Multiexponential models of (1+1)-dimensional dilaton gravity and Toda-Liouville integrable models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Alfaro, V.; Filippov, A. T.
2010-01-01
We study general properties of a class of two-dimensional dilaton gravity (DG) theories with potentials containing several exponential terms. We isolate and thoroughly study a subclass of such theories in which the equations of motion reduce to Toda and Liouville equations. We show that the equation parameters must satisfy a certain constraint, which we find and solve for the most general multiexponential model. It follows from the constraint that integrable Toda equations in DG theories generally cannot appear without accompanying Liouville equations. The most difficult problem in the two-dimensional Toda-Liouville (TL) DG is to solve the energy and momentum constraints. We discuss this problem using the simplest examples and identify the main obstacles to solving it analytically. We then consider a subclass of integrable two-dimensional theories where scalar matter fields satisfy the Toda equations and the two-dimensional metric is trivial. We consider the simplest case in some detail. In this example, we show how to obtain the general solution. We also show how to simply derive wavelike solutions of general TL systems. In the DG theory, these solutions describe nonlinear waves coupled to gravity and also static states and cosmologies. For static states and cosmologies, we propose and study a more general one-dimensional TL model typically emerging in one-dimensional reductions of higher-dimensional gravity and supergravity theories. We especially attend to making the analytic structure of the solutions of the Toda equations as simple and transparent as possible.
(2 + 1)-dimensional interacting model of two massless spin-2 fields as a bi-gravity model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoseinzadeh, S.; Rezaei-Aghdam, A.
2018-06-01
We propose a new group-theoretical (Chern-Simons) formulation for the bi-metric theory of gravity in (2 + 1)-dimensional spacetime which describe two interacting massless spin-2 fields. Our model has been formulated in terms of two dreibeins rather than two metrics. We obtain our Chern-Simons gravity model by gauging mixed AdS-AdS Lie algebra and show that it has a two dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) at the boundary of the anti de Sitter (AdS) solution. We show that the central charge of the dual CFT is proportional to the mass of the AdS solution. We also study cosmological implications of our massless bi-gravity model.
Constraining Mass Anomalies Using Trans-dimensional Gravity Inversions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Izquierdo, K.; Montesi, L.; Lekic, V.
2016-12-01
The density structure of planetary interiors constitutes a key constraint on their composition, temperature, and dynamics. This has motivated the development of non-invasive methods to infer 3D distribution of density anomalies within a planet's interior using gravity observations made from the surface or orbit. On Earth, this information can be supplemented by seismic and electromagnetic observations, but such data are generally not available on other planets and inferences must be made from gravity observations alone. Unfortunately, inferences of density anomalies from gravity are non-unique and even the dimensionality of the problem - i.e., the number of density anomalies detectable in the planetary interior - is unknown. In this project, we use the Reversible Jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (RJMCMC) algorithm to approach gravity inversions in a trans-dimensional way, that is, considering the magnitude of the mass, the latitude, longitude, depth and number of anomalies itself as unknowns to be constrained by the observed gravity field at the surface of a planet. Our approach builds upon previous work using trans-dimensional gravity inversions in which the density contrast between the anomaly and the surrounding material is known. We validate the algorithm by analyzing a synthetic gravity field produced by a known density structure and comparing the retrieved and input density structures. We find excellent agreement between the input and retrieved structure when working in 1D and 2D domains. However, in 3D domains, comprehensive exploration of the much larger space of possible models makes search efficiency a key ingredient in successful gravity inversion. We find that upon a sufficiently long RJMCMC run, it is possible to use statistical information to recover a predicted model that matches the real model. We argue that even more complex problems, such as those involving real gravity acceleration data of a planet as the constraint, our trans-dimensional gravity
An IBM-compatible program for interactive three-dimensional gravity modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broome, John
1992-04-01
G3D is a 3-D interactive gravity modeling program for IBM-compatible microcomputers. The program allows a model to be created interactively by defining multiple tabular bodies with horizontal tops and bottoms. The resulting anomaly is calculated using Plouff's algorithm at up to 2000 predefined random or regularly located points. In order to display the anomaly as a color image, the point data are interpolated onto a regular grid and quantized into discrete intervals. Observed and residual gravity field images also can be generated. Adjustments to the model are made using a graphics cursor to move, insert, and delete body points or whole bodies. To facilitate model changes, planview body outlines can be overlain on any of the gravity field images during editing. The model's geometry can be displayed in planview or along a user-defined vertical section. G3D is written in Microsoft® FORTRAN and utilizes the Halo-Professional® (or Halo-88®) graphics subroutine library. The program is written for use on an IBM-compatible microcomputer equipped with hard disk, numeric coprocessor, and VGA, Number Nine Revolution (Halo-88® only), or TIGA® compatible graphics cards. A mouse or digitizing tablet is recommended for cursor positioning. Program source code, a user's guide, and sample data are available as Geological Survey of Canada Open File (G3D: A Three-dimensional Gravity Modeling Program for IBM-compatible Microcomputers).
Higher-order gravity in higher dimensions: geometrical origins of four-dimensional cosmology?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Troisi, Antonio
2017-03-01
Determining the cosmological field equations is still very much debated and led to a wide discussion around different theoretical proposals. A suitable conceptual scheme could be represented by gravity models that naturally generalize Einstein theory like higher-order gravity theories and higher-dimensional ones. Both of these two different approaches allow one to define, at the effective level, Einstein field equations equipped with source-like energy-momentum tensors of geometrical origin. In this paper, the possibility is discussed to develop a five-dimensional fourth-order gravity model whose lower-dimensional reduction could provide an interpretation of cosmological four-dimensional matter-energy components. We describe the basic concepts of the model, the complete field equations formalism and the 5-D to 4-D reduction procedure. Five-dimensional f( R) field equations turn out to be equivalent, on the four-dimensional hypersurfaces orthogonal to the extra coordinate, to an Einstein-like cosmological model with three matter-energy tensors related with higher derivative and higher-dimensional counter-terms. By considering the gravity model with f(R)=f_0R^n the possibility is investigated to obtain five-dimensional power law solutions. The effective four-dimensional picture and the behaviour of the geometrically induced sources are finally outlined in correspondence to simple cases of such higher-dimensional solutions.
(Compactified) black branes in four dimensional f(R)-gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dimakis, N.; Giacomini, Alex; Paliathanasis, Andronikos
2018-02-01
A new family of analytical solutions in a four dimensional static spacetime is presented for f (R) -gravity. In contrast to General Relativity, we find that a non trivial black brane/string solution is supported in vacuum power law f (R) -gravity for appropriate values of the parameters characterizing the model and when axisymmetry is introduced in the line element. For the aforementioned solution, we perform a brief investigation over its basic thermodynamic quantities.
Geometric actions for three-dimensional gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnich, G.; González, H. A.; Salgado-Rebolledo, P.
2018-01-01
The solution space of three-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter or flat Einstein gravity is given by the coadjoint representation of two copies of the Virasoro group in the former and the centrally extended BMS3 group in the latter case. Dynamical actions that control these solution spaces are usually constructed by starting from the Chern–Simons formulation and imposing all boundary conditions. In this note, an alternative route is followed. We study in detail how to derive these actions from a group-theoretical viewpoint by constructing geometric actions for each of the coadjoint orbits, including the appropriate Hamiltonians. We briefly sketch relevant generalizations and potential applications beyond three-dimensional gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Wei; Hsu, Hou-Tse; Zhong, Min; Yun, Mei-Juan
2012-10-01
The accuracy of the Earth's gravitational field measured from the gravity field and steady-state ocean circulation explorer (GOCE), up to 250 degrees, influenced by the radial gravity gradient Vzz and three-dimensional gravity gradient Vij from the satellite gravity gradiometry (SGG) are contrastively demonstrated based on the analytical error model and numerical simulation, respectively. Firstly, the new analytical error model of the cumulative geoid height, influenced by the radial gravity gradient Vzz and three-dimensional gravity gradient Vij are established, respectively. In 250 degrees, the GOCE cumulative geoid height error measured by the radial gravity gradient Vzz is about 2½ times higher than that measured by the three-dimensional gravity gradient Vij. Secondly, the Earth's gravitational field from GOCE completely up to 250 degrees is recovered using the radial gravity gradient Vzz and three-dimensional gravity gradient Vij by numerical simulation, respectively. The study results show that when the measurement error of the gravity gradient is 3 × 10-12/s2, the cumulative geoid height errors using the radial gravity gradient Vzz and three-dimensional gravity gradient Vij are 12.319 cm and 9.295 cm at 250 degrees, respectively. The accuracy of the cumulative geoid height using the three-dimensional gravity gradient Vij is improved by 30%-40% on average compared with that using the radial gravity gradient Vzz in 250 degrees. Finally, by mutual verification of the analytical error model and numerical simulation, the orders of magnitude from the accuracies of the Earth's gravitational field recovery make no substantial differences based on the radial and three-dimensional gravity gradients, respectively. Therefore, it is feasible to develop in advance a radial cold-atom interferometric gradiometer with a measurement accuracy of 10-13/s2-10-15/s2 for precisely producing the next-generation GOCE Follow-On Earth gravity field model with a high spatial
Classical defects in higher-dimensional Einstein gravity coupled to nonlinear σ -models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasetyo, Ilham; Ramadhan, Handhika S.
2017-09-01
We construct solutions of higher-dimensional Einstein gravity coupled to nonlinear σ -model with cosmological constant. The σ -model can be perceived as exterior configuration of a spontaneously-broken SO(D-1) global higher-codimensional "monopole". Here we allow the kinetic term of the σ -model to be noncanonical; in particular we specifically study a quadratic-power-law type. This is some possible higher-dimensional generalization of the Bariola-Vilenkin (BV) solutions with k-global monopole studied recently. The solutions can be perceived as the exterior solution of a black hole swallowing up noncanonical global defects. Even in the absence of comological constant its surrounding spacetime is asymptotically non-flat; it suffers from deficit solid angle. We discuss the corresponding horizons. For Λ >0 in 4 d there can exist three extremal conditions (the cold, ultracold, and Nariai black holes), while in higher-than-four dimensions the extremal black hole is only Nariai. For Λ <0 we only have black hole solutions with one horizon, save for the 4 d case where there can exist two horizons. We give constraints on the mass and the symmetry-breaking scale for the existence of all the extremal cases. In addition, we also obtain factorized solutions, whose topology is the direct product of two-dimensional spaces of constant curvature (M_2, dS_2, or AdS_2) with (D-2)-sphere. We study all possible factorized channels.
Maartens, Roy; Koyama, Kazuya
2010-01-01
The observable universe could be a 1+3-surface (the "brane") embedded in a 1+3+ d -dimensional spacetime (the "bulk"), with Standard Model particles and fields trapped on the brane while gravity is free to access the bulk. At least one of the d extra spatial dimensions could be very large relative to the Planck scale, which lowers the fundamental gravity scale, possibly even down to the electroweak (∼ TeV) level. This revolutionary picture arises in the framework of recent developments in M theory. The 1+10-dimensional M theory encompasses the known 1+9-dimensional superstring theories, and is widely considered to be a promising potential route to quantum gravity. At low energies, gravity is localized at the brane and general relativity is recovered, but at high energies gravity "leaks" into the bulk, behaving in a truly higher-dimensional way. This introduces significant changes to gravitational dynamics and perturbations, with interesting and potentially testable implications for high-energy astrophysics, black holes, and cosmology. Brane-world models offer a phenomenological way to test some of the novel predictions and corrections to general relativity that are implied by M theory. This review analyzes the geometry, dynamics and perturbations of simple brane-world models for cosmology and astrophysics, mainly focusing on warped 5-dimensional brane-worlds based on the Randall-Sundrum models. We also cover the simplest brane-world models in which 4-dimensional gravity on the brane is modified at low energies - the 5-dimensional Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati models. Then we discuss co-dimension two branes in 6-dimensional models.
Three-dimensional Gravity Modeling of Ocean Core Complexes at the Central Indian Ridge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, S. S.; Chandler, M. T.; Pak, S. J.; Son, S. K.
2017-12-01
The spatial distribution of ocean core complexes (OCCs) on mid-ocean ridge flanks can indicate the variation of magmatism and tectonic extension at a given spreading center. A recent study revealed 11 prominent OCCs developed along the middle portion of the Central Indian Ridge (CIR) based on the high-resolution shipboard bathymetry. The CIR is located between the Carlsberg Ridge and the Indian Ocean triple junction. The detailed morphotectonic interpretations from the recent study suggested that the middle ridge segments of the CIR were mainly developed through tectonic extension with little magmatism. Furthermore, the OCCs exposed by detachment faults appear to the main host for active off-axis hydrothermal circulations. Here we form a three-dimensional gravity model to investigate the crustal structures of OCCs developed between 12oS and 14oS at the CIR. These OCCs exhibit domal topographic highs with corrugated surface. The rock samples from these areas include deep-seated rocks such as serpentinized harzburgite and gabbro. A typical gravity study on mid-ocean ridges assumes a constant density contrast along the water-crust interface and constant crustal thickness and removes its gravitational contributions and thermal effects of lithospheric cooling from the free-air gravity anomaly. This approach is effective to distinguish anomalous regions that deviate from the applied crustal and thermal models. The oceanic crust around the OCCs, however, tends to be thinned due to detachment faulting and tectonic extension. In this study, we include multi-layers with different density contrast and variable thickness to approximate gravity anomalies resulting from the OCCs. In addition, we aim to differentiate the geophysical characteristics of the OCCs from the nearby ridge segments and infer tectonic relationship between the OCCs and ridges.
Two- and Three-Dimensional Probes of Parity in Primordial Gravity Waves.
Masui, Kiyoshi Wesley; Pen, Ue-Li; Turok, Neil
2017-06-02
We show that three-dimensional information is critical to discerning the effects of parity violation in the primordial gravity-wave background. If present, helical gravity waves induce parity-violating correlations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) between parity-odd polarization B modes and parity-even temperature anisotropies (T) or polarization E modes. Unfortunately, EB correlations are much weaker than would be naively expected, which we show is due to an approximate symmetry resulting from the two-dimensional nature of the CMB. The detectability of parity-violating correlations is exacerbated by the fact that the handedness of individual modes cannot be discerned in the two-dimensional CMB, leading to a noise contribution from scalar matter perturbations. In contrast, the tidal imprints of primordial gravity waves fossilized into the large-scale structure of the Universe are a three-dimensional probe of parity violation. Using such fossils the handedness of gravity waves may be determined on a mode-by-mode basis, permitting future surveys to probe helicity at the percent level if the amplitude of primordial gravity waves is near current observational upper limits.
Simulations of four-dimensional simplicial quantum gravity as dynamical triangulation
Agishtein, M.E.; Migdal, A.A.
1992-04-20
In this paper, Four-Dimensional Simplicial Quantum Gravity is simulated using the dynamical triangulation approach. The authors studied simplicial manifolds of spherical topology and found the critical line for the cosmological constant as a function of the gravitational one, separating the phases of opened and closed Universe. When the bare cosmological constant approaches this line from above, the four-volume grows: the authors reached about 5 {times} 10{sup 4} simplexes, which proved to be sufficient for the statistical limit of infinite volume. However, for the genuine continuum theory of gravity, the parameters of the lattice model should be further adjusted to reachmore » the second order phase transition point, where the correlation length grows to infinity. The authors varied the gravitational constant, and they found the first order phase transition, similar to the one found in three-dimensional model, except in 4D the fluctuations are rather large at the transition point, so that this is close to the second order phase transition. The average curvature in cutoff units is large and positive in one phase (gravity), and small negative in another (antigravity). The authors studied the fractal geometry of both phases, using the heavy particle propagator to define the geodesic map, as well as with the old approach using the shortest lattice paths.« less
Three-dimensional fractional-spin gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boulanger, Nicolas; Sundell, Per; Valenzuela, Mauricio
2014-02-01
Using Wigner-deformed Heisenberg oscillators, we construct 3D Chern-Simons models consisting of fractional-spin fields coupled to higher-spin gravity and internal nonabelian gauge fields. The gauge algebras consist of Lorentz-tensorial Blencowe-Vasiliev higher-spin algebras and compact internal algebras intertwined by infinite-dimensional generators in lowest-weight representations of the Lorentz algebra with fractional spin. In integer or half-integer non-unitary cases, there exist truncations to gl(ℓ , ℓ ± 1) or gl(ℓ|ℓ ± 1) models. In all non-unitary cases, the internal gauge fields can be set to zero. At the semi-classical level, the fractional-spin fields are either Grassmann even or odd. The action requires the enveloping-algebra representation of the deformed oscillators, while their Fock-space representation suffices on-shell. The project was funded in part by F.R.S.-FNRS " Ulysse" Incentive Grant for Mobility in Scientific Research.
Three-Dimensional Upward Flame Spreading in Partial-Gravity Buoyant Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Feier, Ioan I.; Shih, Hsin-Yi; T'ien, James S.
2001-01-01
Reduced-gravity environments have been used to establish low-speed, purely forced flows for both opposed- and concurrent-flow flame spread studies. Altenkirch's group obtained spacebased experimental results and developed unsteady, two-dimensional numerical simulations of opposed-flow flame spread including gas-phase radiation, primarily away from the flammability limit for thin fuels, but including observations of thick fuel quenching in quiescent environments. T'ien's group contributed some early flame spreading results for thin fuels both in opposed flow and concurrent flow regimes, with more focus on near-limit conditions. T'ien's group also developed two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations of concurrent-flow flame spread incorporating gas-phase radiative models, including predictions of a radiatively-induced quenching limit reached in very low-speed air flows. Radiative quenching has been subsequently observed in other studies of combustion in very low-speed flows including other flame spread investigations, droplet combustion and homogeneous diffusion flames, and is the subject of several contemporary studies reported in this workshop. Using NASA aircraft flying partial-gravity "parabolic" trajectories, flame spreading in purely buoyant, opposed-flow (downward burning) has been studied. These results indicated increases in flame spread rates and enhanced flammability (lower limiting atmospheric oxygen content) as gravity levels were reduced from normal Earth gravity, and were consistent with earlier data obtained by Altenkirch using a centrifuge. In this work, experimental results and a three-dimensional numerical simulation of upward flame spreading in variable partial-gravity environments were obtained including some effects of reduced pressure and variable sample width. The simulation provides physical insight for interpreting the experimental results and shows the intrinsic 3-D nature of buoyant, upward flame spreading. This study is intended to
Circulation-based Modeling of Gravity Currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meiburg, E. H.; Borden, Z.
2013-05-01
Atmospheric and oceanic flows driven by predominantly horizontal density differences, such as sea breezes, thunderstorm outflows, powder snow avalanches, and turbidity currents, are frequently modeled as gravity currents. Efforts to develop simplified models of such currents date back to von Karman (1940), who considered a two-dimensional gravity current in an inviscid, irrotational and infinitely deep ambient. Benjamin (1968) presented an alternative model, focusing on the inviscid, irrotational flow past a gravity current in a finite-depth channel. More recently, Shin et al. (2004) proposed a model for gravity currents generated by partial-depth lock releases, considering a control volume that encompasses both fronts. All of the above models, in addition to the conservation of mass and horizontal momentum, invoke Bernoulli's law along some specific streamline in the flow field, in order to obtain a closed system of equations that can be solved for the front velocity as function of the current height. More recent computational investigations based on the Navier-Stokes equations, on the other hand, reproduce the dynamics of gravity currents based on the conservation of mass and momentum alone. We propose that it should therefore be possible to formulate a fundamental gravity current model without invoking Bernoulli's law. The talk will show that the front velocity of gravity currents can indeed be predicted as a function of their height from mass and momentum considerations alone, by considering the evolution of interfacial vorticity. This approach does not require information on the pressure field and therefore avoids the need for an energy closure argument such as those invoked by the earlier models. Predictions by the new theory are shown to be in close agreement with direct numerical simulation results. References Von Karman, T. 1940 The engineer grapples with nonlinear problems, Bull. Am. Math Soc. 46, 615-683. Benjamin, T.B. 1968 Gravity currents and related
Metric dimensional reduction at singularities with implications to Quantum Gravity
Stoica, Ovidiu Cristinel, E-mail: holotronix@gmail.com
2014-08-15
A series of old and recent theoretical observations suggests that the quantization of gravity would be feasible, and some problems of Quantum Field Theory would go away if, somehow, the spacetime would undergo a dimensional reduction at high energy scales. But an identification of the deep mechanism causing this dimensional reduction would still be desirable. The main contribution of this article is to show that dimensional reduction effects are due to General Relativity at singularities, and do not need to be postulated ad-hoc. Recent advances in understanding the geometry of singularities do not require modification of General Relativity, being justmore » non-singular extensions of its mathematics to the limit cases. They turn out to work fine for some known types of cosmological singularities (black holes and FLRW Big-Bang), allowing a choice of the fundamental geometric invariants and physical quantities which remain regular. The resulting equations are equivalent to the standard ones outside the singularities. One consequence of this mathematical approach to the singularities in General Relativity is a special, (geo)metric type of dimensional reduction: at singularities, the metric tensor becomes degenerate in certain spacetime directions, and some properties of the fields become independent of those directions. Effectively, it is like one or more dimensions of spacetime just vanish at singularities. This suggests that it is worth exploring the possibility that the geometry of singularities leads naturally to the spontaneous dimensional reduction needed by Quantum Gravity. - Highlights: • The singularities we introduce are described by finite geometric/physical objects. • Our singularities are accompanied by dimensional reduction effects. • They affect the metric, the measure, the topology, the gravitational DOF (Weyl = 0). • Effects proposed in other approaches to Quantum Gravity are obtained naturally. • The geometric dimensional reduction
A one-dimensional model of the semiannual oscillation driven by convectively forced gravity waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sassi, Fabrizio; Garcia, Rolando R.
1994-01-01
A one-dimensional model that solves the time-dependent equations for the zonal mean wind and a wave of specified zonal wavenumber has been used to illustrate the ability of gravity waves forced by time-dependent tropospheric heating to produce a semiannual oscillation (SAO) in the middle atmosphere. When the heating has a strong diurnal cycle, as observed over tropical landmasses, gravity waves with zonal wavelengths of a few thousand kilometers and phase velocities in the range +/- 40-50 m/sec are excited efficiently by the maximum vertical projection criterion (vertical wavelength approximately equals 2 x forcing depth). Calculations show that these waves can account for large zonal mean wind accelerations in the middle atmosphere, resulting in realistic stratopause and mesopause oscillations. Calculations of the temporal evolution of a quasi-conserved tracer indicate strong down-welling in the upper stratosphere near the equinoxes, which is associated with the descent of the SAO westerlies. In the upper mesosphere, there is a semiannual oscillation in tracer mixing ratio driven by seasonal variability in eddy mixing, which increases at the solstices and decreases at the equinoxes.
On the Liouville 2D dilaton gravity models with sinh-Gordon matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frolov, Valeri P.; Zelnikov, Andrei
2018-02-01
We study 1 + 1 dimensional dilaton gravity models which take into account backreaction of the sinh-Gordon matter field. We found a wide class of exact solutions which generalizes black hole solutions of the Jackiw-Teitelboim gravity model and its hyperbolic deformation.
Four-dimensional black holes in Einsteinian cubic gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bueno, Pablo; Cano, Pablo A.
2016-12-01
We construct static and spherically symmetric generalizations of the Schwarzschild- and Reissner-Nordström-(anti-)de Sitter [RN-(A)dS] black-hole solutions in four-dimensional Einsteinian cubic gravity (ECG). The solutions are characterized by a single function which satisfies a nonlinear second-order differential equation. Interestingly, we are able to compute independently the Hawking temperature T , the Wald entropy S and the Abbott-Deser mass M of the solutions analytically as functions of the horizon radius and the ECG coupling constant λ . Using these we show that the first law of black-hole mechanics is exactly satisfied. Some of the solutions have positive specific heat, which makes them thermodynamically stable, even in the uncharged and asymptotically flat case. Further, we claim that, up to cubic order in curvature, ECG is the most general four-dimensional theory of gravity which allows for nontrivial generalizations of Schwarzschild- and RN-(A)dS characterized by a single function which reduce to the usual Einstein gravity solutions when the corresponding higher-order couplings are set to zero.
Standard 4D gravity on a brane in six-dimensional flux compactifications
Peloso, Marco; Sorbo, Lorenzo; Tasinato, Gianmassimo
We consider a six-dimensional space-time, in which two of the dimensions are compactified by a flux. Matter can be localized on a codimension one brane coupled to the bulk gauge field and wrapped around an axis of symmetry of the internal space. By studying the linear perturbations around this background, we show that the gravitational interaction between sources on the brane is described by Einstein 4D gravity at large distances. Our model provides a consistent setup for the study of gravity in the rugby (or football) compactification, without having to deal with the complications of a deltalike, codimension two brane.more » To our knowledge, this is the first complete study of gravity in a realistic brane model with two extra dimensions, in which the mechanism of stabilization of the extra space is fully taken into account.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Accioly, Antonio; Helayël-Neto, José; Barone, F. E.; Herdy, Wallace
2015-02-01
A straightforward prescription for computing the D-dimensional potential energy of gravitational models, which is strongly based on the Feynman path integral, is built up. Using this method, the static potential energy for the interaction of two masses is found in the context of D-dimensional higher-derivative gravity models, and its behavior is analyzed afterwards in both ultraviolet and infrared regimes. As a consequence, two new gravity systems in which the potential energy is finite at the origin, respectively, in D = 5 and D = 6, are found. Since the aforementioned prescription is equivalent to that based on the marriage between quantum mechanics (to leading order, i.e., in the first Born approximation) and the nonrelativistic limit of quantum field theory, and bearing in mind that the latter relies basically on the calculation of the nonrelativistic Feynman amplitude ({{M}NR}), a trivial expression for computing {{M}NR} is obtained from our prescription as an added bonus.
Higher Spin Fields in Three-Dimensional Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lepage-Jutier, Arnaud
In this thesis, we study the effects of massless higher spin fields in three-dimensional gravity with a negative cosmological constant. First, we introduce gravity in Anti-de Sitter (AdS) space without the higher spin gauge symmetry. We recapitulate the semi-classical analysis that outlines the duality between quantum gravity in three dimensions with a negative cosmological constant and a conformal field theory on the asymptotic boundary of AdS 3. We review the statistical interpretation of the black hole entropy via the AdS/CFT correspondence and the modular invariance of the partition function of a CFT on a torus. For the case of higher spin theories in AdS 3 we use those modular properties to bound the amount of gauge symmetry present. We then discuss briefly cases that can evade this bound.
Topics in Covariant Closed String Field Theory and Two-Dimensional Quantum Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saadi, Maha
1991-01-01
The closed string field theory based on the Witten vertex is found to be nonpolynomial in order to reproduce all tree amplitudes correctly. The interactions have a geometrical pattern of overlaps, which can be thought as the edges of a spherical polyhedron with face-perimeters equal to 2pi. At each vertex of the polyhedron there are three faces, thus all elementary interactions are cubic in the sense that at most three strings can coincide at a point. The quantum action is constructed by substracting counterterms which cancel the overcounting of moduli space, and by adding loop vertices in such a way no possible surfaces are missed. A counterterm that gives the correct one-string one-loop amplitude is formulated. The lowest order loop vertices are analyzed in the cases of genus one and two. Also, a one-loop two -string counterterm that restores BRST invariance to the respective scattering amplitude is constructed. An attempt to understand the formulation of two -dimensional pure gravity from the discrete representation of a two-dimensional surface is made. This is considered as a toy model of string theory. A well-defined mathematical model is used. Its continuum limit cannot be naively interpreted as pure gravity because each term of the sum over surfaces is not positive definite. The model, however, could be considered as an analytic continuation of the standard matrix model formulation of gravity. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
La Rocca, Michele; Adduce, Claudia; Sciortino, Giampiero; Pinzon, Allen Bateman
2008-10-01
The dynamics of a three-dimensional gravity current is investigated by both laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. The experiments take place in a rectangular tank, which is divided into two square reservoirs with a wall containing a sliding gate of width b. The two reservoirs are filled to the same height H, one with salt water and the other with fresh water. The gravity current starts its evolution as soon as the sliding gate is manually opened. Experiments are conducted with either smooth or rough surface on the bottom of the tank. The bottom roughness is created by gluing sediment material of different diameters to the surface. Five diameter values for the surface roughness and two salinity conditions for the fluid are investigated. The mathematical model is based on shallow-water theory together with the single-layer approximation, so that the model is strictly hyperbolic and can be put into conservative form. Consequently, a finite-volume-based numerical algorithm can be applied. The Godunov formulation is used together with Roe's approximate Riemann solver. Comparisons between the numerical and experimental results show satisfactory agreement. The behavior of the gravity current is quite unusual and cannot be interpreted using the usual model framework adopted for two-dimensional and axisymmetric gravity currents. Two main phases are apparent in the gravity current evolution; during the first phase the front velocity increases, and during the second phase the front velocity decreases and the dimensionless results, relative to the different densities, collapse onto the same curve. A systematic discrepancy is seen between the numerical and experimental results, mainly during the first phase of the gravity current evolution. This discrepancy is attributed to the limits of the mathematical formulation, in particular, the neglect of entrainment in the mathematical model. An interesting result arises from the influence of the bottom surface roughness
McKee, Edwin H.; Hildenbrand, Thomas G.; Anderson, Megan L.; Rowley, Peter D.; Sawyer, David A.
1999-01-01
The structural framework of Pahute Mesa, Nevada, is dominated by the Silent Canyon caldera complex, a buried, multiple collapse caldera complex. Using the boundary surface between low density Tertiary volcanogenic rocks and denser granitic and weakly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks (basement) as the outer fault surfaces for the modeled collapse caldera complex, it is postulated that the caldera complex collapsed on steeply- dipping arcuate faults two, possibly three, times following eruption of at least two major ash-flow tuffs. The caldera and most of its eruptive products are now deeply buried below the surface of Pahute Mesa. Relatively low-density rocks in the caldera complex produce one of the largest gravity lows in the western conterminous United States. Gravity modeling defines a steep sided, cup-shaped depression as much as 6,000 meters (19,800 feet) deep that is surrounded and floored by denser rocks. The steeply dipping surface located between the low-density basin fill and the higher density external rocks is considered to be the surface of the ring faults of the multiple calderas. Extrapolation of this surface upward to the outer, or topographic rim, of the Silent Canyon caldera complex defines the upper part of the caldera collapse structure. Rock units within and outside the Silent Canyon caldera complex are combined into seven hydrostratigraphic units based on their predominant hydrologic characteristics. The caldera structures and other faults on Pahute Mesa are used with the seven hydrostratigraphic units to make a three-dimensional geologic model of Pahute Mesa using the "EarthVision" (Dynamic Graphics, Inc.) modeling computer program. This method allows graphic representation of the geometry of the rocks and produces computer generated cross sections, isopach maps, and three-dimensional oriented diagrams. These products have been created to aid in visualizing and modeling the ground-water flow system beneath Pahute Mesa.
Energy theorem for (2+1)-dimensional gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menotti, P.; Seminara, D.
1995-05-01
We prove a positive energy theorem in (2+1)-dimensional gravity for open universes and any matter energy-momentum tensor satisfying the dominant energy condition. We consider on the space-like initial value surface a family of widening Wilson loops and show that the energy-momentum of the enclosed subsystem is a future directed time-like vector whose mass is an increasing function of the loop, until it reaches the value 1/4G corresponding to a deficit angle of 2π. At this point the energy-momentum of the system evolves, depending on the nature of a zero norm vector appearing in the evolution equations, either into a time-like vector of a universe which closes kinematically or into a Gott-like universe whose energy momentum vector, as first recognized by Deser, Jackiw, and 't Hooft (1984) is space-like. This treatment generalizes results obtained by Carroll, Fahri, Guth, and Olum (1994) for a system of point-like spinless particle, to the most general form of matter whose energy-momentum tensor satisfies the dominant energy condition. The treatment is also given for the anti-de Sitter (2+1)-dimensional gravity.
An Online Gravity Modeling Method Applied for High Precision Free-INS
Wang, Jing; Yang, Gongliu; Li, Jing; Zhou, Xiao
2016-01-01
For real-time solution of inertial navigation system (INS), the high-degree spherical harmonic gravity model (SHM) is not applicable because of its time and space complexity, in which traditional normal gravity model (NGM) has been the dominant technique for gravity compensation. In this paper, a two-dimensional second-order polynomial model is derived from SHM according to the approximate linear characteristic of regional disturbing potential. Firstly, deflections of vertical (DOVs) on dense grids are calculated with SHM in an external computer. And then, the polynomial coefficients are obtained using these DOVs. To achieve global navigation, the coefficients and applicable region of polynomial model are both updated synchronously in above computer. Compared with high-degree SHM, the polynomial model takes less storage and computational time at the expense of minor precision. Meanwhile, the model is more accurate than NGM. Finally, numerical test and INS experiment show that the proposed method outperforms traditional gravity models applied for high precision free-INS. PMID:27669261
An Online Gravity Modeling Method Applied for High Precision Free-INS.
Wang, Jing; Yang, Gongliu; Li, Jing; Zhou, Xiao
2016-09-23
For real-time solution of inertial navigation system (INS), the high-degree spherical harmonic gravity model (SHM) is not applicable because of its time and space complexity, in which traditional normal gravity model (NGM) has been the dominant technique for gravity compensation. In this paper, a two-dimensional second-order polynomial model is derived from SHM according to the approximate linear characteristic of regional disturbing potential. Firstly, deflections of vertical (DOVs) on dense grids are calculated with SHM in an external computer. And then, the polynomial coefficients are obtained using these DOVs. To achieve global navigation, the coefficients and applicable region of polynomial model are both updated synchronously in above computer. Compared with high-degree SHM, the polynomial model takes less storage and computational time at the expense of minor precision. Meanwhile, the model is more accurate than NGM. Finally, numerical test and INS experiment show that the proposed method outperforms traditional gravity models applied for high precision free-INS.
Constraint analysis of two-dimensional quadratic gravity from { BF} theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valcárcel, C. E.
2017-01-01
Quadratic gravity in two dimensions can be formulated as a background field ( BF) theory plus an interaction term which is polynomial in both, the gauge and background fields. This formulation is similar to the one given by Freidel and Starodubtsev to obtain MacDowell-Mansouri gravity in four dimensions. In this article we use the Dirac's Hamiltonian formalism to analyze the constraint structure of the two-dimensional Polynomial BF action. After we obtain the constraints of the theory, we proceed with the Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky procedure to obtain the transition amplitude. We also compare our results with the ones obtained from generalized dilaton gravity.
Using the full tensor of GOCE gravity gradients for regional gravity field modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lieb, Verena; Bouman, Johannes; Dettmering, Denise; Fuchs, Martin; Schmidt, Michael
2013-04-01
With its 3-axis gradiometer GOCE delivers 3-dimensional (3D) information of the Earth's gravity field. This essential advantage - e.g. compared with the 1D gravity field information from GRACE - can be used for research on the Earth's interior and for geophysical exploration. To benefit from this multidimensional measurement system, the combination of all 6 GOCE gradients and additionally the consistent combination with other gravity observations mean an innovative challenge for regional gravity field modelling. As the individual gravity gradients reflect the gravity field depending on different spatial directions, observation equations are formulated separately for each of these components. In our approach we use spherical localizing base functions to display the gravity field for specified regions. Therefore the series expansions based on Legendre polynomials have to be adopted to obtain mathematical expressions for the second derivatives of the gravitational potential which are observed by GOCE in the Cartesian Gradiometer Reference Frame (GRF). We (1) have to transform the equations from the spherical terrestrial into a Cartesian Local North-Oriented Reference Frame (LNOF), (2) to set up a 3x3 tensor of observation equations and (3) finally to rotate the tensor defined in the terrestrial LNOF into the GRF. Thus we ensure the use of the original non-rotated and unaffected GOCE measurements within the analysis procedure. As output from the synthesis procedure we then obtain the second derivatives of the gravitational potential for all combinations of the xyz Cartesian coordinates in the LNOF. Further the implementation of variance component estimation provides a flexible tool to diversify the influence of the input gradiometer observations. On the one hand the less accurate xy and yz measurements are nearly excluded by estimating large variance components. On the other hand the yy measurements, which show systematic errors increasing at high latitudes, could be
Terrestrial gravity data analysis for interim gravity model improvement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1987-01-01
This is the first status report for the Interim Gravity Model research effort that was started on June 30, 1986. The basic theme of this study is to develop appropriate models and adjustment procedures for estimating potential coefficients from terrestrial gravity data. The plan is to use the latest gravity data sets to produce coefficient estimates as well as to provide normal equations to NASA for use in the TOPEX/POSEIDON gravity field modeling program.
Generalized Vaidya solutions and Misner-Sharp mass for n -dimensional massive gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Ya-Peng; Wu, Xin-Meng; Zhang, Hongsheng
2017-04-01
Dynamical solutions are always of interest to people in gravity theories. We derive a series of generalized Vaidya solutions in the n -dimensional de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley massive gravity with a singular reference metric. Similar to the case of the Einstein gravity, the generalized Vaidya solution can describe shining/absorbing stars. Moreover, we also find a more general Vaidya-like solution by introducing a more generic matter field than the pure radiation in the original Vaidya spacetime. As a result, the above generalized Vaidya solution is naturally included in this Vaidya-like solution as a special case. We investigate the thermodynamics for this Vaidya-like spacetime by using the unified first law and present the generalized Misner-Sharp mass. Our results show that the generalized Minser-Sharp mass does exist in this spacetime. In addition, the usual Clausius relation δ Q =T d S holds on the apparent horizon, which implicates that the massive gravity is in a thermodynamic equilibrium state. We find that the work density vanishes for the generalized Vaidya solution, while it appears in the more general Vaidya-like solution. Furthermore, the covariant generalized Minser-Sharp mass in the n -dimensional de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley massive gravity is also derived by taking a general metric ansatz into account.
Strong anti-gravity Life in the shock wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabbrichesi, Marco; Roland, Kaj
1992-12-01
Strong anti-gravity is the vanishing of the net force between two massive particles at rest, to all orders in Newton's constant. We study this phenomenon and show that it occurs in any effective theory of gravity which is obtained from a higher-dimensional model by compactification on a manifold with flat directions. We find the exact solution of the Einstein equations in the presence of a point-like source of strong anti-gravity by dimensional reduction of a shock-wave solution in the higher-dimensional model.
Spin foam models for quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perez, Alejandro
The definition of a quantum theory of gravity is explored following Feynman's path-integral approach. The aim is to construct a well defined version of the Wheeler-Misner- Hawking ``sum over four geometries'' formulation of quantum general relativity (GR). This is done by means of exploiting the similarities between the formulation of GR in terms of tetrad-connection variables (Palatini formulation) and a simpler theory called BF theory. One can go from BF theory to GR by imposing certain constraints on the BF-theory configurations. BF theory contains only global degrees of freedom (topological theory) and it can be exactly quantized á la Feynman introducing a discretization of the manifold. Using the path integral for BF theory we define a path integration for GR imposing the BF-to-GR constraints on the BF measure. The infinite degrees of freedom of gravity are restored in the process, and the restriction to a single discretization introduces a cut- off in the summed-over configurations. In order to capture all the degrees of freedom a sum over discretization is implemented. Both the implementation of the BF-to-GR constraints and the sum over discretizations are obtained by means of the introduction of an auxiliary field theory (AFT). 4-geometries in the path integral for GR are given by the Feynman diagrams of the AFT which is in this sense dual to GR. Feynman diagrams correspond to 2-complexes labeled by unitary irreducible representations of the internal gauge group (corresponding to tetrad rotation in the connection to GR). A model for 4-dimensional Euclidean quantum gravity (QG) is defined which corresponds to a different normalization of the Barrett-Crane model. The model is perturbatively finite; divergences appearing in the Barrett-Crane model are cured by the new normalization. We extend our techniques to the Lorentzian sector, where we define two models for four-dimensional QG. The first one contains only time-like representations and is shown to be
Canonical and symplectic analysis for three dimensional gravity without dynamics
Escalante, Alberto, E-mail: aescalan@ifuap.buap.mx; Osmart Ochoa-Gutiérrez, H.
2017-03-15
In this paper a detailed Hamiltonian analysis of three-dimensional gravity without dynamics proposed by V. Hussain is performed. We report the complete structure of the constraints and the Dirac brackets are explicitly computed. In addition, the Faddeev–Jackiw symplectic approach is developed; we report the complete set of Faddeev–Jackiw constraints and the generalized brackets, then we show that the Dirac and the generalized Faddeev–Jackiw brackets coincide to each other. Finally, the similarities and advantages between Faddeev–Jackiw and Dirac’s formalism are briefly discussed. - Highlights: • We report the symplectic analysis for three dimensional gravity without dynamics. • We report the Faddeev–Jackiwmore » constraints. • A pure Dirac’s analysis is performed. • The complete structure of Dirac’s constraints is reported. • We show that symplectic and Dirac’s brackets coincide to each other.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meeßen, Christian; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Sippel, Judith; Strecker, Manfred
2017-04-01
Thin- and thick-skinned deformation styles in the foreland of the central Andes are the result of ongoing crustal shortening since the early Neogene. The mechanisms proposed for these different styles range from variations in subduction angle of the Nazca plate, lithospheric thickening to variations in temperature and strength of the crystalline crust. The latter hypothesis states a cold and strong lithosphere in the foreland of the Altiplano Plateau, facilitating thin-skinned shortening. In contrast, the foreland of the Puna plateau is proposed to be characterized by a warm lithosphere and strong upper crust, resulting in thick-skinned deformation. Whilst this hypothesis has been confirmed in numerical thermomechanical experiments, there is no evidence for this mechanism from data integrative modelling. We test this hypothesis by means of three-dimensional data integrative gravity, thermal and rheological modelling. Therefore, we constructed a lithospheric-scale density model of the foreland of northern Argentina and southern Bolivia using gravity forward modelling and inversion techniques. Into this density model we implemented sediment isopachs, data from receiver functions and densities from shear-wave velocities of the upper mantle. The model was verified using the observed Bouguer gravity anomaly. By assigning thermal and rheological properties to the modelled units we are able to quantify the strength of the lithosphere and test the predictions by the thermomechanical models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eckermann, S. D.; Broutman, D.; Ma, J.; Doyle, J. D.; Pautet, P. D.; Taylor, M. J.; Bossert, K.; Williams, B. P.; Fritts, D. C.; Smith, R. B.; Kuhl, D.; Hoppel, K.; McCormack, J. P.; Ruston, B. C.; Baker, N. L.; Viner, K.; Whitcomb, T.; Hogan, T. F.; Peng, M.
2016-12-01
The Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE) was an international aircraft-based field program to observe and study the end-to-end dynamics of atmospheric gravity waves from 0-100 km altitude and the effects on atmospheric circulations. On 14 July 2014, aircraft remote-sensing instruments detected large-amplitude gravity-wave oscillations within mesospheric airglow and sodium layers downstream of the Auckland Islands, located 1000 km south of Christchurch, New Zealand. A high-altitude reanalysis and a three-dimensional Fourier gravity wave model are used to investigate the dynamics of this event from the surface to the mesosphere. At 0700 UTC when first observations were made, surface flow across the islands' terrain generated linear three-dimensional wavefields that propagated rapidly to ˜78 km altitude, where intense breaking occurred in a narrow layer beneath a zero-wind region at ˜83 km altitude. In the following hours, the altitude of weak winds descended under the influence of a large-amplitude migrating semidiurnal tide, leading to intense breaking of these wavefields in subsequent observations starting at 1000 UTC. The linear Fourier model constrained by upstream reanalysis reproduces the salient aspects of observed wavefields, including horizontal wavelengths, phase orientations, temperature and vertical displacement amplitudes, heights and locations of incipient wave breaking, and momentum fluxes. Wave breaking has huge effects on local circulations, with inferred layer-averaged westward mean-flow accelerations of ˜350 m s-1 hour-1 and dynamical heating rates of ˜8 K hour-1, supporting recent speculation of important impacts of orographic gravity waves from subantarctic islands on the mean circulation and climate of the middle atmosphere during austral winter. We also study deep orographic gravity waves from islands during DEEPWAVE more widely using observations from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and high-resolution high
Abers, G.A.
1994-03-10
Free-air gravity highs over forearcs represent a large fraction of the power in the Earth`s anomalous field, yet their origin remains uncertain. Seismic velocities, as indicators of density, are estimated here as a means to compare the relative importance of upper plate sources for the gravity high with sources in the downgoing plate. P and S arrival times for local earthquakes, recorded by a seismic network in the eastern Aleutians, are inverted for three-dimensional velocity structure between the volcanic arc and the downgoing plate. A three-dimensional ray tracing scheme is used to invert the 7974 P and 6764 S arrivalsmore » for seismic velocities and hypocenters of 635 events. One-dimensional inversions show that station P residuals are systematically 0.25 - 0.5 s positive at stations 0-30 km north of the Aleutian volcanic arc, indicating slow material, while residuals at stations 10-30 km south of the arc are 0.1-0.25 s negative. Both features are explained in three-dimensional inversions by velocity variations at depths less than 25-35 km. Tests using a one-dimensional or a two-dimensional slab starting model show that below 100 km depth, velocities are poorly determined and trade off almost completely with hypocenters for earthquakes at these depths. The locations of forearc velocity highs, in the crust of the upper plate, correspond to the location of the gravity high between the trench and volcanic arc. Free-air anomalies, calculated from the three-dimensional velocity inversion result, match observed gravity for a linear density-velocity relationship between 0.1 and 0.3 (Mg m{sup {minus}3})/(km s{sup {minus}1}), when a 50-km-thick slab is included with a density of 0.055{+-}0.005 Mg m{sup {minus}3}. Values outside these ranges do not match the observed gravity. The slab alone contributes one third to one half of the total 75-150 mGal amplitude of the gravity high but predicts a high that is much broader than is observed.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sepehri, Alireza; Shoorvazi, Somayyeh
In this paper, we will consider the birth and evolution of fields during formation of N-dimensional manifolds from joining point-like ones. We will show that at the beginning, only there are point-like manifolds which some strings are attached to them. By joining these manifolds, 1-dimensional manifolds are appeared and gravity, fermion, and gauge fields are emerged. By coupling these manifolds, higher dimensional manifolds are produced and higher orders of fermion, gauge fields and gravity are emerged. By decaying N-dimensional manifold, two child manifolds and a Chern-Simons one are born and anomaly is emerged. The Chern-Simons manifold connects two child manifolds and leads to the energy transmission from the bulk to manifolds and their expansion. We show that F-gravity can be emerged during the formation of N-dimensional manifold from point-like manifolds. This type of F-gravity includes both type of fermionic and bosonic gravity. G-fields and also C-fields which are produced by fermionic strings produce extra energy and change the gravity.
The amphibian egg as a model system for analyzing gravity effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malacinski, G. M.; Neff, A. W.
1989-01-01
Amphibian eggs provide several advantageous features as a model system for analyzing the effects of gravity on single cells. Those features include large size, readily tracked intracellular inclusions, and ease of experimental manipulation. Employing novel gravity orientation as a tool, a substantial data base is being developed. That information is being used to construct a three-dimensional model of the frog (Xenopus laevis) egg. Internal cytoplasmic organization (rather than surface features) are being emphasized. Several cytoplasmic compartments (domains) have been elucidated, and their behavior in inverted eggs monitored. They have been incorporated into the model, and serve as a point of departure for further inquiry and speculation.
Butterfly effect in 3D gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M.
2017-11-01
We study the butterfly effect by considering shock wave solutions near the horizon of the anti-de Sitter black hole in some three-dimensional gravity models including 3D Einstein gravity, minimal massive 3D gravity, new massive gravity, generalized massive gravity, Born-Infeld 3D gravity, and new bigravity. We calculate the butterfly velocities of these models and also we consider the critical points and different limits in some of these models. By studying the butterfly effect in the generalized massive gravity, we observe a correspondence between the butterfly velocities and right-left moving degrees of freedom or the central charges of the dual 2D conformal field theories.
Topics in Two-Dimensional Quantum Gravity and Chern-Simons Gauge Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zemba, Guillermo Raul
A series of studies in two and three dimensional theories is presented. The two dimensional problems are considered in the framework of String Theory. The first one determines the region of integration in the space of inequivalent tori of a tadpole diagram in Closed String Field Theory, using the naive Witten three-string vertex. It is shown that every surface is counted an infinite number of times and the source of this behavior is identified. The second study analyzes the behavior of the discrete matrix model of two dimensional gravity without matter using a mathematically well-defined construction, confirming several conjectures and partial results from the literature. The studies in three dimensions are based on Chern Simons pure gauge theory. The first one deals with the projection of the theory onto a two-dimensional surface of constant time, whereas the second analyzes the large N behavior of the SU(N) theory and makes evident a duality symmetry between the only two parameters of the theory. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253 -1690.).
Terrestrial Microgravity Model and Threshold Gravity Simulation sing Magnetic Levitation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramachandran, N.
2005-01-01
What is the threshold gravity (minimum gravity level) required for the nominal functioning of the human system? What dosage is required? Do human cell lines behave differently in microgravity in response to an external stimulus? The critical need for such a gravity simulator is emphasized by recent experiments on human epithelial cells and lymphocytes on the Space Shuttle clearly showing that cell growth and function are markedly different from those observed terrestrially. Those differences are also dramatic between cells grown in space and those in Rotating Wall Vessels (RWV), or NASA bioreactor often used to simulate microgravity, indicating that although morphological growth patterns (three dimensional growth) can be successiblly simulated using RWVs, cell function performance is not reproduced - a critical difference. If cell function is dramatically affected by gravity off-loading, then cell response to stimuli such as radiation, stress, etc. can be very different from terrestrial cell lines. Yet, we have no good gravity simulator for use in study of these phenomena. This represents a profound shortcoming for countermeasures research. We postulate that we can use magnetic levitation of cells and tissue, through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients, as a terrestrial microgravity model to study human cells. Specific objectives of the research are: 1. To develop a tried, tested and benchmarked terrestrial microgravity model for cell culture studies; 2. Gravity threshold determination; 3. Dosage (magnitude and duration) of g-level required for nominal functioning of cells; 4. Comparisons of magnetic levitation model to other models such as RWV, hind limb suspension, etc. and 5. Cellular response to reduced gravity levels of Moon and Mars.
Terrestrial Microgravity Model and Threshold Gravity Simulation using Magnetic Levitation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramachandran, N.
2005-01-01
What is the threshold gravity (minimum gravity level) required for the nominal functioning of the human system? What dosage is required? Do human cell lines behave differently in microgravity in response to an external stimulus? The critical need for such a gravity simulator is emphasized by recent experiments on human epithelial cells and lymphocytes on the Space Shuttle clearly showing that cell growth and function are markedly different from those observed terrestrially. Those differences are also dramatic between cells grown in space and those in Rotating Wall Vessels (RWV), or NASA bioreactor often used to simulate microgravity, indicating that although morphological growth patterns (three dimensional growth) can be successfully simulated using RWVs, cell function performance is not reproduced - a critical difference. If cell function is dramatically affected by gravity off-loading, then cell response to stimuli such as radiation, stress, etc. can be very different from terrestrial cell lines. Yet, we have no good gravity simulator for use in study of these phenomena. This represents a profound shortcoming for countermeasures research. We postulate that we can use magnetic levitation of cells and tissue, through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients, as a terrestrial microgravity model to study human cells. Specific objectives of the research are: 1. To develop a tried, tested and benchmarked terrestrial microgravity model for cell culture studies; 2. Gravity threshold determination; 3. Dosage (magnitude and duration) of g-level required for nominal functioning of cells; 4. Comparisons of magnetic levitation model to other models such as RWV, hind limb suspension, etc. and 5. Cellular response to reduced gravity levels of Moon and Mars. The paper will discuss experiments md modeling work to date in support of this project.
Garbarz, Alan, E-mail: alan-at@df.uba.ar; Giribet, Gaston, E-mail: gaston-at@df.uba.ar, E-mail: af.goya-at@df.uba.ar; Goya, Andrés, E-mail: gaston-at@df.uba.ar, E-mail: af.goya-at@df.uba.ar
2015-03-26
We consider critical gravity in three dimensions; that is, the New Massive Gravity theory formulated about Anti-de Sitter (AdS) space with the specific value of the graviton mass for which it results dual to a two-dimensional conformai field theory with vanishing central charge. As it happens with Kerr black holes in four-dimensional critical gravity, in three-dimensional critical gravity the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes have vanishing mass and vanishing angular momentum. However, provided suitable asymptotic conditions are chosen, the theory may also admit solutions carrying non-vanishing charges. Here, we give simple examples of exact solutions that exhibit falling-off conditions that are evenmore » weaker than those of the so-called Log-gravity. For such solutions, we define the quasilocal stress-tensor and use it to compute conserved charges. Despite the drastic deformation of AdS{sub 3} asymptotic, these solutions have finite mass and angular momentum, which are shown to be non-zero.« less
A model for gravity-wave spectra observed by Doppler sounding systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanzandt, T. E.
1986-01-01
A model for Mesosphere - Stratosphere - Troposphere (MST) radar spectra is developed following the formalism presented by Pinkel (1981). Expressions for the one-dimensional spectra of radial velocity versus frequency and versus radial wave number are presented. Their dependence on the parameters of the gravity-wave spectrum and on the experimental parameters, radar zenith angle and averaging time are described and the conditions for critical tests of the gravity-wave hypothesis are discussed. The model spectra is compared with spectra observed in the Arctic summer mesosphere by the Poker Flat radar. This model applies to any monostatic Doppler sounding system, including MST radar, Doppler lidar and Doppler sonar in the atmosphere, and Doppler sonar in the ocean.
Three-dimensional Myoblast Aggregates--Effects of Modeled Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Byerly, Diane; Sognier, M. A.; Marquette, M. L.
2006-01-01
The overall objective of these studies is to elucidate the molecular and cellular alterations that contribute to muscle atrophy in astronauts caused by exposure to microgravity conditions in space. To accomplish this, a three-dimensional model test system was developed using mouse myoblast cells (C2C12). Myoblast cells were grown as three-dimensional aggregates (without scaffolding or other solid support structures) in both modeled microgravity (Rotary Cell Culture System, Synthecon, Inc.) and at unit gravity in coated Petri dishes. Evaluation of H&E stained thin sections of the aggregates revealed the absence of any necrosis. Confocal microscopy evaluations of cells stained with the Live/Dead assay (Molecular Probes) confirmed that viable cells were present throughout the aggregates with an average of only three dead cells observed per aggregate. Preliminary results from gene array analysis (Affymetrix chip U74Av2) showed that approximately 14% of the genes were down regulated (decreased more than 3 fold) and 4% were upregulated in cells exposed to modeled microgravity for 12 hours compared to unit gravity controls. Additional studies using fluorescent phallacidin revealed a decrease in F-actin in the cells exposed to modeled microgravity compared to unit gravity. Myoblast cells grown as aggregates in modeled microgravity exhibited spontaneous differentiation into syncitia while no differentiation was seen in the unit gravity controls. These studies show that 1)the model test system developed is suitable for assessing cellular and molecular alterations in myoblasts; 2) gene expression alterations occur rapidly (within 12 hours) following exposure to modeled microgravity; and 3) modeled microgravity conditions stimulated myoblast cell differentiation. Achieving a greater understanding of the molecular alterations leading to muscle atrophy will eventually enable the development of cell-based countermeasures, which may be valuable for treatment of muscle diseases on
Feeling Gravity's Pull: Gravity Modeling. The Gravity Field of Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemoine, Frank; Smith, David; Rowlands, David; Zuber, Maria; Neumann, G.; Chinn, Douglas; Pavlis, D.
2000-01-01
atmosphere of the Earth. Supercomputers can calculate the effect of gravity for specific locations in space following a mathematical process known as spherical harmonics, which quantifies the gravity field of a planetary body. The process is based on Laplace's fundamental differential equation of gravity. The accuracy of a spherical harmonic solution is rated by its degree and order. Minute variations in gravity are measured against the geoid, a surface of constant gravity acceleration at mean sea level. The geoid reference gravity model strength includes the central body gravitational attraction (9.8 m/sq s) and a geopotential variation in latitude partially caused by the rotation of the Earth. The rotational effect modifies the shape of the geoid to be more like an ellipsoid, rather than a perfect, circle. Variations of gravity strength from the ellipsoidal reference model are measured in units called milli-Galileos (mGals). One mGal equals 10(exp -5) m/sq s. Research projects have also measured the gravity fields of other planetary bodies, as noted in the user profile that follows. From this information, we may make inferences about our own planet's internal structure and evolution. Moreover, mapping the gravity fields of other planets can help scientists plot the most fuel-efficient course for spacecraft expeditions to those planets.
Three-dimensional massive gravity and the bigravity black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bañados, Máximo; Theisen, Stefan
2009-11-01
We study three-dimensional massive gravity formulated as a theory with two dynamical metrics, like the f-g theories of Isham-Salam and Strathdee. The action is parity preserving and has no higher derivative terms. The spectrum contains a single massive graviton. This theory has several features discussed recently in TMG and NMG. We find warped black holes, a critical point, and generalized Brown-Henneaux boundary conditions.
Critical gravity in four dimensions.
Lü, H; Pope, C N
2011-05-06
We study four-dimensional gravity theories that are rendered renormalizable by the inclusion of curvature-squared terms to the usual Einstein action with a cosmological constant. By choosing the parameters appropriately, the massive scalar mode can be eliminated and the massive spin-2 mode can become massless. This "critical" theory may be viewed as a four-dimensional analogue of chiral topologically massive gravity, or of critical "new massive gravity" with a cosmological constant, in three dimensions. We find that the on-shell energy for the remaining massless gravitons vanishes. There are also logarithmic spin-2 modes, which have positive energy. The mass and entropy of standard Schwarzschild-type black holes vanish. The critical theory might provide a consistent toy model for quantum gravity in four dimensions.
Zhou, Xiao; Yang, Gongliu; Wang, Jing; Wen, Zeyang
2018-05-14
In recent decades, gravity compensation has become an important way to reduce the position error of an inertial navigation system (INS), especially for a high-precision INS, because of the extensive application of high precision inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyros). This paper first deducts the INS's solution error considering gravity disturbance and simulates the results. Meanwhile, this paper proposes a combined gravity compensation method using a simplified gravity model and gravity database. This new combined method consists of two steps all together. Step 1 subtracts the normal gravity using a simplified gravity model. Step 2 first obtains the gravity disturbance on the trajectory of the carrier with the help of ELM training based on the measured gravity data (provided by Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics; Chinese Academy of sciences), and then compensates it into the error equations of the INS, considering the gravity disturbance, to further improve the navigation accuracy. The effectiveness and feasibility of this new gravity compensation method for the INS are verified through vehicle tests in two different regions; one is in flat terrain with mild gravity variation and the other is in complex terrain with fierce gravity variation. During 2 h vehicle tests, the positioning accuracy of two tests can improve by 20% and 38% respectively, after the gravity is compensated by the proposed method.
Zhou, Xiao; Yang, Gongliu; Wang, Jing; Wen, Zeyang
2018-01-01
In recent decades, gravity compensation has become an important way to reduce the position error of an inertial navigation system (INS), especially for a high-precision INS, because of the extensive application of high precision inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyros). This paper first deducts the INS’s solution error considering gravity disturbance and simulates the results. Meanwhile, this paper proposes a combined gravity compensation method using a simplified gravity model and gravity database. This new combined method consists of two steps all together. Step 1 subtracts the normal gravity using a simplified gravity model. Step 2 first obtains the gravity disturbance on the trajectory of the carrier with the help of ELM training based on the measured gravity data (provided by Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics; Chinese Academy of sciences), and then compensates it into the error equations of the INS, considering the gravity disturbance, to further improve the navigation accuracy. The effectiveness and feasibility of this new gravity compensation method for the INS are verified through vehicle tests in two different regions; one is in flat terrain with mild gravity variation and the other is in complex terrain with fierce gravity variation. During 2 h vehicle tests, the positioning accuracy of two tests can improve by 20% and 38% respectively, after the gravity is compensated by the proposed method. PMID:29757983
Dimensional flow and fuzziness in quantum gravity: Emergence of stochastic spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calcagni, Gianluca; Ronco, Michele
2017-10-01
We show that the uncertainty in distance and time measurements found by the heuristic combination of quantum mechanics and general relativity is reproduced in a purely classical and flat multi-fractal spacetime whose geometry changes with the probed scale (dimensional flow) and has non-zero imaginary dimension, corresponding to a discrete scale invariance at short distances. Thus, dimensional flow can manifest itself as an intrinsic measurement uncertainty and, conversely, measurement-uncertainty estimates are generally valid because they rely on this universal property of quantum geometries. These general results affect multi-fractional theories, a recent proposal related to quantum gravity, in two ways: they can fix two parameters previously left free (in particular, the value of the spacetime dimension at short scales) and point towards a reinterpretation of the ultraviolet structure of geometry as a stochastic foam or fuzziness. This is also confirmed by a correspondence we establish between Nottale scale relativity and the stochastic geometry of multi-fractional models.
Numerical Models of Human Circulatory System under Altered Gravity: Brain Circulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Chang Sung; Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan; David, Tim
2003-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach is presented to model the blood flow through the human circulatory system under altered gravity conditions. Models required for CFD simulation relevant to major hemodynamic issues are introduced such as non-Newtonian flow models governed by red blood cells, a model for arterial wall motion due to fluid-wall interactions, a vascular bed model for outflow boundary conditions, and a model for auto-regulation mechanism. The three-dimensional unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with these models are solved iteratively using the pseudocompressibility method and dual time stepping. Moving wall boundary conditions from the first-order fluid-wall interaction model are used to study the influence of arterial wall distensibility on flow patterns and wall shear stresses during the heart pulse. A vascular bed modeling utilizing the analogy with electric circuits is coupled with an auto-regulation algorithm for multiple outflow boundaries. For the treatment of complex geometry, a chimera overset grid technique is adopted to obtain connectivity between arterial branches. For code validation, computed results are compared with experimental data for steady and unsteady non-Newtonian flows. Good agreement is obtained for both cases. In sin-type Gravity Benchmark Problems, gravity source terms are added to the Navier-Stokes equations to study the effect of gravitational variation on the human circulatory system. This computational approach is then applied to localized blood flows through a realistic carotid bifurcation and two Circle of Willis models, one using an idealized geometry and the other model using an anatomical data set. A three- dimensional anatomical Circle of Willis configuration is reconstructed from human-specific magnetic resonance images using an image segmentation method. The blood flow through these Circle of Willis models is simulated to provide means for studying gravitational effects on the brain
Four-dimensional gravity as an almost-Poisson system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ita, Eyo Eyo
2015-04-01
In this paper, we examine the phase space structure of a noncanonical formulation of four-dimensional gravity referred to as the Instanton representation of Plebanski gravity (IRPG). The typical Hamiltonian (symplectic) approach leads to an obstruction to the definition of a symplectic structure on the full phase space of the IRPG. We circumvent this obstruction, using the Lagrange equations of motion, to find the appropriate generalization of the Poisson bracket. It is shown that the IRPG does not support a Poisson bracket except on the vector constraint surface. Yet there exists a fundamental bilinear operation on its phase space which produces the correct equations of motion and induces the correct transformation properties of the basic fields. This bilinear operation is known as the almost-Poisson bracket, which fails to satisfy the Jacobi identity and in this case also the condition of antisymmetry. We place these results into the overall context of nonsymplectic systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, C.; Luo, Z.; Sun, R.; Li, Q.
2017-12-01
The Tibetan Plateau, the largest and highest plateau on Earth, was uplifted, shorten and thicken by the collision and continuous convergence of the Indian and Eurasian plates since 50 million years ago, the Eocene epoch. Fine three-dimensional crustal structure of the Tibetan Plateau is helpful in understanding the tectonic development. At present, the ordinary method used for revealing crustal structure is seismic method, which is inhibited by poor seismic station coverage, especially in the central and western plateau primarily due to the rugged terrain. Fortunately, with the implementation of satellite gravity missions, gravity field models have demonstrated unprecedented global-scale accuracy and spatial resolution, which can subsequently be employed to study the crustal structure of the entire Tibetan Plateau. This study inverts three-dimensional crustal density and Moho topography of the Tibetan Plateau from gravity data using multi-scale gravity analysis. The inverted results are in agreement with those provided by the previous works. Besides, they can reveal rich tectonic development of the Tibetan Plateau: (1) The low-density channel flow can be observed from the inverted crustal density; (2) The Moho depth in the west is deeper than that in the east, and the deepest Moho, which is approximately 77 km, is located beneath the western Qiangtang Block; (3) The Moho fold, the directions of which are in agreement with the results of surface movement velocities estimated from Global Positioning System, exists clearly on the Moho topography.This study is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41504015), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2015M572146), and the Surveying and Mapping Basic Research Programme of the National Administration of Surveying, Mapping and Geoinformation (Grant No. 15-01-08).
Gravity model improvement investigation. [improved gravity model for determination of ocean geoid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Siry, J. W.; Kahn, W. D.; Bryan, J. W.; Vonbun, F. F.
1973-01-01
This investigation was undertaken to improve the gravity model and hence the ocean geoid. A specific objective is the determination of the gravity field and geoid with a space resolution of approximately 5 deg and a height resolution of the order of five meters. The concept of the investigation is to utilize both GEOS-C altimeter and satellite-to-satellite tracking data to achieve the gravity model improvement. It is also planned to determine the geoid in selected regions with a space resolution of about a degree and a height resolution of the order of a meter or two. The short term objectives include the study of the gravity field in the GEOS-C calibration area outlined by Goddard, Bermuda, Antigua, and Cape Kennedy, and also in the eastern Pacific area which is viewed by ATS-F.
Symmetries, holography, and quantum phase transition in two-dimensional dilaton AdS gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cadoni, Mariano; Ciulu, Matteo; Tuveri, Matteo
2018-05-01
We revisit the Almheiri-Polchinski dilaton gravity model from a two-dimensional (2D) bulk perspective. We describe a peculiar feature of the model, namely the pattern of conformal symmetry breaking using bulk Killing vectors, a covariant definition of mass and the flow between different vacua of the theory. We show that the effect of the symmetry breaking is both the generation of an infrared scale (a mass gap) and to make local the Goldstone modes associated with the asymptotic symmetries of the 2D spacetime. In this way a nonvanishing central charge is generated in the dual conformal theory, which accounts for the microscopic entropy of the 2D black hole. The use of covariant mass allows to compare energetically the two different vacua of the theory and to show that at zero temperature the vacuum with a constant dilaton is energetically preferred. We also translate in the bulk language several features of the dual CFT discussed by Maldacena et al. The uplifting of the 2D model to (d +2 )-dimensional theories exhibiting hyperscaling violation is briefly discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Suhail; Khan, Muhammad Shoaib; Ali, Amjad
2018-04-01
In this paper, our aim is to study (n + 2)-dimensional collapse of perfect fluid spherically symmetric spacetime in the context of f(R, T) gravity. The matching conditions are acquired by considering a spherically symmetric non-static (n + 2)-dimensional metric in the inner region and Schwarzschild (n + 2)-dimensional metric in the outer region of the star. To solve the field equations for above settings in f(R, T) gravity, we choose the stress-energy tensor trace and the Ricci scalar as constants. It is observed that two physical horizons, namely, cosmological and black hole horizons appear as a consequence of this collapse. A singularity is also formed after the birth of both the horizons. It is also observed that the term f(R0, T0) slows down the collapsing process.
Escherichia coli growth under modeled reduced gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, Paul W.; Meyer, Michelle L.; Leff, Laura G.
2004-01-01
Bacteria exhibit varying responses to modeled reduced gravity that can be simulated by clino-rotation. When Escherichia coli was subjected to different rotation speeds during clino-rotation, significant differences between modeled reduced gravity and normal gravity controls were observed only at higher speeds (30-50 rpm). There was no apparent affect of removing samples on the results obtained. When E. coli was grown in minimal medium (at 40 rpm), cell size was not affected by modeled reduced gravity and there were few differences in cell numbers. However, in higher nutrient conditions (i.e., dilute nutrient broth), total cell numbers were higher and cells were smaller under reduced gravity compared to normal gravity controls. Overall, the responses to modeled reduced gravity varied with nutrient conditions; larger surface to volume ratios may help compensate for the zone of nutrient depletion around the cells under modeled reduced gravity.
Torus Approach in Gravity Field Determination from Simulated GOCE Gravity Gradients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Huanling; Wen, Hanjiang; Xu, Xinyu; Zhu, Guangbin
2016-08-01
In Torus approach, observations are projected to the nominal orbits with constant radius and inclination, lumped coefficients provides a linear relationship between observations and spherical harmonic coefficients. Based on the relationship, two-dimensional FFT and block-diagonal least-squares adjustment are used to recover Earth's gravity field model. The Earth's gravity field model complete to degree and order 200 is recovered using simulated satellite gravity gradients on a torus grid, and the degree median error is smaller than 10-18, which shows the effectiveness of Torus approach. EGM2008 is employed as a reference model and the gravity field model is resolved using the simulated observations without noise given on GOCE orbits of 61 days. The error from reduction and interpolation can be mitigated by iterations. Due to polar gap, the precision of low-order coefficients is lower. Without considering these coefficients the maximum geoid degree error and cumulative error are 0.022mm and 0.099mm, respectively. The Earth's gravity field model is also recovered from simulated observations with white noise 5mE/Hz1/2, which is compared to that from direct method. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that Torus approach is a valid method for processing massive amount of GOCE gravity gradients.
Estimating the gravity induced three dimensional deformation of the breast.
Mills, Chris; Sanchez, Amy; Scurr, Joanna
2016-12-08
As human breast tissue is continuously deformed by gravity, it is difficult to identify the non-loaded neutral breast position from which to take measurements. To estimate the neutral nipple position, this study proposed a simple novel method to counteract the three dimensional effect of gravity on the breast using the buoyant forces from water and soybean oil (ρ WATER = 994kgm -3 ; ρ OIL = 909kgm -3 ). Fourteen female participants with breast sizes ranging from 30 to 34in. under band and B to E cup size took part in this study. Each participant had their static gravity-loaded nipple position measured and their neutral nipple position estimated (as the midpoint between the nipple position during water and soybean oil immersion). Participants were asked to sit in each fluid and fully submerge their torso and breasts. The mean gravity-induced nipple displacements from the neutral nipple position were 15.3mm in the posterior direction, 7.4mm in the lateral direction, and 25.7mm in the inferior direction. Gravity had a significant (p < 0.05, r > 0.82) measurable effect on the static nipple position, particularly in the inferior and posterior directions. Furthermore the density difference between water and soybean oil produced a significant difference (p < 0.05, r = 0.72) in superior-inferior nipple position (5.6mm). These findings suggest that neglect of gravity-induced breast deformations may lead to errors when assessing breast position and its relationship to possible breast pain, and that water alone may not be sufficient to estimate the neutral nipple position. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Joint two dimensional inversion of gravity and magnetotelluric data using correspondence maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrillo Lopez, J.; Gallardo, L. A.
2016-12-01
Inverse problems in Earth sciences are inherently non-unique. To improve models and reduce the number of solutions we need to provide extra information. In geological context, this information could be a priori information, for example, geological information, well log data, smoothness, or actually, information of measures of different kind of data. Joint inversion provides an approach to improve the solution and reduce the errors due to suppositions of each method. To do that, we need a link between two or more models. Some approaches have been explored successfully in recent years. For example, Gallardo and Meju (2003), Gallardo and Meju (2004, 2011), and Gallardo et. al. (2012) used the directions of properties to measure the similarity between models minimizing their cross gradients. In this work, we proposed a joint iterative inversion method that use spatial distribution of properties as a link. Correspondence maps could be better characterizing specific Earth systems due they consider the relation between properties. We implemented a code in Fortran to do a two dimensional inversion of magnetotelluric and gravity data, which are two of the standard methods in geophysical exploration. Synthetic tests show the advantages of joint inversion using correspondence maps against separate inversion. Finally, we applied this technique to magnetotelluric and gravity data in the geothermal zone located in Cerro Prieto, México.
Hamiltonian structure of three-dimensional gravity in Vielbein formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hajihashemi, Mahdi; Shirzad, Ahmad
2018-01-01
Considering Chern-Simons like gravity theories in three dimensions as first order systems, we analyze the Hamiltonian structure of three theories Topological massive gravity, New massive gravity, and Zwei-Dreibein Gravity. We show that these systems demonstrate a new feature of the constrained systems in which a new kind of constraints emerge due to factorization of determinant of the matrix of Poisson brackets of constraints. We find the desired number of degrees of freedom as well as the generating functional of local Lorentz transformations and diffeomorphism through canonical structure of the system. We also compare the Hamiltonian structure of linearized version of the considered models with the original ones.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lefèvre, Maxence; Spiga, Aymeric; Lebonnois, Sébastien
2017-04-01
The impact of the cloud convective layer of the atmosphere of Venus on the global circulation remains unclear. The recent observations of gravity waves at the top of the cloud by the Venus Express mission provided some answers. These waves are not resolved at the scale of global circulation models (GCM), therefore we developed an unprecedented 3D turbulence-resolving Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) Venusian model (Lefèvre et al, 2016 JGR Planets) using the Weather Research and Forecast terrestrial model. The forcing consists of three different heating rates : two radiative ones for solar and infrared and one associated with the adiabatic cooling/warming of the global circulation. The rates are extracted from the Laboratoire de Météorlogie Dynamique (LMD) Venus GCM using two different cloud models. Thus we are able to characterize the convection and associated gravity waves in function of latitude and local time. To assess the impact of the global circulation on the convective layer, we used rates from a 1D radiative-convective model. The resolved layer, taking place between 1.0 105 and 3.8 104 Pa (48-53 km), is organized as polygonal closed cells of about 10 km wide with vertical wind of several meters per second. The convection emits gravity waves both above and below the convective layer leading to temperature perturbations of several tenths of Kelvin with vertical wavelength between 1 and 3 km and horizontal wavelength from 1 to 10 km. The thickness of the convective layer and the amplitudes of waves are consistent with observations, though slightly underestimated. The global dynamics heating greatly modify the convective layer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lefèvre, Maxence; Spiga, Aymeric; Lebonnois, Sébastien
2017-01-01
The impact of the cloud convective layer of the atmosphere of Venus on the global circulation remains unclear. The recent observations of gravity waves at the top of the cloud by the Venus Express mission provided some answers. These waves are not resolved at the scale of global circulation models (GCM); therefore, we developed an unprecedented 3-D turbulence-resolving large-eddy simulations (LES) Venusian model using the Weather Research and Forecast terrestrial model. The forcing consists of three different heating rates: two radiative ones for solar and infrared and one associated with the adiabatic cooling/warming of the global circulation. The rates are extracted from the Laboratoire de Météorlogie Dynamique Venus GCM using two different cloud models. Thus, we are able to characterize the convection and associated gravity waves in function of latitude and local time. To assess the impact of the global circulation on the convective layer, we used rates from a 1-D radiative-convective model. The resolved layer, taking place between 1.0 × 105 and 3.8 × 104 Pa (48-53 km), is organized as polygonal closed cells of about 10 km wide with vertical wind of several meters per second. The convection emits gravity waves both above and below the convective layer leading to temperature perturbations of several tenths of kelvin with vertical wavelength between 1 and 3 km and horizontal wavelength from 1 to 10 km. The thickness of the convective layer and the amplitudes of waves are consistent with observations, though slightly underestimated. The global dynamics heating greatly modify the convective layer.
The Partition Function in the Four-Dimensional Schwarz-Type Topological Half-Flat Two-Form Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abe, Mitsuko
We derive the partition functions of the Schwarz-type four-dimensional topological half-flat two-form gravity model on K3-surface or T4 up to on-shell one-loop corrections. In this model the bosonic moduli spaces describe an equivalent class of a trio of the Einstein-Kähler forms (the hyper-Kähler forms). The integrand of the partition function is represented by the product of some bar ∂ -torsions. bar ∂ -torsion is the extension of R-torsion for the de Rham complex to that for the bar ∂ -complex of a complex analytic manifold.
Black holes of dimensionally continued gravity coupled to Born-Infeld electromagnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Kun; Yang, Da-Bao
2018-05-01
In this paper, for dimensionally continued gravity coupled to Born-Infeld electromagnetic field, we construct topological black holes in diverse dimensions and construct dyonic black holes in general even dimensions. We study thermodynamics of the black holes and obtain first laws. We study thermal phase transitions of the black holes in T-S plane and find van der Waals-like phase transitions for even-dimensional spherical black holes, such phase transitions are not found for other types of black holes constructed in this paper.
Natural inflation and quantum gravity.
de la Fuente, Anton; Saraswat, Prashant; Sundrum, Raman
2015-04-17
Cosmic inflation provides an attractive framework for understanding the early Universe and the cosmic microwave background. It can readily involve energies close to the scale at which quantum gravity effects become important. General considerations of black hole quantum mechanics suggest nontrivial constraints on any effective field theory model of inflation that emerges as a low-energy limit of quantum gravity, in particular, the constraint of the weak gravity conjecture. We show that higher-dimensional gauge and gravitational dynamics can elegantly satisfy these constraints and lead to a viable, theoretically controlled and predictive class of natural inflation models.
Gravity and Magnetotelluric Modeling of the Santo Domingo Basin, Northern New Mexico
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamudio, K. D.; Keithline, N.; Blum, C.; Cunningham, E.; Fromont, A.; Jorgensen, M.; Lee, R.; McBride, K.; Saez Berrios, P.; Harper, C.; Pellerin, L.; McPhee, D.; Ferguson, J. F.
2015-12-01
The Santo Domingo Basin, one of a series of basins within the Rio Grande Rift, is located between Santa Fe and Albuquerque, NM, and has been the focus of research by the Summer of Geophysical Experience (SAGE) program since 2000. Gravity, magnetotelluric (MT), and seismic data have been collected throughout the region, although we are concentrating on gravity and MT data collected during SAGE 2014 and 2015. The study area is located in the center of the Santo Domingo basin, an extensional, Miocene age, rift basin, in an area that was minimally involved in the preceding local Laramide orogenic activity. Rift sediments (~3.5 km thick) are underlain by Eocene age sediments that were shed from adjacent uplifts. Up to 3 km of Mesozoic and Paleozoic sediments are preserved above the Precambrian basement. Geologic outcrop, borehole and seismic reflection data, and known density values were used in the construction of a ~100 km-long, generalized geologic cross section from which a gravity response was calculated. The modeled gravity response makes fairly definitive predictions about the geometry of the basin as well as the stratigraphy and faulting within and bounding the basin. MT data was collected at ten stations within the basin. The MT sounding curves exhibit one-dimensional behavior at short periods (<10 s), not surprisingly considering the relatively flat local structure in the area. Layered-earth MT models, without geologic constraints, show a conductive (<10 ohm-m) layer at ~1.5 km above a more resistive layer (>1000 ohm-m) at ~ 3.5-4 km. Conductivities of the major stratigraphic units have been determined from well logs and previous MT modeling. Forward and inverse MT models constrained by the gravity-modeled geologic cross section are used to develop a conductivity model consistent with the geology, and are a step towards a better unified treatment of MT, seismic and gravity data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Claessens, S. J.
2016-12-01
Mass density contrasts in the Earth's crust can be detected using an inversion of terrestrial or airborne gravity data. This contribution shows a technique to detect short-scale density contrasts using in-situ gravity observations in combination with a high-resolution global gravity model that includes variations in the gravity field due to topography. The technique is exemplified at various test sites using the Global Gravity Model Plus (GGMplus), which is a 7.2 arcsec resolution model of the Earth's gravitational field, covering all land masses and near-coastal areas within +/- 60° latitude. The model is a composite of GRACE and GOCE satellite observations, the EGM2008 global gravity model, and short-scale topographic gravity effects. Since variations in the Earth's gravity field due to topography are successfully modelled by GGMplus, any remaining differences with in-situ gravity observations are primarily due to mass density variations. It is shown that this technique effectively filters out large-scale density variations, and highlights short-scale near-surface density contrasts in the Earth's crust. Numerical results using recent high-density gravity surveys are presented, which indicate a strong correlation between density contrasts found and known lines of geological significance.
Spacetime Singularities in Quantum Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minassian, Eric A.
2000-04-01
Recent advances in 2+1 dimensional quantum gravity have provided tools to study the effects of quantization of spacetime on black hole and big bang/big crunch type singularities. I investigate effects of quantization of spacetime on singularities of the 2+1 dimensional BTZ black hole and the 2+1 dimensional torus universe. Hosoya has considered the BTZ black hole, and using a "quantum generalized affine parameter" (QGAP), has shown that, for some specific paths, quantum effects "smear" the singularities. Using gaussian wave functions as generic wave functions, I found that, for both BTZ black hole and the torus universe, there are families of paths that still reach the singularities with a finite QGAP, suggesting that singularities persist in quantum gravity. More realistic calculations, using modular invariant wave functions of Carlip and Nelson for the torus universe, offer further support for this conclusion. Currently work is in progress to study more realistic quantum gravity effects for BTZ black holes and other spacetime models.
Entanglement entropy in critical phenomena and analog models of quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fursaev, Dmitri V.
2006-06-01
A general geometrical structure of the entanglement entropy for spatial partition of a relativistic QFT system is established by using methods of the effective gravity action and the spectral geometry. A special attention is payed to the subleading terms in the entropy in different dimensions and to behavior in different states. It is conjectured, on the base of relation between the entropy and the action, that in a fundamental theory the ground state entanglement entropy per unit area equals 1/(4GN), where GN is the Newton constant in the low-energy gravity sector of the theory. The conjecture opens a new avenue in analogue gravity models. For instance, in higher-dimensional condensed matter systems, which near a critical point are described by relativistic QFT’s, the entanglement entropy density defines an effective gravitational coupling. By studying the properties of this constant one can get new insights in quantum gravity phenomena, such as the universality of the low-energy physics, the renormalization group behavior of GN, the statistical meaning of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy.
Experimental characterization of 3-dimensional gravity-driven fingering in a porous medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Juanes, Ruben
2017-11-01
When water infiltrates a dry porous media, a gravity-driven instability can be observed. Water will penetrate the porous media along preferential paths, called fingers. This gravity-driven unstable multiphase flow has important implications for natural phenomena such as rainwater infiltration in soil and secondary oil migration in reservoir rocks. While several experimental and numerical studies have described the instability in 2-dimensional (2D) settings, fundamental questions remain on the morphodynamics of gravity fingering in 3D. We developed a 3D experimental set-up based on planar laser-induced fluorescence of index-matched fluids that allows us to image this phenomenon dynamically. We study the impact of some crucial parameters such as rainfall rate or grain size on the finger size and velocity. In addition, experiments in stratified media reveal interesting dynamics of finger flow across material interfaces, an essential aspect towards the understanding of water infiltration in soils.
z -Weyl gravity in higher dimensions
Moon, Taeyoon; Oh, Phillial, E-mail: dpproject@skku.edu, E-mail: ploh@skku.edu
We consider higher dimensional gravity in which the four dimensional spacetime and extra dimensions are not treated on an equal footing. The anisotropy is implemented in the ADM decomposition of higher dimensional metric by requiring the foliation preserving diffeomorphism invariance adapted to the extra dimensions, thus keeping the general covariance only for the four dimensional spacetime. The conformally invariant gravity can be constructed with an extra (Weyl) scalar field and a real parameter z which describes the degree of anisotropy of conformal transformation between the spacetime and extra dimensional metrics. In the zero mode effective 4D action, it reduces tomore » four-dimensional scalar-tensor theory coupled with nonlinear sigma model described by extra dimensional metrics. There are no restrictions on the value of z at the classical level and possible applications to the cosmological constant problem with a specific choice of z are discussed.« less
Modeling human perception of orientation in altered gravity
Clark, Torin K.; Newman, Michael C.; Oman, Charles M.; Merfeld, Daniel M.; Young, Laurence R.
2015-01-01
Altered gravity environments, such as those experienced by astronauts, impact spatial orientation perception, and can lead to spatial disorientation and sensorimotor impairment. To more fully understand and quantify the impact of altered gravity on orientation perception, several mathematical models have been proposed. The utricular shear, tangent, and the idiotropic vector models aim to predict static perception of tilt in hyper-gravity. Predictions from these prior models are compared to the available data, but are found to systematically err from the perceptions experimentally observed. Alternatively, we propose a modified utricular shear model for static tilt perception in hyper-gravity. Previous dynamic models of vestibular function and orientation perception are limited to 1 G. Specifically, they fail to predict the characteristic overestimation of roll tilt observed in hyper-gravity environments. To address this, we have proposed a modification to a previous observer-type canal-otolith interaction model based upon the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS) treats otolith stimulation in the utricular plane differently than stimulation out of the utricular plane. Here we evaluate our modified utricular shear and modified observer models in four altered gravity motion paradigms: (a) static roll tilt in hyper-gravity, (b) static pitch tilt in hyper-gravity, (c) static roll tilt in hypo-gravity, and (d) static pitch tilt in hypo-gravity. The modified models match available data in each of the conditions considered. Our static modified utricular shear model and dynamic modified observer model may be used to help quantitatively predict astronaut perception of orientation in altered gravity environments. PMID:25999822
The Spin-Foam Approach to Quantum Gravity.
Perez, Alejandro
2013-01-01
This article reviews the present status of the spin-foam approach to the quantization of gravity. Special attention is payed to the pedagogical presentation of the recently-introduced new models for four-dimensional quantum gravity. The models are motivated by a suitable implementation of the path integral quantization of the Plebanski formulation of gravity on a simplicial regularization. The article also includes a self-contained treatment of 2+1 gravity. The simple nature of the latter provides the basis and a perspective for the analysis of both conceptual and technical issues that remain open in four dimensions.
Gravity Modeling for Variable Fidelity Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Madden, Michael M.
2006-01-01
Aerospace simulations can model worlds, such as the Earth, with differing levels of fidelity. The simulation may represent the world as a plane, a sphere, an ellipsoid, or a high-order closed surface. The world may or may not rotate. The user may select lower fidelity models based on computational limits, a need for simplified analysis, or comparison to other data. However, the user will also wish to retain a close semblance of behavior to the real world. The effects of gravity on objects are an important component of modeling real-world behavior. Engineers generally equate the term gravity with the observed free-fall acceleration. However, free-fall acceleration is not equal to all observers. To observers on the sur-face of a rotating world, free-fall acceleration is the sum of gravitational attraction and the centrifugal acceleration due to the world's rotation. On the other hand, free-fall acceleration equals gravitational attraction to an observer in inertial space. Surface-observed simulations (e.g. aircraft), which use non-rotating world models, may choose to model observed free fall acceleration as the gravity term; such a model actually combines gravitational at-traction with centrifugal acceleration due to the Earth s rotation. However, this modeling choice invites confusion as one evolves the simulation to higher fidelity world models or adds inertial observers. Care must be taken to model gravity in concert with the world model to avoid denigrating the fidelity of modeling observed free fall. The paper will go into greater depth on gravity modeling and the physical disparities and synergies that arise when coupling specific gravity models with world models.
Joint two-dimensional inversion of magnetotelluric and gravity data using correspondence maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrillo, Jonathan; Gallardo, Luis A.
2018-05-01
An accurate characterization of subsurface targets relies on the interpretation of multiple geophysical properties and their relationships. There are mainly two links to jointly invert different geophysical parameters: structural and petrophysical relationships. Structural approaches aim at minimizing topological differences and are widely popular since they need only a few assumptions about models. Conversely, methods based on petrophysical links rely mostly on the property values themselves and can provide a strong coupling between models, but they need to be treated carefully because specific direct relationship must be known or assumed. While some petrophysical relationships are widely accepted, it remains the question whether we may be able to detect them directly from the geophysical data. Currently, there is no reported development that takes full advantage of the flexibility of jointly estimating in-situ empirical relationships and geophysical models for a given geological scenario. We thus developed an algorithm for the two dimensional joint inversion of gravity and magnetotelluric data that seeks simultaneously for a density-resistivity relationship optimal for each studied site described trough a polynomial function. The iterative two-dimensional scheme is tested using synthetic and field data from Cerro Prieto, Mexico. The resulting models show an enhanced resolution with an increased structural and petrophysical correlation. We show that by fitting a functional relationship we increased significantly the coupled geological sense of the models at a little cost in terms of data misfit.
DenInv3D: a geophysical software for three-dimensional density inversion of gravity field data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Yu; Ke, Xiaoping; Wang, Yong
2018-04-01
This paper presents a three-dimensional density inversion software called DenInv3D that operates on gravity and gravity gradient data. The software performs inversion modelling, kernel function calculation, and inversion calculations using the improved preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) algorithm. In the PCG algorithm, due to the uncertainty of empirical parameters, such as the Lagrange multiplier, we use the inflection point of the L-curve as the regularisation parameter. The software can construct unequally spaced grids and perform inversions using such grids, which enables changing the resolution of the inversion results at different depths. Through inversion of airborne gradiometry data on the Australian Kauring test site, we discovered that anomalous blocks of different sizes are present within the study area in addition to the central anomalies. The software of DenInv3D can be downloaded from http://159.226.162.30.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alishahiha, Mohsen; Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M.; Naseh, Ali; Shirzad, Ahmad
2014-12-01
We study linearized equations of motion of the newly proposed three dimensional gravity, known as minimal massive gravity, using its metric formulation. By making use of a redefinition of the parameters of the model, we observe that the resulting linearized equations are exactly the same as that of TMG. In particular the model admits logarithmic modes at critical points. We also study several vacuum solutions of the model, specially at a certain limit where the contribution of Chern-Simons term vanishes.
Exact Solutions in Three-Dimensional Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Díaz, Alberto A.
2017-09-01
Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Point particles; 3. Dust solutions; 4. AdS cyclic symmetric stationary solutions; 5. Perfect fluid static stars; 6. Static perfect fluid stars with Λ; 7. Hydrodynamic equilibrium; 8. Stationary perfect fluid with Λ; 9. Friedmann–Robertson–Walker cosmologies; 10. Dilaton-inflaton FRW cosmologies; 11. Einstein–Maxwell solutions; 12. Nonlinear electrodynamics black hole; 13. Dilaton minimally coupled to gravity; 14. Dilaton non-minimally coupled to gravity; 15. Low energy 2+1 string gravity; 16. Topologically massive gravity; 17. Bianchi type spacetimes in TMG; 18. Petrov type N wave metrics; 19. Kundt spacetimes in TMG; 20. Cotton tensor in Riemannian spacetimes; References; Index.
Threshold Gravity Determination and Artificial Gravity Studies Using Magnetic Levitation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramachandran, N.; Leslie, F.
2005-01-01
What is the threshold gravity (minimum gravity level) required for the nominal functioning of the human system? What dosage is required (magnitude and duration)? Do human cell lines behave differently in microgravity in response to an external stimulus? The critical need for a variable gravity simulator is emphasized by recent experiments on human epithelial cells and lymphocytes on the Space Shuttle clearly showing that cell growth and function are markedly different from those observed terrestrially. Those differences are also dramatic between cells grown in space and those in Rotating Wall Vessels (RWV), or NASA bioreactor often used to simulate microgravity, indicating that although morphological growth patterns (three dimensional growth) can be successfully simulated using RWVs, cell function performance is not reproduced - a critical difference. If cell function is dramatically affected by gravity off-loading, then cell response to stimuli such as radiation, stress, etc. can be very different from terrestrial cell lines. Yet, we have no good gravity simulator for use in study of these phenomena. This represents a profound shortcoming for countermeasures research. We postulate that we can use magnetic levitation of cells and tissue, through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients, as a terrestrial microgravity model to study human cells. Specific objectives of the research are: 1. To develop a tried, tested and benchmarked terrestrial microgravity model for cell culture studies; 2. Gravity threshold determination; 3. Dosage (magnitude and duration) of g-level required for nominal functioning of cells; 4. Comparisons of magnetic levitation model to other models such as RWV, hind limb suspension, etc. and 5. Cellular response to reduced gravity levels of Moon and Mars.
The ITSG-Grace2014 Gravity Field Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kvas, Andreas; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Zehenter, Norbert; Klinger, Beate
2015-04-01
The ITSG-Grace2014 GRACE-only gravity field model consists of a high resolution unconstrained static model (up to degree 200) with trend and annual signal, monthly unconstrained solutions with different spatial resolutions as well as daily snapshots derived by using a Kalman smoother. Apart from the estimated spherical harmonic coefficients, full variance-covariance matrices for the monthly solutions and the static gravity field component are provided. Compared to the previous release, multiple improvements in the processing chain are implemented: updated background models, better ionospheric modeling for GPS observations, an improved satellite attitude by combination of star camera and angular accelerations, estimation of K-band antenna center variations within the gravity field recovery process as well as error covariance function determination. Furthermore, daily gravity field variations have been modeled in the adjustment process to reduce errors caused by temporal leakage. This combined estimation of daily gravity variations field variations together with the static gravity field component represents a computational challenge due to the significantly increased parameter count. The modeling of daily variations up to a spherical harmonic degree of 40 for the whole GRACE observation period results in a system of linear equations with over 6 million unknown gravity field parameters. A least squares adjustment of this size is not solvable in a sensible time frame, therefore measures to reduce the problem size have to be taken. The ITSG-Grace2014 release is presented and selected parts of the processing chain and their effect on the estimated gravity field solutions are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Talvik, Silja; Oja, Tõnis; Ellmann, Artu; Jürgenson, Harli
2014-05-01
Gravity field models in a regional scale are needed for a number of applications, for example national geoid computation, processing of precise levelling data and geological modelling. Thus the methods applied for modelling the gravity field from surveyed gravimetric information need to be considered carefully. The influence of using different gridding methods, the inclusion of unit or realistic weights and indirect gridding of free air anomalies (FAA) are investigated in the study. Known gridding methods such as kriging (KRIG), least squares collocation (LSCO), continuous curvature (CCUR) and optimal Delaunay triangulation (ODET) are used for production of gridded gravity field surfaces. As the quality of data collected varies considerably depending on the methods and instruments available or used in surveying it is important to somehow weigh the input data. This puts additional demands on data maintenance as accuracy information needs to be available for each data point participating in the modelling which is complicated by older gravity datasets where the uncertainties of not only gravity values but also supplementary information such as survey point position are not always known very accurately. A number of gravity field applications (e.g. geoid computation) demand foran FAA model, the acquisition of which is also investigated. Instead of direct gridding it could be more appropriate to proceed with indirect FAA modelling using a Bouguer anomaly grid to reduce the effect of topography on the resulting FAA model (e.g. near terraced landforms). The inclusion of different gridding methods, weights and indirect FAA modelling helps to improve gravity field modelling methods. It becomes possible to estimate the impact of varying methodical approaches on the gravity field modelling as statistical output is compared. Such knowledge helps assess the accuracy of gravity field models and their effect on the aforementioned applications.
Tie, Junbo; Cao, Juliang; Chang, Lubing; Cai, Shaokun; Wu, Meiping; Lian, Junxiang
2018-03-16
Compensation of gravity disturbance can improve the precision of inertial navigation, but the effect of compensation will decrease due to the accelerometer bias, and estimation of the accelerometer bias is a crucial issue in gravity disturbance compensation. This paper first investigates the effect of accelerometer bias on gravity disturbance compensation, and the situation in which the accelerometer bias should be estimated is established. The accelerometer bias is estimated from the gravity vector measurement, and a model of measurement noise in gravity vector measurement is built. Based on this model, accelerometer bias is separated from the gravity vector measurement error by the method of least squares. Horizontal gravity disturbances are calculated through EGM2008 spherical harmonic model to build the simulation scene, and the simulation results indicate that precise estimations of the accelerometer bias can be obtained with the proposed method.
Cao, Juliang; Cai, Shaokun; Wu, Meiping; Lian, Junxiang
2018-01-01
Compensation of gravity disturbance can improve the precision of inertial navigation, but the effect of compensation will decrease due to the accelerometer bias, and estimation of the accelerometer bias is a crucial issue in gravity disturbance compensation. This paper first investigates the effect of accelerometer bias on gravity disturbance compensation, and the situation in which the accelerometer bias should be estimated is established. The accelerometer bias is estimated from the gravity vector measurement, and a model of measurement noise in gravity vector measurement is built. Based on this model, accelerometer bias is separated from the gravity vector measurement error by the method of least squares. Horizontal gravity disturbances are calculated through EGM2008 spherical harmonic model to build the simulation scene, and the simulation results indicate that precise estimations of the accelerometer bias can be obtained with the proposed method. PMID:29547552
Dimensional stability of flakeboards as affected by board specific gravity and flake alignment
Robert L. Geimer
1982-01-01
The objective was to determine the relationship between the variables specific gravity (SG) and flake alignment and the dimensional stability properties of flakeboard. Boards manufactured without a density gradient were exposed to various levels of relative humidity and a vacuum-pressure soak (VPS) treatment. Changes in moisture content (MC), thickness swelling, and...
Kheyfets, Vitaly O; Kieweg, Sarah L
2013-06-01
HIV/AIDS is a growing global pandemic. A microbicide is a formulation of a pharmaceutical agent suspended in a delivery vehicle, and can be used by women to protect themselves against HIV infection during intercourse. We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) computational model of a shear-thinning power-law fluid spreading under the influence of gravity to represent the distribution of a microbicide gel over the vaginal epithelium. This model, accompanied by a new experimental methodology, is a step in developing a tool for optimizing a delivery vehicle's structure/function relationship for clinical application. We compare our model with experiments in order to identify critical considerations for simulating 3D free-surface flows of shear-thinning fluids. Here we found that neglecting lateral spreading, when modeling gravity-induced flow, resulted in up to 47% overestimation of the experimental axial spreading after 90 s. In contrast, the inclusion of lateral spreading in 3D computational models resulted in rms errors in axial spreading under 7%. In addition, the choice of the initial condition for shape in the numerical simulation influences the model's ability to describe early time spreading behavior. Finally, we present a parametric study and sensitivity analysis of the power-law parameters' influence on axial spreading, and to examine the impact of changing rheological properties as a result of dilution or formulation conditions. Both the shear-thinning index (n) and consistency (m) impacted the spreading length and deceleration of the moving front. The sensitivity analysis showed that gels with midrange m and n values (for the ranges in this study) would be most sensitive (over 8% changes in spreading length) to 10% changes (e.g., from dilution) in both rheological properties. This work is applicable to many industrial and geophysical thin-film flow applications of non-Newtonian fluids; in addition to biological applications in microbicide drug delivery.
Holographic heat engine within the framework of massive gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mo, Jie-Xiong; Li, Gu-Qiang
2018-05-01
Heat engine models are constructed within the framework of massive gravity in this paper. For the four-dimensional charged black holes in massive gravity, it is shown that the existence of graviton mass improves the heat engine efficiency significantly. The situation is more complicated for the five-dimensional neutral black holes since the constant which corresponds to the third massive potential also contributes to the efficiency. It is also shown that the existence of graviton mass can improve the heat engine efficiency. Moreover, we probe how the massive gravity influences the behavior of the heat engine efficiency approaching the Carnot efficiency.
Moho topography, ranges and folds of Tibet by analysis of global gravity models and GOCE data
Shin, Young Hong; Shum, C.K.; Braitenberg, Carla; Lee, Sang Mook; Na, Sung -Ho; Choi, Kwang Sun; Hsu, Houtse; Park, Young-Sue; Lim, Mutaek
2015-01-01
The determination of the crustal structure is essential in geophysics, as it gives insight into the geohistory, tectonic environment, geohazard mitigation, etc. Here we present the latest advance on three-dimensional modeling representing the Tibetan Mohorovičić discontinuity (topography and ranges) and its deformation (fold), revealed by analyzing gravity data from GOCE mission. Our study shows noticeable advances in estimated Tibetan Moho model which is superior to the results using the earlier gravity models prior to GOCE. The higher quality gravity field of GOCE is reflected in the Moho solution: we find that the Moho is deeper than 65 km, which is twice the normal continental crust beneath most of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, while the deepest Moho, up to 82 km, is located in western Tibet. The amplitude of the Moho fold is estimated to be ranging from −9 km to 9 km with a standard deviation of ~2 km. The improved GOCE gravity derived Moho signals reveal a clear directionality of the Moho ranges and Moho fold structure, orthogonal to deformation rates observed by GPS. This geophysical feature, clearly more evident than the ones estimated using earlier gravity models, reveals that it is the result of the large compressional tectonic process. PMID:26114224
Gravity and geoid model for South America
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blitzkow, Denizar; Oliveira Cancoro de Matos, Ana Cristina; do Nascimento Guimarães, Gabriel; Pacino, María Cristina; Andrés Lauría, Eduardo; Nunes, Marcelo; Castro Junior, Carlos Alberto Correia e.; Flores, Fredy; Orihuela Guevara, Nuris; Alvarez, Ruber; Napoleon Hernandez, José
2016-04-01
In the last 20 years, South America Gravity Studies (SAGS) project has undertaken an ongoing effort in establishing the fundamental gravity network (FGN); terrestrial, river and airborne relative gravity densifications; absolute gravity surveys and geoid (quasi-geoid) model computation for South America. The old FGN is being replaced progressively by new absolute measurements in different countries. In recent years, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela organizations participated with relative gravity surveys. Taking advantage of the large amount of data available, GEOID2015 model was developed for 15°N and 57°S latitude and 30 ° W and 95°W longitude based on EIGEN-6C4 until degree and order 200 as a reference field. The ocean area was completed with mean free air gravity anomalies derived from DTU10 model. The short wavelength component was estimated using FFT. The global gravity field models EIGEN-6C4, DIR_R5 were used for comparison with the new model. The new geoid model has been evaluated against 1,319 GPS/BM, in which 592 are located in Brazil and the reminder in other countries. The preliminary RMS difference between GPS/BM and GEOID2015 throughout South America and in Brazil is 46 cm and 17 cm, respectively. New activities are carrying out with the support of the IGC (Geographic and Cartographic Institute) under the coordination of EPUSP/LTG and CENEGEO (Centro de Estudos de Geodesia). The new project aims to establish new gravity points with the A-10 absolute gravimeter in South America. Recent such surveys occurred in São Paulo state, Argentina and Venezuela.
Satellite Elevation Magnetic and Gravity Models of Major South American Plate Tectonic Features
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.; Lidiak, E. G.; Keller, G. R. (Principal Investigator); Longacre, M. B.
1984-01-01
Some MAGSAT scalar and vector magnetic anomaly data together with regional gravity anomaly data are being used to investigate the regional tectonic features of the South American Plate. An initial step in this analysis is three dimensional modeling of magnetic and gravity anomalies of major structures such as the Andean subduction zone and the Amazon River Aulacogen at satellite elevations over an appropriate range of physical properties using Gaus-Legendre quadrature integration method. In addition, one degree average free-air gravity anomalies of South America and adjacent marine areas are projected to satellite elevations assuming a spherical Earth and available MAGSAT data are processed to obtain compatible data sets for correlation. Correlation of these data sets is enhanced by reduction of the MAGSAT data to radial polarization because of the profound effect of the variation of the magnetic inclination over South America.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chi, Yong Mann
A numerical simulation model has been developed for the dynamical behavior of spacecraft propellant, both during the draining and the closing of the tank outlet at the onset of suction dip affected by the asymmetric combined gravity gradient and gravity jitter accelerations. In particular the effect of the surface tension of the fluids in the partially filled dewar (applicable to the Gravity Probe-B spacecraft dewar tank and fuel tanks for a liquid rocket) with rotation has been simulated and investigated. Two different cases of accelerations, one with gravity jitter dominated and the other equally weighted between gravity gradient and gravity jitter accelerations, are studied. In the development of this numerical simulation model, the NASA-VOF3D has been used as a supplement to the numerical program of this dissertation. The NASA-VOF3D code has been used for performing the three-dimensional incompressible flows with free surface. This is also used for controlling liquid sloshing inside the tank when the spacecraft is orbiting. To keep track of the location of the liquid, the fractional volume of fluid (VOF) technique was used. The VOF is based on the indicator function of the region occupied by the liquid with an Eulerian approach to solve the free surface phenomena between liquid and gas phases. For the calculation of surface tension force, the VOF model is also used. The newly developed simulation model is used to investigate the characteristics of liquid hydrogen draining in terms of the residual amount of trapped liquid at the onset of the suction dip and residual liquid volume at the time the dip of the liquid-vapor interface formed. This investigation simulates the characteristics of liquid oscillations due to liquid container outlet shut-off at the onset of suction dip. These phenomena checked how these mechanisms affected the excitation of slosh waves during the course of liquid draining and after shut-off tank outlet. In the present study, the dynamical
A Fast Estimation Algorithm for Two-Dimensional Gravity Data (GEOFAST),
1979-11-15
to a wide class of problems (Refs. 9 and 17). The major inhibitor to the widespread appli- ( cation of optimal gravity data processing is the severe...extends directly to two dimensions. Define the nln 2xn1 n2 diagonal window matrix W as the Kronecker product of two one-dimensional windows W = W1 0 W2 (B...Inversion of Separable Matrices Consider the linear system y = T x (B.3-1) where T is block Toeplitz of dimension nln 2xnIn 2 . Its fre- quency domain
Existence of global weak solution for a reduced gravity two and a half layer model
Guo, Zhenhua, E-mail: zhenhua.guo.math@gmail.com; Li, Zilai, E-mail: lizilai0917@163.com; Yao, Lei, E-mail: yaolei1056@hotmail.com
2013-12-15
We investigate the existence of global weak solution to a reduced gravity two and a half layer model in one-dimensional bounded spatial domain or periodic domain. Also, we show that any possible vacuum state has to vanish within finite time, then the weak solution becomes a unique strong one.
High-resolution regional gravity field modelling in a mountainous area from terrestrial gravity data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bucha, Blažej; Janák, Juraj; Papčo, Juraj; Bezděk, Aleš
2016-11-01
We develop a high-resolution regional gravity field model by a combination of spherical harmonics, band-limited spherical radial basis functions (SRBFs) and the residual terrain model (RTM) technique. As the main input data set, we employ a dense terrestrial gravity database (3-6 stations km-2), which enables gravity field modelling up to very short spatial scales. The approach is based on the remove-compute-restore methodology in which all the parts of the signal that can be modelled are removed prior to the least-squares adjustment in order to smooth the input gravity data. To this end, we utilize degree-2159 spherical harmonic models and the RTM technique using topographic models at 2 arcsec resolution. The residual short-scale gravity signal is modelled via the band-limited Shannon SRBF expanded up to degree 21 600, which corresponds to a spatial resolution of 30 arcsec. The combined model is validated against GNSS/levelling-based height anomalies, independent surface gravity data, deflections of the vertical and terrestrial vertical gravity gradients achieving an accuracy of 2.7 cm, 0.53 mGal, 0.39 arcsec and 279 E in terms of the RMS error, respectively. A key aspect of the combined approach, especially in mountainous areas, is the quality of the RTM. We therefore compare the performance of two RTM techniques within the innermost zone, the tesseroids and the polyhedron. It is shown that the polyhedron-based approach should be preferred in rugged terrain if a high-quality RTM is required. In addition, we deal with the RTM computations at points located below the reference surface of the residual terrain which is known to be a rather delicate issue.
Dirac Equation in (1 +1 )-Dimensional Curved Spacetime and the Multiphoton Quantum Rabi Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedernales, J. S.; Beau, M.; Pittman, S. M.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Lamata, L.; Solano, E.; del Campo, A.
2018-04-01
We introduce an exact mapping between the Dirac equation in (1 +1 )-dimensional curved spacetime (DCS) and a multiphoton quantum Rabi model (QRM). A background of a (1 +1 )-dimensional black hole requires a QRM with one- and two-photon terms that can be implemented in a trapped ion for the quantum simulation of Dirac particles in curved spacetime. We illustrate our proposal with a numerical analysis of the free fall of a Dirac particle into a (1 +1 )-dimensional black hole, and find that the Zitterbewegung effect, measurable via the oscillatory trajectory of the Dirac particle, persists in the presence of gravity. From the duality between the squeezing term in the multiphoton QRM and the metric coupling in the DCS, we show that gravity generates squeezing of the Dirac particle wave function.
On the role of radiation and dimensionality in predicting flow opposed flame spread over thin fuels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Chenthil; Kumar, Amit
2012-06-01
In this work a flame-spread model is formulated in three dimensions to simulate opposed flow flame spread over thin solid fuels. The flame-spread model is coupled to a three-dimensional gas radiation model. The experiments [1] on downward spread and zero gravity quiescent spread over finite width thin fuel are simulated by flame-spread models in both two and three dimensions to assess the role of radiation and effect of dimensionality on the prediction of the flame-spread phenomena. It is observed that while radiation plays only a minor role in normal gravity downward spread, in zero gravity quiescent spread surface radiation loss holds the key to correct prediction of low oxygen flame spread rate and quenching limit. The present three-dimensional simulations show that even in zero gravity gas radiation affects flame spread rate only moderately (as much as 20% at 100% oxygen) as the heat feedback effect exceeds the radiation loss effect only moderately. However, the two-dimensional model with the gas radiation model badly over-predicts the zero gravity flame spread rate due to under estimation of gas radiation loss to the ambient surrounding. The two-dimensional model was also found to be inadequate for predicting the zero gravity flame attributes, like the flame length and the flame width, correctly. The need for a three-dimensional model was found to be indispensable for consistently describing the zero gravity flame-spread experiments [1] (including flame spread rate and flame size) especially at high oxygen levels (>30%). On the other hand it was observed that for the normal gravity downward flame spread for oxygen levels up to 60%, the two-dimensional model was sufficient to predict flame spread rate and flame size reasonably well. Gas radiation is seen to increase the three-dimensional effect especially at elevated oxygen levels (>30% for zero gravity and >60% for normal gravity flames).
Spectral action models of gravity on packed swiss cheese cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ball, Adam; Marcolli, Matilde
2016-06-01
We present a model of (modified) gravity on spacetimes with fractal structure based on packing of spheres, which are (Euclidean) variants of the packed swiss cheese cosmology models. As the action functional for gravity we consider the spectral action of noncommutative geometry, and we compute its expansion on a space obtained as an Apollonian packing of three-dimensional spheres inside a four-dimensional ball. Using information from the zeta function of the Dirac operator of the spectral triple, we compute the leading terms in the asymptotic expansion of the spectral action. They consist of a zeta regularization of the divergent sum of the leading terms of the spectral actions of the individual spheres in the packing. This accounts for the contribution of points 1 and 3 in the dimension spectrum (as in the case of a 3-sphere). There is an additional term coming from the residue at the additional point in the real dimension spectrum that corresponds to the packing constant, as well as a series of fluctuations coming from log-periodic oscillations, created by the points of the dimension spectrum that are off the real line. These terms detect the fractality of the residue set of the sphere packing. We show that the presence of fractality influences the shape of the slow-roll potential for inflation, obtained from the spectral action. We also discuss the effect of truncating the fractal structure at a certain scale related to the energy scale in the spectral action.
N=2 supersymmetry in two-dimensional dilaton gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nelson, William M.; Park, Youngchul
1993-11-01
Actions for D=2, N=2 supergravity coupled to a scalar field are calculated, and it is shown that the most general power-counting renormalizable dilaton gravity action has an N=2 locally supersymmetric extension. The presence of chiral terms in the action leads one to hope that nonrenormalization theorems similar to those in global SUSY will apply; this would eliminate some of the renormalization ambiguities which plague ordinary bosonic (and N=1) dilaton gravity. To investigate this, the model is studied in the superconformal gauge, where it is found that one chiral term becomes nonchiral, so that only one term is safe from renormalization.
Gravity and antigravity in a brane world with metastable gravitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gregory, R.; Rubakov, V. A.; Sibiryakov, S. M.
2000-09-01
In the framework of a five-dimensional three-brane model with quasi-localized gravitons we evaluate metric perturbations induced on the positive tension brane by matter residing thereon. We find that at intermediate distances, the effective four-dimensional theory coincides, up to small corrections, with General Relativity. This is in accord with Csaki, Erlich and Hollowood and in contrast to Dvali, Gabadadze and Porrati. We show, however, that at ultra-large distances this effective four-dimensional theory becomes dramatically different: conventional tensor gravity changes into scalar anti-gravity.
Buchdahl-Vaidya-Tikekar model for stellar interior in pure Lovelock gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molina, Alfred; Dadhich, Naresh; Khugaev, Avas
2017-07-01
In the paper (Khugaev et al. in Phys Rev D94:064065. arXiv: 1603.07118, 2016), we have shown that for perfect fluid spheres the pressure isotropy equation for Buchdahl-Vaidya-Tikekar metric ansatz continues to have the same Gauss form in higher dimensions, and hence higher dimensional solutions could be obtained by redefining the space geometry characterizing Vaidya-Tikekar parameter K. In this paper we extend this analysis to pure Lovelock gravity; i.e. a (2N+2)-dimensional solution with a given K_{2N+2} can be taken over to higher n-dimensional pure Lovelock solution with K_n=(K_{2N+2}-n+2N+2)/(n-2N-1) where N is degree of Lovelock action. This ansatz includes the uniform density Schwarzshild and the Finch-Skea models, and it is interesting that the two define the two ends of compactness, the former being the densest and while the latter rarest. All other models with this ansatz lie in between these two limiting distributions.
Generalized pure Lovelock gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Concha, Patrick; Rodríguez, Evelyn
2017-11-01
We present a generalization of the n-dimensional (pure) Lovelock Gravity theory based on an enlarged Lorentz symmetry. In particular, we propose an alternative way to introduce a cosmological term. Interestingly, we show that the usual pure Lovelock gravity is recovered in a matter-free configuration. The five and six-dimensional cases are explicitly studied.
New Gravity Wave Treatments for GISS Climate Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Ruedy, Reto; Aleinov, Igor; Nazarenko, Larissa; Tausnev, Nikolai L.; Sun, Shan; Kelley, Maxwell; Cheng, Ye
2011-01-01
Previous versions of GISS climate models have either used formulations of Rayleigh drag to represent unresolved gravity wave interactions with the model-resolved flow or have included a rather complicated treatment of unresolved gravity waves that, while being climate interactive, involved the specification of a relatively large number of parameters that were not well constrained by observations and also was computationally very expensive. Here, the authors introduce a relatively simple and computationally efficient specification of unresolved orographic and nonorographic gravity waves and their interaction with the resolved flow. Comparisons of the GISS model winds and temperatures with no gravity wave parameterization; with only orographic gravity wave parameterization; and with both orographic and nonorographic gravity wave parameterizations are shown to illustrate how the zonal mean winds and temperatures converge toward observations. The authors also show that the specifications of orographic and nonorographic gravity waves must be different in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Then results are presented where the nonorographic gravity wave sources are specified to represent sources from convection in the intertropical convergence zone and spontaneous emission from jet imbalances. Finally, a strategy to include these effects in a climate-dependent manner is suggested.
New Gravity Wave Treatments for GISS Climate Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Ruedy, Reto; Aleinov, Igor; Nazarenko, Larissa; Tausnev, Nikolai L.; Sun, Shan; Kelley, Maxwell; Cheng, Ye
2010-01-01
Previous versions of GISS climate models have either used formulations of Rayleigh drag to represent unresolved gravity wave interactions with the model resolved flow or have included a rather complicated treatment of unresolved gravity waves that, while being climate interactive, involved the specification of a relatively large number of parameters that were not well constrained by observations and also was computationally very expensive. Here, we introduce a relatively simple and computationally efficient specification of unresolved orographic and non-orographic gravity waves and their interaction with the resolved flow. We show comparisons of the GISS model winds and temperatures with no gravity wave parametrization; with only orographic gravity wave parameterization; and with both orographic and non-orographic gravity wave parameterizations to illustrate how the zonal mean winds and temperatures converge toward observations. We also show that the specifications of orographic and nonorographic gravity waves must be different in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. We then show results where the non-orographic gravity wave sources are specified to represent sources from convection in the Intertropical Convergence Zone and spontaneous emission from jet imbalances. Finally, we suggest a strategy to include these effects in a climate dependent manner.
Upward Flame Spread Over Thin Solids in Partial Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feier, I. I.; Shih, H. Y.; Sacksteder, K. R.; Tien, J. S.
2001-01-01
The effects of partial-gravity, reduced pressure, and sample width on upward flame spread over a thin cellulose fuel were studied experimentally and the results were compared to a numerical flame spread simulation. Fuel samples 1-cm, 2-cm, and 4-cm wide were burned in air at reduced pressures of 0.2 to 0.4 atmospheres in simulated gravity environments of 0.1-G, 0.16-G (Lunar), and 0.38-G (Martian) onboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft and in normal-gravity tests. Observed steady flame propagation speeds and pyrolysis lengths were approximately proportional to the gravity level. Flames spread more quickly and were longer with the wider samples and the variations with gravity and pressure increased with sample width. A numerical simulation of upward flame spread was developed including three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, one-step Arrhenius kinetics for the gas phase flame and for the solid surface decomposition, and a fuel-surface radiative loss. The model provides detailed structure of flame temperatures, the flow field interactions with the flame, and the solid fuel mass disappearance. The simulation agrees with experimental flame spread rates and their dependence on gravity level but predicts a wider flammable region than found by experiment. Some unique three-dimensional flame features are demonstrated in the model results.
Kheyfets, Vitaly O.; Kieweg, Sarah L.
2013-01-01
HIV/AIDS is a growing global pandemic. A microbicide is a formulation of a pharmaceutical agent suspended in a delivery vehicle, and can be used by women to protect themselves against HIV infection during intercourse. We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) computational model of a shear-thinning power-law fluid spreading under the influence of gravity to represent the distribution of a microbicide gel over the vaginal epithelium. This model, accompanied by a new experimental methodology, is a step in developing a tool for optimizing a delivery vehicle's structure/function relationship for clinical application. We compare our model with experiments in order to identify critical considerations for simulating 3D free-surface flows of shear-thinning fluids. Here we found that neglecting lateral spreading, when modeling gravity-induced flow, resulted in up to 47% overestimation of the experimental axial spreading after 90 s. In contrast, the inclusion of lateral spreading in 3D computational models resulted in rms errors in axial spreading under 7%. In addition, the choice of the initial condition for shape in the numerical simulation influences the model's ability to describe early time spreading behavior. Finally, we present a parametric study and sensitivity analysis of the power-law parameters' influence on axial spreading, and to examine the impact of changing rheological properties as a result of dilution or formulation conditions. Both the shear-thinning index (n) and consistency (m) impacted the spreading length and deceleration of the moving front. The sensitivity analysis showed that gels with midrange m and n values (for the ranges in this study) would be most sensitive (over 8% changes in spreading length) to 10% changes (e.g., from dilution) in both rheological properties. This work is applicable to many industrial and geophysical thin-film flow applications of non-Newtonian fluids; in addition to biological applications in microbicide drug delivery
High-resolution gravity model of Venus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reasenberg, R. D.; Goldberg, Z. M.
1992-01-01
The anomalous gravity field of Venus shows high correlation with surface features revealed by radar. We extract gravity models from the Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter by means of a two-step process. In the first step, we solve the nonlinear spacecraft state estimation problem using a Kalman filter-smoother. The Kalman filter has been evaluated through simulations. This evaluation and some unusual features of the filter are discussed. In the second step, we perform a geophysical inversion using a linear Bayesian estimator. To allow an unbiased comparison between gravity and topography, we use a simulation technique to smooth and distort the radar topographic data so as to yield maps having the same characteristics as our gravity maps. The maps presented cover 2/3 of the surface of Venus and display the strong topography-gravity correlation previously reported. The topography-gravity scatter plots show two distinct trends.
Holographic dark energy from fluid/gravity duality constraint by cosmological observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pourhassan, Behnam; Bonilla, Alexander; Faizal, Mir; Abreu, Everton M. C.
2018-06-01
In this paper, we obtain a holographic model of dark energy using the fluid/gravity duality. This model will be dual to a higher dimensional Schwarzschild black hole, and we would use fluid/gravity duality to relate to the parameters of this black hole to such a cosmological model. We will also analyze the thermodynamics of such a solution, and discuss the stability model. Finally, we use cosmological data to constraint the parametric space of this dark energy model. Thus, we will use observational data to perform cosmography for this holographic model based on fluid/gravity duality.
Three-dimensional computer model for the atmospheric general circulation experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, G. O.
1984-01-01
An efficient, flexible, three-dimensional, hydrodynamic, computer code has been developed for a spherical cap geometry. The code will be used to simulate NASA's Atmospheric General Circulation Experiment (AGCE). The AGCE is a spherical, baroclinic experiment which will model the large-scale dynamics of our atmosphere; it has been proposed to NASA for future Spacelab flights. In the AGCE a radial dielectric body force will simulate gravity, with hot fluid tending to move outwards. In order that this force be dominant, the AGCE must be operated in a low gravity environment such as Spacelab. The full potential of the AGCE will only be realized by working in conjunction with an accurate computer model. Proposed experimental parameter settings will be checked first using model runs. Then actual experimental results will be compared with the model predictions. This interaction between experiment and theory will be very valuable in determining the nature of the AGCE flows and hence their relationship to analytical theories and actual atmospheric dynamics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gerrard, Andrew J.; Kane, Timothy J.; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Thayer, Jeffrey P.
2004-01-01
We conducted gravity wave ray-tracing experiments within an atmospheric region centered near the ARCLITE lidar system at Sondrestrom, Greenland (67N, 310 deg E), in efforts to understand lidar observations of both upper stratospheric gravity wave activity and mesospheric clouds during August 1996 and the summer of 2001. The ray model was used to trace gravity waves through realistic three-dimensional daily-varying background atmospheres in the region, based on forecasts and analyses in the troposphere and stratosphere and climatologies higher up. Reverse ray tracing based on upper stratospheric lidar observations at Sondrestrom was also used to try to objectively identify wave source regions in the troposphere. A source spectrum specified by reverse ray tracing experiments in early August 1996 (when atmospheric flow patterns produced enhanced transmission of waves into the upper stratosphere) yielded model results throughout the remainder of August 1996 that agreed best with the lidar observations. The model also simulated increased vertical group propagation of waves between 40 km and 80 km due to intensifying mean easterlies, which allowed many of the gravity waves observed at 40 km over Sondrestrom to propagate quasi-vertically from 40-80 km and then interact with any mesospheric clouds at 80 km near Sondrestrom, supporting earlier experimentally-inferred correlations between upper stratospheric gravity wave activity and mesospheric cloud backscatter from Sondrestrom lidar observations. A pilot experiment of real-time runs with the model in 2001 using weather forecast data as a low-level background produced less agreement with lidar observations. We believe this is due to limitations in our specified tropospheric source spectrum, the use of climatological winds and temperatures in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere, and missing lidar data from important time periods.
Two-dimensional free-surface flow under gravity: A new benchmark case for SPH method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, J. Z.; Fang, L.
2018-02-01
Currently there are few free-surface benchmark cases with analytical results for the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulation. In the present contribution we introduce a two-dimensional free-surface flow under gravity, and obtain an analytical expression on the surface height difference and a theoretical estimation on the surface fractal dimension. They are preliminarily validated and supported by SPH calculations.
Major results of gravity and magnetic studies at Yucca Mountain, Nevada
Oliver, H.W.; Ponce, D.A.; Sikora, R.F.; ,
1991-01-01
About 4,000 gravity stations have been obtained at Yucca Mountain and vicinity since the beginning of radioactive-waste studies there in 1978. These data have been integrated with data from about 29,000 stations previously obtained in the surrounding region to produce a series of Bouguer and isostatic-residual-gravity maps of the Nevada Test Site and southeastern Nevada. Yucca Mountain is characterized by a WNW-dipping gravity gradient whereby residual values of -10 mGal along the east edge of Yucca Mountain decrease to about -38 mGal over Crater Flat. Using these gravity data, two-dimensional modeling predicted the depth to pre-Cenozoic rocks near the proposed repository to be about 1,220??150 m, an estimate that was subsequently confirmed by drilling to be 1,244 m. Three-dimensional modeling of the gravity low over Crater Flat indicates the thickness of Cenozoic volcanic rocks and alluvial cover to be about 3,000 m. Gravity interpretations also identified the Silent Canyon caldera before geologic mapping of Pahute Mesa and provided an estimate of the thickness of the volcanic section there of nearly 5 km.
An improved model for the Earth's gravity field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tapley, B. D.; Shum, C. K.; Yuan, D. N.; Ries, J. C.; Schutz, B. E.
1989-01-01
An improved model for the Earth's gravity field, TEG-1, was determined using data sets from fourteen satellites, spanning the inclination ranges from 15 to 115 deg, and global surface gravity anomaly data. The satellite measurements include laser ranging data, Doppler range-rate data, and satellite-to-ocean radar altimeter data measurements, which include the direct height measurement and the differenced measurements at ground track crossings (crossover measurements). Also determined was another gravity field model, TEG-1S, which included all the data sets in TEG-1 with the exception of direct altimeter data. The effort has included an intense scrutiny of the gravity field solution methodology. The estimated parameters included geopotential coefficients complete to degree and order 50 with selected higher order coefficients, ocean and solid Earth tide parameters, Doppler tracking station coordinates and the quasi-stationary sea surface topography. Extensive error analysis and calibration of the formal covariance matrix indicate that the gravity field model is a significant improvement over previous models and can be used for general applications in geodesy.
Conformal gravity holography in four dimensions.
Grumiller, Daniel; Irakleidou, Maria; Lovrekovic, Iva; McNees, Robert
2014-03-21
We formulate four-dimensional conformal gravity with (anti-)de Sitter boundary conditions that are weaker than Starobinsky boundary conditions, allowing for an asymptotically subleading Rindler term concurrent with a recent model for gravity at large distances. We prove the consistency of the variational principle and derive the holographic response functions. One of them is the conformal gravity version of the Brown-York stress tensor, the other is a "partially massless response". The on shell action and response functions are finite and do not require holographic renormalization. Finally, we discuss phenomenologically interesting examples, including the most general spherically symmetric solutions and rotating black hole solutions with partially massless hair.
Xiang, Yongqing; Yakushin, Sergei B; Cohen, Bernard; Raphan, Theodore
2006-12-01
A neural network model was developed to explain the gravity-dependent properties of gain adaptation of the angular vestibuloocular reflex (aVOR). Gain changes are maximal at the head orientation where the gain is adapted and decrease as the head is tilted away from that position and can be described by the sum of gravity-independent and gravity-dependent components. The adaptation process was modeled by modifying the weights and bias values of a three-dimensional physiologically based neural network of canal-otolith-convergent neurons that drive the aVOR. Model parameters were trained using experimental vertical aVOR gain values. The learning rule aimed to reduce the error between eye velocities obtained from experimental gain values and model output in the position of adaptation. Although the model was trained only at specific head positions, the model predicted the experimental data at all head positions in three dimensions. Altering the relative learning rates of the weights and bias improved the model-data fits. Model predictions in three dimensions compared favorably with those of a double-sinusoid function, which is a fit that minimized the mean square error at every head position and served as the standard by which we compared the model predictions. The model supports the hypothesis that gravity-dependent adaptation of the aVOR is realized in three dimensions by a direct otolith input to canal-otolith neurons, whose canal sensitivities are adapted by the visual-vestibular mismatch. The adaptation is tuned by how the weights from otolith input to the canal-otolith-convergent neurons are adapted for a given head orientation.
Three dimensional magnetic solutions in massive gravity with (non)linear field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendi, S. H.; Eslam Panah, B.; Panahiyan, S.; Momennia, M.
2017-12-01
The Noble Prize in physics 2016 motivates one to study different aspects of topological properties and topological defects as their related objects. Considering the significant role of the topological defects (especially magnetic strings) in cosmology, here, we will investigate three dimensional horizonless magnetic solutions in the presence of two generalizations: massive gravity and nonlinear electromagnetic field. The effects of these two generalizations on properties of the solutions and their geometrical structure are investigated. The differences between de Sitter and anti de Sitter solutions are highlighted and conditions regarding the existence of phase transition in geometrical structure of the solutions are studied.
Softened gravity and the extension of the standard model up to infinite energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giudice, Gian F.; Isidori, Gino; Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro
2015-02-01
Attempts to solve naturalness by having the weak scale as the only breaking of classical scale invariance have to deal with two severe difficulties: gravity and the absence of Landau poles. We show that solutions to the first problem require premature modifications of gravity at scales no larger than 1011 GeV, while the second problem calls for many new particles at the weak scale. To build models that fulfill these properties, we classify 4- dimensional Quantum Field Theories that satisfy Total Asymptotic Freedom (TAF): the theory holds up to infinite energy, where all coupling constants flow to zero. We develop a technique to identify such theories and determine their low-energy predictions. Since the Standard Model turns out to be asymptotically free only under the unphysical conditions g 1 = 0, M t = 186 GeV, M τ = 0, M h = 163 GeV, we explore some of its weak-scale extensions that satisfy the requirements for TAF.
New Spin Foam Models of Quantum Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miković, A.
We give a brief and a critical review of the Barret-Crane spin foam models of quantum gravity. Then we describe two new spin foam models which are obtained by direct quantization of General Relativity and do not have some of the drawbacks of the Barret-Crane models. These are the model of spin foam invariants for the embedded spin networks in loop quantum gravity and the spin foam model based on the integration of the tetrads in the path integral for the Palatini action.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masson, F.; Mouyen, M.; Hwang, C.; Wu, Y.-M.; Ponton, F.; Lehujeur, M.; Dorbath, C.
2012-11-01
Using a Bouguer anomaly map and a dense seismic data set, we have performed two studies in order to improve our knowledge of the deep structure of Taiwan. First, we model the Bouguer anomaly along a profile crossing the island using simple forward modelling. The modelling is 2D, with the hypothesis of cylindrical symmetry. Second we present a joint analysis of gravity anomaly and seismic arrival time data recorded in Taiwan. An initial velocity model has been obtained by local earthquake tomography (LET) of the seismological data. The LET velocity model was used to construct an initial 3D gravity model, using a linear velocity-density relationship (Birch's law). The synthetic Bouguer anomaly calculated for this model has the same shape and wavelength as the observed anomaly. However some characteristics of the anomaly map are not retrieved. To derive a crustal velocity/density model which accounts for both types of observations, we performed a sequential inversion of seismological and gravity data. The variance reduction of the arrival time data for the final sequential model was comparable to the variance reduction obtained by simple LET. Moreover, the sequential model explained about 80% of the observed gravity anomaly. New 3D model of Taiwan lithosphere is presented.
A numerical solution for thermoacoustic convection of fluids in low gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spradley, L. W.; Bourgeois, S. V., Jr.; Fan, C.; Grodzka, P. G.
1973-01-01
A finite difference numerical technique for solving the differential equations which describe thermal convection of compressible fluids in low gravity are reported. Results of one-dimensional calculations are presented, and comparisons are made to previous solutions. The primary result presented is a one-dimensional radial model of the Apollo 14 heat flow and convection demonstration flight experiment. The numerical calculations show that thermally induced convective motion in a confined fluid can have significant effects on heat transfer in a low gravity environment.
Nicole Lautze
2015-12-15
Gravity model for the state of Hawaii. Data is from the following source: Flinders, A.F., Ito, G., Garcia, M.O., Sinton, J.M., Kauahikaua, J.P., and Taylor, B., 2013, Intrusive dike complexes, cumulate cores, and the extrusive growth of Hawaiian volcanoes: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 40, p. 3367–3373, doi:10.1002/grl.50633.
Dark-energy cosmological models in f(G) gravity
Shamir, M. F., E-mail: farasat.shamir@nu.edu.pk
We discuss dark-energy cosmological models in f(G) gravity. For this purpose, a locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I cosmological model is considered. First, exact solutions with a well-known form of the f(G) model are explored. One general solution is discussed using a power-law f(G) gravity model and physical quantities are calculated. In particular, Kasner’s universe is recovered and the corresponding f(G) gravity models are reported. Second, the energy conditions for the model under consideration are discussed using graphical analysis. It is concluded that solutions with f(G) = G{sup 5/6} support expansion of universe while those with f(G) = G{sup 1/2}more » do not favor the current expansion.« less
A noncompact Weyl-Einstein-Yang-Mills model: A semiclassical quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dengiz, Suat
2017-08-01
We construct and study perturbative unitarity (i.e., ghost and tachyon analysis) of a 3 + 1-dimensional noncompact Weyl-Einstein-Yang-Mills model. The model describes a local noncompact Weyl's scale plus SU(N) phase invariant Higgs-like field,conformally coupled to a generic Weyl-invariant dynamical background. Here, the Higgs-like sector generates the Weyl's conformal invariance of system. The action does not admit any dimensionful parameter and genuine presence of de Sitter vacuum spontaneously breaks the noncompact gauge symmetry in an analogous manner to the Standard Model Higgs mechanism. As to flat spacetime, the dimensionful parameter is generated within the dimensional transmutation in quantum field theories, and thus the symmetry is radiatively broken through the one-loop Effective Coleman-Weinberg potential. We show that the mere expectation of reducing to Einstein's gravity in the broken phases forbids anti-de Sitter space to be its stable vacua. The model is unitary in de Sitter and flat vacua around which a massless graviton, N2 - 1 massless scalar bosons, N massless Dirac fermions, N2 - 1 Proca-type massive Abelian and non-Abelian vector bosons are generically propagated.
Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V; Syngouna, Vasiliki I
2014-06-17
The role of gravitational force on colloid transport in water-saturated columns packed with glass beads was investigated. Transport experiments were performed with colloids (clays: kaolinite KGa-1b, montmorillonite STx-1b). The packed columns were placed in various orientations (horizontal, vertical, and diagonal) and a steady flow rate of Q = 1.5 mL/min was applied in both up-flow and down-flow modes. All experiments were conducted under electrostatically unfavorable conditions. The experimental data were fitted with a newly developed, analytical, one-dimensional, colloid transport model. The effect of gravity is incorporated in the mathematical model by combining the interstitial velocity (advection) with the settling velocity (gravity effect). The results revealed that flow direction influences colloid transport in porous media. The rate of particle deposition was shown to be greater for up-flow than for down-flow direction, suggesting that gravity was a significant driving force for colloid deposition.
Affine group formulation of the Standard Model coupled to gravity
Chou, Ching-Yi, E-mail: l2897107@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Ita, Eyo, E-mail: ita@usna.edu; Soo, Chopin, E-mail: cpsoo@mail.ncku.edu.tw
In this work we apply the affine group formalism for four dimensional gravity of Lorentzian signature, which is based on Klauder’s affine algebraic program, to the formulation of the Hamiltonian constraint of the interaction of matter and all forces, including gravity with non-vanishing cosmological constant Λ, as an affine Lie algebra. We use the hermitian action of fermions coupled to gravitation and Yang–Mills theory to find the density weight one fermionic super-Hamiltonian constraint. This term, combined with the Yang–Mills and Higgs energy densities, are composed with York’s integrated time functional. The result, when combined with the imaginary part of themore » Chern–Simons functional Q, forms the affine commutation relation with the volume element V(x). Affine algebraic quantization of gravitation and matter on equal footing implies a fundamental uncertainty relation which is predicated upon a non-vanishing cosmological constant. -- Highlights: •Wheeler–DeWitt equation (WDW) quantized as affine algebra, realizing Klauder’s program. •WDW formulated for interaction of matter and all forces, including gravity, as affine algebra. •WDW features Hermitian generators in spite of fermionic content: Standard Model addressed. •Constructed a family of physical states for the full, coupled theory via affine coherent states. •Fundamental uncertainty relation, predicated on non-vanishing cosmological constant.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alothman, Abdulaziz; Elsaka, Basem
The gravity field models from the GRACE and GOCE missions have increased the knowledge of the earth’s global gravity field. The latter GOCE mission has provided accuracies of about 1-2 cm and 1milli-Gal level in the global geoid and gravity anomaly, respectively. However, determining all wavelength ranges of the gravity field spectrum cannot be only achieved from satellite gravimetry but from the allowed terrestrial gravity data. In this contribution, we use a gravity network of 42 first-order absolute gravity stations, observed by LaCosta Romberg gravimeter during the period 1967-1969 by Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources, to validate the GOCE gravity models in order to gain more detailed regional gravity information. The network stations are randomly distributed all over the country with a spacing of about 200 km apart. The results show that the geoid height and gravity anomaly determined from terrestrial gravity data agree with the GOCE based models and give additional information to the satellite gravity solutions.
A three-dimensional gravity study of the 95.5°W propagating rift in the Galapagos spreading center
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phipps Morgan, Jason; Parmentier, E. M.
1987-01-01
Seafloor at the Galapagos 95.5°W propagating rift (PR) has a varied morphological expression that can be spatially correlated with the predicted kinematic history of the PR. A median valley-like depression occurs near the tip of the growing ridge axis. To test if this bathymetry is a dynamic feature supported by mantle or lithosphere strength or if it is due to isostatically compensated crustal thickness variations, we use three-dimensional gravity modelling to constrain the crustal structure in this region, from data collected by Hey in 1979 and 1982. The gravity anomaly at the PR tip depression suggests that the tip depression is not caused by crustal thinning. The data are consistent with a stress-supported PR tip depression caused by asthenospheric along-axis flow into the growing ridge axis (Phipps Morgan and Parmentier [1]). In contrast to the tip depression, seafloor in the sheared zone of material transferred through transform migration from the Cocos to Nazca plate is anomalously shallow and has a pronounced regional 300-400 m tilt towards the growing ridge axis over the 20 km width of the sheared zone. The gravity data also suggest that the sheared zone is not compensated by crustal thickening.
The gravity model of labor migration behavior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexandr, Tarasyev; Alexandr, Tarasyev
2017-07-01
In this article, we present a dynamic inter-regional model, that is based on the gravity approach to migration and describes in continuous time the labor force dynamics between a number of conjugate regions. Our modification of the gravity migration model allows to explain the migration processes and to display the impact of migration on the regional economic development both for regions of origin and attraction. The application of our model allows to trace the dependency between salaries levels, total workforce, the number of vacancies and the number unemployed people in simulated regions. Due to the gravity component in our model the accuracy of prediction for migration flows is limited by the distance range between analyzed regions, so this model is tested on a number of conjugate neighbor regions. Future studies will be aimed at development of a multi-level dynamic model, which allows to construct a forecast for unemployment and vacancies trends on the first modeling level and to use these identified parameters on the second level for describing dynamic trajectories of migration flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papanikolaou, T. D.; Papadopoulos, N.
2015-06-01
The present study aims at the validation of global gravity field models through numerical investigation in gravity field functionals based on spherical harmonic synthesis of the geopotential models and the analysis of terrestrial data. We examine gravity models produced according to the latest approaches for gravity field recovery based on the principles of the Gravity field and steadystate Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) and Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite missions. Furthermore, we evaluate the overall spectrum of the ultra-high degree combined gravity models EGM2008 and EIGEN-6C3stat. The terrestrial data consist of gravity and collocated GPS/levelling data in the overall Hellenic region. The software presented here implements the algorithm of spherical harmonic synthesis in a degree-wise cumulative sense. This approach may quantify the bandlimited performance of the individual models by monitoring the degree-wise computed functionals against the terrestrial data. The degree-wise analysis performed yields insight in the short-wavelengths of the Earth gravity field as these are expressed by the high degree harmonics.
On the background independence of two-dimensional topological gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imbimbo, Camillo
1995-04-01
We formulate two-dimensional topological gravity in a background covariant Lagrangian framework. We derive the Ward identities which characterize the dependence of physical correlators on the background world-sheet metric defining the gauge-slice. We point out the existence of an "anomaly" in Ward identitites involving correlators of observables with higher ghost number. This "anomaly" represents an obstruction for physical correlators to be globally defined forms on moduli space which could be integrated in a background independent way. Starting from the anomalous Ward identities, we derive "descent" equations whose solutions are cocycles of the Lie algebra of the diffeomorphism group with values in the space of local forms on the moduli space. We solve the descent equations and provide explicit formulas for the cocycles, which allow for the definition of background independent integrals of physical correlators on the moduli space.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Accioly, Antonio; Correia, Gilson; de Brito, Gustavo P.; de Almeida, José; Herdy, Wallace
2017-03-01
Simple prescriptions for computing the D-dimensional classical potential related to electromagnetic and gravitational models, based on the functional generator, are built out. These recipes are employed afterward as a support for probing the premise that renormalizable higher-order systems have a finite classical potential at the origin. It is also shown that the opposite of the conjecture above is not true. In other words, if a higher-order model is renormalizable, it is necessarily endowed with a finite classical potential at the origin, but the reverse of this statement is untrue. The systems used to check the conjecture were D-dimensional fourth-order Lee-Wick electrodynamics, and the D-dimensional fourth- and sixth-order gravity models. A special attention is devoted to New Massive Gravity (NMG) since it was the analysis of this model that inspired our surmise. In particular, we made use of our premise to resolve trivially the issue of the renormalizability of NMG, which was initially considered to be renormalizable, but it was shown some years later to be non-renormalizable. We remark that our analysis is restricted to local models in which the propagator has simple and real poles.
f(Lovelock) theories of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bueno, Pablo; Cano, Pablo A.; Óscar Lasso, A.; Ramírez, Pedro F.
2016-04-01
f(Lovelock) gravities are simple generalizations of the usual f( R) and Lovelock theories in which the gravitational action depends on some arbitrary function of the corresponding dimensionally-extended Euler densities. In this paper we study several aspects of these theories in general dimensions. We start by identifying the generalized boundary term which makes the gravitational variational problem well-posed. Then, we show that these theories are equivalent to certain scalar-tensor theories and how this relation is characterized by the Hessian of f. We also study the linearized equations of the theory on general maximally symmetric backgrounds. Remarkably, we find that these theories do not propagate the usual ghost-like massive gravitons characteristic of higher-derivative gravities on such backgrounds. In some non-trivial cases, the additional scalar associated to the trace of the metric perturbation is also absent, being the usual graviton the only dynamical field. In those cases, the linearized equations are exactly the same as in Einstein gravity up to an overall factor, making them appealing as holographic toy models. We also find constraints on the couplings of a broad family of five-dimensional f(Lovelock) theories using holographic entanglement entropy. Finally, we construct new analytic asymptotically flat and AdS/dS black hole solutions for some classes of f(Lovelock) gravities in various dimensions.
3D DNS and LES of Breaking Inertia-Gravity Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Remmler, S.; Fruman, M. D.; Hickel, S.; Achatz, U.
2012-04-01
waves (e. g. Fritts et al. [3]), or the ratio N/f was artificially reduced (e. g. Lelong & Dunkerton [4]). The present simulations give us insight into the three-dimensional breaking process as well as the emerging turbulence. We assess the possibility of reducing the computational costs of three-dimensional simulations by using an implicit turbulence subgrid-scale parametrization based on the Adaptive Local Deconvolution Method (ALDM) for stratified turbulence [5]. In addition, we have performed ensembles of nonlinear 2.5-dimensional DNS, like those in Achatz [1] but with a small amount of noise superposed to the initial state, and compared the results with coarse-resolution simulations using either ALDM as well as with standard LES schemes. We found that the results of the models with parametrized turbulence, which are orders of magnitude more computationally economical than the DNS, compare favorably with the DNS in terms of the decay of the wave amplitude with time (the quantity most important for application to gravity-wave drag parametrization) suggesting that they may be trusted in future simulations of gravity wave breaking.
Gravity and Macro-Model Tuning for the Geosat Follow-on Spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemoine, Frank G.; Rowlands, David D.; Marr, Gregory C.; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Luthcke, Scott B.; Cox, Christopher M.
1999-01-01
The US Navy's GEOSAT Follow-On (GFO) spacecraft was launched on February 10, 1998 and the primary objective of the mission was to map the oceans using a radar altimeter. The spacecraft tracking complement consisted of GPS receivers, a laser retroreflector and Doppler beacons. Since the GPS receivers have not yet returned reliable data, the only means of providing high-quality precise orbits has been though satellite laser ranging (SLR). The spacecraft has been tracked by the international satellite laser ranging network since April 22, 1998, and an average of 7.4 passes per day have been obtained from US and participating foreign stations. Since the predicted radial orbit error due to the gravity field is two to three cm, the largest contributor to the high SLR residuals (7-10 cm RMS for five day arcs) is the mismodelling of the non-conservative forces, not withstanding the development of a three-dimensional eight-panel model and an analytical attitude model for the GFO spacecraft. The SLR residuals show a clear correlation with beta-prime (solar elevation) angle, peaking in mid-August 1998 when the beta-prime angle reached -80 to -90 degrees. In this paper we discuss the tuning of the non-conservative force model, for GFO and report the subsequent addition of the GFO tracking data to the Earth gravity model solutions.
FORGE Newberry 3D Gravity Density Model for Newberry Volcano
Alain Bonneville
2016-03-11
These data are Pacific Northwest National Lab inversions of an amalgamation of two surface gravity datasets: Davenport-Newberry gravity collected prior to 2012 stimulations and Zonge International gravity collected for the project "Novel use of 4D Monitoring Techniques to Improve Reservoir Longevity and Productivity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems" in 2012. Inversions of surface gravity recover a 3D distribution of density contrast from which intrusive igneous bodies are identified. The data indicate a body name, body type, point type, UTM X and Y coordinates, Z data is specified as meters below sea level (negative values then indicate elevations above sea level), thickness of the body in meters, suscept, density anomaly in g/cc, background density in g/cc, and density in g/cc. The model was created using a commercial gravity inversion software called ModelVision 12.0 (http://www.tensor-research.com.au/Geophysical-Products/ModelVision). The initial model is based on the seismic tomography interpretation (Beachly et al., 2012). All the gravity data used to constrain this model are on the GDR: https://gdr.openei.org/submissions/760.
A Model Study of Zonal Forcing in the Equatorial Stratosphere by Convectively Induced Gravity Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alexander, M. J.; Holton, James R.
1997-01-01
A two-dimensional cloud-resolving model is used to examine the possible role of gravity waves generated by a simulated tropical squall line in forcing the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of the zonal winds in the equatorial stratosphere. A simulation with constant background stratospheric winds is compared to simulations with background winds characteristic of the westerly and easterly QBO phases, respectively. In all three cases a broad spectrum of both eastward and westward propagating gravity waves is excited. In the constant background wind case the vertical momentum flux is nearly constant with height in the stratosphere, after correction for waves leaving the model domain. In the easterly and westerly shear cases, however, westward and eastward propagating waves, respectively, are strongly damped as they approach their critical levels, owing to the strongly scale-dependent vertical diffusion in the model. The profiles of zonal forcing induced by this wave damping are similar to profiles given by critical level absorption, but displaced slightly downward. The magnitude of the zonal forcing is of order 5 m/s/day. It is estimated that if 2% of the area of the Tropics were occupied by storms of similar magnitude, mesoscale gravity waves could provide nearly 1/4 of the zonal forcing required for the QBO.
Venus spherical harmonic gravity model to degree and order 60
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Konopliv, Alex S.; Sjogren, William L.
1994-01-01
The Magellan and Pioneer Venus Orbiter radiometric tracking data sets have been combined to produce a 60th degree and order spherical harmonic gravity field. The Magellan data include the high-precision X-band gravity tracking from September 1992 to May 1993 and post-aerobraking data up to January 5, 1994. Gravity models are presented from the application of Kaula's power rule for Venus and an alternative a priori method using surface accelerations. Results are given as vertical gravity acceleration at the reference surface, geoid, vertical Bouguer, and vertical isostatic maps with errors for the vertical gravity and geoid maps included. Correlation of the gravity with topography for the different models is also discussed.
Exact solutions in 3D gravity with torsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, P. A.; Vásquez, Yerko
2011-08-01
We study the three-dimensional gravity with torsion given by the Mielke-Baekler (MB) model coupled to gravitational Chern-Simons term, and that possess electric charge described by Maxwell-Chern-Simons electrodynamics. We find and discuss this theory's charged black holes solutions and uncharged solutions. We find that for vanishing torsion our solutions by means of a coordinate transformation can be written as three-dimensional Chern-Simons black holes. We also discuss a special case of this theory, Topologically Massive Gravity (TMG) at chiral point, and we show that the logarithmic solution of TMG is also a solution of the MB model at a fixed point in the space of parameters. Furthermore, we show that our solutions generalize Gödel type solutions in a particular case. Also, we recover BTZ black hole in Riemann-Cartan spacetime for vanishing charge.
Precise Determination of the Zero-Gravity Surface Figure of a Mirror without Gravity-Sag Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bloemhof, Eric E.; Lam, Jonathan C.; Feria, V. Alfonso; Chang, Zensheu
2007-01-01
The zero-gravity surface figure of optics used in spaceborne astronomical instruments must be known to high accuracy, but earthbound metrology is typically corrupted by gravity sag. Generally, inference of the zero-gravity surface figure from a measurement made under normal gravity requires finite-element analysis (FEA), and for accurate results the mount forces must be well characterized. We describe how to infer the zero-gravity surface figure very precisely using the alternative classical technique of averaging pairs of measurements made with the direction of gravity reversed. We show that mount forces as well as gravity must be reversed between the two measurements and discuss how the St. Venant principle determines when a reversed mount force may be considered to be applied at the same place in the two orientations. Our approach requires no finite-element modeling and no detailed knowledge of mount forces other than the fact that they reverse and are applied at the same point in each orientation. If mount schemes are suitably chosen, zero-gravity optical surfaces may be inferred much more simply and more accurately than with FEA.
Modeling Candle Flame Behavior In Variable Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alsairafi, A.; Tien, J. S.; Lee, S. T.; Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.
2003-01-01
The burning of a candle, as typical non-propagating diffusion flame, has been used by a number of researchers to study the effects of electric fields on flame, spontaneous flame oscillation and flickering phenomena, and flame extinction. In normal gravity, the heat released from combustion creates buoyant convection that draws oxygen into the flame. The strength of the buoyant flow depends on the gravitational level and it is expected that the flame shape, size and candle burning rate will vary with gravity. Experimentally, there exist studies of candle burning in enhanced gravity (i.e. higher than normal earth gravity, g(sub e)), and in microgravity in drop towers and space-based facilities. There are, however, no reported experimental data on candle burning in partial gravity (g < g(sub e)). In a previous numerical model of the candle flame, buoyant forces were neglected. The treatment of momentum equation was simplified using a potential flow approximation. Although the predicted flame characteristics agreed well with the experimental results, the model cannot be extended to cases with buoyant flows. In addition, because of the use of potential flow, no-slip boundary condition is not satisfied on the wick surface. So there is some uncertainty on the accuracy of the predicted flow field. In the present modeling effort, the full Navier-Stokes momentum equations with body force term is included. This enables us to study the effect of gravity on candle flames (with zero gravity as the limiting case). In addition, we consider radiation effects in more detail by solving the radiation transfer equation. In the previous study, flame radiation is treated as a simple loss term in the energy equation. Emphasis of the present model is on the gas-phase processes. Therefore, the detailed heat and mass transfer phenomena inside the porous wick are not treated. Instead, it is assumed that a thin layer of liquid fuel coated the entire wick surface during the burning process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhuravlev, V. M.
2017-09-01
Models for the dynamics of a dust-like medium in the self-gravity field are investigated. Solutions of the corresponding problems are constructed by the method of hydrodynamic substitutions generalizing the Cole-Hopf substitutions. The method is extended to multidimensional ideal and viscous fluid flows with cylindrical and spherical symmetries for which exact solutions are constructed. Solutions for the dynamics of self-gravitating dust with arbitrary initial distributions of both fluid density and velocity are constructed using special coordinate transformations. In particular, the problem of cosmological expansion is considered in terms of Newton's gravity theory. Models of a one-dimensional viscous dust fluid flow and some problems of gas hydrodynamics are considered. Examples of exact solutions and their brief analysis are provided.
Radion tunneling in modified theories of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paul, Tanmoy; SenGupta, Soumitra
2018-04-01
We consider a five dimensional warped spacetime where the bulk geometry is governed by higher curvature F( R) gravity. In this model, we determine the modulus potential originating from the scalar degree of freedom of higher curvature gravity. In the presence of this potential, we investigate the possibility of modulus (radion) tunneling leading to an instability in the brane configuration. Our results reveal that the parametric regions where the tunneling probability is highly suppressed, corresponds to the parametric values required to resolve the gauge hierarchy problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schoon, Lena; Zülicke, Christoph
2018-05-01
For the local diagnosis of wave properties, we develop, validate, and apply a novel method which is based on the Hilbert transform. It is called Unified Wave Diagnostics (UWaDi). It provides the wave amplitude and three-dimensional wave number at any grid point for gridded three-dimensional data. UWaDi is validated for a synthetic test case comprising two different wave packets. In comparison with other methods, the performance of UWaDi is very good with respect to wave properties and their location. For a first practical application of UWaDi, a minor sudden stratospheric warming on 30 January 2016 is chosen. Specifying the diagnostics for hydrostatic inertia-gravity waves in analyses from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, we detect the local occurrence of gravity waves throughout the middle atmosphere. The local wave characteristics are discussed in terms of vertical propagation using the diagnosed local amplitudes and wave numbers. We also note some hints on local inertia-gravity wave generation by the stratospheric jet from the detection of shallow slow waves in the vicinity of its exit region.
Approaches to emergent spacetime in gauge/gravity duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sully, James Kenneth
2013-08-01
In this thesis we explore approaches to emergent local spacetime in gauge/gravity duality. We first conjecture that every CFT with a large-N type limit and a parametrically large gap in the spectrum of single-trace operators has a local bulk dual. We defend this conjecture by counting consistent solutions to the four-point function in simple scalar models and matching to the number of local interaction terms in the bulk. Next, we proceed to explicitly construct local bulk operators using smearing functions. We argue that this construction allows one to probe inside black hole horizons for only short times. We then suggest that the failure to construct bulk operators inside a black hole at late times is indicative of a break-down of local effective field theory at the black hole horizon. We argue that the postulates of black hole complementarity are inconsistent and cannot be realized within gauge/gravity duality. We argue that the most conservative solution is a firewall at the black hole horizon and we critically explore alternative resolutions. We then examine the CGHS model of two-dimensional gravity to look for dynamical formation of firewalls. We find that the CGHS model does not exhibit firewalls, but rather contains long-lived remnants. We argue that, while this is consistent for the CGHS model, it cannot be so in higher-dimensional theories of gravity. Lastly, we turn to F-theory, and detail local and global obstructions to writing elliptic fibrations in Tate form. We determine more general possible forms.
Intraspecific differences in bacterial responses to modelled reduced gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, P. W.; Leff, L. G.
2005-01-01
AIMS: Bacteria are important residents of water systems, including those of space stations which feature specific environmental conditions, such as lowered effects of gravity. The purpose of this study was to compare responses with modelled reduced gravity of space station, water system bacterial isolates with other isolates of the same species. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacterial isolates, Stenotrophomonas paucimobilis and Acinetobacter radioresistens, originally recovered from the water supply aboard the International Space Station (ISS) were grown in nutrient broth under modelled reduced gravity. Their growth was compared with type strains S. paucimobilis ATCC 10829 and A. radioresistens ATCC 49000. Acinetobacter radioresistens ATCC 49000 and the two ISS isolates showed similar growth profiles under modelled reduced gravity compared with normal gravity, whereas S. paucimobilis ATCC 10829 was negatively affected by modelled reduced gravity. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that microgravity might have selected for bacteria that were able to thrive under this unusual condition. These responses, coupled with impacts of other features (such as radiation resistance and ability to persist under very oligotrophic conditions), may contribute to the success of these water system bacteria. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Water quality is a significant factor in many environments including the ISS. Efforts to remove microbial contaminants are likely to be complicated by the features of these bacteria which allow them to persist under the extreme conditions of the systems.
Modeling of the Earth's gravity field using the New Global Earth Model (NEWGEM)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Yeong E.; Braswell, W. Danny
1989-01-01
Traditionally, the global gravity field was described by representations based on the spherical harmonics (SH) expansion of the geopotential. The SH expansion coefficients were determined by fitting the Earth's gravity data as measured by many different methods including the use of artificial satellites. As gravity data have accumulated with increasingly better accuracies, more of the higher order SH expansion coefficients were determined. The SH representation is useful for describing the gravity field exterior to the Earth but is theoretically invalid on the Earth's surface and in the Earth's interior. A new global Earth model (NEWGEM) (KIM, 1987 and 1988a) was recently proposed to provide a unified description of the Earth's gravity field inside, on, and outside the Earth's surface using the Earth's mass density profile as deduced from seismic studies, elevation and bathymetric information, and local and global gravity data. Using NEWGEM, it is possible to determine the constraints on the mass distribution of the Earth imposed by gravity, topography, and seismic data. NEWGEM is useful in investigating a variety of geophysical phenomena. It is currently being utilized to develop a geophysical interpretation of Kaula's rule. The zeroth order NEWGEM is being used to numerically integrate spherical harmonic expansion coefficients and simultaneously determine the contribution of each layer in the model to a given coefficient. The numerically determined SH expansion coefficients are also being used to test the validity of SH expansions at the surface of the Earth by comparing the resulting SH expansion gravity model with exact calculations of the gravity at the Earth's surface.
Influence of World and Gravity Model Selection on Surface Interacting Vehicle Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Madden, Michael M.
2007-01-01
A vehicle simulation is surface-interacting if the state of the vehicle (position, velocity, and acceleration) relative to the surface is important. Surface-interacting simulations perform ascent, entry, descent, landing, surface travel, or atmospheric flight. Modeling of gravity is an influential environmental factor for surface-interacting simulations. Gravity is the free-fall acceleration observed from a world-fixed frame that rotates with the world. Thus, gravity is the sum of gravitation and the centrifugal acceleration due to the world s rotation. In surface-interacting simulations, the fidelity of gravity at heights above the surface is more significant than gravity fidelity at locations in inertial space. A surface-interacting simulation cannot treat the gravity model separately from the world model, which simulates the motion and shape of the world. The world model's simulation of the world's rotation, or lack thereof, produces the centrifugal acceleration component of gravity. The world model s reproduction of the world's shape will produce different positions relative to the world center for a given height above the surface. These differences produce variations in the gravitation component of gravity. This paper examines the actual performance of world and gravity/gravitation pairs in a simulation using the Earth.
Gravity, antigravity and gravitational shielding in (2+1) dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Accioly, Antonio; Helayël-Neto, José; Lobo, Matheus
2009-07-01
Higher-derivative terms are introduced into three-dimensional gravity, thereby allowing for a dynamical theory. The resulting system, viewed as a classical field model, is endowed with a novel and peculiar feature: its nonrelativistic potential describes three gravitational regimes. Depending on the choice of the parameters in the action functional, one obtains gravity, antigravity or gravitational shielding. Interesting enough, this potential is very similar, mutatis mutandis, to the potential for the interaction of two superconducting vortices. Furthermore, the gravitational deflection angle of a light ray, unlike that of Einstein gravity in (2+1) dimensions, is dependent on the impact parameter.
Simulation gravity modeling to spacecraft-tracking data - Analysis and application
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, R. J.; Sjogren, W. L.; Abbott, E. A.; Zisk, S. H.
1978-01-01
It is proposed that line-of-sight gravity measurements derived from spacecraft-tracking data can be used for quantitative subsurface density modeling by suitable orbit simulation procedures. Such an approach avoids complex dynamic reductions and is analogous to the modeling of conventional surface gravity data. This procedure utilizes the vector calculations of a given gravity model in a simplified trajectory integration program that simulates the line-of-sight gravity. Solutions from an orbit simulation inversion and a dynamic inversion on Doppler observables compare well (within 1% in mass and size), and the error sources in the simulation approximation are shown to be quite small. An application of this technique is made to lunar crater gravity anomalies by simulating the complete Bouguer correction to several large young lunar craters. It is shown that the craters all have negative Bouguer anomalies.
Investigation of Crustal Thickness in Eastern Anatolia Using Gravity, Magnetic and Topographic Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pamukçu, Oya Ankaya; Akçığ, Zafer; Demirbaş, Şevket; Zor, Ekrem
2007-12-01
The tectonic regime of Eastern Anatolia is determined by the Arabia-Eurasia continent-continent collision. Several dynamic models have been proposed to characterize the collision zone and its geodynamic structure. In this study, change in crustal thickness has been investigated using gravity, magnetic and topographic data of the region. In the first stage, two-dimensional low-pass filter and upward analytical continuation techniques were applied to the Bouguer gravity data of the region to investigate the behavior of the regional gravity anomalies. Next the moving window power spectrum method was used, and changes in the probable structural depths from 38 to 52 km were determined. The changes in crustal thickness where free air gravity and magnetic data have inversely correlated and the type of the anomaly resources were investigated applying the Euler deconvolution method to Bouguer gravity data. The obtained depth values are consistent with the results obtained using the power spectrum method. It was determined that the types of anomaly resources are different in the west and east of the 40° E longitude. Finally, using the obtained findings from this study and seismic velocity models proposed for this region by previous studies, a probable two-dimensional crust model was constituted.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vincent, S.; Marsh, J. G.
1973-01-01
A global detailed gravimetric geoid has been computed by combining the Goddard Space Flight Center GEM-4 gravity model derived from satellite and surface gravity data and surface 1 deg-by-1 deg mean free air gravity anomaly data. The accuracy of the geoid is + or - 2 meters on continents, 5 to 7 meters in areas where surface gravity data are sparse, and 10 to 15 meters in areas where no surface gravity data are available. Comparisons have been made with the astrogeodetic data provided by Rice (United States), Bomford (Europe), and Mather (Australia). Comparisons have also been carried out with geoid heights derived from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Australia.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitchell, Myles A.; He, Jian-hua; Arnold, Christian; Li, Baojiu
2018-06-01
We propose a new framework for testing gravity using cluster observations, which aims to provide an unbiased constraint on modified gravity models from Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) and X-ray cluster counts and the cluster gas fraction, among other possible observables. Focusing on a popular f(R) model of gravity, we propose a novel procedure to recalibrate mass scaling relations from Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) to f(R) gravity for SZ and X-ray cluster observables. We find that the complicated modified gravity effects can be simply modelled as a dependence on a combination of the background scalar field and redshift, fR(z)/(1 + z), regardless of the f(R) model parameter. By employing a large suite of N-body simulations, we demonstrate that a theoretically derived tanh fitting formula is in excellent agreement with the dynamical mass enhancement of dark matter haloes for a large range of background field parameters and redshifts. Our framework is sufficiently flexible to allow for tests of other models and inclusion of further observables, and the one-parameter description of the dynamical mass enhancement can have important implications on the theoretical modelling of observables and on practical tests of gravity.
Model-independent constraints on possible modifications of Newtonian gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Talmadge, C.; Berthias, J.-P.; Hellings, R. W.; Standish, E. M.
1988-01-01
New model-independent constraints on possible modifications of Newtonian gravity over solar-system distance scales are presented, and their implications discussed. The constraints arise from the analysis of various planetary astrometric data sets. The results of the model-independent analysis are then applied to set limits on a variation in the l/r-squared behavior of gravity, on possible Yukawa-type interactions with ranges of the order of planetary distance scales, and on a deviation from Newtonian gravity of the type discussed by Milgrom (1983).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Zhikui; Chen, Chao; Tao, Chunhui
2016-04-01
Since 2007, there are four China Da yang cruises (CDCs), which have been carried out to investigate polymetallic sulfides in the southwest Indian ridge (SWIR) and have acquired both gravity data and bathymetry data on the corresponding survey lines(Tao et al., 2014). Sandwell et al. (2014) published a new global marine gravity model including the free air gravity data and its first order vertical gradient (Vzz). Gravity data and its gradient can be used to extract unknown density structure information(e.g. crust thickness) under surface of the earth, but they contain all the mass effect under the observation point. Therefore, how to get accurate gravity and its gradient effect of the existing density structure (e.g. terrain) has been a key issue. Using the bathymetry data or ETOPO1 (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/global/global.html) model at a full resolution to calculate the terrain effect could spend too much computation time. We expect to develop an effective method that takes less time but can still yield the desired accuracy. In this study, a constant-density polyhedral model is used to calculate the gravity field and its vertical gradient, which is based on the work of Tsoulis (2012). According to gravity field attenuation with distance and variance of bathymetry, we present an adaptive mesh refinement and coarsening strategies to merge both global topography data and multi-beam bathymetry data. The local coarsening or size of mesh depends on user-defined accuracy and terrain variation (Davis et al., 2011). To depict terrain better, triangular surface element and rectangular surface element are used in fine and coarse mesh respectively. This strategy can also be applied to spherical coordinate in large region and global scale. Finally, we applied this method to calculate Bouguer gravity anomaly (BGA), mantle Bouguer anomaly(MBA) and their vertical gradient in SWIR. Further, we compared the result with previous results in the literature. Both synthetic model
Gravity-driven groundwater flow and slope failure potential: 1. Elastic effective-stress model
Iverson, Richard M.; Reid, Mark E.
1992-01-01
Hilly or mountainous topography influences gravity-driven groundwater flow and the consequent distribution of effective stress in shallow subsurface environments. Effective stress, in turn, influences the potential for slope failure. To evaluate these influences, we formulate a two-dimensional, steady state, poroelastic model. The governing equations incorporate groundwater effects as body forces, and they demonstrate that spatially uniform pore pressure changes do not influence effective stresses. We implement the model using two finite element codes. As an illustrative case, we calculate the groundwater flow field, total body force field, and effective stress field in a straight, homogeneous hillslope. The total body force and effective stress fields show that groundwater flow can influence shear stresses as well as effective normal stresses. In most parts of the hillslope, groundwater flow significantly increases the Coulomb failure potential Φ, which we define as the ratio of maximum shear stress to mean effective normal stress. Groundwater flow also shifts the locus of greatest failure potential toward the slope toe. However, the effects of groundwater flow on failure potential are less pronounced than might be anticipated on the basis of a simpler, one-dimensional, limit equilibrium analysis. This is a consequence of continuity, compatibility, and boundary constraints on the two-dimensional flow and stress fields, and it points to important differences between our elastic continuum model and limit equilibrium models commonly used to assess slope stability.
Rowe, Charlotte Anne
We can measure changes in gravity from place to place on the earth. These measurements require careful recording of location, elevation and time for each reading. These readings must be adjusted for known effects (such as elevation, latitude, tides) that can bias our data and mask the signal of interest. After making corrections to our data, we can remove regional trends to obtain local Bouguer anomalies. The Bouguer anomalies arise from variations in the subsurface density structure. We can build models to explain our observations, but these models must be consistent with what is known about the local geology. Combiningmore » gravity models with other information – geologic, seismic, electromagnetic, will improve confidence in the results.« less
A dynamic ventilation model for gravity sewer networks.
Wang, Y C; Nobi, N; Nguyen, T; Vorreiter, L
2012-01-01
To implement any effective odour and corrosion control technology in the sewer network, it is imperative that the airflow through gravity sewer airspaces be quantified. This paper presents a full dynamic airflow model for gravity sewer systems. The model, which is developed using the finite element method, is a compressible air transport model. The model has been applied to the North Head Sewerage Ocean Outfall System (NSOOS) and calibrated using the air pressure and airflow data collected during October 2008. Although the calibration is focused on forced ventilation, the model can be applied to natural ventilation as well.
A space-time multiscale modelling of Earth's gravity field variations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shuo; Panet, Isabelle; Ramillien, Guillaume; Guilloux, Frédéric
2017-04-01
The mass distribution within the Earth varies over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, generating variations in the Earth's gravity field in space and time. These variations are monitored by satellites as the GRACE mission, with a 400 km spatial resolution and 10 days to 1 month temporal resolution. They are expressed in the form of gravity field models, often with a fixed spatial or temporal resolution. The analysis of these models allows us to study the mass transfers within the Earth system. Here, we have developed space-time multi-scale models of the gravity field, in order to optimize the estimation of gravity signals resulting from local processes at different spatial and temporal scales, and to adapt the time resolution of the model to its spatial resolution according to the satellites sampling. For that, we first build a 4D wavelet family combining spatial Poisson wavelets with temporal Haar wavelets. Then, we set-up a regularized inversion of inter-satellites gravity potential differences in a bayesian framework, to estimate the model parameters. To build the prior, we develop a spectral analysis, localized in time and space, of geophysical models of mass transport and associated gravity variations. Finally, we test our approach to the reconstruction of space-time variations of the gravity field due to hydrology. We first consider a global distribution of observations along the orbit, from a simplified synthetic hydrology signal comprising only annual variations at large spatial scales. Then, we consider a regional distribution of observations in Africa, and a larger number of spatial and temporal scales. We test the influence of an imperfect prior and discuss our results.
Evaluation of using digital gravity field models for zoning map creation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loginov, Dmitry
2018-05-01
At the present time the digital cartographic models of geophysical fields are taking a special significance into geo-physical mapping. One of the important directions to their application is the creation of zoning maps, which allow taking into account the morphology of geophysical field in the implementation automated choice of contour intervals. The purpose of this work is the comparative evaluation of various digital models in the creation of integrated gravity field zoning map. For comparison were chosen the digital model of gravity field of Russia, created by the analog map with scale of 1 : 2 500 000, and the open global model of gravity field of the Earth - WGM2012. As a result of experimental works the four integrated gravity field zoning maps were obtained with using raw and processed data on each gravity field model. The study demonstrates the possibility of open data use to create integrated zoning maps with the condition to eliminate noise component of model by processing in specialized software systems. In this case, for solving problem of contour intervals automated choice the open digital models aren't inferior to regional models of gravity field, created for individual countries. This fact allows asserting about universality and independence of integrated zoning maps creation regardless of detail of a digital cartographic model of geo-physical fields.
The Improved Hydrological Gravity Model for Moxa Observatory, Germany
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weise, A.; Jahr, Th.
2017-04-01
The gravity variations observed by the superconducting gravimeter (SG) CD-034 at Moxa Geodynamic Observatory/Germany were compared with the GRACE results some years ago. The combination of a local hydrological model of a catchment area with a 3D-gravimetric model had been applied successfully for correcting the SG record of Moxa which is especially necessary due to the strong topography nearest to the SG location. Now, the models have been corrected and improved considerably by inserting several details in the very near surrounding. Mainly these are: the observatory building is inserted with the roof covered by a soil layer above the gravity sensor where humidity is varying, snow is placed on top of the roof and on topography (steep slope), and ground water is taken into account, additionally. The result is that the comparison of the corrected gravity residuals with gravity variations of the satellite mission GRACE, now using RL5 data, shows higher agreement, not only in amplitude but also the formerly apparent phase shift is obviously not realistic. The agreement between terrestrial gravity variations (SG) and the GRACE data is improved considerably which is discussed widely.
The Improved Hydrological Gravity Model for Moxa Observatory, Germany
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weise, A.; Jahr, Th.
2018-05-01
The gravity variations observed by the superconducting gravimeter (SG) CD-034 at Moxa Geodynamic Observatory/Germany were compared with the GRACE results some years ago. The combination of a local hydrological model of a catchment area with a 3D-gravimetric model had been applied successfully for correcting the SG record of Moxa which is especially necessary due to the strong topography nearest to the SG location. Now, the models have been corrected and improved considerably by inserting several details in the very near surrounding. Mainly these are: the observatory building is inserted with the roof covered by a soil layer above the gravity sensor where humidity is varying, snow is placed on top of the roof and on topography (steep slope), and ground water is taken into account, additionally. The result is that the comparison of the corrected gravity residuals with gravity variations of the satellite mission GRACE, now using RL5 data, shows higher agreement, not only in amplitude but also the formerly apparent phase shift is obviously not realistic. The agreement between terrestrial gravity variations (SG) and the GRACE data is improved considerably which is discussed widely.
Further Investigations of Gravity Modeling on Surface-Interacting Vehicle Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Madden, Michael M.
2009-01-01
A vehicle simulation is "surface-interacting" if the state of the vehicle (position, velocity, and acceleration) relative to the surface is important. Surface-interacting simulations perform ascent, entry, descent, landing, surface travel, or atmospheric flight. The dynamics of surface-interacting simulations are influenced by the modeling of gravity. Gravity is the sum of gravitation and the centrifugal acceleration due to the world s rotation. Both components are functions of position relative to the world s center and that position for a given set of geodetic coordinates (latitude, longitude, and altitude) depends on the world model (world shape and dynamics). Thus, gravity fidelity depends on the fidelities of the gravitation model and the world model and on the interaction of the gravitation and world model. A surface-interacting simulation cannot treat the gravitation separately from the world model. This paper examines the actual performance of different pairs of world and gravitation models (or direct gravity models) on the travel of a subsonic civil transport in level flight under various starting conditions.
Gravity Modeling Effects on Surface-Interacting Vehicles in Supersonic Flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Madden, Michael M.
2010-01-01
A vehicle simulation is "surface-interacting" if the state of the vehicle (position, velocity, and acceleration) relative to the surface is important. Surface-interacting simulations per-form ascent, entry, descent, landing, surface travel, or atmospheric flight. The dynamics of surface-interacting simulations are influenced by the modeling of gravity. Gravity is the sum of gravitation and the centrifugal acceleration due to the world s rotation. Both components are functions of position relative to the world s center and that position for a given set of geodetic coordinates (latitude, longitude, and altitude) depends on the world model (world shape and dynamics). Thus, gravity fidelity depends on the fidelities of the gravitation model and the world model and on the interaction of these two models. A surface-interacting simulation cannot treat gravitation separately from the world model. This paper examines the actual performance of different pairs of world and gravitation models (or direct gravity models) on the travel of a supersonic aircraft in level flight under various start-ing conditions.
A Comparison Between Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes in Observations and Climate Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geller, Marvin A.; Alexadner, M. Joan; Love, Peter T.; Bacmeister, Julio; Ern, Manfred; Hertzog, Albert; Manzini, Elisa; Preusse, Peter; Sato, Kaoru; Scaife, Adam A.;
2013-01-01
For the first time, a formal comparison is made between gravity wave momentum fluxes in models and those derived from observations. Although gravity waves occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, the focus of this paper is on scales that are being parameterized in present climate models, sub-1000-km scales. Only observational methods that permit derivation of gravity wave momentum fluxes over large geographical areas are discussed, and these are from satellite temperature measurements, constant-density long-duration balloons, and high-vertical-resolution radiosonde data. The models discussed include two high-resolution models in which gravity waves are explicitly modeled, Kanto and the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5 (CAM5), and three climate models containing gravity wave parameterizations,MAECHAM5, Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model 3 (HadGEM3), and the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) model. Measurements generally show similar flux magnitudes as in models, except that the fluxes derived from satellite measurements fall off more rapidly with height. This is likely due to limitations on the observable range of wavelengths, although other factors may contribute. When one accounts for this more rapid fall off, the geographical distribution of the fluxes from observations and models compare reasonably well, except for certain features that depend on the specification of the nonorographic gravity wave source functions in the climate models. For instance, both the observed fluxes and those in the high-resolution models are very small at summer high latitudes, but this is not the case for some of the climate models. This comparison between gravity wave fluxes from climate models, high-resolution models, and fluxes derived from observations indicates that such efforts offer a promising path toward improving specifications of gravity wave sources in climate models.
A gravity model for the Sudbury Structure along the Lithoprobe seismic line
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGrath, P. H.; Broome, H. J.
1994-05-01
Previous gravity models of the Sudbury Structure (1850 Ma) were constrained by surface geology, and by density measurements of surface and borehole rock samples. Recent high-resolution seismic reflection data provide additional constraints for modeling new gravity observations made along the Sudbury Lithoprobe transect. Results indicate, (1) density distributions constrained by the seismic data yield calculated gravity values matching the Bouguer gravity data, (2) the main sources of gravitational disturbance are external to the Sudbury Structure, (3) the positive gravity anomaly trend south of the Sudbury Structure is associated with mafic rocks of Proterozoic age, and (4) the large, ramplike, gravity anomaly paralleling the northwest margin of the Sudbury Structure is an expression of a northward dipping boundary within the Archean basement. The presence of a hidden mafic layer beneath the Sudbury Structure is not required to model the Bouguer gravity data. An enigma is an 8 mGal, positive, gravity anomaly over the south central Sudbury Structure.
A nonreflecting upper boundary condition for anelastic nonhydrostatic mesoscale gravity-wave models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Young-Joon; Kar, Sajal K.; Arakawa, Akio
1993-01-01
A sponge layer is formulated to prevent spurious reflection of vertically propagating quasi-stationary gravity waves at the upper boundary of a two-dimensional numerical anelastic nonhydrostatic model. The sponge layer includes damping of both Newtonian-cooling type and Rayleigh-friction type, whose coefficients are determined in such a way that the reflectivity of wave energy at the bottom of the layer is zero. Unlike the formulations in earlier studies, our formulation includes the effects of vertical discretization, vertical mean density variation, and nonhydrostaticity. This sponge formulation is found effective in suppressing false downward reflection of waves for various types of quasi-stationary forcing.
Terrestrial Sagnac delay constraining modified gravity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karimov, R. Kh.; Izmailov, R. N.; Potapov, A. A.; Nandi, K. K.
2018-04-01
Modified gravity theories include f(R)-gravity models that are usually constrained by the cosmological evolutionary scenario. However, it has been recently shown that they can also be constrained by the signatures of accretion disk around constant Ricci curvature Kerr-f(R0) stellar sized black holes. Our aim here is to use another experimental fact, viz., the terrestrial Sagnac delay to constrain the parameters of specific f(R)-gravity prescriptions. We shall assume that a Kerr-f(R0) solution asymptotically describes Earth's weak gravity near its surface. In this spacetime, we shall study oppositely directed light beams from source/observer moving on non-geodesic and geodesic circular trajectories and calculate the time gap, when the beams re-unite. We obtain the exact time gap called Sagnac delay in both cases and expand it to show how the flat space value is corrected by the Ricci curvature, the mass and the spin of the gravitating source. Under the assumption that the magnitude of corrections are of the order of residual uncertainties in the delay measurement, we derive the allowed intervals for Ricci curvature. We conclude that the terrestrial Sagnac delay can be used to constrain the parameters of specific f(R) prescriptions. Despite using the weak field gravity near Earth's surface, it turns out that the model parameter ranges still remain the same as those obtained from the strong field accretion disk phenomenon.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinec, Zdeněk; Fullea, Javier
2015-03-01
We aim to interpret the vertical gravity and vertical gravity gradient of the GOCE-GRACE combined gravity model over the southeastern part of the Congo basin to refine the published model of sedimentary rock cover. We use the GOCO03S gravity model and evaluate its spherical harmonic representation at or near the Earth's surface. In this case, the gradiometry signals are enhanced as compared to the original measured GOCE gradients at satellite height and better emphasize the spatial pattern of sedimentary geology. To avoid aliasing, the omission error of the modelled gravity induced by the sedimentary rocks is adjusted to that of the GOCO03S gravity model. The mass-density Green's functions derived for the a priori structure of the sediments show a slightly greater sensitivity to the GOCO03S vertical gravity gradient than to the vertical gravity. Hence, the refinement of the sedimentary model is carried out for the vertical gravity gradient over the basin, such that a few anomalous values of the GOCO03S-derived vertical gravity gradient are adjusted by refining the model. We apply the 5-parameter Helmert's transformation, defined by 2 translations, 1 rotation and 2 scale parameters that are searched for by the steepest descent method. The refined sedimentary model is only slightly changed with respect to the original map, but it significantly improves the fit of the vertical gravity and vertical gravity gradient over the basin. However, there are still spatial features in the gravity and gradiometric data that remain unfitted by the refined model. These may be due to lateral density variation that is not contained in the model, a density contrast at the Moho discontinuity, lithospheric density stratifications or mantle convection. In a second step, the refined sedimentary model is used to find the vertical density stratification of sedimentary rocks. Although the gravity data can be interpreted by a constant sedimentary density, such a model does not correspond to
Measured and modelled absolute gravity in Greenland
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nielsen, E.; Forsberg, R.; Strykowski, G.
2012-12-01
Present day changes in the ice volume in glaciated areas like Greenland will change the load on the Earth and to this change the lithosphere will respond elastically. The Earth also responds to changes in the ice volume over a millennial time scale. This response is due to the viscous properties of the mantle and is known as Glaical Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). Both signals are present in GPS and absolute gravity (AG) measurements and they will give an uncertainty in mass balance estimates calculated from these data types. It is possible to separate the two signals if both gravity and Global Positioning System (GPS) time series are available. DTU Space acquired an A10 absolute gravimeter in 2008. One purpose of this instrument is to establish AG time series in Greenland and the first measurements were conducted in 2009. Since then are 18 different Greenland GPS Network (GNET) stations visited and six of these are visited more then once. The gravity signal consists of three signals; the elastic signal, the viscous signal and the direct attraction from the ice masses. All of these signals can be modelled using various techniques. The viscous signal is modelled by solving the Sea Level Equation with an appropriate ice history and Earth model. The free code SELEN is used for this. The elastic signal is modelled as a convolution of the elastic Greens function for gravity and a model of present day ice mass changes. The direct attraction is the same as the Newtonian attraction and is calculated as this. Here we will present the preliminary results of the AG measurements in Greenland. We will also present modelled estimates of the direct attraction, the elastic and the viscous signals.
GOCE gravity gradient data for lithospheric modeling and geophysical exploration research
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouman, Johannes; Ebbing, Jörg; Meekes, Sjef; Lieb, Verena; Fuchs, Martin; Schmidt, Michael; Fattah, Rader Abdul; Gradmann, Sofie; Haagmans, Roger
2013-04-01
GOCE gravity gradient data can improve modeling of the Earth's lithosphere and upper mantle, contributing to a better understanding of the Earth's dynamic processes. We present a method to compute user-friendly GOCE gravity gradient grids at mean satellite altitude, which are easier to use than the original GOCE gradients that are given in a rotating instrument frame. In addition, the GOCE gradients are combined with terrestrial gravity data to obtain high resolution grids of gravity field information close to the Earth's surface. We also present a case study for the North-East Atlantic margin, where we analyze the use of satellite gravity gradients by comparison with a well-constrained 3D density model that provides a detailed picture from the upper mantle to the top basement (base of sediments). We demonstrate how gravity gradients can increase confidence in the modeled structures by calculating the sensitvity of model geometry and applied densities at different observation heights; e.g. satellite height and near surface. Finally, this sensitivity analysis is used as input to study the Rub' al Khali desert in Saudi Arabia. In terms of modeling and data availability this is a frontier area. Here gravity gradient data help especially to set up the regional crustal structure, which in turn allows to refine sedimentary thickness estimates and the regional heat-flow pattern. This can have implications for hydrocarbon exploration in the region.
Analytical Study of Gravity Effects on Laminar Diffusion Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edelman, R. B.; Fortune, O.; Weilerstein, G.
1972-01-01
A mathematical model is presented for the description of axisymmetric laminar-jet diffusion flames. The analysis includes the effects of inertia, viscosity, diffusion, gravity and combustion. These mechanisms are coupled in a boundary layer type formulation and solutions are obtained by an explicit finite difference technique. A dimensional analysis shows that the maximum flame width radius, velocity and thermodynamic state characterize the flame structure. Comparisons with experimental data showed excellent agreement for normal gravity flames and fair agreement for steady state low Reynolds number zero gravity flames. Kinetics effects and radiation are shown to be the primary mechanisms responsible for this discrepancy. Additional factors are discussed including elipticity and transient effects.
Three-dimensional transient flow of spin-up in a filled cylinder with oblique gravity force
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, R. J.; Pan, H. L.
1995-01-01
Three-dimensional transient flow profiles of spin-up in a fully liquid filled cylinder from rest with gravity acceleration at various direction are numerically simulated and studied. Particular interests are concentrated on the development of temporary reverse flow zones and Ekman layer right after the impulsive start of spin-up from rest, and decay before the flow reaching to the solid rotation. Relationship of these flow developments and differences in the Reynolds numbers of the flow and its size selection of grid points concerning the numerical instabilities of flow computations are also discussed. In addition to the gravitational acceleration along the axial direction of the cylindrical container, a series of complicated flow profiles accompanied by three-dimensional transient flows with oblique gravitational acceleration has been studies.
A high resolution gravity model for Venus - GVM-1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nerem, R. S.; Bills, B. G.; Mcnamee, J. B.
1993-01-01
A spherical harmonic model of the gravitational field of Venus complete to degree and order 50 has been developed using the S-band Doppler tracking data of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) collected between 1979 and 1982. The short wavelengths of this model could only be resolved near the PVO periapse location (about 14 deg N latitude), therefore a priori constraints were applied to the model to bias poorly observed coefficients towards zero. The resulting model has a half-wavelength resolution of 400 km near the PVO periapse location, but the resolution degrades to greater than 1000 km near the poles. This gravity model correlates well with a degree 50 spherical harmonic expansion of the Venus topography derived from a combination of Magellan and PVO data. New tracking data from Magellan's gravity mission should provide some improvement to this model, although a complete model of the Venusian gravity field will depend on tracking of Magellan after the circularization of its orbit using aerobraking.
Internal model of gravity influences configural body processing.
Barra, Julien; Senot, Patrice; Auclair, Laurent
2017-01-01
Human bodies are processed by a configural processing mechanism. Evidence supporting this claim is the body inversion effect, in which inversion impairs recognition of bodies more than other objects. Biomechanical configuration, as well as both visual and embodied expertise, has been demonstrated to play an important role in this effect. Nevertheless, the important factor of body inversion effect may also be linked to gravity orientation since gravity is one of the most fundamental constraints of our biology, behavior, and perception on Earth. The visual presentation of an inverted body in a typical body inversion paradigm turns the observed body upside down but also inverts the implicit direction of visual gravity in the scene. The orientation of visual gravity is then in conflict with the direction of actual gravity and may influence configural processing. To test this hypothesis, we dissociated the orientations of the body and of visual gravity by manipulating body posture. In a pretest we showed that it was possible to turn an avatar upside down (inversion relative to retinal coordinates) without inverting the orientation of visual gravity when the avatar stands on his/her hands. We compared the inversion effect in typical conditions (with gravity conflict when the avatar is upside down) to the inversion effect in conditions with no conflict between visual and physical gravity. The results of our experiment revealed that the inversion effect, as measured by both error rate and reaction time, was strongly reduced when there was no gravity conflict. Our results suggest that when an observed body is upside down (inversion relative to participants' retinal coordinates) but the orientation of visual gravity is not, configural processing of bodies might still be possible. In this paper, we discuss the implications of an internal model of gravity in the configural processing of observed bodies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Venus gravity and topography: 60th degree and order model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Konopliv, A. S.; Borderies, N. J.; Chodas, P. W.; Christensen, E. J.; Sjogren, W. L.; Williams, B. G.; Balmino, G.; Barriot, J. P.
1993-01-01
We have combined the most recent Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and Magellan (MGN) data with the earlier 1978-1982 PVO data set to obtain a new 60th degree and order spherical harmonic gravity model and a 120th degree and order spherical harmonic topography model. Free-air gravity maps are shown over regions where the most marked improvement has been obtained (Ishtar-Terra, Alpha, Bell and Artemis). Gravity versus topography relationships are presented as correlations per degree and axes orientation.
Black holes as quantum gravity condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oriti, Daniele; Pranzetti, Daniele; Sindoni, Lorenzo
2018-03-01
We model spherically symmetric black holes within the group field theory formalism for quantum gravity via generalized condensate states, involving sums over arbitrarily refined graphs (dual to three-dimensional triangulations). The construction relies heavily on both the combinatorial tools of random tensor models and the quantum geometric data of loop quantum gravity, both part of the group field theory formalism. Armed with the detailed microscopic structure, we compute the entropy associated with the black hole horizon, which turns out to be equivalently the Boltzmann entropy of its microscopic degrees of freedom and the entanglement entropy between the inside and outside regions. We recover the area law under very general conditions, as well as the Bekenstein-Hawking formula. The result is also shown to be generically independent of any specific value of the Immirzi parameter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Junjie; Meng, Xiaohong; Guo, Lianghui; Zhang, Sheng
2015-08-01
Three-dimensional cross-gradient joint inversion of gravity and magnetic data has the potential to acquire improved density and magnetization distribution information. This method usually adopts the commonly held assumption that remanent magnetization can be ignored and all anomalies present are the result of induced magnetization. Accordingly, this method might fail to produce accurate results where significant remanent magnetization is present. In such a case, the simplification brings about unwanted and unknown deviations in the inverted magnetization model. Furthermore, because of the information transfer mechanism of the joint inversion framework, the inverted density results may also be influenced by the effect of remanent magnetization. The normalized magnetic source strength (NSS) is a transformed quantity that is insensitive to the magnetization direction. Thus, it has been applied in the standard magnetic inversion scheme to mitigate the remanence effects, especially in the case of varying remanence directions. In this paper, NSS data were employed along with gravity data for three-dimensional cross-gradient joint inversion, which can significantly reduce the remanence effects and enhance the reliability of both density and magnetization models. Meanwhile, depth-weightings and bound constraints were also incorporated in this joint algorithm to improve the inversion quality. Synthetic and field examples show that the proposed combination of cross-gradient constraints and the NSS transform produce better results in terms of the data resolution, compatibility, and reliability than that of separate inversions and that of joint inversions with the total magnetization intensity (TMI) data. Thus, this method was found to be very useful and is recommended for applications in the presence of strong remanent magnetization.
Chameleon halo modeling in f(R) gravity
Li Yin; Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois 60637; Hu, Wayne
2011-10-15
We model the chameleon effect on cosmological statistics for the modified gravity f(R) model of cosmic acceleration. The chameleon effect, required to make the model compatible with local tests of gravity, reduces force enhancement as a function of the depth of the gravitational potential wells of collapsed structure and so is readily incorporated into a halo model by including parameters for the chameleon mass threshold and rapidity of transition. We show that the abundance of halos around the chameleon mass threshold is enhanced by both the merging from below and the lack of merging to larger masses. This property alsomore » controls the power spectrum in the nonlinear regime and we provide a description of the transition to the linear regime that is valid for a wide range of f(R) models.« less
Aerosol bolus dispersion in acinar airways—influence of gravity and airway asymmetry
Ma, Baoshun
2012-01-01
The aerosol bolus technique can be used to estimate the degree of convective mixing in the lung; however, contributions of different lung compartments to measured dispersion cannot be differentiated unambiguously. To estimate dispersion in the distal lung, we studied the effect of gravity and airway asymmetry on the dispersion of 1 μm-diameter particle boluses in three-dimensional computational models of the lung periphery, ranging from a single alveolar sac to four-generation (g4) structures of bifurcating airways that deformed homogeneously during breathing. Boluses were introduced at the beginning of a 2-s inhalation, immediately followed by a 3-s exhalation. Dispersion was estimated by the half-width of the exhaled bolus. Dispersion was significantly affected by the spatial orientation of the models in normal gravity and was less in zero gravity than in normal gravity. Dispersion was strongly correlated with model volume in both normal and zero gravity. Predicted pulmonary dispersion based on a symmetric g4 acinar model was 391 ml and 238 ml under normal and zero gravity, respectively. These results accounted for a significant amount of dispersion measured experimentally. In zero gravity, predicted dispersion in a highly asymmetric model accounted for ∼20% of that obtained in a symmetric model with comparable volume and number of alveolated branches, whereas normal gravity dispersions were comparable in both models. These results suggest that gravitational sedimentation and not geometrical asymmetry is the dominant factor in aerosol dispersion in the lung periphery. PMID:22678957
Aerosol bolus dispersion in acinar airways--influence of gravity and airway asymmetry.
Ma, Baoshun; Darquenne, Chantal
2012-08-01
The aerosol bolus technique can be used to estimate the degree of convective mixing in the lung; however, contributions of different lung compartments to measured dispersion cannot be differentiated unambiguously. To estimate dispersion in the distal lung, we studied the effect of gravity and airway asymmetry on the dispersion of 1 μm-diameter particle boluses in three-dimensional computational models of the lung periphery, ranging from a single alveolar sac to four-generation (g4) structures of bifurcating airways that deformed homogeneously during breathing. Boluses were introduced at the beginning of a 2-s inhalation, immediately followed by a 3-s exhalation. Dispersion was estimated by the half-width of the exhaled bolus. Dispersion was significantly affected by the spatial orientation of the models in normal gravity and was less in zero gravity than in normal gravity. Dispersion was strongly correlated with model volume in both normal and zero gravity. Predicted pulmonary dispersion based on a symmetric g4 acinar model was 391 ml and 238 ml under normal and zero gravity, respectively. These results accounted for a significant amount of dispersion measured experimentally. In zero gravity, predicted dispersion in a highly asymmetric model accounted for ∼20% of that obtained in a symmetric model with comparable volume and number of alveolated branches, whereas normal gravity dispersions were comparable in both models. These results suggest that gravitational sedimentation and not geometrical asymmetry is the dominant factor in aerosol dispersion in the lung periphery.
Gravity model development for precise orbit computations for satellite altimetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marsh, James G.; Lerch, Francis, J.; Smith, David E.; Klosko, Steven M.; Pavlis, Erricos
1986-01-01
Two preliminary gravity models developed as a first step in reaching the TOPEX/Poseidon modeling goals are discussed. They were obtained by NASA-Goddard from an analysis of exclusively satellite tracking observations. With the new Preliminary Gravity Solution-T2 model, an improved global estimate of the field is achieved with an improved description of the geoid.
Nonrelativistic limits of colored gravity in three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joung, Euihun; Li, Wenliang
2018-05-01
The three-dimensional nonrelativistic isometry algebras, namely Galilei and Newton-Hooke algebras, are known to admit double central extensions, which allows for nondegenerate bilinear forms hence for action principles through Chern-Simons formulation. In three-dimensional colored gravity, the same central extension helps the theory evade the multigraviton no-go theorems by enlarging the color-decorated isometry algebra. We investigate the nonrelativistic limits of three-dimensional colored gravity in terms of generalized İnönü-Wigner contractions.
Tests and comparisons of gravity models.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marsh, J. G.; Douglas, B. C.
1971-01-01
Optical observations of the GEOS satellites were used to obtain orbital solutions with different sets of geopotential coefficients. The solutions were compared before and after modification to high order terms (necessary because of resonance) and were then analyzed by comparing subsequent observations with predicted trajectories. The most important source of error in orbit determination and prediction for the GEOS satellites is the effect of resonance found in most published sets of geopotential coefficients. Modifications to the sets yield greatly improved orbits in most cases. The results of these comparisons suggest that with the best optical tracking systems and gravity models, satellite position error due to gravity model uncertainty can reach 50-100 m during a heavily observed 5-6 day orbital arc. If resonant coefficients are estimated, the uncertainty is reduced considerably.
On holographic Rényi entropy in some modified theories of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Anshuman; Roy, Pratim; Sarkar, Tapobrata
2018-04-01
We perform a detailed analysis of holographic entanglement Rényi entropy in some modified theories of gravity with four dimensional conformal field theory duals. First, we construct perturbative black hole solutions in a recently proposed model of Einsteinian cubic gravity in five dimensions, and compute the Rényi entropy as well as the scaling dimension of the twist operators in the dual field theory. Consistency of these results are verified from the AdS/CFT correspondence, via a corresponding computation of the Weyl anomaly on the gravity side. Similar analyses are then carried out for three other examples of modified gravity in five dimensions that include a chemical potential, namely Born-Infeld gravity, charged quasi-topological gravity and a class of Weyl corrected gravity theories with a gauge field, with the last example being treated perturbatively. Some interesting bounds in the dual conformal field theory parameters in quasi-topological gravity are pointed out. We also provide arguments on the validity of our perturbative analysis, whenever applicable.
Three-dimensional Gravity Inversion with a New Gradient Scheme on Unstructured Grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, S.; Yin, C.; Gao, X.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, B.
2017-12-01
Stabilized gradient-based methods have been proved to be efficient for inverse problems. Based on these methods, setting gradient close to zero can effectively minimize the objective function. Thus the gradient of objective function determines the inversion results. By analyzing the cause of poor resolution on depth in gradient-based gravity inversion methods, we find that imposing depth weighting functional in conventional gradient can improve the depth resolution to some extent. However, the improvement is affected by the regularization parameter and the effect of the regularization term becomes smaller with increasing depth (shown as Figure 1 (a)). In this paper, we propose a new gradient scheme for gravity inversion by introducing a weighted model vector. The new gradient can improve the depth resolution more efficiently, which is independent of the regularization parameter, and the effect of regularization term will not be weakened when depth increases. Besides, fuzzy c-means clustering method and smooth operator are both used as regularization terms to yield an internal consecutive inverse model with sharp boundaries (Sun and Li, 2015). We have tested our new gradient scheme with unstructured grids on synthetic data to illustrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. Gravity forward modeling with unstructured grids is based on the algorithm proposed by Okbe (1979). We use a linear conjugate gradient inversion scheme to solve the inversion problem. The numerical experiments show a great improvement in depth resolution compared with regular gradient scheme, and the inverse model is compact at all depths (shown as Figure 1 (b)). AcknowledgeThis research is supported by Key Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (41530320), China Natural Science Foundation for Young Scientists (41404093), and Key National Research Project of China (2016YFC0303100, 2017YFC0601900). ReferencesSun J, Li Y. 2015. Multidomain petrophysically constrained inversion and
Extension of loop quantum gravity to f(R) theories.
Zhang, Xiangdong; Ma, Yongge
2011-04-29
The four-dimensional metric f(R) theories of gravity are cast into connection-dynamical formalism with real su(2) connections as configuration variables. Through this formalism, the classical metric f(R) theories are quantized by extending the loop quantization scheme of general relativity. Our results imply that the nonperturbative quantization procedure of loop quantum gravity is valid not only for general relativity but also for a rather general class of four-dimensional metric theories of gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rasmussen, J.; Skalbeck, J.; Stewart, E.
2017-12-01
The deep sandstone and dolomite aquifer of Wisconsin is the primary source of water in the central, southern, and western portions of the state, as well as a supplier for many high-capacity wells in the eastern portion. This prominent groundwater system is highly impacted by the underlying Precambrian basement, which includes the doubly plunging Baraboo Syncline in Columbia and Sauk Counties. This project is a continuation of previous work done in Dodge and Fond du Lac Counties by the University of Wisconsin-Parkside (UW-P) and the Wisconsin Geological & Natural History Survey (WGNHS). The goal of this project was to produce of an updated Precambrian topographic map of southern Wisconsin, by adding Gravity and Aeromagnetic data to the existing map which is based mainly on sparse outcrop and well data. Gravity and Aeromagnetic data from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) was processed using GM-SYS 3D modeling software in Geosoft Oasis Montaj. Grids of subsurface layers were created from the data and constrained by well and drilling records. The Columbia County basement structure is a complex network of Precambrian granites and rhyolites which is non-conformably overlain by quartzite, slate, and a layer of iron rich sedimentary material. Results from previously collected cores as well as drilling done in neighboring Dodge County, show that the iron rich layer was draped over much of the Baraboo area before being subject to the multitude of folding and faulting events that happened in the region during the late Precambrian. This layer provides telltale signatures that aided in construction of the model due to having an average density of 3.7 g/cm3 and a magnetic susceptibility of 8000 x 10-6 cgs, compared to the average density and susceptibility of the rest of the bedrock being 2.8 g/cm3 and 1500 x 10-6 cgs, respectively. The research done on the Columbia County basement is one part of a larger project aimed at improving groundwater management efforts of the
Static spherical wormhole models in f (R, T) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yousaf, Z.; Ilyas, M.; Zaeem-ul-Haq Bhatti, M.
2017-06-01
This paper explores the possibility of the existence of wormhole geometries coupled with relativistic matter configurations by taking a particular model of f(R,T) gravity (where T is the trace of energy-momentum tensor). For this purpose, we take the static form of spherically symmetric spacetime and after assuming a specific form of matter and combinations of shape function, the validity of energy conditions is checked. We have discussed our results through graphical representation and studied the equilibrium background of wormhole models by taking an anisotropic fluid. The extra curvature quantities coming from f(R,T) gravity could be interpreted as a gravitational entity supporting these non-standard astrophysical wormhole models. We have shown that in the context of anisotropic fluid and R+α R^2+λ T gravity, wormhole models could possibly exist in few zones in the space of parameters without the need for exotic matter.
Thermo-electric transport in gauge/gravity models with momentum dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amoretti, Andrea; Braggio, Alessandro; Maggiore, Nicola; Magnoli, Nicodemo; Musso, Daniele
2014-09-01
We present a systematic definition and analysis of the thermo-electric linear response in gauge/gravity systems focusing especially on models with massive gravity in the bulk and therefore momentum dissipation in the dual field theory. A precise treatment of finite counter-terms proves to be essential to yield a consistent physical picture whose hydrodynamic and beyond-hydrodynamics behaviors noticeably match with field theoretical expectations. The model furnishes a possible gauge/gravity description of the crossover from the quantum-critical to the disorder-dominated Fermi-liquid behaviors, as expected in graphene.
Forward modeling of gravity data using geostatistically generated subsurface density variations
Phelps, Geoffrey
2016-01-01
Using geostatistical models of density variations in the subsurface, constrained by geologic data, forward models of gravity anomalies can be generated by discretizing the subsurface and calculating the cumulative effect of each cell (pixel). The results of such stochastically generated forward gravity anomalies can be compared with the observed gravity anomalies to find density models that match the observed data. These models have an advantage over forward gravity anomalies generated using polygonal bodies of homogeneous density because generating numerous realizations explores a larger region of the solution space. The stochastic modeling can be thought of as dividing the forward model into two components: that due to the shape of each geologic unit and that due to the heterogeneous distribution of density within each geologic unit. The modeling demonstrates that the internally heterogeneous distribution of density within each geologic unit can contribute significantly to the resulting calculated forward gravity anomaly. Furthermore, the stochastic models match observed statistical properties of geologic units, the solution space is more broadly explored by producing a suite of successful models, and the likelihood of a particular conceptual geologic model can be compared. The Vaca Fault near Travis Air Force Base, California, can be successfully modeled as a normal or strike-slip fault, with the normal fault model being slightly more probable. It can also be modeled as a reverse fault, although this structural geologic configuration is highly unlikely given the realizations we explored.
Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco
2005-08-01
Internal model is a neural mechanism that mimics the dynamics of an object for sensory motor or cognitive functions. Recent research focuses on the issue of whether multiple internal models are learned and switched to cope with a variety of conditions, or single general models are adapted by tuning the parameters. Here we addressed this issue by investigating how the manual interception of a moving target changes with changes of the visual environment. In our paradigm, a virtual target moves vertically downward on a screen with different laws of motion. Subjects are asked to punch a hidden ball that arrives in synchrony with the visual target. By using several different protocols, we systematically found that subjects do not develop a new internal model appropriate for constant speed targets, but they use the default gravity model and reduce the central processing time. The results imply that adaptation to zero-gravity targets involves a compression of temporal processing through the cortical and subcortical regions interconnected with the vestibular cortex, which has previously been shown to be the site of storage of the internal model of gravity.
Interpretation of gravity anomalies in the northwest Adirondack lowlands, northern New York
Revetta, F.A.; O'Brian, B.
1993-03-01
Twelve hundred gravity measurements were made in the Adirondack Highlands and northwest Adirondack Lowlands, New York between 44[degree]15 minutes and 44[degree]30 minutes N. Latitude and 75[degree]00 minutes W. Longitude. A Bouguer gravity map constructed from the gravity measurements includes the Carthage-Colton Mylonite Zone, a major structural boundary between the highlands and lowlands. The gravity map indicates the gravity contours trend parallel to the CCMZ along most of its length however in some areas the contours cross the boundary. No clear-cut relationships exists between the CCMZ and gravity contours. The Bouguer gravity map shows several prominent gravity anomalies which correlate withmore » the geology seismicity and mineral deposits in the area. Gravity lows of 20 to 30 g.u. are centered over the Gouverneur, Hyde and Payne Lake Alaskite gneiss bodies. A gravity high of 20 g.u. occurs over the Pleasant Lake gabbro pluton. Gravity highs of 35 and 100 g.u. occur over the Sylvia Lake Zinc District and marble just north of the district. A gravity high at Russell, N.Y. coincides with a cluster of nine earthquake epicenters. Finally a steep gravity gradient separates high density rocks from lower density rocks along the Black Lake fault. Two-dimensional computer modeling of the geologic features is underway and quantitative models of the structures will be presented.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardenas, R.; Doser, D. I.; Baker, M. R.
2011-12-01
the BRFS, its role in the formation and petroleum generation processes of the upper Cook Inlet and Susitna Basins is poorly understood. Model Generation The gravitational contributions are computed using a geophysics formulation, namely the vertical line element. g = πR2Gρ(x2+y2+z2)-1/2 Each line element is semi-infinite and extends from the top to the bottom of each structural layer. The user may define a three-dimensional body at a location on the surface. Each vertex of the body will be represented as separate nodes in the grid. The contribution of the body to the gravity value will be computed as a volume integral and added to the overall gravity contributions of other nodes on the surface. The user will also be able to modify the elevation and density of the defined body in real time. The most noted effectiveness of the software is in the user-defined a priori information facilitating real time interpretations and the computational efficiency of the model solution by using vertical line elements to address structural bodies with complex geometry.
Background-independent condensed matter models for quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamma, Alioscia; Markopoulou, Fotini
2011-09-01
A number of recent proposals on a quantum theory of gravity are based on the idea that spacetime geometry and gravity are derivative concepts and only apply at an approximate level. There are two fundamental challenges to any such approach. At the conceptual level, there is a clash between the 'timelessness' of general relativity and emergence. Secondly, the lack of a fundamental spacetime renders difficult the straightforward application of well-known methods of statistical physics to the problem. We recently initiated a study of such problems using spin systems based on the evolution of quantum networks with no a priori geometric notions as models for emergent geometry and gravity. In this paper, we review two such models. The first model is a model of emergent (flat) space and matter, and we show how to use methods from quantum information theory to derive features such as the speed of light from a non-geometric quantum system. The second model exhibits interacting matter and geometry, with the geometry defined by the behavior of matter. This model has primitive notions of gravitational attraction that we illustrate with a toy black hole, and exhibits entanglement between matter and geometry and thermalization of the quantum geometry.
Neutron Star Models in Alternative Theories of Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manolidis, Dimitrios
We study the structure of neutron stars in a broad class of alternative theories of gravity. In particular, we focus on Scalar-Tensor theories and f(R) theories of gravity. We construct static and slowly rotating numerical star models for a set of equations of state, including a polytropic model and more realistic equations of state motivated by nuclear physics. Observable quantities such as masses, radii, etc are calculated for a set of parameters of the theories. Specifically for Scalar-Tensor theories, we also calculate the sensitivities of the mass and moment of inertia of the models to variations in the asymptotic value of the scalar field at infinity. These quantities enter post-Newtonian equations of motion and gravitational waveforms of two body systems that are used for gravitational-wave parameter estimation, in order to test these theories against observations. The construction of numerical models of neutron stars in f(R) theories of gravity has been difficult in the past. Using a new formalism by Jaime, Patino and Salgado we were able to construct models with high interior pressure, namely pc > rho c/3, both for constant density models and models with a polytropic equation of state. Thus, we have shown that earlier objections to f(R) theories on the basis of the inability to construct viable neutron star models are unfounded.
Spin Foam Models of Quantum Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miković, A.
2005-03-01
We give a short review of the spin foam models of quantum gravity, with an emphasis on the Barret-Crane model. After explaining the shortcomings of the Barret-Crane model, we briefly discuss two new approaches, one based on the 3d spin foam state sum invariants for the embedded spin networks, and the other based on representing the string scattering amplitudes as 2d spin foam state sum invariants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brenner, Konstantin; Hennicker, Julian; Masson, Roland; Samier, Pierre
2018-03-01
In this work, we extend, to two-phase flow, the single-phase Darcy flow model proposed in [26], [12] in which the (d - 1)-dimensional flow in the fractures is coupled with the d-dimensional flow in the matrix. Three types of so called hybrid-dimensional two-phase Darcy flow models are proposed. They all account for fractures acting either as drains or as barriers, since they allow pressure jumps at the matrix-fracture interfaces. The models also permit to treat gravity dominated flow as well as discontinuous capillary pressure at the material interfaces. The three models differ by their transmission conditions at matrix fracture interfaces: while the first model accounts for the nonlinear two-phase Darcy flux conservations, the second and third ones are based on the linear single phase Darcy flux conservations combined with different approximations of the mobilities. We adapt the Vertex Approximate Gradient (VAG) scheme to this problem, in order to account for anisotropy and heterogeneity aspects as well as for applicability on general meshes. Several test cases are presented to compare our hybrid-dimensional models to the generic equi-dimensional model, in which fractures have the same dimension as the matrix, leading to deep insight about the quality of the proposed reduced models.
Simulations of NLC formation using a microphysical model driven by three-dimensional dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirsch, Annekatrin; Becker, Erich; Rapp, Markus; Megner, Linda; Wilms, Henrike
2014-05-01
Noctilucent clouds (NLCs) represent an optical phenomenon occurring in the polar summer mesopause region. These clouds have been known since the late 19th century. Current physical understanding of NLCs is based on numerous observational and theoretical studies, in recent years especially observations from satellites and by lidars from ground. Theoretical studies based on numerical models that simulate NLCs with the underlying microphysical processes are uncommon. Up to date no three-dimensional numerical simulations of NLCs exist that take all relevant dynamical scales into account, i.e., from the planetary scale down to gravity waves and turbulence. Rather, modeling is usually restricted to certain flow regimes. In this study we make a more rigorous attempt and simulate NLC formation in the environment of the general circulation of the mesopause region by explicitly including gravity waves motions. For this purpose we couple the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmosphere (CARMA) to gravity-wave resolving dynamical fields simulated beforehand with the Kuehlungsborn Mechanistic Circulation Model (KMCM). In our case, the KMCM is run with a horizontal resolution of T120 which corresponds to a minimum horizontal wavelength of 350 km. This restriction causes the resolved gravity waves to be somewhat biased to larger scales. The simulated general circulation is dynamically controlled by these waves in a self-consitent fashion and provides realistic temperatures and wind-fields for July conditions. Assuming a water vapor mixing ratio profile in agreement with current observations results in reasonable supersaturations of up to 100. In a first step, CARMA is applied to a horizontal section covering the Northern hemisphere. The vertical resolution is 120 levels ranging from 72 to 101 km. In this paper we will present initial results of this coupled dynamical microphysical model focussing on the interaction of waves and turbulent diffusion with NLC-microphysics.
Analyzing and modeling gravity and magnetic anomalies using the SPHERE program and Magsat data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Braile, L. W.; Hinze, W. J.; Vonfrese, R. R. B. (Principal Investigator)
1981-01-01
Computer codes were completed, tested, and documented for analyzing magnetic anomaly vector components by equivalent point dipole inversion. The codes are intended for use in inverting the magnetic anomaly due to a spherical prism in a horizontal geomagnetic field and for recomputing the anomaly in a vertical geomagnetic field. Modeling of potential fields at satellite elevations that are derived from three dimensional sources by program SPHERE was made significantly more efficient by improving the input routines. A preliminary model of the Andean subduction zone was used to compute the anomaly at satellite elevations using both actual geomagnetic parameters and vertical polarization. Program SPHERE is also being used to calculate satellite level magnetic and gravity anomalies from the Amazon River Aulacogen.
Temporal gravity field modeling based on least square collocation with short-arc approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
ran, jiangjun; Zhong, Min; Xu, Houze; Liu, Chengshu; Tangdamrongsub, Natthachet
2014-05-01
After the launch of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) in 2002, several research centers have attempted to produce the finest gravity model based on different approaches. In this study, we present an alternative approach to derive the Earth's gravity field, and two main objectives are discussed. Firstly, we seek the optimal method to estimate the accelerometer parameters, and secondly, we intend to recover the monthly gravity model based on least square collocation method. The method has been paid less attention compared to the least square adjustment method because of the massive computational resource's requirement. The positions of twin satellites are treated as pseudo-observations and unknown parameters at the same time. The variance covariance matrices of the pseudo-observations and the unknown parameters are valuable information to improve the accuracy of the estimated gravity solutions. Our analyses showed that introducing a drift parameter as an additional accelerometer parameter, compared to using only a bias parameter, leads to a significant improvement of our estimated monthly gravity field. The gravity errors outside the continents are significantly reduced based on the selected set of the accelerometer parameters. We introduced the improved gravity model namely the second version of Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IGG-CAS 02). The accuracy of IGG-CAS 02 model is comparable to the gravity solutions computed from the Geoforschungszentrum (GFZ), the Center for Space Research (CSR) and the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). In term of the equivalent water height, the correlation coefficients over the study regions (the Yangtze River valley, the Sahara desert, and the Amazon) among four gravity models are greater than 0.80.
Estimating Gravity Biases with Wavelets in Support of a 1-cm Accurate Geoid Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahlgren, K.; Li, X.
2017-12-01
Systematic errors that reside in surface gravity datasets are one of the major hurdles in constructing a high-accuracy geoid model at high resolutions. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Geodetic Survey (NGS) has an extensive historical surface gravity dataset consisting of approximately 10 million gravity points that are known to have systematic biases at the mGal level (Saleh et al. 2013). As most relevant metadata is absent, estimating and removing these errors to be consistent with a global geopotential model and airborne data in the corresponding wavelength is quite a difficult endeavor. However, this is crucial to support a 1-cm accurate geoid model for the United States. With recently available independent gravity information from GRACE/GOCE and airborne gravity from the NGS Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) project, several different methods of bias estimation are investigated which utilize radial basis functions and wavelet decomposition. We estimate a surface gravity value by incorporating a satellite gravity model, airborne gravity data, and forward-modeled topography at wavelet levels according to each dataset's spatial wavelength. Considering the estimated gravity values over an entire gravity survey, an estimate of the bias and/or correction for the entire survey can be found and applied. In order to assess the accuracy of each bias estimation method, two techniques are used. First, each bias estimation method is used to predict the bias for two high-quality (unbiased and high accuracy) geoid slope validation surveys (GSVS) (Smith et al. 2013 & Wang et al. 2017). Since these surveys are unbiased, the various bias estimation methods should reflect that and provide an absolute accuracy metric for each of the bias estimation methods. Secondly, the corrected gravity datasets from each of the bias estimation methods are used to build a geoid model. The accuracy of each geoid model
Teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, P. A.; Vásquez, Yerko
2015-12-01
There is a growing interest in modified gravity theories based on torsion, as these theories exhibit interesting cosmological implications. In this work inspired by the teleparallel formulation of general relativity, we present its extension to Lovelock gravity known as the most natural extension of general relativity in higher-dimensional space-times. First, we review the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity and Gauss-Bonnet gravity, and then we construct the teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity. In order to achieve this goal, we use the vielbein and the connection without imposing the Weitzenböck connection. Then, we extract the teleparallel formulation of the theory by setting the curvature to null.
COLA with scale-dependent growth: applications to screened modified gravity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winther, Hans A.; Koyama, Kazuya; Manera, Marc; Wright, Bill S.; Zhao, Gong-Bo
2017-08-01
We present a general parallelized and easy-to-use code to perform numerical simulations of structure formation using the COLA (COmoving Lagrangian Acceleration) method for cosmological models that exhibit scale-dependent growth at the level of first and second order Lagrangian perturbation theory. For modified gravity theories we also include screening using a fast approximate method that covers all the main examples of screening mechanisms in the literature. We test the code by comparing it to full simulations of two popular modified gravity models, namely f(R) gravity and nDGP, and find good agreement in the modified gravity boost-factors relative to ΛCDM even when using a fairly small number of COLA time steps.
A three-dimensional simulation of the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation
Takahashi, M.; Boville, B.A.
1992-06-15
A simulation of the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) has been obtained using a three-dimensional mechanistic model of the stratosphere. The model is a simplified form of the NCAR CCM (Community Climate Model) in which the troposphere has been replaced with a specified geopotential distribution near the tropical tropopause and most of the physical parameterizations have been removed. A Kelvin wave and a Rossby-gravity wave are forced at the bottom boundary as in previous one- and two-dimensional models. The model reproduces most of the principal features of the observed QBO, as do previous models with lower dimensionality. The principal difference betweenmore » the present model and previous QBO models is that the wave propagation is explicitly represented, allowing wave-wave interactions to take place. It is found that these interactions significantly affect the simulated oscillation. The interaction of the Rossby-gravity waves with the Kelvin waves results in about twice as much easterly compared to westerly forcing being required in order to obtain a QBO. 26 refs., 12 figs.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barantsrva, O.; Artemieva, I. M.; Thybo, H.
2015-12-01
We present the results of gravity modeling for the North Atlantic region based on interpretation of GOCE gravity satellite data. First, to separate the gravity signal caused by density anomalies within the crust and the upper mantle, we subtract the lower harmonics in the gravity field, which are presumably caused by deep density structure of the Earth (the core and the lower mantle). Next, the gravity effect of the upper mantle is calculated by subtracting the gravity effect of the crustal model. Our "basic model" is constrained by a recent regional seismic model EUNAseis for the crustal structure (Artemieva and Thybo, 2013); for bathymetry and topography we use a global ETOPO1 model by NOAA. We test sensitivity of the results to different input parameters, such as bathymetry, crustal structure, and gravity field. For bathymetry, we additionally use GEBCO data; for crustal correction - a global model CRUST 1.0 (Laske, 2013); for gravity - EGM2008 (Pavlis, 2012). Sensitivity analysis shows that uncertainty in the crustal structure produces the largest deviation from "the basic model". Use of different bathymetry data has little effect on the final results, comparable to the interpolation error. The difference in mantle residual gravity models based on GOCE and EMG2008 gravity data is 5-10 mGal. The results based on two crustal models have a similar pattern, but differ significantly in amplitude (ca. 250 mGal) for the Greenland-Faroe Ridge. The results demonstrate the presence of a strong gravity and density heterogeneity in the upper mantle in the North Atlantic region. A number of mantle residual gravity anomalies are robust features, independent of the choice of model parameters. This include (i) a sharp contrast at the continent-ocean transition, (ii) positive mantle gravity anomalies associated with continental fragments (microcontinents) in the North Atlantic ocean; (iii) negative mantle gravity anomalies which mark regions with anomalous oceanic mantle and
Effects of gravity, inertia, and surfactant on steady plug propagation in a two-dimensional channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Y.; Fujioka, H.; Grotberg, J. B.
2007-08-01
Liquid plugs may form in pulmonary airways during the process of liquid instillation or removal in many clinical treatments. Studies have shown that the effectiveness of these treatments may depend on how liquids distribute in the lung. Better understanding of the fundamental fluid mechanics of liquid plug transport will facilitate treatment strategies. In this paper, we develop a numerical model of steady plug propagation driven by gravity and pressure in a two-dimensional liquid-lined channel oriented at an angle α with respect to gravity. We investigate the effects of gravity through the Bond number, Bo, and α; the plug propagation speed through the capillary number, Ca, or the Reynolds number, Re; the plug length LP, and the surfactant concentration C0. Without gravity, i.e., Bo =0, the plug is symmetric, and there are two regimes for the flow: two wall layers and two trapped vortices in the core. There is no flow interaction between the upper and lower half plug domains. When Bo ≠0 and α ≠0, π, fluid is found to flow from the upper precursor film, through the core and into the lower trailing film. Then the number of vortices can be zero, one, or two, depending on the flow parameters. The vortices have stagnation points on the interface when C0=0, however when the surfactant is present (C0>0), the vortices detach from the interface and create saddle points inside the core. The front meniscus develops a capillary surface wave extending into the precursor film. This is where the film is thinnest and thus the wall shear stress is highest, as high as ˜100dyn /cm2 in adult airways, which indicates a significant risk of pulmonary airway epithelial cell damage. Adding surfactant can decrease the peak magnitude of the shear stress, thus reducing the risk of cell damage. The prebifurcation asymmetry of the plug is quantified by the volume ratio, Vr, defined as the ratio of the liquid above to that below the center line of the channel. Vr is found to increase
Cryogenic Pressure Control Modeling for Ellipsoidal Space Tanks in Reduced Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hedayat, Ali; Lopez, Alfredo; Grayson, Gary D.; Chandler, Frank O.; Hastings, Leon J.
2008-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to simulate pressure control of an ellipsoidal-shaped liquid hydrogen tank under external heating in low gravity. Pressure control is provided by an axial jet thermodynamic vent system (TVS) centered within the vessel that injects cooler liquid into the tank, mixing the contents and reducing tank pressure. The two-phase cryogenic tank model considers liquid hydrogen in its own vapor with liquid density varying with temperature only and a fully compressible ullage. The axisymmetric model is developed using a custom version of the commercially available FLOW-3D software and simulates low gravity extrapolations of engineering checkout tests performed at Marshall Space Flight Center in 1999 in support of the Solar Thermal Upper Stage Technology Demonstrator (STUSTD) program. Model results illustrate that stable low gravity liquid-gas interfaces are maintained during all phases of the pressure control cycle. Steady and relatively smooth ullage pressurization rates are predicted. This work advances current low gravity CFD modeling capabilities for cryogenic pressure control and aids the development of a low cost CFD-based design process for space hardware.
Cosmology from a gauge induced gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falciano, F. T.; Sadovski, G.; Sobreiro, R. F.; Tomaz, A. A.
2017-09-01
The main goal of the present work is to analyze the cosmological scenario of the induced gravity theory developed in previous works. Such a theory consists on a Yang-Mills theory in a four-dimensional Euclidian spacetime with { SO}(m,n) such that m+n=5 and m\\in {0,1,2} as its gauge group. This theory undergoes a dynamical gauge symmetry breaking via an Inönü-Wigner contraction in its infrared sector. As a consequence, the { SO}(m,n) algebra is deformed into a Lorentz algebra with the emergency of the local Lorentz symmetries and the gauge fields being identified with a vierbein and a spin connection. As a result, gravity is described as an effective Einstein-Cartan-like theory with ultraviolet correction terms and a propagating torsion field. We show that the cosmological model associated with this effective theory has three different regimes. In particular, the high curvature regime presents a de Sitter phase which tends towards a Λ CDM model. We argue that { SO}(m,n) induced gravities are promising effective theories to describe the early phase of the universe.
GOCE gravity gradient data for lithospheric modeling - From well surveyed to frontier areas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouman, J.; Ebbing, J.; Gradmann, S.; Fuchs, M.; Fattah, R. Abdul; Meekes, S.; Schmidt, M.; Lieb, V.; Haagmans, R.
2012-04-01
We explore how GOCE gravity gradient data can improve modeling of the Earth's lithosphere and thereby contribute to a better understanding of the Earth's dynamic processes. The idea is to invert satellite gravity gradients and terrestrial gravity data in the well explored and understood North-East Atlantic Margin and to compare the results of this inversion, providing improved information about the lithosphere and upper mantle, with results obtained by means of models based upon other sources like seismics and magnetic field information. Transfer of the obtained knowledge to the less explored Rub' al Khali desert is foreseen. We present a case study for the North-East Atlantic margin, where we analyze the use of satellite gravity gradients by comparison with a well-constrained 3D density model that provides a detailed picture from the upper mantle to the top basement (base of sediments). The latter horizon is well resolved from gravity and especially magnetic data, whereas sedimentary layers are mainly constrained from seismic studies, but do in general not show a prominent effect in the gravity and magnetic field. We analyze how gravity gradients can increase confidence in the modeled structures by calculating a sensitivity matrix for the existing 3D model. This sensitivity matrix describes the relation between calculated gravity gradient data and geological structures with respect to their depth, extent and relative density contrast. As the sensitivity of the modeled bodies varies for different tensor components, we can use this matrix for a weighted inversion of gradient data to optimize the model. This sensitivity analysis will be used as input to study the Rub' al Khali desert in Saudi Arabia. In terms of modeling and data availability this is a frontier area. Here gravity gradient data will be used to better identify the extent of anomalous structures within the basin, with the goal to improve the modeling for hydrocarbon exploration purposes.
High-resolution gravity field modeling using GRAIL mission data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemoine, F. G.; Goossens, S. J.; Sabaka, T. J.; Nicholas, J. B.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Loomis, B.; Chinn, D. S.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.
2015-12-01
The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft were designed to map the structure of the Moon through high-precision global gravity mapping. The mission consisted of two spacecraft with Ka-band inter-satellite tracking complemented by tracking from Earth. The mission had two phases: a primary mapping mission from March 1 until May 29, 2012 at an average altitude of 50 km, and an extended mission from August 30 until December 14, 2012, with an average altitude of 23 km before November 18, and 20 and 11 km after. High-resolution gravity field models using both these data sets have been estimated, with the current resolution being degree and order 1080 in spherical harmonics. Here, we focus on aspects of the analysis of the GRAIL data: we investigate eclipse modeling, the influence of empirical accelerations on the results, and we discuss the inversion of large-scale systems. In addition to global models we also estimated local gravity adjustments in areas of particular interest such as Mare Orientale, the south pole area, and the farside. We investigate the use of Ka-band Range Rate (KBRR) data versus numerical derivatives of KBRR data, and show that the latter have the capability to locally improve correlations with topography.
Active Response Gravity Offload and Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dungan, Larry K. (Inventor); Lieberman, Asher P. (Inventor); Shy, Cecil (Inventor); Bankieris, Derek R. (Inventor); Valle, Paul S. (Inventor); Redden, Lee (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A variable gravity field simulator can be utilized to provide three dimensional simulations for simulated gravity fields selectively ranging from Moon, Mars, and micro-gravity environments and/or other selectable gravity fields. The gravity field simulator utilizes a horizontally moveable carriage with a cable extending from a hoist. The cable can be attached to a load which experiences the effects of the simulated gravity environment. The load can be a human being or robot that makes movements that induce swinging of the cable whereby a horizontal control system reduces swinging energy. A vertical control system uses a non-linear feedback filter to remove noise from a load sensor that is in the same frequency range as signals from the load sensor.
Impact of geophysical model error for recovering temporal gravity field model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Hao; Luo, Zhicai; Wu, Yihao; Li, Qiong; Xu, Chuang
2016-07-01
The impact of geophysical model error on recovered temporal gravity field models with both real and simulated GRACE observations is assessed in this paper. With real GRACE observations, we build four temporal gravity field models, i.e., HUST08a, HUST11a, HUST04 and HUST05. HUST08a and HUST11a are derived from different ocean tide models (EOT08a and EOT11a), while HUST04 and HUST05 are derived from different non-tidal models (AOD RL04 and AOD RL05). The statistical result shows that the discrepancies of the annual mass variability amplitudes in six river basins between HUST08a and HUST11a models, HUST04 and HUST05 models are all smaller than 1 cm, which demonstrates that geophysical model error slightly affects the current GRACE solutions. The impact of geophysical model error for future missions with more accurate satellite ranging is also assessed by simulation. The simulation results indicate that for current mission with range rate accuracy of 2.5 × 10- 7 m/s, observation error is the main reason for stripe error. However, when the range rate accuracy improves to 5.0 × 10- 8 m/s in the future mission, geophysical model error will be the main source for stripe error, which will limit the accuracy and spatial resolution of temporal gravity model. Therefore, observation error should be the primary error source taken into account at current range rate accuracy level, while more attention should be paid to improving the accuracy of background geophysical models for the future mission.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bucha, Blažej; Hirt, Christian; Kuhn, Michael
2018-04-01
Spectral gravity forward modelling is a technique that converts a band-limited topography into its implied gravitational field. This conversion implicitly relies on global integration of topographic masses. In this paper, a modification of the spectral technique is presented that provides gravity effects induced only by the masses located inside or outside a spherical cap centred at the evaluation point. This is achieved by altitude-dependent Molodensky's truncation coefficients, for which we provide infinite series expansions and recurrence relations with a fixed number of terms. Both representations are generalized for an arbitrary integer power of the topography and arbitrary radial derivative. Because of the altitude-dependency of the truncation coefficients, a straightforward synthesis of the near- and far-zone gravity effects at dense grids on irregular surfaces (e.g. the Earth's topography) is computationally extremely demanding. However, we show that this task can be efficiently performed using an analytical continuation based on the gradient approach, provided that formulae for radial derivatives of the truncation coefficients are available. To demonstrate the new cap-modified spectral technique, we forward model the Earth's degree-360 topography, obtaining near- and far-zone effects on gravity disturbances expanded up to degree 3600. The computation is carried out on the Earth's surface and the results are validated against an independent spatial-domain Newtonian integration (1 μGal RMS agreement). The new technique is expected to assist in mitigating the spectral filter problem of residual terrain modelling and in the efficient construction of full-scale global gravity maps of highest spatial resolution.
Computer modeling describes gravity-related adaptation in cell cultures.
Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Alexandrova, Stoyana; Usheva, Anny
2009-12-16
Questions about the changes of biological systems in response to hostile environmental factors are important but not easy to answer. Often, the traditional description with differential equations is difficult due to the overwhelming complexity of the living systems. Another way to describe complex systems is by simulating them with phenomenological models such as the well-known evolutionary agent-based model (EABM). Here we developed an EABM to simulate cell colonies as a multi-agent system that adapts to hyper-gravity in starvation conditions. In the model, the cell's heritable characteristics are generated and transferred randomly to offspring cells. After a qualitative validation of the model at normal gravity, we simulate cellular growth in hyper-gravity conditions. The obtained data are consistent with previously confirmed theoretical and experimental findings for bacterial behavior in environmental changes, including the experimental data from the microgravity Atlantis and the Hypergravity 3000 experiments. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to utilize an EABM with realistic qualitative description to examine the effects of hypergravity and starvation on complex cellular entities.
Burning of liquid pools in reduced gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kanury, A. M.
1977-01-01
The existing literature on the combustion of liquid fuel pools is reviewed to identify the physical and chemical aspects which require an improved understanding. Among the pre-, trans- and post-ignition processes, a delineation was made of those which seem to uniquely benefit from studies in the essential environment offered by spacelab. The role played by the gravitational constant in analytical and experimental justifications was developed. The analytical justifications were based on hypotheses, models and dimensional analyses whereas the experimental justifications were based on an examination of the range of gravity and gravity-dependent variables possible in the earth-based laboratories. Some preliminary expositions into the questions of feasibility of the proposed spacelab experiment are also reported.
Impact of Orbit Position Errors on Future Satellite Gravity Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Encarnacao, J.; Ditmar, P.; Klees, R.
2015-12-01
We present the results of a study of the impact of orbit positioning noise (OPN) caused by incomplete knowledge of the Earth's gravity field on gravity models estimated from satellite gravity data. The OPN is simulated as the difference between two sets of orbits integrated on the basis of different static gravity field models. The OPN is propagated into ll-SST data, here computed as averaged inter-satellite accelerations projected onto the Line of Sight (LoS) vector between the two satellites. We consider the cartwheel formation (CF), pendulum formation (PF), and trailing formation (TF) as they produce a different dominant orientation of the LoS vector. Given the polar orbits of the formations, the LoS vector is mainly aligned with the North-South direction in the TF, with the East-West direction in the PF (i.e. no along-track offset), and contains a radial component in the CF. An analytical analysis predicts that the CF suffers from a very high sensitivity to the OPN. This is a fundamental characteristic of this formation, which results from the amplification of this noise by diagonal components of the gravity gradient tensor (defined in the local frame) during the propagation into satellite gravity data. In contrast, the OPN in the data from PF and TF is only scaled by off-diagonal gravity gradient components, which are much smaller than the diagonal tensor components. A numerical analysis shows that the effect of the OPN is similar in the data collected by the TF and the PF. The amplification of the OPN errors for the CF leads to errors in the gravity model that are three orders of magnitude larger than those in case of the PF. This means that any implementation of the CF will most likely produce data with relatively low quality since this error dominates the error budget, especially at low frequencies. This is particularly critical for future gravimetric missions that will be equipped with highly accurate ranging sensors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cowton, L. R.; Neufeld, J. A.; Bickle, M.; White, N.; White, J.; Chadwick, A.
2017-12-01
Vertically-integrated gravity current models enable computationally efficient simulations of CO2 flow in sub-surface reservoirs. These simulations can be used to investigate the properties of reservoirs by minimizing differences between observed and modeled CO2 distributions. At the Sleipner project, about 1 Mt yr-1 of supercritical CO2 is injected at a depth of 1 km into a pristine saline aquifer with a thick shale caprock. Analysis of time-lapse seismic reflection surveys shows that CO2 is distributed within 9 discrete layers. The trapping mechanism comprises a stacked series of 1 m thick, impermeable shale horizons that are spaced at 30 m intervals through the reservoir. Within the stratigraphically highest reservoir layer, Layer 9, a submarine channel deposit has been mapped on the pre-injection seismic survey. Detailed measurements of the three-dimensional CO2 distribution within Layer 9 have been made using seven time-lapse surveys, providing a useful benchmark against which numerical flow simulations can be tested. Previous simulations have, in general, been largely unsuccessful in matching the migration rate of CO2 in this layer. Here, CO2 flow within Layer 9 is modeled as a vertically-integrated gravity current that spreads beneath a structurally complex caprock using a two-dimensional grid, considerably increasing computational efficiency compared to conventional three-dimensional simulators. This flow model is inverted to find the optimal reservoir permeability in Layer 9 by minimizing the difference between observed and predicted distributions of CO2 as a function of space and time. A three parameter inverse model, comprising reservoir permeability, channel permeability and channel width, is investigated by grid search. The best-fitting reservoir permeability is 3 Darcys, which is consistent with measurements made on core material from the reservoir. Best-fitting channel permeability is 26 Darcys. Finally, the ability of this simplified numerical model
Gravity waves in Titan's atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Friedson, A. James
1994-01-01
Scintillations (high frequency variations) observed in the radio signal during the occultation of Voyager 1 by Titan (Hinson and Tyler, 1983) provide information concerning neutral atmospheric density fluctuations on scales on hundreds of meters to a few kilometers. Those seen at altitudes higher than 25 km above the surface were interpreted by Hinson and Tyler as being caused by linear, freely propagating (energy-conserving) gravity waves, but this interpretation was found to be inconsistent with the scintillation data below the 25-km altitude level. Here an attempt is made to interpret the entire scintillation profile between the surface and the 90-km altitude level in terms of gravity waves generated at the surface. Numerical calculations of the density fluctuations caused by two-dimensional, nonhydrostatic, finite-amplitude gravity waves propagating vertically through Titan's atmosphere are performed to produce synthetic scintillation profiles for comparison with the observations. The numerical model accurately treats the effects of wave transience, nonlinearity, and breakdown due to convective instability in the overturned part of the wave. The high-altitude scintillation data were accurately recovered with a freely propagating wave solution, confirming the analytic model of Hinson and Tyler. It is found that the low-altitude scintillation data can be fit by a model where a component of the gravity waves becomes convectively unstable and breaks near the 15 km level. The large-scale structure of the observed scintillation profile in the entire altitude range between 5 and 85 km can be simulated by a model where the freely propagating and breaking waves are forced at the surface simultaneously. Further analysis of the Voyager 1 Titan low-altitude scintillation data, using inversion theory appropriate for strong scattering, could potentially remove some of the ambiguities remaining in this analysis and allow a better determination of the strength and source of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shih, Hsuan-Chang; Hwang, Cheinway; Barriot, Jean-Pierre; Mouyen, Maxime; Corréia, Pascal; Lequeux, Didier; Sichoix, Lydie
2015-08-01
For the first time, we carry out an airborne gravity survey and we collect new land gravity data over the islands of Tahiti and Moorea in French Polynesia located in the South Pacific Ocean. The new land gravity data are registered with GPS-derived coordinates, network-adjusted and outlier-edited, resulting in a mean standard error of 17 μGal. A crossover analysis of the airborne gravity data indicates a mean gravity accuracy of 1.7 mGal. New marine gravity around the two islands is derived from Geosat/GM, ERS-1/GM, Jason-1/GM, and Cryosat-2 altimeter data. A new 1-s digital topography model is constructed and is used to compute the topographic gravitational effects. To use EGM08 over Tahiti and Moorea, the optimal degree of spherical harmonic expansion is 1500. The fusion of the gravity datasets is made by the band-limited least-squares collocation, which best integrates datasets of different accuracies and spatial resolutions. The new high-resolution gravity and geoid grids are constructed on a 9-s grid. Assessments of the grids by measurements of ground gravity and geometric geoidal height result in RMS differences of 0.9 mGal and 0.4 cm, respectively. The geoid model allows 1-cm orthometric height determination by GPS and Lidar and yields a consistent height datum for Tahiti and Moorea. The new Bouguer anomalies show gravity highs and lows in the centers and land-sea zones of the two islands, allowing further studies of the density structure and volcanism in the region.
Computational Hemodynamic Simulation of Human Circulatory System under Altered Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim. Chang Sung; Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan
2003-01-01
A computational hemodynamics approach is presented to simulate the blood flow through the human circulatory system under altered gravity conditions. Numerical techniques relevant to hemodynamics issues are introduced to non-Newtonian modeling for flow characteristics governed by red blood cells, distensible wall motion due to the heart pulse, and capillary bed modeling for outflow boundary conditions. Gravitational body force terms are added to the Navier-Stokes equations to study the effects of gravity on internal flows. Six-type gravity benchmark problems are originally presented to provide the fundamental understanding of gravitational effects on the human circulatory system. For code validation, computed results are compared with steady and unsteady experimental data for non-Newtonian flows in a carotid bifurcation model and a curved circular tube, respectively. This computational approach is then applied to the blood circulation in the human brain as a target problem. A three-dimensional, idealized Circle of Willis configuration is developed with minor arteries truncated based on anatomical data. Demonstrated is not only the mechanism of the collateral circulation but also the effects of gravity on the distensible wall motion and resultant flow patterns.
A numerical model of gravity wave breaking and stress in the mesosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schoeberl, M. R.; Strobel, D. F.; Apruzese, J. P.
1983-01-01
The goal of the study is to calculate numerically the deceleration and heating caused by breaking gravity waves. The effect of the radiative dissipation of the wave is included as vertical-wavelength-dependent Newtonian cooling. The parameterization for zonal deceleration is extended by breaking gravity waves (Lindzen, 1981) to include the turbulent diffusion of heat and momentum. After describing the numerical model, the numerical results are presented and compared with the parameterizations in a noninteractive model of the mean zonal wind. Attention is then given to the transport of constituents by gravity waves and the attendant turbulent zone. It is noted that if gravity wave breaking were not an intermittent process, gravity wave stresses would produce an adiabatic mesosphere with a zonal mean velocity close to the phase speed of the breaking wave.
Lunar Prospector Orbit Determination Uncertainties Using the High Resolution Lunar Gravity Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carranza, Eric; Konopliv, Alex; Ryne, Mark
1999-01-01
The Lunar Prospector (LP) mission began on January 6, 1998, when the LP spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The objectives of the mission were to determine whether water ice exists at the lunar poles, generate a global compositional map of the lunar surface, detect lunar outgassing, and improve knowledge of the lunar magnetic and gravity fields. Orbit determination of LP performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducted as part of the principal science investigation of the lunar gravity field. This paper will describe the JPL effort in support of the LP Gravity Investigation. This support includes high precision orbit determination, gravity model validation, and data editing. A description of the mission and its trajectory will be provided first, followed by a discussion of the orbit determination estimation procedure and models. Accuracies will be examined in terms of orbit-to-orbit solution differences, as a function of oblateness model truncation, and inclination in the plane-of-sky. Long term predictions for several gravity fields will be compared to the reconstructed orbits to demonstrate the accuracy of the orbit determination and oblateness fields developed by the Principal Gravity Investigator.
Gravity orientation tuning in macaque anterior thalamus.
Laurens, Jean; Kim, Byounghoon; Dickman, J David; Angelaki, Dora E
2016-12-01
Gravity may provide a ubiquitous allocentric reference to the brain's spatial orientation circuits. Here we describe neurons in the macaque anterior thalamus tuned to pitch and roll orientation relative to gravity, independently of visual landmarks. We show that individual cells exhibit two-dimensional tuning curves, with peak firing rates at a preferred vertical orientation. These results identify a thalamic pathway for gravity cues to influence perception, action and spatial cognition.
Role of Gravity Waves in Determining Cirrus Cloud Properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
OCStarr, David; Singleton, Tamara; Lin, Ruei-Fong
2008-01-01
Cirrus clouds are important in the Earth's radiation budget. They typically exhibit variable physical properties within a given cloud system and from system to system. Ambient vertical motion is a key factor in determining the cloud properties in most cases. The obvious exception is convectively generated cirrus (anvils), but even in this case, the subsequent cloud evolution is strongly influenced by the ambient vertical motion field. It is well know that gravity waves are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and occur over a wide range of scales and amplitudes. Moreover, researchers have found that inclusion of statistical account of gravity wave effects can markedly improve the realism of simulations of persisting large-scale cirrus cloud features. Here, we use a 1 -dimensional (z) cirrus cloud model, to systematically examine the effects of gravity waves on cirrus cloud properties. The model includes a detailed representation of cloud microphysical processes (bin microphysics and aerosols) and is run at relatively fine vertical resolution so as to adequately resolve nucleation events, and over an extended time span so as to incorporate the passage of multiple gravity waves. The prescribed gravity waves "propagate" at 15 m s (sup -1), with wavelengths from 5 to 100 km, amplitudes range up to 1 m s (sup -1)'. Despite the fact that the net gravity wave vertical motion forcing is zero, it will be shown that the bulk cloud properties, e.g., vertically-integrated ice water path, can differ quite significantly from simulations without gravity waves and that the effects do depend on the wave characteristics. We conclude that account of gravity wave effects is important if large-scale models are to generate realistic cirrus cloud property climatology (statistics).
Psaltis, Dimitrios
2007-05-04
In braneworld gravity models with a finite anti-de Sitter space (AdS) curvature in the extra dimension, the AdS/conformal field theory correspondence leads to a prediction for the lifetime of astrophysical black holes that is significantly smaller than the Hubble time, for asymptotic curvatures that are consistent with current experiments. Using the recent measurements of the position, three-dimensional spatial velocity, and mass of the black hole XTE J1118+480, I calculate a lower limit on its kinematic age of > or =11 Myr (95% confidence). This translates into an upper limit for the asymptotic AdS curvature in the extra dimensions of <0.08 mm, which significantly improves the limit obtained by table top experiments of sub mm gravity.
Modeling and estimation of a low degree geopotential model from terrestrial gravity data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pavlis, Nikolaos K.
1988-01-01
The development of appropriate modeling and adjustment procedures for the estimation of harmonic coefficients of the geopotential, from surface gravity data was studied, in order to provide an optimum way of utilizing the terrestrial gravity information in combination solutions currently developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, for use in the TOPEX/POSEIDON mission. The mathematical modeling was based on the fundamental boundary condition of the linearized Molodensky boundary value problem. Atmospheric and ellipsoidal corrections were applied to the surface anomalies. Terrestrial gravity solutions were found to be in good agreement with the satellite ones over areas which are well surveyed (gravimetrically), such as North America or Australia. However, systematic differences between the terrestrial only models and GEMT1, over extended regions in Africa, the Soviet Union, and China were found. In Africa, gravity anomaly differences on the order of 20 mgals and undulation differences on the order of 15 meters, over regions extending 2000 km in diameter, occur. Comparisons of the GEMT1 implied undulations with 32 well distributed Doppler derived undulations gave an RMS difference of 2.6 m, while corresponding comparison with undulations implied by the terrestrial solution gave RMS difference on the order of 15 m, which implies that the terrestrial data in that region are substantially in error.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bueno, Pablo; Cano, Pablo A.
2016-11-01
We drastically simplify the problem of linearizing a general higher-order theory of gravity. We reduce it to the evaluation of its Lagrangian on a particular Riemann tensor depending on two parameters, and the computation of two derivatives with respect to one of those parameters. We use our method to construct a D -dimensional cubic theory of gravity which satisfies the following properties: (1) it shares the spectrum of Einstein gravity, i.e., it only propagates a transverse and massless graviton on a maximally symmetric background; (2) it is defined in the same way in general dimensions; (3) it is neither trivial nor topological in four dimensions. Up to cubic order in curvature, the only previously known theories satisfying the first two requirements are the Lovelock ones. We show that, up to cubic order, there exists only one additional theory satisfying requirements (1) and (2). Interestingly, this theory is, along with Einstein gravity, the only one which also satisfies (3).
Unimodular gravity and the lepton anomalous magnetic moment at one-loop
Martín, Carmelo P., E-mail: carmelop@fis.ucm.es
We work out the one-loop contribution to the lepton anomalous magnetic moment coming from Unimodular Gravity. We use Dimensional Regularization and Dimensional Reduction to carry out the computations. In either case, we find that Unimodular Gravity gives rise to the same one-loop correction as that of General Relativity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexander, M. Joan; Stephan, Claudia
2015-04-01
In climate models, gravity waves remain too poorly resolved to be directly modelled. Instead, simplified parameterizations are used to include gravity wave effects on model winds. A few climate models link some of the parameterized waves to convective sources, providing a mechanism for feedback between changes in convection and gravity wave-driven changes in circulation in the tropics and above high-latitude storms. These convective wave parameterizations are based on limited case studies with cloud-resolving models, but they are poorly constrained by observational validation, and tuning parameters have large uncertainties. Our new work distills results from complex, full-physics cloud-resolving model studies to essential variables for gravity wave generation. We use the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model to study relationships between precipitation, latent heating/cooling and other cloud properties to the spectrum of gravity wave momentum flux above midlatitude storm systems. Results show the gravity wave spectrum is surprisingly insensitive to the representation of microphysics in WRF. This is good news for use of these models for gravity wave parameterization development since microphysical properties are a key uncertainty. We further use the full-physics cloud-resolving model as a tool to directly link observed precipitation variability to gravity wave generation. We show that waves in an idealized model forced with radar-observed precipitation can quantitatively reproduce instantaneous satellite-observed features of the gravity wave field above storms, which is a powerful validation of our understanding of waves generated by convection. The idealized model directly links observations of surface precipitation to observed waves in the stratosphere, and the simplicity of the model permits deep/large-area domains for studies of wave-mean flow interactions. This unique validated model tool permits quantitative studies of gravity wave driving of regional
Systematic simulations of modified gravity: chameleon models
Brax, Philippe; Davis, Anne-Christine; Li, Baojiu
2013-04-01
In this work we systematically study the linear and nonlinear structure formation in chameleon theories of modified gravity, using a generic parameterisation which describes a large class of models using only 4 parameters. For this we have modified the N-body simulation code ecosmog to perform a total of 65 simulations for different models and parameter values, including the default ΛCDM. These simulations enable us to explore a significant portion of the parameter space. We have studied the effects of modified gravity on the matter power spectrum and mass function, and found a rich and interesting phenomenology where the difference withmore » the ΛCDM paradigm cannot be reproduced by a linear analysis even on scales as large as k ∼ 0.05 hMpc{sup −1}, since the latter incorrectly assumes that the modification of gravity depends only on the background matter density. Our results show that the chameleon screening mechanism is significantly more efficient than other mechanisms such as the dilaton and symmetron, especially in high-density regions and at early times, and can serve as a guidance to determine the parts of the chameleon parameter space which are cosmologically interesting and thus merit further studies in the future.« less
Quasi-local holographic dualities in non-perturbative 3D quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dittrich, Bianca; Goeller, Christophe; Livine, Etera R.; Riello, Aldo
2018-07-01
We present a line of research aimed at investigating holographic dualities in the context of three dimensional quantum gravity within finite bounded regions. The bulk quantum geometrodynamics is provided by the Ponzano–Regge state-sum model, which defines 3D quantum gravity as a discrete topological quantum field theory (TQFT). This formulation provides an explicit and detailed definition of the quantum boundary states, which allows a rich correspondence between quantum boundary conditions and boundary theories, thereby leading to holographic dualities between 3D quantum gravity and 2D statistical models as used in condensed matter. After presenting the general framework, we focus on the concrete example of the coherent twisted torus boundary, which allows for a direct comparison with other approaches to 3D/2D holography at asymptotic infinity. We conclude with the most interesting questions to pursue in this framework.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Zhaohai; Li, Fengting; Xu, Xuechun; Huang, Danian; Zhang, Dailei
2017-02-01
The subsurface three-dimensional (3D) model of density distribution is obtained by solving an under-determined linear equation that is established by gravity data. Here, we describe a new fast gravity inversion method to recover a 3D density model from gravity data. The subsurface will be divided into a large number of rectangular blocks, each with an unknown constant density. The gravity inversion method introduces a stabiliser model norm with a depth weighting function to produce smooth models. The depth weighting function is combined with the model norm to counteract the skin effect of the gravity potential field. As the numbers of density model parameters is NZ (the number of layers in the vertical subsurface domain) times greater than the observed gravity data parameters, the inverse density parameter is larger than the observed gravity data parameters. Solving the full set of gravity inversion equations is very time-consuming, and applying a new algorithm to estimate gravity inversion can significantly reduce the number of iterations and the computational time. In this paper, a new symmetric successive over-relaxation (SSOR) iterative conjugate gradient (CG) method is shown to be an appropriate algorithm to solve this Tikhonov cost function (gravity inversion equation). The new, faster method is applied on Gaussian noise-contaminated synthetic data to demonstrate its suitability for 3D gravity inversion. To demonstrate the performance of the new algorithm on actual gravity data, we provide a case study that includes ground-based measurement of residual Bouguer gravity anomalies over the Humble salt dome near Houston, Gulf Coast Basin, off the shore of Louisiana. A 3D distribution of salt rock concentration is used to evaluate the inversion results recovered by the new SSOR iterative method. In the test model, the density values in the constructed model coincide with the known location and depth of the salt dome.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dehghani, M.
2018-02-01
Making use of the suitable transformation relations, the action of three-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity theory has been obtained from that of scalar-tensor modified gravity theory coupled to the Maxwell's electrodynamics as the matter field. Two new classes of the static three-dimensional charged dilatonic black holes, as the exact solutions to the coupled scalar, electromagnetic and gravitational field equations, have been obtained in the Einstein frame. Also, it has been found that the scalar potential can be written in the form of a generalized Liouville-type potential. The conserved black hole charge and masses as well as the black entropy, temperature, and electric potential have been calculated from the geometrical and thermodynamical approaches, separately. Through comparison of the results arisen from these two alternative approaches, the validity of the thermodynamical first law has been proved for both of the new black hole solutions in the Einstein frame. Making use of the canonical ensemble method, a black hole stability or phase transition analysis has been performed. Regarding the black hole heat capacity, with the black hole charge as a constant, the points of type-1 and type-2 phase transitions have been determined. Also, the ranges of the black hole horizon radius at which the Einstein black holes are thermally stable have been obtained for both of the new black hole solutions. Then making use of the inverse transformation relations, two new classes of the string black hole solutions have been obtained from their Einstein counterpart. The thermodynamics and thermal stability of the new string black hole solutions have been investigated. It has been found that thermodynamic properties of the new charged black holes are identical in the Einstein and Jordan frames.
Benefits of Objective Collapse Models for Cosmology and Quantum Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okon, Elias; Sudarsky, Daniel
2014-02-01
We display a number of advantages of objective collapse theories for the resolution of long-standing problems in cosmology and quantum gravity. In particular, we examine applications of objective reduction models to three important issues: the origin of the seeds of cosmic structure, the problem of time in quantum gravity and the information loss paradox; we show how reduction models contain the necessary tools to provide solutions for these issues. We wrap up with an adventurous proposal, which relates the spontaneous collapse events of objective collapse models to microscopic virtual black holes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, R. L.; Lyubomirsky, A. S.
1981-01-01
Two techniques were analyzed. The first is a representation using Chebyshev expansions in three-dimensional cells. The second technique employs a temporary file for storing the components of the nonspherical gravity force. Computer storage requirements and relative CPU time requirements are presented. The Chebyshev gravity representation can provide a significant reduction in CPU time in precision orbit calculations, but at the cost of a large amount of direct-access storage space, which is required for a global model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Götze, Hans-Jürgen; Schmidt, Sabine
2014-05-01
Modern geophysical interpretation requires an interdisciplinary approach, particularly when considering the available amount of 'state of the art' information. A combination of different geophysical surveys employing seismic, gravity and EM, together with geological and petrological studies, can provide new insights into the structures and tectonic evolution of the lithosphere, natural deposits and underground cavities. Interdisciplinary interpretation is essential for any numerical modelling of these structures and the processes acting on them Interactive gravity and magnetic modeling can play an important role in the depth imaging workflow of complex projects. The integration of the workflow and the tools is important to meet the needs of today's more interactive and interpretative depth imaging workflows. For the integration of gravity and magnetic models the software IGMAS+ can play an important role in this workflow. For simplicity the focus is on gravity modeling, but all methods can be applied to the modeling of magnetic data as well. Currently there are three common ways to define a 3D gravity model. Grid based models: Grids define the different geological units. The densities of the geological units are constant. Additional grids can be introduced to subdivide the geological units, making it possible to represent density depth relations. Polyhedral models: The interfaces between different geological units are defined by polyhedral, typically triangles. Voxel models: Each voxel in a regular cube has a density assigned. Spherical Earth modeling: Geophysical investigations may cover huge areas of several thousand square kilometers. The depression of the earth's surface due to the curvature of the Earth is 3 km at a distance of 200 km and 20 km at a distance of 500 km. Interactive inversion: Inversion is typically done in batch where constraints are defined beforehand and then after a few minutes or hours a model fitting the data and constraints is generated
Fluid-gravity model for the chiral magnetic effect.
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran; Kirsch, Ingo
2011-05-27
We consider the STU model as a gravity dual of a strongly coupled plasma with multiple anomalous U(1) currents. In the bulk we add additional background gauge fields to include the effects of external electric and magnetic fields on the plasma. Reducing the number of chemical potentials in the STU model to two and interpreting them as quark and chiral chemical potential, we obtain a holographic description of the chiral magnetic and chiral vortical effects (CME and CVE) in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. These effects formally appear as first-order transport coefficients in the electromagnetic current. We compute these coefficients from our model using fluid-gravity duality. We also find analogous effects in the axial-vector current. Finally, we briefly discuss a variant of our model, in which the CME/CVE is realized in the late-time dynamics of an expanding plasma. © 2011 American Physical Society
Multisensory Integration and Internal Models for Sensing Gravity Effects in Primates
Lacquaniti, Francesco; La Scaleia, Barbara; Maffei, Vincenzo
2014-01-01
Gravity is crucial for spatial perception, postural equilibrium, and movement generation. The vestibular apparatus is the main sensory system involved in monitoring gravity. Hair cells in the vestibular maculae respond to gravitoinertial forces, but they cannot distinguish between linear accelerations and changes of head orientation relative to gravity. The brain deals with this sensory ambiguity (which can cause some lethal airplane accidents) by combining several cues with the otolith signals: angular velocity signals provided by the semicircular canals, proprioceptive signals from muscles and tendons, visceral signals related to gravity, and visual signals. In particular, vision provides both static and dynamic signals about body orientation relative to the vertical, but it poorly discriminates arbitrary accelerations of moving objects. However, we are able to visually detect the specific acceleration of gravity since early infancy. This ability depends on the fact that gravity effects are stored in brain regions which integrate visual, vestibular, and neck proprioceptive signals and combine this information with an internal model of gravity effects. PMID:25061610
Multisensory integration and internal models for sensing gravity effects in primates.
Lacquaniti, Francesco; Bosco, Gianfranco; Gravano, Silvio; Indovina, Iole; La Scaleia, Barbara; Maffei, Vincenzo; Zago, Myrka
2014-01-01
Gravity is crucial for spatial perception, postural equilibrium, and movement generation. The vestibular apparatus is the main sensory system involved in monitoring gravity. Hair cells in the vestibular maculae respond to gravitoinertial forces, but they cannot distinguish between linear accelerations and changes of head orientation relative to gravity. The brain deals with this sensory ambiguity (which can cause some lethal airplane accidents) by combining several cues with the otolith signals: angular velocity signals provided by the semicircular canals, proprioceptive signals from muscles and tendons, visceral signals related to gravity, and visual signals. In particular, vision provides both static and dynamic signals about body orientation relative to the vertical, but it poorly discriminates arbitrary accelerations of moving objects. However, we are able to visually detect the specific acceleration of gravity since early infancy. This ability depends on the fact that gravity effects are stored in brain regions which integrate visual, vestibular, and neck proprioceptive signals and combine this information with an internal model of gravity effects.
Effect of wing mass in free flight of a two-dimensional symmetric flapping wing-body model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Kosuke; Aoki, Takaaki; Yoshino, Masato
2017-10-01
The effect of wing mass in the free flight of a flapping wing is investigated by numerical simulations based on an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method. We consider a model consisting of two-dimensional symmetric flapping wings with uniform mass density connected by a body represented as a point mass. We simulate free flights of the two-dimensional symmetric flapping wing with various mass ratios of the wings to the body. In free flights without gravity, it is found that the time-averaged lift force becomes smaller as the mass ratio increases, since with a large mass ratio the body experiences a large vertical oscillation in one period and consequently the wing-tip speed relatively decreases. We define the effective Reynolds number {{Re}}{eff} taking the body motion into consideration and investigate the critical value of {{Re}}{eff} over which the symmetry breaking of flows occurs. As a result, it is found that the critical value is {{Re}}{eff} ≃ 70 independently of the mass ratio. In free flights with gravity, the time-averaged lift force becomes smaller as the mass ratio increases in the same way as free flights without gravity. In addition, the unstable rotational motion around the body is suppressed as the mass ratio increases, since with a large mass ratio the vortices shedding from the wing tip are small and easily decay.
Multi-Scale Modeling of Liquid Phase Sintering Affected by Gravity: Preliminary Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olevsky, Eugene; German, Randall M.
2012-01-01
A multi-scale simulation concept taking into account impact of gravity on liquid phase sintering is described. The gravity influence can be included at both the micro- and macro-scales. At the micro-scale, the diffusion mass-transport is directionally modified in the framework of kinetic Monte-Carlo simulations to include the impact of gravity. The micro-scale simulations can provide the values of the constitutive parameters for macroscopic sintering simulations. At the macro-scale, we are attempting to embed a continuum model of sintering into a finite-element framework that includes the gravity forces and substrate friction. If successful, the finite elements analysis will enable predictions relevant to space-based processing, including size and shape and property predictions. Model experiments are underway to support the models via extraction of viscosity moduli versus composition, particle size, heating rate, temperature and time.
Global Gravity Field Determination by Combination of terrestrial and Satellite Gravity Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fecher, T.; Pail, R.; Gruber, T.
2011-12-01
A multitude of impressive results document the success of the satellite gravity field mission GOCE with a wide field of applications in geodesy, geophysics and oceanography. The high performance of GOCE gravity field models can be further improved by combination with GRACE data, which is contributing the long wavelength signal content of the gravity field with very high accuracy. An example for such a consistent combination of satellite gravity data are the satellite-only models GOCO01S and GOCO02S. However, only the further combination with terrestrial and altimetric gravity data enables to expand gravity field models up to very high spherical harmonic degrees and thus to achieve a spatial resolution down to 20-30 km. First numerical studies for high-resolution global gravity field models combining GOCE, GRACE and terrestrial/altimetric data on basis of the DTU10 model have already been presented. Computations up to degree/order 600 based on full normal equations systems to preserve the full variance-covariance information, which results mainly from different weights of individual terrestrial/altimetric data sets, have been successfully performed. We could show that such large normal equations systems (degree/order 600 corresponds to a memory demand of almost 1TByte), representing an immense computational challenge as computation time and memory requirements put high demand on computational resources, can be handled. The DTU10 model includes gravity anomalies computed from the global model EGM08 in continental areas. Therefore, the main focus of this presentation lies on the computation of high-resolution combined gravity field models based on real terrestrial gravity anomaly data sets. This is a challenge due to the inconsistency of these data sets, including also systematic error components, but a further step to a real independent gravity field model. This contribution will present our recent developments and progress by using independent data sets at certain
ORBSIM- ESTIMATING GEOPHYSICAL MODEL PARAMETERS FROM PLANETARY GRAVITY DATA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sjogren, W. L.
1994-01-01
The ORBSIM program was developed for the accurate extraction of geophysical model parameters from Doppler radio tracking data acquired from orbiting planetary spacecraft. The model of the proposed planetary structure is used in a numerical integration of the spacecraft along simulated trajectories around the primary body. Using line of sight (LOS) Doppler residuals, ORBSIM applies fast and efficient modelling and optimization procedures which avoid the traditional complex dynamic reduction of data. ORBSIM produces quantitative geophysical results such as size, depth, and mass. ORBSIM has been used extensively to investigate topographic features on the Moon, Mars, and Venus. The program has proven particulary suitable for modelling gravitational anomalies and mascons. The basic observable for spacecraft-based gravity data is the Doppler frequency shift of a transponded radio signal. The time derivative of this signal carries information regarding the gravity field acting on the spacecraft in the LOS direction (the LOS direction being the path between the spacecraft and the receiving station, either Earth or another satellite). There are many dynamic factors taken into account: earth rotation, solar radiation, acceleration from planetary bodies, tracking station time and location adjustments, etc. The actual trajectories of the spacecraft are simulated using least squares fitted to conic motion. The theoretical Doppler readings from the simulated orbits are compared to actual Doppler observations and another least squares adjustment is made. ORBSIM has three modes of operation: trajectory simulation, optimization, and gravity modelling. In all cases, an initial gravity model of curved and/or flat disks, harmonics, and/or a force table are required input. ORBSIM is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution and has been implemented on a DEC VAX 11/780 computer operating under VMS. This program was released in 1985.
Breaking Gravity Waves Over Large-Scale Topography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doyle, J. D.; Shapiro, M. A.
2002-12-01
The importance of mountain waves is underscored by the numerous studies that document the impact on the atmospheric momentum balance, turbulence generation, and the creation of severe downslope winds. As stably stratified air is forced to rise over topography, large amplitude internal gravity waves may be generated that propagate vertically, amplify and breakdown in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Many of the numerical studies reported on in the literature have used two- and three-dimensional models with simple, idealized initial states to examine gravity wave breaking. In spite of the extensive previous work, many questions remain regarding gravity wave breaking in the real atmosphere. Outstanding issues that are potentially important include: turbulent mixing and wave overturning processes, mountain wave drag, downstream effects, and the mesoscale predictability of wave breaking. The current limit in our knowledge of gravity wave breaking can be partially attributed to lack of observations. During the Fronts and Atlantic Storm-Track Experiment (FASTEX), a large amplitude gravity wave was observed in the lee of Greenland on 29 January 1997. Observations taken collected during FASTEX presented a unique opportunity to study topographically forced gravity wave breaking and to assess the ability of high-resolution numerical models to predict the structure and evolution of such phenomena. Measurements from the NOAA G-4 research aircraft and high-resolution numerical simulations are used to study the evolution and dynamics of the large-amplitude gravity wave event that took place during the FASTEX. Vertical cross section analysis of dropwindsonde data, with 50-km horizontal spacing, indicates the presence of a large amplitude breaking gravity wave that extends from above the 150-hPa level to 500 hPa. Flight-level data indicate a horizontal shear of over 10-3 s-1 across the breaking wave with 25 K potential temperature perturbations. This breaking wave may
Focus on quantum Einstein gravity Focus on quantum Einstein gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ambjorn, Jan; Reuter, Martin; Saueressig, Frank
2012-09-01
time cosmology and the big bang, as well as TeV-scale gravity models testable at the Large Hadron Collider. On different grounds, Monte-Carlo studies of the gravitational partition function based on the discrete causal dynamical triangulations approach provide an a priori independent avenue towards unveiling the non-perturbative features of gravity. As a highlight, detailed simulations established that the phase diagram underlying causal dynamical triangulations contains a phase where the triangulations naturally give rise to four-dimensional, macroscopic universes. Moreover, there are indications for a second-order phase transition that naturally forms the discrete analog of the non-Gaussian fixed point seen in the continuum computations. Thus there is a good chance that the discrete and continuum computations will converge to the same fundamental physics. This focus issue collects a series of papers that outline the current frontiers of the gravitational asymptotic safety program. We hope that readers get an impression of the depth and variety of this research area as well as our excitement about the new and ongoing developments. References [1] Weinberg S 1979 General Relativity, an Einstein Centenary Survey ed S W Hawking and W Israel (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hogg, Charlie; Dalziel, Stuart; Huppert, Herbert; Imberger, Jorg; Department of Applied Mathematics; Theoretical Physics Team; CentreWater Research Team
2014-11-01
Dense gravity currents feed fluid into confined basins in lakes, the oceans and many industrial applications. Existing models of the circulation and mixing in such basins are often based on the currents entraining ambient fluid. However, recent observations have suggested that uni-directional entrainment into a gravity current does not fully describe the mixing in such currents. Laboratory experiments were carried out which visualised peeling detrainment from the gravity current occurring when the ambient fluid was stratified. A theoretical model of the observed peeling detrainment was developed to predict the stratification in the basin. This new model gives a better approximation of the stratification observed in the experiments than the pre-existing entraining model. The model can now be developed such that it integrates into operational models of lakes.
Zhao, Gong-Bo, E-mail: gongbo@icosmology.info; Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX
2014-04-01
Based on a suite of N-body simulations of the Hu-Sawicki model of f(R) gravity with different sets of model and cosmological parameters, we develop a new fitting formula with a numeric code, MGHalofit, to calculate the nonlinear matter power spectrum P(k) for the Hu-Sawicki model. We compare the MGHalofit predictions at various redshifts (z ≤ 1) to the f(R) simulations and find that the relative error of the MGHalofit fitting formula of P(k) is no larger than 6% at k ≤ 1 h Mpc{sup –1} and 12% at k in (1, 10] h Mpc{sup –1}, respectively. Based on a sensitivitymore » study of an ongoing and a future spectroscopic survey, we estimate the detectability of a signal of modified gravity described by the Hu-Sawicki model using the power spectrum up to quasi-nonlinear scales.« less
Higgs mechanism for gravity. II. Higher spin connections
Boulanger, Nicolas; Kirsch, Ingo; Jefferson Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138
We continue the work of [Phys. Rev. D 72, 024001 (2005)] in which gravity is considered as the Goldstone realization of a spontaneously broken diffeomorphism group. We complete the discussion of the coset space Diff (d,R)/SO(1,d-1) formed by the d-dimensional group of analytic diffeomorphisms and the Lorentz group. We find that this coset space is parametrized by coordinates, a metric, and an infinite tower of higher-spin or generalized connections. We then study effective actions for the corresponding symmetry breaking which gives mass to the higher spin connections. Our model predicts that gravity is modified at high energies by the exchangemore » of massive higher spin particles.« less
Froning, H. David; Meholic, Gregory V.
2010-01-28
This paper briefly explores higher dimensional spacetimes that extend Meholic's visualizable, fluidic views of: subluminal-luminal-superluminal flight; gravity, inertia, light quanta, and electromagnetism from 2-D to 3-D representations. Although 3-D representations have the potential to better model features of Meholic's most fundamental entities (Transluminal Energy Quantum) and of the zero-point quantum vacuum that pervades all space, the more complex 3-D representations loose some of the clarity of Meholic's 2-D representations of subluminal and superlumimal realms. So, much new work would be needed to replace Meholic's 2-D views of reality with 3-D ones.
Non-Newtonian gravity or gravity anomalies?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubincam, David P.; Chao, B. Fong; Schatten, Kenneth H.; Sager, William W.
1988-01-01
Geophysical measurements of G differ from laboratory values, indicating that gravity may be non-Newtonian. A spherical harmonic formulation is presented for the variation of (Newtonian) gravity inside the Earth. Using the GEM-10B Earth Gravitational Field Model, it is shown that long-wavelength gravity anomalies, if not corrected, may masquerade as non-Newtonian gravity by providing significant influences on experimental observation of delta g/delta r and G. An apparent contradiction in other studies is also resolved: i.e., local densities appear in equations when average densities of layers seem to be called for.
Study of some chaotic inflationary models in f(R) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, M.; Nawazish, Iqra
2018-04-01
In this paper, we discuss an inflationary scenario via scalar field and fluid cosmology for an anisotropic homogeneous universe model in f(R) gravity. We consider an equation of state which corresponds to a quasi-de Sitter expansion and investigate the effect of the anisotropy parameter for different values of the deviation parameter. We evaluate potential models like linear, quadratic and quartic models which correspond to chaotic inflation. We construct the observational parameters for a power-law model of f(R) gravity and construct the graphical analysis of tensor-scalar ratio and spectral index which indicates the consistency of these parameters with Planck 2015 data.
Approaches to Validation of Models for Low Gravity Fluid Behavior
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chato, David J.; Marchetta, Jeffery; Hochstein, John I.; Kassemi, Mohammad
2005-01-01
This paper details the author experiences with the validation of computer models to predict low gravity fluid behavior. It reviews the literature of low gravity fluid behavior as a starting point for developing a baseline set of test cases. It examines authors attempts to validate their models against these cases and the issues they encountered. The main issues seem to be that: Most of the data is described by empirical correlation rather than fundamental relation; Detailed measurements of the flow field have not been made; Free surface shapes are observed but through thick plastic cylinders, and therefore subject to a great deal of optical distortion; and Heat transfer process time constants are on the order of minutes to days but the zero-gravity time available has been only seconds.
Is the cosmological constant screened in Liouville gravity with matter?
Inami, Takeo; Koyama, Yoji; Nakayama, Yu
In this study, there has been a proposal that infrared quantum effects of massless interacting field theories in de Sitter space may provide time-dependent screening of the cosmological constant. As a concrete model of the proposal, we study the three loop corrections to the energy–momentum tensor of massless λΦ 4 theory in the background of classical Liouville gravity in D = 2 dimensional de Sitter space. We find that the cosmological constant is screened, in sharp contrast to the massless λΦ 4 theory in D = 4 dimensions due to the sign difference between the cosmological constant of the Liouvillemore » gravity and that of the Einstein gravity. To argue for the robustness of our prediction, we introduce the concept of time-dependent infrared counter-terms and examine if they recover the de Sitter invariance in the λΦ 4 theory in comparison with the Sine–Gordon model, where it was possible.« less
Is the cosmological constant screened in Liouville gravity with matter?
Inami, Takeo; Koyama, Yoji; Nakayama, Yu; ...
2015-05-19
In this study, there has been a proposal that infrared quantum effects of massless interacting field theories in de Sitter space may provide time-dependent screening of the cosmological constant. As a concrete model of the proposal, we study the three loop corrections to the energy–momentum tensor of massless λΦ 4 theory in the background of classical Liouville gravity in D = 2 dimensional de Sitter space. We find that the cosmological constant is screened, in sharp contrast to the massless λΦ 4 theory in D = 4 dimensions due to the sign difference between the cosmological constant of the Liouvillemore » gravity and that of the Einstein gravity. To argue for the robustness of our prediction, we introduce the concept of time-dependent infrared counter-terms and examine if they recover the de Sitter invariance in the λΦ 4 theory in comparison with the Sine–Gordon model, where it was possible.« less
High-Resolution Gravity Field Modeling for Mercury to Estimate Crust and Lithospheric Properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goossens, S.; Mazarico, E.; Genova, A.; James, P. B.
2018-05-01
We estimate a gravity field model for Mercury using line-of-sight data to improve the gravity field model at short wavelengths. This can be used to infer crustal density and infer the support mechanism of the lithosphere.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Donovan, F. M.; Gresser, A. L.; Sato, Kevin Y.; Taylor, Elizabeth M.
2018-01-01
Laboratory strains of mice and rat are widely used to study mammalian responses to stimulus, and both have been studied under a variety of gravity conditions, including space flight. We compared results obtained from exposure to spaceflight and microgravity, hyper gravity via centrifugation, earth gravity, and models of simulated partial gravity (hind-limb unloading and partial weight bearing treatments). We examined the reported changes in survival, body mass, circadian rhythm (body temperature and activity levels), behavior, bone, muscle, immune, cardio-vasculature, vestibular, reproduction and neonate survival, microbiome, and the visual system. Not all categories have published data for both species, some have limited data, and there are variations in experiment design that allow for only relative comparisons to be considered. The data reveal species differences in both the level of gravity required to obtain a response, degree of response, and in temporal expression of responses. Examination of the data across the gravity levels allows consideration of the hypothesis that gravitational responses follow a continuum, and organ specific differences are noted. In summary, we present advantages and caveats of each model system as pertains to gravitational biology research and identify gaps in our knowledge of how these mammals respond to gravity.
Viscoelastic modeling of deformation and gravity changes induced by pressurized magmatic sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Currenti, Gilda
2018-05-01
Gravity and height changes, which reflect magma accumulation in subsurface chambers, are evaluated using analytical and numerical models in order to investigate their relationships and temporal evolutions. The analysis focuses mainly on the exploration of the time-dependent response of gravity and height changes to the pressurization of ellipsoidal magmatic chambers in viscoelastic media. Firstly, the validation of the numerical Finite Element results is performed by comparison with analytical solutions, which are devised for a simple spherical source embedded in a homogeneous viscoelastic half-space medium. Then, the effect of several model parameters on time-dependent height and gravity changes is investigated thanks to the flexibility of the numerical method in handling complex configurations. Both homogeneous and viscoelastic shell models reveal significantly different amplitudes in the ratio between gravity and height changes depending on geometry factors and medium rheology. The results show that these factors also influence the relaxation characteristic times of the investigated geophysical changes. Overall, these temporal patterns are compatible with time-dependent height and gravity changes observed on Etna volcano during the 1994-1997 inflation period. By modeling the viscoelastic response of a pressurized prolate magmatic source, a general agreement between computed and observed geophysical variations is achieved.
New massive gravity and AdS(4) counterterms.
Jatkar, Dileep P; Sinha, Aninda
2011-04-29
We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS(4)). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS(4) Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS(3) gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory.
Gravity profiles across the Uyaijah Ring structure, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Gettings, M.E.; Andreasen, G.E.
1987-01-01
The resulting structural model, based on profile fits to gravity responses of three-dimensional models and excess-mass calculations, gives a depth estimate to the base of the complex of 4.75 km. The contacts of the complex are inferred to be steeply dipping inward along the southwest margin of the structure. To the north and east, however, the basal contact of the complex dips more gently inward (about 30 degrees). The ring structure appears to be composed of three laccolith-shaped plutons; two are granitic in composition and make up about 85 percent of the volume of the complex, and one is granodioritic and comprises the remaining 15 percent. The source area for the plutons appears to be in the southwest quadrant of the Uyaijah ring structure. A northwest-trending shear zone cuts the northern half of the structure and contains mafic dikes that have a small but identifiable gravity-anomaly response. The structural model agrees with models derived from geological interpretation except that the estimated depth to which the structure extends is decreased considerably by the gravity results.
Unitarity problems in 3D gravity theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alkac, Gokhan; Basanisi, Luca; Kilicarslan, Ercan; Tekin, Bayram
2017-07-01
We revisit the problem of the bulk-boundary unitarity clash in 2 +1 -dimensional gravity theories, which has been an obstacle in providing a viable dual two-dimensional conformal field theory for bulk gravity in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. Chiral gravity, which is a particular limit of cosmological topologically massive gravity (TMG), suffers from perturbative log-modes with negative energies inducing a nonunitary logarithmic boundary field theory. We show here that any f (R ) extension of TMG does not improve the situation. We also study the perturbative modes in the metric formulation of minimal massive gravity—originally constructed in a first-order formulation—and find that the massive mode has again negative energy except in the chiral limit. We comment on this issue and also discuss a possible solution to the problem of negative-energy modes. In any of these theories, the infinitesimal dangerous deformations might not be integrable to full solutions; this suggests a linearization instability of AdS spacetime in the direction of the perturbative log-modes.
Humans running in place on water at simulated reduced gravity.
Minetti, Alberto E; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Cappellini, Germana; Dominici, Nadia; Lacquaniti, Francesco
2012-01-01
On Earth only a few legged species, such as water strider insects, some aquatic birds and lizards, can run on water. For most other species, including humans, this is precluded by body size and proportions, lack of appropriate appendages, and limited muscle power. However, if gravity is reduced to less than Earth's gravity, running on water should require less muscle power. Here we use a hydrodynamic model to predict the gravity levels at which humans should be able to run on water. We test these predictions in the laboratory using a reduced gravity simulator. We adapted a model equation, previously used by Glasheen and McMahon to explain the dynamics of Basilisk lizard, to predict the body mass, stride frequency and gravity necessary for a person to run on water. Progressive body-weight unloading of a person running in place on a wading pool confirmed the theoretical predictions that a person could run on water, at lunar (or lower) gravity levels using relatively small rigid fins. Three-dimensional motion capture of reflective markers on major joint centers showed that humans, similarly to the Basilisk Lizard and to the Western Grebe, keep the head-trunk segment at a nearly constant height, despite the high stride frequency and the intensive locomotor effort. Trunk stabilization at a nearly constant height differentiates running on water from other, more usual human gaits. The results showed that a hydrodynamic model of lizards running on water can also be applied to humans, despite the enormous difference in body size and morphology.
Gravity Research on Plants: Use of Single-Cell Experimental Models
Chebli, Youssef; Geitmann, Anja
2011-01-01
Future space missions and implementation of permanent bases on Moon and Mars will greatly depend on the availability of ambient air and sustainable food supply. Therefore, understanding the effects of altered gravity conditions on plant metabolism and growth is vital for space missions and extra-terrestrial human existence. In this mini-review we summarize how plant cells are thought to perceive changes in magnitude and orientation of the gravity vector. The particular advantages of several single-celled model systems for gravity research are explored and an overview over recent advancements and potential use of these systems is provided. PMID:22639598
The DESIRE Airborne gravity project in the Dead Sea Basin and 3D numerical gravity modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Sungchan; Götze, Hans-Jürgen; Meyer, Uwe; Desire-Group
2010-05-01
This geo-scientific research focuses on the geological setting of the Dead Sea Transform (DST) and the Dead Sea Basin (DSB) and its resulting pull-apart basins. Since the late 1970s, crustal scale geophysical experiments have been carried out in this region. However, the nature of the crust underlying the eastern and western shoulders of the DSB and underneath the DST itself is still a hotly debated topic among researchers. To address one of the central questions of plate tectonics - How do large transform systems work and what are their typical features? - An international geoscientific Dead Sea Integrated Research project (DESIRE) is being conducted by colleagues from Germany, Israel, Palestine, and Jordan. In order to provide a high resolution gravity database that support 3D numerical modeling and hence a more comprehensive understanding of the nature and segmentation of the DST, an airborne gravity survey as a part of the DESIRE project has been carried out from February to March 2007. The airborne gravity survey covered the DST from Elat/Aqaba in the South to the northern rim of the Dead Sea. The low speed and terrain-following helicopter gravity flights were performed to acquire the highest possible data quality. In total, 32 north-south profiles and 16 west-east profiles crossing the DST have been measured. Most of the profiles concentrated in areas that lacked terrestrial gravity data coverage, e. g. over the shoulders of the DSB. The airborne gravity data are merged with existing conventional (terrestrial) data sets to provide a seamless gravity map of the area of interest. The results of the 3D gravity modelling based the GPS analysis, magnetic field characters, seismic researches and analysis of earthquake data allow us to propose that (1) the DSB is divided into two tectonic blocks by the region between the Lisan peninsula and the southern margin of the northern DSB and (2) the tectonic system in the DSB is defined as a counter-clockwise rotating pull
Structure of the southern Rio Grande rift from gravity interpretation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daggett, P. H.; Keller, G. R.; Wen, C.-L.; Morgan, P.
1986-01-01
Regional Bouguer gravity anomalies in southern New Mexico have been analyzed by two-dimensional wave number filtering and poly-nomial trend surface analysis of the observed gravity field. A prominent, regional oval-shaped positive gravity anomaly was found to be associated with the southern Rio Grande rift. Computer modeling of three regional gravity profiles suggests that this anomaly is due to crustal thinning beneath the southern Rio Grande rift. These models indicate a 25 to 26-km minimum crustal thickness within the rift and suggest that the rift is underlain by a broad zone of anomalously low-density upper mantle. The southern terminus of the anomalous zone is approximately 50 km southwest of El Paso, Texas. A thinning of the rifted crust of 2-3 km relative to the adjacent Basin and Range province indicates an extension of about 9 percent during the formation of the modern southern Rio Grande rift. This extension estimate is consistent with estimates from other data sources. The crustal thinning and anomalous mantle is thought to result from magmatic activity related to surface volcanism and high heat flow in this area.
A 3D gravity and magnetic model for the Entenschnabel area (German North Sea)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dressel, Ingo; Barckhausen, Udo; Heyde, Ingo
2018-01-01
In this study, we focus on structural configuration of the Entenschnabel area, a part of the German exclusive economic zone within the North Sea, by means of gravity and magnetic modelling. The starting point of the 3D modelling approach is published information on subseafloor structures for shallow depths, acquired by wells and seismic surveys. Subsequent gravity and magnetic modelling of the structures of the deeper subsurface builds on this geophysical and geological information and on gravity and magnetic data acquired during a research cruise to the Entenschnabel area. On the one hand, our 3D model shows the density and susceptibility distribution of the sediments and the crust. In addition, the potential field modelling provides evidence for a differentiation between lower and upper crust. The thickness distribution of the crust is also discussed with respect to the tectonic framework. Furthermore, gravity as well as magnetic modelling points to an intrusive complex beneath the Central Graben within the Entenschnabel area. On the other hand, this work provides a geological-geophysical consistent 3D gravity and magnetic model that can be used as a starting point for further investigation of this part of the German North Sea.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keating, E.; Cogbill, A. H.; Ferguson, J. F.
2003-12-01
In the past, gravity methods have had limited application for monitoring aquifers, primarily due to the poor drift characteristics of relative gravimeters, which made long-term gravity studies of aquifers prohibitively expensive. Recent developments in portable, very accurate, absolute gravity instruments having essentially zero long-term drift have reawakened interest in using gravity methods for hydrologic monitoring. Such instruments have accuracies of 7 microGals or better and can acquire measurements at the rate of better than one station per hour. Theoretically, temporal changes in gravity can be used to infer storage characteristics and fluxes into and out of the aquifer. The sensitivity of the method to scaling effects, temporal lags between recharge/discharge and changes in storage, and to uncertainties in aquifer structure are poorly understood. In preparation for interpreting a basin-scale, time-lapse gravity data set, we have established a network of gravity stations within the Espanola Basin in northern New Mexico, a semi-arid region which is experiencing rapid population growth and groundwater resource use. We are using an existing basin-scale groundwater flow model to predict changes in mass, given our current level of understanding of inflows, outflows, and aquifer properties. Preliminary model results will be used to examine scaling issues related to the spatial density of the gravity station network and depths to the regional water table. By modeling the gravitational response to water movement in the aquifer, we study the sensitivity of gravity measurements to aquifer storage properties, given other known uncertainties in basin-scale fluxes. Results will be used to evaluate the adequacy of the existing network and to modify its design, if necessary.
Gravity survey of Dixie Valley, west-central Nevada
Schaefer, Donald H.
1983-01-01
Dixie Valley, a northeast-trending structural trough typical of valleys in the Basin and Range Province, is filled with a maximum of about 10,000 feet of alluvial and lacustrine deposits , as estimated from residual-gravity measurements obtained in this study. On the basis of gravity measurements at 300 stations on nine east-west profiles, the gravity residuals reach a maximum of 30 milligals near the south-central part of the valley. Results from a three-dimensional inversion model indicate that the central depression of the valley is offset to the west of the geographic axis. This offset is probably due to major faulting along the west side of the valley adjacent to the Stillwater Range. Comparison of depths to bedrock obtained during this study and depths obtained from a previous seismic-refraction study indicates a reasonably good correlation. A heterogeneous distribution of densities within the valley-fill deposits would account for differing depths determined by the two methods. (USGS)
Ambitwistor formulations of R 2 gravity and ( DF)2 gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azevedo, Thales; Engelund, Oluf Tang
2017-11-01
We consider D-dimensional amplitudes in R 2 gravities (conformal gravity in D = 4) and in the recently introduced ( DF)2 gauge theory, from the perspective of the CHY formulae and ambitwistor string theory. These theories are related through the BCJ double-copy construction, and the ( DF)2 gauge theory obeys color-kinematics duality. We work out the worldsheet details of these theories and show that they admit a formulation as integrals on the support of the scattering equations, or alternatively, as ambitwistor string theories. For gravity, this generalizes the work done by Berkovits and Witten on conformal gravity to D dimensions. The ambitwistor is also interpreted as a D-dimensional generalization of Witten's twistor string (SYM + conformal supergravity). As part of our ambitwistor investigation, we discover another ( DF)2 gauge theory containing a photon that couples to Einstein gravity. This theory can provide an alternative KLT description of Einstein gravity compared to the usual Yang-Mills squared.
Gravity from entanglement and RG flow in a top-down approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwon, O.-Kab; Jang, Dongmin; Kim, Yoonbai; Tolla, D. D.
2018-05-01
The duality between a d-dimensional conformal field theory with relevant deformation and a gravity theory on an asymptotically AdS d+1 geometry, has become a suitable tool in the investigation of the emergence of gravity from quantum entanglement in field theory. Recently, we have tested the duality between the mass-deformed ABJM theory and asymptotically AdS4 gravity theory, which is obtained from the KK reduction of the 11-dimensional supergravity on the LLM geometry. In this paper, we extend the KK reduction procedure beyond the linear order and establish non-trivial KK maps between 4-dimensional fields and 11-dimensional fluctuations. We rely on this gauge/gravity duality to calculate the entanglement entropy by using the Ryu-Takayanagi holographic formula and the path integral method developed by Faulkner. We show that the entanglement entropies obtained using these two methods agree when the asymptotically AdS4 metric satisfies the linearized Einstein equation with nonvanishing energy-momentum tensor for two scalar fields. These scalar fields encode the information of the relevant deformation of the ABJM theory. This confirms that the asymptotic limit of LLM geometry is the emergent gravity of the quantum entanglement in the mass-deformed ABJM theory with a small mass parameter. We also comment on the issue of the relative entropy and the Fisher information in our setup.
Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harms, Jan
2015-12-01
Different forms of fluctuations of the terrestrial gravity field are observed by gravity experiments. For example, atmospheric pressure fluctuations generate a gravity-noise foreground in measurements with super-conducting gravimeters. Gravity changes caused by high-magnitude earthquakes have been detected with the satellite gravity experiment GRACE, and we expect high-frequency terrestrial gravity fluctuations produced by ambient seismic fields to limit the sensitivity of ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. Accordingly, terrestrial gravity fluctuations are considered noise and signal depending on the experiment. Here, we will focus on ground-based gravimetry. This field is rapidly progressing through the development of GW detectors. The technology is pushed to its current limits in the advanced generation of the LIGO and Virgo detectors, targeting gravity strain sensitivities better than 10-23 Hz-1/2 above a few tens of a Hz. Alternative designs for GW detectors evolving from traditional gravity gradiometers such as torsion bars, atom interferometers, and superconducting gradiometers are currently being developed to extend the detection band to frequencies below 1 Hz. The goal of this article is to provide the analytical framework to describe terrestrial gravity perturbations in these experiments. Models of terrestrial gravity perturbations related to seismic fields, atmospheric disturbances, and vibrating, rotating or moving objects, are derived and analyzed. The models are then used to evaluate passive and active gravity noise mitigation strategies in GW detectors, or alternatively, to describe their potential use in geophysics. The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our understanding of
Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations.
Harms, Jan
2015-01-01
Different forms of fluctuations of the terrestrial gravity field are observed by gravity experiments. For example, atmospheric pressure fluctuations generate a gravity-noise foreground in measurements with super-conducting gravimeters. Gravity changes caused by high-magnitude earthquakes have been detected with the satellite gravity experiment GRACE, and we expect high-frequency terrestrial gravity fluctuations produced by ambient seismic fields to limit the sensitivity of ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. Accordingly, terrestrial gravity fluctuations are considered noise and signal depending on the experiment. Here, we will focus on ground-based gravimetry. This field is rapidly progressing through the development of GW detectors. The technology is pushed to its current limits in the advanced generation of the LIGO and Virgo detectors, targeting gravity strain sensitivities better than 10 -23 Hz -1/2 above a few tens of a Hz. Alternative designs for GW detectors evolving from traditional gravity gradiometers such as torsion bars, atom interferometers, and superconducting gradiometers are currently being developed to extend the detection band to frequencies below 1 Hz. The goal of this article is to provide the analytical framework to describe terrestrial gravity perturbations in these experiments. Models of terrestrial gravity perturbations related to seismic fields, atmospheric disturbances, and vibrating, rotating or moving objects, are derived and analyzed. The models are then used to evaluate passive and active gravity noise mitigation strategies in GW detectors, or alternatively, to describe their potential use in geophysics. The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our understanding of
Gravity field information from Gravity Probe-B
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Colombo, O. L.; Everitt, C. W. F.
1989-01-01
The Gravity Probe-B Mission will carry the Stanford Gyroscope relativity experiment into orbit in the mid 1990's, as well as a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver whose tracking data will be used to study the earth gravity field. Estimates of the likely quality of a gravity field model to be derived from the GPS data are presented, and the significance of this experiment to geodesy and geophysics are discussed.
Asymptotic symmetries of colored gravity in three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joung, Euihun; Kim, Jaewon; Kim, Jihun; Rey, Soo-Jong
2018-03-01
Three-dimensional colored gravity refers to nonabelian isospin extension of Einstein gravity. We investigate the asymptotic symmetry algebra of the SU( N)-colored gravity in (2+1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime. Formulated by the Chern-Simons theory with SU( N, N) × SU( N, N) gauge group, the theory contains graviton, SU( N) Chern-Simons gauge fields and massless spin-two multiplets in the SU( N) adjoint representation, thus extending diffeomorphism to colored, nonabelian counterpart. We identify the asymptotic symmetry as Poisson algebra of generators associated with the residual global symmetries of the nonabelian diffeomorphism set by appropriately chosen boundary conditions. The resulting asymptotic symmetry algebra is a nonlinear extension of \\widehat{su(N)} Kac-Moody algebra, supplemented by additional generators corresponding to the massless spin-two adjoint matter fields.
The inverse gravimetric problem in gravity modelling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sanso, F.; Tscherning, C. C.
1989-01-01
One of the main purposes of geodesy is to determine the gravity field of the Earth in the space outside its physical surface. This purpose can be pursued without any particular knowledge of the internal density even if the exact shape of the physical surface of the Earth is not known, though this seems to entangle the two domains, as it was in the old Stoke's theory before the appearance of Molodensky's approach. Nevertheless, even when large, dense and homogeneous data sets are available, it was always recognized that subtracting from the gravity field the effect of the outer layer of the masses (topographic effect) yields a much smoother field. This is obviously more important when a sparse data set is bad so that any smoothing of the gravity field helps in interpolating between the data without raising the modeling error, this approach is generally followed because it has become very cheap in terms of computing time since the appearance of spectral techniques. The mathematical description of the Inverse Gravimetric Problem (IGP) is dominated mainly by two principles, which in loose terms can be formulated as follows: the knowledge of the external gravity field determines mainly the lateral variations of the density; and the deeper the density anomaly giving rise to a gravity anomaly, the more improperly posed is the problem of recovering the former from the latter. The statistical relation between rho and n (and its inverse) is also investigated in its general form, proving that degree cross-covariances have to be introduced to describe the behavior of rho. The problem of the simultaneous estimate of a spherical anomalous potential and of the external, topographic masses is addressed criticizing the choice of the mixed collection approach.
Gravitational waves during inflation from a 5D large-scale repulsive gravity model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reyes, Luz M.; Moreno, Claudia; Madriz Aguilar, José Edgar; Bellini, Mauricio
2012-10-01
We investigate, in the transverse traceless (TT) gauge, the generation of the relic background of gravitational waves, generated during the early inflationary stage, on the framework of a large-scale repulsive gravity model. We calculate the spectrum of the tensor metric fluctuations of an effective 4D Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric on cosmological scales. This metric is obtained after implementing a planar coordinate transformation on a 5D Ricci-flat metric solution, in the context of a non-compact Kaluza-Klein theory of gravity. We found that the spectrum is nearly scale invariant under certain conditions. One interesting aspect of this model is that it is possible to derive the dynamical field equations for the tensor metric fluctuations, valid not just at cosmological scales, but also at astrophysical scales, from the same theoretical model. The astrophysical and cosmological scales are determined by the gravity-antigravity radius, which is a natural length scale of the model, that indicates when gravity becomes repulsive in nature.
Structure of the Tucson Basin, Arizona from gravity and aeromagnetic data
Rystrom, Victoria Louise
2003-01-01
Interpretation of gravity and high-resolution aeromagnetic data reveal the three-dimensional geometry of the Tuscson Basin, Arizona and the lithology of its basement. Limited drill hole and seismic data indicate that the maximum depth to the crystalline basement is approximately 3600 meters and that the sedimentary sequences in the upper ~2000 m of the basin were deposited during the most recent extensional episode that commenced about 13 Ma. The negative density contrasts between these upper Neogene and Quaternary sedimentary sequences and the adjacent country rock produce a Bouguer residual gravity low, whose steep gradients clearly define the lateral extent of the upper ~2000m of the basin. The aeromagnetic maps show large positive anomalies associated with deeply buried, late Cretaceous-early Tertiary and mid-Tertiary igneous rocks at and below the surface of the basin. These magnetic anomalies provide insight into the older (>13 Ma) and deeper structures of the basin. Simultaneous 2.5-dimensional modeling of both gravity and magnetic anomalies constrained by geologic and seismic data delineates the thickness of the basin and the dips of the buried faults that bound the basin. This geologic-based forward modeling approach to using geophysical data is shown to result in more information about the geologic and tectonic history of the basin as well as more accurate depth to basement determinations than using generalized geophysical inversion techniques.
Optimization schemes for the inversion of Bouguer gravity anomalies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamora, Azucena
Data sets obtained from measurable physical properties of the Earth structure have helped advance the understanding of its tectonic and structural processes and constitute key elements for resource prospecting. 2-Dimensional (2-D) and 3-D models obtained from the inversion of geophysical data sets are widely used to represent the structural composition of the Earth based on physical properties such as density, seismic wave velocities, magnetic susceptibility, conductivity, and resistivity. The inversion of each one of these data sets provides structural models whose consistency depends on the data collection process, methodology, and overall assumptions made in their individual mathematical processes. Although sampling the same medium, seismic and non-seismic methods often provide inconsistent final structural models of the Earth with varying accuracy, sensitivity, and resolution. Taking two or more geophysical data sets with complementary characteristics (e.g. having higher resolution at different depths) and combining their individual strengths to create a new improved structural model can help achieve higher accuracy and resolution power with respect to its original components while reducing their ambiguity and uncertainty effects. Gravity surveying constitutes a cheap, non-invasive, and non-destructive passive remote sensing method that helps to delineate variations in the gravity field. These variations can originate from regional anomalies due to deep density variations or from residual anomalies related to shallow density variations [41]. Since gravity anomaly inversions suffer from significant non-uniqueness (allowing two or more distinct density structures to have the same gravity signature) and small changes in parameters can highly impact the resulting model, the inversion of gravity data represents an ill-posed mathematical problem. However, gravity studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of this method to trace shallow subsurface density variations
Characterization of Gravity Regulated Osteoprotegerin Expression in Fish Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Renn, J.; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, R.; Alestrom, P.; Seibt, D.; Goerlich, R.; Schartl, M.; Winkler, C.
Human osteoprotegerin (opg) is a secreted protein of 401 amino acids that acts as a decoy receptor for RANKL (receptor activator of NFB ligand). Opg prevents binding of RANKL to its receptor, which is present on osteoclasts and their precursors. Thereby, opg blocks the formation, differentiation and activation of osteoclasts and stimulates apoptosis of mature osteoclasts. As a consequence, opg regulates the degree of bone resorption in order to keep a constant bone mass under normal gravity conditions. Recently, clinorotation experiments using mammalian cell cultures have shown that the opg gene is down-regulated in simulated microgravity at the transcriptional level (Kanematsu et al., Bone 30, 2002). We have identified opg genes in the fish models Medaka and zebrafish to study gravity regulation of opg expression in these models at the organismal level. In Medaka embryos, opg expression starts at stages when first skeletal elements are already detectable. Putative consensus binding sites for transcription factors were identified in the promoter region of the Medaka opg gene indicating possible evolutionary conservation of gene regulatory mechanisms between fish and mammals. To analyze, whether model fish species are suitable tools to study microgravity induced changes at the molecular level in vivo, we investigated regulation of fish opg genes as a consequence of altered gravity. For this, we performed centrifugation and clinorotation experiments, subjecting fish larvae to hypergravity and simulated microgravity, and analyzed expression profiles of skeletal genes by real-time PCR. Our data represent the first experiments using whole animal model organisms to study gravity induced alteration of skeletal factors at the molecular level. Acknowledgement: This work is supported by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) (50 WB 0152) and the European Space Agency (AO-LS-99-MAP-LSS-003).
Upward And Downward Flame Spreading And Extinction In Partial Gravity Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Feier, Ioan I.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Kumar, Amit; T'ien, James S.
2003-01-01
The premise of this research effort has been to begin exploring the gap in the literature between studies of material flammability and flame spread phenomena in normal-gravity and those conducted in the microgravity environment, with or without forced flows. From a fundamental point of view, flame spreading in upward (concurrent) buoyant flow is considerably different from concurrent forced flow. The flow accelerates throughout the length of the buoyant flame bringing the streamlines and the flame closer to the fuel surface and strengthening the interaction between the flame and fuel. Forced flows are diverted around the flame and away from the fuel surface, except where the flow might be constrained by a finite duct. The differences may be most clearly felt as the atmospheric conditions, viz. pressure or oxygen content, approach the flammability limit. From a more practical point of view, flame spreading and material flammability behavior have not been studied under the partial gravity conditions that are the natural state in space exploration destinations such as the Moon and Mars. This effort constitutes the beginning of the research needed to engineer fire safety provisions for such future missions. In this program we have performed partial-gravity experiments (from 0.1 to 1 g/g(sub Earth)) considering both upward and downward flame spread over thin solid fuels aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft. In those tests, the atmospheric pressure and the fuel sample width were varied. Steady flame spread rates and approximate extinction boundaries were determined. Flame images were recorded using video cameras and two-dimensional fuel surface temperature distributions were determined using an IR camera. These results are available, and complement our earlier work in downward spread in partial gravity varying oxygen content. In conjunction with the experiment, three-dimensional models of flame spreading in buoyant flow have been developed. Some of the computed results on
Modeling Volcanic Eruption Parameters by Near-Source Internal Gravity Waves.
Ripepe, M; Barfucci, G; De Angelis, S; Delle Donne, D; Lacanna, G; Marchetti, E
2016-11-10
Volcanic explosions release large amounts of hot gas and ash into the atmosphere to form plumes rising several kilometers above eruptive vents, which can pose serious risk on human health and aviation also at several thousands of kilometers from the volcanic source. However the most sophisticate atmospheric models and eruptive plume dynamics require input parameters such as duration of the ejection phase and total mass erupted to constrain the quantity of ash dispersed in the atmosphere and to efficiently evaluate the related hazard. The sudden ejection of this large quantity of ash can perturb the equilibrium of the whole atmosphere triggering oscillations well below the frequencies of acoustic waves, down to much longer periods typical of gravity waves. We show that atmospheric gravity oscillations induced by volcanic eruptions and recorded by pressure sensors can be modeled as a compact source representing the rate of erupted volcanic mass. We demonstrate the feasibility of using gravity waves to derive eruption source parameters such as duration of the injection and total erupted mass with direct application in constraining plume and ash dispersal models.
Modeling Volcanic Eruption Parameters by Near-Source Internal Gravity Waves
Ripepe, M.; Barfucci, G.; De Angelis, S.; Delle Donne, D.; Lacanna, G.; Marchetti, E.
2016-01-01
Volcanic explosions release large amounts of hot gas and ash into the atmosphere to form plumes rising several kilometers above eruptive vents, which can pose serious risk on human health and aviation also at several thousands of kilometers from the volcanic source. However the most sophisticate atmospheric models and eruptive plume dynamics require input parameters such as duration of the ejection phase and total mass erupted to constrain the quantity of ash dispersed in the atmosphere and to efficiently evaluate the related hazard. The sudden ejection of this large quantity of ash can perturb the equilibrium of the whole atmosphere triggering oscillations well below the frequencies of acoustic waves, down to much longer periods typical of gravity waves. We show that atmospheric gravity oscillations induced by volcanic eruptions and recorded by pressure sensors can be modeled as a compact source representing the rate of erupted volcanic mass. We demonstrate the feasibility of using gravity waves to derive eruption source parameters such as duration of the injection and total erupted mass with direct application in constraining plume and ash dispersal models. PMID:27830768
Topological regularization and self-duality in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter gravity
Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo; Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso
2009-06-15
It is shown that the addition of a topological invariant (Gauss-Bonnet term) to the anti-de Sitter gravity action in four dimensions recovers the standard regularization given by the holographic renormalization procedure. This crucial step makes possible the inclusion of an odd parity invariant (Pontryagin term) whose coupling is fixed by demanding an asymptotic (anti) self-dual condition on the Weyl tensor. This argument allows one to find the dual point of the theory where the holographic stress tensor is related to the boundary Cotton tensor as T{sub j}{sup i}={+-}(l{sup 2}/8{pi}G)C{sub j}{sup i}, which has been observed in recent literature in solitonicmore » solutions and hydrodynamic models. A general procedure to generate the counterterm series for anti-de Sitter gravity in any even dimension from the corresponding Euler term is also briefly discussed.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becker, Erich; Vadas, Sharon L.
2018-03-01
This study analyzes a new high-resolution general circulation model with regard to secondary gravity waves in the mesosphere during austral winter. The model resolves gravity waves down to horizontal and vertical wavelengths of 165 and 1.5 km, respectively. The resolved mean wave drag agrees well with that from a conventional model with parameterized gravity waves up to the midmesosphere in winter and up to the upper mesosphere in summer. About half of the zonal-mean vertical flux of westward momentum in the southern winter stratosphere is due to orographic gravity waves. The high intermittency of the primary orographic gravity waves gives rise to secondary waves that result in a substantial eastward drag in the winter mesopause region. This induces an additional eastward maximum of the mean zonal wind at z ˜ 100 km. Radar and lidar measurements at polar latitudes and results from other high-resolution global models are consistent with this finding. Hence, secondary gravity waves may play a significant role in the general circulation of the winter mesopause region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jun; Meng, Xiaohong; Li, Fang
2017-11-01
Generalized inversion is one of the important steps in the quantitative interpretation of gravity data. With appropriate algorithm and parameters, it gives a view of the subsurface which characterizes different geological bodies. However, generalized inversion of gravity data is time consuming due to the large amount of data points and model cells adopted. Incorporating of various prior information as constraints deteriorates the above situation. In the work discussed in this paper, a method for fast nonlinear generalized inversion of gravity data is proposed. The fast multipole method is employed for forward modelling. The inversion objective function is established with weighted data misfit function along with model objective function. The total objective function is solved by a dataspace algorithm. Moreover, depth weighing factor is used to improve depth resolution of the result, and bound constraint is incorporated by a transfer function to limit the model parameters in a reliable range. The matrix inversion is accomplished by a preconditioned conjugate gradient method. With the above algorithm, equivalent density vectors can be obtained, and interpolation is performed to get the finally density model on the fine mesh in the model domain. Testing on synthetic gravity data demonstrated that the proposed method is faster than conventional generalized inversion algorithm to produce an acceptable solution for gravity inversion problem. The new developed inversion method was also applied for inversion of the gravity data collected over Sichuan basin, southwest China. The established density structure in this study helps understanding the crustal structure of Sichuan basin and provides reference for further oil and gas exploration in this area.
Gravity and gravity gradient changes caused by a point dislocation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Jian-Liang; Li, Hui; Li, Rui-Hao
1995-02-01
In this paper we studied gravitational potential, gravity and its gradient changes, which are caused by a point dislocation, and gave the concise mathematical deduction with definite physical implication in dealing with the singular integral at a seismic source. We also analysed the features of the fields of gravity and gravity gradient, gravity-vertical-displacement gradient. The conclusions are: (1) Gravity and gravity gradient changes are very small with the change of vertical position; (2) Gravity change is much greater than the gravity gradient change which is not so distinct; (3) The gravity change due to redistribution of mass accounts for 10 50 percent of the total gravity change caused by dislocation. The signs (positive or negative) of total gravity change and vertical displacement are opposite each other at the same point for strike slip and dip slip; (4) Gravity-vertical-displacement-gradient is not constant; it manifests a variety of patterns for different dislocation models; (5) Gravity-vertical-displacement-gradient is approximately equal to apparent gravity-vertical-displacement-gradient.
Superconducting gravity gradiometer for sensitive gravity measurements. I. Theory
Chan, H.A.; Paik, H.J.
1987-06-15
Because of the equivalence principle, a global measurement is necessary to distinguish gravity from acceleration of the reference frame. A gravity gradiometer is therefore an essential instrument needed for precision tests of gravity laws and for applications in gravity survey and inertial navigation. Superconductivity and SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) technology can be used to obtain a gravity gradiometer with very high sensitivity and stability. A superconducting gravity gradiometer has been developed for a null test of the gravitational inverse-square law and space-borne geodesy. Here we present a complete theoretical model of this instrument. Starting from dynamical equations for themore » device, we derive transfer functions, a common mode rejection characteristic, and an error model of the superconducting instrument. Since a gradiometer must detect a very weak differential gravity signal in the midst of large platform accelerations and other environmental disturbances, the scale factor and common mode rejection stability of the instrument are extremely important in addition to its immunity to temperature and electromagnetic fluctuations. We show how flux quantization, the Meissner effect, and properties of liquid helium can be utilized to meet these challenges.« less
Validation of the gravity model in predicting the global spread of influenza.
Li, Xinhai; Tian, Huidong; Lai, Dejian; Zhang, Zhibin
2011-08-01
The gravity model is often used in predicting the spread of influenza. We use the data of influenza A (H1N1) to check the model's performance and validation, in order to determine the scope of its application. In this article, we proposed to model the pattern of global spread of the virus via a few important socio-economic indicators. We applied the epidemic gravity model for modelling the virus spread globally through the estimation of parameters of a generalized linear model. We compiled the daily confirmed cases of influenza A (H1N1) in each country as reported to the WHO and each state in the USA, and established the model to describe the relationship between the confirmed cases and socio-economic factors such as population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), and the distance between the countries/states and the country where the first confirmed case was reported (i.e., Mexico). The covariates we selected for the model were all statistically significantly associated with the global spread of influenza A (H1N1). However, within the USA, the distance and GDP were not significantly associated with the number of confirmed cases. The combination of the gravity model and generalized linear model provided a quick assessment of pandemic spread globally. The gravity model is valid if the spread period is long enough for estimating the model parameters. Meanwhile, the distance between donor and recipient communities has a good gradient. Besides, the spread should be at the early stage if a single source is taking into account.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosas-Carbajal, M.; Jourde, Kevin; Marteau, Jacques; Deroussi, Sébastien; Komorowski, Jean-Christophe; Gibert, Dominique
2017-07-01
Muon imaging has recently emerged as a powerful method to complement standard geophysical tools in the understanding of the Earth's subsurface. Muon measurements yield a "radiography" of the average density along the muon path, allowing to image large volumes of a geological body from a single observation point. Here we jointly invert muon data from three simultaneous telescope acquisitions together with gravity data to estimate the three-dimensional density structure of the La Soufrière de Guadeloupe lava dome. Our unique data set allows us to achieve an unprecedented spatial resolution with this novel technique. The retrieved density model reveals an extensive, low-density anomaly where the most active part of the volcanic hydrothermal system is located, supporting previous studies that indicate this region as the most likely to be involved in a partial edifice collapse.
Testing the weak gravity-cosmic censorship connection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crisford, Toby; Horowitz, Gary T.; Santos, Jorge E.
2018-03-01
A surprising connection between the weak gravity conjecture and cosmic censorship has recently been proposed. In particular, it was argued that a promising class of counterexamples to cosmic censorship in four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Λ theory would be removed if charged particles (with sufficient charge) were present. We test this idea and find that indeed if the weak gravity conjecture is true, one cannot violate cosmic censorship this way. Remarkably, the minimum value of charge required to preserve cosmic censorship appears to agree precisely with that proposed by the weak gravity conjecture.
Gravity model improvement using GEOS-3 (GEM 9 and 10)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lerch, F. J.; Klosko, S. M.; Laubscher, R. E.; Wagner, C. A.
1977-01-01
The use of collocation permitted GEM 9 to be a larger field than previous derived satellite models, GEM 9 having harmonics complete to 20 x 20 with selected higher degree terms. The satellite data set has approximately 840,000 observations, of which 200,000 are laser ranges taken on 9 satellites equipped with retroreflectors. GEM 10 is complete to 22 x 22 with selected higher degree terms out to degree and order 30 amounting to a total of 592 coefficients. Comparisons with surface gravity and altimeter data indicate a substantial improvement in GEM 9 over previous satellite solutions; GEM 9 is in even closer agreement with surface data than the previously published GEM 6 solution which contained surface gravity. In particular the free air gravity anomalies calculated from GEM 9 and a surface gravity solution are in excellent agreement for the high degree terms.
High-degree Gravity Models from GRAIL Primary Mission Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemoine, Frank G.; Goossens, Sander J.; Sabaka, Terence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David D.; Loomis, Bryant D.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Caprette, Douglas S.; Neumann, Gregory A.;
2013-01-01
We have analyzed Ka?band range rate (KBRR) and Deep Space Network (DSN) data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) primary mission (1 March to 29 May 2012) to derive gravity models of the Moon to degree 420, 540, and 660 in spherical harmonics. For these models, GRGM420A, GRGM540A, and GRGM660PRIM, a Kaula constraint was applied only beyond degree 330. Variance?component estimation (VCE) was used to adjust the a priori weights and obtain a calibrated error covariance. The global root?mean?square error in the gravity anomalies computed from the error covariance to 320×320 is 0.77 mGal, compared to 29.0 mGal with the pre?GRAIL model derived with the SELENE mission data, SGM150J, only to 140×140. The global correlations with the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter?derived topography are larger than 0.985 between l = 120 and 330. The free?air gravity anomalies, especially over the lunar farside, display a dramatic increase in detail compared to the pre?GRAIL models (SGM150J and LP150Q) and, through degree 320, are free of the orbit?track?related artifacts present in the earlier models. For GRAIL, we obtain an a posteriori fit to the S?band DSN data of 0.13 mm/s. The a posteriori fits to the KBRR data range from 0.08 to 1.5 micrometers/s for GRGM420A and from 0.03 to 0.06 micrometers/s for GRGM660PRIM. Using the GRAIL data, we obtain solutions for the degree 2 Love numbers, k20=0.024615+/-0.0000914, k21=0.023915+/-0.0000132, and k22=0.024852+/-0.0000167, and a preliminary solution for the k30 Love number of k30=0.00734+/-0.0015, where the Love number error sigmas are those obtained with VCE.
The DESIRE Airborne gravity project in the Dead Sea Basin and 3D numerical gravity modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, S.; Goetze, H.; Meyer, U.; Group, D.
2008-12-01
This geo-scientific research focuses on the geological setting of the Dead Sea Transform (DST) and the Dead Sea Basin (DSB) and its resulting pull-apart basins. Since the late 1970s, crustal scale geophysical experiments have been carried out in this region. However, the nature of the crust underlying the eastern and western shoulders of the DSB and underneath the DST itself is still a hotly debated topic among researchers. To address one of the central questions of plate tectonics - How do large transform systems work and what are their typical features? - An international geoscientific Dead Sea Integrated Research project (DESIRE) is being conducted by colleagues from Germany, Israel, Palestine, and Jordan. In order to provide a high resolution gravity database that support 3D numerical modeling and hence a more comprehensive understanding of the nature and segmentation of the DST, an airborne gravity survey as a part of the DESIRE project has been carried out from February to March 2007. The airborne gravity survey covered the DST from Elat/Aqaba in the South to the northern rim of the Dead Sea. The low speed and terrain-following helicopter gravity flights were performed to acquire the highest possible data quality. In total, 32 north-south profiles and 16 west-east profiles crossing the DST have been measured. Most of the profiles concentrated in areas that lacked terrestrial gravity data coverage, e. g. over the shoulders of the DSB. The airborne gravity data are merged with existing conventional (terrestrial) data sets to provide a seamless gravity map of the area of interest. Using that combined gravity dataset and DESIRE wide angle refractions seismic interpretation we modified density structures in the DSB. As results we estimated that (1) the Moho depth varies from 26 km in the Israel side to 34 km in the Jordan side. (2) The maximum thickness of the Dead Sea sediment Basin is about 15 km. (3) The salt rock with an average thickness of about 5 km is
New Views on Dark Matter from Emergent Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Sichun; Zhang, Yun-Long
2018-01-01
We discuss a scenario that apparent dark matter comes from the induced gravity in the (3+1)- dimensional spacetime, which can be embedded into one higher dimensional flat spacetime. The stress tensor of dark energy and dark matter is identified with the Brown-York stress tensor on the hypersurface, and we find an interesting constraint relation between the dark matter and dark energy density parameter and baryonic density parameter. Our approach may show a new understanding for Verlinde's emergent gravity from higher dimensions. We also comment on some phenomenological implications, including gravitational wave solutions and MOND limit.
Anderson, M.; Matti, J.; Jachens, R.
2004-01-01
The San Bernardino basin is an area of Quaternary extension between the San Jacinto and San Andreas Fault zones in southern California. New gravity data are combined with aeromagnetic data to produce two- and three-dimensional models of the basin floor. These models are used to identify specific faults that have normal displacements. In addition, aeromagnetic maps of the basin constrain strike-slip offset on many faults. Relocated seismicity, focal mechanisms, and a seismic reflection profile for the basin area support interpretations of the gravity and magnetic anomalies. The shape of the basin revealed by our interpretations is different from past interpretations, broadening its areal extent while confining the deepest parts to an area along the modern San Jacinto fault, west of the city of San Bernardino. Through these geophysical observations and related geologic information, we propose a model for the development of the basin. The San Jacinto fault-related strike-slip displacements started on fault strands in the basin having a stepping geometry thus forming a pull-apart graben, and finally cut through the graben in a simpler, bending geometry. In this model, the San Bernardino strand of the San Andreas Fault has little influence on the formation of the basin. The deep, central part of the basin resembles classic pull-apart structures and our model describes a high level of detail for this structure that can be compared to other pull-apart structures as well as analog and numerical models in order to better understand timing and kinematics of pull-apart basin formation. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Megan; Matti, Jonathan; Jachens, Robert
2004-04-01
The San Bernardino basin is an area of Quaternary extension between the San Jacinto and San Andreas Fault zones in southern California. New gravity data are combined with aeromagnetic data to produce two- and three-dimensional models of the basin floor. These models are used to identify specific faults that have normal displacements. In addition, aeromagnetic maps of the basin constrain strike-slip offset on many faults. Relocated seismicity, focal mechanisms, and a seismic reflection profile for the basin area support interpretations of the gravity and magnetic anomalies. The shape of the basin revealed by our interpretations is different from past interpretations, broadening its areal extent while confining the deepest parts to an area along the modern San Jacinto fault, west of the city of San Bernardino. Through these geophysical observations and related geologic information, we propose a model for the development of the basin. The San Jacinto fault-related strike-slip displacements started on fault strands in the basin having a stepping geometry thus forming a pull-apart graben, and finally cut through the graben in a simpler, bending geometry. In this model, the San Bernardino strand of the San Andreas Fault has little influence on the formation of the basin. The deep, central part of the basin resembles classic pull-apart structures and our model describes a high level of detail for this structure that can be compared to other pull-apart structures as well as analog and numerical models in order to better understand timing and kinematics of pull-apart basin formation.
Middeck zero-gravity dynamics experiment - Comparison of ground and flight test data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crawley, Edward F.; Barlow, Mark S.; Van Schoor, Marthinus C.; Masters, Brett; Bicos, Andrew S.
1992-01-01
An analytic and experimental study of the changes in the modal parameters of space structural test articles from one- to zero-gravity is presented. Deployable, erectable, and rotary modules was assembled to form three one- and two-dimensional structures, in which variations in bracing wire and rotary joint preload could be introduced. The structures were modeled as if hanging from a suspension system in one gravity, and unconstrained, as if free floating in zero-gravity. The analysis is compared with ground experimental measurements, made on a spring/wire suspension system with a nominal plunge frequency of one Hertz, and with measurements made on the Shuttle middeck. The degree of change in linear modal parameters as well as the change in nonlinear nature of the response is examined. Trends in modal parameters are presented as a function of force amplitude, joint preload, and ambient gravity level.
Gravity model development for TOPEX/POSEIDON: Joint gravity models 1 and 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nerem, R. S.; Lerch, F. J.; Marshall, J. A.; Pavlis, E. C.; Putney, B. H.; Tapley, B. D.; Eanes, R. J.; Ries, J. C.; Schutz, B. E.; Shum, C. K.
1994-01-01
The TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) prelaunch Joint Gravity Model-1 (JGM-1) and the postlaunch JGM-2 Earth gravitational models have been developed to support precision orbit determination for T/P. Each of these models is complete to degree 70 in spherical harmonics and was computed from a combination of satellite tracking data, satellite altimetry, and surface gravimetry. While improved orbit determination accuracies for T/P have driven the improvements in the models, the models are general in application and also provide an improved geoid for oceanographic computations. The postlaunch model, JGM-2, which includes T/P satellite laser ranging (SLR) and Doppler orbitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite (DORIS) tracking data, introduces radial orbit errors for T/P that are only 2 cm RMS with the commission errors of the marine geoid for terms to degree 70 being +/- 25 cm. Errors in modeling the nonconservative forces acting on T/P increase the total radial errors to only 3-4 cm root mean square (RMS), a result much better than premission goals. While the orbit accuracy goal for T/P has been far surpassed geoid errors still prevent the absolute determination of the ocean dynamic topography for wavelengths shorter than about 2500 km. Only a dedicated gravitational field satellite mission will likely provide the necessary improvement in the geoid.
Modeling and Testing Dark Energy and Gravity with Galaxy Cluster Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rapetti, David; Cataneo, Matteo; Heneka, Caroline; Mantz, Adam; Allen, Steven W.; Von Der Linden, Anja; Schmidt, Fabian; Lombriser, Lucas; Li, Baojiu; Applegate, Douglas; Kelly, Patrick; Morris, Glenn
2018-06-01
The abundance of galaxy clusters is a powerful probe to constrain the properties of dark energy and gravity at large scales. We employed a self-consistent analysis that includes survey, observable-mass scaling relations and weak gravitational lensing data to obtain constraints on f(R) gravity, which are an order of magnitude tighter than the best previously achieved, as well as on cold dark energy of negligible sound speed. The latter implies clustering of the dark energy fluid at all scales, allowing us to measure the effects of dark energy perturbations at cluster scales. For this study, we recalibrated the halo mass function using the following non-linear characteristic quantities: the spherical collapse threshold, the virial overdensity and an additional mass contribution for cold dark energy. We also presented a new modeling of the f(R) gravity halo mass function that incorporates novel corrections to capture key non-linear effects of the Chameleon screening mechanism, as found in high resolution N-body simulations. All these results permit us to predict, as I will also exemplify, and eventually obtain the next generation of cluster constraints on such models, and provide us with frameworks that can also be applied to other proposed dark energy and modified gravity models using cluster abundance observations.
Black holes in six-dimensional conformal gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lü, H.; Pang, Yi; Pope, C. N.
2013-05-01
We study conformally invariant theories of gravity in six dimensions. In four dimensions, there is a unique such theory that is polynomial in the curvature and its derivatives, namely, Weyl-squared, and furthermore all solutions of Einstein gravity are also solutions of the conformal theory. By contrast, in six dimensions there are three independent conformally invariant polynomial terms one could consider. There is a unique linear combination (up to overall scale) for which Einstein metrics are also solutions, and this specific theory forms the focus of our attention in this paper. We reduce the equations of motion for the most general spherically symmetric black hole to a single fifth-order differential equation. We obtain the general solution in the form of an infinite series, characterized by five independent parameters, and we show how a finite three-parameter truncation reduces to the already known Schwarzschild-AdS metric and its conformal scaling. We derive general results for the thermodynamics and the first law for the full five-parameter solutions. We also investigate solutions in extended theories coupled to conformally invariant matter, and in addition we derive some general results for conserved charges in cubic-curvature theories in arbitrary dimensions.
Holly, Jan E.; Masood, M. Arjumand; Bhandari, Chiran S.
2017-01-01
Head movements during sustained rotation can cause angular cross-coupling which leads to tumbling illusions. Even though angular vectors predict equal magnitude illusions for head movements in opposite directions, the magnitudes of the illusions are often surprisingly asymmetric, such as during leftward versus rightward yaw while horizontal in a centrifuge. This paper presents a comprehensive investigation of the angular-linear stimulus combinations from eight different published papers in which asymmetries were found. Interactions between all angular and linear vectors, including gravity, are taken into account to model the three-dimensional consequences of the stimuli. Three main results followed. First, for every pair of head yaw movements, an asymmetry was found in the stimulus itself when considered in a fully three-dimensional manner, and the direction of the asymmetry matched the subjectively reported magnitude asymmetry. Second, for pitch and roll head movements for which motion sickness was measured, the stimulus was found symmetric in every case except one, and motion sickness generally aligned with other factors such as the existence of a head rest. Third, three-dimensional modeling predicted subjective inconsistency in the direction of perceived rotation when linear and angular components were oppositely-directed, and predicted surplus illusory rotation in the direction of head movement. PMID:27814310
Emergent gravity from a mass deformation in warped spacetime
Gherghetta, Tony; Peloso, Marco; Poppitz, Erich
2005-11-15
We consider a deformation of five-dimensional warped gravity with bulk and boundary mass terms to quadratic order in the action. We show that massless zero modes occur for special choices of the masses. The tensor zero mode is a smooth deformation of the Randall-Sundrum graviton wave function and can be localized anywhere in the bulk. There is also a vector zero mode with similar localization properties, which is decoupled from conserved sources at tree level. Interestingly, there are no scalar modes, and the model is ghost-free at the linearized level. When the tensor zero mode is localized near the IRmore » brane, the dual interpretation is a composite graviton describing an emergent (induced) theory of gravity at the IR scale. In this case Newton's law of gravity changes to a new power law below the millimeter scale, with an exponent that can even be irrational.« less
Discretization of 3d gravity in different polarizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dupuis, Maïté; Freidel, Laurent; Girelli, Florian
2017-10-01
We study the discretization of three-dimensional gravity with Λ =0 following the loop quantum gravity framework. In the process, we realize that different choices of polarization are possible. This allows us to introduce a new discretization based on the triad as opposed to the connection as in the standard loop quantum gravity framework. We also identify the classical nontrivial symmetries of discrete gravity, namely the Drinfeld double, given in terms of momentum maps. Another choice of polarization is given by the Chern-Simons formulation of gravity. Our framework also provides a new discretization scheme of Chern-Simons, which keeps track of the link between the continuum variables and the discrete ones. We show how the Poisson bracket we recover between the Chern-Simons holonomies allows us to recover the Goldman bracket. There is also a transparent link between the discrete Chern-Simons formulation and the discretization of gravity based on the connection (loop gravity) or triad variables (dual loop gravity).
Extended inflation from higher dimensional theories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holman, Richard; Kolb, Edward W.; Vadas, Sharon L.; Wang, Yun
1990-01-01
The possibility is considered that higher dimensional theories may, upon reduction to four dimensions, allow extended inflation to occur. Two separate models are analayzed. One is a very simple toy model consisting of higher dimensional gravity coupled to a scalar field whose potential allows for a first-order phase transition. The other is a more sophisticated model incorporating the effects of non-trivial field configurations (monopole, Casimir, and fermion bilinear condensate effects) that yield a non-trivial potential for the radius of the internal space. It was found that extended inflation does not occur in these models. It was also found that the bubble nucleation rate in these theories is time dependent unlike the case in the original version of extended inflation.
The Gravity Model for High School Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tribble, Paul; Mitchell, William A.
1977-01-01
The authors suggest ways in which the gravity model can be used in high school geography classes. Based on Newton's Law of Molecular Gravitation, the law states that gravitation is in direct ratio to mass and inverse ratio to distance. One activity for students involves determination of zones of influence of cities of various sizes. (Author/AV)
A no-hair theorem for black holes in f(R) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cañate, Pedro
2018-01-01
In this work we present a no-hair theorem which discards the existence of four-dimensional asymptotically flat, static and spherically symmetric or stationary axisymmetric, non-trivial black holes in the frame of f(R) gravity under metric formalism. Here we show that our no-hair theorem also can discard asymptotic de Sitter stationary and axisymmetric non-trivial black holes. The novelty is that this no-hair theorem is built without resorting to known mapping between f(R) gravity and scalar–tensor theory. Thus, an advantage will be that our no-hair theorem applies as well to metric f(R) models that cannot be mapped to scalar–tensor theory.
Lobe-cleft instability in the buoyant gravity current generated by estuarine outflow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horner-Devine, Alexander R.; Chickadel, C. Chris
2017-05-01
Gravity currents represent a broad class of geophysical flows including turbidity currents, powder avalanches, pyroclastic flows, sea breeze fronts, haboobs, and river plumes. A defining feature in many gravity currents is the formation of three-dimensional lobes and clefts along the front and researchers have sought to understand these ubiquitous geophysical structures for decades. The prevailing explanation is based largely on early laboratory and numerical model experiments at much smaller scales, which concluded that lobes and clefts are generated due to hydrostatic instability exclusively in currents propagating over a nonslip boundary. Recent studies suggest that frontal dynamics change as the flow scale increases, but no measurements have been made that sufficiently resolve the flow structure in full-scale geophysical flows. Here we use thermal infrared and acoustic imaging of a river plume to reveal the three-dimensional structure of lobes and clefts formed in a geophysical gravity current front. The observed lobes and clefts are generated at the front in the absence of a nonslip boundary, contradicting the prevailing explanation. The observed flow structure is consistent with an alternative formation mechanism, which predicts that the lobe scale is inherited from subsurface vortex structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alothman, Abdulaziz; Elsaka, Basem
2015-03-01
The free air gravity anomalies over Saudi Arabia (KSA) has been estimated from the final releases of GOCE-based global geopotential models (GGMs) compared with the terrestrial gravity anomalies of 3554 sites. Two GGMs; EGM08 and Eigen-6C3 have been applied. The free-air anomalies from GOCE-based, ΔgGGM, have been calculated over the 3554 stations in the medium and short spectrum of gravity wavelength of d/o 100, …, 250 (with 10 step). The short spectrum has been compensated once from d/o 101, …, 251 to 2190 and 1949 using EGM08 and Eigen-6C3 (i.e. ΔgGGM), respectively. The very short component was determined using residual terrain modelling approach. Our findings show firstly that the EGM08 is more reliable than Eigen-6C3. Second, the GOCE-based GGMs provide similar results within the spectral wavelength band from d/o 100 to d/o 180. Beyond d/o 180 till d/o 250, we found that GOCE-based TIM model releases provide substantial improvements within the spectral band from d/o 220 to d/o 250 with respect to the DIR releases. Third, the TIM_r5 model provides the least standard deviations (st. dev.) in terms of gravity anomalies.
Distinguishing modified gravity models
Brax, Philippe; Davis, Anne-Christine, E-mail: philippe.brax@cea.fr, E-mail: A.C.Davis@damtp.cam.ac.uk
2015-10-01
Modified gravity models with screening in local environments appear in three different guises: chameleon, K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms. We propose to look for differences between these classes of models by considering cosmological observations at low redshift. In particular, we analyse the redshift dependence of the fine structure constant and the proton to electron mass ratio in each of these scenarios. When the absorption lines belong to unscreened regions of space such as dwarf galaxies, a time variation would be present for chameleons. For both K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms, the cosmological time variation of the scalar field is not suppressed inmore » both unscreened and screened environments, therefore enhancing the variation of constants and their detection prospect. We also consider the time variation of the redshift of distant objects using their spectrocopic velocities. We find that models of the K-mouflage and Vainshtein types have very different spectroscopic velocities as a function of redshift and that their differences with the Λ-CDM template should be within reach of the future ELT-HIRES observations.« less
Semi-Infinite Geology Modeling Algorithm (SIGMA): a Modular Approach to 3D Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, J. C.; Crain, K.
2015-12-01
Conventional 3D gravity computations can take up to days, weeks, and even months, depending on the size and resolution of the data being modeled. Additional modeling runs, due to technical malfunctions or additional data modifications, only compound computation times even further. We propose a new modeling algorithm that utilizes vertical line elements to approximate mass, and non-gridded (point) gravity observations. This algorithm is (1) magnitudes faster than conventional methods, (2) accurate to less than 0.1% error, and (3) modular. The modularity of this methodology means that researchers can modify their geology/terrain or gravity data, and only the modified component needs to be re-run. Additionally, land-, sea-, and air-based platforms can be modeled at their observation point, without having to filter data into a synthesized grid.
Validation of the Gravity Model in Predicting the Global Spread of Influenza
Li, Xinhai; Tian, Huidong; Lai, Dejian; Zhang, Zhibin
2011-01-01
The gravity model is often used in predicting the spread of influenza. We use the data of influenza A (H1N1) to check the model’s performance and validation, in order to determine the scope of its application. In this article, we proposed to model the pattern of global spread of the virus via a few important socio-economic indicators. We applied the epidemic gravity model for modelling the virus spread globally through the estimation of parameters of a generalized linear model. We compiled the daily confirmed cases of influenza A (H1N1) in each country as reported to the WHO and each state in the USA, and established the model to describe the relationship between the confirmed cases and socio-economic factors such as population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), and the distance between the countries/states and the country where the first confirmed case was reported (i.e., Mexico). The covariates we selected for the model were all statistically significantly associated with the global spread of influenza A (H1N1). However, within the USA, the distance and GDP were not significantly associated with the number of confirmed cases. The combination of the gravity model and generalized linear model provided a quick assessment of pandemic spread globally. The gravity model is valid if the spread period is long enough for estimating the model parameters. Meanwhile, the distance between donor and recipient communities has a good gradient. Besides, the spread should be at the early stage if a single source is taking into account. PMID:21909295
Black hole solutions in d = 5 Chern-Simons gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brihaye, Yves; Radu, Eugen
2013-11-01
The five dimensional Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity with a negative cosmological constant becomes, for a special value of the Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant, a Chern-Simons (CS) theory of gravity. In this work we discuss the properties of several different types of black object solutions of this model. Special attention is paid to the case of spinning black holes with equal-magnitude angular momenta which posses a regular horizon of spherical topology. Closed form solutions are obtained in the small angular momentum limit. Nonperturbative solutions are constructed by solving numerically the equations of the model. Apart from that, new exact solutions describing static squashed black holes and black strings are also discussed. The action and global charges of all configurations studied in this work are obtained by using the quasilocal formalism with boundary counterterms generalized for the case of a d = 5 CS theory.
Gravity quantized: Loop quantum gravity with a scalar field
Domagala, Marcin; Kaminski, Wojciech; Giesel, Kristina
2010-11-15
...''but we do not have quantum gravity.'' This phrase is often used when analysis of a physical problem enters the regime in which quantum gravity effects should be taken into account. In fact, there are several models of the gravitational field coupled to (scalar) fields for which the quantization procedure can be completed using loop quantum gravity techniques. The model we present in this paper consists of the gravitational field coupled to a scalar field. The result has similar structure to the loop quantum cosmology models, except that it involves all the local degrees of freedom of the gravitational fieldmore » because no symmetry reduction has been performed at the classical level.« less
Two-dimensional models of fast rotating early-type stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rieutord, Michel
2015-08-01
Rotation has now become an unavoidable parameter of stellar models, but for most massive or intermediate-mass stars rotation is fast, at least of a significant fraction of the critical angular velocity. Current spherically symmetric models try to cope with this feature of the stars using various approximations, like for instance the so-called shellular rotation usually accompanied with a diffusion that is meant to represent the mixing induced by rotationally generated flows. Such approximations may be justified in the limit of slow rotation where anisotropies and associated flows are weak. However, when rotation is fast, say larger than 50% of the critical velocities the use of a spherically symmetric 1D-model is doubtful. This is not only because of the centrifugal flattening of the star, but also because of the flows that are induced by the baroclinic torque that naturally appears in the radiative envelope of an early-type (rotating) star. These flows face the cylindrical symmetry of the Coriolis force and the spheroidal symmetry of the effective gravity.In this talk I shall present the latest results of the ESTER project that has taken up the challenge of making two-dimensional (axisymmetric) models of stars rotating at any rotation rate. In particular, I will focus on main sequence massive and intermediate-mass stars. I'll show what should be expected in such stars as far as the differential rotation and the associated meridional circulation are concerned, notably the emergence of a Stewartson layer along the tangential cylinder of the core. I'll also indicate what may be inferred about the evolution of an intermediate-mass star at constant angular momentum and how Be stars may form. I shall finally give some comparisons between models and observations of the gravity darkening on some nearby fast rotators as it has been derived from interferometric observations. In passing, I'll also discuss how 2D models can help to recover the fundamental parameters of a star.
Power law f(𝒢,T) gravity models supporting wormhole solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shamir, M. Farasat; Ahmad, Mushtaq
This work provides some feasible regions for the existence of traversable wormhole geometries in modified f(𝒢,T) gravity. For this purpose, three different matter contents have been studied with special emphasis on anisotropic fluid by considering a specific f(𝒢,T) gravity power law model. It has been shown that the null energy conditions for the effective energy-momentum tensor are widely violated for the ordinary matter content. However, some small feasible regions to support the wormhole solutions have been noted. Furthermore, the stability of the anisotropic feasible regions for the wormhole solutions has been discussed. It is concluded that the wormhole geometries threaded by the ordinary matter actually exist and are well stable in f(𝒢,T) gravity.
The amphibian egg as a model system for analyzing gravity effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malacinski, G. M.; Neff, A. W.
Amphibian eggs provide several advantageous features as a model system for analyzing the effects of gravity on single cells. Those features include large size, readily tracked intracellular inclusions, and ease of experimental manipulation. Employing novel gravity orientation as a tool, a substantial data base is being developed. That information is being used to construct a 3-D model of the frog (Xenopus laevis) egg. Internal cytoplasmic organization (rather than surface features) are being emphasized. Several cytoplasmic compartments (domains) have been elucidated, and their behavior in inverted eggs monitored. They have been incorporated into the model, and serve as a point of departure for further inquiry and speculation.
The Santiago-Harvard-Edinburgh-Durham void comparison - I. SHEDding light on chameleon gravity tests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cautun, Marius; Paillas, Enrique; Cai, Yan-Chuan; Bose, Sownak; Armijo, Joaquin; Li, Baojiu; Padilla, Nelson
2018-05-01
We present a systematic comparison of several existing and new void-finding algorithms, focusing on their potential power to test a particular class of modified gravity models - chameleon f(R) gravity. These models deviate from standard general relativity (GR) more strongly in low-density regions and thus voids are a promising venue to test them. We use halo occupation distribution (HOD) prescriptions to populate haloes with galaxies, and tune the HOD parameters such that the galaxy two-point correlation functions are the same in both f(R) and GR models. We identify both three-dimensional (3D) voids and two-dimensional (2D) underdensities in the plane of the sky to find the same void abundance and void galaxy number density profiles across all models, which suggests that they do not contain much information beyond galaxy clustering. However, the underlying void dark matter density profiles are significantly different, with f(R) voids being more underdense than GR ones, which leads to f(R) voids having a larger tangential shear signal than their GR analogues. We investigate the potential of each void finder to test f(R) models with near-future lensing surveys such as EUCLID and LSST. The 2D voids have the largest power to probe f(R) gravity, with an LSST analysis of tunnel (which is a new type of 2D underdensity introduced here) lensing distinguishing at 80 and 11σ (statistical error) f(R) models with parameters, |fR0| = 10-5 and 10-6, from GR.
Cosmological bouncing solutions in extended teleparallel gravity theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de la Cruz-Dombriz, Álvaro; Farrugia, Gabriel; Said, Jackson Levi; Gómez, Diego Sáez-Chillón
2018-05-01
In the context of extended teleparallel gravity theories with a 3 +1 -dimensional Gauss-Bonnet analog term, we address the possibility of these theories reproducing several well-known cosmological bouncing scenarios in a four-dimensional Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker geometry. We study which types of gravitational Lagrangians are capable of reconstructing bouncing solutions provided by analytical expressions for symmetric, oscillatory, superbounce, matter bounce, and singular bounce. Some of the Lagrangians discovered are analytical at the origin, having both Minkowski and Schwarzschild vacuum solutions. All these results open up the possibility for such theories to be competitive candidates of extended theories of gravity in cosmological scales.
Gauge/Gravity correspondence and black hole attractors in various dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wei
This thesis investigates several topics on Gauge/Gravity correspondence and black hole attractors in various dimensions. The first chapter contains a brief review and summary of main results. Chapters 2 and 3 aim at a microscopic description of black objects in five dimensions. Chapter 2 studies higher-derivative corrections for 5D black rings and spinning black holes. It shows that certain R 2 terms found in Calabi-Yau compactifications of M-theory yield macroscopic corrections to the entropies that match the microscopic corrections. Chapter 3 constructs probe brane configurations that preserve half of the enhanced near-horizon supersymmetry of 5D spinning black holes, whose near-horizon geometry is squashed AdS2 x S 3. There are supersymmetric zero-brane probes stabilized by orbital angular momentum on S3 and one-brane probes with momentum and winding around a U(1)L x U(1)R torus in S3. Chapter 4 constructs and analyzes generic single-centered and multi-centered black hole attractor solutions in various four-dimensional models which, after Kaluza-Klein reduction, admit a description in terms of 3D gravity coupled to a sigma model whose target space is symmetric coset space. The solutions correspond to certain nilpotent generators of the coset algebra. The non-BPS black hole attractors are found to be drastically different from their BPS counterparts. Chapter 5 examines three-dimensional topologically massive gravity with negative cosmological constant in asymptotically AdS 3 spacetimes. It proves that the theory is unitary and stable only at a special value of Chern-Simons coupling, where the theory becomes chiral. This suggests the existence of a stable, consistent quantum gravity theory at the chiral point which is dual to a holomorphic boundary CFT 2. Finally, Chapter 6 studies the two-dimensional N = 1 critical string theory with a linear dilaton background. It constructs time-dependent boundary state solutions that correspond to D0-branes falling toward the
Synthesis of regional crust and upper-mantle structure from seismic and gravity data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alexander, S. S.; Lavin, P. M.
1979-01-01
Available seismic and ground based gravity data are combined to infer the three dimensional crust and upper mantle structure in selected regions. This synthesis and interpretation proceeds from large-scale average models suitable for early comparison with high-altitude satellite potential field data to more detailed delineation of structural boundaries and other variations that may be significant in natural resource assessment. Seismic and ground based gravity data are the primary focal point, but other relevant information (e.g. magnetic field, heat flow, Landsat imagery, geodetic leveling, and natural resources maps) is used to constrain the structure inferred and to assist in defining structural domains and boundaries. The seismic data consists of regional refraction lines, limited reflection coverage, surface wave dispersion, teleseismic P and S wave delay times, anelastic absorption, and regional seismicity patterns. The gravity data base consists of available point gravity determinations for the areas considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eggers, G. L.; Lewis, K. W.; Simons, F. J.; Olhede, S.
2013-12-01
topography and gravity, in which the INITIAL loading by topography retains the Matern form but the FINAL topography and gravity are the result of flexural compensation. In our modeling, we pay explicit attention to finite-field spectral estimation effects (and their remedy via tapering), and to the implementation of statistical tests (for anisotropy, for initial-loading process correlation, to ascertain the proper density contrasts and interface depth in a two-layer model), robustness assessment and uncertainty quantification, as well as to algorithmic intricacies related to low-dimensional but poorly scaled maximum-likelihood inversions. We conclude that Venusian geomorphic terrains are well described by their 2-D topographic and gravity (cross-)power spectra, and the spectral properties of distinct geologic provinces on Venus are worth quantifying via maximum-likelihood-based methods under idealized three-parameter Matern distributions. Analysis of fitted parameters and the fitted-data residuals reveals natural variability in the (sub)surface properties on Venus, as well as some directional anisotropy. Geologic regions tend to cluster according to terrain type in our parameter space, which we analyze to confirm their shared geologic histories and utilize for guidance in ongoing mapping efforts of Venus and other terrestrial bodies.
Modelling Technique for Demonstrating Gravity Collapse Structures in Jointed Rock.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stimpson, B.
1979-01-01
Described is a base-friction modeling technique for studying the development of collapse structures in jointed rocks. A moving belt beneath weak material is designed to simulate gravity. A description is given of the model frame construction. (Author/SA)
Dynamics for a 2-vertex quantum gravity model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borja, Enrique F.; Díaz-Polo, Jacobo; Garay, Iñaki; Livine, Etera R.
2010-12-01
We use the recently introduced U(N) framework for loop quantum gravity to study the dynamics of spin network states on the simplest class of graphs: two vertices linked with an arbitrary number N of edges. Such graphs represent two regions, in and out, separated by a boundary surface. We study the algebraic structure of the Hilbert space of spin networks from the U(N) perspective. In particular, we describe the algebra of operators acting on that space and discuss their relation to the standard holonomy operator of loop quantum gravity. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to make the restriction to the isotropic/homogeneous sector of the model by imposing the invariance under a global U(N) symmetry. We then propose a U(N)-invariant Hamiltonian operator and study the induced dynamics. Finally, we explore the analogies between this model and loop quantum cosmology and sketch some possible generalizations of it.
Two-dimensional models of early-type fast rotating stars: the ESTER project
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rieutord, Michel
In this talk I present the latest results of the ESTER project that has taken up the challenge of building two dimensional (axisymmetric) models of stars rotating at any rotation rate. In particular, I focus on main sequence massive and intermediate mass stars. I show what should be expected in such stars as far as the differential rotation and the associated meridional circulation are concerned, notably the emergence of a Stewartson layer along the tangent cylinder of the core. I also indicate what may be inferred about the evolution of an intermediate-mass star at constant angular momentum and how Be stars may form. I finally give some comparisons between models and observations of the gravity darkening on some nearby fast rotators as it has been derived from interferometric observations. In passing, I also discuss how 2D models can help to recover the fundamental parameters of a star.
Gravity modeling of the Muertos Trough and tectonic implications (north-eastern Caribbean)
Granja, Bruna J.L.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Carbó-Gorosabel, Andrés; Llanes, Estrada P.; Martín-Dávila, J.; Cordoba-Barba, D.; Catalan, Morollon M.
2010-01-01
The Muertos Trough in the northeast Caribbean has been interpreted as a subduction zone from seismicity, leading to infer a possible reversal subduction polarity. However, the distribution of the seismicity is very diffuse and makes definition of the plate geometry difficult. In addition, the compressive deformational features observed in the upper crust and sandbox kinematic modeling do not necessarily suggest a subduction process. We tested the hypothesized subduction of the Caribbean plate's interior beneath the eastern Greater Antilles island arc using gravity modeling. Gravity models simulating a subduction process yield a regional mass deficit beneath the island arc independently of the geometry and depth of the subducted slab used in the models. This mass deficit results from sinking of the less dense Caribbean slab beneath the lithospheric mantle replacing denser mantle materials and suggests that there is not a subducted Caribbean plateau beneath the island arc. The geologically more realistic gravity model which would explain the N-S shortening observed in the upper crust requires an overthrusted Caribbean slab extending at least 60 km northward from the deformation front, a progressive increase in the thrusting angle from 8?? to 30?? reaching a maximum depth of 22 km beneath the insular slope. This new tectonic model for the Muertos Margin, defined as a retroarc thrusting, will help to assess the seismic and tsunami hazard in the region. The use of gravity modeling has provided targets for future wide-angle seismic surveys in the Muertos Margin. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Fliedner, M.M.; Ruppert, S.; Malin, P.E.; Park, S.K.; Jiracek, G.; Phinney, R.A.; Saleeby, J.B.; Wernicke, B.; Clayton, R.; Keller, Rebecca Hylton; Miller, K.; Jones, C.; Luetgert, J.H.; Mooney, W.D.; Oliver, H.; Klemperer, S.L.; Thompson, G.A.
1996-01-01
Traveltime data from the 1993 Southern Sierra Nevada Continental Dynamics seismic refraction experiment reveal low crustal velocities in the southern Sierra Nevada and Basin and Range province of California (6.0 to 6.6 km/s), as well as low upper mantle velocities (7.6 to 7.8 km/s). The crust thickens from southeast to northwest along the axis of the Sierra Nevada from 27 km in the Mojave Desert to 43 km near Fresno, California. A crustal welt is present beneath the Sierra Nevada, but the deepest Moho is found under the western slopes, not beneath the highest topography. A density model directly derived from the crustal velocity model but with constant mantle density satisfies the pronounced negative Bouguer anomaly associated with the Sierra Nevada, but shows large discrepancies of >50 mgal in the Great Valley and in the Basin and Range province. Matching the observed gravity with anomalies in the crust alone is not possible with geologically reasonable densities; we require a contribution from the upper mantle, either by lateral density variations or by a thinning of the lithosphere under the Sierra Nevada and the Basin and Range province. Such a model is consistent with the interpretation that the uplift of the present Sierra Nevada is caused and dynamically supported by asthenospheric upwelling or lithospheric thinning under the Basin and Range province and eastern Sierra Nevada.
Mars - Crustal structure inferred from Bouguer gravity anomalies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, R. J.; Saunders, R. S.; Conel, J. E.
1973-01-01
Bouguer gravity has been computed for the equatorial region of Mars by differencing free air gravity and the gravity predicted from topographic variations. The free air gravity was generated from an eighth-order set of spherical harmonic coefficients. The gravity from topographic variations was generated by integrating a two-dimensional Green's function over each contour level. The Bouguer gravity indicates crustal inhomogeneities on Mars that are postulated to be variations in crustal thickness. The Tharsis ridge is a region of thick continental type crust. The gravity data, structural patterns, topography, and surface geology of this region lead to the interpretation of the Tharsis topographic high as a broad crustal upwarp possibly associated with local formation of lower-density crustal material and subsequent rise of a thicker crust. The Amazonis region is one of several basins of relatively thin crust, analogous to terrestrial ocean basins. The Libya and Hellas basins, which are probable impact features, are also underlain by thin crust and are possible regions of mantle upwelling.
Quantum gravity model with fundamental spinor fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Obukhov, Yu. N.; Hehl, F. W.
2014-01-01
We discuss the possibility that gravitational potentials (metric, coframe and connection) may emerge as composite fields from more fundamental spinor constituents. We use the formalism of Poincaré gauge gravity as an appropriate theoretical scheme for the rigorous development of such an approach. We postulate the constitutive relations of an elastic Cosserat type continuum that models spacetime. These generalized Hooke and MacCullagh type laws consistently take into account the translational and Lorentz rotational deformations, respectively. The resulting theory extends the recently proposed Diakonov model. An intriguing feature of our theory is that in the lowest approximation it reproduces Heisenberg's nonlinear spinor model.
Specific gravity and wood moisture variation of white pine
Glenn L. Gammon
1969-01-01
A report on results of a study to develop a means for estimating specific gravity and wood moisture content of white pine. No strong relationships were found by using either the single or combined factors of age and dimensional stem characteristics. Inconsistent patterns of specific gravity and moisture over height in tree are graphically illustrated.
Improved image of intrusive bodies at Newberry Volcano, Oregon, based on 3D gravity modelling
Bonneville, Alain H.; Cladouhos, Trenton; Rose, Kelly K.
Beneath Newberry Volcano is one of the largest geothermal heat reservoirs in the western United States and it has been extensively studied for the last 40 years. Several magmatic intrusions have been recognized at depths between 2.5 and 8 km and some of them identified as suitable targets for enhanced geothermal energy and tested during two previous EGS campaigns. These subsurface structures have been intersected by three deep wells and imaged by various geophysical methods including seismic tomography and magnetotellurics. Although three high quality gravity surveys were completed between 2006 and 2010 as part of various projects, a complete synthesismore » and interpretation of the gravity data has not yet been performed. Regional gravity data also exist in the vicinity of the Newberry volcano and have been added to these surveys to constitute a dataset with a total of 1418 gravity measurements. When coupled with existing geologic and geophysical data and models, this new gravity dataset provides important constraints on the depth and contours of the magmatic bodies previously identified by other methods and thus greatly contributing to facilitate any future drilling and stimulation works. Using the initial structures discovered by seismic tomography, inversion of gravity data has been performed. Shape, density values and depths of various bodies were allowed to vary and three main bodies have been identified. Densities of the middle and lower intrusive bodies (~2.6-2.7 g/cm3) are consistent with rhyolite, basalt or granites. Modeled density of the near-surface caldera body match that of a low density tephra material and the density of the shallow ring structures contained in the upper kilometer correspond to that of welded tuff or low-density rhyolites. Modeled bodies are in reality a composite of thin layers; however, average densities of the modeled gravity bodies are in good agreement with the density log obtained in one well located on the western flank
Cosmological tests of modified gravity.
Koyama, Kazuya
2016-04-01
We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard [Formula: see text]CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Setare, M. R.; Sahraee, M.
2013-12-01
In this paper, we investigate the behavior of linearized gravitational excitation in the Born-Infeld gravity in AdS3 space. We obtain the linearized equation of motion and show that this higher-order gravity propagate two gravitons, massless and massive, on the AdS3 background. In contrast to the R2 models, such as TMG or NMG, Born-Infeld gravity does not have a critical point for any regular choice of parameters. So the logarithmic solution is not a solution of this model, due to this one cannot find a logarithmic conformal field theory as a dual model for Born-Infeld gravity.
Constraint on reconstructed f(R) gravity models from gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Seokcheon
2018-06-01
The gravitational wave (GW) detection of a binary neutron star inspiral made by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo paves the unprecedented way for multi-messenger observations. The propagation speed of this GW can be scrutinized by comparing the arrival times between GW and neutrinos or photons. It provides the constraint on the mass of the graviton. f(R) gravity theories have the habitual non-zero mass gravitons in addition to usual massless ones. Previously, we show that the model independent f(R) gravity theories can be constructed from the both background evolution and the matter growth with one undetermined parameter. We show that this parameter can be constrained from the graviton mass bound obtained from GW detection. Thus, the GW detection provides the invaluable constraint on the validity of f(R) gravity theories.
Modeling of zero gravity venting: Studies of two-phase heat transfer under reduced gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merte, H., Jr.
1986-01-01
The objective is to predict the pressure response of a saturated liquid-vapor system when undergoing a venting or depressurization process in zero gravity at low vent rates. An experimental investigation of the venting of cylindrical containers partially filled with initially saturated liquids was previously conducted under zero-gravity conditions and compared with an analytical model which incorporated the effect of interfacial mass transfer on the ullage pressure response during venting. A new model is presented to improve the estimation of the interfacial mass transfer. Duhammel's superposition integral is incorporated to approximate the transient temperature response of the interface, treating the liquid as a semi-infinite solid with conduction heat transfer. Account is also taken of the condensation taking place within the bulk of a saturated vapor as isentropic expansion takes place. Computational results are presented for the venting of R-11 from a given vessel and initial state for five different venting rates over a period of three seconds, and compared to prior NASA experiments. An improvement in the prediction of the final pressure takes place, but is still considerably below the measurements.
Solid-state combustion synthesis of ceramics and alloys in reduced gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Valone, S. M.; Behrens, R. G.
1988-01-01
Possible microgravity effects are explored in the combustion synthesis of ceramics and alloys from their constituent elements. Molten intermediates are typically present during the combustion process, thereby offering the chance for natural convection to take place. Numerical simulations suggest that the combustion front in concert with gravity may act as a partial zone-refinement mechanism which is attempting to sweep out porosity in the sample. Contrary to suggestions by dimensional analysis, no effects on the combustion rate are seen. An analytical model of the combustion velocity as a function of the gravitational field and the spreading rate of molten material gives the correct order of magnitude of the gravity effect as measured by centrifuge experiments.
Speeding up N-body simulations of modified gravity: chameleon screening models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bose, Sownak; Li, Baojiu; Barreira, Alexandre; He, Jian-hua; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Koyama, Kazuya; Llinares, Claudio; Zhao, Gong-Bo
2017-02-01
We describe and demonstrate the potential of a new and very efficient method for simulating certain classes of modified gravity theories, such as the widely studied f(R) gravity models. High resolution simulations for such models are currently very slow due to the highly nonlinear partial differential equation that needs to be solved exactly to predict the modified gravitational force. This nonlinearity is partly inherent, but is also exacerbated by the specific numerical algorithm used, which employs a variable redefinition to prevent numerical instabilities. The standard Newton-Gauss-Seidel iterative method used to tackle this problem has a poor convergence rate. Our new method not only avoids this, but also allows the discretised equation to be written in a form that is analytically solvable. We show that this new method greatly improves the performance and efficiency of f(R) simulations. For example, a test simulation with 5123 particles in a box of size 512 Mpc/h is now 5 times faster than before, while a Millennium-resolution simulation for f(R) gravity is estimated to be more than 20 times faster than with the old method. Our new implementation will be particularly useful for running very high resolution, large-sized simulations which, to date, are only possible for the standard model, and also makes it feasible to run large numbers of lower resolution simulations for covariance analyses. We hope that the method will bring us to a new era for precision cosmological tests of gravity.
FLRW cosmological models with quark and strange quark matters in f(R,T) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagpal, Ritika; Singh, J. K.; Aygün, S.
2018-06-01
In this paper, we have studied the magnetized quark matter (QM) and strange quark matter (SQM) distributions in the presence of f(R,T) gravity in the background of Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric. To get exact solutions of modified field equations we have used f(R,T ) = R + 2 f(T) model given by Harko et al. with two different parametrization of geometrical parameters i.e. the parametrization of the deceleration parameter q , and the scale factor a in hybrid expansion form. Also, we have obtained Einstein Static Universe (ESU) solutions for QM and SQM distributions in f(R,T) gravity and General Relativity (GR). All models in f(R,T) gravity and GR for FRW and ESU Universes with QM also SQM distributions, we get zero magnetic field. These results agree with the solutions of Aktaş and Aygün in f(R,T) gravity. However, we have also discussed the physical consequences of our obtained models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odera, Patroba Achola; Fukuda, Yoichi
2017-09-01
The performance of Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) global gravity field models (GGMs), at the end of GOCE mission covering 42 months, is evaluated using geoid undulations and free-air gravity anomalies over Japan, including six sub-regions (Hokkaido, north Honshu, central Honshu, west Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu). Seventeen GOCE-based GGMs are evaluated and compared with EGM2008. The evaluations are carried out at 150, 180, 210, 240 and 270 spherical harmonics degrees. Results show that EGM2008 performs better than GOCE and related GGMs in Japan and three sub-regions (Hokkaido, central Honshu and Kyushu). However, GOCE and related GGMs perform better than EGM2008 in north Honshu, west Honshu and Shikoku up to degree 240. This means that GOCE data can improve geoid model over half of Japan. The improvement is only evident between degrees 150 and 240 beyond which EGM2008 performs better than GOCE GGMs in all the six regions. In general, the latest GOCE GGMs (releases 4 and 5) perform better than the earlier GOCE GGMs (releases 1, 2 and 3), indicating the contribution of data collected by GOCE in the last months before the mission ended on 11 November 2013. The results indicate that a more accurate geoid model over Japan is achievable, based on a combination of GOCE, EGM2008 and terrestrial gravity data sets. [Figure not available: see fulltext. Caption: Standard deviations of the differences between observed and GGMs implied ( a) free-air gravity anomalies over Japan, ( b) geoid undulations over Japan. n represents the spherical harmonic degrees
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirt, Christian; Reußner, Elisabeth; Rexer, Moritz; Kuhn, Michael
2016-09-01
Over the past years, spectral techniques have become a standard to model Earth's global gravity field to 10 km scales, with the EGM2008 geopotential model being a prominent example. For some geophysical applications of EGM2008, particularly Bouguer gravity computation with spectral techniques, a topographic potential model of adequate resolution is required. However, current topographic potential models have not yet been successfully validated to degree 2160, and notable discrepancies between spectral modeling and Newtonian (numerical) integration well beyond the 10 mGal level have been reported. Here we accurately compute and validate gravity implied by a degree 2160 model of Earth's topographic masses. Our experiments are based on two key strategies, both of which require advanced computational resources. First, we construct a spectrally complete model of the gravity field which is generated by the degree 2160 Earth topography model. This involves expansion of the topographic potential to the 15th integer power of the topography and modeling of short-scale gravity signals to ultrahigh degree of 21,600, translating into unprecedented fine scales of 1 km. Second, we apply Newtonian integration in the space domain with high spatial resolution to reduce discretization errors. Our numerical study demonstrates excellent agreement (8 μGgal RMS) between gravity from both forward modeling techniques and provides insight into the convergence process associated with spectral modeling of gravity signals at very short scales (few km). As key conclusion, our work successfully validates the spectral domain forward modeling technique for degree 2160 topography and increases the confidence in new high-resolution global Bouguer gravity maps.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lerch, F. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Chinn, D. S.; Chan, J. C.; Patel, G. B.; Klosko, S. M.
1993-01-01
A new method has been developed to provide a direct test of the error calibrations of gravity models based on actual satellite observations. The basic approach projects the error estimates of the gravity model parameters onto satellite observations, and the results of these projections are then compared with data residual computed from the orbital fits. To allow specific testing of the gravity error calibrations, subset solutions are computed based on the data set and data weighting of the gravity model. The approach is demonstrated using GEM-T3 to show that the gravity error estimates are well calibrated and that reliable predictions of orbit accuracies can be achieved for independent orbits.
New classes of modified teleparallel gravity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahamonde, Sebastian; Böhmer, Christian G.; Krššák, Martin
2017-12-01
New classes of modified teleparallel theories of gravity are introduced. The action of this theory is constructed to be a function of the irreducible parts of torsion f (Tax ,Tten ,Tvec), where Tax ,Tten and Tvec are squares of the axial, tensor and vector components of torsion, respectively. This is the most general (well-motivated) second order teleparallel theory of gravity that can be constructed from the torsion tensor. Different particular second order theories can be recovered from this theory such as new general relativity, conformal teleparallel gravity or f (T) gravity. Additionally, the boundary term B which connects the Ricci scalar with the torsion scalar via R = - T + B can also be incorporated into the action. By performing a conformal transformation, it is shown that the two unique theories which have an Einstein frame are either the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity or f (- T + B) = f (R) gravity, as expected.
Thermal structure of the crust in Inner East Anatolia from aeromagnetic and gravity data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bektaş, Özcan
2013-08-01
Inner East Anatolia has many hot spring outcomes. In this study, the relationship between the thermal structure and hot spring outcomes is investigated. The residual aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies of the Inner East Anatolia, surveyed by the Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) of Turkey, show complexities. The magnetic data were analyzed to produce Curie point depth estimates. The depth of magnetic dipole was calculated by azimuthally averaged power spectrum method for the whole area. The Curie point depth (CPD) map covering the Inner East Anatolia has been produced. The Curie point depths of the region between Sivas and Malatya vary from 16.5 to 18.7 km. Values of heat flow were calculated according to continental geotherm from the model. The heat flow values vary between 89 and 99 mW m-2. Heat flow values are incorporated with surface heat flow values. Gravity anomalies were modeled by means of a three-dimensional method. The deepest part of the basin (12-14 km), determined from the 3D model, are located below the settlement of Hafik and to the south of Zara towns. Two-dimensional cross sections produced from the basin depths, Curie values and MOHO depths. Based on the analysis of magnetic, gravity anomalies, thermal structures and geology, it seems likely that the hot springs are not related to rising asthenosphere, in the regions of shallow CPDs (∼16.5 km), and mostly hot springs are related to faulting systems in Inner East Anatolia.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kennedy, Jeffrey; Ferré, Ty P. A.; Creutzfeldt, Benjamin
2016-09-01
Groundwater-level measurements in monitoring wells or piezometers are the most common, and often the only, hydrologic measurements made at artificial recharge facilities. Measurements of gravity change over time provide an additional source of information about changes in groundwater storage, infiltration, and for model calibration. We demonstrate that for an artificial recharge facility with a deep groundwater table, gravity data are more sensitive to movement of water through the unsaturated zone than are groundwater levels. Groundwater levels have a delayed response to infiltration, change in a similar manner at many potential monitoring locations, and are heavily influenced by high-frequency noise induced by pumping; in contrast, gravity changes start immediately at the onset of infiltration and are sensitive to water in the unsaturated zone. Continuous gravity data can determine infiltration rate, and the estimate is only minimally affected by uncertainty in water-content change. Gravity data are also useful for constraining parameters in a coupled groundwater-unsaturated zone model (Modflow-NWT model with the Unsaturated Zone Flow (UZF) package).
Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Ferre, Ty P.A.; Creutzfeldt, Benjamin
2016-01-01
Groundwater-level measurements in monitoring wells or piezometers are the most common, and often the only, hydrologic measurements made at artificial recharge facilities. Measurements of gravity change over time provide an additional source of information about changes in groundwater storage, infiltration, and for model calibration. We demonstrate that for an artificial recharge facility with a deep groundwater table, gravity data are more sensitive to movement of water through the unsaturated zone than are groundwater levels. Groundwater levels have a delayed response to infiltration, change in a similar manner at many potential monitoring locations, and are heavily influenced by high-frequency noise induced by pumping; in contrast, gravity changes start immediately at the onset of infiltration and are sensitive to water in the unsaturated zone. Continuous gravity data can determine infiltration rate, and the estimate is only minimally affected by uncertainty in water-content change. Gravity data are also useful for constraining parameters in a coupled groundwater-unsaturated zone model (Modflow-NWT model with the Unsaturated Zone Flow (UZF) package).
Recent results on modelling the spatial and temporal structure of the Earth's gravity field.
Moore, P; Zhang, Q; Alothman, A
2006-04-15
The Earth's gravity field plays a central role in sea-level change. In the simplest application a precise gravity field will enable oceanographers to capitalize fully on the altimetric datasets collected over the past decade or more by providing a geoid from which absolute sea-level topography can be recovered. However, the concept of a static gravity field is now redundant as we can observe temporal variability in the geoid due to mass redistribution in or on the total Earth system. Temporal variability, associated with interactions between the land, oceans and atmosphere, can be investigated through mass redistributions with, for example, flow of water from the land being balanced by an increase in ocean mass. Furthermore, as ocean transport is an important contributor to the mass redistribution the time varying gravity field can also be used to validate Global Ocean Circulation models. This paper will review the recent history of static and temporal gravity field recovery, from the 1980s to the present day. In particular, mention will be made of the role of satellite laser ranging and other space tracking techniques, satellite altimetry and in situ gravity which formed the basis of gravity field determination until the last few years. With the launch of Challenging Microsatellite Payload and Gravity and Circulation Experiment (GRACE) our knowledge of the spatial distribution of the Earth's gravity field is taking a leap forward. Furthermore, GRACE is now providing insight into temporal variability through 'monthly' gravity field solutions. Prior to this data we relied on satellite tracking, Global Positioning System and geophysical models to give us insight into the temporal variability. We will consider results from these methodologies and compare them to preliminary results from the GRACE mission.
Space-Wise approach for airborne gravity data modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sampietro, D.; Capponi, M.; Mansi, A. H.; Gatti, A.; Marchetti, P.; Sansò, F.
2017-05-01
Regional gravity field modelling by means of remove-compute-restore procedure is nowadays widely applied in different contexts: it is the most used technique for regional gravimetric geoid determination, and it is also used in exploration geophysics to predict grids of gravity anomalies (Bouguer, free-air, isostatic, etc.), which are useful to understand and map geological structures in a specific region. Considering this last application, due to the required accuracy and resolution, airborne gravity observations are usually adopted. However, due to the relatively high acquisition velocity, presence of atmospheric turbulence, aircraft vibration, instrumental drift, etc., airborne data are usually contaminated by a very high observation error. For this reason, a proper procedure to filter the raw observations in both the low and high frequencies should be applied to recover valuable information. In this work, a software to filter and grid raw airborne observations is presented: the proposed solution consists in a combination of an along-track Wiener filter and a classical Least Squares Collocation technique. Basically, the proposed procedure is an adaptation to airborne gravimetry of the Space-Wise approach, developed by Politecnico di Milano to process data coming from the ESA satellite mission GOCE. Among the main differences with respect to the satellite application of this approach, there is the fact that, while in processing GOCE data the stochastic characteristics of the observation error can be considered a-priori well known, in airborne gravimetry, due to the complex environment in which the observations are acquired, these characteristics are unknown and should be retrieved from the dataset itself. The presented solution is suited for airborne data analysis in order to be able to quickly filter and grid gravity observations in an easy way. Some innovative theoretical aspects focusing in particular on the theoretical covariance modelling are presented too
High-resolution local gravity model of the south pole of the Moon from GRAIL extended mission data.
Goossens, Sander; Sabaka, Terence J; Nicholas, Joseph B; Lemoine, Frank G; Rowlands, David D; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A; Smith, David E; Zuber, Maria T
2014-05-28
We estimated a high-resolution local gravity field model over the south pole of the Moon using data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory's extended mission. Our solution consists of adjustments with respect to a global model expressed in spherical harmonics. The adjustments are expressed as gridded gravity anomalies with a resolution of 1/6° by 1/6° (equivalent to that of a degree and order 1080 model in spherical harmonics), covering a cap over the south pole with a radius of 40°. The gravity anomalies have been estimated from a short-arc analysis using only Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) data over the area of interest. We apply a neighbor-smoothing constraint to our solution. Our local model removes striping present in the global model; it reduces the misfit to the KBRR data and improves correlations with topography to higher degrees than current global models. We present a high-resolution gravity model of the south pole of the Moon Improved correlations with topography to higher degrees than global models Improved fits to the data and reduced striping that is present in global models.
High-resolution local gravity model of the south pole of the Moon from GRAIL extended mission data
Goossens, Sander; Sabaka, Terence J; Nicholas, Joseph B; Lemoine, Frank G; Rowlands, David D; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A; Smith, David E; Zuber, Maria T
2014-01-01
We estimated a high-resolution local gravity field model over the south pole of the Moon using data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory's extended mission. Our solution consists of adjustments with respect to a global model expressed in spherical harmonics. The adjustments are expressed as gridded gravity anomalies with a resolution of 1/6° by 1/6° (equivalent to that of a degree and order 1080 model in spherical harmonics), covering a cap over the south pole with a radius of 40°. The gravity anomalies have been estimated from a short-arc analysis using only Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) data over the area of interest. We apply a neighbor-smoothing constraint to our solution. Our local model removes striping present in the global model; it reduces the misfit to the KBRR data and improves correlations with topography to higher degrees than current global models. Key Points We present a high-resolution gravity model of the south pole of the Moon Improved correlations with topography to higher degrees than global models Improved fits to the data and reduced striping that is present in global models PMID:26074637
Modeling of Thermal Performance of Multiphase Nuclear Fuel Cell Under Variable Gravity Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ding, Z.; Anghaie, S.
1996-01-01
A unique numerical method has been developed to model the dynamic processes of bulk evaporation and condensation processes, associated with internal heat generation and natural convection under different gravity levels. The internal energy formulation, for the bulk liquid-vapor phase change problems in an encapsulated container, was employed. The equations, governing the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for both phases involved in phase change, were solved. The thermal performance of a multiphase uranium tetra-fluoride fuel element under zero gravity, micro-gravity and normal gravity conditions has been investigated. The modeling yielded results including the evolution of the bulk liquid-vapor phase change process, the evolution of the liquid-vapor interface, the formation and development of the liquid film covering the side wall surface, the temperature distribution and the convection flow field in the fuel element. The strong dependence of the thermal performance of such multiphase nuclear fuel cell on the gravity condition has been revealed. Under all three gravity conditions, 0-g, 10(exp -3)-g, and 1-g, the liquid film is formed and covers the entire side wall. The liquid film covering the side wall is more isothermalized at the wall surface, which can prevent the side wall from being over-heated. As the gravity increases, the liquid film is thinner, the temperature gradient is larger across the liquid film and smaller across the vapor phase. This investigation provides valuable information about the thermal performance of multi-phase nuclear fuel element for the potential space and ground applications.
Simplicity constraints: A 3D toy model for loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Charles, Christoph
2018-05-01
In loop quantum gravity, tremendous progress has been made using the Ashtekar-Barbero variables. These variables, defined in a gauge fixing of the theory, correspond to a parametrization of the solutions of the so-called simplicity constraints. Their geometrical interpretation is however unsatisfactory as they do not constitute a space-time connection. It would be possible to resolve this point by using a full Lorentz connection or, equivalently, by using the self-dual Ashtekar variables. This leads however to simplicity constraints or reality conditions which are notoriously difficult to implement in the quantum theory. We explore in this paper the possibility of using completely degenerate actions to impose such constraints at the quantum level in the context of canonical quantization. To do so, we define a simpler model, in 3D, with similar constraints by extending the phase space to include an independent vielbein. We define the classical model and show that a precise quantum theory by gauge unfixing can be defined out of it, completely equivalent to the standard 3D Euclidean quantum gravity. We discuss possible future explorations around this model as it could help as a stepping stone to define full-fledged covariant loop quantum gravity.
Dark Energy and Dark Matter from Emergent Gravity Picture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seok Yang, Hyun
2018-01-01
We suggest that dark energy and dark matter may be a cosmic uroboros of quantum gravity due to the coherent vacuum structure of spacetime. We apply the emergent gravity to a large N matrix model by considering the vacuum in the noncommutative (NC) Coulomb branch satisfying the Heisenberg algebra. We observe that UV fluctuations in the NC Coulomb branch are always paired with IR fluctuations and these UV/IR fluctuations can be extended to macroscopic scales. We show that space-like fluctuations give rise to the repulsive gravitational force while time-like fluctuations generate the attractive gravitational force. When considering the fact that the fluctuations are random in nature and we are living in the (3+1)-dimensional spacetime, the ratio of the repulsive and attractive components will end in ¾ : ¼= 75 : 25 and this ratio curiously coincides with the dark composition of our current Universe. If one includes ordinary matters which act as the attractive gravitational force, the emergent gravity may explain the dark sector of our Universe more precisely.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galanti, Eli; Durante, Daniele; Finocchiaro, Stefano; Iess, Luciano; Kaspi, Yohai
2017-07-01
The upcoming Juno spacecraft measurements have the potential of improving our knowledge of Jupiter’s gravity field. The analysis of the Juno Doppler data will provide a very accurate reconstruction of spatial gravity variations, but these measurements will be very accurate only over a limited latitudinal range. In order to deduce the full gravity field of Jupiter, additional information needs to be incorporated into the analysis, especially regarding the Jovian flow structure and its depth, which can influence the measured gravity field. In this study we propose a new iterative method for the estimation of the Jupiter gravity field, using a simulated Juno trajectory, a trajectory estimation model, and an adjoint-based inverse model for the flow dynamics. We test this method both for zonal harmonics only and with a full gravity field including tesseral harmonics. The results show that this method can fit some of the gravitational harmonics better to the “measured” harmonics, mainly because of the added information from the dynamical model, which includes the flow structure. Thus, it is suggested that the method presented here has the potential of improving the accuracy of the expected gravity harmonics estimated from the Juno and Cassini radio science experiments.
Galanti, Eli; Kaspi, Yohai; Durante, Daniele
The upcoming Juno spacecraft measurements have the potential of improving our knowledge of Jupiter’s gravity field. The analysis of the Juno Doppler data will provide a very accurate reconstruction of spatial gravity variations, but these measurements will be very accurate only over a limited latitudinal range. In order to deduce the full gravity field of Jupiter, additional information needs to be incorporated into the analysis, especially regarding the Jovian flow structure and its depth, which can influence the measured gravity field. In this study we propose a new iterative method for the estimation of the Jupiter gravity field, using a simulatedmore » Juno trajectory, a trajectory estimation model, and an adjoint-based inverse model for the flow dynamics. We test this method both for zonal harmonics only and with a full gravity field including tesseral harmonics. The results show that this method can fit some of the gravitational harmonics better to the “measured” harmonics, mainly because of the added information from the dynamical model, which includes the flow structure. Thus, it is suggested that the method presented here has the potential of improving the accuracy of the expected gravity harmonics estimated from the Juno and Cassini radio science experiments.« less
3D joint inversion of gravity-gradient and borehole gravity data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geng, Meixia; Yang, Qingjie; Huang, Danian
2017-12-01
Borehole gravity is increasingly used in mineral exploration due to the advent of slim-hole gravimeters. Given the full-tensor gradiometry data available nowadays, joint inversion of surface and borehole data is a logical next step. Here, we base our inversions on cokriging, which is a geostatistical method of estimation where the error variance is minimised by applying cross-correlation between several variables. In this study, the density estimates are derived using gravity-gradient data, borehole gravity and known densities along the borehole as a secondary variable and the density as the primary variable. Cokriging is non-iterative and therefore is computationally efficient. In addition, cokriging inversion provides estimates of the error variance for each model, which allows direct assessment of the inverse model. Examples are shown involving data from a single borehole, from multiple boreholes, and combinations of borehole gravity and gravity-gradient data. The results clearly show that the depth resolution of gravity-gradient inversion can be improved significantly by including borehole data in addition to gravity-gradient data. However, the resolution of borehole data falls off rapidly as the distance between the borehole and the feature of interest increases. In the case where the borehole is far away from the target of interest, the inverted result can be improved by incorporating gravity-gradient data, especially all five independent components for inversion.
Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Oberdörster, Gunter
2006-06-01
Inhalation of particles generated as a result of thermal degradation from fire or smoke, as may occur on spacecraft, is of major health concern to space-faring countries. Knowledge of lung airflow and particle transport under different gravity environments is required to addresses this concern by providing information on particle deposition. Gravity affects deposition of particles in the lung in two ways. First, the airflow distribution among airways is changed in different gravity environments. Second, particle losses by sedimentation are enhanced with increasing gravity. In this study, a model of airflow distribution in the lung that accounts for the influence of gravity was used for a mathematical description of particle deposition in the human lung to calculate lobar, regional, and local deposition of particles in different gravity environments. The lung geometry used in the mathematical model contained five lobes that allowed the assessment of lobar ventilation distribution and variation of particle deposition. At zero gravity, it was predicted that all lobes of the lung expanded and contracted uniformly, independent of body position. Increased gravity in the upright position increased the expansion of the upper lobes and decreased expansion of the lower lobes. Despite a slight increase in predicted deposition of ultrafine particles in the upper lobes with decreasing gravity, deposition of ultrafine particles was generally predicted to be unaffected by gravity. Increased gravity increased predicted deposition of fine and coarse particles in the tracheobronchial region, but that led to a reduction or even elimination of deposition in the alveolar region for coarse particles. The results from this study show that existing mathematical models of particle deposition at 1 G can be extended to different gravity environments by simply correcting for a gravity constant. Controlled studies in astronauts on future space missions are needed to validate these predictions.
Extinguishment of a Diffusion Flame Over a PMMA Cylinder by Depressurization in Reduced-Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldmeer, Jeffrey Scott
1996-01-01
Extinction of a diffusion flame burning over horizontal PMMA (Polymethyl methacrylate) cylinders in low-gravity was examined experimentally and via numerical simulations. Low-gravity conditions were obtained using the NASA Lewis Research Center's reduced-gravity aircraft. The effects of velocity and pressure on the visible flame were examined. The flammability of the burning solid was examined as a function of pressure and the solid-phase centerline temperature. As the solid temperature increased, the extinction pressure decreased, and with a centerline temperature of 525 K, the flame was sustained to 0.1 atmospheres before extinguishing. The numerical simulation iteratively coupled a two-dimensional quasi-steady, gas-phase model with a transient solid-phase model which included conductive heat transfer and surface regression. This model employed an energy balance at the gas/solid interface that included the energy conducted by the gas-phase to the gas/solid interface, Arrhenius pyrolysis kinetics, surface radiation, and the energy conducted into the solid. The ratio of the solid and gas-phase conductive fluxes Phi was a boundary condition for the gas-phase model at the solid-surface. Initial simulations modeled conditions similar to the low-gravity experiments and predicted low-pressure extinction limits consistent with the experimental limits. Other simulations examined the effects of velocity, depressurization rate and Phi on extinction.
Remanent magnetization and 3-dimensional density model of the Kentucky anomaly region
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayhew, M. A.; Estes, R. H.; Myers, D. M.
1984-01-01
A three-dimensional model of the Kentucky body was developed to fit surface gravity and long wavelength aeromagnetic data. Magnetization and density parameters for the model are much like those of Mayhew et al (1982). The magnetic anomaly due to the model at satellite altitude is shown to be much too small by itself to account for the anomaly measured by Magsat. It is demonstrated that the source region for the satellite anomaly is considerably more extensive than the Kentucky body sensu stricto. The extended source region is modeled first using prismatic model sources and then using dipole array sources. Magnetization directions for the source region found by inversion of various combinations of scalar and vector data are found to be close to the main field direction, implying the lack of a strong remanent component. It is shown by simulation that in a case (such as this) where the geometry of the source is known, if a strong remanent component is present its direction is readily detectable, but by scalar data as readily as vector data.
Observation and Modeling of Tsunami-Generated Gravity Waves in the Earth’s Upper Atmosphere
2015-10-08
Observation and modeling of tsunami -generated gravity waves in the earth’s upper atmosphere 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...ABSTRACT Build a compatible set of models which 1) calculate the spectrum of atmospheric GWs excited by a tsunami (using ocean model data as input...for public release; distribution is unlimited. Observation and modeling of tsunami -generated gravity waves in the earth’s upper atmosphere Sharon
Extended DBI massive gravity with generalized fiducial metric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chullaphan, Tossaporn; Tannukij, Lunchakorn; Wongjun, Pitayuth
2015-06-01
We consider an extended model of DBI massive gravity by generalizing the fiducial metric to be an induced metric on the brane corresponding to a domain wall moving in five-dimensional Schwarzschild-Anti-de Sitter spacetime. The model admits all solutions of FLRW metric including flat, closed and open geometries while the original one does not. The background solutions can be divided into two branches namely self-accelerating branch and normal branch. For the self-accelerating branch, the graviton mass plays the role of cosmological constant to drive the late-time acceleration of the universe. It is found that the number degrees of freedom of gravitational sector is not correct similar to the original DBI massive gravity. There are only two propagating degrees of freedom from tensor modes. For normal branch, we restrict our attention to a particular class of the solutions which provides an accelerated expansion of the universe. It is found that the number of degrees of freedom in the model is correct. However, at least one of them is ghost degree of freedom which always present at small scale implying that the theory is not stable.
Parameterizing Gravity Waves and Understanding Their Impacts on Venus' Upper Atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brecht, A. S.; Bougher, S. W.; Yigit, Erdal
2018-01-01
The complexity of Venus’ upper atmospheric circulation is still being investigated. Simulations of Venus’ upper atmosphere largely depend on the utility of Rayleigh Friction (RF) as a driver and necessary process to reproduce observations (i.e. temperature, density, nightglow emission). Currently, there are additional observations which provide more constraints to help characterize the driver(s) of the circulation. This work will largely focus on the impact parameterized gravity waves have on Venus’ upper atmosphere circulation within a three dimensional hydrodynamic model (Venus Thermospheric General Circulation Model).
Skeletal Structural Consequences of Reduced Gravity Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ruff, Christropher B.
1999-01-01
The overall goal of this project is to provide structurally meaningful data on bone loss after exposure to reduced gravity environments so that more precise estimates of fracture risk and the effectiveness of countermeasures in reducing fracture risk can be developed. The project has three major components: (1) measure structural changes in the limb bones of rats subjected to complete and partial nonweightbearing, with and without treatment with ibandronate and periodic full weightbearing; (2) measure structural changes in the limb bones of human bedrest subjects, with and without treatment with alendronate and resistive exercise, and Russian cosmonauts flying on the Mir Space Station; and (3) validate and extend the 2-dimensional structural analyses currently possible in the second project component (bedrest and Mir subjects) using 3-dimensional finite element modeling techniques, and determine actual fracture-producing loads on earth and in space.
Sparse High Dimensional Models in Economics
Fan, Jianqing; Lv, Jinchi; Qi, Lei
2010-01-01
This paper reviews the literature on sparse high dimensional models and discusses some applications in economics and finance. Recent developments of theory, methods, and implementations in penalized least squares and penalized likelihood methods are highlighted. These variable selection methods are proved to be effective in high dimensional sparse modeling. The limits of dimensionality that regularization methods can handle, the role of penalty functions, and their statistical properties are detailed. Some recent advances in ultra-high dimensional sparse modeling are also briefly discussed. PMID:22022635
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chau, Jessica Furrer; Or, Dani; Sukop, Michael C.; Steinberg, S. L. (Principal Investigator)
2005-01-01
Liquid distributions in unsaturated porous media under different gravitational accelerations and corresponding macroscopic gaseous diffusion coefficients were investigated to enhance understanding of plant growth conditions in microgravity. We used a single-component, multiphase lattice Boltzmann code to simulate liquid configurations in two-dimensional porous media at varying water contents for different gravity conditions and measured gas diffusion through the media using a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann code. The relative diffusion coefficients (D rel) for simulations with and without gravity as functions of air-filled porosity were in good agreement with measured data and established models. We found significant differences in liquid configuration in porous media, leading to reductions in D rel of up to 25% under zero gravity. The study highlights potential applications of the lattice Boltzmann method for rapid and cost-effective evaluation of alternative plant growth media designs under variable gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wińska, Małgorzata; Nastula, Jolanta
2017-04-01
Large scale mass redistribution and its transport within the Earth system causes changes in the Earth's rotation in space, gravity field and Earth's ellipsoid shape. These changes are observed in the ΔC21, ΔS21, and ΔC20 spherical harmonics gravity coefficients, which are proportional to the mass load-induced Earth rotational excitations. In this study, linear trend, decadal, inter-annual, and seasonal variations of low degree spherical harmonics coefficients of Earth's gravity field, determined from different space geodetic techniques, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), satellite laser ranging (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), Earth rotation, and climate models, are examined. In this way, the contribution of each measurement technique to interpreting the low degree surface mass density of the Earth is shown. Especially, we evaluate an usefulness of several climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) to determine the low degree Earth's gravity coefficients using GRACE satellite observations. To do that, Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) changes from several CMIP5 climate models are determined and then these simulated data are compared with the GRACE observations. Spherical harmonics ΔC21, ΔS21, and ΔC20 changes are calculated as the sum of atmosphere and ocean mass effect (GAC values) taken from GRACE and a land surface hydrological estimate from the selected CMIP5 climate models. Low degree Stokes coefficients of the surface mass density determined from GRACE, SLR, GNSS, Earth rotation measurements and climate models are compared to each other in order to assess their consistency. The comparison is done by using different types of statistical and signal processing methods.
Test Frame for Gravity Offload Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murray, Alexander R.
2005-01-01
Advances in space telescope and aperture technology have created a need to launch larger structures into space. Traditional truss structures will be too heavy and bulky to be effectively used in the next generation of space-based structures. Large deployable structures are a possible solution. By packaging deployable trusses, the cargo volume of these large structures greatly decreases. The ultimate goal is to three dimensionally measure a boom's deployment in simulated microgravity. This project outlines the construction of the test frame that supports a gravity offload system. The test frame is stable enough to hold the gravity offload system and does not interfere with deployment of, or vibrations in, the deployable test boom. The natural frequencies and stability of the frame were engineered in FEMAP. The test frame was developed to have natural frequencies that would not match the first two modes of the deployable beam. The frame was then modeled in Solidworks and constructed. The test frame constructed is a stable base to perform studies on deployable structures.
High-accuracy 3D Fourier forward modeling of gravity field based on the Gauss-FFT technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Guangdong; Chen, Bo; Chen, Longwei; Liu, Jianxin; Ren, Zhengyong
2018-03-01
The 3D Fourier forward modeling of 3D density sources is capable of providing 3D gravity anomalies coincided with the meshed density distribution within the whole source region. This paper firstly derives a set of analytical expressions through employing 3D Fourier transforms for calculating the gravity anomalies of a 3D density source approximated by right rectangular prisms. To reduce the errors due to aliasing and imposed periodicity as well as edge effects in the Fourier domain modeling, we develop the 3D Gauss-FFT technique to the 3D gravity anomalies forward modeling. The capability and adaptability of this scheme are tested by simple synthetic models. The results show that the accuracy of the Fourier forward methods using the Gauss-FFT with 4 Gaussian-nodes (or more) is comparable to that of the spatial modeling. In addition, the "ghost" source effects in the 3D Fourier forward gravity field due to imposed periodicity of the standard FFT algorithm are remarkably depressed by the application of the 3D Gauss-FFT algorithm. More importantly, the execution times of the 4 nodes Gauss-FFT modeling are reduced by two orders of magnitude compared with the spatial forward method. It demonstrates that the improved Fourier method is an efficient and accurate forward modeling tool for the gravity field.
Study of two-phase flows in reduced gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Tirthankar
have been done in the past to understand the global structure of gas-liquid two-phase flows under reduced gravity conditions, using experimental setups aboard drop towers or aircrafts flying parabolic flights, detailed data on local structure of such two-phase flows are extremely rare. Hence experiments were carried out in a 304 mm inner diameter (ID) test facility on earth. Keeping in mind the detailed experimental data base that needs to be generated to evaluate two-fluid model along with IATE, ground based simulations provide the only economic path. Here the reduced gravity condition is simulated using two-liquids of similar densities (water and Therminol 59 RTM in the present case). Only adiabatic two-phase flows were concentrated on at this initial stage. Such a large diameter test section was chosen to study the development of drops to their full extent (it is to be noted that under reduced gravity conditions the stable bubble size in gas-liquid two-phase flows is much larger than that at normal gravity conditions). Twelve flow conditions were chosen around predicted bubbly flow to cap-bubbly flow transition region. Detailed local data was obtained at ten radial locations for each of three axial locations using state-of-the art multi-sensor conductivity probes. The results are presented and discussed. Also one-group as well as two-group, steady state, one-dimensional IATE was evaluated against data obtained here and by other researchers, and the results presented and discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Best, John A.; Barazangi, Muawia; Al-Saad, Damen; Sawaf, Tarif; Gebran, Ali
1990-12-01
This study examines the crustal structure of the Palmyrides and the northern Arabian platform in Syria by two- and three-dimensional modeling of the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Results of the gravity modeling indicate that (1) western Syria is composed of at least two different crustal blocks, (2) the southern crustal block is penetrated by a series of crustal-scale, high-density intrusive complexes, and (3) short-wavelength gravity anomalies in the southwest part of the mountain belt are clearly related to basement structure. The crustal thickness in Syria, as modeled on the gravity profiles, is approximately 40 ±4 km, which is similar to crustal thicknesses interpreted from refraction data in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The different crustal blocks and large-scale mafic intrusions are best explained, though not uniquely, by Proterozoic convergence and suturing and early Paleozoic rifting, as interpreted in the exposed rocks of the Arabian shield. These two processes, combined with documented Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic transpression, compose the crustal evolution of the northern Arabian platform beneath Syria.
High-resolution Local Gravity Model of the South Pole of the Moon from GRAIL Extended Mission Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goossens, Sander Johannes; Sabaka, Terence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Rowlands, David D.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.
2014-01-01
We estimated a high-resolution local gravity field model over the south pole of the Moon using data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory's extended mission. Our solution consists of adjustments with respect to a global model expressed in spherical harmonics. The adjustments are expressed as gridded gravity anomalies with a resolution of 1/6deg by 1/6deg (equivalent to that of a degree and order 1080 model in spherical harmonics), covering a cap over the south pole with a radius of 40deg. The gravity anomalies have been estimated from a short-arc analysis using only Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) data over the area of interest. We apply a neighbor-smoothing constraint to our solution. Our local model removes striping present in the global model; it reduces the misfit to the KBRR data and improves correlations with topography to higher degrees than current global models.
Gravitational field of static p -branes in linearized ghost-free gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boos, Jens; Frolov, Valeri P.; Zelnikov, Andrei
2018-04-01
We study the gravitational field of static p -branes in D -dimensional Minkowski space in the framework of linearized ghost-free (GF) gravity. The concrete models of GF gravity we consider are parametrized by the nonlocal form factors exp (-□/μ2) and exp (□2/μ4) , where μ-1 is the scale of nonlocality. We show that the singular behavior of the gravitational field of p -branes in general relativity is cured by short-range modifications introduced by the nonlocalities, and we derive exact expressions of the regularized gravitational fields, whose geometry can be written as a warped metric. For large distances compared to the scale of nonlocality, μ r →∞ , our solutions approach those found in linearized general relativity.
Development and analysis of a twelfth degree and order gravity model for Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Christensen, E. J.; Balmino, G.
1979-01-01
Satellite geodesy techniques previously applied to artificial earth satellites have been extended to obtain a high-resolution gravity field for Mars. Two-way Doppler data collected by 10 Deep Space Network (DSN) stations during Mariner 9 and Viking 1 and 2 missions have been processed to obtain a twelfth degree and order spherical harmonic model for the martian gravitational potential. The quality of this model was evaluated by examining the rms residuals within the fit and the ability of the model to predict the spacecraft state beyond the fit. Both indicators show that more data and higher degree and order harmonics will be required to further refine our knowledge of the martian gravity field. The model presented shows much promise, since it resolves local gravity features which correlate highly with the martian topography. An isostatic analysis based on this model, as well as an error analysis, shows rather complete compensation on a global (long wavelength) scale. Though further model refinements are necessary to be certain, local (short wavelength) features such as the shield volcanos in Tharsis appear to be uncompensated. These are interpreted to place some bounds on the internal structure of Mars.
Extra-dimensional models on the lattice
Knechtli, Francesco; Rinaldi, Enrico
2016-08-05
In this paper we summarize the ongoing effort to study extra-dimensional gauge theories with lattice simulations. In these models the Higgs field is identified with extra-dimensional components of the gauge field. The Higgs potential is generated by quantum corrections and is protected from divergences by the higher dimensional gauge symmetry. Dimensional reduction to four dimensions can occur through compactification or localization. Gauge-Higgs unification models are often studied using perturbation theory. Numerical lattice simulations are used to go beyond these perturbative expectations and to include nonperturbative effects. We describe the known perturbative predictions and their fate in the strongly-coupled regime formore » various extra-dimensional models.« less
Self-Organized Critical Behavior:. the Evolution of Frozen Spin Networks Model in Quantum Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jian-Zhen; Zhu, Jian-Yang
In quantum gravity, we study the evolution of a two-dimensional planar open frozen spin network, in which the color (i.e. the twice spin of an edge) labeling edge changes but the underlying graph remains fixed. The mainly considered evolution rule, the random edge model, is depending on choosing an edge randomly and changing the color of it by an even integer. Since the change of color generally violate the gauge invariance conditions imposed on the system, detailed propagation rule is needed and it can be defined in many ways. Here, we provided one new propagation rule, in which the involved even integer is not a constant one as in previous works, but changeable with certain probability. In random edge model, we do find the evolution of the system under the propagation rule exhibits power-law behavior, which is suggestive of the self-organized criticality (SOC), and it is the first time to verify the SOC behavior in such evolution model for the frozen spin network. Furthermore, the increase of the average color of the spin network in time can show the nature of inflation for the universe.
The response of plasma density to breaking inertial gravity wave in the lower regions of ionosphere
Tang, Wenbo, E-mail: Wenbo.Tang@asu.edu; Mahalov, Alex, E-mail: Alex.Mahalov@asu.edu
2014-04-15
We present a three-dimensional numerical study for the E and lower F region ionosphere coupled with the neutral atmosphere dynamics. This model is developed based on a previous ionospheric model that examines the transport patterns of plasma density given a prescribed neutral atmospheric flow. Inclusion of neutral dynamics in the model allows us to examine the charge-neutral interactions over the full evolution cycle of an inertial gravity wave when the background flow spins up from rest, saturates and eventually breaks. Using Lagrangian analyses, we show the mixing patterns of the ionospheric responses and the formation of ionospheric layers. The correspondingmore » plasma density in this flow develops complex wave structures and small-scale patches during the gravity wave breaking event.« less
Mars - Hellas Planitia gravity analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sjogren, W. L.; Wimberley, R. N.
1981-01-01
Doppler radio tracking data from Viking Orbiter 1 has provided new detailed observations of gravity variations over Hellas Planitia. Line-of-sight Bouguer gravity definitely indicates that isostatic adjustment has occurred. Two theoretical models were tested to obtain fits to the gravity data. Results for a surface deficit model, and a model with a surface deficit and a mass excess at depth are displayed. The mass-at-depth model produced very marked improvement in the data fit as compared to the surface deficit model. The optimum depth for the mass excess is 130 km.
The report of the Gravity Field Workshop
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, D. E.
1982-04-01
A Gravity Field Workshop was convened to review the actions which could be taken prior to a GRAVSAT mission to improve the Earth's gravity field model. This review focused on the potential improvements in the Earth's gravity field which could be obtained using the current satellite and surface gravity data base. In particular, actions to improve the quality of the gravity field determination through refined measurement corrections, selected data augmentation and a more accurate reprocessing of the data were considered. In addition, recommendations were formulated which define actions which NASA should take to develop the necessary theoretical and computation techniques for gravity model determination and to use these approaches to improve the accuracy of the Earth's gravity model.
New Interpretations of the Rayn Anticlines in the Arabian Basin Inferred from Gravity Modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
AlMogren, S. M.; Mukhopadhyay, M.
2014-12-01
The Ryan Anticlines comprise of a regularly-spaced set of super-giant anticlines oriented NNW, developed due to E-W compression in the Arabian Basin. Most prominent of these being: the Ghawar Anticline, followed by the Summan, Khurais Anticlines and Qatar Arch. Gravity anomaly is largely characteristic for both Ryan Anticlines and its smaller size version the Jinadriah Anticline in the Riyadh Salt Basin. It displays a bipolar gravity field - a zone of gravity high running along the fold axis that is flanked by asymmetric gravity lows. Available structural models commonly infer structural uplift for the median gravity high but ignore the flanking lows. Here we interpret the bipolar gravity anomaly due primarily to such anticline structures, while, the flanking gravity lows are due to greater sediment thickness largely compacted and deformed over the basement depressions. Further complexities are created due to the salt layer and its migration at the lower horizons of sediment strata. Such diagnostic gravity anomaly pattern is taken here as an evidence for basement tectonics due to prevailing crustal dynamics in the Arabian Basin. Density inversion provides details on the subsurface density variation due to the folding and structural configuration for the sediment layers, including the salt layer, affected by basement deformation. This interpretation is largely supported by gravity forward and inversion models given in the present study what is partly constrained by the available seismic, MT and deep resistivity lines and surface geologic mapping. Most of the oil-gas fields in this part of the Arabian Basin are further known for salt diapirism. In this study the gravity interpretation help in identification of salt diapirism directly overlying the basement is firstly given here for Jinadriah Anticline; that is next extended to a regional geologic cross-section traversing the Ryan Anticlines to infer probable subsurface continuation of salt diapirs directly overlying
Surface Gravity Data Contribution to the Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands Geoid Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, X.; Gerhards, C.; Holmes, S. A.; Saleh, J.; Shaw, B.
2015-12-01
The Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) project provides updated local gravity field information for the XGEOID15 models. In particular, its airborne gravity data in the area of Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands (PRVI) made substantial improvements (~60%) on the precision of the geoid models at the local GNSS/Leveling bench marks in the target area. Fortunately, PRVI is free of the huge systematic error in the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88). Thus, the airborne contribution was evaluated more realistically. In addition, the airborne data picked up more detailed gravity field information in the medium wavelength band (spherical harmonic degree 200 to 600) that are largely beyond the resolution of the current satellite missions, especially along the nearby ocean trench areas. Under this circumstance (significant airborne contributions in the medium band), local surface gravity data need to be examined more carefully than before during merging with the satellite and airborne information for local geoid improvement, especially considering the well-known systematic problems in the NGS historical gravity holdings (Saleh et al 2013 JoG). Initial tests showed that it is very important to maintain high consistency between the surface data sets and the airborne enhanced reference model. In addition, a new aggregation method (Gerhards 2014, Inverse Problems) will also be tested to optimally combine the local surface data with the reference model. The data cleaning and combining procedures in the target area will be summarized here as reference for future applications.
Time-dependent gravity in southern California, May 1974 - Apr 1979
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitcomb, J. H.; Franzen, W. O.; Given, J. W.; Pechman, J. C.; Ruff, L. J.
1979-01-01
Gravity measurements were coordinated with the long baseline three dimensional geodetic measurements of the Astronomical Radio Interferometric Earth Surveying project which used radio interferometry with extra-galactic radio sources. Gravity data from 28 of the stations had a single reading standard deviation of 11 microgal which gives a relative single determination between stations a standard deviation of 16 microgal. The largest gravity variation observed, 80 microgal, correlated with nearby waterwell variations and with smoothed rainfall. Smoothed rainfall data appeared to be a good indicator of the qualitative response of gravity to changing groundwater levels at other suprasediment stations, but frequent measurement of gravity at a station was essential until the quantitative calibration of the station's response to groundwater variations was accomplished.
Using the Gravity Model to Estimate the Spatial Spread of Vector-Borne Diseases
Barrios, José Miguel; Verstraeten, Willem W.; Maes, Piet; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Farifteh, Jamshid; Coppin, Pol
2012-01-01
The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have been widely applied in a large set of domains dealing with interactions amongst spatial entities. The spread of vector-borne diseases is also related to the intensity of interaction between spatial entities, namely, the physical habitat of pathogens’ vectors and/or hosts, and urban areas, thus humans. This study implements the concept behind gravity models in the spatial spread of two vector-borne diseases, nephropathia epidemica and Lyme borreliosis, based on current knowledge on the transmission mechanism of these diseases. Two sources of information on vegetated systems were tested: the CORINE land cover map and MODIS NDVI. The size of vegetated areas near urban centers and a local indicator of occupation-related exposure were found significant predictors of disease risk. Both the land cover map and the space-borne dataset were suited yet not equivalent input sources to locate and measure vegetated areas of importance for disease spread. The overall results point at the compatibility of the gravity model concept and the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases. PMID:23202882
Using the gravity model to estimate the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases.
Barrios, José Miguel; Verstraeten, Willem W; Maes, Piet; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Farifteh, Jamshid; Coppin, Pol
2012-11-30
The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have been widely applied in a large set of domains dealing with interactions amongst spatial entities. The spread of vector-borne diseases is also related to the intensity of interaction between spatial entities, namely, the physical habitat of pathogens’ vectors and/or hosts, and urban areas, thus humans. This study implements the concept behind gravity models in the spatial spread of two vector-borne diseases, nephropathia epidemica and Lyme borreliosis, based on current knowledge on the transmission mechanism of these diseases. Two sources of information on vegetated systems were tested: the CORINE land cover map and MODIS NDVI. The size of vegetated areas near urban centers and a local indicator of occupation-related exposure were found significant predictors of disease risk. Both the land cover map and the space-borne dataset were suited yet not equivalent input sources to locate and measure vegetated areas of importance for disease spread. The overall results point at the compatibility of the gravity model concept and the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases.
3D free-air gravity anomaly modeling for the Southeast Indian Ridge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Girolami, Chiara; Heyde, Ingo; Rinaldo Barchi, Massimiliano; Pauselli, Cristina
2016-04-01
In this study we analyzed the free-air gravity anomalies measured on the northwestern part of the Southeast Indian Ridge (hereafter SEIR) during the BGR cruise INDEX2012 with RV FUGRO GAUSS. The survey area covered the ridge from the Rodriguez Triple Junction along about 500 km towards the SSE direction. Gravity and magnetic data were measured along 65 profiles with a mean length of 60 km running approximately perpendicular to the ridge axis. The final gravity data were evaluated every 20 seconds along each profile. This results in a sampling interval of about 100 m. The mean spacing of the profiles is about 7 km. Together with the geophysical data also the bathymetry was measured along all profiles with a Kongsberg Simrad EM122 multibeam echosounder system. Previous studies reveal that the part of the ridge covered by the high resolution profiles is characterized by young geologic events (the oldest one dates back to 1 Ma) and that the SEIR is an intermediate spreading ridge. We extended the length of each profile to the area outside the ridge, integrating INDEX2012 high resolution gravity and bathymetric data with low resolution data derived from satellite radar altimeter measurements. The 3D forward gravity modeling made it possible to reconstruct a rough crustal density model for an extended area (about 250000 km2) of the SEIR. We analyzed the gravity signal along those 2D sections which cross particular geological features (uplifted areas, accommodation zones, hydrothermal fields and areas with hints for extensional processes e.g. OCCs) in order to establish a correlation between the gravity anomaly signal and the surface geology. We started with a simple "layer-cake" geologic model consisting of four density bodies which represent the sea, upper oceanic crust, lower oceanic crust and the upper mantle. Considering that in the study area the oceanic crust is young, we did not include the sediment layer. We assumed the density values of these bodies considering
Numerical Modeling of Three-Dimensional Fluid Flow with Phase Change
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Esmaeeli, Asghar; Arpaci, Vedat
1999-01-01
We present a numerical method to compute phase change dynamics of three-dimensional deformable bubbles. The full Navier-Stokes and energy equations are solved for both phases by a front tracking/finite difference technique. The fluid boundary is explicitly tracked by discrete points that are connected by triangular elements to form a front that is used to keep the stratification of material properties sharp and to calculate the interfacial source terms. Two simulations are presented to show robustness of the method in handling complex phase boundaries. In the first case, growth of a vapor bubble in zero gravity is studied where large volume increase of the bubble is managed by adaptively increasing the front resolution. In the second case, growth of a bubble under high gravity is studied where indentation at the rear of the bubble results in a region of large curvature which challenges the front tracking in three dimensions.
The middeck 0-gravity dynamics experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crawley, Edward F.; Vanschoor, Marthinus C.; Bokhour, Edward B.
1993-01-01
The Middeck 0-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), flown onboard the Shuttle STS-48 Mission, consists of three major elements: the Experiment Support Module, a dynamics test bed providing computer experiment control, analog signal conditioning, power conditioning, an operator interface consisting of a keypad and display, experiment electrical and thermal control, and archival data storage: the Fluid Test Article assembly, used to investigate the dynamics of fluid-structure interaction in 0-gravity; and the Structural Test Article for investigating the open-loop dynamics of structures in 0-gravity. Deployable, erectable, and rotary modules were assembled to form three one- and two-dimensional structures, in which variations in bracing wire and rotary joint preload could be introduced. Change in linear modal parameters as well as the change in nonlinear nature of the response is examined. Trends in modal parameters are presented as a function of force amplitude, joint preload, and ambient gravity. An experimental study of the lateral slosh behavior of contained fluids is also presented. A comparison of the measured earth and space results identifies and highlights the effects of gravity on the linear and nonlinear slosh behavior of these fluids.
Gravity and Nonconservative Force Model Tuning for the GEOSAT Follow-On Spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemoine, Frank G.; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Rowlands, David D.; Luthcke, Scott B.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Marr, Gregory C.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
The US Navy's GEOSAT Follow-On spacecraft was launched on February 10, 1998 and the primary objective of the mission was to map the oceans using a radar altimeter. Three radar altimeter calibration campaigns have been conducted in 1999 and 2000. The spacecraft is tracked by satellite laser ranging (SLR) and Doppler beacons and a limited amount of data have been obtained from the Global Positioning Receiver (GPS) on board the satellite. Even with EGM96, the predicted radial orbit error due to gravity field mismodelling (to 70x70) remains high at 2.61 cm (compared to 0.88 cm for TOPEX). We report on the preliminary gravity model tuning for GFO using SLR, and altimeter crossover data. Preliminary solutions using SLR and GFO/GFO crossover data from CalVal campaigns I and II in June-August 1999, and January-February 2000 have reduced the predicted radial orbit error to 1.9 cm and further reduction will be possible when additional data are added to the solutions. The gravity model tuning has improved principally the low order m-daily terms and has reduced significantly the geographically correlated error present in this satellite orbit. In addition to gravity field mismodelling, the largest contributor to the orbit error is the non-conservative force mismodelling. We report on further nonconservative force model tuning results using available data from over one cycle in beta prime.
Observational effects of varying speed of light in quadratic gravity cosmological models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Izadi, Azam; Shacker, Shadi Sajedi; Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Banerjee, Robi
We study different manifestations of the speed of light in theories of gravity where metric and connection are regarded as independent fields. We find that for a generic gravity theory in a frame with locally vanishing affine connection, the usual degeneracy between different manifestations of the speed of light is broken. In particular, the space-time causal structure constant (cST) may become variable in that local frame. For theories of the form f(ℛ,ℛμνℛ μν), this variation in cST has an impact on the definition of the luminosity distance (and distance modulus), which can be used to confront the predictions of particular models against Supernovae type Ia (SN Ia) data. We carry out this test for a quadratic gravity model without cosmological constant assuming (i) a constant speed of light and (ii) a varying speed of light (VSL), and find that the latter scenario is favored by the data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, Hans G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Huang, F. T.
2010-01-01
As Lindzen (1981) had shown, small-scale gravity waves (GW) produce the observed reversals of the zonal-mean circulation and temperature variations in the upper mesosphere. The waves also play a major role in modulating and amplifying the diurnal tides (DT) (e.g., Waltersheid, 1981; Fritts and Vincent, 1987; Fritts, 1995a). We summarize here the modeling studies with the mechanistic numerical spectral model (NSM) with Doppler spread parameterization for GW (Hines, 1997a, b), which describes in the middle atmosphere: (a) migrating and non-migrating DT, (b) planetary waves (PW), and (c) global-scale inertio gravity waves. Numerical experiments are discussed that illuminate the influence of GW filtering and nonlinear interactions between DT, PW, and zonal mean variations. Keywords: Theoretical modeling, Middle atmosphere dynamics, Gravity wave interactions, Migrating and non-migrating tides, Planetary waves, Global-scale inertio gravity waves.
High-fidelity gravity modeling applied to spacecraft trajectories and lunar interior analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chappaz, Loic P. R.
As the complexity and boldness of emerging mission proposals increase, and with the rapid evolution of the available computational capabilities, high-accuracy and high-resolution gravity models and the tools to exploit such models are increasingly attractive within the context of spaceflight mechanics, mission design and analysis, and planetary science in general. First, in trajectory design applications, a gravity representation for the bodies of interest is, in general, assumed and exploited to determine the motion of a spacecraft in any given system. The focus is the exploration of trajectories in the vicinity of a system comprised of two small irregular bodies. Within this context, the primary bodies are initially modeled as massive ellipsoids and tools to construct third-body trajectories are developed. However, these dynamical models are idealized representations of the actual dynamical regime and do not account for any perturbing effects. Thus, a robust strategy to maintain a spacecraft near reference third-body trajectories is constructed. Further, it is important to assess the perturbing effect that dominates the dynamics of the spacecraft in such a region as a function of the baseline orbit. Alternatively, the motion of the spacecraft around a given body may be known to extreme precision enabling the derivation of a very high-accuracy gravity field for that body. Such knowledge can subsequently be exploited to gain insight into specific properties of the body. The success of the NASA's GRAIL mission ensures that the highest resolution and most accurate gravity data for the Moon is now available. In the GRAIL investigation, the focus is on the specific task of detecting the presence and extent of subsurface features, such as empty lava tubes beneath the mare surface. In addition to their importance for understanding the emplacement of the mare flood basalts, open lava tubes are of interest as possible habitation sites safe from cosmic radiation and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimura, M.; Kame, N.; Watada, S.; Ohtani, M.; Araya, A.; Imanishi, Y.; Ando, M.; Kunugi, T.
2017-12-01
Seismic waves radiated from an earthquake rupture induces density perturbations of the medium, which in turn generates prompt gravity changes at all distances before the arrival of seismic waves. Detection of the gravity signal before the seismic one is a challenge in seismology. In this study, we searched for the prompt gravity changes from the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in data recorded by gravimeters, seismometers, and tiltmeters. Predicted changes from the currently used simplified model were not identified using band-pass filtering and multi-station stacking even though sufficient signal-to-noise ratios were achieved. Our data analysis raised discrepancy between the data and the theoretical model. To interpret the absence of signals in the data, we investigated the effect of self-gravity deformation on the measurement of gravitational acceleration, which has been ignored in the existing theory. We analytically calculated the displacement of the observation station induced by the prompt gravity changes in an infinite homogeneous medium, and showed that before the arrival of P waves each point in the medium moves at an acceleration identical to the applied gravity change, i.e., free-falls. As a result of the opposite inertial force, gravity sensors attached to the medium lose their sensitivity to the prompt gravity changes. This new observation model incorporated with the self-gravity effect explains the absence of such prompt signals in the acceleration data. We have shown the negative observability in acceleration, but there remains a possibility of detection of its spatial gradients or spatial strain. For a future detection experiment, we derived an analytical expression of the theoretical gravity gradients from a general seismic source described as a moment tensor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Liang Cheng; Tsai, Jui pin; Chen, Yu Wen; Way Hwang, Chein; Chung Cheng, Ching; Chiang, Chung Jung
2014-05-01
For sustainable management, accurate estimation of recharge can provide critical information. The accuracy of estimation is highly related to uncertainty of specific yield (Sy). Because Sy value is traditionally obtained by a multi-well pumping test, the available Sy values are usually limited due to high installation cost. Therefore, this information insufficiency of Sy may cause high uncertainty for recharge estimation. Because gravity is a function of a material mass and the inverse square of the distance, gravity measurement can assist to obtain the mass variation of a shallow groundwater system. Thus, the groundwater level observation data and gravity measurements are used for the calibration of Sy for a groundwater model. The calibration procedure includes four steps. First, gravity variations of three groundwater-monitoring wells, Si-jhou, Tu-ku and Ke-cuo, are observed in May, August and November 2012. To obtain the gravity caused by groundwater variation, this study filters the noises from other sources, such as ocean tide and land subsidence, in the collected data The refined data, which are data without noises, are named gravity residual. Second, this study develops a groundwater model using MODFLOW 2005 to simulate the water mass variation of the groundwater system. Third, we use Newton gravity integral to simulate the gravity variation caused by the simulated water mass variation during each of the observation periods. Fourth, comparing the ratio of the gravity variation between the two data sets, which are observed gravity residuals and simulated gravities. The values of Sy is continuously modified until the gravity variation ratios of the two data sets are the same. The Sy value of Si-jhou is 0.216, which is obtained by the multi-well pumping test. This Sy value is assigned to the simulation model. The simulation results show that the simulated gravity can well fit the observed gravity residual without parameter calibration. This result indicates
Perturbative Quantum Gravity and its Relation to Gauge Theory.
Bern, Zvi
2002-01-01
In this review we describe a non-trivial relationship between perturbative gauge theory and gravity scattering amplitudes. At the semi-classical or tree-level, the scattering amplitudes of gravity theories in flat space can be expressed as a sum of products of well defined pieces of gauge theory amplitudes. These relationships were first discovered by Kawai, Lewellen, and Tye in the context of string theory, but hold more generally. In particular, they hold for standard Einstein gravity. A method based on D -dimensional unitarity can then be used to systematically construct all quantum loop corrections order-by-order in perturbation theory using as input the gravity tree amplitudes expressed in terms of gauge theory ones. More generally, the unitarity method provides a means for perturbatively quantizing massless gravity theories without the usual formal apparatus associated with the quantization of constrained systems. As one application, this method was used to demonstrate that maximally supersymmetric gravity is less divergent in the ultraviolet than previously thought.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erol, Serdar; Serkan Isık, Mustafa; Erol, Bihter
2016-04-01
The recent Earth gravity field satellite missions data lead significant improvement in Global Geopotential Models in terms of both accuracy and resolution. However the improvement in accuracy is not the same everywhere in the Earth and therefore quantifying the level of improvement locally is necessary using the independent data. The validations of the level-3 products from the gravity field satellite missions, independently from the estimation procedures of these products, are possible using various arbitrary data sets, as such the terrestrial gravity observations, astrogeodetic vertical deflections, GPS/leveling data, the stationary sea surface topography. Quantifying the quality of the gravity field functionals via recent products has significant importance for determination of the regional geoid modeling, base on the satellite and terrestrial data fusion with an optimal algorithm, beside the statistical reporting the improvement rates depending on spatial location. In the validations, the errors and the systematic differences between the data and varying spectral content of the compared signals should be considered in order to have comparable results. In this manner this study compares the performance of Wavelet decomposition and spectral enhancement techniques in validation of the GOCE/GRACE based Earth gravity field models using GPS/leveling and terrestrial gravity data in Turkey. The terrestrial validation data are filtered using Wavelet decomposition technique and the numerical results from varying levels of decomposition are compared with the results which are derived using the spectral enhancement approach with contribution of an ultra-high resolution Earth gravity field model. The tests include the GO-DIR-R5, GO-TIM-R5, GOCO05S, EIGEN-6C4 and EGM2008 global models. The conclusion discuss the superiority and drawbacks of both concepts as well as reporting the performance of tested gravity field models with an estimate of their contribution to modeling the
Modelling airborne gravity data by means of adapted Space-Wise approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sampietro, Daniele; Capponi, Martina; Hamdi Mansi, Ahmed; Gatti, Andrea
2017-04-01
Regional gravity field modelling by means of remove - restore procedure is nowadays widely applied to predict grids of gravity anomalies (Bouguer, free-air, isostatic, etc.) in gravimetric geoid determination as well as in exploration geophysics. Considering this last application, due to the required accuracy and resolution, airborne gravity observations are generally adopted. However due to the relatively high acquisition velocity, presence of atmospheric turbulence, aircraft vibration, instrumental drift, etc. airborne data are contaminated by a very high observation error. For this reason, a proper procedure to filter the raw observations both in the low and high frequency should be applied to recover valuable information. In this work, a procedure to predict a grid or a set of filtered along track gravity anomalies, by merging GGM and airborne dataset, is presented. The proposed algorithm, like the Space-Wise approach developed by Politecnico di Milano in the framework of GOCE data analysis, is based on a combination of along track Wiener filter and Least Squares Collocation adjustment and properly considers the different altitudes of the gravity observations. Among the main differences with respect to the satellite application of the Space-Wise approach there is the fact that, while in processing GOCE data the stochastic characteristics of the observation error can be considered a-priori well known, in airborne gravimetry, due to the complex environment in which the observations are acquired, these characteristics are unknown and should be retrieved from the dataset itself. Some innovative theoretical aspects focusing in particular on the theoretical covariance modelling are presented too. In the end, the goodness of the procedure is evaluated by means of a test on real data recovering the gravitational signal with a predicted accuracy of about 0.25 mGal.
Coherent states, quantum gravity, and the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. I. General considerations
Stottmeister, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.stottmeister@gravity.fau.de; Thiemann, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.thiemann@gravity.fau.de
2016-06-15
This article, as the first of three, aims at establishing the (time-dependent) Born-Oppenheimer approximation, in the sense of space adiabatic perturbation theory, for quantum systems constructed by techniques of the loop quantum gravity framework, especially the canonical formulation of the latter. The analysis presented here fits into a rather general framework and offers a solution to the problem of applying the usual Born-Oppenheimer ansatz for molecular (or structurally analogous) systems to more general quantum systems (e.g., spin-orbit models) by means of space adiabatic perturbation theory. The proposed solution is applied to a simple, finite dimensional model of interacting spin systems,more » which serves as a non-trivial, minimal model of the aforesaid problem. Furthermore, it is explained how the content of this article and its companion affect the possible extraction of quantum field theory on curved spacetime from loop quantum gravity (including matter fields).« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Huimin
In the aerospace and automotive industries, many finite element analyses use lower-dimensional finite elements such as beams, plates and shells, to simplify the modeling. These simplified models can greatly reduce the computation time and cost; however, reduced-dimensional models may introduce inaccuracies, particularly near boundaries and near portions of the structure where reduced-dimensional models may not apply. Another factor in creation of such models is that beam-like structures frequently have complex geometry, boundaries and loading conditions, which may make them unsuitable for modeling with single type of element. The goal of this dissertation is to develop a method that can accurately and efficiently capture the response of a structure by rigorous combination of a reduced-dimensional beam finite element model with a model based on full two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) finite elements. The first chapter of the thesis gives the background of the present work and some related previous work. The second chapter is focused on formulating a system of equations that govern the joining of a 2D model with a beam model for planar deformation. The essential aspect of this formulation is to find the transformation matrices to achieve deflection and load continuity on the interface. Three approaches are provided to obtain the transformation matrices. An example based on joining a beam to a 2D finite element model is examined, and the accuracy of the analysis is studied by comparing joint results with the full 2D analysis. The third chapter is focused on formulating the system of equations for joining a beam to a 3D finite element model for static and free-vibration problems. The transition between the 3D elements and beam elements is achieved by use of the stress recovery technique of the variational-asymptotic method as implemented in VABS (the Variational Asymptotic Beam Section analysis). The formulations for an interface transformation matrix and
Modeling wormholes in f (R ,T ) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moraes, P. H. R. S.; Sahoo, P. K.
2017-08-01
In this work, we propose the modeling of static wormholes within the f (R ,T ) extended theory of gravity perspective. We present some models of wormholes, which are constructed from different hypotheses for their matter content, i.e., different relations for their pressure components (radial and lateral) and different equations of state. The solutions obtained for the shape function of the wormholes obey the necessary metric conditions. They show a behavior similar to those found in previous references about wormholes, which also happens to our solutions for the energy density of such objects. We also apply the energy conditions for the wormholes' physical content.
Stellar structure model in hydrostatic equilibrium in the context of f({\\mathscr{R}})-gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
André, Raíla; Kremer, Gilberto M.
2017-12-01
In this work we present a stellar structure model from the f({\\mathscr{R}})-gravity point of view capable of describing some classes of stars (white dwarfs, brown dwarfs, neutron stars, red giants and the Sun). This model is based on f({\\mathscr{R}})-gravity field equations for f({\\mathscr{R}})={\\mathscr{R}}+{f}2{{\\mathscr{R}}}2, hydrostatic equilibrium equation and a polytropic equation of state. We compare the results obtained with those found by Newtonian theory. It has been observed that in these systems, where high curvature regimes emerge, stellar structure equations undergo modifications. Despite the simplicity of this model, the results are satisfactory. The estimated values of pressure, density and temperature of the stars are within those determined by observations. This f({\\mathscr{R}})-gravity model has proved to be necessary to describe stars with strong fields such as white dwarfs, neutron stars and brown dwarfs, while stars with weaker fields, such as red giants and the Sun, are best described by Newtonian theory.
Moho depth model for the Central Asian Orogenic Belt from satellite gravity gradients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guy, Alexandra; Holzrichter, Nils; Ebbing, Jörg
2017-09-01
The main purpose of this study is to construct a new 3-D model of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) crust, which can be used as a starting point for future lithospheric studies. The CAOB is a Paleozoic accretionary orogen surrounded by the Siberian Craton to the north and the North China and Tarim Cratons to the south. This area is of great interest due to its enigmatic and still not completely understood geodynamic evolution. First, we estimate an initial crustal thickness by inversion of the vertical gravity component of the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) and DTU10 models. Second, 3-D forward modeling of the GOCE gravity gradients is performed, which determines the topography of the Moho, the geometry, and the density distribution of the deeper parts of the CAOB and its surroundings, taking into account the lateral and vertical density variations of the crust. The model is constrained by seismic refraction, reflection, and receiver function studies and geological studies. In addition, we discuss the isostatic implications of the differences between the seismic Moho and the resulting 3-D gravity Moho, complemented by the analysis of the lithostatic load distribution at the upper mantle level. Finally, the correlation between the contrasting tectonic domains and the thickness of the crust reveals the inheritance of Paleozoic and Mesozoic geodynamics, particularly the magmatic provinces and the orocline which preserve their crustal features.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirt, Christian; Rexer, Moritz; Scheinert, Mirko; Pail, Roland; Claessens, Sten; Holmes, Simon
2016-02-01
The current high-degree global geopotential models EGM2008 and EIGEN-6C4 resolve gravity field structures to ˜ 10 km spatial scales over most parts of the of Earth's surface. However, a notable exception is continental Antarctica, where the gravity information in these and other recent models is based on satellite gravimetry observations only, and thus limited to about ˜ 80-120 km spatial scales. Here, we present a new degree-2190 global gravity model (GGM) that for the first time improves the spatial resolution of the gravity field over the whole of continental Antarctica to ˜ 10 km spatial scales. The new model called SatGravRET2014 is a combination of recent Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite gravimetry with gravitational signals derived from the 2013 Bedmap2 topography/ice thickness/bedrock model with gravity forward modelling in ellipsoidal approximation. Bedmap2 is a significantly improved description of the topographic mass distribution over the Antarctic region based on a multitude of topographic surveys, and a well-suited source for modelling short-scale gravity signals as we show in our study. We describe the development of SatGravRET2014 which entirely relies on spherical harmonic modelling techniques. Details are provided on the least-squares combination procedures and on the conversion of topography to implied gravitational potential. The main outcome of our work is the SatGravRET2014 spherical harmonic series expansion to degree 2190, and derived high-resolution grids of 3D-synthesized gravity and quasigeoid effects over the whole of Antarctica. For validation, six data sets from the IAG Subcommission 2.4f "Gravity and Geoid in Antarctica" (AntGG) database were used comprising a total of 1,092,981 airborne gravimetric observations. All subsets consistently show that the Bedmap2-based short-scale gravity modelling improves the agreement over satellite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kokkotas, K. D.; Konoplya, R. A.; Zhidenko, A.
2017-09-01
Higher derivative extensions of Einstein gravity are important within the string theory approach to gravity and as alternative and effective theories of gravity. H. Lü, A. Perkins, C. Pope, and K. Stelle [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 171601 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.171601] found a numerical solution describing a spherically symmetric non-Schwarzschild asymptotically flat black hole in Einstein gravity with added higher derivative terms. Using the general and quickly convergent parametrization in terms of the continued fractions, we represent this numerical solution in the analytical form, which is accurate not only near the event horizon or far from the black hole, but in the whole space. Thereby, the obtained analytical form of the metric allows one to study easily all the further properties of the black hole, such as thermodynamics, Hawking radiation, particle motion, accretion, perturbations, stability, quasinormal spectrum, etc. Thus, the found analytical approximate representation can serve in the same way as an exact solution.
(abstract) Venus Gravity Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Konopliv, A. S.; Sjogren, W. L.
1995-01-01
A global gravity field model of Venus to degree and order 75 (5772 spherical harmonic coefficients) has been estimated from Doppler radio tracking of the orbiting spacecraft Pioneer Venus Orbiter (1979-1992) and Magellan (1990-1994). After the successful aerobraking of Magellan, a near circular polar orbit was attained and relatively uniform gravity field resolution (approximately 200 km) was obtained with formal uncertainties of a few milligals. Detailed gravity for several highland features are displayed as gravity contours overlaying colored topography. The positive correlation of typography with gravity is very high being unlike that of the Earth, Moon, and Mars. The amplitudes are Earth-like, but have significantly different gravity-topography ratios for different features. Global gravity, geoid, and isostatic anomaly maps as well as the admittance function are displayed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grisa, Luca A.
2008-07-01
In this thesis, I studied three different models, that depart from Einstein's General Relativity at either long or short distances. The first third of the thesis will be devoted to bulk modifications of the braneworld model, known as Randall-Sundrum. First, I will show how the effective graviton spectrum on the brane world-volume contains a massive resonance state, when the brane is embedded in an asymmetric warped geometry. Alongside it, a zero-mode, which can be identified with the our-dimensional graviton of GR, is also present. Then I will discuss the effects that the presence of a Domain Wall localized on the brane has on the RS geometry. The DW both generates a deficit angle in the bulk and inflates with rate slightly larger than the known result in four dimensions. I will show how this departure from standard GR arises in the dual CFT within the framework of the AdS/CFT correnspondence. The conformal fields gravitationally coupled to the DW radiatively corrects the DW tension, and hence its Hubble rate. In the second part, I will discuss intersecting D-brane models, that describe at low energies a two dimensional chiral fermion theory localized at the intersection. The fermions are coupled to gauge fields in the bulk and chiral symmetry is dynamically broken. No Nambu-Goldstone boson, associated with spontaneously broken symmetries, appears in two dimensional field theories. I will show how the disappearance of the Nambu-Goldstone boson is obtained from the non-trivial dynamics of the gauge field in these models. The third and final part is about a class of models with a small Lorentz-violating deformation. The motivation to study these models lies in the attempt to theoretically justify the presence of the incredibly tiny cosmological constant, that recent observations have helped to identify. The idea is to introduce new interactions that would weaken the attractive gravitational force at large distance, but without modifying gravity at shorter range where
Anisotropic singularities in modified gravity models
Figueiro, Michele Ferraz; Saa, Alberto; Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, IMECC-UNICAMP, C.P. 6065, 13083-859 Campinas, SP
2009-09-15
We show that the common singularities present in generic modified gravity models governed by actions of the type S={integral}d{sup 4}x{radical}(-g)f(R,{phi},X), with X=-(1/2)g{sup ab}{partial_derivative}{sub a}{phi}{partial_derivative}{sub b}{phi}, are essentially the same anisotropic instabilities associated to the hypersurface F({phi})=0 in the case of a nonminimal coupling of the type F({phi})R, enlightening the physical origin of such singularities that typically arise in rather complex and cumbersome inhomogeneous perturbation analyses. We show, moreover, that such anisotropic instabilities typically give rise to dynamically unavoidable singularities, precluding completely the possibility of having physically viable models for which the hypersurface ({partial_derivative}f/{partial_derivative}R)=0 is attained. Some examples are explicitly discussed.
Holographic renormalization group and cosmology in theories with quasilocalized gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Csáki, Csaba; Erlich, Joshua; Hollowood, Timothy J.; Terning, John
2001-03-01
We study the long distance behavior of brane theories with quasilocalized gravity. The five-dimensional (5D) effective theory at large scales follows from a holographic renormalization group flow. As intuitively expected, the graviton is effectively four dimensional at intermediate scales and becomes five dimensional at large scales. However, in the holographic effective theory the essentially 4D radion dominates at long distances and gives rise to scalar antigravity. The holographic description shows that at large distances the Gregory-Rubakov-Sibiryakov (GRS) model is equivalent to the model recently proposed by Dvali, Gabadadze, and Porrati (DGP), where a tensionless brane is embedded into 5D Minkowski space, with an additional induced 4D Einstein-Hilbert term on the brane. In the holographic description the radion of the GRS model is automatically localized on the tensionless brane, and provides the ghostlike field necessary to cancel the extra graviton polarization of the DGP model. Thus, there is a holographic duality between these theories. This analysis provides physical insight into how the GRS model works at intermediate scales; in particular it sheds light on the size of the width of the graviton resonance, and also demonstrates how the holographic renormalization group can be used as a practical tool for calculations.
Holographic renormalization group and cosmology in theories with quasilocalized gravity
Csaki, Csaba; Erlich, Joshua; Hollowood, Timothy J.
2001-03-15
We study the long distance behavior of brane theories with quasilocalized gravity. The five-dimensional (5D) effective theory at large scales follows from a holographic renormalization group flow. As intuitively expected, the graviton is effectively four dimensional at intermediate scales and becomes five dimensional at large scales. However, in the holographic effective theory the essentially 4D radion dominates at long distances and gives rise to scalar antigravity. The holographic description shows that at large distances the Gregory-Rubakov-Sibiryakov (GRS) model is equivalent to the model recently proposed by Dvali, Gabadadze, and Porrati (DGP), where a tensionless brane is embedded into 5D Minkowskimore » space, with an additional induced 4D Einstein-Hilbert term on the brane. In the holographic description the radion of the GRS model is automatically localized on the tensionless brane, and provides the ghostlike field necessary to cancel the extra graviton polarization of the DGP model. Thus, there is a holographic duality between these theories. This analysis provides physical insight into how the GRS model works at intermediate scales; in particular it sheds light on the size of the width of the graviton resonance, and also demonstrates how the holographic renormalization group can be used as a practical tool for calculations.« less
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levy, Roy; Xu, Yuning; Yel, Nedim; Svetina, Dubravka
2015-01-01
The standardized generalized dimensionality discrepancy measure and the standardized model-based covariance are introduced as tools to critique dimensionality assumptions in multidimensional item response models. These tools are grounded in a covariance theory perspective and associated connections between dimensionality and local independence.…
A finite difference model for free surface gravity drainage
Couri, F.R.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.
1993-09-01
The unconfined gravity flow of liquid with a free surface into a well is a classical well test problem which has not been well understood by either hydrologists or petroleum engineers. Paradigms have led many authors to treat an incompressible flow as compressible flow to justify the delayed yield behavior of a time-drawdown test. A finite-difference model has been developed to simulate the free surface gravity flow of an unconfined single phase, infinitely large reservoir into a well. The model was verified with experimental results in sandbox models in the literature and with classical methods applied to observation wells inmore » the Groundwater literature. The simulator response was also compared with analytical Theis (1935) and Ramey et al. (1989) approaches for wellbore pressure at late producing times. The seepage face in the sandface and the delayed yield behavior were reproduced by the model considering a small liquid compressibility and incompressible porous medium. The potential buildup (recovery) simulated by the model evidenced a different- phenomenon from the drawdown, contrary to statements found in the Groundwater literature. Graphs of buildup potential vs time, buildup seepage face length vs time, and free surface head and sand bottom head radial profiles evidenced that the liquid refills the desaturating cone as a flat moving surface. The late time pseudo radial behavior was only approached after exaggerated long times.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nan, Miao; Junfeng, Li; Tianshu, Wang
2017-01-01
Subjected to external lateral excitations, large-amplitude sloshing may take place in propellant tanks, especially for spacecraft in low-gravity conditions, such as landers in the process of hover and obstacle avoidance during lunar soft landing. Due to lateral force of the order of gravity in magnitude, the amplitude of liquid sloshing becomes too big for the traditional equivalent model to be accurate. Therefore, a new equivalent mechanical model, denominated the "composite model", that can address large-amplitude lateral sloshing in partially filled spherical tanks is established in this paper, with both translational and rotational excitations considered. The hypothesis of liquid equilibrium position following equivalent gravity is first proposed. By decomposing the large-amplitude motion of a liquid into bulk motion following the equivalent gravity and additional small-amplitude sloshing, a better simulation of large-amplitude liquid sloshing is presented. The effectiveness and accuracy of the model are verified by comparing the slosh forces and moments to results of the traditional model and CFD software.
Exact solutions of massive gravity in three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakhad, Mohamed
In recent years, there has been an upsurge in interest in three-dimensional theories of gravity. In particular, two theories of massive gravity in three dimensions hold strong promise in the search for fully consistent theories of quantum gravity, an understanding of which will shed light on the problems of quantum gravity in four dimensions. One of these theories is the "old" third-order theory of topologically massive gravity (TMG) and the other one is a "new" fourth-order theory of massive gravity (NMG). Despite this increase in research activity, the problem of finding and classifying solutions of TMG and NMG remains a wide open area of research. In this thesis, we provide explicit new solutions of massive gravity in three dimensions and suggest future directions of research. These solutions belong to the Kundt class of spacetimes. A systematic analysis of the Kundt solutions with constant scalar polynomial curvature invariants provides a glimpse of the structure of the spaces of solutions of the two theories of massive gravity. We also find explicit solutions of topologically massive gravity whose scalar polynomial curvature invariants are not all constant, and these are the first such solutions. A number of properties of Kundt solutions of TMG and NMG, such as an identification of solutions which lie at the intersection of the full nonlinear and linearized theories, are also derived.
ADM Analysis of gravity models within the framework of bimetric variational formalism
Golovnev, Alexey; Karčiauskas, Mindaugas; Nyrhinen, Hannu J., E-mail: agolovnev@yandex.ru, E-mail: mindaugas.karciauskas@helsinki.fi, E-mail: hannu.nyrhinen@helsinki.fi
2015-05-01
Bimetric variational formalism was recently employed to construct novel bimetric gravity models. In these models an affine connection is generated by an additional tensor field which is independent of the physical metric. In this work we demonstrate how the ADM decomposition can be applied to study such models and provide some technical intermediate details. Using ADM decomposition we are able to prove that a linear model is unstable as has previously been indicated by perturbative analysis. Moreover, we show that it is also very difficult if not impossible to construct a non-linear model which is ghost-free within the framework ofmore » bimetric variational formalism. However, we demonstrate that viable models are possible along similar lines of thought. To this end, we consider a set up in which the affine connection is a variation of the Levi-Civita one. As a proof of principle we construct a gravity model with a massless scalar field obtained this way.« less
Preliminary gravity inversion model of Frenchman Flat Basin, Nevada Test Site, Nevada
Phelps, Geoffrey A.; Graham, Scott E.
2002-01-01
The depth of the basin beneath Frenchman Flat is estimated using a gravity inversion method. Gamma-gamma density logs from two wells in Frenchman Flat constrained the density profiles used to create the gravity inversion model. Three initial models were considered using data from one well, then a final model is proposed based on new information from the second well. The preferred model indicates that a northeast-trending oval-shaped basin underlies Frenchman Flat at least 2,100 m deep, with a maximum depth of 2,400 m at its northeast end. No major horst and graben structures are predicted. Sensitivity analysis of the model indicates that each parameter contributes the same magnitude change to the model, up to 30 meters change in depth for a 1% change in density, but some parameters affect a broader area of the basin. The horizontal resolution of the model was determined by examining the spacing between data stations, and was set to 500 square meters.
Aspects of general higher-order gravities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bueno, Pablo; Cano, Pablo A.; Min, Vincent S.; Visser, Manus R.
2017-02-01
We study several aspects of higher-order gravities constructed from general contractions of the Riemann tensor and the metric in arbitrary dimensions. First, we use the fast-linearization procedure presented in [P. Bueno and P. A. Cano, arXiv:1607.06463] to obtain the equations satisfied by the metric perturbation modes on a maximally symmetric background in the presence of matter and to classify L (Riemann ) theories according to their spectrum. Then, we linearize all theories up to quartic order in curvature and use this result to construct quartic versions of Einsteinian cubic gravity. In addition, we show that the most general cubic gravity constructed in a dimension-independent way and which does not propagate the ghostlike spin-2 mode (but can propagate the scalar) is a linear combination of f (Lovelock ) invariants, plus the Einsteinian cubic gravity term, plus a new ghost-free gravity term. Next, we construct the generalized Newton potential and the post-Newtonian parameter γ for general L (Riemann ) gravities in arbitrary dimensions, unveiling some interesting differences with respect to the four-dimensional case. We also study the emission and propagation of gravitational radiation from sources for these theories in four dimensions, providing a generalized formula for the power emitted. Finally, we review Wald's formalism for general L (Riemann ) theories and construct new explicit expressions for the relevant quantities involved. Many examples illustrate our calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Biao; Luo, Zhicai; Zhong, Bo; Zhou, Hao; Flechtner, Frank; Förste, Christoph; Barthelmes, Franz; Zhou, Rui
2017-11-01
Based on tensor theory, three invariants of the gravitational gradient tensor (IGGT) are independent of the gradiometer reference frame (GRF). Compared to traditional methods for calculation of gravity field models based on the gravity field and steady-state ocean circulation explorer (GOCE) data, which are affected by errors in the attitude indicator, using IGGT and least squares method avoids the problem of inaccurate rotation matrices. The IGGT approach as studied in this paper is a quadratic function of the gravity field model's spherical harmonic coefficients. The linearized observation equations for the least squares method are obtained using a Taylor expansion, and the weighting equation is derived using the law of error propagation. We also investigate the linearization errors using existing gravity field models and find that this error can be ignored since the used a-priori model EIGEN-5C is sufficiently accurate. One problem when using this approach is that it needs all six independent gravitational gradients (GGs), but the components V_{xy} and V_{yz} of GOCE are worse due to the non-sensitive axes of the GOCE gradiometer. Therefore, we use synthetic GGs for both inaccurate gravitational gradient components derived from the a-priori gravity field model EIGEN-5C. Another problem is that the GOCE GGs are measured in a band-limited manner. Therefore, a forward and backward finite impulse response band-pass filter is applied to the data, which can also eliminate filter caused phase change. The spherical cap regularization approach (SCRA) and the Kaula rule are then applied to solve the polar gap problem caused by GOCE's inclination of 96.7° . With the techniques described above, a degree/order 240 gravity field model called IGGT_R1 is computed. Since the synthetic components of V_{xy} and V_{yz} are not band-pass filtered, the signals outside the measurement bandwidth are replaced by the a-priori model EIGEN-5C. Therefore, this model is practically a
Fine Grained Chaos in AdS2 Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haehl, Felix M.; Rozali, Moshe
2018-03-01
Quantum chaos can be characterized by an exponential growth of the thermal out-of-time-order four-point function up to a scrambling time u^*. We discuss generalizations of this statement for certain higher-point correlation functions. For concreteness, we study the Schwarzian theory of a one-dimensional time reparametrization mode, which describes two-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS2 ) gravity and the low-energy dynamics of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model. We identify a particular set of 2 k -point functions, characterized as being both "maximally braided" and "k -out of time order," which exhibit exponential growth until progressively longer time scales u^*(k)˜(k -1 )u^*. We suggest an interpretation as scrambling of increasingly fine grained measures of quantum information, which correspondingly take progressively longer time to reach their thermal values.
Fine Grained Chaos in AdS_{2} Gravity.
Haehl, Felix M; Rozali, Moshe
2018-03-23
Quantum chaos can be characterized by an exponential growth of the thermal out-of-time-order four-point function up to a scrambling time u[over ^]_{*}. We discuss generalizations of this statement for certain higher-point correlation functions. For concreteness, we study the Schwarzian theory of a one-dimensional time reparametrization mode, which describes two-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS_{2}) gravity and the low-energy dynamics of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model. We identify a particular set of 2k-point functions, characterized as being both "maximally braided" and "k-out of time order," which exhibit exponential growth until progressively longer time scales u[over ^]_{*}^{(k)}∼(k-1)u[over ^]_{*}. We suggest an interpretation as scrambling of increasingly fine grained measures of quantum information, which correspondingly take progressively longer time to reach their thermal values.
Assessing performance of gravity models in the Arctic and the implications for polar oceanography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, S. F.; McAdoo, D. C.; Farrell, S. L.; Brozena, J. M.; Childers, V. A.; Ziebart, M. K.; Shepherd, A.
2014-12-01
The circulation of the Arctic Ocean is of great interest to both the oceanographic and cryospheric communities. Understanding both the steady state and variations of this circulation is essential to building our knowledge of Arctic climate. With the advent of high inclination altimeter missions such as CryoSat and ICESat, it is now feasible to produce Mean Dynamic Topography (MDT) products for the region, which allow a comprehensive investigation of geostrophic currents. However, the accuracy of these products is largely limited by our knowledge of the marine geoid in the Arctic. There are a number of publicly available gravity models commonly used to derive the geoid. These use different combinations of available data (satellite gravimetry, altimetry, laser ranging, and in-situ) and are calculated using different mathematical techniques. However, the effect of these differences on the real world performance of these models when used for oceanographic studies in the Arctic is not well known. Given the unique problems for gravimetry in the region (especially data gaps) and their potential impact on MDT products, it is especially important that the relative performance of these models be assessed We consider the needs of the "end user" satellite oceanographer in the Arctic with respect to gravimetry, and the relationship between the precision of gravity data and the accuracy of a final MDT/current velocity product. Using high-precision aerogravity data collected over 3 years of campaigns by NASA's Operation IceBridge we inter-compare 10 of the leading gravity models and assess their performance in the Arctic. We also use historical data from campaigns flown by the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) to demonstrate the impact of gravity errors on MDT products. We describe how gravity models for the region might be improved in the future, in an effort to maximize the level at which Arctic currents may be resolved.
Helical flow couplets in submarine gravity underflows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imran, Jasim; Ashraful Islam, Mohammad; Huang, Heqing; Kassem, Ahmed; Dickerson, John; Pirmez, Carlos; Parker, Gary
2007-07-01
Active and relic meandering channels are common on the seafloor adjacent to continental margins. These channels and their associated submarine fan deposits are products of the density-driven gravity flows known as turbidity currents. The tie between channel curvature and its effects on these gravity flows has been an enigma. This paper records the results of both large-scale laboratory measurements and a numerical simulation that captures the three-dimensional flow field of a gravity underflow at a channel bend. These findings reveal that channel curvature drives two helical flow cells, one stacked upon the other. The lower cell forms near the channel bed surface and has a circulation pattern similar to that observed in fluvial channels, i.e., with a near-bed flow directed inward. The other circulation cell forms in the upper part of the gravity flow and has a streamwise vorticity with the opposite sense of the lower cell.
Gravity Waves and Wind-Farm Efficiency in Neutral and Stable Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allaerts, Dries; Meyers, Johan
2018-02-01
We use large-eddy simulations (LES) to investigate the impact of stable stratification on gravity-wave excitation and energy extraction in a large wind farm. To this end, the development of an equilibrium conventionally neutral boundary layer into a stable boundary layer over a period of 8 h is considered, using two different cooling rates. We find that turbulence decay has considerable influence on the energy extraction at the beginning of the boundary-layer transition, but afterwards, energy extraction is dominated by geometrical and jet effects induced by an inertial oscillation. It is further shown that the inertial oscillation enhances gravity-wave excitation. By comparing LES results with a simple one-dimensional model, we show that this is related to an interplay between wind-farm drag, variations in the Froude number and the dispersive effects of vertically-propagating gravity waves. We further find that the pressure gradients induced by gravity waves lead to significant upstream flow deceleration, reducing the average turbine output compared to a turbine in isolated operation. This leads us to the definition of a non-local wind-farm efficiency, next to a more standard wind-farm wake efficiency, and we show that both can be of the same order of magnitude. Finally, an energy flux analysis is performed to further elucidate the effect of gravity waves on the flow in the wind farm.
Isostatic gravity map of the Death Valley ground-water model area, Nevada and California
Ponce, D.A.; Blakely, R.J.; Morin, R.L.; Mankinen, E.A.
2001-01-01
An isostatic gravity map of the Death Valley groundwater model area was prepared from over 40,0000 gravity stations as part of an interagency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Department of Energy to help characterize the geology and hydrology of southwest Nevada and parts of California.
Propagation of gravity waves across the tropopause
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bense, Vera; Spichtinger, Peter
2015-04-01
The tropopause region is characterised by strong gradients in various atmospheric quantities that exhibit different properties in the troposphere compared to the stratosphere. The temperature lapse rate typically changes from negative to near-zero values resulting in a strong increase in stability. Accordingly, the buoyancy frequency often undergoes a jump at the tropopause. Analysis of radiosounding data also shows the existence of a strong inversion layer (tropopause inversion layer, TIL) characterised by a strong maximum in buoyancy frequency just above the tropopause, see e.g. Birner et al. (2002). Additionally, the magnitude of the vertical wind shear of the horizontal wind maximizes at the tropopause and the region also exhibits characteristical gradients of trace gases. Vertically propagating gravity waves can be excited in the troposphere by several mechanisms, e.g. by flow over topography (e.g. Durran, 1990), by jets and fronts (for a recent review: Plougonven and Zhang, 1990) or by convection (e.g. Clark et al., 1986). When these waves enter the tropopause region, their properties can be changed drastically by the changing stratification and strong wind shear. Within this work, the EULAG (Eulerian/semi-Lagrangian fluid solver, see e.g. Smolarkiewicz and Margolin, 1997) model is used to investigate the impact of the tropopause on vertically propagating gravity waves excited by flows over topography. The choice of topography (sine-shaped mountains, bell-shaped mountain) along with horizontal wind speed and tropospheric value of buoyancy frequency determine the spectrum of waves (horizontal and vertical wavelengths) that is excited in the tropsphere. In order to analyse how these spectra change for several topographies when a tropopause is present, we investigate different idealized cases in a two-dimensional domain. By varying the vertical profiles of buoyancy frequency (step-wise vs. continuos change, including TIL) and wind shear, the tropopause
FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Güllü, İbrahim; Çaǧri Şişman, Tahsin; Tekin, Bayram
2010-08-01
We present a three-dimensional gravitational Born-Infeld theory which reduces to the recently found new massive gravity (NMG) at the quadratic level in the small curvature expansion and at the cubic order reproduces the deformation of NMG obtained from AdS/CFT. Our action provides a remarkable extension of NMG to all orders in the curvature and might define a consistent quantum gravity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Konopliv, Alexander S.; Sjogren, William L.
1996-01-01
This report documents the Venus gravity methods and results to date (model MGNP90LSAAP). It is called a handbook in that it contains many useful plots (such as geometry and orbit behavior) that are useful in evaluating the tracking data. We discuss the models that are used in processing the Doppler data and the estimation method for determining the gravity field. With Pioneer Venus Orbiter and Magellan tracking data, the Venus gravity field was determined complete to degree and order 90 with the use of the JPL Cray T3D Supercomputer. The gravity field shows unprecedented high correlation with topography and resolution of features to the 2OOkm resolution. In the procedure for solving the gravity field, other information is gained as well, and, for example, we discuss results for the Venus ephemeris, Love number, pole orientation of Venus, and atmospheric densities. Of significance is the Love number solution which indicates a liquid core for Venus. The ephemeris of Venus is determined to an accuracy of 0.02 mm/s (tens of meters in position), and the rotation period to 243.0194 +/- 0.0002 days.
Gravity versus radiation models: on the importance of scale and heterogeneity in commuting flows.
Masucci, A Paolo; Serras, Joan; Johansson, Anders; Batty, Michael
2013-08-01
We test the recently introduced radiation model against the gravity model for the system composed of England and Wales, both for commuting patterns and for public transportation flows. The analysis is performed both at macroscopic scales, i.e., at the national scale, and at microscopic scales, i.e., at the city level. It is shown that the thermodynamic limit assumption for the original radiation model significantly underestimates the commuting flows for large cities. We then generalize the radiation model, introducing the correct normalization factor for finite systems. We show that even if the gravity model has a better overall performance the parameter-free radiation model gives competitive results, especially for large scales.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Husain, Viqar
2012-03-01
book are also covered in detail, and with more worked examples, in the former book, and the entire focus of the latter is Bianchi models. After a brief introduction outlining the aim of the book, the second chapter provides the canonical theory of homogeneous isotropic cosmology with scalar matter; this covers the basics and linear perturbation theory, and is meant as a first taste of what is to come. The next chapter is a thorough introduction of the canonical formulation of general relativity in both the ADM and Ashtekar-Barbero variables. This chapter contains details useful for graduate students which are either scattered or missing in the literature. Applications of the canonical formalism are in the following chapter. These cover standard material and techniques for obtaining mini(midi)-superspace models, including the Bianchi and Gowdy cosmologies, and spherically symmetric reductions. There is also a brief discussion of the two-dimensional dilaton gravity. The spherically symmetric reduction is presented in detail also in the connection-triad variables. The chapter on global and asymptotic properties gives introductions to geodesic and null congruences, trapped surfaces, a survey of singularity theorems, horizons and asymptotic properties. The chapter ends with a discussion of junction conditions and the Vaidya solution. As already mentioned, this material is covered in detail in Poisson's book. The final chapter on quantization describes and contrasts the Dirac and reduced phase space methods. It also gives an introduction to background independent quantization using the holonomy-flux operators, which forms the basis of the LQG program. The application of this method to cosmology and its affect on the Friedmann equation is covered next, followed by a brief introduction to the effective constraint method, which is another area developed by the author. I think this book is a useful addition to the literature for graduate students, and potentially also for
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tuckness, D. G.; Jost, B.
1995-08-01
Current knowledge of the lunar gravity field is presented. The various methods used in determining these gravity fields are investigated and analyzed. It will be shown that weaknesses exist in the current models of the lunar gravity field. The dominant part of this weakness is caused by the lack of lunar tracking data information (farside, polar areas), which makes modeling the total lunar potential difficult. Comparisons of the various lunar models reveal an agreement in the low-order coefficients of the Legendre polynomials expansions. However, substantial differences in the models can exist in the higher-order harmonics. The main purpose of this study is to assess today's lunar gravity field models for use in tomorrow's lunar mission designs and operations.
Schiek, Richard [Albuquerque, NM
2006-06-20
A method of generating two-dimensional masks from a three-dimensional model comprises providing a three-dimensional model representing a micro-electro-mechanical structure for manufacture and a description of process mask requirements, reducing the three-dimensional model to a topological description of unique cross sections, and selecting candidate masks from the unique cross sections and the cross section topology. The method further can comprise reconciling the candidate masks based on the process mask requirements description to produce two-dimensional process masks.
A gravity model for the spread of a pollinator-borne plant pathogen.
Ferrari, Matthew J; Bjørnstad, Ottar N; Partain, Jessica L; Antonovics, Janis
2006-09-01
Many pathogens of plants are transmitted by arthropod vectors whose movement between individual hosts is influenced by foraging behavior. Insect foraging has been shown to depend on both the quality of hosts and the distances between hosts. Given the spatial distribution of host plants and individual variation in quality, vector foraging patterns may therefore produce predictable variation in exposure to pathogens. We develop a "gravity" model to describe the spatial spread of a vector-borne plant pathogen from underlying models of insect foraging in response to host quality using the pollinator-borne smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum as a case study. We fit the model to spatially explicit time series of M. violaceum transmission in replicate experimental plots of the white campion Silene latifolia. The gravity model provides a better fit than a mean field model or a model with only distance-dependent transmission. The results highlight the importance of active vector foraging in generating spatial patterns of disease incidence and for pathogen-mediated selection for floral traits.
Risk analysis of gravity dam instability using credibility theory Monte Carlo simulation model.
Xin, Cao; Chongshi, Gu
2016-01-01
Risk analysis of gravity dam stability involves complicated uncertainty in many design parameters and measured data. Stability failure risk ratio described jointly by probability and possibility has deficiency in characterization of influence of fuzzy factors and representation of the likelihood of risk occurrence in practical engineering. In this article, credibility theory is applied into stability failure risk analysis of gravity dam. Stability of gravity dam is viewed as a hybrid event considering both fuzziness and randomness of failure criterion, design parameters and measured data. Credibility distribution function is conducted as a novel way to represent uncertainty of influence factors of gravity dam stability. And combining with Monte Carlo simulation, corresponding calculation method and procedure are proposed. Based on a dam section, a detailed application of the modeling approach on risk calculation of both dam foundation and double sliding surfaces is provided. The results show that, the present method is feasible to be applied on analysis of stability failure risk for gravity dams. The risk assessment obtained can reflect influence of both sorts of uncertainty, and is suitable as an index value.
GRACE gravity data help constraining seismic models of the 2004 Sumatran earthquake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cambiotti, G.; Bordoni, A.; Sabadini, R.; Colli, L.
2011-10-01
The analysis of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Level 2 data time series from the Center for Space Research (CSR) and GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) allows us to extract a new estimate of the co-seismic gravity signal due to the 2004 Sumatran earthquake. Owing to compressible self-gravitating Earth models, including sea level feedback in a new self-consistent way and designed to compute gravitational perturbations due to volume changes separately, we are able to prove that the asymmetry in the co-seismic gravity pattern, in which the north-eastern negative anomaly is twice as large as the south-western positive anomaly, is not due to the previously overestimated dilatation in the crust. The overestimate was due to a large dilatation localized at the fault discontinuity, the gravitational effect of which is compensated by an opposite contribution from topography due to the uplifted crust. After this localized dilatation is removed, we instead predict compression in the footwall and dilatation in the hanging wall. The overall anomaly is then mainly due to the additional gravitational effects of the ocean after water is displaced away from the uplifted crust, as first indicated by de Linage et al. (2009). We also detail the differences between compressible and incompressible material properties. By focusing on the most robust estimates from GRACE data, consisting of the peak-to-peak gravity anomaly and an asymmetry coefficient, that is given by the ratio of the negative gravity anomaly over the positive anomaly, we show that they are quite sensitive to seismic source depths and dip angles. This allows us to exploit space gravity data for the first time to help constraining centroid-momentum-tensor (CMT) source analyses of the 2004 Sumatran earthquake and to conclude that the seismic moment has been released mainly in the lower crust rather than the lithospheric mantle. Thus, GRACE data and CMT source analyses, as well as geodetic slip distributions aided
A multidimensional model of the effect of gravity on the spatial orientation of the monkey
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merfeld, D. M.; Young, L. R.; Oman, C. M.; Shelhamer, M. J.
1993-01-01
A "sensory conflict" model of spatial orientation was developed. This mathematical model was based on concepts derived from observer theory, optimal observer theory, and the mathematical properties of coordinate rotations. The primary hypothesis is that the central nervous system of the squirrel monkey incorporates information about body dynamics and sensory dynamics to develop an internal model. The output of this central model (expected sensory afference) is compared to the actual sensory afference, with the difference defined as "sensory conflict." The sensory conflict information is, in turn, used to drive central estimates of angular velocity ("velocity storage"), gravity ("gravity storage"), and linear acceleration ("acceleration storage") toward more accurate values. The model successfully predicts "velocity storage" during rotation about an earth-vertical axis. The model also successfully predicts that the time constant of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex is reduced and that the axis of eye rotation shifts toward alignment with gravity following postrotatory tilt. Finally, the model predicts the bias, modulation, and decay components that have been observed during off-vertical axis rotations (OVAR).
Concentration data and dimensionality in groundwater models: evaluation using inverse modelling
Barlebo, H.C.; Hill, M.C.; Rosbjerg, D.; Jensen, K.H.
1998-01-01
A three-dimensional inverse groundwater flow and transport model that fits hydraulic-head and concentration data simultaneously using nonlinear regression is presented and applied to a layered sand and silt groundwater system beneath the Grindsted Landfill in Denmark. The aquifer is composed of rather homogeneous hydrogeologic layers. Two issues common to groundwater flow and transport modelling are investigated: 1) The accuracy of simulated concentrations in the case of calibration with head data alone; and 2) The advantages and disadvantages of using a two-dimensional cross-sectional model instead of a three-dimensional model to simulate contaminant transport when the source is at the land surface. Results show that using only hydraulic heads in the nonlinear regression produces a simulated plume that is profoundly different from what is obtained in a calibration using both hydraulic-head and concentration data. The present study provides a well-documented example of the differences that can occur. Representing the system as a two-dimensional cross-section obviously omits some of the system dynamics. It was, however, possible to obtain a simulated plume cross-section that matched the actual plume cross-section well. The two-dimensional model execution times were about a seventh of those for the three-dimensional model, but some difficulties were encountered in representing the spatially variable source concentrations and less precise simulated concentrations were calculated by the two-dimensional model compared to the three-dimensional model. Summed up, the present study indicates that three dimensional modelling using both hydraulic heads and concentrations in the calibration should be preferred in the considered type of transport studies.
Bounds on low scale gravity from RICE data and cosmogenic neutrino flux models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussain, Shahid; McKay, Douglas W.
2006-03-01
We explore limits on low scale gravity models set by results from the Radio Ice Cherenkov Experiment's (RICE) ongoing search for cosmic ray neutrinos in the cosmogenic, or GZK, energy range. The bound on M, the fundamental scale of gravity, depends upon cosmogenic flux model, black hole formation and decay treatments, inclusion of graviton mediated elastic neutrino processes, and the number of large extra dimensions, d. Assuming proton-based cosmogenic flux models that cover a broad range of flux possibilities, we find bounds in the interval 0.9 TeV
2010-09-01
ADVANCEMENT OF TECHNIQUES FOR MODELING THE EFFECTS OF ATMOSPHERIC GRAVITY-WAVE-INDUCED INHOMOGENEITIES ON INFRASOUND PROPAGATION Robert G...number of infrasound observations indicate that fine-scale atmospheric inhomogeneities contribute to infrasonic arrivals that are not predicted by...standard modeling techniques. In particular, gravity waves, or buoyancy waves, are believed to contribute to the multipath nature of infrasound
Finn, C.
1994-01-01
Marine magnetic and gravity data from the northeast Japan forearc offer insight to the subsurface structure, density and magnetization from which geologic interpretations and tectonic reconstructions can be made. Positive marine magnetic anomalies, on-land geology, drill hole data, and 2-1/2-dimensional models reveal that Kitakami plutons and possibly their associated volcanic rocks constitute part of the modern forearc basement and lie 100-150 km further east than previously thought. A method to create magnetization and density contrast maps was employed to produce a three-dimensional picture of the forearc basement rock properties averaged over a 14-km thickness. -Author
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koneshov, V. N.; Nepoklonov, V. B.
2018-05-01
The development of studies on estimating the accuracy of the Earth's modern global gravity models in terms of the spherical harmonics of the geopotential in the problematic regions of the world is discussed. The comparative analysis of the results of reconstructing quasi-geoid heights and gravity anomalies from the different models is carried out for two polar regions selected within a radius of 1000 km from the North and South poles. The analysis covers nine recently developed models, including six high-resolution models and three lower order models, including the Russian GAOP2012 model. It is shown that the modern models determine the quasi-geoid heights and gravity anomalies in the polar regions with errors of 5 to 10 to a few dozen cm and from 3 to 5 to a few dozen mGal, respectively, depending on the resolution. The accuracy of the models in the Arctic is several times higher than in the Antarctic. This is associated with the peculiarities of gravity anomalies in every particular region and with the fact that the polar part of the Antarctic has been comparatively less explored by the gravity methods than the polar Arctic.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fichtl, G. H.; Holland, R. L.
1978-01-01
A stochastic model of spacecraft motion was developed based on the assumption that the net torque vector due to crew activity and rocket thruster firings is a statistically stationary Gaussian vector process. The process had zero ensemble mean value, and the components of the torque vector were mutually stochastically independent. The linearized rigid-body equations of motion were used to derive the autospectral density functions of the components of the spacecraft rotation vector. The cross-spectral density functions of the components of the rotation vector vanish for all frequencies so that the components of rotation were mutually stochastically independent. The autospectral and cross-spectral density functions of the induced gravity environment imparted to scientific apparatus rigidly attached to the spacecraft were calculated from the rotation rate spectral density functions via linearized inertial frame to body-fixed principal axis frame transformation formulae. The induced gravity process was a Gaussian one with zero mean value. Transformation formulae were used to rotate the principal axis body-fixed frame to which the rotation rate and induced gravity vector were referred to a body-fixed frame in which the components of the induced gravity vector were stochastically independent. Rice's theory of exceedances was used to calculate expected exceedance rates of the components of the rotation and induced gravity vector processes.
Satellite borne gravity gradiometer study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Metzger, E.; Jircitano, A.; Affleck, C.
1976-01-01
Gravity gradiometry is recognized to be a very difficult instrumentation problem because extremely small differential acceleration levels have to be measured, 0.1 EU corresponds to an acceleration of 10 to the minus 11th power g at two points 1 meter apart. A feasibility model of a gravity gradiometer is being developed for airborne applications using four modified versions of the proven Model VII accelerometers mounted on a slowly rotating fixture. Gravity gradients are being measured to 1.07 EU in a vertical rotation axis orientation. Equally significant are the outstanding operational characteristics such as fast reaction time, low temperature coefficients and high degree of bias stability over long periods of time. The rotating accelerometer gravity gradiometer approach and its present status is discussed and it is the foundation for the orbital gravity gradiometer analyzed. The performance levels achieved in a 1 g environment of the earth and under relatively high seismic disturbances, lend the orbital gravity gradiometer a high confidence level of success.
Modeling of Vapor Bubble Growth Under Nucleate Boiling Conditions in Reduced Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buyevich, Yu A.; Webbon, Bruce W.
1995-01-01
A dynamic model is developed to describe the evolution of a vapor bubble growing at a nucleation site on a superheated surface under arbitrary gravity. The bubble is separated from the surface by a thin microlayer and grows due to the evaporation from the microlayer interface. The average thickness of the microlayer increases as the bubble expands along the surface if the evaporation rate is lower than some critical value. The corresponding threshold value of the surface temperature has to be associated with the burn-out crisis. Two main reasons make for bubble separation, which are the buoyancy force and a force caused by the vapor momentum that comes to the bubble with vapor molecules. The latter force is somewhat diminished if condensation takes place at the upper bubble surface in subcooled liquids. The action of the said forces is opposed by inertia of the additional mass of liquid as the bubble center rises above the surface and by inertia of liquid being expelled by the growing bubble in radial directions. An extra pressure force arises due to the liquid inflow into the microlayer with a finite velocity. The last force helps in holding the bubble close to the surface during an initial stage of bubble evolution. Two limiting regimes with distinctly different properties can be singled out, depending on which of the forces that favor bubble detachment dominates. Under conditions of moderately reduced gravity, the situation is much the same as in normal gravity, although the bubble detachment volume increases as gravity diminishes. In microgravity, the buoyancy force is negligible. Then the bubble is capable of staying near the surface for a long time, with intensive evaporation from the microlayer. It suggests a drastic change in the physical mechanism of heat removal as gravity falls below a certain sufficiently low level. Inferences of the model and conclusions pertaining to effects caused on heat transfer processes by changes in bubble hydrodynamics induced
Gravity model improvement using GEOS 3 /GEM 9 and 10/. [and Seasat altimetry data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lerch, F. J.; Wagner, C. A.; Klosko, S. M.; Laubscher, R. E.
1979-01-01
Although errors in previous gravity models have produced large uncertainties in the orbital position of GEOS 3, significant improvement has been obtained with new geopotential solutions, Goddard Earth Model (GEM) 9 and 10. The GEM 9 and 10 solutions for the potential coefficients and station coordinates are presented along with a discussion of the new techniques employed. Also presented and discussed are solutions for three fundamental geodetic reference parameters, viz. the mean radius of the earth, the gravitational constant, and mean equatorial gravity. Evaluation of the gravity field is examined together with evaluation of GEM 9 and 10 for orbit determination accuracy. The major objectives of GEM 9 and 10 are achieved. GEOS 3 orbital accuracies from these models are about 1 m in their radial components for 5-day arc lengths. Both models yield significantly improved results over GEM solutions when compared to surface gravimetry, Skylab and GEOS 3 altimetry, and highly accurate BE-C (Beacon Explorer-C) laser ranges. The new values of the parameters discussed are given.
Mars Gravity Field Model Development from Mars Global Surveyor Tracking Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemoine, F. G.; Zuber, M. T.
1999-01-01
Since Feb. 99 the MGS spacecraft has been in a near circular orbit at about 400 km altitude. The MGS has been regularly tracked by the Deep Space Network (DSN) at X-band and for a 3 week period in February was tracked almost continuously for an intensive gravity modeling activity that would form the basis of the orbital computations for the rest of the mission. The data collected during this calibration period and the earlier SPO and Hiatus periods have now been used to develop a new gravity field model for Mars that is showing considerable new detail in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Until February no data at 400 km altitude or lower had been acquired on any previous mission south of about 35S and all the previous data were of significantly lower quality. Low altitude data (-170 km) were obtained over the higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere during the SPO periods but because of the high eccentricity of the orbit nothing of similar quality was obtainable for the southern hemisphere. The new models are of spherical harmonic degree and order 70 or higher and are suggesting large anomalies are often associated with the large impact features. Gravity data have also been obtained over both the northern and southern polar ice caps. The MGS orbit quality resulting from the use of these newer models is better than any previous Mars missions and is approaching the ten's of meter level that had been hoped would be eventually realizable.
Cosmic transit and anisotropic models in f(R,T) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahu, S. K.; Tripathy, S. K.; Sahoo, P. K.; Nath, A.
2017-06-01
Accelerating cosmological models are constructed in a modified gravity theory dubbed as $f(R,T)$ gravity at the backdrop of an anisotropic Bianchi type-III universe. $f(R,T)$ is a function of the Ricci scalar $R$ and the trace $T$ of the energy-momentum tensor and it replaces the Ricci scalar in the Einstein-Hilbert action of General Relativity. The models are constructed for two different ways of modification of the Einstein-Hilbert action. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by a novel method of integration. We have explored the behaviour of the cosmic transit from an decelerated phase of expansion to an accelerated phase to get the dynamical features of the universe. Within the formalism of the present work, it is found that, the modification of the Einstein-Hilbert action does not affect the scale factor. However the dynamics of the effective dark energy equation of state is significantly affected.
Cylindrically symmetric cosmological model of the universe in modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, B.; Vadrevu, Samhita
2017-02-01
In this paper, we have constructed the cosmological models of the universe in a cylindrically symmetric space time in two classes of f(R,T) gravity (Harko et al. in Phys. Rev. D 84:024020, 2011). We have discussed two cases: one in the linear form and the other in the quadratic form of R. The matter is considered to be in the form of perfect fluid. It is observed that in the first case, the pressure and energy density remain the same, which reduces to a Zeldovich fluid. In the second case we have studied the quadratic function of f(R,T) gravity in the form f(R)=λ(R+R2) and f(T)=λ T. In the second case the pressure is in the negative domain and the energy density is in the positive domain, which confirms that the equation of state parameter is negative. The physical properties of the constructed models are studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Leyuan
2018-01-01
We present a brief review of gravity forward algorithms in Cartesian coordinate system, including both space-domain and Fourier-domain approaches, after which we introduce a truly general and efficient algorithm, namely the convolution-type Gauss fast Fourier transform (Conv-Gauss-FFT) algorithm, for 2D and 3D modeling of gravity potential and its derivatives due to sources with arbitrary geometry and arbitrary density distribution which are defined either by discrete or by continuous functions. The Conv-Gauss-FFT algorithm is based on the combined use of a hybrid rectangle-Gaussian grid and the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm. Since the gravity forward problem in Cartesian coordinate system can be expressed as continuous convolution-type integrals, we first approximate the continuous convolution by a weighted sum of a series of shifted discrete convolutions, and then each shifted discrete convolution, which is essentially a Toeplitz system, is calculated efficiently and accurately by combining circulant embedding with the FFT algorithm. Synthetic and real model tests show that the Conv-Gauss-FFT algorithm can obtain high-precision forward results very efficiently for almost any practical model, and it works especially well for complex 3D models when gravity fields on large 3D regular grids are needed.
Gravity in the Brain as a Reference for Space and Time Perception.
Lacquaniti, Francesco; Bosco, Gianfranco; Gravano, Silvio; Indovina, Iole; La Scaleia, Barbara; Maffei, Vincenzo; Zago, Myrka
2015-01-01
Moving and interacting with the environment require a reference for orientation and a scale for calibration in space and time. There is a wide variety of environmental clues and calibrated frames at different locales, but the reference of gravity is ubiquitous on Earth. The pull of gravity on static objects provides a plummet which, together with the horizontal plane, defines a three-dimensional Cartesian frame for visual images. On the other hand, the gravitational acceleration of falling objects can provide a time-stamp on events, because the motion duration of an object accelerated by gravity over a given path is fixed. Indeed, since ancient times, man has been using plumb bobs for spatial surveying, and water clocks or pendulum clocks for time keeping. Here we review behavioral evidence in favor of the hypothesis that the brain is endowed with mechanisms that exploit the presence of gravity to estimate the spatial orientation and the passage of time. Several visual and non-visual (vestibular, haptic, visceral) cues are merged to estimate the orientation of the visual vertical. However, the relative weight of each cue is not fixed, but depends on the specific task. Next, we show that an internal model of the effects of gravity is combined with multisensory signals to time the interception of falling objects, to time the passage through spatial landmarks during virtual navigation, to assess the duration of a gravitational motion, and to judge the naturalness of periodic motion under gravity.
Tests of local Lorentz invariance violation of gravity in the standard model extension with pulsars.
Shao, Lijing
2014-03-21
The standard model extension is an effective field theory introducing all possible Lorentz-violating (LV) operators to the standard model and general relativity (GR). In the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension, nine coefficients describe dominant observable deviations from GR. We systematically implemented 27 tests from 13 pulsar systems to tightly constrain eight linear combinations of these coefficients with extensive Monte Carlo simulations. It constitutes the first detailed and systematic test of the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension with the state-of-the-art pulsar observations. No deviation from GR was detected. The limits of LV coefficients are expressed in the canonical Sun-centered celestial-equatorial frame for the convenience of further studies. They are all improved by significant factors of tens to hundreds with existing ones. As a consequence, Einstein's equivalence principle is verified substantially further by pulsar experiments in terms of local Lorentz invariance in gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, M. L.; Blakely, R. J.; Wells, R. E.; Dragovich, J.
2011-12-01
The forearc of the Cascadia subduction zone in coastal Oregon and Washington is largely composed of a 15-30 km-thick stack of basalt flows comprising the Crescent Formation (WA) and Siletz River Volcanics (OR), and collectively termed the Siletz terrane. We are developing 3-D structural maps of the Puget Lowland to distinguish older and currently active structures for seismic hazard analysis. The boundaries of the Siletz terrane in particular may strongly influence crustal rheology and neotectonic structures of the region. Careful analysis of the areal extent of this terrane will also facilitate more accurate interpretation of seismic data and gravity anomalies, which will help define the extent and shape of overlying basins. Absence of extensive outcrop in the Lowland and a widespread veneer of Quaternary deposits require extensive subsurface geophysical studies to establish Lowland-wide crustal structure. Previous studies have used active seismic surveys and interpretation of existing industry seismic data, with several studies using gravity and magnetic data or passive-source tomography support. However, steeply dipping boundaries in the mid-crust are difficult targets for seismic study. We need to independently discriminate between potential models established by seismic data using gravity and magnetic datasets. In the Puget Lowland the Siletz is a region of high seismic wave speed, density, and magnetic susceptibility, and therefore its mid-crustal boundaries are good targets for definition by gravity and magnetic data. We present interpretations of gravity and magnetic anomalies for the Puget Lowland region that together establish the most likely position and structure of the Crescent Formation boundary in the mid-upper crust. Well-constrained physical properties of Crescent basalts inform our aeromagnetic map interpretation and give us baseline values for constructing three two-dimensional models by simultaneous forward modeling of aeromagnetic and isostatic
Gravity modeling finds a large magma body in the deep crust below the Gulf of Naples, Italy.
Fedi, M; Cella, F; D'Antonio, M; Florio, G; Paoletti, V; Morra, V
2018-05-29
We analyze a wide gravity low in the Campania Active Volcanic Area and interpret it by a large and deep source distribution of partially molten, low-density material from about 8 to 30 km depth. Given the complex spatial-temporal distribution of explosive volcanism in the area, we model the gravity data consistently with several volcanological and petrological constraints. We propose two possible models: one accounts for the coexistence, within the lower/intermediate crust, of large amounts of melts and cumulates besides country rocks. It implies a layered distribution of densities and, thus, a variation with depth of percentages of silicate liquids, cumulates and country rocks. The other reflects a fractal density distribution, based on the scaling exponent estimated from the gravity data. According to this model, the gravity low would be related to a distribution of melt pockets within solid rocks. Both density distributions account for the available volcanological and seismic constraints and can be considered as end-members of possible models compatible with gravity data. Such results agree with the general views about the roots of large areas of ignimbritic volcanism worldwide. Given the prolonged history of magmatism in the Campania area since Pliocene times, we interpret the detected low-density body as a developing batholith.
Constraints on modified gravity models from white dwarfs
Banerjee, Srimanta; Singh, Tejinder P.; Shankar, Swapnil, E-mail: srimanta.banerjee@tifr.res.in, E-mail: swapnil.shankar@cbs.ac.in, E-mail: tpsingh@tifr.res.in
Modified gravity theories can introduce modifications to the Poisson equation in the Newtonian limit. As a result, we expect to see interesting features of these modifications inside stellar objects. White dwarf stars are one of the most well studied stars in stellar astrophysics. We explore the effect of modified gravity theories inside white dwarfs. We derive the modified stellar structure equations and solve them to study the mass-radius relationships for various modified gravity theories. We also constrain the parameter space of these theories from observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Syracuse, E. M.; Zhang, H.; Maceira, M.
2017-10-01
We present a method for using any combination of body wave arrival time measurements, surface wave dispersion observations, and gravity data to simultaneously invert for three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity models. The simultaneous use of disparate data types takes advantage of the differing sensitivities of each data type, resulting in a comprehensive and higher resolution three-dimensional geophysical model. In a case study for Utah, we combine body wave first arrivals mainly from the USArray Transportable Array, Rayleigh wave group and phase velocity dispersion data, and Bouguer gravity anomalies to invert for crustal and upper mantle structure of the region. Results show clear delineations, visible in both P- and S-wave velocities, between the three main tectonic provinces in the region. Without the inclusion of the surface wave and gravity constraints, these delineations are less clear, particularly for S-wave velocities. Indeed, checkerboard tests confirm that the inclusion of the additional datasets dramatically improves S-wave velocity recovery, with more subtle improvements to P-wave velocity recovery, demonstrating the strength of the method in successfully recovering seismic velocity structure from multiple types of constraints.
Syracuse, Ellen Marie; Zhang, Haijiang; Maceira, Monica
2017-07-11
Here, we present a method for using any combination of body wave arrival time measurements, surface wave dispersion observations, and gravity data to simultaneously invert for three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity models. The simultaneous use of disparate data types takes advantage of the differing sensitivities of each data type, resulting in a comprehensive and higher resolution three-dimensional geophysical model. In a case study for Utah, we combine body waves first arrivals mainly from the USArray Transportable Array, Rayleigh wave group and phase velocity dispersion data, and Bouguer gravity anomalies to invert for crustal and upper mantle structure of the region.more » Results show clear delineations, visible in both P- and S-wave velocities, between the three main tectonic provinces in the region. In conclusion, without the inclusion of the surface wave and gravity constraints, these delineations are less clear, particularly for S-wave velocities. Indeed, checkerboard tests confirm that the inclusion of the additional datasets dramatically improves S-wave velocity recovery, with more subtle improvements to P-wave velocity recovery, demonstrating the strength of the method in successfully recovering seismic velocity structure from multiple types of constraints.« less
Syracuse, Ellen Marie; Zhang, Haijiang; Maceira, Monica
Here, we present a method for using any combination of body wave arrival time measurements, surface wave dispersion observations, and gravity data to simultaneously invert for three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity models. The simultaneous use of disparate data types takes advantage of the differing sensitivities of each data type, resulting in a comprehensive and higher resolution three-dimensional geophysical model. In a case study for Utah, we combine body waves first arrivals mainly from the USArray Transportable Array, Rayleigh wave group and phase velocity dispersion data, and Bouguer gravity anomalies to invert for crustal and upper mantle structure of the region.more » Results show clear delineations, visible in both P- and S-wave velocities, between the three main tectonic provinces in the region. In conclusion, without the inclusion of the surface wave and gravity constraints, these delineations are less clear, particularly for S-wave velocities. Indeed, checkerboard tests confirm that the inclusion of the additional datasets dramatically improves S-wave velocity recovery, with more subtle improvements to P-wave velocity recovery, demonstrating the strength of the method in successfully recovering seismic velocity structure from multiple types of constraints.« less
Flattening the inflaton potential beyond minimal gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hyun Min
2018-01-01
We review the status of the Starobinsky-like models for inflation beyond minimal gravity and discuss the unitarity problem due to the presence of a large non-minimal gravity coupling. We show that the induced gravity models allow for a self-consistent description of inflation and discuss the implications of the inflaton couplings to the Higgs field in the Standard Model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hubbard, W. B.
2013-12-01
The so-called theory of figures (TOF) uses potential theory to solve for the structure of highly distorted rotating liquid planets in hydrostatic equilibrium. TOF is noteworthy both for its antiquity (Maclaurin 1742) and its mathematical complexity. Planned high-precision gravity measurements near the surfaces of Jupiter and Saturn (possibly detecting signals ~ microgal) will place unprecedented requirements on TOF, not because one expects hydrostatic equilibrium to that level, but because nonhydrostatic components in the surface gravity, at expected levels ~ 1 milligal, must be referenced to precise hydrostatic-equilibrium models. The Maclaurin spheroid is both a useful test of numerical TOF codes (Hubbard 2012, ApJ Lett 756:L15), and an approach to an efficient TOF code for arbitrary barotropes of variable density (Hubbard 2013, ApJ 768:43). For the latter, one trades off vertical resolution by replacing a continuous barotropic pressure-density relation with a stairstep relation, corresponding to N concentric Maclaurin spheroids (CMS), each of constant density. The benefit of this trade-off is that two-dimensional integrals over the mass distributions at each interface are reduced to one-dimensional integrals, quickly and accurately evaluated by Gaussian quadrature. The shapes of the spheroids comprise N level surfaces within the planet and at its surface, are gravitationally coupled to each other, and are found by self-consistent iteration, relaxing to a final configuration to within the computer's precision limits. The angular and radial variation of external gravity (using the usual geophysical expansion in multipole moments) can be found to the limit of typical floating point precision (~ 1.e-14), much better than the expected noise/signal for either the Juno or Cassini gravity experiments. The stairstep barotrope can be adjusted to fit a prescribed continuous or discontinuous interior barotrope, and can be made to approximate it to any required precision by
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2016-06-01
Gravity and Levity is the personal blog of Brian Skinner, a theoretical condensed-matter physicist who began it back in 2009, when he was a PhD student at the University of Minnesota, US. He's now a postdoc at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where his research focuses on the behaviour of strongly correlated electronic systems, such as low-dimensional electron gases and materials such as graphene.
Neutron stars in a perturbative f(R) gravity model with strong magnetic fields
Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Güngör, Can
2013-10-01
In Kaluza-Klein electromagnetism it is natural to associate modified gravity with strong electromagnetic fields. Hence, in this paper we investigate the combined effects of a strong magnetic field and perturbative f(R) gravity on the structure of neutron stars. The effect of an interior strong magnetic field of about 10{sup 17−18} G on the equation of state is derived in the context of a quantum hadrodynamics (QHD) equation of state (EoS) including effects of the magnetic pressure and energy along with occupied Landau levels. Adopting a random orientation of interior field domains, we solve the modified spherically symmetric hydrostatic equilibrium equationsmore » derived for a gravity model with f(R) = R+αR{sup 2}. Effects of both the finite magnetic field and the modified gravity are detailed for various values of the magnetic field and the perturbation parameter α along with a discussion of their physical implications. We show that there exists a parameter space of the modified gravity and the magnetic field strength, in which even a soft equation of state can accommodate a large ( > 2 M{sub s}un) maximum neutron star mass.« less
Non-linear regime of the Generalized Minimal Massive Gravity in critical points
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Setare, M. R.; Adami, H.
2016-03-01
The Generalized Minimal Massive Gravity (GMMG) theory is realized by adding the CS deformation term, the higher derivative deformation term, and an extra term to pure Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant. In the present paper we obtain exact solutions to the GMMG field equations in the non-linear regime of the model. GMMG model about AdS_3 space is conjectured to be dual to a 2-dimensional CFT. We study the theory in critical points corresponding to the central charges c_-=0 or c_+=0, in the non-linear regime. We show that AdS_3 wave solutions are present, and have logarithmic form in critical points. Then we study the AdS_3 non-linear deformation solution. Furthermore we obtain logarithmic deformation of extremal BTZ black hole. After that using Abbott-Deser-Tekin method we calculate the energy and angular momentum of these types of black hole solutions.
Dimensional reduction for a SIR type model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cahyono, Edi; Soeharyadi, Yudi; Mukhsar
2018-03-01
Epidemic phenomena are often modeled in the form of dynamical systems. Such model has also been used to model spread of rumor, spread of extreme ideology, and dissemination of knowledge. Among the simplest is SIR (susceptible, infected and recovered) model, a model that consists of three compartments, and hence three variables. The variables are functions of time which represent the number of subpopulations, namely suspect, infected and recovery. The sum of the three is assumed to be constant. Hence, the model is actually two dimensional which sits in three-dimensional ambient space. This paper deals with the reduction of a SIR type model into two variables in two-dimensional ambient space to understand the geometry and dynamics better. The dynamics is studied, and the phase portrait is presented. The two dimensional model preserves the equilibrium and the stability. The model has been applied for knowledge dissemination, which has been the interest of knowledge management.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garcia, R. R.
1986-01-01
The influence of breaking gravity waves on the dynamics and chemical composition of the 60 to 110 km region is investigated with a two dimensional model that includes a parameterization of gravity wave momentum deposition and diffusion. The dynamical model is described by Garcia and Solomon (1983) and Solomon and Garcia (1983) and includes a complete chemical scheme for the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The parameterization of Lindzen (1981) is used to calculate the momentum deposited and the turbulent diffusion produced by the gravity waves. It is found that wave momentum deposition drives a very vigorous mean meridional circulation, produces a very cold summer mesopause and reverse the zonal wind jets above about 85 km. The seasonal variation of the turbulent diffusion coefficient is consistent with the behavior of mesospheric turbulences inferred from MST radar echoes. The large degree of consistency between model results and various types of dynamical and chemical data supports very strongly the hypothesis that breaking gravity waves play a major role in determining the zonally-averaged dynamical and chemical structure of the 60 to 110 km region of the atmosphere.
Regional gravity field modelling from GOCE observables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pitoňák, Martin; Šprlák, Michal; Novák, Pavel; Tenzer, Robert
2017-01-01
In this article we discuss a regional recovery of gravity disturbances at the mean geocentric sphere approximating the Earth over the area of Central Europe from satellite gravitational gradients. For this purpose, we derive integral formulas which allow converting the gravity disturbances onto the disturbing gravitational gradients in the local north-oriented frame (LNOF). The derived formulas are free of singularities in case of r ≠ R . We then investigate three numerical approaches for solving their inverses. In the initial approach, the integral formulas are firstly modified for solving individually the near- and distant-zone contributions. While the effect of the near-zone gravitational gradients is solved as an inverse problem, the effect of the distant-zone gravitational gradients is computed by numerical integration from the global gravitational model (GGM) TIM-r4. In the second approach, we further elaborate the first scenario by reducing measured gravitational gradients for gravitational effects of topographic masses. In the third approach, we apply additional modification by reducing gravitational gradients for the reference GGM. In all approaches we determine the gravity disturbances from each of the four accurately measured gravitational gradients separately as well as from their combination. Our regional gravitational field solutions are based on the GOCE EGG_TRF_2 gravitational gradients collected within the period from November 1 2009 until January 11 2010. Obtained results are compared with EGM2008, DIR-r1, TIM-r1 and SPW-r1. The best fit, in terms of RMS (2.9 mGal), is achieved for EGM2008 while using the third approach which combine all four well-measured gravitational gradients. This is explained by the fact that a-priori information about the Earth's gravitational field up to the degree and order 180 was used.
Why did the apple fall? A new model to explain Einstein’s gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stannard, Warren; Blair, David; Zadnik, Marjan; Kaur, Tejinder
2017-01-01
Newton described gravity as an attractive force between two masses but Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity provides a very different explanation. Implicit in Einstein’s theory is the idea that gravitational effects are the result of a distortion in the shape of space-time. Despite its elegance, Einstein’s concept of gravity is rarely encountered outside of an advanced physics course as it is often considered to be too complex and too mathematical. This paper describes a new conceptual and quantitative model of gravity based on General Relativity at a level most science students should be able to understand. The model illustrates geodesics using analogies with paths of navigation on the surface of the Earth. This is extended to space and time maps incorporating the time warping effects of General Relativity. Using basic geometry, the geodesic path of a falling object near the surface of the Earth is found. From this the acceleration of an object in free fall is calculated. The model presented in this paper can answer the question, ‘Why do things fall?’ without resorting to Newton’s gravitational force.
GRGM900C: A degree 900 lunar gravity model from GRAIL primary and extended mission data
Lemoine, Frank G; Goossens, Sander; Sabaka, Terence J; Nicholas, Joseph B; Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David D; Loomis, Bryant D; Chinn, Douglas S; Neumann, Gregory A; Smith, David E; Zuber, Maria T
2014-01-01
We have derived a gravity field solution in spherical harmonics to degree and order 900, GRGM900C, from the tracking data of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Primary (1 March to 29 May 2012) and Extended Missions (30 August to 14 December 2012). A power law constraint of 3.6 ×10−4/ℓ2 was applied only for degree ℓ greater than 600. The model produces global correlations of gravity, and gravity predicted from lunar topography of ≥ 0.98 through degree 638. The model's degree strength varies from a minimum of 575–675 over the central nearside and farside to 900 over the polar regions. The model fits the Extended Mission Ka-Band Range Rate data through 17 November 2012 at 0.13 μm/s RMS, whereas the last month of Ka-Band Range-Rate data obtained from altitudes of 2–10 km fit at 0.98 μm/s RMS, indicating that there is still signal inherent in the tracking data beyond degree 900. PMID:26074638
GRGM900C: A degree 900 lunar gravity model from GRAIL primary and extended mission data.
Lemoine, Frank G; Goossens, Sander; Sabaka, Terence J; Nicholas, Joseph B; Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David D; Loomis, Bryant D; Chinn, Douglas S; Neumann, Gregory A; Smith, David E; Zuber, Maria T
2014-05-28
We have derived a gravity field solution in spherical harmonics to degree and order 900, GRGM900C, from the tracking data of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Primary (1 March to 29 May 2012) and Extended Missions (30 August to 14 December 2012). A power law constraint of 3.6 ×10 -4 / ℓ 2 was applied only for degree ℓ greater than 600. The model produces global correlations of gravity, and gravity predicted from lunar topography of ≥ 0.98 through degree 638. The model's degree strength varies from a minimum of 575-675 over the central nearside and farside to 900 over the polar regions. The model fits the Extended Mission Ka-Band Range Rate data through 17 November 2012 at 0.13 μm/s RMS, whereas the last month of Ka-Band Range-Rate data obtained from altitudes of 2-10 km fit at 0.98 μm/s RMS, indicating that there is still signal inherent in the tracking data beyond degree 900.
GRGM900C: A Degree 900 Lunar Gravity Model from GRAIL Primary and Extended Mission Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemoine, Frank G.; Goossens, Sander; Sabaka, Terence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David D.; Bryant, D. Loomis; Chinn, Douglas S.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.;
2014-01-01
We have derived a gravity field solution in spherical harmonics to degree and order 900, GRGM900C, from the tracking data of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Primary (1 March to 29 May 2012) and Extended Missions (30 August to 14 December 2012). A power law constraint of 3.6 × 10(exp -4)/l(exp 2) was applied only for degree l greater than 600. The model produces global correlations of gravity, and gravity predicted from lunar topography of greater than or equal to 0.98 through degree 638. The model's degree strength varies from a minimum of 575-675 over the central nearside and farside to 900 over the polar regions. The model fits the Extended Mission Ka-Band Range Rate data through 17 November 2012 at 0.13 micrometers/s RMS, whereas the last month of Ka-Band Range-Rate data obtained from altitudes of 2-10 km fit at 0.98 micrometers/s RMS, indicating that there is still signal inherent in the tracking data beyond degree 900.
Venus - Global gravity and topography
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcnamee, J. B.; Borderies, N. J.; Sjogren, W. L.
1993-01-01
A new gravity field determination that has been produced combines both the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and the Magellan Doppler radio data. Comparisonsbetween this estimate, a spherical harmonic model of degree and order 21, and previous models show that significant improvements have been made. Results are displayed as gravity contours overlaying a topographic map. We also calculate a new spherical harmonic model of topography based on Magellan altimetry, with PVO altimetry included where gaps exist in the Magellan data. This model is also of degree and order 21, so in conjunction with the gravity model, Bouguer and isostatic anomaly maps can be produced. These results are very consistent with previous results, but reveal more spatial resolution in the higher latitudes.
Beyond Lovelock gravity: Higher derivative metric theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crisostomi, M.; Noui, K.; Charmousis, C.; Langlois, D.
2018-02-01
We consider theories describing the dynamics of a four-dimensional metric, whose Lagrangian is diffeomorphism invariant and depends at most on second derivatives of the metric. Imposing degeneracy conditions we find a set of Lagrangians that, apart form the Einstein-Hilbert one, are either trivial or contain more than 2 degrees of freedom. Among the partially degenerate theories, we recover Chern-Simons gravity, endowed with constraints whose structure suggests the presence of instabilities. Then, we enlarge the class of parity violating theories of gravity by introducing new "chiral scalar-tensor theories." Although they all raise the same concern as Chern-Simons gravity, they can nevertheless make sense as low energy effective field theories or, by restricting them to the unitary gauge (where the scalar field is uniform), as Lorentz breaking theories with a parity violating sector.
Spacecraft Thermal and Optical Modeling Impacts on Estimation of the GRAIL Lunar Gravity Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fahnestock, Eugene G.; Park, Ryan S.; Yuan, Dah-Ning; Konopliv, Alex S.
2012-01-01
We summarize work performed involving thermo-optical modeling of the two Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft. We derived several reconciled spacecraft thermo-optical models having varying detail. We used the simplest in calculating SRP acceleration, and used the most detailed to calculate acceleration due to thermal re-radiation. For the latter, we used both the output of pre-launch finite-element-based thermal simulations and downlinked temperature sensor telemetry. The estimation process to recover the lunar gravity field utilizes both a nominal thermal re-radiation accleration history and an apriori error model derived from that plus an off-nominal history, which bounds parameter uncertainties as informed by sensitivity studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forsberg, R.; Olesen, A. V.; Barnes, D.; Ingalls, S. E.; Minter, C. F.; Presicci, M. R.
2017-12-01
An accurate coastal geoid model is important for determination of near-shore ocean dynamic topography and currents, as well as for land GPS surveys and global geopotential models. Since many coastal regions across the globe are regions of intense development and coastal protection projects, precise geoid models at cm-level accuracy are essential. The only way to secure cm-geoid accuracies across coastal regions is to acquire more marine gravity data; here airborne gravity is the obvious method of choice due to the uniform accuracy, and the ability to provide a seamless geoid accuracy across the coastline. Current practice for gravity and geoid models, such as EGM2008 and many national projects, is to complement land gravity data with satellite radar altimetry at sea, a procedure which can give large errors in regions close to the coast. To quantify the coastal errors in satellite gravity, we compare results of a large set of recent airborne gravity surveys, acquired across a range of coastal zones globally from polar to equatorial regions, and quantify the errors as a function of distance from the coast line for a number of different global altimetry gravity solutions. We find that accuracy in satellite altimetry solutions depend very much on the availability of gravity data along the coast-near land regions in the underlying reference fields (e.g., EGM2008), with satellite gravity accuracy in the near-shore zone ranging from anywhere between 5 to 20 mGal r.m.s., with occasional large outliers; we also show how these errors may typically propagate into coastal geoid errors of 5-10 cm r.m.s. or more. This highlight the need for airborne (land) gravity surveys to be extended at least 20-30 km offshore, especially for regions of insufficient marine gravity coverage; we give examples of a few such recent surveys and associated marine geoid impacts.
A ray tracing model of gravity wave propagation and breakdown in the middle atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schoeberl, M. R.
1985-01-01
Gravity wave ray tracing and wave packet theory is used to parameterize wave breaking in the mesosphere. Rays are tracked by solving the group velocity equations, and the interaction with the basic state is determined by considering the evolution of the packet wave action density. The ray tracing approach has a number of advantages over the steady state parameterization as the effects of gravity wave focussing and refraction, local dissipation, and wave response to rapid changes in the mean flow are more realistically considered; however, if steady state conditions prevail, the method gives identical results. The ray tracing algorithm is tested using both interactive and noninteractive models of the basic state. In the interactive model, gravity wave interaction with the polar night jet on a beta-plane is considered. The algorithm produces realistic polar night jet closure for weak topographic forcing of gravity waves. Planetary scale waves forced by local transfer of wave action into the basic flow in turn tran