of devices is rapidly approaching where any further reduction in size may hinder their operation. Taking advantage of the electron spin, a quantum effect, and integrating it with electronics design, a new field is emerging, known as spintronics. In this respect, a very active area of research is in dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). In this work the author examines the use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as a method for the preparation of magnetic oxide semiconductors for spintronic applications. CVD has been used extensively as an efficient and inexpensive method to deposit magnetic and semiconducting thin films. The author examined the chemical, structural, and morphological properties of hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) thin films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on silicon oxide (SiO2) substrates. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD) it was determined that the films contain a alpha-Fe2O3 phase. The author also studied the deposition of SnO2 by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and CVD. The effect of SnI4 pulse time was analyzed and it was determined that ALD growth was achieved after an 8 second pulse time. Ultimately, the preparation of cobalt oxide and Co-doped SnO2 films was the objective of this work. After several cobalt precursors were tried, the author found a suitable precursor, cobalt (II) acetylacetonate, to grow cobalt oxide and Co-doped SnO2 films. Sn1-XCO XO2+delta films were epitaxial for Co at% < 1 and indicated ferromagnetism on both SiO2 and sapphire substrate. In general, it was observed that higher magnetic moments were found for samples with lower cobalt

  7. Integrated semiconductor-magnetic random access memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Blaes, Brent R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present disclosure describes a non-volatile magnetic random access memory (RAM) system having a semiconductor control circuit and a magnetic array element. The integrated magnetic RAM system uses CMOS control circuit to read and write data magnetoresistively. The system provides a fast access, non-volatile, radiation hard, high density RAM for high speed computing.

  8. Dilution

    PubMed Central

    Lavie, Nilli; Torralbo, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Load theory of attention proposes that distractor processing is reduced in tasks with high perceptual load that exhaust attentional capacity within task-relevant processing. In contrast, tasks of low perceptual load leave spare capacity that spills over, resulting in the perception of task-irrelevant, potentially distracting stimuli. Tsal and Benoni (2010) find that distractor response competition effects can be reduced under conditions with a high search set size but low perceptual load (due to a singleton color target). They claim that the usual effect of search set size on distractor processing is not due to attentional load but instead attribute this to lower level visual interference. Here, we propose an account for their findings within load theory. We argue that in tasks of low perceptual load but high set size, an irrelevant distractor competes with the search nontargets for remaining capacity. Thus, distractor processing is reduced under conditions in which the search nontargets receive the spillover of capacity instead of the irrelevant distractor. We report a new experiment testing this prediction. Our new results demonstrate that, when peripheral distractor processing is reduced, it is the search nontargets nearest to the target that are perceived instead. Our findings provide new evidence for the spare capacity spillover hypothesis made by load theory and rule out accounts in terms of lower level visual interference (or mere “dilution”) for cases of reduced distractor processing under low load in displays of high set size. We also discuss additional evidence that discounts the viability of Tsal and Benoni's dilution account as an alternative to perceptual load. PMID:21133554

  9. Optimal doping control of magnetic semiconductors via subsurfactant epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Changgan; Zhang, Zhenyu; van Benthem, Klaus; Chisholm, Matthew F; Weitering, Harm H

    2008-02-01

    Dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) with high ferromagnetic ordering temperatures (T{sub c}) have vast potential for advancing spin-based electronics or 'spintronics'. To date, achieving high-T{sub c} DMS typically required doping levels of order 5%. Such high doping levels inevitably compromise the structural homogeneity and carrier mobility of the DMS. Here, we establish 'subsurfactant epitaxy' as a novel kinetic pathway for synthesizing Mn-doped germanium with T{sub c} much higher than room temperature, at dramatically reduced doping levels. This is accomplished by optimal control of the diffusion kinetics of the dopant atoms near the growth front in two separate deposition steps. The first involves a submonolayer dose of Mn on Ge(100) at low temperature, which populates subsurface interstitial sites with Mn while suppressing lateral Mn diffusion and clustering. The second step involves epitaxial growth of Ge at elevated temperature, taking advantage of the strong floating ability of the interstitial Mn dopants towards the newly defined subsurface sites at the growth front. Most remarkably, the Mn dopants trapped inside the film are uniformly distributed at substitutional sites, and the resulting film exhibits ferromagnetism above 400 K at the nominal doping level of only 0.2%.

  10. Self-bound droplets of a dilute magnetic quantum liquid.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Matthias; Wenzel, Matthias; Böttcher, Fabian; Ferrier-Barbut, Igor; Pfau, Tilman

    2016-11-10

    Self-bound many-body systems are formed through a balance of attractive and repulsive forces and occur in many physical scenarios. Liquid droplets are an example of a self-bound system, formed by a balance of the mutual attractive and repulsive forces that derive from different components of the inter-particle potential. It has been suggested that self-bound ensembles of ultracold atoms should exist for atom number densities that are 10(8) times lower than in a helium droplet, which is formed from a dense quantum liquid. However, such ensembles have been elusive up to now because they require forces other than the usual zero-range contact interaction, which is either attractive or repulsive but never both. On the basis of the recent finding that an unstable bosonic dipolar gas can be stabilized by a repulsive many-body term, it was predicted that three-dimensional self-bound quantum droplets of magnetic atoms should exist. Here we report the observation of such droplets in a trap-free levitation field. We find that this dilute magnetic quantum liquid requires a minimum, critical number of atoms, below which the liquid evaporates into an expanding gas as a result of the quantum pressure of the individual constituents. Consequently, around this critical atom number we observe an interaction-driven phase transition between a gas and a self-bound liquid in the quantum degenerate regime with ultracold atoms. These droplets are the dilute counterpart of strongly correlated self-bound systems such as atomic nuclei and helium droplets.

  11. Self-bound droplets of a dilute magnetic quantum liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Matthias; Wenzel, Matthias; Böttcher, Fabian; Ferrier-Barbut, Igor; Pfau, Tilman

    2016-11-01

    Self-bound many-body systems are formed through a balance of attractive and repulsive forces and occur in many physical scenarios. Liquid droplets are an example of a self-bound system, formed by a balance of the mutual attractive and repulsive forces that derive from different components of the inter-particle potential. It has been suggested that self-bound ensembles of ultracold atoms should exist for atom number densities that are 108 times lower than in a helium droplet, which is formed from a dense quantum liquid. However, such ensembles have been elusive up to now because they require forces other than the usual zero-range contact interaction, which is either attractive or repulsive but never both. On the basis of the recent finding that an unstable bosonic dipolar gas can be stabilized by a repulsive many-body term, it was predicted that three-dimensional self-bound quantum droplets of magnetic atoms should exist. Here we report the observation of such droplets in a trap-free levitation field. We find that this dilute magnetic quantum liquid requires a minimum, critical number of atoms, below which the liquid evaporates into an expanding gas as a result of the quantum pressure of the individual constituents. Consequently, around this critical atom number we observe an interaction-driven phase transition between a gas and a self-bound liquid in the quantum degenerate regime with ultracold atoms. These droplets are the dilute counterpart of strongly correlated self-bound systems such as atomic nuclei and helium droplets.

  12. Mechanism for strong magnetoelectric coupling in dilute magnetic ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, L.; Cui, X. Y.; Ringer, S. P.; Stampfl, C.

    2016-11-01

    The manipulation of atomic-scale magnetization is important from both a fundamental and a practical perspective. Using first-principles density-functional-theory calculations within the hybrid functional approach, we systematically study spin-lattice coupling effects for isolated 3 d4-3 d7 transition-metal dopants in a nonmagnetic, ferroelectric PbTiO3 host material. When present at the B-site, a low-spin (or intermediate-spin) to high-spin crossover induces marked ferroelectric-like distortions in the local geometry, characterized by a shift of the dopant ion with respect to the surrounding O6 octahedral cage. The origins of this microscopic multiferroic effect are discussed in terms of the pseudo-Jahn-Teller theory for ferroelectricity. The possibility to exploit this phenomenon to achieve strong magnetoelectric coupling, including controlled spin switching, is also investigated. These results provide a further understanding of ferroelectricity and multiferroicity in perovskite oxides, and they suggest a possible pathway to manipulate single atomic spins in semiconductor solid solutions.

  13. Mean-field approximation for the potts model of a diluted magnet in the external field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semkin, S. V.; Smagin, V. P.

    2016-07-01

    The Potts model of a diluted magnet with an arbitrary number of states placed in the external field has been considered. Phase transitions of this model have been studied in the mean-field approximation, the dependence of the critical temperature on the external field and the density of magnetic atoms has been found, and the magnetic susceptibility has been calculated. An improved mean-field technique has been proposed, which provides more accurate account of the effects associated with nonmagnetic dilution. The influence of dilution on the first-order phase transition curve and the magnetization jump at the phase transition has been studied by this technique.

  14. Fluorinated h-BN as a magnetic semiconductor

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Sruthi; Das, Deya; Samanta, Atanu; de los Reyes, Carlos A.; Deng, Liangzi; Alemany, Lawrence B.; Weldeghiorghis, Thomas K.; Khabashesku, Valery N.; Kochat, Vidya; Jin, Zehua; Sudeep, Parambath M.; Martí, Angel A.; Chu, Ching-Wu; Roy, Ajit; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Singh, Abhishek K.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2017-01-01

    We report the fluorination of electrically insulating hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and the subsequent modification of its electronic band structure to a wide bandgap semiconductor via introduction of defect levels. The electrophilic nature of fluorine causes changes in the charge distribution around neighboring nitrogen atoms in h-BN, leading to room temperature weak ferromagnetism. The observations are further supported by theoretical calculations considering various possible configurations of fluorinated h-BN structure and their energy states. This unconventional magnetic semiconductor material could spur studies of stable two-dimensional magnetic semiconductors. Although the high thermal and chemical stability of h-BN have found a variety of uses, this chemical functionalization approach expands its functionality to electronic and magnetic devices. PMID:28740867

  15. Ultrafast Control of Magnetism in Ferromagnetic Semiconductors via Photoexcited Transient Carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Cotoros, Ingrid A.

    2008-12-01

    The field of spintronics offers perspectives for seamless integration of coupled and inter-tunable electrical and magnetic properties in a single device. For integration of the spin degree of freedom with current electronic technology, new semiconductors are needed that show electrically-tunable magnetic properties at room temperature and above. Dilute magnetic semiconductors derived from III-V compounds, like GaMnAs and InMnAs, show coupled and tunable magnetic, transport, and optical properties, due to the fact that their ferromagnetism is hole-mediated. These unconventional materials are ideal systems for manipulating the magnetic order by changing the carrier polarization, population density, and energy band distribution of the complementary subsystem of holes. This is the main theme we cover in this thesis. In particular, we develop a unique setup by use of ultraviolet pump, near-infrared probe femtosecond laser pulses, that allows for magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) spectroscopy experiments. We photo-excite transient carriers in our samples, and measure the induced transient magnetization dynamics. One set of experiments performed allowed us to observe for the first time enhancement of the ferromagnetic order in GaMnAs, on an ultrafast time scale of hundreds of picoseconds. The corresponding transient increase of Curie temperature (Tc, the temperature above which a ferromagnetic material loses its permanent magnetism) of about 1 K for our experimental conditions is a very promising result for potential spintronics applications, especially since it is seconded by observation of an ultrafast ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition above Tc. In a different set of experiments, we "write" the magnetization in a particular orientation in the sample plane. Using an ultrafast scheme, we alter the distribution of holes in the system and detect signatures of the particular memory state in the subsequent magnetization dynamics, with unprecedented hundreds of

  16. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Orbital magnetization in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Li, Shu-Shen; Zhang, Ping

    2009-12-01

    This paper theoretically investigates the orbital magnetization of electron-doped (n-type) semiconductor heterostructures and of hole-doped (p-type) bulk semiconductors, which are respectively described by a two-dimensional electron/hole Hamiltonian with both the included Rashba spin-orbit coupling and Zeeman splitting terms. It is the Zeeman splitting, rather than the Rashba spin-orbit coupling, that destroys the time-reversal symmetry of the semiconductor systems and results in nontrivial orbital magnetization. The results show that the magnitude of the orbital magnetization per hole and the Hall conductance in the p-type bulk semiconductors are about 10-2-10-1 effective Bohr magneton and 10-1-1 e2/h, respectively. However, the orbital magnetization per electron and the Hall conductance in the n-type semiconductor heterostructures are too small to be easily observed in experiment.

  17. Study of Elastic Properties and Their Pressure Dependence of Semi Magnetic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshney, Dinesh; Sharma, P.; Kaurav, N.; Shah, S.; Singh, R. K.

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical study of the elastic behavior in diluted magnetic semiconductors Zn1-xMnxSe (x=0.016, 0.026 and 0.053) using a three-body interaction (TBI) caused by the electron-shell deformation of the overlapping ions is carried out. The estimated values of phase transition pressure and the vast volume discontinuity in pressure-volume (PV) phase diagram indicate the structural phase transition from zinc blende (B3) to rock salt (B1). The variation of second-order elastic constants with pressure resembles that observed in other compounds of zinc blende structure family. However, the inconsistency in the value of pressure derivative of theoretical and the experimental value of bulk modulus is attributed to the fact that we have derived our expressions neglecting thermal effects and assuming the overlap repulsion significant only up to nearest neighbors. The present approach has also succeeded in predicting the Born and relative stability criteria. It is revealed that interionic potential approach with emphasis on charge transfer effects predict the phase transition pressure and the pressure variation of elastic constants of other diluted magnetic semiconductors as well.

  18. Hybrid magnetic/semiconductor spintronic materials and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y. B.; Ahmad, E.; Claydon, J. S.; Lu, Y. X.; Hassan, S. S. A.; Will, I. G.; Cantor, B.

    2006-09-01

    We report our experimental studies of different kinds of magnetic/semiconductor hybrid materials and devices highly promising for the next generation spintronics. The epitaxial Fe films on three III-V Semiconductor surfaces, In xGa 1-xAs(1 0 0), x=0, 1, 0.2, show a uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in the ultrathin region. This suggests that both interface bonding and the magnetoelastic effect control magnetic anisotropy. We demonstrate the epitaxial growth of new hybrid spintronic structures, namely, Fe 3O 4/GaAs and Fe 3O 4/MgO/GaAs, where the magnetic oxide has both high Curie temperature and high spin polarisation. Both the magnetisation loops and magneto-resistance curves of Fe 3O 4/GaAs were found to be dominated by a strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. We have also fabricated a novel vertical hybrid spin device, i.e. Co(15 ML)/GaAs(50 nm, n-type)/Al 0.3Ga 0.7As(200 nm, n-type)/FeNi(30 nm) and observed for the first time a change of the magneto-resistance up to 12% by direct transport measurements, which demonstrated large spin injection and the feasibility to fabricate the spin-transistors capable of operating at room temperatures by using magnetic/semiconductor hybrid materials.

  19. Cobalt nanoparticles doped emaraldine salt of polyaniline: A promising room temperature magnetic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatamie, Shadie; Kulkarni, M. V.; Kulkarni, S. D.; Ningthoujam, R. S.; Vatsa, R. K.; Kale, S. N.

    2010-12-01

    Incorporation of magnetic nanoparticles in polymers with organic functional groups working as semiconducting substrate is of immense interest in the field of dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) and spintronics. In this article we report on synthesis and evaluation of dilutely doped (0-10 wt%) cobalt nanoparticles in emaraldine salt (ES) of polyaniline in the presence of dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) and p-toluene sulfonic acid (p-TSA) using a sonochemical-assisted-reduction approach as a possible DMS candidate. The X-ray diffraction pattern and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) image show the ES to be polycrystalline, in which 10 nm sized Co nanoparticles get embedded in its FCC structural form. From Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy studies, it is predicted that cobalt particles get electrostatically bound to the specific SO3- ion sites of ES, thereby modifying torsional degrees of freedom of the system. The applied field dependent magnetization study shows that the sample exhibits hysteresis loop with a minimal doping of 3 wt% of Co nanoparticles and increases with the amount of Co nanoparticles in ES due to dipolar interaction. The electron transport data show that with increase in Co wt% there is a gradual shift from ohmic to non-ohmic response to the sample bias, accompanied by opening of electrical hysteresis and an increased resistance. The non-linear response of higher doped systems has been attributed to the combination of direct and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling phenomena in these systems. Persistence of optical and transport properties of the polymer, with an introduction of magnetic moment in the system, envisages the system to be a fine magnetic semiconductor.

  20. Ba(Zn1−2xMnxCux)2As2: A Bulk Form Diluted Ferromagnetic Semiconductor with Mn and Cu Codoping at Zn Sites

    PubMed Central

    Man, Huiyuan; Guo, Shengli; Sui, Yu; Guo, Yang; Chen, Bin; Wang, Hangdong; Ding, Cui; Ning, F.L.

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a bulk form diluted magnetic semiconductor Ba(Zn1−2xMnxCux)2As2 with the crystal structure identical to that of “122” family iron based superconductors and the antiferromagnet BaMn2As2. No ferromagnetic order occurs with (Zn, Mn) or (Zn, Cu) substitution in the parent compound BaZn2As2. Only when Zn is substituted by both Mn and Cu simultaneously, can the system undergo a ferromagnetic transition below TC ~ 70 K, followed by a magnetic glassy transition at Tf  ~ 35 K. AC susceptibility measurements for Ba(Zn0.75Mn0.125Cu0.125)2As2 reveal that Tf strongly depends on the applied frequency with and a DC magnetic field dependence of , demonstrating that a spin glass transition takes place at Tf. As large as −53% negative magnetoresistance has been observed in Ba(Zn1−2xMnxCux)2As2, enabling its possible application in memory devices. PMID:26492957

  1. Ba(Zn(1-2x)MnxCux)2As2: A Bulk Form Diluted Ferromagnetic Semiconductor with Mn and Cu Codoping at Zn Sites.

    PubMed

    Man, Huiyuan; Guo, Shengli; Sui, Yu; Guo, Yang; Chen, Bin; Wang, Hangdong; Ding, Cui; Ning, F L

    2015-10-23

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a bulk form diluted magnetic semiconductor Ba(Zn(1-2x)MnxCux)2As2 (0.025 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) with the crystal structure identical to that of "122" family iron based superconductors and the antiferromagnet BaMn2As2. No ferromagnetic order occurs with (Zn, Mn) or (Zn, Cu) substitution in the parent compound BaZn2As2. Only when Zn is substituted by both Mn and Cu simultaneously, can the system undergo a ferromagnetic transition below TC ~ 70 K, followed by a magnetic glassy transition at Tf  ~ 35 K. AC susceptibility measurements for Ba(Zn0.75Mn0.125Cu0.125)2As2 reveal that Tf strongly depends on the applied frequency with [formula in text] and a DC magnetic field dependence of [formula in text], demonstrating that a spin glass transition takes place at Tf. As large as -53% negative magnetoresistance has been observed in Ba(Zn(1-2x)MnxCux)2As2, enabling its possible application in memory devices.

  2. Stretching magnetism with an electric field in a nitride semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Sztenkiel, D; Foltyn, M; Mazur, G P; Adhikari, R; Kosiel, K; Gas, K; Zgirski, M; Kruszka, R; Jakiela, R; Li, Tian; Piotrowska, A; Bonanni, A; Sawicki, M; Dietl, T

    2016-10-26

    The significant inversion symmetry breaking specific to wurtzite semiconductors, and the associated spontaneous electrical polarization, lead to outstanding features such as high density of carriers at the GaN/(Al,Ga)N interface-exploited in high-power/high-frequency electronics-and piezoelectric capabilities serving for nanodrives, sensors and energy harvesting devices. Here we show that the multifunctionality of nitride semiconductors encompasses also a magnetoelectric effect allowing to control the magnetization by an electric field. We first demonstrate that doping of GaN by Mn results in a semi-insulating material apt to sustain electric fields as high as 5 MV cm(-1). Having such a material we find experimentally that the inverse piezoelectric effect controls the magnitude of the single-ion magnetic anisotropy specific to Mn(3+) ions in GaN. The corresponding changes in the magnetization can be quantitatively described by a theory developed here.

  3. Stretching magnetism with an electric field in a nitride semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sztenkiel, D.; Foltyn, M.; Mazur, G. P.; Adhikari, R.; Kosiel, K.; Gas, K.; Zgirski, M.; Kruszka, R.; Jakiela, R.; Li, Tian; Piotrowska, A.; Bonanni, A.; Sawicki, M.; Dietl, T.

    2016-10-01

    The significant inversion symmetry breaking specific to wurtzite semiconductors, and the associated spontaneous electrical polarization, lead to outstanding features such as high density of carriers at the GaN/(Al,Ga)N interface--exploited in high-power/high-frequency electronics--and piezoelectric capabilities serving for nanodrives, sensors and energy harvesting devices. Here we show that the multifunctionality of nitride semiconductors encompasses also a magnetoelectric effect allowing to control the magnetization by an electric field. We first demonstrate that doping of GaN by Mn results in a semi-insulating material apt to sustain electric fields as high as 5 MV cm-1. Having such a material we find experimentally that the inverse piezoelectric effect controls the magnitude of the single-ion magnetic anisotropy specific to Mn3+ ions in GaN. The corresponding changes in the magnetization can be quantitatively described by a theory developed here.

  4. Stretching magnetism with an electric field in a nitride semiconductor

    PubMed Central

    Sztenkiel, D.; Foltyn, M.; Mazur, G. P.; Adhikari, R.; Kosiel, K.; Gas, K.; Zgirski, M.; Kruszka, R.; Jakiela, R.; Li, Tian; Piotrowska, A.; Bonanni, A.; Sawicki, M.; Dietl, T.

    2016-01-01

    The significant inversion symmetry breaking specific to wurtzite semiconductors, and the associated spontaneous electrical polarization, lead to outstanding features such as high density of carriers at the GaN/(Al,Ga)N interface—exploited in high-power/high-frequency electronics—and piezoelectric capabilities serving for nanodrives, sensors and energy harvesting devices. Here we show that the multifunctionality of nitride semiconductors encompasses also a magnetoelectric effect allowing to control the magnetization by an electric field. We first demonstrate that doping of GaN by Mn results in a semi-insulating material apt to sustain electric fields as high as 5 MV cm−1. Having such a material we find experimentally that the inverse piezoelectric effect controls the magnitude of the single-ion magnetic anisotropy specific to Mn3+ ions in GaN. The corresponding changes in the magnetization can be quantitatively described by a theory developed here. PMID:27782126

  5. Growth process and characterization of magnetic semiconductors based on GeMn alloy films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, N.; Morresi, L.; Murri, R.; D'Orazio, F.; Lucari, F.; Passacantando, M.; Picozzi, P.

    2004-05-01

    The growth mechanism of thin Ge1-xMnx/Ge(100) diluted magnetic semiconductor films have been studied by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) technique and correlated to the structural and magnetic properties of the films provided by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE), respectively. The RHEED analysis evidenced a transition from a bi-dimensional to a three-dimensional growth mechanism at deposition temperature, TG, lower than 433 K while XRD characterization showed a polycrystalline structure with Ge grain size depending on TG. At low TG (343 K) all the Ge1-xMnx films behaved superparamagnetically, while at TG = 433 K hysteresis loops were observed, with a maximum Curie temperature of 250 K, for 0.027 < x < 0.044.

  6. Investigation of the Potts model of a diluted magnet by local field averaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semkin, S. V.; Smagin, V. P.

    2016-08-01

    Averaging of the local interatomic interaction fields has been applied to the Potts model of a diluted magnet. A self-consistent equation for the magnetization and an equation for the phase transition temperature have been derived. The temperature and magnetic atom density dependences of the spontaneous magnetization have been found for the lattices with the coordination numbers 3 and 4 and various numbers of spin states.

  7. Magnetic Damping of Solid Solution Semiconductor Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szofran, Frank R.; Benz, K. W.; Croell, Arne; Dold, Peter; Cobb, Sharon D.; Volz, Martin P.; Motakef, Shariar

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study is to: (1) experimentally test the validity of the modeling predictions applicable to the magnetic damping of convective flows in electrically conductive melts as this applies to the bulk growth of solid solution semiconducting materials; and (2) assess the effectiveness of steady magnetic fields in reducing the fluid flows occurring in these materials during processing. To achieve the objectives of this investigation, we are carrying out a comprehensive program in the Bridgman and floating-zone configurations using the solid solution alloy system Ge-Si. This alloy system has been studied extensively in environments that have not simultaneously included both low gravity and an applied magnetic field. Also, all compositions have a high electrical conductivity, and the materials parameters permit reasonable growth rates. An important supporting investigation is determining the role, if any, that thermoelectromagnetic convection (TEMC) plays during growth of these materials in a magnetic field. TEMC has significant implications for the deployment of a Magnetic Damping Furnace in space. This effect will be especially important in solid solutions where the growth interface is, in general, neither isothermal nor isoconcentrational. It could be important in single melting point materials, also, if faceting takes place producing a non-isothermal interface. In conclusion, magnetic fields up to 5 Tesla are sufficient to eliminate time-dependent convection in silicon floating zones and possibly Bridgman growth of Ge-Si alloys. In both cases, steady convection appears to be more significant for mass transport than diffusion, even at 5 Tesla in the geometries used here. These results are corroborated in both growth configurations by calculations.

  8. Reentrant ferromagnetism and its stability in magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zutic, Igor; Erwin, Steven; Petukhov, Andre

    2007-03-01

    The magnetization of a ferromagnetic material normally decays monotonically with increasing temperature. Here we demonstrate theoretically the possibility of quite different behavior: reentrant ferromagnetism in semiconductors [1]. Reentrant magnetism can arise in semiconductors because as the temperature rises, the resulting higher concentration of thermally excited carriers can enhance the exchange coupling between magnetic impurities. This opens the possibility of materials exhibiting a transition from the low-temperature paramagnetic phase, in which carriers are frozen out, to a ferromagnetic phase at higher temperature. Thus, in the absence of other ferromagnetic mechanisms there will be two critical temperatures, Tc1 < Tc2, describing para-to-ferromagnetic and ferro-to-paramagnetic transitions, respectively. Here we determine the phase diagram and the stability of reentrant ferromagnetism within a self-consistent description in which the spin-splitting in both carrier bands is included [2]. We discuss the implications of our findings for transport measurements in magnetic semiconductors, and suggest several candidate materials in which reentrant ferromagnetism might be observable. [1] I. Zuti'c, A. Petukhov, S. C. Erwin, preprint. [2] I. Zuti'c, J. Fabian, S. C. Erwin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 026602 (2006).

  9. Magnetic Semiconductor Quantum Wells in High Fields to 60 Tesla: Photoluminescence Linewidth Annealing at Magnetization Steps

    SciTech Connect

    Awschalom, D.D.; Crooker, S.A.; Lyo, S.K.; Rickel, D.G.; Samarth, N.

    1999-05-24

    Magnetic semiconductors offer a unique possibility for strongly tuning the intrinsic alloy disorder potential with applied magnetic field. We report the direct observation of a series of step-like reductions in the magnetic alloy disorder potential in single ZnSe/Zn(Cd,Mn)Se quantum wells between O and 60 Tesla. This disorder, measured through the linewidth of low temperature photoluminescence spectra drops abruptly at -19, 36, and 53 Tesla, in concert with observed magnetization steps. Conventional models of alloy disorder (developed for nonmagnetic semiconductors) reproduce the general shape of the data, but markedly underestimate the size of the linewidth reduction.

  10. (Ca,Na)(Zn,Mn){sub 2}As{sub 2}: A new spin and charge doping decoupled diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, K.; Chen, B. J.; Deng, Z.; Zhao, G. Q.; Zhu, J. L.; Liu, Q. Q.; Wang, X. C.; Han, W.; Frandsen, B.; Liu, L.; Cheung, S.; Uemura, Y. J.; Ning, F. L.; Munsie, T. J. S.; Medina, T.; Luke, G. M.; Carlo, J. P.; Munevar, J.; Zhang, G. M.; Jin, C. Q.

    2014-10-28

    Here, we report the successful synthesis of a spin- and charge-decoupled diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) (Ca,Na)(Zn,Mn){sub 2}As{sub 2}, crystallizing into the hexagonal CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2} structure. The compound shows a ferromagnetic transition with a Curie temperature up to 33 K with 10% Na doping, which gives rise to carrier density of n{sub p} ∼ 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3}. The new DMS is a soft magnetic material with H{sub C} < 400 Oe. The anomalous Hall effect is observed below the ferromagnetic ordering temperature. With increasing Mn doping, ferromagnetic order is accompanied by an interaction between the local spin and mobile charge, giving rise to a minimum in resistivity at low temperatures and localizing the conduction electrons. The system provides an ideal platform for studying the interaction of the local spins and conduction electrons.

  11. X-ray Characterization of Oxide-based Magnetic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idzerda, Yves

    2008-05-01

    Although the evidence for magnetic semiconductors (not simply semiconductors which are ferromagnetic) is compelling, there is much uncertainty in the mechanism for the polarization of the carriers, suggesting that it must be quite novel. Recent experimental evidence suggests that this mechanism is similar to the polaron percolation theory proposed by Kaminski and Das Sarma,ootnotetextKaminski and S. Das Sarma, Physical Review Letters 88, 247202 (2002). which was recently applied specifically to doped oxides by Coey et al.ootnotetextJ. M. D. Coey, M. Venkatesan, and C. B. Fitzgerald, Nature Materials 4, 173 (2005). where the ferromagnetism is driven by the percolation of polarons generated by defects or dopants. We have used X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the L-edges and K-edges for low concentrations transition metal (TM) doped magnetic oxides (including TiO2, La1-xSrxO3, HfO2, and In2O3). We have found that in most cases, the transition metal assumes a valence consistent with being at a substitutional, and not interstitial site. We have also measured the X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism spectra. Although these materials show strong bulk magnetization, we are unable to detect a robust dichroism feature associated with magnetic elements in the host semiconductor. In the cases where a dichroism signal was observed, it was very weak and could be ascribed to a distinct ferromagnetic phase (TM metal cluster, TM oxide particulate, etc.) separate from the host material. This fascinating absence of a dichroic signal and its significant substantiation of important features of the polaron percolation model may help to finally resolve the issue of ferromagnetism in magnetically doped oxides.

  12. Magnetization dynamics and spin diffusion in semiconductors and metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cywinski, Lukasz

    2007-12-01

    Spintronics is an emerging field of research focused on introducing the electron spin degree of freedom into electronics. Its aims include devising new means of magnetization manipulation in ferromagnets and creating systems in which the electrical expression of spin-related phenomena is possible. In this dissertation we present theoretical work important for both of these goals. In a process of ultrafast light-induced demagnetization the magnetization of a ferromagnet decreases on a sub-picosecond time-scale following an excitation by a strong laser pulse. We present a theory of this phenomenon which is applicable to ferromagnetic (III,Mn)V semiconductors. Using it we qualitatively explain the experimental results obtained recently in these materials. We also give a theory of ultrafast demagnetization in transition metals, in which we put previously proposed approaches on a sound conceptual basis, and analyze a new mechanism of demagnetization due to emission of spin waves by hot carriers. Recent progress in growth of metal-semiconductor interfaces has enabled efficient spin-polarized transport between metallic ferromagnets and semiconductors such as GaAs. We present a theory of diffusive spin transport in such metal-semiconductor structures. In contrast to popular one-dimensional approach, we take into account realistic two-dimensional lateral geometry of these systems. We also focus on room temperature regime. Our analysis of spin accumulation achievable in systems of sub-micron dimensions leads to a proposal of a new family of spintronic devices with multiple ferromagnetic terminals in contact with a semiconductor channel. We show that in a three-terminal "spin transistor" digital electric expression of spin accumulation is possible. We also calculate the time-dependent spin transport induced by rotation of one of the magnets in this system, and we show that electrical sensing of magnetization dynamics is realistic in metal-semiconductor structures. An

  13. Magnetic effect on hopping rate of electrons in organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Junqing; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Meisheng; Zhang, Ningyu; Pang, Yantao; Li, Luyan; Ji, Yanju; Zhuang, Shidong; Mao, Jinhua; Wang, Huilin

    2013-10-01

    Considering effects of molecular vibration (ω0), hyperfine interaction (J), spin energy split, spin flip, and spin entanglement (η) of electron with nucleus on the hopping rate of electrons in organic semiconductors, we establish a model to calculate organic magnetoresistance (OMAR) within magnetic field B of 1 T. The results show that the effect of spin energy split is minimal, ω0 influences the gradient of OMAR to B in high field, J influences the OMAR in low field, the spin flip shows impact mainly in low field, η affects OMAR throughout the considered magnetic field and turns the high-field OMAR from positive to negative value.

  14. Semiconductor Circuit Diagnostics By Magnetic Field Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, T.

    2011-03-01

    At the forefront of IC technology development are 3D circuit technologies such as system-in-package (SiP), wafer-level-packaging (WLP), through-silicon-vias (TSV), stacked die approaches, flex packages, etc. They integrate multiple devices, many times stacking them in layers with complex, intricate and very long interconnections in significantly reduced area, in addition to an ever-increasing number of opaque layers.~ We could very well say that the near future looks like the perfect nightmare for the Failure Analysis (FA) engineer with localization of defects becoming a major challenge. Magnetic field imaging (MFI) allows the fields generated by the circuit currents to go through various packaging layers and be imaged. I will describe in this talk Magma, a scanning magnetic field imaging system based on a high temperature superconducting SQUID device based on YBa2Cu3O7- δ . The HTS SQUIDs used have a noise level of ~ 20 pT/ √ (Hz) and for typical scanning conditions, a field sensitivity of about 0.7 nT. While current shorts are imaged with spatial resolution, up to 3 micron (with peak localization) resistive opens can also be imaged and currently different strategies are being adapted for imaging opens with large working distances of 50-100s of microns. Higher spatial resolution (~ 250 nm) is obtained by the use of magneto-resistive devices as sensors though the working distance requirement is sever

  15. Serial dilution via surface energy trap-assisted magnetic droplet manipulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Shin, Dong Jin; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2013-12-21

    This paper demonstrates a facile method of generating precise serial dilutions in the form of droplets on an open surface platform. The method relies on the use of surface energy traps (SETs), etched areas of high surface energy on a Teflon coated glass substrate, to assist in the magnetic manipulation of droplets to meter and dispense liquid of defined volumes for the preparation of serial dilutions. The volume of the dispensed liquid can be precisely controlled by the size of the SETs, facilitating generation of concentration profiles of high linearity. We have applied this approach to the generation of serial dilutions of antibiotics for anti-microbial susceptibility testing (AST).

  16. Chalcopyrite Magnetic Semiconductors: An Ab-Initio Study of Their Structural, Electronic and Magnetic Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP012281 TITLE: Chalcopyrite Magnetic Semiconductors: An Ab-Initio Study...UNCLASSIFIED Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 674 © 2001 Materials Research Society CHALCOPYRITE MAGNETIC SEMICONDUCTORS: AN AB-INITIO STUDY OF THEIR...slight reduction of the total magnetic moment per Mn atom from ’-𔃿 pB in all the Cd-rich P-based chalcopyrites to -4 p13 in the Mn rich MnGeP 2 and

  17. Magnetically engineered semiconductor quantum dots as multimodal imaging probes.

    PubMed

    Jing, Lihong; Ding, Ke; Kershaw, Stephen V; Kempson, Ivan M; Rogach, Andrey L; Gao, Mingyuan

    2014-10-08

    Light-emitting semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) combined with magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents within a single nanoparticle platform are considered to perform as multimodal imaging probes in biomedical research and related clinical applications. The principles of their rational design are outlined and contemporary synthetic strategies are reviewed (heterocrystalline growth; co-encapsulation or assembly of preformed QDs and magnetic nanoparticles; conjugation of magnetic chelates onto QDs; and doping of QDs with transition metal ions), identifying the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches. Some of the opportunities and benefits that arise through in vivo imaging using these dual-mode probes are highlighted where tumor location and delineation is demonstrated in both MRI and fluorescence modality. Work on the toxicological assessments of QD/magnetic nanoparticles is also reviewed, along with progress in reducing their toxicological side effects for eventual clinical use. The review concludes with an outlook for future biomedical imaging and the identification of key challenges in reaching clinical applications.

  18. Variation of half metallicity and magnetism of Cd1-xCrxZ (Z=S, Se and Te) DMS compounds on reducing dilute limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Hardev S.; Singh, Mukhtiyar; Reshak, Ali H.; Kashyap, Manish K.

    2013-04-01

    The electronic and magnetic properties of Cr-doped Cd-Chalcogenides, Cd1-xCrxZ (Z=S, Se and Te) for dopant concentration, x=0.25 and 0.125 are presented in order to search new Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor (DMS) compounds suitable for spintronic applications. The calculations have been performed using full potential Linear Augmented Plane Wave (FPLAPW) method within generalized gradient approximation (GGA) as exchange-correlation (XC) potential. The calculated results show that the doping of Cr atom induces ferromagnetism in these compounds. Moreover, all DMS compounds retain half metallicity at both dopant concentrations with 100% spin polarization at Fermi level (EF). The total magnetic moments of these compounds are mainly due to Cr-d states present at EF where as there exist small induced magnetic moments on other non-magnetic atoms as well.

  19. Flexible magnetic filaments under the influence of external magnetic fields in the limit of infinite dilution.

    PubMed

    Cerdà, Joan J; Sánchez, Pedro A; Lüsebrink, Daniel; Kantorovich, Sofia; Sintes, Tomàs

    2016-05-14

    In the present work we use Langevin dynamics computer simulations to understand how the presence of a constant external magnetic field modifies the conformational phase diagram of magnetic filaments in the limit of infinite dilution. We have considered the filaments immersed in either a good (non-sticky filaments) or a poor (Stockmayer polymers) solvent. It has been found that in the presence of an applied field, filaments turn out to be much more susceptible to parameters such as temperature and solvent conditions. Filaments owe this increased susceptibility to the fact that the external magnetic field tends to level the free energy landscape as compared to the zero-field case. The field induces equalization in the free energy of competing conformational states that were separated by large energy differences in the zero-field limit. In this new scenario multistability arises, and manifests itself in the existence of broad regions in the phase diagram where two or more equilibrium configurations coexist. The existence of multistability greatly enhances the possibility of tuning the properties of the filament.

  20. Magnetic instability in a dilute circular rarefaction wave

    SciTech Connect

    Dieckmann, M. E.; Sarri, G.; Borghesi, M.

    2012-12-15

    The growth of magnetic fields in the density gradient of a rarefaction wave has been observed in simulations and in laboratory experiments. The thermal anisotropy of the electrons, which gives rise to the magnetic instability, is maintained by the ambipolar electric field. This simple mechanism could be important for the magnetic field amplification in astrophysical jets or in the interstellar medium ahead of supernova remnant shocks. The acceleration of protons and the generation of a magnetic field by the rarefaction wave, which is fed by an expanding circular plasma cloud, is examined here in form of a 2D particle-in-cell simulation. The core of the plasma cloud is modeled by immobile charges, and the mobile protons form a small ring close to the cloud's surface. The number density of mobile protons is thus less than that of the electrons. The protons of the rarefaction wave are accelerated to 1/10 of the electron thermal speed, and the acceleration results in a thermal anisotropy of the electron distribution in the entire plasma cloud. The instability in the rarefaction wave is outrun by a TM wave, which grows in the dense core distribution, and its magnetic field expands into the rarefaction wave. This expansion drives a secondary TE wave.

  1. Static Magnetic Fields in Semiconductor Floating-Zone Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croll, Arne; Benz, K. W.

    1999-01-01

    Heat and mass transfer in semiconductor float-zone processing are strongly influenced by convective flows in the zone, originating from sources such as buoyancy convection, thermocapillary (Marangoni) convection, differential rotation, or radio frequency heating. Because semiconductor melts are conducting, flows can be damped by the use of static magnetic fields to influence the interface shape and the segregation of dopants and impurities. An important objective is often the suppression of time-dependent flows and the ensuing dopant striations. In RF-heated Si-FZ - crystals, fields up to O.STesla show some flattening of the interface curvature and a reduction of striation amplitudes. In radiation-heated (small-scale) SI-FZ crystals, fields of 0.2 - 0.5 Tesla already suppress the majority of the dopant striations. The uniformity of the radial segregation is often compromised by using a magnetic field, due to the directional nature of the damping. Transverse fields lead to an asymmetric interface shape and thus require crystal rotation (resulting in rotational dopant striations) to achieve a radially symmetric interface, whereas axial fields introduce a coring effect. A complete suppression of dopant striations and a reduction of the coring to insignificant values, combined with a shift of the axial segregation profile towards a more diffusion-limited case, are possible with axial static fields in excess of 1 Tesla. Strong static magnetic fields, however, can also lead to the appearance of thermoelectromagnetic convection, caused by the interaction of thermoelectric currents with the magnetic field.

  2. Analytical study of acoustically perturbed Brillouin active magnetized semiconductor plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, Arun; Jat, K. L.

    2015-07-31

    An analytical study of acoustically perturbed Brillouin active magnetized semiconductor plasma has been reported. In the present analytical investigation, the lattice displacement, acousto-optical polarization, susceptibility, acousto-optical gain constant arising due to the induced nonlinear current density and acousto-optical process are deduced in an acoustically perturbed Brillouin active magnetized semiconductor plasma using the hydrodynamical model of plasma and coupled mode scheme. The influence of wave number and magnetic field has been explored. The analysis has been applied to centrosymmetric crystal. Numerical estimates are made for n-type InSb crystal duly irradiated by a frequency doubled 10.6 µm CO{sub 2} laser. It is found that lattice displacement, susceptibility and acousto-optical gain increase linearly with incident wave number and applied dc magnetic field, while decrease with scattering angle. The gain also increases with electric amplitude of incident laser beam. Results are found to be well in agreement with available literature.

  3. Simulation of the magnetization dynamics of diluted ferrofluids in medical applications.

    PubMed

    Rogge, Henrik; Erbe, Marlitt; Buzug, Thorsten M; Lüdtke-Buzug, Kerstin

    2013-12-01

    Ferrofluids, which are stable, colloidal suspensions of single-domain magnetic nanoparticles, have a large impact on medical technologies like magnetic particle imaging (MPI), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and hyperthermia. Here, computer simulations promise to improve our understanding of the versatile magnetization dynamics of diluted ferrofluids. A detailed algorithmic introduction into the simulation of diluted ferrofluids will be presented. The algorithm is based on Langevin equations and resolves the internal and the external rotation of the magnetic moment of the nanoparticles, i.e., the Néel and Brown diffusion. The derived set of stochastic differential equations are solved by a combination of an Euler and a Heun integrator and tested with respect to Boltzmann statistics.

  4. Analytical expressions for the luminescence of dilute quaternary InAs(N,Sb) semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oriaku, Chijioke I.; Spencer, Timothy J.; Yang, Xu; Zubelli, Jorge P.; Pereira, Mauro F.

    2017-04-01

    We calculate the luminescence of the dilute quaternary InAs(N,Sb). The incorporation of N leads to a reduction of the energy gap of the host InAs and Sb acts as a surfactant, improves the N incorporation, and further reduces the bandgap. This is thus extremely relevant for devices operating in the mid-infrared (MIR) spectral range from 3 to 5 μm. In order to describe this system, the theory starts with the band anticrossing model applied to both conduction and the valence band to generate inputs for analytical approximations that lead to luminescence spectra, including plasma screening, bandgap renormalization, and excitonic enhancements. Direct application of the equations leads to good agreement with some recent experimental data.

  5. Site dilution in SrRuO3: effects on structural and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Renu; Pramanik, A. K.

    2017-03-01

    We have investigated the effect of site dilution with substitution of nonmagnetic element in SrRu1‑x Ti x O3 (x  ⩽  0.7). The nature of ferromagnetic state in SrRuO3 is believed to be of itinerant type with transition temperature {{T}\\text{c}}∼ 162 K. Crystallographically, SrRuO3 has a distorted orthorhombic structure. Substitution of \\text{T}{{\\text{i}}+4} (3d 0) for Ru+4 (4d 4), however, does not introduce significant structural modification due to their matching ionic radii. This substitution, on the other hand, is expected to tune the electronic correlation effect and the d electron density in the system. With Ti substitution, we find that magnetic moment and Curie temperature decreases but T c remains unchanged which has been attributed to opposite tuning of electron correlation effect and density of states within the framework of itinerant ferromagnetism. The estimated critical exponent (β) related to magnetization implies a mean-field type of magnetic nature in SrRuO3. The value of β further increases with x which is understood from the dilution effect of magnetic lattice. The system evolves to exhibit Griffiths phase like behavior above T c which is usually realized in diluted ferromagnet following local moment model of magnetism. Our detail analysis of magnetization data indicates that magnetic state in SrRuO3 has contribution from both itinerant and local moment model of magnetism.

  6. Unusual electronic transport and magnetism in titanium oxide based semiconductors and metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shixiong

    The main objective of this thesis was to explore the structural, electrical, magnetic and optical properties of titanium based novel oxide thin films, such as transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) and diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs), so as to be able to realize optoelectronics and spintronics applications. I demonstrated that niobium doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) in its epitaxial anatase phase grown at certain condition is an intrinsic transparent conducting oxide, with both its conductivity and transparency comparable to that of the commercial transparent electrode In-Sn-O being widely used in current optoelectronic devices. I investigated the growth parameter dependence of structure and conductivity of this material. It was found that the growth temperature is a crucial parameter for the structural quality as well as the electron mobility, while the oxygen partial pressure is essential for the conduction electron concentration. The excellent conductivity of niobium doped TiO2 should be attributed to the extremely high solubility of niobium in the TiO2 matrix as well as a very shallow donor level created in the TiO2 band gap. I investigated several important oxide based DMS systems, such as niobium and cobalt dual doped TiO2, transition metal (TM) element doped SrTiO3 etc. I found that niobium dual doping is an effective way to introduce carriers into the classical Co: TiO2 system, which provides the feasibility of studying the RKKY interaction in this system by chemical doping. Our detailed characterization of TM doped SrTiO3 questioned the intrinsic nature of the ferromagnetism observed by other groups. By a systematic study of Hall effect on superparamagnetic Co-(La,Sr)TiO 3 thin films, I was able to demonstrate that the magnitude of the anomalous Hall effect is a way to distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic DMS. A Kondo effect was observed in niobium doped TiO2 grown at certain condition. The origin of magnetic moments in this system was suggested

  7. Superconductivity-like phenomena in an ferrimagnetic endohedral fullerene with diluted magnetic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantar, Ersin

    2017-09-01

    The hysteretic properties of a Ising-type endohedral fullerene (EF) with a doped magnetic spin-1/2 particle confined within a spherical cage (by diluted magnetic spin-1 particles) are investigated by using the effective-field theory with correlations. The extrinsic and intrinsic parameters dependencies of the magnetic hysteresis curves and superconductivity-like phenomena in the Ising-type EF system have investigated. We have reported that doped magnetic core atom is chiefly responsible of the occurrence of the superconductivity-like phenomena in the system. Moreover, three superconductivity series have been presented by the temperature, surface composition and crystal field.

  8. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of II-Vi and Iii-V Semiconductor Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jian-Hui

    In this thesis, I show how the basic solid-state NMR techniques can be used to study the local electronic structures of II-VI and III-V semiconductor alloys on an atomic scale. We have focused our studies on a few high quality samples, mainly Hg_{rm 1-x}Cd_{rm x} Te in the II-VI group, In-based binary III-V bulk semiconductors InP, InAs and InSb, and the III-V alloys Ga_{rm 1-x}In _{rm x}As. For solid-state-recrystallized device-quality bulk Hg_{rm 1-x}Cd _{rm x}Te samples, with x equal to 0.2, 0.22 and 0.28, corresponding to the narrow-gap semiconducting side of the band-inversion configurations, we have obtained detailed band-edge symmetry information, and site-selective quantitative charge carrier orbital characteristics on an atomic scale. Our study also indicated that a random cation distribution model well described the materials. We have investigated ^{115 }In magnetic resonance frequency shifts and the temperature dependence of these shifts in In-based III-V binary semiconductors. We have extracted the chemical shifts from the total shifts for these III-V semiconductors at 303K and 77K. Our NMR study of these binary semiconductors not only enhanced the understanding of electronic properties of these compounds, but also served as a reference for our NMR studies of III-V alloys. We performed ^{115}In NMR studies for dilute III-V semiconductor alloy Ga _{rm 1-x}In_ {rm x}As with x equal to 0.72%. Spectra clearly indicating the local electronic configurations were obtained. We carried out a series of field orientation studies, and determined the field gradient which is due to In-In pairs. This study provided evidence of local clustering of In atoms.

  9. Bipolar magnetic semiconductors: a new class of spintronics materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingxing; Wu, Xiaojun; Li, Zhenyu; Yang, Jinlong; Hou, J G

    2012-09-21

    Electrical control of spin polarization is very desirable in spintronics, since electric fields can be easily applied locally, in contrast to magnetic fields. Here, we propose a new concept of bipolar magnetic semiconductors (BMS) in which completely spin-polarized currents with reversible spin polarization can be created and controlled simply by applying a gate voltage. This is a result of the unique electronic structure of BMS, where the valence and conduction bands possess opposite spin polarization when approaching the Fermi level. BMS is thus expected to have potential for various applications. Our band structure and spin-polarized electronic transport calculations on semi-hydrogenated single-walled carbon nanotubes confirm the existence of BMS materials and demonstrate the electrical control of spin-polarization in them.

  10. Contribution to the Theory of Magnetoelectric Effect in Magnetic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuivalainen, P.; Sinkkonen, J.; Stubb, T.

    1980-01-01

    A generation of a d.c. electric field at ferromagnetic resonance or the magnetoelectric effect in magnetic semiconductors is studied theoretically in the whole magnon wave vector space. The magnetoelectric effect in the classical regime kl < 1 and contributions of different electron-magnon interactions to the magnon drag effect in the quantum regime kl > 1 are calculated. All the calculated static electric fields are compared with experimental results. At low-microwave power levels the non-linear electrodynamic interaction due to a mixing of the oscillating magnetization (k = 0) and the induced electric field seems to dominate the magnetoelectric effect. In some cases the classical drag effect may also be significant. At sufficiently high power levels the quantum mechanical magnon drag can make the largest contribution. It is shown that in the magnon drag effect the induced static electric field is proportional to the damping coefficient of magnons.

  11. Nanostructured lithium oxide-hematite magnetic oxide semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorescu, Monica; Bushunow, Vasilii; Diamandescu, Lucian; Tolea, Felicia; Valeanu, Mihaela; Xu, Tianhong

    2015-03-01

    The study aims at exploring the formation of magnetic oxide semiconductors at the nanoscale, which is of crucial importance for catalysis, sensing and electrochemical applications. xLi2O-(1-x)alpha-Fe2O3(x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7) nanoparticle systems were successfully synthesized by mechanochemical activation of Li2O and alpha-Fe2O3 mixtures for 0-12 hours of ball milling time. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer spectroscopy and magnetic measurements were used to study the phase evolution. Rietveld refinement of the XRD patterns yielded the values of the particle size as function of composition and milling times. The Mossbauer studies showed that the spectrum of the mechanochemically activated composites evolved from a sextet for hematite to sextets and a doublet upon duration of the milling process with lithium oxide. Magnetic measurements recorded at 5 K to room temperature (RT) in an applied magnetic field of 50,000 Oe showed that the magnetization of the milled samples is larger at low temperatures than at RT and increases with decreasing particle size. Zero field cooling measurements made possible the determination of the blocking temperatures of the specimens as function of ball milling time and evidenced the occurrence of superparamagnetism in the studied samples. NSF-DMR-0854794.

  12. Correlation of nanoscale structure with electronic and magnetic properties in semiconductor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Li

    The goal of this research is to correlate individual nanostructures with their electronic and magnetic properties. Three classes of semiconductor materials and nanostructures were investigated: nanowires, dilute magnetic semiconductors, and quantum dots. First, we fabricated electrical contact to free-standing nanowires using focused ion beam (FIB)-induced deposition and achieved ohmic contact between GaP nanowires and FIB-deposited Pt. Ion irradiation was found to change the nanowire resistance, presumably through the generation of electrical active defects. Based on the finding that ion beam induces deposition outside the direct impact area, a new fabrication method for nanowire core-shell structures was developed by creating an annular direct deposition pattern around the nanowire. We also developed a new nanowire transmission electron microscopy (TEM) sample preparation method that enabled the free-standing nanowires to be individually studied in the TEM. Distribution of Pt and Si elements in the deposited layers was confirmed by x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy and electron energy filtered imaging (elemental mapping). The indirect deposition mechanism is attributed to the interaction of secondary electrons generated from the primary ion impact area with the deposition precursor absorbed at the nanowire surface. The calculated secondary electron flux distribution matched well with the variation of deposition thickness along the nanowire length and with the pattern radius. The second part of this work employed Mn implantation in Ge with subsequent rapid thermal annealing or TEM in-situ annealing to study the correlation between structure and magnetic properties in Ge:Mn magnetic semiconductor materials. Implantation at 75°C with dual Mn doses (2.4x10 15/cm2 at 170 keV, followed by 5.6x10 15/cm2 at 60 keV) produced an amorphous Ge film containing Mn-rich clusters. Its magnetic properties indicated dispersion of ferromagnetic regions in a non-magnetic matrix

  13. Dynamics of Coulomb correlations in semiconductors in high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Fromer, Neil Alan

    2002-01-01

    Current theories have been successful in explaining many nonlinear optical experiments in undoped semiconductors. However, these theories require a ground state which is assumed to be uncorrelated. Strongly correlated systems of current interest, such as a two dimensional electron gas in a high magnetic field, cannot be explained in this manner because the correlations in the ground state and the low energy collective excitations cause a breakdown of the conventional techniques. We perform ultrafast time-resolved four-wave mixing on $n$-modulation doped quantum wells, which contain a quasi-two dimensional electron gas, in a large magnetic field, when only a single Landau level is excited and also when two levels are excited together. We find evidence for memory effects and as strong coupling between the Landau levels induced by the electron gas. We compare our results with simulations based on a new microscopic approach capable of treating the collective effects and correlations of the doped electrons, and find a good qualitative agreement. By looking at the individual contributions to the model, we determine that the unusual correlation effects seen in the experiments are caused by the scattering of photo-excited electron-hole pairs with the electron gas, leading to new excited states which are not present in undoped semiconductors, and also by exciton-exciton interactions mediated by the long-lived collective excitations of the electron gas, inter-Landau level magnetoplasmons.

  14. Magnetic Counterpart of Persistent Photoconductivity in Narrow-Gap Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'ev, Alexander; Voloshok, Tatyana; Warchulska, Jolanta; Kageyama, Hiroshi

    2001-08-01

    At low temperatures, some ionic, covalent and mixed bonding compounds, as well as semiconducting heterostructures and quantum wells exhibit persistent photoconductivity. This term is used to describe the striking phenomenon in which the conductivity of these compounds and/or structures is observed to be greatly enhanced by visible or infrared illumination and the low resistance state is maintained for a long time after switching off the illumination. To describe this effect in variously doped ionic-covalent semiconductors, models of repulsive barriers for both electron emission and capture were introduced based primarily on the assumption of dopants displacement in the host's crystal lattice. Here we report on the magnetic counterpart of this phenomenon, which however does not exactly meet the expectations based on transport measurements. It was found that the magnetic response of AIVBVI narrow-gap semiconductors doped with CIII impurities possesses features of both relaxation phenomena and light-induced phase transition. Exposure of PbTe:Ga, PbTe:In and Pb0.75Sn0.25Te:In single crystals to white-light illumination at low temperatures resulted initially in an increase of the diamagnetic response and then in the appearance of a sharp paramagnetic peak upon heating.

  15. Magnetic Field Suppression of Flow in Semiconductor Melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedoseyev, A. I.; Kansa, E. J.; Marin, C.; Volz, M. P.; Ostrogorsky, A. G.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most promising approaches for the reduction of convection during the crystal growth of conductive melts (semiconductor crystals) is the application of magnetic fields. Current technology allows the experimentation with very intense static fields (up to 80 KGauss) for which nearly convection free results are expected from simple scaling analysis in stabilized systems (vertical Bridgman method with axial magnetic field). However, controversial experimental results were obtained. The computational methods are, therefore, a fundamental tool in the understanding of the phenomena accounting during the solidification of semiconductor materials. Moreover, effects like the bending of the isomagnetic lines, different aspect ratios and misalignments between the direction of the gravity and magnetic field vectors can not be analyzed with analytical methods. The earliest numerical results showed controversial conclusions and are not able to explain the experimental results. Although the generated flows are extremely low, the computational task is a complicated because of the thin boundary layers. That is one of the reasons for the discrepancy in the results that numerical studies reported. Modeling of these magnetically damped crystal growth experiments requires advanced numerical methods. We used, for comparison, three different approaches to obtain the solution of the problem of thermal convection flows: (1) Spectral method in spectral superelement implementation, (2) Finite element method with regularization for boundary layers, (3) Multiquadric method, a novel method with global radial basis functions, that is proven to have exponential convergence. The results obtained by these three methods are presented for a wide region of Rayleigh and Hartman numbers. Comparison and discussion of accuracy, efficiency, reliability and agreement with experimental results will be presented as well.

  16. Dephasing by extremely dilute magnetic impurities revealed by Aharonov-Bohm oscillations.

    PubMed

    Pierre, F; Birge, Norman O

    2002-11-11

    We have probed the magnetic field dependence of the electron phase coherence time tau(phi) by measuring the Aharonov-Bohm conductance oscillations of mesoscopic Cu rings. Whereas tau(phi) determined from the low-field magnetoresistance saturates below 1 K, the amplitude of Aharonov-Bohm h/e oscillations increases strongly on a magnetic field scale proportional to the temperature. This provides strong evidence that a likely explanation for the frequently observed saturation of tau(phi) at low temperature in weakly disordered metallic thin films is the presence of extremely dilute magnetic impurities.

  17. Random site dilution properties of frustrated magnets on a hierarchical lattice.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Jean-Yves

    2013-07-24

    We present a method to analyze the magnetic properties of frustrated Ising spin models on specific hierarchical lattices with random dilution. Disorder is induced by dilution and geometrical frustration rather than randomness in the internal couplings of the original Hamiltonian. The two-dimensional model presented here possesses a macroscopic entropy at zero temperature in the large size limit, very close to the Pauling estimate for spin-ice on the pyrochlore lattice, and a crossover towards a paramagnetic phase. The disorder due to dilution is taken into account by considering a replicated version of the recursion equations between partition functions at different lattice sizes. An analysis to first order in replica number allows a systematic reorganization of the disorder configurations, leading to a recurrence scheme. This method is numerically implemented to evaluate thermodynamical quantities such as specific heat and susceptibility in an external field.

  18. Recent progress in magnetic iron oxide-semiconductor composite nanomaterials as promising photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Changzhong Jiang, Affc; Roy, Vellaisamy A. L.

    2014-11-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of toxic organic pollutants is a challenging tasks in ecological and environmental protection. Recent research shows that the magnetic iron oxide-semiconductor composite photocatalytic system can effectively break through the bottleneck of single-component semiconductor oxides with low activity under visible light and the challenging recycling of the photocatalyst from the final products. With high reactivity in visible light, magnetic iron oxide-semiconductors can be exploited as an important magnetic recovery photocatalyst (MRP) with a bright future. On this regard, various composite structures, the charge-transfer mechanism and outstanding properties of magnetic iron oxide-semiconductor composite nanomaterials are sketched. The latest synthesis methods and recent progress in the photocatalytic applications of magnetic iron oxide-semiconductor composite nanomaterials are reviewed. The problems and challenges still need to be resolved and development strategies are discussed.

  19. Recent progress in magnetic iron oxide-semiconductor composite nanomaterials as promising photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Changzhong Jiang; Roy, Vellaisamy A L

    2015-01-07

    Photocatalytic degradation of toxic organic pollutants is a challenging tasks in ecological and environmental protection. Recent research shows that the magnetic iron oxide-semiconductor composite photocatalytic system can effectively break through the bottleneck of single-component semiconductor oxides with low activity under visible light and the challenging recycling of the photocatalyst from the final products. With high reactivity in visible light, magnetic iron oxide-semiconductors can be exploited as an important magnetic recovery photocatalyst (MRP) with a bright future. On this regard, various composite structures, the charge-transfer mechanism and outstanding properties of magnetic iron oxide-semiconductor composite nanomaterials are sketched. The latest synthesis methods and recent progress in the photocatalytic applications of magnetic iron oxide-semiconductor composite nanomaterials are reviewed. The problems and challenges still need to be resolved and development strategies are discussed.

  20. Magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles with diluted magnet-like behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Garza-Navarro, Marco; Gonzalez, Virgilio; Ortiz, Ubaldo; De la Rosa, Elder

    2010-01-15

    In the present work is reported the use of the biopolymer chitosan as template for the preparation of magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems, following a two step procedure of magnetite nanoparticles in situ precipitation and subsequent silver ions reduction. The crystalline and morphological characteristics of both magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems were analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and nanobeam diffraction patterns (NBD). The results of these studies corroborate the core/shell morphology and the crystalline structure of the magnetite core and the silver shell. Moreover, magnetization temperature dependent, M(T), measurements show an unusual diluted magnetic behavior attributed to the dilution of the magnetic ordering in the magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems. - Graphical abstract: Biopolymer chitosan was used as stabilization media to synthesize both magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles. Results of HRTEM and NBD patterns confirm core/shell morphology of the obtained nanoparticles. It was found that the composites show diluted magnet-like behavior.

  1. Optical spectroscopy of novel semiconductors in high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Jonathan

    Understanding new quantum phenomena and properties of new materials is the foundation of condensed matter physics. One can mention celebrated examples of integer and fractional quantum Hall effect, Aharonov-Bohm quantum interference effects, inventions of heterostructures and superlattices, and a recent discover of Dirac-like quasiparticles in atomically thin 2D crystals. Here we employ optical spectroscopy combined with large magnetic field and low temperatures to probe the electronic structure of several novel semiconductor materials. The discovery of graphene has opened the door to the study of other 2D materials. Here we focus on a new family of semiconducting layered 2D materials known as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), which have recently emerged as a new class of direct bandgap 2D semiconductors with two degenerate, but non-equality valleys at the +K and -K points in the Brillouin zone. Due to the broken inversion symmetry in monolayer TMDs, this valley degree of freedom can be selectively addressed by optical helicity, opening the possibility for valleytronic and optoelectronic applications. By performing valley selective photoluminescence measurements on TMDs we demonstrate the lifting of the valley degeneracy and valley polarization in an applied perpendicular magnetic field. One of the most remarkable properties of graphene is its linear dispersion. Once relegated only to the realm of theoretical exploration, the past ten years has seen an explosion in the realization of new Dirac-like materials in condensed matter systems. One of the most important of these new Dirac-like materials is HgTe quantum wells (QWs). Here, we report on Landau level spectroscopy studies of a series of HgTe QWs grown near or at the critical well thickness, where the band gap ?vanishes. We observe a square root B dependence for the energy of the dominant cyclotron resonance (CR) transition over the broad range of magnetic fields, characteristic of Dirac fermions. While

  2. Structural Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Semiconductor Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Continenza, Alessandra

    1990-01-01

    This work is focussed on the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of semiconductor interfaces. The issues and the interest involved in these particular systems are various and have engaged both the scientific and the technological community for more than three decades. The technological interest toward semiconductors is obviously related to device applications while the scientific interest is mainly focussed on the understanding of some characteristic properties, such as potential barriers, carrier properties and band gaps, and how these can be modified by changing different external factors, such as epitaxial growth, strain effects, junctions and doping. A complete knowledge and understanding of these complex issues is, in fact, the basic requirement necessary in order to achieve the ability to "tune" basic properties "at will" and designing the "ad hoc" material for each different device application. We have performed a study of the magnetic, structural and electronic properties of a few particular examples of semiconductor interfaces and heterojunctions namely, rm Fe_{n}/(ZnSe)_ {m}, rm(InAs)_{n }/(InP)_{n} and rm( alpha-Sn)_{n}/(CdTe)_{n }, using the all-electron full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method. Together with a study of the interface properties, we present results of calculations performed on all the pure constituents, in order to provide comparisons and to better understand how the bulk properties are modified by the interface. In particular, we have analyzed how the properties of these structures can be tailored by changing quantities such as the superlattice periodicity, the epitaxial strain and the interface morphology. We found that the relevance of these factors changes depending on the particular material under study and that it is possible, indeed, to model the characteristics electronic and transport properties of each structure by properly tuning the growth conditions. Our results are in very good agreement with

  3. Dilution-induced slow magnetic relaxation and anomalous hysteresis in trigonal prismatic dysprosium(III) and uranium(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Meihaus, Katie R; Rinehart, Jeffrey D; Long, Jeffrey R

    2011-09-05

    Magnetically dilute samples of complexes Dy(H(2)BPz(Me2)(2))(3) (1) and U(H(2)BPz(2))(3) (3) were prepared through cocrystallization with diamagnetic Y(H(2)BPz(Me2)(2))(3) (2) and Y(H(2)BPz(2))(3). Alternating current (ac) susceptibility measurements performed on these samples reveal magnetic relaxation behavior drastically different from their concentrated counterparts. For concentrated 1, slow magnetic relaxation is not observed under zero or applied dc fields of several hundred Oersteds. However, a 1:65 (Dy:Y) molar dilution results in a nonzero out-of-phase component to the magnetic susceptibility under zero applied dc field, characteristic of a single-molecule magnet. The highest dilution of 3 (1:90, U:Y) yields a relaxation barrier U(eff) = 16 cm(-1), double that of the concentrated sample. These combined results highlight the impact of intermolecular interactions in mononuclear single-molecule magnets possessing a highly anisotropic metal center. Finally, dilution elucidates the previously observed secondary relaxation process for concentrated 3. This process is slowed down drastically upon a 1:1 molar dilution, leading to butterfly magnetic hysteresis at temperatures as high as 3 K. The disappearance of this process for higher dilutions reveals it to be relaxation dictated by short-range intermolecular interactions, and it stands as the first direct example of an intermolecular relaxation process competing with single-molecule-based slow magnetic relaxation.

  4. Transverse gradient diffusion in a polydisperse dilute suspension of magnetic spheres during sedimentation.

    PubMed

    Cunha, F R; Couto, H L G

    2008-05-21

    In this work we investigate the pair interaction of magnetic particles in a dilute polydisperse sedimenting suspension. The suspension is composed of magnetic spherical forms of different radii and densities immersed in a Newtonian fluid, settling due to the gravity. When in close contact, the particles may exert on each other a magnetic force due to a permanent magnetization. We restrict our attention to dispersions of micromagnetic composite with negligible Brownian motion. The calculations of the relative particle trajectories are based on direct computations of the hydrodynamic interactions among rigid spheres in the regime of low particle Reynolds number. Depending on the relative importance of the interparticle forces and gravity, the collisions may result in aggregation or simply in a breaking of the particle relative trajectory time reversibility. After summing over all possible encounters, the transverse self-diffusion and down-gradient diffusion coefficients that describe the cross-flow migration of the particles are calculated. Our calculation shows first evidence and the significance of the diffusion process arising from magnetic interactions in dilute non-Brownian suspensions.

  5. Engineering Gilbert damping by dilute Gd doping in soft magnetic Fe thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W. Jiang, S.; Sun, L.; Wang, Y. K.; Zhai, Y.; Wong, P. K. J.; Wang, K.; Jong, M. P. de; Wiel, W. G. van der; Laan, G. van der

    2014-05-07

    By analyzing the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth, we show that the Gilbert damping constant in soft magnetic Fe thin films can be enhanced by ∼6 times with Gd doping of up to 20%. At the same time, the magnetic easy axis remains in the film plane while the coercivity is strongly reduced after Gd inclusion. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements reveal a strong increase in the orbital-to-spin moment ratio of Fe with increasing Gd concentration, in full agreement with the increase in the Gilbert damping obtained for these thin films. Combined with x-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry, the results demonstrate that the FeGd thin films with dilute Gd doping of up to 20% are promising candidates for spin-transfer-torque applications in soft magnetic devices, in which an enhanced damping is required.

  6. Magnetic properties of Zn-substituted Co-Ge-Fe-O ferrites near the dilution limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogués, J.; Puig, T.; Jotania, R. B.; Upadhyay, R. V.; Kulkarni, R. G.; Rao, K. V.

    1991-09-01

    The magnetic properties of Co-doped spinel system Co 1.4- xZn xGe 0.4Fe 1.2O 4 ( x = 0.4, 0.5, 0.6) have been investigated through Mössbauer spectroscopy, ac susceptibility and dc-magnetization measurements. In these alloys the A-sublattice has been diluted to below the percolation threshold and hence ferrimagnetic long range order cannot be retained. The observation of the (i) 57Fe Mössbauer data, (ii) broad peaks in the real component of the ac-susceptibility χ( T), (iii) similar temperature dependencies for χ' and χ″ and (iv) irreversibility of magnetization during field cooling leads to a picture of local spin canting structure in this system. At high magnetic fields these systems behave as highly anisotropic ferrimagnets.

  7. Tunable exchange bias in dilute magnetic alloys – chiral spin glasses

    PubMed Central

    Hudl, Matthias; Mathieu, Roland; Nordblad, Per

    2016-01-01

    A unidirectional anisotropy appears in field cooled samples of dilute magnetic alloys at temperatures well below the cusp temperature of the zero field cooled magnetization curve. Magnetization measurements on a Cu(13.5 at% Mn) sample show that this anisotropy is essentially temperature independent and acts on a temperature dependent excess magnetization, ΔM. The anisotropy can be partially or fully transferred from being locked to the direction of the cooling field at lower fields to becoming locked to the direction of ΔM at larger fields, thus instead appearing as a uniaxial anisotropy. This introduces a deceiving division of the anisotropy into a superposition of a unidirectional and a uniaxial part. This two faced nature of the anisotropy has been empirically scrutinized and concluded to originate from one and the same exchange mechanism: the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction. PMID:26817418

  8. Non-Newtonian flow of dilute ferrofluids in a uniform magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Weng, Huei Chu; Chen, Chieh-Li; Chen, Cha'o-Kuang

    2008-11-01

    Nonequilibrium magnetization states predict non-Newtonian ferrofluid properties. It is desirable to understand the corresponding flow fields and characteristics. In this study, we derive a magnetoviscosity expression coming from the effective-field method and describing the shear-thinning non-Newtonian behavior of dilute ferrofluids with finite magnetic anisotropy. A mathematical model is developed of non-Newtonian plane flow with respect to shear and pressure driving mechanisms in the presence of an applied stationary uniform magnetic field oriented in the direction perpendicular to vorticity. The results reveal that the non-Newtonian effect tends to increase the velocity and angular velocity but to reduce the magnetization strength. Moreover, an enhanced flow rate and reduced flow drag may be obtained. The maximum non-Newtonian effect is found at a ratio of the Néel relaxation time to the Brownian relaxation time of the order of 0.1.

  9. Transverse Kerr effect in magnetic (Ga, Mn)As-based semiconductors and its applicability in waveguide isolators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenknecht, D.; Schmoranzerová, E.; Trojánek, F.; Němec, P.; Ostatnický, T.

    2017-07-01

    We report on the measurement of transverse Kerr effect in a diluted magnetic semiconductor Ga1-xMnxAs in visible and near infra-red spectral ranges. The relative change of reflectivity upon the change of the magnetization orientation is as large as 2%, the same order of magnitude as the response of ferromagnetic metals in the visible light. The experimental data are modeled by theoretical calculations, showing a very good match between the theory and the experiment. We further use the theoretical model in order to predict nonreciprocal losses in a planar waveguide. The predicted nonreciprocal losses are an order of magnitude larger as compared to devices with a Co/Fe ferromagnetic layer reported so far.

  10. Theoretical investigation of magnetic and optical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proshchenko, Vitaly

    This thesis presents the theoretical investigation of physical properties of pure and transition metal doped semiconductor nanostructures. First we study optical and energy (the density of states) spectra for Cd mSem clusters of various sizes and shapes, such as spheres, cubes, nanorods, and nanotubes. This work requires a careful computational analysis where a proper exchange-correlation functional has to be chosen to fit the experimental data. The next part of the thesis deals with the magnetic properties of manganese doped CdSe, ZnSe, ZnS, and CdS quantum dots (QDs). We theoretically explain the effect of dual luminescence and show that in the case with CdSe quantum dots the luminescence becomes tunable by a QD size. We also study the concentration dependence of magnetic order and optical transitions in Mn doped CdSe nanocrystals. Room temperature d0 ferromagnetism is studied in ZnS quantum dots and nanowires in Chapter 4. To find the magnetization of the medium and large size nanocrystals we introduce the surface-bulk (SB) model. We show that the condensation of Zn vacancies into a single droplet takes place which leads to the week d0 ferromagnetism in ZnS nanocrystals. In the last Chapter we study electronic, optical, and charge transport properties of two new holey 2D materials, ELH-g-C2N-H and ELH-g-C2N-Br with hydrogen and bromine side-groups, respectively. Since the two 2D crystals under study have not been synthesized yet, we provide the stability analysis and prove that the calculated crystal structures correspond to the global energy minimum criterion.

  11. Structural evolution of dilute magnetic (Sn,Mn)Se films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanzyuba, Vasily; Dong, Sining; Liu, Xinyu; Li, Xiang; Rouvimov, Sergei; Okuno, Hanako; Mariette, Henri; Zhang, Xueqiang; Ptasinska, Sylwia; Tracy, Brian D.; Smith, David J.; Dobrowolska, Margaret; Furdyna, Jacek K.

    2017-02-01

    We describe the structural evolution of dilute magnetic (Sn,Mn)Se films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (111) substrates, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. When the Mn concentration is increased, the lattice of the ternary (Sn,Mn)Se films evolves quasi-coherently from a SnSe2 two-dimensional (2D) crystal structure into a more complex quasi-2D lattice rearrangement, ultimately transforming into the magnetically concentrated antiferromagnetic MnSe 3D rock-salt structure as Mn approaches 50 at. % of this material. These structural transformations are expected to underlie the evolution of magnetic properties of this ternary system reported earlier in the literature.

  12. Sol-gel synthesis and dilute magnetism of nano MgO powder doped with Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Kiyoshi; Taya, Souichirou; Okazawa, Atsushi; Kojima, Norimichi

    2014-04-01

    Mg oxides doped with 1 % 57Fe were prepared by a sol-gel method, and annealed at various temperatures. Nano-size Mg oxides were characterized by Mössbauer spectrometry, magnetization and XRD measurements. The crystalline size of MgO increases with increase of annealing temperature. Samples annealed at 600 °C and 800 °C gave only doublet peaks of paramagnetic Fe3+ in Mössbauer spectra although Fe3+ doping into MgO induced a distorted structure and showed weak ferromagnetism. It is considered that the magnetic property is due to defect induced magnetism by doping Fe3+ into MgO. For a sample heated at 1000 °C, it is found from low temperature Mössbauer spectra that Fe3+ species are located at the core and shell of fine MgFe2O4 grains and diluted in MgO matrix.

  13. A comparison study of Co and Cu doped MgO diluted magnetic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarıtaş, S.; ćakıcı, T.; Muǧlu, G. Merhan; Kundakcı, M.; Yıldırım, M.

    2017-02-01

    Transition metal-doped MgO diluted magnetic thin films are appropriate candidates for spintronic applications and designing magnetic devices and sensors. Therefore, MgO:Co and MgO:Cu films were deposited on glass substrates by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis (CSP) method different thin film deposition parameters. Deposited different transition metal doped MgO thin films were compared in terms of optic and structural properties. Comparison optic analysis of the films was investigated spectral absorption and transmittance measurements by UV-Vis double beam spectrophotometer technique. Comparison structural analysis of the thin films was examined by using XRD, Raman Analysis, SEM, EDX and AFM techniques. The transition metal-doped; MgO:Co and MgO:Cu thin films maybe have potential applications in spintronics and magnetic data storage.

  14. Origin and control of ferromagnetism in magnetically doped semiconductors. The case of (Ga,Fe)N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanni, Alberta

    2009-03-01

    The comprehensive search for materials exhibiting spintronic functionalities has resulted in the discovery of a number of magnetically doped or nominally undoped wide-band gap semiconductors and oxides showing ferromagnetic features persisting up to high temperatures. In order to shed light on the origin of the high-TC ferromagnetism in these materials systems, we have undertaken studies of MOVPE-grown (Ga,Fe)N, either undoped or co-doped with Si or Mg, combining the magnetic (SQUID and EPR), magnetooptical, and XANES investigation with a thorough structural and chemical characterization (SIMS, TEM, EDS, synchrotron XRD), that provides information on the Fe distribution at the nanoscale. In this talk, we first discuss our quantitative study of the exchange coupling between the spins S = 5/2 localized on the Fe ions and of the effective mass electrons. Our results point to an anomalous p-d exchange splitting of the valence band [1], that we explain in terms of a renormalization of extended states occurring if the impurities perturb strongly the crystal potential. We then show that the Fe ions are incorporated in the nitride matrix in a way giving rise either to a diluted random alloy or to ferromagnetic nanocrystals that aggregate by precipitation or by spinodal decomposition into regions more or less rich in the magnetic component, and that can be controlled by the growth parameters and co-doping with shallow donors and acceptors [2].[4pt] [1] W. Pacuski, P. Kossacki, D. Ferrand, A. Golnik, J. Cibert, M. Wegscheider, A. Navarro-Quezada, A. Bonanni, M. Kiecana, M. Sawicki, T. Dietl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 037204 (2008).[0pt] [2] A. Bonanni, A. Navarro-Quezada, Tian Li, M. Wegscheider, R.T. Lechner, G. Bauer, Z. Matej, V. Holy, M. Rovezzi, F. D'Acapito, M. Kiecana, M. Sawicki, and T. Dietl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 135502 (2008).

  15. On the self-organization of magnetic field and highly diluted matter in astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdichevsky, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    It is explored the self organization of matter and field in regions beyond our common reach on the surface of our planet and its atmospheric surroundings. This state of matter, which most basic property, the freezing in the magnetic field, see e.g., Chew et al, 1956, has proved to exist in the regions where robotic observations in the near and far space perform detailed observations of magnetic fields, and extreme dilute plasma (commonly about 1000 to 0.1 or less ionized particles per cubic cm). We present and discuss here simple hypotheses on the nature of what could be this state of magnetized matter which in the electron distribution shows a shape which often can successfully be described with a kappa distribution when inside a strongly magnetized transient, of the magnetic cloud kind, see e.g., Nieves Chinchilla and Figueroa-Viñas, 2008. This work is in many ways an extension of Alfven work on magnetized space plasmas, Alven, 1942. Chew, G.F., M.L., Goldberger, and F.E. Low, 1956, the Royal Soc. London, section Math & Phys Sc., 236, pp. 112. Nieves-Chinchilla, T., and A., Figueroa-Viñas, 2008, J. Geophys. Res., 113, A02105. Alfvén, H (1942). "Existence of electromagnetic-hydrodynamic waves". Nature 150: 405.. doi:10.1038/150405d0

  16. Converting a topologically trivial superconductor into a chiral topological superconductor via diluted magnetic doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Wei; Xiao, Di; Chang, Kai; Shen, Shun-Qing; Zhang, Zhenyu

    We employ two complementary theoretical approaches to explore the feasibility of altering the topological properties of two-dimensional Rashba spin-orbit coupled superconductors by proper introduction of magnetic disorders. First, using the self-consistent Born approximation, we show that a topologically trivial superconductor can be driven into a chiral topological superconductor upon diluted doping of isolated magnetic disorders, which gradually narrow, close, and reopen the quasi-particle gap of the paired electrons in a nontrivial manner. Such a topological phase transition is further characterized by the change in the corresponding topological invariant. The central predictions made here are then confirmed using the complementary numerical approach by solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations self-consistently within a tight-binding model. We also discuss the validity of the present model studies in connection with existing experimental findings. Collectively, the present study offers appealing new schemes for potential experimental realization of topological superconductors. Supported by NSF of China.

  17. Concentration dependence of the wings of a dipole-broadened magnetic resonance line in magnetically diluted lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobov, V. E.; Kucherov, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    The singularities of the time autocorrelation functions (ACFs) of magnetically diluted spin systems with dipole-dipole interaction (DDI), which determine the high-frequency asymptotics of autocorrelation functions and the wings of a magnetic resonance line, are studied. Using the self-consistent fluctuating local field approximation, nonlinear equations are derived for autocorrelation functions averaged over the independent random arrangement of spins (magnetic atoms) in a diamagnetic lattice with different spin concentrations. The equations take into account the specificity of the dipole-dipole interaction. First, due to its axial symmetry in a strong static magnetic field, the autocorrelation functions of longitudinal and transverse spin components are described by different equations. Second, the long-range type of the dipole-dipole interaction is taken into account by separating contributions into the local field from distant and near spins. The recurrent equations are obtained for the expansion coefficients of autocorrelation functions in power series in time. From them, the numerical value of the coordinate of the nearest singularity of the autocorrelation function is found on the imaginary time axis, which is equal to the radius of convergence of these expansions. It is shown that in the strong dilution case, the logarithmic concentration dependence of the coordinate of the singularity is observed, which is caused by the presence of a cluster of near spins whose fraction is small but contribution to the modulation frequency is large. As an example a silicon crystal with different 29Si concentrations in magnetic fields directed along three crystallographic axes is considered.

  18. Crossing and anti-crossing effects of polaritons in a magnetic-semiconductor superlattice influenced by an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuz, Vladimir R.; Fesenko, Volodymyr I.; Fedorin, Illia V.; Sun, Hong-Bo; Shulga, Valeriy M.

    2017-03-01

    Crossing and anti-crossing effects in dispersion characteristics of both bulk and surface polaritons in a magnetic-semiconductor superlattice influenced by an external static magnetic field being in the Faraday geometry are discussed. The bulk polaritons are classified as eigenwaves with right-handed and left-handed elliptically polarized states, whereas the surface polaritons are considered as hybrid modes having a predominant effect of either magnetic or semiconductor subsystem, and distinctions in dispersion characteristics of such polaritons are revealed involving the concept of critical points.

  19. Magnetism and Mn Clustering in (In,Mn)Sb Magnetic Semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jindong; Hanson, Micah P; Peters, John A; Wessels, Bruce W

    2015-11-04

    Previously, high-temperature ferromagnetism with a Curie temperature in excess of 400 K was reported in the magnetic semiconductor (In,Mn)Sb films grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). To determine the role of Mn distribution on its magnetic properties, the Mn 2p core-level X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of (In,Mn)Sb films was measured. For films grown on an InSb substrate, Mn composition is spatially inhomogeneous and its concentration increases with increasing deposition temperature. Spin-orbit splitting energy of the Mn 2p core-level was found to increase with increasing Mn concentration. From the dependence of the measured spin-orbit splitting energy on the Mn concentration, evidence of atomic-scale Mn cluster formation was observed. The measured magnetic moment per Mn atom decreases from 3.0 μB/Mn to 1.8 μB/Mn with increasing Mn concentration, which is attributed to atomic-scale clusters that are ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic. This detailed investigation gives an insight into the Mn distribution, phase composition and origin of magnetism in MOVPE-grown (In,Mn)Sb magnetic thin films.

  20. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of dilute U impurities in metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanta, S. K.; Cottenier, S.; Mishra, S. N.

    2016-05-01

    The electronic structure and magnetic moment of dilute U impurity in metallic hosts have been calculated from first principles. The calculations have been performed within local density approximation of the density functional theory using Augmented plane wave+local orbital (APW+lo) technique, taking account of spin-orbit coupling and Coulomb correlation through LDA+U approach. We present here our results for the local density of states, magnetic moment and hyperfine field calculated for an isolated U impurity embedded in hosts with sp-, d- and f-type conduction electrons. The results of our systematic study provide a comprehensive insight on the pressure dependence of 5f local magnetism in metallic systems. The unpolarized local density of states (LDOS), analyzed within the frame work of Stoner model suggest the occurrence of local moment for U in sp-elements, noble metals and f-block hosts like La, Ce, Lu and Th. In contrast, U is predicted to be nonmagnetic in most transition metal hosts except in Sc, Ti, Y, Zr, and Hf consistent with the results obtained from spin polarized calculation. The spin and orbital magnetic moments of U computed within the frame of LDA+U formalism show a scaling behavior with lattice compression. We have also computed the spin and orbital hyperfine fields and a detail analysis has been carried out. The host dependent trends for the magnetic moment, hyperfine field and 5f occupation reflect pressure induced change of electronic structure with U valency changing from 3+ to 4+ under lattice compression. In addition, we have made a detailed analysis of the impurity induced host spin polarization suggesting qualitatively different roles of f-band electrons on moment stability. The results presented in this work would be helpful towards understanding magnetism and spin fluctuation in U based alloys.

  1. Tunable acoustic attenuation in dilute suspensions of subwavelength, non-spherical magnetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, W.; Liu, L.; Shan, J. W.

    2017-01-01

    The microstructure (e.g., particle orientation and chaining) of suspensions of non-spherical ferromagnetic particles can be controlled by an external field, potentially making it possible to tune the acoustic properties of the suspension. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that dilute suspensions of subwavelength-sized oblate-spheroidal nickel particles exhibit up to a 35% change in attenuation coefficient at MHz frequencies upon changing the direction of an external magnetic field, for particle volume fractions of only 0.5%. Comparison is made to suspensions of spherical particles, in which the attenuation is smaller and nearly isotropic. Optical transmission measurements and analysis of the characteristic timescales of particle alignment and chaining are also performed to investigate the reasons for this acoustic anisotropy. The alignment of the oblate-spheroidal particles is found to be the dominant mechanism for the anisotropic and tunable acoustic attenuation of these suspensions.

  2. Magnetic dilution study in La sub 2 CuO sub 4 : Comparison with other two-dimensional magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Cheong, S.; Cooper, A.S.; Rupp, L.W. Jr.; Batlogg, B. ); Thompson, J.D.; Fisk, Z. )

    1991-11-01

    The reduction of the Neel point {ital T}{sub {ital N}} of La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} by substitution of nonmagnetic Mg or Zn for Cu has been studied, with particular emphasis on keeping the oxygen content unaffected. In the low-concentration range ({lt}10%), the rate of {ital T}{sub {ital N}} suppression is found to be the same as in other two-dimensional (2D) Heisenberg magnets such as K{sub 2}CuF{sub 4} ({ital S}=1/2) and K{sub 2}MnF{sub 4} ({ital S}=5/2). While this suppression rate is larger than for 2D Ising magnets, it is much smaller than the rapid {ital T}{sub {ital N}} reduction upon introduction of holes in La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} through oxygen excess or heterovalent substitution for La. Thus, no unusual quantum-magnetic dilution effects are observed in the {ital S}=1/2 La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} magnet.

  3. Magnetic Tunnel Junctions Incorporating a Near-Zero-Moment Ferromagnetic Semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warring, H.; Trodahl, H. J.; Plank, N. O. V.; Natali, F.; Granville, S.; Ruck, B. J.

    2016-10-01

    We present a fully semiconductor-based magnetic tunnel junction that uses spin-orbit coupled materials made of intrinsic ferromagnetic semiconductors. Unlike more common approaches, one of the electrodes consists of a near-zero magnetic-moment ferromagnetic semiconductor, samarium nitride, with the other electrode composed of the more conventional ferromagnetic semiconductor gadolinium nitride. Fabricated tunnel junctions show a magnetoresistance as high as 200%, implying strong spin polarization in both electrodes. In contrast to conventional tunnel junctions, the resistance is largest at high fields, a direct result of the orbital-dominant magnetization in samarium nitride that requires that the spin in this electrode must align opposite to that in the gadolinium nitride when the magnetization is saturated. The magnetoresistance at intermediate fields is controlled by the formation of a twisted magnetization phase in the samarium nitride, a direct result of the orbital-dominant ferromagnetism. Thus, an alternative type of functionality can be brought to magnetic tunnel junctions by the use of different electrode materials, in contrast to the usual focus on tuning the barrier properties.

  4. Magnetic dilution and domain selection in the X Y pyrochlore antiferromagnet Er2Ti2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudet, J.; Hallas, A. M.; Maharaj, D. D.; Buhariwalla, C. R. C.; Kermarrec, E.; Butch, N. P.; Munsie, T. J. S.; Dabkowska, H. A.; Luke, G. M.; Gaulin, B. D.

    2016-08-01

    Below TN=1.1 K, the X Y pyrochlore Er2Ti2O7 orders into a k =0 noncollinear, antiferromagnetic structure referred to as the ψ2 state. The magnetic order in Er2Ti2O7 is known to obey conventional three-dimensional (3D) percolation in the presence of magnetic dilution, and in that sense is robust to disorder. Recently, however, two theoretical studies have predicted that the ψ2 structure should be unstable to the formation of a related ψ3 magnetic structure in the presence of magnetic vacancies. To investigate these theories, we have carried out systematic elastic and inelastic neutron scattering studies of three single crystals of Er2 -xYxTi2O7 with x =0 (pure), 0.2 (10 %Y ) and 0.4 (20 % Y ), where magnetic Er3 + is substituted by nonmagnetic Y3 +. We find that the ψ2 ground state of pure Er2Ti2O7 is significantly affected by magnetic dilution. The characteristic domain selection associated with the ψ2 state, and the corresponding energy gap separating ψ2 from ψ3, vanish for Y3 + substitutions between 10 % Y and 20 % Y , far removed from the three-dimensional percolation threshold of ˜60 % Y . The resulting ground state for Er2Ti2O7 with magnetic dilutions from 20 % Y up to the percolation threshold is naturally interpreted as a frozen mosaic of ψ2 and ψ3 domains.

  5. Hydrogenated Graphene Nanoflakes: Semiconductor to Half-Metal Transition and Remarkable Large Magnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yungang; Wang, Zhiguo; Yang, Ping; Sun, Xin; Zu, Xiaotao; Gao, Fei

    2012-03-08

    The electronic and magnetic properties of graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) can be tuned by patterned adsorption of hydrogen. Controlling the H coverage from bare GNFs to half hydrogenated and then to fully hydrogenated GNFs, the transformation of small-gap semiconductor {yields} half-metal {yields} wide-gap semiconductor occurs, accompanied by a magnetic {yields} magnetic {yields} nonmagnetic transfer and a nonmagnetic {yields} magnetic {yields} nonmagnetic transfer for triangular and hexagonal nanoflakes, respectively. The half hydrogenated GNFs, associated with strong spin polarization around the Fermi level, exhibit the unexpected large spin moment that is scaled squarely with the size of flakes. The induced spin magnetizations of these nanoflakes align parallel and lead to a substantial collective character, enabling the half hydrogenated GNFs to be spin-filtering flakes. These hydrogenation-dependent behaviors are then used to realize an attractive approach to engineer the transport properties, which provides a new route to facilitate the design of tunable spin devices.

  6. Specific Heat of the Dilute Ising Magnet LiHoxY1-xF4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quilliam, Jeffrey; Mugford, Chas; Lettress, Lauren; Kycia, Jan

    2007-03-01

    We will present specific heat results on the dilute dipolar-coupled Ising magnet LiHoxY1-xF4. This material was previously observed to change from a spin glass to an unusual ``anti-glass'' state at a Ho concentration of x˜0.045. This state showed dynamics that are very different from those of a spin glass and also exhibited sharp features in its specific heat at around 100 and 300 mK. In contrast, our measurements of the heat capacity do not reproduce these sharp features and instead find broad curves for three concentrations (1.8%, 4.5% and 8.0%). Integrating C/T reveals a residual entropy S0 which is 0 for 8.0% Ho but increases with lower concentration (to 0.31R at 1.8% Ho). This provides some evidence for a change to a different magnetic ground state below 8.0% Ho and is qualitatively consistent with Monte Carlo simulations. AC susceptibility measurements probing the dynamics of this system are currently being performed and results will be presented. S. Ghosh et al., Science 296, 2195 (2002) S. Ghosh et al., Nature 425, 48 (2003). J. Snider and C. C. Yu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 214203 (2005).

  7. Influence of a magnetic field on the viscosity of a dilute gas consisting of linear molecules.

    PubMed

    Hellmann, Robert; Vesovic, Velisa

    2015-12-07

    The viscomagnetic effect for two linear molecules, N2 and CO2, has been calculated in the dilute-gas limit directly from the most accurate ab initio intermolecular potential energy surfaces presently available. The calculations were performed by means of the classical trajectory method in the temperature range from 70 K to 3000 K for N2 and 100 K to 2000 K for CO2, and agreement with the available experimental data is exceptionally good. Above room temperature, where no experimental data are available, the calculations provide the first quantitative information on the magnitude and the behavior of the viscomagnetic effect for these gases. In the presence of a magnetic field, the viscosities of nitrogen and carbon dioxide decrease by at most 0.3% and 0.7%, respectively. The results demonstrate that the viscomagnetic effect is dominated by the contribution of the jj¯ polarization at all temperatures, which shows that the alignment of the rotational axes of the molecules in the presence of a magnetic field is primarily responsible for the viscomagnetic effect.

  8. Temperature quenching of intracenter luminescence of Mn2+ ions in diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agekyan, V. F.; Serov, A. Yu.; Filosofov, N. G.; Shtrom, I. V.; Karczewski, G.

    2016-10-01

    The temperature dependence of the spectral composition and intensity of intracenter luminescence of the Mn2+ 3d shell and the temperature dependence of the luminescence excitation spectra in an epitaxial layer of Cd0.2Mn0.8Te at different levels of optical excitation are investigated. It is found that in the crystals of type II1- x Mn x VI with a high concentration of manganese, the characteristics of intracenter luminescence of Mn2+ depend on the efficiency of excitation migration over manganese ions. Under migration conditions, the luminescence quantum yield is determined by the cooperative effect (up-conversion).

  9. Resonant Raman scattering in Mn:ZnO dilute magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleize, J.; Chikoidze, E.; Dumont, Y.; Rzepka, E.; Gorochov, O.

    2007-07-01

    We report on micro-Raman measurements performed under various visible excitations on wurtzite Zn 1- xMn xO thin films grown by MOCVD, for a wide range of Mn content (0

  10. Boron and Nitrogen Doped Single walled Carbon Nanotubes as Possible Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The structure of single walled armchair and zig-zag carbon nanotubes having 70 atoms and two carbons replaced by boron or nitrogen is obtained at minium energy using HF/6-31G* molecular orbital theory. The calculations show that the ground state of the zig-zag tubes is a triplet state while for the armchair tubes it is a singlet. In the zig-zag tubes the density of states at the Fermi level is greater for the spin down states compared to the spin up state indicating that the doped tubes could be ferromagnetic.

  11. Diluted magnetic semiconductors formed by an ion implantation and pulsed-laser melting

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpulla, M.A.; Daud, U.; Yu, K.M.; Monteiro, O.; Liliental-Weber; Zakharov, D.; Walukiewicz, W.; Dubon, O.D.

    2003-07-23

    Using ion implantation followed by pulsed-laser melting (PLM), we have synthesized ferromagnetic films of Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As. Ion-channeling experiments reveal that these films are single crystalline and have high Mn substitutionality while variable temperature resistivity measurements reveal the strong Mn-hole interactions characteristic of carrier-mediated ferromagnetism in homogeneous DMS's. We have observed Curie temperatures (T{sub C}'s) of approximately 80 K for films with substitutional Mn concentrations of x=0.04. The use of n-type counter doping as a means of increasing Mn substitutionality and T{sub c} is explored by co-implantation of Mn and Te into GaAs. In Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}P samples synthesized using our technique, the implanted layer regrows as an epitaxial single crystal capped by a highly defective surface layer. These samples display ferromagnetism with T{sub c} {approx} 23 K.

  12. Field-effect transistors fabricated from diluted magnetic semiconductor colloidal nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Du, Ai Jun; Sun, Qiao; Aljada, Muhsen; Zhu, Zhong Hua; Lu, Gao Qing (Max)

    2012-02-01

    Field-effect transistors (FETs) fabricated from undoped and Co2+-doped CdSe colloidal nanowires show typical n-channel transistor behaviour with gate effect. Exposed to microscope light, a 10 times current enhancement is observed in the doped nanowire-based devices due to the significant modification of the electronic structure of CdSe nanowires induced by Co2+-doping, which is revealed by theoretical calculations from spin-polarized plane-wave density functional theory.Field-effect transistors (FETs) fabricated from undoped and Co2+-doped CdSe colloidal nanowires show typical n-channel transistor behaviour with gate effect. Exposed to microscope light, a 10 times current enhancement is observed in the doped nanowire-based devices due to the significant modification of the electronic structure of CdSe nanowires induced by Co2+-doping, which is revealed by theoretical calculations from spin-polarized plane-wave density functional theory. Z. Li gratefully acknowledges the support from Queensland Smart Futures Fellowship, UQ early-career-research grant and UQ new staff research startup grant. Support from the Australian Research Council (through its centres program) to the ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials is also gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Field-effect transistors fabricated from diluted magnetic semiconductor colloidal nanowires.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Du, Ai Jun; Sun, Qiao; Aljada, Muhsen; Zhu, Zhong Hua; Lu, Gao Qing Max

    2012-02-21

    Field-effect transistors (FETs) fabricated from undoped and Co(2+)-doped CdSe colloidal nanowires show typical n-channel transistor behaviour with gate effect. Exposed to microscope light, a 10 times current enhancement is observed in the doped nanowire-based devices due to the significant modification of the electronic structure of CdSe nanowires induced by Co(2+)-doping, which is revealed by theoretical calculations from spin-polarized plane-wave density functional theory.

  14. DARPA-URI Consortium Meetings on Submicron Heterostructures of Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Mn.S and Cdl-_xMn.Se", Solid State Commun. 62, 235 (1987). - 16- 29. A.K. Arora and A.K. Ramdas, "Resonance Raman Scattering from Defects in CdSe ", Phys...Telluride by a Modified Horizontal Bridgman Technique" (to be published in the Proceedings of the 1986 MRS Symposium on Infrared Detectors and Sources). 124...Giles and J.F. Schet- zina, "Growth and Characterization of High Quality, Low Defect, Subgrain Free Cadmium Telluride by a Modified Horizontal Bridgman

  15. Optical investigation of the diluted magnetic semiconductor Zn1-xMnxTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemasson, P.; Van Huong, C. Nguyen; Benhida, A.; Lascaray, J. P.; Triboulet, R.

    1988-01-01

    Zn1-xMnxTe alloys (0 <- x <- 0.72) have been investigated by photocurrent spectroscopy, electroreflectance in the electr olyte configuration and under vacuum by absorption and reflectivity measurements. Electroreflectance enables one to accurately determine the fundamental gap as a function of the alloy composition. We find E0(x) = (2.28 + 0.53x) eV, a linear law which is in good agreement with previously published results. In the case of thermally treated samples with x ≈ 0.70 electroreflectance, photocurrent and absorption spectroscopy indicate that the fundamental transition may be totally different from what is expected depending on the part of the ingot from which the samples the originate (E0 = 1.854 eV instead of 2.65 eV). It is assumed on the basis of complementary investigations that the complete band structure of the anomalous samples is shifted towards lower energy values.

  16. Optical investigation of the diluted magnetic semiconductor Zn 1- xMn xTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemasson, P.; Van Huong, C. Nguyen; Benhida, A.; Lascaray, J. P.; Triboulet, R.

    1990-01-01

    Zn 1- xMn xTe alloys (0 <- x <- 0.72) have been investigated by photocurrent spectroscopy, electroreflectance in the electr olyte configuration and under vacuum by absorption and reflectivity measurements. Electroreflectance enables one to accurately determine the fundamental gap as a function of the alloy composition. We find E0( x) = (2.28 + 0.53 x) eV, a linear law which is in good agreement with previously published results. In the case of thermally treated samples with x ≈ 0.70 electroreflectance, photocurrent and absorption spectroscopy indicate that the fundamental transition may be totally different from what is expected depending on the part of the ingot from which the samples the originate ( E0 = 1.854 eV instead of 2.65 eV). It is assumed on the basis of complementary investigations that the complete band structure of the anomalous samples is shifted towards lower energy values.

  17. Magneto-optical studies of magnetic and non-magnetic narrow-gap semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaparast, Giti

    2005-03-01

    In light of the growing interest in spin-related phenomena and devices, there is now renewed interest in the science and engineering of narrow gap semiconductors. Narrow gap semiconductors (NGS) offer many unique features such as small effective masses, high intrinsic mobilities, large effective g- factors, and large spin-orbit coupling effects. This talk will discuss our recent magneto-optical studies on InSb quantum wells (QWs) and InMnAs ferromagnetic heterostructures. In InSb QWs, we observe spin-resolved cyclotron resonance (CR) caused by the non- parabolicity in conduction band and electron spin resonance in symmetric and asymmetric confinement potentials. The asymmetric wells exhibit a strong deviation in behavior from the symmetric wells at low magnetic fields with far more spin splitting than expected from the bulk g-factor of InSb. In InMnAs/GaSb we observe light and heavy hole CR peaks which demonstrate the existence of delocalized p-like carriers. In addition, In order to increase our understanding of the dynamics of carriers and spins, we performed time resolved measurements such as time- resolved CR spectroscopy on undoped InSb QWs and time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect on InMnAs/GaSb. Our results are important for understanding the electronic and magnetic states in NGS. This work was performed in collaboration with M. B. Santos and R. E. Doezema at the Univ. of Oklahoma, J. Wang and J. Kono at Rice Univ., H. Munekata at Tokyo Institute of Technology, C. J. Stanton at the Univ. of Florida, and Y. H. Matsuda and N. Miura at the Univ. of Tokyo.

  18. Magnetic anisotropy induced by crystal distortion in Ge{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te/PbTe//KCl (001) ferromagnetic semiconductor layers

    SciTech Connect

    Knoff, W. Łusakowski, A.; Domagała, J. Z.; Minikayev, R.; Taliashvili, B.; Łusakowska, E.; Pieniążek, A.; Szczerbakow, A.; Story, T.

    2015-09-21

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) study of magnetic anisotropy is presented for thin layers of IV-VI diluted magnetic semiconductor Ge{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te with x = 0.14 grown by molecular beam epitaxy on KCl (001) substrate with a thin PbTe buffer. Analysis of the angular dependence of the FMR resonant field reveals that an easy magnetization axis is located near to the normal to the layer plane and is controlled by two crystal distortions present in these rhombohedral Ge{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te layers: the ferroelectric distortion with the relative shift of cation and anion sub-lattices along the [111] crystal direction and the biaxial in-plane, compressive strain due to thermal mismatch.

  19. Chemical order and magnetic behavior of Fe-dilute fcc Fe-Pd nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guirado-López, R. A.; Desjonquères, M. C.; Spanjaard, D.

    2006-08-01

    The chemical order and magnetic behavior of Fe-dilute fcc Fe-Pd nanoparticles are theoretically investigated using many-body potentials derived in the framework of the generalized second moment approximation (SMA) and self-consistent spin-polarized tight-binding electronic structure calculations, respectively. The SMA total energy calculations reveal that surface sites and the core region are not favorable positions for the Fe impurities and that they prefer to accumulate in the subsurface region of the particles, showing a very strong tendency to separate. However, additional contrasting atomic configurations close in energy are also found which could imply the coexistence in real samples of several Fe-Pd nanoparticles with a well-defined composition, but having different chemical orderings. Magnetic properties are first investigated for a single Fe impurity in bulk Pd, allowing an extension of the polarization cloud around the Fe atom much larger than in an ab initio calculation. The results are in good agreement with experiments and serve as a reference to identify surface and size effects in FePd nanoparticles. Nanoparticles containing from 135 to 561 atoms with up to three Fe substitutional impurities are then investigated, as well as more concentrated ( ≃10% Fe content) shell structures. The extension and magnetic structure of the Fe-induced polarization cloud is studied in detail as a function of the size, surface termination, and the precise location and number of the iron impurities in the particles. The local electronic structure at the Pd sites located at the outermost atomic shell is considerably perturbed by the subsurface position of the Fe atoms and could modify the catalytic properties of palladium nanoparticles. Finally, we show that the value of the orbital-to-spin ratio in our Fe-Pd clusters is very sensitive to the changes in the internal position of the Fe impurities, a result that suggests that x-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments

  20. Nonreciprocal propagation of surface plasmon mode guided through graphene layer on magnetized semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagyaraj, C.; Mathew, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the nonreciprocal effect induced by magnetized semiconductor substrate on surface plasmon mode guided through monolayer graphene. Dispersion relation for the fundamental antisymmetric mode is derived analytically. Nonreciprocal propagation characteristics of fundamental mode is studied as a function of wavelength, graphene layer chemical potential and biasing magnetic field. Fundamental mode exhibits appreciable nonreciprocal dispersion for transversal magnetization of semiconductor substrate in midinfrared and terahertz frequencies. Cutoff wavelength for backward propagating mode is observed above 2.5 T of external biasing field. Cutoff wavelength is found to be decreasing with increase in the biasing magnetic field and cladding index, also identified to be independent of graphene layer chemical potential. Proposed waveguide structure suggests the possibility of realizing one way propagating plasmonic waveguides with widely tunable guiding characteristics and related functional devices such as isolators, modulators, phase shifters and switches for integrated photonic circuits.

  1. Magnetic coupling in ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As/(Al,Ga,Mn)As bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.; Wadley, P.; Campion, R. P.; Rushforth, A. W.; Edmonds, K. W.; Gallagher, B. L.; Charlton, T. R.; Kinane, C. J.; Langridge, S.

    2015-08-07

    We report on a study of ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As/(Al,Ga,Mn)As bilayers using magnetometry and polarized neutron reflectivity (PNR). From depth-resolved characterization of the magnetic structure obtained by PNR, we concluded that the (Ga,Mn)As and (Al,Ga,Mn)As layers have in-plane and perpendicular-to-plane magnetic easy axes, respectively, with weak interlayer coupling. Therefore, the layer magnetizations align perpendicular to each other under low magnetic fields and parallel at high fields.

  2. Anti-site-induced diverse diluted magnetism in LiMgPdSb-type CoMnTiSi alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T. T.; Dai, X. F.; Guo, R. K.; Cheng, Z. X.; Wang, L. Y.; Wang, X. T.; Liu, G. D.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of three kinds of anti-site disorder to electronic structure and magnetic properties of the LiMgPdSb-type CoMnTiSi alloy are investigated. It was found the Mn-Ti anti-site disorder can induce the diluted magnetism in CoMnTiSi matrix. The magnetic structure has an oscillation between the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic states with the different degree of Mn-Ti anti-site disorder. Two novel characteristics: the diluted antiferromagnetic half-metallicity and the diluted zero-gap half-metallity are found in the different degree range of the Mn-Ti anti-site disorder. The Co-Mn and Co-Ti anti-site disorder have little effect on the magnetic properties. The width of energy gap and the intensity of DOS at the Fermi level can be adjusted by the degree of Co-Mn or Co-Ti anti-site disorder. The independent control to the carrier concentration and magnetization can be realized by introducing the different anti-site disorder.

  3. Anti-site-induced diverse diluted magnetism in LiMgPdSb-type CoMnTiSi alloy.

    PubMed

    Lin, T T; Dai, X F; Guo, R K; Cheng, Z X; Wang, L Y; Wang, X T; Liu, G D

    2017-02-07

    The effect of three kinds of anti-site disorder to electronic structure and magnetic properties of the LiMgPdSb-type CoMnTiSi alloy are investigated. It was found the Mn-Ti anti-site disorder can induce the diluted magnetism in CoMnTiSi matrix. The magnetic structure has an oscillation between the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic states with the different degree of Mn-Ti anti-site disorder. Two novel characteristics: the diluted antiferromagnetic half-metallicity and the diluted zero-gap half-metallity are found in the different degree range of the Mn-Ti anti-site disorder. The Co-Mn and Co-Ti anti-site disorder have little effect on the magnetic properties. The width of energy gap and the intensity of DOS at the Fermi level can be adjusted by the degree of Co-Mn or Co-Ti anti-site disorder. The independent control to the carrier concentration and magnetization can be realized by introducing the different anti-site disorder.

  4. Anti-site-induced diverse diluted magnetism in LiMgPdSb-type CoMnTiSi alloy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, T. T.; Dai, X. F.; Guo, R. K.; Cheng, Z. X.; Wang, L. Y.; Wang, X. T.; Liu, G. D.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of three kinds of anti-site disorder to electronic structure and magnetic properties of the LiMgPdSb-type CoMnTiSi alloy are investigated. It was found the Mn-Ti anti-site disorder can induce the diluted magnetism in CoMnTiSi matrix. The magnetic structure has an oscillation between the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic states with the different degree of Mn-Ti anti-site disorder. Two novel characteristics: the diluted antiferromagnetic half-metallicity and the diluted zero-gap half-metallity are found in the different degree range of the Mn-Ti anti-site disorder. The Co-Mn and Co-Ti anti-site disorder have little effect on the magnetic properties. The width of energy gap and the intensity of DOS at the Fermi level can be adjusted by the degree of Co-Mn or Co-Ti anti-site disorder. The independent control to the carrier concentration and magnetization can be realized by introducing the different anti-site disorder. PMID:28169311

  5. Theoretical and experimental investigations of superconductivity. Amorphous semiconductors, superconductivity and magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    The research activities from 1 March 1963 to 28 February 1973 are summarized. Major lectures are listed along with publications on superconductivity, superfluidity, electronic structures and Fermi surfaces of metals, optical spectra of solids, electronic structure of insulators and semiconductors, theory of magnetic metals, physics of surfaces, structures of metals, and molecular physics.

  6. Parametric distortion of the optical absorption edge of a magnetic semiconductor by a strong laser field

    SciTech Connect

    Nunes, O.A.C.

    1985-09-15

    The influence of a strong laser field on the optical absorption edge of a direct-gap magnetic semiconductor is considered. It is shown that as the strong laser intensity increases the absorption coefficient is modified so as to give rise to an absorption tail below the free-field forbidden gap. An application is made for the case of the EuO.

  7. Magnetic Field Applications in Semiconductor Crystal Growth and Metallurgy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, Konstantin; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Grugel, Richard; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Traveling Magnetic Field (TMF) technique, recently proposed to control meridional flow in electrically conducting melts, is reviewed. In particular, the natural convection damping capability of this technique has been numerically demonstrated with the implication of significantly improving crystal quality. Advantages of the traveling magnetic field, in comparison to the more mature rotating magnetic field method, are discussed. Finally, results of experiments with mixing metallic alloys in long ampoules using TMF is presented

  8. Sodalite-like rare-earth carbonates: a study of structural transformation and diluted magnetism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanyan; Han, Tian; Ding, You-Song; Zheng, Zhiping; Zheng, Yan-Zhen

    2016-01-21

    A series of novel rare earth carbonates, RE3(OH)6(CO3)Cl (RE = Dy, Er, Y), with sodalite-like (SOD-like) zeolite topologies have been successfully synthesized by introducing an appropriate amount of CO3(2-) from NaCO3 or atmospheric carbon dioxide as a template. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the structure consists of the RE3(OH)6(3+) cationic framework with a SOD-like topology built from vertex-sharing [RE4(μ3-OH)4] cubes. The CO3(2-) anions seal the 6-ring opening and Cl(-) anions situated in the channels to achieve charge balance. After calcination at 370 °C, the compound RE3(OH)6(CO3)Cl in situ transforms into a new phase formulated as RE3O4Cl. Interestingly, the structure of RE3O4Cl represents a new SOD-like open framework, associated with the removal of the CO3(2-) from RE3(OH)6(CO3)Cl. The samples are characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), elemental analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and magnetic studies. Furthermore, single-molecule magnet behaviours can be observed for the diluted samples of Dy0.0068Y2.9932(OH)6(CO3)Cl and Dy0.0068Y2.9932O4Cl with a Dy/Y molar ratio of up to 1/440 as well as Er0.19Y2.81(OH)6(CO3)Cl with an Er/Y ratio of 1/15, showing dominant single-ion effects.

  9. Long wavelength spin dynamics in diluted magnetic systems: Scaling of magnon lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Akash; Bouzerar, Georges

    2015-05-01

    Spin wave excitations in disordered magnetic systems have been one of the most widely studied fields in condensed matter physics for several decades. However, a careful and extensive search reveals a longstanding controversy on one important aspect, which is the wave-vector dependence of the spin wave intrinsic linewidth. We theoretically investigate the low-temperature spin wave excitations in disordered (diluted) ferromagnetic systems with a particular focus on the linewidth behavior in the long wavelength limit (q → 0). The linewidth is extracted from a proper finite size analysis of the dynamical spectral functions, taking into account the effects of disorder and spin fluctuations treated within self-consistent local RPA. We obtain an unambiguous q5 scaling of the intrinsic linewidth, which is attributed to the disorder induced damping of the spin waves. This is in agreement with some previous theoretical studies on the Heisenberg ferromagnets, although the exchange interactions were mostly restricted to nearest neighbors unlike in our case. We also demonstrate the difficulties in extracting the correct scaling of the linewidth as it is sensitive to the q values considered, and one can obtain an incorrect q-dependence if the q's are not sufficiently small. Finally, our findings are discussed in the light of prospective spintronics applications.

  10. Origin and enhancement of spin polarized current in diluted magnetic oxides by oxygen vacancies

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Hsiung Yang, Kung-Shang; Tsao, Yao-Chung; Dwivedi, G. D.; Lin, Cheng-Pang; Sun, Shih-Jye; Lin, L. K.; Lee, S. F.

    2016-04-04

    Spin polarized current (SPC) is a crucial characteristic of diluted magnetic oxides due to the potential application of oxides in spintronic devices. However, most research has been focused on ferromagnetic properties rather than polarization of electric current, because direct measurements are difficult and the origin of SPC has yet to be fully understood. The method to increase the SPC percentage is beyond practical consideration at present. To address this problem, we focus on the role of oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}) on SPC, which are controlled by growing the Co-doped ZnO thin-films at room temperature in a reducing atmosphere [Ar + (1%–30%)H{sub 2}]. We found that the conductivity increases with an increase of V{sub O} via two independent channels: the variable range hopping (VRH) within localized states and the itinerant transport in the conduction band. The point contact Andreev reflection measurements at 4.2 K, where the electric conduction is governed only by the VRH mechanism, prove that the current flowing in the VRH hopping channel is SPC. The percentage of SPC increases with the introduction of V{sub O} and increase in its concentration. The transport measurement shows that by manipulating V{sub O}, one can control the percentage of VRH hopping conduction such that it can even dominate room temperature conduction. The highest achieved SPC ratio at room temperature was 80%.

  11. Influence of spin correlations on band structure of magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkkonen, J.

    1981-06-01

    A perturbation treatment of the s-f interaction in ferromagnetic semiconductors is presented. The many-spin correlation functions are expressed in terms of connected correlation functions which are constructed by the meanfield theory. For the self-energy an integral equation is obtained which includes correlation effects. The method of calculation is closely connected with the coherent-potential approximation. As an application the density of states is shown in various cases by allowing the bandwidth to vary from broad- to narrow-band regime. The calculation is limited to the paramagnetic phase. Correlation effects are seen as temperature-dependent changes in the density of states.

  12. Spin-polarized transport in ferromagnetic multilayered semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, E. J. R.; da Cunha Lima, A. T.; Boselli, M. A.; Sipahi, G. M.; Rodrigues, S. C. P.; da Cunha Lima, I. C.

    2007-03-01

    The occurrence of inhomogeneous spin-density distribution in multilayered ferromagnetic diluted magnetic semiconductor nanostructures leads to strong dependence of the spin-polarized transport properties on these systems. The spin-dependent mobility, conductivity, and resistivity in (Ga,Mn)As/GaAs, (Ga,Mn)N/GaN, and (Si,Mn)/Si multilayers are calculated as a function of temperature, scaled by the average magnetization of the diluted magnetic semiconductor layers. An increase of the resistivity near the transition temperature is obtained. The authors observed that the spin-polarized transport properties change strongly among the three materials.

  13. Nuclear magnetic relaxation studies of semiconductor nanocrystals and solids

    SciTech Connect

    Sachleben, Joseph Robert

    1993-09-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals, small biomolecules, and 13C enriched solids were studied through the relaxation in NMR spectra. Surface structure of semiconductor nanocrystals (CdS) was deduced from high resolution 1H and 13C liquid state spectra of thiophenol ligands on the nanocrystal surfaces. The surface coverage by thiophenol was found to be low, being 5.6 and 26% for nanocrystal radii of 11.8 and 19.2 Å. Internal motion is estimated to be slow with a correlation time > 10-8 s-1. The surface thiophenol ligands react to form a dithiophenol when the nanocrystals were subjected to O2 and ultraviolet. A method for measuring 14N-1H J-couplings is demonstrated on pyridine and the peptide oxytocin; selective 2D T1 and T2 experiments are presented for measuring relaxation times in crowded spectra with overlapping peaks in 1D, but relaxation effects interfere. Possibility of carbon-carbon cross relaxation in 13C enriched solids is demonstrated by experiments on zinc acetate and L-alanine.

  14. Nuclear magnetic relaxation studies of semiconductor nanocrystals and solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachleben, J. R.

    1993-09-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals, small biomolecules, and C-13 enriched solids were studied through the relaxation in NMR spectra. Surface structure of semiconductor nanocrystals (CdS) was deduced from high resolution H-1 and C-13 liquid state spectra of thiophenol ligands on the nanocrystal surfaces. The surface coverage by thiophenol was found to be low, being 5.6 and 26% for nanocrystal radii of 11.8 and 19.2 angstrom. Internal motion is estimated to be slow with a correlation time greater than 10(exp -8) s(exp -1). The surface thiophenol ligands react to form a dithiophenol when the nanocrystals were subjected to O2 and ultraviolet. A method for measuring (N-14)-(H-1) J-couplings is demonstrated on pyridine and the peptide oxytocin; selective 2D T(sub 1) and T(sub 2) experiments are presented for measuring relaxation times in crowded spectra with overlapping peaks in 1D, but relaxation effects interfere. Possibility of carbon-carbon cross relaxation in C-13 enriched solids is demonstrated by experiments on zinc acetate and L-alanine.

  15. Technique for magnetic susceptibility determination in the highly doped semiconductors by electron spin resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Veinger, A. I.; Zabrodskii, A. G.; Tisnek, T. V.; Goloshchapov, S. I.; Semenikhin, P. V.

    2014-08-20

    A method for determining the magnetic susceptibility in the highly doped semiconductors is considered. It is suitable for the semiconductors near the metal - insulator transition when the conductivity changes very quickly with the temperature and the resonance line form distorts. A procedure that is based on double integration of the positive part of the derivative of the absorption line having a Dyson shape and takes into account the depth of the skin layer is described. Analysis is made for the example of arsenic-doped germanium samples at a rather high concentration corresponding to the insulator-metal phase transition.

  16. Nonequilibrium nuclear polarization and induced hyperfine and dipolar magnetic fields in semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ţifrea, Ionel; Flatté, Michael E.

    2011-10-01

    We investigate the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) caused by hyperfine coupling between nonequilibrium electronic spins and nuclear spins in semiconductor nanostructures. We derive the time and position dependence of the resulting hyperfine and dipolar magnetic fields. In GaAs quantum wells the induced nuclear spin polarization greatly exceeds the polarization of the electronic system that causes the DNP. The induced magnetic fields vary between tens of tesla for the electronic hyperfine field acting on nuclei, to hundreds of gauss for the nuclear hyperfine field acting on electrons, to a few gauss for the induced nuclear dipolar fields that act on both nuclei and electrons. The field strengths should be measurable via optically induced nuclear magnetic resonance or time-resolved Faraday rotation experiments. We discuss the implications of our calculations for low-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures.

  17. Anomalous Magnetic Field Dependence of Charge Carrier Density in Ferromagnetic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuivalainen, P.; Sinkkonen, J.; Stubb, T.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reports calculations of temperature and magnetic field dependent thermal and optical activation energies of a shallow donor state and the energy of the conduction band edge in a ferromagnetic semiconductor. The formation of the bound magnetic polaron (BMP), i.e., a magnetically polarized cluster associated with the donor electron, is taken into account. The solution of a set of coupled equations for the energy of a donor electron and for the local non-uniform magnetization around the donor center indicates that the activation energies have their maxima near the Curie temperature and decrease with the application of a magnetic field. This decrease leads to a strong magnetic field dependence of the charge carrier density nc explains well the giant negative magnetoresistance of EuSe observed experimentally at low temperatures.

  18. Magnetoreflection spectroscopy of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenide semiconductors in pulsed magnetic fields

    DOE PAGES

    Stier, Andreas V.; McCreary, Kathleen M.; Jonker, Berend T.; ...

    2016-05-13

    The authors describe recent experimental efforts to perform polarization-resolved optical spectroscopy of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenide semiconductors in very large pulsed magnetic fields to 65 T. The experimental setup and technical challenges are discussed in detail, and temperature-dependent magnetoreflection spectra from atomically thin tungsten disulphide are presented. The data clearly reveal not only the valley Zeeman effect in these two-dimensional semiconductors but also the small quadratic exciton diamagnetic shift from which the very small exciton size can be directly inferred. Lastly, the authors present model calculations that demonstrate how the measured diamagnetic shifts can be used to constrain estimates of themore » exciton binding energy in this new family of monolayer semiconductors.« less

  19. Magnetoreflection spectroscopy of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenide semiconductors in pulsed magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Stier, Andreas V.; McCreary, Kathleen M.; Jonker, Berend T.; Kono, Junichiro; Crooker, Scott A.

    2016-05-13

    The authors describe recent experimental efforts to perform polarization-resolved optical spectroscopy of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenide semiconductors in very large pulsed magnetic fields to 65 T. The experimental setup and technical challenges are discussed in detail, and temperature-dependent magnetoreflection spectra from atomically thin tungsten disulphide are presented. The data clearly reveal not only the valley Zeeman effect in these two-dimensional semiconductors but also the small quadratic exciton diamagnetic shift from which the very small exciton size can be directly inferred. Lastly, the authors present model calculations that demonstrate how the measured diamagnetic shifts can be used to constrain estimates of the exciton binding energy in this new family of monolayer semiconductors.

  20. Magnetoreflection spectroscopy of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenide semiconductors in pulsed magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Stier, Andreas V.; McCreary, Kathleen M.; Jonker, Berend T.; Kono, Junichiro; Crooker, Scott A.

    2016-05-13

    The authors describe recent experimental efforts to perform polarization-resolved optical spectroscopy of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenide semiconductors in very large pulsed magnetic fields to 65 T. The experimental setup and technical challenges are discussed in detail, and temperature-dependent magnetoreflection spectra from atomically thin tungsten disulphide are presented. The data clearly reveal not only the valley Zeeman effect in these two-dimensional semiconductors but also the small quadratic exciton diamagnetic shift from which the very small exciton size can be directly inferred. Lastly, the authors present model calculations that demonstrate how the measured diamagnetic shifts can be used to constrain estimates of the exciton binding energy in this new family of monolayer semiconductors.

  1. Magnetic detection of photogenerated currents in semiconductor wafers using superconducting quantum interference devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, J.; Matz, H.; Drung, D.; Schurig, Th.

    1999-05-01

    A completely noninvasive method is presented for the investigation of semiconductor wafers with high spatial resolution utilizing a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer system. The method is based on the detection of the magnetic field caused by photocurrents generated in the semiconductor sample using a sensitive SQUID magnetometer. The photocurrents arise when laser light with a photon energy exceeding the band gap of the semiconductor is focused onto the sample surface in a region of a doping gradient. The spatial resolution of this detection method is mainly determined by the size of the excitation focus of about 20 μm. We report on measurements of silicon wafers with small growth-related doping fluctuations.

  2. Magnetic properties of multiferroics-semiconductors Eu1-xCexMn2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanina, V. A.; Golovenchits, E. I.; Zalesskii, V. G.; Scheglov, M. P.

    2011-11-01

    Studies of magnetization, magnetoresistance, and magnetic oscillations in semiconductor-multiferroics Eu1-xCexMn2O5 (x = 0.2-0.25) (ECMO) at temperatures ranging from 5 to 350 K in magnetic fields up to 6 T are presented. It is shown that phase separation and charge carrier self-organization in the crystals give rise to a layered superstructure perpendicular to the c axis. An effect of magnetic field cycling on the superstructure, magnetization, and magnetoresistance is demonstrated. X-ray diffraction studies of ECMO demonstrating the effect of magnetic field on the superstructure are presented. The de Haas-van Alphen magnetization oscillations in high magnetic fields and the temperature-induced magnetic oscillations in a fixed magnetic field are observed at low temperatures. Below 10 K the quantum corrections to magnetization due to the weak charge carrier localization in 2D superlattice layers occur. It is shown that at all the temperatures the Eu1-xCexMn2O5 magnetic state is dictated by superparamagnetism of isolated ferromagnetic domains.

  3. Spin noise explores local magnetic fields in a semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhov, Ivan I.; Kozlov, Gleb G.; Smirnov, Dmitrii S.; Glazov, Mikhail M.; Efimov, Yurii P.; Eliseev, Sergei A.; Lovtcius, Viacheslav A.; Petrov, Vladimir V.; Kavokin, Kirill V.; Kavokin, Alexey V.; Zapasskii, Valerii S.

    2016-02-01

    Rapid development of spin noise spectroscopy of the last decade has led to a number of remarkable achievements in the fields of both magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy. In this report, we demonstrate a new - magnetometric - potential of the spin noise spectroscopy and use it to study magnetic fields acting upon electron spin-system of an n-GaAs layer in a high-Q microcavity probed by elliptically polarized light. Along with the external magnetic field, applied to the sample, the spin noise spectrum revealed the Overhauser field created by optically oriented nuclei and an additional, previously unobserved, field arising in the presence of circularly polarized light. This “optical field” is directed along the light propagation axis, with its sign determined by sign of the light helicity. We show that this field results from the optical Stark effect in the field of the elliptically polarized light. This conclusion is supported by theoretical estimates.

  4. Spin noise explores local magnetic fields in a semiconductor

    PubMed Central

    Ryzhov, Ivan I.; Kozlov, Gleb G.; Smirnov, Dmitrii S.; Glazov, Mikhail M.; Efimov, Yurii P.; Eliseev, Sergei A.; Lovtcius, Viacheslav A.; Petrov, Vladimir V.; Kavokin, Kirill V.; Kavokin, Alexey V.; Zapasskii, Valerii S.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of spin noise spectroscopy of the last decade has led to a number of remarkable achievements in the fields of both magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy. In this report, we demonstrate a new – magnetometric – potential of the spin noise spectroscopy and use it to study magnetic fields acting upon electron spin-system of an n-GaAs layer in a high-Q microcavity probed by elliptically polarized light. Along with the external magnetic field, applied to the sample, the spin noise spectrum revealed the Overhauser field created by optically oriented nuclei and an additional, previously unobserved, field arising in the presence of circularly polarized light. This “optical field” is directed along the light propagation axis, with its sign determined by sign of the light helicity. We show that this field results from the optical Stark effect in the field of the elliptically polarized light. This conclusion is supported by theoretical estimates. PMID:26882994

  5. Study on the oxygen vacancy redistribution and the mechanism of electrical manipulation of ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Shuxia; Dong, Jingyu; Chen, Wei Zhang, Liyong; Guo, Jiajun; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Xu

    2015-12-21

    Electrical manipulation of room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) has been observed in several kinds of transition metal doped diluted magnetic oxide films. We demonstrate using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy that the redistribution of the oxygen vacancies in a film under an electric field plays a crucial role in the enhancement of the RTFM. Based on a detailed analysis of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data for the oxygen vacancy distribution in different resistive states, a unified mechanism has been proposed. This work points out a new direction for improving the magnetic properties of these materials by controlling oxygen vacancies in the interior of the films.

  6. The thermal behaviors and phase diagrams of the Ising-type endohedral fullerene with magnetic core and diluted magnetic shell (Core@Shell20)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantar, Ersin

    2017-08-01

    We have carried out theoretical studies on Ising-type endohedral fullerene (EF) structure with a dopant magnetic atom encaged within the diluted magnetic spherical cage to examine the evolution in magnetic behaviors. We show how the thermal behaviors and phase diagrams of Ising-type EF are affected by diluted surface, crystal field and exchange couplings. We have used to investigate theoretically the effect of Hamiltonian parameters the effective field calculations within Ising model framework. The model Hamiltonian includes nearest neighbor ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic center-surface (C-S) interaction as well as ferromagnetic surface interaction. We have shown that the system exhibits the first and second order phase transitions as well as tricritical point. In particular, the conditions for the occurrence of these reentrant and double reentrant behaviors are given explicitly.

  7. Magnetization dynamics in dilute Pd1-xFex thin films and patterned microstructures considered for superconducting electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovchanskiy, I. A.; Bolginov, V. V.; Abramov, N. N.; Stolyarov, V. S.; Ben Hamida, A.; Chichkov, V. I.; Roditchev, D.; Ryazanov, V. V.

    2016-10-01

    Motivated by recent burst of applications of ferromagnetic layers in superconducting digital and quantum elements, we study the magnetism of thin films and patterned microstructures of Pd0.99Fe0.01. In this diluted ferromagnetic system, a high-sensitivity ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) experiment reveals spectroscopic signatures of re-magnetization and enables the estimation of the saturation magnetization, the anisotropy field, and the Gilbert damping constant. The detailed analysis of FMR spectra links the observed unexpectedly high reduced anisotropy field (0.06-0.14) with the internal anisotropy, points towards a cluster nature of the ferromagnetism, and allows estimating characteristic time scale for magnetization dynamics in Pd-Fe based cryogenic memory elements to ( 3 - 5 ) × 10 - 9 s.

  8. Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance and Thermal Activation Spectroscopy Study of Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chang-Hwan

    2003-01-01

    Organic electronic materials are a new class of emerging materials. Organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) are the most promising candidates for future flat panel display technologies. The photophysical characterization is the basic research step one must follow to understand this new class of materials and devices. The light emission properties are closely related to the transport properties of these materials. The objective of this dissertation is to probe the relation between transport and photophysical properties of organic semiconductors. The transport characteristics were evaluated by using thermally stimulated current and thermally stimulated luminescence techniques. The photoluminescence detected magnetic resonance and photoluminescence quantum yield studies provide valuable photophysical information on this class of materials. OLEDs are already in the market. However, detailed studies on the degradation mechanisms are still lacking. Since both optically detected magnetic resonance and thermal activation spectroscopy probe long-lived defect-related states in organic semiconductors, the combined study generates new insight on the OLED operation and degradation mechanisms.

  9. Extremely large magnetoresistance and magnetic logic by coupling semiconductor nonlinear transport effect and anomalous Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaozhong; Luo, Zhaochu

    Size limitation of silicon FET hinders the further scaling down of silicon based CPU. To solve this problem, spin based magnetic logic devices were proposed but almost all of them could not be realized experimentally except for NOT logic operation. A magnetic field controlled reconfigurable semiconductor logic using InSb was reported. However, InSb is very expensive and not compatible with the silicon technology. Based on our Si based magnetoresistance (MR) device, we developed a Si based reconfigurable magnetic logic device, which could do all four Boolean logic operations including AND, OR, NOR and NAND. By coupling nonlinear transport effect of semiconductor and anomalous Hall effect of magnetic material, we propose a PMA material based MR device with a remarkable non local MR of >20000 % at ~1 mT. Based on this MR device, we further developed a PMA material based magnetic logic device which could do all four Boolean logic operations. This makes it possible that magnetic material does both memory and logic. This may result in a memory-logic integrated system leading to a non von Neumann computer

  10. Asymptotic Analysis of Melt Growth for Antimonide-Based Compound Semiconductor Crystals in Magnetic and Electric Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    vertical Bridgman process using submerged heater growth, and the magnetic liquid- encapsulated Czochralski process. Because molten semiconductors are...growth, and the magnetic liquid-encapsulated Czochralski process. These processes as well as the Bridgman-Stockbarger process have been investigated...spectral collocation methods are developed. Key results are summarized here. The traditional Bridgman-Stockbarger process in steady magnetic fields produces

  11. Biofunctionalization of anisotropic nanocrystalline semiconductor-magnetic heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Depalo, Nicoletta; Carrieri, Pasquale; Comparelli, Roberto; Striccoli, Marinella; Agostiano, Angela; Bertinetti, Luca; Innocenti, Claudia; Sangregorio, Claudio; Curri, M Lucia

    2011-06-07

    Asymmetric binary nanocrystals (BNCs) formed by a spherical γ-Fe(2)O(3) magnetic domain epitaxially grown onto a lateral facet of a rodlike anatase TiO(2) nanorod have been functionalized with PEG-terminated phospholipids, resulting in a micellar system that enables the BNC dispersion in aqueous solution. The further processability of the obtained water-soluble BNC including PEG lipid micelles and their use in bioconjugation experiments has been successfully demonstrated by covalently binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA). The whole process has also been preliminarily performed on spherical iron oxide nanocrystals (NCs) and TiO(2) nanorods (NRs), which form single structural units in the heterostructures. Each step has been thoroughly monitored by using optical, structural, and electrophoretic techniques. In addition, an investigation of the magnetic behavior of the iron oxide NCs and BNCs, before and after incorporation into PEG lipid micelles and subsequently bioconjugation, has been carried out, revealing that the magnetic characteristics are mostly retained. The proposed approach to achieving water-soluble anisotropic BNCs and their bioconjugates has a large potential in catalysis and biomedicine and offers key functional building blocks for biosensor applications.

  12. Excimer laser induced diffusion in magnetic semiconductor quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howari, H.; Sands, D.; Nicholls, J. E.; Hogg, J. H. C.; Stirner, T.; Hagston, W. E.

    2000-08-01

    Studies of pulsed laser annealing (PLA) of CdTe/CdMnTe quantum well structures are made in order to examine depth dependent effects in laser irradiated semiconductors. Since diffusion coefficients are strongly dependent on the temperature, depth resolution is achieved because the diffusion of Mn from the barriers into the quantum wells is depth dependent. Multiple quantum well (MQW) structures of CdTe/CdMnTe were annealed with single pulses from an XeCl laser at 308 nm. At a threshold of 90 mJ cm-2 two new emission bands are observed that are attributed to the diffusion of Mn from barrier layers to QWs. The diffusion associated with these bands, measured as the integrated product of the diffusion constant and time, is found to be 300 and 30 Å2. Calculations of the temperature, reached within the surface following PLA, using an analytical solution of the heat diffusion equation coupled with known high temperature diffusion coefficients predict the diffusion to decrease by one order of magnitude within one period at the top of the MQW stack. It is suggested that at the threshold surface melting occurs and that these emission bands arise from the QWs immediately beneath the melt front. The diffusion of Mn ions into the QWs is confirmed by magneto-optical data. A further emission band occurs at this same threshold with a Mn concentration above that of the concentration in the barrier layers of the MQW stack. This emission is attributed tentatively to the segregation of the Mn ion within the molten region following recrystallization.

  13. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Zn{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}O magnetic semiconductors prepared by sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Dinia, A.; Schmerber, G.; Meny, C.; Pierron-Bohnes, V.; Beaurepaire, E.

    2005-06-15

    We have used magnetron cosputtering to grow Zn{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}O magnetic dilute semiconductors. The growth has been performed on SiO{sub 2}/Si and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrates. The Co concentration has been varied between 0.1 and 0.25 and the substrate temperature between room temperature and 600 deg. C. X-ray diffraction analysis has shown that for the films grown on Si substrates the structural quality of the film is improved by increasing the growth temperature and/or postgrowth annealing. The films are textured with c axis of the wurtzite structure along the growth direction. However, for the films grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate quasi-epitaxial films have been obtained for 600 deg. C substrate temperature. Magnetization measurements have shown that the ferromagnetism is directly correlated to the structural quality and appears by increasing the growth temperature and/or postgrowth annealing. Moreover, for the highly textured film a clear magnetic perpendicular anisotropy has been evidenced with the easy magnetization axis along the growth direction. To evidence the intrinsic nature of the ferromagnetism in the films, transmission optical measurements have been used. They show three absorption bands that are characteristics of d-d transitions of tetrahedrally coordinated Co{sup 2+}. This has been supported by nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic thermal variation.

  14. Ferromagnetism of magnetic semiconductors: Zhang-Rice limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietl, T.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.

    2002-07-01

    It is suggested that p-d hybridization contributes significantly to the hole binding energy Eb of Mn acceptors in III-V compounds, leading in an extreme case to the formation of Zhang-Rice-like small magnetic polarons. The model explains both the strong increase of Eb and the evolution of a Mn spin-resonance spectrum with the magnitude of valence-band offsets. The high Curie temperature above room temperature is shown to be in accordance with the mean-field Zener model.

  15. Magnetic field effect in non-magnetic organic semiconductor thin film devices and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mermer, Omer

    Organic pi-conjugated materials have been used to manufacture devices such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaic cells and field-effect transistors. Recently there has been growing interest in spin and magnetic field effects in these materials. In this thesis, I report on the discovery and experimental characterization of a large and intriguing magnetoresistance effect, which we dubbed organic magnetoresistance (OMAR), in various pi-conjugated polymer and small molecular OLEDs. OMAR may find application in magnetic field sensors in OLED interactive displays (patent pending). We discovered OMAR originally in devices made from the pi-conjugated polymer polyfluorene. We found ≈ 10% magnetoresistance at 10 mT fields at room temperature. The effect is independent of the field direction, and is only weakly temperature dependent. We show that OMAR is a bulk effect related to the majority carrier transport. Studying polymer films with different amount of disorder we found that low disorder/large mobility is not a necessary prerequisite for large OMAR response. We also studied a possible interrelation between spin-orbit coupling and the OMAR effect in platinum-containing polymers. We found that spin-orbit coupling has apparently little effect on OMAR. A large OMAR effect was also observed in devices made from the prototypical small molecule, Alq3 that is similar in size to that in the polyfluorene devices. Our study shows that the basic properties are equivalent to polymer devices. To the best of our knowledge, OMAR is not adequately described by any of the magnetoresistance mechanisms known to date. A future explanation for this effect may lead to a breakthrough in the scientific understanding of organic semiconductors. In a largely unrelated effort, we also modelled spin-dependent exciton formation in OLEDs. Our work leads to the following picture of exciton formation: Since the triplet exciton states lie lower in energy than singlets, more phonons must

  16. Analysis of the stability of states of semiconductor superlattice in the presence of tilted magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimenko, V. A.; Makarov, V. V.; Koronovskii, A. A.; Hramov, A. E.

    2016-03-01

    A method to calculate the spectrum of the Lyapunov exponents for a periodic semiconductor nanostructure (superlattice) described in the framework of a semiclassical approach is proposed. The analysis of the stability of a stationary state in such a system is performed for autonomous dynamics and in the presence of a tilted magnetic field. The method of the Lyapunov exponents is used to study the effect of the tilted magnetic field on the stability of the stationary state and the characteristics of subterahertz oscillation regimes.

  17. Detecting excitation and magnetization of individual dopants in a semiconductor two-dimensional electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, Jens

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic atoms doped into a semiconductor are the building blocks for bottom up spintronic and quantum logic devices. They also provide model systems for the investigation of fundamental effects. In order to correlate the dopant's atomic structure with its magnetism magnetically sensitive techniques with atomic resolution are a prerequisite. Here, I show electrical excitation and read-out [ 1 ] of single magnetic dopant associated spins in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) confined to a semiconductor surface [ 2 ] using spin-resolved scanning tunneling spectroscopy [ 3 ] . I will review our real-space study of the quantum Hall transition in the 2DEG [ 2 ] and of the magnetic properties of the dopants [ 1 ] . Finally, I will demonstrate that the dopant serves as an atomic scale probe for local magnetometry of the 2DEG. This work was done in collaboration with A. A. Khajetoorians, B. Chillian, S. Schuwalow, F. Lechermann, K. Hashimoto, C. Sohrmann, T. Inaoka, F. Meier, Y. Hirayama, R. A. Römer, M. Morgenstern, and R. Wiesendanger. [ 1 ] A. A. Khajetoorians et al., Nature 467, 1084 (2010). [ 2 ] K. Hashimoto et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 256802 (2008). [ 3 ] J. Wiebe et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4871 (2004). We acknowledge financial support from ERC Advanced Grant ``FURORE'', by the DFG via SFB668 and GrK1286, and by the city of Hamburg via the cluster of excellence ``Nanospintronics''.

  18. Tuning the magnetic and structural phase transitions of PrFeAsO via Fe/Ru spin dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Yiu, Yuen; Bonfa, Pietro; Sanna, Samuele; De Renzi, Roberto; Caretta, Pietro; McGuire, Michael A; Huq, Ashfia; Nagler, Stephen E

    2014-01-01

    Neutron diffraction and muon spin relaxation measurements are used to obtain a detailed phase diagram of PrFe1{xRuxAsO. The isoelectronic substitution of Ru for Fe acts eectively as spin dilution, suppressing both the structural and magnetic phase transitions. The temperature, TS, of the tetragonal-orthorhombic structural phase transition decreases gradually as a function of x. Slightly below TS coherent precessions of the muon spin are observed corresponding to static magnetism, possibly re ecting a signicant magneto-elastic coupling in the FeAs layers. Short range order in both the Fe and Pr moments persists for higher levels of x. The static magnetic moments disappear at a concentration coincident with that expected for percolation of the J1 - J2 square lattice model.

  19. Temperature dependence of the magnetic hyperfine field at an s-p impurity diluted in RNi2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, A. L.; Chaves, C. M.; Oliveira, N. A. de; Troper, A.

    2016-03-01

    We study the formation of local magnetic moments and magnetic hyperfine fields at an s-p impurity diluted in intermetallic Laves phase compounds RNi2 (R=Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy) at finite temperatures. We start with a clean host and later the impurity is introduced. The host has two-coupled (R and Ni) sublattice Hubbard Hamiltonians but the Ni sublattice can be disregarded because its d band, being full, is magnetically ineffective. Also, the effect of the 4f electrons of R is represented by the polarization they produce on the d band. This leaves us with a lattice of effective rare earth R-ions with polarized electrons. For the dd electronic interaction we use the Hubbard-Stratonovich identity in a functional integral approach in the static saddle point approximation.

  20. Unexpected Magnetic Semiconductor Behavior in Zigzag Phosphorene Nanoribbons Driven by Half-Filled One Dimensional Band

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yongping; Liu, Huimei; Xu, Bo; Sheng, Li; Yin, Jiang; Duan, Chun-Gang; Wan, Xiangang

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene, as a novel two-dimensional material, has attracted a great interest due to its novel electronic structure. The pursuit of controlled magnetism in Phosphorene in particular has been persisting goal in this area. In this paper, an antiferromagnetic insulating state has been found in the zigzag phosphorene nanoribbons (ZPNRs) from the comprehensive density functional theory calculations. Comparing with other one-dimensional systems, the magnetism in ZPNRs display several surprising characteristics: (i) the magnetic moments are antiparallel arranged at each zigzag edge; (ii) the magnetism is quite stable in energy (about 29 meV/magnetic-ion) and the band gap is big (about 0.7 eV); (iii) the electronic and magnetic properties is almost independent on the width of nanoribbons; (iv) a moderate compressive strain will induce a magnetic to nonmagnetic as well as semiconductor to metal transition. All of these phenomena arise naturally due to one unique mechanism, namely the electronic instability induced by the half-filled one-dimensional bands which cross the Fermi level at around π/2a. The unusual electronic and magnetic properties in ZPNRs endow them possible potential for the applications in nanoelectronic devices. PMID:25747727

  1. Coexistence of bulk and surface polaritons in a magnetic-semiconductor superlattice influenced by a transverse magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuz, Vladimir R.; Fesenko, Volodymyr I.; Fedorin, Illia V.; Sun, Hong-Bo; Han, Wei

    2017-03-01

    It is demonstrated that the effect of coexistence of bulk and surface polaritons within the same frequency band and the wavevector space can be achieved in a magnetic-semiconductor superlattice, providing a conscious choice of characteristic resonant frequencies and material fractions of the structure's underlying components as well as geometry of the external static magnetic field. The study is based on the effective medium theory, which is involved to calculate dispersion characteristics of the long-wavelength electromagnetic modes of ordinary and extraordinary bulk polaritons, and hybrid surface polaritons with dominant longitudinal component of either magnetic (HE) or electric (EH) field derived via averaged expressions with respect to the effective constitutive parameters of the superlattice.

  2. Magnetic order in a frustrated two-dimensional atom lattice at a semiconductor surface.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Höpfner, Philipp; Schäfer, Jörg; Blumenstein, Christian; Meyer, Sebastian; Bostwick, Aaron; Rotenberg, Eli; Claessen, Ralph; Hanke, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional electron systems, as exploited for device applications, can lose their conducting properties because of local Coulomb repulsion, leading to a Mott-insulating state. In triangular geometries, any concomitant antiferromagnetic spin ordering can be prevented by geometric frustration, spurring speculations about 'melted' phases, known as spin liquid. Here we show that for a realization of a triangular electron system by epitaxial atom adsorption on a semiconductor, such spin disorder, however, does not appear. Our study compares the electron excitation spectra obtained from theoretical simulations of the correlated electron lattice with data from high-resolution photoemission. We find that an unusual row-wise antiferromagnetic spin alignment occurs that is reflected in the photoemission spectra as characteristic 'shadow bands' induced by the spin pattern. The magnetic order in a frustrated lattice of otherwise non-magnetic components emerges from longer-range electron hopping between the atoms. This finding can offer new ways of controlling magnetism on surfaces.

  3. Unraveling the temperature and voltage dependence of magnetic field effects in organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Paul; Wouters, Steinar H. W.; Cox, Matthijs; Koopmans, Bert

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, it was discovered that the current through an organic semiconductor, sandwiched between two non-magnetic electrodes, can be changed significantly by applying a small magnetic field. This surprisingly large magnetoresistance effect, often dubbed as organic magnetoresistance (OMAR), has puzzled the young field of organic spintronics during the last decade. Here, we present a detailed study on the voltage and temperature dependence of OMAR, aiming to unravel the lineshapes of the magnetic field effects and thereby gain a deeper fundamental understanding of the underlying microscopic mechanism. Using a full quantitative analysis of the lineshapes, we are able to extract all linewidth parameters and the voltage and temperature dependencies are explained with a recently proposed trion mechanism. Moreover, explicit microscopic simulations show a qualitative agreement to the experimental results.

  4. Semiconductor crystal growth in crossed electric and magnetic fields: Center Director's Discretionary Fund

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, K.; Volz, M. P.

    1996-01-01

    A unique growth cell was designed in which crossed electric and magnetic fields could be separately or simultaneously applied during semiconductor crystal growth. A thermocouple was inserted into an InSb melt inside the growth cell to examine the temperature response of the fluid to applied electromagnetic fields. A static magnetic field suppressed time-dependent convection when a destabilizing thermal field was applied. The simultaneous application of electric and magnetic fields resulted in forced convection in the melt. The InSb ingots grown in the cell were polycrystalline. An InGaSb crystal, 0.5 cm in diameter and 23-cm long, was grown without electromagnetic fields applied. The axial composition results indicated that complete mixing in the melt occurred for this large aspect ratio.

  5. Measurement of the torque on diluted ferrofluid samples in rotating magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storozhenko, A. M.; Stannarius, R.; Tantsyura, A. O.; Shabanova, I. A.

    2017-06-01

    We study magnetic suspensions with different concentrations of ferromagnetic nanoparticles in a spherical container under the action of a rotating magnetic field. Experimental data on the concentration dependence of the rotational effect, viz. the torque exerted by the magnetic field, are presented. We explain the observed torque characteristics using a model that takes into account field-driven aggregation of the magnetic nanoparticles in stationary or slowly rotating fields. At sufficiently high rotation rates, the rotating magnetic field obviously destroys these aggregates, which results in a decreasing torque with increasing rotation frequency of the field.

  6. Magnetic susceptibility of Dirac fermions, Bi-Sb alloys, interacting Bloch fermions, dilute nonmagnetic alloys, and Kondo alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buot, Felix A.; Otadoy, Roland E. S.; Rivero, Karla B.

    2017-03-01

    Wide ranging interest in Dirac Hamiltonian is due to the emergence of novel materials, namely, graphene, topological insulators and superconductors, the newly-discovered Weyl semimetals, and still actively-sought after Majorana fermions in real materials. We give a brief review of the relativistic Dirac quantum mechanics and its impact in the developments of modern physics. The quantum band dynamics of Dirac Hamiltonian is crucial in resolving the giant diamagnetism of bismuth and Bi-Sb alloys. Quantitative agreement of the theory with the experiments on Bi-Sb alloys has been achieved, and physically meaningful contributions to the diamagnetism has been identified. We also treat relativistic Dirac fermion as an interband dynamics in uniform magnetic fields. For the interacting Bloch electrons, the role of translation symmetry for calculating the magnetic susceptibility avoids any approximation to second order in the field. The expressions for magnetic susceptibility of dilute nonmagnetic alloys give a firm theoretical foundation of the empirical formulas used in fitting experimental results. The unified treatment of all the above calculations is based on the lattice Weyl-Wigner formulation of discrete phase-space quantum mechanics. For completeness, the magnetic susceptibility of Kondo alloys is also given since Dirac fermions in conduction band and magnetic impurities exhibit Kondo effect.

  7. Models of Mass Transport During Microgravity Crystal Growth of Alloyed Semiconductors in a Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Alloyed semiconductor crystals, such as germanium-silicon (GeSi) and various II-VI alloyed crystals, are extremely important for optoelectronic devices. Currently, high-quality crystals of GeSi and of II-VI alloys can be grown by epitaxial processes, but the time required to grow a certain amount of single crystal is roughly 1,000 times longer than the time required for Bridgman growth from a melt. Recent rapid advances in optoelectronics have led to a great demand for more and larger crystals with fewer dislocations and other microdefects and with more uniform and controllable compositions. Currently, alloyed crystals grown by bulk methods have unacceptable levels of segregation in the composition of the crystal. Alloyed crystals are being grown by the Bridgman process in space in order to develop successful bulk-growth methods, with the hope that the technology will be equally successful on earth. Unfortunately some crystals grown in space still have unacceptable segregation, for example, due to residual accelerations. The application of a weak magnetic field during crystal growth in space may eliminate the undesirable segregation. Understanding and improving the bulk growth of alloyed semiconductors in microgravity is critically important. The purpose of this grant to to develop models of the unsteady species transport during the bulk growth of alloyed semiconductor crystals in the presence of a magnetic field in microgravity. The research supports experiments being conducted in the High Magnetic Field Solidification Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and future experiments on the International Space Station.

  8. Determining Exchange Splitting in a Magnetic Semiconductor by Spin-Filter Tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, T. S.; Moodera, J. S.; Venkataraman, K.; Negusse, E.; Holroyd, J.; Dvorak, J.; Liberati, M.; Idzerda, Y. U.; Arenholz, E.

    2008-06-24

    A large exchange splitting of the conduction band in ultrathin films of the ferromagnetic semiconductor EuO was determined quantitatively, by using EuO as a tunnel barrier and fitting the current-voltage characteristics and temperature dependence to tunneling theory. This exchange splitting leads to different tunnel barrier heights for spin-up and spin-down electrons, and is large enough to produce a near fully spin-polarized current. Moreover, the magnetic properties of these ultrathin films (<6 nm) show a reduction in Curie temperature with decreasing thickness, in agreement with theoretical calculation [R. Schiller et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3847 (2001)].

  9. Magnetic filter apparatus and method for generating cold plasma in semiconductor processing

    DOEpatents

    Vella, M.C.

    1996-08-13

    Disclosed herein is a system and method for providing a plasma flood having a low electron temperature to a semiconductor target region during an ion implantation process. The plasma generator providing the plasma is coupled to a magnetic filter which allows ions and low energy electrons to pass therethrough while retaining captive the primary or high energy electrons. The ions and low energy electrons form a ``cold plasma`` which is diffused in the region of the process surface while the ion implantation process takes place. 15 figs.

  10. Hydrogenated bilayer wurtzite SiC nanofilms: a two-dimensional bipolar magnetic semiconductor material.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Long; Li, Zhenyu; Yang, Jinlong

    2013-01-14

    Recently, a new kind of spintronics material, bipolar magnetic semiconductors (BMS), has been proposed. The spin polarization of BMS can be conveniently controlled by a gate voltage, which makes it very attractive in device engineering. Now, the main challenge is finding more BMS materials. In this article, we propose that hydrogenated wurtzite SiC nanofilm is a two-dimensional BMS material. Its BMS character is very robust under the effect of strain, substrate or even a strong electric field. The proposed two-dimensional BMS material paves the way to use this promising new material in an integrated circuit.

  11. Microscopic modeling of magnetic-field effects on charge transport in organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellekens, A. J.; Wagemans, W.; Kersten, S. P.; Bobbert, P. A.; Koopmans, B.

    2011-08-01

    The stochastic Liouville equation is applied to the field of organic magnetoresistance to perform detailed microscopic calculations on the different proposed models. By adapting this equation, the influence of a magnetic field on the current in bipolaron, electron-hole pair, and triplet models is calculated. The simplicity and wide applicability of the stochastic Liouville equation makes it a powerful tool for interpreting experimental results on magnetoresistance measurements in organic semiconductors. New insights are gained on the influence of hopping rates and disorder on the magnetoresistance.

  12. Material degradation of liquid organic semiconductors analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushima, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Junichi; Fukuchi, Masashi; Kaji, Hironori; Hirata, Shuzo; Jung, Heo Hyo; Adachi, Chihaya; Hirata, Osamu; Shibano, Yuki

    2015-08-15

    Liquid organic light-emitting diodes (liquid OLEDs) are unique devices consisting only of liquid organic semiconductors in the active layer, and the device performances have been investigated recently. However, the device degradation, especially, the origin has been unknown. In this study, we show that material degradation occurs in liquid OLEDs, whose active layer is composed of carbazole with an ethylene glycol chain. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments clearly exhibit that the dimerization reaction of carbazole moiety occurs in the liquid OLEDs during driving the devices. In contrast, cleavages of the ethylene glycol chain are not detected within experimental error. The dimerization reaction is considered to be related to the device degradation.

  13. Magnetization dynamics down to a zero field in dilute (Cd,Mn)Te quantum wells.

    PubMed

    Goryca, M; Ferrand, D; Kossacki, P; Nawrocki, M; Pacuski, W; Maślana, W; Gaj, J A; Tatarenko, S; Cibert, J; Wojtowicz, T; Karczewski, G

    2009-01-30

    The evolution of the magnetization in (Cd,Mn)Te quantum wells after a short pulse of magnetic field was determined from the giant Zeeman shift of spectroscopic lines. The dynamics in the absence of a static magnetic field was found to be up to 3 orders of magnitude faster than that at 1 T. Hyperfine interaction and strain are mainly responsible for the fast decay. The influence of a hole gas is clearly visible: at zero field anisotropic holes stabilize the system of Mn ions, while in a magnetic field of 1 T they are known to speed up the decay by opening an additional relaxation channel.

  14. In-plane magnetic anisotropy and temperature dependence of switching field in (Ga, Mn) as ferromagnetic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Kamara, S; Terki, F; Dumas, R; Dehbaoui, M; Sadowski, J; Galéra, R M; Tran, Q-H; Charar, S

    2012-06-01

    We explore the magnetic anisotropy of GaMnAs ferromagnetic semiconductor by Planar Hall Effect (PHE) measurements. Using low magnitude of applied magnetic field (i.e., when the magnitude H is smaller than both cubic Hc and uniaxial Hu anisotropy field), we have observed various shapes of applied magnetic field direction dependence of Planar Hall Resistance (PHR). In particular, in two regions of temperature. At T < Tc/2, the "square-shape" signal and at T > Tc/2 the "zigzag-shape" signal of PHR. They reflect different magnetic anisotropy and provide information about magnetization reversal process in GaMnAs ferromagnetic semiconductor. The theoretical model calculation of PHR based on the free energy density reproduces well the experimental data. We report also the temperature dependence of anisotropy constants and magnetization orientations. The transition of easy axis from biaxial to uniaxiale axes has been observed and confirmed by SQUID measurements.

  15. Exciting transition metal doped dilute magnetic thin films: MgO:Er and ZnO:Er

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćakıcı, T.; Sarıtaş, S.; Muǧlu, G. Merhan; Yıldırım, M.

    2017-02-01

    Erbium doped MgO and doped ZnO thin films have reasonably important properties applications in spintronic devices. These films were synthesized on glass substrates by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis (CSP) method. In the literature there has been almost no report on preparation of MgO:Er dilute magnetic thin films by means of CSP. Because doped thin films show different magnetic behaviors, depending upon the type of magnetic material ions, concentration of them, synthesis route and experimental conditions, synthesized MgO:Er and ZnO:Er films were compared to thin film properties. Optical analyses of the synthesized thin films were examined spectral absorption and transmittance measurements by UV-Vis double beam spectrophotometer technique. Structural analysis of the thin films was examined by using XRD, Raman Analysis, FE-SEM, EDX and AFM techniques. Also, magnetic properties of the MgO:Er and ZnO:Er films were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) which show that diamagnetic behavior of the MgO:Er thin film and ferromagnetic (FM) behavior of the ZnO:Er film were is formed.

  16. On a few properties of very dilute matter frozen in space magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdichevsky, D. B.; Schefers, K.

    2014-12-01

    For a case study, the flux-rope (FR) that passed Earth on June 2, 2014(1) (see also listing of magnetic clouds and their properties in the Wind SC MFI science team site at http://wind.gsfc.nasa.gov/mfi/mag_cloud_S1.html), we proceed to interpret plasma and magnetic field observations in the context of MHD. The observations used are 3s average interplanetary magnetic field (Wind/MFI instrument) and 3s plasma (Wind/SWE instruments) data(2). After identifying the observed correlation between electron density, temperature and pressure in the plasma frame of reference we proceed to establish the existence of a relationship between these plasma observables with the magnetic field pressure. By assuming ideal MHD conditions to be valid we proceed to confirm that the medium is diamagnetic, as is to be expected for the MHD state of matter and magnetic field which is assumed to be a superconducting medium. Additionally we infer the presence of magnetization work, as well as a few other constitutive properties of this state of matter. 1 Berdichevsky D. B., R. P. Lepping, and C. J. Farrugia, Geometric considerations of the evolution of magnetic flux ropes, Phys. Rev. E67, doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.036405. Lepping R. P. et al, A summary of Wind magnetic clouds for years 1995 - 2003: model-fitted parameters, associated errors and classifications, Ann. Geophysicae, 24, 215-245, 2006.2006 2 Ogilvie, K. W., et al, SWE, A comprehensive plasma instrument for the Wind spacecraft, Space Sci. Rev., 71, 55 - 77, 1995; Lepping R. P., et al , The Wind Magnetic Field Investigation, Space Sci. Rev., 71, 207 - 229, 1995.

  17. Magnetism in alkali-metal-doped wurtzite semiconductor materials controlled by strain engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J. H.; Li, T. H.; Liu, L. Z.; Hu, F. R.

    2016-09-01

    The study of the magnetism and optical properties of semiconductor materials by defect engineering has attracted much attention because of their potential uses in spintronic and optoelectronic devices. In this paper, first-principle calculations discloses that cationic vacancy formation energy of the doped wurtzite materials can be sharply decreased due to alkali metal dopants and shows that their magnetic properties strongly depend on defect and doping concentration. This effect can be ascribed to the volume change induced by foreign elements doped into the host system and atomic population's difference. The symmetric deformation induced by biaxial strain can further regulate this behavior. Our results suggest that the formation of cationic vacancy can be tailored by strain engineering and dopants incorporation.

  18. Magnetism in the p-type Monolayer II-VI semiconductors SrS and SrSe.

    PubMed

    Lin, Heng-Fu; Lau, Woon-Ming; Zhao, Jijun

    2017-04-05

    Using density functional theory calculations, we study the electronic and magnetic properties of the p-type monolayer II-VI semiconductors SrX (X = S,Se). The pristine SrS and SrSe monolayers are large band gap semiconductor with a very flat band in the top valence band. Upon injecting hole uniformly, ferromagnetism emerges in those system in a large range of hole density. By varying hole density, the systems also show complicated phases transition among nonmagnetic semiconductor, half metal, magnetic semiconductor, and nonmagnetic metal. Furthermore, after introducing p-type dopants in SrS and SrSe via substitutionary inserting P (or As) dopants at the S (or Se) sites, local magnetic moments are formed around the substitutional sites. The local magnetic moments are stable with the ferromagnetic order with appreciable Curie temperature. The ferromagnetism originates from the instability of the electronic states in SrS and SrSe with the large density of states at the valence band edge, which demonstrates a useful strategy for realizing the ferromagnetism in the two dimensional semiconductors.

  19. Magnetism in the p-type Monolayer II-VI semiconductors SrS and SrSe

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Heng-Fu; Lau, Woon-Ming; Zhao, Jijun

    2017-01-01

    Using density functional theory calculations, we study the electronic and magnetic properties of the p-type monolayer II-VI semiconductors SrX (X = S,Se). The pristine SrS and SrSe monolayers are large band gap semiconductor with a very flat band in the top valence band. Upon injecting hole uniformly, ferromagnetism emerges in those system in a large range of hole density. By varying hole density, the systems also show complicated phases transition among nonmagnetic semiconductor, half metal, magnetic semiconductor, and nonmagnetic metal. Furthermore, after introducing p-type dopants in SrS and SrSe via substitutionary inserting P (or As) dopants at the S (or Se) sites, local magnetic moments are formed around the substitutional sites. The local magnetic moments are stable with the ferromagnetic order with appreciable Curie temperature. The ferromagnetism originates from the instability of the electronic states in SrS and SrSe with the large density of states at the valence band edge, which demonstrates a useful strategy for realizing the ferromagnetism in the two dimensional semiconductors. PMID:28378761

  20. Structural and magnetic properties of a prospective spin gapless semiconductor MnCrVAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Y.; Gilbert, S.; Kharel, P.; Jin, Y.; Lukashev, P.; Valloppilly, S.; Sellmyer, D. J.

    Recently a new class of material, spin gapless semiconductors (SGS), has attracted much attention because of their potential for spintronic devices. We have synthesized a Heusler compound, MnCrVAl, which is theoretically predicted to exhibit SGS by arc melting, rapid quenching and thermal annealing. First principles calculations are employed to describe its structural, electronic and magnetic properties. X-ray diffraction indicates that the rapidly quenched samples crystallize in the disordered cubic structure. The crystal structure is stable against heat treatment up to 650oC. The samples show very small saturation magnetization, 0.3 emu/g, at room temperature under high magnetic field, 30 kOe. Above room temperature, the magnetization increases with increasing temperature undergoing a magnetic transition at 560oC, similar to an antiferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic transition. The prospect of this material for spintronic applications will be discussed. This research is supported by SDSU Academic/Scholarly Excellence Fund, and Research/Scholarship Support Fund. Research at UNL is supported by DOE (DE-FG02-04ER46152, synthesis, characterization), NSF (ECCS-1542182, facilities), and NRI.

  1. Magnetization studies of II-VI semiconductor columnar quantum dots with type-II band alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eginligil, M.; Sellers, I. R.; McCombe, B. D.; Chou, W.-C.; Kuskovsky, I. L.

    2009-03-01

    We report SQUID magnetization measurements of MBE-grown type-II, II-VI semiconductor quantum dot (QD) samples, with and without Mn incorporation. In all samples, the easy axis is out-of-plane, possibly due to columnar QD formation that arises from strain interaction between adjacent thin dot-containing layers. In addition, both types of QDs display a non-zero spontaneous magnetic ordering at 300 K. One set of samples consists of five-layers of (Zn,Mn)Te/ZnSe with a nominal (Zn,Mn)Te thickness of 3 nm, and ZnSe spacer thickness of 5 nm and 20 nm. These magnetic QD samples show magnetization vs. temperature behavior that can be interpreted in terms of two independent FM phases characterized by transition temperatures TC1 < TC2. A sample containing no Mn consists of 130 ZnTe/ZnSe layers, which forms Zn(Se,Te) QD layers separated by ZnSe spacers. Evidence of ferromagnetism is also seen in this structure, but the spontaneous magnetization is much weaker. For this sample only one phase is seen with TC above 300 K. Results will be discussed in terms of magneto-polaronic effects and defect-level induced ferromagnetism.

  2. Weak magnetic field superconductor resistive sensors in comparison with semiconductor and magnetoresistive sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichkitidze, L. P.

    2007-09-01

    Weak magnetic field superconductor resistive sensors are fabricated and compared with various known types of the magnetoresistive and semiconductor sensors. The magnetically sensitive characteristics of the sensors are analyzed at room temperature and liquid-nitrogen temperature. Their resolution by the magnetic field δ B and by the magnetic flux δ ϕ are unsatisfactory, namely, δ B ⩾ 3 nT and δ ϕ ⩾ 10 ϕ0. Thick films of the ceramic HTS material of the composition Bi-2223 were fabricated, for which the magnetic sensitivity S ∼ 44 V/T, δ B ∼ 2 nT, and δ ϕ ∼ 3 ϕ0 are realized. It is shown that the value of S of the film increases significantly due to the size effect. This effect is taken into account, and the expected characteristics are presented, namely, S ⩾ 1000 V/T, δ B ⩽ 0.01 nT, δ ϕ ⩽ 0.002 ϕ0, and the dynamic measurement range ⩾150 dB.

  3. Rheology of a very dilute magnetic suspension with micro-structures of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Francisco Ricardo; Rosa, Adriano Possebon; Dias, Nuno Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this present paper is to measure the apparent viscosity of a magnetic suspension in the presence of particle agglomerates of different sizes for several applied magnetic fields, shear rates and particle volume fractions. A secondary goal is to investigate suspension microstructure transition, when subjected to a magnetic field. We show that an employed like virial expansion of two empirical coefficients based only on the experimental data gives a good quantitative description of the magnetorheological suspension effective viscosity up to particle volume fraction less than 0.01. The observed shear rate dependence viscosity is a direct consequence of the stretching, breaking particle structures of different sizes and shapes formed by the action of magnetic attractive force between the polarized particles as observed previously in the context of dense ferrofluids. We have identified even in the limit of a very small particle volume fraction a strong non-linear behavior of the examined suspension due to formation of suspended blobs-like aggregates of different sizes and anisotropic chains of particles. These structures are induced by the presence of an external magnetic field and particle-particle magnetic interactions. A histogram of the structure size distribution is also examined. The results of this paper are important to those who are interested on the magnetorheological suspensions.

  4. Spin-orbit dilution effects on the magnetism of frustrated spinel Ge(Co1-xMgx)2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agata, Ryotaro; Takita, Shota; Ishikawa, Takashi; Watanabe, Tadataka

    2015-03-01

    We investigated magnetic properties of spinel oxides Ge(Co1-xMgx)2O4 with x = 0 ~ 0.5 to study the spin-orbit dilution effects on the magnetism of spin-orbit frustrated spinel GeCo2O4. We discovered that the magnetic moment per single Co2+ ion is decreased with increasing nonmagnetic Mg2+ concentration, which indicates the spin-orbit decoupling caused by the spin-orbit dilution. Additionally, small-amount substitution of Mg2+ for Co2+ causes the rapid increase of the positive Weiss temperature indicating the enhancement of ferromagnetic interactions, while the Mg2+ substitution suppresses the antiferromagnetic ordering resulting in the appearance of spin glass behavior. The present results suggest that the spin-orbit dilution causes the spin-orbit decoupling and the reinforcement of ferromagnetic frustration in GeCo2O4.

  5. Itinerant ferromagnetism in a Fermi gas with contact interaction: Magnetic properties in a dilute Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Chiachen; Zhang Shiwei; Ceperley, David M.

    2010-12-15

    Ground-state properties of the repulsive Hubbard model on a cubic lattice are investigated by means of the auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo method. We focus on low-density systems with varying on-site interaction U/t, as a model relevant to recent experiments on itinerant ferromagnetism in a dilute Fermi gas with contact interaction. Twist-average boundary conditions are used to eliminate open-shell effects and large lattice sizes are studied to reduce finite-size effects. The sign problem is controlled by a generalized constrained path approximation. We find no ferromagnetic phase transition in this model. The ground-state correlations are consistent with those of a paramagnetic Fermi liquid.

  6. Magnetic field effects in organic semiconductors and their applications in displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veeraraghavan, Govindarajan

    Organic semiconductors have been widely expected to replace inorganic semiconductors in the field of display electronics since the advent of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Organic pi-conjugated materials have also been used to manufacture photovoltaic cells and field-effect transistors. Recent years have seen a surge in interest in the magnetotransport properties of these materials because they show great potential for such applications as magnetic field sensors and spintronics devices. In this thesis, I experimentally characterize a large magnetoresistance effect, which was recently discovered at the University of Iowa and was dubbed organic magnetoresistance (OMAR). We focus on two materials that show particularly great promise; one a macromolecular polymer called polyfluorene, the other a prototypical small molecule called Alq3. Building on the work of a prior student; in this thesis I report on the magnetic field dependence of current, photocurrent and electroluminescence in OLEDs made from Alq3 and polyfluorene. We provide a comprehensive overview of all these three types of magnetic field effects. In particular, we show that they are all caused by the same mechanism, in contrast to some claims by others. To the best of our knowledge, the mechanism causing OMAR and the other magnetic field effects is currently not known with certainty. Moreover, we show that experiments in bipolar, electroluminescent devices do not allow determination whether the mechanism acts on the carrier density or carrier mobility. This is a crucial gap in knowledge since it makes any attempt of explaining it ambiguous. As a remedy, we performed magnetoresistance measurements in hole-only polyfluorene devices and show that the mechanism acts on the carrier mobility rather than carrier recombination. We present an outline of a possible explanation which will be studied in more detail in another thesis. In my thesis I focus on possible applications of OMAR. I present the design

  7. Contrasting magnetism in dilute and supersaturated cobalt-fullerene mixture films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrentiev, V.; Stupakov, A.; Pokorný, J.; Lavrentieva, I.; Vacik, J.; Dejneka, A.; Barchuk, M.; Čapková, P.

    2015-08-01

    The combination of cobalt with nanocarbons promises hybrid nanostructures that are ideal for the development of memory storage and spin-transfer electronics. Here, we report a dramatic effect of composition on the magnetic properties of the Co x C60 mixtures, whose nanostructure was organized upon simultaneous deposition and sequential exposure to air. We assert a critical change in the mixture’s organization yielding either the composite nanostructure as array of the Co/CoO core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) in the C60-based matrix at a high content of Co (a supersaturated mixture or SSM) or a coexistence of fcc-C60 and CoaC60 fulleride when the Co content x is lower than some critical value {{x}\\text{c}} (an ultradilute mixture or UDM). Magnetization of the SSM composite exhibits a superparamagnetic effect caused by the small Co/CoO NPs. Similar magnetization of the UDM with x=0.7 revealed a stable ferromagnetism and evidenced the formation of a magnetic Co2C60 fulleride. Phase composition in the UDM and SSM films was verified with the XRD and Raman spectra. The UDM and SSM films reveal great difference in content of the remaining oxygen which implies easy diffusion of O2 molecules within the C60-based phases and their splitting at the Co NP surface followed by formation of CoO shells. The results obtained indicate controlled access to a variety of promising Co-C60 magnetic nanostructures.

  8. Low-dilution limit of Zn1-xMnxGeAs2: Electrical and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilanski, L.; Szałowski, K.; Szymczak, R.; Górska, M.; Dynowska, E.; Aleshkevych, P.; Podgórni, A.; Avdonin, A.; Dobrowolski, W.; Fedorchenko, I. V.; Marenkin, S. F.

    2013-09-01

    We present the studies of electrical transport and magnetic interactions in Zn1-xMnxGeAs2 crystals with low Mn content 0≤x≤0.042. We show that the ionic-acceptor defects are mainly responsible for the strong p-type conductivity of our samples. We found that the negative magnetoresistance with maximum values of about -50% is related to the weak localization phenomena. The magnetic properties of Zn1-xMnxGeAs2 samples show that the random Mn-distribution in the cation sites of the host lattice occurs only for the sample with the lowest Mn-content, x = 0.003. The samples with higher Mn-content show a high level of magnetic frustration. Nonzero Curie-Weiss temperature observed in all our samples indicates that weak ferromagnetic (for x = 0.003) or antiferromagnetic (for x >0.005) interactions with the Curie-Weiss temperature, |Θ|<3 K, are present in this system. The Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida model, used to estimate the Mn-hole exchange integral Jpd for the diluted Zn0.997Mn0.003GeAs2 sample, makes possible to estimate the value of Jpd=(0.75 ± 0.09) eV.

  9. Nonlinear and ac Susceptibility of the Dilute Ising Magnet LiHoxY1-xF4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quilliam, Jeffrey; Meng, Shuchao; Mugford, Chas; Kycia, Jan

    2008-03-01

    Recent work has called into question the existence of a spin glass transition in the dilute dipolar Ising magnet LiHoxY1-xF4 [1]. Other work has suggested that there is an exotic spin liquid phase found at a Ho concentration of x = 0.045 [2]. In order to carefully study the dynamics of this system, we have put together a SQUID magnetometer which allows for measurements of ac susceptibility and nonlinear susceptibility over a large frequency range. We present results from measurements on single crystals of LiHoxY1-xF4, particularly on an x = 0.045 sample, in an attempt to either reproduce the exotic ``anti-glass'' physics that was previously observed or to detect a spin glass transition. [1] P. E. Jonnson et al. PRL 98, 256403 (2007) [2] S. Ghosh et al. Science 296, 2195 (2002)

  10. First principles density functional calculation of magnetic moment and hyperfine fields of dilute transition metal impurities in Gd host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanta, S. K.; Mishra, S. N.; Srivastava, S. K.

    2014-04-01

    We present first principles calculations of electronic structure and magnetic properties of dilute transition metal (3d, 4d and 5d) impurities in a Gd host. The calculations have been performed within the density functional theory using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave technique and the GGA+U method. The spin and orbital contributions to the magnetic moment and the hyperfine fields have been computed. We find large magnetic moments for 3d (Ti-Co), 4d (Nb-Ru) and 5d (Ta-Os) impurities with magnitudes significantly different from the values estimated from earlier mean field calculation [J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 320 (2008) e446-e449]. The exchange interaction between the impurity and host Gd moments is found to be positive for early 3d elements (Sc-V) while in all other cases an anti-ferromagnetic coupling is observed. The trends for the magnetic moment and hyperfine field of d-impurities in Gd show qualitative difference with respect to their behavior in Fe, Co and Ni. The calculated total hyperfine field, in most cases, shows excellent agreement with the experimental results. A detailed analysis of the Fermi contact hyperfine field has been made, revealing striking differences for impurities having less or more than half filled d-shell. The impurity induced perturbations in host moments and the change in the global magnetization of the unit cell have also been computed. The variation within each of the d-series is found to correlate with the d-d hybridization strength between the impurity and host atoms.

  11. Ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic Zn-Co-doped CeO2-δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, T. S.; Folly, W. S. D.; Macêdo, M. A.

    2012-08-01

    Several oxides doped with transition metals can be used in spintronics devices due to their conductive and magnetic properties at room temperature. In this work, samples of Ce1-2xZnxCoxO2-δ were obtained by an alternative sol-gel proteic process for x=0.01, 0.05 and 0.1. The structural properties of samples were analyzed by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. Magnetization measurements revealed a ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature probably induced by oxygen vacancies.

  12. Effects of an external magnetic field on shallow donor levels in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S. C.

    1995-02-01

    The recent progress on investigation of the effects of external magnetic field on shallow impurity centers in semiconductors is discussed. As an example, the shallow donor levels of phosphorus in ultra pure silicon are investigated under magnetic fields and by use of photothermal ionization spectroscopy(PTIS). By selecting the configuration of B∥∥ kββ <100>, the linear and quadratic Zeeman splittings of phosphorus donor states are observed. By selecting the configuration of B∥∥k∥∥ <111>, the anticrossing between hybridized Zeeman states and the intensity evolution of Zeeman transitions near the anticrossing region are observed and measured quantitatively, which, in turn, gives the measurement of wavefunction composition and their evolutions with magnetic fields fox the hybridized Zeeman states of bounded electrons of impurities. An extension of Faulkner's method is made and a variational calculation in the framework of the effective mass approach(EMA) is performed to estimate theoretically the effects of magnetic fields on shallow donor levels and impurity transitions, especially to estimate the wave function compositions of hybridized states. A comparison has been made between the theoretical and experimental results.

  13. Integrated Active Magnetic Probe in Silicon-on-Insulator Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Satoshi; Kawahito, Shoji; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2006-09-01

    A novel magnetic probe has been designed and fabricated by 0.15 μm five-metal (4M + thick metal) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology to achieve both a high sensitivity and a high spatial resolution. A detecting coil having metal multilayers, a two-stage differential amplifier, a differential-to-single-ended converter, and an output buffer are integrated on a single chip. The probe is referred to as an active probe, and it has a feature to distinguish magnetic field from detected electromagnetic emissions by means of a two-turn differential coil structure and a circuit technique using a wideband differential-to-single-ended converter with a high common-mode rejection. Measurement results show the effectiveness of the active magnetic probe with the function of on-chip amplification and electric field suppression, as well as electrical switching with common-mode voltage (Vcom). Moreover, for the first time, a magnetic field distribution is visualized with an active probe.

  14. The effects of Peltier marking on semiconductor growth in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellers, Cheryl Casper

    This research represents a model for three dimensional semiconductor growth in a vertical Bridgman process within an externally applied magnetic field with the additional effects of Peltier marking. The magnetic field is strong enough that inertial effects can be neglected and that viscous effects are confined to boundary layers. The objective of this research is a first step in the development of a method to accurately predict the distribution of dopants and species in the melt after a current pulse with a given duration and strength, with a given magnetic field and with a given crystal-melt interface shape. The first model involves an asymptotic solution to provide physical clarification of the flow. In both models the crystal/melt interface is modeled as fr=3r2 where 3≪1 . The first model incorporates a variable, a which ranges from 0.25 to 1.0. The second model involves an analytical solution with an arbitrary Ha and a≪1 . These models show the how the azimuthal velocity varies with increasing Ha and how the stream function varies in the meridional problem. This gives insight into how the dopant is mixed during the crystal growth process. The results demonstrate that current pulses with relatively weak magnetic fields and modest interface curvature can lead to very strong mixing in the melt.

  15. Accurate measurements of electric quadrupole hyperfine interactions of very dilute spins in magnetic solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, D. H.; Hutchison, W. D.; Prandolini, M. J.; Bowden, G. J.

    1998-01-01

    The application of double and triple resonance techniques to enhance signals in quadrupole interaction — nuclear magnetic resonance on oriented nuclei spectroscopy, is illustrated for the antiferromagnet ( 54Mn)MnBr 2-4H 2O. Unusual shifts of the quadrupolar split, higher order, ν ±2, ±1 subresonance, comparable to the NMRON linewidth, are observed and explained.

  16. Technical note: Evaluating nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining body composition in Holstein dairy calves using deuterium oxide dilution methods.

    PubMed

    Chapman, C E; Wilkinson, P Stone; Murphy, M R; Erickson, P S

    2017-04-01

    Deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution methods have been used to assess body composition in live animals. Estimated body water content can be used to predict body fat and protein, and thus, the amount of energy reserves. It is an alternative method to direct chemical analysis and considered a noninvasive technique that is economical and repeatable. Deuterium oxide use is considered easy, safe, and accurate; however, the traditional methods of analyzing D2O are expensive, tedious, and time consuming. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to determine body composition in Holstein dairy heifers. Nuclear magnetic resonance is less expensive and requires minutes to calculate the percentage of D2O in the blood. This study used 24 newborn dairy heifer calves blocked by birth and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) 446 g dry matter (DM) of a conventional milk replacer (MR) [CON; 20% crude protein (CP), 20% fat], (2) 669 g DM of a moderately high protein MR (MOD; 26% CP, 18% fat), or (3) 892 g DM of a moderately high protein MR (aggressive, AGG; 26% CP, 18% fat). All calves had free-choice access to starter and water. Both MR and starter were medicated with decoquinate. During weaning (d 43 to 49), the morning MR feeding ceased. On d 50, all MR feedings ended but starter and water intakes were continuously recorded until d 56. When calves were 50 d of age, a baseline blood sample was taken followed by injection of 300 mg of D2O/kg of body weight in sterile physiological saline (0.9%). The syringes containing the D2O in physiological saline were weighed before and after administration to record the actual dose of D2O injected gravimetrically. After injection, the D2O was allowed to equilibrate with body water for 1 h. Six blood samples were taken over 6 d (1/d) at 1630 h to estimate the dilution of the tracer. The plasma was aspirated and stored at -20°C until further D2O analysis. This new method

  17. Magnetism at the Interface of Magnetic Oxide and Nonmagnetic Semiconductor Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Saha, Avijit; Viswanatha, Ranjani

    2017-03-28

    Engineering interfaces specifically in quantum dot (QD) heterostructures provide several prospects for developing multifunctional building block materials. Precise control over internal structure by chemical synthesis offers a combination of different properties in QDs and allows us to study their fundamental properties, depending on their structure. Herein, we studied the interface of magnetic/nonmagnetic Fe3O4/CdS QD heterostructures. In this work, we demonstrate the decrease in the size of the magnetic core due to annealing at high temperature by the decrease in saturation magnetization and blocking temperature. Furthermore, surprisingly, in a prominently optically active and magnetically inactive material such as CdS, we observe the presence of substantial exchange bias in spite of the nonmagnetic nature of CdS QDs. The presence of exchange bias was proven by the increase in magnetic anisotropy as well as the presence of exchange bias field (HE) during the field-cooled magnetic measurements. This exchange coupling was eventually traced to the in situ formation of a thin antiferromagnetic FeS layer at the interface. This is verified by the study of Fe local structure using X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, demonstrating the importance of interface engineering in QDs.

  18. Luminescence, Plasmonic and Magnetic Properties of Doped Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Current Developments and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Narayan; Adhikari, Samrat Das; Nag, Angshuman; Sarma, D D

    2017-02-02

    Introducing few atoms of impurities or dopants in semiconductor nanocrystals can drastically alter the existing or even introduce new properties. For example, mid-gap states created by doping tremendously affect photocatalytic activities and surface controlled redox reactions, generate new emission centres, show thermometric optical switching, make suitable FRET donors by enhancing the excited state lifetime and also create localized surface plasmon resonance induced low energy absorption. In addition, researchers have more recently started focusing their attention on doped nanocrystals as an important and alternative material for solar energy conversion in order to meet the current demand for renewable energy. Moreover, electrical as well as magnetic properties of the host are also strongly altered on doping. These dopant-induced beneficial changes in material properties suggest that doped nanocrystals with proper selections of dopant-host pairs may be helpful for generating designer materials for a wide range of current technological needs. Such exciting properties related to various aspects of doping a variety of semiconductor nanocrystals are summarized and reported in this mini review.

  19. Strong magnetic coupling in a magnetically dilute f-electron insulator: A dysprosium boron-cluster compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, T.; Sahara, R.; Kawazoe, Y.; Yubuta, K.; Shishido, T.; Grin, Y.

    2013-05-01

    Unexpectedly strong magnetic coupling is observed in boride insulators containing the B12 icosahedra as a structural unit. We have successfully synthesized Dy0.74B22C2N, which takes the RB22C2N-type crystal structure. The Dy phase was previously thought to not be possible to form. Spin glass-like behavior was observed with a broad peak in the zero field cooled (ZFC) magnetic susceptibility at T ˜ 44 K, while a large divergence for ZFC and field cooled (FC) curves is observed. The Curie-Weiss constant is determined to be θ =-43.9 K, and this system is indicated to have the strongest magnetic coupling ever observed for any rare earth boride insulator. Electronic structure and chemical bonding calculations were also made. Conventional mechanisms for f-electron magnetism cannot explain the strong coupling observed, which further indicates that the B12 icosahedra is functioning as a novel mediator of magnetic interaction.

  20. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Spin Polaron in a Diluted Parabolic Magnetic Quantum Well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, A. John; Zheng, Jin-Liang

    2010-04-01

    Theoretical investigations of spin polaron in a quantum well in the spin doping superlattice systems Cd1 - xin Mn1 - xout Te/Cd1 - xout Mnxout Te are presented in this paper. A variational procedure within the effective mass approximation is employed in the presence of magnetic held to calculate the donor ionization energy. Spin polaronic shifts are estimated using a mean held theory. The results show that the donor binding energy (i) Increases with the reduction in well sizes (ii) Decreases with the magnetic held is increased for a given well width (iii) Increases to a maximum value at 90 Å and then decreases as the size of the well increases beyond 90 Å and (iv) Spin polaronic shifts to the donor binding energy not only decrease in a magnetic held but also with the well width. The results are compared with the existing available literature.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of a diluted magnetic semiconducting TM co-doped Al:ZnO (TM=Co, Ni) thin films by sol-gel spin coating method.

    PubMed

    Siddheswaran, R; Mangalaraja, R V; Tijerina, Eduardo P; Menchaca, J-Luis; Meléndrez, M F; Avila, Ricardo E; Jeyanthi, C Esther; Gomez, M E

    2013-04-01

    Effect of transition metal oxides (TM=Co and Ni) co-doping on the crystallinity, surface morphology, grain growth and magnetic properties of nanostructure Al:ZnO thin films has been studied for diluted magnetic semiconductor applications. Al:ZnO thin films were fabricated by sol-gel spin coating on p-type Si (100) substrates. Fabrication of hexagonal wurtzite TM co-doped Al:ZnO thin films having thickness 2μm was successfully achieved. The Raman spectra of the TM co-doped Al:ZnO thin films showed a broad vibrational mode in the range 520-540cm(-1) due to crystal defects created co-doping elements in the ZnO host lattice. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the films are composed of uniform size, polycrystalline dense ZnO particles with defect free, smooth surfaces. The surface roughness was further verified with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis (EDX) confirmed the stoichiometric compositions of the TM co-doped Al:ZnO films. The magnetic measurements exhibited that the Co, Al:ZnO and Ni, Al:ZnO thin films were ferromagnetic at room temperature.

  2. Electric field control of spin splitting in III-V semiconductor quantum dots without magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakar, Sanjay; Melnik, Roderick

    2015-10-01

    We provide an alternative means of electric field control for spin manipulation in the absence of magnetic fields by transporting quantum dots adiabatically in the plane of two-dimensional electron gas. We show that the spin splitting energy of moving quantum dots is possible due to the presence of quasi-Hamiltonian that might be implemented to make the next generation spintronic devices of post CMOS technology. Such spin splitting energy is highly dependent on the material properties of semiconductor. It turns out that this energy is in the range of meV and can be further enhanced with increasing pulse frequency. In particular, we show that quantum oscillations in phonon mediated spin-flip behaviors can be observed. We also confirm that no oscillations in spin-flip behaviors can be observed for the pure Rashba or pure Dresselhaus cases.

  3. Terahertz radiation induced chaotic electron transport in semiconductor superlattices with a tilted magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Cao, J. C.

    2014-09-01

    Chaotic electron transport in semiconductor superlattice induced by terahertz electric field that is superimposed on a dc electric field along the superlattice axis are studied using the semiclassical motion equations including the effect of dissipation. A magnetic field that is tilted relative to the superlattice axis is also applied to the system. Numerical simulation shows that electrons in superlattice miniband exhibit complicate nonlinear oscillating modes with the influence of terahertz radiation. Transitions between frequency-locking and chaos via pattern forming bifurcations are observed with the varying of terahertz amplitude. It is found that the chaotic regions gradually contract as the dissipation increases. We attribute the appearance of complicate nonlinear oscillation in superlattice to the interaction between terahertz radiation and internal cooperative oscillating mode relative to Bloch oscillation and cyclotron oscillation.

  4. First-principles calculations of Seebeck coefficients in a magnetic semiconductor CuFeS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaki, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Kazuaki; Shimono, Masato; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko; Hirose, Kenji; Tsujii, Naohito; Mori, Takao

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the Seebeck coefficients of a magnetic semiconductor CuFeS2 using first-principles calculation methods based on density functional theory. The calculated temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient in the antiferromagnetic phase reproduces a distinctive behavior in a bulk CuFeS2, such as a peak structure at a low temperature and weak temperature dependence around room temperature. In doped systems, almost linear temperature dependence appears. Despite not including any effect beyond the conventional spin density functional theory in our calculations, the calculated results agree qualitatively with the experimental results. These agreements indicate that the behavior of the Seebeck coefficients in CuFeS2 is mainly determined by its electronic structure.

  5. Nonlinear optics response of semiconductor quantum wells under high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Chemla, D.S.

    1993-07-01

    Recent investigations on the nonlinear optical response of semiconductor quantum wells in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, H, are reviewed. After some introductory material the evolution of the linear optical properties of GaAs QW`s as a function of H is discussed; an examination is made of how the magneto-excitons (MX) extrapolate continuously between quasi-2D QW excitons (X) when H = 0, and pairs of Landau levels (LL) when H {yields} {infinity}. Next, femtosecond time resolved investigations of their nonlinear optical response are presented; the evolution of MX-MX interactions with increasing H is stressed. Finally, how, as the dimensionality is reduced by application of H, the number of scattering channels is limited and relaxation of electron-hole pairs is affected. How nonlinear optical spectroscopy can be exploited to access the relaxation of angular momentum within magneto-excitons is also discussed.

  6. Towards a new class of heavy ion doped magnetic semiconductors for room temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Juwon; Subramaniam, Nagarajan Ganapathi; Agnieszka Kowalik, Iwona; Nisar, Jawad; Lee, Jaechul; Kwon, Younghae; Lee, Jaechoon; Kang, Taewon; Peng, Xiangyang; Arvanitis, Dimitri; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2015-11-01

    The article presents, using Bi doped ZnO, an example of a heavy ion doped oxide semiconductor, highlighting a novel p-symmetry interaction of the electronic states to stabilize ferromagnetism. The study includes both ab initio theory and experiments, which yield clear evidence for above room temperature ferromagnetism. ZnBixO1-x thin films are grown using the pulsed laser deposition technique. The room temperature ferromagnetism finds its origin in the holes introduced by the Bi doping and the p-p coupling between Bi and the host atoms. A sizeable magnetic moment is measured by means of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the O K-edge, probing directly the spin polarization of the O(2p) states. This result is in agreement with the theoretical predictions and inductive magnetometry measurements. Ab initio calculations of the electronic and magnetic structure of ZnBixO1-x at various doping levels allow to trace the origin of the ferromagnetic character of this material. It appears, that the spin-orbit energy of the heavy ion Bi stabilizes the ferromagnetic phase. Thus, ZnBixO1-x doped with a heavy non-ferromagnetic element, such as Bi, is a credible example of a candidate material for a new class of compounds for spintronics applications, based on the spin polarization of the p states.

  7. Effect of temperature and magnetic field on disorder in semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrinskaya, N. V.; Kozub, V. I.

    2017-02-01

    We present the results of consistent theoretical analysis of various factors that may lead to influence of temperature and external magnetic field on disorder in semiconductor structures. Main attention is paid to quantum well (QW) structures in which only QWs or both QW and barriers are doped (the doping level is assumed to be close to the value corresponding to the metal-insulator transition). The above factors include (i) ionization of localized states to the region of delocalized states above the mobility edge, which is presumed to exist in the impurity band; (ii) the coexistence in the upper and lower Hubbard bands (upon doping of QWs as well as barriers); in this case, in particular, the external magnetic field determines the relative contribution of the upper Hubbard band due to spin correlations at doubly filled sites; and (iii) the contribution of the exchange interaction at pairs of sites, in which the external magnetic field can affect the relation between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic configurations. All these factors, which affect the structure and degree of disorder, lead to specific features in the temperature dependence of resistivity and determine specific features of the magnetoresistance. Our conclusions are compared with available experimental data.

  8. Large anomalous Hall effect in a silicon-based magnetic semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Manyala, Ncholu; Sidis, Yvan; DiTusa, John F; Aeppli, Gabriel; Young, David P; Fisk, Zachary

    2004-04-01

    Magnetic semiconductors are attracting great interest because of their potential use for spintronics, a new technology that merges electronics with the manipulation of conduction electron spins. (GaMn)As and (GaMn)N have recently emerged as the most popular materials for this new technology, and although their Curie temperatures are rising towards room temperature, these materials can only be fabricated in thin-film form, are heavily defective, and are not obviously compatible with Si. We show here that it is productive to consider transition metal monosilicides as potential alternatives. In particular, we report the discovery that the bulk metallic magnets derived from doping the narrow-gap insulator FeSi with Co share the very high anomalous Hall conductance of (GaMn)As, while displaying Curie temperatures as high as 53 K. Our work opens up a new arena for spintronics, involving a bulk material based only on transition metals and Si, which displays large magnetic-field effects on its electrical properties.

  9. Magnetic order in a frustrated two-dimensional atom lattice at a semiconductor surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Höpfner, Philipp; Schäfer, Jörg; Blumenstein, Christian; Meyer, Sebastian; Bostwick, Aaron; Rotenberg, Eli; Claessen, Ralph; Hanke, Werner

    2013-03-01

    Two-dimensional electron systems, as exploited for device applications, can lose their conducting properties because of local Coulomb repulsion, leading to a Mott-insulating state. In triangular geometries, any concomitant antiferromagnetic spin ordering can be prevented by geometric frustration, spurring speculations about ‘melted’ phases, known as spin liquid. Here we show that for a realization of a triangular electron system by epitaxial atom adsorption on a semiconductor, such spin disorder, however, does not appear. Our study compares the electron excitation spectra obtained from theoretical simulations of the correlated electron lattice with data from high-resolution photoemission. We find that an unusual row-wise antiferromagnetic spin alignment occurs that is reflected in the photoemission spectra as characteristic ‘shadow bands’ induced by the spin pattern. The magnetic order in a frustrated lattice of otherwise non-magnetic components emerges from longer-range electron hopping between the atoms. This finding can offer new ways of controlling magnetism on surfaces.

  10. Towards a new class of heavy ion doped magnetic semiconductors for room temperature applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juwon; Subramaniam, Nagarajan Ganapathi; Agnieszka Kowalik, Iwona; Nisar, Jawad; Lee, Jaechul; Kwon, Younghae; Lee, Jaechoon; Kang, Taewon; Peng, Xiangyang; Arvanitis, Dimitri; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    The article presents, using Bi doped ZnO, an example of a heavy ion doped oxide semiconductor, highlighting a novel p-symmetry interaction of the electronic states to stabilize ferromagnetism. The study includes both ab initio theory and experiments, which yield clear evidence for above room temperature ferromagnetism. ZnBixO1−x thin films are grown using the pulsed laser deposition technique. The room temperature ferromagnetism finds its origin in the holes introduced by the Bi doping and the p-p coupling between Bi and the host atoms. A sizeable magnetic moment is measured by means of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the O K-edge, probing directly the spin polarization of the O(2p) states. This result is in agreement with the theoretical predictions and inductive magnetometry measurements. Ab initio calculations of the electronic and magnetic structure of ZnBixO1−x at various doping levels allow to trace the origin of the ferromagnetic character of this material. It appears, that the spin-orbit energy of the heavy ion Bi stabilizes the ferromagnetic phase. Thus, ZnBixO1−x doped with a heavy non-ferromagnetic element, such as Bi, is a credible example of a candidate material for a new class of compounds for spintronics applications, based on the spin polarization of the p states. PMID:26592564

  11. PREFACE: 20th International Conference on the Application of High Magnetic Fields in Semiconductor Physics (HMF-20)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faugeras, Clément; Orlita, Milan; Piot, Benjamin; Potemski, Marek

    2013-08-01

    The 20th International Conference on 'High Magnetic Fields in Semiconductor Physics' (HMF-20) was held on 22-27 July 2012, in Chamonix Mont Blanc, France, as a satellite meeting to the 31st International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors. HMF-20 followed a series of biennial conferences, initiated by Gottfried Landwehr, in Wurzburg, Germany, in 1972. Primarily focused on 'semiconductors' and 'magnetic fields', the main topics of the conference have evolved with time and are now dominated by current themes related to the physics of low dimensional systems in conjunction with the application of magnetic fields. The list of HMF-20 topics included: quantum Hall effect phenomena, graphene and carbon nanotubes, quantum wells, dots and wires, bulk semiconductors, topological insulators and organic conductors, magneto-transport and magneto-spectroscopy, electron correlations and magnetic field driven phases, spin-dependent phenomena and non-equilibrium effects, as well as novel phenomena and new techniques in high magnetic fields. The HMF-20 conference gathered 200 participants from 23 different countries. It was organized by the Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses, Grenoble, France, and greatly sponsored by the European High Magnetic Field Laboratory under the EC-FP7 framework. The 21st edition of the HMF conference series will take place during the summer of 2014 in Florida, USA. We thank the participants who, through their presentations, convivial discussions, and the papers presented here, contributed to the success of HMF-20 and advancements in the physics related to the applications of high magnetic fields. Clément Faugeras, Milan Orlita, Benjamin Piot and Marek Potemski Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses CNRS/UJF/UPS/INSA, Grenoble France

  12. Magnetic Fluorescent Delivery Vehicle using Uniform Mesoporous Silica Spheres Embedded with Monodisperse Magnetic and Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaeyun; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Jinwoo; Yu, Jung Ho; Kim, Byoung Chan; An, Kwangjin; Hwang, Yosun; Shin, Chae-Ho; Park, Je-Geun; Kim, Jungbae; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2006-01-25

    Uniform sized colloidal nanocrystals have attracted much attention, because of their unique magnetic and optical properties, as compared with those of their bulk counterparts. Especially magnetic nanocrystals and quantum dots have been intensively pursued for biomedical applications such as contrast enhancement agents in magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic carriers for drug delivery system, biological labeling and diagnostics. Due to their large pore sizes and high surface areas, mesoporous materials and its composites with nanocrystals have attracted considerable attention. In order to use the nanocrystals as functional delivery carriers and catalytic supports, nanocrystals coated with porous silica shells are desirable. Herein, we report a synthetic procedure for the fabrication of monodisperse nanocrystals embedded in uniform pore-sized mesoporous silica spheres. As a representative example, we synthesized monodisperse magnetite (Fe3O4) nanocrystals embedded in mesoporous silica spheres and both magnetite nanocrystals and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots embedded in mesoporous silica spheres. Furthermore, these mesoporous silica spheres were applied to the uptake and controlled release of drugs.

  13. Structural and Magnetic Properties of Dilute Ca²⁺ Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Samar Layek; Rout, K; Mohapatra, M; Anand, S; Verma, H C

    2016-01-01

    Undoped and calcium substituted hematite (α-Fe₂O₃) nanoparticles are synthesized by surfactant-directed co-precipitation and post annealing method. The annealed nanoparticles were found to be in single phase in nature and crystallize in the rhombohedral structure with space group R3c as confirmed by Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. Average crystallite sizes are calculated to be 20 to 30 nm and 50 to 60 nm for the nanoparticles annealed at 400 and 600 °C respectively. Mössbauer spectra for all the nanoparticles could be fitted with a sextet corresponding to the single magnetic state of the iron atoms in its Fe³⁺ state in the hematite matrix. The FTIR and Raman spectra of all the samples correspond to specific modes of α-Fe₂O₃. UV-Vis spectra of annealed samples showed broad peaks in the range of 525-630 nm resulting from spin-forbidden ligand field transition together with the spin-flip transition among the 2t₂g states. The estimated band gap energies were in the range of 1.6 to 1.9 eV which are much lower than the reported values for nano hematite. From the room temperature magnetic hysteresis loop measurements, weak ferromagnetic behavior is observed in all undoped and Ca²⁺ doped hematite samples. Morin temperature (T(M)) is calculated to be 257 and 237 K for 1.45% doped samples with particle size 54 and 27 nm respectively. The sample with Ca content of 1.45 wt% when annealed at 400 °C showed that the particles were of different shapes which included both quasi spherical and rod shaped. On annealing the same sample at 600 °C, the nanorods collapsed to form bigger spherical and ellipsoidal particles.

  14. Magnetically Suspended Linear Pulse Motor for Semiconductor Wafer Transfer in Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moriyama, Shin-Ichi; Hiraki, Naoji; Watanabe, Katsuhide; Kanemitsu, Yoichi

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a magnetically suspended linear pulse motor for a semiconductor wafer transfer robot in a vacuum chamber. The motor can drive a wafer transfer arm horizontally without mechanical contact. In the construction of the magnetic suspension system, four pairs of linear magnetic bearings for the lift control are used for the guidance control as well. This approach allows us to make the whole motor compact in size and light in weight. The tested motor consists of a double-sided stator and a transfer arm with a width of 50 mm and a total length of 700 mm. The arm, like a ladder in shape, is designed as the floating element with a tooth width of 4 mm (a tooth pitch of 8 mm). The mover mass is limited to about 1.6 kg by adopting such an arm structure, and the ratio of thrust to mover mass reaches to 3.2 N/kg under a broad air gap (1 mm) between the stator teeth and the mover teeth. The performance testing was carried out with a transfer distance less than 450 mm and a transfer speed less than 560 mm/s. The attitude of the arm was well controlled by the linear magnetic bearings with a combined use, and consequently the repeatability on the positioning of the arm reached to about 2 micron. In addition, the positioning accuracy was improved up to about 30 micron through a compensation of the 128-step wave current which was used for the micro-step drive with a step increment of 62.5 micron.

  15. Features of the electric-field distribution in anisotropic semiconductor wafers in a transverse magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Filippov, V. V.; Bormontov, E. N.

    2013-07-15

    A macroscopic model of the Hall effects and magnetoresistance in anisotropic semiconductor wafers is developed. The results obtained by solving the electrodynamic boundary problem allow the potential and eddy currents in anisotropic semiconductors to be calculated at different current-contact locations, depending on the parameters of the sample material's anisotropy. The results of this study are of great practical importance for investigating the physical properties of anisotropic semiconductors and simulating the electron-transport phenomena in devices based on anisotropic semiconductors.

  16. Semiconductor Nanostructures in High Magnetic Fields:. Recent Results at Hfml Nijmegen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianen, Peter C. M.

    A short overview of the current experimental facilities at the HFML Nijmegen, including an update on the planned development of a 45 T Hybrid magnet in conjunction with a Free Electron Laser, was presented. That was followed by a brief highlight of recent results on the high field physical properties of semiconductor nanostructures, such as quantum rings1 and dots,2 graphene3,4 and organic nanostructures.5 The majority of the talk was devoted to the investigation of negatively charged excitons (negative trions, two electrons bound to one hole) in semiconductor quantum wells in high magnetic fields. A comprehensive overview of photoluminescence (PL) experiments on GaAs and CdTe quantum wells (QWs) of variable well widths, containing a low density electron gas (2DEG) was presented. Particular interest was given to the magnetic field range where the ground state of negative trions is changing from a singlet (both electrons having opposite spin) to a triplet (parallel electron spins) state. Using polarized magneto-PL (excitation) and reflectivity spectroscopy we have identified (for both GaAs and CdTe QWs) the four typical excitonic peaks, usually denoted as the singlet, dark triplet and bright triplet trion peaks, as well as the neutral exciton peak. All peaks exhibit a pronounced dependence on polarization, 2DEG density and temperature. CdTe QWs exhibit all four peaks at the entire field range used (< 44 T), whereas the dark triplet emission disappears at high fields for GaAs QWs. We have determined the field strength at which the singlet-triplet crossover occurs for all QWs, which allows us to critically compare our experimental results with theoretical predictions. Remarkably, the actual singlet-triplet transition is hidden in GaAs QWs and a narrow (12 nm) CdTe QW. Since the PL emission energy equals the energy difference between the initial (trion) and final (electron) states, the PL lines themselves do not cross at the singlet-triplet crossover as a result of the

  17. Multifunctional semiconductor micro-Hall devices for magnetic, electric, and photo-detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbertson, A. M.; Sadeghi, Hatef; Panchal, V.; Kazakova, O.; Lambert, C. J.; Solin, S. A.; Cohen, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    We report the real-space voltage response of InSb/AlInSb micro-Hall devices to local photo-excitation, electric, and magnetic fields at room temperature using scanning probe microscopy. We show that the ultrafast generation of localised photocarriers results in conductance perturbations analogous to those produced by local electric fields. Experimental results are in good agreement with tight-binding transport calculations in the diffusive regime. The magnetic, photo, and charge sensitivity of a 2 μm wide probe are evaluated at a 10 μA bias current in the Johnson noise limit (valid at measurement frequencies > 10 kHz) to be, respectively, 500 nT/√Hz; 20 pW/√Hz (λ = 635 nm) comparable to commercial photoconductive detectors; and 0.05 e/√Hz comparable to that of single electron transistors. These results demonstrate the remarkably versatile sensing attributes of simple semiconductor micro-Hall devices that can be applied to a host of imaging and sensing applications.

  18. Remote sensing of sample temperatures in nuclear magnetic resonance using photoluminescence of semiconductor quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Tycko, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of sample temperatures during nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements is important for acquisition of optimal NMR data and proper interpretation of the data. Sample temperatures can be difficult to measure accurately for a variety of reasons, especially because it is generally not possible to make direct contact to the NMR sample during the measurements. Here I show that sample temperatures during magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR measurements can be determined from temperature-dependent photoluminescence signals of semiconductor quantum dots that are deposited in a thin film on the outer surface of the MAS rotor, using a simple optical fiber-based setup to excite and collect photoluminescence. The accuracy and precision of such temperature measurements can be better than ±5 K over a temperature range that extends from approximately 50 K (−223° C) to well above 310 K (37° C). Importantly, quantum dot photoluminescence can be monitored continuously while NMR measurements are in progress. While this technique is likely to be particularly valuable in low-temperature MAS NMR experiments, including experiments involving dynamic nuclear polarization, it may also be useful in high-temperature MAS NMR and other forms of magnetic resonance. PMID:24859817

  19. Multifunctional semiconductor micro-Hall devices for magnetic, electric, and photo-detection

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbertson, A. M.; Cohen, L. F.; Sadeghi, Hatef; Lambert, C. J.; Panchal, V.; Kazakova, O.; Solin, S. A.

    2015-12-07

    We report the real-space voltage response of InSb/AlInSb micro-Hall devices to local photo-excitation, electric, and magnetic fields at room temperature using scanning probe microscopy. We show that the ultrafast generation of localised photocarriers results in conductance perturbations analogous to those produced by local electric fields. Experimental results are in good agreement with tight-binding transport calculations in the diffusive regime. The magnetic, photo, and charge sensitivity of a 2 μm wide probe are evaluated at a 10 μA bias current in the Johnson noise limit (valid at measurement frequencies > 10 kHz) to be, respectively, 500 nT/√Hz; 20 pW/√Hz (λ = 635 nm) comparable to commercial photoconductive detectors; and 0.05 e/√Hz comparable to that of single electron transistors. These results demonstrate the remarkably versatile sensing attributes of simple semiconductor micro-Hall devices that can be applied to a host of imaging and sensing applications.

  20. Remote sensing of sample temperatures in nuclear magnetic resonance using photoluminescence of semiconductor quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Tycko, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Knowledge of sample temperatures during nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements is important for acquisition of optimal NMR data and proper interpretation of the data. Sample temperatures can be difficult to measure accurately for a variety of reasons, especially because it is generally not possible to make direct contact to the NMR sample during the measurements. Here I show that sample temperatures during magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR measurements can be determined from temperature-dependent photoluminescence signals of semiconductor quantum dots that are deposited in a thin film on the outer surface of the MAS rotor, using a simple optical fiber-based setup to excite and collect photoluminescence. The accuracy and precision of such temperature measurements can be better than ±5K over a temperature range that extends from approximately 50K (-223°C) to well above 310K (37°C). Importantly, quantum dot photoluminescence can be monitored continuously while NMR measurements are in progress. While this technique is likely to be particularly valuable in low-temperature MAS NMR experiments, including experiments involving dynamic nuclear polarization, it may also be useful in high-temperature MAS NMR and other forms of magnetic resonance. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Absence of localized-spin magnetic scattering in the narrow-gap semiconductor FeSb2

    SciTech Connect

    Zaliznyak, Igor; Savici, Andrei T; Garlea, Vasile O; Hu, Rongwei; Petrovic, C

    2011-01-01

    We report inelastic neutron scattering measurements aimed at investigating the origin of the temperature-induced paramagnetism in the narrow-gap semiconductor FeSb2. We find that inelastic response for energies up to 60 meV and at temperatures ~ 4.2 K, ~ 300 K and ~ 550 K is consistent with scattering by the lattice phonon excitations. Hence, we observe no evidence for a well-defined magnetic excitation corresponding to transitions between the non-magnetic ground state and states of magnetic multiplet in the localized spin picture. However, a broad magnetic scattering continuum in the 15 meV to 35 meV energy range is not ruled out by our data. Our findings make description in terms of the localized Fe magnetic states unlikely and suggest that paramagnetic susceptibility of itinerant electrons is at the origin of the temperature-induced magnetism in FeSb2.

  2. Physical properties in the cluster-based magnetic-diluted triangular lattice antiferromagnets Li2Sc1-xSnxMo3O8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haraguchi, Yuya; Michioka, Chishiro; Ueda, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Akira; Kindo, Koichi; Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi

    2017-04-01

    We have investigated the physical properties of the magnetic diluted triangular lattice antiferromagnetic system Li2Sc1-xSnxMo3O8. For all compounds, no mangetic ordering has been observed. On the other hand, the partial spin disappearing behavior is found in all Sn-substituted compounds except x = 0, which has been also observed in the similar magnetic system LiZn2Mo3O8. Considering the relationship between the crystal structure and the magnetism, the partial spin disappearance is properly explained by a formation of the valence bond glass derived from the randomness effect

  3. Dilution effects on combined magnetic and electric dipole interactions: A study of ferromagnetic cobalt nanoparticles with tuneable interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hod, M.; Dobroserdova, A.; Samin, S.; Dobbrow, C.; Schmidt, A. M.; Gottlieb, M.; Kantorovich, S.

    2017-08-01

    Improved understanding of complex interactions between nanoparticles will facilitate the control over the ensuing self-assembled structures. In this work, we consider the dynamic changes occurring upon dilution in the self-assembly of a system of ferromagnetic cobalt nanoparticles that combine magnetic, electric, and steric interactions. The systems examined here vary in the strength of the magnetic dipole interactions and the amount of point charges per particle. Scattering techniques are employed for the characterization of the self-assembly aggregates, and zeta-potential measurements are employed for the estimation of surface charges. Our experiments show that for particles with relatively small initial number of surface electric dipoles, an increase in particle concentration results in an increase in diffusion coefficients; whereas for particles with relatively high number of surface dipoles, no effect is observed upon concentration changes. We attribute these changes to a shift in the adsorption/desorption equilibrium of the tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) molecules on the particle surface. We put forward an explanation, based on the combination of two theoretical models. One predicts that the growing concentration of electric dipoles, stemming from the addition of tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as co-surfactant during particle synthesis, on the surface of the particles results in the overall repulsive interaction. Secondly, using density functional theory, we explain that the observed behaviour of the diffusion coefficient can be treated as a result of the concentration dependent nanoparticle self-assembly: additional repulsion leads to the reduction in self-assembled aggregate size despite the shorter average interparticle distances, and as such provides the growth of the diffusion coefficient.

  4. Advanced spectroscopic synchrotron techniques to unravel the intrinsic properties of dilute magnetic oxides : the case of Co:ZnO.

    SciTech Connect

    Ney, A.; Opel, M.; Kaspar, T. C.; Ney, V.; Ye, S.; Ollefs, K.; Kammermeier, T.; Bauer, S.; Nielsen, K.-W.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.; Engelhard, M. H.; Zhou, S.; Potzger, K.; Simon, J.; Mader, W.; Heald, S. M.; Cezar, C.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.; Gross, R.; Chambers, S. A.; X-Ray Science Division; Univ. at Duisburg-Essen; Walther-Meibner-Inst.; PNNL; Inst.fur Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung; European Synchrotron Radiation Facility; Friedrich-Wilhelms-Univ.

    2010-02-01

    The use of synchrotron-based spectroscopy has revolutionized the way we look at matter. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) using linear and circular polarized light offers a powerful toolbox of element-specific structural, electronic and magnetic probes that is especially well suited for complex materials containing several elements. We use the specific example of Zn{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}O (Co:ZnO) to demonstrate the usefulness of combining these XAS techniques to unravel its intrinsic properties. We demonstrate that as long as phase separation or excessive defect formation is absent, Co:ZnO is paramagnetic. We can establish quantitative thresholds based on four reliable quality indicators using XAS; samples that show ferromagnet-like behaviour fail to meet these quality indicators, and complementary experimental techniques indeed prove phase separation. Careful analysis of XAS spectra is shown to provide quantitative information on the presence and type of dilute secondary phases in a highly sensitive, non-destructive manner.

  5. The influence of a Pb surfactant on the magnetism of dilute Si1-xMnx films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahwaji, S.; Bowman, W.; Robertson, M. D.; Monchesky, T. L.

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the effect of Pb surfactant on the growth mode and magnetism of dilute Si1-xMnx thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We find that the nanocolumns that form in Pb-free samples are paramagnetic with a small saturation moment that drops with increasing Mn concentration. On the contrary, samples grown with 2 monolayers of Pb contain MnSi1.7 nanorods that lie in the plane of the films. Although the saturation moment of these samples also drops rapidly with increasing Mn concentration, it is as high as 0.65 μB/Mn. At the lowest Mn concentration (x = 0.5%), the samples grown with a Pb surfactant exhibit two ferromagnetic transitions at the Curie temperatures TC1≈40 K and TC2>400 K. While the transition at TC1 is consistent with the Curie temperature of bulk MnSi1.7 crystals, TC2 is possibly due to a second phase resulting from Mn in the Si matrix.

  6. Electron - polar acoustical phonon interactions in nitride based diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum well via hot electron magnetotransport

    SciTech Connect

    Pandya, Ankur; Shinde, Satyam; Jha, Prafulla K.

    2015-05-15

    In this paper the hot electron transport properties like carrier energy and momentum scattering rates and electron energy loss rates are calculated via interactions of electrons with polar acoustical phonons for Mn doped BN quantum well in BN nanosheets via piezoelectric scattering and deformation potential mechanisms at low temperatures with high electric field. Electron energy loss rate increases with the electric field. It is observed that at low temperatures and for low electric field the phonon absorption is taking place whereas, for sufficient large electric field, phonon emission takes place. Under the piezoelectric (polar acoustical phonon) scattering mechanism, the carrier scattering rate decreases with the reduction of electric field at low temperatures wherein, the scattering rate variation with electric field is limited by a specific temperature beyond which there is no any impact of electric field on such scattering.

  7. Zinc oxide based diluted magnetic semiconductor nanoparticles: Synthesis by laser ablation in liquids, microstructural and optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Savchuk, Andriy I.; Stolyarchuk, Ihor D.; Savchuk, Oleksandr A.; Makoviy, Vitaliy V.; Smolinsky, Mykhailo M.; Shporta, Oleksandra A.; Perrone, Alessio

    2013-12-04

    Nanoparticles of ZnO and ZnO doped with transition metals (Mn, Co) were synthesized by laser ablation in liquid medium. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed formation of nanostructures with different shapes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) gives information about surface morphology of the formed nanostructures. Absorption edge of ZnO, ZnO:Mn and ZnO:Co colloidal nanoparticles exhibits blue shift due to confinement effect. In photoluminescence spectra three peaks are attributed to the band-edge transitions and defect states. The Faraday rotation in ZnO:Mn nanoparticles gives evidence for paramagnetic behavior at room temperature.

  8. Symposium Q: Magnetic Thin Films, Heterostructures, and Device Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-22

    Quantum so accounting, for example, for little change of TSP and TMR when Well in fully Epitaxial Double Barrier Magnetic Tunnel Co is diluted with...improvement of the 366 quality of the quantum well layer will provides us the realization of SrTiO3 which is formed from localized 3d states of Ti and...and Tampa, New York. magnetic moments as a function of volume as well as band structures Quantum Dots of diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) are

  9. Generation of spin polarized currents with coherent trapping in magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Pedro H.; Bezerra, Anibal T.; Farinas, Paulo F.; Maialle, Marcelo Z.; Degani, Marcos H.; Studart, Nelson

    2017-04-01

    A semiconductor heterostructure consisting of two quantum wells, one of them magnetically doped, is proposed for the generation of spin currents by two lasers tuned at the resonances formed between two lowest energy states (1 and 2) and the continuum (3), which are set by design to be in a Λ like configuration. By numerically simulating the proposed structure under the action of the laser fields, we are able to observe the formation of a quasi-dark state near the resonance. The structure’s design has been idealized as to place state 2 in the magnetically doped quantum-well, where a constant magnetic field breaks the electronic spin degeneracy, leading to the giant Zeeman splitting. This ensures that only one of the electronic spins is driven into a dark resonance, thus blocking it from escaping the system. The other spin is free to escape, so that a spin polarized photocurrent is generated. The polarization can be switched by changing the frequency of the controlling laser. Since this kind of trapping is based on quantum interference, the switching times are expected to be fast. In our simulation, we do not simplify the structure down to level modeling, rather we simulate the full structure under time dependent oscillating laser fields and then identify the signatures that indicate a three-level like behavior. We based our search for the structure on real doping parameters found in real materials used in the literature, however the idea relies on the potential profiles studied, and the presence of the giant splitting, regardless of the underlying material that may be used.

  10. Temperature and magnetic field tunability of composite metamaterials containing spherical semiconductor particles in far-infrared and terahertz regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panahpour, Ali; Latifi, Hamid

    2010-12-01

    The effect of temperature and dc magnetic field variations on effective electromagnetic parameters of metamaterials (MTMs) containing spherical semiconductor particles is studied theoretically. The effect of temperature is taken into account through its influence on semiconductor carrier density and mobility. The effect of dc magnetic field is included using an extension of the Mie theory, describing the interaction of a plane wave with a gyrotropic sphere. The effective parameters such as relative permittivity and permeability are calculated by proper application of the Maxwell Garnett (MG) theory and its extensions to quasi-static condition and multi-phase structures. Based on these theories, the temperature and dc magnetic field tunability of three different MTM structures is investigated. First a single phase medium is considered which contains spherical semiconductor particles of one kind, randomly dispersed in a dielectric host. Then two multi-phase structures containing (a) two kinds of spherical semiconductor particles or (b) spherical particles with core-shell topology are investigated. The two multi-phase MTM structures can exhibit negative index of refraction in far-infrared spectral region. The measure of the temperature and dc magnetic field tunability of effective parameters such as relative permittivity and refractive index of the structures is evaluated and it is shown specifically that the real part of refractive index can be tuned to get negative, zero or positive values in far-IR or THz regimes, but the imaginary part of the index and the Figure of Merit (FOM) are also quite sensitive to the temperature and magnetic field variations. The tunable MTMs can find new applications in THz devices such as switches, tunable mirrors, isolators, converters, polarizers, filters and phase shifters.

  11. Analysis of Magnetic Anisotropy and the Role of Magnetic Dilution in Triggering Single-Molecule Magnet (SMM) Behavior in a Family of Co(II) Y(III) Dinuclear Complexes with Easy-Plane Anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Palacios, María A; Nehrkorn, Joscha; Suturina, Elizaveta A; Ruiz, Eliseo; Gómez-Coca, Silvia; Holldack, Karsten; Schnegg, Alexander; Krzystek, Jurek; Moreno, José M; Colacio, Enrique

    2017-08-25

    Three new closely related Co(II) Y(III) complexes of general formula [Co(μ-L)(μ-X)Y(NO3 )2 ] (X(-) =NO3(-) 1, benzoate 2, or 9-anthracenecarboxylato 3) have been prepared with the compartmental ligand N,N',N''-trimethyl-N,N''-bis(2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methylbenzyl)diethylenetriamine (H2 L). In these complexes, Co(II) and Y(III) are triply bridged by two phenoxide groups belonging to the di-deprotonated ligand (L(2-) ) and one ancillary anion X(-) . The change of the ancillary bridging group connecting Co(II) and Y(III) ions induces small differences in the trigonally distorted CoN3 O3 coordination sphere with a concomitant tuning of the magnetic anisotropy and intermolecular interactions. Direct current magnetic, high-frequency and -field EPR (HFEPR), frequency domain Fourier transform THz electron paramagnetic resonance (FD-FT THz-EPR) measurements, and ab initio theoretical calculations demonstrate that Co(II) ions in compounds 1-3 have large and positive D values (≈50 cm(-1) ), which decrease with increasing the distortion of the pseudo-octahedral Co(II) coordination sphere. Dynamic ac magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that compound 1 exhibits field-induced single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior, whereas compounds 2 and 3 only display this behavior when they are magnetically diluted with diamagnetic Zn(II) (Zn/Co=10:1). In view of this, it is always advisable to use magnetically diluted complexes, in which intermolecular interactions and quantum tunneling of magnetism (QTM) would be at least partly suppressed, so that "hidden single-ion magnet (SIM)" behavior could emerge. Field- and temperature-dependence of the relaxation times indicate the prevalence of the Raman process in all these complexes above approximately 3 K. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Static and dynamic properties of random magnets. [MnF/sub 2/, FeF/sub 2/ diluted with ZnF/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Birgeneau, R.J.; Cowley, R.A.; Uemura, Y.J.

    1986-01-01

    A series of neutron scattering experiments were performed on model random magnetic systems - specifically, transition metal fluorides such as MnF/sub 2/ and FeF/sub 2/ diluted with the nonmagnetic isomorph ZnF/sub 2/. This paper reviews briefly results on the phase transition behavior of diluted magnets. We also discuss in detail the nature of the excitations. In Mn/sub 0.5/Zn/sub 0.5/F/sub 2/ a dramatic crossover from propagating to localized spin waves is observed as one goes from long to short wave lengths. This is discussed in the context of the ''fracton'' picture of excitations in percolation networks.

  13. Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance Studies on π-conjugated semiconductor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR) techniques were used to investigate the dynamics of excitons and charge carriers in π-conjugated organic semiconductors. Degradation behavior of the negative spin-1/2 electroluminescence-detected magnetic resonance (ELDMR) was observed in Alq3 devices. The increase in the resonance amplitude implies an increasing bipolaron formation during degradation, which might be the result of growth of charge traps in the device. The same behavior of the negative spin-1/2 ELDMR was observed in 2wt% Rubrene doped Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminium (Alq3) devices. However, with increasing injection current, a positive spin-1/2 ELDMR, together with positive spin 1 triplet powder patterns at ΔmS=±1 and ΔmS=±2, emerges. Due to the similarities in the frequency dependences of single and double modulated ELDMR and the photoluminescence-detected magnetic resonance (PLDMR) results in poly[2-methoxy-5-(2 -ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenyl ene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) films, the mechanism for this positive spin-1/2 ELDMR was assigned to enhanced triplet-polaron quenching under resonance conditions. The ELDMR in rubrene doped Alq3 devices provides a path to investigate charge distribution in the device under operational conditions. Combining the results of several devices with different carrier blocking properties and the results from transient EL, it was concluded trions not only exist near buffer layer but also exist in the electron transport layer. This TPQ model can also be used to explain the positive spin-1/2 PLDMR in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films at low temperature and in MEH-PPV films at various temperatures up to room temperature. Through quantitative analysis, TE-polaron quenching (TPQ) model is shown having the ability to explain most behaviors of the positive spin-1/2 resonance. Photocurrent detected magnetic resonance (PCDMR) studies on MEH-PPV devices revealed a novel transient resonance signal. The signal

  14. Magnetic ground state of an individual Fe2+ ion in strained semiconductor nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoleński, T.; Kazimierczuk, T.; Kobak, J.; Goryca, M.; Golnik, A.; Kossacki, P.; Pacuski, W.

    2016-01-01

    Single impurities with nonzero spin and multiple ground states offer a degree of freedom that can be utilized to store the quantum information. However, Fe2+ dopant is known for having a single nondegenerate ground state in the bulk host semiconductors and thus is of little use for spintronic applications. Here we show that the well-established picture of Fe2+ spin configuration can be modified by subjecting the Fe2+ ion to high strain, for example, produced by lattice mismatched epitaxial nanostructures. Our analysis reveals that high strain induces qualitative change in the ion energy spectrum and results in nearly doubly degenerate ground state with spin projection Sz=+/-2. We provide an experimental proof of this concept using a new system: a strained epitaxial quantum dot containing individual Fe2+ ion. Magnetic character of the Fe2+ ground state in a CdSe/ZnSe dot is revealed in photoluminescence experiments by exploiting a coupling between a confined exciton and the single-iron impurity. We also demonstrate that the Fe2+ spin can be oriented by spin-polarized excitons, which opens a possibility of using it as an optically controllable two-level system free of nuclear spin fluctuations.

  15. Magnetic ground state of an individual Fe2+ ion in strained semiconductor nanostructure

    PubMed Central

    Smoleński, T.; Kazimierczuk, T.; Kobak, J.; Goryca, M.; Golnik, A.; Kossacki, P.; Pacuski, W.

    2016-01-01

    Single impurities with nonzero spin and multiple ground states offer a degree of freedom that can be utilized to store the quantum information. However, Fe2+ dopant is known for having a single nondegenerate ground state in the bulk host semiconductors and thus is of little use for spintronic applications. Here we show that the well-established picture of Fe2+ spin configuration can be modified by subjecting the Fe2+ ion to high strain, for example, produced by lattice mismatched epitaxial nanostructures. Our analysis reveals that high strain induces qualitative change in the ion energy spectrum and results in nearly doubly degenerate ground state with spin projection Sz=±2. We provide an experimental proof of this concept using a new system: a strained epitaxial quantum dot containing individual Fe2+ ion. Magnetic character of the Fe2+ ground state in a CdSe/ZnSe dot is revealed in photoluminescence experiments by exploiting a coupling between a confined exciton and the single-iron impurity. We also demonstrate that the Fe2+ spin can be oriented by spin-polarized excitons, which opens a possibility of using it as an optically controllable two-level system free of nuclear spin fluctuations. PMID:26818580

  16. Nanogranular metallic Fe oxygen deficient TiO2-δ composite films: a room temperature, highly carrier polarized magnetic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S. D.; Widom, A.; Miller, K. E.; McHenry, M. E.; Vittoria, C.; Harris, V. G.

    2008-05-01

    Nanogranular metallic iron (Fe) and titanium dioxide (TiO2-δ) were sequentially deposited on (100) lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3) substrates in a low oxygen chamber pressure using a pulsed laser ablation deposition (PLD) technique. By sequential deposition, ≈10 nm diameter metallic Fe spherical grains were suspended within a TiO2-δ matrix. The films show ferromagnetic behavior with a saturation magnetization of 3100 G at room temperature. Our estimate of the saturation magnetization based on the size and distribution of the Fe spheres agreed with the measured value. The film composite structure was characterized as a p-type magnetic semiconductor at 300 K with a carrier density of the order of ≈1022 cm-3. The hole carriers were excited at the interface between the nanogranular Fe and TiO2-δ matrix, similar to holes excited in the metal/n-type semiconductor interface commonly observed in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices. From the large anomalous Hall effect measured in these films, we observed that the holes at the interface were strongly spin polarized. Structure and magnetotransport properties suggested that these PLD films have potential spintronics applications.

  17. High temperature magnetic order in Zn1-x Mn x SnSb2+MnSb nanocomposite ferromagnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilanski, L.; Górska, M.; Ślawska-Waniewska, A.; Lewińska, S.; Szymczak, R.; Dynowska, E.; Podgórni, A.; Dobrowolski, W.; Ralević, U.; Gajić, R.; Romčević, N.; Fedorchenko, I. V.; Marenkin, S. F.

    2016-08-01

    We present studies of structural, magnetic, and electrical properties of Zn1-x Mn x SnSb2+MnSb nanocomposite ferromagnetic semiconductors with the average Mn-content, \\bar{x} , changing from 0.027 up to 0.138. The magnetic force microscope imaging done at room temperature shows the presence of a strong signal coming from MnSb clusters. Magnetic properties show the paramagnet-ferromagnet transition with the Curie temperature, T C, equal to about 522 K and the cluster-glass behavior with the transition temperature, T CG, equal to about 465 K, both related to MnSb clusters. The magnetotransport studies show that all investigated samples are p-type semiconductors with high hole concentration, p, changing from 1021 to 1022 cm-3. A large increase in the resistivity as a function of the magnetic field is observed at T  <  10 K and small magnetic fields, |B|<100 mT, for all the studied samples with a maximum amplitude of the magnetoresistance about 460% at T  =  1.4 K. The large increase in the resistivity is most probably caused by the appearance of the superconducting state in the samples at T  <  4.3 K.

  18. Effects of crossed electric and magnetic fields on the interband optical absorption spectra of variably spaced semiconductor superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuleta, J. N.; Reyes-Gómez, E.

    2016-05-01

    The interband optical absorption spectra of a GaAs-Ga1-xAlxAs variably spaced semiconductor superlattice under crossed in-plane magnetic and growth-direction applied electric fields are theoretically investigated. The electronic structure, transition strengths and interband absorption coefficients are analyzed within the weak and strong magnetic-field regimes. A dramatic quenching of the absorption coefficient is observed, in the weak magnetic-field regime, as the applied electric field is increased, in good agreement with previous experimental measurements performed in a similar system under growth-direction applied electric fields. A decrease of the resonant tunneling in the superlattice is also theoretically obtained in the strong magnetic-field regime. Moreover, in this case, we found an interband absorption coefficient weakly dependent on the applied electric field. Present theoretical results suggest that an in-plane magnetic field may be used to tune the optical properties of variably spaced semiconductor superlattices, with possible future applications in solar cells and magneto-optical devices.

  19. Rheological properties and orientational distributions of dilute ferromagnetic spherocylinder particle dispersions. Part II. Analysis for the two typical magnetic field directions.

    PubMed

    Aoshima, Masayuki; Satoh, Akira; Chantrell, Roy W; Coverdale, Geoff N

    2002-09-15

    We have investigated the orientational distributions and rheological properties of dilute colloidal dispersions, which consist of ferromagnetic spherocylinder particles. First, the governing equation of the orientational distribution function has been derived for the typical two cases of magnetic field directions: the direction parallel to the shear flow and the direction parallel to the angular velocity vector of the shear flow. The equation has been solved approximately by Galerkin's method. With these numerical solutions we have obtained the results of the orientational distribution and viscosity. The results obtained for the magnetic field in the shear flow direction are summarized as follows. In the case of a weak magnetic field, the particle tends to orient nearly toward the shear flow direction and its opposite direction. As the magnetic field increases, the orientation of the particle is restricted and the viscosity increases significantly. As the influence of the magnetic field becomes dominant, an overshoot in the viscosity curve appears. This is due to the fact that there is a maximum deviation of the averaged particle direction from the magnetic field direction. When the strength of the magnetic field increases significantly, the particle inclines close to the magnetic field direction and the viscosity converges to a constant value. Particles with a larger aspect ratio give rise to a larger increment in the viscosity since such elongated particles induce larger resistance in a flow field. We also have obtained results for the case of the magnetic field in the direction parallel to the angular velocity vector of the shear flow. When the flow field is dominant over both the rotational Brownian motion and the magnetic interaction, the particle rotates in the plane nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field direction. As the magnetic field increases, the particle inclines toward the magnetic direction. For this direction of field, the viscosity is

  20. Simultaneous monitoring of singlet and triplet exciton variations in solid organic semiconductors driven by an external static magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Baofu Alameh, Kamal

    2014-07-07

    The research field of organic spintronics has remarkably and rapidly become a promising research area for delivering a range of high-performance devices, such as magnetic-field sensors, spin valves, and magnetically modulated organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). Plenty of microscopic physical and chemical models based on exciton or charge interactions have been proposed to explain organic magneto-optoelectronic phenomena. However, the simultaneous observation of singlet- and triplet-exciton variations in an external magnetic field is still unfeasible, preventing a thorough theoretical description of the spin dynamics in organic semiconductors. Here, we show that we can simultaneously observe variations of singlet excitons and triplet excitons in an external magnetic field, by designing an OLED structure employing a singlet-exciton filtering and detection layer in conjunction with a separate triplet-exciton detection layer. This OLED structure enables the observation of a Lorentzian and a non-Lorentzian line-shape magnetoresponse for singlet excitons and triplet excitons, respectively.

  1. Lande g-factor in semiconductor cylinder quantum dots under magnetic fields and spin-orbit interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharaati, Abdolrasoul

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the electron effective Lande g-factor in semiconductor cylinder quantum dots is studied in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit effect and an applied magnetic field parallel to the cylinder axis. For this goal, I have obtained an analytical solution to one-particle Schrodinger equation in the presence of both magnetic field and spin-orbit interaction (SOI). Then, using the obtained energy levels, I have study the electron effective Lande g-factor. It is found that: It is found that (i) energy levels strongly depend on the combined effects of external magnetic field and spin-orbit interaction strength. (ii) The effective Lande g-factor decreases when magnetic field increases. (iii) By increasing the cylinder radius ρ, the electron g-factor decreases. (iv) By increasing the strength of SOI, the electron g-factor increases.

  2. Coherent control and detection of spin qubits in semiconductor with magnetic field engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokura, Yasuhiro

    2012-02-01

    Electrical control and detection of the spin qubits in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are among the major rapidly progressing fields for possible implementation of scalable quantum information processing. Coherent control of one-[1-3] and two-[4,5] spin qubits by electrical means had been demonstrated with various approaches. We have used an engineered magnetic field structure realized with proximal micro-magnets to transduce the spin and charge degrees of freedom and to selectively address one of the two spins [3]. We have demonstrated an all-electrical two-qubit gate consisting of single-spin rotations and interdot spin exchange in double QDs. A partially entangled output state is obtained by the application of the two-qubit gate to an initial, uncorrelated state. Our calculations taking into account of the nuclear spin fluctuation show the degree of entanglement. Non-uniform magnetic field also enables spin selective photon-assisted tunneling in double QDs, which then constitutes non-demolition spin read-out system in combination with a near-by charge detector [6]. [4pt] In collaboration with R. Brunner, Inst. of Phys., Montanuniversitaet Leoben, 8700, Austria, M. Pioro-Ladrière, D'ep. de Phys., Universit'e de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Qu'ebec, J1K-2R1, Canada, T. Kubo, Y. -S. Shin, T. Obata, and S. Tarucha, ICORP-JST and Dep. of Appl. Phys., Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656, Japan.[4pt] [1] F. H. Koppens, et al., Nature 442, 766 (2006).[0pt] [2] K. C. Nowack, et al., Science 318, 1430 (2007).[0pt] [3] M. Pioro-Ladrière, et al., Nature Physics 4, 776 (2008).[0pt] [4] J. R. Petta, et al., Science 309, 2180 (2005).[0pt] [5] R. Brunner, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 146801 (2011).[0pt] [6] Y. -S. Shin, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 046802 (2010).

  3. Magnetic properties and critical behavior of the pure and diluted two-dimensional weak ferromagnet (CH3NH3)2Mn1-xCdxCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paduan-Filho, A.; Becerra, C. C.

    2002-05-01

    The compound (CH3NH3)2MnCl4 had for a long time been considered a good example of a quasi-two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet, however, it is a weak ferromagnet with a nearly quadratic layer structure. In this work we measure the magnetization of (CH3NH3)2MnCl4 and the diluted with cadmium compound (CH3NH3)2Mn0.95Cd0.05Cl4. The Néel temperature for the pure sample was determined as TN=44.75 K and a weak-ferromagnetic moment was observed within the nearly quadratic layer (perpendicular to the easy axis). From the measured weak magnetic moment, we estimate a canting angle for the sublattices magnetizations θ˜0.07° from the easy axis. The overall temperature dependence of the weak magnetic moment is the same as that previously measured for the sublattice magnetization in neutron diffraction experiments (as expected). However, close to TN the critical exponent β of the magnetization changes from β1=0.17±0.02 [0.01<(1-T/TN)<0.1] to β2=0.23±0.02 [0.001<(1-T/TN)<0.01] in the immediate neighborhood of TN. In the diluted compound (TN=41.0±0.5 K) and below 0.9TN the magnetization due to the weak component follows the same behavior found for the pure system but closer to TN an almost linear dependence of the magnetization with temperature is observed.

  4. Transport, thermal, and magnetic properties of the narrow-gap semiconductor CrSb2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sales, Brian C.; May, Andrew F.; McGuire, Michael A.; Stone, Matthew B.; Singh, David J.; Mandrus, David

    2012-12-01

    Resistivity, the Hall effect, the Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and magnetic susceptibility data are reported for CrSb2 single crystals. In spite of some unusual features in electrical transport and Hall measurements below 100 K, only one phase transition is found in the temperature range from 2 to 750 K corresponding to long-range antiferromagnetic order below TN ≈ 273 K. Many of the low-temperature properties can be explained by the thermal depopulation of carriers from the conduction band into a low-mobility band located approximately 16 meV below the conduction-band edge, as deduced from the Hall effect data. In analogy with what occurs in Ge, the low-mobility band is likely an impurity band. The Seebeck coefficient, S, is large and negative for temperatures from 2 to 300 K ranging from ≈-70μV/K at 300 K to -4500μV/K at 18 K. A large maximum in |S| at 18 K is likely due to phonon drag, with the abrupt drop in |S| below 18 K due to the thermal depopulation of the high-mobility conduction band. The large thermal conductivity between 10 and 20 K (≈350 W/m K) is consistent with this interpretation, as are detailed calculations of the Seebeck coefficient made using the complete calculated electronic structure. These data are compared to data reported for FeSb2, which crystallizes in the same marcasite structure, and FeSi, another unusual narrow-gap semiconductor.

  5. Amplitude modulation and demodulation of an electromagnetic wave in magnetized ion-implanted semiconductor plasmas having SDDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, N.; Ghosh, S.; Malviya, P. S.

    2017-05-01

    In communication processes, amplitude modulation is very helpful to save power using a single band transmission. Using the hydrodynamical description of semiconductor plasma analytical investigations are made for the amplitude modulation as well as demodulation of an electromagnetic wave in magnetized ion implanted semiconductor plasmas having strain dependent dielectric constants. Analysis is made under different wave number regimes over a wide range of cyclotron frequencies without and with colloids. Numerical estimations are made for n-doped BaTiO3 crystal irradiated by pump wave frequency 1.78 × 1013s-1. It has been found that ion implantation of negatively charged colloids modifies nearly ≈ 105 of magnitude of amplitude modulation and demodulation processes. Ion implantation plays a key role in development of optoelectronics.

  6. Interfacial Properties of Organic Semiconductor-Inorganic Magnetic Oxide Hybrid Spintronic Systems Fabricated Using Pulsed Laser Deposition.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sayani; Grochowska, Katarzyna; Sawczak, Miroslaw; Śliwiński, Gerard; Huhtinen, Hannu; Dahl, Johnny; Tuominen, Marjukka; Laukkanen, Pekka; Majumdar, Himadri S

    2015-10-14

    We report fabrication of a hybrid organic semiconductor-inorganic complex oxide interface of rubrene and La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) for spintronic devices using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and investigate the interface structure and chemical bonding-dependent magnetic properties. Our results demonstrate that with proper control of growth parameters, thin films of organic semiconductor rubrene can be deposited without any damage to the molecular structure. Rubrene, a widely used organic semiconductor with high charge-carrier mobility and spin diffusion length, when grown as thin films on amorphous and crystalline substrates such as SiO2-glass, indium-tin oxide (ITO), and LSMO by PLD at room temperature and a laser fluence of 0.19 J/cm2, reveals amorphous structure. The Raman spectra verify the signatures of both Ag and Bg Raman active modes of rubrene molecules. X-ray reflectivity measurements indicate a well-defined interface formation between surface-treated LSMO and rubrene, whereas X-ray photoelectron spectra indicate the signature of hybridization of the electronic states at this interface. Magnetic measurements show that the ferromagnetic property of the rubrene-LSMO interface improves by >230% compared to the pristine LSMO surface due to this proposed hybridization. Intentional disruption of the direct contact between LSMO and rubrene by insertion of a dielectric AlOx layer results in an observably decreased ferromagnetism. These experimental results demonstrate that by controlling the interface formation between organic semiconductor and half-metallic oxide thin films, it is possible to engineer the interface spin polarization properties. Results also confirm that by using PLD for consecutive growth of different layers, contamination-free interfaces can be obtained, and this finding is significant for the well-controlled and reproducible design of spin-polarized interfaces for future hybrid spintronics devices.

  7. Detection Techniques for Biomolecules using Semi-Conductor Nanocrystals and Magnetic Beads as Labels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Esha

    Continued interest in the development of miniaturized and portable analytical platforms necessitates the exploration of sensitive methods for the detection of trace analytes. Nanomaterials, on account of their unique physical and chemical properties, are not only able to overcome many limitations of traditional detection reagents but also enable the exploration of many new signal transduction technologies. This dissertation presents a series of investigations of alternative detection techniques for biomolecules, involving the use of semi-conductor nanocrystals and magnetic beads as labels. Initial research focused on the development of quantum dot-encapsulating liposomes as a novel fluorescent label for immunoassays. This hybrid nanomaterial was anticipated to overcome the drawbacks presented by traditional fluorophores as well as provide significant signal amplification. Quantum dot-encapsulating liposomes were synthesized by the method of thin film hydration and characterized. The utility of these composite nanostructures for bioanalysis was demonstrated. However, the longterm instability of the liposomes hampered quantitative development. A second approach for assay development exploited the ability of gold nanoparticles to quench the optical signals obtained from quantum dots. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using aptamer-linked nanostructures in FRET-based quenching for the detection of proteins. Thrombin was used as the model analyte in this study. Experimental parameters for the assay were optimized. The assay simply required the mixing of the sample with the reagents and could be completed in less than an hour. The limit of detection for thrombin by this method was 5 nM. This homogeneous assay can be easily adapted for the detection of a wide variety of biochemicals. The novel technique of ferromagnetic resonance generated in magnetic bead labels was explored for signal transduction. This inductive detection technique lends

  8. Berry phase mechanism of the anomalous Hall effect in a disordered two-dimensional magnetic semiconductor structure.

    SciTech Connect

    Oveshnikov, L. N.; Kulbachinskii, V. A.; Davydov, A. B.; Aronzon, B. A.; Rozhansky, I. V.; Averkiev, N. S.; Kugel, K. I.; Tripathi, V.

    2015-11-24

    In this study, the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) arises from the interplay of spin-orbit interactions and ferromagnetic order and is a potentially useful probe of electron spin polarization, especially in nanoscale systems where direct measurement is not feasible. While AHE is rather well-understood in metallic ferromagnets, much less is known about the relevance of different physical mechanisms governing AHE in insulators. As ferromagnetic insulators, but not metals, lend themselves to gatecontrol of electron spin polarization, understanding AHE in the insulating state is valuable from the point of view of spintronic applications. Among the mechanisms proposed in the literature for AHE in insulators, the one related to a geometric (Berry) phase effect has been elusive in past studies. The recent discovery of quantized AHE in magnetically doped topological insulators - essentially a Berry phase effect - provides strong additional motivation to undertake more careful search for geometric phase effects in AHE in the magnetic semiconductors. Here we report our experiments on the temperature and magnetic field dependences of AHE in insulating, strongly-disordered two-dimensional Mn delta-doped semiconductor heterostructures in the hopping regime. In particular, it is shown that at sufficiently low temperatures, the mechanism of AHE related to the Berry phase is favoured.

  9. Berry phase mechanism of the anomalous Hall effect in a disordered two-dimensional magnetic semiconductor structure

    PubMed Central

    Oveshnikov, L. N.; Kulbachinskii, V. A.; Davydov, A. B.; Aronzon, B. A.; Rozhansky, I. V.; Averkiev, N. S.; Kugel, K. I.; Tripathi, V.

    2015-01-01

    The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) arises from the interplay of spin-orbit interactions and ferromagnetic order and is a potentially useful probe of electron spin polarization, especially in nanoscale systems where direct measurement is not feasible. While AHE is rather well-understood in metallic ferromagnets, much less is known about the relevance of different physical mechanisms governing AHE in insulators. As ferromagnetic insulators, but not metals, lend themselves to gate-control of electron spin polarization, understanding AHE in the insulating state is valuable from the point of view of spintronic applications. Among the mechanisms proposed in the literature for AHE in insulators, the one related to a geometric (Berry) phase effect has been elusive in past studies. The recent discovery of quantized AHE in magnetically doped topological insulators - essentially a Berry phase effect - provides strong additional motivation to undertake more careful search for geometric phase effects in AHE in the magnetic semiconductors. Here we report our experiments on the temperature and magnetic field dependences of AHE in insulating, strongly-disordered two-dimensional Mn delta-doped semiconductor heterostructures in the hopping regime. In particular, it is shown that at sufficiently low temperatures, the mechanism of AHE related to the Berry phase is favoured. PMID:26596472

  10. Berry phase mechanism of the anomalous Hall effect in a disordered two-dimensional magnetic semiconductor structure.

    DOE PAGES

    Oveshnikov, L. N.; Kulbachinskii, V. A.; Davydov, A. B.; ...

    2015-11-24

    In this study, the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) arises from the interplay of spin-orbit interactions and ferromagnetic order and is a potentially useful probe of electron spin polarization, especially in nanoscale systems where direct measurement is not feasible. While AHE is rather well-understood in metallic ferromagnets, much less is known about the relevance of different physical mechanisms governing AHE in insulators. As ferromagnetic insulators, but not metals, lend themselves to gatecontrol of electron spin polarization, understanding AHE in the insulating state is valuable from the point of view of spintronic applications. Among the mechanisms proposed in the literature for AHEmore » in insulators, the one related to a geometric (Berry) phase effect has been elusive in past studies. The recent discovery of quantized AHE in magnetically doped topological insulators - essentially a Berry phase effect - provides strong additional motivation to undertake more careful search for geometric phase effects in AHE in the magnetic semiconductors. Here we report our experiments on the temperature and magnetic field dependences of AHE in insulating, strongly-disordered two-dimensional Mn delta-doped semiconductor heterostructures in the hopping regime. In particular, it is shown that at sufficiently low temperatures, the mechanism of AHE related to the Berry phase is favoured.« less

  11. Doping of Ga in antiferromagnetic semiconductor α-Cr2O3 and its effects on magnetic and electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, R. N.; Venkata Siva, K.; Ranganathan, R.; Mazumdar, Chandan

    2017-06-01

    The samples of Ga-doped Cr2O3 have been prepared using chemical co-precipitation route. X-ray diffraction pattern and Raman spectra have indicated rhombohedral crystal structure with space group R 3 bar C. Magnetic measurements indicated diluted antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin order in Ga-doped α-Cr2O3 and ferrimagnetic ordering of spins at about 50-60 K is confirmed from the analysis of the temperature dependence of dc magnetization and ac susceptibility data. Apart from magnetic dilution effect, the samples have shown superparamagnetic behavior below 50 K due to frustrated surface spins of the nano-sized grains. The samples have shown non-linear electronic properties. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the Ga-doped α-Cr2O3 samples are remarkably different from α-Cr2O3 sample. The bi-stable electronic states and negative differential resistance are some of the unique non-linear electronic properties that the I-V curves of Ga-doped samples have exhibited. Optical study revealed three electronic transitions in the samples associated with band gap energy at about 2.67-2.81 eV, 1.91-2.11 eV, 1.28-1.35 eV, respectively. The results indicated multi-level electronic structure in Ga-doped α-Cr2O3 system.

  12. Effect of intense terahertz laser and magnetic fields on the binding energy and the transition energy of shallow impurity in a bulk semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiyang; Xu, Lei; Wu, Bo; Zhang, Sha; Wei, Xiangfei

    2017-09-01

    The influences of intense terahertz laser and magnetic fields on shallow-donor states in GaAs bulk semiconductors in the Faraday geometry are studied theoretically in the framework of the effective-mass approximation. The interaction between the laser field and the semiconductor is treated nonperturbatively by solving analytically the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in which the two external fields are included exactly. In the nonresonant region, we have found that the binding and transition energies decrease with increasing laser-field intensity or decreasing laser-field frequency, and the binding energy increases with magnetic field. For relatively low radiation levels, the transition energy first slowly decreases with increasing magnetic field, but after a critical value, it rapidly increases with increasing magnetic field. However, it slowly decreases with magnetic field when the laser-field intensity is strong enough. Furthermore, in the vicinity of the resonant regime, the oscillatory behaviours of the binding and transition energies with laser-field frequency and magnetic field are observed. These results obtained indicate the possibility of manipulating the shallow impurity states in semiconductor by changing the intense laser-field frequency and intensity and the magnetic field, which gives a new degree of freedom in semiconductor device application.

  13. On aspects of electron-LO phonon interaction in magnetized semiconductors in the presence of a hybrid pump field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Swati; Paliwal, Ayushi; Ghosh, S.

    2017-05-01

    Most realistic propagation of an intense hybrid pump wave in a magnetized semiconductor plasma has been considered to study some aspects of electron-LO phonon interactions. Hydrodynamic model for one component plasma along with coupled mode theory has been used to study parametric amplification due to polaron mode. Expressions for parametric gain coefficient arising due to parametric instability and threshold field required to incite parametric amplification has been derived. The compound semiconductors of group III-V and II-VI are unique within the universe of simple octet compounds, enable them to dominate higher performance electronics and optoelectronics. Present study aims to compare materials for which favourable magnitudes of parametric gain and threshold value could be obtained with suitable values of external parameters. Numerical estimations were carried out using the data of two different group compound semiconductors namely ZnSe and GaAs. Both the gain coefficients and threshold pump field are found to be strongly dependent on the carrier concentration of the medium. Resonance between plasma frequency and collective excitation frequency affects the process of amplification in both cases. Higher gain is achieved for GaAs which has smaller coupling coefficient as compared to ZnSe. Hybrid pump propagation is found to strengthen the electron-LO phonon coupling.

  14. The role of iron(II) dilution in the magnetic and photomagnetic properties of the series [Fe(x)Zn(1-x)(bpp)₂](NCSe)₂.

    PubMed

    Baldé, Chérif; Desplanches, Cédric; Le Gac, Fréderic; Guionneau, Philippe; Létard, Jean-François

    2014-06-07

    The effects of metal dilution on the spin-crossover behavior of iron(II) in the mixed crystal series [Fe(x)Zn(1-x)(bpp)2](NCSe)2 (bpp = 2,6-bis(pyrazol-3-yl)pyridine) have been studied using magnetic susceptibility, photomagnetism and diffuse reflectivity measurements. For each mixed-crystal system, the thermal spin transition temperature, T(1/2), and the relaxation temperature of the photo-induced high-spin state, T(LIESST), have been systematically determined. It appears that T(1/2) decreases with the metal dilution while T(LIESST) remains unchanged. Dilution also tends to decrease the hysteresis width and smooth the transition curves. These effects were discussed first qualitatively and then quantitatively on the basis of a kinetic study governing the photo-induced back conversion taking into account the relative sizes of Zn(II) and Fe(II) ions. Interestingly, single crystals were obtained for [Fe(0.6)Zn(0.4)(bpp)2](NCSe)2 allowing the X-ray diffraction crystal-structure determination.

  15. Characterization of the electronic properties of magnetic and semiconductor devices using scanning probe techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaadt, Daniel Maria

    In the first part of this dissertation, scanning probe techniques are used in the study of localized charge deposition and subsequent transport in Co nanoclusters embedded in a SiO2 matrix are presented, and the application of this material in a hybrid magneto-electronic device for magnetic field sensing is described. Co nanoclusters are charged by applying a bias voltage pulse between a conductive tip and the sample, and electrostatic force microscopy is used to image charged areas. An exponential decay in the peak charge density is observed with decay times dependent on the nominal Co film thickness and on the sign of the deposited charge. The results are interpreted as a consequence of Coulomb-blockade effects. This study leads to the design of a hybrid magneto-electronic device, in which Co nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 are incorporated into the gate of a Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor. Current flow through the Co nanoclusters leads to a buildup of electronic charge within the gate, and consequently to a transistor threshold voltage shift that varies with applied external magnetic field. The shift in threshold voltage results in an exponential change in subthreshold current and a quadratic change in saturation current. A detailed analysis of the device operation is presented. The second part of this dissertation focuses on the characterization of electronic properties of GaN-based heterostructure devices. Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) and spectroscopy (SCS) are used to investigate lateral variations in the transistor threshold voltage and the frequency-dependent response of surface charges and of charge in the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The technique is described in detail, electrostatic simulations performed to study the influence of the probe tip geometry on the measured dC/dV spectra are presented, and the limitations of the SCS technique in a variety of applications are evaluated. Features in SCM images and maps of

  16. Investigation at the atomic scale of the Co spatial distribution in Zn(Co)O magnetic semiconductor oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Larde, R.; Talbot, E.; Vurpillot, F.; Pareige, P.; Schmerber, G.; Beaurepaire, E.; Dinia, A.; Pierron-Bohnes, V.

    2009-06-15

    A sputtered Zn{sub 0.95}Co{sub 0.05}O layer was chemically analyzed at the atomic scale in order to provide an accurate image of the distribution of Co atoms in the ZnO matrix. The investigation of the magnetic properties shows that the as-deposited Zn{sub 0.95}Co{sub 0.05}O is ferromagnetic at room temperature. Atom probe tomography reveals a homogeneous distribution of all chemical species in the layer and the absence of any Co clustering. This result proves that the ferromagnetic properties of this magnetic semiconductor cannot be attributed to a secondary phase or to metallic Co precipitates within the layer.

  17. Suppression of spin transport in ferromagnet/oxide/semiconductor junctions by magnetic impurities in the tunnel barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiesser, Aurélie; Saito, Hidekazu; Yuasa, Shinji; Jansen, Ron

    2016-10-01

    We have studied how the insertion of sub-monolayer amounts of Mn impurities in the middle of the oxide tunnel barrier of Fe/GeO2 on p-type Ge affects the spin transport, using three-terminal Hanle measurements. Strikingly, the magnitude of the Hanle spin voltage is strongly reduced by increasing the amount of Mn dopants and is even completely absent for devices having an amount of Mn impurities equivalent to a 0.2-nm-thick layer. This demonstrates that magnetic impurities in the tunnel barrier are detrimental to the spin transport in ferromagnet/oxide/semiconductor junctions, and that the localized states associated with such magnetic impurities do not produce three-terminal Hanle spin signals.

  18. Fe Substitution Effect on the High-Field Magnetization in the Kondo Semiconductor CeRu2Al10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Akihiro; Kindo, Koichi; Nohara, Hiroki; Nakamura, Michio; Tanida, Hiroshi; Sera, Masafumi; Nishioka, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    The magnetization of the Fe substitution system in the Kondo semiconductor CeRu2Al10 was measured in high magnetic fields of up to 72 T with the magnetic field (H) along the a-axis. The magnetization curve indicates that the critical field from the antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase to the paramagnetic one (Hcp) shows an increase from ˜51 (x = 0) to ˜60 T (x = 0.7) owing to the Fe substitution. The Fe concentration dependence of Hcp is similar to that of the magnitude of the energy of the spin gap. The degree of the concave H dependence of the magnetization curve, which is the characteristic feature for H ∥ a in CeT2Al10 (T = Ru, Os), is not strongly enhanced by the Fe substitution. This may be due to the suppression of the strong anisotropy of the hybridization between the conduction band and the localized 4f shell along the a-axis. These results reveal that the spin gap of the present system consists of at least two components, the gap due to the spin (Kondo) singlet formation and the anisotropy gap of the AF magnon.

  19. Magnetic domain structure study of a ferromagnetic semiconductor using a home-made low temperature scanning Hall probe microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kweon, Seongsoo; de Lozanne, Alex; Samarth, Nitin

    2008-03-01

    GaMnAs is a ferromagnetic semiconductor actively studied for basic research and for the possibility of application to spintronic devices. To study the local magnetic properties of this material the magnetic force microscope (MFM) is too invasive (by affecting the domains in the sample) or not sensitive enough (due to the weak magnetization of the GaMnAs). We have therefore built a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) to complement our MFM studies. We use a lock-in amplifier to supply a bias current of 1-10μA and to measure the Hall voltage. We calibrated this home-made SHPM with a computer hard disk sample. Comparing images of this sample obtained with MFM and SHPM we show that our home-made SHPM is operating well. We observed the domain structure of 30-nm thick Ga0.94Mn0.06As epilayer grown on a 700nm-thick In0.13Ga0.87As buffer covering a GaAs substrate. We will study the magnetic domain structure as a function of temperature with varying external magnetic fields.

  20. Newtype single-layer magnetic semiconductor in transition-metal dichalcogenides VX2 (X = S, Se and Te)

    PubMed Central

    Fuh, Huei-Ru; Chang, Ching-Ray; Wang, Yin-Kuo; Evans, Richard F. L.; Chantrell, Roy W.; Jeng, Horng-Tay

    2016-01-01

    We present a newtype 2-dimensional (2D) magnetic semiconductor based on transition-metal dichalcogenides VX2 (X = S, Se and Te) via first-principles calculations. The obtained indirect band gaps of monolayer VS2, VSe2, and VTe2 given from the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) are respectively 0.05, 0.22, and 0.20 eV, all with integer magnetic moments of 1.0 μB. The GGA plus on-site Coulomb interaction U (GGA + U) enhances the exchange splittings and raises the energy gap up to 0.38~0.65 eV. By adopting the GW approximation, we obtain converged G0W0 gaps of 1.3, 1.2, and 0.7 eV for VS2, VSe2, and VTe2 monolayers, respectively. They agree very well with our calculated HSE gaps of 1.1, 1.2, and 0.6 eV, respectively. The gap sizes as well as the metal-insulator transitions are tunable by applying the in-plane strain and/or changing the number of stacking layers. The Monte Carlo simulations illustrate very high Curie-temperatures of 292, 472, and 553 K for VS2, VSe2, and VTe2 monolayers, respectively. They are nearly or well beyond the room temperature. Combining the semiconducting energy gap, the 100% spin polarized valence and conduction bands, the room temperature TC, and the in-plane magnetic anisotropy together in a single layer VX2, this newtype 2D magnetic semiconductor shows great potential in future spintronics. PMID:27601195

  1. Ferromagnets based on diamond-like semiconductors GaSb, InSb, Ge, and Si supersaturated with manganese or iron impurities during laser-plasma deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Demidov, E. S.; Podol'skii, V. V.; Lesnikov, V. P.; Sapozhnikov, M. V.; Druzhnov, D. M.; Gusev, S. N.; Gribkov, B. A.; Filatov, D. O.; Stepanova, Yu. S.; Levchuk, S. A.

    2008-01-15

    Properties of thin (30-100 nm) layers of diluted magnetic semiconductors based on diamond-like compounds III-V (InSb and GaSb) and elemental semiconductors Ge and Si doped with 3d impurities of manganese and iron up to 15% were measured and discussed. The layers were grown by laser-plasma deposition onto heated single-crystal gallium arsenide or sapphire substrates. The ferromagnetism of layers with the Curie temperature up to 500 K appeared in observations of the ferromagnetic resonance, anomalous Hall effect, and magneto-optic Kerr effect. The carrier mobility of diluted magnetic semiconductors is a hundred times larger than that of the previously known highest temperature magnetic semiconductors, i.e., copper and chromium chalcogenides. The difference between changes in the magnetization with temperature in diluted semiconductors based on III-V, Ge, and Si was discussed. A complex structure of the ferromagnetic resonance spectrum in Si:Mn/GaAs was observed. The results of magnetic-force microscopy showed a weak correlation between the surface relief and magnetic inhomogeneity, which suggests that the ferromagnetism is caused by the 3d-impurity solid solution, rather than ferromagnetic phase inclusions.

  2. Design and performance of an ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope operating at dilution refrigerator temperatures and high magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Misra, S; Zhou, B B; Drozdov, I K; Seo, J; Urban, L; Gyenis, A; Kingsley, S C J; Jones, H; Yazdani, A

    2013-10-01

    We describe the construction and performance of a scanning tunneling microscope capable of taking maps of the tunneling density of states with sub-atomic spatial resolution at dilution refrigerator temperatures and high (14 T) magnetic fields. The fully ultra-high vacuum system features visual access to a two-sample microscope stage at the end of a bottom-loading dilution refrigerator, which facilitates the transfer of in situ prepared tips and samples. The two-sample stage enables location of the best area of the sample under study and extends the experiment lifetime. The successful thermal anchoring of the microscope, described in detail, is confirmed through a base temperature reading of 20 mK, along with a measured electron temperature of 250 mK. Atomically resolved images, along with complementary vibration measurements, are presented to confirm the effectiveness of the vibration isolation scheme in this instrument. Finally, we demonstrate that the microscope is capable of the same level of performance as typical machines with more modest refrigeration by measuring spectroscopic maps at base temperature both at zero field and in an applied magnetic field.

  3. Design and performance of an ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope operating at dilution refrigerator temperatures and high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, S.; Zhou, B. B.; Drozdov, I. K.; Seo, J.; Urban, L.; Gyenis, A.; Kingsley, S. C. J.; Jones, H.; Yazdani, A.

    2013-10-01

    We describe the construction and performance of a scanning tunneling microscope capable of taking maps of the tunneling density of states with sub-atomic spatial resolution at dilution refrigerator temperatures and high (14 T) magnetic fields. The fully ultra-high vacuum system features visual access to a two-sample microscope stage at the end of a bottom-loading dilution refrigerator, which facilitates the transfer of in situ prepared tips and samples. The two-sample stage enables location of the best area of the sample under study and extends the experiment lifetime. The successful thermal anchoring of the microscope, described in detail, is confirmed through a base temperature reading of 20 mK, along with a measured electron temperature of 250 mK. Atomically resolved images, along with complementary vibration measurements, are presented to confirm the effectiveness of the vibration isolation scheme in this instrument. Finally, we demonstrate that the microscope is capable of the same level of performance as typical machines with more modest refrigeration by measuring spectroscopic maps at base temperature both at zero field and in an applied magnetic field.

  4. Effects of magnetic site disorder of the 1-D Ising spin chain compounds Ca3(Co,Mn)2O6 with dilute doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Brian; Lampen, Paula; Phan, Manh-Huong; Srikanth, Hariharan; Kovak, Jozef; Skorvanek, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    The spin chain compound Ca3Co2O6 has been extensively studied due to a number of unusual properties originating from geometrically frustrated Ising-like spin chains arranged in a triangular lattice. These quasi one dimensional structures provide an ideal environment to study dilute magnetic disorder in spin-glass like systems. Disorder controlled via chemical doping has been observed to weaken the spin glass behavior and disrupt a number of metamagnetic transitions found in pristine Ca3Co2O6. We report a systematic study of the effects of dilute Mn doping (x = 0.05 - 0.50) in Ca3Co2-xMnxO6 synthesized via a sol-gel method. Detailed AC and DC magnetization measurements performed on a SQUID magnetometer reveal the suppression of the step-like metamagnetic transitions by a doping of x = 0.25. The relaxation time is found to decrease with increasing Mn content, showing the destruction of the spin-glass like behavior. Our observations yield new insight into the role of site disorder on the glassy behavior in spin chain systems. Research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award No. DE-FG02-07ER46438.

  5. Disordered electronic and magnetic systems - Transition metal (manganese) and rare earth (gadolinium) doped amorphous group IV semiconductors (carbon, silicon, germanium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Li

    2007-12-01

    While the physics of electrical doping of semiconductors has been well understood for decades, magnetic doping and the interactions between the carriers and the magnetic moments in semiconductors are still under active investigation for various applications, such as spintronics and quantum computing. Our systematic studies on transition-metal-doped (TM-doped) and rare-earth-doped (RE-doped) amorphous group IV elemental semiconductors provide unique insight into the rich physics of this type of materials. Our model system is the e-beam coevaporated a-GdxSi1-x films. Magnetron cosputtered a-GdxSi 1-x films, despite having very different film morphology at the 10-nm scale from the e-beam coevaporated films, are demonstrated to possess almost the same physical properties. Cosputtered a-GdxC1-x (:Hy) and Gd ion-implanted ta-C (ta-C1-x:Gd x) films are studied for Gd in different a-C matrices with different sp2/sp 3 ratio. All doped a-C films are on the insulating side of the metal-insulator transition. Very similar to a-Gd xSi1-x films, Gd possesses a large magnetic moment in a-C. The moment-moment and moment-carrier interactions lead to a spin-glass ground state and large negative magnetoresistance (MR) below a crossover temperature T' in both a-Gd xC1-x<(:Hy) and ta-C1-x:Gdx films. A small positive MR is found above T'. Transition metal Mn has always been believed to possess a large local moment in Si or Ge. However, e-beam coevaporated a-MnxSi1-x films are found to show a quenched local moment for Mn concentration as low as x=0.005 and up to x=0.175. All films are purely paramagnetic and have very small saturation moments. Unlike Gd, which provides both carriers and local moment, Mn only provides electrical carriers in a-Si. These results suggest an itinerant non-magnetic Mn states in a-Si; the insulating behavior is a result of the strong structural disorder. This quenching of the local Mn moment has not been predicted by any existing theory. Consistent with the

  6. Magnetic evolution of nickel ion doped In2O3 nanocrystals under high magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Hu, Changchun; Huang, Jie; Sun, Youbao; Xue, Xinkai; Sun, Qingbo

    2017-08-01

    High magnetic field (HMF) treatment is an important strategy to tune the physicochemical properties of traditional materials. Here, we take nickel ion doped In2O3 nanocrystals as an example and report that the magnetization behavior of diluted magnetic semiconductors can be easily tuned by HMF treatment. It is experimentally demonstrated that the room temperature ferromagnetism of lowly-doped nanocrystals can be greatly enhanced by HMF treatment while the paramagnetic properties of highly-doped samples is almost un-changed. These magnetic transition behaviors after HMF treatment are attributed to the rearrangement of magnetic ordering and the increment of grain-boundary defects. Our research not only points out an effective approach to induce the transition of spin states of diluted magnetic semiconductors but also provides a potentially efficient route to endow other traditional materials with novel physical properties.

  7. Dilution Confusion: Conventions for Defining a Dilution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Laurence A.

    2010-01-01

    Two conventions for preparing dilutions are used in clinical laboratories. The first convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A plus "b" volumes of solution B. The second convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A diluted into a final volume of "b". Use of the incorrect dilution convention could affect…

  8. Dilution Confusion: Conventions for Defining a Dilution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Laurence A.

    2010-01-01

    Two conventions for preparing dilutions are used in clinical laboratories. The first convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A plus "b" volumes of solution B. The second convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A diluted into a final volume of "b". Use of the incorrect dilution convention could affect…

  9. Strong anisotropy of magnetization and sign reversion of ordinary Hall coefficient in single crystal Ge{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x} magnetic semiconductor films

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, J. X.; Tian, Y. F.; He, S. M.; Bai, H. L.; Xu, T. S.; Yan, S. S.; Dai, Y. Y.; Chen, Y. X.; Liu, G. L.; Mei, L. M.

    2009-08-10

    Epitaxial single-crystal Ge{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x} ferromagnetic-semiconductor films were fabricated on Ge(001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. All the samples are ferromagnetic and have strong magnetic anisotropy indicated by different magnetization in plane and out of plane. The electrical transport of the films obeys Efros variable range hopping law in the low temperature range. Interestingly, a negative coefficient of the ordinary Hall effect of p-type carriers was found in the variable range hopping at low temperature. Anomalous Hall effect in Ge{sub 0.949}Mn{sub 0.051} film was observed below the Curie temperature, indicating the carrier-mediated intrinsic ferromagnetism.

  10. Heat-Treatment-Induced Switching of Magnetic States in the Doped Polar Semiconductor Ge1‑xMnxTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriener, M.; Nakajima, T.; Kaneko, Y.; Kikkawa, A.; Yu, X. Z.; Endo, N.; Kato, K.; Takata, M.; Arima, T.; Tokura, Y.; Taguchi, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Cross-control of a material property - manipulation of a physical quantity (e.g., magnetisation) by a nonconjugate field (e.g., electrical field) – is a challenge in fundamental science and also important for technological device applications. It has been demonstrated that magnetic properties can be controlled by electrical and optical stimuli in various magnets. Here we find that heat-treatment allows the control over two competing magnetic phases in the Mn-doped polar semiconductor GeTe. The onset temperatures Tc of ferromagnetism vary at low Mn concentrations by a factor of five to six with a maximum Tc ≈ 180 K, depending on the selected phase. Analyses in terms of synchrotron x-ray diffraction and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy indicate a possible segregation of the Mn ions, which is responsible for the high-Tc phase. More importantly, we demonstrate that the two states can be switched back and forth repeatedly from either phase by changing the heat-treatment of a sample, thereby confirming magnetic phase-change-memory functionality.

  11. Heat-Treatment-Induced Switching of Magnetic States in the Doped Polar Semiconductor Ge1-xMnxTe.

    PubMed

    Kriener, M; Nakajima, T; Kaneko, Y; Kikkawa, A; Yu, X Z; Endo, N; Kato, K; Takata, M; Arima, T; Tokura, Y; Taguchi, Y

    2016-05-10

    Cross-control of a material property - manipulation of a physical quantity (e.g., magnetisation) by a nonconjugate field (e.g., electrical field) - is a challenge in fundamental science and also important for technological device applications. It has been demonstrated that magnetic properties can be controlled by electrical and optical stimuli in various magnets. Here we find that heat-treatment allows the control over two competing magnetic phases in the Mn-doped polar semiconductor GeTe. The onset temperatures Tc of ferromagnetism vary at low Mn concentrations by a factor of five to six with a maximum Tc ≈ 180 K, depending on the selected phase. Analyses in terms of synchrotron x-ray diffraction and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy indicate a possible segregation of the Mn ions, which is responsible for the high-Tc phase. More importantly, we demonstrate that the two states can be switched back and forth repeatedly from either phase by changing the heat-treatment of a sample, thereby confirming magnetic phase-change-memory functionality.

  12. Heat-Treatment-Induced Switching of Magnetic States in the Doped Polar Semiconductor Ge1−xMnxTe

    PubMed Central

    Kriener, M.; Nakajima, T.; Kaneko, Y.; Kikkawa, A.; Yu, X. Z.; Endo, N.; Kato, K.; Takata, M.; Arima, T.; Tokura, Y.; Taguchi, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Cross-control of a material property - manipulation of a physical quantity (e.g., magnetisation) by a nonconjugate field (e.g., electrical field) – is a challenge in fundamental science and also important for technological device applications. It has been demonstrated that magnetic properties can be controlled by electrical and optical stimuli in various magnets. Here we find that heat-treatment allows the control over two competing magnetic phases in the Mn-doped polar semiconductor GeTe. The onset temperatures Tc of ferromagnetism vary at low Mn concentrations by a factor of five to six with a maximum Tc ≈ 180 K, depending on the selected phase. Analyses in terms of synchrotron x-ray diffraction and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy indicate a possible segregation of the Mn ions, which is responsible for the high-Tc phase. More importantly, we demonstrate that the two states can be switched back and forth repeatedly from either phase by changing the heat-treatment of a sample, thereby confirming magnetic phase-change-memory functionality. PMID:27160657

  13. Experimental equipment and procedure for the investigation of semiconductors galvanomagnetic properties in pulsed magnetic fields (in Ukrainian)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savitsky, V. G.; Storchun, P. E.

    Experimental equipment and procedure for the investigation of semiconductors galvanomagnetic properties in pulsed magnetic fields are presented. The experimental equipment consists of the pulsed magnetic field generation system with the amplitude (B_{max}) up to 20T and a data-recording unit. The compensation of pickup noise-voltage induced by the pulsed magnetic field is originaly realized by compensating coils with the variable effective area. The analog amplifiers unit and the integrator that are a part of the data-recording unit form two measuring channels respectively. The output voltage from these channels are switched by the electronic analog commutator to the input of high-speed ADC in the program preset order. The results of analog-to-digital conversion (12 bits+one overflow bit) and channel number (3 bits) are then entered into RAM (2048×16bits) and respectively transmitted to the personal computer when the experiment is completed. The ADC high-speed performance allows for 2048 measurements during 2-2.5 periods of the magnetic field oscillation.}

  14. Effect of disorder on the magnetic and electronic structure of a prospective spin-gapless semiconductor MnCrVAl

    DOE PAGES

    Kharel, P.; Herran, J.; Lukashev, P.; ...

    2016-12-19

    Recent discovery of a new class of materials, spin-gapless semiconductors (SGS), has attracted considerable attention in the last few years, primarily due to potential applications in the emerging field of spin-based electronics (spintronics). Here, we investigate structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of one potential SGS compound, MnCrVAl, using various experimental and theoretical techniques. Our calculations show that this material exhibits ≈ 0.5 eV band gap for the majority-spin states, while for the minority-spin it is nearly gapless. The calculated magnetic moment for the completely ordered structure is 2.9 μB/f.u., which is different from our experimentally measured value of almost zero.more » Here, this discrepancy is explained by the structural disorder. In particular, A2 type disorder, where Mn or Cr atoms exchange their positions with Al atoms, results in induced antiferromagnetic exchange coupling, which, at a certain level of disorder, effectively reduces the total magnetic moment to zero. This is consistent with our x-ray diffraction measurements which indicate the presence of A2 disorder in all of our samples. In addition, we also show that B2 disorder does not result in antiferromagnetic exchange coupling and therefore does not significantly reduce the total magnetic moment.« less

  15. Theory of fine structure of correlated exciton states in self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojnar, Anna H.; Kadantsev, Eugene S.; Korkusiński, Marek; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2011-12-01

    A theory of the fine structure of correlated exciton states in self-assembled parabolic semiconductor quantum dots in a magnetic field perpendicular to the quantum dot plane is presented. The correlated exciton wave function is expanded in configurations consisting of products of electron and heavy-hole 2D harmonic oscillator states (HO) in a magnetic field and the electron spin Sz=±1/2 and a heavy-hole spin τz=±3/2 states. Analytical expressions for the short- and long-range electron-hole exchange Coulomb interaction matrix elements are derived in the HO and spin basis for arbitrary magnetic field. This allows the incorporation of short- and long-range electron-hole exchange, direct electron-hole interaction, and quantum dot anisotropy in the exact diagonalization of the exciton Hamiltonian. The fine structure of ground and excited correlated exciton states as a function of a number of confined shells, quantum dot anisotropy, and magnetic field is obtained using exact diagonalization of the many-body Hamiltonian. The effects of correlations are shown to significantly affect the energy splitting of the two bright exciton states.

  16. Effect of disorder on the magnetic and electronic structure of a prospective spin-gapless semiconductor MnCrVAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharel, P.; Herran, J.; Lukashev, P.; Jin, Y.; Waybright, J.; Gilbert, S.; Staten, B.; Gray, P.; Valloppilly, S.; Huh, Y.; Sellmyer, D. J.

    2017-05-01

    Recent discovery of a new class of materials, spin-gapless semiconductors (SGS), has attracted considerable attention in the last few years, primarily due to potential applications in the emerging field of spin-based electronics (spintronics). Here, we investigate structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of one potential SGS compound, MnCrVAl, using various experimental and theoretical techniques. Our calculations show that this material exhibits ≈ 0.5 eV band gap for the majority-spin states, while for the minority-spin it is nearly gapless. The calculated magnetic moment for the completely ordered structure is 2.9 μB/f.u., which is different from our experimentally measured value of almost zero. This discrepancy is explained by the structural disorder. In particular, A2 type disorder, where Mn or Cr atoms exchange their positions with Al atoms, results in induced antiferromagnetic exchange coupling, which, at a certain level of disorder, effectively reduces the total magnetic moment to zero. This is consistent with our x-ray diffraction measurements which indicate the presence of A2 disorder in all of our samples. In addition, we also show that B2 disorder does not result in antiferromagnetic exchange coupling and therefore does not significantly reduce the total magnetic moment.

  17. Magnetic disorder in diluted FexM100-x granular thin films (M=Au, Ag, Cu; x < 10 at.%).

    PubMed

    Alba Venero, D; Fernández Barquín, L; Alonso, J; Fdez-Gubieda, M L; Rodríguez Fernández, L; Boada, R; Chaboy, J

    2013-07-10

    Nanogranular thin films of Fe7Au93, Fe7Ag93 and Fe9Cu91 have been sputtered onto Si(100) substrates with the aim of studying the magnetic interactions. X-ray diffraction shows a major noble metal matrix with broad peaks stemming from (111) textured fcc-Au, Ag and Cu. The noble metal forms a nanogranular environment, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, with mean particle sizes below 10 nm. The high magnetoresistance (>6%) reveals the existence of Fe nanoparticles. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy confirms the presence of a bcc-Fe atom arrangement and some dissolved Fe atoms in the matrix, and XMCD shows the polarization of Au by the Fe nanoparticles. DC-magnetization displays a field-dependent irreversibility produced by the freezing of magnetic nanoparticles into a superspin-glass state. The hysteresis loops remain unsaturated at 5 K and 45 kOe. The coercivity displays a sharp temperature decrease towards a minimum below 50 K, levelling off at higher values, reaching Hc = 200 Oe at 300 K. Annealing of FeAu results in a double-peak zero field cooled magnetization and a slight decrease of the coercivity. The interpretation of the results supports the presence of Fe nanoparticles embedded in the major noble matrix, with some diluted Fe atoms/clusters.

  18. Ab initio studies of magnetic anisotropy energy in highly Co-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łusakowski, A.; Szuszkiewicz, W.

    2017-03-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the energy of magnetic anisotropy for diluted magnetic semiconductor (Zn,Co)O were performed using OpenMX package with fully relativistic pseudopotentials. The analysis of the band spin-orbit interaction and the magnetic ion's surrounding on magnetic anisotropy have been provided. As a result, the calculations show that the magnetic anisotropy in (Zn,Co)O solid solution, mainly of the single ion anisotropy type has been caused by Co ions.

  19. Magnetization steps in a diluted Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain: Theory and experiments on (CH3)4NMnxCd1-xCl3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paduan-Filho, A.; Oliveira, N. F.; Bindilatti, V.; Foner, S.; Shapira, Y.

    2003-12-01

    A theory for the equilibrium low-temperature magnetization M of a diluted Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain is presented. Only the nearest-neighbor (NN) exchange interaction is included, and the distribution of the magnetic ions is assumed to be random. Values of the magnetic fields Bi at the magnetization steps (MST’s) from finite chains with two to five spins (pairs, triplets, quartets, and quintets) are given for chains composed of spins S=5/2. The magnitudes of these MST’s as a function of the fraction, x, of cations that are magnetic are given for any S. An expression for the apparent saturation value of M is derived. The magnetization curve, M versus B, is calculated using the exact contributions of finite chains with one to five spins, and the “rise and ramp approximation” for longer chains. An expression for the low-temperature saturation magnetic field Bs(n) of a finite chain with n spins is given. Some nonequilibrium effects that occur in a rapidly changing B are also considered. Some of these result from the absence of thermal equilibrium within the sample itself, whereas others are caused by the absence of thermal equilibrium between the sample and its environment (e.g., liquid-helium bath). Specific nonequilibrium models based on earlier treatments of the phonon bottleneck, and of spin flips associated with cross relaxation and with level crossings (anticrossings), are discussed. Magnetization data on powders of TMMC diluted with cadmium [i.e., (CH3)4NMnxCd1-xCl3, with 0.16⩽x⩽0.50] were measured at 0.55 K in 18-T superconducting magnets. The field B1 at the first MST from pairs is used to determine the NN exchange constant J. This J/kB changes from -5.9 K to -6.5 K as x increases from 0.16 to 0.50. The magnetization curves obtained in the superconducting magnets are compared with simulations based on the equilibrium theory. A reasonably good agreement is found. Data for the differential susceptibility, dM/dB, were taken in pulsed magnetic

  20. Effects of Dy sub lattice dilution on transport and magnetic properties in Dy1-xKxMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadagiri, K.; Nithya, R.; Shukla, Neeraj; Satya, A. T.

    2017-03-01

    Interaction of multiple oxidation states of manganese ions with rare earth ions in manganites leads to the observation of various magnetic ground states. To understand the effect of average ionic size on electrical conductivity and magnetic ground state properties in Dy1-xKxMnO3 (x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2 & 0.3), we have investigated electron transport as a function of temperature and magnetic properties as a function of temperature, frequency and magnetic field of these compounds. Although mixed valent manganese ions can facilitate a double exchange interaction via oxygen ion leading to a ferromagnetic metallic ground state, no insulator-metal transition was detected. On the other hand, in the compounds with x=0.0 to 0.2, transport properties suggested an adiabatic small polaron hopping conduction mechanism. However, x=0.3 compound followed a variable range hopping conduction. Temperature variation of magnetization data exhibited three different types of transitions involving Mn and Dy ions. The bifurcation between zero field cooled and field cooled magnetization data was observed in all the compounds. Field-dependent magnetization of all the compounds showed hysteresis loops for temperatures less than 10 K. Although large irreversibility between zero field cooled and field cooled magnetization data was observed with a peak for x=0.3, the peak temperatures did not alter with frequency ruling out the possibility of spin glass behavior. The presence of hysteresis loops and lack of saturation magnetization implied the simultaneous presence of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions well within the antiferromagnetic ordering of Mn ions.

  1. High accuracy NMR chemical shift corrected for bulk magnetization as a tool for structural elucidation of microemulsions. Part 2 - Anionic and nonionic dilutable microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Roy E; Darmon, Eliezer; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2016-02-01

    In our previous report we suggested a new analytical tool, high accuracy NMR chemical shift corrected for bulk magnetization as a supplementary tool to study structural transitions and droplet size and shape of dilutable microemulsions. The aim of this study was to show the generality of this technique and to demonstrate that in almost any type of microemulsion this technique provides additional valuable structural information. The analysis made by the technique adds to the elucidation of some structural aspects that could not be clearly determined by other classical techniques. Therefore, in this part we are extending the study to three additional systems differing in the type of oil phase (toluene and cyclohexane), the nature of the surfactants (anionic and nonionic), and other microemulsion characteristics. We studied sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-based anionic microemulsions with different oils and a nonionic microemulsion based on Tween 20 as the surfactant and toluene as the oil phase. All the microemulsions were fully dilutable with water. We found that the change in the slope of chemical shift against dilution reflects phase transition points of the microemulsion (O/W, bicontinuous, W/O). Chemical shift changes were clearly observed with the transition between spherical and non-spherical (wormlike, etc.) droplet shapes. We compared the interaction of cyclohexane and toluene and used the anisotropic effect of toluene's ring current to determine its preferred orientation relative to SDS. Chemical shifts of the microemulsion components are therefore a useful addition to the arsenal of techniques for characterizing microemulsions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cyclotron Splittings in the Plasmon Resonances of Electronically Doped Semiconductor Nanocrystals Probed by Magnetic Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hartstein, Kimberly H; Schimpf, Alina M; Salvador, Michael; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2017-04-10

    A fundamental understanding of the rich electronic structures of electronically doped semiconductor nanocrystals is vital for assessing the utility of these materials for future applications from solar cells to redox catalysis. Here, we examine the use of magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy to probe the infrared localized surface plasmon resonances of p-Cu2-xSe, n-ZnO, and tin-doped In2O3 (n-ITO) nanocrystals. We demonstrate that the MCD spectra of these nanocrystals can be analyzed by invoking classical cyclotron motions of their excess charge carriers, with experimental MCD signs conveying the carrier types (n or p) and experimental MCD intensities conveying the cyclotron splitting magnitudes. The experimental cyclotron splittings can then be used to quantify carrier effective masses (m*), with results that agree with bulk in most cases. MCD spectroscopy thus offers a unique measure of m* in free-standing colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, raising new opportunities to investigate the influence of various other synthetic or environmental parameters on this fundamentally important electronic property.

  3. Evidence of dilute ferromagnetism in rare-earth doped yttrium aluminium garnet

    SciTech Connect

    Farr, Warrick G.; Goryachev, Maxim; Le Floch, Jean-Michel; Tobar, Michael E.; Bushev, Pavel

    2015-09-21

    This work demonstrates strong coupling regime between an erbium ion spin ensemble and microwave hybrid cavity-whispering gallery modes in a yttrium aluminium garnet dielectric crystal. Coupling strengths of 220 MHz and mode quality factors in excess of 10{sup 6} are demonstrated. Moreover, the magnetic response of high-Q modes demonstrates behaviour which is unusual for paramagnetic systems. This behaviour includes hysteresis and memory effects. Such qualitative change of the system's magnetic field response is interpreted as a phase transition of rare earth ion impurities. This phenomenon is similar to the phenomenon of dilute ferromagnetism in semiconductors. The clear temperature dependence of the phenomenon is demonstrated.

  4. Magnetization steps in the diluted Heisenberg layer materials ( CH3 NH3 )2 Mnx Cd1-x Cl4 : Equilibrium data at 0.6 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paduan-Filho, A.; Gratens, X.; Bindilatti, V.; Oliveira, N. F., Jr.; Shapira, Yaacov

    2005-08-01

    The magnetization M of (CH3NH3)2MnxCd1-xCl4 , with x from 0.025 up to 0.265, was measured at 0.6 K in a slowly varying magnetic field B up to 17 T. The exchange interaction in these strongly diluted planar magnetic materials is antiferromagnetic. The in-plane cation structure is well approximated by a square lattice. The observed qualitative features, listed in the order that they appear in increasing B , are as follows: a fast rise of M , starting at B=0 ; a magnetization plateau (plateau of “apparent saturation”); a large magnetization step (MST), attributed to nearest-neighbor (NN) pairs; a second magnetization plateau; another large MST from NN pairs; and a third plateau that is not completed below the highest available B . These features are expected from the NN cluster model presented in the preceding paper. The magnetic fields at the two MST’s give J1/kB=(-4.39±0.10)K for the NN exchange constant. This value is slightly lower than reported for the undiluted (x=1) member of this series, (CH3NH3)2MnCl4 . A smaller J1 when x⩽0.265 may be the result of an in-plane expansion with decreasing x , caused by the slightly larger Cd2+ ion compared to Mn2+ . Analysis of the initial rise of M at low B indicates the presence of weak interactions that are not included in the NN cluster model. This conclusion is consistent with the observation (to be reported later) of a weak exchange interaction with a neighbor that is more distant than a NN. The apparent saturation value Ms , at the first magnetization plateau, was determined for all seven samples. There is a fair agreement with the values expected from a random distribution of the Mn ions over all cation sites. The largest deviation is for samples with x⩾0.15 , where the measured Ms is somewhat higher. In the same samples the magnetization jump ΔM at the MST’s from NN pairs is somewhat smaller than for a random Mn distribution. A proposed explanation of the discrepancies for x⩾0.15 postulates that the

  5. Propagation of electro-kinetic waves in magnetized GaN semiconductor with nano-sized ion colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Ajay; Sharma, Giriraj; Jat, K. L.; Rishi, M. P.

    2015-07-31

    Based on hydrodynamic model of multi-component plasma, an analytical study on propagation of longitudinal electro-kinetic (LEK) waves in wurtzite and zincblende structures of GaN is carried out. Nano-sized ion colloids (NICs) are embedded in the sample by the technique of ion-implantation. The implanted NICs are considered massive by an order as compared to the host lattice points and do not participate in Based LEK perturbations. Though, the NICs are continuously bombarded by the electrons as well as the holes yet, the former acquires a net negative charge owing to relatively higher mobility of electrons and consequently results into depletion of electron density in the medium. It i s found that the presence of charged NICs significantly modifies the dispersion and amplification characteristics of LEK waves in magnetized GaN semiconductor plasma and their role becomes increasingly effective as the fraction of charge on them increases.

  6. PwrSoC (integration of micro-magnetic inductors/transformers with active semiconductors) for more than Moore technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathuna, Cian Ó.; Wang, Ningning; Kulkarni, Santosh; Roy, Saibal

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces the concept of power supply on chip (PwrSoC) which will enable the development of next-generation, functionally integrated, power management platforms with applications in dc-dc conversion, gate drives, isolated power transmission and ultimately, high granularity, on-chip, power management for mixed-signal, SOC chips. PwrSoC will integrate power passives with the power management IC, in a 3D stacked or monolithic form factor, thereby delivering the performance of a highefficiency dc-dc converter within the footprint of a low-efficiency linear regulator. A central element of the PwrSoC concept is the fabrication of power micro-magnetics on silicon to deliver micro-inductors and micro-transformers. The paper details the magnetics on silicon process which combines thin film magnetic core technology with electroplated copper conductors. Measured data for micro-inductors show inductance operation up to 20 MHz, footprints down to 0.5 mm2, efficiencies up to 93% and dc current carrying capability up to 600 mA. Measurements on micro-transformers show voltage gain of approximately - 1 dB at between 10 MHz and 30 MHz. Contribution to the Topical Issue “International Semiconductor Conference Dresden-Grenoble - ISCDG 2012”, Edited by Gérard Ghibaudo, Francis Balestra and Simon Deleonibus.

  7. Magnetic hyperfine field at diluted {sup 57}Fe in vapor-quenched heavy-rare-earth films

    SciTech Connect

    Passamani, E.C.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; Micklitz, H.

    1997-05-01

    In this work, we combine vapor-quenching technique at low temperature (20 K) and {ital in situ} {sup 57}Fe M{umlt o}ssbauer spectroscopy at different temperatures (7{endash}300 K) to study out-of-equilibrium solubility and magnetic properties of {sup 57}Fe(5at.{percent}) in some magnetic heavy-rare-earth (RE) metals (RE=Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm). The spectra were fitted using the full Hamiltonian including electric quadrupole and magnetic interactions. Two magnetic components are observed in the 7 K M{umlt o}ssbauer spectra: one with a magnetic hyperfine field (B{sub hf}) varying between 5.3(2) and 1.9(2) T, which has been attributed to Fe at a substitutional site, and the other one, with a smaller field ({lt}2.1T), which is assumed to be due to Fe at an interstitial site. The behavior of B{sub hf} for Fe at the substitutional site in the different RE metals scales with the de Gennes factor. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Effects of an external magnetic field on shallow donor levels in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Yao-Ming; Peng, Jian-Ping; Liu, Pu-Lin; Shen, Sue-Chu; Zhu, Jing-Bing

    1993-10-01

    An extension of Faulkner's method for the energy levels of the shallow donor in silicon and germanium at zero field is made in order to investigate the effects of a magnetic field upon the excited states. The effective-mass Hamiltonian matrix elements of an electron bound to a donor center and subjected to a magnetic field B, which involves both the linear and quadratic terms of magnetic field, are expressed analytically and matrices are solved numerically. The photothermal ionization spectroscopy of phosphorus in ultrapure silicon for magnetic fields parallel to the [1,0,0] and [1,1,1] directions and up to 10 T is explained successfully.

  9. Anomalous magnetic phase diagrams in the site-diluted Heisenberg antiferromagnets, A2Fe1- xInxCl5.H2O (A = Rb, K)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo, Javier; Palacio, Fernando; Morón, M. Carmen; Becerra, Carlos C.; Paduan-Filho, Armando

    1999-06-01

    The effect of the substitution of diamagnetic ions for paramagnetic ones in the magnetic phase diagrams of the low-anisotropy antiferromagnets A2Fe1-xInxCl5.H2O (A = Rb,K) is investigated. In the region where the spin-flop (SF) transition occurs, the consequences of dilution are manifested as the appearance of a structure of secondary transition lines and a substantial enhancement of the transition width. In the SF region a multiple-peak structure is observed in the ac susceptibility measurements which is associated with the secondary transition lines. This behaviour is discussed in terms of several mechanisms proposed previously. When the sample is cooled in applied fields below HSF(T) we observe the presence of a remanent magnetization (Mr) in the antiferromagnetic (AF) phase. Such magnetization was previously found in these solid solutions at very low fields (a few Oe). Here we also find that Mr follows a temperature dependence that is independent of the concentration x and is the same for the K and Rb derivatives.

  10. Absence of exchange interaction between localized magnetic moments and conduction-electrons in diluted Er{sup 3+} gold-nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lesseux, G. G. Urbano, R. R.; Iwamoto, W.; García-Flores, A. F.; Rettori, C.

    2014-05-07

    The Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) of diluted Er{sup 3+} magnetic ions in Au nanoparticles (NPs) is reported. The NPs were synthesized by reducing chloro triphenyl-phosphine gold(I) and erbium(III) trifluoroacetate. The Er{sup 3+} g-value along with the observed hyperfine splitting indicate that the Er{sup 3+} impurities are in a local cubic symmetry. Furthermore, the Er{sup 3+} ESR spectra show that the exchange interaction between the 4f and the conduction electrons (ce) is absent or negligible in Au{sub 1–x}Er{sub x} NPs, in contrast to the ESR results in bulk Au{sub 1–x}Er{sub x}. Therefore, the nature of this interaction needs to be reexamined at the nano scale range.

  11. Magnetoamplification in a bipolar magnetic junction transistor.

    PubMed

    Rangaraju, N; Peters, J A; Wessels, B W

    2010-09-10

    We have demonstrated the first bipolar magnetic junction transistor using a dilute magnetic semiconductor. For an InMnAs p-n-p transistor magnetoamplification is observed at room temperature. The observed magnetoamplification is attributed to the magnetoresistance of the magnetic semiconductor InMnAs heterojunction. The magnetic field dependence of the transistor characteristics confirm that the magnetoamplification results from the junction magnetoresistance. To describe the experimentally observed transistor characteristics, we propose a modified Ebers-Moll model that includes a series magnetoresistance attributed to spin-selective conduction. The capability of magnetic field control of the amplification in an all-semiconductor transistor at room temperature potentially enables the creation of new computer logic architecture where the spin of the carriers is utilized.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Magnetic Heusler Semiconductors for Device and Materials Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamer, Michelle E.

    Spintronic devices for magnetic memory applications control the magnetic properties of the materials by manipulating the spin and magnetic moment of the electrons. Present devices use ferromagnetic materials that have magnetic fringing fields that interfere with other components of the device. The main focus of this research is investigating low-moment ferrimagnetic inverse Heusler materials that could be used in spintronic devices thereby eliminating the external fringing magnetic field. The challenge of this research is that while hundreds of inverse Heusler materials have been predicted for possible uses in devices, many of these compounds have a positive formation energy indicating that they are not likely to form and will decompose into other compounds. The magnetic and structural properties of several inverse Heusler systems were studied. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the phase and ordering of the crystal structure. SQUID magnetometry and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism determined the bulk magnetic properties and the atom-specific magnetic moments. This thesis outlines the first synthesis of Heusler-type V3Al, which was discovered to be an antiferromagnet. Cr2CoAl was found to exist in a Heusler phase with antiferromagnetically coupled Cr and Co atomic moments. In addition, Mn2CoAl, Cr2CoGa, and Mn3Al were grown as thin films on desorbed GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. This thesis demonstrated the successful synthesis and characterization of several Heusler compounds that could be used in future devices. These are the seminal results of inverse Heusler synthesis, which are proposed in devices such as spin-FETs and nonvolatile magnetic memory.

  13. Magnetic and transport properties of the ferromagnetic semiconductor heterostructures (In,Mn)As/(Ga,Al)Sb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oiwa, A.; Endo, A.; Katsumoto, S.; Iye, Y.; Ohno, H.; Munekata, H.

    1999-02-01

    We have investigated the magnetic and transport properties of (In,Mn)As thin films grown on a (Ga,Al)Sb layer. Strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is observed for the (In,Mn)As layer, the thickness of which is less than the critical value required for relaxation of lattice-mismatch-induced strain. The anomalous Hall coefficient is found to be approximately proportional to the square of resistivity in the low-field region. Large negative magnetoresistance is found to occur over a magnetic field range significantly wider than that for the ferromagnetic hysteresis loop.

  14. TiO2 and SnO2 magnetic nanocomposites: influence of semiconductors and synthetic methods on photoactivity.

    PubMed

    Mourão, Henrique A J L; Ribeiro, Caue

    2011-09-01

    A number of reports have been published on use of TiO2 in thin films, magnetic nanocomposites, or heterostructures such as TiO2/Ag and TiO2/SnO2, as catalysts for water decontamination. Hence, semiconductor materials such as SnO2, associated with TiO2 in such nanocomposites, should be assessed in depth for such applications, especially those involving complex structures, such as magnetic photocatalytic nanocomposites. The present study describes the synthesis, characterization and testing of the photocatalytic potential of TiO2 or SnO2 magnetic nanocomposites obtained by the polymeric precursor and the hydrolytic sol-gel methods. The nanocomposites TiO2/CoFe2O4 and SnO2/CoFe2O4 were synthesized from polymeric precursors while TiO2/Fe3O4 and SnO2/Fe3O4 were synthesized by the hydrolytic sol-gel method. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (FEG/SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photocatalytic potentials were evaluated by rhodamine B dye photodegradation under UV-C radiation. Compared to SnO2, the nanocomposites with a coating of TiO2 were found to show better photocatalytic activity, but the SnO2 magnetic nanocomposites showed some photocatalytic activity, even though SnO2 is reported to be inactive for these purposes. As for the synthesis method, the nanocomposites obtained from polymeric precursors had smaller surface areas, but higher photocatalytic activity, than those obtained by the hydrolytic sol-gel method. This observation was attributed to the higher crystallinity and a more active surface resulting from calcination of the polymeric precursor material.

  15. Magnetic ordering in the ultrapure site-diluted spin chain materials SrCu1 -xNixO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simutis, G.; Thede, M.; Saint-Martin, R.; Mohan, A.; Baines, C.; Guguchia, Z.; Khasanov, R.; Hess, C.; Revcolevschi, A.; Büchner, B.; Zheludev, A.

    2016-06-01

    The muon spin rotation technique is used to study magnetic ordering in ultrapure samples of SrCu1 -xNixO2 , an archetypical S =1 /2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain system with a small number of S =1 defects. The ordered state in the parent compound is shown to be highly homogeneous, contrary to a previous report [M. Matsuda et al., Phys. Rev. B 55, R11953 (1997), 10.1103/PhysRevB.55.R11953]. Even a minute number of Ni impurities results in inhomogeneous order and a decrease of the transition temperature. At as little as 0.5 % Ni concentration, magnetic ordering is entirely suppressed. The results are compared to previous theoretical studies of weakly coupled spin chains with site defects.

  16. Room-temperature ferromagnetism observed in Nd-doped In2O3 dilute magnetic semiconducting nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Zhanpeng; Zhang, Junran; Niu, Wei; Zhang, Minhao; Song, Li; Zhu, Hairong; Wang, Xuefeng

    2016-09-01

    Nd-doped In2O3 nanowires were fabricated by an Au-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition method. Nd atoms were successfully doped into the In2O3 host lattice structure, as revealed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Robust room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in Nd-doped In2O3 nanowires, which was attributed to the long-range-mediated magnetization among Nd3+-vacancy complexes through percolation-bound magnetic polarons. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11274003), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China.

  17. Advanced Spectroscopic Synchrotron Techniques to Unravel the Intrinsic Properties of Dilute Magnetic Oxides: The Case of Co:ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Ney, A; Opel, M; Kaspar, Tiffany C; Ney, V; Ye, S; Ollefs, K; Kammermeier, T; Bauer, S; Nielsen, K W; Goennenwein, S Tb; Engelhard, Mark H; Zhou, S; Potzger, K; Simon, J; Mader, W; Heald, Steve M; Cezar, J C; Wilhelm, F; Rogalev, A; Gross, R; Chambers, Scott A

    2010-01-22

    The use of synchrotron-based spectroscopy has revolutionized the way we look at matter. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) using linear and circular polarized light offers a powerful toolbox of element-specific structural, electronic, and magnetic probes that is especially well suited for complex materials containing several elements. We use the specific example of Zn1-xCoxO (Co:ZnO) to demonstrate the usefulness of combining these XAS techniques to unravel its intrinsic properties. We are able to demonstrate, that as long as phase separation or excessive defect formation is absent Co:ZnO is paramagnetic and we can establish independent quality indicators based on XAS. Samples which show long-range magnetic order fail to meet the quality indicators and complementary experimental techniques such as x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy indeed prove phase separation. By deconvoluting the XAS spectra, the characteristic spectral features of the phase separated materials are derived.

  18. Magnetic properties of cube-shaped Fe3O4 nanoparticles in dilute, 2D, and 3D assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moya, C.; Abdelgawad, A. M.; Nambiar, N.; Majetich, S. A.

    2017-08-01

    The behavior of cube-shaped Fe3O4 nanoparticles is compared with that of similar spherical particles to reveal the effects of surface and shape anisotropy. Magnetostatic interactions in nanocube and nanosphere assemblies are analyzed in terms of an interaction parameter and an activation volume, and compared with theoretical predictions for the magnetic ground state of point dipole arrays with different lattice symmetries.

  19. A Rare Water and Hydroxyl-Extended One-Dimensional Dysprosium(III) Chain and Its Magnetic Dilution Effect.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zhao, Pu; Zhang, Shan; Li, Rui; Zhang, Yi-Quan; Yang, En-Cui; Zhao, Xiao-Jun

    2017-08-21

    A novel water and hydroxyl-extended one-dimensional dysprosium(III) chain was hydrothermally obtained, which exhibits a relatively high spin-reversal energy barrier of 88.7 K and intrachain ferromagnetic interaction with the coupling constant Jexch = 3.04 cm(-1) calculated by fitting magnetic susceptibilities using POLY_ANISO program based on ab initio calculations. To deeply understand the respective role of the single-ion anisotropy and intrachain exchange on the effective energy barrier, three crystallographically isostructural analogues containing isotropic Gd(III)-, diamagnetic Y(III)-, as well as Y(III)-doped Dy0.05Y0.95 were prepared and characterized structurally and magnetically. Due to the absence of significant intrachain exchange interaction, the effective energy barrier of the Dy0.05Y0.95 decreased by 9.9 K as compared with that of parent dysprosium(III) chain. Thus, it can be concluded that the intrachain ferromagnetic coupling and the magnetic anisotropy of the Dy(III) ion synergistically enhance the effective energy barrier of the dysprosium(III) chain, in which the single-ion anisotropy becomes more predominant.

  20. Probing Electronic States of Magnetic Semiconductors Using Atomic Scale Microscopy & Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    magnetic atoms on the surface of a superconductor can be used as a versatile platform for creating a topological superconductor . These initial...topological superconductivity and Majorana fermions in a chain of magnetic atoms on the surface of a superconductor Students and postdocs supported...of this grant: 1. H. Beidenkopf, P . Roushan, and A. Yazdani, “Visualizing topological surface states and their novel properties using scanning

  1. Magnetic forces and stationary electron flow in a three-terminal semiconductor quantum ring.

    PubMed

    Poniedziałek, M R; Szafran, B

    2010-06-02

    We study stationary electron flow through a three-terminal quantum ring and describe effects due to deflection of electron trajectories by classical magnetic forces. We demonstrate that generally at high magnetic field (B) the current is guided by magnetic forces to follow a classical path, which for B > 0 leads via the left arm of the ring to the left output terminal. The transport to the left output terminal is blocked for narrow windows of magnetic field for which the interference within the ring leads to formation of wavefunctions that are only weakly coupled to the output channel wavefunctions. These interference conditions are accompanied by injection of the current to the right arm of the ring and by appearance of sharp peaks of the transfer probability to the right output terminal. We find that these peaks at high magnetic field are attenuated by thermal widening of the transport window. We also demonstrate that the interference conditions that lead to their appearance vanish when elastic scattering within the ring is present. The clear effect of magnetic forces on the transfer probabilities disappears along with Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in a chaotic transport regime that is found for rings whose width is larger than the width of the channels.

  2. Bio-inactivation of human malignant cells through highly responsive diluted colloidal suspension of functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Roberta V.; Silva-Caldeira, Priscila P.; Pereira-Maia, Elene C.; Fabris, José D.; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos D.; Ardisson, José D.; Domingues, Rosana Z.

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic fluids, more specifically aqueous colloidal suspensions containing certain magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), have recently been gaining special interest due to their potential use in clinical treatments of cancerous formations in mammalians. The technological application arises mainly from their hyperthermic behavior, which means that the nanoparticles dissipate heat upon being exposed to an alternating magnetic field (AMF). If the temperature is raised to slightly above 43 °C, cancer cells are functionally inactivated or killed; however, normal cells tend to survive under those same conditions, entirely maintaining their bioactivity. Recent in vitro studies have revealed that under simultaneous exposure to an AMF and magnetic nanoparticles, certain lines of cancer cells are bio-inactivated even without experiencing a significant temperature increase. This non-thermal effect is cell specific, indicating that MNPs, under alternating magnetic fields, may effectively kill cancer cells under conditions that were previously thought to be implausible, considering that the temperature does not increase more than 5 °C, which is also true in cases for which the concentration of MNPs is too low. To experimentally test for this effect, this study focused on the feasibility of inducing K562 cell death using an AMF and aqueous suspensions containing very low concentrations of MNPs. The assay was designed for a ferrofluid containing magnetite nanoparticles, which were obtained through the co-precipitation method and were functionalized with citric acid; the particles had an average diameter of 10 ± 2 nm and a mean hydrodynamic diameter of approximately 40 nm. Experiments were first performed to test for the ability of the ferrofluid to release heat under an AMF. The results show that for concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 1.0 × 103 mg L-1, the maximum temperature increase was actually less than 2 °C. However, the in vitro test results from K562 cells and suspensions

  3. Colloidal semiconductor/magnetic heterostructures based on iron-oxide-functionalized brookite TiO2 nanorods.

    PubMed

    Buonsanti, Raffaella; Snoeck, Etienne; Giannini, Cinzia; Gozzo, Fabia; Garcia-Hernandez, Mar; Angel Garcia, Miguel; Cingolani, Roberto; Cozzoli, Pantaleo Davide

    2009-05-21

    A flexible colloidal seeded-growth strategy has been developed to synthesize all-oxide semiconductor/magnetic hybrid nanocrystals (HNCs) in various topological arrangements, for which the dimensions of the constituent material domains can be controlled independently over a wide range. Our approach relies on driving preferential heterogeneous nucleation and growth of spinel cubic iron oxide (IO) domains onto brookite TiO2 nanorods (b-TiO2) with tailored geometric parameters, by means of time-programmed delivery of organometallic precursors into a suitable TiO2-loaded surfactant environment. The b-TiO2 seeds exhibit size-dependent accessibility towards IO under diffusion-controlled growth regime, which allows attainment of HNCs individually made of a single b-TiO2 section functionalized with either one or multiple nearly spherical IO domains. In spite of the dissimilarity of the respective crystal-phases, the two materials share large interfacial junctions without significant lattice strain being induced across the heterostructures. The synthetic achievements have been supported by a systematic morphological, compositional and structural characterization of the as-prepared HNCs, offering a mechanistic insight into the specific role of the seeds in the control of heterostructure formation in liquid media. In addition, the impact of the formed b-TiO2/IO heterojunctions on the magnetic properties of IO has also been assessed.

  4. Electron Scattering on a Magnetic Skyrmion in the Nonadiabatic Approximation.

    PubMed

    Denisov, K S; Rozhansky, I V; Averkiev, N S; Lähderanta, E

    2016-07-08

    We present a theory of electron scattering on a magnetic Skyrmion for the case when the exchange interaction is moderate so that the adiabatic approximation and the Berry phase approach are not applicable. The theory explains the appearance of a topological Hall current in the systems with magnetic Skyrmions, the special importance of which is its applicability to dilute magnetic semiconductors with a weak exchange interaction.

  5. Using x-ray diffraction to identify precipitates in transition metal doped semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shengqiang; Potzger, K.; Talut, G.; von Borany, J.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Fassbender, J.

    2008-04-01

    In the past decade, room temperature ferromagnetism was often observed in transition metal doped semiconductors, which were claimed as diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS). Nowadays intensive activities are devoted to clarify wether the observed ferromagnetism stems from carrier mediated magnetic impurities, ferromagnetic precipitates, or spinodal decomposition. In this paper, we have correlated the structural and magnetic properties of transition metal doped ZnO, TiO2, and Si, prepared by ion implantation. Crystalline precipitates, i.e., transition metal (Co, Ni) and Mn-silicide nanocrystals, are responsible for the magnetism. Additionally due to their orientation nature with respect to the host, these nanocrystals in some cases are not detectable by conventional x-ray diffraction (XRD). This nature results in the pitfall of using XRD to exclude magnetic precipitates in DMS materials.

  6. Preparation of one-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconducting Cr0.046Zn0.954O and properties tuning with H2 atmospheric annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Min; Zeng, Xian-Lin

    2017-02-01

    Cr0.046Zn0.954O nanowires (NWs) were synthesized by electrospinning and treated with different atmosphere (O2 and H2) annealings. Our work demonstrates that not all the oxygen vacancies can really contribute to the ferromagnetism of cationic Cr3+-doped ZnO (Cr0.046Zn0.954O) electrospun NWs. The photoluminescence measurements show that the single positively charged oxygen vacancy (i.e., Vo+ or F+ centers (Fc)) bound defect states are quite stable in Cr0.046Zn0.954O NWs. Upon hydrogen-annealing, the specifically deep-level defect Fc was annihilated; thus, an electron transfer may occur from shallow donor H+ (e-) to deep donor Fc. An electron paramagnetic resonance signal at g ˜2.0583 was found in the Cr0.046Zn0.954O NWs, which is responsible for Cr3+-Fc complex formation, and a weak broad signal at g ˜15.5807 is considered as another paramagnetic center of Cr-Cr impurity pairs generated in the H2-annealed Cr0.046Zn0.954O NWs. The hydrogen-annealing offers an easier way to Fc engineering where a precise control of magnetic properties of diluted magnetic semiconducting oxide NWs is sought.

  7. Enhancement of near-field light generated by metal nanodot on semiconductor substrate for heat-assisted magnetic recording heat source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Ryuichi; Kasuya, Takayuki; Sugiura, Satoshi; Yoshizawa, Katsumi

    2015-09-01

    In the novel device for a heat-assisted magnetic recording heat source where a metal nanodot is formed on a semiconductor substrate, the possibility of enhancing the near-field light by selecting suitable combinations of the materials for the metal nanodot and semiconductor substrate was investigated through a numerical simulation. It was found that the enhancement factor of the light intensity at a certain resonance wavelength for the light polarized perpendicularly to the surface of the substrate can be improved by two methods. One is to use an alloy as the material for the metal nanodot and the other is to use a ternary mixed crystal as the material for the semiconductor substrate. Design examples were shown for both methods. The ratio of each element in the alloy or ternary mixed crystal should be determined considering the balance between the enhancement factor and some other factors such as stability, availability, and convenience.

  8. Magnetic-field-driven electron transport in ferromagnetic/ insulator/semiconductor hybrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, N. V.; Tarasov, A. S.; Rautskii, M. V.; Lukyanenko, A. V.; Varnakov, S. N.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2017-10-01

    Extremely large magnetotransport phenomena were found in the simple devices fabricated on base of the Me/SiO2/p-Si hybrid structures (where Me are Mn and Fe). These effects include gigantic magnetoimpedance (MI), dc magnetoresistance (MR) and the lateral magneto-photo-voltaic effect (LMPE). The MI and MR values exceed 106% in magnetic field about 0.2 T for Mn/SiO2/p-Si Schottky diode. LMPE observed in Fe/SiO2/p-Si lateral device reaches the value of 104% in a field of 1 T. We believe that in case with the Schottky diode MR and MI effects are originate from magnetic field influence on impact ionization process by two different ways. First, the trajectory of the electron is deflected by a magnetic field, which suppresses acquisition of kinetic energy and therefore impact ionization. Second, the magnetic field gives rise to shift of the acceptor energy levels in silicon to a higher energy. As a result, the activation energy for impact ionization significantly increases and consequently threshold voltage rises. Moreover, the second mechanism (acceptor level energy shifting in magnetic field) can be responsible for giant LMPE.

  9. Effect of picosecond magnetic pulse on dynamics of electron's subbands in semiconductor bilayer nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwiej, T.

    2017-10-01

    We report on possibility of charge current generation in nanowire made of two tunnel coupled one-dimensional electron waveguides by means of single magnetic pulse lasting up to 20 ps. Existence of interlayer tunnel coupling plays a crucial role in the effect described here as it allows for hybridization of the wave functions localized in different layers which can be dynamically modified by applying a time changeable in-plane magnetic field. Results of time-dependent DFT calculations performed for a bilayer nanowire confining many electrons show that the effect of such magnetic hybridization relies on tilting of electrons' energy subbands, to the left or to the right, depending on a sign of time derivative of oscillating magnetic field due to the Faraday law. Consequently, the tilted subbands become a source of charge flow along the wire. Strength of such magneto-induced current oscillations may achieve even 0.6 μA but it depends on duration of magnetic pulse as well as on charge density confined in nanowire which has to be unequally distributed between both transport layers to observe this effect.

  10. Precise tuning of the Curie temperature of (Ga,Mn)As-based magnetic semiconductors by hole compensation: Support for valence-band ferromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shengqiang; Li, Lin; Yuan, Ye; Rushforth, A. W.; Chen, Lin; Wang, Yutian; Böttger, R.; Heller, R.; Zhao, Jianhua; Edmonds, K. W.; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B. L.; Timm, C.; Helm, M.

    2016-08-01

    For the prototype diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As, there is a fundamental concern about the electronic states near the Fermi level, i.e., whether the Fermi level resides in a well-separated impurity band derived from Mn doping (impurity-band model) or in the valence band that is already merged with the Mn-derived impurity band (valence-band model). We investigate this question by carefully shifting the Fermi level by means of carrier compensation. We use helium-ion implantation, a standard industry technology, to precisely compensate the hole doping of GaAs-based diluted ferromagnetic semiconductors while keeping the Mn concentration constant. We monitor the change of Curie temperature (TC) and conductivity. For a broad range of samples including (Ga,Mn)As and (Ga,Mn)(As,P) with various Mn and P concentrations, we observe a smooth decrease of TC with carrier compensation over a wide temperature range while the conduction is changed from metallic to insulating. The existence of TC below 10 K is also confirmed in heavily compensated samples. Our experimental results are naturally explained within the valence-band picture.

  11. A pH-responsive and magnetically separable dynamic system for efficient removal of highly dilute antibiotics in water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wanpeng; Ma, Jianqing; Shen, Chensi; Wen, Yuezhong; Liu, Weiping

    2016-03-01

    In order to control the antibiotic-related crisis and reduce the negative impacts on the environment and human health, it is urgent to develop effective technologies to eliminate residual antibiotics in water. Herein, we successfully fabricated a novel, pH-responsive and magnetically separable dynamic system for micropollutant adsorption and oxidation degradation in graphene oxide (GO)/nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) composite with macroscopic structure. The pH-responsive self-assembly behavior of GO/nZVI composite was explored. The macroscopic structure of GO/nZVI composite serves as an excellent adsorbent for antibiotic removal in water. The adsorption process is fast and highly efficient even in high salty and humic acid containing water under acid to neutral conditions. After removal antibiotics, GO/nZVI composite is conveniently separated by magnetic system and put into alkaline solution (pH > 9) for adsorbent regeneration. Interestingly, it is found that at pH > 9, GO/nZVI composite disassembles partly upon increasing pH values, leading to the elution of antibiotics for efficient antibiotics degradation by ozonization. More importantly, this pH-responsive GO/nZVI system exhibits high removal efficiency, high stability, reusability and easily separation, making it a promising method for treatment of water with micropollutants.

  12. Magnetic-resonance investigation of the ordering in randomly-site-diluted antiferromagnets: KMnF3: Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ariano, G.; Borsa, F.

    1982-12-01

    Measurements of 19F NMR in a series of polycrystalline mixed paramagnetic compounds KMnxMg1-xF3 with x varying over the whole concentration range have been performed as a function of temperature. The paramagnetic shift and the linewidth and relaxation time of the three NMR lines corresponding to those distinct classes of 19F nuclei that have different numbers of nearest-neighbor magnetic ions were measured as the temperature approaches the transition temperature. The paramagnetic shifts of fluorine nuclei having one and two nearest-neighbor Mn ions compare well with the predictions of a simple random-molecular-field approximation (RMFA). It is shown that the substitution of Mn with Mg modifies locally the nuclear-electron transferred hfs interaction by about 20%. The linewidth of the two lines increases drastically as TN is approached. The attempt to explain the data by utilizing Moriya's theory rescaled in the RMFA framework fails completely, indicating that the dynamic effects should be treated in real space. The antiferromagnetic ordering was monitored by measuring the rf susceptibility in zero external magnetic field. It is found that the antiferromagnetic transition is broadened by the concentration gradients present in the samples. The average transition temperature was determined as a function of the average concentration, and the results are compared with the theoretical predictions of recent calculations. Good agreement is found if one takes into account the concentration dependence of the exchange coupling constant.

  13. Infra-red tunneling absorption in semiconductor double quantum wells in tilted magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Lyo, S.K.

    1996-12-31

    Using a linear response theory, interwell-tunneling absorption is calculated in a double-quantum-well structure with a wide center barrier in tilted magnetic fields. Tunneling absorption of infra-red photons occurs between the ground sublevels of the two quantum wells, with an energy difference that is tunable. In zero magnetic field, the absorption intensity decreases significantly as the linewidth increases with temperature. The absorption also depends strongly on the carrier densities of the wells. In magnetic fields, both the in-plane and perpendicular components of the field sensitively control and tune the absorption lineshape in very different ways, affecting the absorption threshold, the resonance energy of absorption, and the linewidth.

  14. Magnetic dynamics of dilute iron nano-clusters in silver films from Mössbauer spectroscopy and muon spin rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, W. T.; Dinola, I.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; Kraken, M.; Litterst, F. J.

    2011-11-01

    A silver film containing nanometer size clusters of iron (nominal conc. 1 at%) has been studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy and Low-Energy Muon Spin Rotation. Below about 20 K spin glass freezing due to interparticle interactions is found from both methods. Whereas Mössbauer spectra are insensitive to the fast fluctuations of cluster moments above spin glass freezing temperature, muon spin rotation in magnetic fields applied perpendicular to the polarized muon spins allows tracing the fluctuations of superparamagnetic moments. The temperature dependence of the damping of the muon spin rotation signal shows Arrhenius behavior between 10 to 100 K. Depending on the assumed shape of damping the activation energy of superparamagnetic fluctuations of cluster moments ranges between about 20 K · k B and 40 K · k B . Above about 120 K muon spin depolarization indicates diffusion and trapping of muons.

  15. Structural and magnetic properties of nanoclusters formed in III-V semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawniczak-Jablonska, Krystyna; Wolska, Anna; Klepka, Marcin T.

    2016-05-01

    Studies of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) were performed for a set of GaMnAs films with different Mn concentrations priory and after high temperature annealing (500 and 600 oC). After thermal treatment, GaMnAs samples with zinc blende structure and MnAs hexagonal nano-clusters were formed. In most of the samples, both types of clusters were detected by EXAFS studies. Dependence of the orbital and the spin moments on magnetic field were calculated from XMCD data by applying the sum rule. It was shown that both moments were much larger for MnAs nano-clusters. When these inclusions are formed even in a small amount, they dominate the XMCD signal. Interestingly, in some of samples the zinc blende GaMnAs nano-clusters were observed at a surface while in the bulk of hexagonal MnAs. Therefore, the location of magnetic ions in the host matrix is crucial for their magnetic properties. This unique information can be provided by XAS and XMCD.

  16. Semiconductor heterostructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovel, Harold John (Inventor); Woodall, Jerry MacPherson (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A technique for fabricating a semiconductor heterostructure by growth of a ternary semiconductor on a binary semiconductor substrate from a melt of the ternary semiconductor containing less than saturation of at least one common ingredient of both the binary and ternary semiconductors wherein in a single temperature step the binary semiconductor substrate is etched, a p-n junction with specific device characteristics is produced in the binary semiconductor substrate by diffusion of a dopant from the melt and a region of the ternary semiconductor of precise conductivity type and thickness is grown by virtue of a change in the melt characteristics when the etched binary semiconductor enters the melt.

  17. Semiconductor structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovel, Harold J. (Inventor); Woodall, Jerry M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A technique for fabricating a semiconductor heterostructure by growth of a ternary semiconductor on a binary semiconductor substrate from a melt of the ternary semiconductor containing less than saturation of at least one common ingredient of both the binary and ternary semiconductors wherein in a single temperature step the binary semiconductor substrate is etched, a p-n junction with specific device characteristics is produced in the binary semiconductor substrate by diffusion of a dopant from the melt and a region of the ternary semiconductor of precise conductivity type and thickness is grown by virtue of a change in the melt characteristics when the etched binary semiconductor enters the melt.

  18. Manipulable GMR Effect in a δ-Doped Magnetically Confined Semiconductor Heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ya-Qing; Lu, Mao-Wang; Huang, Xin-Hong; Yang, Shi-Peng; Tang, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    A giant magnetoresistance (GMR) device formed by depositing two parallel nanosized ferromagnetic strips on top of a semiconductor heterostructure has been proposed theoretically (Zhai et al. in Phys Rev B 66:125305, 2002). For the sake of manipulating its performance, we introduce a tunable δ-potential into this device with the help of atomic-layer doping techniques such as molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) or metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition. We investigate theoretically the impact of such δ-doping on the magnetoresistance ratio (MR) of the GMR device. We find that, although the δ-doping is embedded in the device, a considerable GMR effect still exists due to the significant difference in electronic transmission between parallel (P) and antiparallel (AP) configurations. Moreover, the calculated results show that the MR of the GMR device varies sensitively with the weight and/or position of the δ-doping. Thus, the GMR device can be controlled by changing the δ-doping to obtain an adjustable GMR device for magnetoelectronics applications.

  19. Structural disorder and magnetism in the spin-gapless semiconductor CoFeCrAl

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhary, Renu; Kharel, Parashu; Huh, Yung; Gilbert, Simeon; Valloppilly, Shah R.; Jin, Yunlong; O’Connell, Andrew; Sellmyer, D. J.; Skomski, Ralph; Kashyap, Arti

    2016-05-15

    Disordered CoFeCrAl and CoFeCrSi{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.5} alloys have been investigated experimentally and by first-principle calculations. The melt-spun and annealed samples all exhibit Heusler-type superlattice peaks, but the peak intensities indicate a substantial degree of B2-type chemical disorder. Si substitution reduces the degree of this disorder. Our theoretical analysis also considers several types of antisite disorder (Fe-Co, Fe-Cr, Co-Cr) in Y-ordered CoFeCrAl and partial substitution of Si for Al. The substitution transforms the spin-gapless semiconductor CoFeCrAl into a half-metallic ferrimagnet and increases the half-metallic band gap by 0.12 eV. Compared CoFeCrAl, the moment of CoFeCrSi{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.5} is predicted to increase from 2.01 μ{sub B} to 2.50 μ{sub B} per formula unit, in good agreement with experiment.

  20. Novel room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Amita

    2004-06-01

    for Zn a 2+ state in the ZnO lattice. Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) technique is used to confirm the existence of ferromagnetic ordering at temperatures as high as 425K. The ab initio calculations were found to be consistent with the observation of ferromagnetism arising from fully polarized Mn 2+ state. The key to observed room temperature ferromagnetism in this system is the low temperature processing, which prevents formation of clusters, secondary phases and the host ZnO from becoming n-type. The electronic structure of the same Mn doped ZnO thin films studied using XAS, XES and RIXS, revealed a strong hybridization between Mn 3d and O 2p states, which is an important characteristic of a Dilute magnetic Semiconductor (DMS). It is shown that the various processing conditions like sintering temperature, dopant concentration and the properties of precursors used for making of DMS have a great influence on the final properties. Use of various experimental techniques to verify the physical properties, and to understand the mechanism involved to give rise to ferromagnetism is presented. Methods to improve the magnetic moment in Mn doped ZnO are also described. New promising DMS materials (such as Cu doped ZnO are explored). The demonstrated new capability to fabricate powder, pellets, and thin films of room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors thus makes possible the realization of a wide range of complex elements for a variety of new multifunctional phenomena related to Spintronic devices as well as magneto-optic components.

  1. LDRD-LW Final Report: 07-LW-041 "Magnetism in Semiconductor Nanocrystals: New Physics at the Nanoscale"

    SciTech Connect

    Meulenberg, R W; Lee, J I; McCall, S K

    2009-10-19

    The work conducted in this project was conducted with the aim of identifying and understanding the origin and mechanisms of magnetic behavior in undoped semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), specifically those composed of CdSe. It was anticipated that the successful completion of this task would have the effect of addressing and resolving significant controversy over this topic in the literature. Meanwhile, application of the resultant knowledge was expected to permit manipulation of the magnetic properties, particularly the strength of any magnetic effects, which is of potential relevance in a range of advanced technologies. More specifically, the project was designed and research conducted with the goal of addressing the following series of questions: (1) How does the magnitude of the magnetism in CdSe NCs change with the organic molecules used to passivate their surface the NC size? i.e. Is the magnetism an intrinsic effect in the nanocrystalline CdSe (as observed for Au NCs) or a surface termination driven effect? (2) What is the chemical (elemental) nature of the magnetism? i.e. Are the magnetic effects associated with the Cd atoms or the Se atoms or both? (3) What is/are the underlying mechanism(s)? (4) How can the magnetism be controlled for further applications? To achieve this goal, several experimental/technical milestones were identified to be fulfilled during the course of the research: (A) The preparation of well characterized CdSe NCs with varying surface termination (B) Establishing the extent of the magnetism of these NCs using magnetometry (particularly using superconducting interference device [SQUID]) (C) Establishing the chemical nature of the magnetism using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) - the element specific nature of the technique allows identification of the element responsible for the magnetism (D) Identification of the effect of surface termination on the empty densities of states (DOS) using x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS

  2. Origins of large light induced voltage in magnetic tunnel junctions grown on semiconductor substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Lin, W.; Petit-Watelot, S.; Hehn, M.; Rinnert, H.; Lu, Y.; Montaigne, F.; Lacour, D.; Andrieu, S.; Mangin, S.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the study of interactions between electron spins and heat currents has given rise to the field of "Spin Caloritronics". Experimental studies of these interactions have shown a possibility to combine the use of heat and light to power magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) devices. Here we present a careful study of an MTJ device on Si substrate that can be powered entirely by light. We analyze the influence of the material properties, device geometry, and laser characteristics on the electric response of the sample. We demonstrate that by engineering the MTJ and its electrical contact, a large photovoltage reaching 100 mV can be generated. This voltage originates from the Si substrate and depends on the MTJ magnetic configuration. Finally, we discuss the origin of the photo-voltage in terms of Seebeck and photovoltaic effects.

  3. Origins of large light induced voltage in magnetic tunnel junctions grown on semiconductor substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y.; Lin, W.; Petit-Watelot, S.; Hehn, M.; Rinnert, H.; Lu, Y.; Montaigne, F.; Lacour, D.; Andrieu, S.; Mangin, S.

    2016-01-14

    Recently, the study of interactions between electron spins and heat currents has given rise to the field of “Spin Caloritronics”. Experimental studies of these interactions have shown a possibility to combine the use of heat and light to power magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) devices. Here we present a careful study of an MTJ device on Si substrate that can be powered entirely by light. We analyze the influence of the material properties, device geometry, and laser characteristics on the electric response of the sample. We demonstrate that by engineering the MTJ and its electrical contact, a large photovoltage reaching 100 mV can be generated. This voltage originates from the Si substrate and depends on the MTJ magnetic configuration. Finally, we discuss the origin of the photo-voltage in terms of Seebeck and photovoltaic effects.

  4. Microstructure and magnetic behavior of Mn doped GeTe chalcogenide semiconductors based phase change materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Adam Abdalla Elbashir; Cheng, Xiaomin; Abuelhassan, Hassan H.; Miao, Xiang Shui

    2017-06-01

    Phase-change materials (PCMs) are the most promising candidates to be used as an active media in the universal data storage and spintronic devices, due to their large differences in physical properties of the amorphous-crystalline phase transition behavior. In the present study, the microstructure, magnetic and electrical behaviors of Ge0.94Mn0.06Te thin film were investigated. The crystallographic structure of Ge0.94Mn0.06Te thin film was studied sing X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HR-TEM). The XRD pattern showed that the crystallization structure of the film was rhombohedral phase for GeTe with a preference (202) orientation. The HR-TEM image of the crystalline Ge0.94Mn0.06Te thin film demonstrated that, there were two large crystallites and small amorphous areas. The magnetization as a function of the magnetic field analyses of both amorphous and crystalline states showed the ferromagnetic hysteretic behaviors. Then, the hole carriers concentration of the film was measured and it found to be greater than 1021 cm-3 at room temperature. Moreover, the anomalous of Hall Effect (AHE) was clearly observed for the measuring temperatures 5, 10 and 50 K. The results demonstrated that the magnitude of AHE decreased when the temperature was increasing.

  5. Entanglement and manipulation of the magnetic and spin–orbit order in multiferroic Rashba semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Krempaský, J.; Muff, S.; Bisti, F.; Fanciulli, M.; Volfová, H.; Weber, A. P.; Pilet, N.; Warnicke, P.; Ebert, H.; Braun, J.; Bertran, F.; Volobuev, V. V.; Minár, J.; Springholz, G.; Dil, J. H.; Strocov, V. N.

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement of the spin–orbit and magnetic order in multiferroic materials bears a strong potential for engineering novel electronic and spintronic devices. Here, we explore the electron and spin structure of ferroelectric α-GeTe thin films doped with ferromagnetic Mn impurities to achieve its multiferroic functionality. We use bulk-sensitive soft-X-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (SX-ARPES) to follow hybridization of the GeTe valence band with the Mn dopants. We observe a gradual opening of the Zeeman gap in the bulk Rashba bands around the Dirac point with increase of the Mn concentration, indicative of the ferromagnetic order, at persistent Rashba splitting. Furthermore, subtle details regarding the spin–orbit and magnetic order entanglement are deduced from spin-resolved ARPES measurements. We identify antiparallel orientation of the ferroelectric and ferromagnetic polarization, and altering of the Rashba-type spin helicity by magnetic switching. Our experimental results are supported by first-principles calculations of the electron and spin structure. PMID:27767052

  6. Entanglement and manipulation of the magnetic and spin-orbit order in multiferroic Rashba semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krempaský, J.; Muff, S.; Bisti, F.; Fanciulli, M.; Volfová, H.; Weber, A. P.; Pilet, N.; Warnicke, P.; Ebert, H.; Braun, J.; Bertran, F.; Volobuev, V. V.; Minár, J.; Springholz, G.; Dil, J. H.; Strocov, V. N.

    2016-10-01

    Entanglement of the spin-orbit and magnetic order in multiferroic materials bears a strong potential for engineering novel electronic and spintronic devices. Here, we explore the electron and spin structure of ferroelectric α-GeTe thin films doped with ferromagnetic Mn impurities to achieve its multiferroic functionality. We use bulk-sensitive soft-X-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (SX-ARPES) to follow hybridization of the GeTe valence band with the Mn dopants. We observe a gradual opening of the Zeeman gap in the bulk Rashba bands around the Dirac point with increase of the Mn concentration, indicative of the ferromagnetic order, at persistent Rashba splitting. Furthermore, subtle details regarding the spin-orbit and magnetic order entanglement are deduced from spin-resolved ARPES measurements. We identify antiparallel orientation of the ferroelectric and ferromagnetic polarization, and altering of the Rashba-type spin helicity by magnetic switching. Our experimental results are supported by first-principles calculations of the electron and spin structure.

  7. Impacts of coulomb interactions on the magnetic responses of excitonic complexes in single semiconductor nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Hao; Lin, Chia-Hsien; Fu, Ying-Jhe; Lin, Ta-Chun; Lin, Hsuan; Cheng, Shuen-Jen; Lin, Sheng-Di; Lee, Chien-Ping

    2010-01-21

    We report on the diamagnetic responses of different exciton complexes in single InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) and quantum rings (QRs). For QDs, the imbalanced magnetic responses of inter-particle Coulomb interactions play a crucial role in the diamagnetic shifts of excitons (X), biexcitons (XX), and positive trions (X-). For negative trions (X-) in QDs, anomalous magnetic responses are observed, which cannot be described by the conventional quadratic energy shift with the magnetic field. The anomalous behavior is attributed to the apparent change in the electron wave function extent after photon emission due to the strong Coulomb attraction by the hole in its initial state. In QRs, the diamagnetic responses of X and XX also show different behaviors. Unlike QDs, the diamagnetic shift of XX in QRs is considerably larger than that of X. The inherent structural asymmetry combined with the inter-particle Coulomb interactions makes the wave function distribution of XX very different from that of X in QRs. Our results suggest that the phase coherence of XX in QRs may survive from the wave function localization due to the structural asymmetry or imperfections.

  8. Effect of magnesium substitution on the magnetic properties of diluted magnetic spinels Ni1-xMgxFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmi, S.; El Azhari, M.; El Grini, A.; Hourmatallah, A.; Benzakour, N.; Bouslykhane, K.; Marzouk, A.

    2017-03-01

    The magnetic properties of Ni-Mg ferrites with compositions Ni1-xMgxFe2O4, have been studied using the mean field theory and high temperature series expansion theory (HTSE), extrapolated with the Padé approximants method. The nearest neighbour super-exchange interactions for intra-sites and inter-sites of the Ni-Mg ferrites in the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 have been computed using the distribution method of magnetic cations. The transition temperature TC is calculated as a function of Mg concentration. The critical exponent associated with the magnetic susceptibility was then deduced. The obtained results are in good agreement with experimental results and critical exponent values are consistent with those suggested by the universality hypothesis.

  9. On the role of diluted magnetic cobalt-doped ZnO electrodes in efficiency improvement of InGaN light emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hong-Ru; Wang, Shih-Yin; Ou, Sin-Liang; Wuu, Dong-Sing

    2016-07-11

    The 120-nm-thick cobalt-doped ZnO (Co-doped ZnO, CZO) dilute magnetic films deposited by pulsed laser deposition were employed as the n-electrodes for both lateral-type blue (450 nm) and green (520 nm) InGaN light emitters. In comparison to the conventional blue and green emitters, there were 15.9% and 17.7% enhancements in the output power (@350 mA) after fabricating the CZO n-electrode on the n-GaN layer. Observations on the role of CZO n-electrodes in efficiency improvement of InGaN light emitters were performed. Based on the results of Hall measurements, the carrier mobilities were 176 and 141 cm{sup 2}/V s when the electrons passed through the n-GaN and the patterned-CZO/n-GaN, respectively. By incorporating the CZO n-electrode into the InGaN light emitters, the electrons would be scattered because of the collisions between the magnetic atoms and the electrons as the device is driven, leading to the reduction of the electron mobility. Therefore, the excessively large mobility difference between electron and hole carriers occurred in the conventional InGaN light emitter can be efficiently decreased after preparing the CZO n-electrode on the n-GaN layer, resulting in the increment of carrier recombination rate and the improvement of light output power.

  10. Magnetic field influence on the transient photoresistivity of defect-induced magnetic ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, C.; Khalid, M.; Simonelli, G.; Villafuerte, M.; Heluani, S. P.; Esquinazi, P.

    2011-09-01

    Magnetic field dependent photoresistivity was measured at 280 K in ZnO ferromagnetic films grown on r-plane Al2O3 under a N2 atmosphere. A correlation between the negative magneto photoresistivity and the existence of defect-induced magnetic order was found. The effect of magnetic field on the transient photoresistivity is to slow down the recombination process enhancing the photocarriers density. The experimental results demonstrate the possibility of tuning photocarriers life time using magnetic field in diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  11. Electronic structure of Fe-doped In2O3 magnetic semiconductor with oxygen vacancies: Evidence for F-center mediated exchange interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shu-jun; Yan, Shi-shen; Lin, Xue-ling; Yao, Xin-xin; Chen, Yan-xue; Liu, Guo-lei; Mei, Liang-mo

    2007-12-01

    Based on the first-principles calculations, the electronic structure and magnetic properties of Fe-doped In2O3 were theoretically investigated. The presence of the predominating defects in oxide, i.e., oxygen vacancies, can lead to strong ferromagnetic coupling between the nearest neighboring Fe cations. Spin density and band-projected charge distribution in the vicinity of the oxygen vacancies reveal that the ferromagnetic exchange is mediated by the donor impurity state, which mainly consists of Fe :3d and Fe :4s electrons trapped in oxygen vacancies. Such results provide direct evidence for the F-center mediated exchange interaction in oxide-based magnetic semiconductors.

  12. New magnetic semiconductors CuCr1.5+xSb0.5-xS4 (0<=x<=0.3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saifullaeva, Dilaram; Solieva, Shahlo; Muminov, Asamat

    2002-11-01

    New compounds with spinel structure CuCr1.5+xSb0.5-xS4(0<=x<=0.3) were obtained and studied in detail. All the compounds are non-degenerate semiconductores. The compounds (0<=x<=0.1) were found to have the magnetic properties characteristic for antiferromagnets. Compounds (0.2<=x<=0.3) have a spontaneous magnetization, with the Curie point of the compound with x=0.3, Tc = 334 K, being higher than room temperature. The re-entrant spin glass transition is observed in the compounds with x=0.17;0.2)

  13. Pressure Dependent Magnetoluminescence of Semiconductor Quantum Wells in CW and Pulsed Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, E. D.; Kim, Y.; Perry, C. H.; Tozer, S.; Rickel, D. G.

    1996-03-01

    We report on low-temperature pressure dependent magnetoluminescence measurements of a In_0.2Ga_0.8As/GaAs 80Åwide n-type single-strained-quantum well in cw (max 18T) and pulsed (max 60T) magnetic fields using a miniture diamond anvil cell. Landau level shifts were studied at 4 and 76 K with pressures ranging from ambient to about 40 kbar. The nc = 0 to nv = 0 Landau level transition was linear in magnetic field for all pressures, but there is evidence of a slope change for fields of about 20T. The pressure coefficients of the bandgap energy are the expected 9-10 meV/kbar. Also observed was the Γ-X pressure induced transition between the InGaAs Γ-point and the GaAs barrier X-point at the highest pressures. The pressure dependence of the conduction- and valence-band masses will also be discussed.

  14. Semiconductor/Piezoelectrics Hybrid Heterostructures with Highly Effective Gate-Tunable Electrotransport and Magnetic Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Zhao, Wei-Yao; Wang, Jing; Gao, Guan-Yin; Zhang, Jin-Xing; Wang, Yu; Li, Xiao-Min; Cao, Shi-Xun; Li, Xiao-Guang; Luo, Hao-Su; Zheng, Ren-Kui

    2016-10-12

    We report the epitaxial growth of oxygen deficient titanium dioxide thin films on 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) single crystals and realized highly effective in situ electrostatic manipulation of electrotransport and magnetism of TiO2-δ films via gate voltages. Upon the polarization switching in the PMN-PT, the carrier density of the TiO2-δ film could be reversibly modified, resulting in a large nonvolatile resistivity modulation by ∼51% at T = 300 K, approximately 4-12 times larger than that of other transition-metal oxide film/PMN-PT structures. By taking advantage of in situ manipulation of the carrier density via gate voltages, we found that competition between the trap of electrons by the Ti(3+)-VO pairs and that by the positive polarization charges at the interface results in a significant resistivity relaxation upon the polarization switching, and revealed that magnetization is inversely correlated with the carrier density of the TiO2-δ film. Such hybrid structures combining materials with dissimilar functionalities may have potential applications in multifunctional devices which can take advantage of the useful and unique properties of both materials.

  15. Time-resolved spin-dependent processes in magnetic field effects in organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Qiming; Li, Xianjie; Li, Feng

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the time-resolved magnetic field effects (MFEs) in tri-(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum (Alq3) based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) through the transient electroluminescence (EL) method. The values of magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) decrease with the time, and the decreasing slope is proportional to the driving voltage. Specifically, negative MELs are seen when the driving voltage is high enough (V > 11 V). We propose a model to elucidate the spin-dependent processes and theoretically simulate the time-resolved MELs. In particular, this dynamic analysis of time-resolved MELs reveals that the intersystem crossing between singlet and triplet electron-hole pairs and the triplet-triplet annihilation are responsible for the time-resolved MELs at the beginning and enduring periods of the pulse, respectively.

  16. Effect of tilted magnetic fields on bistable nanomagnets in hybrid semiconductor/ferromagnet devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, G.; Grundler, D.; Broocks, K.-B.; Heyn, Ch; Heitmann, D.

    2000-02-01

    Using the anisotropic Hall effect in a sub-micron lithographically well-defined two-dimensional electron system we measure the stray field of individual ferromagnetic nanoparticles in tilted magnetic fields. Our model calculations and experimental data show that one can map out the particle's hysteresis loop in great detail even if the field Happ is tilted away from the specimen's easy-axis by an angle φapp around 90°. The investigated Ni nanomagnets exhibit a well-defined remanent `up'- and `down'-state. For the angular-dependent switching we find two different regimes: below a critical angle φc, the hysteresis loop is irreversible and squared, for φc< φapp⩽90° it becomes partly reversible, but discontinuous jumps are still resolved. This characteristic switching behavior is found to depend on the nanomagnet's diameter.

  17. Fe implantation effect in the 6H-SiC semiconductor investigated by Mössbauer spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, M. L.; Diallo, L.; Fnidiki, A.; Lechevallier, L.; Cuvilly, F.; Blum, I.; Viret, M.; Marteau, M.; Eyidi, D.; Juraszek, J.; Declémy, A.

    2017-08-01

    P-doped 6H-SiC substrates were implanted with 57Fe ions at 380 °C or 550 °C to produce a diluted magnetic semiconductor with an Fe homogeneous concentration of about 100 nm thickness. The magnetic properties were studied with 57Fe Conversion Electron Mössbauer Spectrometry at room temperature (RT). Results obtained by this technique on annealed samples prove that ferromagnetism in 57Fe-implanted SiC for Fe concentrations close to 2% and 4% is mostly due to Fe atoms diluted in the matrix. In contrast, for Fe concentrations close to 6%, it also comes from Fe in magnetic phase nano-clusters. This study allows quantifying the Fe amount in the interstitial and substitutional sites and the nanoparticles and shows that the majority of the diluted Fe atoms are substituted on Si sites inducing ferromagnetism up to RT.

  18. Characterization of Co distribution in ZnO by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Wang, Z.; Cao, J. X.

    2013-05-01

    We analyze the electronic and magnetic properties of the various atomic arrangements of Zn1-xCoxO with x = 10% using K-edge x-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism spectra from both measurements and first principle calculations. Significantly, the K-edge spectroscopic features of Co are highly sensitive to the local atomic arrangement, and thus can be used as a powerful tool to investigate structural properties of dilute magnetic semiconductors. We clearly showed that defects such as interstitial Co and O vacancy near to substitutional Co are present in the 10% Co doped ZnO sample. The magnetic ordering of ZnO-based diluted magnetic semiconductors is strongly correlated with the presence of oxygen vacancies. Finally, we elucidated the origin of the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism signals.

  19. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Spin-Polarized Carriers Injection from Ferromagnetic Metal into Organic Semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Shi-Zhu; Zhao, Jun-Qing; Jia, Zhen-Feng; Zhang, Tian-You

    2010-10-01

    Charge carriers in organic semiconductor are different from that of traditional inorganic semiconductor. Based on three-current model, considering electrical field effect, we present a theoretical model to discuss spin-polarized injection from ferromagnetic electrode into organic semiconductor by analyzing electrochemical potential both in ferromagnetic electrode and organic semiconductors. The calculated result of this model shows effects of electrode's spin polarization, equilibrium value of polarons ratio, interfacial conductance, bulk conductivity of materials and electrical field. It is found that we could get decent spin polarization with common ferromagnetic electrode by increasing equilibrium value of polarons ratio. We also find that large and matched bulk conductivity of organic semiconductor and electrode, small spin-dependent interfacial conductance, and enough large electrical field are critical factors for increasing spin polarization.

  20. Thermodynamics of Dilute Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancso, Gabor; Fenby, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses principles and definitions related to the thermodynamics of dilute solutions. Topics considered include dilute solution, Gibbs-Duhem equation, reference systems (pure gases and gaseous mixtures, liquid mixtures, dilute solutions), real dilute solutions (focusing on solute and solvent), terminology, standard states, and reference systems.…