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Sample records for dim-light vision proteins

  1. Elucidation of phenotypic adaptations: Molecular analyses of dim-light vision proteins in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Shozo; Tada, Takashi; Zhang, Huan; Britt, Lyle

    2008-01-01

    Vertebrate ancestors appeared in a uniform, shallow water environment, but modern species flourish in highly variable niches. A striking array of phenotypes exhibited by contemporary animals is assumed to have evolved by accumulating a series of selectively advantageous mutations. However, the experimental test of such adaptive events at the molecular level is remarkably difficult. One testable phenotype, dim-light vision, is mediated by rhodopsins. Here, we engineered 11 ancestral rhodopsins and show that those in early ancestors absorbed light maximally (λmax) at 500 nm, from which contemporary rhodopsins with variable λmaxs of 480–525 nm evolved on at least 18 separate occasions. These highly environment-specific adaptations seem to have occurred largely by amino acid replacements at 12 sites, and most of those at the remaining 191 (≈94%) sites have undergone neutral evolution. The comparison between these results and those inferred by commonly-used parsimony and Bayesian methods demonstrates that statistical tests of positive selection can be misleading without experimental support and that the molecular basis of spectral tuning in rhodopsins should be elucidated by mutagenesis analyses using ancestral pigments. PMID:18768804

  2. Oligomeric state of purified transient receptor potential melastatin-1 (TRPM1), a protein essential for dim light vision.

    PubMed

    Agosto, Melina A; Zhang, Zhixian; He, Feng; Anastassov, Ivan A; Wright, Sara J; McGehee, Jennifer; Wensel, Theodore G

    2014-09-26

    Transient receptor potential melastatin-1 (TRPM1) is essential for the light-induced depolarization of retinal ON bipolar cells. TRPM1 likely forms a multimeric channel complex, although almost nothing is known about the structure or subunit composition of channels formed by TRPM1 or any of its close relatives. Recombinant TRPM1 was robustly expressed in insect cells, but only a small fraction was localized to the plasma membrane. Similar intracellular localization was observed when TRPM1 was heterologously expressed in mammalian cells. TRPM1 was affinity-purified from Sf9 cells and complexed with amphipol, followed by detergent removal. In blue native gels and size exclusion chromatography, TRPM1 migrated with a mobility consistent with detergent- or amphipol-bound dimers. Cross-linking experiments were also consistent with a dimeric subunit stoichiometry, and cryoelectron microscopy and single particle analysis without symmetry imposition yielded a model with approximate 2-fold symmetrical features. Finally, electron microscopy of TRPM1-antibody complexes revealed a large particle that can accommodate TRPM1 and two antibody molecules. Taken together, these data indicate that purified TRPM1 is mostly dimeric. The three-dimensional structure of TRPM1 dimers is characterized by a small putative transmembrane domain and a larger domain with a hollow cavity. Blue native gels of solubilized mouse retina indicate that TRPM1 is present in two distinct complexes: one similar in size to the recombinant protein and one much larger. Because dimers are likely not functional ion channels, these results suggest that additional partner subunits participate in forming the transduction channel required for dim light vision and the ON pathway.

  3. Oligomeric State of Purified Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-1 (TRPM1), a Protein Essential for Dim Light Vision*

    PubMed Central

    Agosto, Melina A.; Zhang, Zhixian; He, Feng; Anastassov, Ivan A.; Wright, Sara J.; McGehee, Jennifer; Wensel, Theodore G.

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin-1 (TRPM1) is essential for the light-induced depolarization of retinal ON bipolar cells. TRPM1 likely forms a multimeric channel complex, although almost nothing is known about the structure or subunit composition of channels formed by TRPM1 or any of its close relatives. Recombinant TRPM1 was robustly expressed in insect cells, but only a small fraction was localized to the plasma membrane. Similar intracellular localization was observed when TRPM1 was heterologously expressed in mammalian cells. TRPM1 was affinity-purified from Sf9 cells and complexed with amphipol, followed by detergent removal. In blue native gels and size exclusion chromatography, TRPM1 migrated with a mobility consistent with detergent- or amphipol-bound dimers. Cross-linking experiments were also consistent with a dimeric subunit stoichiometry, and cryoelectron microscopy and single particle analysis without symmetry imposition yielded a model with approximate 2-fold symmetrical features. Finally, electron microscopy of TRPM1-antibody complexes revealed a large particle that can accommodate TRPM1 and two antibody molecules. Taken together, these data indicate that purified TRPM1 is mostly dimeric. The three-dimensional structure of TRPM1 dimers is characterized by a small putative transmembrane domain and a larger domain with a hollow cavity. Blue native gels of solubilized mouse retina indicate that TRPM1 is present in two distinct complexes: one similar in size to the recombinant protein and one much larger. Because dimers are likely not functional ion channels, these results suggest that additional partner subunits participate in forming the transduction channel required for dim light vision and the ON pathway. PMID:25112866

  4. Thresholds and noise limitations of colour vision in dim light.

    PubMed

    Kelber, Almut; Yovanovich, Carola; Olsson, Peter

    2017-04-05

    Colour discrimination is based on opponent photoreceptor interactions, and limited by receptor noise. In dim light, photon shot noise impairs colour vision, and in vertebrates, the absolute threshold of colour vision is set by dark noise in cones. Nocturnal insects (e.g. moths and nocturnal bees) and vertebrates lacking rods (geckos) have adaptations to reduce receptor noise and use chromatic vision even in very dim light. In contrast, vertebrates with duplex retinae use colour-blind rod vision when noisy cone signals become unreliable, and their transition from cone- to rod-based vision is marked by the Purkinje shift. Rod-cone interactions have not been shown to improve colour vision in dim light, but may contribute to colour vision in mesopic light intensities. Frogs and toads that have two types of rods use opponent signals from these rods to control phototaxis even at their visual threshold. However, for tasks such as prey or mate choice, their colour discrimination abilities fail at brighter light intensities, similar to other vertebrates, probably limited by the dark noise in cones.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'.

  5. Optimum spatiotemporal receptive fields for vision in dim light.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Andreas; Warrant, Eric J

    2009-04-22

    Many nocturnal insects depend on vision for daily life and have evolved different strategies to improve their visual capabilities in dim light. Neural summation of visual signals is one strategy to improve visual performance, and this is likely to be especially important for insects with apposition compound eyes. Here we develop a model to determine the optimum spatiotemporal sampling of natural scenes at gradually decreasing light levels. Image anisotropy has a strong influence on the receptive field properties predicted to be optimal at low light intensities. Spatial summation between visual channels is predicted to extend more strongly in the direction with higher correlations between the input signals. Increased spatiotemporal summation increases signal-to-noise ratio at low frequencies but sacrifices signal-to-noise ratio at higher frequencies. These results, while obtained from a model of the insect visual system, are likely to apply to visual systems in general.

  6. Ocellar adaptations for dim light vision in a nocturnal bee.

    PubMed

    Berry, Richard P; Wcislo, William T; Warrant, Eric J

    2011-04-15

    Growing evidence indicates that insect ocelli are strongly adapted to meet the specific functional requirements in the environment in which that insect lives. We investigated how the ocelli of the nocturnal bee Megalopta genalis are adapted to life in the dim understory of a tropical rainforest. Using a combination of light microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction, we found that the retinae contain bar-shaped rhabdoms loosely arranged in a radial pattern around multi-layered lenses, and that both lenses and retinae form complex non-spherical shapes reminiscent of those described in other ocelli. Intracellular electrophysiology revealed that the photoreceptors have high absolute sensitivity, but that the threshold location varied widely between 10(9) and 10(11) photons cm(-2) s(-1). Higher sensitivity and greater visual reliability may be obtained at the expense of temporal resolution: the corner frequencies of dark-adapted ocellar photoreceptors were just 4-11 Hz. Spectral sensitivity profiles consistently peaked at 500 nm. Unlike the ocelli of other flying insects, we did not detect UV-sensitive visual pigments in M. genalis, which may be attributable to a scarcity of UV photons under the rainforest canopy at night. In contrast to earlier predictions based on anatomy, the photoreceptors are not sensitive to the e-vector of polarised light. Megalopta genalis ocellar photoreceptors possess a number of unusual properties, including inherently high response variability and the ability to produce spike-like potentials. These properties bear similarities to photoreceptors in the compound eye of the cockroach, and we suggest that the two insects share physiological characteristics optimised for vision in dim light.

  7. Neural Summation in the Hawkmoth Visual System Extends the Limits of Vision in Dim Light.

    PubMed

    Stöckl, Anna Lisa; O'Carroll, David Charles; Warrant, Eric James

    2016-03-21

    Most of the world's animals are active in dim light and depend on good vision for the tasks of daily life. Many have evolved visual adaptations that permit a performance superior to that of manmade imaging devices [1]. In insects, a major model visual system, nocturnal species show impressive visual abilities ranging from flight control [2, 3], to color discrimination [4, 5], to navigation using visual landmarks [6-8] or dim celestial compass cues [9, 10]. In addition to optical adaptations that improve their sensitivity in dim light [11], neural summation of light in space and time-which enhances the coarser and slower features of the scene at the expense of noisier finer and faster features-has been suggested to improve sensitivity in theoretical [12-14], anatomical [15-17], and behavioral [18-20] studies. How these summation strategies function neurally is, however, presently unknown. Here, we quantified spatial and temporal summation in the motion vision pathway of a nocturnal hawkmoth. We show that spatial and temporal summation combine supralinearly to substantially increase contrast sensitivity and visual information rate over four decades of light intensity, enabling hawkmoths to see at light levels 100 times dimmer than without summation. Our results reveal how visual motion is calculated neurally in dim light and how spatial and temporal summation improve sensitivity while simultaneously maximizing spatial and temporal resolution, thus extending models of insect motion vision derived predominantly from diurnal flies. Moreover, the summation strategies we have revealed may benefit manmade vision systems optimized for variable light levels [21].

  8. The eyes of lanternfishes (Myctophidae, Teleostei): novel ocular specializations for vision in dim light.

    PubMed

    de Busserolles, Fanny; Marshall, N Justin; Collin, Shaun P

    2014-05-01

    Lanternfishes are one of the most abundant groups of mesopelagic fishes in the world's oceans and play a critical role in biomass vertical turnover. Despite their importance, very little is known about their physiology or how they use their sensory systems to survive in the extreme conditions of the deep sea. In this study, we provide a comprehensive description of the general morphology of the myctophid eye, based on analysis of 53 different species, to understand better their visual capabilities. Results confirm that myctophids possess several visual adaptations for dim-light conditions, including enlarged eyes, an aphakic gap, a tapetum lucidum, and a pure rod retina with high densities of long photoreceptors. Two novel retinal specializations were also discovered. The first specialization is a fundal pigmentation in adult eyes, found within an isolated retinal region (typically central retina) composed of modified pigment epithelial cells, which we hypothesize to be the remnant of a more pronounced visual specialization important in larval stages. The second specialization is an aggregation of extracellular microtubular-like structures found within the sclerad region of the inner nuclear layer of the retina. We hypothesize that the marked interspecific differences in the hypertrophy of these microtubular-like structures may be related to inherent differences in visual function. A general interspecific variability in other parts of the eye is also revealed and examined in this study. The contribution of both ecology and phylogeny to the evolution of ocular specializations and vision in dim light are discussed.

  9. Comparative system identification of flower tracking performance in three hawkmoth species reveals adaptations for dim light vision.

    PubMed

    Stöckl, Anna L; Kihlström, Klara; Chandler, Steven; Sponberg, Simon

    2017-04-05

    Flight control in insects is heavily dependent on vision. Thus, in dim light, the decreased reliability of visual signal detection also prompts consequences for insect flight. We have an emerging understanding of the neural mechanisms that different species employ to adapt the visual system to low light. However, much less explored are comparative analyses of how low light affects the flight behaviour of insect species, and the corresponding links between physiological adaptations and behaviour. We investigated whether the flower tracking behaviour of three hawkmoth species with different diel activity patterns revealed luminance-dependent adaptations, using a system identification approach. We found clear luminance-dependent differences in flower tracking in all three species, which were explained by a simple luminance-dependent delay model, which generalized across species. We discuss physiological and anatomical explanations for the variance in tracking responses, which could not be explained by such simple models. Differences between species could not be explained by the simple delay model. However, in several cases, they could be explained through the addition on a second model parameter, a simple scaling term, that captures the responsiveness of each species to flower movements. Thus, we demonstrate here that much of the variance in the luminance-dependent flower tracking responses of hawkmoths with different diel activity patterns can be captured by simple models of neural processing.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'.

  10. Divergence of dim-light vision among bats (order: Chiroptera) as estimated by molecular and electrophysiological methods

    PubMed Central

    Liu, He-Qun; Wei, Jing-Kuan; Li, Bo; Wang, Ming-Shan; Wu, Rui-Qi; Rizak, Joshua D.; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Xu, Fu-Qiang; Shen, Yong-Yi; Hu, Xin-Tian; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Dim-light vision is present in all bats, but is divergent among species. Old-World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) have fully developed eyes; the eyes of insectivorous bats are generally degraded, and these bats rely on well-developed echolocation. An exception is the Emballonuridae, which are capable of laryngeal echolocation but prefer to use vision for navigation and have normal eyes. In this study, integrated methods, comprising manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI), f-VEP and RNA-seq, were utilized to verify the divergence. The results of MEMRI showed that Pteropodidae bats have a much larger superior colliculus (SC)/ inferior colliculus (IC) volume ratio (3:1) than insectivorous bats (1:7). Furthermore, the absolute visual thresholds (log cd/m2•s) of Pteropodidae (−6.30 and −6.37) and Emballonuridae (−3.71) bats were lower than those of other insectivorous bats (−1.90). Finally, genes related to the visual pathway showed signs of positive selection, convergent evolution, upregulation and similar gene expression patterns in Pteropodidae and Emballonuridae bats. Different results imply that Pteropodidae and Emballonuridae bats have more developed vision than the insectivorous bats and suggest that further research on bat behavior is warranted. PMID:26100095

  11. Divergence of dim-light vision among bats (order: Chiroptera) as estimated by molecular and electrophysiological methods.

    PubMed

    Liu, He-Qun; Wei, Jing-Kuan; Li, Bo; Wang, Ming-Shan; Wu, Rui-Qi; Rizak, Joshua D; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Xu, Fu-Qiang; Shen, Yong-Yi; Hu, Xin-Tian; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-06-23

    Dim-light vision is present in all bats, but is divergent among species. Old-World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) have fully developed eyes; the eyes of insectivorous bats are generally degraded, and these bats rely on well-developed echolocation. An exception is the Emballonuridae, which are capable of laryngeal echolocation but prefer to use vision for navigation and have normal eyes. In this study, integrated methods, comprising manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI), f-VEP and RNA-seq, were utilized to verify the divergence. The results of MEMRI showed that Pteropodidae bats have a much larger superior colliculus (SC)/ inferior colliculus (IC) volume ratio (3:1) than insectivorous bats (1:7). Furthermore, the absolute visual thresholds (log cd/m(2)•s) of Pteropodidae (-6.30 and -6.37) and Emballonuridae (-3.71) bats were lower than those of other insectivorous bats (-1.90). Finally, genes related to the visual pathway showed signs of positive selection, convergent evolution, upregulation and similar gene expression patterns in Pteropodidae and Emballonuridae bats. Different results imply that Pteropodidae and Emballonuridae bats have more developed vision than the insectivorous bats and suggest that further research on bat behavior is warranted.

  12. Parallel and convergent evolution of the dim-light vision gene RH1 in bats (Order: Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Shen, Yong-Yi; Liu, Jie; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2010-01-21

    Rhodopsin, encoded by the gene Rhodopsin (RH1), is extremely sensitive to light, and is responsible for dim-light vision. Bats are nocturnal mammals that inhabit poor light environments. Megabats (Old-World fruit bats) generally have well-developed eyes, while microbats (insectivorous bats) have developed echolocation and in general their eyes were degraded, however, dramatic differences in the eyes, and their reliance on vision, exist in this group. In this study, we examined the rod opsin gene (RH1), and compared its evolution to that of two cone opsin genes (SWS1 and M/LWS). While phylogenetic reconstruction with the cone opsin genes SWS1 and M/LWS generated a species tree in accord with expectations, the RH1 gene tree united Pteropodidae (Old-World fruit bats) and Yangochiroptera, with very high bootstrap values, suggesting the possibility of convergent evolution. The hypothesis of convergent evolution was further supported when nonsynonymous sites or amino acid sequences were used to construct phylogenies. Reconstructed RH1 sequences at internal nodes of the bat species phylogeny showed that: (1) Old-World fruit bats share an amino acid change (S270G) with the tomb bat; (2) Miniopterus share two amino acid changes (V104I, M183L) with Rhinolophoidea; (3) the amino acid replacement I123V occurred independently on four branches, and the replacements L99M, L266V and I286V occurred each on two branches. The multiple parallel amino acid replacements that occurred in the evolution of bat RH1 suggest the possibility of multiple convergences of their ecological specialization (i.e., various photic environments) during adaptation for the nocturnal lifestyle, and suggest that further attention is needed on the study of the ecology and behavior of bats.

  13. The molecular origin and evolution of dim-light vision in mammals.

    PubMed

    Bickelmann, Constanze; Morrow, James M; Du, Jing; Schott, Ryan K; van Hazel, Ilke; Lim, Steve; Müller, Johannes; Chang, Belinda S W

    2015-11-01

    The nocturnal origin of mammals is a longstanding hypothesis that is considered instrumental for the evolution of endothermy, a potential key innovation in this successful clade. This hypothesis is primarily based on indirect anatomical inference from fossils. Here, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of rhodopsin--the vertebrate visual pigment mediating the first step in phototransduction at low-light levels--via codon-based model tests for selection, combined with gene resurrection methods that allow for the study of ancient proteins. Rhodopsin coding sequences were reconstructed for three key nodes: Amniota, Mammalia, and Theria. When expressed in vitro, all sequences generated stable visual pigments with λMAX values similar to the well-studied bovine rhodopsin. Retinal release rates of mammalian and therian ancestral rhodopsins, measured via fluorescence spectroscopy, were significantly slower than those of the amniote ancestor, indicating altered molecular function possibly related to nocturnality. Positive selection along the therian branch suggests adaptive evolution in rhodopsin concurrent with therian ecological diversification events during the Mesozoic that allowed for an exploration of the environment at varying light levels.

  14. Dim light vision--morphological and functional adaptations of the eye of the mormyrid fish, Gnathonemus petersii.

    PubMed

    Landsberger, Meik; von der Emde, Gerhard; Haverkate, Dorothee; Schuster, Stefan; Gentsch, Janina; Ulbricht, Elke; Reichenbach, Andreas; Makarov, Felix; Wagner, Hans-Joachim

    2008-01-01

    The African weakly electric fish Gnathonemus petersii is well known for its electrosensory capabilities. These animals can detect and distinguish objects through active electrolocation in complete darkness. Because of their nocturnal lifestyle, a low contribution of vision for orientation and object detection has been expected. However, as we show in this review, the retina of G. petersii is highly specialized with hundreds of rods and tens of cones grouped together in bundles in a complex way, ensheathed by a tapetum lucidum. The structure of the bundles goes beyond what would be expected if only photon catch was supposed to be increased. During daytime, the structure of these "macro-receptors" changes dramatically depending on retinomotor movements. During the day, the rods and cones are located in different compartments of the bundle, separated by a narrow canal in the form of a "bottle neck". Investigations on cell structure and neurochemistry in the retina indicate a general organization that is simpler in terms of bipolar and ganglion cell diversity than in tetrachromatic species such as goldfish, yet similar in terms of neurochemical differentiation of amacrine cells. In both respects, the inner retina of the elephantnose fish bears the greatest similarity to catfish and some deep-sea fish retinae. Neuronal circuits and bundle structure give hints of possible adaptations for contrast and/or movement detection. Behavioral experiments suggest that, in contrast to the vision specialists Lepomis gibbosus, pattern detection of G. petersii is not affected by higher spatial frequencies. A pattern of low spatial frequencies, however, was equally well detected by G. petersii and L. gibbosus. Optomotor response experiments indicate that motion vision is important for Gnathonemus, narrowing down the search for the functional specialization of the Gnathonemus retina and providing a starting point for work on multisensory integration in these fish.

  15. A neural network to improve dim-light vision? Dendritic fields of first-order interneurons in the nocturnal bee Megalopta genalis.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Birgit; Ribi, Willi A; Warrant, Eric J

    2005-11-01

    Using the combined Golgi-electron microscopy technique, we have determined the three-dimensional dendritic fields of the short visual fibres (svf 1-3) and first-order interneurons or L-fibres (L1-4) within the first optic ganglion (lamina) of the nocturnal bee Megalopta genalis. Serial cross sections have revealed that the svf type 2 branches into one adjacent neural unit (cartridge) in layer A, the most distal of the three lamina layers A, B and C. All L-fibres, except L1-a, exhibit wide lateral branching into several neighbouring cartridges. L1-b shows a dendritic field of seven cartridges in layers A and C, dendrites of L2 target 13 cartridges in layer A, L3 branches over a total of 12 cartridges in layer A and three in layer C and L4 has the largest dendritic field size of 18 cartridges in layer C. The number of cartridges reached by the respective L-fibres is distinctly greater in the nocturnal bee than in the worker honeybee and is larger than could be estimated from our previous Golgi-light microscopy study. The extreme dorso-ventrally oriented dendritic field of L4 in M. genalis may, in addition to its potential role in spatial summation, be involved in edge detection. Thus, we have shown that the amount of lateral spreading present in the lamina provides the anatomical basis for the required spatial summation. Theoretical and future physiological work should further elucidate the roles that this lateral spreading plays to improve dim-light vision in nocturnal insects.

  16. Dim light at night increases body mass of female mice.

    PubMed

    Aubrecht, Taryn G; Jenkins, Richelle; Nelson, Randy J

    2015-05-01

    During the past century, the prevalence of light at night has increased in parallel with obesity rates. Dim light at night (dLAN) increases body mass in male mice. However, the effects of light at night on female body mass remain unspecified. Thus, female mice were exposed to a standard light/dark (LD; 16 h light at ∼150 lux/8 h dark at ∼0 lux) cycle or to light/dim light at night (dLAN; 16 h light at ∼150 lux/8 h dim light at ∼5 lux) cycles for six weeks. Females exposed to dLAN increased the rate of change in body mass compared to LD mice despite reduced total food intake during weeks five and six, suggesting that dLAN disrupted circadian rhythms resulting in deranged metabolism.

  17. Dim Light at Night Increases Body Mass of Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aubrecht, Taryn G.; Jenkins, Richelle; Nelson, Randy J.

    2016-01-01

    During the past century the prevalence of light at night has increased in parallel with obesity rates. Dim light at night (dLAN) increases body mass in male mice. However, the effects of light at night on female body mass remain unspecified. Thus, female mice were exposed to a standard light/dark (LD; 16h light at ~150 lux/8h dark at ~0 lux) cycle or to light/dim light at night (dLAN; 16h light at ~150 lux/8h dim light at ~5 lux) cycles for six weeks. Females exposed to dLAN increased the rate of change in body mass compared to LD mice despite reduced total food intake during weeks five and six, suggesting that dLAN disrupted circadian rhythms resulting in deranged metabolism. PMID:25431079

  18. Photic niche invasions: phylogenetic history of the dim-light foraging augochlorine bees (Halictidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Simon M.; Sanjur, Oris; Grajales, Grethel G.; Santos, Leandro M.; Bermingham, Eldredge; Wcislo, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Most bees rely on flowering plants and hence are diurnal foragers. From this ancestral state, dim-light foraging in bees requires significant adaptations to a new photic environment. We used DNA sequences to evaluate the phylogenetic history of the most diverse clade of Apoidea that is adapted to dim-light environments (Augochlorini: Megalopta, Megaloptidia and Megommation). The most speciose lineage, Megalopta, is distal to the remaining dim-light genera, and its closest diurnal relative (Xenochlora) is recovered as a lineage that has secondarily reverted to diurnal foraging. Tests for adaptive protein evolution indicate that long-wavelength opsin shows strong evidence of stabilizing selection, with no more than five codons (2%) under positive selection, depending on analytical procedure. In the branch leading to Megalopta, the amino acid of the single positively selected codon is conserved among ancestral Halictidae examined, and is homologous to codons known to influence molecular structure at the chromophore-binding pocket. Theoretically, such mutations can shift photopigment λmax sensitivity and enable visual transduction in alternate photic environments. Results are discussed in light of the available evidence on photopigment structure, morphological specialization and biogeographic distributions over geological time. PMID:21795273

  19. Photic niche invasions: phylogenetic history of the dim-light foraging augochlorine bees (Halictidae).

    PubMed

    Tierney, Simon M; Sanjur, Oris; Grajales, Grethel G; Santos, Leandro M; Bermingham, Eldredge; Wcislo, William T

    2012-02-22

    Most bees rely on flowering plants and hence are diurnal foragers. From this ancestral state, dim-light foraging in bees requires significant adaptations to a new photic environment. We used DNA sequences to evaluate the phylogenetic history of the most diverse clade of Apoidea that is adapted to dim-light environments (Augochlorini: Megalopta, Megaloptidia and Megommation). The most speciose lineage, Megalopta, is distal to the remaining dim-light genera, and its closest diurnal relative (Xenochlora) is recovered as a lineage that has secondarily reverted to diurnal foraging. Tests for adaptive protein evolution indicate that long-wavelength opsin shows strong evidence of stabilizing selection, with no more than five codons (2%) under positive selection, depending on analytical procedure. In the branch leading to Megalopta, the amino acid of the single positively selected codon is conserved among ancestral Halictidae examined, and is homologous to codons known to influence molecular structure at the chromophore-binding pocket. Theoretically, such mutations can shift photopigment λ(max) sensitivity and enable visual transduction in alternate photic environments. Results are discussed in light of the available evidence on photopigment structure, morphological specialization and biogeographic distributions over geological time.

  20. Living in the dark does not mean a blind life: bird and mammal visual communication in dim light.

    PubMed

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Delgado, María Del Mar

    2017-04-05

    For many years, it was believed that bird and mammal communication 'in the dark of the night' relied exclusively on vocal and chemical signalling. However, in recent decades, several case studies have conveyed the idea that the nocturnal world is rich in visual information. Clearly, a visual signal needs a source of light to work, but diurnal light (twilight included, i.e. any light directly dependent on the sun) is not the only source of luminosity on this planet. Actually, moonlight represents a powerful source of illumination that cannot be neglected from the perspective of visual communication. White patches of feathers and fur on a dark background have the potential to be used to communicate with conspecifics and heterospecifics in dim light across different contexts and for a variety of reasons. Here: (i) we review current knowledge on visual signalling in crepuscular and nocturnal birds and mammals; and (ii) we also present some possible cases of birds and mammals that, due to the characteristics of their feather and fur coloration pattern, might use visual signals in dim light. Visual signalling in nocturnal animals is still an emerging field and, to date, it has received less attention than many other means of communication, including visual communication under daylight. For this reason, many questions remain unanswered and, sometimes, even unasked.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'.

  1. Bumblebees Perform Well-Controlled Landings in Dim Light

    PubMed Central

    Reber, Therese; Dacke, Marie; Warrant, Eric; Baird, Emily

    2016-01-01

    To make a smooth touchdown when landing, an insect must be able to reliably control its approach speed as well as its body and leg position—behaviors that are thought to be regulated primarily by visual information. Bumblebees forage and land under a broad range of light intensities and while their behavior during the final moments of landing has been described in detail in bright light, little is known about how this is affected by decreasing light intensity. Here, we investigate this by characterizing the performance of bumblebees, B. terrestris, landing on a flat platform at two different orientations (horizontal and vertical) and at four different light intensities (ranging from 600 lx down to 19 lx). As light intensity decreased, the bees modified their body position and the distance at which they extended their legs, suggesting that the control of landing in these insects is visually mediated. Nevertheless, the effect of light intensity was small and the landings were still well controlled, even in the dimmest light. We suggest that the changes in landing behavior that occurred in dim light might represent adaptations that allow the bees to perform smooth landings across the broad range of light intensities at which they are active. PMID:27683546

  2. Body size limits dim-light foraging activity in stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Streinzer, Martin; Huber, Werner; Spaethe, Johannes

    2016-10-01

    Stingless bees constitute a species-rich tribe of tropical and subtropical eusocial Apidae that act as important pollinators for flowering plants. Many foraging tasks rely on vision, e.g. spatial orientation and detection of food sources and nest entrances. Meliponini workers are usually small, which sets limits on eye morphology and thus quality of vision. Limitations are expected both on acuity, and thus on the ability to detect objects from a distance, as well as on sensitivity, and thus on the foraging time window at dusk and dawn. In this study, we determined light intensity thresholds for flight under dim light conditions in eight stingless bee species in relation to body size in a Neotropical lowland rainforest. Species varied in body size (0.8-1.7 mm thorax-width), and we found a strong negative correlation with light intensity thresholds (0.1-79 lx). Further, we measured eye size, ocelli diameter, ommatidia number, and facet diameter. All parameters significantly correlated with body size. A disproportionately low light intensity threshold in the minute Trigonisca pipioli, together with a large eye parameter P eye suggests specific adaptations to circumvent the optical constraints imposed by the small body size. We discuss the implications of body size in bees on foraging behavior.

  3. Behavioural environments and niche construction: the evolution of dim-light foraging in bees.

    PubMed

    Wcislo, William T; Tierney, Simon M

    2009-02-01

    Most bees forage for floral resources during the day, but temporal patterns of foraging activity vary extensively, and foraging in dim-light environments has evolved repeatedly. Facultative dim-light foraging behaviour is known in five of nine families of bees, while obligate behaviour is known in four families and evolved independently at least 19 times. The light intensity under which bees forage varies by a factor of 10(8), and therefore the evolution of dim-light foraging represents the invasion of a new, extreme niche. The repeated evolution of dim-light foraging behaviour in bees allows tests of the hypothesis that behaviour acts as an evolutionary pacemaker. With the exception of one species of Apis, facultative dim-light foragers show no external structural traits that are thought to enable visually mediated flight behaviour in low-light environments. By contrast, most obligate dim-light foragers show a suite of convergent optical traits such as enlarged ocelli and compound eyes. In one intensively studied species (Megalopta genalis) these optical changes are associated with neurobiological changes to enhance photon capture. The available ecological evidence suggests that an escape from competition for pollen and nectar resources and avoidance of natural enemies are driving factors in the evolution of obligate dim-light foraging.

  4. Dim light at night disrupts molecular circadian rhythms and increases body weight.

    PubMed

    Fonken, Laura K; Aubrecht, Taryn G; Meléndez-Fernández, O Hecmarie; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-08-01

    With the exception of high latitudes, life has evolved under bright days and dark nights. Most organisms have developed endogenously driven circadian rhythms that are synchronized to this daily light/dark cycle. In recent years, humans have shifted away from the naturally occurring solar light cycle in favor of artificial and sometimes irregular light schedules produced by electric lighting. Exposure to unnatural light cycles is increasingly associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome; however, the means by which environmental lighting alters metabolism are poorly understood. Thus, we exposed mice to dim light at night and investigated changes in the circadian system and metabolism. Here we report that exposure to ecologically relevant levels of dim (5 lux) light at night altered core circadian clock rhythms in the hypothalamus at both the gene and protein level. Circadian rhythms in clock expression persisted during light at night; however, the amplitude of Per1 and Per2 rhythms was attenuated in the hypothalamus. Circadian oscillations were also altered in peripheral tissues critical for metabolic regulation. Exposure to dimly illuminated, as compared to dark, nights decreased the rhythmic expression in all but one of the core circadian clock genes assessed in the liver. Additionally, mice exposed to dim light at night attenuated Rev-Erb expression in the liver and adipose tissue. Changes in the circadian clock were associated with temporal alterations in feeding behavior and increased weight gain. These results are significant because they provide evidence that mild changes in environmental lighting can alter circadian and metabolic function. Detailed analysis of temporal changes induced by nighttime light exposure may provide insight into the onset and progression of obesity and metabolic syndrome, as well as other disorders involving sleep and circadian rhythm disruption.

  5. Transient anhedonia phenotype and altered circadian timing of behaviour during night-time dim light exposure in Per3−/− mice, but not wildtype mice

    PubMed Central

    Martynhak, Bruno Jacson; Hogben, Alexandra L.; Zanos, Panos; Georgiou, Polymnia; Andreatini, Roberto; Kitchen, Ian; Archer, Simon N.; von Schantz, Malcolm; Bailey, Alexis; van der Veen, Daan R.

    2017-01-01

    Industrialisation greatly increased human night-time exposure to artificial light, which in animal models is a known cause of depressive phenotypes. Whilst many of these phenotypes are ‘direct’ effects of light on affect, an ‘indirect’ pathway via altered sleep-wake timing has been suggested. We have previously shown that the Period3 gene, which forms part of the biological clock, is associated with altered sleep-wake patterns in response to light. Here, we show that both wild-type and Per3−/− mice showed elevated levels of circulating corticosterone and increased hippocampal Bdnf expression after 3 weeks of exposure to dim light at night, but only mice deficient for the PERIOD3 protein (Per3−/−) exhibited a transient anhedonia-like phenotype, observed as reduced sucrose preference, in weeks 2–3 of dim light at night, whereas WT mice did not. Per3−/− mice also exhibited a significantly smaller delay in behavioural timing than WT mice during weeks 1, 2 and 4 of dim light at night exposure. When treated with imipramine, neither Per3−/− nor WT mice exhibited an anhedonia-like phenotype, and neither genotypes exhibited a delay in behavioural timing in responses to dLAN. While the association between both Per3−/− phenotypes remains unclear, both are alleviated by imipramine treatment during dim night-time light. PMID:28071711

  6. Home Circadian Phase Assessments with Measures of Compliance Yield Accurate Dim Light Melatonin Onsets

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Helen J.; Wyatt, James K.; Park, Margaret; Fogg, Louis F.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: There is a need for the accurate assessment of circadian phase outside of the clinic/laboratory, particularly with the gold standard dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). We tested a novel kit designed to assist in saliva sampling at home for later determination of the DLMO. The home kit includes objective measures of compliance to the requirements for dim light and half-hourly saliva sampling. Design: Participants were randomized to one of two 10-day protocols. Each protocol consisted of two back-to-back home and laboratory phase assessments in counterbalanced order, separated by a 5-day break. Setting: Laboratory or participants' homes. Participants: Thirty-five healthy adults, age 21–62 y. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Most participants received at least one 30-sec epoch of light > 50 lux during the home phase assessments (average light intensity 4.5 lux), but on average for < 9 min of the required 8.5 h. Most participants collected every saliva sample within 5 min of the scheduled time. Ninety-two percent of home DLMOs were not affected by light > 50 lux or sampling errors. There was no significant difference between the home and laboratory DLMOs (P > 0.05); on average the home DLMOs occurred 9.6 min before the laboratory DLMOs. The home DLMOs were highly correlated with the laboratory DLMOs (r = 0.91, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Participants were reasonably compliant to the home phase assessment procedures. The good agreement between the home and laboratory dim light melatonin onsets (DLMOs) demonstrates that including objective measures of light exposure and sample timing during home saliva sampling can lead to accurate home DLMOs. Clinical Trial Registration: Circadian Phase Assessments at Home, http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01487252, NCT01487252. Citation: Burgess HJ, Wyatt JK, Park M, Fogg LF. Home circadian phase assessments with measures of compliance yield accurate dim light melatonin onsets. SLEEP 2015;38(6):889–897

  7. Exposure to dim light at night during early development increases adult anxiety-like responses.

    PubMed

    Borniger, Jeremy C; McHenry, Zachary D; Abi Salloum, Bachir A; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-06-22

    Early experiences produce effects that may persist throughout life. Therefore, to understand adult phenotype, it is important to investigate the role of early environmental stimuli in adult behavior and health. Artificial light at night (LAN) is an increasingly common phenomenon throughout the world. However, animals, including humans, evolved under dark night conditions. Many studies have revealed affective, immune, and metabolic alterations provoked by aberrant light exposure and subsequent circadian disruption. Pups are receptive to entraining cues from the mother and then light early during development, raising the possibility that the early life light environment may influence subsequent behavior. Thus, to investigate potential influences of early life exposure to LAN on adult phenotype, we exposed mice to dim (~5 lux; full spectrum white light) or dark (~0 lux) nights pre- and/or postnatally. After weaning at 3 weeks of age, all mice were maintained in dark nights until adulthood (9 weeks of age) when behavior was assessed. Mice exposed to dim light in early life increased anxiety-like behavior and fearful responses on the elevated plus maze and passive avoidance tests. These mice also displayed reduced growth rates, which ultimately normalized during adolescence. mRNA expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin previously linked to early life environment and adult phenotype, was not altered in the prefrontal cortex or hippocampus by early life LAN exposure. Serum corticosterone concentrations were similar between groups at weaning, suggesting that early life LAN does not elicit a long-term physiologic stress response. Dim light exposure did not influence behavior on the open field, novel object, sucrose anhedonia, or forced swim tests. Our data highlight the potential deleterious consequences of low levels of light during early life to development and subsequent behavior. Whether these changes are due to altered maternal behavior

  8. Altered vision destabilizes gait in older persons.

    PubMed

    Helbostad, Jorunn L; Vereijken, Beatrix; Hesseberg, Karin; Sletvold, Olav

    2009-08-01

    This study assessed the effects of dim light and four experimentally induced changes in vision on gait speed and footfall and trunk parameters in older persons walking on level ground. Using a quasi-experimental design, gait characteristics were assessed in full light, dim light, and in dim light combined with manipulations resulting in reduced depth vision, double vision, blurred vision, and tunnel vision, respectively. A convenience sample of 24 home-dwelling older women and men (mean age 78.5 years, SD 3.4) with normal vision for their age and able to walk at least 10 m without assistance participated. Outcome measures were gait speed and spatial and temporal parameters of footfall and trunk acceleration, derived from an electronic gait mat and accelerometers. Dim light alone had no effect. Vision manipulations combined with dim light had effect on most footfall parameters but few trunk parameters. The largest effects were found regarding double and tunnel vision. Men increased and women decreased gait speed following manipulations (p=0.017), with gender differences also in stride velocity variability (p=0.017) and inter-stride medio-lateral trunk acceleration variability (p=0.014). Gender effects were related to differences in body height and physical functioning. Results indicate that visual problems lead to a more cautious and unstable gait pattern even under relatively simple conditions. This points to the importance of assessing vision in older persons and correcting visual impairments where possible.

  9. Parental Exposure to Dim Light at Night Prior to Mating Alters Offspring Adaptive Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Cissé, Yasmine M.; Russart, Kathryn L.G.; Nelson, Randy J.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to dim light at night (dLAN) disrupts natural light/dark cycles and impairs endogenous circadian rhythms necessary to maintain optimal biological function, including the endocrine and immune systems. We have previously demonstrated that white dLAN compromises innate and cell mediated immune responses in adult Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). We hypothesized that dLAN has transgenerational influences on immune function. Adult male and female Siberian hamsters were exposed to either dark nights (DARK) or dLAN (~5 lux) for 9 weeks, then paired in full factorial design, mated, and thereafter housed under dark nights. Offspring were gestated and reared in dark nights, then tested as adults for cell-mediated and humoral immunity. Maternal exposure to dLAN dampened delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses in male offspring. Maternal and paternal exposure to dLAN reduced DTH responses in female offspring. IgG antibodies to a novel antigen were elevated in offspring of dams exposed to dLAN. Paternal exposure to dLAN decreased splenic endocrine receptor expression and global methylation in a parental sex-specific manner. Together, these data suggest that exposure to dLAN has transgenerational effects on endocrine-immune function that may be mediated by global alterations in the epigenetic landscape of immune tissues. PMID:28361901

  10. Effects of artificial dawn on subjective ratings of sleep inertia and dim light melatonin onset.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Marina C; Hessels, Martijn; van de Werken, Maan; de Vries, Bonnie; Beersma, Domien G M; Gordijn, Marijke C M

    2010-07-01

    The timing of work and social requirements has a negative impact on performance and well-being of a significant proportion of the population in our modern society due to a phenomenon known as social jetlag. During workdays, in the early morning, late chronotypes, in particular, suffer from a combination of a nonoptimal circadian phase and sleep deprivation. Sleep inertia, a transient period of lowered arousal after awakening, therefore, becomes more severe. In the present home study, the authors tested whether the use of an alarm clock with artificial dawn could reduce complaints of sleep inertia in people having difficulties in waking up early. The authors also examined whether these improvements were accompanied by a shift in the melatonin rhythm. Two studies were performed: Study 1: three conditions (0, 50, and 250 lux) and Study 2: two conditions (0 lux and self-selected dawn-light intensity). Each condition lasted 2 weeks. In both studies, the use of the artificial dawn resulted in a significant reduction of sleep inertia complaints. However, no significant shift in the onset of melatonin was observed after 2 weeks of using the artificial dawn of 250 lux or 50 lux compared to the control condition. A multilevel analysis revealed that only the presence of the artificial dawn, rather than shift in the dim light melatonin onset or timing of sleep offset, is related to the observed reduction of sleep inertia complaints. Mechanisms other than shift of circadian rhythms are needed to explain the positive results on sleep inertia of waking up with a dawn signal.

  11. Dim light at night disrupts the short-day response in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ikeno, Tomoko; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-02-01

    Photoperiodic regulation of physiology, morphology, and behavior is crucial for many animals to survive seasonally variable conditions unfavorable for reproduction and survival. The photoperiodic response in mammals is mediated by nocturnal secretion of melatonin under the control of a circadian clock. However, artificial light at night caused by recent urbanization may disrupt the circadian clock, as well as the photoperiodic response by blunting melatonin secretion. Here we examined the effect of dim light at night (dLAN) (5lux of light during the dark phase) on locomotor activity rhythms and short-day regulation of reproduction, body mass, pelage properties, and immune responses of male Siberian hamsters. Short-day animals reduced gonadal and body mass, decreased spermatid nuclei and sperm numbers, molted to a whiter pelage, and increased pelage density compared to long-day animals. However, animals that experienced short days with dLAN did not show these short-day responses. Moreover, short-day specific immune responses were altered in dLAN conditions. The nocturnal activity pattern was blunted in dLAN hamsters, consistent with the observation that dLAN changed expression of the circadian clock gene, Period1. In addition, we demonstrated that expression levels of genes implicated in the photoperiodic response, Mel-1a melatonin receptor, Eyes absent 3, thyroid stimulating hormone receptor, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone, were higher in dLAN animals than those in short-day animals. These results suggest that dLAN disturbs the circadian clock function and affects the molecular mechanisms of the photoperiodic response.

  12. Adaptations for nocturnal vision in insect apposition eyes.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Birgit

    2006-01-01

    Due to our own preference for bright light, we tend to forget that many insects are active in very dim light. Nocturnal insects possess in general superposition compound eyes. This eye design is truly optimized for dim light as photons can be gathered through large apertures comprised of hundreds of lenses. In apposition eyes, on the other hand, the aperture consists of a single lens resulting in a poor photon catch and unreliable vision in dim light. Apposition eyes are therefore typically found in day-active insects. Some nocturnal insects have nevertheless managed the transition to a strictly nocturnal lifestyle while retaining their highly unsuitable apposition eye design. Large lenses and wide photoreceptors enhance the sensitivity of nocturnal apposition eyes. However, as the gain of these optical adaptations is limited and not sufficient for vision in dim light, additional neural adaptations in the form of spatial and temporal summation are necessary.

  13. Acute dim light at night increases body mass, alters metabolism, and shifts core body temperature circadian rhythms.

    PubMed

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Maurya, Santosh K; Periasamy, Muthu; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-10-01

    The circadian system is primarily entrained by the ambient light environment and is fundamentally linked to metabolism. Mounting evidence suggests a causal relationship among aberrant light exposure, shift work, and metabolic disease. Previous research has demonstrated deleterious metabolic phenotypes elicited by chronic (>4 weeks) exposure to dim light at night (DLAN) (∼ 5 lux). However, the metabolic effects of short-term (<2 weeks) exposure to DLAN are unspecified. We hypothesized that metabolic alterations would arise in response to just 2 weeks of DLAN. Specifically, we predicted that mice exposed to dim light would gain more body mass, alter whole body metabolism, and display altered body temperature (Tb) and activity rhythms compared to mice maintained in dark nights. Our data largely support these predictions; DLAN mice gained significantly more mass, reduced whole body energy expenditure, increased carbohydrate over fat oxidation, and altered temperature circadian rhythms. Importantly, these alterations occurred despite similar activity locomotor levels (and rhythms) and total food intake between groups. Peripheral clocks are potently entrained by body temperature rhythms, and the deregulation of body temperature we observed may contribute to metabolic problems due to "internal desynchrony" between the central circadian oscillator and temperature sensitive peripheral clocks. We conclude that even relatively short-term exposure to low levels of nighttime light can influence metabolism to increase mass gain.

  14. Prediction of melatonin efficacy by pretreatment dim light melatonin onset in children with idiopathic chronic sleep onset insomnia.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, Kristiaan B; Smits, Marcel G; van Someren, Eus J W; Boudewijn Gunning, W

    2005-06-01

    Research has shown efficacy of melatonin treatment to advance sleep-wake rhythms in insomnia. In healthy adults, direction and magnitude of the phase shift depends on the timing of administration relative to the phase position of the circadian system. Therefore, in the present study we investigated whether in children with chronic sleep onset insomnia (SOI) efficacy of melatonin treatment in the early evening could be predicted from dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), a phase marker of the circadian system. We combined data of two previously published double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials in 110 participants, aged 6-12 years. Sleep was actigraphically estimated, and saliva collected, at baseline and in the third week of a 4-week treatment period with 5 mg melatonin or placebo at 18:00 or 19:00 hours. Primary outcome measures were pre- to post-treatment changes in dim light melatonin onset (DeltaDLMO), sleep onset (DeltaSO), sleep latency (DeltaSL), and total sleep duration (DeltaTSD). Melatonin advanced DLMO with +1:12 h (P < 0.001), SO with +0:42 h (P = 0.004), SL decreased with 25 min (P = 0.019), and TSD did not change significantly, as compared with placebo. In the melatonin-treated group, but not in the placebo-treated group, pretreatment DLMO was significantly related to DeltaDLMO [F(1, 29) = 7.28, P = 0.012] and DeltaSO [F(1, 25) = 7.72, P = 0.010]. The time interval between treatment administration and pretreatment DLMO (INT) was only significantly related to DeltaSO [F(1,26) = 5.40, P = 0.028]. The results suggest that in children with SOI, the efficacy of early evening melatonin to advance sleep onset and endogenous melatonin onset increases the later the pretreatment DLMO is.

  15. Objective measures of sleep and dim light melatonin onset in adolescents and young adults with delayed sleep phase disorder compared to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Saxvig, Ingvild W; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Pallesen, Ståle; Vedaa, Oystein; Nordhus, Inger H; Sørensen, Eli; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2013-08-01

    Delayed sleep phase disorder is characterized by a delay in the timing of the major sleep period relative to conventional norms. The sleep period itself has traditionally been described as normal. Nevertheless, it is possible that sleep regulatory mechanism disturbances associated with the disorder may affect sleep duration and/or architecture. Polysomnographic data that may shed light on the issue are scarce. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine polysomnographic measures of sleep in adolescents and young adults with delayed sleep phase disorder, and to compare findings to that of healthy controls. A second aim was to estimate dim light melatonin onset as a marker of circadian rhythm and to investigate the phase angle relationship (time interval) between dim light melatonin onset and the sleep period. Data from 54 adolescents and young adults were analysed, 35 diagnosed with delayed sleep phase disorder and 19 healthy controls. Results show delayed timing of sleep in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder, but once sleep was initiated no group differences in sleep parameters were observed. Dim light melatonin onset was delayed in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder, but no difference in phase angle was observed between the groups. In conclusion, both sleep and dim light melatonin onset were delayed in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder. The sleep period appeared to occur at the same circadian phase in both groups, and once sleep was initiated no differences in sleep parameters were observed.

  16. Why the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) should be measured before treatment of patients with circadian rhythm sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Keijzer, Henry; Smits, Marcel G; Duffy, Jeanne F; Curfs, Leopold M G

    2014-08-01

    Treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD) may include light therapy, chronotherapy and melatonin. Exogenous melatonin is increasingly being used in patients with insomnia or CRSD. Although pharmacopoeias and the European food safety authority (EFSA) recommend administering melatonin 1-2 h before desired bedtime, several studies have shown that melatonin is not always effective if administered according to that recommendation. Crucial for optimal treatment of CRSD, melatonin and other treatments should be administered at a time related to individual circadian timing (typically assessed using the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO)). If not administered according to the individual patient's circadian timing, melatonin and other treatments may not only be ineffective, they may even result in contrary effects. Endogenous melatonin levels can be measured reliably in saliva collected at the patient's home. A clinically reliably DLMO can be calculated using a fixed threshold. Diary and polysomnographic sleep-onset time do not reliably predict DLMO or circadian timing in patients with CRSD. Knowing the patient's individual circadian timing by assessing DLMO can improve diagnosis and treatment of CRSD with melatonin as well as other therapies such as light or chronotherapy, and optimizing treatment timing will shorten the time required to achieve results.

  17. Night Vision Manual for the Flight Surgeon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    may cause night blindness are glaucoma, progressive cone/rod dystrophies (e.g., retinitis pigmentosa , Stargardt’s disease), drug toxicity (e.g...Alabama, July 1989. 38. Berson EL, Rabin AR, Mehaffey L. Advances in night vision twchnology: A pocketscope for patients with retinitis pigmentosa ... retinal sensitivity to dim light. Regeneration of the photopigments occurs during dark adaptation. The fully dark-adapted eye, in which photopigment

  18. Estimating the dim light melatonin onset of adolescents within a 6-h sampling window: the impact of sampling rate and threshold method

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Stephanie J.; Suh, Christina; Molina, Thomas A.; Fogg, Louis F.; Sharkey, Katherine M.; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective/Background Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders often manifest during the adolescent years. Measurement of circadian phase such as the Dim Light Melatonin Onset (DLMO) improves diagnosis and treatment of these disorders, but financial and time costs limit the use of DLMO phase assessments in clinic. The current analysis aims to inform a cost-effective and efficient protocol to measure the DLMO in older adolescents by reducing the number of samples and total sampling duration. Patients/Methods A total of 66 healthy adolescents (26 males) aged 14.8 to 17.8 years participated in a study in which sleep was fixed for one week before they came to the laboratory for saliva collection in dim light (<20 lux). Two partial 6-h salivary melatonin profiles were derived for each participant. Both profiles began 5 h before bedtime and ended 1 h after bedtime, but one profile was derived from samples taken every 30 mins (13 samples) and the other from samples taken every 60 mins (7 samples). Three standard thresholds (first 3 melatonin values mean + 2 SDs, 3 pg/mL, and 4 pg/mL) were used to compute the DLMO. Agreement between DLMOs derived from 30-min and 60-min sampling rates was determined using a Bland-Altman analysis; agreement between sampling rate DLMOs was defined as ± 1 h. Results and Conclusions Within a 6-h sampling window, 60-min sampling provided DLMO estimates that were within ± 1 h of DLMO from 30-min sampling, but only when an absolute threshold (3 pg/mL or 4 pg/mL) was used to compute the DLMO. Future analyses should be extended to include adolescents with circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders. PMID:27318227

  19. Night vision by cuttlefish enables changeable camouflage.

    PubMed

    Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Buresch, Kendra C; Fetchko, Thomas; Gardner, Meg; Hanlon, Roger T

    2010-12-01

    Because visual predation occurs day and night, many predators must have good night vision. Prey therefore exhibit antipredator behaviours in very dim light. In the field, the giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama) assumes camouflaged body patterns at night, each tailored to its immediate environment. However, the question of whether cuttlefish have the perceptual capability to change their camouflage at night (as they do in day) has not been addressed. In this study, we: (1) monitored the camouflage patterns of Sepia officinalis during the transition from daytime to night-time using a natural daylight cycle and (2) tested whether cuttlefish on a particular artificial substrate change their camouflage body patterns when the substrate is changed under dim light (down to starlight, 0.003 lux) in a controlled light field in a dark room setting. We found that cuttlefish camouflage patterns are indeed adaptable at night: animals responded to a change in their visual environment with the appropriate body pattern change. Whether to deceive their prey or predators, cuttlefish use their excellent night vision to perform adaptive camouflage in dim light.

  20. Rod vision is controlled by dopamine-dependent sensitization of rod bipolar cells by GABA.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Rolf; Heflin, Stephanie J; Hammond, Timothy; Lee, Bowa; Wang, Jing; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Caron, Marc G; Eggers, Erika D; Frishman, Laura J; McCall, Maureen A; Arshavsky, Vadim Y

    2011-10-06

    Dark and light adaptation of retinal neurons allow our vision to operate over an enormous light intensity range. Here we report a mechanism that controls the light sensitivity and operational range of rod-driven bipolar cells that mediate dim-light vision. Our data indicate that the light responses of these cells are enhanced by sustained chloride currents via GABA(C) receptor channels. This sensitizing GABAergic input is controlled by dopamine D1 receptors, with horizontal cells serving as a plausible source of GABA release. Our findings expand the role of dopamine in vision from its well-established function of suppressing rod-driven signals in bright light to enhancing the same signals under dim illumination. They further reveal a role for GABA in sensitizing the circuitry for dim-light vision, thereby complementing GABA's traditional role in providing dynamic feedforward and feedback inhibition in the retina.

  1. Ultraviolet vision may be widespread in bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Bonaccorso, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Insectivorous bats are well known for their abilities to find and pursue flying insect prey at close range using echolocation, but they also rely heavily on vision. For example, at night bats use vision to orient across landscapes, avoid large obstacles, and locate roosts. Although lacking sharp visual acuity, the eyes of bats evolved to function at very low levels of illumination. Recent evidence based on genetics, immunohistochemistry, and laboratory behavioral trials indicated that many bats can see ultraviolet light (UV), at least at illumination levels similar to or brighter than those before twilight. Despite this growing evidence for potentially widespread UV vision in bats, the prevalence of UV vision among bats remains unknown and has not been studied outside of the laboratory. We used a Y-maze to test whether wild-caught bats could see reflected UV light and whether such UV vision functions at the dim lighting conditions typically experienced by night-flying bats. Seven insectivorous species of bats, representing five genera and three families, showed a statistically significant ‘escape-toward-the-light’ behavior when placed in the Y-maze. Our results provide compelling evidence of widespread dim-light UV vision in bats.

  2. Combined effects of exposure to dim light at night and fine particulate matter on C3H/HeNHsd mice.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Matthew K; Kovalycsik, Taylor; Sun, Qinghua; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Nelson, Randy J

    2015-11-01

    Air and light pollution contribute to fetal abnormalities, increase prevalence of cancer, metabolic and cardiorespiratory diseases, and central nervous system (CNS) disorders. A component of air pollution, particulate matter, and the phenomenon of dim light at night (dLAN) both result in neuroinflammation, which has been implicated in several CNS disorders. The combinatorial role of these pollutants on health outcomes has not been assessed. Male C3H/HeNHsd mice, with intact melatonin production, were used to model humans exposed to circadian disruption by dLAN and contaminated environmental air. We hypothesized exposure to 2.5 μm of particulate matter (PM2.5) and dLAN (5lx) combines to upregulate neuroinflammatory cytokine expression and alter hippocampal morphology compared to mice exposed to filtered air (FA) and housed under dark nights (LD). We also hypothesized that exposure to PM2.5 and dLAN provokes anxiety-like and depressive-like responses. For four weeks, four groups of mice were simultaneously exposed to ambient concentrated PM2.5 or FA and/or dLAN or LD. Following exposure, mice underwent several behavioral assays and hippocampi were collected for qPCR and morphological analyses. Our results are generally comparable to previous PM2.5 and dLAN reports conducted on mice and implicate PM2.5 and dLAN as potential factors contributing to depression and anxiety. Short-term exposure to PM2.5 and dLAN upregulated neuroinflammatory cytokines and altered CA1 hippocampal structural changes, as well as provoked depressive-like responses (anhedonia). However, combined, PM2.5 and dLAN exposure did not have additive effects, as hypothesized, suggesting a ceiling effect of neuroinflammation may exist in response to multiple pollutants.

  3. Combined Effects of Exposure to Dim Light at Night and Fine Particulate Matter on C3H/HeNHsd Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Matthew K.; Kovalycsik, Taylor; Sun, Qinghua; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Nelson, Randy J.

    2016-01-01

    Air and light pollution contribute to fetal abnormalities, increase prevalence of cancer, metabolic and cardiorespiratory diseases, and central nervous system (CNS) disorders. A component of air pollution, particulate matter, and the phenomenon of dim light at night (dLAN) both result in neuroinflammation, which has been implicated in several CNS disorders. The combinatorial role of these pollutants on health outcomes has not been assessed. Male C3H/HeNHsd mice, with intact melatonin production, were used to model humans exposed to circadian disruption by dLAN and contaminated environmental air. We hypothesized exposure to 2.5μm of particulate matter (PM2.5) and dLAN (5 lux) combines to upregulate neuroinflammatory cytokine expression and alter hippocampal morphology compared to mice exposed to filtered air (FA) and housed under dark nights (LD). We also hypothesized that exposure to PM2.5 and dLAN provokes anxiety-like and depressive-like responses. For four weeks, four groups of mice were simultaneously exposed to ambient concentrated PM2.5 or FA and/or dLAN or LD. Following exposure, mice underwent several behavioral assays and hippocampi were collected for qPCR and morphological analyses. Our results are generally comparable to previous PM2.5 and dLAN reports conducted on mice and implicate PM2.5 and dLAN as potential factors contributing to depression and anxiety. Short-term exposure to PM2.5 and dLAN upregulated neuroinflammatory cytokines and altered CA1 hippocampal structural changes, as well as provoked depressive-like responses (anhedonia). However, combined, PM2.5 and dLAN exposure did not have additive effects, as hypothesized, suggesting a ceiling effect of neuroinflammation may exist in response to multiple pollutants. PMID:26235330

  4. Structural approaches to understanding retinal proteins needed for vision

    PubMed Central

    Orban, Tivadar; Jastrzebska, Beata; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed an impressive expansion of our knowledge of retinal photoreceptor signal transduction and the regulation of the visual cycle required for normal eyesight. Progress in human genetics and next generation sequencing technologies have revealed the complexity behind many inherited retinal diseases. Structural studies have markedly increased our understanding of the visual process. Moreover, technical innovations and improved methodologies in proteomics, macromolecular crystallization and high resolution imaging at different levels set the scene for even greater advances. Pharmacology combined with structural biology of membrane proteins holds great promise for developing innovative accessible therapies for millions robbed of their sight or progressing toward blindness. PMID:24680428

  5. CoMOGrad and PHOG: From Computer Vision to Fast and Accurate Protein Tertiary Structure Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Rezaul; Aziz, Mohd. Momin Al; Shatabda, Swakkhar; Rahman, M. Sohel; Mia, Md. Abul Kashem; Zaman, Farhana; Rakin, Salman

    2015-01-01

    The number of entries in a structural database of proteins is increasing day by day. Methods for retrieving protein tertiary structures from such a large database have turn out to be the key to comparative analysis of structures that plays an important role to understand proteins and their functions. In this paper, we present fast and accurate methods for the retrieval of proteins having tertiary structures similar to a query protein from a large database. Our proposed methods borrow ideas from the field of computer vision. The speed and accuracy of our methods come from the two newly introduced features- the co-occurrence matrix of the oriented gradient and pyramid histogram of oriented gradient- and the use of Euclidean distance as the distance measure. Experimental results clearly indicate the superiority of our approach in both running time and accuracy. Our method is readily available for use from this website: http://research.buet.ac.bd:8080/Comograd/. PMID:26293226

  6. Insect photoreceptor adaptations to night vision.

    PubMed

    Honkanen, Anna; Immonen, Esa-Ville; Salmela, Iikka; Heimonen, Kyösti; Weckström, Matti

    2017-04-05

    Night vision is ultimately about extracting information from a noisy visual input. Several species of nocturnal insects exhibit complex visually guided behaviour in conditions where most animals are practically blind. The compound eyes of nocturnal insects produce strong responses to single photons and process them into meaningful neural signals, which are amplified by specialized neuroanatomical structures. While a lot is known about the light responses and the anatomical structures that promote pooling of responses to increase sensitivity, there is still a dearth of knowledge on the physiology of night vision. Retinal photoreceptors form the first bottleneck for the transfer of visual information. In this review, we cover the basics of what is known about physiological adaptations of insect photoreceptors for low-light vision. We will also discuss major enigmas of some of the functional properties of nocturnal photoreceptors, and describe recent advances in methodologies that may help to solve them and broaden the field of insect vision research to new model animals.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'.

  7. Bird colour vision: behavioural thresholds reveal receptor noise.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Peter; Lind, Olle; Kelber, Almut

    2015-01-15

    Birds have impressive physiological adaptations for colour vision, including tetrachromacy and coloured oil droplets, yet it is not clear exactly how well birds can discriminate the reflecting object colours that they encounter in nature. With behavioural experiments, we determined colour discrimination thresholds of chickens in bright and dim light. We performed the experiments with two colour series, orange and green, covering two parts of chicken colour space. These experiments allowed us to compare behavioural results with model expectations and determine how different noise types limit colour discrimination. At intensities ranging from bright light to those corresponding to early dusk (250-10 cd m(-2)), we describe thresholds accurately by assuming a constant signal-to-noise ratio, in agreement with an invariant Weber fraction of Weber's law. Below this intensity, signal-to-noise ratio decreases and Weber's law is violated because photon-shot noise limits colour discrimination. In very dim light (below 0.05 cd m(-2) for the orange series or 0.2 cd m(-2) for the green series) colour discrimination is possibly constrained by dark noise, and the lowest intensity at which chickens can discriminate colours is 0.025 and 0.08 cd m(-2) for the orange and green series, respectively. Our results suggest that chickens use spatial pooling of cone outputs to mitigate photon-shot noise. Surprisingly, we found no difference between colour discrimination of chickens and humans tested with the same test in bright light.

  8. A neuronal circuit for colour vision based on rod-cone opponency.

    PubMed

    Joesch, Maximilian; Meister, Markus

    2016-04-14

    In bright light, cone-photoreceptors are active and colour vision derives from a comparison of signals in cones with different visual pigments. This comparison begins in the retina, where certain retinal ganglion cells have 'colour-opponent' visual responses-excited by light of one colour and suppressed by another colour. In dim light, rod-photoreceptors are active, but colour vision is impossible because they all use the same visual pigment. Instead, the rod signals are thought to splice into retinal circuits at various points, in synergy with the cone signals. Here we report a new circuit for colour vision that challenges these expectations. A genetically identified type of mouse retinal ganglion cell called JAMB (J-RGC), was found to have colour-opponent responses, OFF to ultraviolet (UV) light and ON to green light. Although the mouse retina contains a green-sensitive cone, the ON response instead originates in rods. Rods and cones both contribute to the response over several decades of light intensity. Remarkably, the rod signal in this circuit is antagonistic to that from cones. For rodents, this UV-green channel may play a role in social communication, as suggested by spectral measurements from the environment. In the human retina, all of the components for this circuit exist as well, and its function can explain certain experiences of colour in dim lights, such as a 'blue shift' in twilight. The discovery of this genetically defined pathway will enable new targeted studies of colour processing in the brain.

  9. Luminance-dependence of spatial vision in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Bourke's parrots (Neopsephotus bourkii).

    PubMed

    Lind, Olle; Sunesson, Tony; Mitkus, Mindaugas; Kelber, Almut

    2012-01-01

    Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Bourke's parrots (Neopsephotus bourkii) are closely related birds with different activity patterns. Budgerigars are strictly diurnal while Bourke's parrots are active in dim twilight. Earlier studies show that the intensity threshold of colour vision is similar in both species while Bourke's parrots have larger eyes with a higher density of rods than budgerigars. In this study, we investigate whether this could be an adaptation for better spatial vision in dim light. We used two alternative forced-choice experiments to determine the spatial acuity of both species at light intensities ranging from 0.08 to 73 cd/m(2). We also determined the spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for bright light in Bourke's parrots and compare it to existing data for budgerigars. The spatial acuity of Bourke's parrots was found to be similar to that of budgerigars at all light levels. Also the CSF of Bourke's parrots is similar to that of budgerigars with a sensitivity peak located between 2.1 and 2.6 cycles/degree. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that Bourke's parrots have superior spatial acuity in dim light compared to budgerigars and the adaptive value of the relatively rod-rich and large eyes of Bourke's parrots remains unclear.

  10. How photons start vision.

    PubMed Central

    Baylor, D

    1996-01-01

    Recent studies have elucidated how the absorption of a photon in a rod or cone cell leads to the generation of the amplified neural signal that is transmitted to higher-order visual neurons. Photoexcited visual pigment activates the GTP-binding protein transducin, which in turn stimulates cGMP phosphodiesterase. This enzyme hydrolyzes cGMP, allowing cGMP-gated cationic channels in the surface membrane to close, hyperpolarize the cell, and modulate transmitter release at the synaptic terminal. The kinetics of reactions in the cGMP cascade limit the temporal resolution of the visual system as a whole, while statistical fluctuations in the reactions limit the reliability of detection of dim light. Much interest now focuses on the processes that terminate the light response and dynamically regulate amplification in the cascade, causing the single photon response to be reproducible and allowing the cell to adapt in background light. A light-induced fall in the internal free Ca2+ concentration coordinates negative feedback control of amplification. The fall in Ca2+ stimulates resynthesis of cGMP, antagonizes rhodopsin's catalytic activity, and increases the affinity of the light-regulated cationic channel for cGMP. We are using physiological methods to study the molecular mechanisms that terminate the flash response and mediate adaptation. One approach is to observe transduction in truncated, dialyzed photoreceptor cells whose internal Ca2+ and nucleotide concentrations are under experimental control and to which exogenous proteins can be added. Another approach is to observe transduction in transgenic mouse rods in which specific proteins within the cascade are altered or deleted. PMID:8570595

  11. Low Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... USAJobs Home > Statistics and Data > Low Vision Low Vision Low Vision Defined: Low Vision is defined as the best- ... 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Low Vision by Age, and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2010 ...

  12. The intensity threshold of colour vision in a passerine bird, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus).

    PubMed

    Gomez, Doris; Grégoire, Arnaud; Del Rey Granado, Maria; Bassoul, Marine; Degueldre, David; Perret, Philippe; Doutrelant, Claire

    2014-11-01

    Many vertebrates use colour vision for vital behaviour but their visual performance in dim light is largely unknown. The light intensity threshold of colour vision is known only for humans, horses and two parrot species. Here, we first explore this threshold in a passerine bird, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). Using classic conditioning of colour cues to food rewards in three individuals, we find a threshold ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 cd m(-2). Results are comparable to the two previously tested bird species. For tits, nest light conditions probably exceed that threshold, at least after sunrise. These results shed new light on the lively debate questioning the visual performance of cavity nesters and the evolutionary significance of egg and chick coloration. Although this needs further investigation, it is possible that blue tits exploit both colour and brightness cues when viewing their eggs, chicks or conspecifics in their nests.

  13. The remarkable visual capacities of nocturnal insects: vision at the limits with small eyes and tiny brains.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric J

    2017-04-05

    Nocturnal insects have evolved remarkable visual capacities, despite small eyes and tiny brains. They can see colour, control flight and land, react to faint movements in their environment, navigate using dim celestial cues and find their way home after a long and tortuous foraging trip using learned visual landmarks. These impressive visual abilities occur at light levels when only a trickle of photons are being absorbed by each photoreceptor, begging the question of how the visual system nonetheless generates the reliable signals needed to steer behaviour. In this review, I attempt to provide an answer to this question. Part of the answer lies in their compound eyes, which maximize light capture. Part lies in the slow responses and high gains of their photoreceptors, which improve the reliability of visual signals. And a very large part lies in the spatial and temporal summation of these signals in the optic lobe, a strategy that substantially enhances contrast sensitivity in dim light and allows nocturnal insects to see a brighter world, albeit a slower and coarser one. What is abundantly clear, however, is that during their evolution insects have overcome several serious potential visual limitations, endowing them with truly extraordinary night vision.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'.

  14. Intermolecular Interaction between Anchoring Subunits Specify Subcellular Targeting and Function of RGS Proteins in Retina ON-Bipolar Neurons.

    PubMed

    Sarria, Ignacio; Orlandi, Cesare; McCall, Maureen A; Gregg, Ronald G; Martemyanov, Kirill A

    2016-03-09

    In vertebrate retina, light responses generated by the rod photoreceptors are transmitted to the second-order neurons, the ON-bipolar cells (ON-BC), and this communication is indispensible for vision in dim light. In ON-BCs, synaptic transmission is initiated by the metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR6, that signals via the G-protein Go to control opening of the effector ion channel, TRPM1. A key role in this process belongs to the GTPase Activating Protein (GAP) complex that catalyzes Go inactivation upon light-induced suppression of glutamate release in rod photoreceptors, thereby driving ON-BC depolarization to changes in synaptic input. The GAP complex has a striking molecular complexity. It contains two Regulator of G-protein Signaling (RGS) proteins RGS7 and RGS11 that directly act on Go and two adaptor subunits: RGS Anchor Protein (R9AP) and the orphan receptor, GPR179. Here we examined the organizational principles of the GAP complex in ON-BCs. Biochemical experiments revealed that RGS7 binds to a conserved site in GPR179 and that RGS11 in vivo forms a complex only with R9AP. R9AP and GPR179 are further integrated via direct protein-protein interactions involving their cytoplasmic domains. Elimination of GPR179 prevents postsynaptic accumulation of R9AP. Furthermore, concurrent knock-out of both R9AP and RGS7 does not reconfigure the GAP complex and completely abolishes synaptic transmission, resulting in a novel mouse model of night blindness. Based on these results, we propose a model of hierarchical assembly and function of the GAP complex that supports ON-BCs visual signaling.

  15. Behavioural and physiological limits to vision in mammals.

    PubMed

    Field, Greg D; Sampath, Alapakkam P

    2017-04-05

    Human vision is exquisitely sensitive-a dark-adapted observer is capable of reliably detecting the absorption of a few quanta of light. Such sensitivity requires that the sensory receptors of the retina, rod photoreceptors, generate a reliable signal when single photons are absorbed. In addition, the retina must be able to extract this information and relay it to higher visual centres under conditions where very few rods signal single-photon responses while the majority generate only noise. Critical to signal transmission are mechanistic optimizations within rods and their dedicated retinal circuits that enhance the discriminability of single-photon responses by mitigating photoreceptor and synaptic noise. We describe behavioural experiments over the past century that have led to the appreciation of high sensitivity near absolute visual threshold. We further consider mechanisms within rod photoreceptors and dedicated rod circuits that act to extract single-photon responses from cellular noise. We highlight how these studies have shaped our understanding of brain function and point out several unresolved questions in the processing of light near the visual threshold.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'.

  16. The N-terminal region of centrosomal protein 290 (CEP290) restores vision in a zebrafish model of human blindness.

    PubMed

    Baye, Lisa M; Patrinostro, Xiaobai; Swaminathan, Svetha; Beck, John S; Zhang, Yan; Stone, Edwin M; Sheffield, Val C; Slusarski, Diane C

    2011-04-15

    The gene coding for centrosomal protein 290 (CEP290), a large multidomain protein, is the most frequently mutated gene underlying the non-syndromic blinding disorder Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA). CEP290 has also been implicated in several cilia-related syndromic disorders including Meckel-Gruber syndrome, Joubert syndrome, Senor-Loken syndrome and Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS). In this study, we characterize the developmental and functional roles of cep290 in zebrafish. An antisense oligonucleotide [Morpholino (MO)], designed to generate an altered cep290 splice product that models the most common LCA mutation, was used for gene knockdown. We show that cep290 MO-injected embryos have reduced Kupffer's vesicle size and delays in melanosome transport, two phenotypes that are observed upon knockdown of bbs genes in zebrafish. Consistent with a role in cilia function, the cep290 MO-injected embryos exhibited a curved body axis. Patients with LCA caused by mutations in CEP290 have reduced visual perception, although they present with a fully laminated retina. Similarly, the histological examination of retinas from cep290 MO-injected zebrafish revealed no gross lamination defects, yet the embryos had a statistically significant reduction in visual function. Finally, we demonstrate that the vision impairment caused by the disruption of cep290 can be rescued by expressing only the N-terminal region of the human CEP290 protein. These data reveal that a specific region of the CEP290 protein is sufficient to restore visual function and this region may be a viable gene therapy target for LCA patients with mutations in CEP290.

  17. Vision problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... shade or curtain hanging across part of your visual field. Optic neuritis : inflammation of the optic nerve ... Impaired vision; Blurred vision Images Crossed eyes Eye Visual acuity test Slit-lamp exam Visual field test ...

  18. Low Vision Aids and Low Vision Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vision Resources Low Vision Rehabilitation and Low Vision Aids Written by: David Turbert Edited by: Robert H ... covers most services, but not devices.) Low vision aids There are many low vision aids and devices ...

  19. Field Commissioning of a Daylight-Dimming Lighting System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, David B.; Parker, Danny S.

    A Florida elementary school cafeteria, retrofitted with a fluorescent lighting system that dims in response to available daylight, was evaluated through real time measurement of lighting and air conditioning power, work plane illumination, and interior/exterior site conditions. The new system produced a 27 percent reduction in lighting power due…

  20. Low Vision FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... USAJobs Home > Low Vision > Low Vision FAQs Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Low Vision FAQs What is low vision? Low vision is ...

  1. Computer vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gennery, D.; Cunningham, R.; Saund, E.; High, J.; Ruoff, C.

    1981-01-01

    The field of computer vision is surveyed and assessed, key research issues are identified, and possibilities for a future vision system are discussed. The problems of descriptions of two and three dimensional worlds are discussed. The representation of such features as texture, edges, curves, and corners are detailed. Recognition methods are described in which cross correlation coefficients are maximized or numerical values for a set of features are measured. Object tracking is discussed in terms of the robust matching algorithms that must be devised. Stereo vision, camera control and calibration, and the hardware and systems architecture are discussed.

  2. All Vision Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Statistics and Data > All Vision Impairment All Vision Impairment Vision Impairment Defined Vision impairment is defined as the ... Ethnicity 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Vision Impairment by Age and Race/Ethnicity Table for ...

  3. Improving Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Many people are familiar with the popular science fiction series Star Trek: The Next Generation, a show featuring a blind character named Geordi La Forge, whose visor-like glasses enable him to see. What many people do not know is that a product very similar to Geordi's glasses is available to assist people with vision conditions, and a NASA engineer's expertise contributed to its development. The JORDY(trademark) (Joint Optical Reflective Display) device, designed and manufactured by a privately-held medical device company known as Enhanced Vision, enables people with low vision to read, write, and watch television. Low vision, which includes macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, describes eyesight that is 20/70 or worse, and cannot be fully corrected with conventional glasses.

  4. Vision Underwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Joseph S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides information regarding underwater vision. Includes a discussion of optically important interfaces, increased eye size of organisms at greater depths, visual peculiarities regarding the habitat of the coastal environment, and various pigment visual systems. (CS)

  5. [Central vision].

    PubMed

    Fahle, M

    2004-07-01

    The clinical assessment of vision by means of optotypes does by no means test just two-point resolution, since a correct naming of the letters or digits requires a preceding visual object recognition. Cortical lesions can massively deteriorate vision up to a "Seelenblindheit" in spite of intact optics and retina. There are different processing levels involved in the analysis which can be individually defective, leading to disorders from visual indiscrimination to agnosia or anomia.

  6. Presidential Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallin, Alice, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This journal issue is devoted to the theme of university presidents and their visions of the future. It presents the inaugural addresses and speeches of 16 Catholic college and university presidents focusing on their goals, ambitions, and reasons for choosing to become higher education leaders at this particular time in the history of education in…

  7. Visions 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Victor; Norman, Michele

    2001-01-01

    Reports on the views of 18 educational leaders regarding their vision on the future of education in an information age. Topics include people's diverse needs; relationships between morality, ethics, values, and technology; leadership; parental involvement; online courses from multiple higher education institutions; teachers' role; technology…

  8. Healthy Vision Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... NEI for Kids > Healthy Vision Tips All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Healthy Vision Tips Healthy vision starts with you! Use these ...

  9. Blindness and vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye ( chemical burns or sports injuries) Diabetes Glaucoma Macular degeneration The type of partial vision loss may differ, ... tunnel vision and missing areas of vision With macular degeneration, the side vision is normal but the central ...

  10. Present Vision--Future Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitterman, L. Jeffrey

    This paper addresses issues of current and future technology use for and by individuals with visual impairments and blindness in Florida. Present technology applications used in vision programs in Florida are individually described, including video enlarging, speech output, large inkprint, braille print, paperless braille, and tactual output…

  11. Computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses material from areas such as artificial intelligence, psychology, computer graphics, and image processing. The intent is to assemble a selection of this material in a form that will serve both as a senior/graduate-level academic text and as a useful reference to those building vision systems. This book has a strong artificial intelligence flavour, emphasising the belief that both the intrinsic image information and the internal model of the world are important in successful vision systems. The book is organised into four parts, based on descriptions of objects at four different levels of abstraction. These are: generalised images-images and image-like entities; segmented images-images organised into subimages that are likely to correspond to interesting objects; geometric structures-quantitative models of image and world structures; relational structures-complex symbolic descriptions of image and world structures. The book contains author and subject indexes.

  12. Pleiades Visions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pleiades Visions (2012) is my new musical composition for organ that takes inspiration from traditional lore and music associated with the Pleiades (Seven Sisters) star cluster from Australian Aboriginal, Native American, and Native Hawaiian cultures. It is based on my doctoral dissertation research incorporating techniques from the fields of ethnomusicology and cultural astronomy; this research likely represents a new area of inquiry for both fields. This large-scale work employs the organ's vast sonic resources to evoke the majesty of the night sky and the expansive landscapes of the homelands of the above-mentioned peoples. Other important themes in Pleiades Visions are those of place, origins, cosmology, and the creation of the world.

  13. Cartesian visions.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2008-12-01

    Few original portraits exist of René Descartes, yet his theories of vision were central to Enlightenment thought. French philosophers combined his emphasis on sight with the English approach of insisting that ideas are not innate, but must be built up from experience. In particular, Denis Diderot criticised Descartes's views by describing how Nicholas Saunderson--a blind physics professor at Cambridge--relied on touch. Diderot also made Saunderson the mouthpiece for some heretical arguments against the existence of God.

  14. Lambda Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowski, Michael

    2014-06-01

    There is an explosion in the quantity and quality of IMINT data being captured in Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) today. While automated exploitation techniques involving computer vision are arriving, only a few architectures can manage both the storage and bandwidth of large volumes of IMINT data and also present results to analysts quickly. Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (ATL) has been actively researching in the area of applying Big Data cloud computing techniques to computer vision applications. This paper presents the results of this work in adopting a Lambda Architecture to process and disseminate IMINT data using computer vision algorithms. The approach embodies an end-to-end solution by processing IMINT data from sensors to serving information products quickly to analysts, independent of the size of the data. The solution lies in dividing up the architecture into a speed layer for low-latent processing and a batch layer for higher quality answers at the expense of time, but in a robust and fault-tolerant way. This approach was evaluated using a large corpus of IMINT data collected by a C-130 Shadow Harvest sensor over Afghanistan from 2010 through 2012. The evaluation data corpus included full motion video from both narrow and wide area field-of-views. The evaluation was done on a scaled-out cloud infrastructure that is similar in composition to those found in the Intelligence Community. The paper shows experimental results to prove the scalability of the architecture and precision of its results using a computer vision algorithm designed to identify man-made objects in sparse data terrain.

  15. Machine vision

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, D.

    1989-06-01

    To keep up with the speeds of modern production lines, most machine vision applications require very powerful computers (often parallel-processing machines), which process millions of points of data in real time. The human brain performs approximately 100 billion logical floating-point operations each second. That is 400 times the speed of a Cray-1 supercomputer. The right software must be developed for parallel-processing computers. The NSF has awarded Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Troy, N.Y.) a $2 million grant for parallel- and image-processing software research. Over the last 15 years, Rensselaer has been conducting image-processing research, including work with high-definition TV (HDTV) and image coding and understanding. A similar NSF grant has been awarded to Michigan State University (East Lansing, Mich.) Neural networks are supposed to emulate human learning patterns. These networks and their hardware implementations (neurocomputers) show a great deal of promise for machine vision systems because they allow the systems to understand the use sensory data input more effectively. Neurocomputers excel at pattern-recognition tasks when input data are fuzzy or the vision algorithm is not optimal and is difficult to ascertain.

  16. Bicistronic Lentiviruses Containing a Viral 2A Cleavage Sequence Reliably Co-Express Two Proteins and Restore Vision to an Animal Model of LCA1

    PubMed Central

    Verrier, Jonathan D.; Madorsky, Irina; Coggin, William E.; Geesey, Mero; Hochman, Michael; Walling, Elleanor; Daroszewski, Daniel; Eccles, Kristofer S.; Ludlow, Rachel; Semple-Rowland, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    The disease processes underlying inherited retinal disease are complex and are not completely understood. Many of the corrective gene therapies designed to treat diseases linked to mutations in genes specifically expressed in photoreceptor cells restore function to these cells but fail to stop progression of the disease. There is growing consensus that effective treatments for these diseases will require delivery of multiple therapeutic proteins that will be selected to treat specific aspects of the disease process. The purpose of this study was to design a lentiviral transgene that reliably expresses all of the proteins it encodes and does so in a consistent manner among infected cells. We show, using both in vitro and in vivo analyses, that bicistronic lentiviral transgenes encoding two fluorescent proteins fused to a viral 2A-like cleavage peptide meet these expression criteria. To determine if this transgene design is suitable for therapeutic applications, we replaced one of the fluorescent protein genes with the gene encoding guanylate cyclase -1 (GC1) and delivered lentivirus carrying this transgene to the retinas of the GUCY1*B avian model of Leber congenital amaurosis – 1 (LCA1). GUCY1*B chickens carry a null mutation in the GC1 gene that disrupts photoreceptor function and causes blindness at hatching, a phenotype that closely matches that observed in humans with LCA1. We found that treatment of these animals with the 2A lentivector encoding GC1 restored vision to these animals as evidenced by the presence of optokinetic reflexes. We conclude that 2A-like peptides, with proper optimization, can be successfully incorporated into therapeutic vectors designed to deliver multiple proteins to neural retinal. These results highlight the potential of this vector design to serve as a platform for the development of combination therapies designed to enhance or prolong the benefits of corrective gene therapies. PMID:21647387

  17. Vision Therapy News Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    The booklet provides an overview on vision therapy to aid writers, editors, and broadcasters help parents, teachers, older adults, and all consumers learn more about vision therapy. Following a description of vision therapy or vision training, information is provided on how and why vision therapy works. Additional sections address providers of…

  18. The Cytoplasmic Rhodopsin-Protein Interface: Potential for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Yanamala, Naveena; Gardner, Eric; Riciutti, Alec; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian dim-light photoreceptor rhodopsin is a prototypic G protein coupled receptor (GPCR), interacting with the G protein, transducin, rhodopsin kinase, and arrestin. All of these proteins interact with rhodopsin at its cytoplasmic surface. Structural and modeling studies have provided in-depth descriptions of the respective interfaces. Overlap and thus competition for binding surfaces is a major regulatory mechanism for signal processing. Recently, it was found that the same surface is also targeted by small molecules. These ligands can directly interfere with the binding and activation of the proteins of the signal transduction cascade, but they can also allosterically modulate the retinal ligand binding pocket. Because the pocket that is targeted contains residues that are highly conserved across Class A GPCRs, these findings imply that it may be possible to target multiple GPCRs with the same ligand(s). This is desirable for example in complex diseases such as cancer where multiple GPCRs participate in the disease networks. PMID:21777183

  19. Healthy Living, Healthy Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  20. Pregnancy and Your Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  1. Binocular Vision

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Randolph; Wilson, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    This essay reviews major developments –empirical and theoretical –in the field of binocular vision during the last 25 years. We limit our survey primarily to work on human stereopsis, binocular rivalry and binocular contrast summation, with discussion where relevant of single-unit neurophysiology and human brain imaging. We identify several key controversies that have stimulated important work on these problems. In the case of stereopsis those controversies include position versus phase encoding of disparity, dependence of disparity limits on spatial scale, role of occlusion in binocular depth and surface perception, and motion in 3D. In the case of binocular rivalry, controversies include eye versus stimulus rivalry, role of “top-down” influences on rivalry dynamics, and the interaction of binocular rivalry and stereopsis. Concerning binocular contrast summation, the essay focuses on two representative models that highlight the evolving complexity in this field of study. PMID:20951722

  2. Robot Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutro, L. L.; Lerman, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    The operation of a system is described that is built both to model the vision of primate animals, including man, and serve as a pre-prototype of possible object recognition system. It was employed in a series of experiments to determine the practicability of matching left and right images of a scene to determine the range and form of objects. The experiments started with computer generated random-dot stereograms as inputs and progressed through random square stereograms to a real scene. The major problems were the elimination of spurious matches, between the left and right views, and the interpretation of ambiguous regions, on the left side of an object that can be viewed only by the left camera, and on the right side of an object that can be viewed only by the right camera.

  3. Artificial vision.

    PubMed

    Humayun, M S; de Juan, E

    1998-01-01

    Outer retinal degenerations such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) lead to blindness because of photoreceptor degeneration. To test whether controlled electrical stimulation of the remaining retinal neurons could provide form vision, we electrically stimulated the inner retinal surface with micro-electrodes inserted through the sclera/eye wall of 14 of these patients (12 RP and 2 AMD). This procedure was performed in the operating room under local anaesthesia and all responses were recorded via a video camera mounted on the surgical microscope. Electrical stimulation of the inner retinal surface elicited visual perception of a spot of light (phosphene) in all subjects. This perception was retinotopically correct in 13 of 14 patients. In a resolution test in a subject with no light perception, the patient could resolve phosphenes at 1.75 degrees centre-to-centre distance (i.e. visual acuity compatible with mobility; Snellen visual acuity of 4/200).

  4. Vision Screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Visi Screen OSS-C, marketed by Vision Research Corporation, incorporates image processing technology originally developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Its advantage in eye screening is speed. Because it requires no response from a subject, it can be used to detect eye problems in very young children. An electronic flash from a 35 millimeter camera sends light into a child's eyes, which is reflected back to the camera lens. The photorefractor then analyzes the retinal reflexes generated and produces an image of the child's eyes, which enables a trained observer to identify any defects. The device is used by pediatricians, day care centers and civic organizations that concentrate on children with special needs.

  5. The evolution of vision.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Walter J

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the evolution of vision is retraced from its putative origins in cyanobacteria to humans. Circadian oscillatory clocks, phototropism, and phototaxis require the capability to detect light. Photosensory proteins allow us to reconstruct molecular phylogenetic trees. The evolution of animal eyes leading from an ancestral prototype to highly complex image forming eyes can be deciphered on the basis of evolutionary developmental genetic experiments and comparative genomics. As all bilaterian animals share the same master control gene, Pax6, and the same retinal and pigment cell determination genes, we conclude that the different eye-types originated monophyletically and subsequently diversified by divergent, parallel, or convergent evolution.

  6. Seeing in the dark: vision and visual behaviour in nocturnal bees and wasps.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric J

    2008-06-01

    In response to the pressures of predation, parasitism and competition for limited resources, several groups of (mainly) tropical bees and wasps have independently evolved a nocturnal lifestyle. Like their day-active (diurnal) relatives, these insects possess apposition compound eyes, a relatively light-insensitive eye design that is best suited to vision in bright light. Despite this, nocturnal bees and wasps are able to forage at night, with many species capable of flying through a dark and complex forest between the nest and a foraging site, a behaviour that relies heavily on vision and is limited by light intensity. In the two best-studied species - the Central American sweat bee Megalopta genalis (Halictidae) and the Indian carpenter bee Xylocopa tranquebarica (Apidae) - learned visual landmarks are used to guide foraging and homing. Their apposition eyes, however, have only around 30 times greater optical sensitivity than the eyes of their closest diurnal relatives, a fact that is apparently inconsistent with their remarkable nocturnal visual abilities. Moreover, signals generated in the photoreceptors, even though amplified by a high transduction gain, are too noisy and slow to transmit significant amounts of information in dim light. How have nocturnal bees and wasps resolved these paradoxes? Even though this question remains to be answered conclusively, a mounting body of theoretical and experimental evidence suggests that the slow and noisy visual signals generated by the photoreceptors are spatially summed by second-order monopolar cells in the lamina, a process that could dramatically improve visual reliability for the coarser and slower features of the visual world at night.

  7. Restoration of Vision in the pde6β-deficient Dog, a Large Animal Model of Rod-cone Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Lolita; Lhériteau, Elsa; Weber, Michel; Le Meur, Guylène; Deschamps, Jack-Yves; Provost, Nathalie; Mendes-Madeira, Alexandra; Libeau, Lyse; Guihal, Caroline; Colle, Marie-Anne; Moullier, Philippe; Rolling, Fabienne

    2012-01-01

    Defects in the β subunit of rod cGMP phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6β) are associated with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a childhood blinding disease with early retinal degeneration and vision loss. To date, there is no treatment for this pathology. The aim of this preclinical study was to test recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene addition therapy in the rod-cone dysplasia type 1 (rcd1) dog, a large animal model of naturally occurring PDE6β deficiency that strongly resembles the human pathology. A total of eight rcd1 dogs were injected subretinally with AAV2/5RK.cpde6β (n = 4) or AAV2/8RK.cpde6β (n = 4). In vivo and post-mortem morphological analysis showed a significant preservation of the retinal structure in transduced areas of both AAV2/5RK.cpde6β- and AAV2/8RK.cpde6β-treated retinas. Moreover, substantial rod-derived electroretinography (ERG) signals were recorded as soon as 1 month postinjection (35% of normal eyes) and remained stable for at least 18 months (the duration of the study) in treated eyes. Rod-responses were undetectable in untreated contralateral eyes. Most importantly, dim-light vision was restored in all treated rcd1 dogs. These results demonstrate for the first time that gene therapy effectively restores long-term retinal function and vision in a large animal model of autosomal recessive rod-cone dystrophy, and provide great promise for human treatment. PMID:22828504

  8. Color vision test

    MedlinePlus

    ... from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Adams AJ, Verdon WA, Spivey BE. ...

  9. Chemicals Industry Vision

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  10. A Robot Vision System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    ix e ...... . . . . . . .. . - . 1 I. Introduction This project includes the design and implementation of a vision - based goal achievement system. The... vision system design base . Final Conclusions Stereo vision is useless beyond about 15 feet for the camera separation of .75 feet, a picture...model. Such monocular vision and modelling, duplicated for two cameras, would give a second source of model data for resolving ambiguities, and

  11. Robot Vision Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses

  12. Computational approaches to vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrow, H. G.; Tenenbaum, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Vision is examined in terms of a computational process, and the competence, structure, and control of computer vision systems are analyzed. Theoretical and experimental data on the formation of a computer vision system are discussed. Consideration is given to early vision, the recovery of intrinsic surface characteristics, higher levels of interpretation, and system integration and control. A computational visual processing model is proposed and its architecture and operation are described. Examples of state-of-the-art vision systems, which include some of the levels of representation and processing mechanisms, are presented.

  13. Microwave vision for robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Leon; Struckman, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Microwave Vision (MV), a concept originally developed in 1985, could play a significant role in the solution to robotic vision problems. Originally our Microwave Vision concept was based on a pattern matching approach employing computer based stored replica correlation processing. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) processor technology offers an attractive alternative to the correlation processing approach, namely the ability to learn and to adapt to changing environments. This paper describes the Microwave Vision concept, some initial ANN-MV experiments, and the design of an ANN-MV system that has led to a second patent disclosure in the robotic vision field.

  14. A child's vision.

    PubMed

    Nye, Christina

    2014-06-01

    Implementing standard vision screening techniques in the primary care practice is the most effective means to detect children with potential vision problems at an age when the vision loss may be treatable. A critical period of vision development occurs in the first few weeks of life; thus, it is imperative that serious problems are detected at this time. Although it is not possible to quantitate an infant's vision, evaluating ocular health appropriately can mean the difference between sight and blindness and, in the case of retinoblastoma, life or death.

  15. Vision and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Simon J; Raoof, Naz; McLean, Rebecca J; Gottlob, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis can affect vision in many ways, including optic neuritis, chronic optic neuropathy, retrochiasmal visual field defects, higher order cortical processing, double vision, nystagmus and also by related ocular conditions such as uveitis. There are also side effects from recently introduced multiple sclerosis treatments that can affect vision. This review will discuss all these aspects and how they come together to cause visual symptoms. It will then focus on practical aspects of how to recognise when there is a vision problem in a multiple sclerosis patient and on what treatments are available to improve vision.

  16. Light and the evolution of vision

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D L

    2016-01-01

    It might seem a little ridiculous to cover the period over which vision evolved, perhaps 1.5 billion years, in only 3000 words. Yet, if we examine the photoreceptor molecules of the most basic eukaryote protists and even before that, in those of prokaryote bacteria and cyanobacteria, we see how similar they are to those of mammalian rod and cone photoreceptor opsins and the photoreceptive molecules of light sensitive ganglion cells. This shows us much with regard the development of vision once these proteins existed, but there is much more to discover about the evolution of even more primitive vision systems. PMID:26541087

  17. Colour vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, M P

    2010-05-01

    Colour vision deficiency is one of the commonest disorders of vision and can be divided into congenital and acquired forms. Congenital colour vision deficiency affects as many as 8% of males and 0.5% of females--the difference in prevalence reflects the fact that the commonest forms of congenital colour vision deficiency are inherited in an X-linked recessive manner. Until relatively recently, our understanding of the pathophysiological basis of colour vision deficiency largely rested on behavioural data; however, modern molecular genetic techniques have helped to elucidate its mechanisms. The current management of congenital colour vision deficiency lies chiefly in appropriate counselling (including career counselling). Although visual aids may be of benefit to those with colour vision deficiency when performing certain tasks, the evidence suggests that they do not enable wearers to obtain normal colour discrimination. In the future, gene therapy remains a possibility, with animal models demonstrating amelioration following treatment.

  18. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  19. How to assess vision.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Janet

    2016-09-21

    Rationale and key points An objective assessment of the patient's vision is important to assess variation from 'normal' vision in acute and community settings, to establish a baseline before examination and treatment in the emergency department, and to assess any changes during ophthalmic outpatient appointments. » Vision is one of the essential senses that permits people to make sense of the world. » Visual assessment does not only involve measuring central visual acuity, it also involves assessing the consequences of reduced vision. » Assessment of vision in children is crucial to identify issues that might affect vision and visual development, and to optimise lifelong vision. » Untreatable loss of vision is not an inevitable consequence of ageing. » Timely and repeated assessment of vision over life can reduce the incidence of falls, prevent injury and optimise independence. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help update you practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How this article might change your practice when assessing people holistically. 2. How you could use this article to educate your colleagues in the assessment of vision.

  20. FPGA Vision Data Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfopoulos, Arin C.; Pham, Thang D.

    2013-01-01

    JPL has produced a series of FPGA (field programmable gate array) vision algorithms that were written with custom interfaces to get data in and out of each vision module. Each module has unique requirements on the data interface, and further vision modules are continually being developed, each with their own custom interfaces. Each memory module had also been designed for direct access to memory or to another memory module.

  1. Biomimetic machine vision system.

    PubMed

    Harman, William M; Barrett, Steven F; Wright, Cameron H G; Wilcox, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Real-time application of digital imaging for use in machine vision systems has proven to be prohibitive when used within control systems that employ low-power single processors without compromising the scope of vision or resolution of captured images. Development of a real-time machine analog vision system is the focus of research taking place at the University of Wyoming. This new vision system is based upon the biological vision system of the common house fly. Development of a single sensor is accomplished, representing a single facet of the fly's eye. This new sensor is then incorporated into an array of sensors capable of detecting objects and tracking motion in 2-D space. This system "preprocesses" incoming image data resulting in minimal data processing to determine the location of a target object. Due to the nature of the sensors in the array, hyperacuity is achieved thereby eliminating resolutions issues found in digital vision systems. In this paper, we will discuss the biological traits of the fly eye and the specific traits that led to the development of this machine vision system. We will also discuss the process of developing an analog based sensor that mimics the characteristics of interest in the biological vision system. This paper will conclude with a discussion of how an array of these sensors can be applied toward solving real-world machine vision issues.

  2. Vision Changes in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    This Human Research Program 'Research to Outreach' video featuring NASA Clinical Translational Scientist Jennifer Fogarty explains the risk of vision impairment both during and after spaceflight, i...

  3. Artificial human vision camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudou, J.-F.; Maggio, S.; Fagno, M.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we present a real-time vision system modeling the human vision system. Our purpose is to inspire from human vision bio-mechanics to improve robotic capabilities for tasks such as objects detection and tracking. This work describes first the bio-mechanical discrepancies between human vision and classic cameras and the retinal processing stage that takes place in the eye, before the optic nerve. The second part describes our implementation of these principles on a 3-camera optical, mechanical and software model of the human eyes and associated bio-inspired attention model.

  4. New Term, New Vision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    2011-01-01

    During the affluent noughties it was sometimes said of government that it had "more visions than Mystic Meg and more pilots than British Airways". In 2011, the pilots, the pathfinders, the new initiatives are largely gone--implementation is the name of the game--but the visions remain. The latest one, as it affects adult learners, is in…

  5. INSIGHT: Vision & Leadership, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Tammy, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This publication focuses on promising new and emerging technologies and what they might mean to the future of K-12 schools. Half of the volume contains articles devoted in some way to "Vision," and articles in the other half are under the heading of "Leadership." Contents in the "Vision" section include: "The…

  6. A Poet's Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Suzanne; Newman, Dan

    1997-01-01

    Describes a series of activities to help middle school students develop an artist's vision and then convey that vision through poetry. Describes how lessons progress from looking at concrete objects to observations of settings and characters, gradually adding memory and imagination to direct observation, and finishing with revision. Notes that…

  7. Why Vision 2020?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckley, June

    2000-01-01

    Discusses changes in technology, information, and people and the impact on music programs. The Vision 2020 project focuses on the future of music education. Addresses the events that created Vision 2020. Includes "The Housewright Declaration," a summarization of agreements from the Housewright Symposium on the Future of Music Education. (CMK)

  8. Color vision deficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannorren, D.

    1982-04-01

    Congenital and acquired color vision defects are described in the context of physiological data. Light sources, photometry, color systems and test methods are described. A list of medicines is also presented. The practical social consequences of color vision deficiencies are discussed.

  9. Synthesized night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haixian

    2000-06-01

    A Synthesized Night Vision Goggle that will be described int his paper is a new type of night vision goggle with multiple functions. It consists of three parts: main observing system, picture--superimposed system (or Cathode Ray Tube system) and Charge-Coupled Device system.

  10. Near Vision Test for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  11. Light Vision Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valberg, Arne

    2005-04-01

    Light Vision Color takes a well-balanced, interdisciplinary approach to our most important sensory system. The book successfully combines basics in vision sciences with recent developments from different areas such as neuroscience, biophysics, sensory psychology and philosophy. Originally published in 1998 this edition has been extensively revised and updated to include new chapters on clinical problems and eye diseases, low vision rehabilitation and the basic molecular biology and genetics of colour vision. Takes a broad interdisciplinary approach combining basics in vision sciences with the most recent developments in the area Includes an extensive list of technical terms and explanations to encourage student understanding Successfully brings together the most important areas of the subject in to one volume

  12. Color vision and dentistry.

    PubMed

    Wasson, W; Schuman, N

    1992-05-01

    Color vision is a critical component of restorative and esthetic dentistry, but dentists, as a group, do not have their color vision tested at any time during their careers. A study was undertaken to ascertain the color-vision status of practicing dental personnel at the University of Tennessee, College of Dentistry. One hundred fifty individuals, 75 men and 75 women, were screened. The results corroborated the existing medical data for the general population. It was found that 9.3% of the men and none of the women exhibited color-vision defect. Since most dentists are male, this study demonstrates an area of potential weakness for some practitioners. Once a color-vision problem is found, it is simple to remedy by employing a team approach to shade matching or mechanical means of matching shades (by the practitioner). No ethnic or racial distinctions were detected, although these have been reported in other studies.

  13. Panoramic stereo sphere vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Weijia; Zhang, Baofeng; Röning, Juha; Zong, Xiaoning; Yi, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Conventional stereo vision systems have a small field of view (FOV) which limits their usefulness for certain applications. While panorama vision is able to "see" in all directions of the observation space, scene depth information is missed because of the mapping from 3D reference coordinates to 2D panoramic image. In this paper, we present an innovative vision system which builds by a special combined fish-eye lenses module, and is capable of producing 3D coordinate information from the whole global observation space and acquiring no blind area 360°×360° panoramic image simultaneously just using single vision equipment with one time static shooting. It is called Panoramic Stereo Sphere Vision (PSSV). We proposed the geometric model, mathematic model and parameters calibration method in this paper. Specifically, video surveillance, robotic autonomous navigation, virtual reality, driving assistance, multiple maneuvering target tracking, automatic mapping of environments and attitude estimation are some of the applications which will benefit from PSSV.

  14. (Computer) Vision without Sight

    PubMed Central

    Manduchi, Roberto; Coughlan, James

    2012-01-01

    Computer vision holds great promise for helping persons with blindness or visual impairments (VI) to interpret and explore the visual world. To this end, it is worthwhile to assess the situation critically by understanding the actual needs of the VI population and which of these needs might be addressed by computer vision. This article reviews the types of assistive technology application areas that have already been developed for VI, and the possible roles that computer vision can play in facilitating these applications. We discuss how appropriate user interfaces are designed to translate the output of computer vision algorithms into information that the user can quickly and safely act upon, and how system-level characteristics affect the overall usability of an assistive technology. Finally, we conclude by highlighting a few novel and intriguing areas of application of computer vision to assistive technology. PMID:22815563

  15. Literature and information in vision care and vision science.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2008-11-01

    The explosion of information in vision care and vision science makes keeping up with the literature and information in the field challenging. This report examines the nature of literature and information in vision care and vision science. A variety of topics are discussed, including the general nature of scientific and clinical journals, journals in vision science and vision care, resources available for searches for literature and information, and issues involved in the evaluation of journals and other information sources. Aspects of the application of citation analysis to vision care and vision science are reviewed, and a new citation analysis of a leading textbook in vision care (Borish's Clinical Refraction) is presented. This report is directed toward anyone who wants to be more informed about the literature of vision care and vision science, whether they are students, clinicians, educators, or librarians.

  16. Vision and Driving

    PubMed Central

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Driving is the primary means of personal travel in many countries and is relies heavily on vision for its successful execution. Research over the past few decades has addressed the role of vision in driver safety (motor vehicle collision involvement) and in driver performance (both on-road and using interactive simulators in the laboratory). Here we critically review what is currently known about the role of various aspects of visual function in driving. We also discuss translational research issues on vision screening for licensure and re-licensure and rehabilitation of visually impaired persons who want to drive. PMID:20580907

  17. Stereo vision and strabismus.

    PubMed

    Read, J C A

    2015-02-01

    Binocular stereopsis, or stereo vision, is the ability to derive information about how far away objects are, based solely on the relative positions of the object in the two eyes. It depends on both sensory and motor abilities. In this review, I briefly outline some of the neuronal mechanisms supporting stereo vision, and discuss how these are disrupted in strabismus. I explain, in some detail, current methods of assessing stereo vision and their pros and cons. Finally, I review the evidence supporting the clinical importance of such measurements.

  18. Stereo vision and strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Read, J C A

    2015-01-01

    Binocular stereopsis, or stereo vision, is the ability to derive information about how far away objects are, based solely on the relative positions of the object in the two eyes. It depends on both sensory and motor abilities. In this review, I briefly outline some of the neuronal mechanisms supporting stereo vision, and discuss how these are disrupted in strabismus. I explain, in some detail, current methods of assessing stereo vision and their pros and cons. Finally, I review the evidence supporting the clinical importance of such measurements. PMID:25475234

  19. [Comparison study between biological vision and computer vision].

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Yuan, X G; Yang, C X; Liu, Z Q; Wang, R

    2001-08-01

    The development and bearing of biology vision in structure and mechanism were discussed, especially on the aspects including anatomical structure of biological vision, tentative classification of reception field, parallel processing of visual information, feedback and conformity effect of visual cortical, and so on. The new advance in the field was introduced through the study of the morphology of biological vision. Besides, comparison between biological vision and computer vision was made, and their similarities and differences were pointed out.

  20. Living with vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Telescopic glasses that may aid distance vision Maximize Lighting You should: Increase the overall lighting in your home. Use a table or floor ... has a gooseneck or flexible arm. Point the light directly on your reading material or task. Use ...

  1. Kids' Quest: Vision Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... most important job. Return to Steps World-Wide Web Search Kids Health: What is Vision Impairment What ... for the Blind (AFB) created the Braille Bug web site to teach sighted children about braille, and ...

  2. Vision and Motion Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambo, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    Presents activities on persistence of vision that involve students in a hands-on approach to the study of early methods of creating motion pictures. Students construct flip books, a Zoetrope, and an early movie machine. (DDR)

  3. Impairments to Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... scotoma" right where you're looking. Glaucoma and Retinitis Pigmentosa Ring or Donut Scotoma Left Field Homonymous Hemianopia Although very different diseases, both glaucoma and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) cause a loss of side vision, leading ...

  4. Introduction To Color Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorell, Lisa G.

    1983-08-01

    Several human cognitive studies have reported that color facilitates certain learning, memory and search tasks. Consideration of the color-opponent organization of human color vision and the spatial modulation transfer function for color suggests several simple sensory explanations.

  5. Home vision tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... testing. AMSLER GRID TEST This test helps detect macular degeneration . This is a disease that causes blurred vision, ... eye exam. People who are at risk of macular degeneration may be told by their ophthalmologist to perform ...

  6. Mice exposed to dim light at night exaggerate inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Fonken, Laura K; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-11-01

    The mammalian circadian system regulates many physiological functions including inflammatory responses. Appropriately timed light information is essential for maintaining circadian organization. Over the past ∼120 years, urbanization and the widespread adoption of electric lights have dramatically altered lighting environments. Exposure to light at night (LAN) is pervasive in modern society and disrupts core circadian clock mechanisms. Because microglia are the resident macrophages in the brain and macrophages contain intrinsic circadian clocks, we hypothesized that chronic exposure to LAN would alter microglia cytokine expression and sickness behavior following LPS administration. Exposure to 4 weeks of dim LAN elevated inflammatory responses in mice. Mice exposed to dimly lit, as compared to dark, nights exaggerated changes in body temperature and elevated microglia pro-inflammatory cytokine expression following LPS administration. Furthermore, dLAN mice had a prolonged sickness response following the LPS challenge. Mice exposed to dark or dimly lit nights had comparable sickness behavior directly following the LPS injection; however, dLAN mice showed greater reductions in locomotor activity, increased anorectic behavior, and increased weight loss than mice maintained in dark nights 24h post-LPS injection. Overall, these data suggest that chronic exposure to even very low levels of light pollution may alter inflammatory responses. These results may have important implications for humans and other urban dwelling species that commonly experience nighttime light exposure.

  7. Dim light at night disturbs the daily sleep-wake cycle in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Jan Stenvers, Dirk; van Dorp, Rick; Foppen, Ewout; Mendoza, Jorge; Opperhuizen, Anne-Loes; Fliers, Eric; Bisschop, Peter H.; Meijer, Johanna H.; Kalsbeek, Andries; Deboer, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to light at night (LAN) is associated with insomnia in humans. Light provides the main input to the master clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that coordinates the sleep-wake cycle. We aimed to develop a rodent model for the effects of LAN on sleep. Therefore, we exposed male Wistar rats to either a 12 h light (150–200lux):12 h dark (LD) schedule or a 12 h light (150–200 lux):12 h dim white light (5 lux) (LDim) schedule. LDim acutely decreased the amplitude of daily rhythms of REM and NREM sleep, with a further decrease over the following days. LDim diminished the rhythms of 1) the circadian 16–19 Hz frequency domain within the NREM sleep EEG, and 2) SCN clock gene expression. LDim also induced internal desynchronization in locomotor activity by introducing a free running rhythm with a period of ~25 h next to the entrained 24 h rhythm. LDim did not affect body weight or glucose tolerance. In conclusion, we introduce the first rodent model for disturbed circadian control of sleep due to LAN. We show that internal desynchronization is possible in a 24 h L:D cycle which suggests that a similar desynchronization may explain the association between LAN and human insomnia. PMID:27762290

  8. Chronic dim light at night provokes reversible depression-like phenotype: possible role for TNF.

    PubMed

    Bedrosian, T A; Weil, Z M; Nelson, R J

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence of major depression has increased in recent decades and women are twice as likely as men to develop the disorder. Recent environmental changes almost certainly have a role in this phenomenon, but a complete set of contributors remains unspecified. Exposure to artificial light at night (LAN) has surged in prevalence during the past 50 years, coinciding with rising rates of depression. Chronic exposure to LAN is linked to increased risk of breast cancer, obesity and mood disorders, although the relationship to mood is not well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic exposure to 5 lux LAN on depression-like behaviors in female hamsters. Using this model, we also characterized hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and hippocampal dendritic morphology, and investigated the reversibility of these changes 1, 2 or 4 weeks following elimination of LAN. Furthermore, we explored the mechanism of action, focusing on hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines given their dual role in synaptic plasticity and the pathogenesis of depression. Using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, we identified a reversible increase in hippocampal tumor necrosis factor (TNF), but not interleukin-1β, mRNA expression in hamsters exposed to LAN. Direct intracerebroventricular infusion of a dominant-negative inhibitor of soluble TNF, XPro1595, prevented the development of depression-like behavior under LAN, but had no effect on dendritic spine density in the hippocampus. These results indicate a partial role for TNF in the reversible depression-like phenotype observed under chronic dim LAN. Recent environmental changes, such as LAN exposure, may warrant more attention as possible contributors to rising rates of mood disorders.

  9. Astrobiological implications of dim light phototrophy in deep-sea red clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Anindita; Singh, Tanya; LokaBharathi, P. A.; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K.; Mallik, Sweta; Kshirsagar, Pranav R.; Khadge, N. H.; Nath, B. Nagender; Bhattacharya, Satadru; Dagar, Aditya Kumar; Kaur, Prabhjot; Ray, Dwijesh; Shukla, Anil D.; Fernandes, Christabelle E. G.; Fernandes, Sheryl O.; Thomas, Tresa Remya A.; Mamatha, s. S.; Mourya, Babu Shashikant; Meena, Ram Murti

    2017-02-01

    Red clays of Central Indian Basin (CIB) under influence of trace of Rodriguez Triple Junction exhibited chemoautotrophy, low temperature hydrothermal alterations and photoautotrophic potential. Seamount flank TVBC-08, hosting such signatures revealed dominance of aerobic anoxygenic phototroph Erythrobacter, with 93% of total 454 pyrosequencing tags. Subsequently, enrichments for both aerobic (Erythrobacter) and anaerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (green and purple sulphur bacteria) under red and white LED light illumination, with average irradiance 30.66 W m-2, were attempted for three red-clay sediment cores. Successful enrichments were obtained after incubation for c.a. 120 days at 4°± 2 °C and 25°± 2 °C, representing ambient psychrophilic and low temperature hydrothermal alteration conditions respectively. During hydrothermal cooling, a microbial succession from anaerobic chemolithotrophy to oxygenic photoautotrophy through anaerobic/aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic microbes is indicated. Spectral absorbance patterns of the methanol extracted cell pellets showed peaks corresponding to metal sulphide precipitations, the Soret band of chlorosome absorbance by photosystem II and absence of peaks at Qy transition band. Dendritic nano-structures of metal sulphides are common in these sediments and are comparable with other sulphidic paleo-marine Martian analogues. Significant blue and redshifts have been observed for the experimental samples relative to the un-inoculated medium. These observations indicate the propensity of metal-sulphide deposits contributing to chemiluminiscence supporting the growth of phototrophs at least partially, in the otherwise dark abyss. The effects of other geothermal heat and light sources are also under further consideration. The potential of phototrophic microbial cells to exhibit Doppler shift in absorbance patterns is significant towards understanding planetary microbial habitability. Planetary desiccation could considerably influence Doppler effects and consequently spectral detection techniques exo-planetary microbial life.

  10. Astrobiological implications of dim light phototrophy in deep-sea red clays.

    PubMed

    Das, Anindita; Singh, Tanya; LokaBharathi, P A; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K; Mallik, Sweta; Kshirsagar, Pranav R; Khadge, N H; Nath, B Nagender; Bhattacharya, Satadru; Dagar, Aditya Kumar; Kaur, Prabhjot; Ray, Dwijesh; Shukla, Anil D; Fernandes, Christabelle E G; Fernandes, Sheryl O; Thomas, Tresa Remya A; S S, Mamatha; Mourya, Babu Shashikant; Meena, Ram Murti

    2017-02-01

    Red clays of Central Indian Basin (CIB) under influence of trace of Rodriguez Triple Junction exhibited chemoautotrophy, low temperature hydrothermal alterations and photoautotrophic potential. Seamount flank TVBC-08, hosting such signatures revealed dominance of aerobic anoxygenic phototroph Erythrobacter, with 93% of total 454 pyrosequencing tags. Subsequently, enrichments for both aerobic (Erythrobacter) and anaerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (green and purple sulphur bacteria) under red and white LED light illumination, with average irradiance 30.66Wm(-2), were attempted for three red-clay sediment cores. Successful enrichments were obtained after incubation for c.a. 120 days at 4°± 2°C and 25°± 2°C, representing ambient psychrophilic and low temperature hydrothermal alteration conditions respectively. During hydrothermal cooling, a microbial succession from anaerobic chemolithotrophy to oxygenic photoautotrophy through anaerobic/aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic microbes is indicated. Spectral absorbance patterns of the methanol extracted cell pellets showed peaks corresponding to metal sulphide precipitations, the Soret band of chlorosome absorbance by photosystem II and absence of peaks at Qy transition band. Dendritic nano-structures of metal sulphides are common in these sediments and are comparable with other sulphidic paleo-marine Martian analogues. Significant blue and redshifts have been observed for the experimental samples relative to the un-inoculated medium. These observations indicate the propensity of metal-sulphide deposits contributing to chemiluminiscence supporting the growth of phototrophs at least partially, in the otherwise dark abyss. The effects of other geothermal heat and light sources are also under further consideration. The potential of phototrophic microbial cells to exhibit Doppler shift in absorbance patterns is significant towards understanding planetary microbial habitability. Planetary desiccation could considerably influence Doppler effects and consequently spectral detection techniques exo-planetary microbial life.

  11. Rhetorical Visions of Unmarried Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endres, Thomas G.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the symbolic reality of unmarried mothers using Bormann's fantasy theme analysis and Q-methodology. Identifies three rhetorical visions with a dramatistic humanistic analysis produced by and about unmarried mothers: the Down and Out Vision, the Making the Best Vision, and the Yummie Vision. (MS)

  12. Synthetic Vision Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, L.J.; Kramer, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    A synthetic vision system is an aircraft cockpit display technology that presents the visual environment external to the aircraft using computer-generated imagery in a manner analogous to how it would appear to the pilot if forward visibility were not restricted. The purpose of this chapter is to review the state of synthetic vision systems, and discuss selected human factors issues that should be considered when designing such displays.

  13. Biofeedback for Better Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Biofeedtrac, Inc.'s Accommotrac Vision Trainer, invented by Dr. Joseph Trachtman, is based on vision research performed by Ames Research Center and a special optometer developed for the Ames program by Stanford Research Institute. In the United States, about 150 million people are myopes (nearsighted), who tend to overfocus when they look at distant objects causing blurry distant vision, or hyperopes (farsighted), whose vision blurs when they look at close objects because they tend to underfocus. The Accommotrac system is an optical/electronic system used by a doctor as an aid in teaching a patient how to contract and relax the ciliary body, the focusing muscle. The key is biofeedback, wherein the patient learns to control a bodily process or function he is not normally aware of. Trachtman claims a 90 percent success rate for correcting, improving or stopping focusing problems. The Vision Trainer has also proved effective in treating other eye problems such as eye oscillation, cross eyes, and lazy eye and in professional sports to improve athletes' peripheral vision and reaction time.

  14. Agile automated vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fandrich, Juergen; Schmitt, Lorenz A.

    1994-11-01

    The microelectronic industry is a protagonist in driving automated vision to new paradigms. Today semiconductor manufacturers use vision systems quite frequently in their fabs in the front-end process. In fact, the process depends on reliable image processing systems. In the back-end process, where ICs are assembled and packaged, today vision systems are only partly used. But in the next years automated vision will become compulsory for the back-end process as well. Vision will be fully integrated into every IC package production machine to increase yields and reduce costs. Modem high-speed material processing requires dedicated and efficient concepts in image processing. But the integration of various equipment in a production plant leads to unifying handling of data flow and interfaces. Only agile vision systems can act with these contradictions: fast, reliable, adaptable, scalable and comprehensive. A powerful hardware platform is a unneglectable requirement for the use of advanced and reliable, but unfortunately computing intensive image processing algorithms. The massively parallel SIMD hardware product LANTERN/VME supplies a powerful platform for existing and new functionality. LANTERN/VME is used with a new optical sensor for IC package lead inspection. This is done in 3D, including horizontal and coplanarity inspection. The appropriate software is designed for lead inspection, alignment and control tasks in IC package production and handling equipment, like Trim&Form, Tape&Reel and Pick&Place machines.

  15. Vision and visual navigation in nocturnal insects.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2011-01-01

    With their highly sensitive visual systems, nocturnal insects have evolved a remarkable capacity to discriminate colors, orient themselves using faint celestial cues, fly unimpeded through a complicated habitat, and navigate to and from a nest using learned visual landmarks. Even though the compound eyes of nocturnal insects are significantly more sensitive to light than those of their closely related diurnal relatives, their photoreceptors absorb photons at very low rates in dim light, even during demanding nocturnal visual tasks. To explain this apparent paradox, it is hypothesized that the necessary bridge between retinal signaling and visual behavior is a neural strategy of spatial and temporal summation at a higher level in the visual system. Exactly where in the visual system this summation takes place, and the nature of the neural circuitry that is involved, is currently unknown but provides a promising avenue for future research.

  16. Molecular genetics of colour vision deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Deeb, Samir S

    2004-07-01

    Common variation in colour vision exists among both colour normal and colour deficient subjects. Differences at a few amino acid positions that influence the spectra of the L and M cone pigments account for most of this variation. The genes encoding the L and M photopigments are arranged in head-to-tail arrays on the X-chromosome, beginning with the L and followed by one or more M pigment genes. The L and M pigment genes are highly homologous, which predisposed them to unequal crossing over (recombination) resulting in gene deletions and in formation of L/M hybrid genes that encode a variety of pigments with either L-like or M-like spectra that account for the majority of colour vision defects. Only the first two pigment genes of the L/M array are expressed in the retina and, therefore, need to be considered in predicting colour vision. A common single amino acid polymorphism (serine or alanine) at position 180 of the L-pigment plays an important role both in variation in normal colour vision and in the severity of colour vision defects. Blue cone monochromacy is a rare form of colour vision deficiency that results from mutations that abolish function of both the L and M pigment genes. All the above defects are inherited as X-linked recessive traits. Tritanopia is also a rare autosomal dominant colour vision defect caused by mutations in the S pigment gene located on chromosome 7. Total colour blindness (achromatopsia or rod monochromacy) is a rare autosomal recessive trait caused by mutations in genes encoding the proteins of the photoreceptor cation channel or cone transducin that are essential for function of all classes of cone.

  17. Colour, vision and ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age.

  18. Insect vision as model for machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, D.; Sobey, Peter J.

    1992-11-01

    The neural architecture, neurophysiology and behavioral abilities of insect vision are described, and compared with that of mammals. Insects have a hardwired neural architecture of highly differentiated neurons, quite different from the cerebral cortex, yet their behavioral abilities are in important respects similar to those of mammals. These observations challenge the view that the key to the power of biological neural computation is distributed processing by a plastic, highly interconnected, network of individually undifferentiated and unreliable neurons that has been a dominant picture of biological computation since Pitts and McCulloch's seminal work in the 1940's.

  19. The photochemical determinants of color vision

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenjing; Geiger, James H; Borhan, Babak

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of a variety of important chromophore-dependent biological processes, including microbial light sensing and mammalian color vision, relies on protein modifications that alter the spectral characteristics of a bound chromophore. Three different color opsins share the same chromophore, but have three distinct absorptions that together cover the entire visible spectrum, giving rise to trichromatic vision. The influence of opsins on the absorbance of the chromophore has been studied through methods such as model compounds, opsin mutagenesis, and computational modeling. The recent development of rhodopsin mimic that uses small soluble proteins to recapitulate the binding and wavelength tuning of the native opsins provides a new platform for studying protein-regulated spectral tuning. The ability to achieve far-red shifted absorption in the rhodopsin mimic system was attributed to a combination of the lack of a counteranion proximal to the iminium, and a uniformly neutral electrostatic environment surrounding the chromophore. PMID:24323922

  20. RiboVision suite for visualization and analysis of ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Chad R; Petrov, Anton S; Waterbury, Chris C; Jett, James; Li, Fengbo; Freil, Larry E; Xiong, Xiao; Wang, Lan; Migliozzi, Blacki L R; Hershkovits, Eli; Xue, Yuzhen; Hsiao, Chiaolong; Bowman, Jessica C; Harvey, Stephen C; Grover, Martha A; Wartell, Zachary J; Williams, Loren Dean

    2014-01-01

    RiboVision is a visualization and analysis tool for the simultaneous display of multiple layers of diverse information on primary (1D), secondary (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) structures of ribosomes. The ribosome is a macromolecular complex containing ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins and is a key component of life responsible for the synthesis of proteins in all living organisms. RiboVision is intended for rapid retrieval, analysis, filtering, and display of a variety of ribosomal data. Preloaded information includes 1D, 2D, and 3D structures augmented by base-pairing, base-stacking, and other molecular interactions. RiboVision is preloaded with rRNA secondary structures, rRNA domains and helical structures, phylogeny, crystallographic thermal factors, etc. RiboVision contains structures of ribosomal proteins and a database of their molecular interactions with rRNA. RiboVision contains preloaded structures and data for two bacterial ribosomes (Thermus thermophilus and Escherichia coli), one archaeal ribosome (Haloarcula marismortui), and three eukaryotic ribosomes (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, and Homo sapiens). RiboVision revealed several major discrepancies between the 2D and 3D structures of the rRNAs of the small and large subunits (SSU and LSU). Revised structures mapped with a variety of data are available in RiboVision as well as in a public gallery (). RiboVision is designed to allow users to distill complex data quickly and to easily generate publication-quality images of data mapped onto secondary structures. Users can readily import and analyze their own data in the context of other work. This package allows users to import and map data from CSV files directly onto 1D, 2D, and 3D levels of structure. RiboVision has features in rough analogy with web-based map services capable of seamlessly switching the type of data displayed and the resolution or magnification of the display. RiboVision is available at .

  1. Overview of sports vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Linda A.; Ferreira, Jannie T.

    2003-03-01

    Sports vision encompasses the visual assessment and provision of sports-specific visual performance enhancement and ocular protection for athletes of all ages, genders and levels of participation. In recent years, sports vision has been identified as one of the key performance indicators in sport. It is built on four main cornerstones: corrective eyewear, protective eyewear, visual skills enhancement and performance enhancement. Although clinically well established in the US, it is still a relatively new area of optometric specialisation elsewhere in the world and is gaining increasing popularity with eyecare practitioners and researchers. This research is often multi-disciplinary and involves input from a variety of subject disciplines, mainly those of optometry, medicine, physiology, psychology, physics, chemistry, computer science and engineering. Collaborative research projects are currently underway between staff of the Schools of Physics and Computing (DIT) and the Academy of Sports Vision (RAU).

  2. Artificial vision workbench.

    PubMed

    Frenger, P

    1997-01-01

    Machine vision is an important component of medical systems engineering. Inexpensive miniature solid state cameras are now available. This paper describes how these devices can be used as artificial retinas, to take snapshots and moving pictures in monochrome or color. Used in pairs, they produce a stereoscopic field of vision and enable depth perception. Macular and peripheral vision can be simulated electronically. This paper also presents the author's design of an artificial orbit for this synthetic eye. The orbit supports the eye, protects it, and provides attachment points for the ocular motion control system. Convergence and image fusion can be produced, and saccades simulated, along with the other ocular motions. The use of lenses, filters, irises and focusing mechanisms are also discussed. Typical camera-computer interfaces are described, including the use of "frame grabbers" and analog-to-digital image conversion. Software programs for eye positioning, image manipulation, feature extraction and object recognition are discussed, including the application of artificial neural networks.

  3. Periodontium bestows vision!!

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Minkle; Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Anand, Vishal; Jain, Nikil; Pandey, Suraj

    2016-01-01

    The role of periodontium in supporting the tooth structures is well-known. However, less is known about its contribution to the field of ophthalmology. Corneal diseases are among major causes of blindness affecting millions of people worldwide, for which synthetic keratoprosthesis was considered the last resort to restore vision. Yet, these synthetic keratoprosthesis suffered from serious limitations, especially the foreign body reactions invoked by them resulting in extrusion of the whole prosthesis from the eye. To overcome these shortcomings, an autologous osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis utilizing intraoral entities was introduced that could positively restore vision even in cases of severely damaged eyes. The successful functioning of this prosthesis, however, predominantly depended on the presence of a healthy periodontium for grafting. Therefore, the following short communication aims to acknowledge this lesser-known role of the periodontium and other oral structures in bestowing vision to the blind patients. PMID:27563213

  4. Bio-inspired vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, C.

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  5. Developmental disorders of vision.

    PubMed

    Galaburda, Albert M; Duchaine, Bradley C

    2003-08-01

    This review of developmental disorders of vision focuses on only a few of the many disorders that disrupt visual development. Given the enormity of the human visual system in the primate brain and complexity of visual development, however, there are likely hundreds or thousands of types of disorders affecting high-level vision. The rapid progress seen in developmental dyslexia and WMS demonstrates the possibilities and difficulties inherent in researching such disorders, and the authors hope that similar progress will be made for congenital prosopagnosia and other disorders in the near future.

  6. Night Vision Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    PixelVision, Inc. developed the Night Video NV652 Back-illuminated CCD Camera, based on the expertise of a former Jet Propulsion Laboratory employee and a former employee of Scientific Imaging Technologies, Inc. The camera operates without an image intensifier, using back-illuminated and thinned CCD technology to achieve extremely low light level imaging performance. The advantages of PixelVision's system over conventional cameras include greater resolution and better target identification under low light conditions, lower cost and a longer lifetime. It is used commercially for research and aviation.

  7. Telescopic vision contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.

    2011-03-01

    We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

  8. Is binocular vision worth considering in people with low vision?

    PubMed

    Uzdrowska, Marta; Crossland, Michael; Broniarczyk-Loba, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In someone with good vision, binocular vision provides benefits which could not be obtained by monocular viewing only. People with visual impairment often have abnormal binocularity. However, they often use both eyes simultaneously in their everyday activities. Much remains to be known about binocular vision in people with visual impairment. As the binocular status of people with low vision strongly influences their treatment and rehabilitation, it should be evaluated and considered before diagnosis and further recommendations.

  9. How rods respond to single photons: Key adaptations of a G-protein cascade that enable vision at the physical limit of perception.

    PubMed

    Reingruber, Jürgen; Holcman, David; Fain, Gordon L

    2015-11-01

    Rod photoreceptors are among the most sensitive light detectors in nature. They achieve their remarkable sensitivity across a wide variety of species through a number of essential adaptations: a specialized cellular geometry, a G-protein cascade with an unusually stable receptor molecule, a low-noise transduction mechanism, a nearly perfect effector enzyme, and highly evolved mechanisms of feedback control and receptor deactivation. Practically any change in protein expression, enzyme activity, or feedback control can be shown to impair photon detection, either by decreasing sensitivity or signal-to-noise ratio, or by reducing temporal resolution. Comparison of mammals to amphibians suggests that rod outer-segment morphology and the molecules and mechanism of transduction may have evolved together to optimize light sensitivity in darkness, which culminates in the extraordinary ability of these cells to respond to single photons at the ultimate limit of visual perception.

  10. Grounding Our Vision: Brain Research and Strategic Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Mike

    2011-01-01

    While recognizing the value of "vision," it could be argued that vision alone--at least in schools--is not enough to rally the financial and emotional support required to translate an idea into reality. A compelling vision needs to reflect substantive, research-based knowledge if it is to spark the kind of strategic thinking and insight…

  11. Low Vision Training in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inde, Krister

    1978-01-01

    The article describes the team work approach used in Sweden to provide services to the four main categories of visual impairment: central scotoma, nystagmus, loss of peripheral vision while retaining central vision, and amblyopia. (Author/PHR)

  12. Object tracking with stereo vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Eric

    1994-01-01

    A real-time active stereo vision system incorporating gaze control and task directed vision is described. Emphasis is placed on object tracking and object size and shape determination. Techniques include motion-centroid tracking, depth tracking, and contour tracking.

  13. Contact Lenses for Vision Correction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Glasses & Contacts Contact Lenses Sections Contact Lenses for Vision Correction Proper ... to Know About Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Contact Lenses for Vision Correction Written by: Kierstan Boyd ...

  14. A History of Vision Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelboom, Tina M.

    1985-01-01

    The vision screening program has a long and interesting history involving educators, pediatricians, optometrists, and ophthamologists. This historical review of vision screening in the schools includes a discussion of amblyopia and screening of preschool students. (Author/CB)

  15. Parallel architectures for vision

    SciTech Connect

    Maresca, M. ); Lavin, M.A. ); Li, H. )

    1988-08-01

    Vision computing involves the execution of a large number of operations on large sets of structured data. Sequential computers cannot achieve the speed required by most of the current applications and therefore parallel architectural solutions have to be explored. In this paper the authors examine the options that drive the design of a vision oriented computer, starting with the analysis of the basic vision computation and communication requirements. They briefly review the classical taxonomy for parallel computers, based on the multiplicity of the instruction and data stream, and apply a recently proposed criterion, the degree of autonomy of each processor, to further classify fine-grain SIMD massively parallel computers. They identify three types of processor autonomy, namely operation autonomy, addressing autonomy, and connection autonomy. For each type they give the basic definitions and show some examples. They focus on the concept of connection autonomy, which they believe is a key point in the development of massively parallel architectures for vision. They show two examples of parallel computers featuring different types of connection autonomy - the Connection Machine and the Polymorphic-Torus - and compare their cost and benefit.

  16. CONTRIBUTIONS OF VISION SCIENCES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SPACHE, GEORGE D.

    THE IMPLICATIONS OF RESEARCH IN THE VISION SCIENCES FOR READING INSTRUCTION ARE DISCUSSED ON THE BASIS OF (1) STUDIES ON THE PERCEPTUAL BEHAVIOR OF CHILDREN AND THE EFFECT OF LANGUAGE DIRECTIONALITY ON PERCEPTION, (2) STUDIES ON VISUAL CHARACTERISTICS, (3) STUDIES ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTOR COORDINATION AND READING ABILITY, (4) LONGITUDINAL…

  17. Dance: Verities, Values, Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorman, Joyce, Ed.; Harris, Dorothy, Ed.

    The Binational Dance Conference was organized into three focal themes--verities, values, and visions in dance--to emphasize the known and accepted worth and value of dance, and to stimulate through knowledge and idea exchange, imaginative directions for dance in the future of both the United States and Canada. This thematic structure is also the…

  18. Two Visions of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capaldi, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Since the seventeenth century, there have been two narratives about modernity in general and America in particular. The author uses the term "narrative" to include (a) facts, (b) arguments, and most important, (c) a larger vision of how one sees the world and chooses to engage the world. The first and originalist narrative is the Lockean Liberty…

  19. Adaptive synthetic vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julier, Simon J.; Brown, Dennis; Livingston, Mark A.; Thomas, Justin

    2006-05-01

    Through their ability to safely collect video and imagery from remote and potentially dangerous locations, UAVs have already transformed the battlespace. The effectiveness of this information can be greatly enhanced through synthetic vision. Given knowledge of the extrinsic and intrinsic parameters of the camera, synthetic vision superimposes spatially-registered computer graphics over the video feed from the UAV. This technique can be used to show many types of data such as landmarks, air corridors, and the locations of friendly and enemy forces. However, the effectiveness of a synthetic vision system strongly depends on the accuracy of the registration - if the graphics are poorly aligned with the real world they can be confusing, annoying, and even misleading. In this paper, we describe an adaptive approach to synthetic vision that modifies the way in which information is displayed depending upon the registration error. We describe an integrated software architecture that has two main components. The first component automatically calculates registration error based on information about the uncertainty in the camera parameters. The second component uses this information to modify, aggregate, and label annotations to make their interpretation as clear as possible. We demonstrate the use of this approach on some sample datasets.

  20. Synthetic Vision Workshop 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The second NASA sponsored Workshop on Synthetic/Enhanced Vision (S/EV) Display Systems was conducted January 27-29, 1998 at the NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for interested parties to discuss topics in the Synthetic Vision (SV) element of the NASA Aviation Safety Program and to encourage those interested parties to participate in the development, prototyping, and implementation of S/EV systems that enhance aviation safety. The SV element addresses the potential safety benefits of synthetic/enhanced vision display systems for low-end general aviation aircraft, high-end general aviation aircraft (business jets), and commercial transports. Attendance at this workshop consisted of about 112 persons including representatives from industry, the FAA, and other government organizations (NOAA, NIMA, etc.). The workshop provided opportunities for interested individuals to give presentations on the state of the art in potentially applicable systems, as well as to discuss areas of research that might be considered for inclusion within the Synthetic Vision Element program to contribute to the reduction of the fatal aircraft accident rate. Panel discussions on topical areas such as databases, displays, certification issues, and sensors were conducted, with time allowed for audience participation.

  1. Computer Vision Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    Food quality is of paramount consideration for all consumers, and its importance is perhaps only second to food safety. By some definition, food safety is also incorporated into the broad categorization of food quality. Hence, the need for careful and accurate evaluation of food quality is at the forefront of research and development both in the academia and industry. Among the many available methods for food quality evaluation, computer vision has proven to be the most powerful, especially for nondestructively extracting and quantifying many features that have direct relevance to food quality assessment and control. Furthermore, computer vision systems serve to rapidly evaluate the most readily observable foods quality attributes - the external characteristics such as color, shape, size, surface texture etc. In addition, it is now possible, using advanced computer vision technologies, to “see” inside a food product and/or package to examine important quality attributes ordinarily unavailable to human evaluators. With rapid advances in electronic hardware and other associated imaging technologies, the cost-effectiveness and speed of computer vision systems have greatly improved and many practical systems are already in place in the food industry.

  2. Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Bryan K.

    2007-01-01

    Vision tasks include: a) Complete the International Space Station; b) Safely fly the Space Shuttle until 2010; c) Develop and fly the Crew Exploration Vehicle (by 2014); d) Return to the moon (by 2020); e) Sustained and affordable human and robotic program; f) Develop innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures; and g) Promote international and commercial participation.

  3. Vision: Essential Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph; Torre, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Few concepts are more noted in the leadership effects research than vision. It is a cardinal element in the school improvement equation as well. Yet, it remains one of the least well-specified components of that algorithm. Based on a comprehensive review of the research on effective leadership and school improvement from 1995 to 2012, we bring…

  4. Low Vision Bicycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, M.

    1992-01-01

    This article considers bicycling as a means of transportation, not recreation, for individuals with low vision. Considered are evaluation of capabilities, watching for child cyclists, central and peripheral field loss, necessary equipment, potential problems, seasonal and weather considerations, night riding, route planning, basic visual skills…

  5. Chapter 3: Develop a Vision

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Loretta; Meade, Barbara; Norris, Keith; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Jones, Felica; Moini, Moraya; Jones, Andrea; Koegel, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The Vision stage is the development of the agreed-upon framework for the study, including identifying the issue, the community, the stakeholders, and major aspects of the approach. Achieving the Vision requires planning through a Framing Committee, agreeing on a vision by sharing perspectives and identifying commonalities or “win-wins” that hold the partnership together for community benefit, and evaluating the emergence of the Vision and the partnership. Here, we review tools and strategies. PMID:20088078

  6. What You Should Know (Low Vision)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Low Vision > What You Should Know Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... Diabetic retinopathy Glaucoma Macular degeneration What is low vision? When you have low vision, eyeglasses, contact lenses, ...

  7. Vision in water.

    PubMed

    Atchison, David A; Valentine, Emma L; Gibson, Georgina; Thomas, Hannah R; Oh, Sera; Pyo, Young Ah; Lacherez, Philippe; Mathur, Ankit

    2013-09-06

    The purpose of this study is to determine visual performance in water, including the influence of pupil size. The water environment was simulated by placing goggles filled with saline in front of the eyes with apertures placed at the front of the goggles. Correction factors were determined for the different magnification under this condition in order to estimate vision in water. Experiments were conducted on letter visual acuity (seven participants), grating resolution (eight participants), and grating contrast sensitivity (one participant). For letter acuity, mean loss of vision in water, compared to corrected vision in air, varied between 1.1 log min of arc resolution (logMAR) for a 1 mm aperture to 2.2 logMAR for a 7 mm aperture. The vision in min of arc was described well by a linear relationship with pupil size. For grating acuity, mean loss varied between 1.1 logMAR for a 2 mm aperture to 1.2 logMAR for a 6 mm aperture. Contrast sensitivity for a 2 mm aperture deteriorated as spatial frequency increased with a 2 log unit loss by 3 c/°. Superimposed on this deterioration were depressions (notches) in sensitivity with the first three notches occurring at 0.45, 0.8, and 1.3 c/° with estimates for water of 0.39, 0.70, and 1.13 c/°. In conclusion, vision in water is poor. It becomes worse as pupil size increases, but the effects are much more marked for letter targets than for grating targets.

  8. Is School Vision Screening Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yawn, Barbara P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study followed children retrospectively from kindergarten through 12th grade to examine incidence of abnormal school vision screening tests and rates of follow-up by specialists. School vision screening provided first indication of abnormal visual acuity in 76% of the children. Results support the notion that school vision screening is…

  9. Registration of Vision 45 Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vision 45’ (Reg. No. CV-1110, PI 667642), is a hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar that was developed and tested as VA07HRW-45 and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in 2012. Vision 45 was derived from the cross ‘Provinciale’/‘Vision 10’ using a modifie...

  10. Visions of Delight, Visions of Doubt: The Relationship Between Emotion and Cognition in Teachers' Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerness, Karen

    This paper examines the concept of teacher vision, showing how vision serves as a means for teachers to guide and measure their work. It discusses how teachers' passionate commitments do not divert them from their work but rather direct and shape their thinking and planning and their learning about their work. The paper also shows how vision, in…

  11. Conscious Vision in Action.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Robert; Schwenkler, John

    2015-09-01

    It is natural to assume that the fine-grained and highly accurate spatial information present in visual experience is often used to guide our bodily actions. Yet this assumption has been challenged by proponents of the Two Visual Systems Hypothesis (TVSH), according to which visuomotor programming is the responsibility of a "zombie" processing stream whose sources of bottom-up spatial information are entirely non-conscious (Clark, 2007, 2009; Goodale & Milner, 1992, 2004a; Milner & Goodale, 1995/2006, 2008). In many formulations of TVSH, the role of conscious vision in action is limited to "recognizing objects, selecting targets for action, and determining what kinds of action, broadly speaking, to perform" (Clark, 2007, p. 570). Our aim in this study is to show that the available evidence not only fails to support this dichotomous view but actually reveals a significant role for conscious vision in motor programming, especially for actions that require deliberate attention.

  12. Advanced night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thacker, Clinton

    2003-02-01

    The Advanced Night Vision Goggle (ANVG) program is developing integrated wide field of view (WFOV) helmet-mounted image intensifier night vision goggle systems. ANVG will provide a FOV of approximately 40° (vertical) × 100° (horizontal) and an integrated heads-up display for overlay of flight symbology and/or FLIR imagery. The added FLIR complements the I2 imagery in out of the window or ground applications. ANVG will significantly improve safety, situational awareness, and mission capabilities in differing environments. ANVG achieves the ultra wide FOV using four image intensifier tubes in a head-mounted configuration. Additional features include a miniature flat panel display and a lightweight uncooled FLIR. The integrated design will demonstrate the capability of helmet-mounted I2 and FLIR image fusion. Fusion will be accomplished optically and will offer significant opportunities for ground applications. This paper summarizes the basic technologies, lessons learned, and program status.

  13. Vision, Instruction and Action

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    in High-Level Vision: Reassessing the Inverse Optics Paradigm." Proceedings of the 1989 Image Understanding Workshop, 1989. [64] H. Eichenbaum and N...investigp’.on into reactive planning in complex domains." AAAI-87. [81] Martin A. Fischler, Ŕ" he Representation of Natural Scenes." In Allen R...113] Patrick J. Hayes, Naive Physics 1: Ontology for Liquids. Manuscript, University of Essex. 1978. [114] Martin Heidegger, Being and Time. Harper

  14. Bird Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Bird Vision system is a multicamera photogrammerty software application that runs on a Microsoft Windows XP platform and was developed at Kennedy Space Center by ASRC Aerospace. This software system collects data about the locations of birds within a volume centered on the Space Shuttle and transmits it in real time to the laptop computer of a test director in the Launch Control Center (LCC) Firing Room.

  15. 2015 Enterprise Strategic Vision

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    This document aligns with the Department of Energy Strategic Plan for 2014-2018 and provides a framework for integrating our missions and direction for pursuing DOE’s strategic goals. The vision is a guide to advancing world-class science and engineering, supporting our people, modernizing our infrastructure, and developing a management culture that operates a safe and secure enterprise in an efficient manner.

  16. Robotic Vision for Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Vision system for robotic welder looks at weld along axis of welding electrode. Gives robot view of most of weld area, including yet-unwelded joint, weld pool, and completed weld bead. Protected within welding-torch body, lens and fiber bundle give robot closeup view of weld in progress. Relayed to video camera on robot manipulator frame, weld image provides data for automatic control of robot motion and welding parameters.

  17. Vision without the Image

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Perona, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Novel image sensors transduce the stream of photons directly into asynchronous electrical pulses, rather than forming an image. Classical approaches to vision start from a good quality image and therefore it is tempting to consider image reconstruction as a first step to image analysis. We propose that, instead, one should focus on the task at hand (e.g., detection, tracking or control) and design algorithms that compute the relevant variables (class, position, velocity) directly from the stream of photons. We discuss three examples of such computer vision algorithms and test them on simulated data from photon-counting sensors. Such algorithms work just-in-time, i.e., they complete classification, search and tracking with high accuracy as soon as the information is sufficient, which is typically before there are enough photons to form a high-quality image. We argue that this is particularly useful when the photons are few or expensive, e.g., in astronomy, biological imaging, surveillance and night vision. PMID:27058543

  18. Intelligent robots and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on artificial intelligence and robot vision. Topics considered at the conference included pattern recognition, image processing for intelligent robotics, three-dimensional vision (depth and motion), vision modeling and shape estimation, spatial reasoning, the symbolic processing visual information, robotic sensors and applications, intelligent control architectures for robot systems, robot languages and programming, human-machine interfaces, robotics applications, and architectures of robotics.

  19. [Vision and car driving ability].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Helmut

    2011-05-01

    Visual functions relevant for car driving are: Visual acuity, contrast and twilight vision, visual field, ocular motility and alignment and colour vision. Generally accepted and standardized tests are available for visual acuity and visual field. Maximum permissible values have been defined arbitrarily and are hardly supported by studies. European standards have been published comprising also contrast and twilight vision. When examining driving ability progressive and treatable ocular disorders such as cataract and glaucoma have to be considered.

  20. Parallel Algorithms for Computer Vision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    demonstrated the Vision Machine system processing images and recognizing objects through the inte- gration of several visual cues. The first version of the...achievements. n 2.1 The Vision Machine The overall organization of tie Vision Machine systeliis ased. o parallel processing of tie images by independent...smoothed and made dense by exploiting known constraints within each process (for example., that disparity is smooth). This is the stage of approximation

  1. Vision in flying insects.

    PubMed

    Egelhaaf, Martin; Kern, Roland

    2002-12-01

    Vision guides flight behaviour in numerous insects. Despite their small brain, insects easily outperform current man-made autonomous vehicles in many respects. Examples are the virtuosic chasing manoeuvres male flies perform as part of their mating behaviour and the ability of bees to assess, on the basis of visual motion cues, the distance travelled in a novel environment. Analyses at both the behavioural and neuronal levels are beginning to unveil reasons for such extraordinary capabilities of insects. One recipe for their success is the adaptation of visual information processing to the specific requirements of the behavioural tasks and to the specific spatiotemporal properties of the natural input.

  2. Birth and evolution of visionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Robert S.

    1992-09-01

    The success of the U.S. Army's Night Vision Program at Fort Belvoir, VA was significantly influenced by the evolution and timely culmination of Visionics technology which was initiated by Mr. John Johnson. In the late 1950's, Visionics technology started with concern for Near Infrared (NIR) and Image Intensifier (II) Night Vision developments. It resulted in the Johnson Criteria which coupled system physical characteristics to visual performance by using resolution of line pairs across the minimum dimension of a target. This led to development of image evaluation procedures and standardized laboratory testing. Later the Visionics team addressed the Far Infrared (FIR) system performance and developed a series of FLIR Performance Models. The Visionic's Static Performance Model computer code was accepted and proliferated widely by the mid-70's. Visionics moved from static viewing to address the problems of search effectiveness. Then came more work on target signatures and the consideration of the effects of fog, rain, snow, artillery barrages, and realistic battlefield conditions on system performance in order to assure the utility of fielded equipments for all theaters of interest. The general use of the various Visionics models and methodology throughout Government and Industry is recognition of the contributions made by Mr. John Johnson and his Visionics staff.

  3. The measurement of vision disability.

    PubMed

    Massof, Robert W

    2002-08-01

    The American Medical Association's (AMA) visual efficiency scale, a vision disability metric based on visual impairment measurements, was adopted in 1925. That scale was based on a 30-year history of theoretical models in vision economics, a misinterpretation of Snellen notation for visual acuity, and an erroneous application of Weber's psychophysical law. The AMA visual efficiency scale survived uncontested for 75 years. In 2001, the AMA adopted a new vision disability scale based on logarithmic transformations of visual acuity and visual field diameter. Like the earlier visual efficiency scale, the new scale is theoretical-it is not supported by any data that speak to the relationship between vision disability and visual impairments. Attempts to measure vision disability date to the early 1980s with the development of self-assessment visual function rating scale questionnaires. Nearly all of the questionnaires developed over the last 20 years use Likert scales, but use them incorrectly. The development of a vision disability metric based on Likert scaling parallels the historical development of other forms of measurement. A tutorial review of psychometrics-classical test theory, item response theory, and Rasch analysis-shows how vision disability measurement scales can be estimated from Likert-type visual function rating scales. We conclude that preliminary data relating measures of vision disability to measures of visual acuity and visual fields support the new AMA vision disability scale.

  4. Benchmarking neuromorphic vision: lessons learnt from computer vision.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheston; Lallee, Stephane; Orchard, Garrick

    2015-01-01

    Neuromorphic Vision sensors have improved greatly since the first silicon retina was presented almost three decades ago. They have recently matured to the point where they are commercially available and can be operated by laymen. However, despite improved availability of sensors, there remains a lack of good datasets, while algorithms for processing spike-based visual data are still in their infancy. On the other hand, frame-based computer vision algorithms are far more mature, thanks in part to widely accepted datasets which allow direct comparison between algorithms and encourage competition. We are presented with a unique opportunity to shape the development of Neuromorphic Vision benchmarks and challenges by leveraging what has been learnt from the use of datasets in frame-based computer vision. Taking advantage of this opportunity, in this paper we review the role that benchmarks and challenges have played in the advancement of frame-based computer vision, and suggest guidelines for the creation of Neuromorphic Vision benchmarks and challenges. We also discuss the unique challenges faced when benchmarking Neuromorphic Vision algorithms, particularly when attempting to provide direct comparison with frame-based computer vision.

  5. Python and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Doak, J. E.; Prasad, Lakshman

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of Python in a computer vision (CV) project. We begin by providing background information on the specific approach to CV employed by the project. This includes a brief discussion of Constrained Delaunay Triangulation (CDT), the Chordal Axis Transform (CAT), shape feature extraction and syntactic characterization, and normalization of strings representing objects. (The terms 'object' and 'blob' are used interchangeably, both referring to an entity extracted from an image.) The rest of the paper focuses on the use of Python in three critical areas: (1) interactions with a MySQL database, (2) rapid prototyping of algorithms, and (3) gluing together all components of the project including existing C and C++ modules. For (l), we provide a schema definition and discuss how the various tables interact to represent objects in the database as tree structures. (2) focuses on an algorithm to create a hierarchical representation of an object, given its string representation, and an algorithm to match unknown objects against objects in a database. And finally, (3) discusses the use of Boost Python to interact with the pre-existing C and C++ code that creates the CDTs and CATS, performs shape feature extraction and syntactic characterization, and normalizes object strings. The paper concludes with a vision of the future use of Python for the CV project.

  6. Coherent laser vision system

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastion, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  7. Preschool vision screening.

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, S N; Tamhne, R C; Thompson, L; Francis, P M; Anderson, J; Colver, A F

    1991-01-01

    Although a good case for preschool screening for vision defects can be made there is very little evidence that existing programmes are effective in practice. A comparative trial of three different methods of preschool vision screening is described. Some 7000 children initially aged 5 months (younger cohorts) and 30 months (older cohorts) in three matched areas entered the trial during 1987. During 18 months of follow up new visual and ocular defects among these children were ascertained through ophthalmology outpatients and from optician records. Screening at 35 months by an orthoptist based in the community is superior to conventional health visitor surveillance at 30 months and to an agreed programme of primary care screening for squint at 30-36 months as judged by screening sensitivity (100% v 50% v 50%) and the incidence of treated target conditions (17 v 3 v 5 per 1000 person years). A notable feature in the area served by the orthoptist is that 13 children received treatment for straight eyed visual acuity loss from among 1000 children whereas there were no such cases among 2500 in the comparison areas. In the younger cohorts (that is, screening at age 5-9 months) all three programmes showed equally poor results, only one of the eight treated target conditions arising from all 3500 younger children being screen detected. PMID:2025002

  8. 2020 Vision Project Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, K.W.; Scott, K.P.

    2000-11-01

    Since the 2020 Vision project began in 1996, students from participating schools have completed and submitted a variety of scenarios describing potential world and regional conditions in the year 2020 and their possible effect on US national security. This report summarizes the students' views and describes trends observed over the course of the 2020 Vision project's five years. It also highlights the main organizational features of the project. An analysis of thematic trends among the scenarios showed interesting shifts in students' thinking, particularly in their views of computer technology, US relations with China, and globalization. In 1996, most students perceived computer technology as highly beneficial to society, but as the year 2000 approached, this technology was viewed with fear and suspicion, even personified as a malicious, uncontrollable being. Yet, after New Year's passed with little disruption, students generally again perceived computer technology as beneficial. Also in 1996, students tended to see US relations with China as potentially positive, with economic interaction proving favorable to both countries. By 2000, this view had transformed into a perception of China emerging as the US' main rival and ''enemy'' in the global geopolitical realm. Regarding globalization, students in the first two years of the project tended to perceive world events as dependent on US action. However, by the end of the project, they saw the US as having little control over world events and therefore, we Americans would need to cooperate and compromise with other nations in order to maintain our own well-being.

  9. Industrial robot's vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iureva, Radda A.; Raskin, Evgeni O.; Komarov, Igor I.; Maltseva, Nadezhda K.; Fedosovsky, Michael E.

    2016-03-01

    Due to the improved economic situation in the high technology sectors, work on the creation of industrial robots and special mobile robotic systems are resumed. Despite this, the robotic control systems mostly remained unchanged. Hence one can see all advantages and disadvantages of these systems. This is due to lack of funds, which could greatly facilitate the work of the operator, and in some cases, completely replace it. The paper is concerned with the complex machine vision of robotic system for monitoring of underground pipelines, which collects and analyzes up to 90% of the necessary information. Vision Systems are used to identify obstacles to the process of movement on a trajectory to determine their origin, dimensions and character. The object is illuminated in a structured light, TV camera records projected structure. Distortions of the structure uniquely determine the shape of the object in view of the camera. The reference illumination is synchronized with the camera. The main parameters of the system are the basic distance between the generator and the lights and the camera parallax angle (the angle between the optical axes of the projection unit and camera).

  10. An overview of computer vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    An overview of computer vision is provided. Image understanding and scene analysis are emphasized, and pertinent aspects of pattern recognition are treated. The basic approach to computer vision systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the current existing systems and state-of-the-art issues and research requirements, who is doing it and who is funding it, and future trends and expectations are reviewed.

  11. Vision by Man and Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poggio, Tomaso

    1984-01-01

    Studies of stereo vision guide research on how animals see and how computers might accomplish this human activity. Discusses a sequence of algorithms to first extract information from visual images and then to calculate the depths of objects in the three-dimensional world, concentrating on stereopsis (stereo vision). (JN)

  12. Putting the Vision into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    2010-01-01

    It's almost a year since the revolution--the "Learning Revolution," that is. This was the Government's long-term vision for the development of "informal adult learning", as laid out in the White Paper of March 2009. The vision was expansive, embracing informal learning in the workplace, promoting a "new" culture of…

  13. Vision in albinism.

    PubMed Central

    Summers, C G

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to study vision in albinism from 3 perspectives: first, to determine the characteristics of grating acuity development in children with albinism; second, to study the effect of illumination on grating acuity; and third, to define the effect of melanin pigment in the macula on visual acuity. METHODS: I. Binocular and monocular grating acuity was measured with the acuity card procedure in 40 children with albinism during the first 3 years of life. Recognition acuity was eventually measured in 27 of these patients. Ocular pigment was documented by a previously established method of grading iris transillumination and macular transparency. II. Grating acuity under standard and increased illumination levels was measured in 20 adults with albinism (group I) compared with that in 20 adults with nystagmus due to conditions other than albinism (group II) and 20 adults without ocular abnormalities (group III). Recognition acuity measured with the ETDRS charts was also recorded for each group. III. Best-corrected binocular acuity was measured in 29 patients with albinism who were identified with melanin pigment in their maculas by direct ophthalmoscopy. RESULTS: I. Both binocular and monocular grating acuity was reduced 2 to 3 octaves below the norm for ages 6 months to 3 years. Limited data available in the first 6 months of life did not show failure of vision to develop. Grating acuity measurements overestimated eventual recognition acuity. Mean recognition acuity was 20/111. A relationship between grating acuity development and presence or absence of ocular pigment was not found. II. Grating acuity was significantly better for groups I and II under the condition of increased illumination (P < .03). For patients with albinism, grating acuity under standard illumination was significantly better than recognition acuity (P < .001). For all groups, grating acuity under increased illumination was significantly better than recognition

  14. Vision Problems in the U.S.

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  15. 3D vision system assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and 3D vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the 3D vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the 3D vision system are reported.

  16. Corneoplastique™: Art of vision surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gulani, Arun C

    2014-01-01

    Corneoplastique incorporates the entire spectrum of Vision corrective surgery including Lasik, premium cataract surgery, corneal surgery, ocular surface surgery and the full range of anterior segment surgery itself in manipulating the optics of every eye towards unaided emmetropia to define each and every eye surgeon as a “Vision Corrective Surgeon”. This concept of approaching each case individually and designing vision therewith enables surgeons to correct not only virgin eyes but also approach complex cases and complications with the goal of 20/20 vision. Armed with this holistic approach, eye surgeons can use minimally invasive, aesthetically pleasing and visually focused surgery in single or staged process aiming for each patient's Best Vision Potential (BVP) raising eye surgery itself then to an Art! PMID:24492495

  17. Multiparameter vision testing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, S. R., Jr.; Homkes, R. J.; Poteate, W. B.; Sturgis, A. C. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    Compact vision testing apparatus is described for testing a large number of physiological characteristics of the eyes and visual system of a human subject. The head of the subject is inserted into a viewing port at one end of a light-tight housing containing various optical assemblies. Visual acuity and other refractive characteristics and ocular muscle balance characteristics of the eyes of the subject are tested by means of a retractable phoroptor assembly carried near the viewing port and a film cassette unit carried in the rearward portion of the housing (the latter selectively providing a variety of different visual targets which are viewed through the optical system of the phoroptor assembly). The visual dark adaptation characteristics and absolute brightness threshold of the subject are tested by means of a projector assembly which selectively projects one or both of a variable intensity fixation target and a variable intensity adaptation test field onto a viewing screen located near the top of the housing.

  18. Vision for 2020.

    PubMed

    Giles, Laura; Brewer, E Thomas; Mosqueda, Laura; Huba, George J; Melchior, Lisa A

    2010-07-01

    This article reflects the collective thoughts of the 20 projects supported by the Archstone Foundation Elder Abuse and Neglect Initiative on offering a vision for improving the response system for elder abuse and, in turn, the lives of older adults between now and the year 2020. Five key areas were identified as critically important for advancing the field in the next ten years: (a) increased public awareness and shifting public attitudes, (b) improved identification and triage of cases, (c) increased integrated service models, (d) improved justice system response, and (e) leveraging and utilizing emerging and untapped resources. The lessons learned from the experiences of these 20 projects in California can serve as demonstration models for other communities to adopt, adapt, and improve response systems for elder abuse and neglect.

  19. Vision Sensors and Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Silicon charge-coupled-device (CCD) imagers have been and are a specialty market ruled by a few companies for decades. Based on CMOS technologies, active-pixel sensors (APS) began to appear in 1990 at the 1 μm technology node. These pixels allow random access, global shutters, and they are compatible with focal-plane imaging systems combining sensing and first-level image processing. The progress towards smaller features and towards ultra-low leakage currents has provided reduced dark currents and μm-size pixels. All chips offer Mega-pixel resolution, and many have very high sensitivities equivalent to ASA 12.800. As a result, HDTV video cameras will become a commodity. Because charge-integration sensors suffer from a limited dynamic range, significant processing effort is spent on multiple exposure and piece-wise analog-digital conversion to reach ranges >10,000:1. The fundamental alternative is log-converting pixels with an eye-like response. This offers a range of almost a million to 1, constant contrast sensitivity and constant colors, important features in professional, technical and medical applications. 3D retino-morphic stacking of sensing and processing on top of each other is being revisited with sub-100 nm CMOS circuits and with TSV technology. With sensor outputs directly on top of neurons, neural focal-plane processing will regain momentum, and new levels of intelligent vision will be achieved. The industry push towards thinned wafers and TSV enables backside-illuminated and other pixels with a 100% fill-factor. 3D vision, which relies on stereo or on time-of-flight, high-speed circuitry, will also benefit from scaled-down CMOS technologies both because of their size as well as their higher speed.

  20. Autophagy supports color vision

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenqing; Vinberg, Frans; Schottler, Frank; Doggett, Teresa A; Kefalov, Vladimir J; Ferguson, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Cones comprise only a small portion of the photoreceptors in mammalian retinas. However, cones are vital for color vision and visual perception, and their loss severely diminishes the quality of life for patients with retinal degenerative diseases. Cones function in bright light and have higher demand for energy than rods; yet, the mechanisms that support the energy requirements of cones are poorly understood. One such pathway that potentially could sustain cones under basal and stress conditions is macroautophagy. We addressed the role of macroautophagy in cones by examining how the genetic block of this pathway affects the structural integrity, survival, and function of these neurons. We found that macroautophagy was not detectable in cones under normal conditions but was readily observed following 24 h of fasting. Consistent with this, starvation induced phosphorylation of AMPK specifically in cones indicating cellular starvation. Inhibiting macroautophagy in cones by deleting the essential macroautophagy gene Atg5 led to reduced cone function following starvation suggesting that cones are sensitive to systemic changes in nutrients and activate macroautophagy to maintain their function. ATG5-deficiency rendered cones susceptible to light-induced damage and caused accumulation of damaged mitochondria in the inner segments, shortening of the outer segments, and degeneration of all cone types, revealing the importance of mitophagy in supporting cone metabolic needs. Our results demonstrate that macroautophagy supports the function and long-term survival of cones providing for their unique metabolic requirements and resistance to stress. Targeting macroautophagy has the potential to preserve cone-mediated vision during retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:26292183

  1. Autophagy supports color vision.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenqing; Vinberg, Frans; Schottler, Frank; Doggett, Teresa A; Kefalov, Vladimir J; Ferguson, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Cones comprise only a small portion of the photoreceptors in mammalian retinas. However, cones are vital for color vision and visual perception, and their loss severely diminishes the quality of life for patients with retinal degenerative diseases. Cones function in bright light and have higher demand for energy than rods; yet, the mechanisms that support the energy requirements of cones are poorly understood. One such pathway that potentially could sustain cones under basal and stress conditions is macroautophagy. We addressed the role of macroautophagy in cones by examining how the genetic block of this pathway affects the structural integrity, survival, and function of these neurons. We found that macroautophagy was not detectable in cones under normal conditions but was readily observed following 24 h of fasting. Consistent with this, starvation induced phosphorylation of AMPK specifically in cones indicating cellular starvation. Inhibiting macroautophagy in cones by deleting the essential macroautophagy gene Atg5 led to reduced cone function following starvation suggesting that cones are sensitive to systemic changes in nutrients and activate macroautophagy to maintain their function. ATG5-deficiency rendered cones susceptible to light-induced damage and caused accumulation of damaged mitochondria in the inner segments, shortening of the outer segments, and degeneration of all cone types, revealing the importance of mitophagy in supporting cone metabolic needs. Our results demonstrate that macroautophagy supports the function and long-term survival of cones providing for their unique metabolic requirements and resistance to stress. Targeting macroautophagy has the potential to preserve cone-mediated vision during retinal degenerative diseases.

  2. The World Water Vision: From Developing a Vision to Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, S.; Cosgrove, W.; Rijsberman, F.; Strzepek, K.; Strzepek, K.

    2001-05-01

    The World Water Vision exercise was initiated by the World Water Commission under the auspices of the World Water Council. The goal of the World Water Vision project was to develop a widely shared vision on the actions required to achieve a common set of water-related goals and the necessary commitment to carry out these actions. The Vision should be participatory in nature, including input from both developed and developing regions, with a special focus on the needs of the poor, women, youth, children and the environment. Three overall objectives were to: (i)raise awareness of water issues among both the general population and decision-makers so as to foster the necessary political will and leadership to tackle the problems seriously and systematically; (ii) develop a vision of water management for 2025 that is shared by water sector specialists as well as international, national and regional decision-makers in government, the private sector and civil society; and (iii) provide input to a Framework for Action to be elaborated by the Global Water Partnership, with steps to go from vision to action, including recommendations to funding agencies for investment priorities. This exercise was characterized by the principles of: (i) a participatory approach with extensive consultation; (ii) Innovative thinking; (iii) central analysis to assure integration and co-ordination; and (iv) emphasis on communication with groups outside the water sector. The primary activities included, developing global water scenarios that fed into regional consultations and sectoral consultations as water for food, water for people - water supply and sanitation, and water and environment. These consultations formulated the regional and sectoral visions that were synthesized to form the World Water Vision. The findings from this exercise were reported and debated at the Second World Water Forum and the Ministerial Conference held in The Hague, The Netherlands during April 2000. This paper

  3. Machine vision for digital microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Bong

    2010-01-01

    Machine vision is widely used in an industrial environment today. It can perform various tasks, such as inspecting and controlling production processes, that may require humanlike intelligence. The importance of imaging technology for biological research or medical diagnosis is greater than ever. For example, fluorescent reporter imaging enables scientists to study the dynamics of gene networks with high spatial and temporal resolution. Such high-throughput imaging is increasingly demanding the use of machine vision for real-time analysis and control. Digital microfluidics is a relatively new technology with expectations of becoming a true lab-on-a-chip platform. Utilizing digital microfluidics, only small amounts of biological samples are required and the experimental procedures can be automatically controlled. There is a strong need for the development of a digital microfluidics system integrated with machine vision for innovative biological research today. In this paper, we show how machine vision can be applied to digital microfluidics by demonstrating two applications: machine vision-based measurement of the kinetics of biomolecular interactions and machine vision-based droplet motion control. It is expected that digital microfluidics-based machine vision system will add intelligence and automation to high-throughput biological imaging in the future.

  4. Computer_Vision

    SciTech Connect

    Justin Doak, LANL

    2002-10-04

    The Computer_Vision software performs object recognition using a novel multi-scale characterization and matching algorithm. To understand the multi-scale characterization and matching software, it is first necessary to understand some details of the Computer Vision (CV) Project. This project has focused on providing algorithms and software that provide an end-to-end toolset for image processing applications. At a high-level, this end-to-end toolset focuses on 7 coy steps. The first steps are geometric transformations. 1) Image Segmentation. This step essentially classifies pixels in foe input image as either being of interest or not of interest. We have also used GENIE segmentation output for this Image Segmentation step. 2 Contour Extraction (patent submitted). This takes the output of Step I and extracts contours for the blobs consisting of pixels of interest. 3) Constrained Delaunay Triangulation. This is a well-known geometric transformation that creates triangles inside the contours. 4 Chordal Axis Transform (CAT) . This patented geometric transformation takes the triangulation output from Step 3 and creates a concise and accurate structural representation of a contour. From the CAT, we create a linguistic string, with associated metrical information, that provides a detailed structural representation of a contour. 5.) Normalization. This takes an attributed linguistic string output from Step 4 and balances it. This ensures that the linguistic representation accurately represents the major sections of the contour. Steps 6 and 7 are implemented by the multi-scale characterization and matching software. 6) Multi scale Characterization. This takes as input the attributed linguistic string output from Normalization. Rules from a context free grammar are applied in reverse to create a tree-like representation for each contour. For example, one of the grammar’s rules is L -> (LL ). When an (LL) is seen in a string, a parent node is created that points to the four

  5. [Inherited colour vision deficiencies--from Dalton to molecular genetics].

    PubMed

    Cvetković, Dragana; Cvetković, Dobrosav

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, great advances have been made in our understanding of the molecular basis of colour vision defects, as well as of the patterns of genetic variation in individuals with normal colour vision. Molecular genetic analyses have explained the diversity of types and degrees of severity in colour vision anomalies, their frequencies, pronounced individual variations in test results, etc. New techniques have even enabled the determination of John Dalton's real colour vision defect, 150 years after his death. Inherited colour vision deficiencies most often result from the mutations of genes that encode cone opsins. Cone opsin genes are linked to chromosomes 7 (the S or "blue" gene) and X (the L or "red" gene and the M or "green" gene). The L and M genes are located on the q arm of the X chromosome in a head-to-tail array, composed of 2 to 6 (typically 3) genes--a single L is followed by one or more M genes. Only the first two genes of the array are expressed and contribute to the colour vision phenotype. The high degree of homology (96%) between the L and M genes predisposes them to unequal recombination, leading to gene deletion or the formation of hybrid genes (comprising portions of both the L and M genes), explaining the majority of the common red-green colour vision deficiencies. The severity of any deficiency is influenced by the difference in spectral sensitivity between the opsins encoded by the first two genes of the array. A rare defect, S monochromacy, is caused either by the deletion of the regulatory region of the array or by mutations that inactivate the L and M genes. Most recent research concerns the molecular basis of complete achromatopsia, a rare disorder that involves the complete loss of all cone function. This is not caused by mutations in opsin genes, but in other genes that encode cone-specific proteins, e.g. channel proteins and transducin.

  6. Vision without knowledge.

    PubMed Central

    Milner, A D

    1997-01-01

    A brain-damaged patient (D.F.) with visual form agnosia is described and discussed. D.F. has a profound inability to recognize objects, places and people, in large part because of her inability to make perceptual discriminations of size, shape or orientation, despite having good visual acuity. Yet she is able to perform skilled actions that depend on that very same size, shape and orientation information that is missing from her perceptual awareness. It is suggested that her intact vision can best be understood within the framework of a dual processing model, according to which there are two cortical processing streams operating on different coding principles, for perception and for action, respectively. These may be expected to have different degrees of dependence on top-down information. One possibility is that D.F.'s lack of explicit awareness of the visual cues that guide her behaviour may result from her having to rely on a processing system which is not knowledge-based in a broad sense. Conversely, it may be that the perceptual system can provide conscious awareness of its products in normal individuals by virtue of the fact that it does interact with a stored base of visual knowledge. PMID:9304691

  7. Vision as a Beachhead.

    PubMed

    Heeger, David J; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan

    2016-09-29

    When neural circuits develop abnormally due to different genetic deficits and/or environmental insults, neural computations and the behaviors that rely on them are altered. Computational theories that relate neural circuits with specific quantifiable behavioral and physiological phenomena, therefore, serve as extremely useful tools for elucidating the neuropathological mechanisms that underlie different disorders. The visual system is particularly well suited for characterizing differences in neural computations; computational theories of vision are well established, and empirical protocols for measuring the parameters of those theories are well developed. In this article, we examine how psychophysical and neuroimaging measurements from human subjects are being used to test hypotheses about abnormal neural computations in autism, with an emphasis on hypotheses regarding potential excitation/inhibition imbalances. We discuss the complexity of relating specific computational abnormalities to particular underlying mechanisms given the diversity of neural circuits that can generate the same computation, and we discuss areas of research in which computational theories need to be further developed to provide useful frameworks for interpreting existing results. A final emphasis is placed on the need to extend existing ideas into developmental frameworks that take into account the dramatic developmental changes in neurophysiology (e.g., changes in excitation/inhibition balance) that take place during the first years of life, when autism initially emerges.

  8. The Earth Science Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark; Rychekewkitsch, Michael; Andrucyk, Dennis; McConaughy, Gail; Meeson, Blanche; Hildebrand, Peter; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Enterprise's long range vision is to enable the development of a national proactive environmental predictive capability through targeted scientific research and technological innovation. Proactive environmental prediction means the prediction of environmental events and their secondary consequences. These consequences range from disasters and disease outbreak to improved food production and reduced transportation, energy and insurance costs. The economic advantage of this predictive capability will greatly outweigh the cost of development. Developing this predictive capability requires a greatly improved understanding of the earth system and the interaction of the various components of that system. It also requires a change in our approach to gathering data about the earth and a change in our current methodology in processing that data including its delivery to the customers. And, most importantly, it requires a renewed partnership between NASA and its sister agencies. We identify six application themes that summarize the potential of proactive environmental prediction. We also identify four technology themes that articulate our approach to implementing proactive environmental prediction.

  9. Spatiochromatic model of vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorhead, Ian R.

    1996-04-01

    A computer model of human spatiochromatic vision, based on the scheme proposed by De Valois and De Valois has been developed. The implementation of the model enables true color 2-D images to be processed. The input consists of cone signals at each pixel. Subsequent levels of the model are represented by arrays of activity corresponding to the equivalent neural activity. The implementation allows the behavior of different stages of the model -- retinal and cortical -- to be studied with different varieties of spatial and chromatic stimuli of any complexity. In addition the model is extensible to allow different types of neural mechanisms and cortical demultiplexing processes to be incorporated. As well as providing qualitative insight into the operation of the different stages of the model the implementation also permits quantitative predictions to be made. Both increment threshold and hue naming results are predicted by the model, but the accuracy of these predictions is contingent upon an appropriate choice of adaptation state at the retinal cone and ganglion cell level.

  10. A New View of Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Christopher

    1988-01-01

    Reviews research done on the nature of vision from a neurologic perspective. Proposes a multiplex filter model to explain patterns in the signals transmitted to the brain from the retina. Describes experiments done to test the model. (CW)

  11. Do You Have Cultural Vision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that child care teachers can help remedy cultural tunnel vision by promoting cultural diversity and understanding as they work with children and communicate with parents about what they are doing. (BB)

  12. 46 CFR 10.305 - Vision requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vision requirements. 10.305 Section 10.305 Shipping... CREDENTIAL Medical Certification § 10.305 Vision requirements. (a) Deck standard. (1) A mariner must have correctable vision to at least 20/40 in one eye and uncorrected vision of at least 20/200 in the same eye....

  13. [Acquired disorders of color vision].

    PubMed

    Lascu, Lidia; Balaş, Mihaela

    2002-01-01

    This article is a general view of acquired disorders of color vision. The revision of the best known methods and of the etiopathogenic classification is not very important in ophthalmology but on the other hand, the detection of the blue defect advertise and associated ocular pathology. There is a major interest in serious diseases as multiple sclerosis, AIDS, diabetes melitus, when the first ocular sign can be a defect in the color vision.

  14. Geometric Modeling for Computer Vision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    Vision and Artificial Intellegence could lead to robots, androids and cyborgs which will be able to see, to think and to feel conscious 10.4...the construction of computer representations of physical objects, cameras, images and light for the sake of simulating their behavior. In Artificial ...specifically, I wish to exclude the connotation that the theory is a natural theory of vision. Perhaps there can be such a thing as an artificial theory

  15. Intelligent robots and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference which examined artificial intelligence and image processing in relation to robotics. Topics considered at the conference included feature extraction and pattern recognition for computer vision, image processing for intelligent robotics, robot sensors, image understanding and artificial intelligence, optical processing techniques in robotic applications, robot languages and programming, processor architectures for computer vision, mobile robots, multisensor fusion, three-dimensional modeling and recognition, intelligent robots applications, and intelligent robot systems.

  16. Aircraft cockpit vision: Math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashir, J.; Singh, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe the field of vision of a pilot seated in an aircraft. Given the position and orientation of the aircraft, along with the geometrical configuration of its windows, and the location of an object, the model determines whether the object would be within the pilot's external vision envelope provided by the aircraft's windows. The computer program using this model was implemented and is described.

  17. Adaptive machine vision. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, W.W.; Brill, M.H.; Bergeron, D.W.

    1988-03-08

    The mission of the Strategic Defense Initiative is to develop defenses against threatening ballistic missiles. There are four distinct phases to the SDI defense; boost, post-boost, midcourse and terminal. In each of these phases, one or more machine-vision functions are required, such as pattern recognition, stereo image fusion, clutter rejection and discrimination. The SDI missions of coarse track, stereo track and discrimination are examined here from the point of view of a machine-vision system.

  18. [Vision measurement and psychophysical tests].

    PubMed

    Kronbauer, Airton Leite; Schor, Paulo; Carvalho, Luis Alberto Vieira de

    2008-01-01

    Vision measurement is the basis for the study and standardization of visual sciences. Measurement of visual acuity has great value for research and for clinical practice. This paper (1) reviews the fundamental concepts to understand visual sense and the measuring units; (2) presents the fundamental limits to visual performance and the principles of aberration measurement of the eye; and (3) discusses methods for measuring and classifying vision with new technologies.

  19. Application of artificial intelligence to robotic vision

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, P.S.; Frick, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    A brief introduction to artificial intelligence (AI) and the general vision process is provided. Two samples of AI researchers' work toward general computer vision are given. The first is a model-based vision system while the second is based on results of studies on human vision. The current state of machine vision in industrial robotics is demonstrated using a well known vision algorithm developed at SRI International. A part of a prototype robotic assembly project with vision is sketched to show the application of some AI tools to practical work. 8 references.

  20. Computer vision syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Blehm, Clayton; Vishnu, Seema; Khattak, Ashbala; Mitra, Shrabanee; Yee, Richard W

    2005-01-01

    As computers become part of our everyday life, more and more people are experiencing a variety of ocular symptoms related to computer use. These include eyestrain, tired eyes, irritation, redness, blurred vision, and double vision, collectively referred to as computer vision syndrome. This article describes both the characteristics and treatment modalities that are available at this time. Computer vision syndrome symptoms may be the cause of ocular (ocular-surface abnormalities or accommodative spasms) and/or extraocular (ergonomic) etiologies. However, the major contributor to computer vision syndrome symptoms by far appears to be dry eye. The visual effects of various display characteristics such as lighting, glare, display quality, refresh rates, and radiation are also discussed. Treatment requires a multidirectional approach combining ocular therapy with adjustment of the workstation. Proper lighting, anti-glare filters, ergonomic positioning of computer monitor and regular work breaks may help improve visual comfort. Lubricating eye drops and special computer glasses help relieve ocular surface-related symptoms. More work needs to be done to specifically define the processes that cause computer vision syndrome and to develop and improve effective treatments that successfully address these causes.

  1. Theory underlying the peripheral vision horizon device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Money, K. E.

    1984-01-01

    Peripheral Vision Horizon Device (PVHD) theory states that the likelihood of pilot disorientation in flight is reduced by providing an artificial horizon that provides orientation information to peripheral vision. In considering the validity of the theory, three areas are explored: the use of an artificial horizon device over some other flight instrument; the use of peripheral vision over foveal vision; and the evidence that peripheral vision is well suited to the processing of orientation information.

  2. Vision Loss in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Allen L; Rojas-Roldan, Ledy; Coffin, Janis

    2016-08-01

    Vision loss affects 37 million Americans older than 50 years and one in four who are older than 80 years. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concludes that current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for impaired visual acuity in adults older than 65 years. However, family physicians play a critical role in identifying persons who are at risk of vision loss, counseling patients, and referring patients for disease-specific treatment. The conditions that cause most cases of vision loss in older patients are age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, ocular complications of diabetes mellitus, and age-related cataracts. Vitamin supplements can delay the progression of age-related macular degeneration. Intravitreal injection of a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor can preserve vision in the neovascular form of macular degeneration. Medicated eye drops reduce intraocular pressure and can delay the progression of vision loss in patients with glaucoma, but adherence to treatment is poor. Laser trabeculoplasty also lowers intraocular pressure and preserves vision in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, but long-term studies are needed to identify who is most likely to benefit from surgery. Tight glycemic control in adults with diabetes slows the progression of diabetic retinopathy, but must be balanced against the risks of hypoglycemia and death in older adults. Fenofibrate also slows progression of diabetic retinopathy. Panretinal photocoagulation is the mainstay of treatment for diabetic retinopathy, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors slow vision loss resulting from diabetic macular edema. Preoperative testing before cataract surgery does not improve outcomes and is not recommended.

  3. Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    1985-01-01

    Examines proteins which give rise to structure and, by virtue of selective binding to other molecules, make genes. Binding sites, amino acids, protein evolution, and molecular paleontology are discussed. Work with encoding segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (exons) and noncoding stretches (introns) provides new information for hypotheses. (DH)

  4. Reliable vision-guided grasping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicewarner, Keith E.; Kelley, Robert B.

    1992-01-01

    Automated assembly of truss structures in space requires vision-guided servoing for grasping a strut when its position and orientation are uncertain. This paper presents a methodology for efficient and robust vision-guided robot grasping alignment. The vision-guided grasping problem is related to vision-guided 'docking' problems. It differs from other hand-in-eye visual servoing problems, such as tracking, in that the distance from the target is a relevant servo parameter. The methodology described in this paper is hierarchy of levels in which the vision/robot interface is decreasingly 'intelligent,' and increasingly fast. Speed is achieved primarily by information reduction. This reduction exploits the use of region-of-interest windows in the image plane and feature motion prediction. These reductions invariably require stringent assumptions about the image. Therefore, at a higher level, these assumptions are verified using slower, more reliable methods. This hierarchy provides for robust error recovery in that when a lower-level routine fails, the next-higher routine will be called and so on. A working system is described which visually aligns a robot to grasp a cylindrical strut. The system uses a single camera mounted on the end effector of a robot and requires only crude calibration parameters. The grasping procedure is fast and reliable, with a multi-level error recovery system.

  5. The Medawar Lecture 2001 Knowledge for vision: vision for knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    An evolutionary development of perception is suggested—from passive reception to active perception to explicit conception—earlier stages being largely retained and incorporated in later species. A key is innate and then individually learned knowledge, giving meaning to sensory signals. Inappropriate or misapplied knowledge produces rich cognitive phenomena of illusions, revealing normally hidden processes of vision, tentatively classified here in a ‘peeriodic table’. Phenomena of physiology are distinguished from phenomena of general rules and specific object knowledge. It is concluded that vision uses implicit knowledge, and provides knowledge for intelligent behaviour and for explicit conceptual understanding including science. PMID:16147519

  6. The unsolved mystery of vision.

    PubMed

    Masland, Richard H; Martin, Paul R

    2007-08-07

    Vision looms large in neuroscience--it is the subject of a gigantic literature and four Nobel prizes--but there is a growing realization that there are problems with the textbook explanation of how mammalian vision works. Here we will summarize the evidence behind this disquiet. In effect, we shall present a portrait of a field that is 'stuck'. Our initial focus, because it is our area of expertise, is on evidence that the early steps of mammalian vision are more diverse and more interesting than is usually imagined, so that our understanding of the later stages is in trouble right from the start. But we will also summarize problems, raised by others, with the later stages themselves.

  7. Binocular vision and refractive surgery.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Alison L

    2007-05-01

    Binocular status can have an effect on the outcome of refractive surgery. Some accommodative deviations and anisometropia can be managed effectively. Fully accommodative esotropia has been successfully treated in young patients but the outcome can be less predictable in older patients. High anisometropes are usually unaffected by the change in aniseikonia following refractive surgery but there are exceptions. Failure to recognise and appropriately classify a binocular vision anomaly pre-surgically can result in symptoms that are difficult to manage post-operatively. Refractive surgery producing a binocular vision anomaly where there was none pre-operatively is less common. I present a review of the literature discussing the relationship between binocular vision anomalies and refractive surgery, illustrating the findings with published reports of successful and unsuccessful binocular postoperative outcomes. I argue that predicting the binocular outcome should be considered pre-operatively for every refractive surgery patient.

  8. Motion vision for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrb, Matthieu

    The problem of using computer vision in mobile robots is dealt with. The datacube specialized cards and a parallel machine using a transputer network are studied. The tracking and localization of a three dimensional object in a sequence of images is examined, using first order prediction of the motion in the image plane and verification by a maximal clique search in the graph of mutually compatible matchings. A dynamic environment modeling module, using numerical fusion between trinocular stereovision and tracking of stereo matched primitives is presented. The integration of this perception system in the control architecture of a mobile robot is examined to achieve various functions, such as vision servo motion and environment modeling. The functional units implementing vision tasks and the data exchanged with other units are outlined. Experiments realized with the mobile robot Hilare 1.5 allowed the proposed algorithms and concepts to be validated.

  9. Using rats for vision research.

    PubMed

    Reinagel, P

    2015-06-18

    A wide variety of species are used for the study of visual neuroscience. This is beneficial because fundamental mechanisms and theoretical principles of vision are likely to be highly conserved, while different species exhibit different visual capacities and present different technical advantages for experiments. Eight years ago my laboratory adopted the hooded rat as our primary preparation for vision research. To some this may be surprising, as nocturnal rodents have often been presumed to have poor vision and weak visual behavior. This commentary will provide my personal perspective on how I came to work with rats; discuss an example research project for which rats have been advantageous; and comment on the opportunities and challenges of the preparation.

  10. Night vision device technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, H.; Nordholt, J.; Suszcynsky, D.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop microchannel plate (MCP) technologies for enhancement of night vision device (NVD) capabilities. First, segmented microchannel plates with independent gain control to minimize loss of low level light images in the presence of a bright light source (e.g., battlefield lasers, flares, and headlights) need to be developed. This enables, for example, enhanced vision capabilities during night operations in, for example, a city environment and continuous capability of aviators to see the horizon, nearground obstructions, and ground targets. Furthermore, curved microchannel plate technology to increase the field of view of NVDs while minimizing optical aberrations needs to be developed and applied. This development would significantly enhance peripheral vision capabilities of aviators and result in easier adaptation of the human eye to NVDs.

  11. Protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search for: Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Email People Departments Calendar Careers Give my.harvard ... Nutrition Source Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health > The Nutrition Source > What Should I Eat? > Protein ...

  12. Protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... Go lean with protein. • Choose lean meats and poultry. Lean beef cuts include round steaks (top loin, ... main dishes. • Use nuts to replace meat or poultry, not in addition to meat or poultry (i. ...

  13. Computer vision in cell biology.

    PubMed

    Danuser, Gaudenz

    2011-11-23

    Computer vision refers to the theory and implementation of artificial systems that extract information from images to understand their content. Although computers are widely used by cell biologists for visualization and measurement, interpretation of image content, i.e., the selection of events worth observing and the definition of what they mean in terms of cellular mechanisms, is mostly left to human intuition. This Essay attempts to outline roles computer vision may play and should play in image-based studies of cellular life.

  14. Computer vision in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Gerald

    1990-11-01

    Computervision is used to overcome the mismatch between user models and implementation models of software systems for image analysis in nuclear medicine. Computer vision in nuclear medicine results in an active support of the user by the system. This is reached by modeling of imaging equipment and schedules scenes of interest and the process of visual image interpretation. Computer vision is demonstrated especially in the low level and medium level range. Special highlights are given for the estimation of image quality an uniform approach to enhancement and restoration of images and analysis of shape and dynamics of patterns. 1.

  15. Visions and Re-Visions of Charles Joseph Minard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friendly, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Describes the contributions of Charles Joseph Minard to statistical graphics, noting the time course of his work and providing background on his famous effort, the flow-map depiction of Napoleon's march on Moscow. Explores some modern re-visions of this famous graphic from an information visualization perspective. (SLD)

  16. Global Perspectives on Teaching Literature: Shared Visions and Distinctive Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Sandra Ward, Ed.; And Others

    This book is a collection of essays designed for high school and college teachers who want to introduce non-Western and other non-canonical texts into their traditional literature courses. The essays in the book explore the kinds of visions encountered when teachers cluster Western texts with those outside the dominant Western tradition. Papers in…

  17. Quality Control by Artificial Vision

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Edmond Y.; Gleason, Shaun Scott; Niel, Kurt S.

    2010-01-01

    Computational technology has fundamentally changed many aspects of our lives. One clear evidence is the development of artificial-vision systems, which have effectively automated many manual tasks ranging from quality inspection to quantitative assessment. In many cases, these machine-vision systems are even preferred over manual ones due to their repeatability and high precision. Such advantages come from significant research efforts in advancing sensor technology, illumination, computational hardware, and image-processing algorithms. Similar to the Special Section on Quality Control by Artificial Vision published two years ago in Volume 17, Issue 3 of the Journal of Electronic Imaging, the present one invited papers relevant to fundamental technology improvements to foster quality control by artificial vision, and fine-tuned the technology for specific applications. We aim to balance both theoretical and applied work pertinent to this special section theme. Consequently, we have seven high-quality papers resulting from the stringent peer-reviewing process in place at the Journal of Electronic Imaging. Some of the papers contain extended treatment of the authors work presented at the SPIE Image Processing: Machine Vision Applications conference and the International Conference on Quality Control by Artificial Vision. On the broad application side, Liu et al. propose an unsupervised texture image segmentation scheme. Using a multilayer data condensation spectral clustering algorithm together with wavelet transform, they demonstrate the effectiveness of their approach on both texture and synthetic aperture radar images. A problem related to image segmentation is image extraction. For this, O'Leary et al. investigate the theory of polynomial moments and show how these moments can be compared to classical filters. They also show how to use the discrete polynomial-basis functions for the extraction of 3-D embossed digits, demonstrating superiority over Fourier

  18. Availability of vision and tactile gating: vision enhances tactile sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Colino, Francisco L; Lee, Ji-Hang; Binsted, Gordon

    2017-01-01

    A multitude of events bombard our sensory systems at every moment of our lives. Thus, it is important for the sensory and motor cortices to gate unimportant events. Tactile suppression is a well-known phenomenon defined as a reduced ability to detect tactile events on the skin before and during movement. Previous experiments (Buckingham et al. in Exp Brain Res 201(3):411-419, 2010; Colino et al. in Physiol Rep 2(3):e00267, 2014) found detection rates decrease just prior to and during finger abduction and decrease according to the proximity of the moving effector. However, what effect does vision have on tactile gating? There is ample evidence (see Serino and Haggard in Neurosci Biobehav Rev 34:224-236, 2010) observing increased tactile acuity when participants see their limbs. The present study examined how tactile detection changes in response to visual condition (vision/no vision). Ten human participants used their right hand to reach and grasp a cylinder. Tactors were attached to the index finger and the forearm of both the right and left arm and vibrated at various epochs relative to a "go" tone. Results replicate previous findings from our laboratory (Colino et al. in Physiol Rep 2(3):e00267, 2014). Also, tactile acuity decreased when participants did not have vision. These results indicate that the vision affects the somatosensation via inputs from parietal areas (Konen and Haggard in Cereb Cortex 24(2):501-507, 2014) but does so in a reach-to-grasp context.

  19. Visions of Vision: An Exploratory Study of the Role College and University Presidents Play in Developing Institutional Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWade, Jessica C.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative research explores how college and university presidents engage in the process of developing formal institutional vision. The inquiry identifies roles presidents play in vision development, which is often undertaken as part of strategic-planning initiatives. Two constructs of leadership and institutional vision are used to examine…

  20. Understanding Your Vision: The "Imperfect Eye"

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Feature: Vision Understanding Your Vision: The "Imperfect Eye" Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For ... including an implanted set of lenses. "Keeping your eyes healthy means learning about them and the conditions ...

  1. A Clear Vision for Equity and Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Marge Christensen; Gould, Herman

    2003-01-01

    Describes undetected and uncorrected vision problems for children in poverty associated with juvenile delinquency and poor academic performance. Discusses success of a project offering vision screening and free glasses for at-risk students in Tucson, Arizona. (PKP)

  2. Warning Signs of Vision Problems in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Warning Signs of Vision Problems in Infants & Children Page Content ​Eye exams ... treated successfully. What are warning signs of a vision problem? Babies up to 1 year of age: ...

  3. Neural architectures for stereo vision

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Stereoscopic vision delivers a sense of depth based on binocular information but additionally acts as a mechanism for achieving correspondence between patterns arriving at the left and right eyes. We analyse quantitatively the cortical architecture for stereoscopic vision in two areas of macaque visual cortex. For primary visual cortex V1, the result is consistent with a module that is isotropic in cortical space with a diameter of at least 3 mm in surface extent. This implies that the module for stereo is larger than the repeat distance between ocular dominance columns in V1. By contrast, in the extrastriate cortical area V5/MT, which has a specialized architecture for stereo depth, the module for representation of stereo is about 1 mm in surface extent, so the representation of stereo in V5/MT is more compressed than V1 in terms of neural wiring of the neocortex. The surface extent estimated for stereo in V5/MT is consistent with measurements of its specialized domains for binocular disparity. Within V1, we suggest that long-range horizontal, anatomical connections form functional modules that serve both binocular and monocular pattern recognition: this common function may explain the distortion and disruption of monocular pattern vision observed in amblyopia. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269604

  4. Polarization Imaging and Insect Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Adam S.; Ohmann, Paul R.; Leininger, Nick E.; Kavanaugh, James A.

    2010-01-01

    For several years we have included discussions about insect vision in the optics units of our introductory physics courses. This topic is a natural extension of demonstrations involving Brewster's reflection and Rayleigh scattering of polarized light because many insects heavily rely on optical polarization for navigation and communication.…

  5. Vision Research for Flight Simulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    THOMAS M. LONGRIDGE Contract Monitor MILTON E. WOOD. Technical Director Operations Training Division RONALD W’. TERRY, Coloneli USAF Commander I! I V...13:30 Hardware Developments B. Erikson 13:30 - 14:00 Future Directions G. Buckland 14:00 - 17:00 Committee on Vision: 14:00-14:15 Introduction W

  6. Frame Rate and Human Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the quality of the theatre experience, the film industry is interested in achieving higher frame rates for capture and display. In this talk I will describe the basic spatio-temporal sensitivities of human vision, and how they respond to the time sequence of static images that is fundamental to cinematic presentation.

  7. Smart vision chips: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Christof

    1994-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation presents four working analog VLSI vision chips: (1) time-derivative retina, (2) zero-crossing chip, (3) resistive fuse, and (4) figure-ground chip; work in progress on computing motion and neuromorphic systems; and conceptual and practical lessons learned.

  8. Vision quality of elderly Oklahomans.

    PubMed

    Imes, C B; Peck, C

    1993-06-01

    The purposes of this study are to determine if age related visual changes are affecting the ability of older adults to perform everyday tasks, to identify histories of eye diseases/eye surgeries, and to document eye care practices. Our sample was obtained from the Third Age Life Center at Baptist Medical Center in Oklahoma City. The survey was mailed to 14,856 members; 848 (6%) surveys were returned. Over 84% of the respondents have never been diagnosed with dry eye syndrome, glaucoma, macular degeneration, or diabetic retinopathy. Sixty percent rated their health and vision quality as good. Females expressed more vision problems than males. Advanced age (75 years or older) did increase likelihood of experiencing eye diseases and vision difficulties. The majority of respondents in this study appear to be experiencing healthy vision with minimal age-related changes and have not been diagnosed with the eye diseases characteristic of this age group. Evidence of regular eye examinations was reported, with 33% of the respondents reporting having eye exams once a year and 33% twice a year.

  9. Unshackled by Visions and Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brokenleg, Martin

    1996-01-01

    Uses a case study to demonstrate the effects of cultural conflict, alienation, anomie, and contemporary urban society on the lives of troubled Native American youth. Shows that by teaching traditional Native American values, such as visions of hope and independence, society can help these youth enjoy a promising future. (RJM)

  10. Neural architectures for stereo vision.

    PubMed

    Parker, Andrew J; Smith, Jackson E T; Krug, Kristine

    2016-06-19

    Stereoscopic vision delivers a sense of depth based on binocular information but additionally acts as a mechanism for achieving correspondence between patterns arriving at the left and right eyes. We analyse quantitatively the cortical architecture for stereoscopic vision in two areas of macaque visual cortex. For primary visual cortex V1, the result is consistent with a module that is isotropic in cortical space with a diameter of at least 3 mm in surface extent. This implies that the module for stereo is larger than the repeat distance between ocular dominance columns in V1. By contrast, in the extrastriate cortical area V5/MT, which has a specialized architecture for stereo depth, the module for representation of stereo is about 1 mm in surface extent, so the representation of stereo in V5/MT is more compressed than V1 in terms of neural wiring of the neocortex. The surface extent estimated for stereo in V5/MT is consistent with measurements of its specialized domains for binocular disparity. Within V1, we suggest that long-range horizontal, anatomical connections form functional modules that serve both binocular and monocular pattern recognition: this common function may explain the distortion and disruption of monocular pattern vision observed in amblyopia.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'.

  11. Vision Screening of the Aged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Howard H.

    1971-01-01

    A statewide project in South Dakota has screened the vision of 2,578 elderly persons in 90 nursing homes, finding 13 percent legally blind and referring 32 percent for services either from agencies for the blind or from physicians or optometrists. (KW)

  12. Real-time vision systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee

    1994-11-15

    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  13. The Physics of Colour Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Martin

    1985-01-01

    An elementary physical model of cone receptor cells is explained and applied to complexities of human color vision. One-, two-, and three-receptor systems are considered, with the later shown to be the best model for the human eye. Color blindness is also discussed. (DH)

  14. Will Retinal Implants Restore Vision?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zrenner, Eberhart

    2002-02-01

    A number of research groups are developing electrical implants that can be attached directly to the retina in an attempt to restore vision to patients suffering from retinal degeneration. However, despite promising results in animal experiments, there are still several major obstacles to overcome before retinal prostheses can be used clinically.

  15. Institutionalizing a Vision for Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miserandino, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    Institutionalizing a vision for diversity should include (1) commitment to serving students' perceived needs; (2) seeing through the lens of others' experiences; (3) moral leadership from teachers; (4) a sufficient pool of support and goodwill; and (5) focus on students first. (SK)

  16. The Common Vision. Reviews: Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Marshak's book describing the work of educators Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner, Aurobindo Ghose, and Inayat Khan. Maintains that the book gives clear, concise information on each educator and presents a common vision for children and their education; also maintains that it gives theoretical and practical information and discusses…

  17. Standards for vision science libraries

    PubMed Central

    2000-01-01

    The minimum levels of staffing, services, budget, and technology that should be provided by a library specializing in vision science are presented. The scope and coverage of the collection is described as well. These standards may be used by institutions establishing libraries or by accrediting bodies reviewing existing libraries. PMID:10928708

  18. Tunnel Vision in Environmental Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Alan

    1982-01-01

    Discusses problem-solving styles in environmental management and the specific deficiencies in these styles that might be grouped under the label "tunnel vision," a form of selective attention contributing to inadequate problem-formulation, partial solutions to complex problems, and generation of additional problems. Includes educational…

  19. Old and new results about single-photon sensitivity in human vision.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Philip C

    2016-04-04

    It is sometimes said that 'our eyes can see single photons'. This article begins by finding a more precise version of that claim and reviewing evidence gathered for it up to around 1985 in two distinct realms, those of human psychophysics and single-cell physiology. Finding a single framework that accommodates both kinds of result is then a nontrivial challenge, and one that sets severe quantitative constraints on any model of dim-light visual processing. This article presents one such model and compares it to a recent experiment.

  20. The Impact of Vision in Spatial Coding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Koustriava, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the performance in coding and representing of near-space in relation to vision status (blindness vs. normal vision) and sensory modality (touch vs. vision). Forty-eight children and teenagers participated. Sixteen of the participants were totally blind or had only light perception, 16 were blindfolded sighted…

  1. Leadership: Vision & Structure. Resource Paper No. 36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Warren H.

    Research indicates that leaders tend to be remarkably well-balanced people who embody four areas of competency: vision, the ability to communicate that vision, positive self-regard, and the ability to build trust with associates. The process of creating a vision of the future requires an understanding of the opportunities and threats present in…

  2. Coaching Peripheral Vision Training for Soccer Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Nelson Kautzner, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Brazilian Soccer began developing its current emphasis on peripheral vision in the late 1950s, by initiative of coach of the Canto do Rio Football Club, in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, a pioneer in the development of peripheral vision training in soccer players. Peripheral vision training gained world relevance when a young talent from Canto do Rio,…

  3. The Efficacy of Optometric Vision Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Optometric Association, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This review aims to document the efficacy and validity of vision therapy for modifying and improving vision functioning. The paper describes the essential components of the visual system and disorders which can be physiologically and clinically identified. Vision therapy is defined as a clinical approach for correcting and ameliorating the effects…

  4. Topographic Mapping of Residual Vision by Computer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKeben, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    Many persons with low vision have diseases that damage the retina only in selected areas, which can lead to scotomas (blind spots) in perception. The most frequent of these diseases is age-related macular degeneration (AMD), in which foveal vision is often impaired by a central scotoma that impairs vision of fine detail and causes problems with…

  5. School Vision of Learning: Urban Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Tiffany A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the author develops her school vision of learning. She explains the theories she used to help develop the vision. The author then goes into detail on the methods she will use to make her vision for a school that prepares urban students for a successful life after high school. She takes into account all the stakeholders and how they…

  6. The Visions of World-Class Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slyusarenko, Olena

    2015-01-01

    The visions of the top 26 world-class universities of the first 30 in the Shanghai ranking list have been evaluated and compared with the missions of the world's top 20 universities. Applying the content analysis, a group of 48 keywords, which describe the essence of these visions, has been revealed. The average amount of keywords in one vision is…

  7. Transforming a School's Culture through Shared Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stuart C.; Stolp, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    Although, theoretically, an organizational vision can unite school-community members, it can also destroy organizational culture without the consensus of those members. This publication offers guidelines for creating a collaborative vision--one that gives all members the opportunity to help create the vision. Each school should choose a strategy…

  8. What Aspects of Vision Facilitate Haptic Processing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Susanna; Al-Attar, Zainab

    2005-01-01

    We investigate how vision affects haptic performance when task-relevant visual cues are reduced or excluded. The task was to remember the spatial location of six landmarks that were explored by touch in a tactile map. Here, we use specially designed spectacles that simulate residual peripheral vision, tunnel vision, diffuse light perception, and…

  9. EXPERIMENTS ON ’THE CORTICAL CORRELATE OF PATTERN VISION,’

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY, VISION, CEREBRAL CORTEX, VISION, BRAIN , STIMULATION (PHYSIOLOGY), VISUAL PERCEPTION, ELECTRIC CURRENT, VOLTAGE, ILLUMINATION, CORNEA, RETINA, ELECTRODES, THRESHOLDS(PHYSIOLOGY).

  10. Improved night vision demonstrator program status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haran, Terence L.; James, J. Christopher; Roberts, David W.; Knotts, Michael E.; Wasilewski, Anthony A.; West, Leanne L.; Robinson, William G.; Bennett, Gisele

    2007-04-01

    Although existing night vision equipment provides a significant improvement in target detection in low light conditions, there are several limitations that limit their effectiveness. Focus is a significant problem for night vision equipment due to the low f-number optics required to obtain sufficient sensitivity as well as the dynamic nature of night vision applications, which requires frequent focus adjustments. The Georgia Tech Research Institute has developed a prototype next-generation night vision device called the Improved Night Vision Demonstrator (INVD) in order to address these shortfalls. This paper will describe the design of the INVD system as well as an analysis of its performance.

  11. Opsin gene repertoires in northern archaic hominids.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John S; Reimchen, Thomas E

    2016-08-01

    The Neanderthals' northern distribution, hunting techniques, and orbit breadths suggest that they were more active in dim light than modern humans. We surveyed visual opsin genes from four Neanderthals and two other archaic hominids to see if they provided additional support for this hypothesis. This analysis was motivated by the observation that alleles responsible for anomalous trichromacy in humans are more common in northern latitudes, by data suggesting that these variants might enhance vision in mesopic conditions, and by the observation that dim light active species often have fewer opsin genes than diurnal relatives. We also looked for evidence of convergent amino acid substitutions in Neanderthal opsins and orthologs from crepuscular or nocturnal species. The Altai Neanderthal, the Denisovan, and the Ust'-Ishim early modern human had opsin genes that encoded proteins identical to orthologs in the human reference genome. Opsins from the Vindija Cave Neanderthals (three females) had many nonsynonymous substitutions, including several predicted to influence colour vision (e.g., stop codons). However, the functional implications of these observations were difficult to assess, given that "control" loci, where no substitutions were expected, differed from humans to the same extent. This left unresolved the test for colour vision deficiencies in Vindija Cave Neanderthals.

  12. Basic design principles of colorimetric vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumzhiu, Alex M.

    1998-10-01

    Color measurement is an important part of overall production quality control in textile, coating, plastics, food, paper and other industries. The color measurement instruments such as colorimeters and spectrophotometers, used for production quality control have many limitations. In many applications they cannot be used for a variety of reasons and have to be replaced with human operators. Machine vision has great potential for color measurement. The components for color machine vision systems, such as broadcast quality 3-CCD cameras, fast and inexpensive PCI frame grabbers, and sophisticated image processing software packages are available. However the machine vision industry has only started to approach the color domain. The few color machine vision systems on the market, produced by the largest machine vision manufacturers have very limited capabilities. A lack of understanding that a vision based color measurement system could fail if it ignores the basic principles of colorimetry is the main reason for the slow progress of color vision systems. the purpose of this paper is to clarify how color measurement principles have to be applied to vision systems and how the electro-optical design features of colorimeters have to be modified in order to implement them for vision systems. The subject of this presentation far exceeds the limitations of a journal paper so only the most important aspects will be discussed. An overview of the major areas of applications for colorimetric vision system will be discussed. Finally, the reasons why some customers are happy with their vision systems and some are not will be analyzed.

  13. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation compensation may preserve vision in patients with OPA1-linked autosomal dominant optic atrophy.

    PubMed

    Van Bergen, Nicole J; Crowston, Jonathan G; Kearns, Lisa S; Staffieri, Sandra E; Hewitt, Alex W; Cohn, Amy C; Mackey, David A; Trounce, Ian A

    2011-01-01

    Autosomal Dominant Optic Atrophy (ADOA) is the most common inherited optic atrophy where vision impairment results from specific loss of retinal ganglion cells of the optic nerve. Around 60% of ADOA cases are linked to mutations in the OPA1 gene. OPA1 is a fission-fusion protein involved in mitochondrial inner membrane remodelling. ADOA presents with marked variation in clinical phenotype and varying degrees of vision loss, even among siblings carrying identical mutations in OPA1. To determine whether the degree of vision loss is associated with the level of mitochondrial impairment, we examined mitochondrial function in lymphoblast cell lines obtained from six large Australian OPA1-linked ADOA pedigrees. Comparing patients with severe vision loss (visual acuity [VA]<6/36) and patients with relatively preserved vision (VA>6/9) a clear defect in mitochondrial ATP synthesis and reduced respiration rates were observed in patients with poor vision. In addition, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzymology in ADOA patients with normal vision revealed increased complex II+III activity and levels of complex IV protein. These data suggest that OPA1 deficiency impairs OXPHOS efficiency, but compensation through increases in the distal complexes of the respiratory chain may preserve mitochondrial ATP production in patients who maintain normal vision. Identification of genetic variants that enable this response may provide novel therapeutic insights into OXPHOS compensation for preventing vision loss in optic neuropathies.

  14. Understanding and preventing computer vision syndrome.

    PubMed

    Loh, Ky; Redd, Sc

    2008-01-01

    The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syndrome are extraocular mechanism, accommodative mechanism and ocular surface mechanism. The visual effects of the computer such as brightness, resolution, glare and quality all are known factors that contribute to computer vision syndrome. Prevention is the most important strategy in managing computer vision syndrome. Modification in the ergonomics of the working environment, patient education and proper eye care are crucial in managing computer vision syndrome.

  15. Digital item adaptation for color vision variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jaeil; Yang, Seungji; Kim, Cheonseog; Nam, Jaeho; Hong, Jin-Woo; Ro, Yong Man

    2003-06-01

    As color is more widely used to carry visual information in the multimedia content, ability to perceive color plays a crucial role in getting visual information. Regardless of color vision variations, one should have visual information equally. This paper proposes the adaptation technique for color vision variations in the MPEG-21 Digital Item Adaptation (DIA). DIA is performed respectively for severe color vision deficiency (dichromats) and for mild color vision deficiency (anomalous trichromats), according to the description of user characteristics about color vision variations. Adapted images are tested by simulation program for color vision variations so as to recognize the appearance of the adapted images in the color deficient vision. Experimental result shows that proposed adaptation technique works well in the MPEG-21 framework.

  16. Evolution of colour vision in mammals.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Gerald H

    2009-10-12

    Colour vision allows animals to reliably distinguish differences in the distributions of spectral energies reaching the eye. Although not universal, a capacity for colour vision is sufficiently widespread across the animal kingdom to provide prima facie evidence of its importance as a tool for analysing and interpreting the visual environment. The basic biological mechanisms on which vertebrate colour vision ultimately rests, the cone opsin genes and the photopigments they specify, are highly conserved. Within that constraint, however, the utilization of these basic elements varies in striking ways in that they appear, disappear and emerge in altered form during the course of evolution. These changes, along with other alterations in the visual system, have led to profound variations in the nature and salience of colour vision among the vertebrates. This article concerns the evolution of colour vision among the mammals, viewing that process in the context of relevant biological mechanisms, of variations in mammalian colour vision, and of the utility of colour vision.

  17. VISION User Guide - VISION (Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation) Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Robert F. Jeffers; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; Benjamin A. Baker; Joseph Grimm

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a guide for using the current version of the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) model. This is a complex model with many parameters; the user is strongly encouraged to read this user guide before attempting to run the model. This model is an R&D work in progress and may contain errors and omissions. It is based upon numerous assumptions. This model is intended to assist in evaluating “what if” scenarios and in comparing fuel, reactor, and fuel processing alternatives at a systems level for U.S. nuclear power. The model is not intended as a tool for process flow and design modeling of specific facilities nor for tracking individual units of fuel or other material through the system. The model is intended to examine the interactions among the components of a fuel system as a function of time varying system parameters; this model represents a dynamic rather than steady-state approximation of the nuclear fuel system. VISION models the nuclear cycle at the system level, not individual facilities, e.g., “reactor types” not individual reactors and “separation types” not individual separation plants. Natural uranium can be enriched, which produces enriched uranium, which goes into fuel fabrication, and depleted uranium (DU), which goes into storage. Fuel is transformed (transmuted) in reactors and then goes into a storage buffer. Used fuel can be pulled from storage into either separation of disposal. If sent to separations, fuel is transformed (partitioned) into fuel products, recovered uranium, and various categories of waste. Recycled material is stored until used by its assigned reactor type. Note that recovered uranium is itself often partitioned: some RU flows with recycled transuranic elements, some flows with wastes, and the rest is designated RU. RU comes out of storage if needed to correct the U/TRU ratio in new recycled fuel. Neither RU nor DU are designated as wastes. VISION is comprised of several

  18. Computer vision in microstructural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Malur N.; Massarweh, W.; Hough, C. L.

    1992-01-01

    The following is a laboratory experiment designed to be performed by advanced-high school and beginning-college students. It is hoped that this experiment will create an interest in and further understanding of materials science. The objective of this experiment is to demonstrate that the microstructure of engineered materials is affected by the processing conditions in manufacture, and that it is possible to characterize the microstructure using image analysis with a computer. The principle of computer vision will first be introduced followed by the description of the system developed at Texas A&M University. This in turn will be followed by the description of the experiment to obtain differences in microstructure and the characterization of the microstructure using computer vision.

  19. Vision Aspects of Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manuel, Keith; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Vision, being one of our most important senses, is critically important in the unique working environment of space flight. Critical evaluation of the astronauts visual system begins with pre-selection examinations resulting in an average of 65% of all medical disqualification's caused by ocular findings. With an average age of 42, approximately 60% of the astronaut corps requires vision correction. Further demands of the unique training and working environment of microgravity, variable lighting from very poor to extreme brightness of sunlight and exposure to extremes of electromagnetic energy results in unique eyewear and contact lens applications. This presentation will describe some of those unique eyewear and contact lens applications used in space flight and training environments. Additionally, ocular findings from 26 shuttle and 5 MIR mission post-flight examinations will be presented.

  20. The vision of David Marr.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Kent A

    2012-01-01

    Marr proposed a computational paradigm for studying the visual system, wherein aspects of vision would be amenable to study with what might be regarded a computational-reductionist approach. First, vision would be cleaved into separable 'computational theories', in which the visual system is characterized in terms of its computational goals and the strategies by which they are carried out. Each such computational theory could then be investigated in increasingly concrete terms, from symbols and measurements, to representations and algorithms, to processes and neural implementations. This paradigm rests on some general expectations of a symbolic information processing system, including his stated principles of explicit naming, modular design, least commitment, and graceful degradation. In retrospect, the computational framework also tacitly rests on additional assumptions about the nature of biological information processing: (1) separability of computational strategies, (2) separability of representations, (3) a pipeline nature of information processing, and that (4) the representations employ primitives of low dimensionality. These assumptions are discussed in this retrospective.

  1. Procedures for Testing Color Vision,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than...determine quantitatively whether the color-defective applicant was competent to make the color perception requirements of a particular job. The colors...reconnaissance des anomalies de la vision des couleurs. Archives des Maladies Professionnelles , de M6decine du Tray et de S~curit6 Sociale (Paris) 29:293-314

  2. Learning disabilities, dyslexia, and vision.

    PubMed

    Handler, Sheryl M; Fierson, Walter M; Section on Ophthalmology

    2011-03-01

    Learning disabilities constitute a diverse group of disorders in which children who generally possess at least average intelligence have problems processing information or generating output. Their etiologies are multifactorial and reflect genetic influences and dysfunction of brain systems. Reading disability, or dyslexia, is the most common learning disability. It is a receptive language-based learning disability that is characterized by difficulties with decoding, fluent word recognition, rapid automatic naming, and/or reading-comprehension skills. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonologic component of language that makes it difficult to use the alphabetic code to decode the written word. Early recognition and referral to qualified professionals for evidence-based evaluations and treatments are necessary to achieve the best possible outcome. Because dyslexia is a language-based disorder, treatment should be directed at this etiology. Remedial programs should include specific instruction in decoding, fluency training, vocabulary, and comprehension. Most programs include daily intensive individualized instruction that explicitly teaches phonemic awareness and the application of phonics. Vision problems can interfere with the process of reading, but children with dyslexia or related learning disabilities have the same visual function and ocular health as children without such conditions. Currently, there is inadequate scientific evidence to support the view that subtle eye or visual problems cause or increase the severity of learning disabilities. Because they are difficult for the public to understand and for educators to treat, learning disabilities have spawned a wide variety of scientifically unsupported vision-based diagnostic and treatment procedures. Scientific evidence does not support the claims that visual training, muscle exercises, ocular pursuit-and-tracking exercises, behavioral/perceptual vision therapy, "training" glasses

  3. Dynamical Systems and Motion Vision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA I WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545 Technology Square . Cambridge, MA 02139 C\\ II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME ANO0 ADDRESS...INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY A.I.Memo No. 1037 April, 1988 Dynamical Systems and Motion Vision Joachim Heel Abstract: In this... Artificial Intelligence L3 Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Support for the Laboratory’s [1 Artificial Intelligence Research is

  4. Vision Screening by Color Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R.; Richardson, J. R.; Kerr, J.; Hay, S.; Mcbride, R.

    1985-01-01

    Screening test developed for detecting a range of vision defects in eye, including common precursors to amblyopia. Test noninvasive, safe, and administered easily in field by operator with no medical training. Only minimal momentary cooperation of subject required: Thus, test shows promise for use with very young children. Test produces color-slide images of retinas of eyes under specially-controlled lighting conditions. Trained observer screens five children per minute.

  5. Drosophila's view on insect vision.

    PubMed

    Borst, Alexander

    2009-01-13

    Within the last 400 million years, insects have radiated into at least a million species, accounting for more than half of all known living organisms: they are the most successful group in the animal kingdom, found in almost all environments of the planet, ranging in body size from a mere 0.1 mm up to half a meter. Their eyes, together with the respective parts of the nervous system dedicated to the processing of visual information, have long been the subject of intense investigation but, with the exception of some very basic reflexes, it is still not possible to link an insect's visual input to its behavioral output. Fortunately for the field, the fruit fly Drosophila is an insect, too. This genetic workhorse holds great promise for the insect vision field, offering the possibility of recording, suppressing or stimulating any single neuron in its nervous system. Here, I shall give a brief synopsis of what we currently know about insect vision, describe the genetic toolset available in Drosophila and give some recent examples of how the application of these tools have furthered our understanding of color and motion vision in Drosophila.

  6. Vision-based aircraft guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K.

    1993-01-01

    Early research on the development of machine vision algorithms to serve as pilot aids in aircraft flight operations is discussed. The research is useful for synthesizing new cockpit instrumentation that can enhance flight safety and efficiency. With the present work as the basis, future research will produce low-cost instrument by integrating a conventional TV camera together with off-the=shelf digitizing hardware for flight test verification. Initial focus of the research will be on developing pilot aids for clear-night operations. Latter part of the research will examine synthetic vision issues for poor visibility flight operations. Both research efforts will contribute towards the high-speed civil transport aircraft program. It is anticipated that the research reported here will also produce pilot aids for conducting helicopter flight operations during emergency search and rescue. The primary emphasis of the present research effort is on near-term, flight demonstrable technologies. This report discusses pilot aids for night landing and takeoff and synthetic vision as an aid to low visibility landing.

  7. Ames vision group research overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    A major goal of the reseach group is to develop mathematical and computational models of early human vision. These models are valuable in the prediction of human performance, in the design of visual coding schemes and displays, and in robotic vision. To date researchers have models of retinal sampling, spatial processing in visual cortex, contrast sensitivity, and motion processing. Based on their models of early human vision, researchers developed several schemes for efficient coding and compression of monochrome and color images. These are pyramid schemes that decompose the image into features that vary in location, size, orientation, and phase. To determine the perceptual fidelity of these codes, researchers developed novel human testing methods that have received considerable attention in the research community. Researchers constructed models of human visual motion processing based on physiological and psychophysical data, and have tested these models through simulation and human experiments. They also explored the application of these biological algorithms to applications in automated guidance of rotorcraft and autonomous landing of spacecraft. Researchers developed networks for inhomogeneous image sampling, for pyramid coding of images, for automatic geometrical correction of disordered samples, and for removal of motion artifacts from unstable cameras.

  8. Information architecture. Volume 4: Vision

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Vision document marks the transition from definition to implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture Program. A description of the possibilities for the future, supported by actual experience with a process model and tool set, points toward implementation options. The directions for future information technology investments are discussed. Practical examples of how technology answers the business and information needs of the organization through coordinated and meshed data, applications, and technology architectures are related. This document is the fourth and final volume in the planned series for defining and exhibiting the DOE information architecture. The targeted scope of this document includes DOE Program Offices, field sites, contractor-operated facilities, and laboratories. This document paints a picture of how, over the next 7 years, technology may be implemented, dramatically improving the ways business is conducted at DOE. While technology is mentioned throughout this document, the vision is not about technology. The vision concerns the transition afforded by technology and the process steps to be completed to ensure alignment with business needs. This goal can be met if those directing the changing business and mission-support processes understand the capabilities afforded by architectural processes.

  9. Colour vision requirements of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Margrain, T H; Birch, J; Owen, C G

    1996-04-01

    To perform their job safely firefighters must be able to identify colours on industrial gas cylinders, portable fire extinguishers, road traffic signals and several pieces of firefighting equipment. Although good colour vision is necessary we believe that the existing colour vision standard, which bars entry to the fire service to applicants who fail more than two plates of the Ishihara test, is unnecessarily stringent. We have identified and quantified the colour coded information encountered by firefighters. Colours were plotted on the CIE chromaticity diagram (1931) and isochromatic zones, which document the colour confusions of colour deficient observers, superimposed. This novel technique established possible colour confusions in different types of colour deficiency. Analysis of the results showed that red/green dichromats (protanopes and deuteranopes), severe deuteranomalous trichromats who fail the Farnsworth D15 test, and protanomalous trichromats are unsuitable for firefighting work. However, people with slight deuteranomalous trichromatism who pass the D15 test, are not disadvantaged and can be employed safely as firefighters. A new colour vision standard and a new testing procedure is recommended.

  10. Beauty and cuteness in peripheral vision

    PubMed Central

    Kuraguchi, Kana; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Guo et al. (2011) showed that attractiveness was detectable in peripheral vision. Since there are different types of attractiveness (Rhodes, 2006), we investigated how beauty and cuteness are detected in peripheral vision with a brief presentation. Participants (n = 45) observed two Japanese female faces for 100 ms, then were asked to respond which face was more beautiful (or cuter). The results indicated that both beauty and cuteness were detectable in peripheral vision, but not in the same manner. Discrimination rates for judging beauty were invariant in peripheral and central vision, while discrimination rates for judging cuteness declined in peripheral vision as compared with central vision. This was not explained by lower resolution in peripheral vision. In addition, for male participants, it was more difficult to judge cuteness than beauty in peripheral vision, thus suggesting that gender differences can have a certain effect when judging cuteness. Therefore, central vision might be suitable for judging cuteness while judging beauty might not be affected by either central or peripheral vision. This might be related with the functional difference between beauty and cuteness. PMID:25999883

  11. Beauty and cuteness in peripheral vision.

    PubMed

    Kuraguchi, Kana; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Guo et al. (2011) showed that attractiveness was detectable in peripheral vision. Since there are different types of attractiveness (Rhodes, 2006), we investigated how beauty and cuteness are detected in peripheral vision with a brief presentation. Participants (n = 45) observed two Japanese female faces for 100 ms, then were asked to respond which face was more beautiful (or cuter). The results indicated that both beauty and cuteness were detectable in peripheral vision, but not in the same manner. Discrimination rates for judging beauty were invariant in peripheral and central vision, while discrimination rates for judging cuteness declined in peripheral vision as compared with central vision. This was not explained by lower resolution in peripheral vision. In addition, for male participants, it was more difficult to judge cuteness than beauty in peripheral vision, thus suggesting that gender differences can have a certain effect when judging cuteness. Therefore, central vision might be suitable for judging cuteness while judging beauty might not be affected by either central or peripheral vision. This might be related with the functional difference between beauty and cuteness.

  12. Artificial vision support system (AVS(2)) for improved prosthetic vision.

    PubMed

    Fink, Wolfgang; Tarbell, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    State-of-the-art and upcoming camera-driven, implanted artificial vision systems provide only tens to hundreds of electrodes, affording only limited visual perception for blind subjects. Therefore, real time image processing is crucial to enhance and optimize this limited perception. Since tens or hundreds of pixels/electrodes allow only for a very crude approximation of the typically megapixel optical resolution of the external camera image feed, the preservation and enhancement of contrast differences and transitions, such as edges, are especially important compared to picture details such as object texture. An Artificial Vision Support System (AVS(2)) is devised that displays the captured video stream in a pixelation conforming to the dimension of the epi-retinal implant electrode array. AVS(2), using efficient image processing modules, modifies the captured video stream in real time, enhancing 'present but hidden' objects to overcome inadequacies or extremes in the camera imagery. As a result, visual prosthesis carriers may now be able to discern such objects in their 'field-of-view', thus enabling mobility in environments that would otherwise be too hazardous to navigate. The image processing modules can be engaged repeatedly in a user-defined order, which is a unique capability. AVS(2) is directly applicable to any artificial vision system that is based on an imaging modality (video, infrared, sound, ultrasound, microwave, radar, etc.) as the first step in the stimulation/processing cascade, such as: retinal implants (i.e. epi-retinal, sub-retinal, suprachoroidal), optic nerve implants, cortical implants, electric tongue stimulators, or tactile stimulators.

  13. Spatial linear navigation: is vision necessary?

    PubMed

    Israël, I; Capelli, A; Priot, A-E; Giannopulu, I

    2013-10-25

    In order to analyze spatial linear navigation through a task of self-controlled reproduction, healthy participants were passively transported on a mobile robot at constant velocity, and then had to reproduce the imposed distance of 2-8m in two conditions: "with vision" and "without vision". Our hypothesis was that the reproduction of distances would be longer with than without visual information. Indeed, with visual information the reproduction of all distances was overshot. In the "without vision" condition the reproduced distances were quite close to the imposed ones, but only for the shortest distances (2 and 4m) as the longest ones were clearly undershot. With vision the reproduction error was less than 10% for all distances; however the error could be smaller without vision at short distances, and therefore vision was not necessary.

  14. Standards for vision science libraries: 2014 revision

    PubMed Central

    Motte, Kristin; Caldwell, C. Brooke; Lamson, Karen S.; Ferimer, Suzanne; Nims, J. Chris

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This Association of Vision Science Librarians revision of the “Standards for Vision Science Libraries” aspires to provide benchmarks to address the needs for the services and resources of modern vision science libraries (academic, medical or hospital, pharmaceutical, and so on), which share a core mission, are varied by type, and are located throughout the world. Methods: Through multiple meeting discussions, member surveys, and a collaborative revision process, the standards have been updated for the first time in over a decade. Results: While the range of types of libraries supporting vision science services, education, and research is wide, all libraries, regardless of type, share core attributes, which the standards address. Conclusions: The current standards can and should be used to help develop new vision science libraries or to expand the growth of existing libraries, as well as to support vision science librarians in their work to better provide services and resources to their respective users. PMID:25349547

  15. The role of binocular vision in walking.

    PubMed

    Hayhoe, Mary; Gillam, Barbara; Chajka, Kelly; Vecellio, Elia

    2009-01-01

    Despite the extensive investigation of binocular and stereoscopic vision, relatively little is known about its importance in natural visually guided behavior. In this paper, we explored the role of binocular vision when walking over and around obstacles. We monitored eye position during the task as an indicator of the difference between monocular and binocular performances. We found that binocular vision clearly facilitates walking performance. Walkers were slowed by about 10% in monocular vision and raised their foot higher when stepping over obstacles. Although the location and sequence of the fixations did not change in monocular vision, the timing of the fixations relative to the actions was different. Subjects spent proportionately more time fixating the obstacles and fixated longer while guiding foot placement near an obstacle. The data are consistent with greater uncertainty in monocular vision, leading to a greater reliance on feedback in the control of the movements.

  16. Vision and vision-related outcome measures in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Balcer, Laura J; Miller, David H; Reingold, Stephen C; Cohen, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Visual impairment is a key manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Acute optic neuritis is a common, often presenting manifestation, but visual deficits and structural loss of retinal axonal and neuronal integrity can occur even without a history of optic neuritis. Interest in vision in multiple sclerosis is growing, partially in response to the development of sensitive visual function tests, structural markers such as optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and quality of life measures that give clinical meaning to the structure-function correlations that are unique to the afferent visual pathway. Abnormal eye movements also are common in multiple sclerosis, but quantitative assessment methods that can be applied in practice and clinical trials are not readily available. We summarize here a comprehensive literature search and the discussion at a recent international meeting of investigators involved in the development and study of visual outcomes in multiple sclerosis, which had, as its overriding goals, to review the state of the field and identify areas for future research. We review data and principles to help us understand the importance of vision as a model for outcomes assessment in clinical practice and therapeutic trials in multiple sclerosis.

  17. Cooperative and asynchronous stereo vision for dynamic vision sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatkowska, E.; Belbachir, A. N.; Gelautz, M.

    2014-05-01

    Dynamic vision sensors (DVSs) encode visual input as a stream of events generated upon relative light intensity changes in the scene. These sensors have the advantage of allowing simultaneously high temporal resolution (better than 10 µs) and wide dynamic range (>120 dB) at sparse data representation, which is not possible with clocked vision sensors. In this paper, we focus on the task of stereo reconstruction. The spatiotemporal and asynchronous aspects of data provided by the sensor impose a different stereo reconstruction approach from the one applied for synchronous frame-based cameras. We propose to model the event-driven stereo matching by a cooperative network (Marr and Poggio 1976 Science 194 283-7). The history of the recent activity in the scene is stored in the network, which serves as spatiotemporal context used in disparity calculation for each incoming event. The network constantly evolves in time, as events are generated. In our work, not only the spatiotemporal aspect of the data is preserved but also the matching is performed asynchronously. The results of the experiments prove that the proposed approach is well adapted for DVS data and can be successfully used for disparity calculation.

  18. Vision and vision-related outcome measures in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Balcer, Laura J.; Miller, David H.; Reingold, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Visual impairment is a key manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Acute optic neuritis is a common, often presenting manifestation, but visual deficits and structural loss of retinal axonal and neuronal integrity can occur even without a history of optic neuritis. Interest in vision in multiple sclerosis is growing, partially in response to the development of sensitive visual function tests, structural markers such as optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and quality of life measures that give clinical meaning to the structure-function correlations that are unique to the afferent visual pathway. Abnormal eye movements also are common in multiple sclerosis, but quantitative assessment methods that can be applied in practice and clinical trials are not readily available. We summarize here a comprehensive literature search and the discussion at a recent international meeting of investigators involved in the development and study of visual outcomes in multiple sclerosis, which had, as its overriding goals, to review the state of the field and identify areas for future research. We review data and principles to help us understand the importance of vision as a model for outcomes assessment in clinical practice and therapeutic trials in multiple sclerosis. PMID:25433914

  19. Women and the vision thing.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Herminia; Obodaru, Otilia

    2009-01-01

    Are women rated lower than men in evaluations of their leadership capabilities because of lingering gender bias? No, according to an analysis of thousands of 360-degree assessments collected by Insead's executive education program. That analysis showed that women tend to outshine men in all areas but one: vision. Unfortunately, that exception is a big one. At the top tiers of management, the ability to see opportunities, craft strategy based on a broad view of the business, and inspire others is a must-have. To explore the nature of the deficit, and whether it is a perception or reality, Insead professor Ibarra and doctoral candidate Obodaru interviewed female executives and studied the evaluation data. They developed three possible explanations. First, women may do just as much as men to shape the future but go about it in a different way; a leader who is less directive, includes more people, and shares credit might not fit people's mental model of a visionary. Second, women may believe they have less license to go out on a limb. Those who have built careers on detail-focused, shoulder-to-the-wheel execution may hesitate to stray from facts into unprovable assertions about the future. Third, women may choose not to cultivate reputations as big visionaries. Having seen bluster passed off as vision, they may dismiss the importance of selling visions. The top two candidates for the Democratic nomination for U.S. president in 2008 offer an instructive parallel. The runner-up, Hillary Clinton, was viewed as a get-it-done type with an impressive, if uninspiring, grasp of policy detail. The winner, Barack Obama, was seen as a charismatic visionary offering a hopeful, if undetailed, future. The good news is that every dimension of leadership is learned, not inborn. As more women become skilled at, and known for, envisioning the future, nothing will hold them back.

  20. Quaternions in computer vision and robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Pervin, E.; Webb, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Computer vision and robotics suffer from not having good tools for manipulating three-dimensional objects. Vectors, coordinate geometry, and trigonometry all have deficiencies. Quaternions can be used to solve many of these problems. Many properties of quaternions that are relevant to computer vision and robotics are developed. Examples are given showing how quaternions can be used to simplify derivations in computer vision and robotics.

  1. Enhanced Night Vision Goggle Customer Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Enhanced Night Vision Goggle Customer Test by Christian B. Carstens, Charles C. Bonnett, and Elizabeth S. Redden ARL-TR-3839 August...Ground, MD 21005-5425 ARL-TR-3839 August 2006 Enhanced Night Vision Goggle Customer Test Christian B. Carstens, Charles C. Bonnett...NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Enhanced Night Vision Goggle Customer Test 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 62716AH70 5e

  2. The Amazon Region; A Vision of Sovereignty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    or government agency. STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE AMAZON REGION; A VISION OF SOVEREIGNTY BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL EDUARDO JOSE BARBOSA...BARRACKS, PA 17013-5050 USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT The Amazon Region; A vision of Sovereignty by LTC Eduardo Jose Barbosa John Garofano...Distribution is unlimited. DTXG QUikLIxi’ JKsjr.^ 11 ABSTRACT AUTHOR: Eduardo Jose Barbosa TITLE: The Amazon Region; A vision of Sovereignty. FORMAT

  3. Night vision: changing the way we drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapper, Stuart H.; Kyle, Robert J. S.; Nicklin, Robert L.; Kormos, Alexander L.

    2001-03-01

    A revolutionary new Night Vision System has been designed to help drivers see well beyond their headlights. From luxury automobiles to heavy trucks, Night Vision is helping drivers see better, see further, and react sooner. This paper describes how Night Vision Systems are being used in transportation and their viability for the future. It describes recent improvements to the system currently in the second year of production. It also addresses consumer education and awareness, cost reduction, product reliability, market expansion and future improvements.

  4. Inertial Navigation System Aiding Using Vision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM AIDING USING VISION THESIS James O. Quarmyne, Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT-ENG-13-M-40 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR...protection in the United States AFIT-ENG-13-M-40 INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM AIDING USING VISION THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of...AIDING USING VISION James O. Quarmyne, B.S.E.E. Second Lieutenant, USAF Approved: Meir Pachter, PhD (Chairman) Date John F. Raquet, PhD (Committee Member

  5. Low Vision Rehabilitation in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Özen Tunay, Zuhal; İdil, Aysun; Seza Petriçli, İkbal; Özdemir, Özdemir

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the diagnosis distribution, low vision rehabilitation methods and utilization of low vision rehabilitation in partially sighted persons over 65 years old. Materials and Methods: One hundred thirty-nine partially sighted geriatric patients aged 65 years or older were enrolled to the study between May 2012 and September 2013. Patients’ age, gender and the distribution of diagnosis were recorded. The visual acuity of the patients both for near and distance were examined with and without low vision devices and the methods of low vision rehabilitation were evaluated. Results: The mean age of the patients was 79.7 years and the median age was 80 years. Ninety-six (69.1%) of the patients were male and 43 (30.9%) were female. According to the distribution of diagnosis, the most frequent diagnosis was senile macular degeneration for both presenile and senile age groups. The mean best corrected visual acuity for distance was 0.92±0.37 logMAR and 4.75±3.47 M for near. The most frequently used low vision rehabilitation methods were telescopic glasses (59.0%) for distance and hyperocular glasses (66.9%) for near vision. A significant improvement in visual acuity both for distance and near vision were determined with low vision aids. Conclusion: The causes of low vision in presenile and senile patients in our study were similar to those of patients from developed countries. A significant improvement in visual acuity can be achieved both for distance and near vision with low vision rehabilitation in partially sighted geriatric patients. It is important to guide them to low vision rehabilitation. PMID:27800274

  6. Vision inspection system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Edward D. (Inventor); Williams, Rick A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An optical vision inspection system (4) and method for multiplexed illuminating, viewing, analyzing and recording a range of characteristically different kinds of defects, depressions, and ridges in a selected material surface (7) with first and second alternating optical subsystems (20, 21) illuminating and sensing successive frames of the same material surface patch. To detect the different kinds of surface features including abrupt as well as gradual surface variations, correspondingly different kinds of lighting are applied in time-multiplexed fashion to the common surface area patches under observation.

  7. Industrial Combustion Vision: A Vision by and for the Industrial Combustion Community

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-05-01

    The Industrial Combustion Vision is the result of a collaborative effort by manufacturers and users of burners, boilers, furnaces, and other process heating equipment. The vision sets bold targets for tomorrow's combustion systems.

  8. Vernier acuity through night vision goggles.

    PubMed

    Rabin, J

    1993-08-01

    Night vision goggles (NVG's) are being used increasingly in military and civilian environments. Despite the use of these devices, relatively few tests exist to assess visual performance through NVG's. Hyperacuity tasks may provide a sensitive index of performance through night vision devices. In this study, grating vernier acuity was measured through NVG's. As reported previously, a power law relation was observed between vernier acuity and stimulus contrast. Comparison of vernier acuity with and without NVG's indicated that performance is limited by the contrast transfer of the device. Vernier acuity measurements can be used to assess the quality of vision and quantity of contrast transferred through night vision devices.

  9. Simulating vision with and without macular disease.

    PubMed

    Marmor, David J; Marmor, Michael F

    2010-01-01

    Conventional photographs do not show how, at any moment of visual fixation, neural vision is clear only in the foveal center. We have developed new computer simulations to show both normal vision and vision with macular disease. These simulations show the nature of momentary vision for life tasks such as reading, facial recognition, and walking in the street. They also dramatically show the impact of macular disease (with scotomas and visual distortion), as there is no surrounding region of clarity. We hope these images will be instructive to both physicians and patients.

  10. Holographic optogenetic stimulation of patterned neuronal activity for vision restoration.

    PubMed

    Reutsky-Gefen, Inna; Golan, Lior; Farah, Nairouz; Schejter, Adi; Tsur, Limor; Brosh, Inbar; Shoham, Shy

    2013-01-01

    When natural photoreception is disrupted, as in outer-retinal degenerative diseases, artificial stimulation of surviving nerve cells offers a potential strategy for bypassing compromised neural circuits. Recently, light-sensitive proteins that photosensitize quiescent neurons have generated unprecedented opportunities for optogenetic neuronal control, inspiring early development of optical retinal prostheses. Selectively exciting large neural populations are essential for eliciting meaningful perceptions in the brain. Here we provide the first demonstration of holographic photo-stimulation strategies for bionic vision restoration. In blind retinas, we demonstrate reliable holographically patterned optogenetic stimulation of retinal ganglion cells with millisecond temporal precision and cellular resolution. Holographic excitation strategies could enable flexible control over distributed neuronal circuits, potentially paving the way towards high-acuity vision restoration devices and additional medical and scientific neuro-photonics applications.

  11. Night Mobility Instruction for Child with Low Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapp, Kenneth L.

    1985-01-01

    The challenges of after-dark travel for low vision children are examined in terms of physical effects of low light on normal and abnormal vision and consequences for low vision travel and orientation skills. Techniques for efficient vision use are suggested along with night travel aids and considerations in night driver vision. (CL)

  12. The Pedagogy of Teaching Educational Vision: A Vision Coach's Field Notes about Leaders as Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schein, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The emerging field of educational visioning is full of challenges and phenomena worthy of careful analysis and documentation. A relatively neglected phenomenon is the learning curve of the leaders (often lay leaders) involved in the visioning process. This article documents a range of experiences of the author serving as a vision coach to five…

  13. An Rx for 20/20 Vision: Vision Planning and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrisman, Gerald J.; Holliday, Clifford R.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the Dallas Independent School District's decision to adopt an integrated technology infrastructure and the importance of vision planning for long term goals. Outlines the vision planning process: first draft; environmental projection; restatement of vision in terms of market projections, anticipated customer needs, suspected competitor…

  14. Leadership with a Vision: How Principals Develop and Implement Their Visions for School Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renchler, Ron

    1991-01-01

    Developing and pursuing a "vision" for school success is a crucial part of effective educational leadership. This document explores theoretical models of vision for school success and leadership forces in education; discusses principals as visionary leaders; offers practical advice on developing, implementing, and maintaining a vision for one's…

  15. Vision as a user interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenderink, Jan

    2011-03-01

    The egg-rolling behavior of the graylag goose is an often quoted example of a fixed-action pattern. The bird will even attempt to roll a brick back to its nest! Despite excellent visual acuity it apparently takes a brick for an egg." Evolution optimizes utility, not veridicality. Yet textbooks take it for a fact that human vision evolved so as to approach veridical perception. How do humans manage to dodge the laws of evolution? I will show that they don't, but that human vision is an idiosyncratic user interface. By way of an example I consider the case of pictorial perception. Gleaning information from still images is an important human ability and is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. I will discuss a number of instances of extreme non-veridicality and huge inter-observer variability. Despite their importance in applications (information dissemination, personnel selection,...) such huge effects have remained undocumented in the literature, although they can be traced to artistic conventions. The reason appears to be that conventional psychophysics-by design-fails to address the qualitative, that is the meaningful, aspects of visual awareness whereas this is the very target of the visual arts.

  16. VISION 21 SYSTEMS ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    G.S. Samuelsen; A. Rao; F. Robson; B. Washom

    2003-08-11

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into power plant systems that meet performance and emission goals of the Vision 21 program. The study efforts have narrowed down the myriad of fuel processing, power generation, and emission control technologies to selected scenarios that identify those combinations having the potential to achieve the Vision 21 program goals of high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. The technology levels considered are based on projected technical and manufacturing advances being made in industry and on advances identified in current and future government supported research. Included in these advanced systems are solid oxide fuel cells and advanced cycle gas turbines. The results of this investigation will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  17. Spatial Vision in Bombus terrestris

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthi, Aravin; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie; Kelber, Almut

    2016-01-01

    Bombus terrestris is one of the most commonly used insect models to investigate visually guided behavior and spatial vision in particular. Two fundamental measures of spatial vision are spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity. In this study, we report the threshold of spatial resolution in B. terrestris and characterize the contrast sensitivity function of the bumblebee visual system for a dual choice discrimination task. We trained bumblebees in a Y-maze experimental set-up to associate a vertical sinusoidal grating with a sucrose reward, and a horizontal grating with absence of a reward. Using a logistic psychometric function, we estimated a resolution threshold of 0.21 cycles deg−1 of visual angle. This resolution is in the same range but slightly lower than that found in honeybees (Apis mellifera and A. cerana) and another bumblebee species (B. impatiens). We also found that the contrast sensitivity of B. terrestris was 1.57 for the spatial frequency 0.090 cycles deg−1 and 1.26 for 0.18 cycles deg−1. PMID:26912998

  18. Disparity channels in early vision.

    PubMed

    Roe, Anna W; Parker, Andrew J; Born, Richard T; DeAngelis, Gregory C

    2007-10-31

    The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in our knowledge of the neural basis of stereopsis. New cortical areas have been found to represent binocular disparities, new representations of disparity information (e.g., relative disparity signals) have been uncovered, the first topographic maps of disparity have been measured, and the first causal links between neural activity and depth perception have been established. Equally exciting is the finding that training and experience affects how signals are channeled through different brain areas, a flexibility that may be crucial for learning, plasticity, and recovery of function. The collective efforts of several laboratories have established stereo vision as one of the most productive model systems for elucidating the neural basis of perception. Much remains to be learned about how the disparity signals that are initially encoded in primary visual cortex are routed to and processed by extrastriate areas to mediate the diverse capacities of three-dimensional vision that enhance our daily experience of the world.

  19. Synthetic vision display evaluation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regal, David M.; Whittington, David H.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research was to help us understand the display requirements for a synthetic vision system for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of different levels of perceptual cue complexity in displays used by pilots in a flare and landing task. Increased levels of texture mapping of terrain and runway produced mixed results, including harder but shorter landings and a lower flare initiation altitude. Under higher workload conditions, increased texture resulted in an improvement in performance. An increase in familiar size cues did not result in improved performance. Only a small difference was found between displays using two patterns of high resolution texture mapping. The effects of increased perceptual cue complexity on performance was not as strong as would be predicted from the pilot's subjective reports or from related literature. A description of the role of a synthetic vision system in the High Speed Civil Transport is provide along with a literature review covering applied research related to perceptual cue usage in aircraft displays.

  20. Early vision and focal attention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julesz, Bela

    1991-07-01

    At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.

  1. Profile of a low vision clinic population.

    PubMed

    Mohidin, Norhani; Yusoff, Suzainah

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Causes of low vision and types of low vision devices (LVDs) prescribed in other low vision clinics have been studied extensively. Similar studies have not been conducted in Malaysia. This paper reports the results of a retrospective study of 573 patients seen at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia-Malaysian Association for the Blind (UKM-MAB) low vision clinic in Kuala Lumpur. METHODS: The record cards of 573 patients seen at the UKM-MAB clinic over 10 years were examined and the following information extracted: date of first consultation, age, sex, cause of visual impairment as diagnosed by an ophthalmologist and types of low vision devices (LVDs) prescribed. RESULTS: The majority of patients were from the younger age groups with 423 (73.8 per cent) less than 50 years of age. Three hundred and ninety-five (68.9 per cent) of the subjects were males and 178 (31.1 per cent) female. The main causes of low vision were congenital structural defects including nystagmus among patients in the zero to 29 years age group, retinitis pigmentosa among the 30 to 59 years age group and age-related macular degeneration (ARM) among those over 60 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Since the majority of the patients were from the younger age group the main causes of low vision were congenital and hereditary diseases. Three hundred and forty-one (59.5 per cent) patients seen at the low vision clinic accepted the use of LVDs.

  2. The Development of Peripheral Vision in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guez, Jean R.

    This study investigated the extent of infant peripheral vision, specifically the extent of infants' constricted field, or tunnel vision. Thirteen infants, 2 to 5 months old, were tested using a psychophysical procedure to obtain contrast sensitivity thresholds at four retinal loci (-40, -15, +15, +40 deg.). Infants were placed in an infant bed in…

  3. INSIGHT: Vision & Leadership Inaugural Issue, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Tammy, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This publication focuses on promising new and emerging technologies and what they might mean to the future of K-12 schools. Half of the volume contains articles devoted in some way to "Vision," and articles in the other half are under the heading of "Leadership." Contents in the "Vision" section include: "Customizable Content" (Walter Koetke);…

  4. Vision: A Conceptual Framework for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkinson, Jennifer Scaturo

    2013-01-01

    Vision is essential to the implementation of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) National Model. Drawing from research in organizational leadership, this article provides a conceptual framework for how school counselors can incorporate vision as a strategy for implementing school counseling programs within the context of practice.…

  5. Efficacy of a Low Vision Patient Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemsen, Dennis W.; Bergstrom, A. Ren?e; Hathaway, Julie C.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of obstacles can prevent persons or individuals with low vision from deriving the greatest possible benefit from the rehabilitation process, including inadequate understanding of their visual impairment, lack of knowledge about available services, and misconceptions about low vision devices. This study explores the use of a…

  6. INCREASED VISUAL BEHAVIOR IN LOW VISION CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARRAGA, NATALIE

    TEN PAIRS OF BLIND CHILDREN AGED SIX TO 13 YEARS WHO HAD SOME VISION WERE MATCHED BY PRETEST SCORES ON A TEST OF VISUAL DISCRIMINATION. A CRITERION GROUP, DESIGNATED THE PRINT COMPARISON GROUP, HAD SLIGHLY HIGHER RECORDED DISTANCE ACUITIES AND USED VISION AS THE PRIMARY MEANS OF LEARNING. PAIRS OF EXPERIMENTAL SUBJECTS DAILY RECEIVED 45 MINUTES OF…

  7. Vision and Mental Function of the Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lorraine Hiatt; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The relationship between vision and mental functioning was investigated in a study of 295 elderly residents from three levels of care. Visual acuity and mental status were assessed. Findings indicate that there was indeed a relationship between vision and mental status. (Author)

  8. Multilevel Relaxation in Low Level Computer Vision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Lab, Cambridge,MA, June,1981. HR80 Hanson,A. and Riseman,E.M., Processing Cones: A Computational Structure for Image Analysis, In: Structured Computer Vision...Klinger,A. (Editors), Structured Computer Vision: Machine Perception through Hierarchical Computation Structures, Academic Press, New York, 1980. TP75

  9. The Institutional Vision of Tribal Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This investigation provides a base-line measurement of the inspirational and pragmatic rhetoric in declarations of institutional vision at tribal community colleges. By comparing it to nontribal community colleges, this content analysis reveals the current state of utility of the mission and vision statements of tribal community colleges, their…

  10. Computer vision in the poultry industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Computer vision is becoming increasingly important in the poultry industry due to increasing use and speed of automation in processing operations. Growing awareness of food safety concerns has helped add food safety inspection to the list of tasks that automated computer vision can assist. Researc...

  11. Vision and the End of Racial Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Are we facing the end of racial preferences in America? Mr. Clegg thinks we probably are, and examines the role demographics, law, attraction, and vision may play in their demise. What makes preferences still attractive to so many people? Do most Americans share a vision that includes the continued use of racial preferences? Mr. Clegg offers a…

  12. Professional Vision in Action: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherin, Miriam Gamoran; Russ, Rosemary S.; Sherin, Bruce L.; Colestock, Adam

    2008-01-01

    The study of teachers' professional vision poses some unique challenges. The application of professional vision happens in a manner that is fleeting, and that is distributed through the moments of instruction. Because of the ongoing nature of instruction, it is not realistic to expect that one could "pause" instruction momentarily, ask a…

  13. Our Visions of Possibility for Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Tim; Reinier, Rise; Gallagher, Kevin; Morgan, Bruce; Lopez-Robertson, Julia; Santman, Donna; Wong-Kam, JoAnn; Hill, Sharon; Christensen, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Tim O'Keefe, Rise Reinier and Kevin Gallagher, Bruce Morgan, Julia Lopez-Robertson, Donna Santman, JoAnn Wong-Kam, Sharon Hill, and Linda Christensen provide short essays describing their personal visions of possibility about literacy and how they maintain that passion and vision. Across a range of contexts, they reflect on the ways in which their…

  14. Color Vision Deficits and Literacy Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Sandra Rollins

    1994-01-01

    Shows that color blindness, whether partial or total, inhibits literacy acquisition. Offers a case study of a third grader with impaired color vision. Presents a review of literature on the topic. Notes that people with color vision deficits are often unaware of the handicap. (RS)

  15. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  16. Automated Vision Test Development and Validation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    wide range of visual attributes including color vision, VA, heterophoria, and depth perception . In addition to establishing standards, they further...Armed Forces-NRC Vision Committee Secretariat; 1951. 3. Watson AB, Pelli DG. QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method. Percept Psychophys

  17. The "Vision Thing" and School Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, David T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This article explores the role of vision and vision-building in public schools as a tool for bringing about a redirection of educational institutions. A reanalysis of 32 interviews with teachers and principals in schools involved in Oregon's "2020 School Improvement and Professional Development" program revealed that most school goals…

  18. A Low Vision Reading Comprehension Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, G. R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Fifty adults (ages 28-86) with macular degeneration were given the Low Vision Reading Comprehension Assessment (LVRCA) to test its reliability and validity in evaluating the reading comprehension of those with vision impairments. The LVRCA was found to take only nine minutes to administer and was a valid and reliable tool. (CR)

  19. A vision for modernizing environmental risk assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2007, the US National Research Council (NRC) published a Vision and Strategy for [human health] Toxicity Testing in the 21st century. Central to the vision was increased reliance on high throughput in vitro testing and predictive approaches based on mechanistic understanding o...

  20. Implementing Vision Research in Special Needs Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsen, Gunvor Birkeland; Aanstad, Monica L.; Leirvik, Eva Iren B.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents experiences from vision research implemented in education and argues for the need for teachers with visual competence and insight into suitable methods for stimulation and learning. A new type of continuing professional development (CPD) focuses on the role of vision in children's learning and development, the consequences of…

  1. Assessing the binocular advantage in aided vision.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Lawrence K; McIntire, John P; Hopper, Darrel G

    2014-09-01

    Advances in microsensors, microprocessors, and microdisplays are creating new opportunities for improving vision in degraded environments through the use of head-mounted displays. Initially, the cutting-edge technology used in these new displays will be expensive. Inevitably, the cost of providing the additional sensor and processing required to support binocularity brings the value of binocularity into question. Several assessments comparing binocular, binocular, and monocular head-mounted displays for aided vision have concluded that the additional performance, if any, provided by binocular head-mounted displays does not justify the cost. The selection of a biocular [corrected] display for use in the F-35 is a current example of this recurring decision process. It is possible that the human binocularity advantage does not carry over to the aided vision application, but more likely the experimental approaches used in the past have been too coarse to measure its subtle but important benefits. Evaluating the value of binocularity in aided vision applications requires an understanding of the characteristics of both human vision and head-mounted displays. With this understanding, the value of binocularity in aided vision can be estimated and experimental evidence can be collected to confirm or reject the presumed binocular advantage, enabling improved decisions in aided vision system design. This paper describes four computational approaches-geometry of stereopsis, modulation transfer function area for stereopsis, probability summation, and binocular summation-that may be useful in quantifying the advantage of binocularity in aided vision.

  2. Color Vision Deficiencies in Children. United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Presented are prevalence data on color vision deficiencies (color blindness) in noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States, as estimated from the Health Examination Survey findings on a representative sample of over 7,400 children. Described are the two color vision tests used in the survey, the Ishihara Test for Color…

  3. Sampling and noise in vision networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This research is part of the Human Interface Research Branch-Vision Group's program to develop computable models of biological solutions to general vision system problems. Two problem areas are addressed: effects of discrete sampling by receptors, and effects of visual system noise.

  4. 77 FR 75496 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations for 11 individuals. FMCSA has statutory authority to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will...

  5. Helping a Loved One (Who Has Vision Loss)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Low Vision > Helping a Loved One Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? What You Should Know Protecting Against Vision Loss Staying on TRACK Diabetic Eye Disease FAQ ...

  6. 78 FR 76704 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision...; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its decision to renew the exemptions from the vision... to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not...

  7. 77 FR 543 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision...; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its decision to renew the exemptions from the vision... to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not...

  8. 75 FR 27623 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ...; Exemption Applications; Vision AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION... exemptions from the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations for 21 individuals. FMCSA has statutory authority to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the...

  9. 76 FR 44653 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision...; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its decision to renew the exemptions from the vision... to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not...

  10. 77 FR 539 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... for exemption from the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations. If granted...) in interstate commerce without meeting the Federal vision requirement. DATES: Comments must...

  11. 77 FR 36336 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... exemption from the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations. If granted, the... interstate commerce without meeting the Federal vision requirement. DATES: Comments must be received on...

  12. 76 FR 66123 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision...; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its decision to renew the exemptions from the vision... to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not...

  13. 76 FR 67248 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... exemption from the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations. If granted, the... interstate commerce without meeting the Federal vision standard. DATES: Comments must be received on...

  14. 76 FR 70213 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... exemption from the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations. If granted, the... interstate commerce without meeting the Federal vision requirement. DATES: Comments must be received on...

  15. 76 FR 9865 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision...; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its decision to renew the exemptions from the vision... to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not...

  16. 76 FR 79760 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision...; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its decision to renew the exemptions from the vision... to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not...

  17. 78 FR 65032 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision...; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its decision to renew the exemptions from the vision... to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not...

  18. 78 FR 51268 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision...; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its decision to renew the exemptions from the vision... to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not...

  19. 76 FR 9859 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision...; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its decision to renew the exemptions from the vision... to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not...

  20. 76 FR 25766 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... exemption from the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations. If granted, the... interstate commerce without meeting the Federal vision standard. DATES: Comments must be received on...

  1. Vision status among foster children in NYC: a research note.

    PubMed

    Festinger, Trudy; Duckman, Robert H

    2004-01-01

    A summary of the results of research on the vision status of foster children. Results indicate that the vision screenings being provided at mandated annual physical examinations are not sufficiently identifying children's vision dysfunctions.

  2. Visual evoked potentials through night vision goggles.

    PubMed

    Rabin, J

    1994-04-01

    Night vision goggles (NVG's) have widespread use in military and civilian environments. NVG's amplify ambient illumination making performance possible when there is insufficient illumination for normal vision. While visual performance through NVG's is commonly assessed by measuring threshold functions such as visual acuity, few attempts have been made to assess vision through NVG's at suprathreshold levels of stimulation. Such information would be useful to better understand vision through NVG's across a range of stimulus conditions. In this study visual evoked potentials (VEP's) were used to evaluate vision through NVG's across a range of stimulus contrasts. The amplitude and latency of the VEP varied linearly with log contrast. A comparison of VEP's recorded with and without NVG's was used to estimate contrast attenuation through the device. VEP's offer an objective, electrophysiological tool to assess visual performance through NVG's at both threshold and suprathreshold levels of visual stimulation.

  3. Polarization Imaging and Insect Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Adam S.; Ohmann, Paul R.; Leininger, Nick E.; Kavanaugh, James A.

    2010-01-01

    For several years we have included discussions about insect vision in the optics units of our introductory physics courses. This topic is a natural extension of demonstrations involving Brewster's reflection and Rayleigh scattering of polarized light because many insects heavily rely on optical polarization for navigation and communication. Students, especially those majoring in the life sciences, tend to find the conversation intriguing because of its interdisciplinary context. To make it even more appealing, we recently created a laboratory component that allows students to use digital cameras and polarizing filters to create polarization maps of environmental scenes and insect bodies. In this paper we describe how to do so with ImageJ, a widely used and freely available image processing program that is suitable for students with no programming experience.

  4. Development of Moire machine vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Kevin G.

    1987-01-01

    Three dimensional perception is essential to the development of versatile robotics systems in order to handle complex manufacturing tasks in future factories and in providing high accuracy measurements needed in flexible manufacturing and quality control. A program is described which will develop the potential of Moire techniques to provide this capability in vision systems and automated measurements, and demonstrate artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to take advantage of the strengths of Moire sensing. Moire techniques provide a means of optically manipulating the complex visual data in a three dimensional scene into a form which can be easily and quickly analyzed by computers. This type of optical data manipulation provides high productivity through integrated automation, producing a high quality product while reducing computer and mechanical manipulation requirements and thereby the cost and time of production. This nondestructive evaluation is developed to be able to make full field range measurement and three dimensional scene analysis.

  5. A vision for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, John F.; Callaway, Robert K.; Diogu, Mark K.; Grush, Gene R.; Lancaster, E. M.; Morgan, William C.; Petri, David A.; Roberts, Barney B.; Pieniazek, Lester A.; Polette, Thomas M.

    1992-01-01

    A vision for planetary exploration is proposed which combines historical perspective and current NASA studies with the realities of changing political climates, economic environments, and technological directions. The concepts of Strategic Implementation Architectures (SIA), Open System Infrastructure Standards (OSIS), and Minimum Service Level Infrastructure (MSLI) are presented in order to propose a structure for the SEI which allows the realization of incremental mission objectives, establishes an investment strategy that efficiently uses public resources, and encourages partnerships with the government. The SIA is a hypothetical master plan which will allow the implementation of the complete spectrum of envisioned system capabilities for planetary exploration. OSIS consists of standards for interconnection, interoperability, and administration. MSLI can be defined as the minimum level of services provided by the system that are not justified by profit or parochial motives.

  6. Stereo vision techniques for telescience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewett, S.

    1990-02-01

    The Botanic Experiment is one of the pilot experiments in the Telescience Test Bed program at the ESTEC research and technology center of the European Space Agency. The aim of the Telescience Test Bed is to develop the techniques required by an experimenter using a ground based work station for remote control, monitoring, and modification of an experiment operating on a space platform. The purpose of the Botanic Experiment is to examine the growth of seedlings under various illumination conditions with a video camera from a number of viewpoints throughout the duration of the experiment. This paper describes the Botanic Experiment and the points addressed in developing a stereo vision software package to extract quantitative information about the seedlings from the recorded video images.

  7. New Media Vision for IYA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, P. L.; Koppelman, M.

    2008-11-01

    The International Year of Astronomy New Media Committee seeks to provide and promote online astronomy experiences in the places that people work, play and learn; create content that will expose people to astronomy, provide them regular content, and create special opportunities for learning; distribute content for active (pull) and passive (push) channels and through guerilla marketing technique; use a diverse suite of technologies to reach people on multiple platforms and in diverse online settings. To make these goals a reality we have brought together a diverse group of astronomy new media practitioners to both mentor grass roots efforts and spearhead national initiatives. You are invited to partner you programs with the New Media Task Group. In this paper we lay out are goals and define our vision.

  8. Space Situational Awareness Architecture Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, D.

    2013-09-01

    Vast amounts of Space Situational data are collected each day. Net-Centric approaches are being developed to expose this data. The need to shift from our closed legacy systems to an open scalable architecture has begun through the JMS efforts. Cloud computing/Big Data concepts are also desired to store and process this data. Architecture insights will be provided to highlight how these apparently competing concepts can work together to provide a robust system of systems. Key items that will be covered include: 1) An overview of the "As-Is" system of JMS and Web Services 2) Definition of "Cloud Computing" and "Big Data" 3) Vision of To-Be SSA system of systems 4) Benefits of future approach 5) Path forward Governance and Oversight

  9. Handling qualities comparison of panoramic night vision goggles and 46-deg. night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion; Thorndycraft, David

    2003-09-01

    Night Vision Goggles allow the user to see in extremely low illumination levels but the visual information provided by Night Vision Goggles has a limited field-of-view that diminishes handling-qualities in the night flying environment. Panoramic Night Vision Goggles were designed to correct this problem by providing a 100° horizontal field-of-view which is larger than currently used Night Vision Goggles. However, in the first generation Panoramic Night Vision Goggle, the improved field of view came at the cost of diminished resolution, contrast and central overlap area when compared to conventional Night Vision Goggles. This paper describes an evaluation that was conducted in the variable stability NRC Bell-205 helicopter to examine the influence on system handling qualities of the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles and a 46° field-of-view UK Night Vision Goggle. Five pilots flew the ADS-33D hover, sidestep and pirouette manoeuvres in simulated night conditions with the UK Night Vision Goggle and the Panoramic Night Vision Goggle. Both subjective and objective measures of task performance were obtained. Handling-qualities ratings showed the pirouette was performed better with the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles. This was the only manoeuvre where there was a clear-cut handling qualities improvement when using the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles. Other manoeuvres such as the sidestep and hover did not show definitive handling qualities rating differences between the two Night Vision Goggle types. The flight test results were interpreted in terms of the design trade-offs of the two night vision systems, with regard to the different acuity, binocular overlaps and fields-of-view.

  10. Evolution of colour vision in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Gerald H.

    2009-01-01

    Colour vision allows animals to reliably distinguish differences in the distributions of spectral energies reaching the eye. Although not universal, a capacity for colour vision is sufficiently widespread across the animal kingdom to provide prima facie evidence of its importance as a tool for analysing and interpreting the visual environment. The basic biological mechanisms on which vertebrate colour vision ultimately rests, the cone opsin genes and the photopigments they specify, are highly conserved. Within that constraint, however, the utilization of these basic elements varies in striking ways in that they appear, disappear and emerge in altered form during the course of evolution. These changes, along with other alterations in the visual system, have led to profound variations in the nature and salience of colour vision among the vertebrates. This article concerns the evolution of colour vision among the mammals, viewing that process in the context of relevant biological mechanisms, of variations in mammalian colour vision, and of the utility of colour vision. PMID:19720656

  11. Peripheral vision and child pedestrian accidents.

    PubMed

    David, S S; Chapman, A J; Foot, H C; Sheehy, N P

    1986-11-01

    In both adults and children, peripheral vision is poorer than foveal vision, but there is evidence that detection in peripheral vision is relatively poorer in children than it is in adults. That may contribute to the particularly high pedestrian accident rates of children. Two laboratory experiments investigated peripheral vision in men and women and in boys and girls aged 7, 9 and 11. Using an array of stationary lights, Expt 1 examined reactions to apparent movement (the phi phenomenon) in mid and extreme periphery; and, using film sequences of a moving car, Expt 2 included a comparison of foveal and peripheral fields. Overall there was little evidence to support the hypothesis that children have poorer peripheral vision than adults relative to their foveal vision. Nonetheless there were some experimental differences: in Expt 1, 7-year-olds made fewer detections, particularly in the extreme periphery; and, in both experiments, detections tended to be slower. The relatively complex car movements in Expt 2 were detected faster in foveal than peripheral vision. There were no sex differences. Children detected more movements on the left. In Expt 2 these detections were faster, and children made relatively more simulated road crossings when the car approached from the left (all adults 'crossed' in all trials).

  12. Applications of Augmented Vision Head-Mounted Systems in Vision Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Peli, Eli; Luo, Gang; Bowers, Alex; Rensing, Noa

    2007-01-01

    Vision loss typically affects either the wide peripheral vision (important for mobility), or central vision (important for seeing details). Traditional optical visual aids usually recover the lost visual function, but at a high cost for the remaining visual function. We have developed a novel concept of vision-multiplexing using augmented vision head-mounted display systems to address vision loss. Two applications are discussed in this paper. In the first, minified edge images from a head-mounted video camera are presented on a see-through display providing visual field expansion for people with peripheral vision loss, while still enabling the full resolution of the residual central vision to be maintained. The concept has been applied in daytime and nighttime devices. A series of studies suggested that the system could help with visual search, obstacle avoidance, and nighttime mobility. Subjects were positive in their ratings of device cosmetics and ergonomics. The second application is for people with central vision loss. Using an on-axis aligned camera and display system, central visibility is enhanced with 1:1 scale edge images, while still enabling the wide field of the unimpaired peripheral vision to be maintained. The registration error of the system was found to be low in laboratory testing. PMID:18172511

  13. Quebec model for low vision rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Robillard, Nicole; Overbury, Olga

    2006-06-01

    The increase in longevity (and secondary morbidity) in the Quebec population adds social and financial pressure to society, as it does elsewhere in Canada and in many western countries. This article gives a brief history of the evolution of vision rehabilitation services in Quebec and describes how services are provided for people with low vision throughout the province. Although numerous groups, associations, centres, and resources are available to assist people with vision impairments, such as the Canadian National Institute for the Blind-Québec, the majority of visual rehabilitation services are provided by government-sponsored rehabilitation centres, namely the Centres régionaux de réadaptation en déficience physique that are located strategically throughout the province. Low vision clinical evaluations in these centres are shared by 36 optometrists throughout the province. Between 5 and 7 ophthalmologists are involved in low vision care, half in university-affiliated hospitals, primarily in Montreal. There may be delays of up to 6 months to be seen in a funded low vision clinic. Statistics obtained from la Régie de l'assurance maladie du Québec show that there are approximately 8,000 requests for low vision aids every year, and that 80% of clients retain at least some level of visual function. Services are covered by Medicare and low vision aids are provided at no cost, although ophthalmologists cannot prescribe low vision aids through the Medicare-funded system. We must ensure that the capacity of our system continues to provide adequately for clientele in the future.

  14. Civilian use of night vision goggles.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Guillermo; Temme, Leonard; Antonio, J Charles

    2003-01-01

    Civil aviation operators have expressed an increased interest in conducting night operations with night vision imaging systems. The development of special operational concepts, hardware requirements, training requirements, and regulatory change and oversight is necessary to control for the known performance constraints associated with these devices. In 2001, the Aerospace Medical Association initiated an internal request to review the human factors issues concerning the use of night vision goggles (NVGs) in civilian flight operations. This paper provides some basic information on night vision imaging systems to highlight the Association's position for supporting the appropriate use of NVGs in civilian aviation while concurrently expressing the need for a judicious and studied approach to their deployment.

  15. Telerehabilitation for people with low vision

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Ava K; Wykstra, Stephanie L; Yoshinaga, Patrick D; Li, Tianjing

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: Our goal is to systematically review the literature on telerehabilitation’s effectiveness for improving vision-related quality of life and/ or reading speed compared to face-to-face (e.g., in-office or inpatient) low vision rehabilitation services in patients with low vision or visual function loss due to any ocular condition. Secondary objectives are to evaluate compliance with scheduled rehabilitation sessions, VAE device abandonment rates, and/or patient satisfaction ratings in the same studies. PMID:25152693

  16. Machine vision for real time orbital operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinz, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Machine vision for automation and robotic operation of Space Station era systems has the potential for increasing the efficiency of orbital servicing, repair, assembly and docking tasks. A machine vision research project is described in which a TV camera is used for inputing visual data to a computer so that image processing may be achieved for real time control of these orbital operations. A technique has resulted from this research which reduces computer memory requirements and greatly increases typical computational speed such that it has the potential for development into a real time orbital machine vision system. This technique is called AI BOSS (Analysis of Images by Box Scan and Syntax).

  17. Stereo vision with distance and gradient recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Suk-Bum; Yang, Tae-Kyu

    2007-12-01

    Robot vision technology is needed for the stable walking, object recognition and the movement to the target spot. By some sensors which use infrared rays and ultrasonic, robot can overcome the urgent state or dangerous time. But stereo vision of three dimensional space would make robot have powerful artificial intelligence. In this paper we consider about the stereo vision for stable and correct movement of a biped robot. When a robot confront with an inclination plane or steps, particular algorithms are needed to go on without failure. This study developed the recognition algorithm of distance and gradient of environment by stereo matching process.

  18. The Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    With last year's budget, NASA released a new Strategic Plan outlining a new approach to space exploration using a 'building block' strategy to explore scientifically valuable destinations across our solar system. At the same time that we released the Strategic Plan, our Nation and the NASA family also suffered the loss of the seven brave astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. The report of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board emphasized the need for a clearer direction from which to drive NASA's human exploration agenda. On January 14, 2004, the President articulated a new vision for space exploration. You hold in your hands a new, bolder framework for exploring our solar system that builds upon the policy that was announced by the President after months of careful deliberations within the Administration. This plan does not undertake exploration merely for the sake of adventure, however exciting that may be, but seeks answers to profound scientific and philosophical questions, responds to recent discoveries, will put in place revolutionary technologies and capabilities for the future, and will genuinely inspire our Nation, the world, and the next generation. Our aim is to explore in a sustainable, affordable, and flexible manner. We believe the principles and roadmap set down in this document will stand the test of time. Its details will be subject to revision and expansion as new discoveries are made, new technologies are applied, and new challenges are met and overcome. This plan is guided by the Administration's new space exploration policy, 'A Renewed Spirit of Discovery: The President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration,' a copy of which is provided on the following pages. NASA is releasing this plan simultaneously with NASA's FY 2005 Budget Justification. This plan is fiscally responsible, consistent with the Administration s goal of cutting the budget deficit in half within the next five years. I cannot overstate how much NASA will change in the

  19. Aptamer BC007 for neutralization of pathogenic autoantibodies directed against G-protein coupled receptors: A vision of future treatment of patients with cardiomyopathies and positivity for those autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Wallukat, Gerd; Müller, Johannes; Haberland, Annekathrin; Berg, Sabine; Schulz, Angela; Freyse, Ernst-Joachim; Vetter, Roland; Salzsieder, Eckhard; Kreutz, Reinhold; Schimke, Ingolf

    2016-01-01

    Cardiomyopathies such as idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), Chagas' cardiomyopathy and Peripartum cardiomyopathy present with autoantibodies against G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR-AABs) that agonistically activate their receptors. For the treatment of "agonistic autoantibody diseases" and in particular DCM, the removal of the GPCR-AABs by immunoadsorption (IA) has been studied with convincing patient benefit. To overcome cost and logistics problems of IA, the application of the aptamer BC007 for in vivo neutralization of GPCR-AABs could help. We demonstrate here, that the aptamer neutralized, in vitro, the presently known cardiovascular-pathogenic GPCR-AABs. In spontaneously hypertensive rats, the aptamer demonstrated its GPCR-AAB neutralizing potency in vivo. In the serum of DCM patients, the same GPCR-AAB reduction was achieved when patients were either immunoadsorbed or patient's serum was ex vivo treated with the aptamer. In our view, aptamer BC007 treatment in GPCR-AAB-positive patients would have a comparable benefit as that seen after IA. Not knowing all that interfering with our idea of aptamer-dependent neutralization of GPCR-AABs, the first preliminary steps have been taken for bringing the idea closer to patients.

  20. Neuronal morphology of biological vision: a basis for machine vision (Proceedings Only)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Madan M.

    1992-03-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with the study of the biological vision system and the emulation of some of its mathematical functions, in both the retinal and visual cortex, for the development of a robust computer vision system. This field of research is not only intriguing, but offers a great challenge to systems scientists in the development of functional algorithms. These functional algorithms can be generalized for further studies for fields such as signal processing, control systems and image processing. Our studies are heavily dependent on the use of neuronal layers and the generalized receptive fields. Building blocks of such neuronal layers and receptive fields may lead to the design of better sensors and better computer vision systems. It is hoped that these studies will lead to the development of better artificial vision systems with applications to vision prosthesis for visually impaired persons, robotic vision, medical imaging, medical sensors, industrial automation, remote sensing, space stations and ocean exploration.

  1. Bayesian Vision for Shape Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalobeanu, André

    2004-11-01

    We present a new Bayesian vision technique that aims at recovering a shape from two or more noisy observations taken under similar lighting conditions. The shape is parametrized by a piecewise linear height field, textured by a piecewise linear irradiance field, and we assume Gaussian Markovian priors for both shape vertices and irradiance variables. The modeled observation process, equivalent to rendering, is modeled by a non-affine projection (e.g. perspective projection) followed by a convolution with a piecewise linear point spread function, and contamination by additive Gaussian noise. We assume that the observation parameters are calibrated beforehand. The major novelty of the proposed method consists of marginalizing out the irradiances considered as nuisance parameters, which is achieved by a hierarchy of approximations. This reduces the inference to minimizing an energy that only depends on the shape vertices, and therefore allows an efficient Iterated Conditional Mode (ICM) optimization scheme to be implemented. A Gaussian approximation of the posterior shape density is computed, thus providing estimates of both the geometry and its uncertainty. We illustrate the effectiveness of the new method by shape reconstruction results in a 2D case. A 3D version is currently under development and aims at recovering a surface from multiple images, reconstructing the topography by marginalizing out both albedo and shading.

  2. Machine vision based teleoperation aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, William A.; Gatrell, Lance B.; Spofford, John R.

    1991-01-01

    When teleoperating a robot using video from a remote camera, it is difficult for the operator to gauge depth and orientation from a single view. In addition, there are situations where a camera mounted for viewing by the teleoperator during a teleoperation task may not be able to see the tool tip, or the viewing angle may not be intuitive (requiring extensive training to reduce the risk of incorrect or dangerous moves by the teleoperator). A machine vision based teleoperator aid is presented which uses the operator's camera view to compute an object's pose (position and orientation), and then overlays onto the operator's screen information on the object's current and desired positions. The operator can choose to display orientation and translation information as graphics and/or text. This aid provides easily assimilated depth and relative orientation information to the teleoperator. The camera may be mounted at any known orientation relative to the tool tip. A preliminary experiment with human operators was conducted and showed that task accuracies were significantly greater with than without this aid.

  3. Space environment robot vision system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, H. John; Eichhorn, William L.

    1990-01-01

    A prototype twin-camera stereo vision system for autonomous robots has been developed at Goddard Space Flight Center. Standard charge coupled device (CCD) imagers are interfaced with commercial frame buffers and direct memory access to a computer. The overlapping portions of the images are analyzed using photogrammetric techniques to obtain information about the position and orientation of objects in the scene. The camera head consists of two 510 x 492 x 8-bit CCD cameras mounted on individually adjustable mounts. The 16 mm efl lenses are designed for minimum geometric distortion. The cameras can be rotated in the pitch, roll, and yaw (pan angle) directions with respect to their optical axes. Calibration routines have been developed which automatically determine the lens focal lengths and pan angle between the two cameras. The calibration utilizes observations of a calibration structure with known geometry. Test results show the precision attainable is plus or minus 0.8 mm in range at 2 m distance using a camera separation of 171 mm. To demonstrate a task needed on Space Station Freedom, a target structure with a movable I beam was built. The camera head can autonomously direct actuators to dock the I-beam to another one so that they could be bolted together.

  4. Bayesian Vision for Shape Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalobeanu, Andre

    2004-01-01

    We present a new Bayesian vision technique that aims at recovering a shape from two or more noisy observations taken under similar lighting conditions. The shape is parametrized by a piecewise linear height field, textured by a piecewise linear irradiance field, and we assume Gaussian Markovian priors for both shape vertices and irradiance variables. The observation process. also known as rendering, is modeled by a non-affine projection (e.g. perspective projection) followed by a convolution with a piecewise linear point spread function. and contamination by additive Gaussian noise. We assume that the observation parameters are calibrated beforehand. The major novelty of the proposed method consists of marginalizing out the irradiances considered as nuisance parameters, which is achieved by Laplace approximations. This reduces the inference to minimizing an energy that only depends on the shape vertices, and therefore allows an efficient Iterated Conditional Mode (ICM) optimization scheme to be implemented. A Gaussian approximation of the posterior shape density is computed, thus providing estimates both the geometry and its uncertainty. We illustrate the effectiveness of the new method by shape reconstruction results in a 2D case. A 3D version is currently under development and aims at recovering a surface from multiple images, reconstructing the topography by marginalizing out both albedo and shading.

  5. Machine vision and the OMV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcanulty, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    The orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) is intended to close with orbiting targets for relocation or servicing. It will be controlled via video signals and thruster activation based upon Earth or space station directives. A human operator is squarely in the middle of the control loop for close work. Without directly addressing future, more autonomous versions of a remote servicer, several techniques that will doubtless be important in a future increase of autonomy also have some direct application to the current situation, particularly in the area of image enhancement and predictive analysis. Several techniques are presentet, and some few have been implemented, which support a machine vision capability proposed to be adequate for detection, recognition, and tracking. Once feasibly implemented, they must then be further modified to operate together in real time. This may be achieved by two courses, the use of an array processor and some initial steps toward data reduction. The methodology or adapting to a vector architecture is discussed in preliminary form, and a highly tentative rationale for data reduction at the front end is also discussed. As a by-product, a working implementation of the most advanced graphic display technique, ray-casting, is described.

  6. Colour vision through intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Mäntyjärvi, M; Syrjäkoski, J; Tuppurainen, K; Honkonen, V

    1997-04-01

    Fifty patients aged from 30 to 69 years (mean 54.7 +/- 11.3 years, SD) with a UV-protected monofocal polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lens (IOL) were examined with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue (FM 100) test and the Color Vision Meter 712 anomaloscope. The spectral transmission of the same kind of IOLs as was used surgically was measured with Lambda 2 UV/VIS Spectrometer. In the FM 100 test, there was no significant difference between the results of the IOL eyes and normal eyes. However, the IOL eyes showed better error scores than the normal eyes in the blue-purple box IV in the FM 100 test. In the anomaloscope testing, the Rayleigh (red-green) equation showed no differences between the IOL patients and controls. In the Moreland (blue) equation, however, the mid matching point was significantly shifted towards more green (meaning better blue colour sensitivity) in the IOL eyes than in the control eyes. This is due to the spectral transmission of the IOLs which showed 80-90% transmission already starting at the wavelength of about 420 nm. In comparison, the transmission of the normal human lens reaches those percentages near 500 nm or even further at advanced age.

  7. Peri-Saccadic Natural Vision

    PubMed Central

    Dorr, Michael; Bex, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental role of the visual system is to guide behavior in natural environments. To optimize information transmission, many animals have evolved a non-homogeneous retina and serially sample visual scenes by saccadic eye movements. Such eye movements, however, introduce high-speed retinal motion and decouple external and internal reference frames. Until now, these processes have only been studied with unnatural stimuli, eye movement behavior, and tasks. These experiments confound retinotopic and geotopic coordinate systems and may probe a non-representative functional range. Here we develop a real-time, gaze-contingent display with precise spatiotemporal control over high-definition natural movies. In an active condition, human observers freely watched nature documentaries and indicated the location of periodic narrow-band contrast increments relative to their gaze position. In a passive condition under central fixation, the same retinal input was replayed to each observer by updating the video’s screen position. Comparison of visual sensitivity between conditions revealed three mechanisms that the visual system has adapted to compensate for peri-saccadic vision changes. Under natural conditions we show that reduced visual sensitivity during eye movements can be explained simply by the high retinal speed during a saccade without recourse to an extra-retinal mechanism of active suppression; we give evidence for enhanced sensitivity immediately after an eye movement indicative of visual receptive fields remapping in anticipation of forthcoming spatial structure; and we demonstrate that perceptual decisions can be made in world rather than retinal coordinates. PMID:23325257

  8. CFIT Prevention Using Synthetic Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Parrish, Russell V.

    2003-01-01

    In commercial aviation, over 30-percent of all fatal accidents worldwide are categorized as Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) accidents where a fully functioning airplane is inadvertently flown into the ground, water, or an obstacle. An experiment was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center investigating the presentation of a synthetic terrain database scene to the pilot on a Primary Flight Display (PFD). The major hypothesis for the experiment is that a synthetic vision system (SVS) will improve the pilot s ability to detect and avoid a potential CFIT compared to conventional flight instrumentation. All display conditions, including the baseline, contained a Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) and Vertical Situation Display (VSD) enhanced Navigation Display (ND). Sixteen pilots each flew 22 approach - departure maneuvers in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to the terrain challenged Eagle County Regional Airport (EGE) in Colorado. For the final run, the flight guidance cues were altered such that the departure path went into the terrain. All pilots with a SVS enhanced PFD (12 of 16 pilots) noticed and avoided the potential CFIT situation. All of the pilots who flew the anomaly with the baseline display configuration (which included a TAWS and VSD enhanced ND) had a CFIT event.

  9. Vision Changes, Intelligence, and Aging: Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Edward S.; Eklund, Susan J.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the effects of vision changes commonly associated with aging (e.g., cataract, presbyopia, pupil changes) and examines their relationship to intellectual performance. Discusses variables related to intellectual functioning including motivation, education, test anxiety, and fatigue. (LLL)

  10. Genetics Home Reference: color vision deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... vision problems, which can include increased sensitivity to light (photophobia), involuntary back-and-forth eye movements (nystagmus), ... are found in the retina , which is the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye . ...

  11. One vision of academic nursing centers.

    PubMed

    Esperat, M Christina; Green, Alexia; Acton, Cindy

    2004-01-01

    Reconciling vision, mission, and financial realities into a successful socially responsive endeavor is a challenge for academic nursing centers. A financially viable faculty practice enterprise is a response to this challenge. Entrepreneurial management and strategy assist in establishing financial sustainability.

  12. Computer Vision Assisted Virtual Reality Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, W.

    1999-01-01

    A computer vision assisted semi-automatic virtual reality (VR) calibration technology has been developed that can accurately match a virtual environment of graphically simulated three-dimensional (3-D) models to the video images of the real task environment.

  13. Vision in our three-dimensional world

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Many aspects of our perceptual experience are dominated by the fact that our two eyes point forward. Whilst the location of our eyes leaves the environment behind our head inaccessible to vision, co-ordinated use of our two eyes gives us direct access to the three-dimensional structure of the scene in front of us, through the mechanism of stereoscopic vision. Scientific understanding of the different brain regions involved in stereoscopic vision and three-dimensional spatial cognition is changing rapidly, with consequent influences on fields as diverse as clinical practice in ophthalmology and the technology of virtual reality devices. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269595

  14. Earth science vision: Platform technology challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemmerman, L.; Delin, K.; Hadaegh, F.; Lou, M.; Bhasin, K.; Bristow, J.; Connerton, R.; Pasciuto, M.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced new platform technologies are critical to the realization of the Earth Science Vision in the 2020 timeframe. Examples of the platform technology challenges and current state-of-the-art capabilities are present.

  15. Make the Most of Your Vision

    MedlinePlus

    AMD Macular Degeneration Partnership + Font Size – Home About AMD Dry AMD Wet AMD Experience AMD Living with AMD Take Charge ... Of Your Vision Listen Millions of people have macular degeneration and millions of them continue to do everything ...

  16. 76 FR 55463 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision standard, FMCSA... adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. The first major research... with their vision deficiencies are good predictors of future performance, FMCSA concludes their...

  17. 75 FR 9478 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... records and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision standard... safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially... program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate...

  18. 76 FR 28125 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision standard, FMCSA requires a person to present verifiable evidence that he/she has driven a commercial vehicle safely with the vision deficiency... adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. The first major...

  19. 77 FR 65933 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... driving records and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision... vehicle safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially... program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate...

  20. 78 FR 24296 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... driving records and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision... vehicle safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially... program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate...

  1. 77 FR 541 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision requirement, FMCSA... the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially important in... to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. The first...

  2. 78 FR 34141 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... driving records and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision... vehicle safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially... program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate...

  3. 21 CFR 886.1170 - Color vision tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... or color vision plates (multicolored plates which patients with color vision deficiency would... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Color vision tester. 886.1170 Section 886.1170...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1170 Color vision tester. (a)...

  4. 76 FR 29024 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... records and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision standard... safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially... program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision ] deficiency and will continue to operate...

  5. 78 FR 12811 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... driving records and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision... vehicle safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially... program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate...

  6. 75 FR 4623 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision standard, FMCSA requires a person to present verifiable evidence that he/she has driven a commercial vehicle safely with the vision deficiency... adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. The first major...

  7. 77 FR 51846 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... driving records and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision... vehicle safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially... program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate...

  8. 76 FR 20078 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision standard, FMCSA requires a... to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. ] The first major... applicants' ample driving histories with their vision deficiencies are good predictors of future...

  9. 76 FR 5425 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... records and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision standard... safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially... program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate...

  10. 78 FR 9772 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... driving records and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision... vehicle safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially... program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate...

  11. 77 FR 46795 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... driving records and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision... vehicle safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially... program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate...

  12. 77 FR 38386 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... the applicants' vision as well as their driving records and experience with the vision deficiency. To... evidence that he/she has driven a commercial vehicle safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years... as those required by the waiver program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision...

  13. 21 CFR 886.1170 - Color vision tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or color vision plates (multicolored plates which patients with color vision deficiency would... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Color vision tester. 886.1170 Section 886.1170...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1170 Color vision tester. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 886.1170 - Color vision tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... or color vision plates (multicolored plates which patients with color vision deficiency would... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Color vision tester. 886.1170 Section 886.1170...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1170 Color vision tester. (a)...

  15. 78 FR 63307 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... driving records and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision... vehicle safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially... program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate...

  16. 77 FR 27850 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision requirement, FMCSA... the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially important in... to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. The first...

  17. 76 FR 20076 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision standard, FMCSA requires a... to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. The first major... applicants' ample driving histories with their vision deficiencies are good predictors of future...

  18. 21 CFR 886.1170 - Color vision tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or color vision plates (multicolored plates which patients with color vision deficiency would... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Color vision tester. 886.1170 Section 886.1170...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1170 Color vision tester. (a)...

  19. 77 FR 71671 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision requirement, FMCSA... the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially important in... to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. The first...

  20. 76 FR 1499 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision standard, FMCSA requires a... to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. The first major... applicants' ample driving histories with their vision deficiencies are good predictors of future...

  1. 77 FR 59245 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision requirement, FMCSA requires a person to present verifiable evidence that he/she has driven a commercial vehicle safely with the vision deficiency... adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. The first major...

  2. 75 FR 47886 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ...' vision, but also their driving records and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an... driven a commercial vehicle safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving... those required by the waiver program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision deficiency...

  3. 77 FR 33558 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... driving records and experience with the vision deficiency. ] To qualify for an exemption from the vision... vehicle safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially... program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate...

  4. 21 CFR 886.1170 - Color vision tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or color vision plates (multicolored plates which patients with color vision deficiency would... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Color vision tester. 886.1170 Section 886.1170...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1170 Color vision tester. (a)...

  5. 77 FR 13691 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision requirement, FMCSA requires a... to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. The first major... applicants' ample driving histories with their vision deficiencies are good predictors of future...

  6. 77 FR 52391 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision requirement, FMCSA... the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially important in... to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. The first...

  7. 77 FR 71669 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision requirement, FMCSA requires a person to present verifiable evidence that he/she has driven a commercial vehicle safely with the vision deficiency... adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. The first major...

  8. 76 FR 79761 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision requirement, FMCSA... the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially important in... to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate safely. The first...

  9. 77 FR 27845 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... driving records and experience with the vision deficiency. To qualify for an exemption from the vision... vehicle safely with the vision deficiency for the past 3 years. Recent driving performance is especially... program, are also likely to have adapted to their vision deficiency and will continue to operate...

  10. Vision 2030. A Vision for the U.S. Concrete Industry

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2001-01-01

    On September 27, 2000, the concrete industry's Strategic Development Council hosted a Concrete Vision Workshop in Chicago, Illinois. Meeting participants included over 50 concrete, cement, and other allied industry chief executive officers, presidents, vice-presidents, laboratory and industry research managers, and government representatives. Participants discussed the state of the concrete industry 30 years ago, the state of the current industry, and their vision for the United States concrete industry in 2030. Moreover, they identified specific goals to achieve the industry's Vision 2030. This document, Vision 2030, is the product of that workshop and the comments received after a broad industry review.

  11. COHERENT LASER VISION SYSTEM (CLVS) OPTION PHASE

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Clark

    1999-11-18

    The purpose of this research project was to develop a prototype fiber-optic based Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) suitable for DOE's EM Robotic program. The system provides three-dimensional (3D) vision for monitoring situations in which it is necessary to update the dimensional spatial data on the order of once per second. The system has total immunity to ambient lighting conditions.

  12. Marking parts to aid robot vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, J. W.; Barker, L. K.

    1981-01-01

    The premarking of parts for subsequent identification by a robot vision system appears to be beneficial as an aid in the automation of certain tasks such as construction in space. A simple, color coded marking system is presented which allows a computer vision system to locate an object, calculate its orientation, and determine its identity. Such a system has the potential to operate accurately, and because the computer shape analysis problem has been simplified, it has the ability to operate in real time.

  13. New computer-controlled color vision test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladunga, Karoly; Wenzel, Klara; Abraham, Gyorgy

    1999-12-01

    A computer controlled color discrimination test is described which enables rapid testing using selected colors from the color space of normal CRT monitors. We have investigated whether difference sin color discrimination between groups of normal and color deficient observers could be detected using a computer-controlled test of color vision. The test accurately identified the differences between the normal and color deficient groups. New color discrimination test have been developed to more efficiently evaluate color vision.

  14. Colour vision deficiency and physics teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maule, Louise; Featonby, David

    2016-05-01

    1 in 12 males suffer from some form of colour vision deficiency (CVD) which in the present colour dominated world of education presentation can be a severe disadvantage. Although aware of ‘colourblindness’ most teachers make little or no adjustment for these pupils for whom tasks may be more difficult. This article examines colour vision deficiency and looks at ways in which we can help the many students who have this problem.

  15. Indoor Spatial Updating With Impaired Vision

    PubMed Central

    Legge, Gordon E.; Granquist, Christina; Baek, Yihwa; Gage, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Spatial updating is the ability to keep track of position and orientation while moving through an environment. We asked how normally sighted and visually impaired subjects compare in spatial updating and in estimating room dimensions. Methods Groups of 32 normally sighted, 16 low-vision, and 16 blind subjects estimated the dimensions of six rectangular rooms. Updating was assessed by guiding the subjects along three-segment paths in the rooms. At the end of each path, they estimated the distance and direction to the starting location, and to a designated target. Spatial updating was tested in five conditions ranging from free viewing to full auditory and visual deprivation. Results The normally sighted and low-vision groups did not differ in their accuracy for judging room dimensions. Correlations between estimated size and physical size were high. Accuracy of low-vision performance was not correlated with acuity, contrast sensitivity, or field status. Accuracy was lower for the blind subjects. The three groups were very similar in spatial-updating performance, and exhibited only weak dependence on the nature of the viewing conditions. Conclusions People with a wide range of low-vision conditions are able to judge room dimensions as accurately as people with normal vision. Blind subjects have difficulty in judging the dimensions of quiet rooms, but some information is available from echolocation. Vision status has little impact on performance in simple spatial updating; proprioceptive and vestibular cues are sufficient. PMID:27978556

  16. 75 FR 60478 - In the Matter of Certain Machine Vision Software, Machine Vision Systems, and Products Containing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Machine Vision Software, Machine Vision Systems, and Products Containing... importation of certain machine vision software, machine vision systems, or products containing same by reason... Soft'') of Japan; Fuji Machine Manufacturing Co., Ltd. of Japan and Fuji America Corporation of...

  17. Development and Implementation of a Preschool Vision Screening Program in a Mobile Setting: Vision in Preschoolers (VIP) Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NHSA Dialog, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Vision In Preschoolers (VIP) Study, is a multi-phased, multi-center study designed to identify screening tests that best detect vision problems in preschool children. The VIP Study uses mobile medical units that are specially equipped to conduct vision screenings and eye examinations. Known as Vision Vans, these mobile units are staffed by lay…

  18. Computing Optic Flow with ArduEye Vision Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    2 Figure 2. ArduEye vision chip on Stonyman breakout board connected to Arduino Mega (8) (left) and the Stonyman vision chips (7...implementation of vision sensors using an Arduino microcontroller (8). These vision sensors or “vision chips” are similar to regular charge-coupled...acquisition as opposed to performing post-acquisition reduction on the Arduino , saving processing time and memory. This pre-processing property of the

  19. Compact Autonomous Hemispheric Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Walch, Marc J.; Staehle, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Solar System Exploration camera implementations to date have involved either single cameras with wide field-of-view (FOV) and consequently coarser spatial resolution, cameras on a movable mast, or single cameras necessitating rotation of the host vehicle to afford visibility outside a relatively narrow FOV. These cameras require detailed commanding from the ground or separate onboard computers to operate properly, and are incapable of making decisions based on image content that control pointing and downlink strategy. For color, a filter wheel having selectable positions was often added, which added moving parts, size, mass, power, and reduced reliability. A system was developed based on a general-purpose miniature visible-light camera using advanced CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) imager technology. The baseline camera has a 92 FOV and six cameras are arranged in an angled-up carousel fashion, with FOV overlaps such that the system has a 360 FOV (azimuth). A seventh camera, also with a FOV of 92 , is installed normal to the plane of the other 6 cameras giving the system a > 90 FOV in elevation and completing the hemispheric vision system. A central unit houses the common electronics box (CEB) controlling the system (power conversion, data processing, memory, and control software). Stereo is achieved by adding a second system on a baseline, and color is achieved by stacking two more systems (for a total of three, each system equipped with its own filter.) Two connectors on the bottom of the CEB provide a connection to a carrier (rover, spacecraft, balloon, etc.) for telemetry, commands, and power. This system has no moving parts. The system's onboard software (SW) supports autonomous operations such as pattern recognition and tracking.

  20. Introduction to the Hebrew Edition of "Visions of Jewish Education--Medabrim Chazon" (Talking Vision)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzman, Avi; Marom, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The following is a translation of the introduction to "Medabrim Chazon" (Jerusalem: Keter, 2006), the Hebrew translation of "Visions of Jewish Education," edited by Seymour Fox, Israel Scheffler, and Daniel Marom (Cambridge, 2003). "Visions of Jewish Education" is an effort by leading scholars to improve the quality…

  1. The Effect of an On-Site Vision Examination on Adherence to Vision Screening Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Raymond; Huang, Kristine; Barnhardt, Carmen; Chen, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Vision screenings are intended to efficiently identify students with possible visual impairment and initiate a referral for diagnosis and treatment. In many cases, at-risk students do not access the recommended care or experience delays in receiving care. The purpose of this article is to report the effect on adherence to vision screening…

  2. Passive Night Vision Sensor Comparison for Unmanned Ground Vehicle Stereo Vision Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Ken; Matthies, Larry

    2000-01-01

    One goal of the "Demo III" unmanned ground vehicle program is to enable autonomous nighttime navigation at speeds of up to 10 m.p.h. To perform obstacle detection at night with stereo vision will require night vision cameras that produce adequate image quality for the driving speeds, vehicle dynamics, obstacle sizes, and scene conditions that will be encountered. This paper analyzes the suitability of four classes of night vision cameras (3-5 micrometer cooled FLIR, 8-12 micrometer cooled FLIR, 8-12 micrometer uncooled FLIR, and image intensifiers) for night stereo vision, using criteria based on stereo matching quality, image signal to noise ratio, motion blur and synchronization capability. We find that only cooled FLIRs will enable stereo vision performance that meets the goals of the Demo III program for nighttime autonomous mobility.

  3. Vision Voice: A Multimedia Exploration of Diabetes and Vision Loss in East Harlem

    PubMed Central

    Ives, Brett; Nedelman, Michael; Redwood, Charysse; Ramos, Michelle A.; Hughson-Andrade, Jessica; Hernandez, Evelyn; Jordan, Dioris; Horowitz, Carol R.

    2016-01-01

    Background East Harlem, New York, is a community actively struggling with diabetes and its complications, including vision-related conditions that can affect many aspects of daily life. Objectives Vision Voice was a qualitative community-based participatory research (CBPR) study that intended to better understand the needs and experiences of people living with diabetes, other comorbid chronic illnesses, and vision loss in East Harlem. Methods Using photovoice methodology, four participants took photographs, convened to review their photographs, and determined overarching themes for the group’s collective body of work. Lessons Learned Identified themes included effect of decreased vision function on personal independence/mobility and self-management of chronic conditions and the importance of informing community members and health care providers about these issues. The team next created a documentary film that further develops the narratives of the photovoice participants. Conclusions The Vision Voice photovoice project was an effective tool to assess community needs, educate and raise awareness. PMID:26548784

  4. Biophysical Properties of Optogenetic Tools and Their Application for Vision Restoration Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Klapper, Simon D.; Swiersy, Anka; Bamberg, Ernst; Busskamp, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics is the use of genetically encoded light-activated proteins to manipulate cells in a minimally invasive way using light. The most prominent example is channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), which allows the activation of electrically excitable cells via light-dependent depolarization. The combination of ChR2 with hyperpolarizing-light-driven ion pumps such as the Cl− pump halorhodopsin (NpHR) enables multimodal remote control of neuronal cells in culture, tissue, and living animals. Very soon, it became obvious that this method offers a chance of gene therapy for many diseases affecting vision. Here, we will give a brief introduction to retinal function and retinal diseases; optogenetic vision restoration strategies will be highlighted. We will discuss the functional and structural properties of rhodopsin-based optogenetic tools and analyze the potential for the application of vision restoration. PMID:27642278

  5. Vision and quality-of-life.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, G C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship of visual acuity loss to quality of life. DESIGN: Three hundred twenty-five patients with visual loss to a minimum of 20/40 or greater in at least 1 eye were interviewed in a standardized fashion using a modified VF-14, questionnaire. Utility values were also obtained using both the time trade-off and standard gamble methods of utility assessment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Best-corrected visual acuity was correlated with the visual function score on the modified VF-14 questionnaire, as well as with utility values obtained using both the time trade-off and standard gamble methods. RESULTS: Decreasing levels of vision in the eye with better acuity correlated directly with decreasing visual function scores on the modified VF-14 questionnaire, as did decreasing utility values using the time trade-off method of utility evaluation. The standard gamble method of utility evaluation was not as directly correlated with vision as the time trade-off method. Age, level of education, gender, race, length of time of visual loss, and the number of associated systemic comorbidities did not significantly affect the time trade-off utility values associated with visual loss in the better eye. The level of reduced vision in the better eye, rather than the specific disease process causing reduced vision, was related to mean utility values. The average person with 20/40 vision in the better seeing eye was willing to trade 2 of every 10 years of life in return for perfect vision (utility value of 0.8), while the average person with counting fingers vision in the better eye was willing to trade approximately 5 of every 10 remaining years of life (utility value of 0.52) in return for perfect vision. CONCLUSIONS: The time trade-off method of utility evaluation appears to be an effective method for assessing quality of life associated with visual loss. Time trade-off utility values decrease in direct conjunction with decreasing vision in the better

  6. Vision multiplexing: an optical engineering concept for low-vision aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peli, Eli

    2007-09-01

    The normal visual system provides a wide field of view apparently at high resolution. The wide field is continuously monitored at low resolution for navigation and detection of objects of interest. These objects are sampled using the high-resolution fovea, applying a temporal multiplexing scheme. Most vision impairments that cause low vision impact upon only one of the components; the peripheral low-resolution wide field or the central high-resolution fovea. The loss of one of these components prevents the interplay of central and peripheral vision needed for normal function and causes disability. Traditional low-vision aids improve the impacted component, but usually at a cost of a significant loss in the surviving component. For example, magnifying devices increase resolution but reduce the field of view, while minifying devices increase the field of view but reduce resolution. A general optical engineering approach - vision multiplexing - is presented. Vision multiplexing seeks to provide both the wide field of view and the high-resolution information in ways that could be accessed and interpreted by the visual system. The use of various optical and electro-optical methods in the development of a number of new visual aids, all of which apply vision multiplexing to restore the interplay of high-resolution and wide-angle vision using eye movements in a natural way, will be described. Vision-multiplexing devices at various stages of development and testing illustrate the successes and difficulties in applying this approach for patients with tunnel vision, hemianopia (half blindness), and visual acuity loss (usually due to central retinal disease).

  7. Flight Testing an Integrated Synthetic Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications to eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced pathway guidance for transport aircraft. The SVS concept being developed at NASA encompasses the integration of tactical and strategic Synthetic Vision Display Concepts (SVDC) with Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) alerting and display concepts, real-time terrain database integrity monitoring equipment (DIME), and Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS) and/or improved Weather Radar for real-time object detection and database integrity monitoring. A flight test evaluation was jointly conducted (in July and August 2004) by NASA Langley Research Center and an industry partner team under NASA's Aviation Safety and Security, Synthetic Vision System project. A Gulfstream GV aircraft was flown over a 3-week period in the Reno/Tahoe International Airport (NV) local area and an additional 3-week period in the Wallops Flight Facility (VA) local area to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts. The enabling technologies (RIPS, EVS and DIME) were integrated into the larger SVS concept design. This paper presents experimental methods and the high level results of this flight test.

  8. How the diabetic eye loses vision.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Jaime A; Ciulla, Thomas A; McGill, Janet B; Kles, Keri A; Anderson, Pamela W

    2007-08-01

    The objective is to review the most common causes of vision loss in patients with diabetes with the goal of better managing patients with diabetic eye disease. In this review, the causes of vision loss, and the clinical evaluation and management of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) are outlined. Patients with diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of vision loss and blindness. In patients with diabetes, the primary mechanism responsible for vision loss is centrally involved DME or clinically significant macular edema (CSME), defined as vascular leakage resulting in fluid accumulation that affects the center of the macula. DR and DME are thought to result from the effects of excessive blood glucose on the vessels that produces microvascular damage. The progression of DR can be slowed by intensive glycemic and blood pressure control. Severe visual loss from proliferative DR and moderate visual loss from DME can be reduced by laser photocoagulation. DR and DME are diagnosed on dilated retinal examination and confirmed with diagnostic testing. Many experts and associations recommend that patients with diabetes have an yearly, thorough, dilated eye exam. This manuscript describes the case history of a patient with diabetes and vision loss.

  9. [Current views on vision of mammals].

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, T V

    2012-01-01

    In the review, research data are presented on mammals' vision including visual pigments, color and contrast vision, and visual behaviour in different species. It is shown that in course of evolution mammals were gradually losing the elements of daylight cone vision system that are typical of other vertebrates. In monotremes, visual pigments SWS2 (cone blue-sensitive 2) and MWS/LWS (green/red-sensitive) are still present, as well as rod RH1. Theria, except some primates, also have two cone visual pigments: SWS1 (ultraviolet/violet or blue-sensitive 1) and MWS/LWS along with rod RH1. Humans and some other higher primates evolved the new visual pigment, MWS, and acquired trichromatic vision. Marine mammals (cetaceans and pinnipeds) and some species of other orders have lost also the visual pigment SWS1, probably due to specificity of processing the information received by these cones. Current view on mammals' vision with two cone pigments and rods is presented. Data on maximum spectral sensitivity of visual pigments in different species and orders are given along with data on spatial contrast sensation. High visual acuity has been acquired by ungulates, artiodactyls, and primates, while the highest one--by humans with their specialized fovea.

  10. Low vision goggles: optical design studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Ofer; Apter, Boris; Efron, Uzi

    2006-08-01

    Low Vision (LV) due to Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD), Glaucoma or Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a growing problem, which will affect more than 15 million people in the U.S alone in 2010. Low Vision Aid Goggles (LVG) have been under development at Ben-Gurion University and the Holon Institute of Technology. The device is based on a unique Image Transceiver Device (ITD), combining both functions of imaging and Display in a single chip. Using the ITD-based goggles, specifically designed for the visually impaired, our aim is to develop a head-mounted device that will allow the capture of the ambient scenery, perform the necessary image enhancement and processing, and re-direct it to the healthy part of the patient's retina. This design methodology will allow the Goggles to be mobile, multi-task and environmental-adaptive. In this paper we present the optical design considerations of the Goggles, including a preliminary performance analysis. Common vision deficiencies of LV patients are usually divided into two main categories: peripheral vision loss (PVL) and central vision loss (CVL), each requiring different Goggles design. A set of design principles had been defined for each category. Four main optical designs are presented and compared according to the design principles. Each of the designs is presented in two main optical configurations: See-through system and Video imaging system. The use of a full-color ITD-Based Goggles is also discussed.

  11. Description and measurement of handicap caused by vision impairment.

    PubMed

    Keeffe, J E; McCarty, C A; Hassell, J B; Gilbert, A G

    1999-01-01

    To develop an instrument to describe and quantify handicap caused by vision impairment an item pool was derived from focus groups and from a review of vision-related quality-of-life questionnaires. Only items related to handicap were included and grouped into five subscales. The 76-item 'Impact of Vision Impairment' was administered to 95 people who were vision impaired. Content validity was established by consultation with professionals and with people with impaired vision. Forty-six items remained after the elimination of those found to be irrelevant and others with inter-item correlation coefficients of > or = 0.7. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed an association between visual acuity and type and degree of handicap on subscales, except emotional reaction to vision loss, which is related to cause of vision impairment. The instrument is responsive to the level of vision loss and discriminates the different performances of people with different causes of vision loss.

  12. Vision Requirements For Space Station Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouse, Kenneth R.

    1985-12-01

    Video data is used in a wide variety of computer vision tasks. Applications range from mail sorting to medical diagnostics to industrial inspection. For Space Station applications, however, video imagery has certain limitations. Outside a spacecraft the ambient illumination and viewing background can cause problems for a video system. Identifying a satellite at an unknown attitude and distance may be very difficult to do with 2D imagery. Consequently, investigators are looking at other sources of data to supplement or replace video data for vision tasks on the Space Station. Laser systems can provide range information, and laser scanners can provide reflectance and depth information in image format. Yet other approaches are being considered. This paper will discuss some of the advantages of the different approaches in the context of anticipated Space Station applications. The issues associated with the problem of integrating data from various sources to most effectively and efficiently accomplish a given vision task will also be addressed.

  13. Computation and parallel implementation for early vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gualtieri, J. Anthony

    1990-01-01

    The problem of early vision is to transform one or more retinal illuminance images-pixel arrays-to image representations built out of such primitive visual features such as edges, regions, disparities, and clusters. These transformed representations form the input to later vision stages that perform higher level vision tasks including matching and recognition. Researchers developed algorithms for: (1) edge finding in the scale space formulation; (2) correlation methods for computing matches between pairs of images; and (3) clustering of data by neural networks. These algorithms are formulated for parallel implementation of SIMD machines, such as the Massively Parallel Processor, a 128 x 128 array processor with 1024 bits of local memory per processor. For some cases, researchers can show speedups of three orders of magnitude over serial implementations.

  14. A computational model for dynamic vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moezzi, Saied; Weymouth, Terry E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a novel computational model for dynamic vision which promises to be both powerful and robust. Furthermore the paradigm is ideal for an active vision system where camera vergence changes dynamically. Its basis is the retinotopically indexed object-centered encoding of the early visual information. Specifically, the relative distances of objects to a set of referents is encoded in image registered maps. To illustrate the efficacy of the method, it is applied to the problem of dynamic stereo vision. Integration of depth information over multiple frames obtained by a moving robot generally requires precise information about the relative camera position from frame to frame. Usually, this information can only be approximated. The method facilitates the integration of depth information without direct use or knowledge of camera motion.

  15. Visions 2025 and Linkage to NEXT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiscombe, W.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This talk will describe the progress to date on creating a science-driven vision for the NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) in the post-2010 period. This effort began in the Fall of 2001 by organizing five science workgroups with representatives from NASA, academia and other agencies: Long-Term Climate, Medium-Term Climate, Extreme Weather, Biosphere & Ecosystems, and Solid Earth, Ice Sheets, & Sea Level. Each workgroup was directed to scope out one Big Question, including not just the science but the observational and modeling requirements, the information system requirements, and the applications and benefits to society. This first set of five Big Questions is now in hand and has been presented to the ESE Director. It includes: water resources, intraseasonal predictability, tropical cyclogenesis, invasive species, and sea level. Each of these topics will be discussed briefly. How this effort fits into the NEXT vision exercise and into Administrator O'Keefe's new vision for NASA will also be discussed.

  16. Development of a micromachined epiretinal vision prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Stieglitz, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Microsystems engineering offers the tools to develop highly sophisticated miniaturized implants to interface with the nervous system. One challenging application field is the development of neural prostheses to restore vision in persons that have become blind by photoreceptor degeneration due to retinitis pigmentosa. The fundamental work that has been done in one approach is presented here. An epiretinal vision prosthesis has been developed that allows hybrid integration of electronics on one part of a thin and flexible substrate. Polyimide as a substrate material is proven to be non-cytotoxic. Non-hermetic encapsulation with parylene C was stable for at least 3 months in vivo. Chronic animal experiments proved spatially selective cortical activation after epiretinal stimulation with a 25-channel implant. Research results have been transferred successfully to companies that currently work on the medical device approval of these retinal vision prostheses in Europe and in the USA.

  17. VISION: Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Abdellatif M. Yacout; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; David E. Shropshire

    2009-04-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a very complex system that includes considerable dynamic complexity as well as detail complexity. In the nuclear power realm, there are experts and considerable research and development in nuclear fuel development, separations technology, reactor physics and waste management. What is lacking is an overall understanding of the entire nuclear fuel cycle and how the deployment of new fuel cycle technologies affects the overall performance of the fuel cycle. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s systems analysis group is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing and delays in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works and can transition as technologies are changed. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model and some examples of how to use VISION.

  18. Vision 2020 - the right to sight.

    PubMed

    Resnikoff, S; Kocur, I; Etya'ale, D E; Ukety, T O

    2008-09-01

    The unprecedented partnership for onchocerciasis control that followed Merck's decision to donate Mectizan has inspired the formation of a global initiative for the elimination of all avoidable blindness by the year 2020. 'Vision 2020, the Right to Sight', jointly co-ordinated by the World Health Organization's Programme for the Prevention of Blindness and Deafness and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness, was launched in 1999. This initiative's three pillars are disease control, human resource development, and infrastructure development. Vision 2020's achievements to date include the growth of the partnership, to include more than 60 member organizations, the revitalization of prevention activities, the completion of Vision-2020 plans in 40% of all countries and a reduction not only of blindness caused by onchocerciasis but also of blindness caused by trachoma. Cataract remains the leading cause of avoidable blindness.

  19. Development of a micromachined epiretinal vision prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieglitz, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Microsystems engineering offers the tools to develop highly sophisticated miniaturized implants to interface with the nervous system. One challenging application field is the development of neural prostheses to restore vision in persons that have become blind by photoreceptor degeneration due to retinitis pigmentosa. The fundamental work that has been done in one approach is presented here. An epiretinal vision prosthesis has been developed that allows hybrid integration of electronics on one part of a thin and flexible substrate. Polyimide as a substrate material is proven to be non-cytotoxic. Non-hermetic encapsulation with parylene C was stable for at least 3 months in vivo. Chronic animal experiments proved spatially selective cortical activation after epiretinal stimulation with a 25-channel implant. Research results have been transferred successfully to companies that currently work on the medical device approval of these retinal vision prostheses in Europe and in the USA.

  20. VISION: Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob Jacobson; A. M. Yacout; Gretchen Matthern; Steven Piet; David Shropshire; Tyler Schweitzer

    2010-11-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of a set of complex components that work together in unison. In order to support the nuclear renaissance, it is necessary to understand the impacts of changes and timing of events in any part of the fuel cycle system. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s systems analysis group is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing, and changes in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model components and some examples of how to use VISION.

  1. Visual training improves underwater vision in children.

    PubMed

    Gislén, Anna; Warrant, Eric J; Dacke, Marie; Kröger, Ronald H H

    2006-10-01

    Children in a tribe of sea-gypsies from South-East Asia have been found to have superior underwater vision compared to European children. In this study, we show that the improved underwater vision of these Moken children is not due to better contrast sensitivity in general. We also show that European children can achieve the same underwater acuity as the Moken children. After 1 month of underwater training (11 sessions) followed by 4 months with no underwater activities, European children showed improved underwater vision and distinct bursts of pupil constriction. When tested 8 months after the last training session in an outdoor pool in bright sunlight-comparable to light environments in South-East Asia-the children had attained the same underwater acuity as the sea-gypsy children. The achieved performance can be explained by the combined effect of pupil constriction and strong accommodation.

  2. Coevolution of active vision and feature selection.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Kato, Toshifumi; Marocco, Davide; Sauser, Eric

    2004-03-01

    We show that complex visual tasks, such as position- and size-invariant shape recognition and navigation in the environment, can be tackled with simple architectures generated by a coevolutionary process of active vision and feature selection. Behavioral machines equipped with primitive vision systems and direct pathways between visual and motor neurons are evolved while they freely interact with their environments. We describe the application of this methodology in three sets of experiments, namely, shape discrimination, car driving, and robot navigation. We show that these systems develop sensitivity to a number of oriented, retinotopic, visual-feature-oriented edges, corners, height, and a behavioral repertoire to locate, bring, and keep these features in sensitive regions of the vision system, resembling strategies observed in simple insects.

  3. Near real-time stereo vision system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Charles H. (Inventor); Matthies, Larry H. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The apparatus for a near real-time stereo vision system for use with a robotic vehicle is described. The system is comprised of two cameras mounted on three-axis rotation platforms, image-processing boards, a CPU, and specialized stereo vision algorithms. Bandpass-filtered image pyramids are computed, stereo matching is performed by least-squares correlation, and confidence ranges are estimated by means of Bayes' theorem. In particular, Laplacian image pyramids are built and disparity maps are produced from the 60 x 64 level of the pyramids at rates of up to 2 seconds per image pair. The first autonomous cross-country robotic traverses (of up to 100 meters) have been achieved using the stereo vision system of the present invention with all computing done onboard the vehicle. The overall approach disclosed herein provides a unifying paradigm for practical domain-independent stereo ranging.

  4. Filtering and polychromatic vision in mantis shrimps: themes in visible and ultraviolet vision.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Thomas W; Bok, Michael J; Marshall, N Justin; Caldwell, Roy L

    2014-01-01

    Stomatopod crustaceans have the most complex and diverse assortment of retinal photoreceptors of any animals, with 16 functional classes. The receptor classes are subdivided into sets responsible for ultraviolet vision, spatial vision, colour vision and polarization vision. Many of these receptor classes are spectrally tuned by filtering pigments located in photoreceptors or overlying optical elements. At visible wavelengths, carotenoproteins or similar substances are packed into vesicles used either as serial, intrarhabdomal filters or lateral filters. A single retina may contain a diversity of these filtering pigments paired with specific photoreceptors, and the pigments used vary between and within species both taxonomically and ecologically. Ultraviolet-filtering pigments in the crystalline cones serve to tune ultraviolet vision in these animals as well, and some ultraviolet receptors themselves act as birefringent filters to enable circular polarization vision. Stomatopods have reached an evolutionary extreme in their use of filter mechanisms to tune photoreception to habitat and behaviour, allowing them to extend the spectral range of their vision both deeper into the ultraviolet and further into the red.

  5. Filtering and polychromatic vision in mantis shrimps: themes in visible and ultraviolet vision

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Thomas W.; Bok, Michael J.; Marshall, N. Justin; Caldwell, Roy L.

    2014-01-01

    Stomatopod crustaceans have the most complex and diverse assortment of retinal photoreceptors of any animals, with 16 functional classes. The receptor classes are subdivided into sets responsible for ultraviolet vision, spatial vision, colour vision and polarization vision. Many of these receptor classes are spectrally tuned by filtering pigments located in photoreceptors or overlying optical elements. At visible wavelengths, carotenoproteins or similar substances are packed into vesicles used either as serial, intrarhabdomal filters or lateral filters. A single retina may contain a diversity of these filtering pigments paired with specific photoreceptors, and the pigments used vary between and within species both taxonomically and ecologically. Ultraviolet-filtering pigments in the crystalline cones serve to tune ultraviolet vision in these animals as well, and some ultraviolet receptors themselves act as birefringent filters to enable circular polarization vision. Stomatopods have reached an evolutionary extreme in their use of filter mechanisms to tune photoreception to habitat and behaviour, allowing them to extend the spectral range of their vision both deeper into the ultraviolet and further into the red. PMID:24395960

  6. Vision sensing techniques in aeronautics and astronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, E. L.

    1988-01-01

    The close relationship between sensing and other tasks in orbital space, and the integral role of vision sensing in practical aerospace applications, are illustrated. Typical space mission-vision tasks encompass the docking of space vehicles, the detection of unexpected objects, the diagnosis of spacecraft damage, and the inspection of critical spacecraft components. Attention is presently given to image functions, the 'windowing' of a view, the number of cameras required for inspection tasks, the choice of incoherent or coherent (laser) illumination, three-dimensional-to-two-dimensional model-matching, edge- and region-segmentation techniques, and motion analysis for tracking.

  7. [Binocular vision after treatment of retinal detachment].

    PubMed

    Maksymowicz, Małgorzata; Raczyńska, Krystyna; Maksymowicz, Jarosław

    2003-01-01

    The study covered 79 patients after treatment of retinal detachment. Double vision, strabismus and disturbances of eyeballs motility were found. Up to 12 months after intervention, the deterioration of binocular vision was observed in 48.28 to 89.66% of patients, depending on the method used. The majority of disturbances were observed during the first 3 months with tendency to gradual subsidence during consecutive 9 months. A patient, after treatment of retinal detachment, can be qualified to return to work where stereopsis is needed under condition that ophthalmologic examination is done every three months during the first year after operation and than once a year.

  8. The vision of a smart city

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.E.; Bowerman, B.; Braverman, J.; Taylor, J.; Todosow, H.; Von Wimmersperg, U.

    2000-09-28

    The vision of ''Smart Cities'' is the urban center of the future, made safe, secure environmentally green, and efficient because all structures--whether for power, water, transportation, etc. are designed, constructed, and maintained making use of advanced, integrated materials, sensors, electronics, and networks which are interfaced with computerized systems comprised of databases, tracking, and decision-making algorithms. This paper discusses a current initiative being led by the Brookhaven National Laboratory to create a research, development and deployment agenda that advances this vision. This is anchored in the application of new technology to current urban center issues while looking 20 years into the future and conceptualizing a city framework that may exist.

  9. Cockpit Readiness For Night Vision Goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, Marija S.; Scholl, James W.

    1987-09-01

    The introduction of night vision goggles into the cockpit environment may produce incompatibility with existing cockpit optoelectronic instrumentation. The methodology used to identify the origin of the spurious signal is demonstrated with the example of an electronic display. The amount of radiation emitted by a gray body in the wavelength region of goggle sensitivity is calculated. A simple procedure for preflight testing of cockpit instrumentation using a commercially available infrared camera is recommended. Other recommendations include the specification of cockpit instrumentation for compatibility with night vision devices.

  10. Cockpit readiness for night vision goggles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholl, Marija S.; Scholl, James W.

    1987-01-01

    The introduction of night vision goggles into the cockpit environment may produce incompatibility with existing cockpit optoelectronic instrumentation. The methodology used to identify the origin of the spurious signal is demonstrated with the example of an electronic display. The amount of radiation emitted by a gray body in the wavelength region of goggle sensitivity is calculated. A simple procedure for preflight testing of cockpit instrumentation using a commercially available infrared camera is recommended. Other recommendations include the specification of cocklpit instrumentation for compatibility with night vision devices.

  11. Vision models for 3D surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Sunanda

    1992-11-01

    Different approaches to computational stereo to represent human stereo vision have been developed over the past two decades. The Marr-Poggio theory of human stereo vision is probably the most widely accepted model of the human stereo vision. However, recently developed motion stereo models which use a sequence of images taken by either a moving camera or a moving object provide an alternative method of achieving multi-resolution matching without the use of Laplacian of Gaussian operators. While using image sequences, the baseline between two camera positions for a image pair is changed for the subsequent image pair so as to achieve different resolution for each image pair. Having different baselines also avoids the inherent occlusion problem in stereo vision models. The advantage of using multi-resolution images acquired by camera positioned at different baselines over those acquired by LOG operators is that one does not have to encounter spurious edges often created by zero-crossings in the LOG operated images. Therefore in designing a computer vision system, a motion stereo model is more appropriate than a stereo vision model. However, in some applications where only a stereo pair of images are available, recovery of 3D surfaces of natural scenes are possible in a computationally efficient manner by using cepstrum matching and regularization techniques. Section 2 of this paper describes a motion stereo model using multi-scale cepstrum matching for the detection of disparity between image pairs in a sequence of images and subsequent recovery of 3D surfaces from depth-map obtained by a non convergent triangulation technique. Section 3 presents a 3D surface recovery technique from a stereo pair using cepstrum matching for disparity detection and cubic B-splines for surface smoothing. Section 4 contains the results of 3D surface recovery using both of the techniques mentioned above. Section 5 discusses the merit of 2D cepstrum matching and cubic B

  12. Agnosic vision is like peripheral vision, which is limited by crowding.

    PubMed

    Strappini, Francesca; Pelli, Denis G; Di Pace, Enrico; Martelli, Marialuisa

    2017-04-01

    Visual agnosia is a neuropsychological impairment of visual object recognition despite near-normal acuity and visual fields. A century of research has provided only a rudimentary account of the functional damage underlying this deficit. We find that the object-recognition ability of agnosic patients viewing an object directly is like that of normally-sighted observers viewing it indirectly, with peripheral vision. Thus, agnosic vision is like peripheral vision. We obtained 14 visual-object-recognition tests that are commonly used for diagnosis of visual agnosia. Our "standard" normal observer took these tests at various eccentricities in his periphery. Analyzing the published data of 32 apperceptive agnosia patients and a group of 14 posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) patients on these tests, we find that each patient's pattern of object recognition deficits is well characterized by one number, the equivalent eccentricity at which our standard observer's peripheral vision is like the central vision of the agnosic patient. In other words, each agnosic patient's equivalent eccentricity is conserved across tests. Across patients, equivalent eccentricity ranges from 4 to 40 deg, which rates severity of the visual deficit. In normal peripheral vision, the required size to perceive a simple image (e.g., an isolated letter) is limited by acuity, and that for a complex image (e.g., a face or a word) is limited by crowding. In crowding, adjacent simple objects appear unrecognizably jumbled unless their spacing exceeds the crowding distance, which grows linearly with eccentricity. Besides conservation of equivalent eccentricity across object-recognition tests, we also find conservation, from eccentricity to agnosia, of the relative susceptibility of recognition of ten visual tests. These findings show that agnosic vision is like eccentric vision. Whence crowding? Peripheral vision, strabismic amblyopia, and possibly apperceptive agnosia are all limited by crowding, making it

  13. CRALBP supports the mammalian retinal visual cycle and cone vision

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yunlu; Shen, Susan Q.; Jui, Jonathan; Rupp, Alan C.; Byrne, Leah C.; Hattar, Samer; Flannery, John G.; Corbo, Joseph C.; Kefalov, Vladimir J.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the cellular retinaldehyde–binding protein (CRALBP, encoded by RLBP1) can lead to severe cone photoreceptor–mediated vision loss in patients. It is not known how CRALBP supports cone function or how altered CRALBP leads to cone dysfunction. Here, we determined that deletion of Rlbp1 in mice impairs the retinal visual cycle. Mice lacking CRALBP exhibited M-opsin mislocalization, M-cone loss, and impaired cone-driven visual behavior and light responses. Additionally, M-cone dark adaptation was largely suppressed in CRALBP-deficient animals. While rearing CRALBP-deficient mice in the dark prevented the deterioration of cone function, it did not rescue cone dark adaptation. Adeno-associated virus–mediated restoration of CRALBP expression specifically in Müller cells, but not retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, rescued the retinal visual cycle and M-cone sensitivity in knockout mice. Our results identify Müller cell CRALBP as a key component of the retinal visual cycle and demonstrate that this pathway is important for maintaining normal cone–driven vision and accelerating cone dark adaptation. PMID:25607845

  14. Poverty and Proximate Barriers to Learning: Vision Deficiencies, Vision Correction and Educational Outcomes in Rural Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Hannum, Emily; Zhang, Yuping

    2012-09-01

    Uncorrected vision may present a significant barrier to educational mobility in poor communities in low and middle income countries. Focusing on the case of rural Northwest China, we analyze the Gansu Survey of Children and Families (2,000 children; 100 rural villages) and the Gansu Vision Intervention Project (a randomized trial; 19,185 students, 165 schools, two counties). Four main findings emerge: significant unmet need for vision correction; socioeconomic gradients in vision correction; somewhat greater vulnerability to vision problems among higher socioeconomic status and more academically engaged children; and significant favorable effects of vision correction on math and literacy performance and class failure.

  15. 76 FR 25762 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ...] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... decision to renew the exemptions from the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations for 25 individuals. FMCSA has statutory authority to exempt individuals from the...

  16. 77 FR 15184 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... sufficient vision in his right eye and sufficient peripheral vision in his left eye to perform the driving.... Smith Mr. Smith, 47, has had anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in left right eye since 2002. The...

  17. 78 FR 12815 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of applications... individuals for exemption from the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations....

  18. 77 FR 33017 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of applications for... exemption from the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations. If granted,...

  19. 78 FR 10251 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of applications for... exemption from the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations. They are unable...

  20. 75 FR 59793 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of applications... individuals for exemption from the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations....

  1. 77 FR 38379 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... were not recently developed. Six of the applicants were either born with their vision impairments or... a record of safety while driving with their vision impairment, demonstrating the likelihood that... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  2. 75 FR 60862 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Renewals; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ...-0174] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Renewals; Vision AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... decision to renew the exemptions from the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations for 18 individuals. FMCSA has statutory authority to exempt individuals from the...

  3. 78 FR 63302 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... his vision deficiency.'' Mr. Reno reported that he has driven straight trucks for 26 years..., ``Field is stable . . . color vision is normal . . . I believe he is qualified for commercial driving... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  4. 21 CFR 886.5900 - Electronic vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Identification. An electronic vision aid is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that consists of an electronic sensor/transducer intended for use by a patient who has impaired vision or blindness to...

  5. 21 CFR 886.5900 - Electronic vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identification. An electronic vision aid is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that consists of an electronic sensor/transducer intended for use by a patient who has impaired vision or blindness to...

  6. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended for use by a patient who has limited dark adaptation or impaired vision to amplify ambient light....

  7. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended for use by a patient who has limited dark adaptation or impaired vision to amplify ambient light....

  8. Nocturnality constrains morphological and functional diversity in the eyes of reef fishes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ambient light levels are often considered to drive the evolution of eye form and function. Diel activity pattern is the main mechanism controlling the visual environment of teleost reef fish, with day-active (diurnal) fish active in well-illuminated conditions, whereas night-active (nocturnal) fish cope with dim light. Physiological optics predicts several specific evolutionary responses to dim-light vision that should be reflected in visual performance features of the eye. Results We analyzed a large comparative dataset on morphological traits of the eyes in 265 species of teleost reef fish in 43 different families. The eye morphology of nocturnal reef teleosts is characterized by a syndrome that indicates better light sensitivity, including large relative eye size, high optical ratio and large, rounded pupils. Improved dim-light image formation comes at the cost of reduced depth of focus and reduction of potential accommodative lens movement. Diurnal teleost reef fish, released from the stringent functional requirements of dim-light vision have much higher morphological and optical diversity than nocturnal species, with large ranges of optical ratio, depth of focus, and lens accommodation. Conclusions Physical characteristics of the environment are an important factor in the evolution and diversification of the vertebrate eye. Both teleost reef fish and terrestrial amniotes meet the functional requirements of dim-light vision with a similar evolutionary response of morphological and optical modifications. The trade-off between improved dim-light vision and reduced optical diversity may be a key factor in explaining the lower trophic diversity of nocturnal reef teleosts. PMID:22098687

  9. Ultra-Rapid Vision in Birds.

    PubMed

    Boström, Jannika E; Dimitrova, Marina; Canton, Cindy; Håstad, Olle; Qvarnström, Anna; Ödeen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Flying animals need to accurately detect, identify and track fast-moving objects and these behavioral requirements are likely to strongly select for abilities to resolve visual detail in time. However, evidence of highly elevated temporal acuity relative to non-flying animals has so far been confined to insects while it has been missing in birds. With behavioral experiments on three wild passerine species, blue tits, collared and pied flycatchers, we demonstrate temporal acuities of vision far exceeding predictions based on the sizes and metabolic rates of these birds. This implies a history of strong natural selection on temporal resolution. These birds can resolve alternating light-dark cycles at up to 145 Hz (average: 129, 127 and 137, respectively), which is ca. 50 Hz over the highest frequency shown in any other vertebrate. We argue that rapid vision should confer a selective advantage in many bird species that are ecologically similar to the three species examined in our study. Thus, rapid vision may be a more typical avian trait than the famously sharp vision found in birds of prey.

  10. Given time: biology, nature and photographic vision.

    PubMed

    Garlick, Steve

    2009-12-01

    The invention of photography in the early 19th century changed the way that we see the world, and has played an important role in the development of western science. Notably, photographic vision is implicated in the definition of a new temporal relation to the natural world at the same time as modern biological science emerges as a disciplinary formation. It is this coincidence in birth that is central to this study. I suggest that by examining the relationship of early photography to nature, we can gain some insight into the technological and epistemological underpinnings of biological vision. To this end, this article is primarily concerned with the role of photographic technology in the genealogy of biological vision. I argue that photography has always been ambiguously located between art and science, between nature and culture, and between life and death. Hence, while it may be a technological expression of the scientific desire to know and to control nature, photographic vision has continually disrupted and frustrated the ambitions of biological technoscience. The technovision of early biological science illustrates that the elusive temporality of nature has always been central to the production of knowledge of life.

  11. Retinal Processing: Polarization Vision in Teleost Fishes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-26

    a po- Shashar N, Rutledge PS, Cronin TW (1996) Polarization vision in tential channel for communication. Curr Biol 9:755-758 cuttlefish - a concealed...223 McFarland WN, Loew ER (1994) Ultraviolet visual pigments in Shashar N, Hagan R, Boald JG, Hanlon RT (2000) Cuttlefish use marine fishes of the

  12. Making the Localism Vision a Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, Chris

    2010-01-01

    A focus on adult learning has been quietly driving an increase in local activism among those who traditionally have had the least "voice". It is precisely this kind of grassroots activity that will enable the vision of local democracy and the Big Society to be implemented. In this article, the author hopes to show how a focus on adult…

  13. Evaluation of Two Night-Vision Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Twelve legally blind men tested two night-vision devices: one wide-angle light and one with a high-intensity beam. The study concluded that no one night light is best for all individuals and in some cases a smaller angle, high-intensity light may be more useful than a wider angle one. (Author/JDD)

  14. A (Super) Heroic Vision of Leader Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Genie Bingham

    2011-01-01

    This study leads the reader on a learning journey with the heroic metaphors derived from heroic myths of today's pop culture to the views shared by aspiring administrators. Viewing the students' leadership vision of self as hero provided insight to guiding students in their personal leadership journey. By naming and describing self as hero, future…

  15. Low Vision Aids for Visually Impaired Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schurink, J.; Cox, R. F. A.; Cillessen, A. H. N.; van Rens, G. H. M. B.; Boonstra, F. N.

    2011-01-01

    It is a widely accepted belief in clinical practice that children with a visual impairment can profit from the use of a low vision aid (LVA). However, we found a considerable gap in our scientific understanding of LVA use, particularly in young children. This is the reason for the analysis presented in this paper. A selected overview of LVA use in…

  16. Vision Science: Can Rhodopsin Cure Blindness?

    PubMed

    Van Gelder, Russell N; Kaur, Kuldeep

    2015-08-17

    Outer retinal degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world. A new study now demonstrates that ectopic expression of human rhodopsin in the inner retina, mediated by viral gene therapy, can restore light sensitivity and some vision to mice blind from outer retinal degeneration.

  17. Night Vision Goggles Objectives Lens Focusing Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    a different methodology . The second study was prompted by the inconclusiveness of the first study. METHOD - STUDY ONE Observers The trained observers......3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Night Vision Goggles Objectives Lens Focusing Methodology 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  18. Ultraviolet Light: Some Considerations for Vision Stimulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Marie

    1986-01-01

    The article examines evidence of visual impairment caused by excessive amounts of ultraviolet (UV) light. Among considerations when using a source of UV light for vision stimulation are the position of the child and teacher, use of window glass filters or protective glasses, and careful recordkeeping of all UV stimulation. (Author/JW)[

  19. New Visions of Reality: Multimedia and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambron, Sueann

    1986-01-01

    Multimedia is a powerful tool that will change both the way we look at knowledge and our vision of reality, as well as our educational system and the business world. Multimedia as used here refers to the innovation of mixing text, audio, and video through the use of a computer. Not only will there be new products emerging from multimedia uses, but…

  20. A New Vision for Institutional Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swing, Randy L.; Ross, Leah Ewing

    2016-01-01

    A new vision for institutional research is urgently needed if colleges and universities are to achieve their institutional missions, goals, and purposes. The authors advocate for a move away from the traditional service model of institutional research to an institutional research function via a federated network model or matrix network model. When…