New numerical solutions of three-dimensional compressible hydrodynamic convection. [in stars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hossain, Murshed; Mullan, D. J.
1990-01-01
Numerical solutions of three-dimensional compressible hydrodynamics (including sound waves) in a stratified medium with open boundaries are presented. Convergent/divergent points play a controlling role in the flows, which are dominated by a single frequency related to the mean sound crossing time. Superposed on these rapid compressive flows, slower eddy-like flows eventually create convective transport. The solutions contain small structures stacked on top of larger ones, with vertical scales equal to the local pressure scale heights, H sub p. Although convective transport starts later in the evolution, vertical scales of H sub p are apparently selected at much earlier times by nonlinear compressive effects.
2-dimensional implicit hydrodynamics on adaptive grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stökl, A.; Dorfi, E. A.
2007-12-01
We present a numerical scheme for two-dimensional hydrodynamics computations using a 2D adaptive grid together with an implicit discretization. The combination of these techniques has offered favorable numerical properties applicable to a variety of one-dimensional astrophysical problems which motivated us to generalize this approach for two-dimensional applications. Due to the different topological nature of 2D grids compared to 1D problems, grid adaptivity has to avoid severe grid distortions which necessitates additional smoothing parameters to be included into the formulation of a 2D adaptive grid. The concept of adaptivity is described in detail and several test computations demonstrate the effectivity of smoothing. The coupled solution of this grid equation together with the equations of hydrodynamics is illustrated by computation of a 2D shock tube problem.
A weakly-compressible Cartesian grid approach for hydrodynamic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bigay, P.; Oger, G.; Guilcher, P.-M.; Le Touzé, D.
2017-11-01
The present article aims at proposing an original strategy to solve hydrodynamic flows. In introduction, the motivations for this strategy are developed. It aims at modeling viscous and turbulent flows including complex moving geometries, while avoiding meshing constraints. The proposed approach relies on a weakly-compressible formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations. Unlike most hydrodynamic CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) solvers usually based on implicit incompressible formulations, a fully-explicit temporal scheme is used. A purely Cartesian grid is adopted for numerical accuracy and algorithmic simplicity purposes. This characteristic allows an easy use of Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) methods embedded within a massively parallel framework. Geometries are automatically immersed within the Cartesian grid with an AMR compatible treatment. The method proposed uses an Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) adapted to the weakly-compressible formalism and imposed smoothly through a regularization function, which stands as another originality of this work. All these features have been implemented within an in-house solver based on this WCCH (Weakly-Compressible Cartesian Hydrodynamic) method which meets the above requirements whilst allowing the use of high-order (> 3) spatial schemes rarely used in existing hydrodynamic solvers. The details of this WCCH method are presented and validated in this article.
Bulk hydrodynamic stability and turbulent saturation in compressing hot spots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2018-04-01
For hot spots compressed at constant velocity, we give a hydrodynamic stability criterion that describes the expected energy behavior of non-radial hydrodynamic motion for different classes of trajectories (in ρR — T space). For a given compression velocity, this criterion depends on ρR, T, and d T /d (ρR ) (the trajectory slope) and applies point-wise so that the expected behavior can be determined instantaneously along the trajectory. Among the classes of trajectories are those where the hydromotion is guaranteed to decrease and those where the hydromotion is bounded by a saturated value. We calculate this saturated value and find the compression velocities for which hydromotion may be a substantial fraction of hot-spot energy at burn time. The Lindl (Phys. Plasmas 2, 3933 (1995)] "attractor" trajectory is shown to experience non-radial hydrodynamic energy that grows towards this saturated state. Comparing the saturation value with the available detailed 3D simulation results, we find that the fluctuating velocities in these simulations reach substantial fractions of the saturated value.
CASTRO: A NEW COMPRESSIBLE ASTROPHYSICAL SOLVER. II. GRAY RADIATION HYDRODYNAMICS
Zhang, W.; Almgren, A.; Bell, J.
We describe the development of a flux-limited gray radiation solver for the compressible astrophysics code, CASTRO. CASTRO uses an Eulerian grid with block-structured adaptive mesh refinement based on a nested hierarchy of logically rectangular variable-sized grids with simultaneous refinement in both space and time. The gray radiation solver is based on a mixed-frame formulation of radiation hydrodynamics. In our approach, the system is split into two parts, one part that couples the radiation and fluid in a hyperbolic subsystem, and another parabolic part that evolves radiation diffusion and source-sink terms. The hyperbolic subsystem is solved explicitly with a high-order Godunovmore » scheme, whereas the parabolic part is solved implicitly with a first-order backward Euler method.« less
Hydrodynamic compression of young and adult rat osteoblast-like cells on titanium fiber mesh.
Walboomers, X F; Elder, S E; Bumgardner, J D; Jansen, J A
2006-01-01
Living bone cells are responsive to mechanical loading. Consequently, numerous in vitro models have been developed to examine the application of loading to cells. However, not all systems are suitable for the fibrous and porous three-dimensional materials, which are preferable for tissue repair purposes, or for the production of tissue engineering scaffolds. For three-dimensional applications, mechanical loading of cells with either fluid flow systems or hydrodynamic pressure systems has to be considered. Here, we aimed to evaluate the response of osteoblast-like cells to hydrodynamic compression, while growing in a three-dimensional titanium fiber mesh scaffolding material. For this purpose, a custom hydrodynamic compression chamber was built. Bone marrow cells were obtained from the femora of young (12-day-old) or old (1-year-old) rats, and precultured in the presence of dexamethasone and beta-glycerophosphate to achieve an osteoblast-like phenotype. Subsequently, cells were seeded onto the titanium mesh scaffolds, and subjected to hydrodynamic pressure, alternating between 0.3 to 5.0 MPa at 1 Hz, at 15-min intervals for a total of 60 min per day for up to 3 days. After pressurization, cell viability was checked. Afterward, DNA levels, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and extracellular calcium content were measured. Finally, all specimens were observed with scanning electron microscopy. Cell viability studies showed that the applied pressure was not harmful to the cells. Furthermore, we found that cells were able to detect the compression forces, because we did see evident effects on the cell numbers of the cells derived from old animals. However, there were no other changes in the cells under pressure. Finally, it was also noticeable that cells from old animals did not express ALP activity, but did show similar calcified extracellular matrix formation to the cells from young animals. In conclusion, the difference in DNA levels as reaction toward pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doyon, Benjamin; Dubail, Jérôme; Konik, Robert; Yoshimura, Takato
2017-11-01
The theory of generalized hydrodynamics (GHD) was recently developed as a new tool for the study of inhomogeneous time evolution in many-body interacting systems with infinitely many conserved charges. In this Letter, we show that it supersedes the widely used conventional hydrodynamics (CHD) of one-dimensional Bose gases. We illustrate this by studying "nonlinear sound waves" emanating from initial density accumulations in the Lieb-Liniger model. We show that, at zero temperature and in the absence of shocks, GHD reduces to CHD, thus for the first time justifying its use from purely hydrodynamic principles. We show that sharp profiles, which appear in finite times in CHD, immediately dissolve into a higher hierarchy of reductions of GHD, with no sustained shock. CHD thereon fails to capture the correct hydrodynamics. We establish the correct hydrodynamic equations, which are finite-dimensional reductions of GHD characterized by multiple, disjoint Fermi seas. We further verify that at nonzero temperature, CHD fails at all nonzero times. Finally, we numerically confirm the emergence of hydrodynamics at zero temperature by comparing its predictions with a full quantum simulation performed using the NRG-TSA-abacus algorithm. The analysis is performed in the full interaction range, and is not restricted to either weak- or strong-repulsion regimes.
Analytical solutions of Landau (1+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics
Wong, Cheuk-Yin; Sen, Abhisek; Gerhard, Jochen; ...
2014-12-17
To help guide our intuition, summarize important features, and point out essential elements, we review the analytical solutions of Landau (1+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics and exhibit the full evolution of the dynamics from the very beginning to subsequent times. Special emphasis is placed on the matching and the interplay between the Khalatnikov solution and the Riemann simple wave solution at the earliest times and in the edge regions at later times.
Second-order (2 +1 ) -dimensional anisotropic hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bazow, Dennis; Heinz, Ulrich; Strickland, Michael
2014-11-01
We present a complete formulation of second-order (2 +1 ) -dimensional anisotropic hydrodynamics. The resulting framework generalizes leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics by allowing for deviations of the one-particle distribution function from the spheroidal form assumed at leading order. We derive complete second-order equations of motion for the additional terms in the macroscopic currents generated by these deviations from their kinetic definition using a Grad-Israel-Stewart 14-moment ansatz. The result is a set of coupled partial differential equations for the momentum-space anisotropy parameter, effective temperature, the transverse components of the fluid four-velocity, and the viscous tensor components generated by deviations of the distribution from spheroidal form. We then perform a quantitative test of our approach by applying it to the case of one-dimensional boost-invariant expansion in the relaxation time approximation (RTA) in which case it is possible to numerically solve the Boltzmann equation exactly. We demonstrate that the second-order anisotropic hydrodynamics approach provides an excellent approximation to the exact (0+1)-dimensional RTA solution for both small and large values of the shear viscosity.
Correlating hydrodynamic radii with that of two-dimensional nanoparticles
Yue, Yuan; Kan, Yuwei; Clearfield, Abraham
2015-12-21
Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is one of the most adapted methods to measure the size of nanoparticles, as referred to the hydrodynamic radii (R{sub h}). However, the R{sub h} represents only that of three-dimensional spherical nanoparticles. In the present research, the size of two-dimensional (2D) nanoparticles of yttrium oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and zirconium phosphate (ZrP) was evaluated through comparing their hydrodynamic diameters via DLS with lateral sizes obtained using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We demonstrate that the hydrodynamic radii are correlated with the lateral sizes of both square and circle shaped 2D nanoparticles. Two proportional coefficients, i.e., correctingmore » factors, are proposed for the Brownian motion status of 2D nanoparticles. The correction is possible by simplifying the calculation of integrals in the case of small thickness approximation. The correcting factor has great significance for investigating the translational diffusion behavior of 2D nanoparticles in a liquid and in effective and low-cost measurement in terms of size and morphology of shape-specific nanoparticles.« less
Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway
2012-09-01
HEC -2 model used during the design and recertification of the Tanana River Levee. 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4...ER D C/ CH L TR -1 2 -2 0 Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway C oa st al a n d H yd ra u lic s La b or at...approximately 17 miles East of Fairbanks, Alaska, and is part of the Chena River Lakes Flood Control project. The Chena River floodway is designed to
Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Simulations of OMEGA Implosions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Igumenshchev, I. V.
2016-10-01
The effects of large-scale (with Legendre modes less than 30) asymmetries in OMEGA direct-drive implosions caused by laser illumination nonuniformities (beam-power imbalance and beam mispointing and mistiming) and target offset, mount, and layers nonuniformities were investigated using three-dimensional (3-D) hydrodynamic simulations. Simulations indicate that the performance degradation in cryogenic implosions is caused mainly by the target offsets ( 10 to 20 μm), beampower imbalance (σrms 10 %), and initial target asymmetry ( 5% ρRvariation), which distort implosion cores, resulting in a reduced hot-spot confinement and an increased residual kinetic energy of the stagnated target. The ion temperature inferred from the width of simulated neutron spectra are influenced by bulk fuel motion in the distorted hot spot and can result in up to 2-keV apparent temperature increase. Similar temperature variations along different lines of sight are observed. Simulated x-ray images of implosion cores in the 4- to 8-keV energy range show good agreement with experiments. Demonstrating hydrodynamic equivalence to ignition designs on OMEGA requires reducing large-scale target and laser-imposed nonuniformities, minimizing target offset, and employing high-efficient mid-adiabat (α = 4) implosion designs that mitigate cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) and suppress short-wavelength Rayleigh-Taylor growth. These simulations use a new low-noise 3-D Eulerian hydrodynamic code ASTER. Existing 3-D hydrodynamic codes for direct-drive implosions currently miss CBET and noise-free ray-trace laser deposition algorithms. ASTER overcomes these limitations using a simplified 3-D laser-deposition model, which includes CBET and is capable of simulating the effects of beam-power imbalance, beam mispointing, mistiming, and target offset. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.
Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of OMEGA implosions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Igumenshchev, I. V.; Michel, D. T.; Shah, R. C.; Campbell, E. M.; Epstein, R.; Forrest, C. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Knauer, J. P.; Marshall, F. J.; McCrory, R. L.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.; Schmitt, A. J.; Obenschain, S.
2017-05-01
The effects of large-scale (with Legendre modes ≲ 10) asymmetries in OMEGA direct-drive implosions caused by laser illumination nonuniformities (beam-power imbalance and beam mispointing and mistiming), target offset, and variation in target-layer thickness were investigated using the low-noise, three-dimensional Eulerian hydrodynamic code ASTER. Simulations indicate that these asymmetries can significantly degrade the implosion performance. The most important sources of the asymmetries are the target offsets ( ˜10 to 20 μm), beam-power imbalance ( σrms˜10 %), and variations ( ˜5 %) in target-layer thickness. Large-scale asymmetries distort implosion cores, resulting in a reduced hot-spot confinement and an increased residual kinetic energy of implosion targets. The ion temperature inferred from the width of simulated neutron spectra is influenced by bulk fuel motion in the distorted hot spot and can result in up to an ˜1 -keV increase in apparent temperature. Similar temperature variations along different lines of sight are observed. Demonstrating hydrodynamic equivalence to ignition designs on OMEGA requires a reduction in large-scale target and laser-imposed nonuniformities, minimizing target offset, and employing highly efficient mid-adiabat (α = 4) implosion designs, which mitigate cross-beam energy transfer and suppress short-wavelength Rayleigh-Taylor growth.
Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of OMEGA implosions
Igumenshchev, I. V.; Michel, D. T.; Shah, R. C.; ...
2017-03-30
Here, the effects of large-scale (with Legendre modes ≲10) asymmetries in OMEGA direct-drive implosions caused by laser illumination nonuniformities (beam-power imbalance and beam mispointing and mistiming), target offset, and variation in target-layer thickness were investigated using the low-noise, three-dimensional Eulerian hydrodynamic code ASTER. Simulations indicate that these asymmetries can significantly degrade the implosion performance. The most important sources of the asymmetries are the target offsets (~10 to 20 μm), beam-power imbalance (σ rms ~ 10%), and variations (~5%) in target-layer thickness. Large-scale asymmetries distort implosion cores, resulting in a reduced hot-spot confinement and an increased residual kinetic energy of implosionmore » targets. The ion temperature inferred from the width of simulated neutron spectra is influenced by bulk fuel motion in the distorted hot spot and can result in up to an ~1 -keV increase in apparent temperature. Similar temperature variations along different lines of sight are observed. Demonstrating hydrodynamic equivalence to ignition designs on OMEGA requires a reduction in large-scale target and laser-imposed nonuniformities, minimizing target offset, and employing highly efficient mid-adiabat (α = 4) implosion designs, which mitigate cross-beam energy transfer and suppress short-wavelength Rayleigh–Taylor growth.« less
Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of OMEGA implosions
Igumenshchev, I. V.; Michel, D. T.; Shah, R. C.
Here, the effects of large-scale (with Legendre modes ≲10) asymmetries in OMEGA direct-drive implosions caused by laser illumination nonuniformities (beam-power imbalance and beam mispointing and mistiming), target offset, and variation in target-layer thickness were investigated using the low-noise, three-dimensional Eulerian hydrodynamic code ASTER. Simulations indicate that these asymmetries can significantly degrade the implosion performance. The most important sources of the asymmetries are the target offsets (~10 to 20 μm), beam-power imbalance (σ rms ~ 10%), and variations (~5%) in target-layer thickness. Large-scale asymmetries distort implosion cores, resulting in a reduced hot-spot confinement and an increased residual kinetic energy of implosionmore » targets. The ion temperature inferred from the width of simulated neutron spectra is influenced by bulk fuel motion in the distorted hot spot and can result in up to an ~1 -keV increase in apparent temperature. Similar temperature variations along different lines of sight are observed. Demonstrating hydrodynamic equivalence to ignition designs on OMEGA requires a reduction in large-scale target and laser-imposed nonuniformities, minimizing target offset, and employing highly efficient mid-adiabat (α = 4) implosion designs, which mitigate cross-beam energy transfer and suppress short-wavelength Rayleigh–Taylor growth.« less
Developing a Multi-Dimensional Hydrodynamics Code with Astrochemical Reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwak, Kyujin; Yang, Seungwon
2015-08-01
The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) revealed high resolution molecular lines some of which are still unidentified yet. Because formation of these astrochemical molecules has been seldom studied in traditional chemistry, observations of new molecular lines drew a lot of attention from not only astronomers but also chemists both experimental and theoretical. Theoretical calculations for the formation of these astrochemical molecules have been carried out providing reaction rates for some important molecules, and some of theoretical predictions have been measured in laboratories. The reaction rates for the astronomically important molecules are now collected to form databases some of which are publically available. By utilizing these databases, we develop a multi-dimensional hydrodynamics code that includes the reaction rates of astrochemical molecules. Because this type of hydrodynamics code is able to trace the molecular formation in a non-equilibrium fashion, it is useful to study the formation history of these molecules that affects the spatial distribution of some specific molecules. We present the development procedure of this code and some test problems in order to verify and validate the developed code.
Equilibration in one-dimensional quantum hydrodynamic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotiriadis, Spyros
2017-10-01
We study quench dynamics and equilibration in one-dimensional quantum hydrodynamics, which provides effective descriptions of the density and velocity fields in gapless quantum gases. We show that the information content of the large time steady state is inherently connected to the presence of ballistically moving localised excitations. When such excitations are present, the system retains memory of initial correlations up to infinite times, thus evading decoherence. We demonstrate this connection in the context of the Luttinger model, the simplest quantum hydrodynamic model, and in the quantum KdV equation. In the standard Luttinger model, memory of all initial correlations is preserved throughout the time evolution up to infinitely large times, as a result of the purely ballistic dynamics. However nonlinear dispersion or interactions, when separately present, lead to spreading and delocalisation that suppress the above effect by eliminating the memory of non-Gaussian correlations. We show that, for any initial state that satisfies sufficient clustering of correlations, the steady state is Gaussian in terms of the bosonised or fermionised fields in the dispersive or interacting case respectively. On the other hand, when dispersion and interaction are simultaneously present, a semiclassical approximation suggests that localisation is restored as the two effects compensate each other and solitary waves are formed. Solitary waves, or simply solitons, are experimentally observed in quantum gases and theoretically predicted based on semiclassical approaches, but the question of their stability at the quantum level remains to a large extent an open problem. We give a general overview on the subject and discuss the relevance of our findings to general out of equilibrium problems. Dedicated to John Cardy on the occasion of his 70th birthday.
A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of a tidal estuary
Walters, Roy A.; Cheng, Ralph T.
1979-01-01
A finite element model is described which is used in the computation of tidal currents in an estuary. This numerical model is patterned after an existing algorithm and has been carefully tested in rectangular and curve-sided channels with constant and variable depth. One of the common uncertainties in this class of two-dimensional hydrodynamic models is the treatment of the lateral boundary conditions. Special attention is paid specifically to addressing this problem. To maintain continuity within the domain of interest, ‘smooth’ curve-sided elements must be used at all shoreline boundaries. The present model uses triangular, isoparametric elements with quadratic basis functions for the two velocity components and a linear basis function for water surface elevation. An implicit time integration is used and the model is unconditionally stable. The resultant governing equations are nonlinear owing to the advective and the bottom friction terms and are solved iteratively at each time step by the Newton-Raphson method. Model test runs have been made in the southern portion of San Francisco Bay, California (South Bay) as well as in the Bay west of Carquinez Strait. Owing to the complex bathymetry, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the Bay system are dictated by the generally shallow basins which contain deep, relict river channels. Great care must be exercised to ensure that the conservation equations remain locally as well as globally accurate. Simulations have been made over several representative tidal cycles using this finite element model, and the results compare favourably with existing data. In particular, the standing wave in South Bay and the progressive wave in the northern reach are well represented.
A Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Focusing Method for Polyplex Synthesis
Lu, Mengqian; Ho, Yi-Ping; Grigsby, Christopher L.; Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Leong, Kam W.; Huang, Tony Jun
2014-01-01
Successful intracellular delivery of nucleic acid therapeutics relies on multi-aspect optimization, one of which is formulation. While there has been ample innovation on chemical design of polymeric gene carriers, the same cannot be said for physical processing of polymer-DNA nanocomplexes (polyplexes). Conventional synthesis of polyplexes by bulk mixing depends on the operators’ experience. The poorly controlled bulk-mixing process may also lead to batch-to-batch variation and consequent irreproducibility. Here, we synthesize polyplexes by using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing (3D-HF) technique in a single-layered, planar microfluidic device. Without any additional chemical treatment or post processing, the polyplexes prepared by the 3D-HF method show smaller size, slower aggregation rate, and higher transfection efficiency, while exhibiting reduced cytotoxicity compared to the ones synthesized by conventional bulk mixing. In addition, by introducing external acoustic perturbation, mixing can be further enhanced, leading to even smaller nanocomplexes. The 3D-HF method provides a simple and reproducible process for synthesizing high-quality polyplexes, addressing a critical barrier in the eventual translation of nucleic acid therapeutics. PMID:24341632
Efficient two-dimensional compressive sensing in MIMO radar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahbazi, Nafiseh; Abbasfar, Aliazam; Jabbarian-Jahromi, Mohammad
2017-12-01
Compressive sensing (CS) has been a way to lower sampling rate leading to data reduction for processing in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar systems. In this paper, we further reduce the computational complexity of a pulse-Doppler collocated MIMO radar by introducing a two-dimensional (2D) compressive sensing. To do so, we first introduce a new 2D formulation for the compressed received signals and then we propose a new measurement matrix design for our 2D compressive sensing model that is based on minimizing the coherence of sensing matrix using gradient descent algorithm. The simulation results show that our proposed 2D measurement matrix design using gradient decent algorithm (2D-MMDGD) has much lower computational complexity compared to one-dimensional (1D) methods while having better performance in comparison with conventional methods such as Gaussian random measurement matrix.
A 3-dimensional mass conserving element for compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fix, G.; Suri, M.
1985-01-01
A variety of finite element schemes has been used in the numerical approximation of compressible flows particularly in underwater acoustics. In many instances instabilities have been generated due to the lack of mass conservation. Two- and three-dimensional elements are developed which avoid these problems.
Multi-dimensional computer simulation of MHD combustor hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berry, G. F.; Chang, S. L.; Lottes, S. A.; Rimkus, W. A.
1991-04-01
Argonne National Laboratory is investigating the nonreacting jet gas mixing patterns in an MHD second stage combustor by using a 2-D multiphase hydrodynamics computer program and a 3-D single phase hydrodynamics computer program. The computer simulations are intended to enhance the understanding of flow and mixing patterns in the combustor, which in turn may lead to improvement of the downstream MHD channel performance. A 2-D steady state computer model, based on mass and momentum conservation laws for multiple gas species, is used to simulate the hydrodynamics of the combustor in which a jet of oxidizer is injected into an unconfined cross stream gas flow. A 3-D code is used to examine the effects of the side walls and the distributed jet flows on the non-reacting jet gas mixing patterns. The code solves the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy, and a transport equation of a turbulence parameter and allows permeable surfaces to be specified for any computational cell.
SEMG signal compression based on two-dimensional techniques.
de Melo, Wheidima Carneiro; de Lima Filho, Eddie Batista; da Silva Júnior, Waldir Sabino
2016-04-18
Recently, two-dimensional techniques have been successfully employed for compressing surface electromyographic (SEMG) records as images, through the use of image and video encoders. Such schemes usually provide specific compressors, which are tuned for SEMG data, or employ preprocessing techniques, before the two-dimensional encoding procedure, in order to provide a suitable data organization, whose correlations can be better exploited by off-the-shelf encoders. Besides preprocessing input matrices, one may also depart from those approaches and employ an adaptive framework, which is able to directly tackle SEMG signals reassembled as images. This paper proposes a new two-dimensional approach for SEMG signal compression, which is based on a recurrent pattern matching algorithm called multidimensional multiscale parser (MMP). The mentioned encoder was modified, in order to efficiently work with SEMG signals and exploit their inherent redundancies. Moreover, a new preprocessing technique, named as segmentation by similarity (SbS), which has the potential to enhance the exploitation of intra- and intersegment correlations, is introduced, the percentage difference sorting (PDS) algorithm is employed, with different image compressors, and results with the high efficiency video coding (HEVC), H.264/AVC, and JPEG2000 encoders are presented. Experiments were carried out with real isometric and dynamic records, acquired in laboratory. Dynamic signals compressed with H.264/AVC and HEVC, when combined with preprocessing techniques, resulted in good percent root-mean-square difference [Formula: see text] compression factor figures, for low and high compression factors, respectively. Besides, regarding isometric signals, the modified two-dimensional MMP algorithm outperformed state-of-the-art schemes, for low compression factors, the combination between SbS and HEVC proved to be competitive, for high compression factors, and JPEG2000, combined with PDS, provided good performance
Rohan Benjankar; Daniele Tonina; James McKean
2014-01-01
Studies of the effects of hydrodynamic model dimensionality on simulated flow properties and derived quantities such as aquatic habitat quality are limited. It is important to close this knowledge gap especially now that entire river networks can be mapped at the microhabitat scale due to the advent of point-cloud techniques. This study compares flow properties, such...
Four-dimensional wavelet compression of arbitrarily sized echocardiographic data.
Zeng, Li; Jansen, Christian P; Marsch, Stephan; Unser, Michael; Hunziker, Patrick R
2002-09-01
Wavelet-based methods have become most popular for the compression of two-dimensional medical images and sequences. The standard implementations consider data sizes that are powers of two. There is also a large body of literature treating issues such as the choice of the "optimal" wavelets and the performance comparison of competing algorithms. With the advent of telemedicine, there is a strong incentive to extend these techniques to higher dimensional data such as dynamic three-dimensional (3-D) echocardiography [four-dimensional (4-D) datasets]. One of the practical difficulties is that the size of this data is often not a multiple of a power of two, which can lead to increased computational complexity and impaired compression power. Our contribution in this paper is to present a genuine 4-D extension of the well-known zerotree algorithm for arbitrarily sized data. The key component of our method is a one-dimensional wavelet algorithm that can handle arbitrarily sized input signals. The method uses a pair of symmetric/antisymmetric wavelets (10/6) together with some appropriate midpoint symmetry boundary conditions that reduce border artifacts. The zerotree structure is also adapted so that it can accommodate noneven data splitting. We have applied our method to the compression of real 3-D dynamic sequences from clinical cardiac ultrasound examinations. Our new algorithm compares very favorably with other more ad hoc adaptations (image extension and tiling) of the standard powers-of-two methods, in terms of both compression performance and computational cost. It is vastly superior to slice-by-slice wavelet encoding. This was seen not only in numerical image quality parameters but also in expert ratings, where significant improvement using the new approach could be documented. Our validation experiments show that one can safely compress 4-D data sets at ratios of 128:1 without compromising the diagnostic value of the images. We also display some more extreme
Two-dimensional grid-free compressive beamforming.
Yang, Yang; Chu, Zhigang; Xu, Zhongming; Ping, Guoli
2017-08-01
Compressive beamforming realizes the direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation and strength quantification of acoustic sources by solving an underdetermined system of equations relating microphone pressures to a source distribution via compressive sensing. The conventional method assumes DOAs of sources to lie on a grid. Its performance degrades due to basis mismatch when the assumption is not satisfied. To overcome this limitation for the measurement with plane microphone arrays, a two-dimensional grid-free compressive beamforming is developed. First, a continuum based atomic norm minimization is defined to denoise the measured pressure and thus obtain the pressure from sources. Next, a positive semidefinite programming is formulated to approximate the atomic norm minimization. Subsequently, a reasonably fast algorithm based on alternating direction method of multipliers is presented to solve the positive semidefinite programming. Finally, the matrix enhancement and matrix pencil method is introduced to process the obtained pressure and reconstruct the source distribution. Both simulations and experiments demonstrate that under certain conditions, the grid-free compressive beamforming can provide high-resolution and low-contamination imaging, allowing accurate and fast estimation of two-dimensional DOAs and quantification of source strengths, even with non-uniform arrays and noisy measurements.
USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL HYDRODYNAMIC MODELS AT SCALES OF ECOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE. (R825760)
Modeling of flow features that are important in assessing stream habitat conditions has been a long-standing interest of stream biologists. Recently, they have begun examining the usefulness of two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamic models in attaining this objective. Current modelin...
ONE-DIMENSIONAL HYDRODYNAMIC/SEDIMENT TRANSPORT MODEL FOR STREAM NETWORKS: TECHNICAL REPORT
This technical report describes a new sediment transport model and the supporting post-processor, and sampling procedures for sediments in streams. Specifically, the following items are described herein:
EFDC1D - This is a new one-dimensional hydrodynamic and sediment tr...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noël, C.; Busegnies, Y.; Papalexandris, M. V.; Deledicque, V.; El Messoudi, A.
2007-08-01
Aims:This work presents a new hydrodynamical algorithm to study astrophysical detonations. A prime motivation of this development is the description of a carbon detonation in conditions relevant to superbursts, which are thought to result from the propagation of a detonation front around the surface of a neutron star in the carbon layer underlying the atmosphere. Methods: The algorithm we have developed is a finite-volume method inspired by the original MUSCL scheme of van Leer (1979). The algorithm is of second-order in the smooth part of the flow and avoids dimensional splitting. It is applied to some test cases, and the time-dependent results are compared to the corresponding steady state solution. Results: Our algorithm proves to be robust to test cases, and is considered to be reliably applicable to astrophysical detonations. The preliminary one-dimensional calculations we have performed demonstrate that the carbon detonation at the surface of a neutron star is a multiscale phenomenon. The length scale of liberation of energy is 106 times smaller than the total reaction length. We show that a multi-resolution approach can be used to solve all the reaction lengths. This result will be very useful in future multi-dimensional simulations. We present also thermodynamical and composition profiles after the passage of a detonation in a pure carbon or mixed carbon-iron layer, in thermodynamical conditions relevant to superbursts in pure helium accretor systems.
Asymmetric (1+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics in high-energy collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bialas, A.; Peschanski, R.
2011-05-01
The possibility that particle production in high-energy collisions is a result of two asymmetric hydrodynamic flows is investigated using the Khalatnikov form of the (1+1)-dimensional approximation of hydrodynamic equations. The general solution is discussed and applied to the physically appealing “generalized in-out cascade” where the space-time and energy-momentum rapidities are equal at initial temperature but boost invariance is not imposed. It is demonstrated that the two-bump structure of the entropy density, characteristic of the asymmetric input, changes easily into a single broad maximum compatible with data on particle production in symmetric processes. A possible microscopic QCD interpretation of asymmetric hydrodynamics is proposed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Dong Feng; Bai, Fu Qing; Nie, Hui
2018-06-01
In order to analyze the influence of bridge holes widening on hydrodynamic such as water level, a two-dimensional mathematical model was used to calculate the hydrodynamic factors, river network flow velocity vector distribution is given, water level and difference of bridge widening before and after is calculated and charted, water surface gradient in seven different river sections near the upper reaches of bridges is counted and revealed. The results of hydrodynamic calculation indicate that The Maximum and the minimum deducing numerical value of the water level after bridge widening is 0.028m, and 0.018m respective. the seven sections water surface gradient becomes smaller until it becomes negative, the influence of bridge widening on the upstream is basically over, the range of influence is about 450m from the bridge to the upstream. reach
High-resolution three-dimensional imaging with compress sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jingyi; Ke, Jun
2016-10-01
LIDAR three-dimensional imaging technology have been used in many fields, such as military detection. However, LIDAR require extremely fast data acquisition speed. This makes the manufacture of detector array for LIDAR system is very difficult. To solve this problem, we consider using compress sensing which can greatly decrease the data acquisition and relax the requirement of a detection device. To use the compressive sensing idea, a spatial light modulator will be used to modulate the pulsed light source. Then a photodetector is used to receive the reflected light. A convex optimization problem is solved to reconstruct the 2D depth map of the object. To improve the resolution in transversal direction, we use multiframe image restoration technology. For each 2D piecewise-planar scene, we move the SLM half-pixel each time. Then the position where the modulated light illuminates will changed accordingly. We repeat moving the SLM to four different directions. Then we can get four low-resolution depth maps with different details of the same plane scene. If we use all of the measurements obtained by the subpixel movements, we can reconstruct a high-resolution depth map of the sense. A linear minimum-mean-square error algorithm is used for the reconstruction. By combining compress sensing and multiframe image restoration technology, we reduce the burden on data analyze and improve the efficiency of detection. More importantly, we obtain high-resolution depth maps of a 3D scene.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nisar, Ubaid Ahmed; Ashraf, Waqas; Qamar, Shamsul
In this article, one and two-dimensional hydrodynamical models of semiconductor devices are numerically investigated. The models treat the propagation of electrons in a semiconductor device as the flow of a charged compressible fluid. It plays an important role in predicting the behavior of electron flow in semiconductor devices. Mathematically, the governing equations form a convection-diffusion type system with a right hand side describing the relaxation effects and interaction with a self consistent electric field. The proposed numerical scheme is a splitting scheme based on the kinetic flux-vector splitting (KFVS) method for the hyperbolic step, and a semi-implicit Runge-Kutta method for the relaxation step. The KFVS method is based on the direct splitting of macroscopic flux functions of the system on the cell interfaces. The second order accuracy of the scheme is achieved by using MUSCL-type initial reconstruction and Runge-Kutta time stepping method. Several case studies are considered. For validation, the results of current scheme are compared with those obtained from the splitting scheme based on the NT central scheme. The effects of various parameters such as low field mobility, device length, lattice temperature and voltage are analyzed. The accuracy, efficiency and simplicity of the proposed KFVS scheme validates its generic applicability to the given model equations. A two dimensional simulation is also performed by KFVS method for a MESFET device, producing results in good agreement with those obtained by NT-central scheme.
Role of fluctuations in random compressible systems at marginal dimensionality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meissner, G.; Sasvári, L.; Tadić, B.
1986-07-01
In a unified treatment we have studied the role of fluctuations in uniaxial random systems at marginal dimensionality d*=4 with the n=1 component order parameter being coupled to elastic degrees of freedom. Depending on the ratio of the nonuniversal parameters of quenched disorder Δ0 and of elastic fluctuations v~0, a first- or second-order phase transition is found to occur, separated by a tricritical point. A complete account of critical properties and of macroscopic as well as of microscopic elastic stability is given for temperatures T>Tc. Universal singularities of thermodynamic functions are determined for t=(T-Tc)/Tc-->0 including the tricritical point: for v~0/Δ0>-2, they are the same as in a rigid random system; for v~0/Δ0=-2, they are different due to lattice compressibility being related, however, to the former by Fisher renormalization. Fluctuation corrections in one-loop approximation have been evaluated in a nonuniversal critical temperature range, tx<
Image interpolation used in three-dimensional range data compression.
Zhang, Shaoze; Zhang, Jianqi; Huang, Xi; Liu, Delian
2016-05-20
Advances in the field of three-dimensional (3D) scanning have made the acquisition of 3D range data easier and easier. However, with the large size of 3D range data comes the challenge of storing and transmitting it. To address this challenge, this paper presents a framework to further compress 3D range data using image interpolation. We first use a virtual fringe-projection system to store 3D range data as images, and then apply the interpolation algorithm to the images to reduce their resolution to further reduce the data size. When the 3D range data are needed, the low-resolution image is scaled up to its original resolution by applying the interpolation algorithm, and then the scaled-up image is decoded and the 3D range data are recovered according to the decoded result. Experimental results show that the proposed method could further reduce the data size while maintaining a low rate of error.
Three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flows.
Sun, Chenghai; Hsu, Andrew T
2003-07-01
A three-dimensional compressible lattice Boltzmann model is formulated on a cubic lattice. A very large particle-velocity set is incorporated in order to enable a greater variation in the mean velocity. Meanwhile, the support set of the equilibrium distribution has only six directions. Therefore, this model can efficiently handle flows over a wide range of Mach numbers and capture shock waves. Due to the simple form of the equilibrium distribution, the fourth-order velocity tensors are not involved in the formulation. Unlike the standard lattice Boltzmann model, no special treatment is required for the homogeneity of fourth-order velocity tensors on square lattices. The Navier-Stokes equations were recovered, using the Chapman-Enskog method from the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) lattice Boltzmann equation. The second-order discretization error of the fluctuation velocity in the macroscopic conservation equation was eliminated by means of a modified collision invariant. The model is suitable for both viscous and inviscid compressible flows with or without shocks. Since the present scheme deals only with the equilibrium distribution that depends only on fluid density, velocity, and internal energy, boundary conditions on curved wall are easily implemented by an extrapolation of macroscopic variables. To verify the scheme for inviscid flows, we have successfully simulated a three-dimensional shock-wave propagation in a box and a normal shock of Mach number 10 over a wedge. As an application to viscous flows, we have simulated a flat plate boundary layer flow, flow over a cylinder, and a transonic flow over a NACA0012 airfoil cascade.
Spherical-shell boundaries for two-dimensional compressible convection in a star
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pratt, J.; Baraffe, I.; Goffrey, T.; Geroux, C.; Viallet, M.; Folini, D.; Constantino, T.; Popov, M.; Walder, R.
2016-10-01
Context. Studies of stellar convection typically use a spherical-shell geometry. The radial extent of the shell and the boundary conditions applied are based on the model of the star investigated. We study the impact of different two-dimensional spherical shells on compressible convection. Realistic profiles for density and temperature from an established one-dimensional stellar evolution code are used to produce a model of a large stellar convection zone representative of a young low-mass star, like our sun at 106 years of age. Aims: We analyze how the radial extent of the spherical shell changes the convective dynamics that result in the deep interior of the young sun model, far from the surface. In the near-surface layers, simple small-scale convection develops from the profiles of temperature and density. A central radiative zone below the convection zone provides a lower boundary on the convection zone. The inclusion of either of these physically distinct layers in the spherical shell can potentially affect the characteristics of deep convection. Methods: We perform hydrodynamic implicit large eddy simulations of compressible convection using the MUltidimensional Stellar Implicit Code (MUSIC). Because MUSIC has been designed to use realistic stellar models produced from one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations, MUSIC simulations are capable of seamlessly modeling a whole star. Simulations in two-dimensional spherical shells that have different radial extents are performed over tens or even hundreds of convective turnover times, permitting the collection of well-converged statistics. Results: To measure the impact of the spherical-shell geometry and our treatment of boundaries, we evaluate basic statistics of the convective turnover time, the convective velocity, and the overshooting layer. These quantities are selected for their relevance to one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations, so that our results are focused toward studies exploiting the so
Marinho, Daniel A; Barbosa, Tiago M; Rouboa, Abel I; Silva, António J
2011-09-01
Nowadays the underwater gliding after the starts and the turns plays a major role in the overall swimming performance. Hence, minimizing hydrodynamic drag during the underwater phases should be a main aim during swimming. Indeed, there are several postures that swimmers can assume during the underwater gliding, although experimental results were not conclusive concerning the best body position to accomplish this aim. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyse the effect in hydrodynamic drag forces of using different body positions during gliding through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology. For this purpose, two-dimensional models of the human body in steady flow conditions were studied. Two-dimensional virtual models had been created: (i) a prone position with the arms extended at the front of the body; (ii) a prone position with the arms placed alongside the trunk; (iii) a lateral position with the arms extended at the front and; (iv) a dorsal position with the arms extended at the front. The drag forces were computed between speeds of 1.6 m/s and 2 m/s in a two-dimensional Fluent(®) analysis. The positions with the arms extended at the front presented lower drag values than the position with the arms aside the trunk. The lateral position was the one in which the drag was lower and seems to be the one that should be adopted during the gliding after starts and turns.
Transition to spatiotemporal chaos in a two-dimensional hydrodynamic system.
Pirat, Christophe; Naso, Aurore; Meunier, Jean-Louis; Maïssa, Philippe; Mathis, Christian
2005-04-08
We study the transition to spatiotemporal chaos in a two-dimensional hydrodynamic experiment where liquid columns take place in the gravity induced instability of a liquid film. The film is formed below a plane grid which is used as a porous media and is continuously supplied with a controlled flow rate. This system can be either ordered (on a hexagonal structure) or disordered depending on the flow rate. We observe, for the first time in an initially structured state, a subcritical transition to spatiotemporal disorder which arises through spatiotemporal intermittency. Statistics of numbers, creations, and fusions of columns are investigated. We exhibit a critical behavior close to the directed percolation one.
Thorneywork, Alice L; Rozas, Roberto E; Dullens, Roel P A; Horbach, Jürgen
2015-12-31
We compare experimental results from a quasi-two-dimensional colloidal hard sphere fluid to a Monte Carlo simulation of hard disks with small particle displacements. The experimental short-time self-diffusion coefficient D(S) scaled by the diffusion coefficient at infinite dilution, D(0), strongly depends on the area fraction, pointing to significant hydrodynamic interactions at short times in the experiment, which are absent in the simulation. In contrast, the area fraction dependence of the experimental long-time self-diffusion coefficient D(L)/D(0) is in quantitative agreement with D(L)/D(0) obtained from the simulation. This indicates that the reduction in the particle mobility at short times due to hydrodynamic interactions does not lead to a proportional reduction in the long-time self-diffusion coefficient. Furthermore, the quantitative agreement between experiment and simulation at long times indicates that hydrodynamic interactions effectively do not affect the dependence of D(L)/D(0) on the area fraction. In light of this, we discuss the link between structure and long-time self-diffusion in terms of a configurational excess entropy and do not find a simple exponential relation between these quantities for all fluid area fractions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balakumar, P.; Jeyasingham, Samarasingham
1999-01-01
A program is developed to investigate the linear stability of three-dimensional compressible boundary layer flows over bodies of revolutions. The problem is formulated as a two dimensional (2D) eigenvalue problem incorporating the meanflow variations in the normal and azimuthal directions. Normal mode solutions are sought in the whole plane rather than in a line normal to the wall as is done in the classical one dimensional (1D) stability theory. The stability characteristics of a supersonic boundary layer over a sharp cone with 50 half-angle at 2 degrees angle of attack is investigated. The 1D eigenvalue computations showed that the most amplified disturbances occur around x(sub 2) = 90 degrees and the azimuthal mode number for the most amplified disturbances range between m = -30 to -40. The frequencies of the most amplified waves are smaller in the middle region where the crossflow dominates the instability than the most amplified frequencies near the windward and leeward planes. The 2D eigenvalue computations showed that due to the variations in the azimuthal direction, the eigenmodes are clustered into isolated confined regions. For some eigenvalues, the eigenfunctions are clustered in two regions. Due to the nonparallel effect in the azimuthal direction, the eigenmodes are clustered into isolated confined regions. For some eigenvalues, the eigenfunctions are clustered in two regions. Due to the nonparallel effect in the azimuthal direction, the most amplified disturbances are shifted to 120 degrees compared to 90 degrees for the parallel theory. It is also observed that the nonparallel amplification rates are smaller than that is obtained from the parallel theory.
Davis, J. S.; Hsu, S. C.; Golovkin, I. E.
2012-10-15
This work extends the one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic imploding spherical argon plasma liner simulations of Awe et al.[Phys. Plasmas 18, 072705 (2011)] by using a detailed tabular equation-of-state (EOS) model, whereas Awe et al. used a polytropic EOS model. Results using the tabular EOS model give lower stagnation pressures by a factor of 3.9-8.6 and lower peak ion temperatures compared to the polytropic EOS results. Both local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE EOS models were used in this work, giving similar results on stagnation pressure. The lower stagnation pressures using a tabular EOS model are attributed to a reduction in the liner'smore » ability to compress arising from the energy sink introduced by ionization and electron excitation, which are not accounted for in a polytropic EOS model. Variation of the plasma liner species for the same initial liner geometry, mass density, and velocity was also explored using the LTE tabular EOS model, showing that the highest stagnation pressure is achieved with the highest atomic mass species for the constraints imposed.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Strickland, Michael
2015-07-01
We compute dilepton production from the deconfined phase of the quark-gluon plasma using leading-order (3 +1 )-dimensional anisotropic hydrodynamics. The anisotropic hydrodynamics equations employed describe the full spatiotemporal evolution of the transverse temperature, spheroidal momentum-space anisotropy parameter, and the associated three-dimensional collective flow of the matter. The momentum-space anisotropy is also taken into account in the computation of the dilepton production rate, allowing for a self-consistent description of dilepton production from the quark-gluon plasma. For our final results, we present predictions for high-energy dilepton yields as a function of invariant mass, transverse momentum, and pair rapidity. We demonstrate that high-energy dilepton production is extremely sensitive to the assumed level of initial momentum-space anisotropy of the quark-gluon plasma. As a result, it may be possible to experimentally constrain the early-time momentum-space anisotropy of the quark-gluon plasma generated in relativistic heavy-ion collisions using high-energy dilepton yields.
Ma, T; Patel, P K; Izumi, N; Springer, P T; Key, M H; Atherton, L J; Benedetti, L R; Bradley, D K; Callahan, D A; Celliers, P M; Cerjan, C J; Clark, D S; Dewald, E L; Dixit, S N; Döppner, T; Edgell, D H; Epstein, R; Glenn, S; Grim, G; Haan, S W; Hammel, B A; Hicks, D; Hsing, W W; Jones, O S; Khan, S F; Kilkenny, J D; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G A; Landen, O L; Le Pape, S; MacGowan, B J; Mackinnon, A J; MacPhee, A G; Meezan, N B; Moody, J D; Pak, A; Parham, T; Park, H-S; Ralph, J E; Regan, S P; Remington, B A; Robey, H F; Ross, J S; Spears, B K; Smalyuk, V; Suter, L J; Tommasini, R; Town, R P; Weber, S V; Lindl, J D; Edwards, M J; Glenzer, S H; Moses, E I
2013-08-23
Deuterium-tritium inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility have demonstrated yields ranging from 0.8 to 7×10(14), and record fuel areal densities of 0.7 to 1.3 g/cm2. These implosions use hohlraums irradiated with shaped laser pulses of 1.5-1.9 MJ energy. The laser peak power and duration at peak power were varied, as were the capsule ablator dopant concentrations and shell thicknesses. We quantify the level of hydrodynamic instability mix of the ablator into the hot spot from the measured elevated absolute x-ray emission of the hot spot. We observe that DT neutron yield and ion temperature decrease abruptly as the hot spot mix mass increases above several hundred ng. The comparison with radiation-hydrodynamic modeling indicates that low mode asymmetries and increased ablator surface perturbations may be responsible for the current performance.
Costa, Marcus V C; Carvalho, Joao L A; Berger, Pedro A; Zaghetto, Alexandre; da Rocha, Adson F; Nascimento, Francisco A O
2009-01-01
We present a new preprocessing technique for two-dimensional compression of surface electromyographic (S-EMG) signals, based on correlation sorting. We show that the JPEG2000 coding system (originally designed for compression of still images) and the H.264/AVC encoder (video compression algorithm operating in intraframe mode) can be used for compression of S-EMG signals. We compare the performance of these two off-the-shelf image compression algorithms for S-EMG compression, with and without the proposed preprocessing step. Compression of both isotonic and isometric contraction S-EMG signals is evaluated. The proposed methods were compared with other S-EMG compression algorithms from the literature.
Hydrodynamics of a three-dimensional self-propelled flexible plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryu, Jaeha; Sung, Hyung Jin
2017-11-01
A three-dimensional self-propelled flexible plate in a quiescent flow was simulated using the immersed boundary method. The clamped leading edge of the flexible plate was forced into a vertical oscillation, while free to move horizontally. To reveal the hydrodynamics of the plate, the averaged cruising speed (UC) , the input power (P) , and the swimming efficiency (η) were analyzed as a function of the bending rigidity (γ) and the flapping frequency (f) . The velocity field around the plate and the exerted force on the plate were demonstrated to find out the dynamic interaction between the plate and the surrounding fluid. The kinematics of the plate, the maximum angle of attack (ϕmax) , and the mean effective length (Leff) were examined accounting for the hydrodynamics of the self-propelled flexible plate. The vortical structures around the plate were visualized, and the influence of the tip vortex on the swimming efficiency was explored qualitatively and quantitatively. This work was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2017-013369) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP).
Conaway, Jeffrey S.; Moran, Edward H.
2004-01-01
Bathymetric and hydraulic data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Tanana River in proximity to Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities' bridge number 505 at mile 80.5 of the Alaska Highway. Data were collected from August 7-9, 2002, over an approximate 5,000- foot reach of the river. These data were combined with topographic data provided by Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities to generate a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The hydrodynamic model was calibrated with water-surface elevations, flow velocities, and flow directions collected at a discharge of 25,600 cubic feet per second. The calibrated model was then used for a simulation of the 100-year recurrence interval discharge of 51,900 cubic feet per second. The existing bridge piers were removed from the model geometry in a second simulation to model the hydraulic conditions in the channel without the piers' influence. The water-surface elevations, flow velocities, and flow directions from these simulations can be used to evaluate the influence of the piers on flow hydraulics and will assist the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities in the design of a replacement bridge.
A Global Three-Dimensional Radiation Hydrodynamic Simulation of a Self-Gravitating Accretion Disk
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phillipson, Rebecca; Vogeley, Michael S.; McMillan, Stephen; Boyd, Patricia
2018-01-01
We present three-dimensional, radiation hydrodynamic simulations of initially thin accretion disks with self-gravity using the grid-based code PLUTO. We produce simulated light curves and spectral energy distributions and compare to observational data of X-ray binary (XRB) and active galactic nuclei (AGN) variability. These simulations are of interest for modeling the role of radiation in accretion physics across decades of mass and frequency. In particular, the characteristics of the time variability in various bandwidths can probe the timescales over which different physical processes dominate the accretion flow. For example, in the case of some XRBs, superorbital periods much longer than the companion orbital period have been observed. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) calculations have shown that irradiation-driven warping could be the mechanism underlying these long periods. In the case of AGN, irradiation-driven warping is also predicted to occur in addition to strong outflows originating from thermal and radiation pressure driving forces, which are important processes in understanding feedback and star formation in active galaxies. We compare our simulations to various toy models via traditional time series analysis of our synthetic and observed light curves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Y.; Ramaswamy, V.; Saleh, F.
2017-12-01
Barnegat Bay located on the east coast of New Jersey, United States and is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by the narrow Barnegat Peninsula which acts as a barrier island. The bay is fed by several rivers which empty through small estuaries along the inner shore. In terms of vulnerability from flooding, the Barnegat Peninsula is under the influence of both coastal storm surge and riverine flooding. Barnegat Bay was hit by Hurricane Sandy causing flood damages with extensive cross-island flow at many streets perpendicular to the shoreline. The objective of this work is to identify and quantify the sources of flooding using a two dimensional inland hydrodynamic model. The hydrodynamic model was forced by three observed coastal boundary conditions, and one hydrologic boundary condition from United States Geological Survey (USGS). The model reliability was evaluated with both FEMA spatial flooding extend and USGS High water marks. Simulated flooding extent showed good agreement with the reanalysis spatial inundation extents. Results offered important perspectives on the flow of the water into the bay, the velocity and the depth of the inundated areas. Using such information can enable emergency managers and decision makers identify evacuation and deploy flood defenses.
Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Hybrid Nanomaterials via Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Focusing
2015-01-01
Shape-controlled synthesis of nanomaterials through a simple, continuous, and low-cost method is essential to nanomaterials research toward practical applications. Hydrodynamic focusing, with its advantages of simplicity, low-cost, and precise control over reaction conditions, has been used for nanomaterial synthesis. While most studies have focused on improving the uniformity and size control, few have addressed the potential of tuning the shape of the synthesized nanomaterials. Here we demonstrate a facile method to synthesize hybrid materials by three-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing (3D-HF). While keeping the flow rates of the reagents constant and changing only the flow rate of the buffer solution, the molar ratio of two reactants (i.e., tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and HAuCl4) within the reaction zone varies. The synthesized TTF–Au hybrid materials possess very different and predictable morphologies. The reaction conditions at different buffer flow rates are studied through computational simulation, and the formation mechanisms of different structures are discussed. This simple one-step method to achieve continuous shape-tunable synthesis highlights the potential of 3D-HF in nanomaterials research. PMID:25268035
Shape-controlled synthesis of hybrid nanomaterials via three-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing.
Lu, Mengqian; Yang, Shikuan; Ho, Yi-Ping; Grigsby, Christopher L; Leong, Kam W; Huang, Tony Jun
2014-10-28
Shape-controlled synthesis of nanomaterials through a simple, continuous, and low-cost method is essential to nanomaterials research toward practical applications. Hydrodynamic focusing, with its advantages of simplicity, low-cost, and precise control over reaction conditions, has been used for nanomaterial synthesis. While most studies have focused on improving the uniformity and size control, few have addressed the potential of tuning the shape of the synthesized nanomaterials. Here we demonstrate a facile method to synthesize hybrid materials by three-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing (3D-HF). While keeping the flow rates of the reagents constant and changing only the flow rate of the buffer solution, the molar ratio of two reactants (i.e., tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and HAuCl4) within the reaction zone varies. The synthesized TTF-Au hybrid materials possess very different and predictable morphologies. The reaction conditions at different buffer flow rates are studied through computational simulation, and the formation mechanisms of different structures are discussed. This simple one-step method to achieve continuous shape-tunable synthesis highlights the potential of 3D-HF in nanomaterials research.
Colloid-colloid hydrodynamic interaction around a bend in a quasi-one-dimensional channel.
Liepold, Christopher; Zarcone, Ryan; Heumann, Tibor; Rice, Stuart A; Lin, Binhua
2017-07-01
We report a study of how a bend in a quasi-one-dimensional (q1D) channel containing a colloid suspension at equilibrium that exhibits single-file particle motion affects the hydrodynamic coupling between colloid particles. We observe both structural and dynamical responses as the bend angle becomes more acute. The structural response is an increasing depletion of particles in the vicinity of the bend and an increase in the nearest-neighbor separation in the pair correlation function for particles on opposite sides of the bend. The dynamical response monitored by the change in the self-diffusion [D_{11}(x)] and coupling [D_{12}(x)] terms of the pair diffusion tensor reveals that the pair separation dependence of D_{12} mimics that of the pair correlation function just as in a straight q1D channel. We show that the observed behavior is a consequence of the boundary conditions imposed on the q1D channel: both the single-file motion and the hydrodynamic flow must follow the channel around the bend.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Feimin; Li, Tianhong; Yu, Huimin; Yuan, Difan
2018-06-01
We are concerned with the global existence and large time behavior of entropy solutions to the one-dimensional unipolar hydrodynamic model for semiconductors in the form of Euler-Poisson equations in a bounded interval. In this paper, we first prove the global existence of entropy solution by vanishing viscosity and compensated compactness framework. In particular, the solutions are uniformly bounded with respect to space and time variables by introducing modified Riemann invariants and the theory of invariant region. Based on the uniform estimates of density, we further show that the entropy solution converges to the corresponding unique stationary solution exponentially in time. No any smallness condition is assumed on the initial data and doping profile. Moreover, the novelty in this paper is about the unform bound with respect to time for the weak solutions of the isentropic Euler-Poisson system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orlando, S.; Miceli, M.; Petruk, O.
2017-02-01
Supernova remnants (SNRs) are diffuse extended sources characterized by a complex morphology and a non-uniform distribution of ejecta. Such a morphology reflects pristine structures and features of the progenitor supernova (SN) and the early interaction of the SN blast wave with the inhomogeneous circumstellar medium (CSM). Deciphering the observations of SNRs might open the possibility to investigate the physical properties of both the interacting ejecta and the shocked CSM. This requires accurate numerical models which describe the evolution from the SN explosion to the remnant development and which connect the emission properties of the remnants to the progenitor SNe. Here we show how multi-dimensional SN-SNR hydrodynamic models have been very effective in deciphering observations of SNR Cassiopeia A and SN 1987A, thus unveiling the structure of ejecta in the immediate aftermath of the SN explosion and constraining the 3D pre-supernova structure and geometry of the environment surrounding the progenitor SN.
Hydrodynamics of a cold one-dimensional fluid: the problem of strong shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hurtado, Pablo I.
2005-03-01
We study a shock wave induced by an infinitely massive piston propagating into a one-dimensional cold gas. The cold gas is modelled as a collection of hard rods which are initially at rest, so the temperature is zero. Most of our results are based on simulations of a gas of rods with binary mass distribution, and we partcularly focus on the case of spatially alternating masses. We find that the properties of the resulting shock wave are in striking contrast with those predicted by hydrodynamic and kinetic approaches, e.g., the flow-field profiles relax algebraically toward their equilibrium values. In addition, most relevant observables characterizing local thermodynamic equilibrium and equipartition decay as a power law of the distance to the shock layer. The exponents of these power laws depend non-monotonously on the mass ratio. Similar interesting dependences on the mass ratio also characterize the shock width, density and temperature overshoots, etc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paardekooper, S.-J.
2017-08-01
We present a new method for numerical hydrodynamics which uses a multidimensional generalization of the Roe solver and operates on an unstructured triangular mesh. The main advantage over traditional methods based on Riemann solvers, which commonly use one-dimensional flux estimates as building blocks for a multidimensional integration, is its inherently multidimensional nature, and as a consequence its ability to recognize multidimensional stationary states that are not hydrostatic. A second novelty is the focus on graphics processing units (GPUs). By tailoring the algorithms specifically to GPUs, we are able to get speedups of 100-250 compared to a desktop machine. We compare the multidimensional upwind scheme to a traditional, dimensionally split implementation of the Roe solver on several test problems, and we find that the new method significantly outperforms the Roe solver in almost all cases. This comes with increased computational costs per time-step, which makes the new method approximately a factor of 2 slower than a dimensionally split scheme acting on a structured grid.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Qinghe; Hao, Linnan
2015-03-01
A water-fluid mud coupling model is developed based on the unstructured grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) to investigate the fluid mud motion. The hydrodynamics and sediment transport of the overlying water column are solved using the original three-dimensional ocean model. A horizontal two-dimensional fluid mud model is integrated into the FVCOM model to simulate the underlying fluid mud flow. The fluid mud interacts with the water column through the sediment flux, current, and shear stress. The friction factor between the fluid mud and the bed, which is traditionally determined empirically, is derived with the assumption that the vertical distribution of shear stress below the yield surface of fluid mud is identical to that of uniform laminar flow of Newtonian fluid in the open channel. The model is validated by experimental data and reasonable agreement is found. Compared with numerical cases with fixed friction factors, the results simulated with the derived friction factor exhibit the best agreement with the experiment, which demonstrates the necessity of the derivation of the friction factor.
Bose, A.; Betti, R.; Shvarts, D.; ...
2017-10-03
To achieve ignition with inertial confinement fusion (ICF), it is important to under- stand the effect of asymmetries on the hydrodynamics and energetics of the compres- sion. This paper describes a theoretical model for the compression of distorted hot spots, and quantitative estimates using hydrodynamic simulations. The asymmetries are categorized into low (Ι < 6) and intermediate (Ι < A < 40) modes by comparison of the wavelength with the thermal-diffusion scale length. Long-wavelength modes introduce substantial nonradial motion, whereas intermediate-wavelength modes in- volve more cooling by thermal ablation. We discover that for distorted hot spots, the measured neutron-averaged propertiesmore » can be very different from the real hydro- dynamic conditions. This is because mass ablation driven my thermal conduction introduces flows in the Rayleigh–Taylor bubbles, this results in pressure variation, in addition to temperature variation between the bubbles and the neutron-producing region (~1 keV for intermediate modes). The differences are less pronounced for long-wavelength asymmetries since the bubbles are relatively hot and sustain fusion reactions. The yield degradation$-$ with respect to the symmetric$-$ results primarily from a reduction in the hot-spot pressure for low modes and from a reduction in burn volume for intermediate modes. It is shown that the degradation in internal energy of the hot-spot is equivalent for both categories, and is equal to the total residual energy in the shell including the bubbles. This quantity is correlated with the shell residual kinetic energy for low-modes, and includes the kinetic energy in the bubbles for mid-modes.« less
Bose, A.; Betti, R.; Shvarts, D.
To achieve ignition with inertial confinement fusion (ICF), it is important to under- stand the effect of asymmetries on the hydrodynamics and energetics of the compres- sion. This paper describes a theoretical model for the compression of distorted hot spots, and quantitative estimates using hydrodynamic simulations. The asymmetries are categorized into low (Ι < 6) and intermediate (Ι < A < 40) modes by comparison of the wavelength with the thermal-diffusion scale length. Long-wavelength modes introduce substantial nonradial motion, whereas intermediate-wavelength modes in- volve more cooling by thermal ablation. We discover that for distorted hot spots, the measured neutron-averaged propertiesmore » can be very different from the real hydro- dynamic conditions. This is because mass ablation driven my thermal conduction introduces flows in the Rayleigh–Taylor bubbles, this results in pressure variation, in addition to temperature variation between the bubbles and the neutron-producing region (~1 keV for intermediate modes). The differences are less pronounced for long-wavelength asymmetries since the bubbles are relatively hot and sustain fusion reactions. The yield degradation$-$ with respect to the symmetric$-$ results primarily from a reduction in the hot-spot pressure for low modes and from a reduction in burn volume for intermediate modes. It is shown that the degradation in internal energy of the hot-spot is equivalent for both categories, and is equal to the total residual energy in the shell including the bubbles. This quantity is correlated with the shell residual kinetic energy for low-modes, and includes the kinetic energy in the bubbles for mid-modes.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cebeci, T.; Kaups, K.; Ramsey, J.; Moser, A.
1975-01-01
A very general method for calculating compressible three-dimensional laminar and turbulent boundary layers on arbitrary wings is described. The method utilizes a nonorthogonal coordinate system for the boundary-layer calculations and includes a geometry package that represents the wing analytically. In the calculations all the geometric parameters of the coordinate system are accounted for. The Reynolds shear-stress terms are modeled by an eddy-viscosity formulation developed by Cebeci. The governing equations are solved by a very efficient two-point finite-difference method used earlier by Keller and Cebeci for two-dimensional flows and later by Cebeci for three-dimensional flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kifonidis, K.; Müller, E.
2012-08-01
Aims: We describe and study a family of new multigrid iterative solvers for the multidimensional, implicitly discretized equations of hydrodynamics. Schemes of this class are free of the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition. They are intended for simulations in which widely differing wave propagation timescales are present. A preferred solver in this class is identified. Applications to some simple stiff test problems that are governed by the compressible Euler equations, are presented to evaluate the convergence behavior, and the stability properties of this solver. Algorithmic areas are determined where further work is required to make the method sufficiently efficient and robust for future application to difficult astrophysical flow problems. Methods: The basic equations are formulated and discretized on non-orthogonal, structured curvilinear meshes. Roe's approximate Riemann solver and a second-order accurate reconstruction scheme are used for spatial discretization. Implicit Runge-Kutta (ESDIRK) schemes are employed for temporal discretization. The resulting discrete equations are solved with a full-coarsening, non-linear multigrid method. Smoothing is performed with multistage-implicit smoothers. These are applied here to the time-dependent equations by means of dual time stepping. Results: For steady-state problems, our results show that the efficiency of the present approach is comparable to the best implicit solvers for conservative discretizations of the compressible Euler equations that can be found in the literature. The use of red-black as opposed to symmetric Gauss-Seidel iteration in the multistage-smoother is found to have only a minor impact on multigrid convergence. This should enable scalable parallelization without having to seriously compromise the method's algorithmic efficiency. For time-dependent test problems, our results reveal that the multigrid convergence rate degrades with increasing Courant numbers (i.e. time step sizes). Beyond a
Free-Lagrange methods for compressible hydrodynamics in two space dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crowley, W. E.
1985-03-01
Since 1970 a research and development program in Free-Lagrange methods has been active at Livermore. The initial steps were taken with incompressible flows for simplicity. Since then the effort has been concentrated on compressible flows with shocks in two space dimensions and time. In general, the line integral method has been used to evaluate derivatives and the artificial viscosity method has been used to deal with shocks. Basically, two Free-Lagrange formulations for compressible flows in two space dimensions and time have been tested and both will be described. In method one, all prognostic quantities were node centered and staggered in time. The artificial viscosity was zone centered. One mesh reconnection philosphy was that the mesh should be optimized so that nearest neighbors were connected together. Another was that vertex angles should tend toward equality. In method one, all mesh elements were triangles. In method two, both quadrilateral and triangular mesh elements are permitted. The mesh variables are staggered in space and time as suggested originally by Richtmyer and von Neumann. The mesh reconnection strategy is entirely different in method two. In contrast to the global strategy of nearest neighbors, we now have a more local strategy that reconnects in order to keep the integration time step above a user chosen threshold. An additional strategy reconnects in the vicinity of large relative fluid motions. Mesh reconnection consists of two parts: (1) the tools that permits nodes to be merged and quads to be split into triangles etc. and; (2) the strategy that dictates how and when to use the tools. Both tools and strategies change with time in a continuing effort to expand the capabilities of the method. New ideas are continually being tried and evaluated.
Compression Shocks in Two-Dimensional Gas Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Busemann, A.
1949-01-01
The following are arguments on the compression shocks in gas flow start with a simplified representation of the results of the study made by Th. Meyer as published in the Forschungsheft 62 of the VDI, supplemented by several amplifications for the application.In the treatment of compression shocks, the equation of energy, the equation of continuity, the momentum equation, the equation of state of the particular gas, as well as the condition Of the second law of thermodynamics that no decrease of entropy is possible in an isolated system, must be taken into consideration. The result is that, in those cases where the sudden change of state according to the second law of thermodynamics is possible, there always occurs a compression of the gas which is uniquely determined by the other conditions.
A variational principle for compressible fluid mechanics: Discussion of the multi-dimensional theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prozan, R. J.
1982-01-01
The variational principle for compressible fluid mechanics previously introduced is extended to two dimensional flow. The analysis is stable, exactly conservative, adaptable to coarse or fine grids, and very fast. Solutions for two dimensional problems are included. The excellent behavior and results lend further credence to the variational concept and its applicability to the numerical analysis of complex flow fields.
MULTI2D - a computer code for two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramis, R.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Ramírez, J.
2009-06-01
required. Nature of problem: In inertial confinement fusion and related experiments with lasers and particle beams, energy transport by thermal radiation becomes important. Under these conditions, the radiation field strongly interacts with the hydrodynamic motion through emission and absorption processes. Solution method: The equations of radiation transfer coupled with Lagrangian hydrodynamics, heat diffusion and beam tracing (laser or ions) are solved, in two-dimensional axial-symmetric geometry ( R-Z coordinates) using a fractional step scheme. Radiation transfer is solved with angular resolution. Matter properties are either interpolated from tables (equations-of-state and opacities) or computed by user routines (conductivities and beam attenuation). Restrictions: The code has been designed for typical conditions prevailing in inertial confinement fusion (ns time scale, matter states close to local thermodynamical equilibrium, negligible radiation pressure, …). Although a wider range of situations can be treated, extrapolations to regions beyond this design range need special care. Unusual features: A special computer language, called r94, is used at top levels of the code. These parts have to be converted to standard C by a translation program (supplied as part of the package). Due to the complexity of code (hydro-code, grid generation, user interface, graphic post-processor, translator program, installation scripts) extensive manuals are supplied as part of the package. Running time: 567 seconds for the example supplied.
Theers, Mario; Winkler, Roland G
2014-08-28
We investigate the emergent dynamical behavior of hydrodynamically coupled microrotors by means of multiparticle collision dynamics (MPC) simulations. The two rotors are confined in a plane and move along circles driven by active forces. Comparing simulations to theoretical results based on linearized hydrodynamics, we demonstrate that time-dependent hydrodynamic interactions lead to synchronization of the rotational motion. Thermal noise implies large fluctuations of the phase-angle difference between the rotors, but synchronization prevails and the ensemble-averaged time dependence of the phase-angle difference agrees well with analytical predictions. Moreover, we demonstrate that compressibility effects lead to longer synchronization times. In addition, the relevance of the inertia terms of the Navier-Stokes equation are discussed, specifically the linear unsteady acceleration term characterized by the oscillatory Reynolds number ReT. We illustrate the continuous breakdown of synchronization with the Reynolds number ReT, in analogy to the continuous breakdown of the scallop theorem with decreasing Reynolds number.
Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; ...
2015-06-18
The first hydrodynamic instability growth measurements with three-dimensional (3D) surface-roughness modulations were performed on CH shell spherical implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)]. The initial capsule outer-surface amplitudes were increased approximately four times, compared with the standard specifications, to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, helping to qualify a technique for measuring small 3D modulations. The instability growth measurements were performed using x-ray through-foil radiography based on time-resolved pinhole imaging. Averaging over 15 similar images significantly increased the signal-to-noise ratio, making possible a comparison with 3Dmore » simulations. At a convergence ratio of ~2.4, the measured modulation levels were ~3 times larger than those simulated based on the growth of the known imposed initial surface modulations. Several hypotheses are discussed, including increased instability growth due to modulations of the oxygen content in the bulk of the capsule. In conclusion, future experiments will be focused on measurements with standard 3D ‘native-roughness’ capsules as well as with deliberately imposed oxygen modulations.« less
Colloid-Colloid Hydrodynamic Interaction Around a Bend in a Quasi-One-Dimensional Channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liepold, Christopher; Zarcone, Ryan; Heumann, Tibor; Lin, Binhua; Rice, Stuart
We report a study of the correlation between a pair of particles in a colloid suspension in a bent quasi-one-dimensional (q1d) channel as a function of bend angle. As the bend angle becomes more acute, we observe an increasing depletion of particles in the vicinity of the bend and an increase in the nearest-neighbor separation in the pair correlation function for particles on opposite sides of the bend. Further, we observe that the peak value of D12, the coupling term in the pair diffusion tensor that characterizes the effect of the motion of particle 1 on particle 2, coincides with the first peak in the pair correlation function, and that the pair separation dependence of D12 mimics that of the pair correlation function. We show that the observed behavior is a consequence of the geometric constraints imposed by the single-file requirement that the particle centers lie on the centerline of the channel and the requirement that the hydrodynamic flow must follow the channel around the bend. We find that the correlation between a pair of particles in a colloidal suspension in a bent q1D channel has the same functional dependence on the pair correlation function as in a straight q1D channel when measured in a coordinate system that follows the centerline of the bent channel. NSF MRSEC (DMR-1420709), Dreyfus Foundation (SI-14-014).
Xie, Nan; Battaglia, Francine; Pannala, Sreekanth
2008-01-01
Simulations of fluidized beds are performed to study and determine the effect on the use of coordinate systems and geometrical configurations to model fluidized bed reactors. Computational fluid dynamics is employed for an Eulerian-Eulerian model, which represents each phase as an interspersed continuum. The transport equation for granular temperature is solved and a hyperbolic tangent function is used to provide a smooth transition between the plastic and viscous regimes for the solid phase. The aim of the present work is to show the range of validity for employing simulations based on a 2D Cartesian coordinate system to approximate both cylindricalmore » and rectangular fluidized beds. Three different fluidization regimes, bubbling, slugging and turbulent regimes, are investigated and the results of 2D and 3D simulations are presented for both cylindrical and rectangular domains. The results demonstrate that a 2D Cartesian system can be used to successfully simulate and predict a bubbling regime. However, caution must be exercised when using 2D Cartesian coordinates for other fluidized regimes. A budget analysis that explains all the differences in detail is presented in Part II [N. Xie, F. Battaglia, S. Pannala, Effects of Using Two-Versus Three-Dimensional Computational Modeling of Fluidized Beds: Part II, budget analysis, 182 (1) (2007) 14] to complement the hydrodynamic theory of this paper.« less
Galactic scale gas flows in colliding galaxies: 3-dimensional, N-body/hydrodynamics experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lamb, Susan A.; Gerber, Richard A.; Balsara, Dinshaw S.
1994-01-01
We present some results from three dimensional computer simulations of collisions between models of equal mass galaxies, one of which is a rotating, disk galaxy containing both gas and stars and the other is an elliptical containing stars only. We use fully self consistent models in which the halo mass is 2.5 times that of the disk. In the experiments we have varied the impact parameter between zero (head on) and 0.9R (where R is the radius of the disk), for impacts perpendicular to the disk plane. The calculations were performed on a Cray 2 computer using a combined N-body/smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) program. The results show the development of complicated flows and shock structures in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the disk and the propagation outwards of a density wave in both the stars and the gas. The collisional nature of the gas results in a sharper ring than obtained for the star particles, and the development of high volume densities and shocks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aloy, Miguel-Angel; Gómez, José-Luis; Ibáñez, José-María; Martí, José-María; Müller, Ewald
2000-01-01
We present the first radio emission simulations from high-resolution three-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic jets; these simulations allow us to study the observational implications of the interaction between the jet and the external medium. This interaction gives rise to a stratification of the jet in which a fast spine is surrounded by a slow high-energy shear layer. The stratification (in particular, the large specific internal energy and slow flow in the shear layer) largely determines the emission from the jet. If the magnetic field in the shear layer becomes helical (e.g., resulting from an initial toroidal field and an aligned field component generated by shear), the emission shows a cross section asymmetry, in which either the top or the bottom of the jet dominates the emission. This, as well as limb or spine brightening, is a function of the viewing angle and flow velocity, and the top/bottom jet emission predominance can be reversed if the jet changes direction with respect to the observer or if it presents a change in velocity. The asymmetry is more prominent in the polarized flux because of field cancellation (or amplification) along the line of sight. Recent observations of jet cross section emission asymmetries in the blazar 1055+018 can be explained by assuming the existence of a shear layer with a helical magnetic field.
Three-dimensional Hydrodynamical Simulations of Mass Transfer in Binary Systems by a Free Wind
Liu, Zheng-Wei; Stancliffe, Richard J.; Abate, Carlo
A large fraction of stars in binary systems are expected to undergo mass and angular momentum exchange at some point in their evolution, which can drastically alter the chemical and dynamical properties and fates of the systems. Interaction by stellar wind is an important process in wide binaries. However, the details of wind mass transfer are still not well understood. We perform three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of wind mass transfer in binary systems to explore mass-accretion efficiencies and geometries of mass outflows, for a range of mass ratios from 0.05 to 1.0. In particular, we focus on the case of amore » free wind, in which some physical mechanism accelerates the expelled wind material balancing the gravity of the mass-losing star with the wind velocity comparable to the orbital velocity of the system. We find that the mass-accretion efficiency and accreted specific angular momentum increase with the mass ratio of the system. For an adiabatic wind, we obtain that the accretion efficiency onto the secondary star varies from about 0.1% to 8% for mass ratios between 0.05 and 1.0.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boley, Aaron C.; Durisen, Richard H.; Nordlund, Åke; Lord, Jesse
2007-08-01
Recent three-dimensional radiative hydrodynamics simulations of protoplanetary disks report disparate disk behaviors, and these differences involve the importance of convection to disk cooling, the dependence of disk cooling on metallicity, and the stability of disks against fragmentation and clump formation. To guarantee trustworthy results, a radiative physics algorithm must demonstrate the capability to handle both the high and low optical depth regimes. We develop a test suite that can be used to demonstrate an algorithm's ability to relax to known analytic flux and temperature distributions, to follow a contracting slab, and to inhibit or permit convection appropriately. We then show that the radiative algorithm employed by Mejía and Boley et al. and the algorithm employed by Cai et al. pass these tests with reasonable accuracy. In addition, we discuss a new algorithm that couples flux-limited diffusion with vertical rays, we apply the test suite, and we discuss the results of evolving the Boley et al. disk with this new routine. Although the outcome is significantly different in detail with the new algorithm, we obtain the same qualitative answers. Our disk does not cool fast due to convection, and it is stable to fragmentation. We find an effective α~10-2. In addition, transport is dominated by low-order modes.
Hydrodynamic and thermal modeling of two-dimensional microdroplet arrays for digitized heat transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baird, Eric S.
This document describes hydrodynamic and thermal modeling of two-dimensional microdroplet arrays for use in digitized heat transfer (DHT), a novel active thermal management technique for high power density electronics and integrated microsystems. In DHT, thermal energy is transported by a discrete array of electrostatically activated microdroplets of liquid metals, alloys or aqueous solutions with the potential of supporting significantly higher heat transfer rates than classical air-cooled heat sinks. Actuation methods for dispensing and transporting individual fluid slugs with a high degree of precision and programmability are described, with simple approximate formulae for net forces for steady state and transient velocities in terms of known parameters. A modified cavity flow solver is developed to provide details on the internal flow properties of a translating microdroplet and used to detail the effects of droplet curvature, internal mixing, Peclet number and other parameters on the heat transfer capabilities of a discretized liquid flow. The concept of Nusselt number is generalized to an individual fluid slug and shown to oscillate with a period equal to the droplet's mixing rate. In whole, DHT is demonstrated to be a viable new alternative for achieving the most important objectives of electronic cooling (i.e., minimization of the maximum substrate temperature, reduction of the substrate temperature gradient and removal of substrate hot spots) and a sound fundamental description of the method's electro-, hydro- and thermodynamics is provided.
One-dimensional multispecies hydrodynamic models of the wakeside ionosphere of Titan
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keller, C. N.; Cravens, T. E.
1994-01-01
The passage of Voyager 1 through the wakeside region of Titan's ionosphere provided an interesting probe of this plasma environment. A one-dimensional multispecies hydrodynamic model was developed to study the wakeside ionosphere for radial distances ranging from 1.3 to 4.5 R(sub T) and included the ion species H2CN(+), C(sub n) H(sub m)(+), C2H5(+), CH5(+), H(+), H2(+), and H3(+). Plasma transport only along magnetic field lines was included. The only source of ion production was from electron impact ionization of Titan's atmosphere by radially streaming Saturnian magnetospheric electrons (i.e., the nightside wakeside ionosphere). We found that ion production rates due to hot (200 eV) magnetospheric electrons impacting Titan's neutral atmosphere along radial field lines were comparable to the dayside ion production rates due to solar EUV flux. The magnetic flux tube area was varied along with electron temperature, and the results were compared to the ion densities and velocities measured during the Voyager 1 encounter. We found outward ion flows of about (2 to 7 x 10(exp 6)/sq cm/s, resulting in a total ion loss from Titan into Saturn's magnetosphere of about (6 to 20) x 10(exp 24)/s.
Three-dimensional hydrodynamical models of wind and outburst-related accretion in symbiotic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Val-Borro, M.; Karovska, M.; Sasselov, D. D.; Stone, J. M.
2017-07-01
Gravitationally focused wind accretion in binary systems consisting of an evolved star with a gaseous envelope and a compact accreting companion is a possible mechanism to explain mass transfer in symbiotic binaries. We study the mass accretion around the secondary caused by the strong wind from the primary late-type component using global three-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical simulations during quiescence and outburst stages. In particular, the dependence of the mass accretion rate on the mass-loss rate, wind parameters and phases of wind outburst development is considered. For a typical wind from an asymptotic giant branch star with a mass-loss rate of 10-6 M⊙ yr-1 and wind speeds of 20-50 km s-1, the mass transfer through a focused wind results in efficient infall on to the secondary. Accretion rates on to the secondary of 5-20 per cent of the mass-loss from the primary are obtained during quiescence and outburst periods where the wind velocity and mass-loss rates are varied, about 20-50 per cent larger than in the standard Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton approximation. This mechanism could be an important method for explaining observed accretion luminosities and periodic modulations in the accretion rates for a broad range of interacting binary systems.
Ramis, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.ramis@upm.es
A new one-dimensional hydrodynamic algorithm, specifically developed for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) applications, is presented. The scheme uses a fully conservative Lagrangian formulation in planar, cylindrical, and spherically symmetric geometries, and supports arbitrary equations of state with separate ion and electron components. Fluid equations are discretized on a staggered grid and stabilized by means of an artificial viscosity formulation. The space discretized equations are advanced in time using an implicit algorithm. The method includes several numerical parameters that can be adjusted locally. In regions with low Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy (CFL) number, where stability is not an issue, they can be adjusted tomore » optimize the accuracy. In typical problems, the truncation error can be reduced by a factor between 2 to 10 in comparison with conventional explicit algorithms. On the other hand, in regions with high CFL numbers, the parameters can be set to guarantee unconditional stability. The method can be integrated into complex ICF codes. This is demonstrated through several examples covering a wide range of situations: from thermonuclear ignition physics, where alpha particles are managed as an additional species, to low intensity laser–matter interaction, where liquid–vapor phase transitions occur.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hua, Yunfeng; Deng, Zhenyu; Jiang, Yangwei; Zhang, Linxi
2017-06-01
Molecular dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained bead-spring model of ring polymer brushes under compression are presented. Flexible polymer brushes are always disordered during compression, whereas semiflexible polymer brushes tend to be ordered under sufficiently strong compression. Further, the polymer monomer density of the semiflexible polymer brush is very high near the brush surface, inducing a peak value of the free energy near the surface. Therefore, when nanoparticles are compressed in semiflexible ring polymer brushes, they tend to exhibit a closely packed single-layer structure between the brush surface and the impenetrable wall, and a quasi-two-dimensional ordered structure near the brush surface is formed under strong compression. These findings provide a new approach to designing responsive applications.
Two-dimensional subsonic compressible flow past elliptic cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaplan, Carl
1938-01-01
The method of Poggi is used to calculate, for perfect fluids, the effect of compressibility upon the flow on the surface of an elliptic cylinder at zero angle of attack and with no circulation. The result is expressed in a closed form and represents a rigorous determination of the velocity of the fluid at the surface of the obstacle insofar as the second approximation is concerned. Comparison is made with Hooker's treatment of the same problem according to the method of Janzen and Rayleight and it is found that, for thick elliptic cylinders, the two methods agree very well. The labor of computation is considerably reduced by the present solution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benjankar, R. M.; Sohrabi, M.; Tonina, D.; McKean, J. A.
2013-12-01
Aquatic habitat models utilize flow variables which may be predicted with one-dimensional (1D) or two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic models to simulate aquatic habitat quality. Studies focusing on the effects of hydrodynamic model dimensionality on predicted aquatic habitat quality are limited. Here we present the analysis of the impact of flow variables predicted with 1D and 2D hydrodynamic models on simulated spatial distribution of habitat quality and Weighted Usable Area (WUA) for fall-spawning Chinook salmon. Our study focuses on three river systems located in central Idaho (USA), which are a straight and pool-riffle reach (South Fork Boise River), small pool-riffle sinuous streams in a large meadow (Bear Valley Creek) and a steep-confined plane-bed stream with occasional deep forced pools (Deadwood River). We consider low and high flows in simple and complex morphologic reaches. Results show that 1D and 2D modeling approaches have effects on both the spatial distribution of the habitat and WUA for both discharge scenarios, but we did not find noticeable differences between complex and simple reaches. In general, the differences in WUA were small, but depended on stream type. Nevertheless, spatially distributed habitat quality difference is considerable in all streams. The steep-confined plane bed stream had larger differences between aquatic habitat quality defined with 1D and 2D flow models compared to results for streams with well defined macro-topographies, such as pool-riffle bed forms. KEY WORDS: one- and two-dimensional hydrodynamic models, habitat modeling, weighted usable area (WUA), hydraulic habitat suitability, high and low discharges, simple and complex reaches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagakura, H.; Richers, S.; Ott, C. D.; Iwakami, W.; Furusawa, S.; Sumiyoshi, K.; Yamada, S.; Matsufuru, H.; Imakura, A.
2016-10-01
We have developed a 7-dimensional Full Boltzmann-neutrino-radiation-hydrodynamical code and carried out ab-initio axisymmetric CCSNe simulations. I will talk about main results of our simulations and also discuss current ongoing projects.
Compression Limit of Two-Dimensional Water Constrained in Graphene Nanocapillaries.
Zhu, YinBo; Wang, FengChao; Bai, Jaeil; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Wu, HengAn
2015-12-22
Evaluation of the tensile/compression limit of a solid under conditions of tension or compression is often performed to provide mechanical properties that are critical for structure design and assessment. Algara-Siller et al. recently demonstrated that when water is constrained between two sheets of graphene, it becomes a two-dimensional (2D) liquid and then is turned into an intriguing monolayer solid with a square pattern under high lateral pressure [ Nature , 2015 , 519 , 443 - 445 ]. From a mechanics point of view, this liquid-to-solid transformation characterizes the compression limit (or metastability limit) of the 2D monolayer water. Here, we perform a simulation study of the compression limit of 2D monolayer, bilayer, and trilayer water constrained in graphene nanocapillaries. At 300 K, a myriad of 2D ice polymorphs (both crystalline-like and amorphous) are formed from the liquid water at different widths of the nanocapillaries, ranging from 6.0 to11.6 Å. For monolayer water, the compression limit is typically a few hundred MPa, while for the bilayer and trilayer water, the compression limit is 1.5 GPa or higher, reflecting the ultrahigh van der Waals pressure within the graphene nanocapillaries. The compression-limit (phase) diagram is obtained at the nanocapillary width versus pressure (h-P) plane, based on the comprehensive molecular dynamics simulations at numerous thermodynamic states as well as on the Clapeyron equation. Interestingly, the compression-limit curves exhibit multiple local minima.
Two Dimensional Compressibility of Electrochemically Adsorbed Lead on Silver (111).
1988-01-28
PAGE BEFORE COMPLETING FORM REPOR7 4 MS1 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO1 3. RECIPIET’S CATALOG NUMBER Technical Reserach -32C E " :. :)S. TYPE OP REPORT & PERIOD...considerably more difficult, since two 2 dimensional band structure calculations that include the effect of the substrate are necessary. In this paper , we...bulk lead. No additional change in the spacing is observed with potential beyond the the onset of bulk lead deposition. It should be recognized that ,he
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chisolm, Rachel E.; McKinney, Daene C.
2018-05-01
This paper studies the lake dynamics for avalanche-triggered glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) in the Cordillera Blanca mountain range in Ancash, Peru. As new glacial lakes emerge and existing lakes continue to grow, they pose an increasing threat of GLOFs that can be catastrophic to the communities living downstream. In this work, the dynamics of displacement waves produced from avalanches are studied through three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of Lake Palcacocha, Peru, with an emphasis on the sensitivity of the lake model to input parameters and boundary conditions. This type of avalanche-generated wave is an important link in the GLOF process chain because there is a high potential for overtopping and erosion of the lake-damming moraine. The lake model was evaluated for sensitivity to turbulence model and grid resolution, and the uncertainty due to these model parameters is significantly less than that due to avalanche boundary condition characteristics. Wave generation from avalanche impact was simulated using two different boundary condition methods. Representation of an avalanche as water flowing into the lake generally resulted in higher peak flows and overtopping volumes than simulating the avalanche impact as mass-momentum inflow at the lake boundary. Three different scenarios of avalanche size were simulated for the current lake conditions, and all resulted in significant overtopping of the lake-damming moraine. Although the lake model introduces significant uncertainty, the avalanche portion of the GLOF process chain is likely to be the greatest source of uncertainty. To aid in evaluation of hazard mitigation alternatives, two scenarios of lake lowering were investigated. While large avalanches produced significant overtopping waves for all lake-lowering scenarios, simulations suggest that it may be possible to contain waves generated from smaller avalanches if the surface of the lake is lowered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parkin, E. R.; Pittard, J. M.; Corcoran, M. F.; Hamaguchi, K.
2011-01-01
Three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamical simulations of the wind-wind collision between the enigmatic supermassive star η Car and its mysterious companion star are presented which include radiative driving of the stellar winds, gravity, optically thin radiative cooling, and orbital motion. Simulations with static stars with a periastron passage separation reveal that the preshock companion star's wind speed is sufficiently reduced so that radiative cooling in the postshock gas becomes important, permitting the runaway growth of nonlinear thin-shell instabilities (NTSIs) which massively distort the wind-wind collision region (WCR). However, large-scale simulations, which include the orbital motion of the stars, show that orbital motion reduces the impact of radiative inhibition and thus increases the acquired preshock velocities. As such, the postshock gas temperature and cooling time see a commensurate increase, and sufficient gas pressure is preserved to stabilize the WCR against catastrophic instability growth. We then compute synthetic X-ray spectra and light curves and find that, compared to previous models, the X-ray spectra agree much better with XMM-Newton observations just prior to periastron. The narrow width of the 2009 X-ray minimum can also be reproduced. However, the models fail to reproduce the extended X-ray minimum from previous cycles. We conclude that the key to explaining the extended X-ray minimum is the rate of cooling of the companion star's postshock wind. If cooling is rapid then powerful NTSIs will heavily disrupt the WCR. Radiative inhibition of the companion star's preshock wind, albeit with a stronger radiation-wind coupling than explored in this work, could be an effective trigger.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gumral, Hasan
Poisson structure of completely integrable 3 dimensional dynamical systems can be defined in terms of an integrable 1-form. We take advantage of this fact and use the theory of foliations in discussing the geometrical structure underlying complete and partial integrability. We show that the Halphen system can be formulated in terms of a flat SL(2,R)-valued connection and belongs to a non-trivial Godbillon-Vey class. On the other hand, for the Euler top and a special case of 3-species Lotka-Volterra equations which are contained in the Halphen system as limiting cases, this structure degenerates into the form of globally integrable bi-Hamiltonian structures. The globally integrable bi-Hamiltonian case is a linear and the sl_2 structure is a quadratic unfolding of an integrable 1-form in 3 + 1 dimensions. We complete the discussion of the Hamiltonian structure of 2-component equations of hydrodynamic type by presenting the Hamiltonian operators for Euler's equation and a continuum limit of Toda lattice. We present further infinite sequences of conserved quantities for shallow water equations and show that their generalizations by Kodama admit bi-Hamiltonian structure. We present a simple way of constructing the second Hamiltonian operators for N-component equations admitting some scaling properties. The Kodama reduction of the dispersionless-Boussinesq equations and the Lax reduction of the Benney moment equations are shown to be equivalent by a symmetry transformation. They can be cast into the form of a triplet of conservation laws which enable us to recognize a non-trivial scaling symmetry. The resulting bi-Hamiltonian structure generates three infinite sequences of conserved densities.
Three-dimensional hydrodynamic modelling study of reverse estuarine circulation: Kuwait Bay.
Alosairi, Y; Pokavanich, T; Alsulaiman, N
2018-02-01
Hydrodynamics and associated environmental processes have always been of major concern to coastal-dependent countries, such as Kuwait. This is due to the environmental impact that accompanies the economic and commercial activities along the coastal areas. In the current study, a three-dimensional numerical model is utilized to unveil the main dynamic and physical properties of Kuwait Bay during the critical season. The model performance over the summer months (June, July and August 2012) is assessed against comprehensive field measurements of water levels, velocity, temperature and salinity data before using the model to describe the circulation as driven by tides, gravitational convection and winds. The results showed that the baroclinic conditions in the Bay are mainly determined by the horizontal salinity gradient and to much less extent temperature gradient. The gradients stretched over the southern coast of the Bay where dense water is found at the inner and enclosed areas, while relatively lighter waters are found near the mouth of the Bay. This gradient imposed a reversed estuarine circulation at the main axis of the Bay, particularly during neap tides when landward flow near the surface and seaward flow near the bed are most evident. The results also revealed that the shallow areas, including Sulaibikhat and Jahra Bays, are well mixed and generally flow in the counter-clockwise direction. Clockwise circulations dominated the northern portion of the Bay, forming a sort of large eddy, while turbulent fields associated with tidal currents were localized near the headlands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Xue; Dong, Jiao
2018-01-01
The material considered in this study not only has a functionally graded characteristic but also exhibits different tensile and compressive moduli of elasticity. One-dimensional and two-dimensional mechanical models for a functionally graded beam with a bimodular effect were established first. By taking the grade function as an exponential expression, the analytical solutions of a bimodular functionally graded beam under pure bending and lateral-force bending were obtained. The regression from a two-dimensional solution to a one-dimensional solution is verified. The physical quantities in a bimodular functionally graded beam are compared with their counterparts in a classical problem and a functionally graded beam without a bimodular effect. The validity of the plane section assumption under pure bending and lateral-force bending is analyzed. Three typical cases that the tensile modulus is greater than, equal to, or less than the compressive modulus are discussed. The result indicates that due to the introduction of the bimodular functionally graded effect of the materials, the maximum tensile and compressive bending stresses may not take place at the bottom and top of the beam. The real location at which the maximum bending stress takes place is determined via the extreme condition for the analytical solution. PMID:29772835
Nyström, Gustav; Marais, Andrew; Karabulut, Erdem; Wågberg, Lars; Cui, Yi; Hamedi, Mahiar M.
2015-01-01
Traditional thin-film energy-storage devices consist of stacked layers of active films on two-dimensional substrates and do not exploit the third dimension. Fully three-dimensional thin-film devices would allow energy storage in bulk materials with arbitrary form factors and with mechanical properties unique to bulk materials such as compressibility. Here we show three-dimensional energy-storage devices based on layer-by-layer self-assembly of interdigitated thin films on the surface of an open-cell aerogel substrate. We demonstrate a reversibly compressible three-dimensional supercapacitor with carbon nanotube electrodes and a three-dimensional hybrid battery with a copper hexacyanoferrate ion intercalating cathode and a carbon nanotube anode. The three-dimensional supercapacitor shows stable operation over 400 cycles with a capacitance of 25 F g−1 and is fully functional even at compressions up to 75%. Our results demonstrate that layer-by-layer self-assembly inside aerogels is a rapid, precise and scalable route for building high-surface-area 3D thin-film devices. PMID:26021485
Quasi One-Dimensional Unsteady Modeling of External Compression Supersonic Inlets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Kratz, Jonathan
2012-01-01
The AeroServoElasticity task under the NASA Supersonics Project is developing dynamic models of the propulsion system and the vehicle in order to conduct research for integrated vehicle dynamic performance. As part of this effort, a nonlinear quasi 1-dimensional model of an axisymmetric external compression supersonic inlet is being developed. The model utilizes compressible flow computational fluid dynamics to model the internal inlet segment as well as the external inlet portion between the cowl lip and normal shock, and compressible flow relations with flow propagation delay to model the oblique shocks upstream of the normal shock. The external compression portion between the cowl-lip and the normal shock is also modeled with leaking fluxes crossing the sonic boundary, with a moving CFD domain at the normal shock boundary. This model has been verified in steady state against tunnel inlet test data and it s a first attempt towards developing a more comprehensive model for inlet dynamics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kendall, R. M.; Bonnett, W. S.; Nardo, C. T.; Abbett, M. J.
1975-01-01
A three-dimensional boundary-layer code was developed for particular application to realistic hypersonic aircraft. It is very general and can be applied to a wide variety of boundary-layer flows. Laminar, transitional, and fully turbulent flows of compressible, reacting gases are efficiently calculated by use of the code. A body-oriented orthogonal coordinate system is used for the calculation and the user has complete freedom in specifying the coordinate system within the restrictions that one coordinate must be normal to the surface and the three coordinates must be mutually orthogonal.
Application of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to the Himmerfjärden, Baltic Sea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sokolov, Alexander
2014-05-01
Himmerfjärden is a coastal fjord-like bay situated in the north-western part of the Baltic Sea. The fjord has a mean depth of 17 m and a maximum depth of 52 m. The water is brackish (6 psu) with small salinity fluctuation (±2 psu). A sewage treatment plant, which serves about 300 000 people, discharges into the inner part of Himmerfjärden. This area is the subject of a long-term monitoring program. We are planning to develop a publicly available modelling system for this area, which will perform short-term forecast predictions of pertinent parameters (e.g., water-levels, currents, salinity, temperature) and disseminate them to users. A key component of the system is a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The open source Delft3D Flow system (http://www.deltaressystems.com/hydro) has been applied to model the Himmerfjärden area. Two different curvilinear grids were used to approximate the modelling domain (25 km × 50 km × 60 m). One grid has low horizontal resolution (cell size varies from 250 to 450 m) to perform long-term numerical experiments (modelling period of several months), while another grid has higher resolution (cell size varies from 120 to 250 m) to model short-term situations. In vertical direction both z-level (50 layers) and sigma coordinate (20 layers) were used. Modelling results obtained with different horizontal resolution and vertical discretisation will be presented. This model will be a part of the operational system which provides automated integration of data streams from several information sources: meteorological forecast based on the HIRLAM model from the Finnish Meteorological Institute (https://en.ilmatieteenlaitos.fi/open-data), oceanographic forecast based on the HIROMB-BOOS Model developed within the Baltic community and provided by the MyOcean Project (http://www.myocean.eu), riverine discharge from the HYPE model provided by the Swedish Meteorological Hydrological Institute (http://vattenwebb.smhi.se/modelarea/).
Three-dimensional density and compressible magnetic structure in solar wind turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberts, Owen W.; Narita, Yasuhito; Escoubet, C.-Philippe
2018-03-01
The three-dimensional structure of both compressible and incompressible components of turbulence is investigated at proton characteristic scales in the solar wind. Measurements of the three-dimensional structure are typically difficult, since the majority of measurements are performed by a single spacecraft. However, the Cluster mission consisting of four spacecraft in a tetrahedral formation allows for a fully three-dimensional investigation of turbulence. Incompressible turbulence is investigated by using the three vector components of the magnetic field. Meanwhile compressible turbulence is investigated by considering the magnitude of the magnetic field as a proxy for the compressible fluctuations and electron density data deduced from spacecraft potential. Application of the multi-point signal resonator technique to intervals of fast and slow wind shows that both compressible and incompressible turbulence are anisotropic with respect to the mean magnetic field direction P⟂ ≫ P∥ and are sensitive to the value of the plasma beta (β; ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure) and the wind type. Moreover, the incompressible fluctuations of the fast and slow solar wind are revealed to be different with enhancements along the background magnetic field direction present in the fast wind intervals. The differences in the fast and slow wind and the implications for the presence of different wave modes in the plasma are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Guang-yue; Sun, Guo-rui; Li, Jian-kang; Li, Jiong
2018-02-01
The hydrodynamic characteristics of the overland flow on a slope with a three-dimensional Geomat are studied for different rainfall intensities and slope gradients. The rainfall intensity is adjusted in the rainfall simulation system. It is shown that the velocity of the overland flow has a strong positive correlation with the slope length and the rainfall intensity, the scour depth decreases with the increase of the slope gradient for a given rainfall intensity, and the scour depth increases with the increase of the rainfall intensity for a given slope gradient, the overland flow starts with a transitional flow on the top and finishes with a turbulent flow on the bottom on the slope with the three-dimensional Geomat for different rainfall intensities and slope gradients, the resistance coefficient and the turbulent flow Reynolds number are in positively related logarithmic functions, the resistance coefficient and the slope gradient are in positively related power functions, and the trend becomes leveled with the increase of the rainfall intensity. This study provides some important theoretical insight for further studies of the hydrodynamic process of the erosion on the slope surface with a three-dimensional Geomat.
Three-dimensional supersonic flow around double compression ramp with finite span
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. H.; Park, G.; Park, S. H.; Byun, Y. H.
2017-01-01
Three-dimensional flows of Mach number 3 around a double-compression ramp with finite span have been investigated numerically. Shadowgraph visualisation images obtained in a supersonic wind tunnel are used for comparison. A three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver was used to obtain steady numerical solutions. Two-dimensional numerical results are also compared. Four different cases were studied: two different second ramp angles of 30° and 45° in configurations with and without sidewalls, respectively. Results showed that there is a leakage of mass and momentum fluxes heading outwards in the spanwise direction for three-dimensional cases without sidewalls. The leakage changed the flow characteristics of the shock-induced boundary layer and resulted in the discrepancy between the experimental data and two-dimensional numerical results. It is found that suppressing the flow leakage by attaching the sidewalls enhances the two-dimensionality of the experimental data for the double-compression ramp flow.
Fish Pectoral Fin Hydrodynamics; Part III: Low Dimensional Models via POD Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bozkurttas, M.; Madden, P.
2005-11-01
The highly complex kinematics of the pectoral fin and the resulting hydrodynamics does not lend itself easily to analysis based on simple notions of pitching/heaving/paddling kinematics or lift/drag based propulsive mechanisms. A more inventive approach is needed to dissect the fin gait and gain insight into the hydrodynamic performance of the pectoral fin. The focus of the current work is on the hydrodynamics of the pectoral fin of a bluegill sunfish in steady forward motion. The 3D, time-dependent fin kinematics is obtained via a stereo-videographic technique. We employ proper orthogonal decomposition to extract the essential features of the fin gait and then use CFD to examine the hydrodynamics of simplified gaits synthesized from the POD modes. The POD spectrum shows that the first two, three and five POD modes capture 55%, 67%, and 80% of the motion respectively. The first three modes are in particular highly distinct: Mode-1 is a ``cupping'' motion where the fin cups forward as it is abducted; Mode-2 is an ``expansion'' motion where the fin expands to present a larger area during adduction and finally Mode-3 involves a ``spanwise flick'' of the dorsal edge of the fin. Numerical simulation of flow past fin gaits synthesized from these modes lead to insights into the mechanisms of thrust production; these are discussed in detail.
Swain, Eric D.; Decker, Jeremy D.; Hughes, Joseph D.
2014-01-01
In this paper, the authors present an analysis of the magnitude of the temporal and spatial acceleration (inertial) terms in the surface-water flow equations and determine the conditions under which these inertial terms have sufficient magnitude to be required in the computations. Data from two South Florida field sites are examined and the relative magnitudes of temporal acceleration, spatial acceleration, and the gravity and friction terms are compared. Parameters are derived by using dimensionless numbers and applied to quantify the significance of the hydrodynamic effects. The time series of the ratio of the inertial and gravity terms from field sites are presented and compared with both a simplified indicator parameter and a more complex parameter called the Hydrodynamic Significance Number (HSN). Two test-case models were developed by using the SWIFT2D hydrodynamic simulator to examine flow behavior with and without the inertial terms and compute the HSN. The first model represented one of the previously-mentioned field sites during gate operations of a structure-managed coastal canal. The second model was a synthetic test case illustrating the drainage of water down a sloped surface from an initial stage while under constant flow. The analyses indicate that the times of substantial hydrodynamic effects are sporadic but significant. The simplified indicator parameter correlates much better with the hydrodynamic effect magnitude for a constant width channel such as Miami Canal than at the non-uniform North River. Higher HSN values indicate flow situations where the inertial terms are large and need to be taken into account.
Hang, X; Greenberg, N L; Shiota, T; Firstenberg, M S; Thomas, J D
2000-01-01
Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography has been introduced to provide improved quantification and description of cardiac function. Data compression is desired to allow efficient storage and improve data transmission. Previous work has suggested improved results utilizing wavelet transforms in the compression of medical data including 2D echocardiogram. Set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) was extended to compress volumetric echocardiographic data by modifying the algorithm based on the three-dimensional wavelet packet transform. A compression ratio of at least 40:1 resulted in preserved image quality.
Three-Dimensional Inverse Transport Solver Based on Compressive Sensing Technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Yuxiong; Wu, Hongchun; Cao, Liangzhi; Zheng, Youqi
2013-09-01
According to the direct exposure measurements from flash radiographic image, a compressive sensing-based method for three-dimensional inverse transport problem is presented. The linear absorption coefficients and interface locations of objects are reconstructed directly at the same time. It is always very expensive to obtain enough measurements. With limited measurements, compressive sensing sparse reconstruction technique orthogonal matching pursuit is applied to obtain the sparse coefficients by solving an optimization problem. A three-dimensional inverse transport solver is developed based on a compressive sensing-based technique. There are three features in this solver: (1) AutoCAD is employed as a geometry preprocessor due to its powerful capacity in graphic. (2) The forward projection matrix rather than Gauss matrix is constructed by the visualization tool generator. (3) Fourier transform and Daubechies wavelet transform are adopted to convert an underdetermined system to a well-posed system in the algorithm. Simulations are performed and numerical results in pseudo-sine absorption problem, two-cube problem and two-cylinder problem when using compressive sensing-based solver agree well with the reference value.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edelmann, P. V. F.; Röpke, F. K.; Hirschi, R.; Georgy, C.; Jones, S.
2017-07-01
Context. The treatment of mixing processes is still one of the major uncertainties in 1D stellar evolution models. This is mostly due to the need to parametrize and approximate aspects of hydrodynamics in hydrostatic codes. In particular, the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities in rotating stars, for example, dynamical shear instability, evades consistent description. Aims: We intend to study the accuracy of the diffusion approximation to dynamical shear in hydrostatic stellar evolution models by comparing 1D models to a first-principle hydrodynamics simulation starting from the same initial conditions. Methods: We chose an initial model calculated with the stellar evolution code GENEC that is just at the onset of a dynamical shear instability but does not show any other instabilities (e.g., convection). This was mapped to the hydrodynamics code SLH to perform a 2D simulation in the equatorial plane. We compare the resulting profiles in the two codes and compute an effective diffusion coefficient for the hydro simulation. Results: Shear instabilities develop in the 2D simulation in the regions predicted by linear theory to become unstable in the 1D stellar evolution model. Angular velocity and chemical composition is redistributed in the unstable region, thereby creating new unstable regions. After a period of time, the system settles in a symmetric, steady state, which is Richardson stable everywhere in the 2D simulation, whereas the instability remains for longer in the 1D model due to the limitations of the current implementation in the 1D code. A spatially resolved diffusion coefficient is extracted by comparing the initial and final profiles of mean atomic mass. Conclusions: The presented simulation gives a first insight on hydrodynamics of shear instabilities in a real stellar environment and even allows us to directly extract an effective diffusion coefficient. We see evidence for a critical Richardson number of 0.25 as regions above this threshold remain
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yavuzkurt, S.; Moffat, R. J.; Kays, W. M.
1979-01-01
Hydrodynamic measurements were made with a triaxial hot-wire in the full-coverage region and the recovery region following an array of injection holes inclined downstream, at 30 degrees to the surface. The data were taken under isothermal conditions at ambient temperature and pressure for two blowing ratios: M = 0.9 and M = 0.4. Profiles of the three main velocity components and the six Reynolds stresses were obtained at several spanwise positions at each of the five locations down the test plate. A one-equation model of turbulence (using turbulent kinetic energy with an algebraic mixing length) was used in a two-dimensional computer program to predict the mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy profiles in the recovery region. A new real-time hotwire scheme was developed to make measurements in the three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer over the full-coverage surface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, W.-B.; Liu, W.-C.; Hsu, M.-H.
2012-12-01
Precise predictions of storm surges during typhoon events have the necessity for disaster prevention in coastal seas. This paper explores an artificial neural network (ANN) model, including the back propagation neural network (BPNN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) algorithms used to correct poor calculations with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model in predicting storm surge height during typhoon events. The two-dimensional model has a fine horizontal resolution and considers the interaction between storm surges and astronomical tides, which can be applied for describing the complicated physical properties of storm surges along the east coast of Taiwan. The model is driven by the tidal elevation at the open boundaries using a global ocean tidal model and is forced by the meteorological conditions using a cyclone model. The simulated results of the hydrodynamic model indicate that this model fails to predict storm surge height during the model calibration and verification phases as typhoons approached the east coast of Taiwan. The BPNN model can reproduce the astronomical tide level but fails to modify the prediction of the storm surge tide level. The ANFIS model satisfactorily predicts both the astronomical tide level and the storm surge height during the training and verification phases and exhibits the lowest values of mean absolute error and root-mean-square error compared to the simulated results at the different stations using the hydrodynamic model and the BPNN model. Comparison results showed that the ANFIS techniques could be successfully applied in predicting water levels along the east coastal of Taiwan during typhoon events.
Quasi-one-dimensional compressible flow across face seals and narrow slots. 2: Computer program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zuk, J.; Smith, P. J.
1972-01-01
A computer program is presented for compressible fluid flow with friction across face seals and through narrow slots. The computer program carries out a quasi-one-dimensional flow analysis which is valid for laminar and turbulent flows under both subsonic and choked flow conditions for parallel surfaces. The program is written in FORTRAN IV. The input and output variables are in either the International System of Units (SI) or the U.S. customary system.
Nonparallel stability of three-dimensional compressible boundary layers. Part 1: Stability analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
El-Hady, N. M.
1980-01-01
A compressible linear stability theory is presented for nonparallel three-dimensional boundary-layer flows, taking into account the normal velocity component as well as the streamwise and spanwise variations of the basic flow. The method of multiple scales is used to account for the nonparallelism of the basic flow, and equations are derived for the spatial evolution of the disturbance amplitude and wavenumber. The numerical procedure for obtaining the solution of the nonparallel problem is outlined.
Holmquist, Jeffrey G.; Waddle, Terry J.
2013-01-01
We used two-dimensional hydrodynamic models for the assessment of water diversion effects on benthic macroinvertebrates and associated habitat in a montane stream in Yosemite National Park, Sierra Nevada Mountains, CA, USA. We sampled the macroinvertebrate assemblage via Surber sampling, recorded detailed measurements of bed topography and flow, and coupled a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model with macroinvertebrate indicators to assess habitat across a range of low flows in 2010 and representative past years. We also made zero flow approximations to assess response of fauna to extreme conditions. The fauna of this montane reach had a higher percentage of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (%EPT) than might be expected given the relatively low faunal diversity of the study reach. The modeled responses of wetted area and area-weighted macroinvertebrate metrics to decreasing discharge indicated precipitous declines in metrics as flows approached zero. Changes in area-weighted metrics closely approximated patterns observed for wetted area, i.e., area-weighted invertebrate metrics contributed relatively little additional information above that yielded by wetted area alone. Loss of habitat area in this montane stream appears to be a greater threat than reductions in velocity and depth or changes in substrate, and the modeled patterns observed across years support this conclusion. Our models suggest that step function losses of wetted area may begin when discharge in the Merced falls to 0.02 m3/s; proportionally reducing diversions when this threshold is reached will likely reduce impacts in low flow years.
Three dimensional range geometry and texture data compression with space-filling curves.
Chen, Xia; Zhang, Song
2017-10-16
This paper presents a novel method to effectively store three-dimensional (3D) data and 2D texture data into a regular 24-bit image. The proposed method uses the Hilbert space-filling curve to map the normalized unwrapped phase map to two 8-bit color channels, and saves the third color channel for 2D texture storage. By further leveraging existing 2D image and video compression techniques, the proposed method can achieve high compression ratios while effectively preserving data quality. Since the encoding and decoding processes can be applied to most of the current 2D media platforms, this proposed compression method can make 3D data storage and transmission available for many electrical devices without requiring special hardware changes. Experiments demonstrate that if a lossless 2D image/video format is used, both original 3D geometry and 2D color texture can be accurately recovered; if lossy image/video compression is used, only black-and-white or grayscale texture can be properly recovered, but much higher compression ratios (e.g., 1543:1 against the ASCII OBJ format) are achieved with slight loss of 3D geometry quality.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanoca, P.; Ramakrishna, H. V.
2018-03-01
This work is related to develop a methodology to model and simulate the TEHD using the sequential application of CFD and CSD. The FSI analyses are carried out using ANSYS Workbench. In this analysis steady state, 3D Navier-Stoke equations along with energy equation are solved. Liquid properties are introduced where the viscosity and density are the function of pressure and temperature. The cavitation phenomenon is adopted in the analysis. Numerical analysis has been carried at different speeds and surfaces temperatures. During the analysis, it was found that as speed increases, hydrodynamic pressures will also increases. The pressure profile obtained from the Roelands equation is more sensitive to the temperature as compared to the Barus equation. The stress distributions specify the significant positions in the bearing structure. The developed method is capable of giving latest approaching into the physics of elasto hydrodynamic lubrication.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Gui-Qiang; Wang, Ya-Guang
2008-03-01
Compressible vortex sheets are fundamental waves, along with shocks and rarefaction waves, in entropy solutions to multidimensional hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. Understanding the behavior of compressible vortex sheets is an important step towards our full understanding of fluid motions and the behavior of entropy solutions. For the Euler equations in two-dimensional gas dynamics, the classical linearized stability analysis on compressible vortex sheets predicts stability when the Mach number M > sqrt{2} and instability when M < sqrt{2} ; and Artola and Majda’s analysis reveals that the nonlinear instability may occur if planar vortex sheets are perturbed by highly oscillatory waves even when M > sqrt{2} . For the Euler equations in three dimensions, every compressible vortex sheet is violently unstable and this instability is the analogue of the Kelvin Helmholtz instability for incompressible fluids. The purpose of this paper is to understand whether compressible vortex sheets in three dimensions, which are unstable in the regime of pure gas dynamics, become stable under the magnetic effect in three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). One of the main features is that the stability problem is equivalent to a free-boundary problem whose free boundary is a characteristic surface, which is more delicate than noncharacteristic free-boundary problems. Another feature is that the linearized problem for current-vortex sheets in MHD does not meet the uniform Kreiss Lopatinskii condition. These features cause additional analytical difficulties and especially prevent a direct use of the standard Picard iteration to the nonlinear problem. In this paper, we develop a nonlinear approach to deal with these difficulties in three-dimensional MHD. We first carefully formulate the linearized problem for the current-vortex sheets to show rigorously that the magnetic effect makes the problem weakly stable and establish energy estimates, especially high-order energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scukins, A.; Nerukh, D.; Pavlov, E.; Karabasov, S.; Markesteijn, A.
2015-09-01
A multiscale Molecular Dynamics/Hydrodynamics implementation of the 2D Mercedes Benz (MB or BN2D) [1] water model is developed and investigated. The concept and the governing equations of multiscale coupling together with the results of the two-way coupling implementation are reported. The sensitivity of the multiscale model for obtaining macroscopic and microscopic parameters of the system, such as macroscopic density and velocity fluctuations, radial distribution and velocity autocorrelation functions of MB particles, is evaluated. Critical issues for extending the current model to large systems are discussed.
Reconstructing high-dimensional two-photon entangled states via compressive sensing
Tonolini, Francesco; Chan, Susan; Agnew, Megan; Lindsay, Alan; Leach, Jonathan
2014-01-01
Accurately establishing the state of large-scale quantum systems is an important tool in quantum information science; however, the large number of unknown parameters hinders the rapid characterisation of such states, and reconstruction procedures can become prohibitively time-consuming. Compressive sensing, a procedure for solving inverse problems by incorporating prior knowledge about the form of the solution, provides an attractive alternative to the problem of high-dimensional quantum state characterisation. Using a modified version of compressive sensing that incorporates the principles of singular value thresholding, we reconstruct the density matrix of a high-dimensional two-photon entangled system. The dimension of each photon is equal to d = 17, corresponding to a system of 83521 unknown real parameters. Accurate reconstruction is achieved with approximately 2500 measurements, only 3% of the total number of unknown parameters in the state. The algorithm we develop is fast, computationally inexpensive, and applicable to a wide range of quantum states, thus demonstrating compressive sensing as an effective technique for measuring the state of large-scale quantum systems. PMID:25306850
Compressive sensing for single-shot two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harel, E.; Spencer, A.; Spokoyny, B.
2017-02-01
In this work, we explore the use of compressive sensing for the rapid acquisition of two-dimensional optical spectra that encodes the electronic structure and ultrafast dynamics of condensed-phase molecular species. Specifically, we have developed a means to combine multiplexed single-element detection and single-shot and phase-resolved two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy. The method described, which we call Single Point Array Reconstruction by Spatial Encoding (SPARSE) eliminates the need for costly array detectors while speeding up acquisition by several orders of magnitude compared to scanning methods. Physical implementation of SPARSE is facilitated by combining spatiotemporal encoding of the nonlinear optical response and signal modulation by a high-speed digital micromirror device. We demonstrate the approach by investigating a well-characterized cyanine molecule and a photosynthetic pigment-protein complex. Hadamard and compressive sensing algorithms are demonstrated, with the latter achieving compression factors as high as ten. Both show good agreement with directly detected spectra. We envision a myriad of applications in nonlinear spectroscopy using SPARSE with broadband femtosecond light sources in so-far unexplored regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Wong, Kaitlyn E; Gorton, George E; Tashjian, David B; Tirabassi, Michael V; Moriarty, Kevin P
2014-06-01
The purpose of this study is to measure the effectiveness of compressive orthotic brace therapy for the treatment of pectus carinatum using an adjusted Haller Index (HI) measurement calculated from 3D body scan (BS) images. Pediatric patients with pectus carinatum were treated with either compressive orthotic bracing or observation. An adjusted BS Haller index (HI) was calculated from serial 3D BS images obtained on all patients. Medical records were evaluated to determine treatment with bracing and brace compliance more than 12hours daily. Compliant patient measurements were compared to non-compliant and non-brace groups. Forty patients underwent compressive orthotic bracing, while ten were observed. Twenty-three patients were compliant with bracing, and seventeen patients were non-compliant. Compliant patients exhibited an 8.2% increase, non-compliant patients had a 1.5% increase, and non-brace patients exhibited a 2.5% increase in BS HI. The change in BS HI of compliant patients was significantly different compared to non-brace patients (p=0.004) and non-compliant patients (p<0.001). Three dimensional BS is an effective, radiation free, and objective means to evaluate patients treated with compressive orthotic bracing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
VALIDITY OF A TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODEL FOR VARIABLE-DENSITY HYDRODYNAMIC CIRCULATION
A three-dimensional model of temperatures and currents has been formulated to assist in the analysis and interpretation of the dynamics of stratified lakes. In this model, nonlinear eddy coefficients for viscosity and conductivities are included. A two-dimensional model (one vert...
Wagner, C.R.; Mueller, D.S.
2001-01-01
The quantification of current patterns is an essential component of a Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) application in a riverine environment. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provided a field validated two-dimensional Resource Management Associates-2 (RMA-2) hydrodynamic model capable of quantifying the steady-flowpatterns in the Ohio River extending from river mile 590 to 630 for the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO) water-quality modeling efforts on that reach. Because of the hydrodynamic complexities induced by McAlpine Locks and Dam (Ohio River mile 607), the model was split into two segments: an upstream reach, which extended from the dam upstream to the upper terminus of the study reach at Ohio River mile 590; and a downstream reach, which extended from the dam downstream to a lower terminus at Ohio River mile 636. The model was calibrated to a low-flow hydraulic survey (approximately 35,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s)) and verified with data collected during a high-flow survey (approximately 390,000 ft3/s). The model calibration and validation process included matching water-surface elevations at 10 locations and velocity profiles at 30 cross sections throughout the study reach. Based on the calibration and validation results, the model is a representative simulation of the Ohio River steady-flow patterns below discharges of approximately 400,000 ft3/s.
A variational principle for compressible fluid mechanics. Discussion of the one-dimensional theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prozan, R. J.
1982-01-01
The second law of thermodynamics is used as a variational statement to derive a numerical procedure to satisfy the governing equations of motion. The procedure, based on numerical experimentation, appears to be stable provided the CFL condition is satisfied. This stability is manifested no matter how severe the gradients (compression or expansion) are in the flow field. For reasons of simplicity only one dimensional inviscid compressible unsteady flow is discussed here; however, the concepts and techniques are not restricted to one dimension nor are they restricted to inviscid non-reacting flow. The solution here is explicit in time. Further study is required to determine the impact of the variational principle on implicit algorithms.
Study of Two-Dimensional Compressible Non-Acoustic Modeling of Stirling Machine Type Components
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tew, Roy C., Jr.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.
2001-01-01
A two-dimensional (2-D) computer code was developed for modeling enclosed volumes of gas with oscillating boundaries, such as Stirling machine components. An existing 2-D incompressible flow computer code, CAST, was used as the starting point for the project. CAST was modified to use the compressible non-acoustic Navier-Stokes equations to model an enclosed volume including an oscillating piston. The devices modeled have low Mach numbers and are sufficiently small that the time required for acoustics to propagate across them is negligible. Therefore, acoustics were excluded to enable more time efficient computation. Background information about the project is presented. The compressible non-acoustic flow assumptions are discussed. The governing equations used in the model are presented in transport equation format. A brief description is given of the numerical methods used. Comparisons of code predictions with experimental data are then discussed.
Liang, Jinyang; Gao, Liang; Hai, Pengfei; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V.
2015-01-01
Compressed ultrafast photography (CUP), a computational imaging technique, is synchronized with short-pulsed laser illumination to enable dynamic three-dimensional (3D) imaging. By leveraging the time-of-flight (ToF) information of pulsed light backscattered by the object, ToF-CUP can reconstruct a volumetric image from a single camera snapshot. In addition, the approach unites the encryption of depth data with the compressed acquisition of 3D data in a single snapshot measurement, thereby allowing efficient and secure data storage and transmission. We demonstrated high-speed 3D videography of moving objects at up to 75 volumes per second. The ToF-CUP camera was applied to track the 3D position of a live comet goldfish. We have also imaged a moving object obscured by a scattering medium. PMID:26503834
Lift and drag in three-dimensional steady viscous and compressible flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, L. Q.; Wu, J. Z.; Su, W. D.; Kang, L. L.
2017-11-01
In a recent paper, Liu, Zhu, and Wu ["Lift and drag in two-dimensional steady viscous and compressible flow," J. Fluid Mech. 784, 304-341 (2015)] present a force theory for a body in a two-dimensional, viscous, compressible, and steady flow. In this companion paper, we do the same for three-dimensional flows. Using the fundamental solution of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations, we improve the force formula for incompressible flows originally derived by Goldstein in 1931 and summarized by Milne-Thomson in 1968, both being far from complete, to its perfect final form, which is further proved to be universally true from subsonic to supersonic flows. We call this result the unified force theorem, which states that the forces are always determined by the vector circulation Γϕ of longitudinal velocity and the scalar inflow Qψ of transverse velocity. Since this theorem is not directly observable either experimentally or computationally, a testable version is also derived, which, however, holds only in the linear far field. We name this version the testable unified force formula. After that, a general principle to increase the lift-drag ratio is proposed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Liping; Lu, Gang; Chen, Dachuan; Li, Wenjun; Lu, Chunsheng
2017-07-01
This paper investigates the three-dimensional (3D) injection molding flow of short fiber-reinforced polymer composites using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulation method. The polymer melt was modeled as a power law fluid and the fibers were considered as rigid cylindrical bodies. The filling details and fiber orientation in the injection-molding process were studied. The results indicated that the SPH method could effectively predict the order of filling, fiber accumulation, and heterogeneous distribution of fibers. The SPH simulation also showed that fibers were mainly aligned to the flow direction in the skin layer and inclined to the flow direction in the core layer. Additionally, the fiber-orientation state in the simulation was quantitatively analyzed and found to be consistent with the results calculated by conventional tensor methods.
A three-dimensional model of co-rotating streams in the solar wind. 2: Hydrodynamic streams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pizzo, V. J.
1979-01-01
Theoretical aspects of corotating solar wind dynamics on a global scale are explored by means of numerical simulations executed with a nonlinear, inviscid, adiabatic, single-fluid, three-dimensional (3-D) hydrodynamic formulation. A simple, hypothetical 3-D stream structure is defined on a source surface located at 35 solar radius and carefully documents its evolution to 1 AU under the influence of solar rotation. By manipulating the structure of this prototype configuration at the source surface, it is possible to elucidate the factors most strongly affecting stream evolution: (1) the intrinsic correlations among density, temperature, and velocity existing near the source; (2) the amplitude of the stream; (3) the longitudinal breadth of the stream; (4) the latitudinal breadth of the stream; and (5) the heliographic latitude of the centroid of the stream.
Pauler, Denise K; Kendrick, Brian K
2004-01-08
The de Broglie-Bohm hydrodynamic equations of motion are solved using a meshless method based on a moving least squares approach and an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian frame of reference. A regridding algorithm adds and deletes computational points as needed in order to maintain a uniform interparticle spacing, and unitary time evolution is obtained by propagating the wave packet using averaged fields. The numerical instabilities associated with the formation of nodes in the reflected portion of the wave packet are avoided by adding artificial viscosity to the equations of motion. The methodology is applied to a two-dimensional model collinear reaction with an activation barrier. Reaction probabilities are computed as a function of both time and energy, and are in excellent agreement with those based on the quantum trajectory method. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics
One dimensional magneto-optical compression of a cold CaF molecular beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chae, Eunmi; Anderegg, Loic; Augenbraun, Benjamin; Ravi, Aakash; Hemmerling, Boerge; Hutzler, Nicholas; Collopy, Alejandra; Ye, Jun; Ketterle, Wolfgang; Doyle, John
2017-04-01
We demonstrate one dimensional, transverse magneto-optical compression of a cold beam of calcium monofluoride (CaF). By continually alternating the magnetic field direction and laser polarizations of the magneto-optical force (RF-MOT), a photon scattering rate of 2 π x 0.4 MHz is achieved. A 3D model for this RF-MOT, validated by agreement with data, predicts a 3D RF-MOT capture velocity for CaF of 5 m/s. This work was supported by the ARO, the CUA, and the NSF. BLA is supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under NSF Grant No. DGE1144152.
Quasiconservation laws for compressible three-dimensional Navier-Stokes flow.
Gibbon, J D; Holm, D D
2012-10-01
We formulate the quasi-Lagrangian fluid transport dynamics of mass density ρ and the projection q=ω·∇ρ of the vorticity ω onto the density gradient, as determined by the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for an ideal gas, although the results apply for an arbitrary equation of state. It turns out that the quasi-Lagrangian transport of q cannot cross a level set of ρ. That is, in this formulation, level sets of ρ (isopycnals) are impermeable to the transport of the projection q.
Data compression and genomes: a two-dimensional life domain map.
Menconi, Giulia; Benci, Vieri; Buiatti, Marcello
2008-07-21
We define the complexity of DNA sequences as the information content per nucleotide, calculated by means of some Lempel-Ziv data compression algorithm. It is possible to use the statistics of the complexity values of the functional regions of different complete genomes to distinguish among genomes of different domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya). We shall focus on the distribution function of the complexity of non-coding regions. We show that the three domains may be plotted in separate regions within the two-dimensional space where the axes are the skewness coefficient and the curtosis coefficient of the aforementioned distribution. Preliminary results on 15 genomes are introduced.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ruffert, Maximilian; Arnett, David
1994-01-01
We investigate the hydrodynamics of three-dimensional classical Bondi-Hoyle accretion. Totally absorbing spheres of varying sizes (from 10 down to 0.01 accretion radii) move at Mach 3 relative to a homogeneous and slightly perturbed medium, which is taken to be an ideal gas (gamma = 5/3). To accommodate the long-range gravitational forces, the extent of the computational volume is 32(exp 3) accretion radii. We examine the influence of numerical procedure on physical behavior. The hydrodynamics is modeled by the 'piecewise parabolic method.' No energy sources (nuclear burning) or sinks (radiation, conduction) are included. The resolution in the vicinity of the accretor is increased by multiply nesting several (5-10) grids around the sphere, each finer grid being a factor of 2 smaller in zone dimension that the next coarser grid. The largest dynamic range (ratio of size of the largest grid to size of the finest zone) is 16,384. This allows us to include a coarse model for the surface of the accretor (vacuum sphere) on the finest grid, while at the same time evolving the gas on the coarser grids. Initially (at time t = 0-10), a shock front is set up, a Mach cone develops, and the accretion column is observable. Eventually the flow becomes unstable, destroying axisymmetry. This happens approximately when the mass accretion rate reaches the values (+/- 10%) predicted by the Bondi-Hoyle accretion formula (factor of 2 included). However, our three-dimensional models do not show the highly dynamic flip-flop flow so prominent in two-dimensional calculations performed by other authors. The flow, and thus the accretion rate of all quantities, shows quasi-periodic (P approximately equals 5) cycles between quiescent and active states. The interpolation formula proposed in an accompanying paper is found to follow the collected numerical data to within approximately 30%. The specific angular momentum accreted is of the same order of magnitude as the values previously found for
This technical report describes the new one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic and sediment transport model EFDC1D. This model that can be applied to stream networks. The model code and two sample data sets are included on the distribution CD. EFDC1D can simulate bi-directional unstea...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parsani, Matteo; Carpenter, Mark H.; Nielsen, Eric J.
2015-01-01
Non-linear entropy stability and a summation-by-parts framework are used to derive entropy stable wall boundary conditions for the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A semi-discrete entropy estimate for the entire domain is achieved when the new boundary conditions are coupled with an entropy stable discrete interior operator. The data at the boundary are weakly imposed using a penalty flux approach and a simultaneous-approximation-term penalty technique. Although discontinuous spectral collocation operators on unstructured grids are used herein for the purpose of demonstrating their robustness and efficacy, the new boundary conditions are compatible with any diagonal norm summation-by-parts spatial operator, including finite element, finite difference, finite volume, discontinuous Galerkin, and flux reconstruction/correction procedure via reconstruction schemes. The proposed boundary treatment is tested for three-dimensional subsonic and supersonic flows. The numerical computations corroborate the non-linear stability (entropy stability) and accuracy of the boundary conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dulikravich, D. S.
1980-01-01
A computer program is presented which numerically solves an exact, full potential equation (FPE) for three dimensional, steady, inviscid flow through an isolated wind turbine rotor. The program automatically generates a three dimensional, boundary conforming grid and iteratively solves the FPE while fully accounting for both the rotating cascade and Coriolis effects. The numerical techniques incorporated involve rotated, type dependent finite differencing, a finite volume method, artificial viscosity in conservative form, and a successive line overrelaxation combined with the sequential grid refinement procedure to accelerate the iterative convergence rate. Consequently, the WIND program is capable of accurately analyzing incompressible and compressible flows, including those that are locally transonic and terminated by weak shocks. The program can also be used to analyze the flow around isolated aircraft propellers and helicopter rotors in hover as long as the total relative Mach number of the oncoming flow is subsonic.
Holtschlag, David J.; Koschik, John A.
2002-01-01
The St. Clair–Detroit River Waterway connects Lake Huron with Lake Erie in the Great Lakes basin to form part of the international boundary between the United States and Canada. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model is developed to compute flow velocities and water levels as part of a source-water assessment of public water intakes. The model, which uses the generalized finite-element code RMA2, discretizes the waterway into a mesh formed by 13,783 quadratic elements defined by 42,936 nodes. Seven steadystate scenarios are used to calibrate the model by adjusting parameters associated with channel roughness in 25 material zones in sub-areas of the waterway. An inverse modeling code is used to systematically adjust model parameters and to determine their associated uncertainty by use of nonlinear regression. Calibration results show close agreement between simulated and expected flows in major channels and water levels at gaging stations. Sensitivity analyses describe the amount of information available to estimate individual model parameters, and quantify the utility of flow measurements at selected cross sections and water-level measurements at gaging stations. Further data collection, model calibration analysis, and grid refinements are planned to assess and enhance two-dimensional flow simulation capabilities describing the horizontal flow distributions in St. Clair and Detroit Rivers and circulation patterns in Lake St. Clair.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Ruixun; Wang, Min; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Chao
2018-02-01
The accuracy of the widely-used two-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical model depends on the quality of the river terrain model, particularly in the main channel. However, in most cases, the bathymetry of the river channel is difficult or expensive to obtain in the field, and there is a lack of available data to describe the geometry of the river channel. We introduce a method that originates from the grid generation with the elliptic equation to generate streamlines of the river channel. The streamlines are numerically solved with the Laplace equations. In the process, streamlines in the physical domain are first computed in a computational domain, and then transformed back to the physical domain. The interpolated streamlines are integrated with the surrounding topography to reconstruct the entire river terrain model. The approach was applied to a meandering reach in the Qinhe River, which is a tributary in the middle of the Yellow River, China. Cross-sectional validation and the two-dimensional shallow-water equations are used to test the performance of the river terrain generated. The results show that the approach can reconstruct the river terrain using the data from measured cross-sections. Furthermore, the created river terrain can maintain a geometrical shape consistent with the measurements, while generating a smooth main channel. Finally, several limitations and opportunities for future research are discussed.
Numerical Study of AGN Jet Propagation with Two Dimensional Relativistic Hydrodynamic Code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizuta, Akira; Yamada, Shoichi; Takabe, Hideaki
2001-12-01
We investigate the morphology of Active Galactic Nuclei(AGN) jets. AGN jets propagate over kpc ~ Mpc and their beam velocities are close to the speed of light. The reason why many jets propagate over so long a distance and sustain a very collimated structure is not well understood. It is argued taht some dimensionless parameters, the density and the pressure ratio of the jet beam and the ambient gas, the Mach number of the beam, and relative speed of the beam compared to the speed of light, are very useful to understand the morphology of jets namely, bow shocks, cocoons, nodes etc. The role of each parameters has been studied by numerical simulations. But more research is necessary to understand it systematically. We have developed 2D relativistic hydrodynamic code to analyze relativistic jets. We pay attention to the propagation velocity which is derived from 1D momentum balance in the frame of the working surface. We show some of our models and discuss the dependence of the morphology of jets on the parameter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory; Delettrez, Jacques
2015-08-01
An implicit, non-local thermal conduction algorithm based on the algorithm developed by Schurtz, Nicolai, and Busquet (SNB) [Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] for non-local electron transport is presented and has been implemented in the radiation-hydrodynamics code DRACO. To study the model's effect on DRACO's predictive capability, simulations of shot 60 303 from OMEGA are completed using the iSNB model, and the computed shock speed vs. time is compared to experiment. Temperature outputs from the iSNB model are compared with the non-local transport model of Goncharov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 012702 (2006)]. Effects on adiabat are also examined in a polar drive surrogate simulation. Results show that the iSNB model is not only capable of flux-limitation but also preheat prediction while remaining numerically robust and sacrificing little computational speed. Additionally, the results provide strong incentive to further modify key parameters within the SNB theory, namely, the newly introduced non-local mean free path. This research was supported by the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, Evgeny; Capet, Arthur; Barth, Alexander; Delhez, Eric; Soetaert, Karline; Grégoire, Marilaure
2017-04-01
In the frame of the Belgian research project FaCE-It (Functional biodiversity in a Changing sedimentary Environment: Implications for biogeochemistry and food webs in a managerial setting), the impact of dredging activities and offshore wind farm installation on the spatial distribution of sediment grain size, biodiversity and biogeochemistry will be estimated in the Southern Bight of the North Sea (SBNS) with a focus on the Belgian Coastal Zone (BCZ). To reach this goal, the three-dimensional hydrodynamical model ROMS-COAWST is implemented in the SBNS in order to simulate the complex hydrodynamics and sediment transport. Two levels of nesting are used to reach a resolution of 250 m in the BCZ. The model is forced at the air-sea interface by the 6-hourly ECMWF ERA-interim atmospheric dataset and at the open boundaries by the coarse resolution model results available from CMEMS (Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service), and also considers tides and 4 main rivers (Scheldt, Rhine with Maas, Thames and Seine). Two types of simulations have been performed: a 10-years climatological simulation and a simulation over 2003-2013 to investigate the interannual dynamics. The model skills are evaluated by comparing its outputs to historical data (e.g. salinity, temperature and currents) from remote sensing and in-situ. The sediment transport module will then be implemented and its outputs compared to historical and newly collected (in the frame of FaCE-iT) observations on grain size distribution as well as with satellite Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) images. This will allow assessing the impact of substrate modification due to offshore human activities at local and regional scales.
Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Meakin, Paul
2005-08-10
A numerical model based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) has been developed and used to simulate the classical two-dimensional Rayleigh–Taylor instability and three-dimensional miscible flow in fracture apertures with complex geometries. To model miscible flow fluid particles with variable, composition dependent, masses were used. By basing the SPH equations on the particle number density artificial surface tension effects were avoided. The simulation results for the growth of a single perturbation driven by the Rayleigh – Taylor instability compare well with numerical results obtained by Fournier et al., and the growth of a perturbation with time can be represented quite wellmore » by a second-degree polynomial, in accord with the linear stability analysis of Duff et al. The dispersion coefficient found from SPH simulation of flow and diffusion in an ideal fracture was in excellent agreement with the value predicted by the theory of Taylor and Aris. The simulations of miscible flow in fracture apertures can be used to determination dispersion coefficients for transport in fractured media - a parameter used in large-scale simulations of contaminant transport.« less
SASI ACTIVITY IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL NEUTRINO-HYDRODYNAMICS SIMULATIONS OF SUPERNOVA CORES
Hanke, Florian; Mueller, Bernhard; Wongwathanarat, Annop
The relevance of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) compared to neutrino-driven convection in three-dimensional (3D) supernova-core environments is still highly controversial. Studying a 27 M{sub Sun} progenitor, we demonstrate, for the first time, that violent SASI activity can develop in 3D simulations with detailed neutrino transport despite the presence of convection. This result was obtained with the PROMETHEUS-VERTEX code with the same sophisticated neutrino treatment so far used only in one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) models. While buoyant plumes initially determine the nonradial mass motions in the postshock layer, bipolar shock sloshing with growing amplitude sets in during a phasemore » of shock retraction and turns into a violent spiral mode whose growth is only quenched when the infall of the Si/SiO interface leads to strong shock expansion in response to a dramatic decrease of the mass accretion rate. In the phase of large-amplitude SASI sloshing and spiral motions, the postshock layer exhibits nonradial deformation dominated by the lowest-order spherical harmonics (l = 1, m = 0, {+-}1) in distinct contrast to the higher multipole structures associated with neutrino-driven convection. We find that the SASI amplitudes, shock asymmetry, and nonradial kinetic energy in three dimensions can exceed those of the corresponding 2D case during extended periods of the evolution. We also perform parameterized 3D simulations of a 25 M{sub Sun} progenitor, using a simplified, gray neutrino transport scheme, an axis-free Yin-Yang grid, and different amplitudes of random seed perturbations. They confirm the importance of the SASI for another progenitor, its independence of the choice of spherical grid, and its preferred growth for fast accretion flows connected to small shock radii and compact proto-neutron stars as previously found in 2D setups.« less
Magnetic dynamo action in two-dimensional turbulent magneto-hydrodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fyfe, D.; Joyce, G.; Montgomery, D.
1977-01-01
Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is explored by means of numerical simulation. Previous analytical theory, based on non-dissipative constants of the motion in a truncated Fourier representation, is verified by following the evolution of highly non-equilibrium initial conditions numerically. Dynamo action (conversion of a significant fraction of turbulent kinetic energy into long-wavelength magnetic field energy) is observed. It is conjectured that in the presence of dissipation and external forcing, a dual cascade will be observed for zero-helicity situations. Energy will cascade to higher wavenumbers simultaneously with a cascade of mean square vector potential to lower wavenumbers, leading to an omni-directional magnetic energy spectrum.
Perkins, L. J.; Logan, B. G.; Zimmerman, G. B.
2013-07-15
We report for the first time on full 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic implosion simulations that explore the impact of highly compressed imposed magnetic fields on the ignition and burn of perturbed spherical implosions of ignition-scale cryogenic capsules. Using perturbations that highly convolute the cold fuel boundary of the hotspot and prevent ignition without applied fields, we impose initial axial seed fields of 20–100 T (potentially attainable using present experimental methods) that compress to greater than 4 × 10{sup 4} T (400 MG) under implosion, thereby relaxing hotspot areal densities and pressures required for ignition and propagating burn by ∼50%. The compressed fieldmore » is high enough to suppress transverse electron heat conduction, and to allow alphas to couple energy into the hotspot even when highly deformed by large low-mode amplitudes. This might permit the recovery of ignition, or at least significant alpha particle heating, in submarginal capsules that would otherwise fail because of adverse hydrodynamic instabilities.« less
Magnetic dynamo action in two-dimensional turbulent magneto-hydrodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fyfe, D.; Joyce, G.; Montgomery, D.
1976-01-01
Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is explored by means of numerical simulation. Previous analytical theory, based on non-dissipative constants of the motion in a truncated Fourier representation, is verified by following the evolution of highly non-equilibrium initial conditions numerically. Dynamo action (conversion of a significant fraction of turbulent kinetic energy into long-wavelength magnetic field energy) is observed. It is conjectured that in the presence of dissipation and external forcing, a dual cascade will be observed for zero-helicity situations. Energy will cascade to higher wave numbers simultaneously with a cascade of mean square vector potential to lower wave numbers, leading to an omni-directional magnetic energy spectrum which varies as 1/k 3 at lower wave numbers, simultaneously with a buildup of magnetic excitation at the lowest wave number of the system. Equipartition of kinetic and magnetic energies is expected at the highest wave numbers in the system.
Computation of Three-Dimensional Compressible Flow From a Rectangular Nozzle with Delta Tabs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, D. R.; Steffen, C. J., Jr.; Zaman, K. B. M. Q.
1999-01-01
A three-dimensional viscous flow analysis is performed using a time-marching Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code for a 3:1 rectangular nozzle with two delta tabs located at the nozz1e exit plane to enhance mixing. Two flow configurations, a subsonic jet case and a supersonic jet case using the same rate configuration, which were previously studied experimentally, are computed and compared with the experimental data. The experimental data include streamwise velocity and vorticity distributions for the subsonic case, and Mach number distributions for the supersonic case, at various axial locations downstream of the nozzle exit. The computational results show very good agreement with the experimental data. In addition, the effect of compressibility on vorticity dynamics is examined by comparing the vorticity contours of the subsonic jet case with those of the supersonic jet case which were not measured in the experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Sheng; Yan, Zheng; Jang, Kyung-In; Huang, Wen; Fu, Haoran; Kim, Jeonghyun; Wei, Zijun; Flavin, Matthew; McCracken, Joselle; Wang, Renhan; Badea, Adina; Liu, Yuhao; Xiao, Dongqing; Zhou, Guoyan; Lee, Jungwoo; Chung, Ha Uk; Cheng, Huanyu; Ren, Wen; Banks, Anthony; Li, Xiuling; Paik, Ungyu; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui; Rogers, John A.
2015-01-01
Complex three-dimensional (3D) structures in biology (e.g., cytoskeletal webs, neural circuits, and vasculature networks) form naturally to provide essential functions in even the most basic forms of life. Compelling opportunities exist for analogous 3D architectures in human-made devices, but design options are constrained by existing capabilities in materials growth and assembly. We report routes to previously inaccessible classes of 3D constructs in advanced materials, including device-grade silicon. The schemes involve geometric transformation of 2D micro/nanostructures into extended 3D layouts by compressive buckling. Demonstrations include experimental and theoretical studies of more than 40 representative geometries, from single and multiple helices, toroids, and conical spirals to structures that resemble spherical baskets, cuboid cages, starbursts, flowers, scaffolds, fences, and frameworks, each with single- and/or multiple-level configurations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Om, Deepak; Childs, Morris E.
1987-01-01
An experimental study is described in which detailed wall pressure measurements have been obtained for compressible three-dimensional unseparated boundary layer flow in annular diffusers with and without normal shock waves. Detailed mean flow-field data were also obtained for the diffuser flow without a shock wave. Two diffuser flows with shock waves were investigated. In one case, the normal shock existed over the complete annulus whereas in the second case, the shock existed over a part of the annulus. The data obtained can be used to validate computational codes for predicting such flow fields. The details of the flow field without the shock wave show flow reversal in the circumferential direction on both inner and outer surfaces. However, there is a lag in the flow reversal between the inner nad the outer surfaces. This is an interesting feature of this flow and should be a good test for the computational codes.
Xu, Sheng; Yan, Zheng; Jang, Kyung-In; Huang, Wen; Fu, Haoran; Kim, Jeonghyun; Wei, Zijun; Flavin, Matthew; McCracken, Joselle; Wang, Renhan; Badea, Adina; Liu, Yuhao; Xiao, Dongqing; Zhou, Guoyan; Lee, Jungwoo; Chung, Ha Uk; Cheng, Huanyu; Ren, Wen; Banks, Anthony; Li, Xiuling; Paik, Ungyu; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui; Rogers, John A
2015-01-09
Complex three-dimensional (3D) structures in biology (e.g., cytoskeletal webs, neural circuits, and vasculature networks) form naturally to provide essential functions in even the most basic forms of life. Compelling opportunities exist for analogous 3D architectures in human-made devices, but design options are constrained by existing capabilities in materials growth and assembly. We report routes to previously inaccessible classes of 3D constructs in advanced materials, including device-grade silicon. The schemes involve geometric transformation of 2D micro/nanostructures into extended 3D layouts by compressive buckling. Demonstrations include experimental and theoretical studies of more than 40 representative geometries, from single and multiple helices, toroids, and conical spirals to structures that resemble spherical baskets, cuboid cages, starbursts, flowers, scaffolds, fences, and frameworks, each with single- and/or multiple-level configurations. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
An Exact, Compressible One-Dimensional Riemann Solver for General, Convex Equations of State
Kamm, James Russell
2015-03-05
This note describes an algorithm with which to compute numerical solutions to the one- dimensional, Cartesian Riemann problem for compressible flow with general, convex equations of state. While high-level descriptions of this approach are to be found in the literature, this note contains most of the necessary details required to write software for this problem. This explanation corresponds to the approach used in the source code that evaluates solutions for the 1D, Cartesian Riemann problem with a JWL equation of state in the ExactPack package [16, 29]. Numerical examples are given with the proposed computational approach for a polytropic equationmore » of state and for the JWL equation of state.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Chang-Kun; Moon, Seokil; Lee, Byounghyo; Jeong, Youngmo; Lee, Byoungho
2016-10-01
A head-mounted compressive three-dimensional (3D) display system is proposed by combining polarization beam splitter (PBS), fast switching polarization rotator and micro display with high pixel density. According to the polarization state of the image controlled by polarization rotator, optical path of image in the PBS can be divided into transmitted and reflected components. Since optical paths of each image are spatially separated, it is possible to independently focus both images at different depth positions. Transmitted p-polarized and reflected s-polarized images can be focused by convex lens and mirror, respectively. When the focal lengths of the convex lens and mirror are properly determined, two image planes can be located in intended positions. The geometrical relationship is easily modulated by replacement of the components. The fast switching of polarization realizes the real-time operation of multi-focal image planes with a single display panel. Since it is possible to conserve the device characteristic of single panel, the high image quality, reliability and uniformity can be retained. For generating 3D images, layer images for compressive light field display between two image planes are calculated. Since the display panel with high pixel density is adopted, high quality 3D images are reconstructed. In addition, image degradation by diffraction between physically stacked display panels can be mitigated. Simple optical configuration of the proposed system is implemented and the feasibility of the proposed method is verified through experiments.
Liu, Da
2017-01-01
In this study, we developed and validated a refined three-dimensional finite element model of middle femoral comminuted fracture to compare the biomechanical stability after two kinds of plate fixation: a newly designed assembly locking compression plate (NALCP) and a locking compression plate (LCP). CT data of a male volunteer was converted to middle femoral comminuted fracture finite element analysis model. The fracture was fixated by NALCP and LCP. Stress distributions were observed. Under slow walking load and torsion load, the stress distribution tendency of the two plates was roughly uniform. The anterolateral femur was the tension stress area, and the bone block shifted toward the anterolateral femur. Maximum stress was found on the lateral border of the number 5 countersink of the plate. Under a slow walking load, the NALCP maximum stress was 2.160e+03 MPa and the LCP was 8.561e+02 MPa. Under torsion load, the NALCP maximum stress was 2.260e+03 MPa and the LCP was 6.813e+02 MPa. Based on those results of finite element analysis, the NALCP can provide adequate mechanical stability for comminuted fractures, which would help fixate the bone block and promote bone healing. PMID:29065654
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Eerten, Hendrik; Zhang, Weiqun; MacFadyen, Andrew
2010-10-01
Starting as highly relativistic collimated jets, gamma-ray burst outflows gradually slow down and become nonrelativistic spherical blast waves. Although detailed analytical solutions describing the afterglow emission received by an on-axis observer during both the early and late phases of the outflow evolution exist, a calculation of the received flux during the intermediate phase and for an off-axis observer requires either a more simplified analytical model or direct numerical simulations of the outflow dynamics. In this paper, we present light curves for off-axis observers covering the long-term evolution of the blast wave, calculated from a high-resolution two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics simulation using a synchrotron radiation model. We compare our results to earlier analytical work and calculate the consequence of the observer angle with respect to the jet axis both for the detection of orphan afterglows and for jet break fits to the observational data. We confirm earlier results in the literature finding that only a very small number of local type Ibc supernovae can harbor an orphan afterglow. For off-axis observers, the observable jet break can be delayed up to several weeks, potentially leading to overestimation of the beaming-corrected total energy. In addition we find that, when using our off-axis light curves to create synthetic Swift X-ray data, jet breaks are likely to remain hidden in the data.
Decker, Jeremy D.; Swain, Eric D.; Stith, Bradley M.; Langtimm, Catherine A.
2013-01-01
Everglades restoration activities may cause changes to temperature and salinity stratification at the Port of the Islands (POI) marina, which could affect its suitability as a cold weather refuge for manatees. To better understand how the Picayune Strand Restoration Project (PSRP) may alter this important resource in Collier County in southwestern Florida, the USGS has developed a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model for the marina and canal system at POI. Empirical data suggest that manatees aggregate at the site during winter because of thermal inversions that provide warmer water near the bottom that appears to only occur in the presence of salinity stratification. To study these phenomena, the environmental fluid dynamics code simulator was used to represent temperature and salinity transport within POI. Boundary inputs were generated using a larger two-dimensional model constructed with the flow and transport in a linked overland-aquifer density-dependent system simulator. Model results for a representative winter period match observed trends in salinity and temperature fluctuations and produce temperature inversions similar to observed values. Modified boundary conditions, representing proposed PSRP alterations, were also tested to examine the possible effect on the salinity stratification and temperature inversion within POI. Results show that during some periods, salinity stratification is reduced resulting in a subsequent reduction in temperature inversion compared with the existing conditions simulation. This may have an effect on POI’s suitability as a passive thermal refuge for manatees and other temperature-sensitive species. Additional testing was completed to determine the important physical relationships affecting POI’s suitability as a refuge.
Clark, D. S.; Marinak, M. M.; Weber, C. R.
2015-02-15
The recently completed National Ignition Campaign (NIC) on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) showed significant discrepancies between post-shot simulations of implosion performance and experimentally measured performance, particularly in thermonuclear yield. This discrepancy between simulation and observation persisted despite concerted efforts to include all of the known sources of performance degradation within a reasonable two-dimensional (2-D), and even three-dimensional (3-D), simulation model, e.g., using measured surface imperfections and radiation drives adjusted to reproduce observed implosion trajectories [Clark et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 056318 (2013)]. Since the completion of the NIC, several effects have been identified that could explain these discrepancies andmore » that were omitted in previous simulations. In particular, there is now clear evidence for larger than anticipated long-wavelength radiation drive asymmetries and a larger than expected perturbation seeded by the capsule support tent. This paper describes an updated suite of one-dimensional (1-D), 2-D, and 3-D simulations that include the current best understanding of these effects identified since the NIC, as applied to a specific NIC shot. The relative importance of each effect on the experimental observables is compared. In combination, these effects reduce the simulated-to-measured yield ratio from 125:1 in 1-D to 1.5:1 in 3-D, as compared to 15:1 in the best 2-D simulations published previously. While the agreement with the experimental data remains imperfect, the comparison to the data is significantly improved and suggests that the largest sources for the previous discrepancies between simulation and experiment are now being included.« less
Fulton, John W.; Wagner, Chad R.
2014-01-01
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Allegheny County Sanitary Authority, developed a validated two-dimensional Resource Management Associates2 (RMA2) hydrodynamic model of parts of the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers (Three Rivers) to help assess the effects of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) on the rivers. The hydrodynamic model was used to drive a water-quality model of the study area that was capable of simulating the transport and fate of fecal-indicator bacteria and chemical constituents under open-water conditions. The study area includes 14 tributary streams and parts of the Three Rivers where they enter and exit Allegheny County, an area of approximately 730 square miles (mi2). The city of Pittsburgh is near the center of the county, where the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers join to form the headwaters of the Ohio River. The Three Rivers are regulated by a series of fixed-crest dams, gated dams, and radial (tainter) gates and serve as the receiving waters for tributary streams, CSOs, and SSOs. The RMA2 model was separated into four individual segments on the basis of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers navigational pools in the study area (Dashields; Emsworth; Allegheny River, Pool 2; and Braddock), which were calibrated individually using measured water-surface slope, velocity, and discharge during high- and low-flow conditions. The model calibration process included the comparison of water-surface elevations at five locations and velocity profiles at more than 80 cross sections in the study area. On the basis of the calibration and validation results that included water-surface elevations and velocities, the model is a representative simulation of the Three Rivers flow patterns for discharges ranging from 4,050 to 47,400 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) on the Allegheny River, 2,550 to 40,000 ft3/s on the Monongahela River, and 10,900 to 99,000 ft3/s on the Ohio River. The Monongahela River was
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Honnell, Kevin; Burnett, Sarah; Yorke, Chloe'; Howard, April; Ramsey, Scott
2017-06-01
The Noh problem is classic verification problem in the field of compressible flows. Simple to conceptualize, it is nonetheless difficult for numerical codes to predict correctly, making it an ideal code-verification test bed. In its original incarnation, the fluid is a simple ideal gas; once validated, however, these codes are often used to study highly non-ideal fluids and solids. In this work the classic Noh problem is extended beyond the commonly-studied polytropic ideal gas to more realistic equations of state (EOS) including the stiff gas, the Nobel-Abel gas, and the Carnahan-Starling hard-sphere fluid, thus enabling verification studies to be performed on more physically-realistic fluids. Exact solutions are compared with numerical results obtained from the Lagrangian hydrocode FLAG, developed at Los Alamos. For these more realistic EOSs, the simulation errors decreased in magnitude both at the origin and at the shock, but also spread more broadly about these points compared to the ideal EOS. The overall spatial convergence rate remained first order.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pickett, Brian K.; Cassen, Patrick; Durisen, Richard H.; Link, Robert
2000-02-01
In the paper ``The Effects of Thermal Energetics on Three-dimensional Hydrodynamic Instabilities in Massive Protostellar Disks. II. High-Resolution and Adiabatic Evolutions'' by Brian K. Pickett, Patrick Cassen, Richard H. Durisen, and Robert Link (ApJ, 529, 1034 [2000]), the wrong version of Figure 10 was published as a result of an error at the Press. The correct version of Figure 10 appears below. The Press sincerely regrets this error.
On one-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for a reacting mixture in unbounded domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Siran
2017-10-01
In this paper we consider the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes system for a heat-conducting, compressible reacting mixture which describes the dynamic combustion of fluids of mixed kinds on unbounded domains. This model has been discussed on bounded domains by Chen (SIAM J Math Anal 23:609-634, 1992) and Chen-Hoff-Trivisa (Arch Ration Mech Anal 166:321-358, 2003), among others, in which the reaction rate function is a discontinuous function obeying the Arrhenius' law of thermodynamics. We prove the global existence of weak solutions to this model on one-dimensional unbounded domains with large initial data in H^1. Moreover, the large-time behaviour of the weak solution is identified. In particular, the uniform-in-time bounds for the temperature and specific volume have been established via energy estimates. For this purpose we utilise techniques developed by Kazhikhov-Shelukhin (cf. Kazhikhov in Siber Math J 23:44-49, 1982; Solonnikov and Kazhikhov in Annu Rev Fluid Mech 13:79-95, 1981) and refined by Jiang (Commun Math Phys 200:181-193, 1999, Proc R Soc Edinb Sect A 132:627-638, 2002), as well as a crucial estimate in the recent work by Li-Liang (Arch Ration Mech Anal 220:1195-1208, 2016). Several new estimates are also established, in order to treat the unbounded domain and the reacting terms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sargsyan, K.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Safta, C.; Debusschere, B.; Najm, H. N.; Thornton, P. E.
2016-12-01
Surrogate construction has become a routine procedure when facing computationally intensive studies requiring multiple evaluations of complex models. In particular, surrogate models, otherwise called emulators or response surfaces, replace complex models in uncertainty quantification (UQ) studies, including uncertainty propagation (forward UQ) and parameter estimation (inverse UQ). Further, surrogates based on Polynomial Chaos (PC) expansions are especially convenient for forward UQ and global sensitivity analysis, also known as variance-based decomposition. However, the PC surrogate construction strongly suffers from the curse of dimensionality. With a large number of input parameters, the number of model simulations required for accurate surrogate construction is prohibitively large. Relatedly, non-adaptive PC expansions typically include infeasibly large number of basis terms far exceeding the number of available model evaluations. We develop Weighted Iterative Bayesian Compressive Sensing (WIBCS) algorithm for adaptive basis growth and PC surrogate construction leading to a sparse, high-dimensional PC surrogate with a very few model evaluations. The surrogate is then readily employed for global sensitivity analysis leading to further dimensionality reduction. Besides numerical tests, we demonstrate the construction on the example of Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME) Land Model for several output QoIs at nearly 100 FLUXNET sites covering multiple plant functional types and climates, varying 65 input parameters over broad ranges of possible values. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research, Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) project. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dönmez, Orhan
2004-09-01
In this paper, the general procedure to solve the general relativistic hydrodynamical (GRH) equations with adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR) is presented. In order to achieve, the GRH equations are written in the conservation form to exploit their hyperbolic character. The numerical solutions of GRH equations are obtained by high resolution shock Capturing schemes (HRSC), specifically designed to solve nonlinear hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. These schemes depend on the characteristic information of the system. The Marquina fluxes with MUSCL left and right states are used to solve GRH equations. First, different test problems with uniform and AMR grids on the special relativistic hydrodynamics equations are carried out to verify the second-order convergence of the code in one, two and three dimensions. Results from uniform and AMR grid are compared. It is found that adaptive grid does a better job when the number of resolution is increased. Second, the GRH equations are tested using two different test problems which are Geodesic flow and Circular motion of particle In order to do this, the flux part of GRH equations is coupled with source part using Strang splitting. The coupling of the GRH equations is carried out in a treatment which gives second order accurate solutions in space and time.
Techniques for probing the effects of three-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamics in type Ia supernovae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Penney, Robert B.
Understanding Type Ia Supernovae provides an opportunity to study a wide range of modern physics as well as develop a key tool in cosmology. Here, we identify and investigate new observational signatures of underlying physical processes related to the thermonuclear runaway and the flame propagation and its environment, including three-dimensional effects. Understanding these signatures requires a consistent picture of the nuclear decay processes that power the Supernova and the energy transport of the high-energy particles created by these decays. Therefore we have developed and employed methods for simulating the transport of X-rays, gamma-rays, positrons and of low energy photons through a relativistically expanding envelope. With this, we identify signatures in the light curves, spectra and, in particular, line profiles that are produced in the context of a series of explosion models for Chandrasekhar Mass White Dwarfs. These models use the framework of a delayed detonation scenario in which a deflagration front transitions to a detonation phase. We use models that allow us to separate physical effects due to the flame physics and instabilities, the deflagration to detonation transitions and the initial conditions. Results from within this framework can be used directly for a variety of scenarios for Type Ias including merging White Dwarfs and explosions of sub-Chandrasekhar mass White Dwarfs. We found and developed X-rays as a tool to probe the outer layers of the Supernova envelope. Only models with radioactive material will show significant X-ray line fluxes during the first few months. We show that observations of these can put stringent limits on flame instabilities in delayed-detonation models, and can confirm or rule out mergers and sub-Chandrasekhar mass White Dwarfs as progenitors. Though these observations have not yet been done, the current generation of satellites are capable of observations of these spectra within about 10Mpc. As has been shown
WIND- THREE DIMENSIONAL POTENTIAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW ABOUT WIND TURBINE ROTOR BLADES
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dulikravich, D. S.
1994-01-01
This computer program, WIND, was developed to numerically solve the exact, full-potential equation for three-dimensional, steady, inviscid flow through an isolated wind turbine rotor. The program automatically generates a three-dimensional, boundary-conforming grid and iteratively solves the full-potential equation while fully accounting for both the rotating and Coriolis effects. WIND is capable of numerically analyzing the flow field about a given blade shape of the horizontal-axis type wind turbine. The rotor hub is assumed representable by a doubly infinite circular cylinder. An arbitrary number of blades may be attached to the hub and these blades may have arbitrary spanwise distributions of taper and of the twist, sweep, and dihedral angles. An arbitrary number of different airfoil section shapes may be used along the span as long as the spanwise variation of all the geometeric parameters is reasonably smooth. The numerical techniques employed in WIND involve rotated, type-dependent finite differencing, a finite volume method, artificial viscosity in conservative form, and a successive overrelaxation combined with the sequential grid refinement procedure to accelerate the iterative convergence rate. Consequently, WIND is cabable of accurately analyzing incompressible and compressible flows, including those that are locally transonic and terminated by weak shocks. Along with the three-dimensional results, WIND provides the results of the two-dimensional calculations to aid the user in locating areas of possible improvement in the aerodynamic design of the blade. Output from WIND includes the chordwise distribution of the coefficient of pressure, the Mach number, the density, and the relative velocity components at spanwise stations along the blade. In addition, the results specify local values of the lift coefficient and the tangent and axial aerodynamic force components. These are also given in integrated form expressing the total torque and the total axial
Mittal, Gaurav; Raju, Mandhapati P.; Sung, Chih-Jen
2010-07-15
In modeling rapid compression machine (RCM) experiments, zero-dimensional approach is commonly used along with an associated heat loss model. The adequacy of such approach has not been validated for hydrocarbon fuels. The existence of multi-dimensional effects inside an RCM due to the boundary layer, roll-up vortex, non-uniform heat release, and piston crevice could result in deviation from the zero-dimensional assumption, particularly for hydrocarbons exhibiting two-stage ignition and strong thermokinetic interactions. The objective of this investigation is to assess the adequacy of zero-dimensional approach in modeling RCM experiments under conditions of two-stage ignition and negative temperature coefficient (NTC) response. Computational fluidmore » dynamics simulations are conducted for n-heptane ignition in an RCM and the validity of zero-dimensional approach is assessed through comparisons over the entire NTC region. Results show that the zero-dimensional model based on the approach of 'adiabatic volume expansion' performs very well in adequately predicting the first-stage ignition delays, although quantitative discrepancy for the prediction of the total ignition delays and pressure rise in the first-stage ignition is noted even when the roll-up vortex is suppressed and a well-defined homogeneous core is retained within an RCM. Furthermore, the discrepancy is pressure dependent and decreases as compressed pressure is increased. Also, as ignition response becomes single-stage at higher compressed temperatures, discrepancy from the zero-dimensional simulations reduces. Despite of some quantitative discrepancy, the zero-dimensional modeling approach is deemed satisfactory from the viewpoint of the ignition delay simulation. (author)« less
Virtual viewpoint generation for three-dimensional display based on the compressive light field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Qiao; Sang, Xinzhu; Chen, Duo; Guo, Nan; Yan, Binbin; Yu, Chongxiu; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan
2016-10-01
Virtual view-point generation is one of the key technologies the three-dimensional (3D) display, which renders the new scene image perspective with the existing viewpoints. The three-dimensional scene information can be effectively recovered at different viewing angles to allow users to switch between different views. However, in the process of multiple viewpoints matching, when N free viewpoints are received, we need to match N viewpoints each other, namely matching C 2N = N(N-1)/2 times, and even in the process of matching different baselines errors can occur. To address the problem of great complexity of the traditional virtual view point generation process, a novel and rapid virtual view point generation algorithm is presented in this paper, and actual light field information is used rather than the geometric information. Moreover, for better making the data actual meaning, we mainly use nonnegative tensor factorization(NTF). A tensor representation is introduced for virtual multilayer displays. The light field emitted by an N-layer, M-frame display is represented by a sparse set of non-zero elements restricted to a plane within an Nth-order, rank-M tensor. The tensor representation allows for optimal decomposition of a light field into time-multiplexed, light-attenuating layers using NTF. Finally, the compressive light field of multilayer displays information synthesis is used to obtain virtual view-point by multiple multiplication. Experimental results show that the approach not only the original light field is restored with the high image quality, whose PSNR is 25.6dB, but also the deficiency of traditional matching is made up and any viewpoint can obtained from N free viewpoints.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malik, M. R.
1982-01-01
A fast computer code COSAL for transition prediction in three dimensional boundary layers using compressible stability analysis is described. The compressible stability eigenvalue problem is solved using a finite difference method, and the code is a black box in the sense that no guess of the eigenvalue is required from the user. Several optimization procedures were incorporated into COSAL to calculate integrated growth rates (N factor) for transition correlation for swept and tapered laminar flow control wings using the well known e to the Nth power method. A user's guide to the program is provided.
al Mahbub, Asheque; Haque, Asadul
2016-01-01
This paper presents the results of X-ray CT imaging of the microstructure of sand particles subjected to high pressure one-dimensional compression leading to particle crushing. A high resolution X-ray CT machine capable of in situ imaging was employed to capture images of the whole volume of a sand sample subjected to compressive stresses up to 79.3 MPa. Images of the whole sample obtained at different load stages were analysed using a commercial image processing software (Avizo) to reveal various microstructural properties, such as pore and particle volume distributions, spatial distribution of void ratios, relative breakage, and anisotropy of particles. PMID:28774011
Al Mahbub, Asheque; Haque, Asadul
2016-11-03
This paper presents the results of X-ray CT imaging of the microstructure of sand particles subjected to high pressure one-dimensional compression leading to particle crushing. A high resolution X-ray CT machine capable of in situ imaging was employed to capture images of the whole volume of a sand sample subjected to compressive stresses up to 79.3 MPa. Images of the whole sample obtained at different load stages were analysed using a commercial image processing software (Avizo) to reveal various microstructural properties, such as pore and particle volume distributions, spatial distribution of void ratios, relative breakage, and anisotropy of particles.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orlin, W James; Lindner, Norman J; Bitterly, Jack G
1947-01-01
The theory of hydraulic analogy, that is, the analogy between water flow with a free surface and two-dimensional compressible gas flow and the limitations and conditions of the analogy are discussed. A test run was made using the hydraulic analogy as applied to the flow about circular cylinders at various diameters at subsonic velocities extending to the super critical range. The apparatus and techniques used in this application are described and criticized. Reasonably satisfactory agreement of pressure distributions and flow fields existed between water and airflow about corresponding bodies. This agreement indicated the possibility of extending experimental compressibility research by new methods.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orlin, W James; Lindner, Norman J; Butterly, Jack G
1947-01-01
The theory of the hydraulic analogy -- that is, the analogy between water flow with a free surface and two-dimensional compressible gas flow -- and the limitations and conditions of the analogy are discussed. A test was run using the hydraulic analogy as applied to the flow about circular cylinders of various diameters at subsonic velocities extending into the supercritical range. The apparatus and techniques used in this application are described and criticized. Reasonably satisfactory agreement of pressure distributions and flow fields existed between water and air flow about corresponding bodies. This agreement indicated the possibility of extending experimental compressibility research by new methods.
Vortex Generators in a Two-Dimensional, External-Compression Supersonic Inlet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baydar, Ezgihan; Lu, Frank K.; Slater, John W.
2016-01-01
Vortex generators within a two-dimensional, external-compression supersonic inlet for Mach 1.6 were investigated to determine their ability to increase total pressure recovery, reduce total pressure distortion, and improve the boundary layer. The vortex generators studied included vanes and ramps. The geometric factors of the vortex generators studied included height, length, spacing, and positions upstream and downstream of the inlet terminal shock. The flow through the inlet was simulated through the computational solution of the steady-state Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations on multi-block, structured grids. The vortex generators were simulated by either gridding the geometry of the vortex generators or modeling the vortices generated by the vortex generators. The inlet performance was characterized by the inlet total pressure recovery, total pressure distortion, and incompressible shape factor of the boundary-layer at the engine face. The results suggested that downstream vanes reduced the distortion and improved the boundary layer. The height of the vortex generators had the greatest effect of the geometric factors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parsani, Matteo; Carpenter, Mark H.; Nielsen, Eric J.
2015-06-01
Non-linear entropy stability and a summation-by-parts (SBP) framework are used to derive entropy stable interior interface coupling for the semi-discretized three-dimensional (3D) compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A complete semi-discrete entropy estimate for the interior domain is achieved combining a discontinuous entropy conservative operator of any order [1,2] with an entropy stable coupling condition for the inviscid terms, and a local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) approach with an interior penalty (IP) procedure for the viscous terms. The viscous penalty contributions scale with the inverse of the Reynolds number (Re) so that for Re → ∞ their contributions vanish and only the entropy stable inviscid interface penalty term is recovered. This paper extends the interface couplings presented [1,2] and provides a simple and automatic way to compute the magnitude of the viscous IP term. The approach presented herein is compatible with any diagonal norm summation-by-parts (SBP) spatial operator, including finite element, finite volume, finite difference schemes and the class of high-order accurate methods which include the large family of discontinuous Galerkin discretizations and flux reconstruction schemes.
Two-dimensional compressible flow in centrifugal compressors with straight blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stanitz, John D; Ellis, Gaylord O
1950-01-01
Six numerical examples are presented for steady, two-dimensional, compressible, nonviscous flow in centrifugal compressors with thin straight blades, the center lines of which generate the surface of a right circular cone when rotated about the axis of the compressor. A seventh example is presented for incompressible flow. The solutions were obtained in a region of the compressors, including the impeller tip, that was considered to be unaffected by the diffuser vanes or by the impeller-inlet configuration. Each solution applies to radial and mixed flow compressors with various cone angles but with the same angle between blades on the conic flow surface. The solution also apply to radial and mixed flow turbines with the rotation and the flow direction reversed. The effects of variations in the following parameters were investigated: (1) flow rate, (2) impeller-tip speed, (3) variation of passage height with radius, and (4) angle between blades on conic flow surface. The numerical results are presented in plots of the streamlines and constant Mach number lines. Correlation equations are developed whereby the flow conditions in any impeller with straight blades can be determined (in the region investigated by this analysis) for all operating conditions.
THE FORMATION OF ROTATIONAL DISCONTINUITIES IN COMPRESSIVE THREE-DIMENSIONAL MHD TURBULENCE
Yang, Liping; Feng, Xueshang; Zhang, Lei
Measurements of solar wind turbulence reveal the ubiquity of discontinuities. In this study we investigate how the discontinuities, especially rotational discontinuities (RDs), are formed in MHD turbulence. In a simulation of the decaying compressive three-dimensional (3D) MHD turbulence with an imposed uniform background magnetic field, we detect RDs with sharp field rotations and little variations of magnetic field intensity, as well as mass density. At the same time, in the de Hoffman–Teller frame, the plasma velocity is nearly in agreement with the Alfvén speed, and is field-aligned on both sides of the discontinuity. We take one of the identified RDsmore » to analyze its 3D structure and temporal evolution in detail. By checking the magnetic field and plasma parameters, we find that the identified RD evolves from the steepening of the Alfvén wave with moderate amplitude, and that steepening is caused by the nonuniformity of the Alfvén speed in the ambient turbulence.« less
Nonstandard Analysis and Shock Wave Jump Conditions in a One-Dimensional Compressible Gas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baty, Roy S.; Farassat, Fereidoun; Hargreaves, John
2007-01-01
Nonstandard analysis is a relatively new area of mathematics in which infinitesimal numbers can be defined and manipulated rigorously like real numbers. This report presents a fairly comprehensive tutorial on nonstandard analysis for physicists and engineers with many examples applicable to generalized functions. To demonstrate the power of the subject, the problem of shock wave jump conditions is studied for a one-dimensional compressible gas. It is assumed that the shock thickness occurs on an infinitesimal interval and the jump functions in the thermodynamic and fluid dynamic parameters occur smoothly across this interval. To use conservations laws, smooth pre-distributions of the Dirac delta measure are applied whose supports are contained within the shock thickness. Furthermore, smooth pre-distributions of the Heaviside function are applied which vary from zero to one across the shock wave. It is shown that if the equations of motion are expressed in nonconservative form then the relationships between the jump functions for the flow parameters may be found unambiguously. The analysis yields the classical Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions for an inviscid shock wave. Moreover, non-monotonic entropy jump conditions are obtained for both inviscid and viscous flows. The report shows that products of generalized functions may be defined consistently using nonstandard analysis; however, physically meaningful products of generalized functions must be determined from the physics of the problem and not the mathematical form of the governing equations.
Highly compressible three-dimensional graphene hydrogel for foldable all-solid-state supercapacitor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xianbin; Zou, Shuai; Liu, Kaixi; Lv, Chao; Wu, Ziping; Yin, Yanhong; Liang, Tongxiang; Xie, Zailai
2018-04-01
The fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) graphene-based macroscopic materials with superior mechanical and electrical properties for flexible energy storage devices is still extremely challenging. Here, we report a novel 3D graphene hydrogel decorated by the biomass phytic acid (PAGH) with developed porosity and strengthen mechanical property via hydrothermal and freeze-drying methods. The phytic acid molecules are intercalated into the graphene sheets, enabling robust network structure. This induces the formation of materials with larger specific surface area, lower density and enhanced compressive strength compared with pure GH. When directly employed as an electrode, the PAGH exhibits a high specific capacitance of 248.8 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and excellent rate performance of 67.9% as current density increasing to 20 A g-1. Furthermore, the all-solid-state supercapacitor based PAGH can deliver outstanding cycle life (86.2% after cycling 10,000 times), glorious energy density (26.5 Wh kg-1) and power density (5135.1 W kg-1). The prepared device shows stable electrochemical behaviors at random bending angles. Therefore, the present work will open a new avenue to design and fabricate new flexible and portable graphene-based electrodes for future applications in energy storage devices.
Mower, Timothy E.; Higgins, Jerry D.; Yang, In C.; Peters, Charles A.
1994-01-01
Study of the hydrologic system at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires the extraction of pore-water samples from welded and nonwelded, unsaturated tuffs. Two compression methods (triaxial compression and one-dimensional compression) were examined to develop a repeatable extraction technique and to investigate the effects of the extraction method on the original pore-fluid composition. A commercially available triaxial cell was modified to collect pore water expelled from tuff cores. The triaxial cell applied a maximum axial stress of 193 MPa and a maximum confining stress of 68 MPa. Results obtained from triaxial compression testing indicated that pore-water samples could be obtained from nonwelded tuff cores that had initial moisture contents as small as 13 percent (by weight of dry soil). Injection of nitrogen gas while the test core was held at the maximum axial stress caused expulsion of additional pore water and reduced the required initial moisture content from 13 to 11 percent. Experimental calculations, together with experience gained from testing moderately welded tuff cores, indicated that the triaxial cell used in this study could not apply adequate axial or confining stress to expel pore water from cores of densely welded tuffs. This concern led to the design, fabrication, and testing of a one-dimensional compression cell. The one-dimensional compression cell used in this study was constructed from hardened 4340-alloy and nickel-alloy steels and could apply a maximum axial stress of 552 MPa. The major components of the device include a corpus ring and sample sleeve to confine the sample, a piston and base platen to apply axial load, and drainage plates to transmit expelled water from the test core out of the cell. One-dimensional compression extracted pore water from nonwelded tuff cores that had initial moisture contents as small as 7.6 percent; pore water was expelled from densely welded tuff cores that had initial moisture contents as small as 7
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marsooli, R.; Orton, P. M.; Georgas, N.; Blumberg, A. F.
2016-02-01
The Stevens Institute of Technology Estuarine and Coastal Ocean Model (sECOM) has been coupled with a more advanced surface wave model to simulate wave‒current interaction, and results have been validated in estuarine and nearshore waters. sECOM is a three‒dimensional, hydrostatic, free surface, primitive equation model. It solves the Navier‒Stokes equations and the conservation equations for temperature and salinity using a finite‒difference method on an Arakawa C‒grid with a terrain‒following (sigma) vertical coordinate and orthogonal curvilinear horizontal coordinate system. The model is coupled with the surface wave model developed by Mellor et al. (2008), which solves the spectral equation and takes into account depth and current refraction, and deep and shallow water. The wave model parameterizes the energy distribution in frequency space and the wave‒wave interaction process by using a specified spectrum shape. The coupled wave‒hydrodynamic model considers the wave‒current interaction through wave‒induced bottom stress, depth‒dependent radiation stress, and wave effects on wind‒induced surface stress. The model is validated using the data collected at a natural sandy beach at Duck, North Carolina, during the DUCK94 experiment. This test case reveals the capability of the model to simulate the wave‒current interaction in nearshore coastal systems. The model is further validated using the data collected in Jamaica Bay, a semi‒enclosed body of water located in New York City region. This test reveals the applicability of the model to estuarine systems. These validations of the model and comparisons to its prior wave model, the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) wave model (Donelan 1977), are presented and discussed. ReferencesG.L. Mellor, M.A. Donelan, and L‒Y. Oey, 2008, A Surface Wave Model for Coupling with Numerical Ocean Circulation Models. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 25, 1785‒1807.Donelan, M. A 1977. A
He, Junfeng; Hogan, T.; Mion, Thomas R.; ...
2015-04-27
Negative compressibility is a sign of thermodynamic instability of open1,2,3 or non-equilibrium4,5 systems. In quantum materials consisting of multiple mutually coupled subsystems, the compressibility of one subsystem can be negative if it is countered by positive compressibility of the others. Manifestations of this effect have so far been limited to low-dimensional dilute electron systems6,7,8,9,10,11. Here, we present evidence from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) for negative electronic compressibility (NEC) in the quasi-three-dimensional (3D) spin–orbit correlated metal (Sr1-xLax)3Ir2O7. Increased electron filling accompanies an anomalous decrease of the chemical potential, as indicated by the overall movement of the deep valence bands. Such anomaly,more » suggestive of NEC, is shown to be primarily driven by the lowering in energy of the conduction band as the correlated bandgap reduces. Our finding points to a distinct pathway towards an uncharted territory of NEC featuring bulk correlated metals with unique potential for applications in low-power nanoelectronics and novel metamaterials.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wie, Yong-Sun
1990-01-01
This user's manual contains a complete description of the computer programs developed to calculate three-dimensional, compressible, laminar boundary layers for perfect gas flow on general fuselage shapes. These programs include the 3-D boundary layer program (3DBLC), the body-oriented coordinate program (BCC), and the streamline coordinate program (SCC). Subroutine description, input, output and sample case are discussed. The complete FORTRAN listings of the computer programs are given.
Hamann, F., E-mail: franck.hamann@cea.fr; Combis, P.; Videau, L.
The one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics of a plasma cylindrical liner is addressed in the case of a two components magnetic field. The azimuthal component is responsible for the implosion of the liner and the axial field is compressed inside the liner. A complete set of analytical profiles for the magnetic field components, the density, and the local velocity are proposed at the scale of the liner thickness. Numerical simulations are also presented to test the validity of the analytical formulas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadid, K. M.; Meselhe, E. A.; Roth, B.; Allison, M. A.
2013-12-01
The coastal wetlands of Louisiana have been experiencing high rates of land subsidence and erosion for decades. Anthropogenic alterations to the hydrology and geology, powerful hurricanes, and relative sea level rise have caused major coastal land loss in Louisiana. After years of research and discussions, the use of sediment diversions from the Mississippi River to adjacent embayment areas were proposed and further authorized as a solution for land building. To this end, the West Bay diversion (WBD) was constructed in 2003 to restore approximately 9,831 acres of wetlands in the West Bay area under the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection, and Restoration Act (CWPPRA). The WBD is located along the right-descending bank of the Mississippi River south of Venice, LA near River Mile (RM) 4.7. The initial size of the channel post-construction was designed to convey 20,000 cubic feet per second (cfs), and over time it was anticipated to support a maximum of 50,000 cfs. This sediment diversion provides an opportunity to examine and analyze the impact of such diversion on the morphology of the river channel, and the retention characteristics and rate of delta growth in the receiving basin. Additionally, the WBD serve as analogue to fully validate morphologic models that could consequently be used to model proposed land building sediment diversions in the Lower Mississippi River. In this study a three-dimensional numerical model is developed for the WBD which includes the main channel of the Mississippi River as well as the receiving basin. The model is being calibrated and validated for hydrodynamics and morphology using detailed field observations. Since 2003 regular monitoring has taken place as per the CWPPRA project guidelines. This includes bathymetric surveys of the receiving basin from 2002 (pre-construction), 2003, 2006, and 2009. A recent monitoring survey has been completed and will be available in the near future. In addition to this monitoring data, the U
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harp, J. L., Jr.
1977-01-01
A two-dimensional time-dependent computer code was utilized to calculate the three-dimensional steady flow within the impeller blading. The numerical method is an explicit time marching scheme in two spatial dimensions. Initially, an inviscid solution is generated on the hub blade-to-blade surface by the method of Katsanis and McNally (1973). Starting with the known inviscid solution, the viscous effects are calculated through iteration. The approach makes it possible to take into account principal impeller fluid-mechanical effects. It is pointed out that the second iterate provides a complete solution to the three-dimensional, compressible, Navier-Stokes equations for flow in a centrifugal impeller. The problems investigated are related to the study of a radial impeller and a backswept impeller.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nisar, Ubaid Ahmed; Ashraf, Waqas; Qamar, Shamsul
2016-08-01
Numerical solutions of the hydrodynamical model of semiconductor devices are presented in one and two-space dimension. The model describes the charge transport in semiconductor devices. Mathematically, the models can be written as a convection-diffusion type system with a right hand side describing the relaxation effects and interaction with a self consistent electric field. The proposed numerical scheme is a splitting scheme based on the conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method for hyperbolic step, and a semi-implicit scheme for the relaxation step. The numerical results of the suggested scheme are compared with the splitting scheme based on Nessyahu-Tadmor (NT) central scheme for convection step and the same semi-implicit scheme for the relaxation step. The effects of various parameters such as low field mobility, device length, lattice temperature and voltages for one-space dimensional hydrodynamic model are explored to further validate the generic applicability of the CE/SE method for the current model equations. A two dimensional simulation is also performed by CE/SE method for a MESFET device, producing results in good agreement with those obtained by NT-central scheme.
2017-01-01
Polymeric nanoparticles have become indispensable in modern society with a wide array of applications ranging from waterborne coatings to drug-carrier-delivery systems. While a large range of techniques exist to determine a multitude of properties of these particles, relating physicochemical properties of the particle to the chemical structure of the intrinsic polymers is still challenging. A novel, highly orthogonal separation system based on comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC × LC) has been developed. The system combines hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC) in the first-dimension to separate the particles based on their size, with ultrahigh-performance size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) in the second dimension to separate the constituting polymer molecules according to their hydrodynamic radius for each of 80 to 100 separated fractions. A chip-based mixer is incorporated to transform the sample by dissolving the separated nanoparticles from the first-dimension online in tetrahydrofuran. The polymer bands are then focused using stationary-phase-assisted modulation to enhance sensitivity, and the water from the first-dimension eluent is largely eliminated to allow interaction-free SEC. Using the developed system, the combined two-dimensional distribution of the particle-size and the molecular-size of a mixture of various polystyrene (PS) and polyacrylate (PACR) nanoparticles has been obtained within 60 min. PMID:28745485
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Fanchao; Chen, Cheng; Hu, Dianyin; Song, Jun
2017-12-01
Combining atomistic simulations and continuum modeling, a comprehensive study of the out-of-plane compressive deformation behaviors of equilateral three-dimensional (3D) graphene honeycombs was performed. It was demonstrated that under out-of-plane compression, the honeycomb exhibits two critical deformation events, i.e., elastic mechanical instability (including elastic buckling and structural transformation) and inelastic structural collapse. The above events were shown to be strongly dependent on the honeycomb cell size and affected by the local atomic bonding at the cell junction. By treating the 3D graphene honeycomb as a continuum cellular solid, and accounting for the structural heterogeneity and constraint at the junction, a set of analytical models were developed to accurately predict the threshold stresses corresponding to the onset of those deformation events. The present study elucidates key structure-property relationships of 3D graphene honeycombs under out-of-plane compression, and provides a comprehensive theoretical framework to predictively analyze their deformation responses, and more generally, offers critical new knowledge for the rational bottom-up design of 3D networks of two-dimensional nanomaterials.
Mansuri, Samir; Abdulkhayum, Abdul Mujeeb; Gazal, Giath; Hussain, Mohammed Abid Zahir
2013-12-01
Surgical treatment of fracture mandible using an internal fixation has changed in the last decades to achieve the required rigidity, stability and immediate restoration of function. The aim of the study was to do a Prospective study of 10 patients to determine the efficacy of rectangular grid compression miniplates in mandibular fractures. This study was carried out using 2.0 rectangular grid compression miniplates and 8 mm multidirectional screws as a rigid internal fixation in 10 patients without post operative intermaxillary fixation (IMF). Follow up was done for period of 6 months. All fractures were healed with an absolute stability in post operative period. None of the patient complained of post operative difficulty in occlusion. Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that rectangular grid compression miniplates was rigid, reliable and thus can be recommended for the treatment of mandibular angle fractures. How to cite this article: Mansuri S, Abdulkhayum AM, Gazal G, Hussain MA. Treatment of mandibular angle fracture with a 2mm, 3 dimensional rectangular grid compression miniplates: A prospective clinical study. J Int Oral Health 2013;5(6):93-100 .
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frankl, F.; Voishel, V.
1943-01-01
In the present report an investigation is made on a flat plate in a two-dimensional compressible flow of the effect of compressibility and heating on the turbulent frictional drag coefficient in the boundary layer of an airfoil or wing radiator. The analysis is based on the Prandtl-Karman theory of the turbulent boundary later and the Stodola-Crocco, theorem on the linear relation between the total energy of the flow and its velocity. Formulas are obtained for the velocity distribution and the frictional drag law in a turbulent boundary later with the compressibility effect and heat transfer taken into account. It is found that with increase of compressibility and temperature at full retardation of the flow (the temperature when the velocity of the flow at a given point is reduced to zero in case of an adiabatic process in the gas) at a constant R (sub x), the frictional drag coefficient C (sub f) decreased, both of these factors acting in the same sense.
Three-dimensional numerical simulation for plastic injection-compression molding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yun; Yu, Wenjie; Liang, Junjie; Lang, Jianlin; Li, Dequn
2018-03-01
Compared with conventional injection molding, injection-compression molding can mold optical parts with higher precision and lower flow residual stress. However, the melt flow process in a closed cavity becomes more complex because of the moving cavity boundary during compression and the nonlinear problems caused by non-Newtonian polymer melt. In this study, a 3D simulation method was developed for injection-compression molding. In this method, arbitrary Lagrangian- Eulerian was introduced to model the moving-boundary flow problem in the compression stage. The non-Newtonian characteristics and compressibility of the polymer melt were considered. The melt flow and pressure distribution in the cavity were investigated by using the proposed simulation method and compared with those of injection molding. Results reveal that the fountain flow effect becomes significant when the cavity thickness increases during compression. The back flow also plays an important role in the flow pattern and redistribution of cavity pressure. The discrepancy in pressures at different points along the flow path is complicated rather than monotonically decreased in injection molding.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yingpeng; Yi, Ningbo; Huang, Lu; Zhang, Tengfei; Fang, Shaoli; Chang, Huicong; Li, Na; Oh, Jiyoung; Lee, Jae Ah; Kozlov, Mikhail; Chipara, Alin C.; Terrones, Humberto; Xiao, Peishuang; Long, Guankui; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Long; Lepró, Xavier; Haines, Carter; Lima, Márcio Dias; Lopez, Nestor Perea; Rajukumar, Lakshmy P.; Elias, Ana L.; Feng, Simin; Kim, Seon Jeong; Narayanan, N. T.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Terrones, Mauricio; Aliev, Ali; Chu, Pengfei; Zhang, Zhong; Baughman, Ray H.; Chen, Yongsheng
2015-01-01
It is a challenge to fabricate graphene bulk materials with properties arising from the nature of individual graphene sheets, and which assemble into monolithic three-dimensional structures. Here we report the scalable self-assembly of randomly oriented graphene sheets into additive-free, essentially homogenous graphene sponge materials that provide a combination of both cork-like and rubber-like properties. These graphene sponges, with densities similar to air, display Poisson’s ratios in all directions that are near-zero and largely strain-independent during reversible compression to giant strains. And at the same time, they function as enthalpic rubbers, which can recover up to 98% compression in air and 90% in liquids, and operate between -196 and 900 °C. Furthermore, these sponges provide reversible liquid absorption for hundreds of cycles and then discharge it within seconds, while still providing an effective near-zero Poisson’s ratio.
Wu, Yingpeng; Yi, Ningbo; Huang, Lu; Zhang, Tengfei; Fang, Shaoli; Chang, Huicong; Li, Na; Oh, Jiyoung; Lee, Jae Ah; Kozlov, Mikhail; Chipara, Alin C; Terrones, Humberto; Xiao, Peishuang; Long, Guankui; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Long; Lepró, Xavier; Haines, Carter; Lima, Márcio Dias; Lopez, Nestor Perea; Rajukumar, Lakshmy P; Elias, Ana L; Feng, Simin; Kim, Seon Jeong; Narayanan, N T; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Terrones, Mauricio; Aliev, Ali; Chu, Pengfei; Zhang, Zhong; Baughman, Ray H; Chen, Yongsheng
2015-01-20
It is a challenge to fabricate graphene bulk materials with properties arising from the nature of individual graphene sheets, and which assemble into monolithic three-dimensional structures. Here we report the scalable self-assembly of randomly oriented graphene sheets into additive-free, essentially homogenous graphene sponge materials that provide a combination of both cork-like and rubber-like properties. These graphene sponges, with densities similar to air, display Poisson's ratios in all directions that are near-zero and largely strain-independent during reversible compression to giant strains. And at the same time, they function as enthalpic rubbers, which can recover up to 98% compression in air and 90% in liquids, and operate between -196 and 900 °C. Furthermore, these sponges provide reversible liquid absorption for hundreds of cycles and then discharge it within seconds, while still providing an effective near-zero Poisson's ratio.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Yangzheng; Zhao, Zhisheng; Strobel, Timothy A.; Cohen, R. E.
2016-12-01
We investigated the stability and mechanical and electronic properties of 15 metastable mixed s p2-s p3 carbon allotropes in the family of interpenetrating graphene networks (IGNs) using density functional theory (DFT). IGN allotropes exhibit nonmonotonic bulk and linear compressibilities before their structures irreversibly transform into new configurations under large hydrostatic compression. The maximum bulk compressibilities vary widely between structures and range from 3.6 to 306 TPa-1. We find all the IGN allotropes have negative linear compressibilities with maximum values varying from -0.74 to -133 TPa-1. The maximal negative linear compressibility of Z33 (-133 TPa-1 at 3.4 GPa) exceeds previously reported values at pressures higher than 1.0 GPa. IGN allotropes can be classified as either armchair or zigzag type, and these two types of IGNs exhibit different electronic properties. Zigzag-type IGNs are node-line semimetals, while armchair-type IGNs are either semiconductors or node-loop or node-line semimetals. Experimental synthesis of these IGN allotropes might be realized since their formation enthalpies relative to graphite are only 0.1-0.5 eV/atom (that of C60 fullerene is about 0.4 eV/atom), and energetically feasible binary compound pathways are possible.
Cheng, Juan, E-mail: cheng_juan@iapcm.ac.cn; Shu, Chi-Wang, E-mail: shu@dam.brown.edu
In applications such as astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion, there are many three-dimensional cylindrical-symmetric multi-material problems which are usually simulated by Lagrangian schemes in the two-dimensional cylindrical coordinates. For this type of simulation, a critical issue for the schemes is to keep spherical symmetry in the cylindrical coordinate system if the original physical problem has this symmetry. In the past decades, several Lagrangian schemes with such symmetry property have been developed, but all of them are only first order accurate. In this paper, we develop a second order cell-centered Lagrangian scheme for solving compressible Euler equations in cylindrical coordinates, basedmore » on the control volume discretizations, which is designed to have uniformly second order accuracy and capability to preserve one-dimensional spherical symmetry in a two-dimensional cylindrical geometry when computed on an equal-angle-zoned initial grid. The scheme maintains several good properties such as conservation for mass, momentum and total energy, and the geometric conservation law. Several two-dimensional numerical examples in cylindrical coordinates are presented to demonstrate the good performance of the scheme in terms of accuracy, symmetry, non-oscillation and robustness. The advantage of higher order accuracy is demonstrated in these examples.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zuk, J.; Smith, P. J.
1974-01-01
A computer program is presented for compressible fluid flow with friction and area change. The program carries out a quasi-one-dimensional flow analysis which is valid for laminar and turbulent flows under both subsonic and choked flow conditions. The program was written to be applied to gas film seals. The area-change analysis should prove useful for choked flow conditions with small mean thickness, as well as for face seals where radial area change is significant. The program is written in FORTRAN 4.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herriot, John G
1947-01-01
Theoretical blockage corrections are presented for a body of revolution and for a three-dimensional unswept wing in a circular or rectangular wind tunnel. The theory takes account of the effects of the wake and of the compressibility of the fluid, and is based on the assumption that the dimensions of the model are small in comparison with those of the tunnel throat. Formulas are given for correcting a number of the quantities, such as dynamic pressure and Mach number, measured in wind-tunnel tests. The report presents a summary and unification of the existing literature on the subject.
Compressible viscous flows generated by oscillating flexible cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Eysden, Cornelis A.; Sader, John E.
2009-01-01
The fluid dynamics of oscillating elastic beams underpin the operation of many modern technological devices ranging from micromechanical sensors to the atomic force microscope. While viscous effects are widely acknowledged to have a strong influence on these dynamics, fluid compressibility is commonly neglected. Here, we theoretically study the three-dimensional flow fields that are generated by the motion of flexible cylinders immersed in viscous compressible fluids and discuss the implications of compressibility in practice. We consider cylinders of circular cross section and flat blades of zero thickness that are executing flexural and torsional oscillations of arbitrary wave number. Exact analytical solutions are derived for these flow fields and their resulting hydrodynamic loads.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carter, J. E.
1972-01-01
Numerical solutions have been obtained for the supersonic, laminar flow over a two-dimensional compression corner. These solutions were obtained as steady-state solutions to the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations using the finite difference method of Brailovskaya, which has second-order accuracy in the spatial coordinates. Good agreement was obtained between the computed results and wall pressure distributions measured experimentally for Mach numbers of 4 and 6.06, and respective Reynolds numbers, based on free-stream conditions and the distance from the leading edge to the corner. In those calculations, as well as in others, sufficient resolution was obtained to show the streamline pattern in the separation bubble. Upstream boundary conditions to the compression corner flow were provided by numerically solving the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for the flat plate flow field, beginning at the leading edge. The compression corner flow field was enclosed by a computational boundary with the unknown boundary conditions supplied by extrapolation from internally computed points.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wedemeyer, Sven; Kučinskas, Arūnas; Klevas, Jonas; Ludwig, Hans-Günter
2017-10-01
Aims: Although observational data unequivocally point to the presence of chromospheres in red giant stars, no attempts have been made so far to model them using 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres. We therefore compute an exploratory 3D hydrodynamical model atmosphere for a cool red giant in order to study the dynamical and thermodynamic properties of its chromosphere, as well as the influence of the chromosphere on its observable properties. Methods: Three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations are carried out with the CO5BOLD model atmosphere code for a star with the atmospheric parameters (Teff ≈ 4010 K, log g = 1.5, [ M / H ] = 0.0), which are similar to those of the K-type giant star Aldebaran (α Tau). The computational domain extends from the upper convection zone into the chromosphere (7.4 ≥ log τRoss ≥ - 12.8) and covers several granules in each horizontal direction. Using this model atmosphere, we compute the emergent continuum intensity maps at different wavelengths, spectral line profiles of Ca II K, the Ca II infrared triplet line at 854.2 nm, and Hα, as well as the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the emergent radiative flux. Results: The initial model quickly develops a dynamical chromosphere that is characterised by propagating and interacting shock waves. The peak temperatures in the chromospheric shock fronts reach values of up to 5000 K, although the shock fronts remain quite narrow. Similar to the Sun, the gas temperature distribution in the upper layers of red giant stars is composed of a cool component due to adiabatic cooling in the expanding post-shock regions and a hot component due to shock waves. For this red giant model, the hot component is a rather flat high-temperature tail, which nevertheless affects the resulting average temperatures significantly. Conclusions: The simulations show that the atmospheres of red giant stars are dynamic and intermittent. Consequently, many observable properties cannot be reproduced
Quasi-one-dimensional compressible flow across face seals and narrow slots. 1: Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zuk, J.; Ludwig, L. P.; Johnson, R. L.
1972-01-01
An analysis is presented for compressible fluid flow across shaft face seals and narrow slots. The analysis includes fluid inertia, viscous friction, and entrance losses. Subsonic and choked flow conditions can be predicted and analyzed. The model is valid for both laminar and turbulent flows. Results agree with experiment and with solutions which are more limited in applicability. Results show that a parallel film can have a positive film stiffness under choked flow conditions.
Experimental dynamic response of a two-dimensional, Mach 2.7, mixed compression inlet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumbick, R. J.; Neiner, G. H.; Cole, G. L.
1972-01-01
A test program was conducted on a two-dimensional supersonic inlet. Internal disturbances in diffuser exit mass flow were produced by oscillating overboard bypass doors. Open-loop dynamic responses of shock position, throat exit and diffuser exit static pressures are presented. The steady-state and dynamic coupling between ducts were also obtained. The experimental results from the two-dimensional inlet are compared to results from a similar size axisymmetric inlet and also to a transfer function synthesis program.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harris, J. E.
1975-01-01
An implicit finite-difference procedure is presented for solving the compressible three-dimensional boundary-layer equations. The method is second-order accurate, unconditionally stable (conditional stability for reverse cross flow), and efficient from the viewpoint of computer storage and processing time. The Reynolds stress terms are modeled by (1) a single-layer mixing length model and (2) a two-layer eddy viscosity model. These models, although simple in concept, accurately predicted the equilibrium turbulent flow for the conditions considered. Numerical results are compared with experimental wall and profile data for a cone at an angle of attack larger than the cone semiapex angle. These comparisons clearly indicate that the numerical procedure and turbulence models accurately predict the experimental data with as few as 21 nodal points in the plane normal to the wall boundary.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holland, Scott D.
1993-01-01
Three-dimensional sidewall-compression scramjet inlets with leading-edge sweeps of 30 deg and 70 deg were tested in the Langley Hypersonic CF4 Tunnel at Mach 6 and with a ratio of specific heats of 1.2. The parametric effects of leading-edge sweep, cowl position, contraction ratio, and Reynolds number were investigated. The models were instrumented with 42 static pressure orifices that were distributed on the sidewalls, base plate, and cowl. Schlieren movies were made of each test for flow visualization of the effects of the internal flow spillage on the external flow field. To obtain an approximate characterization of the flow field, a modification to two-dimensional, inviscid, oblique shock theory was derived to accommodate the three-dimensional effects of leading-edge sweep. This theory qualitatively predicted the reflected shock structure (i.e., sidewall impingement locations) and the observed increase in spillage with increasing leading-edge sweep. The primary effect of moving the cowl forward was capturing the flow that would have otherwise spilled out ahead of the cowl. Increasing the contraction ratio increases the number of internal shock reflections and hence incrementally increases the sidewall pressure distribution. Significant Reynolds number effects were noted over a small range of Reynolds number.
High-order ENO schemes applied to two- and three-dimensional compressible flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shu, Chi-Wang; Erlebacher, Gordon; Zang, Thomas A.; Whitaker, David; Osher, Stanley
1991-01-01
High order essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) finite difference schemes are applied to the 2-D and 3-D compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. Practical issues, such as vectorization, efficiency of coding, cost comparison with other numerical methods, and accuracy degeneracy effects, are discussed. Numerical examples are provided which are representative of computational problems of current interest in transition and turbulence physics. These require both nonoscillatory shock capturing and high resolution for detailed structures in the smooth regions and demonstrate the advantage of ENO schemes.
The three-dimensional compressible flow in a radial inflow turbine scroll
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamed, A.; Tabakoff, W.; Malak, M.
1984-01-01
This work presents the results of an analytical study and an experimental investigation of the three-dimensional flow in a turbine scroll. The finite element method is used in the iterative numerical solution of the locally linearized governing equations for the three-dimensional velocity potential field. The results of the numerical computations are compared with the experimental measurements in the scroll cross sections, which were obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry and hot wire techniques. The results of the computations show a variation in the flow conditions around the rotor periphery which was found to depend on the scroll geometry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaiser, Bryan E.; Poroseva, Svetlana V.; Canfield, Jesse M.; Sauer, Jeremy A.; Linn, Rodman R.
2013-11-01
The High Gradient hydrodynamics (HIGRAD) code is an atmospheric computational fluid dynamics code created by Los Alamos National Laboratory to accurately represent flows characterized by sharp gradients in velocity, concentration, and temperature. HIGRAD uses a fully compressible finite-volume formulation for explicit Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and features an advection scheme that is second-order accurate in time and space. In the current study, boundary conditions implemented in HIGRAD are varied to find those that better reproduce the reduced physics of a flat plate boundary layer to compare with complex physics of the atmospheric boundary layer. Numerical predictions are compared with available DNS, experimental, and LES data obtained by other researchers. High-order turbulence statistics are collected. The Reynolds number based on the free-stream velocity and the momentum thickness is 120 at the inflow and the Mach number for the flow is 0.2. Results are compared at Reynolds numbers of 670 and 1410. A part of the material is based upon work supported by NASA under award NNX12AJ61A and by the Junior Faculty UNM-LANL Collaborative Research Grant.
Malo, Sergio; Fateri, Sina; Livadas, Makis; Mares, Cristinel; Gan, Tat-Hean
2017-07-01
Ultrasonic guided waves testing is a technique successfully used in many industrial scenarios worldwide. For many complex applications, the dispersive nature and multimode behavior of the technique still poses a challenge for correct defect detection capabilities. In order to improve the performance of the guided waves, a 2-D compressed pulse analysis is presented in this paper. This novel technique combines the use of pulse compression and dispersion compensation in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and temporal-spatial resolution of the signals. The ability of the technique to discriminate different wave modes is also highlighted. In addition, an iterative algorithm is developed to identify the wave modes of interest using adaptive peak detection to enable automatic wave mode discrimination. The employed algorithm is developed in order to pave the way for further in situ applications. The performance of Barker-coded and chirp waveforms is studied in a multimodal scenario where longitudinal and flexural wave packets are superposed. The technique is tested in both synthetic and experimental conditions. The enhancements in SNR and temporal resolution are quantified as well as their ability to accurately calculate the propagation distance for different wave modes.
Vortex Generators in a Two-Dimensional, External-Compression Supersonic Inlet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baydar, Ezgihan; Lu, Frank K.; Slater, John W.
2016-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed as part of a process to design a vortex generator array for a two-dimensional inlet for Mach 1.6. The objective is to improve total pressure recovery a on at the engine face of the inlet. Both vane-type and ramp-type vortex generators are examined.
Czuba, Christiana; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Magirl, Christopher S.
2010-01-01
The Cedar River in Washington State originates on the western slope of the Cascade Range and provides the City of Seattle with most of its drinking water, while also supporting a productive salmon habitat. Water-resource managers require detailed information on how best to manage high-flow releases from Chester Morse Lake, a large reservoir on the Cedar River, during periods of heavy precipitation to minimize flooding, while mitigating negative effects on fish populations. Instream flow-management practices include provisions for adaptive management to promote and maintain healthy aquatic habitat in the river system. The current study is designed to understand the linkages between peak flow characteristics, geomorphic processes, riverine habitat, and biological responses. Specifically, two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling is used to simulate and quantify the effects of the peak-flow magnitude, duration, and frequency on the channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat. Two study reaches, representative of the typical geomorphic and ecologic characteristics of the Cedar River, were selected for the modeling. Detailed bathymetric data, collected with a real-time kinematic global positioning system and an acoustic Doppler current profiler, were combined with a LiDAR-derived digital elevation model in the overbank area to develop a computational mesh. The model is used to simulate water velocity, benthic shear stress, flood inundation, and morphologic changes in the gravel-bedded river under the current and alternative flood-release strategies. Simulations of morphologic change and salmon-redd scour by floods of differing magnitude and duration enable water-resource managers to incorporate model simulation results into adaptive management of peak flows in the Cedar River. PDF version of a presentation on hydrodynamic modelling in the Cedar River in Washington state. Presented at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2010.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morales, V. L.; Carrel, M.; Dentz, M.; Derlon, N.; Morgenroth, E.; Holzner, M.
2017-12-01
Biofilms are ubiquitous bacterial communities growing in various porous media including soils, trickling and sand filters and are relevant for applications such as the degradation of pollutants for bioremediation, waste water or drinking water production purposes. By their development, biofilms dynamically change the structure of porous media, increasing the heterogeneity of the pore network and the non-Fickian or anomalous dispersion. In this work, we use an experimental approach to investigate the influence of biofilm growth on pore scale hydrodynamics and transport processes and propose a correlated continuous time random walk model capturing these observations. We perform three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry at four different time points from 0 to 48 hours of biofilm growth. The biofilm growth notably impacts pore-scale hydrodynamics, as shown by strong increase of the average velocity and in tailing of Lagrangian velocity probability density functions. Additionally, the spatial correlation length of the flow increases substantially. This points at the formation of preferential flow pathways and stagnation zones, which ultimately leads to an increase of anomalous transport in the porous media considered, characterized by non-Fickian scaling of mean-squared displacements and non-Gaussian distributions of the displacement probability density functions. A gamma distribution provides a remarkable approximation of the bulk and the high tail of the Lagrangian pore-scale velocity magnitude, indicating a transition from a parallel pore arrangement towards a more serial one. Finally, a correlated continuous time random walk based on a stochastic relation velocity model accurately reproduces the observations and could be used to predict transport beyond the time scales accessible to the experiment.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, H Julian; Vincenti, Walter G
1944-01-01
Theoretical tunnel-wall corrections are derived for an airfoil of finite thickness and camber in a two-dimensional-flow wind tunnel. The theory takes account of the effects of the wake of the airfoil and of the compressibility of the fluid, and is based upon the assumption that the chord of the airfoil is small in comparison with the height of the tunnel. Consideration is given to the phenomenon of choking at high speeds and its relation to the tunnel-wall corrections. The theoretical results are compared with the small amount of low-speed experimental data available and the agreement is seen to be satisfactory, even for relatively large values of the chord-height ratio.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cole, G. L.; Neiner, G. H.; Baumbick, R. J.
1973-01-01
Experimental results of terminal shock and restart control system tests of a two-dimensional, twin-duct mixed compression inlet are presented. High-response (110-Hz bandwidth) overboard bypass doors were used, both as the variable to control shock position and as the means of disturbing the inlet airflow. An inherent instability in inlet shock position resulted in noisy feedback signals and thus restricted the terminal shock position control performance that was achieved. Proportional-plus-integral type controllers using either throat exit static pressure or shock position sensor feedback gave adequate low-frequency control. The inlet restart control system kept the terminal shock control loop closed throughout the unstart-restart transient. The capability to restart the inlet was non limited by the inlet instability.
Yang, L M; Shu, C; Wang, Y
2016-03-01
In this work, a discrete gas-kinetic scheme (DGKS) is presented for simulation of two-dimensional viscous incompressible and compressible flows. This scheme is developed from the circular function-based GKS, which was recently proposed by Shu and his co-workers [L. M. Yang, C. Shu, and J. Wu, J. Comput. Phys. 274, 611 (2014)]. For the circular function-based GKS, the integrals for conservation forms of moments in the infinity domain for the Maxwellian function-based GKS are simplified to those integrals along the circle. As a result, the explicit formulations of conservative variables and fluxes are derived. However, these explicit formulations of circular function-based GKS for viscous flows are still complicated, which may not be easy for the application by new users. By using certain discrete points to represent the circle in the phase velocity space, the complicated formulations can be replaced by a simple solution process. The basic requirement is that the conservation forms of moments for the circular function-based GKS can be accurately satisfied by weighted summation of distribution functions at discrete points. In this work, it is shown that integral quadrature by four discrete points on the circle, which forms the D2Q4 discrete velocity model, can exactly match the integrals. Numerical results showed that the present scheme can provide accurate numerical results for incompressible and compressible viscous flows with roughly the same computational cost as that needed by the Roe scheme.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hess, J. L.; Mack, D. P.; Stockman, N. O.
1979-01-01
A panel method is used to calculate incompressible flow about arbitrary three-dimensional inlets with or without centerbodies for four fundamental flow conditions: unit onset flows parallel to each of the coordinate axes plus static operation. The computing time is scarcely longer than for a single solution. A linear superposition of these solutions quite rigorously gives incompressible flow about the inlet for any angle of attack, angle of yaw, and mass flow rate. Compressibility is accounted for by applying a well-proven correction to the incompressible flow. Since the computing times for the combination and the compressibility correction are small, flows at a large number of inlet operating conditions are obtained rather cheaply. Geometric input is aided by an automatic generating program. A number of graphical output features are provided to aid the user, including surface streamline tracing and automatic generation of curves of curves of constant pressure, Mach number, and flow inclination at selected inlet cross sections. The inlet method and use of the program are described. Illustrative results are presented.
Kamm, James R; Shashkov, Mikhail J
2009-01-01
Despite decades of development, Lagrangian hydrodynamics of strengthfree materials presents numerous open issues, even in one dimension. We focus on the problem of closing a system of equations for a two-material cell under the assumption of a single velocity model. There are several existing models and approaches, each possessing different levels of fidelity to the underlying physics and each exhibiting unique features in the computed solutions. We consider the case in which the change in heat in the constituent materials in the mixed cell is assumed equal. An instantaneous pressure equilibration model for a mixed cell can be cast asmore » four equations in four unknowns, comprised of the updated values of the specific internal energy and the specific volume for each of the two materials in the mixed cell. The unique contribution of our approach is a physics-inspired, geometry-based model in which the updated values of the sub-cell, relaxing-toward-equilibrium constituent pressures are related to a local Riemann problem through an optimization principle. This approach couples the modeling problem of assigning sub-cell pressures to the physics associated with the local, dynamic evolution. We package our approach in the framework of a standard predictor-corrector time integration scheme. We evaluate our model using idealized, two material problems using either ideal-gas or stiffened-gas equations of state and compare these results to those computed with the method of Tipton and with corresponding pure-material calculations.« less
Ahmad, Amier; McElwee, Samuel K; Jiang, Amy Z; Barssoum, Kirolos N; Elkaryoni, Ahmed E; Arisha, Mohammed J; Srialluri, Swetha; Seghatol, Frank; Nanda, Navin C
2017-02-01
Paraprosthetic aortic valve abscess represents a rare, but lethal complication of infective endocarditis. We report a case of proximal left coronary system compression by a paraprosthetic aortic valve abscess whose detection was augmented using live/real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography. Our case illustrates the usefulness of combined two- and three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in detecting this finding. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ning, Xin; Wang, Heling; Yu, Xinge; Soares, Julio A N T; Yan, Zheng; Nan, Kewang; Velarde, Gabriel; Xue, Yeguang; Sun, Rujie; Dong, Qiyi; Luan, Haiwen; Lee, Chan Mi; Chempakasseril, Aditya; Han, Mengdi; Wang, Yiqi; Li, Luming; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui; Rogers, John
2017-04-11
Microelectromechanical systems remain an area of significant interest in fundamental and applied research due to their wide ranging applications. Most device designs, however, are largely two-dimensional and constrained to only a few simple geometries. Achieving tunable resonant frequencies or broad operational bandwidths requires complex components and/or fabrication processes. The work presented here reports unusual classes of three-dimensional (3D) micromechanical systems in the form of vibratory platforms assembled by controlled compressive buckling. Such 3D structures can be fabricated across a broad range of length scales and from various materials, including soft polymers, monocrystalline silicon, and their composites, resulting in a wide scope of achievable resonant frequencies and mechanical behaviors. Platforms designed with multistable mechanical responses and vibrationally de-coupled constituent elements offer improved bandwidth and frequency tunability. Furthermore, the resonant frequencies can be controlled through deformations of an underlying elastomeric substrate. Systematic experimental and computational studies include structures with diverse geometries, ranging from tables, cages, rings, ring-crosses, ring-disks, two-floor ribbons, flowers, umbrellas, triple-cantilever platforms, and asymmetric circular helices, to multilayer constructions. These ideas form the foundations for engineering designs that complement those supported by conventional, microelectromechanical systems, with capabilities that could be useful in systems for biosensing, energy harvesting and others.
Finite-Difference Lattice Boltzmann Scheme for High-Speed Compressible Flow: Two-Dimensional Case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gan, Yan-Biao; Xu, Ai-Guo; Zhang, Guang-Cai; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Lei; Li, Ying-Jun
2008-07-01
Lattice Boltzmann (LB) modeling of high-speed compressible flows has long been attempted by various authors. One common weakness of most of previous models is the instability problem when the Mach number of the flow is large. In this paper we present a finite-difference LB model, which works for flows with flexible ratios of specific heats and a wide range of Mach number, from 0 to 30 or higher. Besides the discrete-velocity-model by Watari [Physica A 382 (2007) 502], a modified Lax Wendroff finite difference scheme and an artificial viscosity are introduced. The combination of the finite-difference scheme and the adding of artificial viscosity must find a balance of numerical stability versus accuracy. The proposed model is validated by recovering results of some well-known benchmark tests: shock tubes and shock reflections. The new model may be used to track shock waves and/or to study the non-equilibrium procedure in the transition between the regular and Mach reflections of shock waves, etc.
2014-07-01
to use the two-point microrheology technique 88 to measure the complex compressibility of biopolymers and cell components such as F-actin and...loads [23, 115]. Several works have used a continuum-mechanics level of description to model self- organization [64, 2] and rheology [79, 12, 33] of...morphogenesis [94]. Several works have used a continuum-mechanics level of description to model self- organization [64, 2] and rheology [79, 12, 33] of
Hydrodynamic optical soliton tunneling.
Sprenger, P; Hoefer, M A; El, G A
2018-03-01
A notion of hydrodynamic optical soliton tunneling is introduced in which a dark soliton is incident upon an evolving, broad potential barrier that arises from an appropriate variation of the input signal. The barriers considered include smooth rarefaction waves and highly oscillatory dispersive shock waves. Both the soliton and the barrier satisfy the same one-dimensional defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation, which admits a convenient dispersive hydrodynamic interpretation. Under the scale separation assumption of nonlinear wave (Whitham) modulation theory, the highly nontrivial nonlinear interaction between the soliton and the evolving hydrodynamic barrier is described in terms of self-similar, simple wave solutions to an asymptotic reduction of the Whitham-NLS partial differential equations. One of the Riemann invariants of the reduced modulation system determines the characteristics of a soliton interacting with a mean flow that results in soliton tunneling or trapping. Another Riemann invariant yields the tunneled soliton's phase shift due to hydrodynamic interaction. Soliton interaction with hydrodynamic barriers gives rise to effects that include reversal of the soliton propagation direction and spontaneous soliton cavitation, which further suggest possible methods of dark soliton control in optical fibers.
Hydrodynamic optical soliton tunneling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sprenger, P.; Hoefer, M. A.; El, G. A.
2018-03-01
A notion of hydrodynamic optical soliton tunneling is introduced in which a dark soliton is incident upon an evolving, broad potential barrier that arises from an appropriate variation of the input signal. The barriers considered include smooth rarefaction waves and highly oscillatory dispersive shock waves. Both the soliton and the barrier satisfy the same one-dimensional defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation, which admits a convenient dispersive hydrodynamic interpretation. Under the scale separation assumption of nonlinear wave (Whitham) modulation theory, the highly nontrivial nonlinear interaction between the soliton and the evolving hydrodynamic barrier is described in terms of self-similar, simple wave solutions to an asymptotic reduction of the Whitham-NLS partial differential equations. One of the Riemann invariants of the reduced modulation system determines the characteristics of a soliton interacting with a mean flow that results in soliton tunneling or trapping. Another Riemann invariant yields the tunneled soliton's phase shift due to hydrodynamic interaction. Soliton interaction with hydrodynamic barriers gives rise to effects that include reversal of the soliton propagation direction and spontaneous soliton cavitation, which further suggest possible methods of dark soliton control in optical fibers.
Skew resisting hydrodynamic seal
Conroy, William T.; Dietle, Lannie L.; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.
2001-01-01
A novel hydrodynamically lubricated compression type rotary seal that is suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion. Particularly, the seal geometry ensures constraint of a hydrodynamic seal in a manner preventing skew-induced wear and provides adequate room within the seal gland to accommodate thermal expansion. The seal accommodates large as-manufactured variations in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sealing material, provides a relatively stiff integral spring effect to minimize pressure-induced shuttling of the seal within the gland, and also maintains interfacial contact pressure within the dynamic sealing interface in an optimum range for efficient hydrodynamic lubrication and environment exclusion. The seal geometry also provides for complete support about the circumference of the seal to receive environmental pressure, as compared the interrupted character of seal support set forth in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,873,576 and 6,036,192 and provides a hydrodynamic seal which is suitable for use with non-Newtonian lubricants.
A three-dimensional turbulent compressible flow model for ejector and fluted mixers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rushmore, W. L.; Zelazny, S. W.
1978-01-01
A three dimensional finite element computer code was developed to analyze ejector and axisymmetric fluted mixer systems whose flow fields are not significantly influenced by streamwise diffusion effects. A two equation turbulence model was used to make comparisons between theory and data for various flow fields which are components of the ejector system, i.e., (1) turbulent boundary layer in a duct; (2) rectangular nozzle (free jet); (3) axisymmetric nozzle (free jet); (4) hypermixing nozzle (free jet); and (5) plane wall jet. Likewise, comparisons of the code with analytical results and/or other numerical solutions were made for components of the axisymmetric fluted mixer system. These included: (1) developing pipe flow; (2) developing flow in an annular pipe; (3) developing flow in an axisymmetric pipe with conical center body and no fluting and (4) developing fluted pipe flow. Finally, two demonstration cases are presented which show the code's ability to analyze both the ejector and axisymmetric fluted mixers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukhartova, Yu. V.; Krupenko, A. S.; Mangura, P. A.; Levashova, N. T.
2018-01-01
A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model was developed and applied to describe turbulent fluxes of CO2 and H2O within the atmospheric surface layer over a heterogeneous land surface featuring mosaic vegetation and complex topography. Numerical experiments were carried out with a 4.5-km profile that crosses a hilly region in the central part of European Russia, with the diverse land-use patterns (bare soil, crop areas, grasslands, and forests). The results showed very strong variability of the vertical and horizontal turbulent CO2 and H2O fluxes. The standard deviations of the vertical fluxes were estimated for separate profile sections with uniform vegetation cover for daylight conditions in summer, and they were comparable with the mean vertical fluxes for corresponding sections. The highest horizontal turbulent fluxes occurred at the boundaries between different plant communities and at irregularities in surface profile. In some cases, these fluxes reached 10-20% of the absolute values of the mean vertical fluxes for corresponding profile sections. Significant errors in estimating the local and integrated fluxes e.g. when using the eddy covariance technique, can result from ignoring the surface topography, even in the case of relatively large plots with uniform vegetation cover.
Lei, Li; Ni, Jinren
2014-04-15
A three-dimensional three-phase fluid model, supplemented by laboratory data, was developed to simulate the hydrodynamics, oxygen mass transfer, carbon oxidation, nitrification and denitrification processes in an oxidation ditch. The model provided detailed phase information on the liquid flow field, gas hold-up distribution and sludge sedimentation. The three-phase model described water-gas, water-sludge and gas-sludge interactions. Activated sludge was taken to be in a pseudo-solid phase, comprising an initially separated solid phase that was transported and later underwent biological reactions with the surrounding liquidmedia. Floc parameters were modified to improve the sludge viscosity, sludge density, oxygen mass transfer rate, and carbon substrate uptake due to adsorption onto the activated sludge. The validation test results were in very satisfactory agreement with laboratory data on the behavior of activated sludge in an oxidation ditch. By coupling species transport and biological process models, reasonable predictions are made of: (1) the biochemical kinetics of dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen variation, and (2) the physical kinematics of sludge sedimentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kordilla, Jannes; Noffz, Torsten; Dentz, Marco; Geyer, Tobias; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.
2017-11-01
In this work, we study gravity-driven flow of water in the presence of air on a synthetic surface intersected by a horizontal fracture and investigate the importance of droplet and rivulet flow modes on the partitioning behavior at the fracture intersection. We present laboratory experiments, three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations using a heavily parallelized code, and a theoretical analysis. The flow-rate-dependent mode switching from droplets to rivulets is observed in experiments and reproduced by the SPH model, and the transition ranges agree in SPH simulations and laboratory experiments. We show that flow modes heavily influence the "bypass" behavior of water flowing along a fracture junction. Flows favoring the formation of droplets exhibit a much stronger bypass capacity compared to rivulet flows, where nearly the whole fluid mass is initially stored within the horizontal fracture. The effect of fluid buffering within the horizontal fracture is presented in terms of dimensionless fracture inflow so that characteristic scaling regimes can be recovered. For both cases (rivulets and droplets), the flow within the horizontal fracture transitions into a Washburn regime until a critical threshold is reached and the bypass efficiency increases. For rivulet flows, the initial filling of the horizontal fracture is described by classical plug flow. Meanwhile, for droplet flows, a size-dependent partitioning behavior is observed, and the filling of the fracture takes longer. For the case of rivulet flow, we provide an analytical solution that demonstrates the existence of classical Washburn flow within the horizontal fracture.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miura, Hitoshi; Nakamoto, Taishi; Doi, Masao
2008-09-01
The origin of three-dimensional shapes of chondrules is an important information to identify their formation mechanism in the early solar nebula. The measurement of their shapes by using X-ray computed topography suggested that they are usually close to perfect spheres, however, some of them have rugby-ball-like (prolate) shapes [Tsuchiyama, A., Shigeyoshi, R., Kawabata, T., Nakano, T., Uesugi, K., Shirono, S., 2003. Lunar Planet. Sci. 34, 1271-1272]. We considered that the prolate shapes reflect the deformations of chondrule precursor dust particles when they are heated and melted in the high velocity gas flow. In order to reveal the origin of chondrule shapes, we carried out the three-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations of a rotating molten chondrule exposed to the gas flow in the framework of the shock-wave heating model for chondrule formation. We adopted the gas ram pressure acting on the chondrule surface of p=10 dyncm in a typical shock wave. Considering that the chondrule precursor dust particle has an irregular shape before melting, the ram pressure causes a net torque to rotate the particle. The estimated angular velocity is ω=140 rads for the precursor radius of r=1 mm, though it has a different value depending on the irregularity of the shape. In addition, the rotation axis is likely to be perpendicular to the direction of the gas flow. Our calculations showed that the rotating molten chondrule elongates along the rotation axis, in contrast, shrinks perpendicularly to it. It is a prolate shape. The reason why the molten chondrule is deformed to a prolate shape was clearly discussed. Our study gives a complementary constraint for chondrule formation mechanisms, comparing with conventional chemical analyses and dynamic crystallization experiments that have mainly constrained the thermal evolutions of chondrules.
A high-order vertex-based central ENO finite-volume scheme for three-dimensional compressible flows
Charest, Marc R.J.; Canfield, Thomas R.; Morgan, Nathaniel R.; ...
2015-03-11
High-order discretization methods offer the potential to reduce the computational cost associated with modeling compressible flows. However, it is difficult to obtain accurate high-order discretizations of conservation laws that do not produce spurious oscillations near discontinuities, especially on multi-dimensional unstructured meshes. A novel, high-order, central essentially non-oscillatory (CENO) finite-volume method that does not have these difficulties is proposed for tetrahedral meshes. The proposed unstructured method is vertex-based, which differs from existing cell-based CENO formulations, and uses a hybrid reconstruction procedure that switches between two different solution representations. It applies a high-order k-exact reconstruction in smooth regions and a limited linearmore » reconstruction when discontinuities are encountered. Both reconstructions use a single, central stencil for all variables, making the application of CENO to arbitrary unstructured meshes relatively straightforward. The new approach was applied to the conservation equations governing compressible flows and assessed in terms of accuracy and computational cost. For all problems considered, which included various function reconstructions and idealized flows, CENO demonstrated excellent reliability and robustness. Up to fifth-order accuracy was achieved in smooth regions and essentially non-oscillatory solutions were obtained near discontinuities. The high-order schemes were also more computationally efficient for high-accuracy solutions, i.e., they took less wall time than the lower-order schemes to achieve a desired level of error. In one particular case, it took a factor of 24 less wall-time to obtain a given level of error with the fourth-order CENO scheme than to obtain the same error with the second-order scheme.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collet, R.; Nordlund, Å.; Asplund, M.; Hayek, W.; Trampedach, R.
2018-04-01
We present an abundance analysis of the low-metallicity benchmark red giant star HD 122563 based on realistic, state-of-the-art, high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) model stellar atmospheres including non-grey radiative transfer through opacity binning with 4, 12, and 48 bins. The 48-bin 3D simulation reaches temperatures lower by ˜300-500 K than the corresponding 1D model in the upper atmosphere. Small variations in the opacity binning, adopted line opacities, or chemical mixture can cool the photospheric layers by a further ˜100-300 K and alter the effective temperature by ˜100 K. A 3D local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) spectroscopic analysis of Fe I and Fe II lines gives discrepant results in terms of derived Fe abundance, which we ascribe to non-LTE effects and systematic errors on the stellar parameters. We also determine C, N, and O abundances by simultaneously fitting CH, OH, NH, and CN molecular bands and lines in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared. We find a small positive 3D-1D abundance correction for carbon (+0.03 dex) and negative ones for nitrogen (-0.07 dex) and oxygen (-0.34 dex). From the analysis of the [O I] line at 6300.3 Å, we derive a significantly higher oxygen abundance than from molecular lines (+0.46 dex in 3D and +0.15 dex in 1D). We rule out important OH photodissociation effects as possible explanation for the discrepancy and note that lowering the surface gravity would reduce the oxygen abundance difference between molecular and atomic indicators.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, Danniella Muheim; Griffin, O. Hayden, Jr.; Vidussoni, Marco A.
1990-01-01
A practical example of applying two- to three-dimensional (2- to 3-D) global/local finite element analysis to laminated composites is presented. Cross-ply graphite/epoxy laminates of 0.1-in. (0.254-cm) thickness with central circular holes ranging from 1 to 6 in. (2.54 to 15.2 cm) in diameter, subjected to in-plane compression were analyzed. Guidelines for full three-dimensional finite element analysis and two- to three-dimensional global/local analysis of interlaminar stresses at straight free edges of laminated composites are included. The larger holes were found to reduce substantially the interlaminar stresses at the straight free-edge in proximity to the hole. Three-dimensional stress results were obtained for thin laminates which require prohibitive computer resources for full three-dimensional analyses of comparative accuracy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cho, Soo-Yong; Greber, Isaac
1994-01-01
Numerical investigations on a diffusing S-duct with/without vortex generators and a straight duct with vortex generators are presented. The investigation consists of solving the full three-dimensional unsteady compressible mass averaged Navier-Stokes equations. An implicit finite volume lower-upper time marching code (RPLUS3D) has been employed and modified. A three-dimensional Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model has been modified in conjunction with the flow physics. A model for the analysis of vortex generators in a fully viscous subsonic internal flow is evaluated. A vortical structure for modeling the shed vortex is used as a source term in the computation domain. The injected vortex paths in the straight duct are compared with the analysis by two kinds of prediction models. The flow structure by the vortex generators are investigated along the duct. Computed results of the flow in a circular diffusing S-duct provide an understanding of the flow structure within a typical engine inlet system. These are compared with the experimental wall static-pressure, static- and total-pressure field, and secondary velocity profiles. Additionally, boundary layer thickness, skin friction values, and velocity profiles in wall coordinates are presented. In order to investigate the effect of vortex generators, various vortex strengths are examined in this study. The total-pressure recovery and distortion coefficients are obtained at the exit of the S-duct. The numerical results clearly depict the interaction between the low velocity flow by the flow separation and the injected vortices.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cline, M. C.
1981-01-01
A computer program, VNAP2, for calculating turbulent (as well as laminar and inviscid), steady, and unsteady flow is presented. It solves the two dimensional, time dependent, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence is modeled with either an algebraic mixing length model, a one equation model, or the Jones-Launder two equation model. The geometry may be a single or a dual flowing stream. The interior grid points are computed using the unsplit MacCormack scheme. Two options to speed up the calculations for high Reynolds number flows are included. The boundary grid points are computed using a reference plane characteristic scheme with the viscous terms treated as source functions. An explicit artificial viscosity is included for shock computations. The fluid is assumed to be a perfect gas. The flow boundaries may be arbitrary curved solid walls, inflow/outflow boundaries, or free jet envelopes. Typical problems that can be solved concern nozzles, inlets, jet powered afterbodies, airfoils, and free jet expansions. The accuracy and efficiency of the program are shown by calculations of several inviscid and turbulent flows. The program and its use are described completely, and six sample cases and a code listing are included.
Xie, Mei-Ming; Xia, Kang; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Cao, Hong-Hui; Yang, Zhi-Jin; Cui, Hai-Feng; Gao, Shang; Tang, Kang-Lai
2017-01-23
Screw fixation is a typical technique for isolated talonavicular arthrodesis (TNA), however, no consensus has been reached on how to select most suitable inserted position and direction. The study aimed to present a new fixation technique and to evaluate the clinical outcome of individual headless compression screws (HCSs) applied with three-dimensional (3D) image processing technology to isolated TNA. From 2007 to 2014, 69 patients underwent isolated TNA by using double Acutrak HCSs. The preoperative three-dimensional (3D) insertion model of double HCSs was applied by Mimics, Catia, and SolidWorks reconstruction software. One HCS oriented antegradely from the edge of dorsal navicular tail where intersected interspace between the first and the second cuneiform into the talus body along the talus axis, and the other one paralleled the first screw oriented from the dorsal-medial navicular where intersected at the medial plane of the first cuneiform. The anteroposterior and lateral X-ray examinations certified that the double HCSs were placed along the longitudinal axis of the talus. Postoperative assessment included the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society hindfoot (AOFAS), the visual analogue scale (VAS) score, satisfaction score, imaging assessments, and complications. At the mean 44-months follow-up, all patients exhibited good articular congruity and solid bone fusion at an average of 11.26 ± 0.85 weeks (range, 10 ~ 13 weeks) without screw loosening, shifting, or breakage. The overall fusion rates were 100%. The average AOFAS score increased from 46.62 ± 4.6 (range, 37 ~ 56) preoperatively to 74.77 ± 5.4 (range, 64-88) at the final follow-up (95% CI: -30.86 ~ -27.34; p < 0.001). The mean VAS score decreased from 7.01 ± 1.2 (range, 4 ~ 9) to 1.93 ± 1.3 (range, 0 ~ 4) (95% CI: 4.69 ~ 5.48; p < 0.001). One cases (1.45%) and three cases (4.35%) experienced wound infection and adjacent arthritis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lafrance, Pierre
1978-01-01
Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)
Holtschlag, David J.; Hoard, C.J.
2009-01-01
St. Clair River is a connecting channel that transports water from Lake Huron to the St. Clair River Delta and Lake St. Clair. A negative trend has been detected in differences between water levels on Lake Huron and Lake St. Clair. This trend may indicate a combination of flow and conveyance changes within St. Clair River. To identify where conveyance change may be taking place, eight water-level gaging stations along St. Clair River were selected to delimit seven reaches. Positive trends in water-level fall were detected in two reaches, and negative trends were detected in two other reaches. The presence of both positive and negative trends in water-level fall indicates that changes in conveyance are likely occurring among some reaches because all reaches transmit essentially the same flow. Annual water-level fall in reaches and reach lengths was used to compute conveyance ratios for all pairs of reaches by use of water-level data from 1962 to 2007. Positive and negative trends in conveyance ratios indicate that relative conveyance is changing among some reaches. Inverse one-dimensional (1-D) hydrodynamic modeling was used to estimate a partial annual series of effective channel-roughness parameters in reaches forming the St. Clair River for 21 years when flow measurements were sufficient to support parameter estimation. Monotonic, persistent but non-monotonic, and irregular changes in estimated effective channel roughness with time were interpreted as systematic changes in conveyances in five reaches. Time-varying parameter estimates were used to simulate flow throughout the St. Clair River and compute changes in conveyance with time. Based on the partial annual series of parameters, conveyance in the St. Clair River increased about 10 percent from 1962 to 2002. Conveyance decreased, however, about 4.1 percent from 2003 to 2007, so that conveyance was about 5.9 percent higher in 2007 than in 1962.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Bernhard; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Marek, Andreas
2013-03-01
We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the gravitational wave (GW) signal of the post-bounce evolution of core-collapse supernovae (SNe), employing for the first time relativistic, two-dimensional explosion models with multi-group, three-flavor neutrino transport based on the ray-by-ray-plus approximation. The waveforms reflect the accelerated mass motions associated with the characteristic evolutionary stages that were also identified in previous works: a quasi-periodic modulation by prompt post-shock convection is followed by a phase of relative quiescence before growing amplitudes signal violent hydrodynamical activity due to convection and the standing accretion shock instability during the accretion period of the stalled shock. Finally, a high-frequency, low-amplitude variation from proto-neutron star (PNS) convection below the neutrinosphere appears superimposed on the low-frequency trend associated with the aspherical expansion of the SN shock after the onset of the explosion. Relativistic effects in combination with detailed neutrino transport are shown to be essential for quantitative predictions of the GW frequency evolution and energy spectrum, because they determine the structure of the PNS surface layer and its characteristic g-mode frequency. Burst-like high-frequency activity phases, correlated with sudden luminosity increase and spectral hardening of electron (anti-)neutrino emission for some 10 ms, are discovered as new features after the onset of the explosion. They correspond to intermittent episodes of anisotropic accretion by the PNS in the case of fallback SNe. We find stronger signals for more massive progenitors with large accretion rates. The typical frequencies are higher for massive PNSs, though the time-integrated spectrum also strongly depends on the model dynamics.
Castor, J I
2003-10-16
The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correctmore » description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is to
Solitonic Dispersive Hydrodynamics: Theory and Observation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maiden, Michelle D.; Anderson, Dalton V.; Franco, Nevil A.; El, Gennady A.; Hoefer, Mark A.
2018-04-01
Ubiquitous nonlinear waves in dispersive media include localized solitons and extended hydrodynamic states such as dispersive shock waves. Despite their physical prominence and the development of thorough theoretical and experimental investigations of each separately, experiments and a unified theory of solitons and dispersive hydrodynamics are lacking. Here, a general soliton-mean field theory is introduced and used to describe the propagation of solitons in macroscopic hydrodynamic flows. Two universal adiabatic invariants of motion are identified that predict trapping or transmission of solitons by hydrodynamic states. The result of solitons incident upon smooth expansion waves or compressive, rapidly oscillating dispersive shock waves is the same, an effect termed hydrodynamic reciprocity. Experiments on viscous fluid conduits quantitatively confirm the soliton-mean field theory with broader implications for nonlinear optics, superfluids, geophysical fluids, and other dispersive hydrodynamic media.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vadyak, J.; Hoffman, J. D.
1978-01-01
The influence of molecular transport is included in the computation by treating viscous and thermal diffusion terms in the governing partial differential equations as correction terms in the method of characteristics scheme. The development of a production type computer program is reported which is capable of calculating the flow field in a variety of axisymmetric mixed-compression aircraft inlets. The results agreed well with those produced by the two-dimensional method characteristics when axisymmetric flow fields are computed. For three-dimensional flow fields, the results agree well with experimental data except in regions of high viscous interaction and boundary layer removal.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobchenko, M.; Pluymakers, A.; Cordonnier, B.; Tairova, A.; Renard, F.
2017-12-01
Time-lapse imaging of fracture network development in organic-rich shales at elevated temperatures while kerogen is retorted allows characterizing the development of microfractures and the onset of primary migration. When the solid organic matter is transformed to hydrocarbons with lower molecular weight, the local pore-pressure increases and drives the propagation of hydro-fractures sub-parallel to the shale lamination. On the scale of samples of several mm size, these fractures can be described as mode I opening, where fracture walls dilate in the direction of minimal compression. However, so far experiments coupled to microtomography in situ imaging have been performed on samples where no load was imposed. Here, an external load was applied perpendicular to the sample laminations and we show that this stress state slows down, but does not stop, the propagation of fracture along bedding. Conversely, microfractures also propagate sub-perpendicular to the shale lamination, creating a percolating network in three dimensions. To monitor this process we have used a uniaxial compaction rig combined with in-situ heating from 50 to 500 deg C, while capturing three-dimensional X-ray microtomography scans at a voxel resolution of 2.2 μm; Data were acquired at beamline ID19 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. In total ten time-resolved experiments were performed at different vertical loading conditions, with and without lateral passive confinement and different heating rates. At high external load the sample fails by symmetric bulging, while at lower external load the reaction-induced fracture network develops with the presence of microfractures both sub-parallel and sub-perpendicular to the bedding direction. In addition, the variation of experimental conditions allows the decoupling of the effects of the hydrocarbon decomposition reaction on the deformation process from the influence of thermal stress heating on the weakening and failure mode of immature
Li, Bo; Li, Hao; Dong, Li; Huang, Guofu
2017-11-01
In this study, we sought to investigate the feasibility of fast carotid artery MR angiography (MRA) by combining three-dimensional time-of-flight (3D TOF) with compressed sensing method (CS-3D TOF). A pseudo-sequential phase encoding order was developed for CS-3D TOF to generate hyper-intense vessel and suppress background tissues in under-sampled 3D k-space. Seven healthy volunteers and one patient with carotid artery stenosis were recruited for this study. Five sequential CS-3D TOF scans were implemented at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5-fold acceleration factors for carotid artery MRA. Blood signal-to-tissue ratio (BTR) values for fully-sampled and under-sampled acquisitions were calculated and compared in seven subjects. Blood area (BA) was measured and compared between fully sampled acquisition and each under-sampled one. There were no significant differences between the fully-sampled dataset and each under-sampled in BTR comparisons (P>0.05 for all comparisons). The carotid vessel BAs measured from the images of CS-3D TOF sequences with 2, 3, 4 and 5-fold acceleration scans were all highly correlated with that of the fully-sampled acquisition. The contrast between blood vessels and background tissues of the images at 2 to 5-fold acceleration is comparable to that of fully sampled images. The images at 2× to 5× exhibit the comparable lumen definition to the corresponding images at 1×. By combining the pseudo-sequential phase encoding order, CS reconstruction, and 3D TOF sequence, this technique provides excellent visualizations for carotid vessel and calcifications in a short scan time. It has the potential to be integrated into current multiple blood contrast imaging protocol. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harris, J. E.; Blanchard, D. K.
1982-01-01
A numerical algorithm and computer program are presented for solving the laminar, transitional, or turbulent two dimensional or axisymmetric compressible boundary-layer equations for perfect-gas flows. The governing equations are solved by an iterative three-point implicit finite-difference procedure. The software, program VGBLP, is a modification of the approach presented in NASA TR R-368 and NASA TM X-2458, respectively. The major modifications are: (1) replacement of the fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration technique with a finite-difference procedure for numerically solving the equations required to initiate the parabolic marching procedure; (2) introduction of the Blottner variable-grid scheme; (3) implementation of an iteration scheme allowing the coupled system of equations to be converged to a specified accuracy level; and (4) inclusion of an iteration scheme for variable-entropy calculations. These modifications to the approach presented in NASA TR R-368 and NASA TM X-2458 yield a software package with high computational efficiency and flexibility. Turbulence-closure options include either two-layer eddy-viscosity or mixing-length models. Eddy conductivity is modeled as a function of eddy viscosity through a static turbulent Prandtl number formulation. Several options are provided for specifying the static turbulent Prandtl number. The transitional boundary layer is treated through a streamwise intermittency function which modifies the turbulence-closure model. This model is based on the probability distribution of turbulent spots and ranges from zero to unity for laminar and turbulent flow, respectively. Several test cases are presented as guides for potential users of the software.
Bozal, Carola B; Sánchez, Luciana M; Mandalunis, Patricia M; Ubios, Ángela M
2013-01-01
The occurrence of very early morphological changes in the osteocyte lacuno-canalicular network following application of tensile and/or compressive forces remains unknown to date. Thus, the aim of this study was to perform a morphological and morphometric evaluation of the changes in the three-dimensional structure of the lacuno-canalicular network and the osteocyte network of alveolar bone that take place very early after applying tensile and compressive forces in vivo, conducting static histomorphometry on bright-field microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy images. Our results showed that both the tensile and compressive forces induced early changes in osteocytes and their lacunae, which manifested as an increase in lacunar volume and changes in lacunar shape and orientation. An increase in canalicular width and a decrease in the width and an increase in the length of cytoplasmic processes were also observed. The morphological changes in the lacuno-canalicular and osteocyte networks that occur in vivo very early after application of tensile and compressive forces would be an indication of an increase in permeability within the system. Thus, both compressive and tensile forces would cause fluid displacement very soon after being applied; the latter would in turn rapidly activate alveolar bone osteocytes, enhancing transmission of the signals to the entire osteocyte network and the effector cells located at the bone surface. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lauga, Eric
2016-01-01
Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells, yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micrometer scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, I review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacFarlane, J. J.; Golovkin, I. E.; Wang, P.; Woodruff, P. R.; Pereyra, N. A.
2007-05-01
SPECT3D is a multi-dimensional collisional-radiative code used to post-process the output from radiation-hydrodynamics (RH) and particle-in-cell (PIC) codes to generate diagnostic signatures (e.g. images, spectra) that can be compared directly with experimental measurements. This ability to post-process simulation code output plays a pivotal role in assessing the reliability of RH and PIC simulation codes and their physics models. SPECT3D has the capability to operate on plasmas in 1D, 2D, and 3D geometries. It computes a variety of diagnostic signatures that can be compared with experimental measurements, including: time-resolved and time-integrated spectra, space-resolved spectra and streaked spectra; filtered and monochromatic images; and X-ray diode signals. Simulated images and spectra can include the effects of backlighters, as well as the effects of instrumental broadening and time-gating. SPECT3D also includes a drilldown capability that shows where frequency-dependent radiation is emitted and absorbed as it propagates through the plasma towards the detector, thereby providing insights on where the radiation seen by a detector originates within the plasma. SPECT3D has the capability to model a variety of complex atomic and radiative processes that affect the radiation seen by imaging and spectral detectors in high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments. LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) or non-LTE atomic level populations can be computed for plasmas. Photoabsorption rates can be computed using either escape probability models or, for selected 1D and 2D geometries, multi-angle radiative transfer models. The effects of non-thermal (i.e. non-Maxwellian) electron distributions can also be included. To study the influence of energetic particles on spectra and images recorded in intense short-pulse laser experiments, the effects of both relativistic electrons and energetic proton beams can be simulated. SPECT3D is a user-friendly software package that runs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, L.
2011-12-01
Automated calibration of complex deterministic water quality models with a large number of biogeochemical parameters can reduce time-consuming iterative simulations involving empirical judgements of model fit. We undertook auto-calibration of the one-dimensional hydrodynamic-ecological lake model DYRESM-CAEDYM, using a Monte Carlo sampling (MCS) method, in order to test the applicability of this procedure for shallow, polymictic Lake Rotorua (New Zealand). The calibration procedure involved independently minimising the root-mean-square-error (RMSE), maximizing the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficient coefficient (Nr) for comparisons of model state variables against measured data. An assigned number of parameter permutations was used for 10,000 simulation iterations. The 'optimal' temperature calibration produced a RMSE of 0.54 °C, Nr-value of 0.99 and r-value of 0.98 through the whole water column based on comparisons with 540 observed water temperatures collected between 13 July 2007 - 13 January 2009. The modeled bottom dissolved oxygen concentration (20.5 m below surface) was compared with 467 available observations. The calculated RMSE of the simulations compared with the measurements was 1.78 mg L-1, the Nr-value was 0.75 and the r-value was 0.87. The autocalibrated model was further tested for an independent data set by simulating bottom-water hypoxia events for the period 15 January 2009 to 8 June 2011 (875 days). This verification produced an accurate simulation of five hypoxic events corresponding to DO < 2 mg L-1 during summer of 2009-2011. The RMSE was 2.07 mg L-1, Nr-value 0.62 and r-value of 0.81, based on the available data set of 738 days. The auto-calibration software of DYRESM-CAEDYM developed here is substantially less time-consuming and more efficient in parameter optimisation than traditional manual calibration which has been the standard tool practiced for similar complex water quality models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kordilla, J.; Bresinsky, L. T.
2017-12-01
The physical mechanisms that govern preferential flow dynamics in unsaturated fractured rock formations are complex and not well understood. Fracture intersections may act as an integrator of unsaturated flow, leading to temporal delay, intermittent flow and partitioning dynamics. In this work, a three-dimensional Pairwise-Force Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (PF-SPH) model is being applied in order to simulate gravity-driven multiphase flow at synthetic fracture intersections. SPH, as a meshless Lagrangian method, is particularly suitable for modeling deformable interfaces, such as three-phase contact dynamics of droplets, rivulets and free-surface films. The static and dynamic contact angle can be recognized as the most important parameter of gravity-driven free-surface flow. In SPH, surface tension and adhesion naturally emerges from the implemented pairwise fluid-fluid (sff) and solid-fluid (ssf) interaction force. The model was calibrated to a contact angle of 65°, which corresponds to the wetting properties of water on Poly(methyl methacrylate). The accuracy of the SPH simulations were validated against an analytical solution of Poiseuille flow between two parallel plates and against laboratory experiments. Using the SPH model, the complex flow mode transitions from droplet to rivulet flow of an experimental study were reproduced. Additionally, laboratory dimensionless scaling experiments of water droplets were successfully replicated in SPH. Finally, SPH simulations were used to investigate the partitioning dynamics of single droplets into synthetic horizontal fractures with various apertures (Δdf = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 mm) and offsets (Δdoff = -1.5, -1.0, -0.5, 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 mm). Fluid masses were measured in the domains R1, R2 and R3. The perfect conditions of ideally smooth surfaces and the SPH inherent advantage of particle tracking allow the recognition of small scale partitioning mechanisms and its importance for bulk flow
Thakral, Naveen K; Mohapatra, Sarat; Stephenson, Gregory A; Suryanarayanan, Raj
2015-01-05
Tablets of amorphous indomethacin were compressed at 10, 25, 50, or 100 MPa using either an unlubricated or a lubricated die and stored individually at 35 °C in sealed Mylar pouches. At selected time points, tablets were analyzed by two-dimensional X-ray diffractometry (2D-XRD), which enabled us to profile the extent of drug crystallization in tablets, in both the radial and axial directions. To evaluate the role of lubricant, magnesium stearate was used as "internal" and/or "external" lubricant. Indomethacin crystallization propensity increased as a function of compression pressure, with 100 MPa pressure causing crystallization immediately after compression (detected using synchrotron radiation). However, the drug crystallization was not uniform throughout the tablets. In unlubricated systems, pronounced crystallization at the radial surface could be attributed to die wall friction. The tablet core remained substantially amorphous, irrespective of the compression pressure. Lubrication of the die wall with magnesium stearate, as external lubricant, dramatically decreased drug crystallization at the radial surface. The spatial heterogeneity in drug crystallization, as a function of formulation composition and compression pressure, was systematically investigated. When formulating amorphous systems as tablets, the potential for compression induced crystallization warrants careful consideration. Very low levels of crystallization on the tablet surface, while profoundly affecting product performance (decrease in dissolution rate), may not be readily detected by conventional analytical techniques. Early detection of crystallization could be pivotal in the successful design of a dosage form where, in order to obtain the desired bioavailability, the drug may be in a high energy state. Specialized X-ray diffractometric techniques (2D; use of high intensity synchrotron radiation) enabled detection of very low levels of drug crystallization and revealed the heterogeneity in
Rendon, Samuel H.; Lee, Michael T.
2015-12-08
Lake Houston, an important water resource for the Houston, Texas, area, receives inflows from seven major tributaries that compose the San Jacinto River Basin upstream from the reservoir. The effects of different inflows from the watersheds drained by these tributaries on the residence time of water in Lake Houston and closely associated physical and chemical properties including lake elevation, salinity, and water temperature are not well known. Accordingly, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Houston, developed a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Lake Houston as a tool for evaluating the effects of different inflows on residence time of water in the lake and associated physical and chemical properties. The Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC), a grid-based, surface-water modeling package for simulating three-dimensional circulation, mass transport, sediments, and biogeochemical processes, was used to develop the model of Lake Houston. The Lake Houston EFDC model was developed and calibrated by using 2009 data and verified by using 2010 data. Three statistics (mean error, root mean square error, and the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient) were used to evaluate how well the Lake Houston EFDC model simulated lake elevation, salinity, and water temperature. The residence time of water in reservoirs is associated with various physical and chemical properties (including lake elevation, salinity, and water temperature). Simulated and measured lake-elevation values were compared at USGS reservoir station 08072000 Lake Houston near Sheldon, Tex. The accuracy of simulated salinity and water temperature values was assessed by using the salinity (computed from measured specific conductance) and water temperature at two USGS monitoring stations: 295826095082200 Lake Houston south Union Pacific Railroad Bridge near Houston, Tex., and 295554095093401 Lake Houston at mouth of Jack’s Ditch near Houston, Tex. Specific conductance
Giraldez, E. M.; Hoppe Jr., M. L.; Hoover, D. E.; ...
2016-07-07
Hydrodynamic instability growth and its effects on capsule implosion performance are being studied at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Experimental results have shown that low-mode instabilities are the primary culprit for yield degradation. Ignition type capsules with machined 2D sinusoidal defects were used to measure low-mode hydrodynamic instability growth in the acceleration phase of the capsule implosion. The capsules were imploded using ignition-relevant laser pulses and the ablation-front modulation growth was measured using x-ray radiography. The experimentally measured growth was in good agreement with simulations.
Shimizu, Masahiro; Imai, Hideaki; Kagoshima, Kaiei; Umezawa, Eriko; Shimizu, Tsuneo; Yoshimoto, Yuhei
2013-01-01
Surface-rendered three-dimensional (3D) 1.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is useful for presurgical simulation of microvascular decompression. This study compared the sensitivity and specificity of 1.5- and 3.0-T surface-rendered 3D MR imaging for preoperative identification of the compression vessels of trigeminal neuralgia. One hundred consecutive patients underwent microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia. Forty and 60 patients were evaluated by 1.5- and 3.0-T MR imaging, respectively. Three-dimensional MR images were constructed on the basis of MR imaging, angiography, and venography data and evaluated to determine the compression vessel before surgery. MR imaging findings were compared with the microsurgical findings to compare the sensitivity and specificity of 1.5- and 3.0-T MR imaging. The agreement between MR imaging and surgical findings depended on the compression vessels. For superior cerebellar artery, 1.5- and 3.0-T MR imaging had 84.4% and 82.7% sensitivity and 100% and 100% specificity, respectively. For anterior inferior cerebellar artery, 1.5- and 3.0-T MR imaging had 33.3% and 50% sensitivity and 92.9% and 95% specificity, respectively. For the petrosal vein, 1.5- and 3.0-T MR imaging had 75% and 64.3% sensitivity and 79.2% and 78.1% specificity, respectively. Complete pain relief was obtained in 36 of 40 and 55 of 60 patients undergoing 1.5- and 3.0-T MR imaging, respectively. The present study showed that both 1.5- and 3.0-T MR imaging provided high sensitivity and specificity for preoperative assessment of the compression vessels of trigeminal neuralgia. Preoperative 3D imaging provided very high quality presurgical simulation, resulting in excellent clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hydrodynamic water impact. [Apollo spacecraft waterlanding
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kettleborough, C. F.
1972-01-01
The hydrodynamic impact of a falling body upon a viscous incompressible fluid was investigated by numerically solving the equations of motion. Initially the mathematical model simulated the axisymmetric impact of a rigid right circular cylinder upon the initially quiescent free surface of a fluid. A compressible air layer exists between the falling cylinder and the liquid free surface. The mathematical model was developed by applying the Navier-Stokes equations to the incompressible air layer and the incompressible fluid. Assuming the flow to be one dimensional within the air layer, the average velocity, pressure and density distributions were calculated. The liquid free surface was allowed to deform as the air pressure acting on it increases. For the liquid the normalized equations were expressed in two-dimensional cylindrical coordinates. The governing equations for the air layer and the liquid were expressed in finite difference form and solved numerically. For the liquid a modified version of the Marker-and-Cell method was used. The mathematical model has been reexamined and a new approach has recently been initiated. Essentially this consists of examining the impact of an inclined plate onto a quiesent water surface with the equations now formulated in cartesian coordinates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drazin, P. G.; Reid, W. H.
The book is written from the point of view intrinsic to fluid mechanics and applied mathematics. The analytical aspects of the theory are emphasized. However, it has also been tried, wherever possible, to relate the theory to experimental and numerical results. Mechanisms of instability are considered along with fundamental concepts of hydrodynamic stability, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and the break-up of a liquid jet in air. Aspects of thermal instability are investigated, taking into account the equations of motion, the stability problem, general stability characteristics, particular stability characteristics, the cells, and experimental results. The inviscid theory and the viscous theory are examined in connection with a study of parallel shear flows. Centrifugal instability is discussed along with uniform asymptotic approximations, and problems of nonlinear stability. Attention is also given to baroclinic instability, the instability of the pinch, the development of linear instability in time and space, and the instability of unsteady flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pickett, Brian K.; Cassen, Patrick; Durisen, Richard H.; Link, Robert
2000-02-01
In this paper, the effects of thermal energetics on the evolution of gravitationally unstable protostellar disks are investigated by means of three-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations. The initial states for the simulations correspond to stars with equilibrium, self-gravitating disks that are formed early in the collapse of a uniformly rotating, singular isothermal sphere. In a previous paper (Pickett et al.), it was shown that the nonlinear development of locally isentropic disturbances can be radically different than that of locally isothermal disturbances, even though growth in the linear regime may be similar. When multiple low-order modes grew rapidly in the star and inner disk region and saturated at moderate nonlinear levels in the isentropic evolution, the same modes in the isothermal evolution led to shredding of the disk into dense arclets and ejection of material. In this paper, we (1) examine the fate of the shredded disk with calculations at higher spatial resolution than the previous simulations had and (2) follow the evolution of the same initial state using an internal energy equation rather than the assumption of locally isentropic or locally isothermal conditions. Despite the complex structure of the nonlinear features that developed in the violently unstable isothermal disk referred to above, our previous calculation produced no gravitationally independent, long-lived stellar or planetary companions. The higher resolution calculations presented here confirm this result. When the disk of this model is cooled further, prompting even more violent instabilities, the end result is qualitatively the same--a shredded disk. At least for the disks studied here, it is difficult to produce condensations of material that do not shear away into fragmented spirals. It is argued that the ultimate fate of such fragments depends on how readily local internal energy is lost. On the other hand, if a dynamically unstable disk is to survive for very long times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babanov, A. V.; Barinov, M. A.; Barinov, S. P.; Garanin, R. V.; Zhidkov, N. V.; Kalmykov, N. A.; Kovalenko, V. P.; Kokorin, S. N.; Pinegin, A. V.; Solomatina, E. Yu.; Solomatin, I. I.; Suslov, N. A.
2017-03-01
The hydrodynamics of the flow formation due to the interaction of a shock wave with two-dimensional density perturbations is experimentally investigated on the Iskra-5 laser facility. Shadow images of a jet arising as a result of the impact of a shock wave (formed by a soft X-ray pulse from a target-illuminator) on a flat aluminium target with a blind cylindrical cavity are recorded in experiments with point-like X-ray backlighting having a photon energy of ~4.5 keV. The sizes and mass of the jet ejected from the aluminium cavity by this shock wave are estimated. The experimental data are compared with the results of numerical simulation of the jet formation and dynamics according to the two-dimensional MID-ND2D code.
Bernardi, A; Bortoluzzi, E A; Felippe, W T; Felippe, M C S; Wan, W S; Teixeira, C S
2017-01-01
To evaluate nanoparticulate calcium carbonate (NPCC) using transmission electron microscopy and the effects of NPCC addition to MTA in regard to the setting time, dimensional change, compressive strength, solubility and pH. The experimental groups were G1 (MTA), G2 (MTA with 5% NPCC) and G3 (MTA with 10% NPCC). The tests followed ISO and ADA standards. The specimens in the dimensional change and compressive strength tests were measured immediately after setting, after 24 h and after 30 days. In the solubility test, rings filled with cement were weighed after setting and after 30 days. The pH was measured after 24 h and 30 days. The data were analysed with the ANOVA, Tukey's and Kruskal-Wallis tests (α = 5%). The setting time was reduced (P < 0.05) in samples from G2 and G3 compared to G1. After 24 h, the dimensional change was similar amongst the groups, and after 30 days, G2 was associated with less alteration than G1 and G3. There was a difference in the compressive strength (P < 0.001) after 24 h and 30 days (G1 > G2 > G3). The solubility test revealed a difference amongst the groups when the specimens were hydrated: G2 > G1 > G3 and dehydrated: G3 > G2 > G1. The pH of the groups was similar at 24 h with higher values in each group after 30 days (P < 0.05), and G2 and G3 had similar mean pH values but both were higher than G1. Nanoparticulate calcium carbonate had a cubic morphology with few impurities. The addition of nanoparticulate calcium carbonate to MTA accelerated the setting time, decreased compressive strength and, after 30 days, resulted in lower dimensional change (G2), higher solubility and a higher pH. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bhave, Sampada; Lingala, Sajan Goud; Newell, John D; Nagle, Scott K; Jacob, Mathews
2016-06-01
The objective of this study was to increase the spatial and temporal resolution of dynamic 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lung volumes and diaphragm motion. To achieve this goal, we evaluate the utility of the proposed blind compressed sensing (BCS) algorithm to recover data from highly undersampled measurements. We evaluated the performance of the BCS scheme to recover dynamic data sets from retrospectively and prospectively undersampled measurements. We also compared its performance against that of view-sharing, the nuclear norm minimization scheme, and the l1 Fourier sparsity regularization scheme. Quantitative experiments were performed on a healthy subject using a fully sampled 2D data set with uniform radial sampling, which was retrospectively undersampled with 16 radial spokes per frame to correspond to an undersampling factor of 8. The images obtained from the 4 reconstruction schemes were compared with the fully sampled data using mean square error and normalized high-frequency error metrics. The schemes were also compared using prospective 3D data acquired on a Siemens 3 T TIM TRIO MRI scanner on 8 healthy subjects during free breathing. Two expert cardiothoracic radiologists (R1 and R2) qualitatively evaluated the reconstructed 3D data sets using a 5-point scale (0-4) on the basis of spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and presence of aliasing artifacts. The BCS scheme gives better reconstructions (mean square error = 0.0232 and normalized high frequency = 0.133) than the other schemes in the 2D retrospective undersampling experiments, producing minimally distorted reconstructions up to an acceleration factor of 8 (16 radial spokes per frame). The prospective 3D experiments show that the BCS scheme provides visually improved reconstructions than the other schemes do. The BCS scheme provides improved qualitative scores over nuclear norm and l1 Fourier sparsity regularization schemes in the temporal blurring and spatial
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zapata Norberto, B.; Morales-Casique, E.; Herrera, G. S.
2017-12-01
Severe land subsidence due to groundwater extraction may occur in multiaquifer systems where highly compressible aquitards are present. The highly compressible nature of the aquitards leads to nonlinear consolidation where the groundwater flow parameters are stress-dependent. The case is further complicated by the heterogeneity of the hydrogeologic and geotechnical properties of the aquitards. We explore the effect of realistic vertical heterogeneity of hydrogeologic and geotechnical parameters on the consolidation of highly compressible aquitards by means of 1-D Monte Carlo numerical simulations. 2000 realizations are generated for each of the following parameters: hydraulic conductivity (K), compression index (Cc) and void ratio (e). The correlation structure, the mean and the variance for each parameter were obtained from a literature review about field studies in the lacustrine sediments of Mexico City. The results indicate that among the parameters considered, random K has the largest effect on the ensemble average behavior of the system. Random K leads to the largest variance (and therefore largest uncertainty) of total settlement, groundwater flux and time to reach steady state conditions. We further propose a data assimilation scheme by means of ensemble Kalman filter to estimate the ensemble mean distribution of K, pore-pressure and total settlement. We consider the case where pore-pressure measurements are available at given time intervals. We test our approach by generating a 1-D realization of K with exponential spatial correlation, and solving the nonlinear flow and consolidation problem. These results are taken as our "true" solution. We take pore-pressure "measurements" at different times from this "true" solution. The ensemble Kalman filter method is then employed to estimate ensemble mean distribution of K, pore-pressure and total settlement based on the sequential assimilation of these pore-pressure measurements. The ensemble-mean estimates from
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiri, Ramin; Safari, Ebrahim; Bananej, Alireza
2018-04-01
We investigate numerically the controllable chirped pulse compression in a one-dimensional photonic structure containing a nematic liquid crystal defect layer using the temperature dependent refractive index of the liquid crystal. We consider the structure under irradiation by near-infrared ultra-short laser pulses polarized parallel to the liquid crystal director at a normal angle of incidence. It is found that the dispersion behaviour and consequently the compression ability of the system can be changed in a controlled manner due to the variation in the defect temperature. When the temperature increased from 290 to 305 K, the transmitted pulse duration decreased from 75 to 42 fs in the middle of the structure, correspondingly. As a result, a novel low-loss tunable pulse compressor with a really compact size and high compression factor is achieved. The so-called transfer matrix method is utilized for numerical simulations of the band structure and reflection/transmission spectra of the structure under investigation.
Holtschlag, D.J.; Koschik, J.A.
2005-01-01
Upper St. Clair River, which receives outflow from Lake Huron, is characterized by flow velocities that exceed 7 feet per second and significant channel curvature that creates complex flow patterns downstream from the Blue Water Bridge in the Port Huron, Michigan, and Sarnia, Ontario, area. Discrepancies were detected between depth-averaged velocities previously simulated by a two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic model and surface velocities determined from drifting buoy deployments. A detailed ADCP (acoustic Doppler current profiler) survey was done on Upper St. Clair River during July 1–3, 2003, to help resolve these discrepancies. As part of this study, a refined finite-element mesh of the hydrodynamic model used to identify source areas to public water intakes was developed for Upper St. Clair River. In addition, a numerical procedure was used to account for radial accelerations, which cause secondary flow patterns near channel bends. The refined model was recalibrated to better reproduce local velocities measured in the ADCP survey. ADCP data also were used to help resolve the remaining discrepancies between simulated and measured velocities and to describe variations in velocity with depth. Velocity data from ADCP surveys have significant local variability, and statistical processing is needed to compute reliable point estimates. In this study, velocity innovations were computed for seven depth layers posited within the river as the differences between measured and simulated velocities. For each layer, the spatial correlation of velocity innovations was characterized by use of variogram analysis. Results were used with kriging to compute expected innovations within each layer at applicable model nodes. Expected innovations were added to simulated velocities to form integrated velocities, which were used with reverse particle tracking to identify the expected flow path near a sewage outfall as a function of flow depth. Expected particle paths generated by use
Warm Dense Matter: Another Application for Pulsed Power Hydrodynamics
2009-06-01
Pulsed power hydrodynamic techniques, such as large convergence liner compression of a large volume, modest density, low temperature plasma to...controlled than are similar high explosively powered hydrodynamic experiments. While the precision and controllability of gas- gun experiments is...well established, pulsed power techniques using imploding liner offer access to convergent conditions, difficult to obtain with guns – and essential
pyro: Python-based tutorial for computational methods for hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zingale, Michael
2015-07-01
pyro is a simple python-based tutorial on computational methods for hydrodynamics. It includes 2-d solvers for advection, compressible, incompressible, and low Mach number hydrodynamics, diffusion, and multigrid. It is written with ease of understanding in mind. An extensive set of notes that is part of the Open Astrophysics Bookshelf project provides details of the algorithms.
Bruinsma, Robijn; Grosberg, Alexander Y; Rabin, Yitzhak; Zidovska, Alexandra
2014-05-06
Following recent observations of large scale correlated motion of chromatin inside the nuclei of live differentiated cells, we present a hydrodynamic theory-the two-fluid model-in which the content of a nucleus is described as a chromatin solution with the nucleoplasm playing the role of the solvent and the chromatin fiber that of a solute. This system is subject to both passive thermal fluctuations and active scalar and vector events that are associated with free energy consumption, such as ATP hydrolysis. Scalar events drive the longitudinal viscoelastic modes (where the chromatin fiber moves relative to the solvent) while vector events generate the transverse modes (where the chromatin fiber moves together with the solvent). Using linear response methods, we derive explicit expressions for the response functions that connect the chromatin density and velocity correlation functions to the corresponding correlation functions of the active sources and the complex viscoelastic moduli of the chromatin solution. We then derive general expressions for the flow spectral density of the chromatin velocity field. We use the theory to analyze experimental results recently obtained by one of the present authors and her co-workers. We find that the time dependence of the experimental data for both native and ATP-depleted chromatin can be well-fitted using a simple model-the Maxwell fluid-for the complex modulus, although there is some discrepancy in terms of the wavevector dependence. Thermal fluctuations of ATP-depleted cells are predominantly longitudinal. ATP-active cells exhibit intense transverse long wavelength velocity fluctuations driven by force dipoles. Fluctuations with wavenumbers larger than a few inverse microns are dominated by concentration fluctuations with the same spectrum as thermal fluctuations but with increased intensity. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bruinsma, Robijn; Grosberg, Alexander Y.; Rabin, Yitzhak; Zidovska, Alexandra
2014-01-01
Following recent observations of large scale correlated motion of chromatin inside the nuclei of live differentiated cells, we present a hydrodynamic theory—the two-fluid model—in which the content of a nucleus is described as a chromatin solution with the nucleoplasm playing the role of the solvent and the chromatin fiber that of a solute. This system is subject to both passive thermal fluctuations and active scalar and vector events that are associated with free energy consumption, such as ATP hydrolysis. Scalar events drive the longitudinal viscoelastic modes (where the chromatin fiber moves relative to the solvent) while vector events generate the transverse modes (where the chromatin fiber moves together with the solvent). Using linear response methods, we derive explicit expressions for the response functions that connect the chromatin density and velocity correlation functions to the corresponding correlation functions of the active sources and the complex viscoelastic moduli of the chromatin solution. We then derive general expressions for the flow spectral density of the chromatin velocity field. We use the theory to analyze experimental results recently obtained by one of the present authors and her co-workers. We find that the time dependence of the experimental data for both native and ATP-depleted chromatin can be well-fitted using a simple model—the Maxwell fluid—for the complex modulus, although there is some discrepancy in terms of the wavevector dependence. Thermal fluctuations of ATP-depleted cells are predominantly longitudinal. ATP-active cells exhibit intense transverse long wavelength velocity fluctuations driven by force dipoles. Fluctuations with wavenumbers larger than a few inverse microns are dominated by concentration fluctuations with the same spectrum as thermal fluctuations but with increased intensity. PMID:24806919
Carrel, M.; Dentz, M.; Derlon, N.; Morgenroth, E.
2018-01-01
Abstract Biofilms are ubiquitous bacterial communities that grow in various porous media including soils, trickling, and sand filters. In these environments, they play a central role in services ranging from degradation of pollutants to water purification. Biofilms dynamically change the pore structure of the medium through selective clogging of pores, a process known as bioclogging. This affects how solutes are transported and spread through the porous matrix, but the temporal changes to transport behavior during bioclogging are not well understood. To address this uncertainty, we experimentally study the hydrodynamic changes of a transparent 3‐D porous medium as it experiences progressive bioclogging. Statistical analyses of the system's hydrodynamics at four time points of bioclogging (0, 24, 36, and 48 h in the exponential growth phase) reveal exponential increases in both average and variance of the flow velocity, as well as its correlation length. Measurements for spreading, as mean‐squared displacements, are found to be non‐Fickian and more intensely superdiffusive with progressive bioclogging, indicating the formation of preferential flow pathways and stagnation zones. A gamma distribution describes well the Lagrangian velocity distributions and provides parameters that quantify changes to the flow, which evolves from a parallel pore arrangement under unclogged conditions, toward a more serial arrangement with increasing clogging. Exponentially evolving hydrodynamic metrics agree with an exponential bacterial growth phase and are used to parameterize a correlated continuous time random walk model with a stochastic velocity relaxation. The model accurately reproduces transport observations and can be used to resolve transport behavior at intermediate time points within the exponential growth phase considered. PMID:29780184
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrel, M.; Morales, V. L.; Dentz, M.; Derlon, N.; Morgenroth, E.; Holzner, M.
2018-03-01
Biofilms are ubiquitous bacterial communities that grow in various porous media including soils, trickling, and sand filters. In these environments, they play a central role in services ranging from degradation of pollutants to water purification. Biofilms dynamically change the pore structure of the medium through selective clogging of pores, a process known as bioclogging. This affects how solutes are transported and spread through the porous matrix, but the temporal changes to transport behavior during bioclogging are not well understood. To address this uncertainty, we experimentally study the hydrodynamic changes of a transparent 3-D porous medium as it experiences progressive bioclogging. Statistical analyses of the system's hydrodynamics at four time points of bioclogging (0, 24, 36, and 48 h in the exponential growth phase) reveal exponential increases in both average and variance of the flow velocity, as well as its correlation length. Measurements for spreading, as mean-squared displacements, are found to be non-Fickian and more intensely superdiffusive with progressive bioclogging, indicating the formation of preferential flow pathways and stagnation zones. A gamma distribution describes well the Lagrangian velocity distributions and provides parameters that quantify changes to the flow, which evolves from a parallel pore arrangement under unclogged conditions, toward a more serial arrangement with increasing clogging. Exponentially evolving hydrodynamic metrics agree with an exponential bacterial growth phase and are used to parameterize a correlated continuous time random walk model with a stochastic velocity relaxation. The model accurately reproduces transport observations and can be used to resolve transport behavior at intermediate time points within the exponential growth phase considered.
Nustad, Rochelle A.; Wood, Tamara M.; Bales, Jerad D.
2011-01-01
The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Transportation, North Dakota State Water Commission, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, developed a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Devils Lake and Stump Lake, North Dakota to be used as a hydrologic tool for evaluating the effects of different inflow scenarios on water levels, circulation, and the transport of dissolved solids through the lake. The numerical model, UnTRIM, and data primarily collected during 2006 were used to develop and calibrate the Devils Lake model. Performance of the Devils Lake model was tested using 2009 data. The Devils Lake model was applied to evaluate the effects of an extreme flooding event on water levels and hydrological modifications within the lake on the transport of dissolved solids through Devils Lake and Stump Lake. For the 2006 calibration, simulated water levels in Devils Lake compared well with measured water levels. The maximum simulated water level at site 1 was within 0.13 feet of the maximum measured water level in the calibration, which gives reasonable confidence that the Devils Lake model is able to accurately simulate the maximum water level at site 1 for the extreme flooding scenario. The timing and direction of winddriven fluctuations in water levels on a short time scale (a few hours to a day) were reproduced well by the Devils Lake model. For this application, the Devils Lake model was not optimized for simulation of the current speed through bridge openings. In future applications, simulation of current speed through bridge openings could be improved by more accurate definition of the bathymetry and geometry of select areas in the model grid. As a test of the performance of the Devils Lake model, a simulation of 2009 conditions from April 1 through September 30, 2009 was performed. Overall, errors in inflow estimates affected the results for the 2009 simulation; however, for the rising phase of the lakes, the Devils Lake model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukhartova, Yulia; Krupenko, Alexandr; Levashova, Natalia; Olchev, Alexandr
2017-04-01
Within the framework of the study a two dimensional hydrodynamic model of turbulent transfer of greenhouse gases was developed and applied for calculating the CO2 and H2O turbulent fluxes within the atmospheric surface layer over the heterogeneous land surface with mosaic vegetation and complex topography. The vegetation cover in the model is represented as the two-phase medium containing the elements of vegetation and the air. The model is based on solving the system of averaged Navier-Stokes and continuity equations for the wind velocity components (⃗V = {V1,V2}), using the 1.5-order closure scheme (Wilcox 1998, Wyngaard 2010). The system of the main equations includes also the diffusion and advection equations for turbulent transfer of sensible heat, CO2 concentration (Cs) and specific humidity (q) at soil - vegetation -atmosphere interface (Sogachev, Panferov 2006, Mukhartova et al. 2015, Mamkin et al. 2016): ( ) { ( )} ∂Vi+ ⃗V,∇ V = -1ṡ-∂-δP -∂- 2δ ¯e- K ṡ ∂Vi-+ ∂Vj- +gṡδTv+F , i,j = 1,2, ∂t i ρ0 ∂xi ∂xj 3 ij ∂xj ∂xi T0 i div⃗V = 0, ∂T ( ) Tv γa ∂T 1 ( ) H ∂t-+ ⃗V ,∇ T+ γaṡT-ṡV2 = div (KT ṡ∇T )+ T-ṡKT ṡ∂x-+ρ-c- ⃗V,∇ δP -ρ-c-, 0 0 2 0 p 0 p ∂Cs- (⃗ ) ∂q- (⃗ ) E- ∂t + V ,∇ Cs = div(KC ṡ∇Cs )+FC, ∂t+ V ,∇ q = div(Kv ṡ∇q )+ ρ , where x1,x2 - horizontal and vertical coordinates respectively, ρ0 - the density of dry air, δP - the deviation of mean air pressure from the hydrostatic distribution, ¯e - the turbulent kinetic energy, T - the temperature of the air, δTv = T ṡ(1+ 0.61q) -T0 - the deviation of virtual temperature from the adiabatic temperature T0(x2) for dry air, Fi - the components of the viscous drag forces induced by the presence of vegetation, K,KT,KC,Kv - turbulent exchange coefficients for momentum, sensible heat, CO2and H2O respectively, γa = g/ cp, cp - the specific heat of the air at constant atmospheric pressure, FC - the sources/sinks of CO2in
Visualizing complex hydrodynamic features
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kempf, Jill L.; Marshall, Robert E.; Yen, Chieh-Cheng
1990-08-01
The Lake Erie Forecasting System is a cooperative project by university, private and governmental institutions to provide continuous forecasting of three-dimensional structure within the lake. The forecasts will include water velocity and temperature distributions throughout the body of water, as well as water level and wind-wave distributions at the lake's surface. Many hydrodynamic features can be extracted from this data, including coastal jets, large-scale thermocline motion and zones of upwelling and downwelling. A visualization system is being developed that will aid in understanding these features and their interactions. Because of the wide variety of features, they cannot all be adequately represented by a single rendering technique. Particle tracing, surface rendering, and volumetric techniques are all necessary. This visualization effortis aimed towards creating a system that will provide meaningful forecasts for those using the lake for recreational and commercial purposes. For example, the fishing industry needs to know about large-scale thermocline motion in order to find the best fishing areas and power plants need to know water intAke temperatures. The visualization system must convey this information in a manner that is easily understood by these users. Scientists must also be able to use this system to verify their hydrodynamic simulation. The focus of the system, therefore, is to provide the information to serve these diverse interests, without overwhelming any single user with unnecessary data.
Flash Kα radiography of laser-driven solid sphere compression for fast ignition
Sawada, H.; Lee, S.; Shiroto, T.
2016-06-20
Time-resolved compression of a laser-driven solid deuterated plastic sphere with a cone was measured with flash Kα x-ray radiography. A spherically converging shockwave launched by nanosecond GEKKO XII beams was used for compression while a flash of 4.51 keV Ti Kα x-ray backlighter was produced by a high-intensity, picosecond laser LFEX (Laser for Fast ignition EXperiment) near peak compression for radiography. Areal densities of the compressed core were inferred from two-dimensional backlit x-ray images recorded with a narrow-band spherical crystal imager. The maximum areal density in the experiment was estimated to be 87 ± 26 mg/cm 2. Lastly, the temporalmore » evolution of the experimental and simulated areal densities with a 2-D radiation-hydrodynamics code is in good agreement.« less
Flash Kα radiography of laser-driven solid sphere compression for fast ignition
Sawada, H.; Lee, S.; Nagatomo, H.
2016-06-20
Time-resolved compression of a laser-driven solid deuterated plastic sphere with a cone was measured with flash Kα x-ray radiography. A spherically converging shockwave launched by nanosecond GEKKO XII beams was used for compression while a flash of 4.51 keV Ti Kα x-ray backlighter was produced by a high-intensity, picosecond laser LFEX (Laser for Fast ignition EXperiment) near peak compression for radiography. Areal densities of the compressed core were inferred from two-dimensional backlit x-ray images recorded with a narrow-band spherical crystal imager. The maximum areal density in the experiment was estimated to be 87 ± 26 mg/cm{sup 2}. The temporal evolution of the experimental andmore » simulated areal densities with a 2-D radiation-hydrodynamics code is in good agreement.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wie, Yong-Sun
1990-01-01
A procedure for calculating 3-D, compressible laminar boundary layer flow on general fuselage shapes is described. The boundary layer solutions can be obtained in either nonorthogonal 'body oriented' coordinates or orthogonal streamline coordinates. The numerical procedure is 'second order' accurate, efficient and independent of the cross flow velocity direction. Numerical results are presented for several test cases, including a sharp cone, an ellipsoid of revolution, and a general aircraft fuselage at angle of attack. Comparisons are made between numerical results obtained using nonorthogonal curvilinear 'body oriented' coordinates and streamline coordinates.
Low Mach number fluctuating hydrodynamics of multispecies liquid mixtures
Donev, Aleksandar, E-mail: donev@courant.nyu.edu; Bhattacharjee, Amit Kumar; Nonaka, Andy
We develop a low Mach number formulation of the hydrodynamic equations describing transport of mass and momentum in a multispecies mixture of incompressible miscible liquids at specified temperature and pressure, which generalizes our prior work on ideal mixtures of ideal gases [Balakrishnan et al., “Fluctuating hydrodynamics of multispecies nonreactive mixtures,” Phys. Rev. E 89 013017 (2014)] and binary liquid mixtures [Donev et al., “Low mach number fluctuating hydrodynamics of diffusively mixing fluids,” Commun. Appl. Math. Comput. Sci. 9(1), 47-105 (2014)]. In this formulation, we combine and extend a number of existing descriptions of multispecies transport available in the literature. Themore » formulation applies to non-ideal mixtures of arbitrary number of species, without the need to single out a “solvent” species, and includes contributions to the diffusive mass flux due to gradients of composition, temperature, and pressure. Momentum transport and advective mass transport are handled using a low Mach number approach that eliminates fast sound waves (pressure fluctuations) from the full compressible system of equations and leads to a quasi-incompressible formulation. Thermal fluctuations are included in our fluctuating hydrodynamics description following the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We extend the semi-implicit staggered-grid finite-volume numerical method developed in our prior work on binary liquid mixtures [Nonaka et al., “Low mach number fluctuating hydrodynamics of binary liquid mixtures,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.2300 (2015)] and use it to study the development of giant nonequilibrium concentration fluctuations in a ternary mixture subjected to a steady concentration gradient. We also numerically study the development of diffusion-driven gravitational instabilities in a ternary mixture and compare our numerical results to recent experimental measurements [Carballido-Landeira et al., “Mixed-mode instability of
Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, C. R.; Robey, H. F.
Hydrodynamic instability growth has been studied using three-dimensional (3-D) broadband modulations by comparing “high-foot” and “low-foot” spherical plastic (CH) capsule implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The initial perturbations included capsule outer-surface roughness and capsule-mounting membranes (“tents”) that were similar to those used in a majority of implosions on NIF. The tents with thicknesses of 31-nm, 46-nm, and 109-nm were used in the experiments. The outer-surface roughness in the “low-foot” experiment was similar to the standard specification, while it was increased by ~4 times in the “high-foot” experiment to compensate for the reduced growth. The ablation-front instability growth wasmore » measured using a Hydrodynamic Growth Radiography platform at a convergence ratio of 3. The dominant capsule perturbations, generated by the tent mountings, had measured perturbation amplitudes comparable to the capsule thickness with the “low-foot” drive. These tent perturbations were reduced by ~3 to 10 times in implosions with the “high-foot” drive. Unexpectedly, the measured perturbations with initially thinner tents were either larger or similar to the measured perturbations with thicker tents for both “high-foot” and “low-foot” drives. While the measured instability growth of 3-D broadband perturbations was also significantly reduced by ~5 to 10 times with the “high-foot” drive, compared to the “low-foot” drive, the growth mitigation was stronger than expected based on previous “growth-factor” results measured with two-dimensional modulations. Lastly, one of the hypotheses to explain the results is based on the 3-D modulations of the oxygen content in the bulk of the capsule having a stronger effect on the overall growth of capsule perturbations than the outer-surface capsule roughness.« less
Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, C. R.; Robey, H. F.; ...
2017-04-11
Hydrodynamic instability growth has been studied using three-dimensional (3-D) broadband modulations by comparing “high-foot” and “low-foot” spherical plastic (CH) capsule implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The initial perturbations included capsule outer-surface roughness and capsule-mounting membranes (“tents”) that were similar to those used in a majority of implosions on NIF. The tents with thicknesses of 31-nm, 46-nm, and 109-nm were used in the experiments. The outer-surface roughness in the “low-foot” experiment was similar to the standard specification, while it was increased by ~4 times in the “high-foot” experiment to compensate for the reduced growth. The ablation-front instability growth wasmore » measured using a Hydrodynamic Growth Radiography platform at a convergence ratio of 3. The dominant capsule perturbations, generated by the tent mountings, had measured perturbation amplitudes comparable to the capsule thickness with the “low-foot” drive. These tent perturbations were reduced by ~3 to 10 times in implosions with the “high-foot” drive. Unexpectedly, the measured perturbations with initially thinner tents were either larger or similar to the measured perturbations with thicker tents for both “high-foot” and “low-foot” drives. While the measured instability growth of 3-D broadband perturbations was also significantly reduced by ~5 to 10 times with the “high-foot” drive, compared to the “low-foot” drive, the growth mitigation was stronger than expected based on previous “growth-factor” results measured with two-dimensional modulations. Lastly, one of the hypotheses to explain the results is based on the 3-D modulations of the oxygen content in the bulk of the capsule having a stronger effect on the overall growth of capsule perturbations than the outer-surface capsule roughness.« less
Zhang, Miao; Smith, Bronwen G.; McArdle, Brian H.; Chavan, Ramesh R.; James, Bryony J.
2018-01-01
Variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the dimensional changes in longitudinal, tangential and radial directions, on wetting and drying, of tracheids of opposite wood (OW) and three grades of compression woods (CWs), including severe CW (SCW) and two grades of mild compression wood (MCW) (MCW1 and MCW2) in corewood of radiata pine (Pinus radiata) saplings. The CW was formed on the underside and OW on the upper side of slightly tilted stems. In the longitudinal direction, the shrinkage of SCW tracheids was ~300% greater than that of OW tracheids, with the shrinkage of the MCW1 and MCW2 tracheids being intermediate. Longitudinal swelling was also investigated and hysteresis was demonstrated for the tracheids of all corewood types, with the extent of hysteresis increasing with CW severity. A statistical association was found between longitudinal shrinkage and the content of lignin and galactosyl residues in the cell-wall matrix. The galactosyl residues are present mostly as (1→4)-β-galactans, which are known to have a high capacity for binding water and swell on hydration. The small proportions of (1→3)-β-glucans in the CWs have similar properties. These polysaccharides may play a functional role in the longitudinal shrinking and swelling of CW tracheids. Tangential shrinkage of tracheids was greater than radial shrinkage but both were greatest for OW and least for SCW, with the MCW1 and MCW2 being intermediate. PMID:29495536
Gagg, Graham; Ghassemieh, Elaheh; Wiria, Florencia E
2013-09-01
A set of cylindrical porous titanium test samples were produced using the three-dimensional printing and sintering method with samples sintered at 900 °C, 1000 °C, 1100 °C, 1200 °C or 1300 °C. Following compression testing, it was apparent that the stress-strain curves were similar in shape to the curves that represent cellular solids. This is despite a relative density twice as high as what is considered the threshold for defining a cellular solid. As final sintering temperature increased, the compressive behaviour developed from being elastic-brittle to elastic-plastic and while Young's modulus remained fairly constant in the region of 1.5 GPa, there was a corresponding increase in 0.2% proof stress of approximately 40-80 MPa. The cellular solid model consists of two equations that predict Young's modulus and yield or proof stress. By fitting to experimental data and consideration of porous morphology, appropriate changes to the geometry constants allow modification of the current models to predict with better accuracy the behaviour of porous materials with higher relative densities (lower porosity).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Senz, Domingo; Cabezón, Rubén M.; Escartín, José A.; Ebinger, Kevin
2014-10-01
Context. The smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique is a numerical method for solving gas-dynamical problems. It has been applied to simulate the evolution of a wide variety of astrophysical systems. The method has a second-order accuracy, with a resolution that is usually much higher in the compressed regions than in the diluted zones of the fluid. Aims: We propose and check a method to balance and equalize the resolution of SPH between high- and low-density regions. This method relies on the versatility of a family of interpolators called sinc kernels, which allows increasing the interpolation quality by varying only a single parameter (the exponent of the sinc function). Methods: The proposed method was checked and validated through a number of numerical tests, from standard one-dimensional Riemann problems in shock tubes, to multidimensional simulations of explosions, hydrodynamic instabilities, and the collapse of a Sun-like polytrope. Results: The analysis of the hydrodynamical simulations suggests that the scheme devised to equalize the accuracy improves the treatment of the post-shock regions and, in general, of the rarefacted zones of fluids while causing no harm to the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities. The method is robust and easy to implement with a low computational overload. It conserves mass, energy, and momentum and reduces to the standard SPH scheme in regions of the fluid that have smooth density gradients.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iyer, Venkit
1990-01-01
A solution method, fourth-order accurate in the body-normal direction and second-order accurate in the stream surface directions, to solve the compressible 3-D boundary layer equations is presented. The transformation used, the discretization details, and the solution procedure are described. Ten validation cases of varying complexity are presented and results of calculation given. The results range from subsonic flow to supersonic flow and involve 2-D or 3-D geometries. Applications to laminar flow past wing and fuselage-type bodies are discussed. An interface procedure is used to solve the surface Euler equations with the inviscid flow pressure field as the input to assure accurate boundary conditions at the boundary layer edge. Complete details of the computer program used and information necessary to run each of the test cases are given in the Appendix.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dahl, Milo D.; Mankbadi, Reda R.
2002-01-01
An analysis of the nonlinear development of the large-scale structures or instability waves in compressible round jets was conducted using the integral energy method. The equations of motion were decomposed into two sets of equations; one set governing the mean flow motion and the other set governing the large-scale structure motion. The equations in each set were then combined to derive kinetic energy equations that were integrated in the radial direction across the jet after the boundary-layer approximations were applied. Following the application of further assumptions regarding the radial shape of the mean flow and the large structures, equations were derived that govern the nonlinear, streamwise development of the large structures. Using numerically generated mean flows, calculations show the energy exchanges and the effects of the initial amplitude on the coherent structure development in the jet.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cebeci, T.; Kaups, K.; Ramsey, J. A.
1977-01-01
The method described utilizes a nonorthogonal coordinate system for boundary-layer calculations. It includes a geometry program that represents the wing analytically, and a velocity program that computes the external velocity components from a given experimental pressure distribution when the external velocity distribution is not computed theoretically. The boundary layer method is general, however, and can also be used for an external velocity distribution computed theoretically. Several test cases were computed by this method and the results were checked with other numerical calculations and with experiments when available. A typical computation time (CPU) on an IBM 370/165 computer for one surface of a wing which roughly consist of 30 spanwise stations and 25 streamwise stations, with 30 points across the boundary layer is less than 30 seconds for an incompressible flow and a little more for a compressible flow.
Modelling the effect of shear strength on isentropic compression experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomson, Stuart; Howell, Peter; Ockendon, John; Ockendon, Hilary
2017-01-01
Isentropic compression experiments (ICE) are a way of obtaining equation of state information for metals undergoing violent plastic deformation. In a typical experiment, millimetre thick metal samples are subjected to pressures on the order of 10 - 102 GPa, while the yield strength of the material can be as low as 10-2 GPa. The analysis of such experiments has so far neglected the effect of shear strength, instead treating the highly plasticised metal as an inviscid compressible fluid. However making this approximation belies the basic elastic nature of a solid object. A more accurate method should strive to incorporate the small but measurable effects of shear strength. Here we present a one-dimensional mathematical model for elastoplasticity at high stress which allows for both compressibility and the shear strength of the material. In the limit of zero yield stress this model reproduces the hydrodynamic models currently used to analyse ICEs. Numerical solutions of the governing equations will then be presented for problems relevant to ICEs in order to investigate the effects of shear strength compared with a model based purely on hydrodynamics.
The effect of shear strength on isentropic compression experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomson, Stuart; Howell, Peter; Ockendon, John; Ockendon, Hilary
2015-06-01
Isentropic compression experiments (ICE) are a novel way of obtaining equation of state information for metals undergoing violent plastic deformation. In a typical experiment, millimetre thick metal samples are subjected to pressures on the order of 10 -102 GPa, while the yield strength of the material can be as low as 10-1GPa. The analysis of such experiments has so far neglected the effect of shear strength, instead treating the highly plasticised metal as an inviscid compressible fluid. However making this approximation belies the basic elastic nature of a solid object. A more accurate method should strive to incorporate the small but measurable effects of shear strength. Here we present a one-dimensional mathematical model for elastoplasticity at high stress which allows for both compressibility and the shear strength of the material. In the limit of zero yield stress this model reproduces the hydrodynamic models currently used to analyse ICEs. We will also show using a systematic asymptotic analysis that entropy changes are universally negligible in the absence of shocks. Numerical solutions of the governing equations will then be presented for problems relevant to ICEs in order to investigate the effects of shear strength over a model based purely on hydrodynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drummond, B.; Mayne, N. J.; Manners, J.; Carter, A. L.; Boutle, I. A.; Baraffe, I.; Hébrard, É.; Tremblin, P.; Sing, D. K.; Amundsen, D. S.; Acreman, D.
2018-03-01
We present a study of the effect of wind-driven advection on the chemical composition of hot-Jupiter atmospheres using a fully consistent 3D hydrodynamics, chemistry, and radiative transfer code, the Met Office Unified Model (UM). Chemical modeling of exoplanet atmospheres has primarily been restricted to 1D models that cannot account for 3D dynamical processes. In this work, we couple a chemical relaxation scheme to the UM to account for the chemical interconversion of methane and carbon monoxide. This is done consistently with the radiative transfer meaning that departures from chemical equilibrium are included in the heating rates (and emission) and hence complete the feedback between the dynamics, thermal structure, and chemical composition. In this Letter, we simulate the well studied atmosphere of HD 209458b. We find that the combined effect of horizontal and vertical advection leads to an increase in the methane abundance by several orders of magnitude, which is directly opposite to the trend found in previous works. Our results demonstrate the need to include 3D effects when considering the chemistry of hot-Jupiter atmospheres. We calculate transmission and emission spectra, as well as the emission phase curve, from our simulations. We conclude that gas-phase nonequilibrium chemistry is unlikely to explain the model–observation discrepancy in the 4.5 μm Spitzer/IRAC channel. However, we highlight other spectral regions, observable with the James Webb Space Telescope, where signatures of wind-driven chemistry are more prominant.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cannizzo, John K.; Gehrels, Neil; Vishniac, Ethan T.
2003-01-01
Utilizing 3D relativistic hydrodynamical calculations, we have examined the evolution of an expanding relativistic blob of gas intended to be representative of a jet associated with ejecta from an extremely energetic event such as a hypernova, that produces a gamma-ray burst (Aloy et al. 2000; Tan, Matzner, & McKee 2001; MacFadyen, Woosley, & Heger 2001, Zhang, Woosley, & Heger 2003, Zhang, Woosley, & MacFadyen 2003). Since these are the first such calculations applied to the blob during the time in which the afterglow radiation is produced, we have purposely kept them simple in an effort to concentrate on the most fundamental aspects of the physics. We restrict our attention to the transition from spherical to jetlike expansion that occurs during the time that the Lorentz factor becomes less than the reciprocal of the jet spreading angle. We have not yet attached specific numbers to our results. From the SRHD equations, one sees that the relevant quantities are the ratios of pressure to density, and of distance to time. If we specify either one of these two sets of numbers, the other one is also determined.
Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Young Han; Song, Ho-Taek; Suh, Jin-Suck
2017-10-01
To evaluate the feasibility of 3D fast spin-echo (FSE) imaging with compressed sensing (CS) for the assessment of shoulder. Twenty-nine patients who underwent shoulder MRI including image sets of axial 3D-FSE sequence without CS and with CS, using an acceleration factor of 1.5, were included. Quantitative assessment was performed by calculating the root mean square error (RMSE) and structural similarity index (SSIM). Two musculoskeletal radiologists compared image quality of 3D-FSE sequences without CS and with CS, and scored the qualitative agreement between sequences, using a five-point scale. Diagnostic agreement for pathologic shoulder lesions between the two sequences was evaluated. The acquisition time of 3D-FSE MRI was reduced using CS (3min 23s vs. 2min 22s). Quantitative evaluations showed a significant correlation between the two sequences (r=0.872-0.993, p<0.05) and SSIM was in an acceptable range (0.940-0.993; mean±standard deviation, 0.968±0.018). Qualitative image quality showed good to excellent agreement between 3D-FSE images without CS and with CS. Diagnostic agreement for pathologic shoulder lesions between the two sequences was very good (κ=0.915-1). The 3D-FSE sequence with CS is feasible in evaluating the shoulder joint with reduced scan time compared to 3D-FSE without CS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yuan, Jianmin; Usman, Ammara; Reid, Scott A; King, Kevin F; Patterson, Andrew J; Gillard, Jonathan H; Graves, Martin J
2018-02-01
The purpose of this work is to evaluate the repeatability of a compressed sensing (CS) accelerated multi-contrast carotid protocol at 3 T. Twelve volunteers and eight patients with carotid disease were scanned on a 3 T MRI scanner using a CS accelerated 3-D black-blood multi-contrast protocol which comprises T 1 w, T 2 w and PDw without CS, and with a CS factor of 1.5 and 2.0. The volunteers were scanned twice, the lumen/wall area and wall thickness were measured for each scan. Eight patients were scanned once, the inter/intra-observer reproducibility of the measurements was calculated. In the repeated volunteer scans, the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the wall area measurement using a CS factor of 1.5 in PDw, T 1 w and T 2 w were 0.95, 0.81, and 0.97, respectively. The ICC for lumen area measurement using a CS factor of 1.5 in PDw, T 1 w and T 2 w were 0.96, 0.92, and 0.96, respectively. In patients, the ICC for inter/intra-observer measurements of lumen/wall area, and wall thickness were all above 0.81 in all sequences. The results show a CS accelerated 3-D black-blood multi-contrast protocol is a robust and reproducible method for carotid imaging. Future protocol design could use CS to reduce the scanning time.
Compression of turbulent magnetized gas in giant molecular clouds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birnboim, Yuval; Federrath, Christoph; Krumholz, Mark
2018-01-01
Interstellar gas clouds are often both highly magnetized and supersonically turbulent, with velocity dispersions set by a competition between driving and dissipation. This balance has been studied extensively in the context of gases with constant mean density. However, many astrophysical systems are contracting under the influence of external pressure or gravity, and the balance between driving and dissipation in a contracting, magnetized medium has yet to be studied. In this paper, we present three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of compression in a turbulent, magnetized medium that resembles the physical conditions inside molecular clouds. We find that in some circumstances the combination of compression and magnetic fields leads to a rate of turbulent dissipation far less than that observed in non-magnetized gas, or in non-compressing magnetized gas. As a result, a compressing, magnetized gas reaches an equilibrium velocity dispersion much greater than would be expected for either the hydrodynamic or the non-compressing case. We use the simulation results to construct an analytic model that gives an effective equation of state for a coarse-grained parcel of the gas, in the form of an ideal equation of state with a polytropic index that depends on the dissipation and energy transfer rates between the magnetic and turbulent components. We argue that the reduced dissipation rate and larger equilibrium velocity dispersion has important implications for the driving and maintenance of turbulence in molecular clouds and for the rates of chemical and radiative processes that are sensitive to shocks and dissipation.
Hydrodynamics of confined active fluids.
Brotto, Tommaso; Caussin, Jean-Baptiste; Lauga, Eric; Bartolo, Denis
2013-01-18
We theoretically describe the dynamics of swimmer populations in rigidly confined thin liquid films. We first demonstrate that hydrodynamic interactions between confined swimmers depend solely on their shape and are independent of their specific swimming mechanism. We also show that, due to friction with the nearby rigid walls, confined swimmers do not just reorient in flow gradients but also in uniform flows. We then quantify the consequences of these microscopic interaction rules on the large-scale hydrodynamics of isotropic populations. We investigate in detail their stability and the resulting phase behavior, highlighting the differences with conventional active, three-dimensional suspensions. Two classes of polar swimmers are distinguished depending on their geometrical polarity. The first class gives rise to coherent directed motion at all scales, whereas for the second class we predict the spontaneous formation of coherent clusters (swarms).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gusti, T. P.; Hertanti, D. R.; Bahsan, E.; Soeryantono, H.
2013-12-01
Particle-based numerical methods, such as Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), may be able to simulate some hydrodynamic and morphodynamic behaviors better than grid-based numerical methods. This study simulates hydrodynamics in meanders and advection and turbulent diffusion in straight river channels using Microsoft Excel and Visual Basic. The simulators generate three-dimensional data for hydrodynamics and one-dimensional data for advection-turbulent diffusion. Fluid at rest, sloshing, and helical flow are simulated in the river meanders. Spill loading and step loading are done to simulate concentration patterns associated with advection-turbulent diffusion. Results indicate that helical flow is formed due to disturbance in morphology and particle velocity in the stream and the number of particles does not have a significant effect on the pattern of advection-turbulent diffusion concentration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bishop, A. R.
1994-01-01
This computer program calculates the flow field in the supersonic portion of a mixed-compression aircraft inlet at non-zero angle of attack. This approach is based on the method of characteristics for steady three-dimensional flow. The results of this program agree with those produced by the two-dimensional method of characteristics when axisymmetric flow fields are calculated. Except in regions of high viscous interaction and boundary layer removal, the results agree well with experimental data obtained for threedimensional flow fields. The flow field in a variety of axisymmetric mixed compression inlets can be calculated using this program. The bow shock wave and the internal shock wave system are calculated using a discrete shock wave fitting procedure. The internal flow field can be calculated either with or without the discrete fitting of the internal shock wave system. The influence of molecular transport can be included in the calculation of the external flow about the forebody and in the calculation of the internal flow when internal shock waves are not discretely fitted. The viscous and thermal diffussion effects are included by treating them as correction terms in the method of characteristics procedure. Dynamic viscosity is represented by Sutherland's law and thermal conductivity is represented as a quadratic function of temperature. The thermodynamic model used is that of a thermally and calorically perfect gas. The program assumes that the cowl lip is contained in a constant plane and that the centerbody contour and cowl contour are smooth and have continuous first partial derivatives. This program cannot calculate subsonic flow, the external flow field if the bow shock wave does not exist entirely around the forebody, or the internal flow field if the bow flow field is injected into the annulus. Input to the program consists of parameters to control execution, to define the geometry, and the vehicle orientation. Output consists of a list of parameters
A theoretical study of hydrodynamic cavitation.
Arrojo, S; Benito, Y
2008-03-01
The optimization of hydrodynamic cavitation as an AOP requires identifying the key parameters and studying their effects on the process. Specific simulations of hydrodynamic bubbles reveal that time scales play a major role on the process. Rarefaction/compression periods generate a number of opposing effects which have demonstrated to be quantitatively different from those found in ultrasonic cavitation. Hydrodynamic cavitation can be upscaled and offers an energy efficient way of generating cavitation. On the other hand, the large characteristic time scales hinder bubble collapse and generate a low number of cavitation cycles per unit time. By controlling the pressure pulse through a flexible cavitation chamber design these limitations can be partially compensated. The chemical processes promoted by this technique are also different from those found in ultrasonic cavitation. Properties such as volatility or hydrophobicity determine the potential applicability of HC and therefore have to be taken into account.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Neuman, Shlomo P.
2007-01-01
A new analytical solution is presented for the delayed response process characterizing flow to a partially penetrating well in an unconfined aquifer. The new solution generalizes that of Neuman (1972, 1974) by accounting for unsaturated flow above the water table. Three-dimensional, axially symmetric flow in the unsaturated zone is described by a linearized version of Richards' equation in which hydraulic conductivity and water content vary exponentially with incremental capillary pressure head relative to its air entry value (defining the interface between the saturated and unsaturated zones). Unsaturated soil properties are characterized by an exponent κ having the dimension of inverse length or, equivalently, a dimensionless exponent κD = κb, where b is initial saturated thickness. Our treatment of the unsaturated zone is similar to that of Kroszynski and Dagan (1975), who, however, have ignored internal (artesian) aquifer storage. According to Kroszynski and Dagan, aquifers that are not excessively shallow have values of κD (their parameter a) much greater than 10. We find that in such typical cases, unsaturated flow has little impact on early and late dimensionless time drawdown a short distance below the water table. Unsaturated flow causes drawdown to increase slightly at intermediate dimensionless time values that represent transition from an early artesian-dominated to a late water-table-dominated flow regime. Delayed drainage from the unsaturated zone becomes less and less important as κD increases; as κD → ∞, this effect dies out, and drawdown is controlled entirely by delayed decline in the water table as in the model of Neuman. The unsaturated zone has a major impact on drawdown at intermediate time and a significant impact at early and late times, in the atypical case of κD ≤ 1, becoming the dominant factor as κD approaches zero (the soil water retention capacity becomes very large and/or saturated thickness becomes insignificant). Our
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazarenko, V. V.; Nazarenko, S. V.
In this study, the models of slaved precession of accretion disc and donors radiation-driven wind were performed using three-dimensional numerical astrophysical methods by the example of microquasar Cyg X-1. As is shown, in the course of precession of the accretion disc blown by the donor's wind the states with high and low temperature (low and high mass accretion rate, respectively) start being generated in the centre of disc. Our computations of disc precession performed on base of undefined precession that means each point of rotation axis of accretion disc makes unclosed difficult curve instead of a circle as it is in case of definite precession. In this case, the transition between states of high and low temperature takes place irregularly and not depend on precession period. The duration of transition between these both states is less than intervals of states on several orders of magnitudes.
Swain, Eric D.; Wolfert, Melinda A.; Bales, Jerad D.; Goodwin, Carl R.
2004-01-01
Successful restoration of the southern Florida ecosystem requires extensive knowledge of the physical characteristics and hydrologic processes controlling water flow and transport of constituents through extremely low-gradient freshwater marshes, shallow mangrove-fringed coastal creeks and tidal embayments, and near-shore marine waters. A sound, physically based numerical model can provide simulations of the differing hydrologic conditions that might result from various ecosystem restoration scenarios. Because hydrology and ecology are closely linked in southern Florida, hydrologic model results also can be used by ecologists to evaluate the degree of ecosystem restoration that could be achieved for various hydrologic conditions. A robust proven model, SWIFT2D, (Surface-Water Integrated Flow and Transport in Two Dimensions), was modified to simulate Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) hydrodynamics and transport conditions. Modifications include improvements to evapotranspiration and rainfall calculation and to the algorithms that describe flow through coastal creeks. Techniques used in this model should be applicable to other similar low-gradient marsh settings in southern Florida and elsewhere. Numerous investigations were conducted within the SICS area of southeastern Everglades National Park and northeastern Florida Bay to provide data and parameter values for model development and testing. The U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service supported investigations for quantification of evapotranspiration, vegetative resistance to flow, wind-induced flow, land elevations, vegetation classifications, salinity conditions, exchange of ground and surface waters, and flow and transport in coastal creeks and embayments. The good agreement that was achieved between measured and simulated water levels, flows, and salinities through minimal adjustment of empirical coefficients indicates that hydrologic processes within the SICS area are represented properly
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holland, Scott D.
1993-01-01
Three-dimensional sidewall-compression scramjet inlets with leading-edge sweeps of 30 deg and 70 deg were tested in the Langley Hypersonic CF4 Tunnel at a Mach number of 6 and a free-stream ratio of specific heats of 1.2. The parametric effects of leading-edge sweep, cowl position, contraction ratio, and Reynolds number were investigated. The models were instrumented with static pressure orifices distributed on the sidewalls, baseplate, and cowl. Schlieren movies were made of selected tunnel runs for flow visualization of the entrance plane and cowl region. Although these movies could not show the internal flow, the effect of the internal flow on the external flow was evident by way of spillage. The purpose is to provide a preliminary data release for the investigation. The models, facility, and testing methods are described, and the test matrix and a tabulation of tunnel runs are provided. Line plots highlighting the stated parametric effects and a representative set of schlieren photographs are presented without analysis.
Kwon, Heejin; Reid, Scott; Kim, Dongeun; Lee, Sangyun; Cho, Jinhan; Oh, Jongyeong
2018-01-04
This study aimed to evaluate image quality and diagnostic performance of a recently developed navigated three-dimensional magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (3D-MRCP) with compressed sensing (CS) based on parallel imaging (PI) and conventional 3D-MRCP with PI only in patients with abnormal bile duct dilatation. This institutional review board-approved study included 45 consecutive patients [non-malignant common bile duct lesions (n = 21) and malignant common bile duct lesions (n = 24)] who underwent MRCP of the abdomen to evaluate bile duct dilatation. All patients were imaged at 3T (MR 750, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) including two kinds of 3D-MRCP using 352 × 288 matrices with and without CS based on PI. Two radiologists independently and blindly assessed randomized images. CS acceleration reduced the acquisition time on average 5 min and 6 s to a total of 2 min and 56 s. The all CS cine image quality was significantly higher than standard cine MR image for all quantitative measurements. Diagnostic accuracy for benign and malignant lesions is statistically different between standard and CS 3D-MRCP. Total image quality and diagnostic accuracy at biliary obstruction evaluation demonstrates that CS-accelerated 3D-MRCP sequences can provide superior quality of diagnostic information in 42.5% less time. This has the potential to reduce motion-related artifacts and improve diagnostic efficacy.
Rathnayaka, C M; Karunasena, H C P; Senadeera, W; Gu, Y T
2018-03-14
Numerical modelling has gained popularity in many science and engineering streams due to the economic feasibility and advanced analytical features compared to conventional experimental and theoretical models. Food drying is one of the areas where numerical modelling is increasingly applied to improve drying process performance and product quality. This investigation applies a three dimensional (3-D) Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) and Coarse-Grained (CG) numerical approach to predict the morphological changes of different categories of food-plant cells such as apple, grape, potato and carrot during drying. To validate the model predictions, experimental findings from in-house experimental procedures (for apple) and sources of literature (for grape, potato and carrot) have been utilised. The subsequent comaprison indicate that the model predictions demonstrate a reasonable agreement with the experimental findings, both qualitatively and quantitatively. In this numerical model, a higher computational accuracy has been maintained by limiting the consistency error below 1% for all four cell types. The proposed meshfree-based approach is well-equipped to predict the morphological changes of plant cellular structure over a wide range of moisture contents (10% to 100% dry basis). Compared to the previous 2-D meshfree-based models developed for plant cell drying, the proposed model can draw more useful insights on the morphological behaviour due to the 3-D nature of the model. In addition, the proposed computational modelling approach has a high potential to be used as a comprehensive tool in many other tissue morphology related investigations.
Multi-Material Closure Model for High-Order Finite Element Lagrangian Hydrodynamics
Dobrev, V. A.; Kolev, T. V.; Rieben, R. N.; ...
2016-04-27
We present a new closure model for single fluid, multi-material Lagrangian hydrodynamics and its application to high-order finite element discretizations of these equations [1]. The model is general with respect to the number of materials, dimension and space and time discretizations. Knowledge about exact material interfaces is not required. Material indicator functions are evolved by a closure computation at each quadrature point of mixed cells, which can be viewed as a high-order variational generalization of the method of Tipton [2]. This computation is defined by the notion of partial non-instantaneous pressure equilibration, while the full pressure equilibration is achieved bymore » both the closure model and the hydrodynamic motion. Exchange of internal energy between materials is derived through entropy considerations, that is, every material produces positive entropy, and the total entropy production is maximized in compression and minimized in expansion. Results are presented for standard one-dimensional two-material problems, followed by two-dimensional and three-dimensional multi-material high-velocity impact arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian calculations. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.« less
Multi-Material Closure Model for High-Order Finite Element Lagrangian Hydrodynamics
Dobrev, V. A.; Kolev, T. V.; Rieben, R. N.
We present a new closure model for single fluid, multi-material Lagrangian hydrodynamics and its application to high-order finite element discretizations of these equations [1]. The model is general with respect to the number of materials, dimension and space and time discretizations. Knowledge about exact material interfaces is not required. Material indicator functions are evolved by a closure computation at each quadrature point of mixed cells, which can be viewed as a high-order variational generalization of the method of Tipton [2]. This computation is defined by the notion of partial non-instantaneous pressure equilibration, while the full pressure equilibration is achieved bymore » both the closure model and the hydrodynamic motion. Exchange of internal energy between materials is derived through entropy considerations, that is, every material produces positive entropy, and the total entropy production is maximized in compression and minimized in expansion. Results are presented for standard one-dimensional two-material problems, followed by two-dimensional and three-dimensional multi-material high-velocity impact arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian calculations. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.« less
Shieh, C; Kipritidis, J; OBrien, R
2014-06-15
Purpose: The Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm currently used for clinical thoracic 4-dimensional (4D) cone-beam CT (CBCT) reconstruction suffers from noise and streaking artifacts due to projection under-sampling. Compressed sensing theory enables reconstruction of under-sampled datasets via total-variation (TV) minimization, but TV-minimization algorithms such as adaptive-steepest-descent-projection-onto-convex-sets (ASD-POCS) often converge slowly and are prone to over-smoothing anatomical details. These disadvantages can be overcome by incorporating general anatomical knowledge via anatomy segmentation. Based on this concept, we have developed an anatomical-adaptive compressed sensing (AACS) algorithm for thoracic 4D-CBCT reconstruction. Methods: AACS is based on the ASD-POCS framework, where each iteration consists of a TV-minimizationmore » step and a data fidelity constraint step. Prior to every AACS iteration, four major thoracic anatomical structures - soft tissue, lungs, bony anatomy, and pulmonary details - were segmented from the updated solution image. Based on the segmentation, an anatomical-adaptive weighting was applied to the TV-minimization step, so that TV-minimization was enhanced at noisy/streaky regions and suppressed at anatomical structures of interest. The image quality and convergence speed of AACS was compared to conventional ASD-POCS using an XCAT digital phantom and a patient scan. Results: For the XCAT phantom, the AACS image represented the ground truth better than the ASD-POCS image, giving a higher structural similarity index (0.93 vs. 0.84) and lower absolute difference (1.1*10{sup 4} vs. 1.4*10{sup 4}). For the patient case, while both algorithms resulted in much less noise and streaking than FDK, the AACS image showed considerably better contrast and sharpness of the vessels, tumor, and fiducial marker than the ASD-POCS image. In addition, AACS converged over 50% faster than ASD-POCS in both cases. Conclusions: The proposed
A point-centered arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian hydrodynamic approach for tetrahedral meshes
Morgan, Nathaniel R.; Waltz, Jacob I.; Burton, Donald E.; ...
2015-02-24
We present a three dimensional (3D) arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamic scheme suitable for modeling complex compressible flows on tetrahedral meshes. The new approach stores the conserved variables (mass, momentum, and total energy) at the nodes of the mesh and solves the conservation equations on a control volume surrounding the point. This type of an approach is termed a point-centered hydrodynamic (PCH) method. The conservation equations are discretized using an edge-based finite element (FE) approach with linear basis functions. All fluxes in the new approach are calculated at the center of each tetrahedron. A multidirectional Riemann-like problem is solved atmore » the center of the tetrahedron. The advective fluxes are calculated by solving a 1D Riemann problem on each face of the nodal control volume. A 2-stage Runge–Kutta method is used to evolve the solution forward in time, where the advective fluxes are part of the temporal integration. The mesh velocity is smoothed by solving a Laplacian equation. The details of the new ALE hydrodynamic scheme are discussed. Results from a range of numerical test problems are presented.« less
Musser, Jonathan W.
2008-01-01
Potential flow characteristics of future flooding along a 4.8-mile reach of the Flint River in Albany, Georgia, were simulated using recent digital-elevation-model data and the U.S. Geological Survey finite-element surface-water modeling system for two-dimensional flow in the horizontal plane (FESWMS-2DH). The model was run at four water-surface altitudes at the Flint River at Albany streamgage (02352500): 181.5-foot (ft) altitude with a flow of 61,100 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), 184.5-ft altitude with a flow of 75,400 ft3/s, 187.5-ft altitude with a flow of 91,700 ft3/s, and 192.5-ft altitude with a flow of 123,000 ft3/s. The model was run to measure changes in inundated areas and water-surface altitudes for eight scenarios of possible modifications to the 4.8-mile reach on the Flint River. The eight scenarios include removing a human-made peninsula located downstream from Oglethorpe Boulevard, increasing the opening under the Oakridge Drive bridge, adding culverts to the east Oakridge Drive bridge approach, adding culverts to the east and west Oakridge Drive bridge approaches, adding an overflow across the oxbow north of Oakridge Drive, making the overflow into a channel, removing the Oakridge Drive bridge, and adding a combination of an oxbow overflow and culverts on both Oakridge Drive bridge approaches. The modeled inundation and water-surface altitude changes were mapped for use in evaluating the river modifications. The most effective scenario at reducing inundated area was the combination scenario. At the 187.5-ft altitude, the inundated area decreased from 4.24 square miles to 4.00 square miles. The remove-peninsula scenario was the least effective with a reduction in inundated area of less than 0.01 square miles. In all scenarios, the inundated area reduction increased with water-surface altitude, peaking at the 187.5-ft altitude. The inundated area reduction then decreased at the gage altitude of 192.5 ft.
Wingate, K; Bonani, W; Tan, Y; Bryant, S J; Tan, W
2012-04-01
The importance of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in vascular regeneration is becoming increasingly recognized. However, few in vitro studies have been performed to identify the effects of environmental elasticity on the differentiation of MSC into vascular cell types. Electrospinning and photopolymerization techniques were used to fabricate a three-dimensional (3-D) polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate nanofiber hydrogel matrix with tunable elasticity for use as a cellular substrate. Compression testing demonstrated that the elastic modulus of the hydrated 3-D matrices ranged from 2 to 15 kPa, similar to the in vivo elasticity of the intima basement membrane and media layer. MSC seeded on rigid matrices (8-15 kPa) showed an increase in cell area compared with those seeded on soft matrices (2-5 kPa). Furthermore, the matrix elasticity guided the cells to express different vascular-specific phenotypes with high differentiation efficiency. Around 95% of MSC seeded on the 3-D matrices with an elasticity of 3 kPa showed Flk-1 endothelial markers within 24h, while only 20% of MSC seeded on the matrices with elasticity >8 kPa demonstrated Flk-1 marker. In contrast, ∼80% of MSC seeded on 3-D matrices with elasticity >8 kPa demonstrated smooth muscle α-actin marker within 24h, while fewer than 10% of MSC seeded on 3-D matrices with elasticity <5 kPa showed α-actin markers. The ability to control MSC differentiation into either endothelial or smooth muscle-like cells based purely on the local elasticity of the substrate could be a powerful tool for vascular tissue regeneration. Copyright Â© 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hydrodynamic simulations with the Godunov smoothed particle hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murante, G.; Borgani, S.; Brunino, R.; Cha, S.-H.
2011-10-01
We present results based on an implementation of the Godunov smoothed particle hydrodynamics (GSPH), originally developed by Inutsuka, in the GADGET-3 hydrodynamic code. We first review the derivation of the GSPH discretization of the equations of moment and energy conservation, starting from the convolution of these equations with the interpolating kernel. The two most important aspects of the numerical implementation of these equations are (a) the appearance of fluid velocity and pressure obtained from the solution of the Riemann problem between each pair of particles, and (b) the absence of an artificial viscosity term. We carry out three different controlled hydrodynamical three-dimensional tests, namely the Sod shock tube, the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in a shear-flow test and the 'blob' test describing the evolution of a cold cloud moving against a hot wind. The results of our tests confirm and extend in a number of aspects those recently obtained by Cha, Inutsuka & Nayakshin: (i) GSPH provides a much improved description of contact discontinuities, with respect to smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), thus avoiding the appearance of spurious pressure forces; (ii) GSPH is able to follow the development of gas-dynamical instabilities, such as the Kevin-Helmholtz and the Rayleigh-Taylor ones; (iii) as a result, GSPH describes the development of curl structures in the shear-flow test and the dissolution of the cold cloud in the 'blob' test. Besides comparing the results of GSPH with those from standard SPH implementations, we also discuss in detail the effect on the performances of GSPH of changing different aspects of its implementation: choice of the number of neighbours, accuracy of the interpolation procedure to locate the interface between two fluid elements (particles) for the solution of the Riemann problem, order of the reconstruction for the assignment of variables at the interface, choice of the limiter to prevent oscillations of
Huizinga, Richard J.
2007-01-01
The Blue River Channel Modification project being implemented by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is intended to provide flood protection within the Blue River valley in the Kansas City, Mo., metropolitan area. In the latest phase of the project, concerns have arisen about preserving the Civil War historic area of Byram's Ford and the associated Big Blue Battlefield while providing flood protection for the Byram's Ford Industrial Park. In 1996, the USACE used a physical model built at the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) in Vicksburg, Miss., to examine the feasibility of a proposed grade control structure (GCS) that would be placed downstream from the historic river crossing of Byram's Ford to provide a subtle transition of flow from the natural channel to the modified channel. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the USACE, modified an existing two-dimensional finite element surface-water model of the river between 63d Street and Blue Parkway (the 'original model'), used the modified model to simulate the existing (as of 2006) unimproved channel and the proposed channel modifications and GCS, and analyzed the results from the simulations and those from the WES physical model. Modifications were made to the original model to create a model that represents existing (2006) conditions between the north end of Swope Park immediately upstream from 63d Street and the upstream limit of channel improvement on the Blue River (the 'model of existing conditions'). The model of existing conditions was calibrated to two measured floods. The model of existing conditions also was modified to create a model that represents conditions along the same reach of the Blue River with proposed channel modifications and the proposed GCS (the 'model of proposed conditions'). The models of existing conditions and proposed conditions were used to simulate the 30-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence floods. The discharge from the calibration flood of May 15, 1990, also
2018-01-01
Hydrodynamic phenomena are ubiquitous in living organisms and can be used to manipulate cells or emulate physiological microenvironments experienced in vivo. Hydrodynamic effects influence multiple cellular properties and processes, including cell morphology, intracellular processes, cell–cell signaling cascades and reaction kinetics, and play an important role at the single-cell, multicellular, and organ level. Selected hydrodynamic effects can also be leveraged to control mechanical stresses, analyte transport, as well as local temperature within cellular microenvironments. With a better understanding of fluid mechanics at the micrometer-length scale and the advent of microfluidic technologies, a new generation of experimental tools that provide control over cellular microenvironments and emulate physiological conditions with exquisite accuracy is now emerging. Accordingly, we believe that it is timely to assess the concepts underlying hydrodynamic control of cellular microenvironments and their applications and provide some perspective on the future of such tools in in vitro cell-culture models. Generally, we describe the interplay between living cells, hydrodynamic stressors, and fluid flow-induced effects imposed on the cells. This interplay results in a broad range of chemical, biological, and physical phenomena in and around cells. More specifically, we describe and formulate the underlying physics of hydrodynamic phenomena affecting both adhered and suspended cells. Moreover, we provide an overview of representative studies that leverage hydrodynamic effects in the context of single-cell studies within microfluidic systems. PMID:29420889
Relativistic anisotropic hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alqahtani, Mubarak; Nopoush, Mohammad; Strickland, Michael
2018-07-01
In this paper we review recent progress in relativistic anisotropic hydrodynamics. We begin with a pedagogical introduction to the topic which takes into account the advances in our understanding of this topic since its inception. We consider both conformal and non-conformal systems and demonstrate how one can implement a realistic equation of state using a quasiparticle approach. We then consider the inclusion of non-spheroidal (non-ellipsoidal) corrections to leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics and present the findings of the resulting second-order viscous anisotropic hydrodynamics framework. We compare the results obtained in both the conformal and non-conformal cases with exact solutions to the Boltzmann equation and demonstrate that, in all known cases, anisotropic hydrodynamics best reproduces the exact solutions. Based on this success, we then discuss the phenomenological application of anisotropic hydrodynamics. Along these lines, we review techniques which can be used to convert a momentum-space anisotropic fluid into hadronic degrees of freedom by generalizing the original idea of Cooper-Frye freeze-out to momentum-space anisotropic systems. And, finally, we present phenomenological results of 3 + 1 d quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamic simulations and compare them to experimental data produced in 2.76 TeV Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC. Our results indicate that anisotropic hydrodynamics provides a promising framework for describing the dynamics of the momentum-space anisotropic QGP created in heavy-ion collisions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Liancong; Hamilton, David; Lan, Jia; McBride, Chris; Trolle, Dennis
2018-03-01
Automated calibration of complex deterministic water quality models with a large number of biogeochemical parameters can reduce time-consuming iterative simulations involving empirical judgements of model fit. We undertook autocalibration of the one-dimensional hydrodynamic-ecological lake model DYRESM-CAEDYM, using a Monte Carlo sampling (MCS) method, in order to test the applicability of this procedure for shallow, polymictic Lake Rotorua (New Zealand). The calibration procedure involved independently minimizing the root-mean-square error (RMSE), maximizing the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficient coefficient (Nr) for comparisons of model state variables against measured data. An assigned number of parameter permutations was used for 10 000 simulation iterations. The "optimal" temperature calibration produced a RMSE of 0.54 °C, Nr value of 0.99, and r value of 0.98 through the whole water column based on comparisons with 540 observed water temperatures collected between 13 July 2007 and 13 January 2009. The modeled bottom dissolved oxygen concentration (20.5 m below surface) was compared with 467 available observations. The calculated RMSE of the simulations compared with the measurements was 1.78 mg L-1, the Nr value was 0.75, and the r value was 0.87. The autocalibrated model was further tested for an independent data set by simulating bottom-water hypoxia events from 15 January 2009 to 8 June 2011 (875 days). This verification produced an accurate simulation of five hypoxic events corresponding to DO < 2 mg L-1 during summer of 2009-2011. The RMSE was 2.07 mg L-1, Nr value 0.62, and r value of 0.81, based on the available data set of 738 days. The autocalibration software of DYRESM-CAEDYM developed here is substantially less time-consuming and more efficient in parameter optimization than traditional manual calibration which has been the standard tool practiced for similar complex water quality models.
DNABIT Compress - Genome compression algorithm.
Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam
2011-01-22
Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, "DNABIT Compress" for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our proposed algorithm achieves the best compression ratio for DNA sequences for larger genome. Significantly better compression results show that "DNABIT Compress" algorithm is the best among the remaining compression algorithms. While achieving the best compression ratios for DNA sequences (Genomes),our new DNABIT Compress algorithm significantly improves the running time of all previous DNA compression programs. Assigning binary bits (Unique BIT CODE) for (Exact Repeats, Reverse Repeats) fragments of DNA sequence is also a unique concept introduced in this algorithm for the first time in DNA compression. This proposed new algorithm could achieve the best compression ratio as much as 1.58 bits/bases where the existing best methods could not achieve a ratio less than 1.72 bits/bases.
Comparison of Artificial Compressibility Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin; Housman, Jeffrey; Kwak, Dochan
2004-01-01
Various artificial compressibility methods for calculating the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are compared. Each method is described and numerical solutions to test problems are conducted. A comparison based on convergence behavior, accuracy, and robustness is given.
Frequency-dependent hydrodynamic interaction between two solid spheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, Gerhard; Schmid, Friederike
2017-12-01
Hydrodynamic interactions play an important role in many areas of soft matter science. In simulations with implicit solvent, various techniques such as Brownian or Stokesian dynamics explicitly include hydrodynamic interactions a posteriori by using hydrodynamic diffusion tensors derived from the Stokes equation. However, this equation assumes the interaction to be instantaneous which is an idealized approximation and only valid on long time scales. In the present paper, we go one step further and analyze the time-dependence of hydrodynamic interactions between finite-sized particles in a compressible fluid on the basis of the linearized Navier-Stokes equation. The theoretical results show that at high frequencies, the compressibility of the fluid has a significant impact on the frequency-dependent pair interactions. The predictions of hydrodynamic theory are compared to molecular dynamics simulations of two nanocolloids in a Lennard-Jones fluid. For this system, we reconstruct memory functions by extending the inverse Volterra technique. The simulation data agree very well with the theory, therefore, the theory can be used to implement dynamically consistent hydrodynamic interactions in the increasingly popular field of non-Markovian modeling.
Effect of compressibility on the hypervelocity penetration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, W. J.; Chen, X. W.; Chen, P.
2018-02-01
We further consider the effect of rod strength by employing the compressible penetration model to study the effect of compressibility on hypervelocity penetration. Meanwhile, we define different instances of penetration efficiency in various modified models and compare these penetration efficiencies to identify the effects of different factors in the compressible model. To systematically discuss the effect of compressibility in different metallic rod-target combinations, we construct three cases, i.e., the penetrations by the more compressible rod into the less compressible target, rod into the analogously compressible target, and the less compressible rod into the more compressible target. The effects of volumetric strain, internal energy, and strength on the penetration efficiency are analyzed simultaneously. It indicates that the compressibility of the rod and target increases the pressure at the rod/target interface. The more compressible rod/target has larger volumetric strain and higher internal energy. Both the larger volumetric strain and higher strength enhance the penetration or anti-penetration ability. On the other hand, the higher internal energy weakens the penetration or anti-penetration ability. The two trends conflict, but the volumetric strain dominates in the variation of the penetration efficiency, which would not approach the hydrodynamic limit if the rod and target are not analogously compressible. However, if the compressibility of the rod and target is analogous, it has little effect on the penetration efficiency.
Sandford, II, Maxwell T.; Handel, Theodore G.; Bradley, Jonathan N.
1998-01-01
A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%.
Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.
1998-07-07
A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique are disclosed. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%. 21 figs.
Sandford, II, Maxwell T.; Handel, Theodore G.; Bradley, Jonathan N.
1998-01-01
A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique. The method applies to data compressed with lossy algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty in value by one unit. Indices which are adjacent in value are manipulated to encode auxiliary data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compressions known also as entropy coding, to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the compression entropy coding, known also as entropy coding is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage in the manner taught by the method.
Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.
1998-03-10
A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique is disclosed. The method applies to data compressed with lossy algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty in value by one unit. Indices which are adjacent in value are manipulated to encode auxiliary data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compressions known also as entropy coding, to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the compression entropy coding, known also as entropy coding is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage in the manner taught by the method. 11 figs.
GASOLINE: Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
N-Body Shop
2017-10-01
Gasoline solves the equations of gravity and hydrodynamics in astrophysical problems, including simulations of planets, stars, and galaxies. It uses an SPH method that features correct mixing behavior in multiphase fluids and minimal artificial viscosity. This method is identical to the SPH method used in the ChaNGa code (ascl:1105.005), allowing users to extend results to problems requiring >100,000 cores. Gasoline uses a fast, memory-efficient O(N log N) KD-Tree to solve Poisson's Equation for gravity and avoids artificial viscosity in non-shocking compressive flows.
Sensitivity analysis of hydrodynamic stability operators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmid, Peter J.; Henningson, Dan S.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Malik, Mujeeb R.
1992-01-01
The eigenvalue sensitivity for hydrodynamic stability operators is investigated. Classical matrix perturbation techniques as well as the concept of epsilon-pseudoeigenvalues are applied to show that parts of the spectrum are highly sensitive to small perturbations. Applications are drawn from incompressible plane Couette, trailing line vortex flow and compressible Blasius boundary layer flow. Parametric studies indicate a monotonically increasing effect of the Reynolds number on the sensitivity. The phenomenon of eigenvalue sensitivity is due to the non-normality of the operators and their discrete matrix analogs and may be associated with large transient growth of the corresponding initial value problem.
Dispersive hydrodynamics: Preface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biondini, G.; El, G. A.; Hoefer, M. A.; Miller, P. D.
2016-10-01
This Special Issue on Dispersive Hydrodynamics is dedicated to the memory and work of G.B. Whitham who was one of the pioneers in this field of physical applied mathematics. Some of the papers appearing here are related to work reported on at the workshop "Dispersive Hydrodynamics: The Mathematics of Dispersive Shock Waves and Applications" held in May 2015 at the Banff International Research Station. This Preface provides a broad overview of the field and summaries of the various contributions to the Special Issue, placing them in a unified context.
Hydrodynamic separator sediment retention testing.
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2010-03-01
Hydrodynamic separators are widely used in urban areas for removal of suspended sediments and floatables from : stormwater due to limited land availability for the installation of above ground stormwater best management : practices (BMPs). Hydrodynam...
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic Simulator
2016-10-05
This code is a highly modular framework for developing smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations running on parallel platforms. The compartmentalization of the code allows for rapid development of new SPH applications and modifications of existing algorithms. The compartmentalization also allows changes in one part of the code used by many applications to instantly be made available to all applications.
Hydrodynamics of the Dirac spectrum
Liu, Yizhuang; Warchoł, Piotr; Zahed, Ismail
2015-12-15
We discuss a hydrodynamical description of the eigenvalues of the Dirac spectrum in even dimensions in the vacuum and in the large N (volume) limit. The linearized hydrodynamics supports sound waves. The hydrodynamical relaxation of the eigenvalues is captured by a hydrodynamical (tunneling) minimum configuration which follows from a pertinent form of Euler equation. As a result, the relaxation from a phase of unbroken chiral symmetry to a phase of broken chiral symmetry occurs over a time set by the speed of sound.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melcher, Kevin J.
2006-01-01
The Compressible Flow Toolbox is primarily a MATLAB-language implementation of a set of algorithms that solve approximately 280 linear and nonlinear classical equations for compressible flow. The toolbox is useful for analysis of one-dimensional steady flow with either constant entropy, friction, heat transfer, or Mach number greater than 1. The toolbox also contains algorithms for comparing and validating the equation-solving algorithms against solutions previously published in open literature. The classical equations solved by the Compressible Flow Toolbox are as follows: The isentropic-flow equations, The Fanno flow equations (pertaining to flow of an ideal gas in a pipe with friction), The Rayleigh flow equations (pertaining to frictionless flow of an ideal gas, with heat transfer, in a pipe of constant cross section), The normal-shock equations, The oblique-shock equations, and The expansion equations.
A volume-of-fluid method for simulation of compressible axisymmetric multi-material flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Niem, D.; Kührt, E.; Motschmann, U.
2007-02-01
A two-dimensional Eulerian hydrodynamic method for the numerical simulation of inviscid compressible axisymmetric multi-material flow in external force fields for the situation of pure fluids separated by macroscopic interfaces is presented. The method combines an implicit Lagrangian step with an explicit Eulerian advection step. Individual materials obey separate energy equations, fulfill general equations of state, and may possess different temperatures. Material volume is tracked using a piecewise linear volume-of-fluid method. An overshoot-free logically simple and economic material advection algorithm for cylinder coordinates is derived, in an algebraic formulation. New aspects arising in the case of more than two materials such as the material ordering strategy during transport are presented. One- and two-dimensional numerical examples are given.
Third-order dissipative hydrodynamics from the entropy principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El, Andrej; Xu, Zhe; Greiner, Carsten
2010-06-01
We review the entropy based derivation of third-order hydrodynamic equations and compare their solutions in one-dimensional boost-invariant geometry with calculations by the partonic cascade BAMPS. We demonstrate that Grad's approximation, which underlies the derivation of both Israel-Stewart and third-order equations, describes the transverse spectra from BAMPS with high accuracy. At the same time solutions of third-order equations are much closer to BAMPS results than solutions of Israel-Stewart equations. Introducing a resummation scheme for all higher-oder corrections to one-dimensional hydrodynamic equation we demonstrate the importance of higher-order terms if the Knudsen number is large.
Calculation methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers, 1976
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bushnell, D. M.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Harris, J. E.
1977-01-01
Equations and closure methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers are discussed. Flow phenomena peculiar to calculation of these boundary layers were considered, along with calculations of three dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers. Procedures for ascertaining nonsimilar two and three dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers were appended, including finite difference, finite element, and mass-weighted residual methods.
Hydrodynamically Lubricated Rotary Shaft Having Twist Resistant Geometry
Dietle, Lannie; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.
1993-07-27
A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft with a cross-sectional geometry suitable for pressurized lubricant retention is provided which, in the preferred embodiment, incorporates a protuberant static sealing interface that, compared to prior art, dramatically improves the exclusionary action of the dynamic sealing interface in low pressure and unpressurized applications by achieving symmetrical deformation of the seal at the static and dynamic sealing interfaces. In abrasive environments, the improved exclusionary action results in a dramatic reduction of seal and shaft wear, compared to prior art, and provides a significant increase in seal life. The invention also increases seal life by making higher levels of initial compression possible, compared to prior art, without compromising hydrodynamic lubrication; this added compression makes the seal more tolerant of compression set, abrasive wear, mechanical misalignment, dynamic runout, and manufacturing tolerances, and also makes hydrodynamic seals with smaller cross-sections more practical. In alternate embodiments, the benefits enumerated above are achieved by cooperative configurations of the seal and the gland which achieve symmetrical deformation of the seal at the static and dynamic sealing interfaces. The seal may also be configured such that predetermined radial compression deforms it to a desired operative configuration, even through symmetrical deformation is lacking.
Role of hydrodynamic viscosity on phonon transport in suspended graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xun; Lee, Sangyeop
2018-03-01
When phonon transport is in the hydrodynamic regime, the thermal conductivity exhibits peculiar dependences on temperatures (T ) and sample widths (W ). These features were used in the past to experimentally confirm the hydrodynamic phonon transport in three-dimensional bulk materials. Suspended graphene was recently predicted to exhibit strong hydrodynamic features in thermal transport at much higher temperature than the three-dimensional bulk materials, but its experimental confirmation requires quantitative guidance by theory and simulation. Here we quantitatively predict those peculiar dependences using the Monte Carlo solution of the Peierls-Boltzmann equation with an ab initio full three-phonon scattering matrix. Thermal conductivity is found to increase as Tα where α ranges from 1.89 to 2.49 depending on a sample width at low temperatures, much larger than 1.68 of the ballistic case. The thermal conductivity has a width dependence of W1.17 at 100 K, clearly distinguished from the sublinear dependence of the ballistic-diffusive regime. These peculiar features are explained with a phonon viscous damping effect of the hydrodynamic regime. We derive an expression for the phonon hydrodynamic viscosity from the Peierls-Boltzmann equation, and discuss the fact that the phonon viscous damping explains well those peculiar dependences of thermal conductivity at 100 K. The phonon viscous damping still causes significant thermal resistance when a temperature is 300 K and a sample width is around 1 µm, even though the hydrodynamic regime is not dominant over other regimes at this condition.
Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks.
Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M Cristina
2015-12-18
We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well-polarized flocks. The continuum equations controlled by only two dimensionless parameters, orientational inertia and alignment strength, are derived by coarse-graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields anisotropic spin waves that mediate the propagation of turning information throughout the flock. The coupling between spin-current density to the local vorticity field through a nonlinear friction gives rise to a hydrodynamic mode with angular-dependent propagation speed at long wavelengths. This mode becomes unstable as a result of the growth of bend and splay deformations augmented by the spin wave, signaling the transition to complex spatiotemporal patterns of continuously turning and swirling flocks.
HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATION OF THE UPPER POTOMAC ESTUARY.
Schaffranck, Raymond W.
1986-01-01
Hydrodynamics of the upper extent of the Potomac Estuary between Indian Head and Morgantown, Md. , are simulated using a two-dimensional model. The model computes water-surface elevations and depth-averaged velocities by numerically integrating finite-difference forms of the equations of mass and momentum conservation using the alternating direction implicit method. The fundamental, non-linear, unsteady-flow equations, upon which the model is formulated, include additional terms to account for Coriolis acceleration and meteorological influences. Preliminary model/prototype data comparisons show agreement to within 9% for tidal flow volumes and phase differences within the measured-data-recording interval. Use of the model to investigate the hydrodynamics and certain aspects of transport within this Potomac Estuary reach is demonstrated. Refs.
Solvable Hydrodynamics of Quantum Integrable Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bulchandani, Vir B.; Vasseur, Romain; Karrasch, Christoph; Moore, Joel E.
2017-12-01
The conventional theory of hydrodynamics describes the evolution in time of chaotic many-particle systems from local to global equilibrium. In a quantum integrable system, local equilibrium is characterized by a local generalized Gibbs ensemble or equivalently a local distribution of pseudomomenta. We study time evolution from local equilibria in such models by solving a certain kinetic equation, the "Bethe-Boltzmann" equation satisfied by the local pseudomomentum density. Explicit comparison with density matrix renormalization group time evolution of a thermal expansion in the XXZ model shows that hydrodynamical predictions from smooth initial conditions can be remarkably accurate, even for small system sizes. Solutions are also obtained in the Lieb-Liniger model for free expansion into vacuum and collisions between clouds of particles, which model experiments on ultracold one-dimensional Bose gases.
Numerical Hydrodynamics and Magnetohydrodynamics in General Relativity.
Font, José A
2008-01-01
This article presents a comprehensive overview of numerical hydrodynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) in general relativity. Some significant additions have been incorporated with respect to the previous two versions of this review (2000, 2003), most notably the coverage of general-relativistic MHD, a field in which remarkable activity and progress has occurred in the last few years. Correspondingly, the discussion of astrophysical simulations in general-relativistic hydrodynamics is enlarged to account for recent relevant advances, while those dealing with general-relativistic MHD are amply covered in this review for the first time. The basic outline of this article is nevertheless similar to its earlier versions, save for the addition of MHD-related issues throughout. Hence, different formulations of both the hydrodynamics and MHD equations are presented, with special mention of conservative and hyperbolic formulations well adapted to advanced numerical methods. A large sample of numerical approaches for solving such hyperbolic systems of equations is discussed, paying particular attention to solution procedures based on schemes exploiting the characteristic structure of the equations through linearized Riemann solvers. As previously stated, a comprehensive summary of astrophysical simulations in strong gravitational fields is also presented. These are detailed in three basic sections, namely gravitational collapse, black-hole accretion, and neutron-star evolutions; despite the boundaries, these sections may (and in fact do) overlap throughout the discussion. The material contained in these sections highlights the numerical challenges of various representative simulations. It also follows, to some extent, the chronological development of the field, concerning advances in the formulation of the gravitational field, hydrodynamics and MHD equations and the numerical methodology designed to solve them. To keep the length of this article reasonable, an effort has
Blaedel, Kenneth L.; Davis, Pete J.; Landram, Charles S.
2000-01-01
A saw having a self-pumped hydrodynamic blade guide or bearing for retaining the saw blade in a centered position in the saw kerf (width of cut made by the saw). The hydrodynamic blade guide or bearing utilizes pockets or grooves incorporated into the sides of the blade. The saw kerf in the workpiece provides the guide or bearing stator surface. Both sides of the blade entrain cutting fluid as the blade enters the kerf in the workpiece, and the trapped fluid provides pressure between the blade and the workpiece as an inverse function of the gap between the blade surface and the workpiece surface. If the blade wanders from the center of the kerf, then one gap will increase and one gap will decrease and the consequent pressure difference between the two sides of the blade will cause the blade to re-center itself in the kerf. Saws using the hydrodynamic blade guide or bearing have particular application in slicing slabs from boules of single crystal materials, for example, as well as for cutting other difficult to saw materials such as ceramics, glass, and brittle composite materials.
Hydrodynamics of insect spermatozoa
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pak, On Shun; Lauga, Eric
2010-11-01
Microorganism motility plays important roles in many biological processes including reproduction. Many microorganisms propel themselves by propagating traveling waves along their flagella. Depending on the species, propagation of planar waves (e.g. Ceratium) and helical waves (e.g. Trichomonas) were observed in eukaryotic flagellar motion, and hydrodynamic models for both were proposed in the past. However, the motility of insect spermatozoa remains largely unexplored. An interesting morphological feature of such cells, first observed in Tenebrio molitor and Bacillus rossius, is the double helical deformation pattern along the flagella, which is characterized by the presence of two superimposed helical flagellar waves (one with a large amplitude and low frequency, and the other with a small amplitude and high frequency). Here we present the first hydrodynamic investigation of the locomotion of insect spermatozoa. The swimming kinematics, trajectories and hydrodynamic efficiency of the swimmer are computed based on the prescribed double helical deformation pattern. We then compare our theoretical predictions with experimental measurements, and explore the dependence of the swimming performance on the geometric and dynamical parameters.
Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes
Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert
2014-01-01
From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hess, J. L.; Friedman, D. M.
1982-01-01
A three dimensional higher order panel method was specialized to the case of inlets with auxiliary inlets. The resulting program has a number of graphical input-output features to make it highly useful to the designer. The various aspects of the program are described instructions for its use are presented.
Low torque hydrodynamic lip geometry for rotary seals
Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.
2015-07-21
A hydrodynamically lubricating geometry for the generally circular dynamic sealing lip of rotary seals that are employed to partition a lubricant from an environment. The dynamic sealing lip is provided for establishing compressed sealing engagement with a relatively rotatable surface, and for wedging a film of lubricating fluid into the interface between the dynamic sealing lip and the relatively rotatable surface in response to relative rotation that may occur in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction. A wave form incorporating an elongated dimple provides the gradual convergence, efficient impingement angle, and gradual interfacial contact pressure rise that are conducive to efficient hydrodynamic wedging. Skewed elevated contact pressure zones produced by compression edge effects provide for controlled lubricant movement within the dynamic sealing interface between the seal and the relatively rotatable surface, producing enhanced lubrication and low running torque.
Compressed normalized block difference for object tracking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Yun; Zhang, Dengzhuo; Cai, Donglan; Zhou, Hao; Lan, Ge
2018-04-01
Feature extraction is very important for robust and real-time tracking. Compressive sensing provided a technical support for real-time feature extraction. However, all existing compressive tracking were based on compressed Haar-like feature, and how to compress many more excellent high-dimensional features is worth researching. In this paper, a novel compressed normalized block difference feature (CNBD) was proposed. For resisting noise effectively in a highdimensional normalized pixel difference feature (NPD), a normalized block difference feature extends two pixels in the original formula of NPD to two blocks. A CNBD feature can be obtained by compressing a normalized block difference feature based on compressive sensing theory, with the sparse random Gaussian matrix as the measurement matrix. The comparative experiments of 7 trackers on 20 challenging sequences showed that the tracker based on CNBD feature can perform better than other trackers, especially than FCT tracker based on compressed Haar-like feature, in terms of AUC, SR and Precision.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1996-01-01
Optivision developed two PC-compatible boards and associated software under a Goddard Space Flight Center Small Business Innovation Research grant for NASA applications in areas such as telerobotics, telesciences and spaceborne experimentation. From this technology, the company used its own funds to develop commercial products, the OPTIVideo MPEG Encoder and Decoder, which are used for realtime video compression and decompression. They are used in commercial applications including interactive video databases and video transmission. The encoder converts video source material to a compressed digital form that can be stored or transmitted, and the decoder decompresses bit streams to provide high quality playback.
Two-dimensional hydrodynamic and transport models were used to simulate tidal and subtidal circulation, residence times, and the longitudinal distributions of conservative constituents in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, before and after a hurricane barrier was constructed. The...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
El-Hady, N. M.
1981-01-01
A computer program HADY-I for calculating the linear incompressible or compressible stability characteristics of the laminar boundary layer on swept and tapered wings is described. The eigenvalue problem and its adjoint arising from the linearized disturbance equations with the appropriate boundary conditions are solved numerically using a combination of Newton-Raphson interative scheme and a variable step size integrator based on the Runge-Kutta-Fehlburh fifth-order formulas. The integrator is used in conjunction with a modified Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization procedure. The computer program HADY-I calculates the growth rates of crossflow or streamwise Tollmien-Schlichting instabilities. It also calculates the group velocities of these disturbances. It is restricted to parallel stability calculations, where the boundary layer (meanflow) is assumed to be parallel. The meanflow solution is an input to the program.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, N. S.; Shamroth, S. J.; Mcdonald, H.
1983-01-01
The multidimensional ensemble averaged compressible time dependent Navier Stokes equations in conjunction with mixing length turbulence model and shock capturing technique were used to study the terminal shock type of flows in various flight regimes occurring in a diffuser/inlet model. The numerical scheme for solving the governing equations is based on a linearized block implicit approach and the following high Reynolds number calculations were carried out: (1) 2 D, steady, subsonic; (2) 2 D, steady, transonic with normal shock; (3) 2 D, steady, supersonic with terminal shock; (4) 2 D, transient process of shock development and (5) 3 D, steady, transonic with normal shock. The numerical results obtained for the 2 D and 3 D transonic shocked flows were compared with corresponding experimental data; the calculated wall static pressure distributions agree well with the measured data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seddougui, Sharon O.
1989-01-01
The effects of compressibility on a stationary mode of instability of the 3-D boundary layer due to a rotating disc are investigated. The aim is to determine whether this mode will be important in the finite amplitude destabilization of the boundary layer. This stationary mode is characterized by the effective velocity profile having zero shear stress at the wall. Triple-deck solutions are presented for an adiabatic wall and an isothermal wall. It is found that this stationary mode is only possible over a finite range of Mach numbers. Asymptotic solutions are obtained which describe the structure of the wavenumber and the orientation of these modes as functions of the local Mach number. The effects of nonlinearity are investigated allowing the finite amplitude growth of a disturbance close to the neutral location to be described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Grazia, D.; Moxey, D.; Sherwin, S. J.; Kravtsova, M. A.; Ruban, A. I.
2018-02-01
In this paper we study the boundary-layer separation produced in a high-speed subsonic boundary layer by a small wall roughness. Specifically, we present a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a two-dimensional boundary-layer flow over a flat plate encountering a three-dimensional Gaussian-shaped hump. This work was motivated by the lack of DNS data of boundary-layer flows past roughness elements in a similar regime which is typical of civil aviation. The Mach and Reynolds numbers are chosen to be relevant for aeronautical applications when considering small imperfections at the leading edge of wings. We analyze different heights of the hump: The smaller heights result in a weakly nonlinear regime, while the larger result in a fully nonlinear regime with an increasing laminar separation bubble arising downstream of the roughness element and the formation of a pair of streamwise counterrotating vortices which appear to support themselves.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, R. E.
1981-01-01
A grid generation technique called the two boundary technique is developed and applied for the solution of the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The Navier-Stokes equations are transformed from a cartesian coordinate system to a computational coordinate system, and the grid generation technique provides the Jacobian matrix describing the transformation. The two boundary technique is based on algebraically defining two distinct boundaries of a flow domain and the distribution of the grid is achieved by applying functions to the uniform computational grid which redistribute the computational independent variables and consequently concentrate or disperse the grid points in the physical domain. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a MacCormack time-split technique. Grids and supersonic laminar flow solutions are obtained for a family of three dimensional corners and two spike-nosed bodies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bush, John W. M.
2015-01-01
Yves Couder, Emmanuel Fort, and coworkers recently discovered that a millimetric droplet sustained on the surface of a vibrating fluid bath may self-propel through a resonant interaction with its own wave field. This article reviews experimental evidence indicating that the walking droplets exhibit certain features previously thought to be exclusive to the microscopic, quantum realm. It then reviews theoretical descriptions of this hydrodynamic pilot-wave system that yield insight into the origins of its quantum-like behavior. Quantization arises from the dynamic constraint imposed on the droplet by its pilot-wave field, and multimodal statistics appear to be a feature of chaotic pilot-wave dynamics. I attempt to assess the potential and limitations of this hydrodynamic system as a quantum analog. This fluid system is compared to quantum pilot-wave theories, shown to be markedly different from Bohmian mechanics and more closely related to de Broglie's original conception of quantum dynamics, his double-solution theory, and its relatively recent extensions through researchers in stochastic electrodynamics.
Hydrodynamics of Bacterial Cooperation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petroff, A.; Libchaber, A.
2012-12-01
Over the course of the last several decades, the study of microbial communities has identified countless examples of cooperation between microorganisms. Generally—as in the case of quorum sensing—cooperation is coordinated by a chemical signal that diffuses through the community. Less well understood is a second class of cooperation that is mediated through physical interactions between individuals. To better understand how the bacteria use hydrodynamics to manipulate their environment and coordinate their actions, we study the sulfur-oxidizing bacterium Thiovulum majus. These bacteria live in the diffusive boundary layer just above the muddy bottoms of ponds. As buried organic material decays, sulfide diffuses out of the mud. Oxygen from the pond diffuses into the boundary layer from above. These bacteria form communities—called veils— which are able to transport nutrients through the boundary layer faster than diffusion, thereby increasing their metabolic rate. In these communities, bacteria attach to surfaces and swim in place. As millions of bacteria beat their flagella, the community induces a macroscopic fluid flow, which mix the boundary layer. Here we present experimental observations and mathematical models that elucidate the hydrodynamics linking the behavior of an individual bacterium to the collective dynamics of the community. We begin by characterizing the flow of water around an individual bacterium swimming in place. We then discuss the flow of water and nutrients around a small number of individuals. Finally, we present observations and models detailing the macroscopic dynamics of a Thiovulum veil.
Nanoscale hydrodynamics near solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camargo, Diego; de la Torre, J. A.; Duque-Zumajo, D.; Español, Pep; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Chejne, Farid
2018-02-01
Density Functional Theory (DFT) is a successful and well-established theory for the study of the structure of simple and complex fluids at equilibrium. The theory has been generalized to dynamical situations when the underlying dynamics is diffusive as in, for example, colloidal systems. However, there is no such a clear foundation for Dynamic DFT (DDFT) for the case of simple fluids in contact with solid walls. In this work, we derive DDFT for simple fluids by including not only the mass density field but also the momentum density field of the fluid. The standard projection operator method based on the Kawasaki-Gunton operator is used for deriving the equations for the average value of these fields. The solid is described as featureless under the assumption that all the internal degrees of freedom of the solid relax much faster than those of the fluid (solid elasticity is irrelevant). The fluid moves according to a set of non-local hydrodynamic equations that include explicitly the forces due to the solid. These forces are of two types, reversible forces emerging from the free energy density functional, and accounting for impenetrability of the solid, and irreversible forces that involve the velocity of both the fluid and the solid. These forces are localized in the vicinity of the solid surface. The resulting hydrodynamic equations should allow one to study dynamical regimes of simple fluids in contact with solid objects in isothermal situations.
Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing
Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.
2002-01-01
A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.
Anisotropic nonequilibrium hydrodynamic attractor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strickland, Michael; Noronha, Jorge; Denicol, Gabriel S.
2018-02-01
We determine the dynamical attractors associated with anisotropic hydrodynamics (aHydro) and the DNMR equations for a 0 +1 d conformal system using kinetic theory in the relaxation time approximation. We compare our results to the nonequilibrium attractor obtained from the exact solution of the 0 +1 d conformal Boltzmann equation, the Navier-Stokes theory, and the second-order Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. We demonstrate that the aHydro attractor equation resums an infinite number of terms in the inverse Reynolds number. The resulting resummed aHydro attractor possesses a positive longitudinal-to-transverse pressure ratio and is virtually indistinguishable from the exact attractor. This suggests that an optimized hydrodynamic treatment of kinetic theory involves a resummation not only in gradients (Knudsen number) but also in the inverse Reynolds number. We also demonstrate that the DNMR result provides a better approximation of the exact kinetic theory attractor than the Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. Finally, we introduce a new method for obtaining approximate aHydro equations which relies solely on an expansion in the inverse Reynolds number. We then carry this expansion out to the third order, and compare these third-order results to the exact kinetic theory solution.
Kinetic Equation for a Soliton Gas and Its Hydrodynamic Reductions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El, G. A.; Kamchatnov, A. M.; Pavlov, M. V.; Zykov, S. A.
2011-04-01
We introduce and study a new class of kinetic equations, which arise in the description of nonequilibrium macroscopic dynamics of soliton gases with elastic collisions between solitons. These equations represent nonlinear integro-differential systems and have a novel structure, which we investigate by studying in detail the class of N-component `cold-gas' hydrodynamic reductions. We prove that these reductions represent integrable linearly degenerate hydrodynamic type systems for arbitrary N which is a strong evidence in favour of integrability of the full kinetic equation. We derive compact explicit representations for the Riemann invariants and characteristic velocities of the hydrodynamic reductions in terms of the `cold-gas' component densities and construct a number of exact solutions having special properties (quasiperiodic, self-similar). Hydrodynamic symmetries are then derived and investigated. The obtained results shed light on the structure of a continuum limit for a large class of integrable systems of hydrodynamic type and are also relevant to the description of turbulent motion in conservative compressible flows.
ZFP compression plugin (filter) for HDF5
Miller, Mark C.
H5Z-ZFP is a compression plugin (filter) for the HDF5 library based upon the ZFP-0.5.0 compression library. It supports 4- or 8-byte integer or floating point HDF5 datasets of any dimension but partitioned in 1, 2, or 3 dimensional chunks. It supports ZFP's four fundamental modes of operation; rate, precision, accuracy or expert. It is a lossy compression plugin.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Feng; Xu, Ai-Guo; Zhang, Guang-Cai; Gan, Yan-Biao; Cheng, Tao; Li, Ying-Jun
2009-10-01
We present a highly efficient lattice Boltzmann model for simulating compressible flows. This model is based on the combination of an appropriate finite difference scheme, a 16-discrete-velocity model [Kataoka and Tsutahara, Phys. Rev. E 69 (2004) 035701(R)] and reasonable dispersion and dissipation terms. The dispersion term effectively reduces the oscillation at the discontinuity and enhances numerical precision. The dissipation term makes the new model more easily meet with the von Neumann stability condition. This model works for both high-speed and low-speed flows with arbitrary specific-heat-ratio. With the new model simulation results for the well-known benchmark problems get a high accuracy compared with the analytic or experimental ones. The used benchmark tests include (i) Shock tubes such as the Sod, Lax, Sjogreen, Colella explosion wave, and collision of two strong shocks, (ii) Regular and Mach shock reflections, and (iii) Shock wave reaction on cylindrical bubble problems. With a more realistic equation of state or free-energy functional, the new model has the potential tostudy the complex procedure of shock wave reaction on porous materials.
Foundations of radiation hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mihalas, D.; Mihalas, B. W.
This book is the result of an attempt, over the past few years, to gather the basic tools required to do research on radiating flows in astrophysics. The microphysics of gases is discussed, taking into account the equation of state of a perfect gas, the first and second law of thermodynamics, the thermal properties of a perfect gas, the distribution function and Boltzmann's equation, the collision integral, the Maxwellian velocity distribution, Boltzmann's H-theorem, the time of relaxation, and aspects of classical statistical mechanics. Other subjects explored are related to the dynamics of ideal fluids, the dynamics of viscous and heat-conducting fluids, relativistic fluid flow, waves, shocks, winds, radiation and radiative transfer, the equations of radiation hydrodynamics, and radiating flows. Attention is given to small-amplitude disturbances, nonlinear flows, the interaction of radiation and matter, the solution of the transfer equation, acoustic waves, acoustic-gravity waves, basic concepts of special relativity, and equations of motion and energy.
Hydrodynamics of Peristaltic Propulsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Athanassiadis, Athanasios; Hart, Douglas
2014-11-01
A curious class of animals called salps live in marine environments and self-propel by ejecting vortex rings much like jellyfish and squid. However, unlike other jetting creatures that siphon and eject water from one side of their body, salps produce vortex rings by pumping water through siphons on opposite ends of their hollow cylindrical bodies. In the simplest cases, it seems like some species of salp can successfully move by contracting just two siphons connected by an elastic body. When thought of as a chain of timed contractions, salp propulsion is reminiscent of peristaltic pumping applied to marine locomotion. Inspired by salps, we investigate the hydrodynamics of peristaltic propulsion, focusing on the scaling relationships that determine flow rate, thrust production, and energy usage in a model system. We discuss possible actuation methods for a model peristaltic vehicle, considering both the material and geometrical requirements for such a system.
Hydrodynamics of sediment threshold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Sk Zeeshan; Dey, Subhasish
2016-07-01
A novel hydrodynamic model for the threshold of cohesionless sediment particle motion under a steady unidirectional streamflow is presented. The hydrodynamic forces (drag and lift) acting on a solitary sediment particle resting over a closely packed bed formed by the identical sediment particles are the primary motivating forces. The drag force comprises of the form drag and form induced drag. The lift force includes the Saffman lift, Magnus lift, centrifugal lift, and turbulent lift. The points of action of the force system are appropriately obtained, for the first time, from the basics of micro-mechanics. The sediment threshold is envisioned as the rolling mode, which is the plausible mode to initiate a particle motion on the bed. The moment balance of the force system on the solitary particle about the pivoting point of rolling yields the governing equation. The conditions of sediment threshold under the hydraulically smooth, transitional, and rough flow regimes are examined. The effects of velocity fluctuations are addressed by applying the statistical theory of turbulence. This study shows that for a hindrance coefficient of 0.3, the threshold curve (threshold Shields parameter versus shear Reynolds number) has an excellent agreement with the experimental data of uniform sediments. However, most of the experimental data are bounded by the upper and lower limiting threshold curves, corresponding to the hindrance coefficients of 0.2 and 0.4, respectively. The threshold curve of this study is compared with those of previous researchers. The present model also agrees satisfactorily with the experimental data of nonuniform sediments.
Mix and hydrodynamic instabilities on NIF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smalyuk, V. A.; Robey, H. F.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; Döppner, T.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; MacPhee, A. G.; Martinez, D.; Milovich, J. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Pickworth, L.; Pino, J. E.; Raman, K.; Tipton, R.; Weber, C. R.; Baker, K. L.; Bachmann, B.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bond, E.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Celliers, P. M.; Cerjan, C.; Dixit, S. N.; Edwards, M. J.; Felker, S.; Field, J. E.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Gharibyan, N.; Grim, G. P.; Hamza, A. V.; Hatarik, R.; Hohenberger, M.; Hsing, W. W.; Hurricane, O. A.; Jancaitis, K. S.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S.; Kroll, J. J.; Lafortune, K. N.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; MacGowan, B. J.; Masse, L.; Moore, A. S.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A.; Patel, P. K.; Remington, B. A.; Sayre, D. B.; Spears, B. K.; Stadermann, M.; Tommasini, R.; Widmayer, C. C.; Yeamans, C. B.; Crippen, J.; Farrell, M.; Giraldez, E.; Rice, N.; Wilde, C. H.; Volegov, P. L.; Gatu Johnson, M.
2017-06-01
Several new platforms have been developed to experimentally measure hydrodynamic instabilities in all phases of indirect-drive, inertial confinement fusion implosions on National Ignition Facility. At the ablation front, instability growth of pre-imposed modulations was measured with a face-on, x-ray radiography platform in the linear regime using the Hydrodynamic Growth Radiography (HGR) platform. Modulation growth of "native roughness" modulations and engineering features (fill tubes and capsule support membranes) were measured in conditions relevant to layered DT implosions. A new experimental platform was developed to measure instability growth at the ablator-ice interface. In the deceleration phase of implosions, several experimental platforms were developed to measure both low-mode asymmetries and high-mode perturbations near peak compression with x-ray and nuclear techniques. In one innovative technique, the self-emission from the hot spot was enhanced with argon dopant to "self-backlight" the shell in-flight. To stabilize instability growth, new "adiabat-shaping" techniques were developed using the HGR platform and applied in layered DT implosions.
Mix and hydrodynamic instabilities on NIF
Smalyuk, V. A.; Robey, H. F.; Casey, D. T.; ...
2017-06-01
Several new platforms have been developed to experimentally measure hydrodynamic instabilities in all phases of indirect-drive, inertial confinement fusion implosions on National Ignition Facility. At the ablation front, instability growth of pre-imposed modulations was measured with a face-on, x-ray radiography platform in the linear regime using the Hydrodynamic Growth Radiography (HGR) platform. Modulation growth of "native roughness" modulations and engineering features (fill tubes and capsule support membranes) were measured in conditions relevant to layered DT implosions. A new experimental platform was developed to measure instability growth at the ablator-ice interface. Here in the deceleration phase of implosions, several experimental platformsmore » were developed to measure both low-mode asymmetries and high-mode perturbations near peak compression with x-ray and nuclear techniques. In one innovative technique, the self-emission from the hot spot was enhanced with argon dopant to "self-backlight" the shell in-flight. To stabilize instability growth, new "adiabat-shaping" techniques were developed using the HGR platform and applied in layered DT implosions.« less
Low Mach number fluctuating hydrodynamics for electrolytes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Péraud, Jean-Philippe; Nonaka, Andy; Chaudhri, Anuj; Bell, John B.; Donev, Aleksandar; Garcia, Alejandro L.
2016-11-01
We formulate and study computationally the low Mach number fluctuating hydrodynamic equations for electrolyte solutions. We are interested in studying transport in mixtures of charged species at the mesoscale, down to scales below the Debye length, where thermal fluctuations have a significant impact on the dynamics. Continuing our previous work on fluctuating hydrodynamics of multicomponent mixtures of incompressible isothermal miscible liquids [A. Donev et al., Phys. Fluids 27, 037103 (2015), 10.1063/1.4913571], we now include the effect of charged species using a quasielectrostatic approximation. Localized charges create an electric field, which in turn provides additional forcing in the mass and momentum equations. Our low Mach number formulation eliminates sound waves from the fully compressible formulation and leads to a more computationally efficient quasi-incompressible formulation. We demonstrate our ability to model saltwater (NaCl) solutions in both equilibrium and nonequilibrium settings. We show that our algorithm is second order in the deterministic setting and for length scales much greater than the Debye length gives results consistent with an electroneutral approximation. In the stochastic setting, our model captures the predicted dynamics of equilibrium and nonequilibrium fluctuations. We also identify and model an instability that appears when diffusive mixing occurs in the presence of an applied electric field.
Low Mach number fluctuating hydrodynamics for electrolytes
Péraud, Jean-Philippe; Nonaka, Andy; Chaudhri, Anuj; ...
2016-11-18
Here, we formulate and study computationally the low Mach number fluctuating hydrodynamic equations for electrolyte solutions. We are also interested in studying transport in mixtures of charged species at the mesoscale, down to scales below the Debye length, where thermal fluctuations have a significant impact on the dynamics. Continuing our previous work on fluctuating hydrodynamics of multicomponent mixtures of incompressible isothermal miscible liquids (A. Donev, et al., Physics of Fluids, 27, 3, 2015), we now include the effect of charged species using a quasielectrostatic approximation. Localized charges create an electric field, which in turn provides additional forcing in the massmore » and momentum equations. Our low Mach number formulation eliminates sound waves from the fully compressible formulation and leads to a more computationally efficient quasi-incompressible formulation. Furthermore, we demonstrate our ability to model saltwater (NaCl) solutions in both equilibrium and nonequilibrium settings. We show that our algorithm is second-order in the deterministic setting, and for length scales much greater than the Debye length gives results consistent with an electroneutral/ambipolar approximation. In the stochastic setting, our model captures the predicted dynamics of equilibrium and nonequilibrium fluctuations. We also identify and model an instability that appears when diffusive mixing occurs in the presence of an applied electric field.« less
Erlich, Yaniv; Gordon, Assaf; Brand, Michael; Hannon, Gregory J.; Mitra, Partha P.
2011-01-01
Over the past three decades we have steadily increased our knowledge on the genetic basis of many severe disorders. Nevertheless, there are still great challenges in applying this knowledge routinely in the clinic, mainly due to the relatively tedious and expensive process of genotyping. Since the genetic variations that underlie the disorders are relatively rare in the population, they can be thought of as a sparse signal. Using methods and ideas from compressed sensing and group testing, we have developed a cost-effective genotyping protocol to detect carriers for severe genetic disorders. In particular, we have adapted our scheme to a recently developed class of high throughput DNA sequencing technologies. The mathematical framework presented here has some important distinctions from the ’traditional’ compressed sensing and group testing frameworks in order to address biological and technical constraints of our setting. PMID:21451737
Hydrodynamic evolution and jet energy loss in Cu + Cu collisions
Schenke, Bjoern; Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8; Jeon, Sangyong
2011-04-15
We present results from a hybrid description of Cu + Cu collisions using (3 + 1)-dimensional hydrodynamics (music) for the bulk evolution and a Monte Carlo simulation (martini) for the evolution of high-momentum partons in the hydrodynamical background. We explore the limits of this description by going to small system sizes and determine the dependence on different fractions of wounded nucleon and binary collisions scaling of the initial energy density. We find that Cu + Cu collisions are well described by the hybrid description at least up to 20% central collisions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sakowski, Barbara; Darling, Douglas; Roach, Robert L.; Vandewall, Allan
1992-01-01
There is a practical need to model high speed flows that exist in jet engine inlets. The boundary layers that form in these inlets may be turbulent or laminar and either separated or attached. Also, unsteady supersonic inlets may be subject to frequent changes in operating conditions. Some changes in the operating conditions of the inlets may include varying the inlet geometry, bleeds and bypasses, and rotating or translating the centerbody. In addition, the inlet may be either started or unstarted. Therefore, a CFD code, used to model these inlets, may have to run for several different cases. Also, since the flow conditions through an unsteady inlet may be continually fluctuating, the CFD code which models these flows may have to be run over many time steps. Therefore, it would be beneficial that the code run quickly. Many turbulence models, however, are cumbersome to implement and require a lot of computer time to run, since they add to the number of differential equations to be solved to model a flow. The Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model is a popular model. It is an algebraic, eddy viscosity model. The Baldwin-Lomax model is used in many CFD codes because it is quick and easy to implement. In this paper, we will discuss implementing the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model for both steady and unsteady compressible flows. In addition, these flows may be either separated or attached. In order to apply this turbulence model to flows which may be subjected to these conditions, certain modifications should be made to the original Baldwin-Lomax model. We will discuss these modifications and determine whether the Baldwin-Lomax model is a viable turbulence model that produces reasonably accurate results for high speed flows that can be found in engine inlets.
Compressed Sensing for Chemistry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanders, Jacob Nathan
Many chemical applications, from spectroscopy to quantum chemistry, involve measuring or computing a large amount of data, and then compressing this data to retain the most chemically-relevant information. In contrast, compressed sensing is an emergent technique that makes it possible to measure or compute an amount of data that is roughly proportional to its information content. In particular, compressed sensing enables the recovery of a sparse quantity of information from significantly undersampled data by solving an ℓ 1-optimization problem. This thesis represents the application of compressed sensing to problems in chemistry. The first half of this thesis is about spectroscopy. Compressed sensing is used to accelerate the computation of vibrational and electronic spectra from real-time time-dependent density functional theory simulations. Using compressed sensing as a drop-in replacement for the discrete Fourier transform, well-resolved frequency spectra are obtained at one-fifth the typical simulation time and computational cost. The technique is generalized to multiple dimensions and applied to two-dimensional absorption spectroscopy using experimental data collected on atomic rubidium vapor. Finally, a related technique known as super-resolution is applied to open quantum systems to obtain realistic models of a protein environment, in the form of atomistic spectral densities, at lower computational cost. The second half of this thesis deals with matrices in quantum chemistry. It presents a new use of compressed sensing for more efficient matrix recovery whenever the calculation of individual matrix elements is the computational bottleneck. The technique is applied to the computation of the second-derivative Hessian matrices in electronic structure calculations to obtain the vibrational modes and frequencies of molecules. When applied to anthracene, this technique results in a threefold speed-up, with greater speed-ups possible for larger molecules. The
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Simulations of Ultrarelativistic Shocks with Artificial Viscosity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siegler, S.; Riffert, H.
2000-03-01
We present a fully Lagrangian conservation form of the general relativistic hydrodynamic equations for perfect fluids with artificial viscosity in a given arbitrary background spacetime. This conservation formulation is achieved by choosing suitable Lagrangian time evolution variables, from which the generic fluid variables of rest-mass density, 3-velocity, and thermodynamic pressure have to be determined. We present the corresponding equations for an ideal gas and show the existence and uniqueness of the solution. On the basis of the Lagrangian formulation we have developed a three-dimensional general relativistic smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code using the standard SPH formalism as known from nonrelativistic fluid dynamics. One-dimensional simulations of a shock tube and a wall shock are presented together with a two-dimensional test calculation of an inclined shock tube. With our method we can model ultrarelativistic fluid flows including shocks with Lorentz factors of even 1000.
Smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of expanding HII regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bisbas, Thomas G.
2009-09-01
This thesis deals with numerical simulations of expanding ionized regions, known as HII regions. We implement a new three dimensional algorithm in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics for including the dynamical effects of the interaction between ionizing radiation and the interstellar medium. This interaction plays a crucial role in star formation at all epochs. We study the influence of ionizing radiation in spherically symmetric clouds. In particular, we study the spherically symmetric expansion of an HII region inside a uniform-density, non-self-gravitating cloud. We examine the ability of our algorithm to reproduce the known theoretical solution and we find that the agreement is very good. We also study the spherically symmetric expansion inside a uniform-density, self-gravitating cloud. We propose a new differential equation of motion for the expanding shell that includes the effects of gravity. Comparing its numerical solution with the simulations, we find that the equation predicts the position of the shell accurately. We also study the expansion of an off-centre HII region inside a uniform-density, non- self-gravitating cloud. This results in an evolution known as the rocket effect, where the ionizing radiation pushes and accelerates the cloud away from the exciting star leading to its dispersal. During this evolution, cometary knots appear as a result of Rayleigh-Taylor and Vishniac instabilities. The knots are composed of a dense head with a conic tail behind them, a structure that points towards the ionizing source. Our simulations show that these knots are very reminiscent of the observed structures in planetary nebula, such as in the Helix nebula. The last part of this thesis is dedicated to the study of cores ionized by an exciting source which is placed outside and far away from them. The evolution of these cores is known as radiation driven compression (or implosion). We perform simulations and compare our findings with results of other workers and we
Hydrodynamic cavitation for sonochemical effects.
Moholkar, V S; Kumar, P S; Pandit, A B
1999-03-01
A comparative study of hydrodynamic and acoustic cavitation has been made on the basis of numerical solutions of the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The bubble/cavity behaviour has been studied under both acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation conditions. The effect of varying pressure fields on the collapse of the cavity (sinusoidal for acoustic and linear for hydrodynamic) and also on the latter's dynamic behaviour has been studied. The variations of parameters such as initial cavity size, intensity of the acoustic field and irradiation frequency in the case of acoustic cavitation, and initial cavity size, final recovery pressure and time for pressure recovery in the case of hydrodynamic cavitation, have been found to have significant effects on cavity/bubble dynamics. The simulations reveal that the bubble/cavity collapsing behaviour in the case of hydrodynamic cavitation is accompanied by a large number of pressure pulses of relatively smaller magnitude, compared with just one or two pulses under acoustic cavitation. It has been shown that hydrodynamic cavitation offers greater control over operating parameters and the resultant cavitation intensity. Finally, a brief summary of the experimental results on the oxidation of aqueous KI solution with a hydrodynamic cavitation set-up is given which supports the conclusion of this numerical study. The methodology presented allows one to manipulate and optimise of specific process, either physical or chemical.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melchert, O.; Hartmann, A. K.
2015-02-01
In this work we consider information-theoretic observables to analyze short symbolic sequences, comprising time series that represent the orientation of a single spin in a two-dimensional (2D) Ising ferromagnet on a square lattice of size L2=1282 for different system temperatures T . The latter were chosen from an interval enclosing the critical point Tc of the model. At small temperatures the sequences are thus very regular; at high temperatures they are maximally random. In the vicinity of the critical point, nontrivial, long-range correlations appear. Here we implement estimators for the entropy rate, excess entropy (i.e., "complexity"), and multi-information. First, we implement a Lempel-Ziv string-parsing scheme, providing seemingly elaborate entropy rate and multi-information estimates and an approximate estimator for the excess entropy. Furthermore, we apply easy-to-use black-box data-compression utilities, providing approximate estimators only. For comparison and to yield results for benchmarking purposes, we implement the information-theoretic observables also based on the well-established M -block Shannon entropy, which is more tedious to apply compared to the first two "algorithmic" entropy estimation procedures. To test how well one can exploit the potential of such data-compression techniques, we aim at detecting the critical point of the 2D Ising ferromagnet. Among the above observables, the multi-information, which is known to exhibit an isolated peak at the critical point, is very easy to replicate by means of both efficient algorithmic entropy estimation procedures. Finally, we assess how good the various algorithmic entropy estimates compare to the more conventional block entropy estimates and illustrate a simple modification that yields enhanced results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Canuto, V. M.
1997-06-01
We present a model to treat fully compressible, nonlocal, time-dependent turbulent convection in the presence of large-scale flows and arbitrary density stratification. The problem is of interest, for example, in stellar pulsation problems, especially since accurate helioseismological data are now available, as well as in accretion disks. Owing to the difficulties in formulating an analytical model, it is not surprising that most of the work has gone into numerical simulations. At present, there are three analytical models: one by the author, which leads to a rather complicated set of equations; one by Yoshizawa; and one by Xiong. The latter two use a Reynolds stress model together with phenomenological relations with adjustable parameters whose determination on the basis of terrestrial flows does not guarantee that they may be extrapolated to astrophysical flows. Moreover, all third-order moments representing nonlocality are taken to be of the down gradient form (which in the case of the planetary boundary layer yields incorrect results). In addition, correlations among pressure, temperature, and velocities are often neglected or treated as in the incompressible case. To avoid phenomenological relations, we derive the full set of dynamic, time-dependent, nonlocal equations to describe all mean variables, second- and third-order moments. Closures are carried out at the fourth order following standard procedures in turbulence modeling. The equations are collected in an Appendix. Some of the novelties of the treatment are (1) new flux conservation law that includes the large-scale flow, (2) increase of the rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy owing to compressibility and thus (3) a smaller overshooting, and (4) a new source of mean temperature due to compressibility; moreover, contrary to some phenomenological suggestions, the adiabatic temperature gradient depends only on the thermal pressure, while in the equation for the large-scale flow, the physical
Experimental hydrodynamics of swimming in fishes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tytell, Eric Daniel
2005-11-01
The great diversity of fish body shapes suggests that they have adapted to different selective pressures. For many fishes, the pressures include hydrodynamic demands: swimming efficiently or accelerating rapidly, for instance. However, the hydrodynamic advantages or disadvantages to specific morphologies are poorly understood. In particular, eels have been considered inefficient swimmers, but they migrate long distances without feeding, a task that requires efficient swimming. This dissertation, therefore, begins with an examination of the swimming hydrodynamics of American eels, Anguilla rostrata, at steady swimming speeds from 0.5 to 2 body lengths (L) per second and during accelerations from -1.4 to 1.3 L s -2. The final chapter examines the hydrodynamic effects of body shape directly by describing three-dimensional flow around swimming bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. In all chapters, flow is quantified using digital particle image velocimetry, and simultaneous kinematics are measured from high-resolution digital video. The wake behind a swimming eel in the horizontal midline plane is described first. Rather than producing a wake with fluid jets angled backwards, like in fishes such as sunfish, eels have a wake with exclusively lateral jets. The lack of downstream momentum indicates that eels balance the axial forces of thrust and drag evenly over time and over their bodies, and therefore do not change axial fluid momentum. This even balance, present at all steady swimming speeds, is probably due to the relatively uniform body shape of eels. As eels accelerate, thrust exceeds drag, axial momentum increases, and the wake approaches that of other fishes. During steady swimming, though, the lack of axial momentum prevents direct efficiency estimation. The effect of body shape was examined directly by measuring flow in multiple transverse planes along the body of bluegill sunfish swimming at 1.2 L s-1. The dorsal and anal fin, neglected in many previous
Origins of hydrodynamic forces on centrifugal pump impellers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adkins, Douglas R.; Brennen, Christopher E.
1987-01-01
Hydrodynamic interactions that occur between a centrifugal pump impeller and volute are experimentally and theoretically investigated. The theoretical analysis considers the inability of the blades to perfectly guide the flow through the impeller, and also includes a quasi-one dimensional treatment of the flow in the volute. The disturbance at the impeller discharge and the resulting forces are determined by the theoretical model. The model is then extended to obtain the hydrodynamic force perturbations that are caused by the impeller whirling eccentrically in the volute. Under many operating conditions, these force perturbations were found to be destablizing. Comparisons are made between the theoretical model and the experimental measurements of pressure distributions and radial forces on the impeller. The theoretical model yields fairly accurate predictions of the radial forces caused by the flow through the impeller. However, it was found that the pressure acting on the front shroud of the impeller has a substantial effect on the destablizing hydrodynamic forces.
Compressive light field imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashok, Amit; Neifeld, Mark A.
2010-04-01
Light field imagers such as the plenoptic and the integral imagers inherently measure projections of the four dimensional (4D) light field scalar function onto a two dimensional sensor and therefore, suffer from a spatial vs. angular resolution trade-off. Programmable light field imagers, proposed recently, overcome this spatioangular resolution trade-off and allow high-resolution capture of the (4D) light field function with multiple measurements at the cost of a longer exposure time. However, these light field imagers do not exploit the spatio-angular correlations inherent in the light fields of natural scenes and thus result in photon-inefficient measurements. Here, we describe two architectures for compressive light field imaging that require relatively few photon-efficient measurements to obtain a high-resolution estimate of the light field while reducing the overall exposure time. Our simulation study shows that, compressive light field imagers using the principal component (PC) measurement basis require four times fewer measurements and three times shorter exposure time compared to a conventional light field imager in order to achieve an equivalent light field reconstruction quality.
Engineering Hydrodynamic AUV Hulls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen, J.
2016-12-01
AUV stands for autonomous underwater vehicle. AUVs are used in oceanography and are similar to gliders. MBARIs AUVs as well as other AUVs map the ocean floor which is very important. They also measure physical characteristics of the water, such as temperature and salinity. My science fair project for 4th grade was a STEM activity in which I built and tested 3 different AUV bodies. I wanted to find out which design was the most hydrodynamic. I tested three different lengths of AUV hulls to see which AUV would glide the farthest. The first was 6 inches. The second was 12 inches and the third was 18 inches. I used clay for the nosecone and cut a ruler into two and made it the fin. Each AUV used the same nosecone and fin. I tested all three designs in a pool. I used biomimicry to create my hypothesis. When I was researching I found that long slim animals swim fastest. So, my hypothesis is the longer AUV will glide farthest. In the end I was right. The longer AUV did glide the farthest.
Hydrodynamics of electrons in graphene.
Lucas, Andrew; Fong, Kin Chung
2018-02-07
Generic interacting many-body quantum systems are believed to behave as classical fluids on long time and length scales. Due to rapid progress in growing exceptionally pure crystals, we are now able to experimentally observe this collective motion of electrons in solid-state systems, including graphene. We present a review of recent progress in understanding the hydrodynamic limit of electronic motion in graphene, written for physicists from diverse communities. We begin by discussing the 'phase diagram' of graphene, and the inevitable presence of impurities and phonons in experimental systems. We derive hydrodynamics, both from a phenomenological perspective and using kinetic theory. We then describe how hydrodynamic electron flow is visible in electronic transport measurements. Although we focus on graphene in this review, the broader framework naturally generalizes to other materials. We assume only basic knowledge of condensed matter physics, and no prior knowledge of hydrodynamics.
Hydrodynamics of electrons in graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucas, Andrew; Chung Fong, Kin
2018-02-01
Generic interacting many-body quantum systems are believed to behave as classical fluids on long time and length scales. Due to rapid progress in growing exceptionally pure crystals, we are now able to experimentally observe this collective motion of electrons in solid-state systems, including graphene. We present a review of recent progress in understanding the hydrodynamic limit of electronic motion in graphene, written for physicists from diverse communities. We begin by discussing the ‘phase diagram’ of graphene, and the inevitable presence of impurities and phonons in experimental systems. We derive hydrodynamics, both from a phenomenological perspective and using kinetic theory. We then describe how hydrodynamic electron flow is visible in electronic transport measurements. Although we focus on graphene in this review, the broader framework naturally generalizes to other materials. We assume only basic knowledge of condensed matter physics, and no prior knowledge of hydrodynamics.
Three-Dimensional Simulations of the Convective Urca Process in Pre-Supernova White Dwarfs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Willcox, Donald E.; Townsley, Dean; Zingale, Michael; Calder, Alan
2017-01-01
A significant source of uncertainty in modeling the progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae is the dynamics of the convective Urca process in which beta decay and electron capture reactions remove energy from and decrease the buoyancy of carbon-fueled convection in the progenitor white dwarf. The details of the Urca process during this simmering phase have long remained computationally intractable in three-dimensional simulations because of the very low convective velocities and the associated timestep constraints of compressible hydrodynamics methods. We report on recent work simulating the A=23 (Ne/Na) Urca process in convecting white dwarfs in three dimensions using the low-Mach hydrodynamics code MAESTRO. We simulate white dwarf models inspired by one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations at the stage when the outer edge of the convection zone driven by core carbon burning reaches the A=23 Urca shell. We compare our methods and results to those of previous work in one and two dimensions, discussing the implications of three dimensional turbulence. We also comment on the prospect of our results informing one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations and the Type Ia supernovae progenitor problem.This work was supported in part by the Department of Energy under grant DE-FG02-87ER40317.
Hydrodynamic escape from planetary atmospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Feng
Hydrodynamic escape is an important process in the formation and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Due to the existence of a singularity point near the transonic point, it is difficult to find transonic steady state solutions by solving the time-independent hydrodynamic equations. In addition to that, most previous works assume that all energy driving the escape flow is deposited in one narrow layer. This assumption not only results in less accurate solutions to the hydrodynamic escape problem, but also makes it difficult to include other chemical and physical processes in the hydrodynamic escape models. In this work, a numerical model describing the transonic hydrodynamic escape from planetary atmospheres is developed. A robust solution technique is used to solve the time dependent hydrodynamic equations. The method has been validated in an isothermal atmosphere where an analytical solution is available. The hydrodynamic model is applied to 3 cases: hydrogen escape from small orbit extrasolar planets, hydrogen escape from a hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere, and nitrogen/methane escape from Pluto's atmosphere. Results of simulations on extrasolar planets are in good agreement with the observations of the transiting extrasolar planet HD209458b. Hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from other hypothetical close-in extrasolar planets are simulated and the influence of hydrogen escape on the long-term evolution of these extrasolar planets are discussed. Simulations on early Earth suggest that hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from a hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere is about two orders magnitude slower than the diffusion limited escape rate. A hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere could have been maintained by the balance between the hydrogen escape and the supply of hydrogen into the atmosphere by volcanic outgassing. Origin of life may have occurred in the organic soup ocean created by the efficient formation of prebiotic molecules in the hydrogen rich early
A Lagrangian discontinuous Galerkin hydrodynamic method
Liu, Xiaodong; Morgan, Nathaniel Ray; Burton, Donald E.
Here, we present a new Lagrangian discontinuous Galerkin (DG) hydrodynamic method for solving the two-dimensional gas dynamic equations on unstructured hybrid meshes. The physical conservation laws for the momentum and total energy are discretized using a DG method based on linear Taylor expansions. Three different approaches are investigated for calculating the density variation over the element. The first approach evolves a Taylor expansion of the specific volume field. The second approach follows certain finite element methods and uses the strong mass conservation to calculate the density field at a location inside the element or on the element surface. The thirdmore » approach evolves a Taylor expansion of the density field. The nodal velocity, and the corresponding forces, are explicitly calculated by solving a multidirectional approximate Riemann problem. An effective limiting strategy is presented that ensures monotonicity of the primitive variables. This new Lagrangian DG hydrodynamic method conserves mass, momentum, and total energy. Results from a suite of test problems are presented to demonstrate the robustness and expected second-order accuracy of this new method.« less
A Lagrangian discontinuous Galerkin hydrodynamic method
Liu, Xiaodong; Morgan, Nathaniel Ray; Burton, Donald E.
2017-12-11
Here, we present a new Lagrangian discontinuous Galerkin (DG) hydrodynamic method for solving the two-dimensional gas dynamic equations on unstructured hybrid meshes. The physical conservation laws for the momentum and total energy are discretized using a DG method based on linear Taylor expansions. Three different approaches are investigated for calculating the density variation over the element. The first approach evolves a Taylor expansion of the specific volume field. The second approach follows certain finite element methods and uses the strong mass conservation to calculate the density field at a location inside the element or on the element surface. The thirdmore » approach evolves a Taylor expansion of the density field. The nodal velocity, and the corresponding forces, are explicitly calculated by solving a multidirectional approximate Riemann problem. An effective limiting strategy is presented that ensures monotonicity of the primitive variables. This new Lagrangian DG hydrodynamic method conserves mass, momentum, and total energy. Results from a suite of test problems are presented to demonstrate the robustness and expected second-order accuracy of this new method.« less
Quantum hydrodynamics: capturing a reactive scattering resonance.
Derrickson, Sean W; Bittner, Eric R; Kendrick, Brian K
2005-08-01
The hydrodynamic equations of motion associated with the de Broglie-Bohm formulation of quantum mechanics are solved using a meshless method based upon a moving least-squares approach. An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian frame of reference and a regridding algorithm which adds and deletes computational points are used to maintain a uniform and nearly constant interparticle spacing. The methodology also uses averaged fields to maintain unitary time evolution. The numerical instabilities associated with the formation of nodes in the reflected portion of the wave packet are avoided by adding artificial viscosity to the equations of motion. A new and more robust artificial viscosity algorithm is presented which gives accurate scattering results and is capable of capturing quantum resonances. The methodology is applied to a one-dimensional model chemical reaction that is known to exhibit a quantum resonance. The correlation function approach is used to compute the reactive scattering matrix, reaction probability, and time delay as a function of energy. Excellent agreement is obtained between the scattering results based upon the quantum hydrodynamic approach and those based upon standard quantum mechanics. This is the first clear demonstration of the ability of moving grid approaches to accurately and robustly reproduce resonance structures in a scattering system.
Detection of the Compressed Primary Stellar Wind in eta Carinae
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Teodoro, Mairan Macedo; Madura, Thomas I.; Gull, Theodore R.; Corcoran, Michael F.; Hamaguchi, K.
2014-01-01
A series of three HST/STIS spectroscopic mappings, spaced approximately one year apart, reveal three partial arcs in [Fe II] and [Ni II] emissions moving outward from eta Carinae. We identify these arcs with the shell-like structures, seen in the 3D hydrodynamical simulations, formed by compression of the primary wind by the secondary wind during periastron passages.
Stanley Corrsin Award Talk: The role of singularities in hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eggers, Jens
2017-11-01
If a tap is opened slowly, a drop will form. The separation of the drop is described by a singularity of the Navier-Stokes equation with a free surface. Shock waves are singular solutions of the equations of ideal, compressible hydrodynamics. These examples show that singularities are characteristic for the tendency of the hydrodynamic equations to develop small scale features spontaneously, starting from smooth initial conditions. As a result, new structures are created, which form the building blocks of more complicated flows. The mathematical structure of singularities is self-similar, and their characteristics are fixed by universal properties. This will be illustrated by physical examples, as well as by applications to engineering problems such as printing, coating, or air entrainment. Finally, more recent developments will be discussed: the increasing complexity underlying the self-similar behavior of some singularities, and the spatial structure of shock waves.
Hyperscaling-violating Lifshitz hydrodynamics from black-holes: part II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiritsis, Elias; Matsuo, Yoshinori
2017-03-01
The derivation of Lifshitz-invariant hydrodynamics from holography, presented in [1] is generalized to arbitrary hyperscaling violating Lifshitz scaling theories with an unbroken U(1) symmetry. The hydrodynamics emerging is non-relativistic with scalar "forcing". By a redefinition of the pressure it becomes standard non-relativistic hydrodynamics in the presence of specific chemical potential for the mass current. The hydrodynamics is compatible with the scaling theory of Lifshitz invariance with hyperscaling violation. The bulk viscosity vanishes while the shear viscosity to entropy ratio is the same as in the relativistic case. We also consider the dimensional reduction ansatz for the hydrodynamics and clarify the difference with previous results suggesting a non-vanishing bulk viscosity.
Fast Lossless Compression of Multispectral-Image Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klimesh, Matthew
2006-01-01
An algorithm that effects fast lossless compression of multispectral-image data is based on low-complexity, proven adaptive-filtering algorithms. This algorithm is intended for use in compressing multispectral-image data aboard spacecraft for transmission to Earth stations. Variants of this algorithm could be useful for lossless compression of three-dimensional medical imagery and, perhaps, for compressing image data in general.
Geometry and starvation effects in hydrodynamic lubrication
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brewe, D. E.; Hamrock, B. J.
1982-01-01
Numerical methods were used to determine the effects of lubricant starvation on the minimum film thickness under conditions of a hydrodynamic point contact. Starvation was effected by varying the fluid inlet level. The Reynolds boundary conditions were applied at the cavitation boundary and zero pressure was stipulated at the meniscus or inlet boundary. A minimum-film-thickness equation as a function of both the ratio of dimensionless load to dimensionless speed and inlet supply level was determined. By comparing the film generated under the starved inlet condition with the film generated from the fully flooded inlet, an expression for the film reduction factor was obtained. Based on this factor a starvation threshold was defined as well as a critically starved inlet. The changes in the inlet pressure buildup due to changing the available lubricant supply are presented in the form of three dimensional isometric plots and also in the form of contour plots.
Geometry and starvation effects in hydrodynamic lubrication
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brewe, D.; Hamrock, B. J.
1982-01-01
Numerical methods were used to detemine the effects of lubricant starvation on the minimum film thickness under conditions of a hydrodynamic point contact. Starvation was effected by varying the fluid inlet level. The Reynolds boundary conditions were applied at the cavitation boundary and zero pressure was stipulated at the meniscus or inlet boundary. A minimum film thickness equation as a function of both the ratio of dimensionless load to dimensionless speed and inlet supply level was determined. By comparing the film generated under the starved inlet condition with the film generated from the fully flooded inlet, an expression for the film reduction factor was obtained. Based on this factor a starvation threshold was defined as well as a critically starved inlet. The changes in the inlet pressure buildup due to changing the available lubricant supply are presented in the form of three dimensional isometric plots and also in the form of contour plots.
Flow stabilization with active hydrodynamic cloaks.
Urzhumov, Yaroslav A; Smith, David R
2012-11-01
We demonstrate that fluid flow cloaking solutions, based on active hydrodynamic metamaterials, exist for two-dimensional flows past a cylinder in a wide range of Reynolds numbers (Re's), up to approximately 200. Within the framework of the classical Brinkman equation for homogenized porous flow, we demonstrate using two different methods that such cloaked flows can be dynamically stable for Re's in the range of 5-119. The first highly efficient method is based on a linearization of the Brinkman-Navier-Stokes equation and finding the eigenfrequencies of the least stable eigenperturbations; the second method is a direct numerical integration in the time domain. We show that, by suppressing the von Kármán vortex street in the weakly turbulent wake, porous flow cloaks can raise the critical Reynolds number up to about 120 or five times greater than for a bare uncloaked cylinder.
Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program
Lin, Jerry
1996-08-07
DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL highmore » explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.« less
The Hydrodynamics of Plesiosaurs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muscutt, Luke; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram; Dyke, Gareth; Weymouth, Gabriel
2015-11-01
Plesiosaurs are extinct marine reptiles that existed at the same time as the dinosaurs, and are the only known animals to swim by actively flapping their four wing-like flippers. This can be viewed as a tandem flapping wing problem, where the hind wing is operating in the wake of the fore wing. Experiments using full-scale robotic plesiosaur flippers in a large flume tank have been used to investigate the kinematics and interaction of the flippers. The flippers are actuated in heave and pitch, and a combination of force measurements and flow visualization are used to analyze the characteristics of the vortex interaction between the flippers. Previous two-dimensional numerical simulations have shown that certain kinematics give an increase in thrust of the hind flipper of up to 50%. The current experiments determine if such thrust augmentation is present for a three-dimensional flowfield and determine the kinematics that give the highest possible thrust. This will help to answer paleo-biological questions about the function and evolution of the plesiosaur flippers, along with helping to determine if tandem flapping wings could be a viable propulsion system for autonomous underwater vehicles. Support from EPSRC and Ginko Investments Ltd.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kordilla, J.; Bresinsky, L. T.; Shigorina, E.; Noffz, T.; Dentz, M.; Sauter, M.; Tartakovsky, A. M.
2017-12-01
Preferential flow dynamics in unsaturated fractures remain a challenging topic on various scales. On pore- and fracture-scales the highly erratic gravity-driven flow dynamics often provoke a strong deviation from classical volume-effective approaches. Against the common notion that flow in fractures (or macropores) can only occur under equilibrium conditions, i.e., if the surrounding porous matrix is fully saturated and capillary pressures are high enough to allow filling of the fracture void space, arrival times suggest the existence of rapid preferential flow along fractures, fracture networks, and fault zones, even if the matrix is not fully saturated. Modeling such flows requires efficient numerical techniques to cover various flow-relevant physics, such as surface tension, static and dynamic contact angles, free-surface (multi-phase) interface dynamics, and formation of singularities. Here we demonstrate the importance of such flow modes on the partitioning dynamics at simple fracture intersections, with a combination of laboratory experiments, analytical solutions and numerical simulations using our newly developed massively parallel smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code. Flow modes heavily influence the "bypass" behavior of water flowing along a fracture junction. Flows favoring the formation of droplets exhibit a much stronger bypass capacity compared to rivulet flows, where nearly the whole fluid mass is initially stored within the horizontal fracture. This behavior is demonstrated for a multi-inlet laboratory setup where the inlet-specific flow rate is chosen so that either a droplet or rivulet flow persists. The effect of fluid buffering within the horizontal fracture is presented in terms of dimensionless fracture inflow so that characteristic scaling regimes can be recovered. For both cases (rivulets and droplets), flow within the horizontal fracture transitions into a Washburn regime until a critical threshold is reached and the bypass efficiency
Smoothed-particle hydrodynamics and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics
Hoover, W. G.; Hoover, C. G.
1993-08-01
Gingold, Lucy, and Monaghan invented a grid-free version of continuum mechanics ``smoothed-particle hydrodynamics,`` in 1977. It is a likely contributor to ``hybrid`` simulations combining atomistic and continuum simulations. We describe applications of this particle-based continuum technique from the closely-related standpoint of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics. We compare chaotic Lyapunov spectra for atomistic solids and fluids with those which characterize a two-dimensional smoothed-particle fluid system.
A 3D Hydrodynamic Model for Cytokinesis of Eukaryotic Cells
2014-08-01
goes wrong may lead to a catastrophe or failure, which may lead to an unwelcome outcome for instance cancer . Thus, a detailed understanding on... biofilm - drug interaction. Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems Series B, 15:417–456, March 2011. 13 [17] Brandon Lindley, Qi Wang, and Tianyu Zhang...Multicomponent hydrodynamic model for heterogeneous biofilms : Two-dimensional numerical simulations of growth and in- teraction with flows. Physical
Generalized hydrodynamic transport in lattice-gas automata
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luo, Li-Shi; Chen, Hudong; Chen, Shiyi; Doolen, Gary D.; Lee, Yee-Chun
1991-01-01
The generalized hydrodynamics of two-dimensional lattice-gas automata is solved analytically in the linearized Boltzmann approximation. The dependence of the transport coefficients (kinematic viscosity, bulk viscosity, and sound speed) upon wave number k is obtained analytically. Anisotropy of these coefficients due to the lattice symmetry is studied for the entire range of wave number, k. Boundary effects due to a finite mean free path (Knudsen layer) are analyzed, and accurate comparisons are made with lattice-gas simulations.
On the Hydrodynamics of Anomalocaris Tail Fins.
Sheppard, K A; Rival, D E; Caron, J-B
2018-04-25
Anomalocaris canadensis, a soft-bodied stem-group arthropod from the Burgess Shale, is considered the largest predator of the Cambrian period. Thanks to a series of lateral flexible lobes along its dorso-ventrally compressed body, it is generally regarded as an efficient swimmer, well-adapted to its predatory lifestyle. Previous theoretical hydrodynamic simulations have suggested a possible optimum in swimming performance when the lateral lobes performed as a single undulatory lateral fin, comparable to the pectoral fins in skates and rays. However, the role of the unusual fan-like tail of Anomalocaris has not been previously explored. Swimming efficiency and maneuverability deduced from direct hydrodynamic analysis are here studied in a towing tank facility using a three-vane physical model designed as an abstraction of the tail fin. Through direct force measurements, it was found that the model exhibited a region of steady-state lift and drag enhancement at angles of attack greater than 25° when compared to a triangular-shaped reference model. This would suggest that the resultant normal force on the tail fin of Anomalocaris made it well-suited for turning maneuvers, giving it the ability to turn quickly and through small radii of curvature. These results are consistent with an active predatory lifestyle, although detailed kinematic studies integrating the full organism, including the lateral lobes, would be required to test the effect of the tail fin on overall swimming performance. This study also highlights a possible example of evolutionary convergence between the tails of Anomalocaris and birds, which, in both cases, are well-adapted to efficient turning maneuvers.
Deformable cells in confined geometries: From hemolysis to hydrodynamic interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abkarian, Manouk; Faivre, Magalie; Stone, Howard A.
2004-11-01
Recent developments in microfluidics allow a wide range of possibilities for studying cellular-scale hydrodynamics. Here we use microfluidic technology to address several open questions in the blood flow literature where cell deformation and hydrodynamic interactions are significant. In particular, we investigate the pressure-driven flow of a dilute suspension in a channel and characterize the transition from steady axisymmetric cell shapes (for which numerical calculations exist) to asymmetric, highly extended shapes, which are precursors to hemolysis (i.e. destruction of the cell). In addition, we examine the influence of geometry on hydrodynamic interactions of deformable cells by contrasting one-dimensional motion of a train of particles in a channel with two-dimensional motions in a Hele-Shaw cell. This study can help to understand flow of cells in microcirculation from the unidirectional flow in capillaries to the two-dimensional flow in the lung alveoli and provides the basic steps to understand certain aspects of microcirculatory deseases like sickle cell anemia for example.
Anomalous hydrodynamics of Weyl materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monteiro, Gustavo; Abanov, Alexander
Kinetic theory is a useful tool to study transport in Weyl materials when the band-touching points are hidden inside a Fermi surface. It accounts, for example, for the negative magnetoresistance caused by the chiral magnetic effect and quantum oscillations (SdH effect) in the magnetoresistance together within the same framework. As an alternative approach to kinetic theory we also consider the regime of strong interactions where hydrodynamics can be applicable. A variational principle of these hydrodynamic equations can be found in and provide a natural framework to study hydrodynamic surface modes which correspond to the strongly-interacting physics signature of Fermi arcs. G.M. acknowledges the financial support from FAPESP.
Soliton Gases and Generalized Hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doyon, Benjamin; Yoshimura, Takato; Caux, Jean-Sébastien
2018-01-01
We show that the equations of generalized hydrodynamics (GHD), a hydrodynamic theory for integrable quantum systems at the Euler scale, emerge in full generality in a family of classical gases, which generalize the gas of hard rods. In this family, the particles, upon colliding, jump forward or backward by a distance that depends on their velocities, reminiscent of classical soliton scattering. This provides a "molecular dynamics" for GHD: a numerical solver which is efficient, flexible, and which applies to the presence of external force fields. GHD also describes the hydrodynamics of classical soliton gases. We identify the GHD of any quantum model with that of the gas of its solitonlike wave packets, thus providing a remarkable quantum-classical equivalence. The theory is directly applicable, for instance, to integrable quantum chains and to the Lieb-Liniger model realized in cold-atom experiments.
DNABIT Compress – Genome compression algorithm
Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam
2011-01-01
Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, “DNABIT Compress” for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our proposed algorithm achieves the best compression ratio for DNA sequences for larger genome. Significantly better compression results show that “DNABIT Compress” algorithm is the best among the remaining compression algorithms. While achieving the best compression ratios for DNA sequences (Genomes),our new DNABIT Compress algorithm significantly improves the running time of all previous DNA compression programs. Assigning binary bits (Unique BIT CODE) for (Exact Repeats, Reverse Repeats) fragments of DNA sequence is also a unique concept introduced in this algorithm for the first time in DNA compression. This proposed new algorithm could achieve the best compression ratio as much as 1.58 bits/bases where the existing best methods could not achieve a ratio less than 1.72 bits/bases. PMID:21383923
A Vorticity-preserving Hydrodynamical Scheme for Modeling Accretion Disk Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seligman, Darryl; Laughlin, Gregory
2017-10-01
Vortices, turbulence, and unsteady nonlaminar flows are likely both prominent and dynamically important features of astrophysical disks. Such strongly nonlinear phenomena are often difficult, however, to simulate accurately, and are generally amenable to analytic treatment only in idealized form. In this paper, we explore the evolution of compressible two-dimensional flows using an implicit dual-time hydrodynamical scheme that strictly conserves vorticity (if applied to simulate inviscid flows for which Kelvin’s Circulation Theorem is applicable). The algorithm is based on the work of Lerat et al., who proposed it in the context of terrestrial applications such as the blade-vortex interactions generated by helicopter rotors. We present several tests of Lerat et al.'s vorticity-preserving approach, which we have implemented to second-order accuracy, providing side-by-side comparisons with other algorithms that are frequently used in protostellar disk simulations. The comparison codes include one based on explicit, second-order van Leer advection, one based on spectral methods, and another that implements a higher-order Godunov solver. Our results suggest that the Lerat et al. algorithm will be useful for simulations of astrophysical environments in which vortices play a dynamical role, and where strong shocks are not expected.
Doebling, Scott William
2016-10-22
This paper documents the escape of high explosive (HE) products problem. The problem, first presented by Fickett & Rivard, tests the implementation and numerical behavior of a high explosive detonation and energy release model and its interaction with an associated compressible hydrodynamics simulation code. The problem simulates the detonation of a finite-length, one-dimensional piece of HE that is driven by a piston from one end and adjacent to a void at the other end. The HE equation of state is modeled as a polytropic ideal gas. The HE detonation is assumed to be instantaneous with an infinitesimal reaction zone. Viamore » judicious selection of the material specific heat ratio, the problem has an exact solution with linear characteristics, enabling a straightforward calculation of the physical variables as a function of time and space. Lastly, implementation of the exact solution in the Python code ExactPack is discussed, as are verification cases for the exact solution code.« less
New equation of state models for hydrodynamic applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Young, David A.; Barbee, Troy W.; Rogers, Forrest J.
1998-07-01
Two new theoretical methods for computing the equation of state of hot, dense matter are discussed. The ab initio phonon theory gives a first-principles calculation of lattice frequencies, which can be used to compare theory and experiment for isothermal and shock compression of solids. The ACTEX dense plasma theory has been improved to allow it to be compared directly with ultrahigh pressure shock data on low-Z materials. The comparisons with experiment are good, suggesting that these models will be useful in generating global EOS tables for hydrodynamic simulations.
Nonlinear Waves, Instabilities and Singularities in Plasma and Hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silantyev, Denis Albertovich
Nonlinear effects are present in almost every area of science as soon as one tries to go beyond the first order approximation. In particular, nonlinear waves emerge in such areas as hydrodynamics, nonlinear optics, plasma physics, quantum physics, etc. The results of this work are related to nonlinear waves in two areas, plasma physics and hydrodynamics, united by concepts of instability, singularity and advanced numerical methods used for their investigation. The first part of this work concentrates on Langmuir wave filamentation instability in the kinetic regime of plasma. In Internal Confinement Fusion Experiments (ICF) at National Ignition Facility (NIF), where attempts are made to achieve fusion by compressing a small target by many powerful lasers to extremely high temperatures and pressures, plasma is created in the first moments of the laser reaching the target and undergoes complicated dynamics. Some of the most challenging difficulties arise from various plasma instabilities that occur due to interaction of the laser beam and a plasma surrounding the target. In this work we consider one of such instabilities that describes a decay of nonlinear plasma wave, initially excited due to interaction of the laser beam with the plasma, into many filaments in direction perpendicular to the laser beam, therefore named Langmuir filamentation instability. This instability occurs in the kinetic regime of plasma, klambda D > 0.2, where k is the wavenumber and lambda D is the Debye length. The filamentation of Langmuir waves in turn leads to the saturation of the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in laser-plasma interaction experiments which plays an essential role in ICF experiments. The challenging part of this work was that unlike in hydrodynamics we needed to use fully kinetic description of plasma to capture the physics in question properly, meaning that we needed to consider the distribution function of charged particles and its evolution in time not only with
Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena
Neuzil, C.E.
1995-01-01
So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author
Cardiovascular causes of airway compression.
Kussman, Barry D; Geva, Tal; McGowan, Francis X
2004-01-01
Compression of the paediatric airway is a relatively common and often unrecognized complication of congenital cardiac and aortic arch anomalies. Airway obstruction may be the result of an anomalous relationship between the tracheobronchial tree and vascular structures (producing a vascular ring) or the result of extrinsic compression caused by dilated pulmonary arteries, left atrial enlargement, massive cardiomegaly, or intraluminal bronchial obstruction. A high index of suspicion of mechanical airway compression should be maintained in infants and children with recurrent respiratory difficulties, stridor, wheezing, dysphagia, or apnoea unexplained by other causes. Prompt diagnosis is required to avoid death and minimize airway damage. In addition to plain chest radiography and echocardiography, diagnostic investigations may consist of barium oesophagography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography, cardiac catheterization and bronchoscopy. The most important recent advance is MRI, which can produce high quality three-dimensional reconstruction of all anatomic elements allowing for precise anatomic delineation and improved surgical planning. Anaesthetic technique will depend on the type of vascular ring and the presence of any congenital heart disease or intrinsic lesions of the tracheobronchial tree. Vascular rings may be repaired through a conventional posterolateral thoracotomy, or utilizing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) or robotic endoscopic surgery. Persistent airway obstruction following surgical repair may be due to residual compression, secondary airway wall instability (malacia), or intrinsic lesions of the airway. Simultaneous repair of cardiac defects and vascular tracheobronchial compression carries a higher risk of morbidity and mortality.
Hydrodynamical processes in planet-forming accretion disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Min-Kai
thermodynamics, dust dynamics, disk self-gravity and three-dimensional effects. By including these effects, we go wellbeyond previous works based on idealized disk models. This effort is necessary to understand how these instabilities operate and interact in realistic protoplanetary disks. This will enable us to provide a unified picture of how various hydrodynamic activities fit together to drive global disk evolution. We will address key questions including the strength of the resulting hydrodynamic turbulence, the lifetime of large-scale vortices under realistic disk conditions, and their impact on the evolution of solids within the disk. Inclusion of these additional physics will likely uncover new, yet-unknown hydrodynamic processes. Our generalized models enables a direct link between theory and observations. For example, a self-consistent incorporation of dust dynamics into the theory of hydrodynamic instabilities is particularly important, since it is the dust component that is usually observed. We will also establish the connection between the properties of large-scale, observable structures such as vortices, to the underlying disk properties, such as disk mass, and vertical structure, which are difficult to infer directly from observations. We also propose to study, for the first time, the dynamical interaction between hydrodynamic turbulence and proto-planets, as well as the influence of largescale vortices on disk-planet interaction. This is necessary towards a realistic modeling of the orbital evolution of proto planets, and thus in predicting the final architecture of planetary systems. The proposal team's expertise and experience, ranging from mathematical analyses to state-of the-art numerical simulations in astrophysical fluid dynamics, provides a multi-method approach to these problems. This is necessary towards establishing a rigorous understanding of these fundamental hydrodynamical processes in protoplanetary accretion disks.
Permeability hysterisis of limestone during isotropic compression.
Selvadurai, A P S; Głowacki, A
2008-01-01
The evolution of permeability hysterisis in Indiana Limestone during application of isotropic confining pressures up to 60 MPa was measured by conducting one-dimensional constant flow rate tests. These tests were carried out either during monotonic application of the confining pressure or during loading-partial unloading cycles. Irreversible permeability changes occurred during both monotonic and repeated incremental compression of the limestone. Mathematical relationships are developed for describing the evolution of path-dependent permeability during isotropic compression.
Hydrodynamics and long range correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bialas, A.; Zalewski, K.
2011-04-01
It is shown that the recently proposed method of studying the long-range correlations in multiparticle production can be effectively used to verify the hydrodynamic nature of the longitudinal expansion of the partonic system created in the collision. The case of ALICE detector is explicitly considered.
Numerical Hydrodynamics in General Relativity.
Font, José A
2003-01-01
The current status of numerical solutions for the equations of ideal general relativistic hydrodynamics is reviewed. With respect to an earlier version of the article, the present update provides additional information on numerical schemes, and extends the discussion of astrophysical simulations in general relativistic hydrodynamics. Different formulations of the equations are presented, with special mention of conservative and hyperbolic formulations well-adapted to advanced numerical methods. A large sample of available numerical schemes is discussed, paying particular attention to solution procedures based on schemes exploiting the characteristic structure of the equations through linearized Riemann solvers. A comprehensive summary of astrophysical simulations in strong gravitational fields is presented. These include gravitational collapse, accretion onto black holes, and hydrodynamical evolutions of neutron stars. The material contained in these sections highlights the numerical challenges of various representative simulations. It also follows, to some extent, the chronological development of the field, concerning advances on the formulation of the gravitational field and hydrodynamic equations and the numerical methodology designed to solve them. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2003-4.
Wavelet compression techniques for hyperspectral data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Evans, Bruce; Ringer, Brian; Yeates, Mathew
1994-01-01
Hyperspectral sensors are electro-optic sensors which typically operate in visible and near infrared bands. Their characteristic property is the ability to resolve a relatively large number (i.e., tens to hundreds) of contiguous spectral bands to produce a detailed profile of the electromagnetic spectrum. In contrast, multispectral sensors measure relatively few non-contiguous spectral bands. Like multispectral sensors, hyperspectral sensors are often also imaging sensors, measuring spectra over an array of spatial resolution cells. The data produced may thus be viewed as a three dimensional array of samples in which two dimensions correspond to spatial position and the third to wavelength. Because they multiply the already large storage/transmission bandwidth requirements of conventional digital images, hyperspectral sensors generate formidable torrents of data. Their fine spectral resolution typically results in high redundancy in the spectral dimension, so that hyperspectral data sets are excellent candidates for compression. Although there have been a number of studies of compression algorithms for multispectral data, we are not aware of any published results for hyperspectral data. Three algorithms for hyperspectral data compression are compared. They were selected as representatives of three major approaches for extending conventional lossy image compression techniques to hyperspectral data. The simplest approach treats the data as an ensemble of images and compresses each image independently, ignoring the correlation between spectral bands. The second approach transforms the data to decorrelate the spectral bands, and then compresses the transformed data as a set of independent images. The third approach directly generalizes two-dimensional transform coding by applying a three-dimensional transform as part of the usual transform-quantize-entropy code procedure. The algorithms studied all use the discrete wavelet transform. In the first two cases, a wavelet
Study on unsteady hydrodynamic performance of propeller in waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Qingxin; Guo, Chunyu; Su, Yumin; Liu, Tian; Meng, Xiangyin
2017-09-01
The speed of a ship sailing in waves always slows down due to the decrease in efficiency of the propeller. So it is necessary and essential to analyze the unsteady hydrodynamic performance of propeller in waves. This paper is based on the numerical simulation and experimental research of hydrodynamics performance when the propeller is under wave conditions. Open-water propeller performance in calm water is calculated by commercial codes and the results are compared to experimental values to evaluate the accuracy of the numerical simulation method. The first-order Volume of Fluid (VOF) wave method in STAR CCM+ is utilized to simulate the three-dimensional numerical wave. According to the above prerequisite, the numerical calculation of hydrodynamic performance of the propeller under wave conditions is conducted, and the results reveal that both thrust and torque of the propeller under wave conditions reveal intense unsteady behavior. With the periodic variation of waves, ventilation, and even an effluent phenomenon appears on the propeller. Calculation results indicate, when ventilation or effluent appears, the numerical calculation model can capture the dynamic characteristics of the propeller accurately, thus providing a significant theory foundation for further studying the hydrodynamic performance of a propeller in waves.
A fast numerical scheme for causal relativistic hydrodynamics with dissipation
Takamoto, Makoto, E-mail: takamoto@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro
2011-08-01
Highlights: {yields} We have developed a new multi-dimensional numerical scheme for causal relativistic hydrodynamics with dissipation. {yields} Our new scheme can calculate the evolution of dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics faster and more effectively than existing schemes. {yields} Since we use the Riemann solver for solving the advection steps, our method can capture shocks very accurately. - Abstract: In this paper, we develop a stable and fast numerical scheme for relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics based on Israel-Stewart theory. Israel-Stewart theory is a stable and causal description of dissipation in relativistic hydrodynamics although it includes relaxation process with the timescale for collision of constituentmore » particles, which introduces stiff equations and makes practical numerical calculation difficult. In our new scheme, we use Strang's splitting method, and use the piecewise exact solutions for solving the extremely short timescale problem. In addition, since we split the calculations into inviscid step and dissipative step, Riemann solver can be used for obtaining numerical flux for the inviscid step. The use of Riemann solver enables us to capture shocks very accurately. Simple numerical examples are shown. The present scheme can be applied to various high energy phenomena of astrophysics and nuclear physics.« less
Hydrodynamic Properties of Planing Surfaces and Flying Boats
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sokolov, N. A.
1950-01-01
The study of the hydrodynamic properties of planing bottom of flying boats and seaplane floats is at the present time based exclusively on the curves of towing tests conducted in tanks. In order to provide a rational basis for the test procedure in tanks and practical design data, a theoretical study must be made of the flow at the step and relations derived that show not only qualitatively but quantitatively the inter-relations of the various factors involved. The general solution of the problem of the development of hydrodynamic forces during the motion of the seaplane float or flying boat is very difficult for it is necessary to give a three-dimensional solution, which does not always permit reducing the analysis to the form of workable computation formulas. On the other had, the problem is complicated by the fact that the object of the analysis is concerned with two fluid mediums, namely, air and water, which have a surface of density discontinuity between them. The theoretical and experimental investigations on the hydrodynamics of a ship cannot be completely carried over to the design of floats and flying-boat hulls, because of the difference in the shape of the contour lines of the bodies, and, because of the entirely different flow conditions from the hydrodynamic viewpoint.
Impact on a Compressible Fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Egorov, L. T.
1958-01-01
Upon impact of a solid body on the plane surface of a fluid, there occurs on the vetted surface of the body an abrupt pressure rise which propagates into both media with the speed of sound. Below, we assume the case where the speed of propagation of sound in the body which falls on the surface of the fluid may be regarded as infinitely large in comparison with the speed of propagation of sound in the fluid; that is, we shall assume that the falling body is absolutely rigid. IN this case, the entire relative speed of the motion which takes place at the beginning of the impact is absorbed by the fluid. The hydrodynamic pressures arising thereby are propagated from the contact surface within the fluid with the speed of sound in the form of compression and expansion waves and are gradually damped. After this, they are dispersed like impact pressures, reach ever larger regions of the fluid remote fran the body and became equal to zero; in the fluid there remain hydrodynamic pressures corresponding to the motion of the body after the impact. Neglecting the forces of viscosity and taking into account, furthermore, that the motion of the fluid begins from a state of rest, according to Thomson's theorem, we may consider the motion of an ideal compressible fluid in the process of impact to be potential. We examine the case of impact upon the surface of a ccmpressible fluid of a flat plate of infinite extent or of a body, the immersed part of the surface of which may be called approximately flat. In this report we discuss the first phase of the impact pressure on the surface of a fluid, prior to the appearance of a cavity, since at this stage the hydrodynamic pressures reach their maximum values. Observations, after the fall of the bodies on the surface of the fluid, show that the free surface of the fluid at this stage is almost completely at rest if one does not take into account the small rise in the neighborhood of the boundaries of the impact surface.
Interactive computer graphics applications for compressible aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Benson, Thomas J.
1994-01-01
Three computer applications have been developed to solve inviscid compressible fluids problems using interactive computer graphics. The first application is a compressible flow calculator which solves for isentropic flow, normal shocks, and oblique shocks or centered expansions produced by two dimensional ramps. The second application couples the solutions generated by the first application to a more graphical presentation of the results to produce a desk top simulator of three compressible flow problems: 1) flow past a single compression ramp; 2) flow past two ramps in series; and 3) flow past two opposed ramps. The third application extends the results of the second to produce a design tool which solves for the flow through supersonic external or mixed compression inlets. The applications were originally developed to run on SGI or IBM workstations running GL graphics. They are currently being extended to solve additional types of flow problems and modified to operate on any X-based workstation.
Turbulence in Compressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Lecture notes for the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel (FDP) Special Course on 'Turbulence in Compressible Flows' have been assembled in this report. The following topics were covered: Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers, Compressible Turbulent Free Shear Layers, Turbulent Combustion, DNS/LES and RANS Simulations of Compressible Turbulent Flows, and Case Studies of Applications of Turbulence Models in Aerospace.
Hydrodynamic Limit of Multiple SLE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hotta, Ikkei; Katori, Makoto
2018-04-01
Recently del Monaco and Schleißinger addressed an interesting problem whether one can take the limit of multiple Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE) as the number of slits N goes to infinity. When the N slits grow from points on the real line R in a simultaneous way and go to infinity within the upper half plane H, an ordinary differential equation describing time evolution of the conformal map g_t(z) was derived in the N → ∞ limit, which is coupled with a complex Burgers equation in the inviscid limit. It is well known that the complex Burgers equation governs the hydrodynamic limit of the Dyson model defined on R studied in random matrix theory, and when all particles start from the origin, the solution of this Burgers equation is given by the Stieltjes transformation of the measure which follows a time-dependent version of Wigner's semicircle law. In the present paper, first we study the hydrodynamic limit of the multiple SLE in the case that all slits start from the origin. We show that the time-dependent version of Wigner's semicircle law determines the time evolution of the SLE hull, K_t \\subset H\\cup R, in this hydrodynamic limit. Next we consider the situation such that a half number of the slits start from a>0 and another half of slits start from -a < 0, and determine the multiple SLE in the hydrodynamic limit. After reporting these exact solutions, we will discuss the universal long-term behavior of the multiple SLE and its hull K_t in the hydrodynamic limit.
Shi, Jianyong; Qian, Xuede; Liu, Xiaodong; Sun, Long; Liao, Zhiqiang
2016-09-01
The total compression of municipal solid waste (MSW) consists of primary, secondary, and decomposition compressions. It is usually difficult to distinguish between the three parts of compressions. In this study, the odeometer test was used to distinguish between the primary and secondary compressions to determine the primary and secondary compression coefficient. In addition, the ending time of the primary compressions were proposed based on municipal solid waste compression tests in a degradation-inhibited condition by adding vinegar. The amount of the secondary compression occurring in the primary compression stage has a relatively high percentage to either the total compression or the total secondary compression. The relationship between the degradation ratio and time was obtained from the tests independently. Furthermore, a combined compression calculation method of municipal solid waste for all three parts of compressions including considering organics degradation is proposed based on a one-dimensional compression method. The relationship between the methane generation potential L0 of LandGEM model and degradation compression index was also discussed in the paper. A special column compression apparatus system, which can be used to simulate the whole compression process of municipal solid waste in China, was designed. According to the results obtained from 197-day column compression test, the new combined calculation method for municipal solid waste compression was analyzed. The degradation compression is the main part of the compression of MSW in the medium test period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Inferring Strength of Tantalum from Hydrodynamic Instability Recovery Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sternberger, Z.; Maddox, B.; Opachich, Y.; Wehrenberg, C.; Kraus, R.; Remington, B.; Randall, G.; Farrell, M.; Ravichandran, G.
2018-05-01
Hydrodynamic instability experiments allow access to material properties at extreme conditions, where strain rates exceed 105 s-1 and pressures reach 100 GPa. Current hydrodynamic instability experimental methods require in-flight radiography to image the instability growth at high pressure and high strain rate, limiting the facilities where these experiments can be performed. An alternate approach, recovering the sample after loading, allows measurement of the instability growth with profilometry. Tantalum samples were manufactured with different 2D and 3D initial perturbation patterns and dynamically compressed by a blast wave generated by laser ablation. The samples were recovered from peak pressures between 30 and 120 GPa and strain rates on the order of 107 s-1, providing a record of the growth of the perturbations due to hydrodynamic instability. These records are useful validation points for hydrocode simulations using models of material strength at high strain rate. Recovered tantalum samples were analyzed, providing an estimate of the strength of the material at high pressure and strain rate.
Hydrodynamic interactions in freely suspended liquid crystal films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuriabova, Tatiana; Powers, Thomas R.; Qi, Zhiyuan; Goldfain, Aaron; Park, Cheol Soo; Glaser, Matthew A.; Maclennan, Joseph E.; Clark, Noel A.
2016-11-01
Hydrodynamic interactions play an important role in biological processes in cellular membranes, a large separation of length scales often allowing such membranes to be treated as continuous, two-dimensional (2D) fluids. We study experimentally and theoretically the hydrodynamic interaction of pairs of inclusions in two-dimensional, fluid smectic liquid crystal films suspended in air. Such smectic membranes are ideal systems for performing controlled experiments as they are mechanically stable, of highly uniform structure, and have well-defined, variable thickness, enabling experimental investigation of the crossover from 2D to 3D hydrodynamics. Our theoretical model generalizes the Levine-MacKintosh theory of point-force response functions and uses a boundary-element approach to calculate the mobility matrix for inclusions of finite extent. We describe in detail the theoretical and computational approach previously outlined in Z. Qi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 128304 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.128304 and extend the method to study the mutual mobilities of inclusions with asymmetric shapes. The model predicts well the observed mutual mobilities of pairs of circular inclusions in films and the self-mobility of a circular inclusion in the vicinity of a linear boundary.
Hydrodynamic Simulations of Unevenly Irradiated Jovian Planets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langton, Jonathan; Laughlin, Gregory
2008-02-01
We employ a two-dimensional, grid-based hydrodynamic model to simulate upper atmospheric dynamics on extrasolar giant planets. The hydrodynamic equations of motion are integrated on a rotating, irradiated sphere using a pseudospectral algorithm. We use a two-frequency, two-stream approximation of radiative transfer to model the temperature forcing. This model is well suited to simulate the dynamics of the atmospheres of planets with high orbital eccentricity, which are subject to widely varying irradiation conditions. We identify six such planets, with eccentricities between e = 0.28 and e = 0.93 and semimajor axes from a = 0.0508 AU to a = 0.432 AU, as particularly interesting. For each, we determine the temperature profile and resulting infrared light curves in the 8 μm Spitzer band. Especially notable are the results for HD 80606b, which has the largest eccentricity (e = 0.9321) of any known planet, and HAT-P-2b, which transits its parent star, so that its physical properties are well constrained. Despite the varied orbital parameters, the atmospheric dynamics of these planets display a number of interesting common properties. In all cases, the atmospheric response is primarily driven by the intense irradiation at periastron. The resulting expansion of heated air produces high-velocity turbulent flow, including long-lived circumpolar vortices. In addition, a superrotating acoustic front develops on some planets; the strength of this disturbance depends on both the eccentricity and the temperature gradient from uneven heating. The specifics of the resulting infrared light curves depend strongly on the orbital geometry. We show, however, that the variations on HD 80606b and HAT-P-2b should be readily detectable at 4.5 and 8 μm using Spitzer. These two objects present the most attractive observational targets of all known high-e exoplanets.
Kinetic simulation of hydrodynamic equivalent capsule implosions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwan, Thomas; Le, Ari; Schmitt, Mark; Herrmann, Hans
2016-10-01
We have carried out simulations of direct-drive hydrodynamic equivalent capsule implosion experiments conducted on Omega laser facility at the Laboratory of Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester. The capsules had a glass shell (SiO2) 4.87 μm with an inner diameter of 1086 μm. One was filled with deuterium (D) and tritium (T) at 6.635 and 2.475 atmospheric pressure respectively. The other capsule with D, T, and He-3 at 2.475, 2.475, and 5.55 atmospheric pressure respectively. The capsules were imploded with 60 laser beams with a square pulse length of 0.6ns of total energy of 15.6 kJ. One-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic calculations with HYDRA and kinetic particle/hybrid simulations with LSP are carried out for the post-shot analysis. HYDRA outputs at 0.6ns are linked to LSP, in which the electrons are treated as a fluid while all the ion dynamics is simulated by the standard particle-in-cell technique. Additionally, simulations with the new photon package in LSP are initiated at the beginning of the implosion to include the implosion phase of the capsule. The simulation results of density, temperature, and velocity profiles of the electrons, D, T, He-3, and SiO2species are compared with HYDRA. Detail comparisons among the kinetic simulations, rad-hydro simulations, and experimental results of neutron yield, yield ratio, fusion burn histories, and shell convergence will be presented to assess plasma kinetic effects. Work performed under the auspices of the US DOE by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W7405-ENG-36.
"Data characterizing microfabricated human blood vessels created via hydrodynamic focusing".
DiVito, Kyle A; Daniele, Michael A; Roberts, Steven A; Ligler, Frances S; Adams, André A
2017-10-01
This data article provides further detailed information related to our research article titled "Microfabricated Blood Vessels Undergo Neovascularization" (DiVito et al., 2017) [1], in which we report fabrication of human blood vessels using hydrodynamic focusing (HDF). Hydrodynamic focusing with advection inducing chevrons were used in concert to encase one fluid stream within another, shaping the inner core fluid into 'bullseye-like" cross-sections that were preserved through click photochemistry producing streams of cellularized hollow 3-dimensional assemblies, such as human blood vessels (Daniele et al., 2015a, 2015b, 2014, 2016; Roberts et al., 2016) [2], [3], [4], [5], [6]. Applications for fabricated blood vessels span general tissue engineering to organ-on-chip technologies, with specific utility in in vitro drug delivery and pharmacodynamics studies. Here, we report data regarding the construction of blood vessels including cellular composition and cell positioning within the engineered vascular construct as well as functional aspects of the tissues.
Longitudinal hydrodynamics from event-by-event Landau initial conditions
Sen, Abhisek; Gerhard, Jochen; Torrieri, Giorgio; ...
2015-02-02
Here we investigate three-dimensional ideal hydrodynamic evolution, with Landau initial conditions, incorporating event-by-event variation with many events and transverse density inhomogeneities. We show that the transition to boost-invariant flow occurs too late for realistic setups, with corrections of θ (20%-30%) expected at freeze-out for most scenarios. Moreover, the deviation from boost invariance is correlated with both transverse flow and elliptic flow, with the more highly transversely flowing regions also showing the most violation of boost invariance. Therefore, if longitudinal flow is not fully developed at the early stages of heavy ion collisions, hydrodynamics where boost invariance holds at midrapidity ismore » inadequate to extract transport coefficients of the quark-gluon plasma. We conclude by arguing that developing experimental probes of boost invariance is necessary, and suggest some promising directions in this regard.« less
Hydrodynamic instabilities in miscible fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Truzzolillo, Domenico; Cipelletti, Luca
2018-01-01
Hydrodynamic instabilities in miscible fluids are ubiquitous, from natural phenomena up to geological scales, to industrial and technological applications, where they represent the only way to control and promote mixing at low Reynolds numbers, well below the transition from laminar to turbulent flow. As for immiscible fluids, the onset of hydrodynamic instabilities in miscible fluids is directly related to the physics of their interfaces. The focus of this review is therefore on the general mechanisms driving the growth of disturbances at the boundary between miscible fluids, under a variety of forcing conditions. In the absence of a regularizing mechanism, these disturbances would grow indefinitely. For immiscible fluids, interfacial tension provides such a regularizing mechanism, because of the energy cost associated to the creation of new interface by a growing disturbance. For miscible fluids, however, the very existence of interfacial stresses that mimic an effective surface tension is debated. Other mechanisms, however, may also be relevant, such as viscous dissipation. We shall review the stabilizing mechanisms that control the most common hydrodynamic instabilities, highlighting those cases for which the lack of an effective interfacial tension poses deep conceptual problems in the mathematical formulation of a linear stability analysis. Finally, we provide a short overview on the ongoing research on the effective, out of equilibrium interfacial tension between miscible fluids.
The Gulf of Lions' hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Millot, Claude
1990-09-01
From an hydrodynamical point of view, the Gulf of Lions can be considered as a very complex region, because several intense and highly variable phenomena compete simultaneously. These processes include the powerful general circulation along the continental slope, the formation of dense water both on the shelf and offshore, a seasonal variation of stratification and the extreme energies associated with meteorological conditions. The cloudless atmospheric conditions encountered generally in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea have enabled us to make use of, over more than 10 years, large use of various satellite imageries. The large space and time variability of the hydrodynamical features, a complex topography and a noticeable fishing activity, represent certain difficulties to the collection of observations in situ. We have obtained, therefore, only a few current time series on the slope; those obtained on the shelf only cover the summer period. Models have been elaborated to help us understand the reasons for the general circulation. Observational programmes to be carried out in the forthcoming years will probably provide us with more definitive results on the Gulf of Lions' hydrodynamics.
Black Hole Scrambling from Hydrodynamics.
Grozdanov, Sašo; Schalm, Koenraad; Scopelliti, Vincenzo
2018-06-08
We argue that the gravitational shock wave computation used to extract the scrambling rate in strongly coupled quantum theories with a holographic dual is directly related to probing the system's hydrodynamic sound modes. The information recovered from the shock wave can be reconstructed in terms of purely diffusionlike, linearized gravitational waves at the horizon of a single-sided black hole with specific regularity-enforced imaginary values of frequency and momentum. In two-derivative bulk theories, this horizon "diffusion" can be related to late-time momentum diffusion via a simple relation, which ceases to hold in higher-derivative theories. We then show that the same values of imaginary frequency and momentum follow from a dispersion relation of a hydrodynamic sound mode. The frequency, momentum, and group velocity give the holographic Lyapunov exponent and the butterfly velocity. Moreover, at this special point along the sound dispersion relation curve, the residue of the retarded longitudinal stress-energy tensor two-point function vanishes. This establishes a direct link between a hydrodynamic sound mode at an analytically continued, imaginary momentum and the holographic butterfly effect. Furthermore, our results imply that infinitely strongly coupled, large-N_{c} holographic theories exhibit properties similar to classical dilute gases; there, late-time equilibration and early-time scrambling are also controlled by the same dynamics.
Black Hole Scrambling from Hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grozdanov, Sašo; Schalm, Koenraad; Scopelliti, Vincenzo
2018-06-01
We argue that the gravitational shock wave computation used to extract the scrambling rate in strongly coupled quantum theories with a holographic dual is directly related to probing the system's hydrodynamic sound modes. The information recovered from the shock wave can be reconstructed in terms of purely diffusionlike, linearized gravitational waves at the horizon of a single-sided black hole with specific regularity-enforced imaginary values of frequency and momentum. In two-derivative bulk theories, this horizon "diffusion" can be related to late-time momentum diffusion via a simple relation, which ceases to hold in higher-derivative theories. We then show that the same values of imaginary frequency and momentum follow from a dispersion relation of a hydrodynamic sound mode. The frequency, momentum, and group velocity give the holographic Lyapunov exponent and the butterfly velocity. Moreover, at this special point along the sound dispersion relation curve, the residue of the retarded longitudinal stress-energy tensor two-point function vanishes. This establishes a direct link between a hydrodynamic sound mode at an analytically continued, imaginary momentum and the holographic butterfly effect. Furthermore, our results imply that infinitely strongly coupled, large-Nc holographic theories exhibit properties similar to classical dilute gases; there, late-time equilibration and early-time scrambling are also controlled by the same dynamics.
Numerical Hydrodynamics in Special Relativity.
Martí, José Maria; Müller, Ewald
2003-01-01
This review is concerned with a discussion of numerical methods for the solution of the equations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD). Particular emphasis is put on a comprehensive review of the application of high-resolution shock-capturing methods in SRHD. Results of a set of demanding test bench simulations obtained with different numerical SRHD methods are compared. Three applications (astrophysical jets, gamma-ray bursts and heavy ion collisions) of relativistic flows are discussed. An evaluation of various SRHD methods is presented, and future developments in SRHD are analyzed involving extension to general relativistic hydrodynamics and relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics. The review further provides FORTRAN programs to compute the exact solution of a 1D relativistic Riemann problem with zero and nonzero tangential velocities, and to simulate 1D relativistic flows in Cartesian Eulerian coordinates using the exact SRHD Riemann solver and PPM reconstruction. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2003-7 and is accessible for authorized users.
CRKSPH: A new meshfree hydrodynamics method with applications to astrophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owen, John Michael; Raskin, Cody; Frontiere, Nicholas
2018-01-01
The study of astrophysical phenomena such as supernovae, accretion disks, galaxy formation, and large-scale structure formation requires computational modeling of, at a minimum, hydrodynamics and gravity. Developing numerical methods appropriate for these kinds of problems requires a number of properties: shock-capturing hydrodynamics benefits from rigorous conservation of invariants such as total energy, linear momentum, and mass; lack of obvious symmetries or a simplified spatial geometry to exploit necessitate 3D methods that ideally are Galilean invariant; the dynamic range of mass and spatial scales that need to be resolved can span many orders of magnitude, requiring methods that are highly adaptable in their space and time resolution. We have developed a new Lagrangian meshfree hydrodynamics method called Conservative Reproducing Kernel Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, or CRKSPH, in order to meet these goals. CRKSPH is a conservative generalization of the meshfree reproducing kernel method, combining the high-order accuracy of reproducing kernels with the explicit conservation of mass, linear momentum, and energy necessary to study shock-driven hydrodynamics in compressible fluids. CRKSPH's Lagrangian, particle-like nature makes it simple to combine with well-known N-body methods for modeling gravitation, similar to the older Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. Indeed, CRKSPH can be substituted for SPH in existing SPH codes due to these similarities. In comparison to SPH, CRKSPH is able to achieve substantially higher accuracy for a given number of points due to the explicitly consistent (and higher-order) interpolation theory of reproducing kernels, while maintaining the same conservation principles (and therefore applicability) as SPH. There are currently two coded implementations of CRKSPH available: one in the open-source research code Spheral, and the other in the high-performance cosmological code HACC. Using these codes we have applied
Purely hydrodynamic ordering of rotating disks at a finite Reynolds number.
Goto, Yusuke; Tanaka, Hajime
2015-01-28
Self-organization of moving objects in hydrodynamic environments has recently attracted considerable attention in connection to natural phenomena and living systems. However, the underlying physical mechanism is much less clear due to the intrinsically nonequilibrium nature, compared with self-organization of thermal systems. Hydrodynamic interactions are believed to play a crucial role in such phenomena. To elucidate the fundamental physical nature of many-body hydrodynamic interactions at a finite Reynolds number, here we study a system of co-rotating hard disks in a two-dimensional viscous fluid at zero temperature. Despite the absence of thermal noise, this system exhibits rich phase behaviours, including a fluid state with diffusive dynamics, a cluster state, a hexatic state, a glassy state, a plastic crystal state and phase demixing. We reveal that these behaviours are induced by the off-axis and many-body nature of nonlinear hydrodynamic interactions and the finite time required for propagating the interactions by momentum diffusion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nora, R.; Field, J. E.; Peterson, J. Luc; Spears, B.; Kruse, M.; Humbird, K.; Gaffney, J.; Springer, P. T.; Brandon, S.; Langer, S.
2017-10-01
We present an experimentally corroborated hydrodynamic extrapolation of several recent BigFoot implosions on the National Ignition Facility. An estimate on the value and error of the hydrodynamic scale necessary for ignition (for each individual BigFoot implosion) is found by hydrodynamically scaling a distribution of multi-dimensional HYDRA simulations whose outputs correspond to their experimental observables. The 11-parameter database of simulations, which include arbitrary drive asymmetries, dopant fractions, hydrodynamic scaling parameters, and surface perturbations due to surrogate tent and fill-tube engineering features, was computed on the TRINITY supercomputer at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This simple extrapolation is the first step in providing a rigorous calibration of our workflow to provide an accurate estimate of the efficacy of achieving ignition on the National Ignition Facility. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Yang, Yingzi; Elgeti, Jens; Gompper, Gerhard
2008-12-01
Sperm swimming at low Reynolds number have strong hydrodynamic interactions when their concentration is high in vivo or near substrates in vitro. The beating tails not only propel the sperm through a fluid, but also create flow fields through which sperm interact with each other. We study the hydrodynamic interaction and cooperation of sperm embedded in a two-dimensional fluid by using a particle-based mesoscopic simulation method, multiparticle collision dynamics. We analyze the sperm behavior by investigating the relationship between the beating-phase difference and the relative sperm position, as well as the energy consumption. Two effects of hydrodynamic interaction are found, synchronization and attraction. With these hydrodynamic effects, a multisperm system shows swarm behavior with a power-law dependence of the average cluster size on the width of the distribution of beating frequencies.
Digital Data Registration and Differencing Compression System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ransford, Gary A. (Inventor); Cambridge, Vivien J. (Inventor)
1996-01-01
A process for X-ray registration and differencing results in more efficient compression. Differencing of registered modeled subject image with a modeled reference image forms a differenced image for compression with conventional compression algorithms. Obtention of a modeled reference image includes modeling a relatively unrelated standard reference image upon a three-dimensional model, which three-dimensional model is also used to model the subject image for obtaining the modeled subject image. The registration process of the modeled subject image and modeled reference image translationally correlates such modeled images for resulting correlation thereof in spatial and spectral dimensions. Prior to compression, a portion of the image falling outside a designated area of interest may be eliminated, for subsequent replenishment with a standard reference image. The compressed differenced image may be subsequently transmitted and/or stored, for subsequent decompression and addition to a standard reference image so as to form a reconstituted or approximated subject image at either a remote location and/or at a later moment in time. Overall effective compression ratios of 100:1 are possible for thoracic X-ray digital images.
Digital data registration and differencing compression system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ransford, Gary A. (Inventor); Cambridge, Vivien J. (Inventor)
1992-01-01
A process for x ray registration and differencing results in more efficient compression is discussed. Differencing of registered modeled subject image with a modeled reference image forms a differential image for compression with conventional compression algorithms. Obtention of a modeled reference image includes modeling a relatively unrelated standard reference image upon a three dimensional model, which three dimensional model is also used to model the subject image for obtaining the modeled subject image. The registration process of the modeled subject image and modeled reference image translationally correlates such modeled images for resulting correlation thereof in spatial and spectral dimensions. Prior to compression, a portion of the image falling outside a designated area of interest may be eliminated, for subsequent replenishment with a standard reference image. The compressed differenced image may be subsequently transmitted and/or stored, for subsequent decompression and addition to a standard reference image so as to form a reconstituted or approximated subject image at either remote location and/or at a later moment in time. Overall effective compression ratios of 100:1 are possible for thoracic x ray digital images.
Digital data registration and differencing compression system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ransford, Gary A. (Inventor); Cambridge, Vivien J. (Inventor)
1990-01-01
A process is disclosed for x ray registration and differencing which results in more efficient compression. Differencing of registered modeled subject image with a modeled reference image forms a differenced image for compression with conventional compression algorithms. Obtention of a modeled reference image includes modeling a relatively unrelated standard reference image upon a three-dimensional model, which three-dimensional model is also used to model the subject image for obtaining the modeled subject image. The registration process of the modeled subject image and modeled reference image translationally correlates such modeled images for resulting correlation thereof in spatial and spectral dimensions. Prior to compression, a portion of the image falling outside a designated area of interest may be eliminated, for subsequent replenishment with a standard reference image. The compressed differenced image may be subsequently transmitted and/or stored, for subsequent decompression and addition to a standard reference image so as to form a reconstituted or approximated subject image at either a remote location and/or at a later moment in time. Overall effective compression ratios of 100:1 are possible for thoracic x ray digital images.
Entropy-limited hydrodynamics: a novel approach to relativistic hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guercilena, Federico; Radice, David; Rezzolla, Luciano
2017-07-01
We present entropy-limited hydrodynamics (ELH): a new approach for the computation of numerical fluxes arising in the discretization of hyperbolic equations in conservation form. ELH is based on the hybridisation of an unfiltered high-order scheme with the first-order Lax-Friedrichs method. The activation of the low-order part of the scheme is driven by a measure of the locally generated entropy inspired by the artificial-viscosity method proposed by Guermond et al. (J. Comput. Phys. 230(11):4248-4267, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.jcp.2010.11.043). Here, we present ELH in the context of high-order finite-differencing methods and of the equations of general-relativistic hydrodynamics. We study the performance of ELH in a series of classical astrophysical tests in general relativity involving isolated, rotating and nonrotating neutron stars, and including a case of gravitational collapse to black hole. We present a detailed comparison of ELH with the fifth-order monotonicity preserving method MP5 (Suresh and Huynh in J. Comput. Phys. 136(1):83-99, 1997, doi: 10.1006/jcph.1997.5745), one of the most common high-order schemes currently employed in numerical-relativity simulations. We find that ELH achieves comparable and, in many of the cases studied here, better accuracy than more traditional methods at a fraction of the computational cost (up to {˜}50% speedup). Given its accuracy and its simplicity of implementation, ELH is a promising framework for the development of new special- and general-relativistic hydrodynamics codes well adapted for massively parallel supercomputers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cha, Jeesung Jeff
Pulse Tube Cryocoolers (PTC) are a class of rugged and high-endurance refrigeration systems that operate without a moving part at their low temperature ends, and are capable of easily reaching 120°K. These devices can also be configured in multiple stages to reach temperatures below 10 °K. PTCs are particularly suitable for applications in space, missile guiding systems, cryosurgery, medicine preservation, superconducting electronics, magnetic resonance imaging, weather observation, and liquefaction of nitrogen. Although various designs of PTCs have been in use for a few decades, they represent a dynamic and developmental field. PTCs ruggedness comes at the price of relatively low efficiency, however, and thus far they have been primarily used in high-end applications. They have the potential of extensive use in consumer products, however, should sufficiently higher efficiencies be achieved. Intense research competition is underway worldwide, and newer designs are continuously introduced. Some of the fundamental processes that are responsible for their performance are at best not fully understood, however, and consequently systematic modeling of PTC systems is difficult. Among the challenges facing the PTC research community, besides improvement in terms of system efficiency, is the possible miniaturization (total fluid volume of few cubic centimeters (cc)) of these systems. The operating characteristics of a PTC are significantly different from the conventional refrigeration cycles. A PTC implements the theory of oscillatory compression and expansion of the gas within a closed volume to achieve desired refrigeration. Regenerators and pulse tubes are often viewed as the two most complex and essential components in cryocoolers. An important deficiency with respect to the state of art models dealing with PTCs is the essentially total lack of understanding about the directional hydrodynamic and thermal transport parameters associated with periodic flow in
Hildebrand, Richard J.; Wozniak, John J.
2001-01-01
A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.
Compressing turbulence and sudden viscous dissipation with compression-dependent ionization state
Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
Turbulent plasma flow, amplified by rapid three-dimensional compression, can be suddenly dissipated under continuing compression. Furthermore, this effect relies on the sensitivity of the plasma viscosity to the temperature, μ ~ T 5 / 2 . The plasma viscosity is also sensitive to the plasma ionization state. Here, we show that the sudden dissipation phenomenon may be prevented when the plasma ionization state increases during compression, and we demonstrate the regime of net viscosity dependence on compression where sudden dissipation is guaranteed. In addition, it is shown that, compared to cases with no ionization, ionization during compression is associated withmore » larger increases in turbulent energy and can make the difference between growing and decreasing turbulent energy.« less
Compressing turbulence and sudden viscous dissipation with compression-dependent ionization state
Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2016-11-14
Turbulent plasma flow, amplified by rapid three-dimensional compression, can be suddenly dissipated under continuing compression. Furthermore, this effect relies on the sensitivity of the plasma viscosity to the temperature, μ ~ T 5 / 2 . The plasma viscosity is also sensitive to the plasma ionization state. Here, we show that the sudden dissipation phenomenon may be prevented when the plasma ionization state increases during compression, and we demonstrate the regime of net viscosity dependence on compression where sudden dissipation is guaranteed. In addition, it is shown that, compared to cases with no ionization, ionization during compression is associated withmore » larger increases in turbulent energy and can make the difference between growing and decreasing turbulent energy.« less
Low torque hydrodynamic lip geometry for bi-directional rotation seals
Dietle, Lannie L [Houston, TX; Schroeder, John E [Richmond, TX
2011-11-15
A hydrodynamically lubricating geometry for the generally circular dynamic sealing lip of rotary seals that are employed to partition a lubricant from an environment. The dynamic sealing lip is provided for establishing compressed sealing engagement with a relatively rotatable surface, and for wedging a film of lubricating fluid into the interface between the dynamic sealing lip and the relatively rotatable surface in response to relative rotation that may occur in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction. A wave form incorporating an elongated dimple provides the gradual convergence, efficient impingement angle, and gradual interfacial contact pressure rise that are conducive to efficient hydrodynamic wedging. Skewed elevated contact pressure zones produced by compression edge effects provide for controlled lubricant movement within the dynamic sealing interface between the seal and the relatively rotatable surface, producing enhanced lubrication and low running torque.
Low torque hydrodynamic lip geometry for bi-directional rotation seals
Dietle, Lannie L [Houston, TX; Schroeder, John E [Richmond, TX
2009-07-21
A hydrodynamically lubricating geometry for the generally circular dynamic sealing lip of rotary seals that are employed to partition a lubricant from an environment. The dynamic sealing lip is provided for establishing compressed sealing engagement with a relatively rotatable surface, and for wedging a film of lubricating fluid into the interface between the dynamic sealing lip and the relatively rotatable surface in response to relative rotation that may occur in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction. A wave form incorporating an elongated dimple provides the gradual convergence, efficient impingement angle, and gradual interfacial contact pressure rise that are conducive to efficient hydrodynamic wedging. Skewed elevated contact pressure zones produced by compression edge effects provide for controlled lubricant movement within the dynamic sealing interface between the seal and the relatively rotatable surface, producing enhanced lubrication and low running torque.
Hydrodynamical processes in coalescing binary stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Dong
1994-01-01
Coalescing neutron star binaries are considered to be the most promising sources of gravitational waves that could be detected by the planned laser-interferometer LIGO/VIRGO detectors. Extracting gravity wave signals from noisy data requires accurate theoretical waveforms in the frequency range 10-1000 Hz end detailed understanding of the dynamics of the binary orbits. We investigate the quasi-equilibrium and dynamical tidal interactions in coalescing binary stars, with particular focus on binary neutron stars. We develop a new formalism to study the equilibrium and dynamics of fluid stars in binary systems. The stars are modeled as compressible ellipsoids, and satisfy polytropic equation of state. The hydrodynamic equations are reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations for the evolution of the principal axes and other global quantities. The equilibrium binary structure is determined by a set of algebraic equations. We consider both synchronized and nonsynchronized systems, obtaining the generalizations to compressible fluid of the classical results for the ellipsoidal binary configurations. Our method can be applied to a wide variety of astrophysical binary systems containing neutron stars, white dwarfs, main-sequence stars and planets. We find that both secular and dynamical instabilities can develop in close binaries. The quasi-static (secular) orbital evolution, as well as the dynamical evolution of binaries driven by viscous dissipation and gravitational radiation reaction are studied. The development of the dynamical instability accelerates the binary coalescence at small separation, leading to appreciable radial infall velocity near contact. We also study resonant excitations of g-mode oscillations in coalescing binary neutron stars. A resonance occurs when the frequency of the tidal driving force equals one of the intrinsic g-mode frequencies. Using realistic microscopic nuclear equations of state, we determine the g-modes in a cold neutron atar
Implementation of Hydrodynamic Simulation Code in Shock Experiment Design for Alkali Metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coleman, A. L.; Briggs, R.; Gorman, M. G.; Ali, S.; Lazicki, A.; Swift, D. C.; Stubley, P. G.; McBride, E. E.; Collins, G.; Wark, J. S.; McMahon, M. I.
2017-10-01
Shock compression techniques enable the investigation of extreme P-T states. In order to probe off-Hugoniot regions of P-T space, target makeup and laser pulse parameters must be carefully designed. HYADES is a hydrodynamic simulation code which has been successfully utilised to simulate shock compression events and refine the experimental parameters required in order to explore new P-T states in alkali metals. Here we describe simulations and experiments on potassium, along with the techniques required to access off-Hugoniot states.
Galaxy clusters as hydrodynamics laboratories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roediger, Elke; Sheardown, Alexander; Fish, Thomas; ZuHone, John; Hunt, Matthew; Su, Yuanyuan; Kraft, Ralph P.; Nulsen, Paul; Forman, William R.; Churazov, Eugene; Randall, Scott W.; Jones, Christine; Machacek, Marie E.
2017-08-01
The intra-cluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters shows a wealth of hydrodynamical features that trace the growth of clusters via the infall of galaxies or smaller subclusters. Such hydrodynamical features include the wakes of the infalling objects as well as the interfaces between the host cluster’s ICM and the atmosphere of the infalling object. Furthermore, the cluster dynamics can be traced by merger shocks, bow shocks, and sloshing motions of the ICM.The characteristics of these dynamical features, e.g., the direction, length, brightness, and temperature of the galaxies' or subclusters' gas tails varies significantly between different objects. This could be due to either dynamical conditions or ICM transport coefficients such as viscosity and thermal conductivity. For example, the cool long gas tails of of some infalling galaxies and groups have been attributed to a substantial ICM viscosity suppressing mixing of the stripped galaxy or group gas with the hotter ambient ICM.Using hydrodynamical simulations of minor mergers we show, however, that these features can be explained naturally by the dynamical conditions of each particular galaxy or group infall. Specifically, we identify observable features to distinguish the first and second infall of a galaxy or group into its host cluster as well as characteristics during apocentre passage. Comparing our simulations with observations, we can explain several puzzling observations such as the long and cold tail of M86 in Virgo and the very long and tangentially oriented tail of the group LEDA 87445 in Hydra A.Using our simulations, we also assess the validity of the stagnation pressure method that is widely used to determine an infalling galaxy's velocity. We show that near pericentre passage the method gives reasonable results, but near apocentre it is not easily applicable.
Studies for the 3-Dimensional Structure, Composition, and Dynamic of Io's Atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smyth, William H.
2001-01-01
Research work is discussed for the following: (1) the exploration of new H and Cl chemistry in Io's atmosphere using the already developed two-dimensional multi-species hydrodynamic model of Wong and Smyth; and (2) for the development of a new three-dimensional multi-species hydrodynamic model for Io's atmosphere.
Microscale hydrodynamics near moving contact lines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garoff, Stephen; Chen, Q.; Rame, Enrique; Willson, K. R.
1994-01-01
The hydrodynamics governing the fluid motions on a microscopic scale near moving contact lines are different from those governing motion far from the contact line. We explore these unique hydrodynamics by detailed measurement of the shape of a fluid meniscus very close to a moving contact line. The validity of present models of the hydrodynamics near moving contact lines as well as the dynamic wetting characteristics of a family of polymer liquids are discussed.
Hydrodynamic theory of active matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jülicher, Frank; Grill, Stephan W.; Salbreux, Guillaume
2018-07-01
We review the general hydrodynamic theory of active soft materials that is motivated in particular by biological matter. We present basic concepts of irreversible thermodynamics of spatially extended multicomponent active systems. Starting from the rate of entropy production, we identify conjugate thermodynamic fluxes and forces and present generic constitutive equations of polar active fluids and active gels. We also discuss angular momentum conservation which plays a role in the the physics of active chiral gels. The irreversible thermodynamics of active gels provides a general framework to discuss the physics that underlies a wide variety of biological processes in cells and in multicellular tissues.
Students' conceptual difficulties in hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suarez, Alvaro; Kahan, Sandra; Zavala, Genaro; Marti, Arturo C.
2017-12-01
We describe a study on the conceptual difficulties faced by college students in understanding hydrodynamics of ideal fluids. This study was based on responses obtained in hundreds of written exams complemented with several oral interviews, which were held with first-year engineering and science university students. Their responses allowed us to identify a series of misconceptions unreported in the literature so far. The study findings demonstrate that the most critical difficulties arise from the students' inability to establish a link between the kinematics and dynamics of moving fluids, and from a lack of understanding regarding how different regions of a system interact.
Numerical Hydrodynamics in General Relativity.
Font, José A
2000-01-01
The current status of numerical solutions for the equations of ideal general relativistic hydrodynamics is reviewed. Different formulations of the equations are presented, with special mention of conservative and hyperbolic formulations well-adapted to advanced numerical methods. A representative sample of available numerical schemes is discussed and particular emphasis is paid to solution procedures based on schemes exploiting the characteristic structure of the equations through linearized Riemann solvers. A comprehensive summary of relevant astrophysical simulations in strong gravitational fields, including gravitational collapse, accretion onto black holes and evolution of neutron stars, is also presented. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2000-2.
Numerical Hydrodynamics in Special Relativity.
Martí, J M; Müller, E
1999-01-01
This review is concerned with a discussion of numerical methods for the solution of the equations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD). Particular emphasis is put on a comprehensive review of the application of high-resolution shock-capturing methods in SRHD. Results obtained with different numerical SRHD methods are compared, and two astrophysical applications of SRHD flows are discussed. An evaluation of the various numerical methods is given and future developments are analyzed. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-1999-3.
Hydrodynamics of pedestrians' instability in floodwaters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arrighi, Chiara; Oumeraci, Hocine; Castelli, Fabio
2017-01-01
People's safety is the first objective to be fulfilled by flood risk mitigation measures, and according to existing reports on the causes of casualties, most of the fatalities are due to inappropriate behaviour such as walking or driving in floodwaters. Currently available experimental data on people instability in floodwaters suffer from a large dispersion primarily depending on the large variability of the physical characteristics of the subjects. This paper introduces a dimensionless mobility parameter θP for people partly immersed in flood flows, which accounts for both flood and subject characteristics. The parameter θP is capable of identifying a unique threshold of instability depending on a Froude number, thus reducing the scatter of existing experimental data. Moreover, a three-dimensional (3-D) numerical model describing the detailed geometry of a human body and reproducing a selection of critical pairs of water depth and velocity is presented. The numerical results in terms of hydrodynamic forces and force coefficients are analysed and discussed. Both the mobility parameter θP and the numerical results hint at the crucial role of the Froude number and relative submergence as the most relevant dimensionless numbers to interpret the loss of stability. Finally, the mobility parameter θP is compared with an analogous dimensionless parameter for vehicles' instability in floodwaters, providing a new contribution to support flood risk management and educating people.
Hydrodynamical and Spectral Simulations of HMXB Winds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mauche, Christopher W.; Liedahl, D. A.; Plewa, T.
2006-09-01
We describe the results of a research program to develop improved models of the X-ray spectra of cosmic sources such as X-ray binaries, CVs, and AGN in which UV line-driven mass flows are photoionized by an X-ray source. Work to date has focused on high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) and on Vela X-1 in particular, for which there are high-quality Chandra HETG spectra in the archive. Our research program combines FLASH hydrodynamic calculations, XSTAR photoionization calculations, HULLAC atomic data, improved calculations of the line force multiplier, X-ray emission models appropriate to X-ray photoionized plasmas, and Monte Carlo radiation transport. We will present movies of the relevant physical quantities (density, temperature, ionization parameter, velocity) from a FLASH two-dimensional time-dependent simulation of Vela X-1, maps showing the emissivity distributions of the X-ray emission lines, and a preliminary comparison of the resulting synthetic spectra to the Chandra HETG spectra. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.
Task-oriented lossy compression of magnetic resonance images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Mark C.; Atkins, M. Stella; Vaisey, Jacques
1996-04-01
A new task-oriented image quality metric is used to quantify the effects of distortion introduced into magnetic resonance images by lossy compression. This metric measures the similarity between a radiologist's manual segmentation of pathological features in the original images and the automated segmentations performed on the original and compressed images. The images are compressed using a general wavelet-based lossy image compression technique, embedded zerotree coding, and segmented using a three-dimensional stochastic model-based tissue segmentation algorithm. The performance of the compression system is then enhanced by compressing different regions of the image volume at different bit rates, guided by prior knowledge about the location of important anatomical regions in the image. Application of the new system to magnetic resonance images is shown to produce compression results superior to the conventional methods, both subjectively and with respect to the segmentation similarity metric.
HUFF, a One-Dimensional Hydrodynamics Code for Strong Shocks
1978-12-01
results for two sample problems. The first problem discussed is a one-kiloton nuclear burst in infinite sea level air. The second problem is the one...of HUFF as an effective first order hydro- dynamic computer code. 1 KT Explosion The one-kiloton nuclear explosion in infinite sea level air was
On Three-dimensional Structures in Relativistic Hydrodynamic Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hardee, Philip E.
2000-04-01
The appearance of wavelike helical structures on steady relativistic jets is studied using a normal mode analysis of the linearized fluid equations. Helical structures produced by the normal modes scale relative to the resonant (most unstable) wavelength and not with the absolute wavelength. The resonant wavelength of the normal modes can be less than the jet radius even on highly relativistic jets. High-pressure regions helically twisted around the jet beam may be confined close to the jet surface, penetrate deeply into the jet interior, or be confined to the jet interior. The high-pressure regions range from thin and ribbon-like to thick and tubelike depending on the mode and wavelength. The wave speeds can be significantly different at different wavelengths but are less than the flow speed. The highest wave speed for the jets studied has a Lorentz factor somewhat more than half that of the underlying flow speed. A maximum pressure fluctuation criterion found through comparison between theory and a set of relativistic axisymmetric jet simulations is applied to estimate the maximum amplitudes of the helical, elliptical, and triangular normal modes. Transverse velocity fluctuations for these asymmetric modes are up to twice the amplitude of those associated with the axisymmetric pinch mode. The maximum amplitude of jet distortions and the accompanying velocity fluctuations at, for example, the resonant wavelength decreases as the Lorentz factor increases. Long-wavelength helical surface mode and shorter wavelength helical first body mode generated structures should be the most significant. Emission from high-pressure regions as they twist around the jet beam can vary significantly as a result of angular variation in the flow direction associated with normal mode structures if they are viewed at about the beaming angle θ=1/γ. Variation in the Doppler boost factor can lead to brightness asymmetries by factors up to 6 as long-wavelength helical structure produced by the helical surface mode winds around the jet. Higher order surface modes and first body modes produce less variation. Angular variation in the flow direction associated with the helical mode appears consistent with precessing jet models that have been proposed to explain the variability in 3C 273 and BL Lac object AO 0235+164. In particular, cyclic angular variation in the flow direction produced by the normal modes could produce the activity seen in BL Lac object OJ 287. Jet precession provides a mechanism for triggering the helical modes on multiple length scales, e.g., the galactic superluminal GRO J1655-40.
Lossless compression of VLSI layout image data.
Dai, Vito; Zakhor, Avideh
2006-09-01
We present a novel lossless compression algorithm called Context Copy Combinatorial Code (C4), which integrates the advantages of two very disparate compression techniques: context-based modeling and Lempel-Ziv (LZ) style copying. While the algorithm can be applied to many lossless compression applications, such as document image compression, our primary target application has been lossless compression of integrated circuit layout image data. These images contain a heterogeneous mix of data: dense repetitive data better suited to LZ-style coding, and less dense structured data, better suited to context-based encoding. As part of C4, we have developed a novel binary entropy coding technique called combinatorial coding which is simultaneously as efficient as arithmetic coding, and as fast as Huffman coding. Compression results show C4 outperforms JBIG, ZIP, BZIP2, and two-dimensional LZ, and achieves lossless compression ratios greater than 22 for binary layout image data, and greater than 14 for gray-pixel image data.
Highly Efficient Compression Algorithms for Multichannel EEG.
Shaw, Laxmi; Rahman, Daleef; Routray, Aurobinda
2018-05-01
The difficulty associated with processing and understanding the high dimensionality of electroencephalogram (EEG) data requires developing efficient and robust compression algorithms. In this paper, different lossless compression techniques of single and multichannel EEG data, including Huffman coding, arithmetic coding, Markov predictor, linear predictor, context-based error modeling, multivariate autoregression (MVAR), and a low complexity bivariate model have been examined and their performances have been compared. Furthermore, a high compression algorithm named general MVAR and a modified context-based error modeling for multichannel EEG have been proposed. The resulting compression algorithm produces a higher relative compression ratio of 70.64% on average compared with the existing methods, and in some cases, it goes up to 83.06%. The proposed methods are designed to compress a large amount of multichannel EEG data efficiently so that the data storage and transmission bandwidth can be effectively used. These methods have been validated using several experimental multichannel EEG recordings of different subjects and publicly available standard databases. The satisfactory parametric measures of these methods, namely percent-root-mean square distortion, peak signal-to-noise ratio, root-mean-square error, and cross correlation, show their superiority over the state-of-the-art compression methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindsay, R. A.; Cox, B. V.
Universal and adaptive data compression techniques have the capability to globally compress all types of data without loss of information but have the disadvantage of complexity and computation speed. Advances in hardware speed and the reduction of computational costs have made universal data compression feasible. Implementations of the Adaptive Huffman and Lempel-Ziv compression algorithms are evaluated for performance. Compression ratios versus run times for different size data files are graphically presented and discussed in the paper. Required adjustments needed for optimum performance of the algorithms relative to theoretical achievable limits will be outlined.
Video bandwidth compression system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ludington, D.
1980-08-01
The objective of this program was the development of a Video Bandwidth Compression brassboard model for use by the Air Force Avionics Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, in evaluation of bandwidth compression techniques for use in tactical weapons and to aid in the selection of particular operational modes to be implemented in an advanced flyable model. The bandwidth compression system is partitioned into two major divisions: the encoder, which processes the input video with a compression algorithm and transmits the most significant information; and the decoder where the compressed data is reconstructed into a video image for display.
Hydrodynamics of confined colloidal fluids in two dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sané, Jimaan; Padding, Johan T.; Louis, Ard A.
2009-05-01
We apply a hybrid molecular dynamics and mesoscopic simulation technique to study the dynamics of two-dimensional colloidal disks in confined geometries. We calculate the velocity autocorrelation functions and observe the predicted t-1 long-time hydrodynamic tail that characterizes unconfined fluids, as well as more complex oscillating behavior and negative tails for strongly confined geometries. Because the t-1 tail of the velocity autocorrelation function is cut off for longer times in finite systems, the related diffusion coefficient does not diverge but instead depends logarithmically on the overall size of the system. The Langevin equation gives a poor approximation to the velocity autocorrelation function at both short and long times.
Modeling electrokinetic flows by consistent implicit incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics
Pan, Wenxiao; Kim, Kyungjoo; Perego, Mauro; ...
2017-01-03
In this paper, we present a consistent implicit incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (I 2SPH) discretization of Navier–Stokes, Poisson–Boltzmann, and advection–diffusion equations subject to Dirichlet or Robin boundary conditions. It is applied to model various two and three dimensional electrokinetic flows in simple or complex geometries. The accuracy and convergence of the consistent I 2SPH are examined via comparison with analytical solutions, grid-based numerical solutions, or empirical models. Lastly, the new method provides a framework to explore broader applications of SPH in microfluidics and complex fluids with charged objects, such as colloids and biomolecules, in arbitrary complex geometries.
Modeling electrokinetic flows by consistent implicit incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics
Pan, Wenxiao; Kim, Kyungjoo; Perego, Mauro
2017-04-01
We present an efficient implicit incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (I2SPH) discretization of Navier-Stokes, Poisson-Boltzmann, and advection-diffusion equations subject to Dirichlet or Robin boundary conditions. It is applied to model various two and three dimensional electrokinetic flows in simple or complex geometries. The I2SPH's accuracy and convergence are examined via comparison with analytical solutions, grid-based numerical solutions, or empirical models. The new method provides a framework to explore broader applications of SPH in microfluidics and complex fluids with charged objects, such as colloids and biomolecules, in arbitrary complex geometries.
Out-of-Bounds Hydrodynamics in Anisotropic Dirac Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Link, Julia M.; Narozhny, Boris N.; Kiselev, Egor I.; Schmalian, Jörg
2018-05-01
We study hydrodynamic transport in two-dimensional, interacting electronic systems with merging Dirac points at charge neutrality. The dispersion along one crystallographic direction is Dirac-like, while it is Newtonian-like in the orthogonal direction. As a result, the electrical conductivity is metallic in one and insulating in the other direction. The shear viscosity tensor contains six independent components, which can be probed by measuring an anisotropic thermal flow. One of the viscosity components vanishes at zero temperature leading to a generalization of the previously conjectured lower bound for the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gurovich, V.; Virozub, A.; Rososhek, A.; Bland, S.; Spielman, R. B.; Krasik, Ya. E.
2018-05-01
A major experimental research area in material equation-of-state today involves the use of off-Hugoniot measurements rather than shock experiments that give only Hugoniot data. There is a wide range of applications using quasi-isentropic compression of matter including the direct measurement of the complete isentrope of materials in a single experiment and minimizing the heating of flyer plates for high-velocity shock measurements. We propose a novel approach to generating quasi-isentropic compression of matter. Using analytical modeling and hydrodynamic simulations, we show that a working fluid composed of compressed water, generated by an underwater electrical explosion of a planar wire array, might be used to efficiently drive the quasi-isentropic compression of a copper target to pressures ˜2 × 1011 Pa without any complex target designs.
Hydrodynamic interactions in active colloidal crystal microrheology.
Weeber, R; Harting, J
2012-11-01
In dense colloids it is commonly assumed that hydrodynamic interactions do not play a role. However, a found theoretical quantification is often missing. We present computer simulations that are motivated by experiments where a large colloidal particle is dragged through a colloidal crystal. To qualify the influence of long-ranged hydrodynamics, we model the setup by conventional Langevin dynamics simulations and by an improved scheme with limited hydrodynamic interactions. This scheme significantly improves our results and allows to show that hydrodynamics strongly impacts the development of defects, the crystal regeneration, as well as the jamming behavior.
Coarse-grained hydrodynamics from correlation functions
Palmer, Bruce
This paper will describe a formalism for using correlation functions between different grid cells as the basis for determining coarse-grained hydrodynamic equations for modeling the behavior of mesoscopic fluid systems. Configuration from a molecular dynamics simulation are projected onto basis functions representing grid cells in a continuum hydrodynamic simulation. Equilbrium correlation functions between different grid cells are evaluated from the molecular simulation and used to determine the evolution operator for the coarse-grained hydrodynamic system. The formalism is applied to some simple hydrodynamic cases to determine the feasibility of applying this to realistic nanoscale systems.
The environmental fluid dynamics code (EFDC) was used to study the three dimensional (3D) circulation, water quality, and ecology in Narragansett Bay, RI. Predictions of the Bay hydrodynamics included the behavior of the water surface elevation, currents, salinity, and temperatur...
Recce imagery compression options
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Healy, Donald J.
1995-09-01
The errors introduced into reconstructed RECCE imagery by ATARS DPCM compression are compared to those introduced by the more modern DCT-based JPEG compression algorithm. For storage applications in which uncompressed sensor data is available JPEG provides better mean-square-error performance while also providing more flexibility in the selection of compressed data rates. When ATARS DPCM compression has already been performed, lossless encoding techniques may be applied to the DPCM deltas to achieve further compression without introducing additional errors. The abilities of several lossless compression algorithms including Huffman, Lempel-Ziv, Lempel-Ziv-Welch, and Rice encoding to provide this additional compression of ATARS DPCM deltas are compared. It is shown that the amount of noise in the original imagery significantly affects these comparisons.
Compression for radiological images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, Dennis L.
1992-07-01
The viewing of radiological images has peculiarities that must be taken into account in the design of a compression technique. The images may be manipulated on a workstation to change the contrast, to change the center of the brightness levels that are viewed, and even to invert the images. Because of the possible consequences of losing information in a medical application, bit preserving compression is used for the images used for diagnosis. However, for archiving the images may be compressed to 10 of their original size. A compression technique based on the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) takes the viewing factors into account by compressing the changes in the local brightness levels. The compression technique is a variation of the CCITT JPEG compression that suppresses the blocking of the DCT except in areas of very high contrast.
Detection of the Compressed Primary Stellar Wind in eta Carinae*
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Teodoro, M.; Madura, T. I.; Gull, T. R.; Corcoran, M. F.; Hamaguchi, K.
2013-01-01
A series of three Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) spectroscopic mappings, spaced approximately one year apart, reveal three partial arcs in [Fe II] and [Ni II] emissions moving outward from ? Carinae. We identify these arcs with the shell-like structures, seen in the 3D hydrodynamical simulations, formed by compression of the primary wind by the secondary wind during periastron passages.
Can numerical simulations accurately predict hydrodynamic instabilities in liquid films?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denner, Fabian; Charogiannis, Alexandros; Pradas, Marc; van Wachem, Berend G. M.; Markides, Christos N.; Kalliadasis, Serafim
2014-11-01
Understanding the dynamics of hydrodynamic instabilities in liquid film flows is an active field of research in fluid dynamics and non-linear science in general. Numerical simulations offer a powerful tool to study hydrodynamic instabilities in film flows and can provide deep insights into the underlying physical phenomena. However, the direct comparison of numerical results and experimental results is often hampered by several reasons. For instance, in numerical simulations the interface representation is problematic and the governing equations and boundary conditions may be oversimplified, whereas in experiments it is often difficult to extract accurate information on the fluid and its behavior, e.g. determine the fluid properties when the liquid contains particles for PIV measurements. In this contribution we present the latest results of our on-going, extensive study on hydrodynamic instabilities in liquid film flows, which includes direct numerical simulations, low-dimensional modelling as well as experiments. The major focus is on wave regimes, wave height and wave celerity as a function of Reynolds number and forcing frequency of a falling liquid film. Specific attention is paid to the differences in numerical and experimental results and the reasons for these differences. The authors are grateful to the EPSRC for their financial support (Grant EP/K008595/1).
Hydrodynamic focusing investigation in a micro-flow cytometer.
Yang, An-Shik; Hsieh, Wen-Hsin
2007-04-01
Hydrodynamic focusing behavior is characterized by two fluids coflowing at different velocities inside a micro-flow cytometer. In this study, a two-fluid model has been established to describe the flow transport behavior and interaction of sample and sheath fluids. The analysis treats the sample and sheath fluids as two-dimensional, laminar, incompressible, and isothermal. The theoretical model comprises two groups of transient conservation equations of mass and momentum with consideration of the interfacial momentum exchange. The governing equations are solved numerically through an iterative SIMPLEC algorithm to determine the flow properties. Since the ratio of the sheath velocity to the sample velocity varies from 5 to 70, the predicted focusing width and length are in good agreement with the experimental data in the literature. In addition, the present study explored the hydrodynamic focusing flowfield as well as the pressure drop across a micro-flow cytometer and the time needed for the completion of one focusing event in detail. To enhance the understanding of hydrodynamic focusing in the design of cytometers, ten numerical experiments were conducted to examine the effects of the inner nozzle length, inner nozzle exit width, inner nozzle shape, and fluid properties on the width of the focused sample stream.
Radiological Image Compression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo, Shih-Chung Benedict
The movement toward digital images in radiology presents the problem of how to conveniently and economically store, retrieve, and transmit the volume of digital images. Basic research into image data compression is necessary in order to move from a film-based department to an efficient digital -based department. Digital data compression technology consists of two types of compression technique: error-free and irreversible. Error -free image compression is desired; however, present techniques can only achieve compression ratio of from 1.5:1 to 3:1, depending upon the image characteristics. Irreversible image compression can achieve a much higher compression ratio; however, the image reconstructed from the compressed data shows some difference from the original image. This dissertation studies both error-free and irreversible image compression techniques. In particular, some modified error-free techniques have been tested and the recommended strategies for various radiological images are discussed. A full-frame bit-allocation irreversible compression technique has been derived. A total of 76 images which include CT head and body, and radiographs digitized to 2048 x 2048, 1024 x 1024, and 512 x 512 have been used to test this algorithm. The normalized mean -square-error (NMSE) on the difference image, defined as the difference between the original and the reconstructed image from a given compression ratio, is used as a global measurement on the quality of the reconstructed image. The NMSE's of total of 380 reconstructed and 380 difference images are measured and the results tabulated. Three complex compression methods are also suggested to compress images with special characteristics. Finally, various parameters which would effect the quality of the reconstructed images are discussed. A proposed hardware compression module is given in the last chapter.
Inducer Hydrodynamic Load Measurement Devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Skelley, Stephen E.; Zoladz, Thomas F.
2002-01-01
Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has demonstrated two measurement devices for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on fluid machinery. The first - a derivative of the six component wind tunnel balance - senses the forces and moments on the rotating device through a weakened shaft section instrumented with a series of strain gauges. This "rotating balance" was designed to directly measure the steady and unsteady hydrodynamic loads on an inducer, thereby defining both the amplitude and frequency content associated with operating in various cavitation modes. The second device - a high frequency response pressure transducer surface mounted on a rotating component - was merely an extension of existing technology for application in water. MSFC has recently completed experimental evaluations of both the rotating balance and surface-mount transducers in a water test loop. The measurement bandwidth of the rotating balance was severely limited by the relative flexibility of the device itself, resulting in an unexpectedly low structural bending mode and invalidating the higher frequency response data. Despite these limitations, measurements confirmed that the integrated loads on the four-bladed inducer respond to both cavitation intensity and cavitation phenomena. Likewise, the surface-mount pressure transducers were subjected to a range of temperatures and flow conditions in a non-rotating environment to record bias shifts and transfer functions between the transducers and a reference device. The pressure transducer static performance was within manufacturer's specifications and dynamic response accurately followed that of the reference.
Inducer Hydrodynamic Load Measurement Devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Skelley, Stephen E.; Zoladz, Thomas F.; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has demonstrated two measurement devices for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on fluid machinery. The first - a derivative of the six-component wind tunnel balance - senses the forces and moments on the rotating device through a weakened shaft section instrumented with a series of strain gauges. This rotating balance was designed to directly measure the steady and unsteady hydrodynamic loads on an inducer, thereby defining both the amplitude and frequency content associated with operating in various cavitation modes. The second device - a high frequency response pressure transducer surface mounted on a rotating component - was merely an extension of existing technology for application in water. MSFC has recently completed experimental evaluations of both the rotating balance and surface-mount transducers in a water test loop. The measurement bandwidth of the rotating balance was severely limited by the relative flexibility of the device itself, resulting in an unexpectedly low structural bending mode and invalidating the higher-frequency response data. Despite these limitations, measurements confirmed that the integrated loads on the four-bladed inducer respond to both cavitation intensity and cavitation phenomena. Likewise, the surface-mount pressure transducers were subjected to a range of temperatures and flow conditions in a non-rotating environment to record bias shifts and transfer functions between the transducers and a reference device. The pressure transducer static performance was within manufacturer's specifications and dynamic response accurately followed that of the reference.
Web-based hydrodynamics computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimoide, Alan; Lin, Luping; Hong, Tracie-Lynne; Yoon, Ilmi; Aragon, Sergio R.
2005-01-01
Proteins are long chains of amino acids that have a definite 3-d conformation and the shape of each protein is vital to its function. Since proteins are normally in solution, hydrodynamics (describes the movement of solvent around a protein as a function of shape and size of the molecule) can be used to probe the size and shape of proteins compared to those derived from X-ray crystallography. The computation chain needed for these hydrodynamics calculations consists of several separate programs by different authors on various platforms and often requires 3D visualizations of intermediate results. Due to the complexity, tools developed by a particular research group are not readily available for use by other groups, nor even by the non-experts within the same research group. To alleviate this situation, and to foment the easy and wide distribution of computational tools worldwide, we developed a web based interactive computational environment (WICE) including interactive 3D visualization that can be used with any web browser. Java based technologies were used to provide a platform neutral, user-friendly solution. Java Server Pages (JSP), Java Servlets, Java Beans, JOGL (Java bindings for OpenGL), and Java Web Start were used to create a solution that simplifies the computing chain for the user allowing the user to focus on their scientific research. WICE hides complexity from the user and provides robust and sophisticated visualization through a web browser.
Web-based hydrodynamics computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimoide, Alan; Lin, Luping; Hong, Tracie-Lynne; Yoon, Ilmi; Aragon, Sergio R.
2004-12-01
Proteins are long chains of amino acids that have a definite 3-d conformation and the shape of each protein is vital to its function. Since proteins are normally in solution, hydrodynamics (describes the movement of solvent around a protein as a function of shape and size of the molecule) can be used to probe the size and shape of proteins compared to those derived from X-ray crystallography. The computation chain needed for these hydrodynamics calculations consists of several separate programs by different authors on various platforms and often requires 3D visualizations of intermediate results. Due to the complexity, tools developed by a particular research group are not readily available for use by other groups, nor even by the non-experts within the same research group. To alleviate this situation, and to foment the easy and wide distribution of computational tools worldwide, we developed a web based interactive computational environment (WICE) including interactive 3D visualization that can be used with any web browser. Java based technologies were used to provide a platform neutral, user-friendly solution. Java Server Pages (JSP), Java Servlets, Java Beans, JOGL (Java bindings for OpenGL), and Java Web Start were used to create a solution that simplifies the computing chain for the user allowing the user to focus on their scientific research. WICE hides complexity from the user and provides robust and sophisticated visualization through a web browser.
Hydrodynamic dispersion within porous biofilms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davit, Y.; Byrne, H.; Osborne, J.; Pitt-Francis, J.; Gavaghan, D.; Quintard, M.
2013-01-01
Many microorganisms live within surface-associated consortia, termed biofilms, that can form intricate porous structures interspersed with a network of fluid channels. In such systems, transport phenomena, including flow and advection, regulate various aspects of cell behavior by controlling nutrient supply, evacuation of waste products, and permeation of antimicrobial agents. This study presents multiscale analysis of solute transport in these porous biofilms. We start our analysis with a channel-scale description of mass transport and use the method of volume averaging to derive a set of homogenized equations at the biofilm-scale in the case where the width of the channels is significantly smaller than the thickness of the biofilm. We show that solute transport may be described via two coupled partial differential equations or telegrapher's equations for the averaged concentrations. These models are particularly relevant for chemicals, such as some antimicrobial agents, that penetrate cell clusters very slowly. In most cases, especially for nutrients, solute penetration is faster, and transport can be described via an advection-dispersion equation. In this simpler case, the effective diffusion is characterized by a second-order tensor whose components depend on (1) the topology of the channels' network; (2) the solute's diffusion coefficients in the fluid and the cell clusters; (3) hydrodynamic dispersion effects; and (4) an additional dispersion term intrinsic to the two-phase configuration. Although solute transport in biofilms is commonly thought to be diffusion dominated, this analysis shows that hydrodynamic dispersion effects may significantly contribute to transport.
Hydromechanical transmission with hydrodynamic drive
Orshansky, Jr., deceased, Elias; Weseloh, William E.
1979-01-01
This transmission has a first planetary gear assembly having first input means connected to an input shaft, first output means, and first reaction means, and a second planetary gear assembly having second input means connected to the first input means, second output means, and second reaction means connected directly to the first reaction means by a reaction shaft. First clutch means, when engaged, connect the first output means to an output shaft in a high driving range. A hydrodynamic drive is used; for example, a torque converter, which may or may not have a stationary case, has a pump connected to the second output means, a stator grounded by an overrunning clutch to the case, and a turbine connected to an output member, and may be used in a starting phase. Alternatively, a fluid coupling or other type of hydrodynamic drive may be used. Second clutch means, when engaged, for connecting the output member to the output shaft in a low driving range. A variable-displacement hydraulic unit is mechanically connected to the input shaft, and a fixed-displacement hydraulic unit is mechanically connected to the reaction shaft. The hydraulic units are hydraulically connected together so that when one operates as a pump the other acts as a motor, and vice versa. Both clutch means are connected to the output shaft through a forward-reverse shift arrangement. It is possible to lock out the torque converter after the starting phase is over.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isakov, Vladimir A.; Kanavin, Andrey P.; Nasibov, A. S.
2007-04-01
A one-dimensional analytic hydrodynamic model of the direct laser-induced transfer of matter is considered. The efficiency of pulsed laser radiation energy conversion to the kinetic energy of the ejected matter is determined. It is shown that the hydrodynamic efficiency of the process for the layers of matter of thickness exceeding the laser radiation absorption depth is determined by the adiabatic index of the evaporated matter.
Large eddy simulations of compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grete, Philipp
2017-02-01
Supersonic, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is thought to play an important role in many processes - especially in astrophysics, where detailed three-dimensional observations are scarce. Simulations can partially fill this gap and help to understand these processes. However, direct simulations with realistic parameters are often not feasible. Consequently, large eddy simulations (LES) have emerged as a viable alternative. In LES the overall complexity is reduced by simulating only large and intermediate scales directly. The smallest scales, usually referred to as subgrid-scales (SGS), are introduced to the simulation by means of an SGS model. Thus, the overall quality of an LES with respect to properly accounting for small-scale physics crucially depends on the quality of the SGS model. While there has been a lot of successful research on SGS models in the hydrodynamic regime for decades, SGS modeling in MHD is a rather recent topic, in particular, in the compressible regime. In this thesis, we derive and validate a new nonlinear MHD SGS model that explicitly takes compressibility effects into account. A filter is used to separate the large and intermediate scales, and it is thought to mimic finite resolution effects. In the derivation, we use a deconvolution approach on the filter kernel. With this approach, we are able to derive nonlinear closures for all SGS terms in MHD: the turbulent Reynolds and Maxwell stresses, and the turbulent electromotive force (EMF). We validate the new closures both a priori and a posteriori. In the a priori tests, we use high-resolution reference data of stationary, homogeneous, isotropic MHD turbulence to compare exact SGS quantities against predictions by the closures. The comparison includes, for example, correlations of turbulent fluxes, the average dissipative behavior, and alignment of SGS vectors such as the EMF. In order to quantify the performance of the new nonlinear closure, this comparison is conducted from the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryu, Dongsu; Jones, T. W.; Frank, Adam
2000-12-01
We investigate through high-resolution three-dimensional simulations the nonlinear evolution of compressible magnetohydrodynamic flows subject to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. As in our earlier work, we have considered periodic sections of flows that contain a thin, transonic shear layer but are otherwise uniform. The initially uniform magnetic field is parallel to the shear plane but oblique to the flow itself. We confirm in three-dimensional flows the conclusion from our two-dimensional work that even apparently weak magnetic fields embedded in Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable plasma flows can be fundamentally important to nonlinear evolution of the instability. In fact, that statement is strengthened in three dimensions by this work because it shows how field-line bundles can be stretched and twisted in three dimensions as the quasi-two-dimensional Cat's Eye vortex forms out of the hydrodynamical motions. In our simulations twisting of the field may increase the maximum field strength by more than a factor of 2 over the two-dimensional effect. If, by these developments, the Alfvén Mach number of flows around the Cat's Eye drops to unity or less, our simulations suggest that magnetic stresses will eventually destroy the Cat's Eye and cause the plasma flow to self-organize into a relatively smooth and apparently stable flow that retains memory of the original shear. For our flow configurations, the regime in three dimensions for such reorganization is 4<~MAx<~50, expressed in terms of the Alfvén Mach number of the original velocity transition and the initial Alfvén speed projected to the flow plan. When the initial field is stronger than this, the flow either is linearly stable (if MAx<~2) or becomes stabilized by enhanced magnetic tension as a result of the corrugated field along the shear layer before the Cat's Eye forms (if MAx>~2). For weaker fields the instability remains essentially hydrodynamic in early stages, and the Cat's Eye is destroyed by the
Computational hydrodynamics and optical performance of inductively-coupled plasma adaptive lenses
Mortazavi, M.; Urzay, J., E-mail: jurzay@stanford.edu; Mani, A.
2015-06-15
This study addresses the optical performance of a plasma adaptive lens for aero-optical applications by using both axisymmetric and three-dimensional numerical simulations. Plasma adaptive lenses are based on the effects of free electrons on the phase velocity of incident light, which, in theory, can be used as a phase-conjugation mechanism. A closed cylindrical chamber filled with Argon plasma is used as a model lens into which a beam of light is launched. The plasma is sustained by applying a radio-frequency electric current through a coil that envelops the chamber. Four different operating conditions, ranging from low to high powers andmore » induction frequencies, are employed in the simulations. The numerical simulations reveal complex hydrodynamic phenomena related to buoyant and electromagnetic laminar transport, which generate, respectively, large recirculating cells and wall-normal compression stresses in the form of local stagnation-point flows. In the axisymmetric simulations, the plasma motion is coupled with near-wall axial striations in the electron-density field, some of which propagate in the form of low-frequency traveling disturbances adjacent to vortical quadrupoles that are reminiscent of Taylor-Görtler flow structures in centrifugally unstable flows. Although the refractive-index fields obtained from axisymmetric simulations lead to smooth beam wavefronts, they are found to be unstable to azimuthal disturbances in three of the four three-dimensional cases considered. The azimuthal striations are optically detrimental, since they produce high-order angular aberrations that account for most of the beam wavefront error. A fourth case is computed at high input power and high induction frequency, which displays the best optical properties among all the three-dimensional simulations considered. In particular, the increase in induction frequency prevents local thermalization and leads to an axisymmetric distribution of electrons even after
HOW AGN JETS HEAT THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM—INSIGHTS FROM HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS
Karen Yang, H.-Y.; Reynolds, Christopher S., E-mail: hsyang@astro.umd.edu
Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is believed to prevent catastrophic cooling in galaxy clusters. However, how the feedback energy is transformed into heat, and how the AGN jets heat the intracluster medium (ICM) isotropically, still remain elusive. In this work, we gain insights into the relative importance of different heating mechanisms using three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations including cold gas accretion and momentum-driven jet feedback, which are the most successful models to date in terms of reproducing the properties of cool cores. We find that there is net heating within two “jet cones” (within ∼30° from the axis of jet precession)more » where the ICM gains entropy by shock heating and mixing with the hot thermal gas within bubbles. Outside the jet cones, the ambient gas is heated by weak shocks, but not enough to overcome radiative cooling, therefore, forming a “reduced” cooling flow. Consequently, the cluster core is in a process of “gentle circulation” over billions of years. Within the jet cones, there is significant adiabatic cooling as the gas is uplifted by buoyantly rising bubbles; outside the cones, energy is supplied by the inflow of already-heated gas from the jet cones as well as adiabatic compression as the gas moves toward the center. In other words, the fluid dynamics self-adjusts such that it compensates and transports the heat provided by the AGN, and hence no fine-tuning of the heating profile of any process is necessary. Throughout the cluster evolution, turbulent energy is only at the percent level compared to gas thermal energy, and thus turbulent heating is not the main source of heating in our simulation.« less
How AGN Jets Heat the Intracluster Medium—Insights from Hydrodynamic Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, H.-Y. Karen; Reynolds, Christopher S.
2016-10-01
Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is believed to prevent catastrophic cooling in galaxy clusters. However, how the feedback energy is transformed into heat, and how the AGN jets heat the intracluster medium (ICM) isotropically, still remain elusive. In this work, we gain insights into the relative importance of different heating mechanisms using three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations including cold gas accretion and momentum-driven jet feedback, which are the most successful models to date in terms of reproducing the properties of cool cores. We find that there is net heating within two “jet cones” (within ∼30° from the axis of jet precession) where the ICM gains entropy by shock heating and mixing with the hot thermal gas within bubbles. Outside the jet cones, the ambient gas is heated by weak shocks, but not enough to overcome radiative cooling, therefore, forming a “reduced” cooling flow. Consequently, the cluster core is in a process of “gentle circulation” over billions of years. Within the jet cones, there is significant adiabatic cooling as the gas is uplifted by buoyantly rising bubbles; outside the cones, energy is supplied by the inflow of already-heated gas from the jet cones as well as adiabatic compression as the gas moves toward the center. In other words, the fluid dynamics self-adjusts such that it compensates and transports the heat provided by the AGN, and hence no fine-tuning of the heating profile of any process is necessary. Throughout the cluster evolution, turbulent energy is only at the percent level compared to gas thermal energy, and thus turbulent heating is not the main source of heating in our simulation.
Relativistic Hydrodynamics for Heavy-Ion Collisions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ollitrault, Jean-Yves
2008-01-01
Relativistic hydrodynamics is essential to our current understanding of nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies (current experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, forthcoming experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider). This is an introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics for graduate students. It includes a detailed…
New Hydrodynamic Flows in Fluctuating Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delacretaz, Luca; Lucas, Andy; Hartnoll, Sean; SITP Collaboration
Recent advances, both theoretical and experimental, have made it possible to observe hydrodynamic flow in electron systems such as graphene and extract hydrodynamic transport coefficients such as the shear viscosity. Following the same logic, I will show how certain flows in superconductors could show signatures of fluctuating superconductivity.
Compressed digital holography: from micro towards macro
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schretter, Colas; Bettens, Stijn; Blinder, David; Pesquet-Popescu, Béatrice; Cagnazzo, Marco; Dufaux, Frédéric; Schelkens, Peter
2016-09-01
signal processing methods from software-driven computer engineering and applied mathematics. The compressed sensing theory in particular established a practical framework for reconstructing the scene content using few linear combinations of complex measurements and a sparse prior for regularizing the solution. Compressed sensing found direct applications in digital holography for microscopy. Indeed, the wave propagation phenomenon in free space mixes in a natural way the spatial distribution of point sources from the 3-dimensional scene. As the 3-dimensional scene is mapped to a 2-dimensional hologram, the hologram samples form a compressed representation of the scene as well. This overview paper discusses contributions in the field of compressed digital holography at the micro scale. Then, an outreach on future extensions towards the real-size macro scale is discussed. Thanks to advances in sensor technologies, increasing computing power and the recent improvements in sparse digital signal processing, holographic modalities are on the verge of practical high-quality visualization at a macroscopic scale where much higher resolution holograms must be acquired and processed on the computer.
Baraffe, I.; Pratt, J.; Goffrey, T.
We study lithium depletion in low-mass and solar-like stars as a function of time, using a new diffusion coefficient describing extra-mixing taking place at the bottom of a convective envelope. This new form is motivated by multi-dimensional fully compressible, time-implicit hydrodynamic simulations performed with the MUSIC code. Intermittent convective mixing at the convective boundary in a star can be modeled using extreme value theory, a statistical analysis frequently used for finance, meteorology, and environmental science. In this Letter, we implement this statistical diffusion coefficient in a one-dimensional stellar evolution code, using parameters calibrated from multi-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of a youngmore » low-mass star. We propose a new scenario that can explain observations of the surface abundance of lithium in the Sun and in clusters covering a wide range of ages, from ∼50 Myr to ∼4 Gyr. Because it relies on our physical model of convective penetration, this scenario has a limited number of assumptions. It can explain the observed trend between rotation and depletion, based on a single additional assumption, namely, that rotation affects the mixing efficiency at the convective boundary. We suggest the existence of a threshold in stellar rotation rate above which rotation strongly prevents the vertical penetration of plumes and below which rotation has small effects. In addition to providing a possible explanation for the long-standing problem of lithium depletion in pre-main-sequence and main-sequence stars, the strength of our scenario is that its basic assumptions can be tested by future hydrodynamic simulations.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baraffe, I.; Pratt, J.; Goffrey, T.; Constantino, T.; Folini, D.; Popov, M. V.; Walder, R.; Viallet, M.
2017-08-01
We study lithium depletion in low-mass and solar-like stars as a function of time, using a new diffusion coefficient describing extra-mixing taking place at the bottom of a convective envelope. This new form is motivated by multi-dimensional fully compressible, time-implicit hydrodynamic simulations performed with the MUSIC code. Intermittent convective mixing at the convective boundary in a star can be modeled using extreme value theory, a statistical analysis frequently used for finance, meteorology, and environmental science. In this Letter, we implement this statistical diffusion coefficient in a one-dimensional stellar evolution code, using parameters calibrated from multi-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of a young low-mass star. We propose a new scenario that can explain observations of the surface abundance of lithium in the Sun and in clusters covering a wide range of ages, from ˜50 Myr to ˜4 Gyr. Because it relies on our physical model of convective penetration, this scenario has a limited number of assumptions. It can explain the observed trend between rotation and depletion, based on a single additional assumption, namely, that rotation affects the mixing efficiency at the convective boundary. We suggest the existence of a threshold in stellar rotation rate above which rotation strongly prevents the vertical penetration of plumes and below which rotation has small effects. In addition to providing a possible explanation for the long-standing problem of lithium depletion in pre-main-sequence and main-sequence stars, the strength of our scenario is that its basic assumptions can be tested by future hydrodynamic simulations.
Unsteady non-Newtonian hydrodynamics in granular gases.
Astillero, Antonio; Santos, Andrés
2012-02-01
The temporal evolution of a dilute granular gas, both in a compressible flow (uniform longitudinal flow) and in an incompressible flow (uniform shear flow), is investigated by means of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method to solve the Boltzmann equation. Emphasis is laid on the identification of a first "kinetic" stage (where the physical properties are strongly dependent on the initial state) subsequently followed by an unsteady "hydrodynamic" stage (where the momentum fluxes are well-defined non-Newtonian functions of the rate of strain). The simulation data are seen to support this two-stage scenario. Furthermore, the rheological functions obtained from simulation are well described by an approximate analytical solution of a model kinetic equation. © 2012 American Physical Society
Compressed domain indexing of losslessly compressed images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaefer, Gerald
2001-12-01
Image retrieval and image compression have been pursued separately in the past. Only little research has been done on a synthesis of the two by allowing image retrieval to be performed directly in the compressed domain of images without the need to uncompress them first. In this paper methods for image retrieval in the compressed domain of losslessly compressed images are introduced. While most image compression techniques are lossy, i.e. discard visually less significant information, lossless techniques are still required in fields like medical imaging or in situations where images must not be changed due to legal reasons. The algorithms in this paper are based on predictive coding methods where a pixel is encoded based on the pixel values of its (already encoded) neighborhood. The first method is based on an understanding that predictively coded data is itself indexable and represents a textural description of the image. The second method operates directly on the entropy encoded data by comparing codebooks of images. Experiments show good image retrieval results for both approaches.
A method of smoothed particle hydrodynamics using spheroidal kernels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fulbright, Michael S.; Benz, Willy; Davies, Melvyn B.
1995-01-01
We present a new method of three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) designed to model systems dominated by deformation along a preferential axis. These systems cause severe problems for SPH codes using spherical kernels, which are best suited for modeling systems which retain rough spherical symmetry. Our method allows the smoothing length in the direction of the deformation to evolve independently of the smoothing length in the perpendicular plane, resulting in a kernel with a spheroidal shape. As a result the spatial resolution in the direction of deformation is significantly improved. As a test case we present the one-dimensional homologous collapse of a zero-temperature, uniform-density cloud, which serves to demonstrate the advantages of spheroidal kernels. We also present new results on the problem of the tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole.
Quantum autoencoders for efficient compression of quantum data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romero, Jonathan; Olson, Jonathan P.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan
2017-12-01
Classical autoencoders are neural networks that can learn efficient low-dimensional representations of data in higher-dimensional space. The task of an autoencoder is, given an input x, to map x to a lower dimensional point y such that x can likely be recovered from y. The structure of the underlying autoencoder network can be chosen to represent the data on a smaller dimension, effectively compressing the input. Inspired by this idea, we introduce the model of a quantum autoencoder to perform similar tasks on quantum data. The quantum autoencoder is trained to compress a particular data set of quantum states, where a classical compression algorithm cannot be employed. The parameters of the quantum autoencoder are trained using classical optimization algorithms. We show an example of a simple programmable circuit that can be trained as an efficient autoencoder. We apply our model in the context of quantum simulation to compress ground states of the Hubbard model and molecular Hamiltonians.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reif, John H.
1987-01-01
A parallel compression algorithm for the 16,384 processor MPP machine was developed. The serial version of the algorithm can be viewed as a combination of on-line dynamic lossless test compression techniques (which employ simple learning strategies) and vector quantization. These concepts are described. How these concepts are combined to form a new strategy for performing dynamic on-line lossy compression is discussed. Finally, the implementation of this algorithm in a massively parallel fashion on the MPP is discussed.
Hemolytic potential of hydrodynamic cavitation.
Chambers, S D; Bartlett, R H; Ceccio, S L
2000-08-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the hemolytic potentials of discrete bubble cavitation and attached cavitation. To generate controlled cavitation events, a venturigeometry hydrodynamic device, called a Cavitation Susceptibility Meter (CSM), was constructed. A comparison between the hemolytic potential of discrete bubble cavitation and attached cavitation was investigated with a single-pass flow apparatus and a recirculating flow apparatus, both utilizing the CSM. An analytical model, based on spherical bubble dynamics, was developed for predicting the hemolysis caused by discrete bubble cavitation. Experimentally, discrete bubble cavitation did not correlate with a measurable increase in plasma-free hemoglobin (PFHb), as predicted by the analytical model. However, attached cavitation did result in significant PFHb generation. The rate of PFHb generation scaled inversely with the Cavitation number at a constant flow rate, suggesting that the size of the attached cavity was the dominant hemolytic factor.
Hydrodynamic interactions in DNA thermophoresis.
Ly, Aboubakry; Würger, Alois
2018-01-31
We theoretically study the molecular-weight dependence of DNA thermophoresis, which arises from mutual advection of the n repeat units of the molecular chain. As a main result we find that the dominant driving forces, i.e., the thermally induced permittivity gradient and the electrolyte Seebeck effect, result in characteristic hydrodynamic screening. In comparison with recent experimental data on single-stranded DNA (2 ≤ n ≤ 80), our theory provides a good description for the increase of the drift velocity up to n = 30; the slowing-down of longer molecules is well accounted for by a simple model for counterion condensation. It turns out that thermophoresis may change sign as a function of n: for an appropriate choice of the salt-specific Seebeck coefficient, short molecules move to the cold and long ones to the hot; this could be used for separating DNA by molecular weight.
Tail shortening by discrete hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiefer, J.; Visscher, P. B.
1982-02-01
A discrete formulation of hydrodynamics was recently introduced, whose most important feature is that it is exactly renormalizable. Previous numerical work has found that it provides a more efficient and rapidly convergent method for calculating transport coefficients than the usual Green-Kubo method. The latter's convergence difficulties are due to the well-known "long-time tail" of the time correlation function which must be integrated over time. The purpose of the present paper is to present additional evidence that these difficulties are really absent in the discrete equation of motion approach. The "memory" terms in the equation of motion are calculated accurately, and shown to decay much more rapidly with time than the equilibrium time correlations do.
The hydrodynamic theory of detonation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Langweiler, Heinz
1939-01-01
This report derives equations containing only directly measurable constants for the quantities involved in the hydrodynamic theory of detonation. The stable detonation speed, D, is revealed as having the lowest possible value in the case of positive material velocity, by finding the minimum of the Du curve (u denotes the speed of the gases of combustion). A study of the conditions of energy and impulse in freely suspended detonating systems leads to the disclosure of a rarefaction front traveling at a lower speed behind the detonation front; its velocity is computed. The latent energy of the explosive passes into the steadily growing detonation zone - the region between the detonation front and the rarefaction front. The conclusions lead to a new definition of the concept of shattering power. The calculations are based on the behavior of trinitrotoluene.
Anomalous hydrodynamics kicks neutron stars
Kaminski, Matthias; Uhlemann, Christoph F.; Bleicher, Marcus; ...
2016-06-28
Observations show that, at the beginning of their existence, neutron stars are accelerated briskly to velocities of up to a thousand kilometers per second. We argue that this remarkable effect can be explained as a manifestation of quantum anomalies on astrophysical scales. To theoretically describe the early stage in the life of neutron stars we use hydrodynamics as a systematic effective-field-theory framework. Within this framework, anomalies of the Standard Model of particle physics as underlying microscopic theory imply the presence of a particular set of transport terms, whose form is completely fixed by theoretical consistency. Here, the resulting chiral transportmore » effects in proto-neutron stars enhance neutrino emission along the internal magnetic field, and the recoil can explain the order of magnitude of the observed kick velocities.« less
Hydrodynamic enhanced dielectrophoretic particle trapping
Miles, Robin R.
2003-12-09
Hydrodynamic enhanced dielectrophoretic particle trapping carried out by introducing a side stream into the main stream to squeeze the fluid containing particles close to the electrodes producing the dielelectrophoretic forces. The region of most effective or the strongest forces in the manipulating fields of the electrodes producing the dielectrophoretic forces is close to the electrodes, within 100 .mu.m from the electrodes. The particle trapping arrangement uses a series of electrodes with an AC field placed between pairs of electrodes, which causes trapping of particles along the edges of the electrodes. By forcing an incoming flow stream containing cells and DNA, for example, close to the electrodes using another flow stream improves the efficiency of the DNA trapping.
The hydrodynamics of dolphin drafting
Weihs, Daniel
2004-01-01
Background Drafting in cetaceans is defined as the transfer of forces between individuals without actual physical contact between them. This behavior has long been surmised to explain how young dolphin calves keep up with their rapidly moving mothers. It has recently been observed that a significant number of calves become permanently separated from their mothers during chases by tuna vessels. A study of the hydrodynamics of drafting, initiated in the hope of understanding the mechanisms causing the separation of mothers and calves during fishing-related activities, is reported here. Results Quantitative results are shown for the forces and moments around a pair of unequally sized dolphin-like slender bodies. These include two major effects. First, the so-called Bernoulli suction, which stems from the fact that the local pressure drops in areas of high speed, results in an attractive force between mother and calf. Second is the displacement effect, in which the motion of the mother causes the water in front to move forwards and radially outwards, and water behind the body to move forwards to replace the animal's mass. Thus, the calf can gain a 'free ride' in the forward-moving areas. Utilizing these effects, the neonate can gain up to 90% of the thrust needed to move alongside the mother at speeds of up to 2.4 m/sec. A comparison with observations of eastern spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) is presented, showing savings of up to 60% in the thrust that calves require if they are to keep up with their mothers. Conclusions A theoretical analysis, backed by observations of free-swimming dolphin schools, indicates that hydrodynamic interactions with mothers play an important role in enabling dolphin calves to keep up with rapidly moving adult school members. PMID:15132740
Stellar Explosions: Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jose, Jordi
2016-01-01
Stars are the main factories of element production in the universe through a suite of complex and intertwined physical processes. Such stellar alchemy is driven by multiple nuclear interactions that through eons have transformed the pristine, metal-poor ashes leftover by the Big Bang into a cosmos with 100 distinct chemical species. The products of stellar nucleosynthesis frequently get mixed inside stars by convective transport or through hydrodynamic instabilities, and a fraction of them is eventually ejected into the interstellar medium, thus polluting the cosmos with gas and dust. The study of the physics of the stars and their role as nucleosynthesis factories owes much to cross-fertilization of different, somehow disconnected fields, ranging from observational astronomy, computational astrophysics, and cosmochemistry to experimental and theoretical nuclear physics. Few books have simultaneously addressed the multidisciplinary nature of this field in an engaging way suitable for students and young scientists. Providing the required multidisciplinary background in a coherent way has been the driving force for Stellar Explosions: Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis. Written by a specialist in stellar astrophysics, this book presents a rigorous but accessible treatment of the physics of stellar explosions from a multidisciplinary perspective at the crossroads of computational astrophysics, observational astronomy, cosmochemistry, and nuclear physics. Basic concepts from all these different fields are applied to the study of classical and recurrent novae, type I and II supernovae, X-ray bursts and superbursts, and stellar mergers. The book shows how a multidisciplinary approach has been instrumental in our understanding of nucleosynthesis in stars, particularly during explosive events.
Stellar Explosions: Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
José, Jordi
2015-12-01
Stars are the main factories of element production in the universe through a suite of complex and intertwined physical processes. Such stellar alchemy is driven by multiple nuclear interactions that through eons have transformed the pristine, metal-poor ashes leftover by the Big Bang into a cosmos with 100 distinct chemical species. The products of stellar nucleosynthesis frequently get mixed inside stars by convective transport or through hydrodynamic instabilities, and a fraction of them is eventually ejected into the interstellar medium, thus polluting the cosmos with gas and dust. The study of the physics of the stars and their role as nucleosynthesis factories owes much to cross-fertilization of different, somehow disconnected fields, ranging from observational astronomy, computational astrophysics, and cosmochemistry to experimental and theoretical nuclear physics. Few books have simultaneously addressed the multidisciplinary nature of this field in an engaging way suitable for students and young scientists. Providing the required multidisciplinary background in a coherent way has been the driving force for Stellar Explosions: Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis. Written by a specialist in stellar astrophysics, this book presents a rigorous but accessible treatment of the physics of stellar explosions from a multidisciplinary perspective at the crossroads of computational astrophysics, observational astronomy, cosmochemistry, and nuclear physics. Basic concepts from all these different fields are applied to the study of classical and recurrent novae, type I and II supernovae, X-ray bursts and superbursts, and stellar mergers. The book shows how a multidisciplinary approach has been instrumental in our understanding of nucleosynthesis in stars, particularly during explosive events.
Sequential neural text compression.
Schmidhuber, J; Heil, S
1996-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to show that neural networks may be promising tools for data compression without loss of information. We combine predictive neural nets and statistical coding techniques to compress text files. We apply our methods to certain short newspaper articles and obtain compression ratios exceeding those of the widely used Lempel-Ziv algorithms (which build the basis of the UNIX functions "compress" and "gzip"). The main disadvantage of our methods is that they are about three orders of magnitude slower than standard methods.
Biological sequence compression algorithms.
Matsumoto, T; Sadakane, K; Imai, H
2000-01-01
Today, more and more DNA sequences are becoming available. The information about DNA sequences are stored in molecular biology databases. The size and importance of these databases will be bigger and bigger in the future, therefore this information must be stored or communicated efficiently. Furthermore, sequence compression can be used to define similarities between biological sequences. The standard compression algorithms such as gzip or compress cannot compress DNA sequences, but only expand them in size. On the other hand, CTW (Context Tree Weighting Method) can compress DNA sequences less than two bits per symbol. These algorithms do not use special structures of biological sequences. Two characteristic structures of DNA sequences are known. One is called palindromes or reverse complements and the other structure is approximate repeats. Several specific algorithms for DNA sequences that use these structures can compress them less than two bits per symbol. In this paper, we improve the CTW so that characteristic structures of DNA sequences are available. Before encoding the next symbol, the algorithm searches an approximate repeat and palindrome using hash and dynamic programming. If there is a palindrome or an approximate repeat with enough length then our algorithm represents it with length and distance. By using this preprocessing, a new program achieves a little higher compression ratio than that of existing DNA-oriented compression algorithms. We also describe new compression algorithm for protein sequences.