... treat nausea, vomiting, and dizziness caused by motion sickness. Dimenhydrinate is in a class of medications called ... mouth with or without food. To prevent motion sickness, the first dose should be taken 30 minutes ...
Girisch, M; Hofbeck, M; Rauch, R; Apitz, C; Sieverding, L
Dimenhydrinate overdosage in a 3(1/2) year-old-girl with dilative cardiomyopathy. Dimenhydrinate (Vomex(R)) is frequently used in the treatment of sickness and vomiting. The symptoms of overdosage present like an anticholinergic syndrome. We report on the clinical findings of an intoxication with dimenhydrinate in a 3(1/2) year-old-girl with functional dilative cardiomyopathy following a congenital left ventricular diverticle. Especially in small children, with the application of 40 mg suppositories once or twice per day the maximum dose of 3.75 mg/kgBW/d is achieved.
Scholtz, Arne-Wulf; Ilgner, Justus; Loader, Benjamin; Pritschow, Bernd W; Weisshaar, Gerhard
The efficacy and safety of the fixed combination of cinnarizine 20 mg and dimenhydrinate 40 mg in the treatment of vertigo of various origins have been investigated in a prospective, noninterventional study involving private practices throughout Germany. A total of 1275 patients with an average age of 61.2 years participated in the study. The vertigo symptoms, measured by a validated mean vertigo score (primary efficacy endpoint) improved by 61 % in the course of the observational period (median: 6 weeks). Concomitant symptoms frequently associated with vertigo such as nausea, vomiting and tinnitus were also markedly reduced by 84, 85 and 51 %, respectively. Overall efficacy has been rated by the physicians as 'very much improved' or 'much improved' in 95 % of the patients. A total of 47 patients (3.7 %) reported 51 adverse drug reactions (all nonserious). The results indicate a good tolerability and efficacy of the fixed combination of cinnarizine and dimenhydrinate in the treatment of vertigo in daily medical practice, which is in line with previous findings of numerous interventional, randomised, double-blind, controlled clinical trials.
Doğan, Nurettin Özgür; Avcu, Nazire; Yaka, Elif; Yılmaz, Serkan; Pekdemir, Murat
The present study aimed to compare the therapeutic efficacy of dimenhydrinate and piracetam in patients with vertigo. A blinded, parallel group, superiority, randomised clinical trial was carried out on patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) with vertigo. Healthy adult patients presenting to the ED with undifferentiated vertigo were included in the study. The efficacy of intravenous dimenhydrinate (100 mg) and intravenous piracetam (2000 mg) for reducing the intensity of vertigo was compared in two randomised treatment groups using a 10-point numeric rating scale (NRS). The determination of NRS scores was performed at presentation and at the 30th minute of presentation, after the study drug was implemented, both in immobile and ambulatory positions. The primary outcome variable was reduction in vertigo intensity documented on the NRS at the 30th minute after medication administration, analysed by intention to treat. A total of 94 patients were included in the randomisation (n=47 in both groups). The baseline NRS scores were 7.55±2.00 in the dimenhydrinate group and 8.19±1.79 in the piracetam group. The changes from baseline for dimenhydrinate and piracetam were 2.92±3.11 and 3.75±3.40 (difference -0.83 (95% CI -2.23 to 0.57)) in the immobile position and were 2.04±3.07 and 2.72±2.91 (difference -0.68 (95% CI -2.03 to 0.67)) in the ambulatory position. Rescue medication need was similar in both treatment groups (p=0.330), and only one adverse reaction was reported. We found no evidence of a difference between dimenhydrinate and piracetam in relieving the symptoms of vertigo. Clinical Trials Registration ID: NCT01890538. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Lamie, Nesrine T; Yehia, Ali M
Simultaneous determination of Dimenhydrinate (DIM) and Cinnarizine (CIN) binary mixture with simple procedures were applied. Three ratio manipulating spectrophotometric methods were proposed. Normalized spectrum was utilized as a divisor for simultaneous determination of both drugs with minimum manipulation steps. The proposed methods were simultaneous constant center (SCC), simultaneous derivative ratio spectrophotometry (S(1)DD) and ratio H-point standard addition method (RHPSAM). Peak amplitudes at isoabsorptive point in ratio spectra were measured for determination of total concentrations of DIM and CIN. For subsequent determination of DIM concentration, difference between peak amplitudes at 250 nm and 267 nm were used in SCC. While the peak amplitude at 275 nm of the first derivative ratio spectra were used in S(1)DD; then subtraction of DIM concentration from the total one provided the CIN concentration. The last RHPSAM was a dual wavelength method in which two calibrations were plotted at 220 nm and 230 nm. The coordinates of intersection point between the two calibration lines were corresponding to DIM and CIN concentrations. The proposed methods were successfully applied for combined dosage form analysis, Moreover statistical comparison between the proposed and reported spectrophotometric methods was applied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... you can buy over the counter include: Brompheniramine (brand names include Children’s Dimetapp Cold) Chlorpheniramine (brand names include Chlor-Trimeton, Actifed Cold) Dimenhydrinate (brand ...
... used as antiemetics. These include: Bismuth subsalicylate (2 brand names: Kaopectate, Pepto-Bismol). It may help treat ... vomiting caused by motion sickness. These include dimenhydrinate (brand name: Dramamine) and meclizine hydrochloride (brand name: Dramamine ...
Thommes, Markus; Kleinebudde, Peter
The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the pelletization process parameters of kappa-carrageenan-containing formulations. The study dealt with the effect of 4 process parameters--screw speed, number of die holes, friction plate speed, and spheronizer temperature--on the pellet properties of shape, size, size distribution, tensile strength, and drug release. These parameters were varied systematically in a 2(4) full factorial design. In addition, 4 drugs--phenacetin, chloramphenicol, dimenhydrinate, and lidocaine hydrochloride--were investigated under constant process conditions. The most spherical pellets were achieved in a high yield by using a large number of die holes and a high spheronizer speed. There was no relevant influence of the investigated process parameters on the size distribution, mechanical stability, and drug release. The poorly soluble drugs, phenacetin and chloramphenicol, resulted in pellets with adequate shape, size, and tensile strength and a fast drug release. The salts of dimenhydrinate and lidocaine affected pellet shape, mechanical stability, and the drug release properties using an aqueous solution of pH 3 as a granulation liquid. In the case of dimenhydrinate, this was attributed to the ionic interactions with kappa-carrageenan, resulting in a stable matrix during dissolution that did not disintegrate. The effect of lidocaine is comparable to the effect of sodium ions, which suppress the gelling of carrageenan, resulting in pellets with fast disintegration and drug release characteristics. The pellet properties are affected by the process parameters and the active pharmaceutical ingredient used.
animals breath- ing a helium-oxygen mix (P02 maintained at 0.2 ATA). Results indicated that increased pressure did not alter the analgesic effect of this...diphenhydramine (Benadryl); the effects of caffeine and dimenhydrinate (Dramamine) were dependent on individual suscepti- bility, and the analgesics produced...34Behavioral Effects of Drugs in the Hyperbaric Environment) ...... ................. ... 17 J. M. Walsh Discussion ................... 23 Chapter II
Leathem, A M
The safety and efficacy of antiemetic drugs used in the treatment of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy are reviewed. Confirmation of the teratogenicity of drugs in humans is difficult; the risk can be estimated from results of cohort studies and case-control studies. The possible teratogenicity of Bendectin (doxylamine succinate and pyridoxine hydrochloride) was studied thoroughly; although the risk was minimal, the drug was withdrawn from the U.S. market. Whether phenothiazines are teratogenic has still not been conclusively determined. A large number of epidemiological studies have not shown meclizine to be teratogenic in humans. More information about metoclopramide is necessary before it can be safely recommended for use during pregnancy. The risks of using dimenhydrinate and diphenhydramine appear to be low. Pyridoxine is considered safe for use during pregnancy, but its efficacy in treating nausea and vomiting has not been determined. The relative efficacy of these agents has not been determined. The available data suggest that meclizine and dimenhydrinate are the antiemetics that present the lowest risk of teratogenicity; meclizine is the drug of first choice. Phenothiazines should be reserved for treating persistent vomiting that threatens the maternal nutritional status.
Nausea and/or vomiting affect 50% of all pregnant women. For most women, this is a self-limited problem which responds well to conservative management. However, there are some situations where the risk to the mother and fetus posed by the illness are greater than the possible risks of teratogenicity of antinauseant drugs. Antihistamines have had the widest testing, and to date, there has been no evidence linking doxylamine, dimenhydrinate or promethazine to congenital malformations. Since no available drugs have official approval for use in nausea and vomiting of pregnancy the physician is left alone to make this difficult decision. PMID:21279128
Gralla, E.J.; Krupp, J.H.; Mattsson, J.L.
An animal model of irradiation-induced emesis was developed which involved exposing young male beagle dogs to 800 rads in the abdominal area. This caused a 100% incidence of emesis within 8 hr and a second wave of emesis and hemorrhagic diarrhea approximately 48 hr later. Seven drugs and one combination of two drugs were examined for effects against these responses. Chlorpromazine proved to be the most potent antagonist of first-stage emesis while dimenhydrinate and diphenhydramine HC1 showed the same activity but to a lesser degree. Inactive drugs were phenytoin sodium, perphenazine (at a low dose), WR2721, and the combination ofmore » amphetamine plus scopolamine. Acetylsalicylic acid intensified the emetic responses. (Author)« less
Gralla, E.J.; Sabo, J.P.; Hayden, D.W.
An animal model of irradiation-induced emesis was developed by exposing the abdominal area of young beagle dogs to 800 rad. A 100% incidence of emesis occurred within 2 hr followed by a second wave of emesis, anorexia, and hemorrhagic diarrhea aproximately 48 hr later. Seven individual drugs and one combination of two drugs were examined for antagonistic effects against the first-stage emesis. Chlorpromazine proved to be the most potent antagonist, while dimenhydrinate and diphenhydramine showed the same activity but to a lesser degree. Inactive drugs were phenytoin sodium, perphenazine (at a low dose), WR2721, and the combination of amphetamine plusmore » scopolamine. Acetylsalicyclic acid adversely intensified the emesis. These results suggest that CNS-active agents are potentially more effective in counteracting first-stage emesis.« less
Wood, C. D.; Manno, J. E.; Manno, B. R.; Redetzki, H. M.; Wood, M. J.
The effects of antimotion-sickness drugs on the performance in computerized-pursuit-meter tests of groups of ten 18-30-yr-old male and female subjects are investigated experimentally using double-blind placebo techniques. The results are presented in tables and graphs and discussed in detail. The proficiency scores are as good as or better than placebo values for subjects given d-amphetamine (DA) 5 or 10 mg, promethazine (P) 25 mg + scopolamine (S) 400 ng + DA 10 mg, S 1 mg + DA 10 mg, S 250-600 ng, marezine 50 mg, meclizine 50 mg, dimenhydrinate 50 mg, S 1 mg + DA 5 mg, or P 25 mg + DA 10 mg. Significantly lower scores are seen in subjects given S 800 ng or 1 mg, P 25 mg (oral or IM), P 25 mg + S 400 ng, and P 25 mg oral + P 25 mg IM + DA 10 mg.
Wood, C. D.; Manno, J. E.; Wood, M. J.; Manno, B. R.; Mims, M. E.
Ginger and several other medications were compared with scopolamine and d-amphetamine for effectiveness in prevention of motion sickness. Methods: Double-blind techniques were used. The subjects were given the medications two hours before they were rotated in a chair making head movements until a symptom total short of vomiting was reached. Standardized N.A.S.A. techniques were used for speed of rotation and end-point of motion sickness. Results: The three doses of ginger were all at the placebo level of efficacy. Amitriptyline, ethopropazine and trihexyphenidyl increased the tolerated head movements but the increase was not statistically significant. Significant levels of protection were produced by dimenhydrinate, promethazine, scopolamine and d-amphetamine. Protection was further increased by combination of these latter drugs with d-amphetamine. Efficacy was greatest as the dose was increased. Conclusions: The medication of choice in this study was scopolamine 0.6 mg with d-amphetamine 10 mg. This combination provided good protection with acceptable side effects.
Wood, C. D.; Stewart, J. J.; Wood, M. J.; Manno, J. E.; Manno, B. R.
In addition to nausea and vomiting, motion sickness involves slowing of brain waves, loss of performance, inhibition of gastric motility and the Sopite Syndrome. The therapeutic effects of antimotion sickness drugs on these reactions were evaluated. The subjects were rotated to the M-III end-point of motion sickness. Intramuscular (IM) medications were then administered. Side effects before and after rotation were reported on the Cornell Medical Index. Brain waves were recorded on a Grass Model 6 Electroencephalograph (EEG), and gastric emptying was studied after an oral dose of 1 mCi Technetium 99m DTPA in 10 oz. isotonic saline. An increase in dizziness and drowsiness was reported with placebo after rotation. This was not prevented by IM scopolamine 0.1 mg or ephedrine 25 mg. EEG recordings indicated a slowing of alpha waves with some thea and delta waves from the frontal areas after rotation. IM ephedine and dimenhydrinate counteracted the slowing while 0.3 mg scopolamine had an additive effect. Alterations of performance on the pursuit meter correlated with the brain wave changes. Gastric emptying was restored by IM metoclopramide. Ephedrine IM but not scopolamine is effective for some of the secondary effects of motion sickness after it is established.
Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy can have serious adverse effects on the quality of a woman's life, affecting her occupational, social, and domestic functioning, and her general well-being; therefore, it is very important to treat this condition appropriately and effectively. Evidence-based algorithms support the use of oral pyridoxine alone or combined with doxylamine as first-line treatment. Promethazine or dimenhydrinate, known as a second-line treatment, should be added to the first-line treatment or should be added only to pyridoxine according to different algorithms. In most of the world, there is a lack of approved medicines using this combination approach known as the first-line treatment. Therefore, compounding pharmacists should supply the demand by compounding 10-mg pyridoxine hydrochloride and 10-mg doxylamine succinate slow-release capsules. Since transdermal promethazine does not exist world wide, and, since this medicine has significant added values compared to the oral/rectal dosage forms, compounding pharmacists should offer physicians transdermal promethazine as a second-line therapy in nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. This review summarizes the nausea and vomiting in pregnancy problems and discusses the compounding opportunities that exist in this common and wide-spread pathology in order to improve a woman's quality of life.
Gupta, Vinod Kumar
Motion sickness is a common and distressing but poorly understood syndrome associated with nausea/vomiting and autonomic nervous system accompaniments that develops in the air or space as well as on sea or land. A bidirectional aetiologic link prevails between migraine and motion-sickness. Motion sickness provokes jerk nystagmus induced by both optokinetic and vestibular stimulation. Fixation of gaze or closure of eyes generally prevents motion sickness while vestibular otolithic function is eliminated in microgravity of space, indicating a predominant pathogenetic role for visuo-sensory input. Scopolamine, dimenhydrinate, and promethazine reduce motion-related nystagmus. Contraction of extraocular muscles generates proprioceptive neural traffic and can provoke an ocular hypertensive response. It is proposed that repetitive contractions of the extraocular muscles during motion-related jerk nystagmus rapidly augment brain stem afferent input by increasing proprioceptive neural traffic through connections of the oculomotor nerves with the ophthalmic nerve in the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus as well as by raising the intraocular pressure thereby stimulating anterior segment ocular trigeminal nerve fibers. This verifiable hypothesis defines the pathophysiological basis of individual susceptibility to motion sickness, elucidates the preventive mechanism of gaze fixation or ocular closure, advances the aetiologic link between MS and migraine, rationalizes the mechanism of known preventive drugs, and explores new therapeutic possibilities.
Bimpong-Buta, Nana-Yaw; Jirak, Peter; Wernly, Bernhard; Lichtenauer, Michael; Masyuk, Maryna; Muessig, Johanna Maria; Braun, Kristina; Kaya, Sema; Kelm, Malte; Jung, Christian
In weightlessness, alterations in organ systems have been reported. The microcirculation consists of a network of blood vessels with diameters of a few μm. It is considered the largest part of the circulatory system of the human body and essential for exchange of gas, nutrients and waste products. An investigation of the microcirculation in weightlessness seems warranted but has not yet been performed. In this paper, we outline a study in which we will investigate the possible interrelations between weightlessness and microcirculation. We will induce weightlessness in the course of parabolic flight maneuvers, which will be conducted during a parabolic flight campaign. In this study protocol also an evaluation of a possible influence of parabolic flight premedication on microcirculation will be described. The microcirculation will be investigated by sublingual intravital measurements applying sidestream darkfield microscopy. Parameters of macrocirculation such as heart rate, blood pressure and blood oxygenation will also be investigated. In our pre-study experiments, neither dimenhydrinate nor scopolamine altered microcirculation. As the application of motion sickness therapy did not alter microcirculation, it will be applied during the parabolic flight maneuvers of the campaign. Our results might deepen the understanding of microcirculation on space missions and on earth.
Basta, Dietmar; Borsellino, Liliana; Ernst, Arne
Vestibular rehabilitation using individualized vibrotactile neurofeedback training (IVNT) can lead to significant improvement in the postural stability of patients with vestibular symptoms of different origins. However, some of these patients have complex, severe dizziness, meaning that a pharmacological pretreatment or parallel (to vestibular rehabilitation) treatment can help them perform the rehabilitation exercises. Hence, the present study investigated the influence of a pharmacological treatment on the efficacy of vibrotactile neurofeedback training in patients with chronic, noncompensated vestibulopathies. All participants performed IVNT for ∼10 min each day for 2 weeks. In addition, every second participant was selected randomly to receive oral medication (20 mg cinnarizine and 40 mg dimenhydrinate per tablet), taking three tables per day. Trunk and ankle sway and postural stability were measured. In addition, the dizziness handicap inventory was evaluated immediately before training on the last day of training and 6 months after training. After the 10-day period of IVNT, both groups showed a statistically significant improvement in all parameters tested. A follow-up analysis after 6 months showed a long-term efficacy for the IVNT, that is, the patients remained significantly improved in their postural stability. The antivertiginous therapy did not hinder the efficacy of the IVNT. The present results indicate that IVNT even in combination with an antivertiginous drug therapy is an effective treatment regime for patients with disabling vertigo of different origins.
Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) has a high incidence in children and requires prophylactic and therapeutic strategies. PONV can be reduced by the avoidance of nitrous oxide, volatile anesthetics, and the reduction of postoperative opioids. The use of dexamethasone, 5-HT3 antagonists, or droperidol alone is potent, but combinations are even more effective to reduce PONV. Droperidol has a Food and Drug Administration warning. Hence, dexamethasone and 5-HT3 antagonists should be preferred as prophylactic drugs. It is further reasonable to adapt PONV prophylaxis to different risk levels. Prolonged surgery time, inpatients, types of surgery (e.g. strabismus and ear-nose-throat surgery), and patients with PONV in history should be treated as high risk, whereas short procedures and outpatients are to be treated as low risk. Concluding from the existing guidelines and data on the handling of PONV in children at least 3 years, the following recommendations are given: outpatients undergoing small procedures should receive a single prophylaxis, outpatients at high risk a double prophylaxis, inpatients with surgery time of more than 30 min and use of postoperative opioids should get double prophylaxis, and inpatients receiving a high-risk surgical procedure or with other risk factors a triple prophylaxis (two drugs and total intravenous anesthesia). Dimenhydrinate can be used as a second choice, whereas droperidol and metoclopramide can only be recommended as rescue therapy.
Walther, Leif Erik
This paper will discuss therapeutic possibilities for disorders of the vestibular organs and the neurons involved, which confront ENT clinicians in everyday practice. Treatment of such disorders can be tackled either symptomatically or causally. The possible strategies for restoring the body's vestibular sense, visual function and co-ordination include medication, as well as physical and surgical procedures. Prophylactic or preventive measures are possible in some disorders which involve vertigo (bilateral vestibulopathy, kinetosis, height vertigo, vestibular disorders when diving (Tables 1 (Tab. 1) and 2 (Tab. 2)). Glucocorticoid and training therapy encourage the compensation of unilateral vestibular loss. In the case of a bilateral vestibular loss, it is important to treat the underlying disease (e.g. Cogan's disease). Although balance training does improve the patient's sense of balance, it will not restore it completely. In the case of Meniere's disease, there are a number of medications available to either treat bouts or to act as a prophylactic (e.g. dimenhydrinate or betahistine). In addition, there are non-ablative (sacculotomy) as well as ablative surgical procedures (e.g. labyrinthectomy, neurectomy of the vestibular nerve). In everyday practice, it has become common to proceed with low risk therapies initially. The physical treatment of mild postural vertigo can be carried out quickly and easily in outpatients (repositioning or liberatory maneuvers). In very rare cases it may be necessary to carry out a semicircular canal occlusion. Isolated disturbances of the otolith function or an involvement of the otolith can be found in roughly 50% of labyrinth disturbances. A specific surgical procedure to selectively block the otolith organs is currently being studied. When an external perilymph fistula involving loss of perilymph is suspected, an exploratory tympanotomy involving also the round and oval window niches must be carried out. A traumatic rupture of
Cheung, Bob; Nakashima, Ann M; Hofer, Kevin D
Blood flow changes and inactivity associated with motion sickness appear to exacerbate the rate of core temperature decrease during subsequent body cooling. We investigated the effects of various classes of anti-motion sickness drugs on core temperature changes. There were 12 healthy male and female subjects (20-35 yr old) who were given selected classes of anti-motion sickness drugs prior to vestibular Coriolis cross coupling induced by graded yaw rotation and periodic pitch-forward head movements in the sagittal plane. All subjects were then immersed in water at 18 degrees C for a maximum of 90 min or until their core temperature reached 35 degrees C. Double-blind randomized trials were administered, including a placebo, a non-immersion control with no drug, and six anti-motion sickness drugs: meclizine, dimenhydrinate, chlorpheniramine, promethazine + dexamphetamine, promethazine + caffeine, and scopolamine + dexamphetamine. A 7-d washout period was observed between trials. Core temperature and the severity of sickness were monitored throughout each trial. A repeated measures design was performed on the severity of sickness and core temperature changes prior to motion provocation, immediately after the motion sickness end point, and throughout the period of cold-water immersion. The most effective anti-motion sickness drugs, promethazine + dexamphetamine (with a sickness score/duration of 0.65 +/- 0.17) and scopolamine + dexamphetamine (with a sickness score/duration of 0.79 +/- 0.17), significantly attenuated the decrease in core temperature. The effect of this attenuation was lower in less effective drugs. Our results suggest that the two most effective anti-motion sickness drugs are also the most effective in attenuating the rate of core temperature decrease.
Kim, Min-Beom; Lee, Hyun S; Ban, Jae H
To investigate the characteristics of residual symptoms and to evaluate the effects of adjuvant vestibular suppressants on residual symptoms after successful canalith repositioning procedures (CRPs). Individual randomized controlled trial. One hundred fifty patients with idiopathic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo who achieved successful CRPs on initial visit participated in this study. Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) questionnaires were completed before CRPs. All study populations were divided into three groups after successful CRPs on the initial visit day: the medication (V) group (treated with a vestibular suppressant [dimenhydrinate 50 mg per day]), the placebo (P) group, and the no medication (N) group. One week after successful CRPs, residual symptoms were checked and repeated DHI questionnaires were completed to compare residual symptoms. Among the 138 patients who did not show positional nystagmus at follow-up, 67 (48.5%) complained of residual symptoms. The presence of residual symptoms was more prevalent in the P and N group compared with the V group (P = .035, P = .017, respectively). The most frequent residual symptom was lightheadedness (n = 42). Moreover, in the V group, lightheadedness was significantly reduced compared with the P group (P = .029). However, in the analysis of DHI, total and subscale scores did not differ across the three groups before or after successful CRP. Vestibular suppressants significantly reduced residual symptoms compared to both placebo and no medication after CRP. However, there was no significant reduction in DHI score compared with the control group, suggesting that the residual symptoms could not be evaluated by DHI score alone. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Fejzo, Marlena S.; Magtira, Aromalyn; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik; MacGibbon, Kimber; Mullin, Patrick; Romero, Roberto; Tabsh, Khalil
Objective The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of adverse perinatal outcome in women with hyperemesis gravidarum and identify prognostic factors. Study design This is a case-control study in which outcomes of first pregnancies were compared between 254 women with hyperemesis gravidarum treated with intravenous fluids and 308 controls. Prognostic factors were identified by comparing the clinical profile of patients with hyperemesis gravidarum with a normal and an adverse pregnancy outcome. Binary responses were analyzed using either a Chi-square or Fisher exact test and continuous responses were analyzed using a t-test. Results Women with hyperemesis gravidarum have over a 4-fold increased risk of poor outcome including preterm birth and lower birth weight (p < 0.0001). Among maternal characteristics, only gestational hypertension had an influence on outcome (p < 0.0001). Treatment as an outpatient and/or by alternative medicine (acupuncture/acupressure/Bowen massage) was associated with a positive outcome (p < 0.0089). Poor outcomes were associated with early start of symptoms (p < 0.019), and treatment with methylprednisolone (p < 0.0217), promethazine (p < 0.0386), and other antihistamines [diphenhy- dramine (Benadryl), dimenhydrinate (Gravol), doxylamine (Unisom), hydroxyzine (Vistaril/Atarax), doxylamine and pyridoxine (Diclectin/Bendectin)] (p < 0.0151) independent of effectiveness. Among these medications, only the other antihistamines were prescribed independent of severity: they were effective in less than 20% of cases and were taken by almost 50% of patients with an adverse outcome. Conclusion Poor outcomes are significantly greater in women with HG and are associated with gestational hypertension, early symptoms, and antihistamine use. Given these results, there is an urgent need to address the safety and effectiveness of medications containing antihistamines in women with severe nausea of pregnancy. PMID:23751910
Nobel, Gerard; Tribukait, Arne; Mekjavic, Igor B; Eiken, Ola
Motion sickness (MS) exaggerates body cooling during cold-water immersion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether such MS-induced predisposition to hypothermia is influenced by two anti-MS drugs: the histamine-receptor blocker dimenhydrinate (DMH) and the muscarine-receptor blocker scopolamine (Scop). Nine healthy male subjects were immersed in 15 degrees C water for a maximum of 90min in five conditions: (1) control (CN): no medication, no MS provocation; (2) MS-control (MS-CN): no medication, MS provocation; (3) MS-placebo (MS-P): placebo DMH and placebo Scop, MS provocation; (4) MS-DMH: DMH and placebo Scop, MS provocation; (5) MS-Scop: Scop and placebo DMH, MS provocation. MS was induced by use of a rotating chair. Throughout the experiments rectal temperature (T(re)), the difference in temperature between the non-immersed right forearm and third finger (T(ff)) as an index of peripheral vasoconstriction, and oxygen uptake (VO(2)) as a measure of shivering thermogenesis, were recorded. DMH and Scop were similarly efficacious in ameliorating nausea. The fall in T(re) was greater in the MS-CN and MS-P conditions than in the CN condition. DMH, but not Scop, prevented the MS-induced increase in body-core cooling. MS attenuated the cold-induced vasoconstriction, an effect which was fully prevented by DMH but only partially by Scop. MS provocation did not affect VO(2) in any condition. The results suggest that the MS-induced predisposition to hypothermia is predominantly mediated by histaminergic mechanisms and that DMH might be useful in conjunction with maritime accidents or other scenarios where exposure to cold and MS are imminent features. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mansour, Fatima; Al-Hindi, Mahmoud; Saad, Walid; Salam, Darine
The impact of residual pharmaceuticals on the aquatic environment has gained widespread attention over the past years. Various studies have established the occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in different water bodies throughout the world. In view of the absence of occurrence data in a number of developing world countries, and given the limited availability of analytical resources in these countries, it is prudent to devise methodologies to prioritize pharmaceuticals for environmental monitoring purposes that are site specific. In this work, several prioritization approaches are used to rank the 88 most commonly consumed pharmaceuticals in Lebanon. A simultaneous multi-criteria decision analysis method utilizing the exposure, persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity (EPBT) approach is applied to a smaller subset of the original list (69 pharmaceuticals). Several base cases are investigated and sensitivity analysis is applied to one of these base case runs. The similarities and differences in the overall ranking of individual, and classes of, pharmaceuticals for the base cases and the sensitivity runs are elucidated. An environmental risk assessment (ERA), where predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) and risk quotients (RQ) are determined at different dilution factors, is performed as an alternative method of prioritization for a total of 84 pharmaceuticals. The ERA results indicate that metformin and amoxicillin have the highest PECs while 17β-estradiol, naftidrofuryl and dimenhydrinate have the highest RQs. The two approaches, EPBT prioritization and ERA, are compared and a priority list consisting of 26 pharmaceuticals of various classes is developed. Nervous system and alimentary tract and metabolism pharmaceuticals (9/26 and 5/26 respectively) constitute more than half of the numbers on the priority list with the balance consisting of anti-infective (4/26), musculo-skeletal (3/26), genito-urinary (2/26), respiratory (2/26) and cardiovascular (1
Karkos, P D; Leong, S C; Arya, A K; Papouliakos, S M; Apostolidou, M T; Issing, W J
To assess the evidence surrounding the use of certain complementary supplements in otolaryngology. We specifically focussed on four commonly used supplements: spirulina, Ginkgo biloba, Vertigoheel and nutritional supplements (cod liver oil, multivitamins and pineapple enzyme). A systematic review of the English and foreign language literature. in vivo human studies. animal trials, in vitro studies and case reports. We also excluded other forms of 'alternative medicine' such as reflexology, acupuncture and other homeopathic remedies. Lack of common outcome measures prevented a formal meta-analysis. Three studies on the effects of spirulina in allergy, rhinitis and immunomodulation were found. One was a double-blind, placebo, randomised, controlled trial (RCT) of patients with allergic rhinitis, demonstrating positive effects in patients fed spirulina for 12 weeks. The other two studies, although non-randomised, also reported a positive role for spirulina in mucosal immunity. Regarding the use of Ginkgo biloba in tinnitus, a Cochrane review published in 2004 showed no evidence for this. The one double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that followed confirmed this finding. Regarding the use of Vertigoheel in vertigo, two double-blind RCTs and a meta-analysis were identified. The first RCT suggested that Vertigoheel was equally effective in reducing the severity, duration and frequency of vertigo compared with betahistine. The second RCT suggested that Vertigoheel was a suitable alternative to G. biloba in the treatment of atherosclerosis-related vertigo. A meta-analysis of only four clinical trials confirms that Vertigoheel was equally effective compared with betahistine, G. biloba and dimenhydrinate. Regarding multivitamins and sinusitis, two small paediatric pilot studies reported a positive response for chronic sinusitis and otitis media following a course of multivitamins and cod liver oil. Regarding bromelain (pineapple enzyme) and sinusitis, one randomised