Science.gov

Sample records for dimensional ising model

  1. Bootstrapping the Three Dimensional Supersymmetric Ising Model.

    PubMed

    Bobev, Nikolay; El-Showk, Sheer; Mazáč, Dalimil; Paulos, Miguel F

    2015-07-31

    We implement the conformal bootstrap program for three dimensional conformal field theories with N=2 supersymmetry and find universal constraints on the spectrum of operator dimensions in these theories. By studying the bounds on the dimension of the first scalar appearing in the operator product expansion of a chiral and an antichiral primary, we find a kink at the expected location of the critical three dimensional N=2 Wess-Zumino model, which can be thought of as a supersymmetric analog of the critical Ising model. Focusing on this kink, we determine, to high accuracy, the low-lying spectrum of operator dimensions of the theory, as well as the stress-tensor two-point function. We find that the latter is in an excellent agreement with an exact computation.

  2. One-Dimensional Ising Model with "k"-Spin Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Yale

    2011-01-01

    We examine a generalization of the one-dimensional Ising model involving interactions among neighbourhoods of "k" adjacent spins. The model is solved by exploiting a connection to an interesting computational problem that we call ""k"-SAT on a ring", and is shown to be equivalent to the nearest-neighbour Ising model in the absence of an external…

  3. Bootstrapping Critical Ising Model on Three Dimensional Real Projective Space.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yu

    2016-04-08

    Given conformal data on a flat Euclidean space, we use crosscap conformal bootstrap equations to numerically solve the Lee-Yang model as well as the critical Ising model on a three dimensional real projective space. We check the rapid convergence of our bootstrap program in two dimensions from the exact solutions available. Based on the comparison, we estimate that our systematic error on the numerically solved one-point functions of the critical Ising model on a three dimensional real projective space is less than 1%. Our method opens up a novel way to solve conformal field theories on nontrivial geometries.

  4. Two-dimensional XXZ-Ising model with quartic interactions.

    PubMed

    Valverde, J S

    2012-05-01

    In this work we study a two-dimensional XXZ-Ising spin-1/2 model with quartic interactions. The model is composed of a two-dimensional lattice of edge-sharing unitary cells, where each cell consists of two triangular prisms, converging in a basal plane with four Ising spin-1/2 (open circles); the apical positions are also occupied by four Heisenberg spin-1/2 (solid circles). Interaction of the base plane containing the multispin Ising interaction has the parameter J_{4}, and the other pairwise interactions have parameter J. For the proposed model we construct the phase diagram at zero temperature and give all possible spin configurations. In addition, we investigate two regions where the model can be solved exactly, the free fermion condition (FFC) and the symmetrical eight-vertex condition (SEVC). For this purpose we perform a straightforward mapping for a zero-field eight-vertex model. The necessary conditions for the equivalence are analyzed for all ranges of the interaction parameters. Unfortunately, the present model does not satisfy the FFC unless the trivial case; however, it was possible to give a region where the model can be solved approximately. We study the SEVC and verify that this condition is always satisfied. We also explore and discuss the critical conditions giving the region where these critical points are relevant.

  5. Scale invariance implies conformal invariance for the three-dimensional Ising model.

    PubMed

    Delamotte, Bertrand; Tissier, Matthieu; Wschebor, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Using the Wilson renormalization group, we show that if no integrated vector operator of scaling dimension -1 exists, then scale invariance implies conformal invariance. By using the Lebowitz inequalities, we prove that this necessary condition is fulfilled in all dimensions for the Ising universality class. This shows, in particular, that scale invariance implies conformal invariance for the three-dimensional Ising model.

  6. Linear relaxation in large two-dimensional Ising models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; Wang, F.

    2016-02-01

    Critical dynamics in two-dimension Ising lattices up to 2048 ×2048 is simulated on field-programmable-gate-array- based computing devices. Linear relaxation times are measured from extremely long Monte Carlo simulations. The longest simulation has 7.1 ×1016 spin updates, which would take over 37 years to simulate on a general purpose computer. The linear relaxation time of the Ising lattices is found to follow the dynamic scaling law for correlation lengths as long as 2048. The dynamic exponent z of the system is found to be 2.179(12), which is consistent with previous studies of Ising lattices with shorter correlation lengths. It is also found that Monte Carlo simulations of critical dynamics in Ising lattices larger than 512 ×512 are very sensitive to the statistical correlations between pseudorandom numbers, making it even more difficult to study such large systems.

  7. Monte Carlo Study of One-Dimensional Ising Models with Long-Range Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Yusuke

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Fukui and Todo have proposed a new effective Monte Carlo algorithm for long-range interacting systems. Using the algorithm with the nonequilibrium relaxation method, we investigated long-range interacting one-dimensional Ising models both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic with the nearest-neighbor ferromagnetic interaction. For the antiferromagnetic model, we found the systems are paramagnetic at finite temperatures.

  8. Universality class of the two-dimensional site-diluted Ising model.

    PubMed

    Martins, P H L; Plascak, J A

    2007-07-01

    In this work, we evaluate the probability distribution function of the order parameter for the two-dimensional site-diluted Ising model. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations have been performed for different spin concentrations p (0.70Ising model seems to be independent of the amount of dilution. Logarithmic corrections of the finite-size critical temperature behavior of the model can also be inferred even for such small lattices.

  9. Two-dimensional Ising model with competing interactions: Phase diagram and low-temperature remanent disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hare, A.; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Kugel, K. I.

    2009-01-01

    The two-dimensional Ising model with competing nearest-neighbor and diagonal interactions on the square lattice is studied by the transfer-matrix technique and by the Monte Carlo simulations. The phase diagram of this model is constructed with a special emphasis to the analysis of a glassy state arising as an order to disorder transition at low temperatures. Evidence of the glassy state (based, in particular, on the calculation of the average length of domain walls and on the Edwards-Anderson order parameter) and its characteristics are presented. It was shown that, in the frustrated Ising model, the domain-wall length correlates to the onset of the glassy state, that is, it may play the role of the order parameter for the Ising glass or for glasslike states in other frustrated magnetic systems.

  10. Simplified transfer matrix approach in the two-dimensional Ising model with various boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastening, Boris

    2002-11-01

    A recent simplified transfer matrix solution of the two-dimensional Ising model on a square lattice with periodic boundary conditions is generalized to periodic-antiperiodic, antiperiodic-periodic, and antiperiodic-antiperiodic boundary conditions. It is suggested to employ linear combinations of the resulting partition functions to investigate finite-size scaling. An exact relation of such a combination to the partition function corresponding to Brascamp-Kunz boundary conditions is found.

  11. The Finite-Size Scaling Relation for the Order-Parameter Probability Distribution of the Six-Dimensional Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merdan, Ziya; Karakuş, Özlem

    2016-11-01

    The six dimensional Ising model with nearest-neighbor pair interactions has been simulated and verified numerically on the Creutz Cellular Automaton by using five bit demons near the infinite-lattice critical temperature with the linear dimensions L=4,6,8,10. The order parameter probability distribution for six dimensional Ising model has been calculated at the critical temperature. The constants of the analytical function have been estimated by fitting to probability function obtained numerically at the finite size critical point.

  12. Nonequilibrium critical dynamics of the two-dimensional Ising model quenched from a correlated initial state.

    PubMed

    Környei, László; Pleimling, Michel; Iglói, Ferenc

    2008-01-01

    The universality class, even the order of the transition, of the two-dimensional Ising model depends on the range and the symmetry of the interactions (Onsager model, Baxter-Wu model, Turban model, etc.), but the critical temperature is generally the same due to self-duality. Here we consider a sudden change in the form of the interaction and study the nonequilibrium critical dynamical properties of the nearest-neighbor model. The relaxation of the magnetization and the decay of the autocorrelation function are found to display a power law behavior with characteristic exponents that depend on the universality class of the initial state.

  13. Static and dynamic structure factors in three-dimensional randomly diluted Ising models.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Pasquale; Pelissetto, Andrea; Vicari, Ettore

    2008-02-01

    We consider the three-dimensional randomly diluted Ising model and study the critical behavior of the static and dynamic spin-spin correlation functions (static and dynamic structure factors) at the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition in the high-temperature phase. We consider a purely relaxational dynamics without conservation laws, the so-called model A. We present Monte Carlo simulations and perturbative field-theoretical calculations. While the critical behavior of the static structure factor is quite similar to that occurring in pure Ising systems, the dynamic structure factor shows a substantially different critical behavior. In particular, the dynamic correlation function shows a large-time decay rate which is momentum independent. This effect is not related to the presence of the Griffiths tail, which is expected to be irrelevant in the critical limit, but rather to the breaking of translational invariance, which occurs for any sample and which, at the critical point, is not recovered even after the disorder average.

  14. Slicing the three-dimensional Ising model: Critical equilibrium and coarsening dynamics.

    PubMed

    Arenzon, Jeferson J; Cugliandolo, Leticia F; Picco, Marco

    2015-03-01

    We study the evolution of spin clusters on two-dimensional slices of the three-dimensional Ising model in contact with a heat bath after a sudden quench to a subcritical temperature. We analyze the evolution of some simple initial configurations, such as a sphere and a torus, of one phase embedded into the other, to confirm that their area disappears linearly with time and to establish the temperature dependence of the prefactor in each case. Two generic kinds of initial states are later used: equilibrium configurations either at infinite temperature or at the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic phase transition. We investigate the morphological domain structure of the coarsening configurations on two-dimensional slices of the three-dimensional system, compared with the behavior of the bidimensional model.

  15. Two-Dimensional Wang-Landau Sampling of AN Asymmetric Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Shan-Ho; Wang, Fugao; Landau, D. P.

    We study the critical endpoint behavior of an asymmetric Ising model with two- and three-body interactions on a triangular lattice, in the presence of an external field. We use a two-dimensional Wang-Landau sampling method to determine the density of states for this model. An accurate density of states allowed us to map out the phase diagram accurately and observe a clear divergence of the curvature of the spectator phase boundary and of the derivative of the magnetization coexistence diameter near the critical endpoint, in agreement with previous theoretical predictions.

  16. Eigenstate thermalization in the two-dimensional transverse field Ising model.

    PubMed

    Mondaini, Rubem; Fratus, Keith R; Srednicki, Mark; Rigol, Marcos

    2016-03-01

    We study the onset of eigenstate thermalization in the two-dimensional transverse field Ising model (2D-TFIM) in the square lattice. We consider two nonequivalent Hamiltonians: the ferromagnetic 2D-TFIM and the antiferromagnetic 2D-TFIM in the presence of a uniform longitudinal field. We use full exact diagonalization to examine the behavior of quantum chaos indicators and of the diagonal matrix elements of operators of interest in the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian. An analysis of finite size effects reveals that quantum chaos and eigenstate thermalization occur in those systems whenever the fields are nonvanishing and not too large.

  17. Scaling and universality in the two-dimensional Ising model with a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Mangazeev, Vladimir V; Dudalev, Michael Yu; Bazhanov, Vladimir V; Batchelor, Murray T

    2010-06-01

    The scaling function of the two-dimensional Ising model on the square and triangular lattices is obtained numerically via Baxter's variational corner transfer-matrix approach. The use of Aharony-Fisher nonlinear scaling variables allowed us to perform calculations sufficiently away from the critical point and to confirm all predictions of the scaling and universality hypotheses. Our results are in excellent agreement with quantum field theory calculations of Fonseca and Zamolodchikov as well as with many previously known exact and numerical calculations, including susceptibility results by Barouch, McCoy, Tracy, and Wu.

  18. Spontaneous alignment of frustrated bonds in an anisotropic, three-dimensional Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalabert, Rodolfo A.; Sachdev, Subir

    1991-07-01

    The Ising model on a three-dimensional cubic lattice with all plaquettes in the x-y frustrated plane is studied by use of a Monte Carlo technique; the exchange constants are of equal magnitude, but have varying signs. At zero temperature, the model has a finite entropy and no long-range order. The low-temperature phase is characterized by an order parameter measuring the openZ4 symmetry of lattice rotations which is invariant under Mattis gauge transformation; fluctuations lead to the alignment of frustrated bonds into columns and a fourfold degeneracy. An additional factor-of-2 degeneracy is obtained from a global spin flip. The order vanishes at a critical temperature by a transition that appears to be in the universality class of the D=3, XY model. These results are consistent with the theoretical predictions of Blankschtein et al. This Ising model is related by duality to phenomenological models of two-dimensional frustrated quantum antiferromagnets.

  19. Relaxational processes in the one-dimensional Ising model with long-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Yusuke

    2016-12-01

    Relaxational processes in ordered phases of one-dimensional Ising models with long-range interactions are investigated by Monte Carlo simulations. Three types of spin model, the pure ferromagnetic, the diluted ferromagnetic, and the spin glass models, are examined. The effective dimension of the one-dimensional systems are controlled by a parameter σ , which tunes the rate of interaction decay. Systematical investigations of droplet dynamics, from the lower to the upper critical dimension, are conducted by changing the value of σ . Comparing numerical data with the droplet theory, it is found that the surface dimension of droplets is distributed around the effective dimension. The distribution in the surface dimension makes the droplet dynamics complex and extremely enhances dynamical crossover.

  20. Relaxational processes in the one-dimensional Ising model with long-range interactions.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Yusuke

    2016-12-01

    Relaxational processes in ordered phases of one-dimensional Ising models with long-range interactions are investigated by Monte Carlo simulations. Three types of spin model, the pure ferromagnetic, the diluted ferromagnetic, and the spin glass models, are examined. The effective dimension of the one-dimensional systems are controlled by a parameter σ, which tunes the rate of interaction decay. Systematical investigations of droplet dynamics, from the lower to the upper critical dimension, are conducted by changing the value of σ. Comparing numerical data with the droplet theory, it is found that the surface dimension of droplets is distributed around the effective dimension. The distribution in the surface dimension makes the droplet dynamics complex and extremely enhances dynamical crossover.

  1. Criterion for universality-class-independent critical fluctuations: example of the two-dimensional Ising model.

    PubMed

    Clusel, Maxime; Fortin, Jean-Yves; Holdsworth, Peter C W

    2004-10-01

    Order parameter fluctuations for the two-dimensional Ising model in the region of the critical temperature are presented. A locus of temperatures T(*) (L) and a locus of magnetic fields B(*) (L) are identified, for which the probability density function is similar to that for the two-dimensional XY model in the spin wave approximation. The characteristics of the fluctuations along these points are largely independent of universality class. We show that the largest range of fluctuations relative to the variance of the distribution occurs along these loci of points, rather than at the critical temperature itself and we discuss this observation in terms of intermittency. Our motivation is the identification of a generic form for fluctuations in correlated systems in accordance with recent experimental and numerical observations. We conclude that a universality-class-dependent form for the fluctuations is a particularity of critical phenomena related to the change in symmetry at a phase transition.

  2. Flocking with discrete symmetry: The two-dimensional active Ising model.

    PubMed

    Solon, A P; Tailleur, J

    2015-10-01

    We study in detail the active Ising model, a stochastic lattice gas where collective motion emerges from the spontaneous breaking of a discrete symmetry. On a two-dimensional lattice, active particles undergo a diffusion biased in one of two possible directions (left and right) and align ferromagnetically their direction of motion, hence yielding a minimal flocking model with discrete rotational symmetry. We show that the transition to collective motion amounts in this model to a bona fide liquid-gas phase transition in the canonical ensemble. The phase diagram in the density-velocity parameter plane has a critical point at zero velocity which belongs to the Ising universality class. In the density-temperature "canonical" ensemble, the usual critical point of the equilibrium liquid-gas transition is sent to infinite density because the different symmetries between liquid and gas phases preclude a supercritical region. We build a continuum theory which reproduces qualitatively the behavior of the microscopic model. In particular, we predict analytically the shapes of the phase diagrams in the vicinity of the critical points, the binodal and spinodal densities at coexistence, and the speeds and shapes of the phase-separated profiles.

  3. Fermions as generalized Ising models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2017-04-01

    We establish a general map between Grassmann functionals for fermions and probability or weight distributions for Ising spins. The equivalence between the two formulations is based on identical transfer matrices and expectation values of products of observables. The map preserves locality properties and can be realized for arbitrary dimensions. We present a simple example where a quantum field theory for free massless Dirac fermions in two-dimensional Minkowski space is represented by an asymmetric Ising model on a euclidean square lattice.

  4. A new look on the two-dimensional Ising model: thermal artificial spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnalds, Unnar B.; Chico, Jonathan; Stopfel, Henry; Kapaklis, Vassilios; Bärenbold, Oliver; Verschuuren, Marc A.; Wolff, Ulrike; Neu, Volker; Bergman, Anders; Hjörvarsson, Björgvin

    2016-02-01

    We present a direct experimental investigation of the thermal ordering in an artificial analogue of an asymmetric two-dimensional Ising system composed of a rectangular array of nano-fabricated magnetostatically interacting islands. During fabrication and below a critical thickness of the magnetic material the islands are thermally fluctuating and thus the system is able to explore its phase space. Above the critical thickness the islands freeze-in resulting in an arrested thermalized state for the array. Determining the magnetic state we demonstrate a genuine artificial two-dimensional Ising system which can be analyzed in the context of nearest neighbor interactions.

  5. Quantum Phase Transition in the Two-Dimensional Random Transverse-Field Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pich, C.; Young, A. P.

    1998-03-01

    We study the quantum phase transition in the random transverse-field Ising model by Monte Carlo simulations. In one-dimension it has been established that this system has the following striking behavior: (i) the dynamical exponent is infinite, and (ii) the exponents for the divergence of the average and typical correlation lengths are different. An important issue is whether this behavior is special to one-dimension or whether similar behavior persists in higher dimensions. Here we attempt to answer this question by studies of the two-dimensional model. Our simulations use the Wolff cluster algorithm and the results are analyzed by anisotropic finite size scaling, paying particular attention to the Binder ratio of moments of the order parameter distribution and the distribution of the spin-spin correlation functions for various distances.

  6. Dynamic Critical Exponents of Three-Dimensional Ising Models and Two-Dimensional Three-States Potts Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Yohsuke; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2008-01-01

    Values of dynamic critical exponents are numerically estimated for various models with the nonequilibrium relaxation method to test the dynamic universality hypothesis. The dynamics used here are single-spin update with Metropolis-type transition probabities. The estimated values of nonequilibrium relaxation exponent of magnetization λm (=β/zν) of Ising models on bcc and fcc lattices are estimated to be 0.251(3) and 0.252(3), respectively, which are consistent with the value of the model on simple-cubic lattice, 0.250(2). The dynamic critical exponents of three-states Potts models on square, honeycomb and triangular lattices are also estimated to be 2.193(5), 2.198(4), and 2.199(3), respectively. They are consistent within the error bars. It is also confirmed that Ising models with regularly modulated coupling constants on square lattice have the same dynamic critical exponents with the uniformly ferromagnetic Ising model.

  7. Critical two-dimensional Ising model with free, fixed ferromagnetic, fixed antiferromagnetic, and double antiferromagnetic boundaries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xintian; Izmailyan, Nickolay

    2015-01-01

    The critical two-dimensional Ising model is studied with four types boundary conditions: free, fixed ferromagnetic, fixed antiferromagnetic, and fixed double antiferromagnetic. Using bond propagation algorithms with surface fields, we obtain the free energy, internal energy, and specific heat numerically on square lattices with a square shape and various combinations of the four types of boundary conditions. The calculations are carried out on the square lattices with size N×N and 30

  8. Apparent First-Order Wetting and Anomalous Scaling in the Two-Dimensional Ising Model.

    PubMed

    Wu, X-T; Abraham, D B; Indekeu, J O

    2016-01-29

    The global phase diagram of wetting in the two-dimensional Ising model is obtained through the exact calculation of the surface excess free energy. In addition to a surface field for inducing wetting, a surface-coupling enhancement is also included. The wetting transition (of second order) is critical for any finite ratio of surface coupling J_{s} to bulk coupling J, and becomes of first order in the limit J_{s}/J→∞. However, for J_{s}/J≫1, the critical region is exponentially small and is practically invisible to numerical studies. A distinct preasymptotic regime exists in which the transition displays first-order character. In this regime, surprisingly, the surface susceptibility and surface specific heat develop a divergence and show anomalous scaling with an exponent equal to 3/2.

  9. Apparent First-Order Wetting and Anomalous Scaling in the Two-Dimensional Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.-T.; Abraham, D. B.; Indekeu, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    The global phase diagram of wetting in the two-dimensional Ising model is obtained through the exact calculation of the surface excess free energy. In addition to a surface field for inducing wetting, a surface-coupling enhancement is also included. The wetting transition (of second order) is critical for any finite ratio of surface coupling Js to bulk coupling J , and becomes of first order in the limit Js/J →∞ . However, for Js/J ≫1 , the critical region is exponentially small and is practically invisible to numerical studies. A distinct preasymptotic regime exists in which the transition displays first-order character. In this regime, surprisingly, the surface susceptibility and surface specific heat develop a divergence and show anomalous scaling with an exponent equal to 3 /2 .

  10. Light cone in the two-dimensional transverse-field Ising model in time-dependent mean-field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafner, J.; Blass, B.; Rieger, H.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the propagation of a local perturbation in the two-dimensional transverse-field Ising model with a time-dependent application of the mean-field theory based on the BBGKY hierarchy. We show that the perturbation propagates through the system with a finite velocity and that there is a transition from Manhattan to Euclidian metric, resulting in a light cone with an almost circular shape at sufficiently large distances. The propagation velocity of the perturbation defining the front of the light cone is discussed with respect to the parameters of the Hamiltonian and compared to exact results for the transverse-field Ising model in one dimension.

  11. Test of quantum thermalization in the two-dimensional transverse-field Ising model

    PubMed Central

    Blaß, Benjamin; Rieger, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    We study the quantum relaxation of the two-dimensional transverse-field Ising model after global quenches with a real-time variational Monte Carlo method and address the question whether this non-integrable, two-dimensional system thermalizes or not. We consider both interaction quenches in the paramagnetic phase and field quenches in the ferromagnetic phase and compare the time-averaged probability distributions of non-conserved quantities like magnetization and correlation functions to the thermal distributions according to the canonical Gibbs ensemble obtained with quantum Monte Carlo simulations at temperatures defined by the excess energy in the system. We find that the occurrence of thermalization crucially depends on the quench parameters: While after the interaction quenches in the paramagnetic phase thermalization can be observed, our results for the field quenches in the ferromagnetic phase show clear deviations from the thermal system. These deviations increase with the quench strength and become especially clear comparing the shape of the thermal and the time-averaged distributions, the latter ones indicating that the system does not completely lose the memory of its initial state even for strong quenches. We discuss our results with respect to a recently formulated theorem on generalized thermalization in quantum systems. PMID:27905523

  12. Test of quantum thermalization in the two-dimensional transverse-field Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaß, Benjamin; Rieger, Heiko

    2016-12-01

    We study the quantum relaxation of the two-dimensional transverse-field Ising model after global quenches with a real-time variational Monte Carlo method and address the question whether this non-integrable, two-dimensional system thermalizes or not. We consider both interaction quenches in the paramagnetic phase and field quenches in the ferromagnetic phase and compare the time-averaged probability distributions of non-conserved quantities like magnetization and correlation functions to the thermal distributions according to the canonical Gibbs ensemble obtained with quantum Monte Carlo simulations at temperatures defined by the excess energy in the system. We find that the occurrence of thermalization crucially depends on the quench parameters: While after the interaction quenches in the paramagnetic phase thermalization can be observed, our results for the field quenches in the ferromagnetic phase show clear deviations from the thermal system. These deviations increase with the quench strength and become especially clear comparing the shape of the thermal and the time-averaged distributions, the latter ones indicating that the system does not completely lose the memory of its initial state even for strong quenches. We discuss our results with respect to a recently formulated theorem on generalized thermalization in quantum systems.

  13. Test of quantum thermalization in the two-dimensional transverse-field Ising model.

    PubMed

    Blaß, Benjamin; Rieger, Heiko

    2016-12-01

    We study the quantum relaxation of the two-dimensional transverse-field Ising model after global quenches with a real-time variational Monte Carlo method and address the question whether this non-integrable, two-dimensional system thermalizes or not. We consider both interaction quenches in the paramagnetic phase and field quenches in the ferromagnetic phase and compare the time-averaged probability distributions of non-conserved quantities like magnetization and correlation functions to the thermal distributions according to the canonical Gibbs ensemble obtained with quantum Monte Carlo simulations at temperatures defined by the excess energy in the system. We find that the occurrence of thermalization crucially depends on the quench parameters: While after the interaction quenches in the paramagnetic phase thermalization can be observed, our results for the field quenches in the ferromagnetic phase show clear deviations from the thermal system. These deviations increase with the quench strength and become especially clear comparing the shape of the thermal and the time-averaged distributions, the latter ones indicating that the system does not completely lose the memory of its initial state even for strong quenches. We discuss our results with respect to a recently formulated theorem on generalized thermalization in quantum systems.

  14. Cluster Monte Carlo: Scaling of systematic errors in the two-dimensional Ising model

    SciTech Connect

    Shchur, L.N.; Bloete, H.W.

    1997-05-01

    We present an extensive analysis of systematic deviations in Wolff cluster simulations of the critical Ising model, using random numbers generated by binary shift registers. We investigate how these deviations depend on the lattice size, the shift-register length, and the number of bits correlated by the production rule. They appear to satisfy scaling relations. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Critical Casimir force scaling functions of the two-dimensional Ising model at finite aspect ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobrecht, Hendrik; Hucht, Alfred

    2017-02-01

    We present a systematic method to calculate the universal scaling functions for the critical Casimir force and the according potential of the two-dimensional Ising model with various boundary conditions. Therefore we start with the dimer representation of the corresponding partition function Z on an L× M square lattice, wrapped around a torus with aspect ratio ρ =L/M . By assuming periodic boundary conditions and translational invariance in at least one direction, we systematically reduce the problem to a 2× 2 transfer matrix representation. For the torus we first reproduce the results by Kaufman and then give a detailed calculation of the scaling functions. Afterwards we present the calculation for the cylinder with open boundary conditions. All scaling functions are given in form of combinations of infinite products and integrals. Our results reproduce the known scaling functions in the limit of thin films ρ \\to 0 . Additionally, for the cylinder at criticality our results confirm the predictions from conformal field theory.

  16. Nucleation dynamics in two-dimensional cylindrical Ising models and chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosia, C.; Caselle, M.; Corá, D.

    2010-02-01

    The aim of our work is to study the effect of geometry variation on nucleation times and to address its role in the context of eukaryotic chemotaxis (i.e., the process which allows cells to identify and follow a gradient of chemical attractant). As a first step in this direction we study the nucleation dynamics of the two-dimensional Ising model defined on a cylindrical lattice whose radius changes as a function of time. Geometry variation is obtained by changing the relative value of the couplings between spins in the compactified (vertical) direction with respect to the horizontal one. This allows us to keep the lattice size unchanged and study in a single simulation the values of the compactification radius which change in time. We show both with theoretical arguments and numerical simulations that squeezing the geometry allows the system to speed up nucleation times even in presence of a very small energy gap between the stable and the metastable states. We then address the implications of our analysis for directional chemotaxis. The initial steps of chemotaxis can be modeled as a nucleation process occurring on the cell membrane as a consequence of the external chemical gradient (which plays the role of energy gap between the stable and metastable phases). In nature most of the cells modify their geometry by extending quasi-one-dimensional protrusions (filopodia) so as to enhance their sensitivity to chemoattractant. Our results show that this geometry variation has indeed the effect of greatly decreasing the time scale of the nucleation process even in presence of very small amounts of chemoattractants.

  17. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Reduced Fidelity Susceptibility in One-Dimensional Transverse Field Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jian; Xu, Lei; Wang, Xiao-Guang

    2010-01-01

    We study critical behaviors of the reduced fidelity susceptibility for two neighboring sites in the one-dimensional transverse field Ising model. It is found that the divergent behaviors of the susceptibility take the form of square of logarithm, in contrast with the global ground-state fidelity susceptibility which is power divergence. In order to perform a scaling analysis, we take the square root of the susceptibility and determine the scaling exponent analytically and the result is further confirmed by numerical calculations.

  18. Tunable two-dimensional arrays of single Rydberg atoms for realizing quantum Ising models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labuhn, Henning; Barredo, Daniel; Ravets, Sylvain; de Léséleuc, Sylvain; Macrì, Tommaso; Lahaye, Thierry; Browaeys, Antoine

    2016-06-01

    Spin models are the prime example of simplified many-body Hamiltonians used to model complex, strongly correlated real-world materials. However, despite the simplified character of such models, their dynamics often cannot be simulated exactly on classical computers when the number of particles exceeds a few tens. For this reason, quantum simulation of spin Hamiltonians using the tools of atomic and molecular physics has become a very active field over the past years, using ultracold atoms or molecules in optical lattices, or trapped ions. All of these approaches have their own strengths and limitations. Here we report an alternative platform for the study of spin systems, using individual atoms trapped in tunable two-dimensional arrays of optical microtraps with arbitrary geometries, where filling fractions range from 60 to 100 per cent. When excited to high-energy Rydberg D states, the atoms undergo strong interactions whose anisotropic character opens the way to simulating exotic matter. We illustrate the versatility of our system by studying the dynamics of a quantum Ising-like spin-1/2 system in a transverse field with up to 30 spins, for a variety of geometries in one and two dimensions, and for a wide range of interaction strengths. For geometries where the anisotropy is expected to have small effects on the dynamics, we find excellent agreement with ab initio simulations of the spin-1/2 system, while for strongly anisotropic situations the multilevel structure of the D states has a measurable influence. Our findings establish arrays of single Rydberg atoms as a versatile platform for the study of quantum magnetism.

  19. Tunable two-dimensional arrays of single Rydberg atoms for realizing quantum Ising models.

    PubMed

    Labuhn, Henning; Barredo, Daniel; Ravets, Sylvain; de Léséleuc, Sylvain; Macrì, Tommaso; Lahaye, Thierry; Browaeys, Antoine

    2016-06-30

    Spin models are the prime example of simplified many-body Hamiltonians used to model complex, strongly correlated real-world materials. However, despite the simplified character of such models, their dynamics often cannot be simulated exactly on classical computers when the number of particles exceeds a few tens. For this reason, quantum simulation of spin Hamiltonians using the tools of atomic and molecular physics has become a very active field over the past years, using ultracold atoms or molecules in optical lattices, or trapped ions. All of these approaches have their own strengths and limitations. Here we report an alternative platform for the study of spin systems, using individual atoms trapped in tunable two-dimensional arrays of optical microtraps with arbitrary geometries, where filling fractions range from 60 to 100 per cent. When excited to high-energy Rydberg D states, the atoms undergo strong interactions whose anisotropic character opens the way to simulating exotic matter. We illustrate the versatility of our system by studying the dynamics of a quantum Ising-like spin-1/2 system in a transverse field with up to 30 spins, for a variety of geometries in one and two dimensions, and for a wide range of interaction strengths. For geometries where the anisotropy is expected to have small effects on the dynamics, we find excellent agreement with ab initio simulations of the spin-1/2 system, while for strongly anisotropic situations the multilevel structure of the D states has a measurable influence. Our findings establish arrays of single Rydberg atoms as a versatile platform for the study of quantum magnetism.

  20. Critical behavior and out-of-equilibrium dynamics of a two-dimensional Ising model with dynamic couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Oscar A.; Romá, Federico; Bustingorry, Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    We study the critical behavior and the out-of-equilibrium dynamics of a two-dimensional Ising model with non-static interactions. In our model, bonds are dynamically changing according to a majority rule depending on the set of closest neighbors of each spin pair, which prevents the system from ordering in a full ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic state. Using a parallel-tempering Monte Carlo algorithm, we find that the model undergoes a continuous phase transition at finite temperature, which belongs to the Ising universality class. The properties of the bond structure and the ground-state entropy are also studied. Finally, we analyze the out-of-equilibrium dynamics which displays typical glassy characteristics at a temperature well below the critical one.

  1. Critical behavior of the three-dimensional Ising model with anisotropic bond randomness at the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition line.

    PubMed

    Papakonstantinou, T; Malakis, A

    2013-01-01

    We study the ±J three-dimensional (3D) Ising model with a spatially uniaxial anisotropic bond randomness on the simple cubic lattice. The ±J random exchange is applied on the xy planes, whereas, in the z direction, only a ferromagnetic exchange is used. After sketching the phase diagram and comparing it with the corresponding isotropic case, the system is studied at the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition line using parallel tempering and a convenient concentration of antiferromagnetic bonds (p(z)=0;p(xy)=0.176). The numerical data clearly point out a second-order ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition belonging in the same universality class with the 3D random Ising model. The smooth finite-size behavior of the effective exponents, describing the peaks of the logarithmic derivatives of the order parameter, provides an accurate estimate of the critical exponent 1/ν=1.463(3), and a collapse analysis of magnetization data gives an estimate of β/ν=0.516(7). These results are in agreement with previous papers and, in particular, with those of the isotropic ±J three-dimensional Ising model at the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition line, indicating the irrelevance of the introduced anisotropy.

  2. Critical behavior of the three-dimensional Ising model with anisotropic bond randomness at the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papakonstantinou, T.; Malakis, A.

    2013-01-01

    We study the ±J three-dimensional (3D) Ising model with a spatially uniaxial anisotropic bond randomness on the simple cubic lattice. The ±J random exchange is applied on the xy planes, whereas, in the z direction, only a ferromagnetic exchange is used. After sketching the phase diagram and comparing it with the corresponding isotropic case, the system is studied at the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition line using parallel tempering and a convenient concentration of antiferromagnetic bonds (pz=0;pxy=0.176). The numerical data clearly point out a second-order ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition belonging in the same universality class with the 3D random Ising model. The smooth finite-size behavior of the effective exponents, describing the peaks of the logarithmic derivatives of the order parameter, provides an accurate estimate of the critical exponent 1/ν=1.463(3), and a collapse analysis of magnetization data gives an estimate of β/ν=0.516(7). These results are in agreement with previous papers and, in particular, with those of the isotropic ±J three-dimensional Ising model at the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition line, indicating the irrelevance of the introduced anisotropy.

  3. Unusual Yang-Lee edge singularity in the one-dimensional axial-next-to-nearest-neighbor Ising model.

    PubMed

    Dalmazi, D; Sá, F L

    2010-11-01

    We show here for the one-dimensional spin-1/2 axial-next-to-nearest-neighbor Ising model in an external magnetic field that the linear density of Yang-Lee zeros may diverge with critical exponent σ=-2/3 at the Yang-Lee edge singularity. The necessary condition for this unusual behavior is the triple degeneracy of the transfer-matrix eigenvalues. If this condition is absent we have the usual value σ=-1/2 . Analogous results have been found in the literature in the spin-1 Blume-Emery-Griffths model and in the three-state Potts model in a magnetic field with two complex components. Our results support the universality of σ=-2/3 which might be a one-dimensional footprint of a tricritical version of the Yang-Lee edge singularity possibly present also in higher-dimensional spin models.

  4. Learning planar Ising models

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jason K.; Oyen, Diane Adele; Chertkov, Michael; Netrapalli, Praneeth

    2016-12-01

    Inference and learning of graphical models are both well-studied problems in statistics and machine learning that have found many applications in science and engineering. However, exact inference is intractable in general graphical models, which suggests the problem of seeking the best approximation to a collection of random variables within some tractable family of graphical models. In this paper, we focus on the class of planar Ising models, for which exact inference is tractable using techniques of statistical physics. Based on these techniques and recent methods for planarity testing and planar embedding, we propose a greedy algorithm for learning the best planar Ising model to approximate an arbitrary collection of binary random variables (possibly from sample data). Given the set of all pairwise correlations among variables, we select a planar graph and optimal planar Ising model defined on this graph to best approximate that set of correlations. Finally, we demonstrate our method in simulations and for two applications: modeling senate voting records and identifying geo-chemical depth trends from Mars rover data.

  5. Learning planar Ising models

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Jason K.; Oyen, Diane Adele; Chertkov, Michael; ...

    2016-12-01

    Inference and learning of graphical models are both well-studied problems in statistics and machine learning that have found many applications in science and engineering. However, exact inference is intractable in general graphical models, which suggests the problem of seeking the best approximation to a collection of random variables within some tractable family of graphical models. In this paper, we focus on the class of planar Ising models, for which exact inference is tractable using techniques of statistical physics. Based on these techniques and recent methods for planarity testing and planar embedding, we propose a greedy algorithm for learning the bestmore » planar Ising model to approximate an arbitrary collection of binary random variables (possibly from sample data). Given the set of all pairwise correlations among variables, we select a planar graph and optimal planar Ising model defined on this graph to best approximate that set of correlations. Finally, we demonstrate our method in simulations and for two applications: modeling senate voting records and identifying geo-chemical depth trends from Mars rover data.« less

  6. Exact finite-size scaling with corrections in the two-dimensional Ising model with special boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janke, W.; Kenna, R.

    2002-03-01

    The two-dimensional Ising model with Brascamp-Kunz boundary conditions has a partition function more amenable to analysis than its counterpart on a torus. This fact is exploited to exactly determine the full finite-size scaling behaviour of the Fisher zeroes of the model. Moreover, exact results are also determined for the scaling of the specific heat at criticality, for the specific-heat peak and for the pseudocritical points. All corrections to scaling are found to be analytic and the shift exponent λ does not coincide with the inverse of the correlation length exponent 1/ν.

  7. Exact finite-size scaling with corrections in the two-dimensional Ising model with special boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janke, W.; Kenna, R.

    The two-dimensional Ising model with Brascamp-Kunz boundary conditions has a partition function more amenable to analysis than its counterpart on a torus. This fact is exploited to exactly determine the full finite-size scaling behaviour of the Fisher zeroes of the model. Moreover, exact results are also determined for the scaling of the specific heat at criticality, for the specific-heat peak and for the pseudocritical points. All corrections to scaling are found to be analytic and the shift exponent λ does not coincide with the inverse of the correlation length exponent 1/ν.

  8. Learning planar ising models

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jason K; Chertkov, Michael; Netrapalli, Praneeth

    2010-11-12

    Inference and learning of graphical models are both well-studied problems in statistics and machine learning that have found many applications in science and engineering. However, exact inference is intractable in general graphical models, which suggests the problem of seeking the best approximation to a collection of random variables within some tractable family of graphical models. In this paper, we focus our attention on the class of planar Ising models, for which inference is tractable using techniques of statistical physics [Kac and Ward; Kasteleyn]. Based on these techniques and recent methods for planarity testing and planar embedding [Chrobak and Payne], we propose a simple greedy algorithm for learning the best planar Ising model to approximate an arbitrary collection of binary random variables (possibly from sample data). Given the set of all pairwise correlations among variables, we select a planar graph and optimal planar Ising model defined on this graph to best approximate that set of correlations. We present the results of numerical experiments evaluating the performance of our algorithm.

  9. Finite-size scaling relations for a four-dimensional Ising model on Creutz cellular automatons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merdan, Z.; Güzelsoy, E.

    2011-06-01

    The four-dimensional Ising model is simulated on Creutz cellular automatons using finite lattices with linear dimensions 4 ≤ L ≤ 8. The temperature variations and finite-size scaling plots of the specific heat and the Binder parameter verify the theoretically predicted expression near the infinite lattice critical temperature for 7, 14, and 21 independent simulations. Approximate values for the critical temperature of the infinite lattice of Tc(∞) = 6.6965(35), 6.6961(30), 6.6960(12), 6.6800(3), 6.6801(2), 6.6802(1) and 6.6925(22) (without the logarithmic factor), 6.6921(22) (without the logarithmic factor), 6.6909(2) (without the logarithmic factor), 6.6822(13) (with the logarithmic factor), 6.6819(11) (with the logarithmic factor), and 6.6808(8) (with the logarithmic factor) are obtained from the intersection points of the specific heat curves, the Binder parameter curves, and straight line fits of specific heat maxima for 7, 14, and 21 independent simulations, respectively. As the number of independent simulations increases, the results, 6.6802(1) and 6.6808(8), are in very good agreement with the results of a series expansion of Tc(∞), 6.6817(15) and 6.6802(2), the dynamic Monte Carlo value Tc(∞) = 6.6803(1), the cluster Monte Carlo value Tc(∞) = 6.680(1), and the Monte Carlo value using the Metropolis-Wolff cluster algorithm Tc(∞) = 6.6802632 ± 5 . 10-5. The average values calculated for the critical exponent of the specific heat are α =- 0.0402(15), - 0.0393(12), - 0.0391(11) with 7, 14, and 21 independent simulations, respectively. As the number of independent simulations increases, the result, α =- 0.0391(11), agrees with the series expansions result, α =- 0.12 ± 0.03 and the Monte Carlo result using the Metropolis-Wolff cluster algorithm, α ≥ 0 ± 0.04. However, α =- 0.0391(11) is inconsistent with the renormalization group prediction of α = 0.

  10. Behavior of Early Warnings near the Critical Temperature in the Two-Dimensional Ising Model.

    PubMed

    Morales, Irving O; Landa, Emmanuel; Angeles, Carlos Calderon; Toledo, Juan C; Rivera, Ana Leonor; Temis, Joel Mendoza; Frank, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Among the properties that are common to complex systems, the presence of critical thresholds in the dynamics of the system is one of the most important. Recently, there has been interest in the universalities that occur in the behavior of systems near critical points. These universal properties make it possible to estimate how far a system is from a critical threshold. Several early-warning signals have been reported in time series representing systems near catastrophic shifts. The proper understanding of these early-warnings may allow the prediction and perhaps control of these dramatic shifts in a wide variety of systems. In this paper we analyze this universal behavior for a system that is a paradigm of phase transitions, the Ising model. We study the behavior of the early-warning signals and the way the temporal correlations of the system increase when the system is near the critical point.

  11. Topological Characterization of Extended Quantum Ising Models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G; Song, Z

    2015-10-23

    We show that a class of exactly solvable quantum Ising models, including the transverse-field Ising model and anisotropic XY model, can be characterized as the loops in a two-dimensional auxiliary space. The transverse-field Ising model corresponds to a circle and the XY model corresponds to an ellipse, while other models yield cardioid, limacon, hypocycloid, and Lissajous curves etc. It is shown that the variation of the ground state energy density, which is a function of the loop, experiences a nonanalytical point when the winding number of the corresponding loop changes. The winding number can serve as a topological quantum number of the quantum phases in the extended quantum Ising model, which sheds some light upon the relation between quantum phase transition and the geometrical order parameter characterizing the phase diagram.

  12. Two-dimensional Ising transition through a technique from two-state opinion-dynamics models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galam, Serge; Martins, André C. R.

    2015-01-01

    The Ising ferromagnetic model on a square lattice is revisited using the Galam unifying frame (GUF), set to investigate two-state opinion-dynamics models. When combined with Metropolis dynamics, an unexpected intermediate "dis/order" regime is found with the coexistence of two attractors associated, respectively, to an ordered and a disordered phases. The basin of attraction of initial conditions for the disordered phase attractor starts from zero size at a first critical temperature Tc 1 to embody the total landscape of initial conditions at a second critical temperature Tc 2, with Tc 1≈1.59 and Tc 2≈2.11 in J /kB units. It appears that Tc 2 is close to the Onsager result Tc≈2.27 . The transition, which is first-order-like, exhibits a vertical jump to the disorder phase at Tc 2, reminiscent of the rather abrupt vanishing of the corresponding Onsager second-order transition. However, using Glauber dynamics combined with GUF does not yield the intermediate phase and instead the expected classical mean-field transition is recovered at Tc≈3.09 . Accordingly, although the "dis/order" regime produced by the GUF-Metropolis combination is not physical, it is an intriguing result to be understood. In particular the fact that Glauber and Metropolis dynamics yield so different results using GUF needs an explanation. The possibility of extending GUF to larger clusters is discussed.

  13. Universal anisotropic finite-size critical behavior of the two-dimensional Ising model on a strip and of d-dimensional models on films.

    PubMed

    Kastening, Boris

    2012-10-01

    Anisotropy effects on the finite-size critical behavior of a two-dimensional Ising model on a general triangular lattice in an infinite-strip geometry with periodic, antiperiodic, and free boundary conditions (bc) in the finite direction are investigated. Exact results are obtained for the scaling functions of the finite-size contributions to the free energy density. With ξ(>) the largest and ξ(<) the smallest bulk correlation length at a given temperature near criticality, we find that the dependence of these functions on the ratio ξ(<)/ξ(>) and on the angle parametrizing the orientation of the correlation volume is of geometric nature. Since the scaling functions are independent of the particular microscopic realization of the anisotropy within the two-dimensional Ising model, our results provide a limited verification of universality. We explain our observations by considering finite-size scaling of free energy densities of general weakly anisotropic models on a d-dimensional film (i.e., in an L×∞(d-1) geometry) with bc in the finite direction that are invariant under a shear transformation relating the anisotropic and isotropic cases. This allows us to relate free energy scaling functions in the presence of an anisotropy to those of the corresponding isotropic system. We interpret our results as a simple and transparent case of anisotropic universality, where, compared to the isotropic case, scaling functions depend additionally on the shape and orientation of the correlation volume. We conjecture that this universality extends to cases where the geometry and/or the bc are not invariant under the shear transformation and argue in favor of validity of two-scale factor universality for weakly anisotropic systems.

  14. Analysis of spanning avalanches in the two-dimensional nonequilibrium zero-temperature random-field Ising model.

    PubMed

    Spasojević, Djordje; Janićević, Sanja; Knežević, Milan

    2014-01-01

    We present a numerical analysis of spanning avalanches in a two-dimensional (2D) nonequilibrium zero-temperature random field Ising model. Finite-size scaling analysis, performed for distribution of the average number of spanning avalanches per single run, spanning avalanche size distribution, average size of spanning avalanche, and contribution of spanning avalanches to magnetization jump, is augmented by analysis of spanning field (i.e., field triggering spanning avalanche), which enabled us to collapse averaged magnetization curves below critical disorder. Our study, based on extensive simulations of sufficiently large systems, reveals the dominant role of subcritical 2D-spanning avalanches in model behavior below and at the critical disorder. Other types of avalanches influence finite systems, but their contribution for large systems remains small or vanish.

  15. Determination of critical linear lattice size for the four dimensional Ising model on the Creutz cellular automaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizilirmak, Ganimet Mülazımoğlu

    2015-12-01

    The four-dimensional Ising model is simulated on the Creutz cellular automaton (CCA) near the infinite-lattice critical temperature for the lattice with the linear dimension 4 ⩽ L ⩽ 22. The temperature dependence of Binder parameter ( g L) are analyzed for the lattice with the linear dimension 4 ⩽ L ⩽ 22. In this study conducted highly detailed, two different types of behavior were determined as a result of varying linear lattice dimension. The infinite lattice critical temperatures are obtained to be T c = 6.6845 ± 0.0005 in interval 4 ⩽ L ⩽ 12 and T c = 6.6807 ± 0.0024 in interval 14 ⩽ L ⩽ 22. The finite and infinite lattice critical exponents for the order parameter, the magnetic susceptibility and the specific heat are computed from the results of simulations by using finite-size scaling relations. Critical linear lattice size have been identified as L = 14.

  16. SMJ's analysis of Ising model correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadanoff, Leo P.; Kohmoto, Mahito

    1980-05-01

    In a series of recent publications Sato, Miwa, and Jimbo (SMJ) have shown how to derive multispin correlation functions of the two-dimensional Ising model in the continuum, or scaling, limit by analyzing the behavior of the solutions to the two-dimensional version of the Dirac equation. The major purpose of the present work is to describe SMJ's analysis more discursively and in terms closer to that used in previous studies of the Ising model. In addition, new and more compact expressions for their basic equations are derived. A single new answer is obtained: the form of the three-spin correlation function at criticality.

  17. Finite-size scaling in two-dimensional Ising spin-glass models.

    PubMed

    Toldin, Francesco Parisen; Pelissetto, Andrea; Vicari, Ettore

    2011-11-01

    We study the finite-size behavior of two-dimensional spin-glass models. We consider the ±J model for two different values of the probability of the antiferromagnetic bonds and the model with Gaussian distributed couplings. The analysis of renormalization-group invariant quantities, the overlap susceptibility, and the two-point correlation function confirms that they belong to the same universality class. We analyze in detail the standard finite-size scaling limit in terms of TL(1/ν) in the ±J model. We find that it holds asymptotically. This result is consistent with the low-temperature crossover scenario in which the crossover temperature, which separates the universal high-temperature region from the discrete low-temperature regime, scales as T(c)(L)~L(-θ(S)) with θ(S)≈0.5.

  18. Quantum Ising model coupled with conducting electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Yasufumi; Yonemitsu, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    The effect of photo-doping on the quantum paraelectric SrTiO3 is studied by using the one-dimensional quantum Ising model, where the Ising spin describes the effective lattice polarization of an optical phonon. Two types of electron-phonon couplings are introduced through the modulation of transfer integral via lattice deformations. After the exact diagonalization and the perturbation studies, we find that photo-induced low-density carriers can drastically alter quantum fluctuations when the system locates near the quantum critical point between the quantum para- and ferro-electric phases.

  19. Revisiting the scaling of the specific heat of the three-dimensional random-field Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fytas, Nikolaos G.; Theodorakis, Panagiotis E.; Hartmann, Alexander K.

    2016-09-01

    We revisit the scaling behavior of the specific heat of the three-dimensional random-field Ising model with a Gaussian distribution of the disorder. Exact ground states of the model are obtained using graph-theoretical algorithms for different strengths 𝒩 = 268 3 spins. By numerically differentiating the bond energy with respect to h, a specific-heat-like quantity is obtained whose maximum is found to converge to a constant in the thermodynamic limit. Compared to a previous study following the same approach, we have studied here much larger system sizes with an increased statistical accuracy. We discuss the relevance of our results under the prism of a modified Rushbrooke inequality for the case of a saturating specific heat. Finally, as a byproduct of our analysis, we provide high-accuracy estimates of the critical field h c = 2.279(7) and the critical exponent of the correlation exponent ν = 1.37(1), in excellent agreement to the most recent computations in the literature.

  20. Cluster-algorithm renormalization-group study of universal fluctuations in the two-dimensional Ising model.

    PubMed

    Palma, G; Zambrano, D

    2008-12-01

    In this paper we propose a method to study critical systems numerically, which combines collective-mode algorithms and renormalization group on the lattice. This method is an improved version of the Monte Carlo renormalization group in the sense that it has all the advantages of cluster algorithms. As an application we considered the 2D Ising model and studied whether scale invariance or universality are possible underlying mechanisms responsible for the approximate "universal fluctuations" close to a so-called bulk temperature T(L) . "Universal fluctuations" were first proposed in the work of Bramwell, Holdsworth, and Pinton [Nature (London) 396, 552 (1998)] and stated that the probability density function of a global quantity for very dissimilar systems, such as a confined turbulent flow and a two-dimensional (2D) magnetic system, properly normalized to the first two moments, becomes similar to the "universal distribution," originally obtained for magnetization in the 2D XY model in the low-temperature region. The results for the critical exponents and the renormalization-group flow of the probability density function are very accurate and show no evidence to support that the approximate common shape of the PDF should be related to both scale invariance or universal behavior.

  1. The finite-size scaling study of four-dimensional Ising model in the presence of external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merdan, Ziya; Kürkçü, Cihan; Öztürk, Mustafa K.

    2014-12-01

    The four-dimensional ferromagnetic Ising model in external magnetic field is simulated on the Creutz cellular automaton algorithm using finite-size lattices with linear dimension 4 ≤ L ≤ 8. The critical temperature value of infinite lattice, Tc χ ( ∞ ) = 6 , 680 (1) obtained for h = 0 agrees well with the values T c ( ∞ ) ≈ 6.68 obtained previously using different methods. Moreover, h = 0.00025 in our work also agrees with all the results obtained from h = 0 in the literature. However, there are no works for h ≠ 0 in the literature. The value of the field critical exponent (δ = 3.0136(3)) is in good agreement with δ = 3 which is obtained from scaling law of Widom. In spite of the finite-size scaling relations of | M L ( t ) | and χ L ( t ) for 0 ≤ h ≤ 0.001 are verified; however, in the cases of 0.0025 ≤ h ≤ 0.1 they are not verified.

  2. Reentrance and ultrametricity in three-dimensional Ising spin glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzgraber, Helmut G.; Thomas, Creighton K.; Hartmann, Alexander K.

    2012-02-01

    We study the three-dimensional Edwards-Anderson Ising spin glass with bimodal disorder with a fraction of 22.8% antiferromagnetic bonds. Parallel tempering Monte Carlo simulations down to very low temperatures show that for this fraction of antiferromagnetic bonds the phase diagram of the system is reentrant, in agreement with previous results. Furthemore, using a clustering analysis, we analyze the ultrametric properties of phase space for this model.

  3. Magnon-bound-state hierarchy for the two-dimensional transverse-field Ising model in the ordered phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    In the ordered phase for an Ising ferromagnet, the magnons are attractive to form a series of bound states with the mass gaps, m2 dimensional counterpart, for which the universal hierarchical character remains unclear. We employed the exact diagonalization method, which enables us to calculate the dynamical susceptibility via the continued-fraction expansion. Thereby, we observe a variety of signals including m 2 , 3 , 4, and the spectrum is analyzed with the finite-size-scaling method to estimate the universal mass-gap ratios.

  4. Triviality problem and high-temperature expansions of higher susceptibilities for the Ising and scalar-field models in four-, five-, and six-dimensional lattices.

    PubMed

    Butera, P; Pernici, M

    2012-02-01

    High-temperature expansions are presently the only viable approach to the numerical calculation of the higher susceptibilities for the spin and the scalar-field models on high-dimensional lattices. The critical amplitudes of these quantities enter into a sequence of universal amplitude ratios that determine the critical equation of state. We have obtained a substantial extension, through order 24, of the high-temperature expansions of the free energy (in presence of a magnetic field) for the Ising models with spin s≥1/2 and for the lattice scalar-field theory with quartic self-interaction on the simple-cubic and the body-centered-cubic lattices in four, five, and six spatial dimensions. A numerical analysis of the higher susceptibilities obtained from these expansions yields results consistent with the widely accepted ideas, based on the renormalization group and the constructive approach to Euclidean quantum field theory, concerning the no-interaction ("triviality") property of the continuum (scaling) limit of spin-s Ising and lattice scalar-field models at and above the upper critical dimensionality.

  5. Influence of the aspect ratio and boundary conditions on universal finite-size scaling functions in the athermal metastable two-dimensional random field Ising model.

    PubMed

    Navas-Portella, Víctor; Vives, Eduard

    2016-02-01

    This work studies universal finite size scaling functions for the number of one-dimensional spanning avalanches in a two-dimensional (2D) disordered system with boundary conditions of different nature and different aspect ratios. To this end, we will consider the 2D random field Ising model at T=0 driven by the external field H with athermal dynamics implemented with periodic and forced boundary conditions. We have chosen a convenient scaling variable z that accounts for the deformation of the distance to the critical point caused by the aspect ratio. In addition, assuming that the dependence of the finite size scaling functions on the aspect ratio can be accounted for by an additional multiplicative factor, we have been able to collapse data for different system sizes, different aspect ratios, and different types of the boundary conditions into a single scaling function Q̂.

  6. Numerically exact correlations and sampling in the two-dimensional Ising spin glass.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Creighton K; Middleton, A Alan

    2013-04-01

    A powerful existing technique for evaluating statistical mechanical quantities in two-dimensional Ising models is based on constructing a matrix representing the nearest-neighbor spin couplings and then evaluating the Pfaffian of the matrix. Utilizing this technique and other more recent developments in evaluating elements of inverse matrices and exact sampling, a method and computer code for studying two-dimensional Ising models is developed. The formulation of this method is convenient and fast for computing the partition function and spin correlations. It is also useful for exact sampling, where configurations are directly generated with probability given by the Boltzmann distribution. These methods apply to Ising model samples with arbitrary nearest-neighbor couplings and can also be applied to general dimer models. Example results of computations are described, including comparisons with analytic results for the ferromagnetic Ising model, and timing information is provided.

  7. Nonequilibrium antiferromagnetic mixed-spin Ising model.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Mauricio; Figueiredo, Wagner

    2002-09-01

    We studied an antiferromagnetic mixed-spin Ising model on the square lattice subject to two competing stochastic processes. The model system consists of two interpenetrating sublattices of spins sigma=1/2 and S=1, and we take only nearest neighbor interactions between pairs of spins. The system is in contact with a heat bath at temperature T, and the exchange of energy with the heat bath occurs via one-spin flip (Glauber dynamics). Besides, the system interacts with an external agency of energy, which supplies energy to it whenever two nearest neighboring spins are simultaneously flipped. By employing Monte Carlo simulations and a dynamical pair approximation, we found the phase diagram for the stationary states of the model in the plane temperature T versus the competition parameter between one- and two-spin flips p. We observed the appearance of three distinct phases, that are separated by continuous transition lines. We also determined the static critical exponents along these lines and we showed that this nonequilibrium model belongs to the universality class of the two-dimensional equilibrium Ising model.

  8. Universal finite-size scaling analysis of Ising models with long-range interactions at the upper critical dimensionality: isotropic case.

    PubMed

    Grüneberg, Daniel; Hucht, Alfred

    2004-03-01

    We investigate a two-dimensional Ising model with long-range interactions that emerge from a generalization of the magnetic dipolar interaction in spin systems with in-plane spin orientation. This interaction is, in general, anisotropic whereby in the present work we focus on the isotropic case for which the model is found to be at its upper critical dimensionality. To investigate the critical behavior the temperature and field dependence of several quantities are studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. On the basis of the Privman-Fisher hypothesis and results of the renormalization group the numerical data are analyzed in the framework of a finite-size scaling analysis and compared to finite-size scaling functions derived from a Ginzburg-Landau-Wilson model in zero mode (mean-field) approximation. The obtained excellent agreement suggests that at least in the present case the concept of universal finite-size scaling functions can be extended to the upper critical dimensionality.

  9. Conformal symmetry of the critical 3D Ising model inside a sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosme, Catarina; Lopes, J. M. Viana Parente; Penedones, João

    2015-08-01

    We perform Monte-Carlo simulations of the three-dimensional Ising model at the critical temperature and zero magnetic field. We simulate the system in a ball with free boundary conditions on the two dimensional spherical boundary. Our results for one and two point functions in this geometry are consistent with the predictions from the conjectured conformal symmetry of the critical Ising model.

  10. Some Fruits of Genius: Lars Onsager and the Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Michael E.

    2006-03-01

    The story of the exact solution of the two-dimensional Ising model by Lars Onsager in the 1940's will be sketched and some of the striking developments following from it, especially for the behavior of fluctuating interfaces, will be recounted.

  11. Metastability for the Ising Model on the Hypercube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovski, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    We consider Glauber dynamics for the low-temperature, ferromagnetic Ising Model on the n-dimensional hypercube. We derive precise asymptotic results for the crossover time (the time it takes for the dynamics to go from the configuration with a "-1" at every vertex, to the configuration with a "+1" at each vertex) in the limit as the inverse temperature β → ∞.

  12. Interface-roughening phase diagram of the three-dimensional Ising model for all interaction anisotropies from hard-spin mean-field theory.

    PubMed

    Cağlar, Tolga; Berker, A Nihat

    2011-11-01

    The roughening phase diagram of the d=3 Ising model with uniaxially anisotropic interactions is calculated for the entire range of anisotropy, from decoupled planes to the isotropic model to the solid-on-solid model, using hard-spin mean-field theory. The phase diagram contains the line of ordering phase transitions and, at lower temperatures, the line of roughening phase transitions, where the interface between ordered domains roughens. Upon increasing the anisotropy, roughening transition temperatures settle after the isotropic case, whereas the ordering transition temperature increases to infinity. The calculation is repeated for the d=2 Ising model for the full range of anisotropy, yielding no roughening transition.

  13. Large Scale Simulations of the Kinetic Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münkel, Christian

    We present Monte Carlo simulation results for the dynamical critical exponent z of the two- and three-dimensional kinetic Ising model. The z-values were calculated from the magnetization relaxation from an ordered state into the equilibrium state at Tc for very large systems with up to (169984)2 and (3072)3 spins. To our knowledge, these are the largest Ising-systems simulated todate. We also report the successful simulation of very large lattices on a massively parallel MIMD computer with high speedups of approximately 1000 and an efficiency of about 0.93.

  14. Metastability in an open quantum Ising model.

    PubMed

    Rose, Dominic C; Macieszczak, Katarzyna; Lesanovsky, Igor; Garrahan, Juan P

    2016-11-01

    We apply a recently developed theory for metastability in open quantum systems to a one-dimensional dissipative quantum Ising model. Earlier results suggest this model features either a nonequilibrium phase transition or a smooth but sharp crossover, where the stationary state changes from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic, accompanied by strongly intermittent emission dynamics characteristic of first-order coexistence between dynamical phases. We show that for a range of parameters close to this transition or crossover point the dynamics of the finite system displays pronounced metastability, i.e., the system relaxes first to long-lived metastable states before eventual relaxation to the true stationary state. From the spectral properties of the quantum master operator we characterize the low-dimensional manifold of metastable states, which are shown to be probability mixtures of two, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic, metastable phases. We also show that for long times the dynamics can be approximated by a classical stochastic dynamics between the metastable phases that is directly related to the intermittent dynamics observed in quantum trajectories and thus the dynamical phases.

  15. Metastability in an open quantum Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Dominic C.; Macieszczak, Katarzyna; Lesanovsky, Igor; Garrahan, Juan P.

    2016-11-01

    We apply a recently developed theory for metastability in open quantum systems to a one-dimensional dissipative quantum Ising model. Earlier results suggest this model features either a nonequilibrium phase transition or a smooth but sharp crossover, where the stationary state changes from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic, accompanied by strongly intermittent emission dynamics characteristic of first-order coexistence between dynamical phases. We show that for a range of parameters close to this transition or crossover point the dynamics of the finite system displays pronounced metastability, i.e., the system relaxes first to long-lived metastable states before eventual relaxation to the true stationary state. From the spectral properties of the quantum master operator we characterize the low-dimensional manifold of metastable states, which are shown to be probability mixtures of two, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic, metastable phases. We also show that for long times the dynamics can be approximated by a classical stochastic dynamics between the metastable phases that is directly related to the intermittent dynamics observed in quantum trajectories and thus the dynamical phases.

  16. Critical region for an Ising model coupled to causal triangulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerda-Hernández, J.

    2017-02-01

    This paper extends the results obtained by Hernández et al for the annealed Ising model coupled to two-dimensional causal dynamical triangulations. We employ the Fortuin‑Kasteleyn (FK) representation in order to determine a region in the quadrant of the parameters β,μ >0 where the critical curve for the annealed model is possibly located. This can be done by outlining a region where the model has a unique infinite-volume Gibbs measure, and a region where the finite-volume Gibbs measure does not have weak limit (in fact, does not exist if the volume is large enough). We also improve the region where the model has a one dimensional geometry with respect to the unique weak limit measure, which implies that the Ising model on causal triangulation does not have phase transition in this region. Furthermore, we provide a better approximation of the free energy for the coupled model.

  17. A 16-bit Coherent Ising Machine for One-Dimensional Ring and Cubic Graph Problems

    PubMed Central

    Takata, Kenta; Marandi, Alireza; Hamerly, Ryan; Haribara, Yoshitaka; Maruo, Daiki; Tamate, Shuhei; Sakaguchi, Hiromasa; Utsunomiya, Shoko; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    Many tasks in our modern life, such as planning an efficient travel, image processing and optimizing integrated circuit design, are modeled as complex combinatorial optimization problems with binary variables. Such problems can be mapped to finding a ground state of the Ising Hamiltonian, thus various physical systems have been studied to emulate and solve this Ising problem. Recently, networks of mutually injected optical oscillators, called coherent Ising machines, have been developed as promising solvers for the problem, benefiting from programmability, scalability and room temperature operation. Here, we report a 16-bit coherent Ising machine based on a network of time-division-multiplexed femtosecond degenerate optical parametric oscillators. The system experimentally gives more than 99.6% of success rates for one-dimensional Ising ring and nondeterministic polynomial-time (NP) hard instances. The experimental and numerical results indicate that gradual pumping of the network combined with multiple spectral and temporal modes of the femtosecond pulses can improve the computational performance of the Ising machine, offering a new path for tackling larger and more complex instances. PMID:27659312

  18. A 16-bit Coherent Ising Machine for One-Dimensional Ring and Cubic Graph Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Kenta; Marandi, Alireza; Hamerly, Ryan; Haribara, Yoshitaka; Maruo, Daiki; Tamate, Shuhei; Sakaguchi, Hiromasa; Utsunomiya, Shoko; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2016-09-01

    Many tasks in our modern life, such as planning an efficient travel, image processing and optimizing integrated circuit design, are modeled as complex combinatorial optimization problems with binary variables. Such problems can be mapped to finding a ground state of the Ising Hamiltonian, thus various physical systems have been studied to emulate and solve this Ising problem. Recently, networks of mutually injected optical oscillators, called coherent Ising machines, have been developed as promising solvers for the problem, benefiting from programmability, scalability and room temperature operation. Here, we report a 16-bit coherent Ising machine based on a network of time-division-multiplexed femtosecond degenerate optical parametric oscillators. The system experimentally gives more than 99.6% of success rates for one-dimensional Ising ring and nondeterministic polynomial-time (NP) hard instances. The experimental and numerical results indicate that gradual pumping of the network combined with multiple spectral and temporal modes of the femtosecond pulses can improve the computational performance of the Ising machine, offering a new path for tackling larger and more complex instances.

  19. A 16-bit Coherent Ising Machine for One-Dimensional Ring and Cubic Graph Problems.

    PubMed

    Takata, Kenta; Marandi, Alireza; Hamerly, Ryan; Haribara, Yoshitaka; Maruo, Daiki; Tamate, Shuhei; Sakaguchi, Hiromasa; Utsunomiya, Shoko; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2016-09-23

    Many tasks in our modern life, such as planning an efficient travel, image processing and optimizing integrated circuit design, are modeled as complex combinatorial optimization problems with binary variables. Such problems can be mapped to finding a ground state of the Ising Hamiltonian, thus various physical systems have been studied to emulate and solve this Ising problem. Recently, networks of mutually injected optical oscillators, called coherent Ising machines, have been developed as promising solvers for the problem, benefiting from programmability, scalability and room temperature operation. Here, we report a 16-bit coherent Ising machine based on a network of time-division-multiplexed femtosecond degenerate optical parametric oscillators. The system experimentally gives more than 99.6% of success rates for one-dimensional Ising ring and nondeterministic polynomial-time (NP) hard instances. The experimental and numerical results indicate that gradual pumping of the network combined with multiple spectral and temporal modes of the femtosecond pulses can improve the computational performance of the Ising machine, offering a new path for tackling larger and more complex instances.

  20. Dynamical percolation transition in the Ising model studied using a pulsed magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Soumyajyoti; Kundu, Anasuya; Chandra, Anjan Kumar

    2011-02-01

    We study the dynamical percolation transition of the geometrical clusters in the two-dimensional Ising model when it is subjected to a pulsed field below the critical temperature. The critical exponents are independent of the temperature and pulse width and are different from the (static) percolation transition associated with the thermal transition. For a different model that belongs to the Ising universality class, the exponents are found to be same, confirming that the behavior is a common feature of the Ising class. These observations, along with a universal critical Binder cumulant value, characterize the dynamical percolation of the Ising universality class.

  1. Ising Model Reprogramming of a Repeat Protein's Equilibrium Unfolding Pathway.

    PubMed

    Millership, C; Phillips, J J; Main, E R G

    2016-05-08

    Repeat proteins are formed from units of 20-40 aa that stack together into quasi one-dimensional non-globular structures. This modular repetitive construction means that, unlike globular proteins, a repeat protein's equilibrium folding and thus thermodynamic stability can be analysed using linear Ising models. Typically, homozipper Ising models have been used. These treat the repeat protein as a series of identical interacting subunits (the repeated motifs) that couple together to form the folded protein. However, they cannot describe subunits of differing stabilities. Here we show that a more sophisticated heteropolymer Ising model can be constructed and fitted to two new helix deletion series of consensus tetratricopeptide repeat proteins (CTPRs). This analysis, showing an asymmetric spread of stability between helices within CTPR ensembles, coupled with the Ising model's predictive qualities was then used to guide reprogramming of the unfolding pathway of a variant CTPR protein. The designed behaviour was engineered by introducing destabilising mutations that increased the thermodynamic asymmetry within a CTPR ensemble. The asymmetry caused the terminal α-helix to thermodynamically uncouple from the rest of the protein and preferentially unfold. This produced a specific, highly populated stable intermediate with a putative dimerisation interface. As such it is the first step in designing repeat proteins with function regulated by a conformational switch.

  2. Dynamical properties of random-field Ising model.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Suman; Mandal, Pradipta Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are performed on a two-dimensional random field Ising model. The purpose of the present work is to study the disorder-induced changes in the properties of disordered spin systems. The time evolution of the domain growth, the order parameter, and the spin-spin correlation functions are studied in the nonequilibrium regime. The dynamical evolution of the order parameter and the domain growth shows a power law scaling with disorder-dependent exponents. It is observed that for weak random fields, the two-dimensional random field Ising model possesses long-range order. Except for weak disorder, exchange interaction never wins over pinning interaction to establish long-range order in the system.

  3. Universal dynamic scaling in three-dimensional Ising spin glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-Wei; Polkovnikov, Anatoli; Sandvik, Anders W.; Young, A. P.

    2015-08-01

    We use a nonequilibrium Monte Carlo simulation method and dynamical scaling to study the phase transition in three-dimensional Ising spin glasses. The transition point is repeatedly approached at finite velocity v (temperature change versus time) in Monte Carlo simulations starting at a high temperature. This approach has the advantage that the equilibrium limit does not have to be strictly reached for a scaling analysis to yield critical exponents. For the dynamic exponent we obtain z =5.85 (9 ) for bimodal couplings distribution and z =6.00 (10 ) for the Gaussian case. Assuming universal dynamic scaling, we combine the two results and obtain z =5.93 ±0.07 for generic 3D Ising spin glasses.

  4. Ising model of a glass transition.

    PubMed

    Langer, J S

    2013-07-01

    Numerical simulations by Tanaka and co-workers indicate that glass-forming systems of moderately polydisperse hard-core particles, in both two and three dimensions, exhibit diverging correlation lengths. These correlations are described by Ising-like critical exponents, and are associated with diverging, Vogel-Fulcher-Tamann, structural relaxation times. Related simulations of thermalized hard disks indicate that the curves of pressure versus packing fraction for different polydispersities exhibit a sequence of transition points, starting with a liquid-hexatic transition for the monodisperse case, and crossing over with increasing polydispersity to glassy, Ising-like critical points. I propose to explain these observations by assuming that glass-forming fluids contain twofold degenerate, locally ordered clusters of particles, similar to the two-state systems that have been invoked to explain other glassy phenomena. This paper starts with a brief statistical derivation of the thermodynamics of thermalized, hard-core particles. It then discusses how a two-state, Ising-like model can be described within that framework in terms of a small number of statistically relevant, internal state variables. The resulting theory agrees accurately with the simulation data. I also propose a rationale for the observed relation between the Ising-like correlation lengths and the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamann formula.

  5. The hobbyhorse of magnetic systems: the Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-García-Padilla, Eduardo; Gerardo Malanche-Flores, Carlos; Poveda-Cuevas, Freddy Jackson

    2016-11-01

    In undergraduate statistical mechanics courses the Ising model always plays an important role because it is the simplest non-trivial model used to describe magnetic systems. The one-dimensional model is easily solved analytically, while the two-dimensional one can be solved exactly by the Onsager solution. For this reason, numerical simulations are usually used to solve the two-dimensional model. Keeping in mind that the two-dimensional model is the platform for studying phase transitions, it is usually an exercise in computational undergraduate courses because its numerical solution is relatively simple to implement and its critical exponents are perfectly known. The purpose of this article is to present a detailed numerical study of the second-order phase transition in the two-dimensional Ising model at an undergraduate level, allowing readers not only to compare the mean-field solution, the exact solution and the numerical one through a complete study of the order parameter, the correlation function and finite-size scaling, but to present the techniques, along with hints and tips, for solving it themselves. We present the elementary theory of phase transitions and explain how to implement Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations and perform them for different lattice sizes with periodic boundary conditions. Energy, magnetization, specific heat, magnetic susceptibility and the correlation function are calculated and the critical exponents determined by finite-size scaling techniques. The importance of the correlation length as the relevant parameter in phase transitions is emphasized.

  6. A sparse Ising model with covariates.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Levina, Elizaveta; Wang, Pei; Zhu, Ji

    2014-12-01

    There has been a lot of work fitting Ising models to multivariate binary data in order to understand the conditional dependency relationships between the variables. However, additional covariates are frequently recorded together with the binary data, and may influence the dependence relationships. Motivated by such a dataset on genomic instability collected from tumor samples of several types, we propose a sparse covariate dependent Ising model to study both the conditional dependency within the binary data and its relationship with the additional covariates. This results in subject-specific Ising models, where the subject's covariates influence the strength of association between the genes. As in all exploratory data analysis, interpretability of results is important, and we use ℓ1 penalties to induce sparsity in the fitted graphs and in the number of selected covariates. Two algorithms to fit the model are proposed and compared on a set of simulated data, and asymptotic results are established. The results on the tumor dataset and their biological significance are discussed in detail.

  7. Classical Ising model test for quantum circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraci, Joseph; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2010-07-01

    We exploit a recently constructed mapping between quantum circuits and graphs in order to prove that circuits corresponding to certain planar graphs can be efficiently simulated classically. The proof uses an expression for the Ising model partition function in terms of quadratically signed weight enumerators (QWGTs), which are polynomials that arise naturally in an expansion of quantum circuits in terms of rotations involving Pauli matrices. We combine this expression with a known efficient classical algorithm for the Ising partition function of any planar graph in the absence of an external magnetic field, and the Robertson-Seymour theorem from graph theory. We give as an example a set of quantum circuits with a small number of non-nearest-neighbor gates which admit an efficient classical simulation.

  8. Approaches to numerical solution of 2D Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, K. S.; Nefedev, K. V.; Kapitan, V. Yu; Andriushchenko, P. D.

    2016-08-01

    Parallel algorithm of partition function calculation of two-dimensional Ising model for systems with a finite number of spins was developed. Within a method of complete enumeration by using MPI technology with subsequent optimization of a parallel code time of calculations was reduced considerably. Partition function was calculated for systems of 16, 25, 36 Ising spins. Based on the obtained results, main thermodynamic and magnetic values dependences (such as heat capacity, magnetic susceptibility, mean square magnetization) for ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions was investigated. The analysis of a different configurations contribution showed, that states with the minimum energy have essential influence on dependences of thermodynamic values. Comparison with the results obtained by the Wang Landau algorithm was performed.

  9. Spin-correlation function of the fully frustrated Ising model and ± J Ising spin glass on a square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M, Y. Ali; J, Poulter

    2013-06-01

    In this work we study the correlation function of the ground state of a two-dimensional fully frustrated Ising model as well as spin glass. The Pfaffian method is used to calculate free energy and entropy as well as the correlation function. We estimate the exponent of spin correlation function for the fully frustrated model and spin glass. In this paper an overview of the latest results on the spin correlation function is presented.

  10. Three representations of the Ising model.

    PubMed

    Kruis, Joost; Maris, Gunter

    2016-10-04

    Statistical models that analyse (pairwise) relations between variables encompass assumptions about the underlying mechanism that generated the associations in the observed data. In the present paper we demonstrate that three Ising model representations exist that, although each proposes a distinct theoretical explanation for the observed associations, are mathematically equivalent. This equivalence allows the researcher to interpret the results of one model in three different ways. We illustrate the ramifications of this by discussing concepts that are conceived as problematic in their traditional explanation, yet when interpreted in the context of another explanation make immediate sense.

  11. Three representations of the Ising model

    PubMed Central

    Kruis, Joost; Maris, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    Statistical models that analyse (pairwise) relations between variables encompass assumptions about the underlying mechanism that generated the associations in the observed data. In the present paper we demonstrate that three Ising model representations exist that, although each proposes a distinct theoretical explanation for the observed associations, are mathematically equivalent. This equivalence allows the researcher to interpret the results of one model in three different ways. We illustrate the ramifications of this by discussing concepts that are conceived as problematic in their traditional explanation, yet when interpreted in the context of another explanation make immediate sense. PMID:27698356

  12. Three representations of the Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruis, Joost; Maris, Gunter

    2016-10-01

    Statistical models that analyse (pairwise) relations between variables encompass assumptions about the underlying mechanism that generated the associations in the observed data. In the present paper we demonstrate that three Ising model representations exist that, although each proposes a distinct theoretical explanation for the observed associations, are mathematically equivalent. This equivalence allows the researcher to interpret the results of one model in three different ways. We illustrate the ramifications of this by discussing concepts that are conceived as problematic in their traditional explanation, yet when interpreted in the context of another explanation make immediate sense.

  13. Some results on hyperscaling in the 3D Ising model

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, G.A. Jr.; Kawashima, Naoki

    1995-09-01

    The authors review exact studies on finite-sized 2 dimensional Ising models and show that the point for an infinite-sized model at the critical temperature is a point of nonuniform approach in the temperature-size plane. They also illuminate some strong effects of finite-size on quantities which do not diverge at the critical point. They then review Monte Carlo studies for 3 dimensional Ising models of various sizes (L = 2--100) at various temperatures. From these results they find that the data for the renormalized coupling constant collapses nicely when plotted against the correlation length, determined in a system of edge length L, divided by L. They also find that {zeta}{sub L}/L {ge} 0.26 is definitely too large for reliable studies of the critical value, g*, of the renormalized coupling constant. They have reasonable evidence that {zeta}{sub L}/L {approx} 0.1 is adequate for results that are within one percent of those for the infinite system size. On this basis, they have conducted a series of Monte Carlo calculations with this condition imposed. These calculations were made practical by the development of improved estimators for use in the Swendsen-Wang cluster method. The authors found from these results, coupled with a reversed limit computation (size increases with the temperature fixed at the critical temperature), that g* > 0, although there may well be a sharp downward drop in g as the critical temperature is approached in accord with the predictions of series analysis. The results support the validity of hyperscaling in the 3 dimensional Ising model.

  14. Exact ground states of large two-dimensional planar Ising spin glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardella, G.; Liers, F.

    2008-11-01

    Studying spin-glass physics through analyzing their ground-state properties has a long history. Although there exist polynomial-time algorithms for the two-dimensional planar case, where the problem of finding ground states is transformed to a minimum-weight perfect matching problem, the reachable system sizes have been limited both by the needed CPU time and by memory requirements. In this work, we present an algorithm for the calculation of exact ground states for two-dimensional Ising spin glasses with free boundary conditions in at least one direction. The algorithmic foundations of the method date back to the work of Kasteleyn from the 1960s for computing the complete partition function of the Ising model. Using Kasteleyn cities, we calculate exact ground states for huge two-dimensional planar Ising spin-glass lattices (up to 30002 spins) within reasonable time. According to our knowledge, these are the largest sizes currently available. Kasteleyn cities were recently also used by Thomas and Middleton in the context of extended ground states on the torus. Moreover, they show that the method can also be used for computing ground states of planar graphs. Furthermore, we point out that the correctness of heuristically computed ground states can easily be verified. Finally, we evaluate the solution quality of heuristic variants of the L. Bieche approach.

  15. First-order and tricritical wetting transitions in the two-dimensional Ising model caused by interfacial pinning at a defect line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trobo, Marta L.; Albano, Ezequiel V.; Binder, Kurt

    2014-08-01

    We present a study of the critical behavior of the Blume-Capel model with three spin states (S =±1,0) confined between parallel walls separated by a distance L where competitive surface magnetic fields act. By properly choosing the crystal field (D), which regulates the density of nonmagnetic species (S =0), such that those impurities are excluded from the bulk (where D =-∞) except in the middle of the sample [where DM(L/2)≠-∞], we are able to control the presence of a defect line in the middle of the sample and study its influence on the interface between domains of different spin orientations. So essentially we study an Ising model with a defect line but, unlike previous work where defect lines in Ising models were defined via weakened bonds, in the present case the defect line is due to mobile vacancies and hence involves additional entropy. In this way, by drawing phase diagrams, i.e., plots of the wetting critical temperature (Tw) versus the magnitude of the crystal field at the middle of the sample (DM), we observe curves of (first-) second-order wetting transitions for (small) high values of DM. Theses lines meet in tricritical wetting points, i.e., (Twtc,DMtc), which also depend on the magnitude of the surface magnetic fields. It is found that second-order wetting transitions satisfy the scaling theory for short-range interactions, while first-order ones do not exhibit hysteresis, provided that small samples are used, since fluctuations wash out hysteretic effects. Since hysteresis is observed in large samples, we performed extensive thermodynamic integrations in order to accurately locate the first-order transition points, and a rather good agreement is found by comparing such results with those obtained just by observing the jump of the order parameter in small samples.

  16. First-order and tricritical wetting transitions in the two-dimensional Ising model caused by interfacial pinning at a defect line.

    PubMed

    Trobo, Marta L; Albano, Ezequiel V; Binder, Kurt

    2014-08-01

    We present a study of the critical behavior of the Blume-Capel model with three spin states (S=±1,0) confined between parallel walls separated by a distance L where competitive surface magnetic fields act. By properly choosing the crystal field (D), which regulates the density of nonmagnetic species (S=0), such that those impurities are excluded from the bulk (where D=-∞) except in the middle of the sample [where D(M)(L/2)≠-∞], we are able to control the presence of a defect line in the middle of the sample and study its influence on the interface between domains of different spin orientations. So essentially we study an Ising model with a defect line but, unlike previous work where defect lines in Ising models were defined via weakened bonds, in the present case the defect line is due to mobile vacancies and hence involves additional entropy. In this way, by drawing phase diagrams, i.e., plots of the wetting critical temperature (T(w)) versus the magnitude of the crystal field at the middle of the sample (D(M)), we observe curves of (first-) second-order wetting transitions for (small) high values of D(M). Theses lines meet in tricritical wetting points, i.e., (T(w)(tc),D(M)(tc)), which also depend on the magnitude of the surface magnetic fields. It is found that second-order wetting transitions satisfy the scaling theory for short-range interactions, while first-order ones do not exhibit hysteresis, provided that small samples are used, since fluctuations wash out hysteretic effects. Since hysteresis is observed in large samples, we performed extensive thermodynamic integrations in order to accurately locate the first-order transition points, and a rather good agreement is found by comparing such results with those obtained just by observing the jump of the order parameter in small samples.

  17. First excitations in two- and three-dimensional random-field Ising systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumsande, M.; Alava, M. J.; Hartmann, A. K.

    2008-02-01

    We present results on the first excited states for the random-field Ising model. These are based on an exact algorithm, with which we study the excitation energies and the excitation sizes for two- and three-dimensional random-field Ising systems with a Gaussian distribution of the random fields. Our algorithm is based on an approach of Frontera and Vives which, in some cases, does not yield the true first excited states. Using the corrected algorithm, we find that the order disorder phase transition for three dimensions is visible via crossings of the excitation energy curves for different system sizes, while in two dimensions these crossings converge to zero disorder. Furthermore, we obtain in three dimensions a fractal dimension of the excitation cluster of ds = 2.42(2). We also provide analytical droplet arguments to understand the behavior of the excitation energies for small and large disorder as well as close to the critical point.

  18. Applying Tabu Search to the Two-Dimensional Ising Spin Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laguna, Manuel; Laguna, Pablo

    A variety of problems in statistical physics, such as Ising-like systems, can be modeled as integer programs. Physicists have relied mostly on Monte Carlo methods to find approximate solutions to these computationally difficult problems. In some cases, optimal solutions to relatively small problems have been found using standard optimization techniques, e.g., cutting plane and branch-and-bound algorithms. Motivated by the success of tabu search (TS) in finding optimal or near-optimal solutions to combinatorial optimization problems in a number of different settings, we study the application of this methodology to Ising-like systems. Particularly, we develop a TS method to find ground states of two-dimensional spin glasses. Our method performs a search at different levels of resolution in the spin lattice, and it is designed to obtain optimal or near-optimal solutions to problem instances with several different characteristics. Results are reported for computational experiments with up to 64×64 lattices.

  19. The thermodynamic geometry of the Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotskoff, Grant; Crooks, Gavin

    2015-03-01

    Biological machines have evolved to produce useful work in a finite time by operating out-of-equilibrium, but we do not know how evolution has guided the design of these machines: Are there generic design principles that direct motors towards higher efficiency? To answer this question, one must first calculate a finite-time efficiency, which poses a significant challenge--tools of equilibrium statistical mechanics fail to describe the relationship between a protocol and the efficiency of a machine subject to that protocol. Using a geometric framework, I will describe a procedure for predicting the protocol that minimizes the dissipated work during an irreversible process. My talk will focus on optimal control of the 2D Ising model; this example will provide strategies for employing geometric thermodynamics to models that cannot be solved analytically.

  20. Nonequilibrium relaxation study of Ising spin glass models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeki, Yukiyasu; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2001-07-01

    As an analysis of equilibrium phase transitions, the nonequilibrium relaxation method is extended to the spin glass (SG) transition. The +/-J Ising SG model is analyzed for three-dimensional (cubic) lattices up to the linear size of L=127 and for four-dimensional (hypercubic) lattice up to L=41. These sizes of systems are quite large as compared with those calculated, so far, by equilibrium simulations. As a dynamical order parameter, we calculate the clone correlation function (CCF) Q(t,tw)≡[F], which is a spin correlation of two replicas produced after the waiting time tw from a simple starting state. It is found that the CCF shows an exponential decay in the paramagnetic phase, and a power-law decay after aginglike development (t>>tw) in the SG phase. This provides a reliable upper bound of the transition temperature Tg. It is also found that a scaling relation, Q(t,tw)=t-λqwq¯(t/tw), holds just around the transition point providing the lower bound of Tg. Together with these two bounds, we propose a new dynamical way for the estimation of Tg from much larger systems. In the SG phase, the power-law behavior of the CCF for t>>tw suggests that the SG phase in short-range Ising models has a rugged phase space.

  1. The Worm Process for the Ising Model is Rapidly Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collevecchio, Andrea; Garoni, Timothy M.; Hyndman, Timothy; Tokarev, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    We prove rapid mixing of the worm process for the zero-field ferromagnetic Ising model, on all finite connected graphs, and at all temperatures. As a corollary, we obtain a fully-polynomial randomized approximation scheme for the Ising susceptibility, and for a certain restriction of the two-point correlation function.

  2. Exact Solution of Ising Model in 2d Shortcut Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanker, O.

    We give the exact solution to the Ising model in the shortcut network in the 2D limit. The solution is found by mapping the model to the square lattice model with Brascamp and Kunz boundary conditions.

  3. Phase transitions in a three-dimensional kinetic spin-1/2 Ising model with random field: effective-field-theory study.

    PubMed

    Costabile, Emanuel; de Sousa, J Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The dynamical phase transitions of the kinetic Ising model in the presence of a random magnetic field with a bimodal probability distribution is studied by using effective-field theory (EFT) with correlations. We have used a Glauber-type stochastic dynamic to describe the time evolution of the system, where the system strongly depends on the H≡√(c) root mean square deviation of the magnetic field. The EFT dynamic equation is given for the simple cubic lattice (z=6), and the dynamic order parameter is calculated. The system presents ferromagnetic and paramagnetic states for low and high temperatures, respectively. Our results predict first-order transitions at low temperatures and large disorder strengths, which corresponds to the existence of a nonequilibrium tricritical point (TCP) in a phase diagram in the T-H plane. We compare the results with the equilibrium phase diagram, where only the first-order line is different. Our qualitative results are compatible with recent Monte Carlo simulations.

  4. Dannie Heineman Prize for Mathematical Physics Prize Lecture: Correlation Functions in Integrable Models: Ising Model and Monodromy Preserving Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, Tetsuji

    2013-03-01

    Studies on integrable models in statistical mechanics and quantum field theory originated in the works of Bethe on the one-dimensional quantum spin chain and the work of Onsager on the two-dimensional Ising model. I will talk on the discovery in 1977 of the link between quantum field theory in the scaling limit of the two-dimensional Ising model and the theory of monodromy preserving linear ordinary differential equations. This work was the staring point of our journey with Michio Jimbo in integrable models, the journey which finally led us to the exact results on the correlation functions of quantum spin chains in 1992.

  5. GPU-based single-cluster algorithm for the simulation of the Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komura, Yukihiro; Okabe, Yutaka

    2012-02-01

    We present the GPU calculation with the common unified device architecture (CUDA) for the Wolff single-cluster algorithm of the Ising model. Proposing an algorithm for a quasi-block synchronization, we realize the Wolff single-cluster Monte Carlo simulation with CUDA. We perform parallel computations for the newly added spins in the growing cluster. As a result, the GPU calculation speed for the two-dimensional Ising model at the critical temperature with the linear size L = 4096 is 5.60 times as fast as the calculation speed on a current CPU core. For the three-dimensional Ising model with the linear size L = 256, the GPU calculation speed is 7.90 times as fast as the CPU calculation speed. The idea of quasi-block synchronization can be used not only in the cluster algorithm but also in many fields where the synchronization of all threads is required.

  6. Phase transitions and critical phenomena in the two-dimensional Ising model with dipole interactions: A short-time dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, C M; Bab, M A; Mazzini, M; Rubio Puzzo, M L; Saracco, G P

    2015-10-01

    The ferromagnetic Ising model with antiferromagnetic dipole interactions is investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulations, focusing on the characterization of the phase transitions between the tetragonal liquid and stripe of width h phases. The dynamic evolution of the physical observables is analyzed within the short-time regime for 0.5≤δ≤1.3, where δ is the ratio between the short-range exchange and the long-range dipole interaction constants. The obtained results for the interval 0.5≤δ≤1.2 indicate that the phase transition line between the h=1 stripe and tetragonal liquid phases is continuous. This finding contributes to clarifying the controversy about the order of this transition. This controversy arises from the difficulties introduced in the simulations due to the presence of long-range dipole interactions, such as an important increase in the simulation times that limits the system size used, strong finite size effects, as well as to the existence of multiple metastable states at low temperatures. The study of the short-time dynamics of the model allows us to avoid these hindrances. Moreover, due to the fact that the finite-size effects do not significantly affect the power-law behavior exhibited in the observables within the short-time regime, the results could be attributed to those corresponding to the thermodynamic limit. As a consequence of this, a careful characterization of the critical behavior for the whole transition line is performed by giving the complete set of critical exponents.

  7. Block renormalization study on the nonequilibrium chiral Ising model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina; Park, Su-Chan; Noh, Jae Dong

    2015-01-01

    We present a numerical study on the ordering dynamics of a one-dimensional nonequilibrium Ising spin system with chirality. This system is characterized by a direction-dependent spin update rule. Pairs of +- spins can flip to ++ or -- with probability (1-u) or to -+ with probability u while -+ pairs are frozen. The system was found to evolve into the ferromagnetic ordered state at any u<1 exhibiting the power-law scaling of the characteristic length scale ξ∼t(1/z) and the domain-wall density ρ∼t(-δ). The scaling exponents z and δ were found to vary continuously with the parameter u. To establish the anomalous power-law scaling firmly, we perform the block renormalization analysis proposed by Basu and Hinrichsen [U. Basu and H. Hinrichsen, J. Stat. Mech.: Theor. Exp. (2011)]. The block renormalization method predicts, under the assumption of dynamic scale invariance, a scaling relation that can be used to estimate the scaling exponent numerically. We find the condition under which the scaling relation is justified. We then apply the method to our model and obtain the critical exponent zδ at several values of u. The numerical result is in perfect agreement with that of the previous study. This study serves as additional evidence for the claim that the nonequilibrium chiral Ising model displays power-law scaling behavior with continuously varying exponents.

  8. Cyclic period-3 window in antiferromagnetic potts and Ising models on recursive lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananikian, N. S.; Ananikyan, L. N.; Chakhmakhchyan, L. A.

    2011-09-01

    The magnetic properties of the antiferromagnetic Potts model with two-site interaction and the antiferromagnetic Ising model with three-site interaction on recursive lattices have been studied. A cyclic period-3 window has been revealed by the recurrence relation method in the antiferromagnetic Q-state Potts model on the Bethe lattice (at Q < 2) and in the antiferromagnetic Ising model with three-site interaction on the Husimi cactus. The Lyapunov exponents have been calculated, modulated phases and a chaotic regime in the cyclic period-3 window have been found for one-dimensional rational mappings determined the properties of these systems.

  9. The Planar Ising Model and Total Positivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lis, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    A matrix is called totally positive (resp. totally nonnegative) if all its minors are positive (resp. nonnegative). Consider the Ising model with free boundary conditions and no external field on a planar graph G. Let a_1,dots ,a_k,b_k,dots ,b_1 be vertices placed in a counterclockwise order on the outer face of G. We show that the k× k matrix of the two-point spin correlation functions M_{i,j} = < σ _{a_i} σ _{b_j} rangle is totally nonnegative. Moreover, det M > 0 if and only if there exist k pairwise vertex-disjoint paths that connect a_i with b_i. We also compute the scaling limit at criticality of the probability that there are k parallel and disjoint connections between a_i and b_i in the double random current model. Our results are based on a new distributional relation between double random currents and random alternating flows of Talaska [37].

  10. Toward an Ising model of cancer and beyond.

    PubMed

    Torquato, Salvatore

    2011-02-01

    The holy grail of tumor modeling is to formulate theoretical and computational tools that can be utilized in the clinic to predict neoplastic progression and propose individualized optimal treatment strategies to control cancer growth. In order to develop such a predictive model, one must account for the numerous complex mechanisms involved in tumor growth. Here we review the research work that we have done toward the development of an 'Ising model' of cancer. The Ising model is an idealized statistical-mechanical model of ferromagnetism that is based on simple local-interaction rules, but nonetheless leads to basic insights and features of real magnets, such as phase transitions with a critical point. The review begins with a description of a minimalist four-dimensional (three dimensions in space and one in time) cellular automaton (CA) model of cancer in which cells transition between states (proliferative, hypoxic and necrotic) according to simple local rules and their present states, which can viewed as a stripped-down Ising model of cancer. This model is applied to study the growth of glioblastoma multiforme, the most malignant of brain cancers. This is followed by a discussion of the extension of the model to study the effect on the tumor dynamics and geometry of a mutated subpopulation. A discussion of how tumor growth is affected by chemotherapeutic treatment, including induced resistance, is then described. We then describe how to incorporate angiogenesis as well as the heterogeneous and confined environment in which a tumor grows in the CA model. The characterization of the level of organization of the invasive network around a solid tumor using spanning trees is subsequently discussed. Then, we describe open problems and future promising avenues for future research, including the need to develop better molecular-based models that incorporate the true heterogeneous environment over wide range of length and time scales (via imaging data), cell motility

  11. Toward an Ising model of cancer and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torquato, Salvatore

    2011-02-01

    The holy grail of tumor modeling is to formulate theoretical and computational tools that can be utilized in the clinic to predict neoplastic progression and propose individualized optimal treatment strategies to control cancer growth. In order to develop such a predictive model, one must account for the numerous complex mechanisms involved in tumor growth. Here we review the research work that we have done toward the development of an 'Ising model' of cancer. The Ising model is an idealized statistical-mechanical model of ferromagnetism that is based on simple local-interaction rules, but nonetheless leads to basic insights and features of real magnets, such as phase transitions with a critical point. The review begins with a description of a minimalist four-dimensional (three dimensions in space and one in time) cellular automaton (CA) model of cancer in which cells transition between states (proliferative, hypoxic and necrotic) according to simple local rules and their present states, which can viewed as a stripped-down Ising model of cancer. This model is applied to study the growth of glioblastoma multiforme, the most malignant of brain cancers. This is followed by a discussion of the extension of the model to study the effect on the tumor dynamics and geometry of a mutated subpopulation. A discussion of how tumor growth is affected by chemotherapeutic treatment, including induced resistance, is then described. We then describe how to incorporate angiogenesis as well as the heterogeneous and confined environment in which a tumor grows in the CA model. The characterization of the level of organization of the invasive network around a solid tumor using spanning trees is subsequently discussed. Then, we describe open problems and future promising avenues for future research, including the need to develop better molecular-based models that incorporate the true heterogeneous environment over wide range of length and time scales (via imaging data), cell motility

  12. Ising-model description of long-range correlations in DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Colliva, A; Pellegrini, R; Testori, A; Caselle, M

    2015-05-01

    We model long-range correlations of nucleotides in the human DNA sequence using the long-range one-dimensional (1D) Ising model. We show that, for distances between 10(3) and 10(6) bp, the correlations show a universal behavior and may be described by the non-mean-field limit of the long-range 1D Ising model. This allows us to make some testable hypothesis on the nature of the interaction between distant portions of the DNA chain which led to the DNA structure that we observe today in higher eukaryotes.

  13. Ising-model description of long-range correlations in DNA sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliva, A.; Pellegrini, R.; Testori, A.; Caselle, M.

    2015-05-01

    We model long-range correlations of nucleotides in the human DNA sequence using the long-range one-dimensional (1D) Ising model. We show that, for distances between 103 and 106 bp, the correlations show a universal behavior and may be described by the non-mean-field limit of the long-range 1D Ising model. This allows us to make some testable hypothesis on the nature of the interaction between distant portions of the DNA chain which led to the DNA structure that we observe today in higher eukaryotes.

  14. Zero-temperature relaxation of three-dimensional Ising ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olejarz, J.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2011-05-01

    We investigate the properties of the Ising-Glauber model on a periodic cubic lattice of linear dimension L after a quench to zero temperature. The resulting evolution is extremely slow, with long periods of wandering on constant energy plateaus, punctuated by occasional energy-decreasing spin-flip events. The characteristic time scale τ for this relaxation grows exponentially with the system size; we provide a heuristic and numerical evidence that τ~exp(L2). For all but the smallest-size systems, the long-time state is almost never static. Instead, the system contains a small number of “blinker” spins that continue to flip forever with no energy cost. Thus, the system wanders ad infinitum on a connected set of equal-energy blinker states. These states are composed of two topologically complex interwoven domains of opposite phases. The average genus gL of the domains scales as Lγ, with γ≈1.7; thus, domains typically have many holes, leading to a “plumber’s nightmare” geometry.

  15. On Complexity of the Quantum Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravyi, Sergey; Hastings, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    We study complexity of several problems related to the Transverse field Ising Model (TIM). First, we consider the problem of estimating the ground state energy known as the Local Hamiltonian Problem (LHP). It is shown that the LHP for TIM on degree-3 graphs is equivalent modulo polynomial reductions to the LHP for general k-local `stoquastic' Hamiltonians with any constant {k ≥ 2}. This result implies that estimating the ground state energy of TIM on degree-3 graphs is a complete problem for the complexity class {StoqMA} —an extension of the classical class {MA}. As a corollary, we complete the complexity classification of 2-local Hamiltonians with a fixed set of interactions proposed recently by Cubitt and Montanaro. Secondly, we study quantum annealing algorithms for finding ground states of classical spin Hamiltonians associated with hard optimization problems. We prove that the quantum annealing with TIM Hamiltonians is equivalent modulo polynomial reductions to the quantum annealing with a certain subclass of k-local stoquastic Hamiltonians. This subclass includes all Hamiltonians representable as a sum of a k-local diagonal Hamiltonian and a 2-local stoquastic Hamiltonian.

  16. The linear Ising model and its analytic continuation, random walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavenda, B. H.

    2004-02-01

    A generalization of Gauss's principle is used to derive the error laws corresponding to Types II and VII distributions in Pearson's classification scheme. Student's r-p.d.f. (Type II) governs the distribution of the internal energy of a uniform, linear chain, Ising model, while the analytic continuation of the uniform exchange energy converts it into a Student t-density (Type VII) for the position of a random walk in a single spatial dimension. Higher-dimensional spaces, corresponding to larger degrees of freedom and generalizations to multidimensional Student r- and t-densities, are obtained by considering independent and identically random variables, having rotationally invariant densities, whose entropies are additive and generating functions are multiplicative.

  17. Droplet model for autocorrelation functions in an Ising ferromagnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Chao; Nakanishi, Hiizu; Langer, J. S.

    1989-01-01

    The autocorrelation function of Ising spins in an ordered phase is studied via a droplet model. Only noninteracting spherical droplets are considered. The Langevin equation which describes fluctuations in the radius of a single droplet is studied in detail. A general description of the transformation to a Fokker-Planck equations and the ways in which a spectral analysis of that equation can be used to compute the autocorrelation function is given. It is shown that the eigenvalues of the Fokker-Planck operator form (1) a continuous spectrum of relaxation rates starting from zero for d = 2, (2) a continuous spectrum with a finite gap for d = 3, and (3) a discrete spectrum for d greater than 4, where d is the spatial dimensionality. Detailed solutions for various cases are presented.

  18. Critical properties of a two-dimensional Ising magnet with quasiperiodic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, G. A.; Vasconcelos, M. S.; Alves, T. F. A.

    2016-04-01

    We address the study of quasiperiodic interactions on a square lattice by using an Ising model with ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions following a quasiperiodic Fibonacci sequence in both directions of a square lattice. We applied the Monte Carlo method, together with the Metropolis algorithm, to calculate the thermodynamic quantities of the system. We obtained the Edwards-Anderson order parameter qEA, the magnetic susceptibility χ , and the specific heat c in order to characterize the universality class of the phase transition. We also use the finite size scaling method to obtain the critical temperature of the system and the critical exponents β ,γ , and ν . In the low-temperature limit we obtained a spin-glass phase with critical temperature around Tc≈2.274 , and the critical exponents β ,γ , and ν , indicating that the quasiperiodic order induces a change in the universality class of the system. Also, we discovered a spin-glass ordering in a two-dimensional system which is rare and, as far as we know, the unique example is an under-frustrated Ising model.

  19. Critical properties of a two-dimensional Ising magnet with quasiperiodic interactions.

    PubMed

    Alves, G A; Vasconcelos, M S; Alves, T F A

    2016-04-01

    We address the study of quasiperiodic interactions on a square lattice by using an Ising model with ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions following a quasiperiodic Fibonacci sequence in both directions of a square lattice. We applied the Monte Carlo method, together with the Metropolis algorithm, to calculate the thermodynamic quantities of the system. We obtained the Edwards-Anderson order parameter q_{EA}, the magnetic susceptibility χ, and the specific heat c in order to characterize the universality class of the phase transition. We also use the finite size scaling method to obtain the critical temperature of the system and the critical exponents β,γ, and ν. In the low-temperature limit we obtained a spin-glass phase with critical temperature around T_{c}≈2.274, and the critical exponents β,γ, and ν, indicating that the quasiperiodic order induces a change in the universality class of the system. Also, we discovered a spin-glass ordering in a two-dimensional system which is rare and, as far as we know, the unique example is an under-frustrated Ising model.

  20. Long-range transverse Ising model built with dipolar condensates in two-well arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongyao; Pang, Wei; Xu, Jun; Lee, Chaohong; Malomed, Boris A.; Santos, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates in an array of double-well potentials realize an effective transverse Ising model with peculiar inter-layer interactions, that may result under proper conditions in an anomalous first-order ferromagnetic–antiferromagnetic phase transition, and non-trivial phases due to frustration. The considered setup allows as well for the study of Kibble–Zurek defect formation, whose kink statistics follows that expected from the universality class of the mean-field one-dimensional transverse Ising model. Furthermore, random occupation of each layer of the stack leads to random effective Ising interactions and local transverse fields, that may lead to the Anderson-like localization of imbalance perturbations.

  1. Ising model for a Brownian donkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleuren, B.; Van den Broeck, C.

    2001-04-01

    We introduce a thermal engine consisting of N interacting Brownian particles moving in a periodic potential, featuring an alternation of hot and cold symmetric peaks. A discretized Ising-like version is solved analytically. In response to an external force, absolute negative mobility is observed for N >= 4. For N → ∞ a nonequilibrium phase transition takes place with a spontaneous symmetry breaking entailing the appearance of a current in the absence of an external force.

  2. Linear perturbation renormalization group for the two-dimensional Ising model with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions in a field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sznajd, J.

    2016-12-01

    The linear perturbation renormalization group (LPRG) is used to study the phase transition of the weakly coupled Ising chains with intrachain (J ) and interchain nearest-neighbor (J1) and next-nearest-neighbor (J2) interactions forming the triangular and rectangular lattices in a field. The phase diagrams with the frustration point at J2=-J1/2 for a rectangular lattice and J2=-J1 for a triangular lattice have been found. The LPRG calculations support the idea that the phase transition is always continuous except for the frustration point and is accompanied by a divergence of the specific heat. For the antiferromagnetic chains, the external field does not change substantially the shape of the phase diagram. The critical temperature is suppressed to zero according to the power law when approaching the frustration point with an exponent dependent on the value of the field.

  3. Linear perturbation renormalization group for the two-dimensional Ising model with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions in a field.

    PubMed

    Sznajd, J

    2016-12-01

    The linear perturbation renormalization group (LPRG) is used to study the phase transition of the weakly coupled Ising chains with intrachain (J) and interchain nearest-neighbor (J_{1}) and next-nearest-neighbor (J_{2}) interactions forming the triangular and rectangular lattices in a field. The phase diagrams with the frustration point at J_{2}=-J_{1}/2 for a rectangular lattice and J_{2}=-J_{1} for a triangular lattice have been found. The LPRG calculations support the idea that the phase transition is always continuous except for the frustration point and is accompanied by a divergence of the specific heat. For the antiferromagnetic chains, the external field does not change substantially the shape of the phase diagram. The critical temperature is suppressed to zero according to the power law when approaching the frustration point with an exponent dependent on the value of the field.

  4. Interacting damage models mapped onto ising and percolation models

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, Renaud; Pride, Steven R.

    2004-03-23

    The authors introduce a class of damage models on regular lattices with isotropic interactions between the broken cells of the lattice. Quasistatic fiber bundles are an example. The interactions are assumed to be weak, in the sense that the stress perturbation from a broken cell is much smaller than the mean stress in the system. The system starts intact with a surface-energy threshold required to break any cell sampled from an uncorrelated quenched-disorder distribution. The evolution of this heterogeneous system is ruled by Griffith's principle which states that a cell breaks when the release in potential (elastic) energy in the system exceeds the surface-energy barrier necessary to break the cell. By direct integration over all possible realizations of the quenched disorder, they obtain the probability distribution of each damage configuration at any level of the imposed external deformation. They demonstrate an isomorphism between the distributions so obtained and standard generalized Ising models, in which the coupling constants and effective temperature in the Ising model are functions of the nature of the quenched-disorder distribution and the extent of accumulated damage. In particular, they show that damage models with global load sharing are isomorphic to standard percolation theory, that damage models with local load sharing rule are isomorphic to the standard ising model, and draw consequences thereof for the universality class and behavior of the autocorrelation length of the breakdown transitions corresponding to these models. they also treat damage models having more general power-law interactions, and classify the breakdown process as a function of the power-law interaction exponent. Last, they also show that the probability distribution over configurations is a maximum of Shannon's entropy under some specific constraints related to the energetic balance of the fracture process, which firmly relates this type of quenched-disorder based damage model

  5. Universality of the Ising and the S=1 model on Archimedean lattices: a Monte Carlo determination.

    PubMed

    Malakis, A; Gulpinar, G; Karaaslan, Y; Papakonstantinou, T; Aslan, G

    2012-03-01

    The Ising models S=1/2 and S=1 are studied by efficient Monte Carlo schemes on the (3,4,6,4) and the (3,3,3,3,6) Archimedean lattices. The algorithms used, a hybrid Metropolis-Wolff algorithm and a parallel tempering protocol, are briefly described and compared with the simple Metropolis algorithm. Accurate Monte Carlo data are produced at the exact critical temperatures of the Ising model for these lattices. Their finite-size analysis provide, with high accuracy, all critical exponents which, as expected, are the same with the well-known 2D Ising model exact values. A detailed finite-size scaling analysis of our Monte Carlo data for the S=1 model on the same lattices provides very clear evidence that this model obeys, also very well, the 2D Ising model critical exponents. As a result, we find that recent Monte Carlo simulations and attempts to define effective dimensionality for the S=1 model on these lattices are misleading. Accurate estimates are obtained for the critical amplitudes of the logarithmic expansions of the specific heat for both models on the two Archimedean lattices.

  6. Universality of the Ising and the S=1 model on Archimedean lattices: A Monte Carlo determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakis, A.; Gulpinar, G.; Karaaslan, Y.; Papakonstantinou, T.; Aslan, G.

    2012-03-01

    The Ising models S=1/2 and S=1 are studied by efficient Monte Carlo schemes on the (3,4,6,4) and the (3,3,3,3,6) Archimedean lattices. The algorithms used, a hybrid Metropolis-Wolff algorithm and a parallel tempering protocol, are briefly described and compared with the simple Metropolis algorithm. Accurate Monte Carlo data are produced at the exact critical temperatures of the Ising model for these lattices. Their finite-size analysis provide, with high accuracy, all critical exponents which, as expected, are the same with the well-known 2D Ising model exact values. A detailed finite-size scaling analysis of our Monte Carlo data for the S=1 model on the same lattices provides very clear evidence that this model obeys, also very well, the 2D Ising model critical exponents. As a result, we find that recent Monte Carlo simulations and attempts to define effective dimensionality for the S=1 model on these lattices are misleading. Accurate estimates are obtained for the critical amplitudes of the logarithmic expansions of the specific heat for both models on the two Archimedean lattices.

  7. Heat conduction in one-dimensional aperiodic quantum Ising chains.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjuan; Tong, Peiqing

    2011-03-01

    The heat conductivity of nonperiodic quantum Ising chains whose ends are connected with heat baths at different temperatures are studied numerically by solving the Lindblad master equation. The chains are subjected to a uniform transverse field h, while the exchange coupling J{m} between the nearest-neighbor spins takes the two values J{A} and J{B} arranged in Fibonacci, generalized Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, and period-doubling sequences. We calculate the energy-density profile and energy current of the resulting nonequilibrium steady states to study the heat-conducting behavior of finite but large systems. Although these nonperiodic quantum Ising chains are integrable, it is clearly found that energy gradients exist in all chains and the energy currents appear to scale as the system size ~N{α}. By increasing the ratio of couplings, the exponent α can be modulated from α > -1 to α < -1 corresponding to the nontrivial transition from the abnormal heat transport to the heat insulator. The influences of the temperature gradient and the magnetic field to heat conduction have also been discussed.

  8. Nonequilibrium random-field Ising model on a diluted triangular lattice.

    PubMed

    Kurbah, Lobisor; Thongjaomayum, Diana; Shukla, Prabodh

    2015-01-01

    We study critical hysteresis in the random-field Ising model on a two-dimensional periodic lattice with a variable coordination number z(eff) in the range 3≤z(eff)≤6. We find that the model supports critical behavior in the range 4

  9. Fate of the one-dimensional Ising quantum critical point coupled to a gapless boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberton, Ori; Ruhman, Jonathan; Berg, Erez; Altman, Ehud

    2017-02-01

    The problem of a quantum Ising degree of freedom coupled to a gapless bosonic mode appears naturally in many one-dimensional systems, yet surprisingly little is known how such a coupling affects the Ising quantum critical point. We investigate the fate of the critical point in a regime, where the weak coupling renormalization group (RG) indicates a flow toward strong coupling. Using a renormalization group analysis and numerical density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations we show that, depending on the ratio of velocities of the gapless bosonic mode and the Ising critical fluctuations, the transition may remain continuous or become fluctuation-driven first order. The two regimes are separated by a tricritical point of a novel type.

  10. Phase transitions in Ising models on directed networks.

    PubMed

    Lipowski, Adam; Ferreira, António Luis; Lipowska, Dorota; Gontarek, Krzysztof

    2015-11-01

    We examine Ising models with heat-bath dynamics on directed networks. Our simulations show that Ising models on directed triangular and simple cubic lattices undergo a phase transition that most likely belongs to the Ising universality class. On the directed square lattice the model remains paramagnetic at any positive temperature as already reported in some previous studies. We also examine random directed graphs and show that contrary to undirected ones, percolation of directed bonds does not guarantee ferromagnetic ordering. Only above a certain threshold can a random directed graph support finite-temperature ferromagnetic ordering. Such behavior is found also for out-homogeneous random graphs, but in this case the analysis of magnetic and percolative properties can be done exactly. Directed random graphs also differ from undirected ones with respect to zero-temperature freezing. Only at low connectivity do they remain trapped in a disordered configuration. Above a certain threshold, however, the zero-temperature dynamics quickly drives the model toward a broken symmetry (magnetized) state. Only above this threshold, which is almost twice as large as the percolation threshold, do we expect the Ising model to have a positive critical temperature. With a very good accuracy, the behavior on directed random graphs is reproduced within a certain approximate scheme.

  11. Phase transitions in Ising models on directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipowski, Adam; Ferreira, António Luis; Lipowska, Dorota; Gontarek, Krzysztof

    2015-11-01

    We examine Ising models with heat-bath dynamics on directed networks. Our simulations show that Ising models on directed triangular and simple cubic lattices undergo a phase transition that most likely belongs to the Ising universality class. On the directed square lattice the model remains paramagnetic at any positive temperature as already reported in some previous studies. We also examine random directed graphs and show that contrary to undirected ones, percolation of directed bonds does not guarantee ferromagnetic ordering. Only above a certain threshold can a random directed graph support finite-temperature ferromagnetic ordering. Such behavior is found also for out-homogeneous random graphs, but in this case the analysis of magnetic and percolative properties can be done exactly. Directed random graphs also differ from undirected ones with respect to zero-temperature freezing. Only at low connectivity do they remain trapped in a disordered configuration. Above a certain threshold, however, the zero-temperature dynamics quickly drives the model toward a broken symmetry (magnetized) state. Only above this threshold, which is almost twice as large as the percolation threshold, do we expect the Ising model to have a positive critical temperature. With a very good accuracy, the behavior on directed random graphs is reproduced within a certain approximate scheme.

  12. Domain walls in the quantum transverse Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkel, Malte; Harris, A. Brooks; Cieplak, Marek

    1995-08-01

    We discuss several problems concerning domain walls in the spin-S Ising model at zero temeprature in a magnetic field, H/(2S), applied in the x direction. Some results are also given for the planar (y-z) model in a transverse field. We treat the quantum problem in one dimension by perturbation theory at small H and numerically over a large range of H. We obtain the spin-density profile by fixing the spins at opposite ends of the chain to have opposite signs of Sz. One dimensional is special in that there the quantum width of the wall is proportional to the size L of the system. We also study the quantitative features of the ``particle'' band which extends up to energies of order H above the ground state. Except for the planar limit, this particle band is well separated from excitations having energy J/S involving creation of more walls. At large S this particle band develops energy gaps and the lowest subband has tunnel splittings of order H21-2S. This scale of of energy gives rise to anomalous scaling with respect to (a) finite size, (b) temperature, or (c) random potentials. The intrinsic width of the domain wall and the pinning energy are also defined and calculated in certain limiting cases. The general conclusion is that quantum effects prevent the wall from being sharp and in higher dimension would prevent sudden excursions in the configuration of the wall.

  13. Solution of the antiferromagnetic Ising model on a tetrahedron recursive lattice.

    PubMed

    Jurčišinová, E; Jurčišin, M

    2014-03-01

    We consider the antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Ising model on the recursive tetrahedron lattice on which two elementary tetrahedrons are connected at each site. The model represents the simplest approximation of the antiferromagnetic Ising model on the real three-dimensional tetrahedron lattice which takes into account effects of frustration. An exact analytical solution of the model is found and discussed. It is shown that the model exhibits neither the first-order nor the second-order phase transitions. A detailed analysis of the magnetization of the model in the presence of the external magnetic field is performed and the existence of the magnetization plateaus for low temperatures is shown. All possible ground states of the model are found and discussed. The existence of nontrivial singular ground states is proven and exact explicit expressions for them are found.

  14. Duality Between Spin Networks and the 2D Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonzom, Valentin; Costantino, Francesco; Livine, Etera R.

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to exhibit a deep relation between the partition function of the Ising model on a planar trivalent graph and the generating series of the spin network evaluations on the same graph. We provide respectively a fermionic and a bosonic Gaussian integral formulation for each of these functions and we show that they are the inverse of each other (up to some explicit constants) by exhibiting a supersymmetry relating the two formulations. We investigate three aspects and applications of this duality. First, we propose higher order supersymmetric theories that couple the geometry of the spin networks to the Ising model and for which supersymmetric localization still holds. Secondly, after interpreting the generating function of spin network evaluations as the projection of a coherent state of loop quantum gravity onto the flat connection state, we find the probability distribution induced by that coherent state on the edge spins and study its stationary phase approximation. It is found that the stationary points correspond to the critical values of the couplings of the 2D Ising model, at least for isoradial graphs. Third, we analyze the mapping of the correlations of the Ising model to spin network observables, and describe the phase transition on those observables on the hexagonal lattice. This opens the door to many new possibilities, especially for the study of the coarse-graining and continuum limit of spin networks in the context of quantum gravity.

  15. Ising model on the generalized Bruhat-Tits tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinoviev, Yu. M.

    1990-06-01

    The partition function and the correlation functions of the Ising model on the generalized Bruhat-Tits tree are calculated. We computed also the averages of these correlation functions when the corresponding vertices are attached to the boundary of the generalized Bruhat-Tits tree.

  16. Ising model on the generalized Bruhat-Tits tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinoviev, Yu. M.

    1991-08-01

    The partition function and the correlation functions of the Ising model on the generalized Bruhat-Tits tree are calculated. We computed also the averages of these correlation functions when the corresponding vertices are attached to the boundary of the generalized Bruhat-Tits tree.

  17. On scaling properties of cluster distributions in Ising models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruge, C.; Wagner, F.

    1992-01-01

    Scaling relations of cluster distributions for the Wolff algorithm are derived. We found them to be well satisfied for the Ising model in d=3 dimensions. Using scaling and a parametrization of the cluster distribution, we determine the critical exponent β/ν=0.516(6) with moderate effort in computing time.

  18. Red-bond exponents of the critical and the tricritical Ising model in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Youjin; Blöte, Henk W. J.

    2004-11-01

    Using the Wolff and geometric cluster algorithms and finite-size scaling analysis, we investigate the critical Ising and the tricritical Blume-Capel models with nearest-neighbor interactions on the simple-cubic lattice. The sampling procedure involves the decomposition of the Ising configuration into geometric clusters, each of which consists of a set of nearest-neighboring spins of the same sign connected with bond probability p . These clusters include the well-known Kasteleyn-Fortuin clusters as a special case for p=1-exp(-2K) , where K is the Ising spin-spin coupling. Along the critical line K=Kc , the size distribution of geometric clusters is investigated as a function of p . We observe that, unlike in the case of two-dimensional tricriticality, the percolation threshold in both models lies at pc=1-exp(-2Kc) . Further, we determine the corresponding red-bond exponents as yr=0.757(2) and 0.501(5) for the critical Ising and the tricritical Blume-Capel models, respectively. On this basis, we conjecture yr=1/2 for the latter model.

  19. Red-bond exponents of the critical and the tricritical Ising model in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Deng, Youjin; Blöte, Henk W J

    2004-11-01

    Using the Wolff and geometric cluster algorithms and finite-size scaling analysis, we investigate the critical Ising and the tricritical Blume-Capel models with nearest-neighbor interactions on the simple-cubic lattice. The sampling procedure involves the decomposition of the Ising configuration into geometric clusters, each of which consists of a set of nearest-neighboring spins of the same sign connected with bond probability p. These clusters include the well-known Kasteleyn-Fortuin clusters as a special case for p=1-exp(-2K) , where K is the Ising spin-spin coupling. Along the critical line K=Kc , the size distribution of geometric clusters is investigated as a function of p . We observe that, unlike in the case of two-dimensional tricriticality, the percolation threshold in both models lies at pc =1-exp(-2Kc) . Further, we determine the corresponding red-bond exponents as yr =0.757(2) and 0.501(5) for the critical Ising and the tricritical Blume-Capel models, respectively. On this basis, we conjecture yr =1/2 for the latter model.

  20. The magnetic susceptibility on the transverse antiferromagnetic Ising model: Analysis of the reentrant behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, Minos A.; de Sousa, J. Ricardo; Padilha, Igor T.; Rodriguez Salmon, Octavio D.; Roberto Viana, J.; Dinóla Neto, F.

    2016-06-01

    We study the three-dimensional antiferromagnetic Ising model in both uniform longitudinal (H) and transverse (Ω) magnetic fields by using the effective-field theory (EFT) with finite cluster N = 1 spin (EFT-1). We analyzed the behavior of the magnetic susceptibility to investigate the reentrant phenomena that we have seen in the same phase diagram previously obtained in other papers. Our results shows the presence of two divergences in the susceptibility that indicates the existence of a reentrant behavior.

  1. Single-cluster algorithm for the site-bond-correlated Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, P. R. A.; Onody, R. N.

    1997-12-01

    We extend the Wolff algorithm to include correlated spin interactions in diluted magnetic systems. This algorithm is applied to study the site-bond-correlated Ising model on a two-dimensional square lattice. We use a finite-size scaling procedure to obtain the phase diagram in the temperature-concentration space. We also have verified that the autocorrelation time diminishes in the presence of dilution and correlation, showing that the Wolff algorithm performs even better in such situations.

  2. Critical behavior of the Ising model on random fractals.

    PubMed

    Monceau, Pascal

    2011-11-01

    We study the critical behavior of the Ising model in the case of quenched disorder constrained by fractality on random Sierpinski fractals with a Hausdorff dimension d(f) is approximately equal to 1.8928. This is a first attempt to study a situation between the borderline cases of deterministic self-similarity and quenched randomness. Intensive Monte Carlo simulations were carried out. Scaling corrections are much weaker than in the deterministic cases, so that our results enable us to ensure that finite-size scaling holds, and that the critical behavior is described by a new universality class. The hyperscaling relation is compatible with an effective dimension equal to the Hausdorff one; moreover the two eigenvalues exponents of the renormalization flows are shown to be different from the ones calculated from ε expansions, and from the ones obtained for fourfold symmetric deterministic fractals. Although the space dimensionality is not integer, lack of self-averaging properties exhibits some features very close to the ones of a random fixed point associated with a relevant disorder.

  3. Periodic Striped Ground States in Ising Models with Competing Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Alessandro; Seiringer, Robert

    2016-11-01

    We consider Ising models in two and three dimensions, with short range ferromagnetic and long range, power-law decaying, antiferromagnetic interactions. We let J be the ratio between the strength of the ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic interactions. The competition between these two kinds of interactions induces the system to form domains of minus spins in a background of plus spins, or vice versa. If the decay exponent p of the long range interaction is larger than d + 1, with d the space dimension, this happens for all values of J smaller than a critical value J c ( p), beyond which the ground state is homogeneous. In this paper, we give a characterization of the infinite volume ground states of the system, for p > 2 d and J in a left neighborhood of J c ( p). In particular, we prove that the quasi-one-dimensional states consisting of infinite stripes ( d = 2) or slabs ( d = 3), all of the same optimal width and orientation, and alternating magnetization, are infinite volume ground states. Our proof is based on localization bounds combined with reflection positivity.

  4. The Effect of the Number of Simulations on the Exponents Obtained by Finite-Size Scaling Relations of the Order Parameter and the Magnetic Susceptibility for the Four-Dimensional Ising Model on the Creutz Cellular Automaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merdan, Z.; Güzelsoy, E.

    2012-05-01

    The four-dimensional Ising model is simulated on the Creutz cellular automaton using finite-size lattices with linear dimension 4≤ L≤8. The exponents in the finite-size scaling relations for the order parameter and the magnetic susceptibility at the finite-lattice critical temperature are computed to be β=0.49(7), β=0.49(5), β=0.50(1) and γ=1.04(4), γ=1.03(4), γ=1.02(4) for 7, 14, and 21 independent simulations, respectively. As the number of independent simulations increases, the obtained results are consistent with the renormalization group predictions of β=0.5 and γ=1. The values for the critical temperature of the infinite lattice T c (∞)=6.6788(65), T c (∞)=6.6798(69), T c (∞)=6.6802(70) are obtained from the straight-line fit of the magnetic susceptibility maxima using 4≤ L≤8 for 7, 14, and 21 independent simulations, respectively. As the number of independent simulations increases, the obtained results are in very good agreement with the series expansion results of T c (∞)=6.6817(15), T c (∞)=6.6802(2), the dynamic Monte Carlo result of T c (∞)=6.6803(1), the cluster Monte Carlo result of T c (∞)=6.680(1) and the Monte Carlo using Metropolis and Wolff-cluster algorithm result of T c (∞)=6.6802632±5×10-5.

  5. Zero- and low-temperature behavior of the two-dimensional ±J Ising spin glass.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Creighton K; Huse, David A; Middleton, A Alan

    2011-07-22

    Scaling arguments and precise simulations are used to study the square lattice ±J Ising spin glass, a prototypical model for glassy systems. Droplet theory explains, and our numerical results show, entropically stabilized long-range spin-glass order at zero temperature, which resembles the energetic stabilization of long-range order in higher-dimensional models at finite temperature. At low temperature, a temperature-dependent crossover length scale is used to predict the power-law dependence on temperature of the heat capacity and clarify the importance of disorder distributions.

  6. Frustrated Ising model on the Cairo pentagonal lattice.

    PubMed

    Rojas, M; Rojas, Onofre; de Souza, S M

    2012-11-01

    Through the direct decoration transformation approach, we obtain a general solution for the pentagonal Ising model, showing its equivalence to the isotropic free-fermion eight-vertex model. We study the ground-state phase diagram, in which one ferromagnetic (FM) state, one ferrimagnetic (FIM) state, and one frustrated state are found. Using the exact solution of the pentagonal Ising model, we discuss the finite-temperature phase diagrams and find a phase transition between the FIM state and the disordered state as well as a phase transition between the disordered state and the FM state. We also discuss some additional remarkable properties of the model, such as the magnetization, entropy, and specific heat, at finite temperature and at its low-temperature asymptotic limit. Because of the influence of the second-order phase transition between the frustrated and ferromagnetic phases, we obtain surprisingly low values of the entropy and the specific heat until the critical temperature is reached.

  7. Velocity-space synthesis of ISEE-1 measurements of the three dimensional electron distribution function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Scudder, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    A computer package which produces contour plots of the three dimensional electron distribution function measured by an electron spectrometer aboard ISEE-1 is described. Examples of the contour plots and an explanation of how to use the program, including the necessary computer code for running the program on the GSFC 360/91 computer is presented. The method by which the discrete measurements of the distribution function, given by points on the four dimensional surface are synthesized into a smooth surface in a three dimensional space which can be contoured is described. The velocity components are parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, respectively, in the proper frame of the electrons.

  8. Nonequilibrium phase transition in an exactly solvable driven Ising model with friction.

    PubMed

    Hucht, Alfred

    2009-12-01

    A driven Ising model with friction due to magnetic correlations was proposed by Kadau [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 137205 (2008)]. The nonequilibrium phase transition present in this system is investigated in detail using analytical methods as well as Monte Carlo simulations. In the limit of high driving velocities v the model shows mean-field behavior due to dimensional reduction and can be solved exactly for various geometries. The simulations are performed with three different single spin-flip rates: the common Metropolis and Glauber rates as well as a multiplicative rate. Due to the nonequilibrium nature of the model all rates lead to different critical temperatures at v>0, while the exact solution matches the multiplicative rate. Finally, the crossover from Ising to mean-field behavior as function of velocity and system size is analyzed in one and two dimensions.

  9. Critical dynamics of cluster algorithms in the dilute Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennecke, M.; Heyken, U.

    1993-08-01

    Autocorrelation times for thermodynamic quantities at T C are calculated from Monte Carlo simulations of the site-diluted simple cubic Ising model, using the Swendsen-Wang and Wolff cluster algorithms. Our results show that for these algorithms the autocorrelation times decrease when reducing the concentration of magnetic sites from 100% down to 40%. This is of crucial importance when estimating static properties of the model, since the variances of these estimators increase with autocorrelation time. The dynamical critical exponents are calculated for both algorithms, observing pronounced finite-size effects in the energy autocorrelation data for the algorithm of Wolff. We conclude that, when applied to the dilute Ising model, cluster algorithms become even more effective than local algorithms, for which increasing autocorrelation times are expected.

  10. Information cascade, Kirman's ant colony model, and kinetic Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisakado, Masato; Mori, Shintaro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a voting model in which voters can obtain information from a finite number of previous voters. There exist three groups of voters: (i) digital herders and independent voters, (ii) analog herders and independent voters, and (iii) tanh-type herders. In our previous paper Hisakado and Mori (2011), we used the mean field approximation for case (i). In that study, if the reference number r is above three, phase transition occurs and the solution converges to one of the equilibria. However, the conclusion is different from mean field approximation. In this paper, we show that the solution oscillates between the two states. A good (bad) equilibrium is where a majority of r select the correct (wrong) candidate. In this paper, we show that there is no phase transition when r is finite. If the annealing schedule is adequately slow from finite r to infinite r, the voting rate converges only to the good equilibrium. In case (ii), the state of reference votes is equivalent to that of Kirman's ant colony model, and it follows beta binomial distribution. In case (iii), we show that the model is equivalent to the finite-size kinetic Ising model. If the voters are rational, a simple herding experiment of information cascade is conducted. Information cascade results from the quenching of the kinetic Ising model. As case (i) is the limit of case (iii) when tanh function becomes a step function, the phase transition can be observed in infinite size limit. We can confirm that there is no phase transition when the reference number r is finite.

  11. Ising anyons in frustration-free Majorana-dimer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, Brayden; Son, Jun Ho; Cheng, Meng; Mishmash, Ryan V.; Alicea, Jason; Bauer, Bela

    2016-09-01

    Dimer models have long been a fruitful playground for understanding topological physics. Here, we introduce a class, termed Majorana-dimer models, wherein bosonic dimers are decorated with pairs of Majorana modes. We find that the simplest examples of such systems realize an intriguing, intrinsically fermionic phase of matter that can be viewed as the product of a chiral Ising theory, which hosts deconfined non-Abelian quasiparticles, and a topological px-i py superconductor. While the bulk anyons are described by a single copy of the Ising theory, the edge remains fully gapped. Consequently, this phase can arise in exactly solvable, frustration-free models. We describe two parent Hamiltonians: one generalizes the well-known dimer model on the triangular lattice, while the other is most naturally understood as a model of decorated fluctuating loops on a honeycomb lattice. Using modular transformations, we show that the ground-state manifold of the latter model unambiguously exhibits all properties of the Ising×(px-i py) theory. We also discuss generalizations with more than one Majorana mode per site, which realize phases related to Kitaev's 16-fold way in a similar fashion.

  12. Phase transition of the Ising model on a fractal lattice.

    PubMed

    Genzor, Jozef; Gendiar, Andrej; Nishino, Tomotoshi

    2016-01-01

    The phase transition of the Ising model is investigated on a planar lattice that has a fractal structure. On the lattice, the number of bonds that cross the border of a finite area is doubled when the linear size of the area is extended by a factor of 4. The free energy and the spontaneous magnetization of the system are obtained by means of the higher-order tensor renormalization group method. The system exhibits the order-disorder phase transition, where the critical indices are different from those of the square-lattice Ising model. An exponential decay is observed in the density-matrix spectrum even at the critical point. It is possible to interpret that the system is less entangled because of the fractal geometry.

  13. Combinatorial approach to exactly solve the 1D Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Swarnadeep

    2017-01-01

    The Ising model is a well known statistical model which can be solved exactly by various methods. The most familiar one is the transfer matrix method. Sometimes it can be difficult to approach the open boundary case rather than periodic boundary ones in higher dimensions. But physically it is more intuitive to study the open boundary case, as it gives a closer view of the real system. We have introduced a new method called the pairing method to determine the exact partition function for the simplest case, a 1D Ising lattice. This method simplifies the problem's complexities and reduces it to a pure combinatorial problem. The study also reveals that it is possible to apply this pairing method in the case of a 2D square lattice. The obtained results agree perfectly with the values in the literature and this new approach provides an algorithmic insight to deal with such problems.

  14. A Binomial Approximation Method for the Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streib, Noah; Streib, Amanda; Beichl, Isabel; Sullivan, Francis

    2014-08-01

    A large portion of the computation required for the partition function of the Ising model can be captured with a simple formula. In this work, we support this claim by defining an approximation to the partition function and other thermodynamic quantities of the Ising model that requires no algorithm at all. This approximation, which uses the high temperature expansion, is solely based on the binomial distribution, and performs very well at low temperatures. At high temperatures, we provide an alternative approximation, which also serves as a lower bound on the partition function and is trivial to compute. We provide theoretical evidence and the results of numerical experiments to support the strength of these approximations.

  15. Rényi information flow in the Ising model with single-spin dynamics.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zehui; Wu, Jinshan; Guo, Wenan

    2014-12-01

    The n-index Rényi mutual information and transfer entropies for the two-dimensional kinetic Ising model with arbitrary single-spin dynamics in the thermodynamic limit are derived as functions of ensemble averages of observables and spin-flip probabilities. Cluster Monte Carlo algorithms with different dynamics from the single-spin dynamics are thus applicable to estimate the transfer entropies. By means of Monte Carlo simulations with the Wolff algorithm, we calculate the information flows in the Ising model with the Metropolis dynamics and the Glauber dynamics, respectively. We find that not only the global Rényi transfer entropy, but also the pairwise Rényi transfer entropy, peaks in the disorder phase.

  16. Critical Casimir forces between defects in the 2D Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowakowski, P.; Maciołek, A.; Dietrich, S.

    2016-12-01

    An exact statistical mechanical derivation is given of the critical Casimir interactions between two defects in a planar lattice-gas Ising model. Each defect is a finite group of nearest-neighbor spins with modified coupling constants. Such a system can be regarded as a model of a binary liquid mixture with the molecules confined to a membrane and the defects mimicking protein inclusions embedded into the membrane. As suggested by recent experiments, certain cellular membranes appear to be tuned to the proximity of a critical demixing point belonging to the two-dimensional Ising universality class. Therefore one can expect the emergence of critical Casimir forces between membrane inclusions. These forces are governed by universal scaling functions, which we derive for simple defects. We prove that the scaling law appearing at criticality is the same for all types of defects considered here.

  17. Rényi information flow in the Ising model with single-spin dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zehui; Wu, Jinshan; Guo, Wenan

    2014-12-01

    The n -index Rényi mutual information and transfer entropies for the two-dimensional kinetic Ising model with arbitrary single-spin dynamics in the thermodynamic limit are derived as functions of ensemble averages of observables and spin-flip probabilities. Cluster Monte Carlo algorithms with different dynamics from the single-spin dynamics are thus applicable to estimate the transfer entropies. By means of Monte Carlo simulations with the Wolff algorithm, we calculate the information flows in the Ising model with the Metropolis dynamics and the Glauber dynamics, respectively. We find that not only the global Rényi transfer entropy, but also the pairwise Rényi transfer entropy, peaks in the disorder phase.

  18. High-temperature expansions of the higher susceptibilities for the Ising model in general dimension d.

    PubMed

    Butera, P; Pernici, M

    2012-07-01

    The high-temperature expansion coefficients of the ordinary and the higher susceptibilities of the spin-1/2 nearest-neighbor Ising model are calculated exactly up to the 20th order for the general d-dimensional (hyper)simple-cubical lattices. These series are analyzed to study the dependence of critical parameters on the lattice dimensionality. Using the general d expression of the ordinary susceptibility, we have more than doubled the length of the existing series expansion of the critical temperature in powers of 1/d.

  19. Repairing Stevenson's step in the 4d Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balog, Janos; Niedermayer, Ferenc; Weisz, Peter

    2006-05-01

    In a recent paper Stevenson claimed that analysis of the data on the wave function renormalization constant near the critical point of the 4d Ising model is not consistent with analytical expectations. Here we present data with improved statistics and show that the results are indeed consistent with conventional wisdom once one takes into account the uncertainty of lattice artifacts in the analytical computations.

  20. Genus-two characters of the Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J. H.; Koh, I. G.

    1989-05-01

    As a first step in studying conformal theories on a higher-genus Riemann surface, we construct genus-two characters of the Ising model from their behavior in zero- and nonzero-homology pinching limits, the Goddard-Kent-Olive coset-space construction, and the branching coefficients in the level-two A(1)1 Kac-Moody characters on the higher-genus Riemann surface.

  1. Ising model observables and non-backtracking walks

    SciTech Connect

    Helmuth, Tyler

    2014-08-15

    This paper presents an alternative proof of the connection between the partition function of the Ising model on a finite graph G and the set of non-backtracking walks on G. The techniques used also give formulas for spin-spin correlation functions in terms of non-backtracking walks. The main tools used are Viennot's theory of heaps of pieces and turning numbers on surfaces.

  2. Ground state nonuniversality in the random-field Ising model

    SciTech Connect

    Duxbury, P. M.; Meinke, J. H.

    2001-09-01

    Two attractive and often used ideas, namely, universality and the concept of a zero-temperature fixed point, are violated in the infinite-range random-field Ising model. In the ground state we show that the exponents can depend continuously on the disorder and so are nonuniversal. However, we also show that at finite temperature the thermal order-parameter exponent 1/2 is restored so that temperature is a relevant variable. Broader implications of these results are discussed.

  3. Lateral critical Casimir force in two-dimensional inhomogeneous Ising strip. Exact results.

    PubMed

    Nowakowski, Piotr; Napiórkowski, Marek

    2016-06-07

    We consider two-dimensional Ising strip bounded by two planar, inhomogeneous walls. The inhomogeneity of each wall is modeled by a magnetic field acting on surface spins. It is equal to +h1 except for a group of N1 neighboring surface spins where it is equal to -h1. The inhomogeneities of the upper and lower wall are shifted with respect to each other by a lateral distance L. Using exact diagonalization of the transfer matrix, we study both the lateral and normal critical Casimir forces as well as magnetization profiles for different temperature regimes: below the wetting temperature, between the wetting and the critical temperature, and above the critical temperature. The lateral critical Casimir force acts in the direction opposite to the shift L, and the excess normal force is always attractive. Upon increasing the shift L we observe, depending on the temperature regime, three different scenarios of breaking of the capillary bridge of negative magnetization connecting the inhomogeneities of the walls across the strip. As long as there exists a capillary bridge in the system, the magnitude of the excess total critical Casimir force is almost constant, with its direction depending on L. By investigating the bridge morphologies we have found a relation between the point at which the bridge breaks and the inflection point of the force. We provide a simple argument that some of the properties reported here should also hold for different models of the strip with the same type of inhomogeneity.

  4. Droplets pinned at chemically inhomogenous substrates: A simulation study of the two-dimensional Ising case.

    PubMed

    Trobo, Marta L; Albano, Ezequiel V; Binder, Kurt

    2016-05-01

    As a simplified model of a liquid nanostripe adsorbed on a chemically structured substrate surface, a two-dimensional Ising system with two boundaries at which surface fields act is studied. At the upper boundary, the surface field is uniformly negative, while at the lower boundary (a distance L apart), the surface field is negative only outside a range of extension b, where a positive surface stabilizes a droplet of the phase with positive magnetization for temperatures T exceeding the critical temperature T_{w} of the wetting transition of this model. We investigate the local order parameter profiles across the droplet, both in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the substrate, varying both b and T. Also, precursor effects to droplet formation as T approaches T_{w} from below are studied. In accord with theoretical predictions, for T>T_{w} the droplet is found to have the shape of a semiellipse, where the width (distance of the interface from the substrate) scale is proportional to b (b^{1/2}). So, the area of the droplet is proportional to b^{3/2}, and the temperature dependence of the corresponding prefactor, which also involves the interfacial stiffness, is studied.

  5. Critical behavior of the quantum Ising model on a fractal structure.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hangmo

    2013-07-01

    We study the critical behavior of the transverse-field quantum Ising model on a fractal structure, namely the Sierpinski carpet. When a magnetic field Δ is applied perpendicular to the Ising spin direction, quantum fluctuations affect the transition between the ferromagnetic and the paramagnetic phases. Employing the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo simulation method and the finite-size scaling analysis, we investigate the interplay between the quantum fluctuations and the exotic dimensionality of the fractal structure and its effect on the critical behavior. As the transverse magnetic field increases, the critical temperature monotonically decreases until it apparently vanishes at a critical field Δ(c), beyond which the system becomes paramagnetic at all temperatures. However, the critical exponents are independent of Δ and remain the same as in the purely classical(Δ=0) case.

  6. Self-overlap as a method of analysis in Ising models.

    PubMed

    Ferrera, A; Luque, B; Lacasa, L; Valero, E

    2007-06-01

    The damage spreading (DS) method provided a useful tool to obtain analytical results of the thermodynamics and stability of the two-dimensional (2D) Ising model--amongst many others--but it suffered both from ambiguities in its results and from large computational costs. In this paper we propose an alternative method, the so-called self-overlap method, based on the study of correlation functions measured at subsequent time steps as the system evolves towards its equilibrium. Applying Markovian and mean-field approximations to a 2D Ising system we obtain both analytical and numerical results on the thermodynamics that agree with the expected behavior. We also provide some analytical results on the stability of the system. Since only a single replica of the system needs to be studied, this method would seem to be free from the ambiguities that afflicted the DS method. It also seems to be numerically more efficient and analytically simpler.

  7. A new molecular thermodynamic model for multicomponent Ising lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianyong; Xin, Qin; Sun, Lei; Liu, Honglai; Hu, Ying; Jiang, Jianwen

    2006-10-01

    A new molecular thermodynamic model is developed for multicomponent Ising lattice based on a generalized nonrandom factor from binary system. Predictions of the nonrandom factor and the internal energy of mixing for ternary and quaternary systems match accurately with simulation results. Predictions of liquid-liquid phase equilibrium for ternary systems are in nearly perfect agreement with simulation results, and substantially improved from Flory-Huggins theory and the lattice-cluster theory. The model also satisfactorily correlates the experimental data of real ternary systems. The concise expression and the accuracy of the new model make it well suited for practical engineering applications.

  8. Simulating the Rayleigh-Taylor instability with the Ising model

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, Justin R.; Elliott, James B.

    2011-08-26

    The Ising model, implemented with the Metropolis algorithm and Kawasaki dynamics, makes a system with its own physics, distinct from the real world. These physics are sophisticated enough to model behavior similar to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and by better understanding these physics, we can learn how to modify the system to better re ect reality. For example, we could add a vx and a vy to each spin and modify the exchange rules to incorporate them, possibly using two body scattering laws to construct a more realistic system.

  9. Ising model of financial markets with many assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckrot, A.; Jurczyk, J.; Morgenstern, I.

    2016-11-01

    Many models of financial markets exist, but most of them simulate single asset markets. We study a multi asset Ising model of a financial market. Each agent has two possible actions (buy/sell) for every asset. The agents dynamically adjust their coupling coefficients according to past market returns and external news. This leads to fat tails and volatility clustering independent of the number of assets. We find that a separation of news into different channels leads to sector structures in the cross correlations, similar to those found in real markets.

  10. Bound states in two-dimensional spin systems near the Ising limit: A quantum finite-lattice study

    SciTech Connect

    Dusuel, Sebastien; Kamfor, Michael; Schmidt, Kai Phillip; Thomale, Ronny; Vidal, Julien

    2010-02-01

    We analyze the properties of low-energy bound states in the transverse-field Ising model and in the XXZ model on the square lattice. To this end, we develop an optimized implementation of perturbative continuous unitary transformations. The Ising model is studied in the small-field limit which is found to be a special case of the toric code model in a magnetic field. To analyze the XXZ model, we perform a perturbative expansion about the Ising limit in order to discuss the fate of the elementary magnon excitations when approaching the Heisenberg point.

  11. Replica exchange simulations of the three-dimensional Ising spin glass: static and dynamic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucesoy, Burcu; Machta, Jonathan; Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    2012-02-01

    We present the results of a large-scale numerical study of the equilibrium three-dimensional Ising spin glass with Gaussian disorder. Using replica exchange (parallel tempering) Monte Carlo, we measure various static, as well as dynamical quantities, such as the autocorrelation times and round-trip times for the replica exchange Monte Carlo method. The correlation between static and dynamic observables for 5000 disorder realizations (N <=10^3 spins) down to very low temperatures (T 0.2Tc) is examined. Our results show that autocorrelation times are directly correlated with the roughness of the free energy landscape. We also discuss the size dependence of several static quantities.

  12. Restricted Boltzmann machines for the long range Ising models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Ken-Ichi; Kobayashi, Tamao

    2016-12-01

    We set up restricted Boltzmann machines (RBM) to reproduce the long range Ising (LRI) models of the Ohmic type in one dimension. The RBM parameters are tuned by using the standard machine learning procedure with an additional method of configuration with probability (CwP). The quality of resultant RBM is evaluated through the susceptibility with respect to the magnetic external field. We compare the results with those by block decimation renormalization group (BDRG) method, and our RBM clear the test with satisfactory precision.

  13. Simulation of financial market via nonlinear Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Bonggyun; Song, Jae Wook; Chang, Woojin

    2016-09-01

    In this research, we propose a practical method for simulating the financial return series whose distribution has a specific heaviness. We employ the Ising model for generating financial return series to be analogous to those of the real series. The similarity between real financial return series and simulated one is statistically verified based on their stylized facts including the power law behavior of tail distribution. We also suggest the scheme for setting the parameters in order to simulate the financial return series with specific tail behavior. The simulation method introduced in this paper is expected to be applied to the other financial products whose price return distribution is fat-tailed.

  14. Ising model simulation in directed lattices and networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, F. W. S.; Stauffer, D.

    2006-01-01

    On directed lattices, with half as many neighbours as in the usual undirected lattices, the Ising model does not seem to show a spontaneous magnetisation, at least for lower dimensions. Instead, the decay time for flipping of the magnetisation follows an Arrhenius law on the square and simple cubic lattice. On directed Barabási-Albert networks with two and seven neighbours selected by each added site, Metropolis and Glauber algorithms give similar results, while for Wolff cluster flipping the magnetisation decays exponentially with time.

  15. Accelerated rare event sampling: Refinement and Ising model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yevick, David; Lee, Yong Hwan

    In this paper, a recently introduced accelerated sampling technique [D. Yevick, Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 27, 1650041 (2016)] for constructing transition matrices is further developed and applied to a two-dimensional 32×32 Ising spin system. By permitting backward displacements up to a certain limit for each forward step while evolving the system to first higher and then lower energies within a restricted interval that is steadily displaced toward zero temperature as the computation proceeds, accuracy can be greatly enhanced. Simultaneously, the elements obtained from numerous independent calculations are collected in a single transition matrix. The relative accuracy of this novel method is established through a comparison to a transition matrix procedure based on the Metropolis algorithm in which the temperature is appropriately varied during the calculation and the results interpreted in terms of the distribution of realizations over both energy and magnetization.

  16. Globally nilpotent differential operators and the square Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostan, A.; Boukraa, S.; Hassani, S.; Maillard, J.-M.; Weil, J.-A.; Zenine, N.

    2009-03-01

    We recall various multiple integrals with one parameter, related to the isotropic square Ising model, and corresponding, respectively, to the n-particle contributions of the magnetic susceptibility, to the (lattice) form factors, to the two-point correlation functions and to their λ-extensions. The univariate analytic functions defined by these integrals are holonomic and even G-functions: they satisfy Fuchsian linear differential equations with polynomial coefficients and have some arithmetic properties. We recall the explicit forms, found in previous work, of these Fuchsian equations, as well as their Russian-doll and direct sum structures. These differential operators are selected Fuchsian linear differential operators, and their remarkable properties have a deep geometrical origin: they are all globally nilpotent, or, sometimes, even have zero p-curvature. We also display miscellaneous examples of globally nilpotent operators emerging from enumerative combinatorics problems for which no integral representation is yet known. Focusing on the factorized parts of all these operators, we find out that the global nilpotence of the factors (resp. p-curvature nullity) corresponds to a set of selected structures of algebraic geometry: elliptic curves, modular curves, curves of genus five, six,..., and even a remarkable weight-1 modular form emerging in the three-particle contribution χ(3) of the magnetic susceptibility of the square Ising model. Noticeably, this associated weight-1 modular form is also seen in the factors of the differential operator for another n-fold integral of the Ising class, Φ(3)H, for the staircase polygons counting, and in Apéry's study of ζ(3). G-functions naturally occur as solutions of globally nilpotent operators. In the case where we do not have G-functions, but Hamburger functions (one irregular singularity at 0 or ∞) that correspond to the confluence of singularities in the scaling limit, the p-curvature is also found to verify new

  17. Oscillating hysteresis in the q-neighbor Ising model.

    PubMed

    Jȩdrzejewski, Arkadiusz; Chmiel, Anna; Sznajd-Weron, Katarzyna

    2015-11-01

    We modify the kinetic Ising model with Metropolis dynamics, allowing each spin to interact only with q spins randomly chosen from the whole system, which corresponds to the topology of a complete graph. We show that the model with q≥3 exhibits a phase transition between ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases at temperature T*, which linearly increases with q. Moreover, we show that for q=3 the phase transition is continuous and that it is discontinuous for larger values of q. For q>3, the hysteresis exhibits oscillatory behavior-expanding for even values of q and shrinking for odd values of q. Due to the mean-field-like nature of the model, we are able to derive the analytical form of transition probabilities and, therefore, calculate not only the probability density function of the order parameter but also precisely determine the hysteresis and the effective potential showing stable, unstable, and metastable steady states. Our results show that a seemingly small modification of the kinetic Ising model leads not only to the switch from a continuous to a discontinuous phase transition, but also to an unexpected oscillating behavior of the hysteresis and a puzzling phenomenon for q=5, which might be taken as evidence for the so-called mixed-order phase transition.

  18. From Cycle Rooted Spanning Forests to the Critical Ising Model: an Explicit Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Tilière, Béatrice

    2013-04-01

    Fisher established an explicit correspondence between the 2-dimensional Ising model defined on a graph G and the dimer model defined on a decorated version {{G}} of this graph (Fisher in J Math Phys 7:1776-1781, 1966). In this paper we explicitly relate the dimer model associated to the critical Ising model and critical cycle rooted spanning forests (CRSFs). This relation is established through characteristic polynomials, whose definition only depends on the respective fundamental domains, and which encode the combinatorics of the model. We first show a matrix-tree type theorem establishing that the dimer characteristic polynomial counts CRSFs of the decorated fundamental domain {{G}_1}. Our main result consists in explicitly constructing CRSFs of {{G}_1} counted by the dimer characteristic polynomial, from CRSFs of G 1, where edges are assigned Kenyon's critical weight function (Kenyon in Invent Math 150(2):409-439, 2002); thus proving a relation on the level of configurations between two well known 2-dimensional critical models.

  19. Behavior and finite-size effects of the sixth order cumulant in the three-dimensional Ising universality class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xue; Chen, Li-Zhu; Wu, Yuan-Fang

    2016-09-01

    The high-order cumulants of conserved charges are suggested to be sensitive observables to search for the critical point of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). This has been calculated to the sixth order in experiments. Corresponding theoretical studies on the sixth order cumulant are necessary. Based on the universality of the critical behavior, we study the temperature dependence of the sixth order cumulant of the order parameter using the parametric representation of the three-dimensional Ising model, which is expected to be in the same universality class as QCD. The density plot of the sign of the sixth order cumulant is shown on the temperature and external magnetic field plane. We found that at non-zero external magnetic field, when the critical point is approached from the crossover side, the sixth order cumulant has a negative valley. The width of the negative valley narrows with decreasing external field. Qualitatively, the trend is similar to the result of Monte Carlo simulation on a finite-size system. Quantitatively, the temperature of the sign change is different. Through Monte Carlo simulation of the Ising model, we calculated the sixth order cumulant of different sizes of systems. We discuss the finite-size effects on the temperature at which the cumulant changes sign. Supported by Fund Project of Sichuan Provincial Department of Education (16ZB0339), Fund Project of Chengdu Technological University for Doctor (2016RC004), Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (2014CB845402) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11405088, 11221504)

  20. The Ising Model Applied on Chronification of Pain.

    PubMed

    Granan, Lars-Petter

    2016-01-01

    This is a hypothesis-article suggesting an entirely new framework for understanding and treating longstanding pain. Most medical and psychological models are described with boxes and arrows. Such models are of little clinical and explanatory use when describing the phenomenon of chronification of pain due to unknown causes. To date no models that have been provided - and tested in a scientific satisfactory way - lays out a plan for specific assessment due to a specific causal explanation, and in the end serves the clinicians, patients and researcher with tools on how to address the specific pain condition to every individual pain patient's condition. By applying the Ising model (from physics) on the phenomenon of chronification of pain, one is able to detangle all these factors, and thus have a model that both suggests an explanation of the condition and outlines how one might target the treatment of chronic pain patients with the use of network science.

  1. The Ising Model Applied on Chronification of Pain

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This is a hypothesis-article suggesting an entirely new framework for understanding and treating longstanding pain. Most medical and psychological models are described with boxes and arrows. Such models are of little clinical and explanatory use when describing the phenomenon of chronification of pain due to unknown causes. To date no models that have been provided - and tested in a scientific satisfactory way - lays out a plan for specific assessment due to a specific causal explanation, and in the end serves the clinicians, patients and researcher with tools on how to address the specific pain condition to every individual pain patient's condition. By applying the Ising model (from physics) on the phenomenon of chronification of pain, one is able to detangle all these factors, and thus have a model that both suggests an explanation of the condition and outlines how one might target the treatment of chronic pain patients with the use of network science. PMID:26398917

  2. Quantum dimensions from local operator excitations in the Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputa, Paweł; Rams, Marek M.

    2017-02-01

    We compare the time evolution of entanglement measures after local operator excitation in the critical Ising model with predictions from conformal field theory. For the spin operator and its descendants we find that Rényi entropies of a block of spins increase by a constant that matches the logarithm of the quantum dimension of the conformal family. However, for the energy operator we find a small constant contribution that differs from the conformal field theory answer equal to zero. We argue that the mismatch is caused by the subtleties in the identification between the local operators in conformal field theory and their lattice counterpart. Our results indicate that evolution of entanglement measures in locally excited states not only constraints this identification, but also can be used to extract non-trivial data about the conformal field theory that governs the critical point. We generalize our analysis to the Ising model away from the critical point, states with multiple local excitations, as well as the evolution of the relative entropy after local operator excitation and discuss universal features that emerge from numerics.

  3. Identifying differentially expressed genes in cancer patients using a non-parameter Ising model.

    PubMed

    Li, Xumeng; Feltus, Frank A; Sun, Xiaoqian; Wang, James Z; Luo, Feng

    2011-10-01

    Identification of genes and pathways involved in diseases and physiological conditions is a major task in systems biology. In this study, we developed a novel non-parameter Ising model to integrate protein-protein interaction network and microarray data for identifying differentially expressed (DE) genes. We also proposed a simulated annealing algorithm to find the optimal configuration of the Ising model. The Ising model was applied to two breast cancer microarray data sets. The results showed that more cancer-related DE sub-networks and genes were identified by the Ising model than those by the Markov random field model. Furthermore, cross-validation experiments showed that DE genes identified by Ising model can improve classification performance compared with DE genes identified by Markov random field model.

  4. Ising models on the 2 x 2 x {infinity} lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Yurishchev, M. A.

    2007-03-15

    Exact analytic solutions are presented for two 2 x 2 x {infinity} Ising etageres. The first model has a simple cubic lattice with fully anisotropic interactions. The second model consists of two different types of linear chains and includes noncrossing diagonal bonds on the side faces of the 2 x 2 x {infinity} parallelepiped. In both cases, the solutions are expressed through square radicals and obtained by using the obvious symmetry of the Hamiltonians, Z{sub 2} x C{sub 2v}, and the hidden algebraic {lambda}{lambda} symmetry of the transfer matrix secular equations. The solution found for the second model is used to analyze the behavior of specific heat in a frustrated many-chain system.

  5. Maximum Likelihood Reconstruction for Ising Models with Asynchronous Updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Hong-Li; Alava, Mikko; Aurell, Erik; Hertz, John; Roudi, Yasser

    2013-05-01

    We describe how the couplings in an asynchronous kinetic Ising model can be inferred. We consider two cases: one in which we know both the spin history and the update times and one in which we know only the spin history. For the first case, we show that one can average over all possible choices of update times to obtain a learning rule that depends only on spin correlations and can also be derived from the equations of motion for the correlations. For the second case, the same rule can be derived within a further decoupling approximation. We study all methods numerically for fully asymmetric Sherrington-Kirkpatrick models, varying the data length, system size, temperature, and external field. Good convergence is observed in accordance with the theoretical expectations.

  6. Propagation of fluctuations in the quantum Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navez, P.; Tsironis, G. P.; Zagoskin, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate entanglement dynamics and correlations in the quantum Ising model in arbitrary dimensions using a large-coordination-number expansion. We start from the pure paramagnetic regime obtained through zero spin-spin coupling and subsequently turn on the interspin interaction in a time-dependent fashion. We investigate analytically and compare results for both the slow adiabatic onset of the interactions and the fast instantaneous switching. We find that in the latter case of an initial excitation mode a quantum correlation wave spreads through the system, propagating with twice the group velocity of the linearized equilibrium modes. This wave establishes the spatiotemporal regime of entangled quantum properties of the system for time scales shorter than the decoherence time and thus provides an indicator for the "quantumness" of the physical system that the specific system models.

  7. Scaling of the largest dynamical barrier in the one-dimensional long-range Ising spin glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monthus, Cécile; Garel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The long-range one-dimensional Ising spin glass with random couplings decaying as J(r )∝r-σ presents a spin-glass phase Tc(σ)>0 for 0≤σ<1 (the limit σ =0 corresponds to the mean-field Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model). We use the eigenvalue method introduced in our previous work (C. Monthus and T. Garel, J. Stat. Mech. 2009, P12017) to measure the equilibrium time teq(N ) at temperature T =Tc(σ)/2 as a function of the number N of spins. We find the activated scaling lnteq(N )¯˜Nψ with the same barrier exponent ψ ≃0.33 in the whole region 0≤σ<1.

  8. Critical behavior of the mixed-spin Ising model with two competing dynamics.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Mauricio; Figueiredo, Wagner

    2002-02-01

    In this work we investigate the stationary states of a nonequilibrium mixed-spin Ising model on a square lattice. The model system consists of two interpenetrating sublattices of spins sigma=1/2 and S=1, and we take only nearest neighbor interactions between pairs of spins. The system is in contact with a heat bath at temperature T and subject to an external flux of energy. The contact with the heat bath is simulated by single spin flips according to the Metropolis rule, while the input of energy is mimicked by the simultaneous flipping of pairs of neighboring spins. We performed Monte Carlo simulations on this model in order to find its phase diagram in the plane of temperature T versus the competition parameter between one- and two-spin flips, p. The phase diagram of the model exhibits two ordered phases with sublattice magnetizations m(1), m(2)>0 and m(1)>0, m(2)<0. These phases are separated from the paramagnetic phase (m(1)=m(2)=0) by continuous transition lines. We found the static critical exponents along these lines and showed that this nonequilibrium model belongs to the universality class of the two-dimensional equilibrium Ising model.

  9. Robust criticality of an Ising model on rewired directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipowski, Adam; Gontarek, Krzysztof; Lipowska, Dorota

    2015-06-01

    We show that preferential rewiring, which is supposed to mimic the behavior of financial agents, changes a directed-network Ising ferromagnet with a single critical point into a model with robust critical behavior. For the nonrewired random graph version, due to a constant number of out-links for each site, we write a simple mean-field-like equation describing the behavior of magnetization; we argue that it is exact and support the claim with extensive Monte Carlo simulations. For the rewired version, this equation is obeyed only at low temperatures. At higher temperatures, rewiring leads to strong heterogeneities, which apparently invalidates mean-field arguments and induces large fluctuations and divergent susceptibility. Such behavior is traced back to the formation of a relatively small core of agents that influence the entire system.

  10. Maximum caliber inference and the stochastic Ising model.

    PubMed

    Cafaro, Carlo; Ali, Sean Alan

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the maximum caliber variational principle as an inference algorithm used to predict dynamical properties of complex nonequilibrium, stationary, statistical systems in the presence of incomplete information. Specifically, we maximize the path entropy over discrete time step trajectories subject to normalization, stationarity, and detailed balance constraints together with a path-dependent dynamical information constraint reflecting a given average global behavior of the complex system. A general expression for the transition probability values associated with the stationary random Markov processes describing the nonequilibrium stationary system is computed. By virtue of our analysis, we uncover that a convenient choice of the dynamical information constraint together with a perturbative asymptotic expansion with respect to its corresponding Lagrange multiplier of the general expression for the transition probability leads to a formal overlap with the well-known Glauber hyperbolic tangent rule for the transition probability for the stochastic Ising model in the limit of very high temperatures of the heat reservoir.

  11. Robust criticality of an Ising model on rewired directed networks.

    PubMed

    Lipowski, Adam; Gontarek, Krzysztof; Lipowska, Dorota

    2015-06-01

    We show that preferential rewiring, which is supposed to mimic the behavior of financial agents, changes a directed-network Ising ferromagnet with a single critical point into a model with robust critical behavior. For the nonrewired random graph version, due to a constant number of out-links for each site, we write a simple mean-field-like equation describing the behavior of magnetization; we argue that it is exact and support the claim with extensive Monte Carlo simulations. For the rewired version, this equation is obeyed only at low temperatures. At higher temperatures, rewiring leads to strong heterogeneities, which apparently invalidates mean-field arguments and induces large fluctuations and divergent susceptibility. Such behavior is traced back to the formation of a relatively small core of agents that influence the entire system.

  12. Maximum caliber inference and the stochastic Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafaro, Carlo; Ali, Sean Alan

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the maximum caliber variational principle as an inference algorithm used to predict dynamical properties of complex nonequilibrium, stationary, statistical systems in the presence of incomplete information. Specifically, we maximize the path entropy over discrete time step trajectories subject to normalization, stationarity, and detailed balance constraints together with a path-dependent dynamical information constraint reflecting a given average global behavior of the complex system. A general expression for the transition probability values associated with the stationary random Markov processes describing the nonequilibrium stationary system is computed. By virtue of our analysis, we uncover that a convenient choice of the dynamical information constraint together with a perturbative asymptotic expansion with respect to its corresponding Lagrange multiplier of the general expression for the transition probability leads to a formal overlap with the well-known Glauber hyperbolic tangent rule for the transition probability for the stochastic Ising model in the limit of very high temperatures of the heat reservoir.

  13. Double resonance in the infinite-range quantum Ising model.

    PubMed

    Han, Sung-Guk; Um, Jaegon; Kim, Beom Jun

    2012-08-01

    We study quantum resonance behavior of the infinite-range kinetic Ising model at zero temperature. Numerical integration of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in the presence of an external magnetic field in the z direction is performed at various transverse field strengths g. It is revealed that two resonance peaks occur when the energy gap matches the external driving frequency at two distinct values of g, one below and the other above the quantum phase transition. From the similar observations already made in classical systems with phase transitions, we propose that the double resonance peaks should be a generic feature of continuous transitions, for both quantum and classical many-body systems.

  14. Hysteresis in an Ising model with mobile bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čapeta, D.; Sunko, D. K.

    2005-04-01

    Hysteresis is studied in a disordered Ising model in which diffusion of antiferromagnetic bonds is allowed in addition to spin flips. Saturation behavior changes to a figure-eight loop when diffusion is introduced. The upper and lower fields delimiting the figure-eight are determined by the Hamiltonian, while its surface and the crossing point depend on the temperature and details of the dynamics. The main avalanche is associated with the disappearance of hidden order. Some experimental observations of figure-eight anomalies are discussed. It is argued they are a signal of a transient rearrangement of domain couplings, characteristic of amorphous and/or magnetically soft samples, and similar to evolution of kinetic glasses.

  15. Critical thermodynamics of the two-dimensional +/-J Ising spin glass.

    PubMed

    Lukic, J; Galluccio, A; Marinari, E; Martin, O C; Rinaldi, G

    2004-03-19

    We compute the exact partition function of 2d Ising spin glasses with binary couplings. In these systems, the ground state is highly degenerate and is separated from the first excited state by a gap of size 4J. Nevertheless, we find that the low temperature specific heat density scales as exp(-2J/T), corresponding to an "effective" gap of size 2J; in addition, an associated crossover length scale grows as exp(J/T). We justify these scalings via the degeneracy of the low lying excitations and by the way low energy domain walls proliferate in this model.

  16. Nonequilibrium variational cluster perturbation theory: Quench dynamics of the quantum Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadzadeh, Mohammad Zhian; Fabrizio, Michele; Arrigoni, Enrico

    2016-11-01

    We introduce a variational implementation of cluster perturbation theory (CPT) to address the dynamics of spin systems driven out of equilibrium. We benchmark the method with the quantum Ising model subject to a sudden quench of the transverse magnetic field across the transition or within a phase. We treat both the one-dimensional case, for which an exact solution is available, as well the two-dimensional case, for which we have to resort to numerical results. Comparison with exact results shows that the approach provides a quite accurate description of the real-time dynamics up to a characteristic timescale τ that increases with the size of the cluster used for CPT. In addition, and not surprisingly, τ is small for quenches across the equilibrium phase transition point, but can be quite larger for quenches within the ordered or disordered phases.

  17. Conformal Invariance and Stochastic Loewner Evolution Processes in Two-Dimensional Ising Spin Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Amoruso, C.; Moore, M. A.; Hartmann, A. K.; Hastings, M. B.

    2006-12-31

    We present numerical evidence that the techniques of conformal field theory might be applicable to two-dimensional Ising spin glasses with Gaussian bond distributions. It is shown that certain domain wall distributions in one geometry can be related to that in a second geometry by a conformal transformation. We also present direct evidence that the domain walls are stochastic Loewner (SLE) processes with {kappa}{approx_equal}2.1. An argument is given that their fractal dimension d{sub f} is related to their interface energy exponent {theta} by d{sub f}-1=3/[4(3+{theta})], which is consistent with the commonly quoted values d{sub f}{approx_equal}1.27 and {theta}{approx_equal}-0.28.

  18. Thermodynamics and Phase Transitions of Ising Model on Inhomogeneous Stochastic Recursive Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ran

    As one of the few exactly solvable thermodynamic models, the Ising model on recursive lattice is featured by its impressive advantages and successful applications in various thermodynamic and statistical researches. However this model was considered that, since the recursive calculation demands homogeneous structure, it can only describe the bulk and even systems with narrow utilization. In this work we figured out a practical methodology to extend the conventional homogeneous structure of single-unit Husimi lattice to be random inhomogeneous lattices with variable units and structures, while keeping the feature of exact calculation. Three designs of inhomogeneous recursive lattices: the random-angled rhombus lattice, the Husimi lattice of variable units, and the randomly multi-branched Husimi square lattice; and the corresponding exact recursive calculations based on the partial partition function algorithm, which is derived from the Bethe Cavity method, have been investigated and developed. With the ``total-symmetry assumption'' and the ``iterative-replica trick'' we were able to exactly solve the classical ferromagnetic spin-1 Ising models on these lattices, to describe the complex systems that can only be solved by approximations or simulations on regular lattices. Our work may enhance the application of the exact calculation on recursive lattices in various fields of materials science and applied physics, especially it may serve as a powerful tool to explore the cross-dimensional thermodynamics and phase transitions. National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11505110).

  19. Completeness of the classical 2D Ising model and universal quantum computation.

    PubMed

    Van den Nest, M; Dür, W; Briegel, H J

    2008-03-21

    We prove that the 2D Ising model is complete in the sense that the partition function of any classical q-state spin model (on an arbitrary graph) can be expressed as a special instance of the partition function of a 2D Ising model with complex inhomogeneous couplings and external fields. In the case where the original model is an Ising or Potts-type model, we find that the corresponding 2D square lattice requires only polynomially more spins with respect to the original one, and we give a constructive method to map such models to the 2D Ising model. For more general models the overhead in system size may be exponential. The results are established by connecting classical spin models with measurement-based quantum computation and invoking the universality of the 2D cluster states.

  20. Probing strong correlations with light scattering: Example of the quantum Ising model

    DOE PAGES

    Babujian, H. M.; Karowski, M.; Tsvelik, A. M.

    2016-10-01

    In this article we calculate the nonlinear susceptibility and the resonant Raman cross section for the paramagnetic phase of the ferromagnetic quantum Ising model in one dimension. In this region the spectrum of the Ising model has a gap m. The Raman cross section has a strong singularity when the energy of the outgoing photon is at the spectral gap ωf ≈ m and a square root threshold when the frequency difference between the incident and outgoing photons ωi₋ωf≈2m. Finally, the latter feature reflects the fermionic nature of the Ising model excitations.

  1. Probing strong correlations with light scattering: Example of the quantum Ising model

    SciTech Connect

    Babujian, H. M.; Karowski, M.; Tsvelik, A. M.

    2016-10-01

    In this article we calculate the nonlinear susceptibility and the resonant Raman cross section for the paramagnetic phase of the ferromagnetic quantum Ising model in one dimension. In this region the spectrum of the Ising model has a gap m. The Raman cross section has a strong singularity when the energy of the outgoing photon is at the spectral gap ωf ≈ m and a square root threshold when the frequency difference between the incident and outgoing photons ωi₋ωf≈2m. Finally, the latter feature reflects the fermionic nature of the Ising model excitations.

  2. Emergent 1d Ising Behavior in AN Elementary Cellular Automaton Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassebaum, Paul G.; Iannacchione, Germano S.

    The fundamental nature of an evolving one-dimensional (1D) Ising model is investigated with an elementary cellular automaton (CA) simulation. The emergent CA simulation employs an ensemble of cells in one spatial dimension, each cell capable of two microstates interacting with simple nearest-neighbor rules and incorporating an external field. The behavior of the CA model provides insight into the dynamics of coupled two-state systems not expressible by exact analytical solutions. For instance, state progression graphs show the causal dynamics of a system through time in relation to the system's entropy. Unique graphical analysis techniques are introduced through difference patterns, diffusion patterns, and state progression graphs of the 1D ensemble visualizing the evolution. All analyses are consistent with the known behavior of the 1D Ising system. The CA simulation and new pattern recognition techniques are scalable (in both dimension, complexity, and size) and have many potential applications such as complex design of materials, control of agent systems, and evolutionary mechanism design.

  3. Stochastic bifurcations in the nonlinear parallel Ising model.

    PubMed

    Bagnoli, Franco; Rechtman, Raúl

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the phase transitions of a nonlinear, parallel version of the Ising model, characterized by an antiferromagnetic linear coupling and ferromagnetic nonlinear one. This model arises in problems of opinion formation. The mean-field approximation shows chaotic oscillations, by changing the couplings or the connectivity. The spatial model shows bifurcations in the average magnetization, similar to that seen in the mean-field approximation, induced by the change of the topology, after rewiring short-range to long-range connection, as predicted by the small-world effect. These coherent periodic and chaotic oscillations of the magnetization reflect a certain degree of synchronization of the spins, induced by long-range couplings. Similar bifurcations may be induced in the randomly connected model by changing the couplings or the connectivity and also the dilution (degree of asynchronism) of the updating. We also examined the effects of inhomogeneity, mixing ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic coupling, which induces an unexpected bifurcation diagram with a "bubbling" behavior, as also happens for dilution.

  4. Stochastic bifurcations in the nonlinear parallel Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnoli, Franco; Rechtman, Raúl

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the phase transitions of a nonlinear, parallel version of the Ising model, characterized by an antiferromagnetic linear coupling and ferromagnetic nonlinear one. This model arises in problems of opinion formation. The mean-field approximation shows chaotic oscillations, by changing the couplings or the connectivity. The spatial model shows bifurcations in the average magnetization, similar to that seen in the mean-field approximation, induced by the change of the topology, after rewiring short-range to long-range connection, as predicted by the small-world effect. These coherent periodic and chaotic oscillations of the magnetization reflect a certain degree of synchronization of the spins, induced by long-range couplings. Similar bifurcations may be induced in the randomly connected model by changing the couplings or the connectivity and also the dilution (degree of asynchronism) of the updating. We also examined the effects of inhomogeneity, mixing ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic coupling, which induces an unexpected bifurcation diagram with a "bubbling" behavior, as also happens for dilution.

  5. Ising percolation in a three-state majority vote model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balankin, Alexander S.; Martínez-Cruz, M. A.; Gayosso Martínez, Felipe; Mena, Baltasar; Tobon, Atalo; Patiño-Ortiz, Julián; Patiño-Ortiz, Miguel; Samayoa, Didier

    2017-02-01

    In this Letter, we introduce a three-state majority vote model in which each voter adopts a state of a majority of its active neighbors, if exist, but the voter becomes uncommitted if its active neighbors are in a tie, or all neighbors are the uncommitted. Numerical simulations were performed on square lattices of different linear size with periodic boundary conditions. Starting from a random distribution of active voters, the model leads to a stable non-consensus state in which three opinions coexist. We found that the "magnetization" of the non-consensus state and the concentration of uncommitted voters in it are governed by an initial composition of system and are independent of the lattice size. Furthermore, we found that a configuration of the stable non-consensus state undergoes a second order percolation transition at a critical concentration of voters holding the same opinion. Numerical simulations suggest that this transition belongs to the same universality class as the Ising percolation. These findings highlight the effect of an updating rule for a tie between voter neighbors on the critical behavior of models obeying the majority vote rule whenever a strict majority exists.

  6. Phase transitions in the three-state Ising spin-glass model with finite connectivity.

    PubMed

    Erichsen, R; Theumann, W K

    2011-06-01

    The statistical mechanics of a two-state Ising spin-glass model with finite random connectivity, in which each site is connected to a finite number of other sites, is extended in this work within the replica technique to study the phase transitions in the three-state Ghatak-Sherrington (or random Blume-Capel) model of a spin glass with a crystal-field term. The replica symmetry ansatz for the order function is expressed in terms of a two-dimensional effective-field distribution, which is determined numerically by means of a population dynamics procedure. Phase diagrams are obtained exhibiting phase boundaries that have a reentrance with both a continuous and a genuine first-order transition with a discontinuity in the entropy. This may be seen as "inverse freezing," which has been studied extensively lately, as a process either with or without exchange of latent heat.

  7. Large-scale Monte Carlo simulations for the depinning transition in Ising-type lattice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Lisha; Liao, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Nengji

    2016-12-01

    With the developed "extended Monte Carlo" (EMC) algorithm, we have studied the depinning transition in Ising-type lattice models by extensive numerical simulations, taking the random-field Ising model with a driving field and the driven bond-diluted Ising model as examples. In comparison with the usual Monte Carlo method, the EMC algorithm exhibits greater efficiency of the simulations. Based on the short-time dynamic scaling form, both the transition field and critical exponents of the depinning transition are determined accurately via the large-scale simulations with the lattice size up to L = 8912, significantly refining the results in earlier literature. In the strong-disorder regime, a new universality class of the Ising-type lattice model is unveiled with the exponents β = 0.304(5) , ν = 1.32(3) , z = 1.12(1) , and ζ = 0.90(1) , quite different from that of the quenched Edwards-Wilkinson equation.

  8. Probabilistic Cellular Automata for Low-Temperature 2-d Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procacci, Aldo; Scoppola, Benedetto; Scoppola, Elisabetta

    2016-12-01

    We construct a parallel stochastic dynamics with invariant measure converging to the Gibbs measure of the 2-d low-temperature Ising model. The proof of such convergence requires a polymer expansion based on suitably defined Peierls-type contours.

  9. Phase transitions and relaxation dynamics of Ising models exchanging particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Segun; Fortin, Jean-Yves; Choi, M. Y.

    2017-01-01

    A variety of systems in nature and in society are open and subject to exchanging their constituents with other systems (e.g., environments). For instance, in biological systems, cells collect necessary energy and material by exchange of molecules or ions. Similarly, countries, cities or research institutes evolve as their constituents move in or out. To probe the corresponding particle exchange dynamics in such systems, we consider two Ising models exchanging particles and establish a master equation describing the equilibrium phases as well as the non-equilibrium dynamics of the system. It is found that an additional stable phase emerges as a consequence of the particle exchange process. Furthermore, we formulate the Ginzburg-Landau theory which allows to probe correlation effects. Accordingly, critical slowing down is manifested and the associated dynamic exponent is computed in the linear relaxation regime. In particular, this approach is relevant for investigating the grand canonical description of the system plus environment, with particle exchange and state transitions taken into account explicitly.

  10. The appropriateness of ignorance in the inverse kinetic Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Benjamin; Battistin, Claudia

    2017-03-01

    We develop efficient ways to consider and correct for the effects of hidden units for the paradigmatic case of the inverse kinetic Ising model with fully asymmetric couplings. We identify two sources of error in reconstructing the connectivity among the observed units while ignoring part of the network. One leads to a systematic bias in the inferred parameters, whereas the other involves correlations between the visible and hidden populations and has a magnitude that depends on the coupling strength. We estimate these two terms using a mean field approach and derive self-consistent equations for the couplings accounting for the systematic bias. Through application of these methods on simple networks of varying relative population size and connectivity strength, we assess how and under what conditions the hidden portion can influence inference and to what degree it can be crudely estimated. We find that for weak to moderately coupled systems, the effects of the hidden units is a simple rotation that can be easily corrected for. For strongly coupled systems, the non-systematic term becomes large and can no longer be safely ignored, further highlighting the importance of understanding the average strength of couplings for a given system of interest.

  11. Monte Carlo Studies of the Fcc Ising Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polgreen, Thomas Lee

    Monte Carlo simulations are performed on the antiferromagnetic fcc Ising model which is relevant to the binary alloy CuAu. The model exhibits a first-order ordering transition as a function of temperature. The lattice free energy of the model is determined for all temperatures. By matching free energies of the ordered and disordered phases, the transition temperature is determined to be T(,t) = 1.736 J where J is the coupling constant of the model. The free energy as determined by series expansion and the Kikuchi cluster variation method is compared with the Monte Carlo results. These methods work well for the ordered phase, but not for the disordered phase. A determination of the pair correlation in the disordered phase along the {100} direction indicates a correlation length of (DBLTURN) 2.5a at the phase transition. The correlation length exhibits mean-field-like temperature dependence. The Cowley-Warren short range order parameters are determined as a function of temperature for the first twelve nearest-neighbor shells of this model. The Monte Carlo results are used to determine the free parameter in a mean-field-like class of theories described by Clapp and Moss. The ability of these theories to predict ratios between pair potentials is tested with these results. In addition, evidence of a region of heterophase fluctuations is presented in agreement with x-ray diffuse scattering measurements on Cu(,3)Au. The growth of order following a rapid quench from disorder is studied by means of a dynamic Monte Carlo simulation. The results compare favorably with the Landau theory proposed by Chan for temperatures near the first-order phase transition. For lower temperatures, the results are in agreement with the theories of Lifshitz and Allen and Chan. In the intermediate temperature range, our extension of Chan's theory is able to explain our simulation results and recent experimental results.

  12. Optimal control in nonequilibrium systems: Dynamic Riemannian geometry of the Ising model.

    PubMed

    Rotskoff, Grant M; Crooks, Gavin E

    2015-12-01

    A general understanding of optimal control in nonequilibrium systems would illuminate the operational principles of biological and artificial nanoscale machines. Recent work has shown that a system driven out of equilibrium by a linear response protocol is endowed with a Riemannian metric related to generalized susceptibilities, and that geodesics on this manifold are the nonequilibrium control protocols with the lowest achievable dissipation. While this elegant mathematical framework has inspired numerous studies of exactly solvable systems, no description of the thermodynamic geometry yet exists when the metric cannot be derived analytically. Herein, we numerically construct the dynamic metric of the two-dimensional Ising model in order to study optimal protocols for reversing the net magnetization.

  13. Dynamics of the transverse Ising model with next-nearest-neighbor interactions.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, P R C; Plascak, J A; de Alcantara Bonfim, O F; Florencio, J

    2015-10-01

    We study the effects of next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) interactions on the dynamics of the one-dimensional spin-1/2 transverse Ising model in the high-temperature limit. We use exact diagonalization to obtain the time-dependent transverse correlation function and the corresponding spectral density for a tagged spin. Our results for chains of 13 spins with periodic boundary conditions produce results which are valid in the infinite-size limit. In general we find that the NNN coupling produces slower dynamics accompanied by an enhancement of the central mode behavior. Even in the case of a strong transverse field, if the NNN coupling is sufficiently large, then there is a crossover from collective mode to central mode behavior. We also obtain several recurrants for the continued fraction representation of the relaxation function.

  14. Applicability of n-vicinity method for calculation of free energy of Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryzhanovsky, Boris; Litinskii, Leonid

    2017-02-01

    Here we apply the n-vicinity method of approximate calculation of the partition function to an Ising Model with the nearest neighbor interaction on D-dimensional hypercube lattice. We solve the equation of state for an arbitrary dimension D and analyze the behavior of the free energy. As expected, for large dimensions (D ≥ 3) the system demonstrates a phase transition of the second kind. In this case, we obtain a simple analytical expression for the critical value of the inverse temperature. When 3 ≤ D ≤ 7 this expression is in a very good agreement with the results of computer simulations. In the case of small dimensions (D = 1 , 2), there is a noticeable discrepancy with the known exact results.

  15. Ising model of cardiac thin filament activation with nearest-neighbor cooperative interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, John Jeremy; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Tu, Yuhai; de Tombe, Pieter P.; Bers, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a model of cardiac thin filament activation using an Ising model approach from equilibrium statistical physics. This model explicitly represents nearest-neighbor interactions between 26 troponin/tropomyosin units along a one-dimensional array that represents the cardiac thin filament. With transition rates chosen to match experimental data, the results show that the resulting force-pCa (F-pCa) relations are similar to Hill functions with asymmetries, as seen in experimental data. Specifically, Hill plots showing (log(F/(1-F)) vs. log [Ca]) reveal a steeper slope below the half activation point (Ca(50)) compared with above. Parameter variation studies show interplay of parameters that affect the apparent cooperativity and asymmetry in the F-pCa relations. The model also predicts that Ca binding is uncooperative for low [Ca], becomes steeper near Ca(50), and becomes uncooperative again at higher [Ca]. The steepness near Ca(50) mirrors the steep F-pCa as a result of thermodynamic considerations. The model also predicts that the correlation between troponin/tropomyosin units along the one-dimensional array quickly decays at high and low [Ca], but near Ca(50), high correlation occurs across the whole array. This work provides a simple model that can account for the steepness and shape of F-pCa relations that other models fail to reproduce.

  16. Exact algorithm for sampling the two-dimensional Ising spin glass.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Creighton K; Middleton, A Alan

    2009-10-01

    A sampling algorithm is presented that generates spin-glass configurations of the two-dimensional Edwards-Anderson Ising spin glass at finite temperature with probabilities proportional to their Boltzmann weights. Such an algorithm overcomes the slow dynamics of direct simulation and can be used to study long-range correlation functions and coarse-grained dynamics. The algorithm uses a correspondence between spin configurations on a regular lattice and dimer (edge) coverings of a related graph: Wilson's algorithm [D. B. Wilson, Proceedings of the Eighth Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (SIAM, Philadelphia, 1997), p 258] for sampling dimer coverings on a planar lattice is adapted to generate samplings for the dimer problem corresponding to both planar and toroidal spin-glass samples. This algorithm is recursive: it computes probabilities for spins along a "separator" that divides the sample in half. Given the spins on the separator, sample configurations for the two separated halves are generated by further division and assignment. The algorithm is simplified by using Pfaffian elimination rather than Gaussian elimination for sampling dimer configurations. For n spins and given floating point precision, the algorithm has an asymptotic run-time of O(n(3/2)); it is found that the required precision scales as inverse temperature and grows only slowly with system size. Sample applications and benchmarking results are presented for samples of size up to n=128(2), with fixed and periodic boundary conditions.

  17. ±J Ising model on homogeneous Archimedean lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, J. F.; Lebrecht, W.; Vogel, E. E.

    2012-04-01

    We tackle the problem of finding analytical expressions describing the ground state properties of homogeneous Archimedean lattices over which a generalized Edwards-Anderson model (±J Ising model) is defined. A local frustration analysis is performed based on representative cells for square lattices, triangular lattices and honeycomb lattices. The concentration of ferromagnetic (F) bonds x is used as the independent variable in the analysis (1-x is the concentration for antiferromagnetic (A) bonds), where x spans the range [0.0,1.0]. The presence of A bonds brings frustration, whose clear manifestation is when bonds around the minimum possible circuit of bonds (plaquette) cannot be simultaneously satisfied. The distribution of curved (frustrated) plaquettes within the representative cell is determinant for the evaluation of the parameters of interest such as average frustration segment, energy per bond, and fractional content of unfrustrated bonds. Two methods are developed to cope with this analysis: one based on the direct probability of a plaquette being curved; the other one is based on the consideration of the different ways bonds contribute to the particular plaquette configuration. Exact numerical simulations on a large number of randomly generated samples allow to validate previously described theoretical analysis. It is found that the second method presents slight advantages over the first one. However, both methods give an excellent description for most of the range for x. The small deviations at specific intervals of x for each lattice have to do with the self-imposed limitations of both methods due to practical reasons. A particular discussion for the point x=0.5 for each one of the lattices also shines light on the general trends of the properties described here.

  18. Comparison of the ferromagnetic Blume-Emery-Griffiths model and the AF spin-1 longitudinal Ising model at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomaz, M. T.; Corrêa Silva, E. V.

    2016-03-01

    We derive the exact Helmholtz free energy (HFE) of the standard and staggered one-dimensional Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model in the presence of an external longitudinal magnetic field. We discuss in detail the thermodynamic behavior of the ferromagnetic version of the model, which exhibits magnetic field-dependent plateaux in the z-component of its magnetization at low temperatures. We also study the behavior of its specific heat and entropy, both per site, at finite temperature. The degeneracy of the ground state, at T=0, along the lines that separate distinct phases in the phase diagram of the ferromagnetic BEG model is calculated, extending the study of the phase diagram of the spin-1 antiferromagnetic (AF) Ising model in S.M. de Souza and M.T. Thomaz, J. Magn. and Magn. Mater. 354 (2014) 205 [5]. We explore the implications of the equality of phase diagrams, at T=0, of the ferromagnetic BEG model with K/|J| = - 2 and of the spin-1 AF Ising model for D/|J| > 1/2.

  19. Non-Ising-like two-dimensional superconductivity in a bulk single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. R.; Rhodes, D.; Zeng, B.; Johannes, M. D.; Balicas, L.

    2016-09-01

    Both Nb3PdxSe7 and Ta4Pd3Te16 crystallize in a monoclinic point group while exhibiting superconducting transition temperatures as high as Tc˜3.5 and ˜4.7 K, respectively. Disorder was claimed to lead to the extremely large upper critical fields (Hc 2) observed in related compounds. Despite the presence of disorder and heavier elements, Hc 2s in Ta4Pd3Te16 are found to be considerably smaller than those of Nb3PdxSe7 while displaying an anomalous, nonsaturating linear dependence on temperature T for fields along all three crystallographic axes. In contrast, crystals of the latter compound displaying the highest Tcs display Hc 2∝(1-T /Tc) 1 /2 , which in monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides is claimed to be evidence for an Ising paired superconducting state resulting from strong spin-orbit coupling. This anomalous T dependence indicates that the superconducting state of Nb3PdxSe7 is quasi-two-dimensional in nature. This is further supported by a nearly divergent anisotropy in upper-critical fields, i.e., γ =Hc2 b/Hc2 a' , upon approaching Tc. Hence, in Nb3PdxSe7 the increase of Tc correlates with a marked reduction in electronic dimensionality as observed, for example, in intercalated FeSe. For the Nb compound, Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that an increase in the external field produces an anisotropic orbital response, with especially strong polarization at the Pd sites when the field is perpendicular to their square planar environment. The field also produces an anisotropic spin moment at both Pd sites. Therefore, DFT suggests the field-induced pinning of the spin to the lattice as a possible mechanism for decoupling the superconducting planes.

  20. Ising model in clustered scale-free networks.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Carlos P

    2015-05-01

    The Ising model in clustered scale-free networks has been studied by Monte Carlo simulations. These networks are characterized by a degree distribution of the form P(k)∼k(-γ) for large k. Clustering is introduced in the networks by inserting triangles, i.e., triads of connected nodes. The transition from a ferromagnetic (FM) to a paramagnetic (PM) phase has been studied as a function of the exponent γ and the triangle density. For γ>3 our results are in line with earlier simulations, and a phase transition appears at a temperature T(c)(γ) in the thermodynamic limit (system size N→∞). For γ≤3, a FM-PM crossover appears at a size-dependent temperature T(co), so the system remains in a FM state at any finite temperature in the limit N→∞. Thus, for γ=3, T(co) scales as lnN, whereas for γ<3, we find T(co)∼JN(z), where the exponent z decreases for increasing γ. Adding motifs (triangles in our case) to the networks causes an increase in the transition (or crossover) temperature for exponent γ>3 (or ≤3). For γ>3, this increase is due to changes in the mean values 〈k〉 and 〈k(2)〉, i.e., the transition is controlled by the degree distribution (nearest-neighbor connectivities). For γ≤3, however, we find that clustered and unclustered networks with the same size and distribution P(k) have different crossover temperature, i.e., clustering favors FM correlations, thus increasing the temperature T(co). The effect of a degree cutoff k(cut) on the asymptotic behavior of T(co) is discussed.

  1. Ising spins on randomly multi-branched Husimi square lattice: Thermodynamics and phase transition in cross-dimensional range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ran

    2016-10-01

    An inhomogeneous random recursive lattice is constructed from the multi-branched Husimi square lattice. The number of repeating units connected on one vertex is randomly set to be 2 or 3 with a fixed ratio P2 or P3 with P2 +P3 = 1. The lattice is designed to describe complex thermodynamic systems with variable coordinating neighbors, e.g. the asymmetric range around the surface of a bulk system. Classical ferromagnetic spin-1 Ising model is solved on the lattice to achieve an annealed solution via the local exact calculation technique. The model exhibits distinct spontaneous magnetization similar to the deterministic system, with however rigorous thermal fluctuations and significant singularities on the entropy behavior around the critical temperature, indicating a complex superheating frustration in the cross-dimensional range induced by the stochasticity. The critical temperature was found to be exponentially correlated to the structural ratio P with the coefficient fitted as 0.53187, while the ground state energy presents linear correlation to P, implying a well-defined average property according to the structural ratio.

  2. Phase Transitions in Disordered Systems: The Example of the Random-Field Ising Model in Four Dimensions.

    PubMed

    Fytas, Nikolaos G; Martín-Mayor, Víctor; Picco, Marco; Sourlas, Nicolas

    2016-06-03

    By performing a high-statistics simulation of the D=4 random-field Ising model at zero temperature for different shapes of the random-field distribution, we show that the model is ruled by a single universality class. We compute to a high accuracy the complete set of critical exponents for this class, including the correction-to-scaling exponent. Our results indicate that in four dimensions (i) dimensional reduction as predicted by the perturbative renormalization group does not hold and (ii) three independent critical exponents are needed to describe the transition.

  3. Phase Transitions in Disordered Systems: The Example of the Random-Field Ising Model in Four Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fytas, Nikolaos G.; Martín-Mayor, Víctor; Picco, Marco; Sourlas, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    By performing a high-statistics simulation of the D =4 random-field Ising model at zero temperature for different shapes of the random-field distribution, we show that the model is ruled by a single universality class. We compute to a high accuracy the complete set of critical exponents for this class, including the correction-to-scaling exponent. Our results indicate that in four dimensions (i) dimensional reduction as predicted by the perturbative renormalization group does not hold and (ii) three independent critical exponents are needed to describe the transition.

  4. Implementation of Minimal Representations in 2d Ising Model Calculations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    Re r’ u. 60:252-262.263-276. 1941. [Ons44] Lars Onsager . Crystal statistics I. A two-dimensional model with an order-disorder transition. Physical Re...ID lattices but the subject really came to life in 1944 when Onsager [Ons44] derived an exact closed form expression for the partition function (see

  5. The quantum Ising model: finite sums and hyperbolic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damski, Bogdan

    2015-10-01

    We derive exact closed-form expressions for several sums leading to hyperbolic functions and discuss their applicability for studies of finite-size Ising spin chains. We show how they immediately lead to closed-form expressions for both fidelity susceptibility characterizing the quantum critical point and the coefficients of the counterdiabatic Hamiltonian enabling arbitrarily quick adiabatic driving of the system. Our results generalize and extend the sums presented in the popular Gradshteyn and Ryzhik Table of Integrals, Series, and Products.

  6. The quantum Ising model: finite sums and hyperbolic functions.

    PubMed

    Damski, Bogdan

    2015-10-30

    We derive exact closed-form expressions for several sums leading to hyperbolic functions and discuss their applicability for studies of finite-size Ising spin chains. We show how they immediately lead to closed-form expressions for both fidelity susceptibility characterizing the quantum critical point and the coefficients of the counterdiabatic Hamiltonian enabling arbitrarily quick adiabatic driving of the system. Our results generalize and extend the sums presented in the popular Gradshteyn and Ryzhik Table of Integrals, Series, and Products.

  7. Linking market interaction intensity of 3D Ising type financial model with market volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Wen; Ke, Jinchuan; Wang, Jun; Feng, Ling

    2016-11-01

    Microscopic interaction models in physics have been used to investigate the complex phenomena of economic systems. The simple interactions involved can lead to complex behaviors and help the understanding of mechanisms in the financial market at a systemic level. This article aims to develop a financial time series model through 3D (three-dimensional) Ising dynamic system which is widely used as an interacting spins model to explain the ferromagnetism in physics. Through Monte Carlo simulations of the financial model and numerical analysis for both the simulation return time series and historical return data of Hushen 300 (HS300) index in Chinese stock market, we show that despite its simplicity, this model displays stylized facts similar to that seen in real financial market. We demonstrate a possible underlying link between volatility fluctuations of real stock market and the change in interaction strengths of market participants in the financial model. In particular, our stochastic interaction strength in our model demonstrates that the real market may be consistently operating near the critical point of the system.

  8. Critical endpoint behavior in an asymmetric Ising model: application of Wang-Landau sampling to calculate the density of states.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shan-Ho; Wang, Fugao; Landau, D P

    2007-06-01

    Using the Wang-Landau sampling method with a two-dimensional random walk we determine the density of states for an asymmetric Ising model with two- and three-body interactions on a triangular lattice, in the presence of an external field. With an accurate density of states we were able to map out the phase diagram accurately and perform quantitative finite-size analyses at, and away from, the critical endpoint. We observe a clear divergence of the curvature of the spectator phase boundary and of the magnetization coexistence diameter derivative at the critical endpoint, and the exponents for both divergences agree well with previous theoretical predictions.

  9. Critical endpoint behavior in an asymmetric Ising model: Application of Wang-Landau sampling to calculate the density of states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Shan-Ho; Wang, Fugao; Landau, D. P.

    2007-06-01

    Using the Wang-Landau sampling method with a two-dimensional random walk we determine the density of states for an asymmetric Ising model with two- and three-body interactions on a triangular lattice, in the presence of an external field. With an accurate density of states we were able to map out the phase diagram accurately and perform quantitative finite-size analyses at, and away from, the critical endpoint. We observe a clear divergence of the curvature of the spectator phase boundary and of the magnetization coexistence diameter derivative at the critical endpoint, and the exponents for both divergences agree well with previous theoretical predictions.

  10. Finite-size scaling of the magnetization probability density for the critical Ising model in slab geometry.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, David Lopes; Holdsworth, Peter C W

    2016-04-27

    The magnetization probability density in d  =  2 and 3 dimensional Ising models in slab geometry of volume [Formula: see text] is computed through Monte-Carlo simulation at the critical temperature and zero magnetic field. The finite-size scaling of this distribution and its dependence on the system aspect-ratio [Formula: see text]and boundary conditions are discussed. In the limiting case [Formula: see text] of a macroscopically large slab ([Formula: see text]) the distribution is found to scale as a Gaussian function for all tested system sizes and boundary conditions.

  11. Assisted finite-rate adiabatic passage across a quantum critical point: exact solution for the quantum Ising model.

    PubMed

    del Campo, Adolfo; Rams, Marek M; Zurek, Wojciech H

    2012-09-14

    The dynamics of a quantum phase transition is inextricably woven with the formation of excitations, as a result of critical slowing down in the neighborhood of the critical point. We design a transitionless quantum driving through a quantum critical point, allowing one to access the ground state of the broken-symmetry phase by a finite-rate quench of the control parameter. The method is illustrated in the one-dimensional quantum Ising model in a transverse field. Driving through the critical point is assisted by an auxiliary Hamiltonian, for which the interplay between the range of the interaction and the modes where excitations are suppressed is elucidated.

  12. Finite-size scaling of the magnetization probability density for the critical Ising model in slab geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes Cardozo, David; Holdsworth, Peter C. W.

    2016-04-01

    The magnetization probability density in d  =  2 and 3 dimensional Ising models in slab geometry of volume L\\paralleld-1× {{L}\\bot} is computed through Monte-Carlo simulation at the critical temperature and zero magnetic field. The finite-size scaling of this distribution and its dependence on the system aspect-ratio ρ =\\frac{{{L}\\bot}}{{{L}\\parallel}} and boundary conditions are discussed. In the limiting case ρ \\to 0 of a macroscopically large slab ({{L}\\parallel}\\gg {{L}\\bot} ) the distribution is found to scale as a Gaussian function for all tested system sizes and boundary conditions.

  13. Ground states of the Ising model on an anisotropic triangular lattice: stripes and zigzags.

    PubMed

    Dublenych, Yu I

    2013-10-09

    A complete solution of the ground-state problem for the Ising model on an anisotropic triangular lattice with the nearest-neighbor interactions in a magnetic field is presented. It is shown that this problem can be reduced to the ground-state problem for an infinite chain with the interactions up to the second neighbors. In addition to the known ground-state structures (which correspond to full-dimensional regions in the parameter space of the model), new structures are found (at the boundaries of these regions), in particular, zigzagging stripes similar to those observed experimentally in colloidal monolayers. Though the number of parameters is relatively large (four), all the ground-state structures of the model are constructed and analyzed and therefore the paper can be considered as an example of a complete solution of a ground-state problem for classical spin or lattice-gas models. The paper can also help to verify the correctness of some results obtained previously by other authors and concerning the ground states of the model under consideration.

  14. Dual geometric worm algorithm for two-dimensional discrete classical lattice models.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, Peter; Sørensen, Erik S; Alet, Fabien

    2004-01-01

    We present a dual geometrical worm algorithm for two-dimensional Ising models. The existence of such dual algorithms was first pointed out by Prokof'ev and Svistunov [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 160601 (2001)

  15. Time-dependent Monte Carlo simulations of critical and Lifshitz points of the axial-next-nearest-neighbor Ising model.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Roberto; Alves, Nelson; Drugowich de Felício, Jose Roberto

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we study the critical behavior of second-order points, specifically the Lifshitz point (LP) of a three-dimensional Ising model with axial competing interactions [the axial-next-nearest-neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model], using time-dependent Monte Carlo simulations. We use a recently developed technique that helps us localize the critical temperature corresponding to the best power law for magnetization decay over time: (m(0)=1)~t(-β/νz), which is expected of simulations starting from initially ordered states. We obtain original results for the dynamic critical exponent z, evaluated from the behavior of the ratio F(2)(t)=(m(0)=0)/(2)(m(0)=1)~t(3/z), along the critical line up to the LP. We explore all the critical exponents of the LP in detail, including the dynamic critical exponent θ that characterizes the initial slip of magnetization and the global persistence exponent θ(g) associated with the probability P(t) that magnetization keeps its signal up to time t. Our estimates for the dynamic critical exponents at the Lifshitz point are z=2.34(2) and θ(g)=0.336(4), values that are very different from those of the three-dimensional Ising model (the ANNNI model without the next-nearest-neighbor interactions at the z axis, i.e., J(2)=0), i.e., z≈2.07 and θ(g)≈0.38. We also present estimates for the static critical exponents β and ν, obtained from extended time-dependent scaling relations. Our results for static exponents are in good agreement with previous works.

  16. Quantum critical behavior of the quantum Ising model on fractal lattices.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hangmo

    2015-01-01

    I study the properties of the quantum critical point of the transverse-field quantum Ising model on various fractal lattices such as the Sierpiński carpet, Sierpiński gasket, and Sierpiński tetrahedron. Using a continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo simulation method and finite-size scaling analysis, I identify the quantum critical point and investigate its scaling properties. Among others, I calculate the dynamic critical exponent and find that it is greater than one for all three structures. The fact that it deviates from one is a direct consequence of the fractal structures not being integer-dimensional regular lattices. Other critical exponents are also calculated. The exponents are different from those of the classical critical point and satisfy the quantum scaling relation, thus confirming that I have indeed found the quantum critical point. I find that the Sierpiński tetrahedron, of which the dimension is exactly 2, belongs to a different universality class than that of the two-dimensional square lattice. I conclude that the critical exponents depend on more details of the structure than just the dimension and the symmetry.

  17. Physics and financial economics (1776-2014): puzzles, Ising and agent-based models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, Didier

    2014-06-01

    This short review presents a selected history of the mutual fertilization between physics and economics—from Isaac Newton and Adam Smith to the present. The fundamentally different perspectives embraced in theories developed in financial economics compared with physics are dissected with the examples of the volatility smile and of the excess volatility puzzle. The role of the Ising model of phase transitions to model social and financial systems is reviewed, with the concepts of random utilities and the logit model as the analog of the Boltzmann factor in statistical physics. Recent extensions in terms of quantum decision theory are also covered. A wealth of models are discussed briefly that build on the Ising model and generalize it to account for the many stylized facts of financial markets. A summary of the relevance of the Ising model and its extensions is provided to account for financial bubbles and crashes. The review would be incomplete if it did not cover the dynamical field of agent-based models (ABMs), also known as computational economic models, of which the Ising-type models are just special ABM implementations. We formulate the ‘Emerging Intelligence Market Hypothesis’ to reconcile the pervasive presence of ‘noise traders’ with the near efficiency of financial markets. Finally, we note that evolutionary biology, more than physics, is now playing a growing role to inspire models of financial markets.

  18. Physics and financial economics (1776-2014): puzzles, Ising and agent-based models.

    PubMed

    Sornette, Didier

    2014-06-01

    This short review presents a selected history of the mutual fertilization between physics and economics--from Isaac Newton and Adam Smith to the present. The fundamentally different perspectives embraced in theories developed in financial economics compared with physics are dissected with the examples of the volatility smile and of the excess volatility puzzle. The role of the Ising model of phase transitions to model social and financial systems is reviewed, with the concepts of random utilities and the logit model as the analog of the Boltzmann factor in statistical physics. Recent extensions in terms of quantum decision theory are also covered. A wealth of models are discussed briefly that build on the Ising model and generalize it to account for the many stylized facts of financial markets. A summary of the relevance of the Ising model and its extensions is provided to account for financial bubbles and crashes. The review would be incomplete if it did not cover the dynamical field of agent-based models (ABMs), also known as computational economic models, of which the Ising-type models are just special ABM implementations. We formulate the 'Emerging Intelligence Market Hypothesis' to reconcile the pervasive presence of 'noise traders' with the near efficiency of financial markets. Finally, we note that evolutionary biology, more than physics, is now playing a growing role to inspire models of financial markets.

  19. Monte Carlo Simulations of Compressible Ising Models: Do We Understand Them?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, D. P.; Dünweg, B.; Laradji, M.; Tavazza, F.; Adler, J.; Cannavaccioulo, L.; Zhu, X.

    Extensive Monte Carlo simulations have begun to shed light on our understanding of phase transitions and universality classes for compressible Ising models. A comprehensive analysis of a Landau-Ginsburg-Wilson hamiltonian for systems with elastic degrees of freedom resulted in the prediction that there should be four distinct cases that would have different behavior, depending upon symmetries and thermodynamic constraints. We shall provide an account of the results of careful Monte Carlo simulations for a simple compressible Ising model that can be suitably modified so as to replicate all four cases.

  20. Gauge model with Ising vacancies: Multicritical behavior of self-avoiding surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maritan, A.; Seno, F.; Stella, A. L.

    1991-08-01

    A openZ2 gauge model with n-component-vector degrees of freedom on a dodecahedral lattice is coupled to an Ising system on the dual lattice. The statistics of interacting self-avoiding surfaces (SAS) is obtained in the n-->0 limit. At the percolative critical point an exact identification of the SAS critical behavior with that of Ising cluster hulls holds. This condition corresponds to a multicritical point for SAS, in universality class different from that of branched polymers. The model allows application of standard statistical methods to SAS. A mean-field calculation gives a phase diagram remarkably consistent with the above results.

  1. Empirical relations between static and dynamic exponents for Ising model cluster algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coddington, Paul D.; Baillie, Clive F.

    1992-02-01

    We have measured the autocorrelations for the Swendsen-Wang and the Wolff cluster update algorithms for the Ising model in two, three, and four dimensions. The data for the Wolff algorithm suggest that the autocorrelations are linearly related to the specific heat, in which case the dynamic critical exponent is zint,EW=α/ν. For the Swendsen-Wang algorithm, scaling the autocorrelations by the average maximum cluster size gives either a constant or a logarithm, which implies that zint,ESW=β/ν for the Ising model.

  2. Relations between short-range and long-range Ising models.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Maria Chiara; Parisi, Giorgio; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

    2014-06-01

    We perform a numerical study of the long-range (LR) ferromagnetic Ising model with power law decaying interactions (J∝r{-d-σ}) on both a one-dimensional chain (d=1) and a square lattice (d=2). We use advanced cluster algorithms to avoid the critical slowing down. We first check the validity of the relation connecting the critical behavior of the LR model with parameters (d,σ) to that of a short-range (SR) model in an equivalent dimension D. We then study the critical behavior of the d=2 LR model close to the lower critical σ, uncovering that the spatial correlation function decays with two different power laws: The effect of the subdominant power law is much stronger than finite-size effects and actually makes the estimate of critical exponents very subtle. By including this subdominant power law, the numerical data are consistent with the standard renormalization group (RG) prediction by Sak [Phys. Rev. B 8, 281 (1973)], thus making not necessary (and unlikely, according to Occam's razor) the recent proposal by Picco [arXiv:1207.1018] of having a new set of RG fixed points in addition to the mean-field one and the SR one.

  3. Critical phenomena in the majority voter model on two-dimensional regular lattices.

    PubMed

    Acuña-Lara, Ana L; Sastre, Francisco; Vargas-Arriola, José Raúl

    2014-05-01

    In this work we studied the critical behavior of the critical point as a function of the number of nearest neighbors on two-dimensional regular lattices. We performed numerical simulations on triangular, hexagonal, and bilayer square lattices. Using standard finite-size scaling theory we found that all cases fall in the two-dimensional Ising model universality class, but that the critical point value for the bilayer lattice does not follow the regular tendency that the Ising model shows.

  4. Functional form of the Parisi overlap distribution for the three-dimensional Edwards-Anderson Ising spin glass.

    PubMed

    Berg, Bernd A; Billoire, Alain; Janke, Wolfhard

    2002-04-01

    Recently, it has been conjectured that the statistics of extremes is of relevance for a large class of correlated systems. For certain probability densities this predicts the characteristic large x falloff behavior f(x) approximately exp(-ae(x)), a>0. Using a multicanonical Monte Carlo technique, we have measured the Parisi overlap distribution P(q) for the three-dimensional Edward-Anderson Ising spin glass at and below the critical temperature We find that a probability distribution related to extreme-order statistics gives an excellent description of P(q) over about 80 orders of magnitude.

  5. Exact solutions to plaquette Ising models with free and periodic boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Marco; Johnston, Desmond A.; Janke, Wolfhard

    2017-01-01

    An anisotropic limit of the 3d plaquette Ising model, in which the plaquette couplings in one direction were set to zero, was solved for free boundary conditions by Suzuki (1972) [1], who later dubbed it the fuki-nuke, or "no-ceiling", model. Defining new spin variables as the product of nearest-neighbour spins transforms the Hamiltonian into that of a stack of (standard) 2d Ising models and reveals the planar nature of the magnetic order, which is also present in the fully isotropic 3d plaquette model. More recently, the solution of the fuki-nuke model was discussed for periodic boundary conditions, which require a different approach to defining the product spin transformation, by Castelnovo et al. (2010) [2]. We clarify the exact relation between partition functions with free and periodic boundary conditions expressed in terms of original and product spin variables for the 2d plaquette and 3d fuki-nuke models, noting that the differences are already present in the 1d Ising model. In addition, we solve the 2d plaquette Ising model with helical boundary conditions. The various exactly solved examples illustrate how correlations can be induced in finite systems as a consequence of the choice of boundary conditions.

  6. Fluctuation-dissipation relation in an Ising model without detailed balance.

    PubMed

    Andrenacci, Natascia; Corberi, Federico; Lippiello, Eugenio

    2006-04-01

    We consider the modified Ising model introduced by de Oliveira, Mendes, and Santos [J. Phys. A 26, 2317 (1993)], where the temperature depends locally on the spin configuration and detailed balance and local equilibrium are not obeyed. We derive a relation between the linear response function and correlation functions that generalizes the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. In the stationary states of the model, which are the counterparts of the Ising equilibrium states, the fluctuation-dissipation theorem breaks down due to the lack of time reversal invariance. In the nonstationary phase-ordering kinetics, the parametric plot of the integrated response function chi(t,t(w)) vs the autocorrelation function is different from that of the kinetic Ising model. However, splitting chi(t,t(w)) into a stationary and an aging term chi(t,t(w)) = chi(st)(t-t(w)) + chi(ag)(t,t(w)), we find chi(ag)(t,t(w)) approximately t(w)(-a(chi)) f(t/t(w)), and a numerical value of a(chi) consistent with a(chi)= 1/4, as in the kinetic Ising model.

  7. Energy fluctuations and the singularity of specific heat in a 3D Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaupuzs, Jevgenijs

    2004-05-01

    We study the energy fluctuations in 3D Ising model near the phase transition point. Specific heat is a relevant quantity which is directly related to the mean squared amplitude of the energy fluctuations in the system. We have made extensive Monte Carlo simulations in 3D Ising model to clarify the character of the singularity of the specific heat Cv based on the finite-size scaling of its maximal values Cvmax depending on the linear size of the lattice L. An original iterative method has been used which automatically finds the pseudocritical temperature corresponding to the maximum of Cv. The simulations made up to L <= 128 with application of the Wolff's cluster algorithm allowed us to verify the possible power-like as well as logarithmic singularity of the specific heat predicted by different theoretical treatments. The most challenging and interesting result we have obtained is that the finite-size scaling of Cvmax in 3D Ising model is well described by a logarithmic rather than power-like ansatz, just like in 2D case. Another modification of our iterative method has been considered to estimate the critical coupling of 3D Ising model from the Binder cumulant data within L ɛ [96; 384]. Furthermore, the critical exponent β has been evaluated from the simulated magnetization data within the range of reduced temperatures t >= 0.000086 and system sizes L <= 410.

  8. Multiple Ising models coupled to 2-d gravity: a CSD analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowick, Mark; Falcioni, Marco; Harris, Geoffrey; Marinari, Enzo

    1994-04-01

    We simulate single and multiple Ising models coupled to 2-d gravity and we measure critical slowing down (CSD) with the standard methods. We find that the Swendsen-Wang and Wolff cluster algorithms do not eliminate CSD. We interpret the result as an effect of the mesh dynamics.

  9. Critical Dynamics Behavior of the Wolff Algorithm in the Site-Bond-Correlated Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, P. R. A.; Onody, R. N.

    Here we apply the Wolff single-cluster algorithm to the site-bond-correlated Ising model and study its critical dynamical behavior. We have verified that the autocorrelation time diminishes in the presence of dilution and correlation, showing that the Wolff algorithm performs even better in such situations. The critical dynamical exponents are also estimated.

  10. Interface free-energy exponent in the one-dimensional Ising spin glass with long-range interactions in both the droplet and broken replica symmetry regions.

    PubMed

    Aspelmeier, T; Wang, Wenlong; Moore, M A; Katzgraber, Helmut G

    2016-08-01

    The one-dimensional Ising spin-glass model with power-law long-range interactions is a useful proxy model for studying spin glasses in higher space dimensions and for finding the dimension at which the spin-glass state changes from having broken replica symmetry to that of droplet behavior. To this end we have calculated the exponent that describes the difference in free energy between periodic and antiperiodic boundary conditions. Numerical work is done to support some of the assumptions made in the calculations and to determine the behavior of the interface free-energy exponent of the power law of the interactions. Our numerical results for the interface free-energy exponent are badly affected by finite-size problems.

  11. Interface free-energy exponent in the one-dimensional Ising spin glass with long-range interactions in both the droplet and broken replica symmetry regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspelmeier, T.; Wang, Wenlong; Moore, M. A.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    2016-08-01

    The one-dimensional Ising spin-glass model with power-law long-range interactions is a useful proxy model for studying spin glasses in higher space dimensions and for finding the dimension at which the spin-glass state changes from having broken replica symmetry to that of droplet behavior. To this end we have calculated the exponent that describes the difference in free energy between periodic and antiperiodic boundary conditions. Numerical work is done to support some of the assumptions made in the calculations and to determine the behavior of the interface free-energy exponent of the power law of the interactions. Our numerical results for the interface free-energy exponent are badly affected by finite-size problems.

  12. Magnetization-driven random-field Ising model at T=0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illa, Xavier; Rosinberg, Martin-Luc; Shukla, Prabodh; Vives, Eduard

    2006-12-01

    We study the hysteretic evolution of the random field Ising model at T=0 when the magnetization M is controlled externally and the magnetic field H becomes the output variable. The dynamics is a simple modification of the single-spin-flip dynamics used in the H -driven situation and consists in flipping successively the spins with the largest local field. This allows one to perform a detailed comparison between the microscopic trajectories followed by the system with the two protocols. Simulations are performed on random graphs with connectivity z=4 (Bethe lattice) and on the three-dimensional cubic lattice. The same internal energy U(M) is found with the two protocols when there is no macroscopic avalanche and it does not depend on whether the microscopic states are stable or not. On the Bethe lattice, the energy inside the macroscopic avalanche also coincides with the one that is computed analytically with the H -driven algorithm along the unstable branch of the hysteresis loop. The output field, defined here as ΔU/ΔM , exhibits very large fluctuations with the magnetization and is not self-averaging. The relation to the experimental situation is discussed.

  13. Local and cluster critical dynamics of the 3d random-site Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivaneyko, D.; Ilnytskyi, J.; Berche, B.; Holovatch, Yu.

    2006-10-01

    We present the results of Monte Carlo simulations for the critical dynamics of the three-dimensional site-diluted quenched Ising model. Three different dynamics are considered, these correspond to the local update Metropolis scheme as well as to the Swendsen-Wang and Wolff cluster algorithms. The lattice sizes of L=10-96 are analysed by a finite-size-scaling technique. The site dilution concentration p=0.85 was chosen to minimize the correction-to-scaling effects. We calculate numerical values of the dynamical critical exponents for the integrated and exponential autocorrelation times for energy and magnetization. As expected, cluster algorithms are characterized by lower values of dynamical critical exponent than the local one: also in the case of dilution critical slowing down is more pronounced for the Metropolis algorithm. However, the striking feature of our estimates is that they suggest that dilution leads to decrease of the dynamical critical exponent for the cluster algorithms. This phenomenon is quite opposite to the local dynamics, where dilution enhances critical slowing down.

  14. Exact low-temperature series expansion for the partition function of the zero-field Ising model on the infinite square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siudem, Grzegorz; Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we provide the exact expression for the coefficients in the low-temperature series expansion of the partition function of the two-dimensional Ising model on the infinite square lattice. This is equivalent to exact determination of the number of spin configurations at a given energy. With these coefficients, we show that the ferromagnetic–to–paramagnetic phase transition in the square lattice Ising model can be explained through equivalence between the model and the perfect gas of energy clusters model, in which the passage through the critical point is related to the complete change in the thermodynamic preferences on the size of clusters. The combinatorial approach reported in this article is very general and can be easily applied to other lattice models.

  15. Exact low-temperature series expansion for the partition function of the zero-field Ising model on the infinite square lattice

    PubMed Central

    Siudem, Grzegorz; Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we provide the exact expression for the coefficients in the low-temperature series expansion of the partition function of the two-dimensional Ising model on the infinite square lattice. This is equivalent to exact determination of the number of spin configurations at a given energy. With these coefficients, we show that the ferromagnetic–to–paramagnetic phase transition in the square lattice Ising model can be explained through equivalence between the model and the perfect gas of energy clusters model, in which the passage through the critical point is related to the complete change in the thermodynamic preferences on the size of clusters. The combinatorial approach reported in this article is very general and can be easily applied to other lattice models. PMID:27721435

  16. Exact low-temperature series expansion for the partition function of the zero-field Ising model on the infinite square lattice.

    PubMed

    Siudem, Grzegorz; Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr

    2016-10-10

    In this paper, we provide the exact expression for the coefficients in the low-temperature series expansion of the partition function of the two-dimensional Ising model on the infinite square lattice. This is equivalent to exact determination of the number of spin configurations at a given energy. With these coefficients, we show that the ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic phase transition in the square lattice Ising model can be explained through equivalence between the model and the perfect gas of energy clusters model, in which the passage through the critical point is related to the complete change in the thermodynamic preferences on the size of clusters. The combinatorial approach reported in this article is very general and can be easily applied to other lattice models.

  17. Magnetic properties, Lyapunov exponent and superstability of the spin-{1}/{2} Ising-Heisenberg model on a diamond chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananikian, N.; Hovhannisyan, V.

    2013-05-01

    The exactly solvable spin-{1}/{2} Ising-Heisenberg model on a diamond chain has been considered. We have found the exact results for the magnetization using the recursion relation method. The existence of the magnetization plateau has been observed at one third of the saturation magnetization in the antiferromagnetic case. Some ground-state properties of the model are examined. At low temperatures, the system has two ferrimagnetic (FRI1 and FRI2) phases and one paramagnetic (PRM) phase. Lyapunov exponents for the various values of the exchange parameters and temperatures have been analyzed. It has also been shown that the maximal Lyapunov exponent exhibits plateau. Lyapunov exponents exhibit different behavior for two ferrimagnetic phases. We have found the existence of the supercritical point for the multi-dimensional rational mapping of the spin-{1}/{2} Ising-Heisenberg model on a diamond chain for the first time in the absence of the external magnetic field and T→0 in the antiferromagnetic case.

  18. Spin-one Ising model for ice VII-plastic ice phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masakazu; Himoto, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Hideki

    2014-11-26

    We propose a spin model compatible with ice VII-plastic ice phase transitions and critical phenomena discovered recently by computer simulations. The Blume-Capel spin-1 Ising model is extended in order to describe the entropic stabilization effect in the plastic ice phase. The model shares the same set of tricritical exponents with simulation, indicating that they are of the same universality class.

  19. An analysis of intergroup rivalry using Ising model and reinforcement learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng-Fei; Qin, Zheng; Shao, Zhuo

    2014-01-01

    Modeling of intergroup rivalry can help us better understand economic competitions, political elections and other similar activities. The result of intergroup rivalry depends on the co-evolution of individual behavior within one group and the impact from the rival group. In this paper, we model the rivalry behavior using Ising model. Different from other simulation studies using Ising model, the evolution rules of each individual in our model are not static, but have the ability to learn from historical experience using reinforcement learning technique, which makes the simulation more close to real human behavior. We studied the phase transition in intergroup rivalry and focused on the impact of the degree of social freedom, the personality of group members and the social experience of individuals. The results of computer simulation show that a society with a low degree of social freedom and highly educated, experienced individuals is more likely to be one-sided in intergroup rivalry.

  20. Universal critical behavior of the two-dimensional Ising spin glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, L. A.; Marinari, E.; Martin-Mayor, V.; Parisi, G.; Ruiz-Lorenzo, J. J.

    2016-07-01

    We use finite size scaling to study Ising spin glasses in two spatial dimensions. The issue of universality is addressed by comparing discrete and continuous probability distributions for the quenched random couplings. The sophisticated temperature dependency of the scaling fields is identified as the major obstacle that has impeded a complete analysis. Once temperature is relinquished in favor of the correlation length as the basic variable, we obtain a reliable estimation of the anomalous dimension and of the thermal critical exponent. Universality among binary and Gaussian couplings is confirmed to a high numerical accuracy.

  1. Pseudolikelihood decimation algorithm improving the inference of the interaction network in a general class of Ising models.

    PubMed

    Decelle, Aurélien; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

    2014-02-21

    In this Letter we propose a new method to infer the topology of the interaction network in pairwise models with Ising variables. By using the pseudolikelihood method (PLM) at high temperature, it is generally possible to distinguish between zero and nonzero couplings because a clear gap separate the two groups. However at lower temperatures the PLM is much less effective and the result depends on subjective choices, such as the value of the ℓ1 regularizer and that of the threshold to separate nonzero couplings from null ones. We introduce a decimation procedure based on the PLM that recursively sets to zero the less significant couplings, until the variation of the pseudolikelihood signals that relevant couplings are being removed. The new method is fully automated and does not require any subjective choice by the user. Numerical tests have been performed on a wide class of Ising models, having different topologies (from random graphs to finite dimensional lattices) and different couplings (both diluted ferromagnets in a field and spin glasses). These numerical results show that the new algorithm performs better than standard PLM.

  2. Pseudolikelihood Decimation Algorithm Improving the Inference of the Interaction Network in a General Class of Ising Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decelle, Aurélien; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

    2014-02-01

    In this Letter we propose a new method to infer the topology of the interaction network in pairwise models with Ising variables. By using the pseudolikelihood method (PLM) at high temperature, it is generally possible to distinguish between zero and nonzero couplings because a clear gap separate the two groups. However at lower temperatures the PLM is much less effective and the result depends on subjective choices, such as the value of the ℓ1 regularizer and that of the threshold to separate nonzero couplings from null ones. We introduce a decimation procedure based on the PLM that recursively sets to zero the less significant couplings, until the variation of the pseudolikelihood signals that relevant couplings are being removed. The new method is fully automated and does not require any subjective choice by the user. Numerical tests have been performed on a wide class of Ising models, having different topologies (from random graphs to finite dimensional lattices) and different couplings (both diluted ferromagnets in a field and spin glasses). These numerical results show that the new algorithm performs better than standard PLM.

  3. Spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg model with the pair XYZ Heisenberg interaction and quartic Ising interactions as the exactly soluble zero-field eight-vertex model.

    PubMed

    Strecka, Jozef; Canová, Lucia; Minami, Kazuhiko

    2009-05-01

    The spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg model with the pair XYZ Heisenberg interaction and quartic Ising interactions is exactly solved by establishing a precise mapping relationship with the corresponding zero-field (symmetric) eight-vertex model. It is shown that the Ising-Heisenberg model with the ferromagnetic Heisenberg interaction exhibits a striking critical behavior, which manifests itself through re-entrant phase transitions as well as continuously varying critical exponents. The changes in critical exponents are in accordance with the weak universality hypothesis in spite of a peculiar singular behavior that emerges at a quantum critical point of the infinite order, which occurs at the isotropic limit of the Heisenberg interaction. On the other hand, the Ising-Heisenberg model with the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg interaction surprisingly exhibits less significant changes in both critical temperatures and critical exponents upon varying the strength of the exchange anisotropy in the Heisenberg interaction.

  4. Microsommite: crystal chemistry, phase transitions, Ising model and Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, E.; Merlino, S.; Pasero, M.; Macedonio, G.

    Microsommite, ideal formula [Na4K2(SO4)] [Ca2Cl2][Si6Al6O24], is a rare feldspathoid that occurs in volcanic products of Vesuvius. It belongs to the cancrinite-davyne group of minerals, presenting an ABAB... stacking sequence of layers that contain six-membered rings of tetrahedra, with Si and Al cations regularly alternating in the tetrahedral sites. The structure was refined in space group P63 to R=0.053 by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The cell parameters are a=22.161Å=√3adav, c=5.358Å=cdav Z=3. The superstructure arises due to the long-range ordering of extra-framework ions within the channels of the structure. This ordering progressively decreases with rising temperature until it is completely lost and microsommite transforms into davyne. The order-disorder transformation has been monitored in several crystals by means of X-ray superstructure reflections and the critical parameters Tc 750°C and β 0.12 were obtained. The kinetics of the ordering process were followed at different temperatures and the activation energy was determined to be about 125kJmol-1. The continuous order-disorder phase transition in microsommite has been discussed on the basis of a two-dimensional Ising model in a triangular lattice with nn (nearest neighbours) and nnn (next-nearest neighbours) interactions. Such a model was simulated using a Monte Carlo technique. The theoretical model well matches the experimental data; two phase transitions were indicated by the simulated runs: at low temperature only one of the three sublattices begins to disorder, whereas the second transition involves all three sublattices.

  5. Emerging Modified Transverse-Field Ising Model On A Hydrogenated Silicon Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Burkhard; Beach, Kevin

    2014-03-01

    Advances in the precise placement of dangling bonds on a hydrogenated silicon surface open the prospect of manufacturing large scale quantum dot arrays. Small clusters of specifically arranged quantum dots comprise a system of bistable, interacting cells. Starting from an extended Hubbard model and using a set of controlled Hilbert space truncations, we show that such a system of quantum dot cells can be mapped to a modified transverse-field Ising model with long-ranged interactions. Each cell is described by a pseudo-spin. Because we control cell orientation and placement, we can construct a wide range of structures, with ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic chains as simple examples. The Ising-like model is amenable to stochastic series expansion Monte Carlo, allowing the simulation and characterization of large systems. Work supported by Alberta Innovates Technology Futures.

  6. Ising Model Spin S = 1 ON Directed BARABÁSI-ALBERT Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, F. W. S.

    On directed Barabási-Albert networks with two and seven neighbours selected by each added site, the Ising model with spin S = 1/2 was seen not to show a spontaneous magnetisation. Instead, the decay time for flipping of the magnetisation followed an Arrhenius law for Metropolis and Glauber algorithms, but for Wolff cluster flipping the magnetisation decayed exponentially with time. On these networks the Ising model spin S = 1 is now studied through Monte Carlo simulations. However, in this model, the order-disorder phase transition is well defined in this system. We have obtained a first-order phase transition for values of connectivity m = 2 and m = 7 of the directed Barabási-Albert network.

  7. Spin-1 Ising model: exact damage-spreading relations and numerical simulations.

    PubMed

    Anjos, A S; Mariz, A M; Nobre, F D; Araujo, I G

    2008-09-01

    The nearest-neighbor-interaction spin-1 Ising model is investigated within the damage-spreading approach. Exact relations involving quantities computable through damage-spreading simulations and thermodynamic properties are derived for such a model, defined in terms of a very general Hamiltonian that covers several spin-1 models of interest in the literature. Such relations presuppose translational invariance and hold for any ergodic dynamical procedure, leading to an efficient tool for obtaining thermodynamic properties. The implementation of the method is illustrated through damage-spreading simulations for the ferromagnetic spin-1 Ising model on a square lattice. The two-spin correlation function and the magnetization are obtained, with precise estimates of their associated critical exponents and of the critical temperature of the model, in spite of the small lattice sizes considered. These results are in good agreement with the universality hypothesis, with critical exponents in the same universality class of the spin- 12 Ising model. The advantage of the present method is shown through a significant reduction of finite-size effects by comparing its results with those obtained from standard Monte Carlo simulations.

  8. Multicritical behavior in a random-field Ising model under a continuous-field probability distribution.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Octavio R; Crokidakis, Nuno; Nobre, Fernando D

    2009-02-04

    A random-field Ising model that is capable of exhibiting a rich variety of multicritical phenomena, as well as a smearing of such behavior, is investigated. The model consists of an infinite-range-interaction Ising ferromagnet in the presence of a triple Gaussian random magnetic field, which is defined as a superposition of three Gaussian distributions with the same width σ, centered at H = 0 and H = ± H(0), with probabilities p and (1-p)/2, respectively. Such a distribution is very general and recovers, as limiting cases, the trimodal, bimodal and Gaussian probability distributions. In particular, the special case of the random-field Ising model in the presence of a trimodal probability distribution (limit [Formula: see text]) is able to present a rather nontrivial multicritical behavior. It is argued that the triple Gaussian probability distribution is appropriate for a physical description of some diluted antiferromagnets in the presence of a uniform external field, for which the corresponding physical realization consists of an Ising ferromagnet under random fields whose distribution appears to be well represented in terms of a superposition of two parts, namely a trimodal and a continuous contribution. The model is investigated by means of the replica method, and phase diagrams are obtained within the replica-symmetric solution, which is known to be stable for the present system. A rich variety of phase diagrams is presented, with one or two distinct ferromagnetic phases, continuous and first-order transition lines, tricritical, fourth-order, critical end points and many other interesting multicritical phenomena. Additionally, the present model carries the possibility of destroying such multicritical phenomena due to an increase in the randomness, i.e. increasing σ, which represents a very common feature in real systems.

  9. Monte Carlo method for critical systems in infinite volume: The planar Ising model.

    PubMed

    Herdeiro, Victor; Doyon, Benjamin

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we propose a Monte Carlo method for generating finite-domain marginals of critical distributions of statistical models in infinite volume. The algorithm corrects the problem of the long-range effects of boundaries associated to generating critical distributions on finite lattices. It uses the advantage of scale invariance combined with ideas of the renormalization group in order to construct a type of "holographic" boundary condition that encodes the presence of an infinite volume beyond it. We check the quality of the distribution obtained in the case of the planar Ising model by comparing various observables with their infinite-plane prediction. We accurately reproduce planar two-, three-, and four-point of spin and energy operators. We also define a lattice stress-energy tensor, and numerically obtain the associated conformal Ward identities and the Ising central charge.

  10. Finite-size corrections in the Ising model with special boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izmailian, N. Sh.

    2010-11-01

    The Ising model in two dimensions with the special boundary conditions of Brascamp and Kunz (BK) is analyzed. We derive exact finite-size corrections for the free energy F of the critical ferromagnetic Ising model on the M×N square lattice with Brascamp-Kunz boundary conditions [H.J. Brascamp, H. Kunz, J. Math. Phys. 15 (1974) 66]. We show that finite-size corrections strongly depend not only on the boundary conditions but also on the shape and pattern of the lattice. In the limit N→∞ we obtain the expansion of the free energy and the inverse correlation lengths for infinitely long strip with BK boundary conditions. Our results are consistent with the conformal field theory prediction for the mixed boundary conditions.

  11. Smeared quantum phase transition in the dissipative random quantum Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojta, Thomas; Hoyos, José A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the quantum phase transition in the random transverse-field Ising model under the influence of Ohmic dissipation. To this end, we numerically implement a strong-disorder renormalization-group scheme. We find that Ohmic dissipation destroys the quantum critical point and the associated quantum Griffiths phase by smearing. Our results quantitatively confirm a recent theory [J.A. Hoyos, T. Vojta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 (2008) 240601] of smeared quantum phase transitions.

  12. Finite-size scaling and corrections in the Ising model with Brascamp-Kunz boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janke, W.; Kenna, R.

    2002-02-01

    The Ising model in two dimensions with the special boundary conditions of Brascamp and Kunz is analyzed. Leading and subdominant scaling behavior of the Fisher zeros are determined exactly. The exact finite-size scaling, with corrections, of the specific heat is determined both at critical and effective critical (pseudocritical) points. The shift exponents associated with the scaling of these effective critical points are not the same as the inverse correlation length critical exponent. All corrections to scaling are analytic.

  13. Condensation of Helium in Aerogel and Athermal Dynamics of the Random-Field Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubry, Geoffroy J.; Bonnet, Fabien; Melich, Mathieu; Guyon, Laurent; Spathis, Panayotis; Despetis, Florence; Wolf, Pierre-Etienne

    2014-08-01

    High resolution measurements reveal that condensation isotherms of He4 in high porosity silica aerogel become discontinuous below a critical temperature. We show that this behavior does not correspond to an equilibrium phase transition modified by the disorder induced by the aerogel structure, but to the disorder-driven critical point predicted for the athermal out-of-equilibrium dynamics of the random-field Ising model. Our results evidence the key role of nonequilibrium effects in the phase transitions of disordered systems.

  14. Thermodynamic quantities and phase diagrams of spin-1 Blume-Capel bilayer Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantar, Ersin; Ertaş, Mehmet

    2015-06-01

    An effective field theory with correlations has been used to study the critical behavior of the spin-1 Blume-Capel bilayer Ising model on a square lattice. The effects of the Hamiltonian parameters on thermodynamic quantities and phase diagrams are investigated in detail. We found that the system exhibits the first and the second order transitions as well as tricritical point. Furthermore, we have observed that the change of tricritical point values depends on interaction parameters.

  15. Cluster Monte Carlo dynamics for the antiferromagnetic Ising model on a triangular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G. M.; Yang, C. Z.

    1994-11-01

    Within the general cluster framework of Kandel, Ben-Av, and Domany, we develop a cluster algorithm for Monte Carlo simulations of the antiferromagnetic Ising model on a triangular lattice. The algorithm does not suffer from problems of metastability and is extremely efficient even at T=0, which allows us to extract the static exponent η=0.5 as well as the effective dynamical critical exponent of the algorithm z=0.64+/-0.02.

  16. Critical slowing down of cluster algorithms for Ising models coupled to 2-d gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowick, Mark; Falcioni, Marco; Harris, Geoffrey; Marinari, Enzo

    1994-02-01

    We simulate single and multiple Ising models coupled to 2-d gravity using both the Swendsen-Wang and Wolff algorithms to update the spins. We study the integrated autocorrelation time and find that there is considerable critical slowing down, particularly in the magnetization. We argue that this is primarily due to the local nature of the dynamical triangulation algorithm and to the generation of a distribution of baby universes which inhibits cluster growth.

  17. Reentrant and forward phase diagrams of the anisotropic three-dimensional Ising spin glass.

    PubMed

    Güven, Can; Berker, A Nihat; Hinczewski, Michael; Nishimori, Hidetoshi

    2008-06-01

    The spatially uniaxially anisotropic d=3 Ising spin glass is solved exactly on a hierarchical lattice. Five different ordered phases, namely, ferromagnetic, columnar, layered, antiferromagnetic, and spin-glass phases, are found in the global phase diagram. The spin-glass phase is more extensive when randomness is introduced within the planes than when it is introduced in lines along one direction. Phase diagram cross sections, with no Nishimori symmetry, with Nishimori symmetry lines, or entirely imbedded into Nishimori symmetry, are studied. The boundary between the ferromagnetic and spin-glass phases can be either reentrant or forward, that is either receding from or penetrating into the spin-glass phase, as temperature is lowered. However, this boundary is always reentrant when the multicritical point terminating it is on the Nishimori symmetry line.

  18. Phase diagram of the two-dimensional +/-J Ising spin glass.

    PubMed

    Nobre, F D

    2001-10-01

    The +/-J Ising spin glass [probabilities p and (1-p) associated with ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic couplings, respectively] is studied by applying a real-space renormalization-group technique on a hierarchical lattice that approaches the square lattice. Within such a procedure, there is no spin-glass phase and only two finite-temperature phases are found, namely, the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic ones. In spite of a reasonably small computational effort, an accurate paramagnetic-ferromagnetic boundary is presented: the estimate for the slope at p=1 is in very good agreement with the well-known exact result, whereas the coordinates of the Nishimori point are determined within a high precision. Below the Nishimori point, such a boundary is not strictly vertical-contrary to the usual belief-in such a way that a small reentrance is found at low temperatures.

  19. Shear viscosity at the Ising-nematic quantum critical point in two-dimensional metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberlein, Andreas; Patel, Aavishkar A.; Sachdev, Subir

    2017-02-01

    In an isotropic strongly interacting quantum liquid without quasiparticles, general scaling arguments imply that the dimensionless ratio (kB/ℏ )η /s , where η is the shear viscosity and s is the entropy density, is a universal number. We compute the shear viscosity of the Ising-nematic critical point of metals in spatial dimension d =2 by an expansion below d =5 /2 . The anisotropy associated with directions parallel and normal to the Fermi surface leads to a violation of the scaling expectations: η scales in the same manner as a chiral conductivity, and the ratio η /s diverges at low temperature (T ) as T-2 /z, where z is the dynamic critical exponent for fermionic excitations dispersing normal to the Fermi surface.

  20. Evidence for two-dimensional Ising superconductivity in gated MoS₂.

    PubMed

    Lu, J M; Zheliuk, O; Leermakers, I; Yuan, N F Q; Zeitler, U; Law, K T; Ye, J T

    2015-12-11

    The Zeeman effect, which is usually detrimental to superconductivity, can be strongly protective when an effective Zeeman field from intrinsic spin-orbit coupling locks the spins of Cooper pairs in a direction orthogonal to an external magnetic field. We performed magnetotransport experiments with ionic-gated molybdenum disulfide transistors, in which gating prepared individual superconducting states with different carrier dopings, and measured an in-plane critical field B(c2) far beyond the Pauli paramagnetic limit, consistent with Zeeman-protected superconductivity. The gating-enhanced B(c2) is more than an order of magnitude larger than it is in the bulk superconducting phases, where the effective Zeeman field is weakened by interlayer coupling. Our study provides experimental evidence of an Ising superconductor, in which spins of the pairing electrons are strongly pinned by an effective Zeeman field.

  1. Algorithmic modeling of the irrelevant sound effect (ISE) by the hearing sensation fluctuation strength.

    PubMed

    Schlittmeier, Sabine J; Weissgerber, Tobias; Kerber, Stefan; Fastl, Hugo; Hellbrück, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Background sounds, such as narration, music with prominent staccato passages, and office noise impair verbal short-term memory even when these sounds are irrelevant. This irrelevant sound effect (ISE) is evoked by so-called changing-state sounds that are characterized by a distinct temporal structure with varying successive auditory-perceptive tokens. However, because of the absence of an appropriate psychoacoustically based instrumental measure, the disturbing impact of a given speech or nonspeech sound could not be predicted until now, but necessitated behavioral testing. Our database for parametric modeling of the ISE included approximately 40 background sounds (e.g., speech, music, tone sequences, office noise, traffic noise) and corresponding performance data that was collected from 70 behavioral measurements of verbal short-term memory. The hearing sensation fluctuation strength was chosen to model the ISE and describes the percept of fluctuations when listening to slowly modulated sounds (f(mod) < 20 Hz). On the basis of the fluctuation strength of background sounds, the algorithm estimated behavioral performance data in 63 of 70 cases within the interquartile ranges. In particular, all real-world sounds were modeled adequately, whereas the algorithm overestimated the (non-)disturbance impact of synthetic steady-state sounds that were constituted by a repeated vowel or tone. Implications of the algorithm's strengths and prediction errors are discussed.

  2. Effective field study of ising model on a double perovskite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngantso, G. Dimitri; El Amraoui, Y.; Benyoussef, A.; El Kenz, A.

    2017-02-01

    By using the effective field theory (EFT), the mixed spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 Ising ferrimagnetic model adapted to a double perovskite structure has been studied. The EFT calculations have been carried out from Ising Hamiltonian by taking into account first and second nearest-neighbors interactions and the crystal and external magnetic fields. Both first- and second-order phase transitions have been found in phase diagrams of interest. Depending on crystal-field values, the thermodynamic behavior of total magnetization indicated the compensation phenomenon existence. The hysteresis behaviors are studied by investigating the reduced magnetic field dependence of total magnetization and a series of hysteresis loops are shown for different reduced temperatures around the critical one.

  3. Inference of the sparse kinetic Ising model using the decimation method.

    PubMed

    Decelle, Aurélien; Zhang, Pan

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we study the inference of the kinetic Ising model on sparse graphs by the decimation method. The decimation method, which was first proposed in Decelle and Ricci-Tersenghi [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 070603 (2014)] for the static inverse Ising problem, tries to recover the topology of the inferred system by setting the weakest couplings to zero iteratively. During the decimation process the likelihood function is maximized over the remaining couplings. Unlike the ℓ(1)-optimization-based methods, the decimation method does not use the Laplace distribution as a heuristic choice of prior to select a sparse solution. In our case, the whole process can be done auto-matically without fixing any parameters by hand. We show that in the dynamical inference problem, where the task is to reconstruct the couplings of an Ising model given the data, the decimation process can be applied naturally into a maximum-likelihood optimization algorithm, as opposed to the static case where pseudolikelihood method needs to be adopted. We also use extensive numerical studies to validate the accuracy of our methods in dynamical inference problems. Our results illustrate that, on various topologies and with different distribution of couplings, the decimation method outperforms the widely used ℓ(1)-optimization-based methods.

  4. Revisiting 2D Lattice Based Spin Flip-Flop Ising Model: Magnetic Properties of a Thin Film and Its Temperature Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Satya Pal

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of Ising's work done in 1925 for one dimensional spin chain with periodic boundary condition. Ising observed that no phase transition occurred at finite temperature in one dimension. He erroneously generalized his views in higher dimensions but that was not true. In 1941 Kramer and Wannier obtained…

  5. Ising t-J model close to half filling: a Monte Carlo study.

    PubMed

    Maśka, M M; Mierzejewski, M; Ferraz, A; Kochetov, E A

    2009-01-28

    Within the recently proposed doped-carrier representation of the projected lattice electron operators we derive a full Ising version of the t-J model. This model possesses the global discrete Z(2) symmetry as a maximal spin symmetry of the Hamiltonian at any values of the coupling constants, t and J. In contrast, in the spin anisotropic limit of the t-J model, usually referred to as the t-J(z) model, the global SU(2) invariance is fully restored at J(z) = 0, so that only the spin-spin interaction has in this model the true Ising form. We discuss a relationship between these two models and the standard isotropic t-J model. We show that the low-energy quasiparticles in all three models share qualitatively similar properties at low doping and small values of J/t. The main advantage of the proposed Ising t-J model over the t-J(z) one is that the former allows for the unbiased Monte Carlo calculations on large clusters of up to 10(3) sites. Within this model we discuss in detail the destruction of the antiferromagnetic (AF) order by doping as well as the interplay between the AF order and hole mobility. We also discuss the effect of the exchange interaction and that of the next-nearest-neighbour hoppings on the destruction of the AF order at finite doping. We show that the short-range AF order is observed in a wide range of temperatures and dopings, much beyond the boundaries of the AF phase. We explicitly demonstrate that the local no-double-occupancy constraint plays the dominant role in destroying the magnetic order at finite doping. Finally, a role of inhomogeneities is discussed.

  6. Frustration in Vicinity of Transition Point of Ising Spin Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Ryoji

    2013-09-01

    We conjecture the existence of a relationship between frustration and the transition point at zero temperature of Ising spin glasses. The relation reveals that, in several Ising spin glass models, the concentration of ferromagnetic bonds is close to the critical concentration at zero temperature when the output of a function about frustration is equal to unity. The function is the derivative of the average number of frustrated plaquettes with respect to the average number of antiferromagnetic bonds. This relation is conjectured in Ising spin glasses with binary couplings on two-dimensional lattices, hierarchical lattices, and three-body Ising spin glasses with binary couplings on two-dimensional lattices. In addition, the same argument in the Sherrington--Kirkpatrick model yields a point that is identical to the replica-symmetric solution of the transition point at zero temperature.

  7. Critical wetting in the two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet confined between inhomogeneous walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trobo, Marta L.; Albano, Ezequiel V.

    2014-12-01

    We present a numerical study of the critical wetting behavior of an Ising magnet confined between two walls, separated by a distance L, where short-range inhomogeneous surface magnetic fields act. So, samples are assumed to have a size L × M, L being the width and M the length, respectively. By considering surface fields varying spatially with a given wavelength or period (λ), H1(x,λ) with 1 ≤ x ≤ M, we found that the wetting temperature is given by the exact result of Abraham [D.B. Abraham, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1165 (1980)] provided that an effective field given by the spacial average[-3.4mm] value (Heff ≡ 1/λ ƒ0 λH1(x,λ)dx > 0) is considered. The above results hold in the low wavelength regime, while for λ → ∞ and a bivaluated surface field (i.e., Hmax for x ≤ M/ 2, and δHmax for x>M/ 2, with 0 <δ< 1), one observes two almost independent wetting transitions, both being compatible with Abraham's exact results corresponding to Hmax and δHmax, respectively. On the other hand, for H1(x,λ) ≠ 0 but Heff = 0 bulk standard critical behavior results is observed.

  8. Phase transition of p-adic Ising λ-model

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Mutlay; Akın, Hasan; Mukhamedov, Farrukh

    2015-09-18

    We consider an interaction of the nearest-neighbors and next nearest-neighbors for the mixed type p-adic λ-model with spin values (−1, +1) on a Cayley tree of order two. In the previous work we have proved the existence of the p-adic Gibbs measure for the model. In this work we have proved the existence of the phase transition occurs for the model.

  9. Nagel scaling, relaxation, and universality in the kinetic ising model on an alternating isotopic chain

    PubMed

    Goncalves; Lopez De Haro M; Taguena-Martinez; Stinchcombe

    2000-02-14

    The dynamic critical exponent and the frequency and wave-vector dependent susceptibility of the kinetic Ising model on an alternating isotopic chain with Glauber dynamics are examined. The analysis provides a connection between a microscopic model and the Nagel scaling curve originally proposed to describe dielectric susceptibility measurements of several glass-forming liquids. While support is given to the hypothesis relating the Nagel scaling to multiple relaxation processes, it is also found that the scaling function may exhibit plateau regions and does not hold for all temperatures.

  10. Monte Carlo Studies of Phase Separation in Compressible 2-dim Ising Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, S. J.; Landau, D. P.

    2006-03-01

    Using high resolution Monte Carlo simulations, we study time-dependent domain growth in compressible 2-dim ferromagnetic (s=1/2) Ising models with continuous spin positions and spin-exchange moves [1]. Spins interact with slightly modified Lennard-Jones potentials, and we consider a model with no lattice mismatch and one with 4% mismatch. For comparison, we repeat calculations for the rigid Ising model [2]. For all models, large systems (512^2) and long times (10^ 6 MCS) are examined over multiple runs, and the growth exponent is measured in the asymptotic scaling regime. For the rigid model and the compressible model with no lattice mismatch, the growth exponent is consistent with the theoretically expected value of 1/3 [1] for Model B type growth. However, we find that non-zero lattice mismatch has a significant and unexpected effect on the growth behavior.Supported by the NSF.[1] D.P. Landau and K. Binder, A Guide to Monte Carlo Simulations in Statistical Physics, second ed. (Cambridge University Press, New York, 2005).[2] J. Amar, F. Sullivan, and R.D. Mountain, Phys. Rev. B 37, 196 (1988).

  11. Onsager and Kaufman's Calculation of the Spontaneous Magnetization of the Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, R. J.

    2011-11-01

    Lars Onsager announced in 1949 that he and Bruria Kaufman had proved a simple formula for the spontaneous magnetization of the square-lattice Ising model, but did not publish their derivation. It was three years later when C.N. Yang published a derivation in Physical Review. In 1971 Onsager gave some clues to his and Kaufman's method, and there are copies of their correspondence in 1950 now available on the Web and elsewhere. Here we review how the calculation appears to have developed, and add a copy of a draft paper, almost certainly by Onsager and Kaufman, that obtains the result.

  12. Density of zeros of the ferromagnetic Ising model on a family of fractals.

    PubMed

    Knežević, Milan; Knežević, Dragica

    2012-06-01

    We studied distribution of zeros of the partition function of the ferromagnetic Ising model near the Yang-Lee edge on a family of Sierpinski gasket lattices whose members are labeled by an integer b (2 ≤ b<∞). The obtained exact results on the first seven members of this family show that, for b ≥ 4, associated correlation length diverges more slowly than any power law when distance δh from the edge tends to zero, ξ_{YL}∼exp[ln(b)sqrt[|ln(δh)|/ln(λ{0})

  13. Constraining quantum critical dynamics: (2+1)D Ising model and beyond.

    PubMed

    Witczak-Krempa, William

    2015-05-01

    Quantum critical (QC) phase transitions generally lead to the absence of quasiparticles. The resulting correlated quantum fluid, when thermally excited, displays rich universal dynamics. We establish nonperturbative constraints on the linear-response dynamics of conformal QC systems at finite temperature, in spatial dimensions above 1. Specifically, we analyze the large frequency or momentum asymptotics of observables, which we use to derive powerful sum rules and inequalities. The general results are applied to the O(N) Wilson-Fisher fixed point, describing the QC Ising model when N=1. We focus on the order parameter and scalar susceptibilities, and the dynamical shear viscosity. Connections to simulations, experiments, and gauge theories are made.

  14. The Ising model for changes in word ordering rules in natural languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Yoshiaki; Ueda, Sumie

    2004-11-01

    The order of ‘noun and adposition’ is an important parameter of word ordering rules in the world’s languages. The seven parameters, ‘adverb and verb’ and others, depend strongly on the ‘noun and adposition’. Japanese as well as Korean, Tamil and several other languages seem to have a stable structure of word ordering rules, while Thai and other languages, which have the opposite word ordering rules to Japanese, are also stable in structure. It seems therefore that each language in the world fluctuates between these two structures like the Ising model for finite lattice.

  15. Critical behavior of the Ising model on a hierarchical lattice with aperiodic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinho, S. T. R.; Haddad, T. A. S.; Salinas, S. R.

    We write the exact renormalization-group recursion relations for nearest-neighbor ferromagnetic Ising models on Migdal-Kadanoff hierarchical lattices with a distribution of aperiodic exchange interactions according to a class of substitutional sequences. For small geometric fluctuations, the critical behavior is unchanged with respect to the uniform case. For large fluctuations, as in the case of the Rudin-Shapiro sequence, the uniform fixed point in the parameter space cannot be reached from any physical initial conditions. We derive a criterion to check the relevance of the geometric fluctuations.

  16. Monte Carlos studies of critical and dynamic phenomena in mixed bond Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Filho, J. B.; Moreno, N. O.; de Albuquerque, Douglas F.

    2010-11-01

    The phase transition of a random mixed-bond Ising ferromagnet on a cubic lattice model is studied both numerically and analytically. In this work, we use the Metropolis and Wolff algorithm with histogram technique and finite size scaling theory to simulate the dynamics of the system. We obtained the thermodynamic quantities such as magnetization, susceptibility, and specific heat. Our results were compared with those obtained using a new technique in effective field theory that employs similar probability distribution within the framework of two-site clusters.

  17. Quantum disorder and local modes of the fully-frustrated transverse field Ising model on a diamond chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coester, K.; Malitz, W.; Fey, S.; Schmidt, K. P.

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the transverse field Ising model on a diamond chain using series expansions about the high-field limit and exact diagonalizations. For the unfrustrated case we accurately determine the quantum critical point and its expected 2d Ising universality separating the polarized and the Z2 symmetry broken phase. In contrast, we find strong evidence for a disorder by disorder scenario for the fully-frustrated transverse field Ising model, i.e., except for the pure Ising model, having an extensive number of ground states, the system is always in a quantum disordered polarized phase. The low-energy excitations in this polarized phase are understood in terms of exact local modes of the model. Furthermore, an effective low-energy description for an infinitesimal transverse field allows us to pinpoint the quantum disordered nature of the ground state via mapping to an effective transverse field Ising chain and to determine the induced gap to the elementary effective domain wall excitation very accurately.

  18. Scaling and universality in the aging kinetics of the two-dimensional clock model.

    PubMed

    Corberi, Federico; Lippiello, Eugenio; Zannetti, Marco

    2006-10-01

    We study numerically the aging dynamics of the two-dimensional p -state clock model after a quench from an infinite temperature to the ferromagnetic phase or to the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase. The system exhibits the general scaling behavior characteristic of nondisordered coarsening systems. For quenches to the ferromagnetic phase, the value of the dynamical exponents suggests that the model belongs to the Ising-type universality class. Specifically, for the integrated response function chi(t,s) approximately or = s(-a)chif(t/s), we find a(chi) consistent with the value a(chi)=0.28 found in the two-dimensional Ising model.

  19. Algebraic and group structure for bipartite anisotropic Ising model on a non-local basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Entanglement is considered a basic physical resource for modern quantum applications as Quantum Information and Quantum Computation. Interactions based on specific physical systems able to generate and sustain entanglement are subject to deep research to get understanding and control on it. Atoms, ions or quantum dots are considered key pieces in quantum applications because they are elements in the development toward a scalable spin-based quantum computer through universal and basic quantum operations. Ising model is a type of interaction generating entanglement in quantum systems based on matter. In this work, a general bipartite anisotropic Ising model including an inhomogeneous magnetic field is analyzed in a non-local basis. This model summarizes several particular models presented in literature. When evolution is expressed in the Bell basis, it shows a regular block structure suggesting a SU(2) decomposition. Then, their algebraic properties are analyzed in terms of a set of physical parameters which define their group structure. In particular, finite products of pulses in this interaction are analyzed in terms of SU(4) covering. Thus, evolution denotes remarkable properties, in particular those related potentially with entanglement and control, which give a fruitful arena for further quantum developments and generalization.

  20. The random-bond Ising model in 2.01 and 3 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komargodski, Zohar; Simmons-Duffin, David

    2017-04-01

    We consider the Ising model between 2 and 4 dimensions perturbed by quenched disorder in the strength of the interaction between nearby spins. In the interval 2  <  d  <  4 this disorder is a relevant perturbation that drives the system to a new fixed point of the renormalization group. At d  =  2 such disorder is marginally irrelevant and can be studied using conformal perturbation theory. Combining conformal perturbation theory with recent results from the conformal bootstrap we compute some scaling exponents in an expansion around d  =  2. If one trusts these computations also in d  =  3, one finds results consistent with experimental data and Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, we perform a direct uncontrolled computation in d  =  3 using new results for low-lying operator dimensions and OPE coefficients in the 3d Ising model. We compare these new methods with previous studies. Finally, we comment about the O(2) model in d  =  3, where we predict a large logarithmic correction to the infrared scaling of disorder.

  1. Mixed Algorithms in the Ising Model on Directed BARABÁSI-ALBERT Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, F. W. S.

    On directed Barabási-Albert networks with two and seven neighbours selected by each added site, the Ising model does not seem to show a spontaneous magnetisation. Instead, the decay time for flipping of the magnetisation follows an Arrhenius law for Metropolis and Glauber algorithms, but for Wolff cluster flipping the magnetisation decays exponentially with time. On these networks the magnetisation behaviour of the Ising model, with Glauber, HeatBath, Metropolis, Wolf or Swendsen-Wang algorithm competing against Kawasaki dynamics, is studied by Monte Carlo simulations. We show that the model exhibits the phenomenon of self-organisation (= stationary equilibrium) defined in Ref. 8 when Kawasaki dynamics is not dominant in its competition with Glauber, HeatBath and Swendsen-Wang algorithms. Only for Wolff cluster flipping the magnetisation, this phenomenon occurs after an exponentially decay of magnetisation with time. The Metropolis results are independent of competition. We also study the same process of competition described above but with Kawasaki dynamics at the same temperature as the other algorithms. The obtained results are similar for Wolff cluster flipping, Metropolis and Swendsen-Wang algorithms but different for HeatBath.

  2. Deterministic Ising dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    1986-03-01

    A deterministic cellular automation rule is presented which simulates the Ising model. On each cell in addition to an Ising spin is a space-time parity bit and a variable playing the role of a momentum conjugate to the spin. The procedure permits study of nonequilibrium phenomena, heat flow, mixing, and time correlations. The algorithm can make full use of multispin coding, thus permitting fast programs involving parallel processing on serial machines.

  3. Evidence for columnar order in the fully frustrated transverse field Ising model on the square lattice.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Sandro; Coletta, Tommaso; Korshunov, Sergey E; Mila, Frédéric

    2012-11-02

    Using extensive classical and quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we investigate the ground-state phase diagram of the fully frustrated transverse field Ising model on the square lattice. We show that pure columnar order develops in the low-field phase above a surprisingly large length scale, below which an effective U(1) symmetry is present. The same conclusion applies to the quantum dimer model with purely kinetic energy, to which the model reduces in the zero-field limit, as well as to the stacked classical version of the model. By contrast, the 2D classical version of the model is shown to develop plaquette order. Semiclassical arguments show that the transition from plaquette to columnar order is a consequence of quantum fluctuations.

  4. Quantum Supremacy for Simulating a Translation-Invariant Ising Spin Model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xun; Wang, Sheng-Tao; Duan, L-M

    2017-01-27

    We introduce an intermediate quantum computing model built from translation-invariant Ising-interacting spins. Despite being nonuniversal, the model cannot be classically efficiently simulated unless the polynomial hierarchy collapses. Equipped with the intrinsic single-instance-hardness property, a single fixed unitary evolution in our model is sufficient to produce classically intractable results, compared to several other models that rely on implementation of an ensemble of different unitaries (instances). We propose a feasible experimental scheme to implement our Hamiltonian model using cold atoms trapped in a square optical lattice. We formulate a procedure to certify the correct functioning of this quantum machine. The certification requires only a polynomial number of local measurements assuming measurement imperfections are sufficiently small.

  5. Solution of the antiferromagnetic Ising model with multisite interaction on a zigzag ladder.

    PubMed

    Jurčišinová, E; Jurčišin, M

    2014-09-01

    We consider the antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Ising model with multisite interaction in an external magnetic field on an infinite zigzag ladder. The model is solved exactly by using the transfer matrix method. Using the exact expression for the total magnetization per site, the magnetic properties of the model are investigated in detail. The model exhibits the formation of magnetization plateaus for low temperatures, and it is shown that their properties depend strongly on the strength of the multisite interaction. All possible ground states of the model are found and discussed. The existence of nontrivial singular ground states is proven and exact explicit expressions for them are found. The macroscopic degeneracy of the ground states is investigated and discussed.

  6. Quantum Supremacy for Simulating a Translation-Invariant Ising Spin Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xun; Wang, Sheng-Tao; Duan, L.-M.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce an intermediate quantum computing model built from translation-invariant Ising-interacting spins. Despite being nonuniversal, the model cannot be classically efficiently simulated unless the polynomial hierarchy collapses. Equipped with the intrinsic single-instance-hardness property, a single fixed unitary evolution in our model is sufficient to produce classically intractable results, compared to several other models that rely on implementation of an ensemble of different unitaries (instances). We propose a feasible experimental scheme to implement our Hamiltonian model using cold atoms trapped in a square optical lattice. We formulate a procedure to certify the correct functioning of this quantum machine. The certification requires only a polynomial number of local measurements assuming measurement imperfections are sufficiently small.

  7. Anomalous mean-field behavior of the fully connected Ising model.

    PubMed

    Colonna-Romano, Louis; Gould, Harvey; Klein, W

    2014-10-01

    Although the fully connected Ising model does not have a length scale, we show that the critical exponents for thermodynamic quantities such as the mean magnetization and the susceptibility can be obtained using finite size scaling with the scaling variable equal to N, the number of spins. Surprisingly, the mean value and the most probable value of the magnetization are found to scale differently with N at the critical temperature of the infinite system, and the magnetization probability distribution is not a Gaussian, even for large N. Similar results inconsistent with the usual understanding of mean-field theory are found at the spinodal. We relate these results to the breakdown of hyperscaling and show that hyperscaling can be restored by increasing N while holding the Ginzburg parameter rather than the temperature fixed, or by doing finite size scaling at the pseudocritical temperature where the susceptibility is a maximum for a given value of N. We conclude that finite size scaling for the fully connected Ising model yields different results depending on how the mean-field limit is approached.

  8. The square lattice Ising model on the rectangle I: finite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hucht, Alfred

    2017-02-01

    The partition function of the square lattice Ising model on the rectangle with open boundary conditions in both directions is calculated exactly for arbitrary system size L× M and temperature. We start with the dimer method of Kasteleyn, McCoy and Wu, construct a highly symmetric block transfer matrix and derive a factorization of the involved determinant, effectively decomposing the free energy of the system into two parts, F(L,M)={{F}\\text{strip}}(L,M)+F\\text{strip}\\text{res}(L,M) , where the residual part F\\text{strip}\\text{res}(L,M) contains the nontrivial finite-L contributions for fixed M. It is given by the determinant of a M/2× M/2 matrix and can be mapped onto an effective spin model with M Ising spins and long-range interactions. While F\\text{strip}\\text{res}(L,M) becomes exponentially small for large L/M or off-critical temperatures, it leads to important finite-size effects such as the critical Casimir force near criticality. The relations to the Casimir potential and the Casimir force are discussed.

  9. Simulating the Kibble-Zurek mechanism of the Ising model with a superconducting qubit system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Ming; Wen, Xueda; Sun, Guozhu; Zhang, Dan-Wei; Lan, Dong; Zhou, Yu; Fan, Yunyi; Liu, Yuhao; Tan, Xinsheng; Yu, Haifeng; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Shi-Liang; Han, Siyuan; Wu, Peiheng

    2016-03-01

    The Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) predicts the density of topological defects produced in the dynamical processes of phase transitions in systems ranging from cosmology to condensed matter and quantum materials. The similarity between KZM and the Landau-Zener transition (LZT), which is a standard tool to describe the dynamics of some non-equilibrium physics in contemporary physics, is being extensively exploited. Here we demonstrate the equivalence between KZM in the Ising model and LZT in a superconducting qubit system. We develop a time-resolved approach to study quantum dynamics of LZT with nano-second resolution. By using this technique, we simulate the key features of KZM in the Ising model with LZT, e.g., the boundary between the adiabatic and impulse regions, the freeze-out phenomenon in the impulse region, especially, the scaling law of the excited state population as the square root of the quenching speed. Our results provide the experimental evidence of the close connection between KZM and LZT, two textbook paradigms to study the dynamics of the non-equilibrium phenomena.

  10. Simulating the Kibble-Zurek mechanism of the Ising model with a superconducting qubit system

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ming; Wen, Xueda; Sun, Guozhu; Zhang, Dan-Wei; Lan, Dong; Zhou, Yu; Fan, Yunyi; Liu, Yuhao; Tan, Xinsheng; Yu, Haifeng; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Shi-Liang; Han, Siyuan; Wu, Peiheng

    2016-01-01

    The Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) predicts the density of topological defects produced in the dynamical processes of phase transitions in systems ranging from cosmology to condensed matter and quantum materials. The similarity between KZM and the Landau-Zener transition (LZT), which is a standard tool to describe the dynamics of some non-equilibrium physics in contemporary physics, is being extensively exploited. Here we demonstrate the equivalence between KZM in the Ising model and LZT in a superconducting qubit system. We develop a time-resolved approach to study quantum dynamics of LZT with nano-second resolution. By using this technique, we simulate the key features of KZM in the Ising model with LZT, e.g., the boundary between the adiabatic and impulse regions, the freeze-out phenomenon in the impulse region, especially, the scaling law of the excited state population as the square root of the quenching speed. Our results provide the experimental evidence of the close connection between KZM and LZT, two textbook paradigms to study the dynamics of the non-equilibrium phenomena. PMID:26951775

  11. Simulating the Kibble-Zurek mechanism of the Ising model with a superconducting qubit system.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ming; Wen, Xueda; Sun, Guozhu; Zhang, Dan-Wei; Lan, Dong; Zhou, Yu; Fan, Yunyi; Liu, Yuhao; Tan, Xinsheng; Yu, Haifeng; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Shi-Liang; Han, Siyuan; Wu, Peiheng

    2016-03-08

    The Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) predicts the density of topological defects produced in the dynamical processes of phase transitions in systems ranging from cosmology to condensed matter and quantum materials. The similarity between KZM and the Landau-Zener transition (LZT), which is a standard tool to describe the dynamics of some non-equilibrium physics in contemporary physics, is being extensively exploited. Here we demonstrate the equivalence between KZM in the Ising model and LZT in a superconducting qubit system. We develop a time-resolved approach to study quantum dynamics of LZT with nano-second resolution. By using this technique, we simulate the key features of KZM in the Ising model with LZT, e.g., the boundary between the adiabatic and impulse regions, the freeze-out phenomenon in the impulse region, especially, the scaling law of the excited state population as the square root of the quenching speed. Our results provide the experimental evidence of the close connection between KZM and LZT, two textbook paradigms to study the dynamics of the non-equilibrium phenomena.

  12. Hearing the shape of the Ising model with a programmable superconducting-flux annealer.

    PubMed

    Vinci, Walter; Markström, Klas; Boixo, Sergio; Roy, Aidan; Spedalieri, Federico M; Warburton, Paul A; Severini, Simone

    2014-07-16

    Two objects can be distinguished if they have different measurable properties. Thus, distinguishability depends on the Physics of the objects. In considering graphs, we revisit the Ising model as a framework to define physically meaningful spectral invariants. In this context, we introduce a family of refinements of the classical spectrum and consider the quantum partition function. We demonstrate that the energy spectrum of the quantum Ising Hamiltonian is a stronger invariant than the classical one without refinements. For the purpose of implementing the related physical systems, we perform experiments on a programmable annealer with superconducting flux technology. Departing from the paradigm of adiabatic computation, we take advantage of a noisy evolution of the device to generate statistics of low energy states. The graphs considered in the experiments have the same classical partition functions, but different quantum spectra. The data obtained from the annealer distinguish non-isomorphic graphs via information contained in the classical refinements of the functions but not via the differences in the quantum spectra.

  13. Phase transitions and multicritical behavior in the Ising model with dipolar interactions.

    PubMed

    Bab, M A; Horowitz, C M; Rubio Puzzo, M L; Saracco, G P

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the phase diagram of the ferromagnetic Ising model with dipole interactions is revisited with the aim of determining the nature of the phase transition between stripe-ordered phases with width n (h_{n}) and tetragonal liquid (TL) phases. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are performed in order to study the short-time dynamic behavior of the observables for selected values of the ratio between the ferromagnetic exchange and dipolar constants δ. The obtained results indicate that the h_{1}-TL phase transition line is continuous up to δ=1.2585, while for the h_{2}-TL line a weak first-order character is found in the interval 1.2585≤δ≤1.36 and becomes continuous for 1.37≤δ≤1.9. This result suggests the existence of a tricritical point close to δ=1.37. When it is appropriate, the complete set of critical exponents is obtained, and in all the studied cases they depend on δ but do not belong to the Ising universality class. Furthermore, short-time dynamic studies reveal that at the point where the mentioned lines meet the h_{1}-h_{2} line, i.e., at δ=1.2585, the critical phase corresponding to the h_{1}-TL transition coexists with the h_{2} phase.

  14. Hearing the Shape of the Ising Model with a Programmable Superconducting-Flux Annealer

    PubMed Central

    Vinci, Walter; Markström, Klas; Boixo, Sergio; Roy, Aidan; Spedalieri, Federico M.; Warburton, Paul A.; Severini, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Two objects can be distinguished if they have different measurable properties. Thus, distinguishability depends on the Physics of the objects. In considering graphs, we revisit the Ising model as a framework to define physically meaningful spectral invariants. In this context, we introduce a family of refinements of the classical spectrum and consider the quantum partition function. We demonstrate that the energy spectrum of the quantum Ising Hamiltonian is a stronger invariant than the classical one without refinements. For the purpose of implementing the related physical systems, we perform experiments on a programmable annealer with superconducting flux technology. Departing from the paradigm of adiabatic computation, we take advantage of a noisy evolution of the device to generate statistics of low energy states. The graphs considered in the experiments have the same classical partition functions, but different quantum spectra. The data obtained from the annealer distinguish non-isomorphic graphs via information contained in the classical refinements of the functions but not via the differences in the quantum spectra. PMID:25029660

  15. Hearing the Shape of the Ising Model with a Programmable Superconducting-Flux Annealer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinci, Walter; Markström, Klas; Boixo, Sergio; Roy, Aidan; Spedalieri, Federico M.; Warburton, Paul A.; Severini, Simone

    2014-07-01

    Two objects can be distinguished if they have different measurable properties. Thus, distinguishability depends on the Physics of the objects. In considering graphs, we revisit the Ising model as a framework to define physically meaningful spectral invariants. In this context, we introduce a family of refinements of the classical spectrum and consider the quantum partition function. We demonstrate that the energy spectrum of the quantum Ising Hamiltonian is a stronger invariant than the classical one without refinements. For the purpose of implementing the related physical systems, we perform experiments on a programmable annealer with superconducting flux technology. Departing from the paradigm of adiabatic computation, we take advantage of a noisy evolution of the device to generate statistics of low energy states. The graphs considered in the experiments have the same classical partition functions, but different quantum spectra. The data obtained from the annealer distinguish non-isomorphic graphs via information contained in the classical refinements of the functions but not via the differences in the quantum spectra.

  16. On discrete field theory properties of the dimer and Ising models and their conformal field theory limits

    SciTech Connect

    Kriz, Igor; Loebl, Martin; Somberg, Petr

    2013-05-15

    We study various mathematical aspects of discrete models on graphs, specifically the Dimer and the Ising models. We focus on proving gluing formulas for individual summands of the partition function. We also obtain partial results regarding conjectured limits realized by fermions in rational conformal field theories.

  17. Annealed Ising model with site dilution on self-similar structures.

    PubMed

    Silva, V S T; Andrade, R F S; Salinas, S R

    2014-11-01

    We consider an Ising model on the triangular Apollonian network (AN), with a thermalized distribution of vacant sites. The statistical problem is formulated in a grand canonical ensemble, in terms of the temperature T and a chemical potential μ associated with the concentration of active magnetic sites. We use a well-known transfer-matrix method, with a number of adaptations, to write recursion relations between successive generations of this hierarchical structure. We also investigate the analogous model on the diamond hierarchical lattice (DHL). From the numerical analysis of the recursion relations, we obtain various thermodynamic quantities. In the μ→∞ limit, we reproduce the results for the uniform models: in the AN, the system is magnetically ordered at all temperatures, while in the DHL there is a ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition at a finite value of T. Magnetic ordering, however, is shown to disappear for sufficiently large negative values of the chemical potential.

  18. Type-dependent stochastic Ising model describing the dynamics of a non-symmetric feedback module.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Navarrete, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    We study an alternative approach to model the dynamical behaviors of biological feedback loop, that is, a type-dependent spin system, this class of stochastic models was introduced by Fernández et. al [13], and are useful since take account to inherent variability of gene expression. We analyze a non-symmetric feedback module being an extension for the repressilator, the first synthetic biological oscillator, invented by Elowitz and Leibler [7]. We consider a mean-field dynamics for a type-dependent Ising model, and then study the empirical-magnetization vector representing concentration of molecules. We apply a convergence result from stochastic jump processes to deterministic trajectories and present a bifurcation analysis for the associated dynamical system. We show that non-symmetric module under study can exhibit very rich behaviours, including the empirical oscillations described by repressilator.

  19. Slow relaxation in a constrained Ising spin chain: toy model for granular compaction.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Satya N; Dean, David S

    2002-11-01

    We present detailed analytical studies on the zero-temperature coarsening dynamics in an Ising spin chain in the presence of a dynamically induced field that favors locally the "-" phase compared to the "+" phase. We show that the presence of such a local kinetic bias drives the system into a late time state with average magnetization m equal to -1. However the magnetization relaxes into this final value extremely slowly in an inverse logarithmic fashion. We further map this spin model exactly onto a simple lattice model of granular compaction that includes the minimal microscopic moves needed for compaction. This toy model then predicts analytically an inverse logarithmic law for the growth of density of granular particles, as seen in recent experiments and thereby provides a mechanism for the inverse logarithmic relaxation. Our analysis utilizes an independent interval approximation for the particle and the hole clusters and is argued to be exact at late times (supported also by numerical simulations).

  20. One-dimensional Ising spin-glass with power-law interaction: real-space renormalization at zero temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monthus, Cécile

    2014-06-01

    For the one-dimensional long-ranged Ising spin-glass with random couplings decaying with the distance $r$ as $J(r) \\sim r^{-\\sigma}$ and distributed with the L\\'evy symmetric stable distribution of index $1 <\\mu \\leq 2$ (including the usual Gaussian case $\\mu=2$), we consider the region $\\sigma>1/\\mu$ where the energy is extensive. We study two real space renormalization procedures at zero temperature, namely a simple box decimation that leads to explicit calculations, and a strong disorder decimation that can be studied numerically on large sizes. The droplet exponent governing the scaling of the renormalized couplings $J_L \\propto L^{\\theta_{\\mu}(\\sigma)}$ is found to be $\\theta_{\\mu}(\\sigma)=\\frac{2}{\\mu}-\\sigma$ whenever the long-ranged couplings are relevant $\\theta_{\\mu}(\\sigma)=\\frac{2}{\\mu}-\\sigma \\geq -1$. For the statistics of the ground state energy $E_L^{GS}$ over disordered samples, we obtain that the droplet exponent $\\theta_{\\mu}(\\sigma) $ governs the leading correction to extensivity of the averaged value $\\overline{E_L^{GS}} \\simeq L e_0 +L^{\\theta_{\\mu}(\\sigma)} e_1$. The characteristic scale of the fluctuations around this average is of order $L^{\\frac{1}{\\mu}}$, and the rescaled variable $u=(E_L^{GS}-\\overline{E_L^{GS}})/L^{\\frac{1}{\\mu}}$ is Gaussian distributed for $\\mu=2$, or displays the negative power-law tail in $1/(-u)^{1+\\mu}$ for $u \\to -\\infty$ in the L\\'evy case $1<\\mu<2$.

  1. Ising model for neural data: Model quality and approximate methods for extracting functional connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roudi, Yasser; Tyrcha, Joanna; Hertz, John

    2009-05-01

    We study pairwise Ising models for describing the statistics of multineuron spike trains, using data from a simulated cortical network. We explore efficient ways of finding the optimal couplings in these models and examine their statistical properties. To do this, we extract the optimal couplings for subsets of size up to 200 neurons, essentially exactly, using Boltzmann learning. We then study the quality of several approximate methods for finding the couplings by comparing their results with those found from Boltzmann learning. Two of these methods—inversion of the Thouless-Anderson-Palmer equations and an approximation proposed by Sessak and Monasson—are remarkably accurate. Using these approximations for larger subsets of neurons, we find that extracting couplings using data from a subset smaller than the full network tends systematically to overestimate their magnitude. This effect is described qualitatively by infinite-range spin-glass theory for the normal phase. We also show that a globally correlated input to the neurons in the network leads to a small increase in the average coupling. However, the pair-to-pair variation in the couplings is much larger than this and reflects intrinsic properties of the network. Finally, we study the quality of these models by comparing their entropies with that of the data. We find that they perform well for small subsets of the neurons in the network, but the fit quality starts to deteriorate as the subset size grows, signaling the need to include higher-order correlations to describe the statistics of large networks.

  2. Specific-heat exponent and modified hyperscaling in the 4D random-field Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fytas, N. G.; Martín-Mayor, V.; Picco, M.; Sourlas, N.

    2017-03-01

    We report a high-precision numerical estimation of the critical exponent α of the specific heat of the random-field Ising model in four dimensions. Our result α =0.12(1) indicates a diverging specific-heat behavior and is consistent with the estimation coming from the modified hyperscaling relation using our estimate of θ via the anomalous dimensions η and \\barη . Our analysis benefited from a high-statistics zero-temperature numerical simulation of the model for two distributions of the random fields, namely a Gaussian and Poissonian distribution, as well as recent advances in finite-size scaling and reweighting methods for disordered systems. An original estimate of the critical slowing down exponent z of the maximum-flow algorithm used is also provided.

  3. The bulk, surface and corner free energies of the square lattice Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    We use Kaufman’s spinor method to calculate the bulk, surface and corner free energies {f}{{b}},{f}{{s}},{f}{{s}}\\prime ,{f}{{c}} of the anisotropic square lattice zero-field Ising model for the ordered ferromagnetic case. For {f}{{b}},{f}{{s}},{f}{{s}}\\prime our results of course agree with the early work of Onsager, McCoy and Wu. We also find agreement with the conjectures made by Vernier and Jacobsen (VJ) for the isotropic case. We note that the corner free energy f c depends only on the elliptic modulus k that enters the working, and not on the argument v, which means that VJ’s conjecture applies for the full anisotropic model. The only aspect of this paper that is new is the actual derivation of f c, but by reporting all four free energies together we can see interesting structures linking them.

  4. Effective time reversal and echo dynamics in the transverse field Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Markus; Kehrein, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    The question of thermalisation in closed quantum many-body systems has received a lot of attention in the past few years. An intimately related question is whether a closed quantum system shows irreversible dynamics. However, irreversibility and what we actually mean by this in a quantum many-body system with unitary dynamics has been explored very little. In this work we investigate the dynamics of the Ising model in a transverse magnetic field involving an imperfect effective time reversal. We propose a definition of irreversibility based on the echo peak decay of observables. Inducing the effective time reversal by different protocols we find an algebraic decay of the echo peak heights or an ever persisting echo peak indicating that the dynamics in this model is well reversible.

  5. The three-dimensional Ising spin glass in an external magnetic field: the role of the silent majority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baity-Jesi, M.; Baños, R. A.; Cruz, A.; Fernandez, L. A.; Gil-Narvion, J. M.; Gordillo-Guerrero, A.; Iñiguez, D.; Maiorano, A.; Mantovani, F.; Marinari, E.; Martin-Mayor, V.; Monforte-Garcia, J.; Muñoz Sudupe, A.; Navarro, D.; Parisi, G.; Perez-Gaviro, S.; Pivanti, M.; Ricci-Tersenghi, F.; Ruiz-Lorenzo, J. J.; Schifano, S. F.; Seoane, B.; Tarancon, A.; Tripiccione, R.; Yllanes, D.

    2014-05-01

    We perform equilibrium parallel-tempering simulations of the 3D Ising Edwards-Anderson spin glass in a field, using the Janus computer. A traditional analysis shows no signs of a phase transition. However, we encounter dramatic fluctuations in the behaviour of the model: averages over all the data only describe the behaviour of a small fraction of the data. Therefore, we develop a new approach to study the equilibrium behaviour of the system, by classifying the measurements as a function of a conditioning variate. We propose a finite-size scaling analysis based on the probability distribution function of the conditioning variate, which may accelerate the convergence to the thermodynamic limit. In this way, we find a non-trivial spectrum of behaviours, where some of the measurements behave as the average, while the majority show signs of scale invariance. As a result, we can estimate the temperature interval where the phase transition in a field ought to lie, if it exists. Although this would-be critical regime is unreachable with present resources, the numerical challenge is finally well posed.

  6. On a three-dimensional symmetric Ising tetrahedron and contributions to the theory of the dilogarithm and Clausen functions

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, Mark W.

    2008-04-15

    Perturbative quantum field theory for the Ising model at the three-loop level yields a tetrahedral Feynman diagram C(a,b) with masses a and b and four other lines with unit mass. The completely symmetric tetrahedron C{sup Tet}{identical_to}C(1,1) has been of interest from many points of view, with several representations and conjectures having been given in the literature. We prove a conjectured exponentially fast convergent sum for C(1,1), as well as a previously empirical relation for C(1,1) as a remarkable difference of Clausen function values. Our presentation includes propositions extending the theory of the dilogarithm Li{sub 2} and Clausen Cl{sub 2} functions, as well as their relation to other special functions of mathematical physics. The results strengthen connections between Feynman diagram integrals, volumes in hyperbolic space, number theory, and special functions and numbers, specifically including dilogarithms, Clausen function values, and harmonic numbers.

  7. Engineered two-dimensional Ising interactions in a trapped-ion quantum simulator with hundreds of spins.

    PubMed

    Britton, Joseph W; Sawyer, Brian C; Keith, Adam C; Wang, C-C Joseph; Freericks, James K; Uys, Hermann; Biercuk, Michael J; Bollinger, John J

    2012-04-25

    The presence of long-range quantum spin correlations underlies a variety of physical phenomena in condensed-matter systems, potentially including high-temperature superconductivity. However, many properties of exotic, strongly correlated spin systems, such as spin liquids, have proved difficult to study, in part because calculations involving N-body entanglement become intractable for as few as N ≈ 30 particles. Feynman predicted that a quantum simulator--a special-purpose 'analogue' processor built using quantum bits (qubits)--would be inherently suited to solving such problems. In the context of quantum magnetism, a number of experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach, but simulations allowing controlled, tunable interactions between spins localized on two- or three-dimensional lattices of more than a few tens of qubits have yet to be demonstrated, in part because of the technical challenge of realizing large-scale qubit arrays. Here we demonstrate a variable-range Ising-type spin-spin interaction, J(i,j), on a naturally occurring, two-dimensional triangular crystal lattice of hundreds of spin-half particles (beryllium ions stored in a Penning trap). This is a computationally relevant scale more than an order of magnitude larger than previous experiments. We show that a spin-dependent optical dipole force can produce an antiferromagnetic interaction J(i,j) proportional variant d(-a)(i,j), where 0 ≤ a ≤ 3 and d(i,j) is the distance between spin pairs. These power laws correspond physically to infinite-range (a = 0), Coulomb-like (a = 1), monopole-dipole (a = 2) and dipole-dipole (a = 3) couplings. Experimentally, we demonstrate excellent agreement with a theory for 0.05 ≲ a ≲ 1.4. This demonstration, coupled with the high spin count, excellent quantum control and low technical complexity of the Penning trap, brings within reach the simulation of otherwise computationally intractable problems in quantum magnetism.

  8. Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition of the axial next-nearest-neighbor Ising model in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirakura, T.; Matsubara, F.; Suzuki, N.

    2014-10-01

    The spin structure of an axial next-nearest-neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model in two dimensions (2D) is a renewed problem because different Monte Carlo (MC) simulation methods predicted different spin orderings. The usual equilibrium simulation predicts the occurrence of a floating incommensurate (IC) Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) type phase, which never emerges in non-equilibrium relaxation (NER) simulations. In this paper, we first examine previously published results of both methods, and then investigate a higher transition temperature Tc1 between the IC and paramagnetic phases. In the usual equilibrium simulation, we calculate the chain magnetization on larger lattices (up to 512×512 sites) and estimate Tc1≈1.16J with frustration ratio κ (≡-J2/J1)=0.6. We examine the nature of the phase transition in terms of the Binder ratio gL of spin overlap functions and the correlation-length ratio ξ /L. In the NER simulation, we observe the spin dynamics in equilibrium states by means of an autocorrelation function and also observe the chain magnetization relaxations from the ground and disordered states. These quantities exhibit an algebraic decay at T ≲1.17J. We conclude that the two-dimensional ANNNI model actually admits an IC phase transition of the KT type.

  9. Thermodynamic, critical properties and phase transitions of the Ising model on a square lattice with competing interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramazanov, M. K.; Murtazaev, A. K.; Magomedov, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    The thermodynamic and critical properties, and phase transitions of two-dimensional Ising model on a square lattice with competing interactions are investigated by the Monte Carlo method. Estimations are made for the magnitude relations of the next-nearest-neighbor and nearest-neighbor exchange interactions r=J2/J1 in the value ranges of 0.1≤r≤1.0. The anomalies of thermodynamic observables are shown to be present in this model on the interval 0.45≤r≤0.5. The phase diagram for the dependence of the critical temperature on a value of next-nearest neighbor interaction is plotted. A phase transition for all values in the interval 0.45≤r≤0.5 is shown to be a second order. Our data show that the temperature of the heat capacity maximum at r=0.5 tends to a finite value. The static critical exponents of the heat capacity α, susceptibility γ, order parameter β, correlation length ν, and the Fisher exponent η are calculated by means of the finite-size scaling theory. It is found that the change in next-nearest neighbor interaction value in the range 0.7≤r≤1.0 leads to nonuniversal critical behavior.

  10. Highly optimized simulations on single- and multi-GPU systems of the 3D Ising spin glass model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lulli, M.; Bernaschi, M.; Parisi, G.

    2015-11-01

    We present a highly optimized implementation of a Monte Carlo (MC) simulator for the three-dimensional Ising spin-glass model with bimodal disorder, i.e., the 3D Edwards-Anderson model running on CUDA enabled GPUs. Multi-GPU systems exchange data by means of the Message Passing Interface (MPI). The chosen MC dynamics is the classic Metropolis one, which is purely dissipative, since the aim was the study of the critical off-equilibrium relaxation of the system. We focused on the following issues: (i) the implementation of efficient memory access patterns for nearest neighbours in a cubic stencil and for lagged-Fibonacci-like pseudo-Random Numbers Generators (PRNGs); (ii) a novel implementation of the asynchronous multispin-coding Metropolis MC step allowing to store one spin per bit and (iii) a multi-GPU version based on a combination of MPI and CUDA streams. Cubic stencils and PRNGs are two subjects of very general interest because of their widespread use in many simulation codes.

  11. Missing mass approximations for the partition function of stimulus driven Ising models.

    PubMed

    Haslinger, Robert; Ba, Demba; Galuske, Ralf; Williams, Ziv; Pipa, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Ising models are routinely used to quantify the second order, functional structure of neural populations. With some recent exceptions, they generally do not include the influence of time varying stimulus drive. Yet if the dynamics of network function are to be understood, time varying stimuli must be taken into account. Inclusion of stimulus drive carries a heavy computational burden because the partition function becomes stimulus dependent and must be separately calculated for all unique stimuli observed. This potentially increases computation time by the length of the data set. Here we present an extremely fast, yet simply implemented, method for approximating the stimulus dependent partition function in minutes or seconds. Noting that the most probable spike patterns (which are few) occur in the training data, we sum partition function terms corresponding to those patterns explicitly. We then approximate the sum over the remaining patterns (which are improbable, but many) by casting it in terms of the stimulus modulated missing mass (total stimulus dependent probability of all patterns not observed in the training data). We use a product of conditioned logistic regression models to approximate the stimulus modulated missing mass. This method has complexity of roughly O(LNNpat) where is L the data length, N the number of neurons and N pat the number of unique patterns in the data, contrasting with the O(L2 (N) ) complexity of alternate methods. Using multiple unit recordings from rat hippocampus, macaque DLPFC and cat Area 18 we demonstrate our method requires orders of magnitude less computation time than Monte Carlo methods and can approximate the stimulus driven partition function more accurately than either Monte Carlo methods or deterministic approximations. This advance allows stimuli to be easily included in Ising models making them suitable for studying population based stimulus encoding.

  12. Renormalization-group study of the ferromagnetic Ising model on the triangular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Chris

    1984-08-01

    The dynamic real-space renormalization group of Mazenko and Valls is applied to the zero-field ferromagnetic Ising model on the triangular lattice. Renormalization equations valid for all temperatures above the critical temperature Tc are derived for the susceptibility, specific heat, structure factor, and correlation length. The magnetization is found for T

  13. Almost Gibbsianness and Parsimonious Description of the Decimated 2d-Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Ny, Arnaud

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we complete and provide details for the existing characterizations of the decimation of the Ising model on {Z}2 in the generalized Gibbs context. We first recall a few features of the Dobrushin program of restoration of Gibbsianness and present the construction of global specifications consistent with the extremal decimated measures. We use them to prove that these renormalized measures are almost Gibbsian at any temperature and to analyse in detail its convex set of DLR measures. We also recall the weakly Gibbsian description and complete it using a potential that admits a quenched correlation decay, i.e. a well-defined configuration-dependent length beyond which this potential decays exponentially. We use these results to incorporate these decimated measures in the new framework of parsimonious random fields that has been recently developed to investigate probability aspects related to neurosciences.

  14. The cellular Ising model: a framework for phase transitions in multicellular environments.

    PubMed

    Weber, Marc; Buceta, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Inspired by the Ising model, we introduce a gene regulatory network that induces a phase transition that coordinates robustly the behaviour of cell ensembles. The building blocks of the design are the so-called toggle switch interfaced with two quorum sensing modules, Las and Lux. We show that as a function of the transport rate of signalling molecules across the cell membrane the population undergoes a spontaneous symmetry breaking from cells individually switching their phenotypes to a global collective phenotypic organization. By characterizing the critical behaviour, we reveal some properties, such as phenotypic memory and hypersensitivity, with relevance in the field of synthetic biology. We argue that our results can be extrapolated to other multicellular systems and be a generic framework for collective decision-making processes.

  15. Rhythmic behavior in a two-population mean-field Ising model.

    PubMed

    Collet, Francesca; Formentin, Marco; Tovazzi, Daniele

    2016-10-01

    Many real systems composed of a large number of interacting components, as, for instance, neural networks, may exhibit collective periodic behavior even though single components have no natural tendency to behave periodically. Macroscopic oscillations are indeed one of the most common self-organized behavior observed in living systems. In the present paper we study some dynamical features of a two-population generalization of the mean-field Ising model with the scope of investigating simple mechanisms capable to generate rhythms in large groups of interacting individuals. We show that the system may undergo a transition from a disordered phase, where the magnetization of each population fluctuates closely around zero, to a phase in which they both display a macroscopic regular rhythm. In particular, there exists a region in the parameter space where having two groups of spins with inter- and intrapopulation interactions of different strengths suffices for the emergence of a robust periodic behavior.

  16. Magnetic behavior of a mixed Ising 3/2 and 5/2 spin model.

    PubMed

    De la Espriella, N; Buendía, G M

    2011-05-04

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations in order to study the magnetic properties of the mixed spin-S = ± 3/2, ± 1/2 and spin-σ = ± 5/2, ± 3/2, ± 1/2 Ising model. The spins are alternated on a square lattice such that S and σ are nearest neighbors. We found that when the Hamiltonian includes antiferromagnetic interactions between the S and σ spins, ferromagnetic interactions between the spins S, and a crystal field, the system presents compensation temperatures in a certain range of the parameters. The compensation temperatures are temperatures below the critical point where the total magnetization is zero, and they have important technological applications. We calculate the finite-temperature phase diagrams of the system. We found that the existence of compensation temperatures depends on the strength of the ferromagnetic interaction between the S spins.

  17. Magnetic behavior of a mixed Ising 3/2 and 5/2 spin model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Espriella, N.; Buendía, G. M.

    2011-05-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations in order to study the magnetic properties of the mixed spin-S = ± 3/2, ± 1/2 and spin-σ = ± 5/2, ± 3/2, ± 1/2 Ising model. The spins are alternated on a square lattice such that S and σ are nearest neighbors. We found that when the Hamiltonian includes antiferromagnetic interactions between the S and σ spins, ferromagnetic interactions between the spins S, and a crystal field, the system presents compensation temperatures in a certain range of the parameters. The compensation temperatures are temperatures below the critical point where the total magnetization is zero, and they have important technological applications. We calculate the finite-temperature phase diagrams of the system. We found that the existence of compensation temperatures depends on the strength of the ferromagnetic interaction between the S spins.

  18. Quantum phase transition of the transverse-field quantum Ising model on scale-free networks.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hangmo

    2015-01-01

    I investigate the quantum phase transition of the transverse-field quantum Ising model in which nearest neighbors are defined according to the connectivity of scale-free networks. Using a continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo simulation method and the finite-size scaling analysis, I identify the quantum critical point and study its scaling characteristics. For the degree exponent λ=6, I obtain results that are consistent with the mean-field theory. For λ=4.5 and 4, however, the results suggest that the quantum critical point belongs to a non-mean-field universality class. Further simulations indicate that the quantum critical point remains mean-field-like if λ>5, but it continuously deviates from the mean-field theory as λ becomes smaller.

  19. Information flow in a kinetic Ising model peaks in the disordered phase.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Lionel; Lizier, Joseph T; Harré, Michael; Seth, Anil K; Bossomaier, Terry

    2013-10-25

    There is growing evidence that for a range of dynamical systems featuring complex interactions between large ensembles of interacting elements, mutual information peaks at order-disorder phase transitions. We conjecture that, by contrast, information flow in such systems will generally peak strictly on the disordered side of a phase transition. This conjecture is verified for a ferromagnetic 2D lattice Ising model with Glauber dynamics and a transfer entropy-based measure of systemwide information flow. Implications of the conjecture are considered, in particular, that for a complex dynamical system in the process of transitioning from disordered to ordered dynamics (a mechanism implicated, for example, in financial market crashes and the onset of some types of epileptic seizures); information dynamics may be able to predict an imminent transition.

  20. First-order transition and tricritical behavior of the transverse crystal field spin-1 Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costabile, Emanuel; Viana, J. Roberto; de Sousa, J. Ricardo; de Arruda, Alberto S.

    2015-06-01

    The phase diagram of the spin-1 Ising model in the presence of a transverse crystal-field anisotropy (Dx) is studied within the framework of an effective-field theory with correlation. The effect of the coordination number (z) on the phase diagram in the T -Dx plane is investigated. We observe only second-order transitions for coordination number z < 7, while that for z ≥ 7 we have first- and second-order transitions, with the presence of two tricritical points. The lower tricritical temperature (Tt) decreases monotonically with the increasing value of z, and in the limit of z → ∞ we found Tt = 0, corresponding to the mean-field solution [Ricardo de Sousa and Branco, Phys. Rev. E 77 (2008) 012104] with a single tricritical point in the phase diagram.

  1. Rhythmic behavior in a two-population mean-field Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collet, Francesca; Formentin, Marco; Tovazzi, Daniele

    2016-10-01

    Many real systems composed of a large number of interacting components, as, for instance, neural networks, may exhibit collective periodic behavior even though single components have no natural tendency to behave periodically. Macroscopic oscillations are indeed one of the most common self-organized behavior observed in living systems. In the present paper we study some dynamical features of a two-population generalization of the mean-field Ising model with the scope of investigating simple mechanisms capable to generate rhythms in large groups of interacting individuals. We show that the system may undergo a transition from a disordered phase, where the magnetization of each population fluctuates closely around zero, to a phase in which they both display a macroscopic regular rhythm. In particular, there exists a region in the parameter space where having two groups of spins with inter- and intrapopulation interactions of different strengths suffices for the emergence of a robust periodic behavior.

  2. Convex-set description of quantum phase transitions in the transverse Ising model using reduced-density-matrix theory.

    PubMed

    Schwerdtfeger, Christine A; Mazziotti, David A

    2009-06-14

    Quantum phase transitions in N-particle systems can be identified and characterized by the movement of the two-particle reduced density matrix (2-RDM) along the boundary of its N-representable convex set as a function of the Hamiltonian parameter controlling the phase transition [G. Gidofalvi and D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. A 74, 012501 (2006)]. For the one-dimensional transverse Ising model quantum phase transitions as well as their finite-lattice analogs are computed and characterized by the 2-RDM movement with respect to the transverse magnetic field strength g. The definition of a 2-RDM "speed" quantifies the movement of the 2-RDM per unit of g, which reaches its maximum at the critical point of the phase transition. For the infinite lattice the convex set of 2-RDMs and the 2-RDM speed are computed from the exact solution of the 2-RDM in the thermodynamic limit of infinite N [P. Pfeuty, Ann. Phys. 57, 79 (1970)]. For the finite lattices we compute the 2-RDM convex set and its speed by the variational 2-RDM method [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 213001 (2004)] in which approximate ground-state 2-RDMs are calculated without N-particle wave functions by using constraints, known as N-representability conditions, to restrict the 2-RDMs to represent quantum system of N fermions. Advantages of the method include: (i) rigorous lower bounds on the ground-state energies, (ii) polynomial scaling of the calculation with N, and (iii) independence of the N-representability conditions from a reference wave function, which enables the modeling of multiple quantum phases. Comparing the 2-RDM convex sets for the finite- and infinite-site lattices reveals that the variational 2-RDM method accurately captures the shape of the convex set and the signature of the phase transition in the 2-RDM movement. From the 2-RDM all one- and two-particle expectation values (or order parameters) of the quantum Ising model can also be computed including the pair correlation function, which

  3. Exact enumeration of an Ising model for Ni2MnGa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenbach, Markus; Brown, Gregory; Nicholson, Don M.

    2014-03-01

    Exact evaluations of partition functions are generally prohibitively expensive due to exponential growth of phase space with the degrees of freedom. An Ising model with N sites has 2N possible states, requiring the use of better scaling methods, such as importance sampling Monte-Carlo for all but the smallest systems. Yet the ability to obtain exact solutions for large systems can provide important benchmark results and opportunities for unobscured insight into the underlying physics of the system. Here we present an Ising model for the magnetic sublattices of the important magneto-caloric material Ni2MnGa and use an exact enumeration algorithm to calculate the number of states g(E ,M1 ,M2) for each energy E and sublattice magnetization M1 and M2. This allows the efficient calculation of the partition function and derived thermodynamic quantities such as specific heat and susceptibility. Utilizing resources at the Oak Ridge Leadership Facility we are able to calculate g(E ,M1 ,M2) for systems of up to 48 sites, which provides important insight into the mechanism for the large magnet-caloric effect in Mn2NiGa as well as an important benchmark for Monte-Carlo based calculations (esp. Wang-Landau) of g(E ,M1 ,M2) . Work sponsored by the Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Science, U.S. DOE. The research used resources of the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility, supported by the Office of Science of DOE (DE-AC05-00OR22725).

  4. Thermal entanglement of a spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg model on a symmetrical diamond chain.

    PubMed

    Ananikian, N S; Ananikyan, L N; Chakhmakhchyan, L A; Rojas, Onofre

    2012-06-27

    The entanglement quantum properties of a spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg model on a symmetrical diamond chain were analyzed. Due to the separable nature of the Ising-type exchange interactions between neighboring Heisenberg dimers, calculation of the entanglement can be performed exactly for each individual dimer. Pairwise thermal entanglement was studied in terms of the isotropic Ising-Heisenberg model and analytical expressions for the concurrence (as a measure of bipartite entanglement) were obtained. The effects of external magnetic field H and next-nearest neighbor interaction J(m) between nodal Ising sites were considered. The ground state structure and entanglement properties of the system were studied in a wide range of coupling constant values. Various regimes with different values of ground state entanglement were revealed, depending on the relation between competing interaction strengths. Finally, some novel effects, such as the two-peak behavior of concurrence versus temperature and coexistence of phases with different values of magnetic entanglement, were observed.

  5. Long-range Ising model for credit portfolios with heterogeneous credit exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kensuke

    2016-11-01

    We propose the finite-size long-range Ising model as a model for heterogeneous credit portfolios held by a financial institution in the view of econophysics. The model expresses the heterogeneity of the default probability and the default correlation by dividing a credit portfolio into multiple sectors characterized by credit rating and industry. The model also expresses the heterogeneity of the credit exposure, which is difficult to evaluate analytically, by applying the replica exchange Monte Carlo method to numerically calculate the loss distribution. To analyze the characteristics of the loss distribution for credit portfolios with heterogeneous credit exposures, we apply this model to various credit portfolios and evaluate credit risk. As a result, we show that the tail of the loss distribution calculated by this model has characteristics that are different from the tail of the loss distribution of the standard models used in credit risk modeling. We also show that there is a possibility of different evaluations of credit risk according to the pattern of heterogeneity.

  6. Is the full susceptibility of the square-lattice Ising model a differentially algebraic function?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttmann, A. J.; Jensen, I.; Maillard, J.-M.; Pantone, J.

    2016-12-01

    We study the class of non-holonomic power series with integer coefficients that reduce, modulo primes, or powers of primes, to algebraic functions. In particular we try to determine whether the susceptibility of the square-lattice Ising model belongs to this class, and more broadly whether the susceptibility is a solution of a differentially algebraic equation. Initial results on Tutte's nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) and other simple quadratic nonlinear ODEs suggest that a large set of differentially algebraic power series solutions with integer coefficients might reduce to algebraic functions modulo primes, or powers of primes. Since diagonals of rational functions are well-known to reduce, modulo primes, or powers of primes, to algebraic functions, a large subset of differentially algebraic power series with integer coefficients may be viewed as a natural ‘nonlinear’ generalisation of diagonals of rational functions. Here we give several examples of series with integer coefficients and non-zero radius of convergence that reduce to algebraic functions modulo (almost) every prime (or power of a prime). These examples satisfy differentially algebraic equations with the encoding polynomial occasionally possessing quite high degree (and thus difficult to identify even with long series). These examples shed important light on the very nature of such differentially algebraic series. Additionally, we have extended both the high- and low-temperature Ising square-lattice susceptibility series to 5043 coefficients. We find that even this long series is insufficient to determine whether it reduces to algebraic functions modulo 3, 5, etc. This negative result is in contrast to the comparatively easy confirmation that the corresponding series reduce to algebraic functions modulo powers of 2. Finally we show that even with 5043 terms we are unable to identify an underlying differentially algebraic equation for the susceptibility, ruling out a number of

  7. Many-body localization in Ising models with random long-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haoyuan; Wang, Jia; Liu, Xia-Ji; Hu, Hui

    2016-12-01

    We theoretically investigate the many-body localization phase transition in a one-dimensional Ising spin chain with random long-range spin-spin interactions, Vi j∝|i-j |-α , where the exponent of the interaction range α can be tuned from zero to infinitely large. By using exact diagonalization, we calculate the half-chain entanglement entropy and the energy spectral statistics and use them to characterize the phase transition towards the many-body localization phase at infinite temperature and at sufficiently large disorder strength. We perform finite-size scaling to extract the critical disorder strength and the critical exponent of the divergent localization length. With increasing α , the critical exponent experiences a sharp increase at about αc≃1.2 and then gradually decreases to a value found earlier in a disordered short-ranged interacting spin chain. For α <αc , we find that the system is mostly localized and the increase in the disorder strength may drive a transition between two many-body localized phases. In contrast, for α >αc , the transition is from a thermalized phase to the many-body localization phase. Our predictions could be experimentally tested with an ion-trap quantum emulator with programmable random long-range interactions, or with randomly distributed Rydberg atoms or polar molecules in lattices.

  8. Highlighting the structure-function relationship of the brain with the Ising model and graph theory.

    PubMed

    Das, T K; Abeyasinghe, P M; Crone, J S; Sosnowski, A; Laureys, S; Owen, A M; Soddu, A

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of neuroimaging techniques, it becomes feasible to explore the structure-function relationships in the brain. When the brain is not involved in any cognitive task or stimulated by any external output, it preserves important activities which follow well-defined spatial distribution patterns. Understanding the self-organization of the brain from its anatomical structure, it has been recently suggested to model the observed functional pattern from the structure of white matter fiber bundles. Different models which study synchronization (e.g., the Kuramoto model) or global dynamics (e.g., the Ising model) have shown success in capturing fundamental properties of the brain. In particular, these models can explain the competition between modularity and specialization and the need for integration in the brain. Graphing the functional and structural brain organization supports the model and can also highlight the strategy used to process and organize large amount of information traveling between the different modules. How the flow of information can be prevented or partially destroyed in pathological states, like in severe brain injured patients with disorders of consciousness or by pharmacological induction like in anaesthesia, will also help us to better understand how global or integrated behavior can emerge from local and modular interactions.

  9. Ising Critical Behavior of Inhomogeneous Curie-Weiss Models and Annealed Random Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommers, Sander; Giardinà, Cristian; Giberti, Claudio; van der Hofstad, Remco; Prioriello, Maria Luisa

    2016-11-01

    We study the critical behavior for inhomogeneous versions of the Curie-Weiss model, where the coupling constant {J_{ij}(β)} for the edge {ij} on the complete graph is given by {J_{ij}(β)=β w_iw_j/( {sum_{kin[N]}w_k})}. We call the product form of these couplings the rank-1 inhomogeneous Curie-Weiss model. This model also arises [with inverse temperature {β} replaced by {sinh(β)} ] from the annealed Ising model on the generalized random graph. We assume that the vertex weights {(w_i)_{iin[N]}} are regular, in the sense that their empirical distribution converges and the second moment converges as well. We identify the critical temperatures and exponents for these models, as well as a non-classical limit theorem for the total spin at the critical point. These depend sensitively on the number of finite moments of the weight distribution. When the fourth moment of the weight distribution converges, then the critical behavior is the same as on the (homogeneous) Curie-Weiss model, so that the inhomogeneity is weak. When the fourth moment of the weights converges to infinity, and the weights satisfy an asymptotic power law with exponent {τ} with {τin(3,5)}, then the critical exponents depend sensitively on {τ}. In addition, at criticality, the total spin {S_N} satisfies that {S_N/N^{(τ-2)/(τ-1)}} converges in law to some limiting random variable whose distribution we explicitly characterize.

  10. Chaotic Ising-like dynamics in traffic signals

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-ichi; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The green and red lights of a traffic signal can be viewed as the up and down states of an Ising spin. Moreover, traffic signals in a city interact with each other, if they are controlled in a decentralised way. In this paper, a simple model of such interacting signals on a finite-size two-dimensional lattice is shown to have Ising-like dynamics that undergoes a ferromagnetic phase transition. Probabilistic behaviour of the model is realised by chaotic billiard dynamics that arises from coupled non-chaotic elements. This purely deterministic model is expected to serve as a starting point for considering statistical mechanics of traffic signals. PMID:23350034

  11. Effect of next-nearest neighbor interactions on the dynamic order parameter of the Kinetic Ising model in an oscillating field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baez, William D.; Datta, Trinanjan

    We study the effects of next-nearest neighbor (NNN) interactions in the two-dimensional ferromagnetic kinetic Ising model exposed to an oscillating field. By tuning the interaction ratio (p =JNNN /JNN) of the NNN (JNNN) to the nearest-neighbor (NN) interaction (JNN) we find that the model undergoes a transition from a regime in which the dynamic order parameter Q is equal to zero to a phase in which Q is not equal to zero. From our studies we conclude that the model can exhibit an interaction induced transition from a deterministic to a stochastic state. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the systemsˆˆe2ˆˆ80ˆˆ99 metastable lifetime is sensitive not only to the lattice size, external field amplitude, and temperature (as found in earlier studies) but also to additional interactions present in the system.

  12. CUDA programs for the GPU computing of the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip algorithm: 2D and 3D Ising, Potts, and XY models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komura, Yukihiro; Okabe, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    We present sample CUDA programs for the GPU computing of the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip algorithm. We deal with the classical spin models; the Ising model, the q-state Potts model, and the classical XY model. As for the lattice, both the 2D (square) lattice and the 3D (simple cubic) lattice are treated. We already reported the idea of the GPU implementation for 2D models (Komura and Okabe, 2012). We here explain the details of sample programs, and discuss the performance of the present GPU implementation for the 3D Ising and XY models. We also show the calculated results of the moment ratio for these models, and discuss phase transitions. Catalogue identifier: AERM_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERM_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5632 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 14688 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C, CUDA. Computer: System with an NVIDIA CUDA enabled GPU. Operating system: System with an NVIDIA CUDA enabled GPU. Classification: 23. External routines: NVIDIA CUDA Toolkit 3.0 or newer Nature of problem: Monte Carlo simulation of classical spin systems. Ising, q-state Potts model, and the classical XY model are treated for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional lattices. Solution method: GPU-based Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster spin flip Monte Carlo method. The CUDA implementation for the cluster-labeling is based on the work by Hawick et al. [1] and that by Kalentev et al. [2]. Restrictions: The system size is limited depending on the memory of a GPU. Running time: For the parameters used in the sample programs, it takes about a minute for each program. Of course, it depends on the system size, the number of Monte Carlo steps, etc. References: [1] K

  13. Theoretical exploration on the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic metallic glass: An Ising model on random recursive lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ran; Zhang, Ling; Chen, Chong; Wu, Chengjie; Yan, Linyin

    2015-07-01

    The ferromagnetic Ising spins are modeled on a recursive lattice constructed from random-angled rhombus units with stochastic configurations, to study the magnetic properties of the bulk Fe-based metallic glass. The integration of spins on the structural glass model well represents the magnetic moments in the glassy metal. The model is exactly solved by the recursive calculation technique. The magnetization of the amorphous Ising spins, i.e. the glassy metallic magnet is investigated by our modeling and calculation on a theoretical base. The results show that the glassy metallic magnets have a lower Curie temperature, weaker magnetization, and higher entropy compared to the regular ferromagnet in crystal form. These findings can be understood with the randomness of the amorphous system, and agree well with other experimental observations.

  14. A new force-extension formula for stretched macromolecules and polymers based on the Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Yue; Haverkamp, Richard G.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we derive a new force-extension formula for stretched macromolecules and homogeneous polymer matrices. The Ising model arising from paramagnetism is employed, where the magnetic force is replaced by the external force, and the resistance energy is addressed in this model instead of the usual persistent length arising from the freely jointed chain and worm-like chain models. While the force-extension formula reveals the distinctive stretching features for stretched polymers, the resistance energy is found to increase almost linearly with the external force for our two polysaccharides stretching examples with and without ring conformational changes. In particular, a jump in the resistance energy which is caused by a conformational transition is investigated, and the gap between the jump determines the energy barrier between two conformational configurations. Our theoretical model matches well with experimental results undergoing no and single conformational transitions, and a Monte Carlo simulation has also been performed to ensure the correctness of the resistance energy. This technique might also be employed to determine the binding energy from other causes during molecular stretching and provide vital information for further theoretical investigations.

  15. Critical behavior of entropy production and learning rate: Ising model with an oscillating field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yirui; Barato, Andre C.

    2016-11-01

    We study the critical behavior of the entropy production of the Ising model subject to a magnetic field that oscillates in time. The mean-field model displays a phase transition that can be either first or second-order, depending on the amplitude of the field and on the frequency of oscillation. Within this approximation the entropy production rate is shown to have a discontinuity when the transition is first-order and to be continuous, with a jump in its first derivative, if the transition is second-order. In two dimensions, we find with numerical simulations that the critical behavior of the entropy production rate is the same, independent of the frequency and amplitude of the field. Its first derivative has a logarithmic divergence at the critical point. This result is in agreement with the lack of a first-order phase transition in two dimensions. We analyze a model with a field that changes at stochastic time-intervals between two values. This model allows for an informational theoretic interpretation, with the system as a sensor that follows the external field. We calculate numerically a lower bound on the learning rate, which quantifies how much information the system obtains about the field. Its first derivative with respect to temperature is found to have a jump at the critical point.

  16. Ising Models, Universality and the Non Renormalization of the Quantum Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastropietro, Vieri

    2010-03-01

    A number of universal relations (proposed by Kadanoff, Luther, Peschel and Haldane) are believed to be true in a wide class of systems with continuously varying indices, among which are interacting planar Ising models, vertex or Ashkin-Teller models, quantum spin chains and 1D Fermi systems; by such relations one can predict several quantities in terms of a few measurable parameters without relying on the specific microscopic details. The validity of such relations can be checked in special solvable models but, despite several attempts, the proof of their general validity was up to now an open problem. A rigorous derivation of several of such relations (for solvable and not solvable models and without any use of exact solutions) has been recently obtained in [8] and [11] through Renormalization Group methods. The proof is based on the representation in terms of Grassmann integrals and the validity of the Adler-Bardeen property of the non renormalization of the quantum anomalies in the asymptotic Ward identities. Gauge invariance is exact only in the scaling limit but the lattice corrections can be rigorously taken into account.

  17. Pair correlations and structure factor of the J1-J2 square lattice Ising model in an external field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Alejandra I.; Stariolo, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    We compute the structure factor of the J1-J2 Ising model in an external field on the square lattice within the Cluster Variation Method. We use a four point plaquette approximation, which is the minimal one able to capture phases with broken orientational order in real space, like the recently reported Ising-nematic phase in the model. The analysis of different local maxima in the structure factor allows us to track the different phases and phase transitions against temperature and external field. Although the nematic susceptibility is not directly related to the structure factor, we show that because of the close relationship between the nematic order parameter and the structure factor, the latter shows unambiguous signatures of the presence of a nematic phase, in agreement with results from direct minimization of a variational free energy. The disorder variety of the model is identified and the possibility that the CVM four point approximation be exact on the disorder variety is discussed.

  18. Ising-like agent-based technology diffusion model: Adoption patterns vs. seeding strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laciana, Carlos E.; Rovere, Santiago L.

    2011-03-01

    The well-known Ising model used in statistical physics was adapted to a social dynamics context to simulate the adoption of a technological innovation. The model explicitly combines (a) an individual's perception of the advantages of an innovation and (b) social influence from members of the decision-maker's social network. The micro-level adoption dynamics are embedded into an agent-based model that allows exploration of macro-level patterns of technology diffusion throughout systems with different configurations (number and distributions of early adopters, social network topologies). In the present work we carry out many numerical simulations. We find that when the gap between the individual's perception of the options is high, the adoption speed increases if the dispersion of early adopters grows. Another test was based on changing the network topology by means of stochastic connections to a common opinion reference (hub), which resulted in an increment in the adoption speed. Finally, we performed a simulation of competition between options for both regular and small world networks.

  19. Information transfer and criticality in the Ising model on the human connectome.

    PubMed

    Marinazzo, Daniele; Pellicoro, Mario; Wu, Guorong; Angelini, Leonardo; Cortés, Jesús M; Stramaglia, Sebastiano

    2014-01-01

    We implement the Ising model on a structural connectivity matrix describing the brain at two different resolutions. Tuning the model temperature to its critical value, i.e. at the susceptibility peak, we find a maximal amount of total information transfer between the spin variables. At this point the amount of information that can be redistributed by some nodes reaches a limit and the net dynamics exhibits signature of the law of diminishing marginal returns, a fundamental principle connected to saturated levels of production. Our results extend the recent analysis of dynamical oscillators models on the connectome structure, taking into account lagged and directional influences, focusing only on the nodes that are more prone to became bottlenecks of information. The ratio between the outgoing and the incoming information at each node is related to the the sum of the weights to that node and to the average time between consecutive time flips of spins. The results for the connectome of 66 nodes and for that of 998 nodes are similar, thus suggesting that these properties are scale-independent. Finally, we also find that the brain dynamics at criticality is organized maximally to a rich-club w.r.t. the network of information flows.

  20. Nonbacktracking operator for the Ising model and its applications in systems with multiple states.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pan

    2015-04-01

    The nonbacktracking operator for a graph is the adjacency matrix defined on directed edges of the graph. The operator was recently shown to perform optimally in spectral clustering in sparse synthetic graphs and have a deep connection to belief propagation algorithm. In this paper we consider nonbacktracking operator for Ising model on a general graph with a general coupling distribution and study the spectrum of this operator analytically. We show that spectral algorithms based on this operator is equivalent to belief propagation algorithm linearized at the paramagnetic fixed point and recovers replica-symmetry results on phase boundaries obtained by replica methods. This operator can be applied directly to systems with multiple states like Hopfield model. We show that spectrum of the operator can be used to determine number of patterns that stored successfully in the network, and the associated eigenvectors can be used to retrieve all the patterns simultaneously. We also give an example on how to control the Hopfield model, i.e., making network more sparse while keeping patterns stable, using the nonbacktracking operator and matrix perturbation theory.

  1. Break of universality for an Ising model with aperiodic Rudin-Shapiro interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, R. F. S.; Pinho, S. T. R.

    2003-08-01

    We analyze the ferromagnetic Ising model on non-Euclidean scale invariant lattices with aperiodic interactions ( J A , J B , J C , J D ) defined by Rudin-Shapiro substitution rules with Migdal-Kadanoff renormalization (MKR) and transfer matrix (TM) techniques. The analysis of the invariant sets of the zero-field MKR transformation indicates that the critical behavior, completely distinct from the one of the uniform model, is described by a new off-diagonal fixed point. This contrasts with other aperiodic models where the new critical behavior is described by a period-two cycle. With the new fixed point, values for the thermal critical exponents, α and ν, as well as the period of log-periodic oscillations, are obtained. Exact recursive maps for all thermodynamical functions are derived within the TM approach. The explicit dependence of the thermodynamical functions with respect to temperature is evaluated by the numerical iteration of the set of maps until a previously chosen convergence is achieved. They also indicate that, depending on the actual choice for the aperiodic coupling constants, the magnetic exponents (β and γ) assume different values. However the Rushbrook relation is always satisfied.

  2. Influence of nonuniform surface magnetic fields in wetting transitions in a confined two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet.

    PubMed

    Trobo, Marta L; Albano, Ezequiel V

    2013-11-01

    Wetting transitions are studied in the two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet confined between walls where competitive surface fields act. In our finite samples of size L×M, the walls are separated by a distance L, M being the length of the sample. The surface fields are taken to be short-range and nonuniform, i.e., of the form H(1),δH(1),H(1),δH(1),..., where the parameter -1≤δ≤1 allows us to control the nonuniformity of the fields. By performing Monte Carlo simulations we found that those competitive surface fields lead to the occurrence of an interface between magnetic domains of different orientation that runs parallel to the walls. In finite samples, such an interface undergoes a localization-delocalization transition, which is the precursor of a true wetting transition that takes place in the thermodynamic limit. By exactly working out the ground state (T=0), we found that besides the standard nonwet and wet phases, a surface antiferromagnetic-like state emerges for δ<-1/3 and large fields (H(1)>3), H(1)(tr)/J=3, δ(tr)=-1/3,T=0, being a triple point where three phases coexist. By means of Monte Carlo simulations it is shown that these features of the phase diagram remain at higher temperatures; e.g., we examined in detail the case T=0.7×T(cb). Furthermore, we also recorded phase diagrams for fixed values of δ, i.e., plots of the critical field at the wetting transition (H(1w)) versus T showing, on the one hand, that the exact results of Abraham [Abraham, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1165 (1980)] for δ=1 are recovered, and on the other hand, that extrapolations to T→0 are consistent with our exact results. Based on our numerical results we conjectured that the exact result for the phase diagram worked out by Abraham can be extended for the case of nonuniform fields. In fact, by considering a nonuniform surface field of some period λ, with λ0], one can obtain the effective field H(eff) at a λ coarse-grained level given by H(eff)=1/

  3. Inverse freezing in a cluster Ising spin-glass model with antiferromagnetic interactions.

    PubMed

    Silva, C F; Zimmer, F M; Magalhaes, S G; Lacroix, C

    2012-11-01

    Inverse freezing is analyzed in a cluster spin-glass (SG) model that considers infinite-range disordered interactions between magnetic moments of different clusters (intercluster interaction) and short-range antiferromagnetic coupling J(1) between Ising spins of the same cluster (intracluster interaction). The intercluster disorder J is treated within a mean-field theory by using a framework of one-step replica symmetry breaking. The effective model obtained by this treatment is computed by means of an exact diagonalization method. With the results we build phase diagrams of temperature T/J versus J(1)/J for several sizes of clusters n(s) (number of spins in the cluster). The phase diagrams show a second-order transition from the paramagnetic phase to the SG order at the freezing temperature T(f) when J(1)/J is small. The increase in J(1)/J can then destroy the SG phase. It decreases T(f)/J and introduces a first-order transition. In addition, inverse freezing can arise at a certain range of J(1)/J and large enough n(s). Therefore, the nontrivial frustration generated by disorder and short-range antiferromagnetic coupling can introduce inverse freezing spontaneously.

  4. Bayesian Feature Selection with Strongly Regularizing Priors Maps to the Ising Model.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Charles K; Mehta, Pankaj

    2015-11-01

    Identifying small subsets of features that are relevant for prediction and classification tasks is a central problem in machine learning and statistics. The feature selection task is especially important, and computationally difficult, for modern data sets where the number of features can be comparable to or even exceed the number of samples. Here, we show that feature selection with Bayesian inference takes a universal form and reduces to calculating the magnetizations of an Ising model under some mild conditions. Our results exploit the observation that the evidence takes a universal form for strongly regularizing priors--priors that have a large effect on the posterior probability even in the infinite data limit. We derive explicit expressions for feature selection for generalized linear models, a large class of statistical techniques that includes linear and logistic regression. We illustrate the power of our approach by analyzing feature selection in a logistic regression-based classifier trained to distinguish between the letters B and D in the notMNIST data set.

  5. Quantum Quench Dynamics in the Transverse Field Ising Model at Non-zero Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeling, Nils; Kehrein, Stefan

    The recently discovered Dynamical Phase Transition denotes non-analytic behavior in the real time evolution of quantum systems in the thermodynamic limit and has been shown to occur in different systems at zero temperature [Heyl et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 135704 (2013)]. In this talk we present the extension of the analysis to non-zero temperature by studying a generalized form of the Loschmidt echo, the work distribution function, of a quantum quench in the transverse field Ising model. Although the quantitative behavior at non-zero temperatures still displays features derived from the zero temperature non-analyticities, it is shown that in this model dynamical phase transitions do not exist if T > 0 . This is a consequence of the system being initialized in a thermal state. Moreover, we elucidate how the Tasaki-Crooks-Jarzynski relation can be exploited as a symmetry relation for a global quench or to obtain the change of the equilibrium free energy density. This work was supported through CRC SFB 1073 (Project B03) of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).

  6. Cluster Monte Carlo dynamics for the Ising model on fractal structures in dimensions between one and two

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monceau, P.; Hsiao, P.-Y.

    2003-02-01

    We study the cluster size distributions generated by the Wolff algorithm in the framework of the Ising model on Sierpinski fractals with Hausdorff dimension Df between 1 and 2. We show that these distributions exhibit a scaling property involving the magnetic exponent yh associated with one of the eigen-direction of the renormalization flows. We suggest that a single cluster tends to invade the whole lattice as Df tends towards the lower critical dimension of the Ising model, namely 1. The autocorrelation times associated with the Wolff and Swendsen-Wang algorithms enable us to calculate dynamical exponents; the cluster algorithms are shown to be more efficient in reducing the critical slowing down when Df is lowered.

  7. On an Algebraic Property of the Disordered Phase of the Ising Model with Competing Interactions on a Cayley Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Barhoumi, Abdessatar; Souissi, Abdessatar

    2016-12-01

    It is known that the disordered phase of the classical Ising model on the Caley tree is extreme in some region of the temperature. If one considers the Ising model with competing interactions on the same tree, then about the extremity of the disordered phase there is no any information. In the present paper, we first aiming to analyze the correspondence between Gibbs measures and QMC's on trees. Namely, we establish that states associated with translation invariant Gibbs measures of the model can be seen as diagonal quantum Markov chains on some quasi local algebra. Then as an application of the established correspondence, we study some algebraic property of the disordered phase of the Ising model with competing interactions on the Cayley tree of order two. More exactly, we prove that a state corresponding to the disordered phase is not quasi-equivalent to other states associated with translation invariant Gibbs measures. This result shows how the translation invariant states relate to each other, which is even a new phenomena in the classical setting. To establish the main result we basically employ methods of quantum Markov chains.

  8. Nematic phase in the J(1)-J(2) square-lattice Ising model in an external field.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Alejandra I; Stariolo, Daniel A; Almarza, Noé G

    2015-05-01

    The J(1)-J(2) Ising model in the square lattice in the presence of an external field is studied by two approaches: the cluster variation method (CVM) and Monte Carlo simulations. The use of the CVM in the square approximation leads to the presence of a new equilibrium phase, not previously reported for this model: an Ising-nematic phase, which shows orientational order but not positional order, between the known stripes and disordered phases. Suitable order parameters are defined, and the phase diagram of the model is obtained. Monte Carlo simulations are in qualitative agreement with the CVM results, giving support to the presence of the new Ising-nematic phase. Phase diagrams in the temperature-external field plane are obtained for selected values of the parameter κ=J(2)/|J(1)| which measures the relative strength of the competing interactions. From the CVM in the square approximation we obtain a line of second order transitions between the disordered and nematic phases, while the nematic-stripes phase transitions are found to be of first order. The Monte Carlo results suggest a line of second order nematic-disordered phase transitions in agreement with the CVM results. Regarding the stripes-nematic transitions, the present Monte Carlo results are not precise enough to reach definite conclusions about the nature of the transitions.

  9. D Ising Model with Competing Interactions and its Application to Clusters and Arrays of π-RINGS, Graphene and Adiabatic Quantum Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hare, Anthony; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Kugel, K. I.

    2010-12-01

    We study the two-dimensional Ising model with competing nearest-neighbour and diagonal interactions and investigate the phase diagram of this model. We show that the ground state at low temperatures is ordered either as stripes or as the Néel antiferromagnet. However, we also demonstrate that the energy of defects and dislocations in the lattice is close to the ground state of the system. Therefore, many locally stable (or metastable) states associated with local energy minima separated by energy barriers may appear forming a glass-like state. We discuss the results in connection with two physically different systems. First, we deal with planar clusters of loops including a Josephson π-junction (a π-rings). Each π-ring carries a persistent current and behaves as a classical orbital moment. The type of particular state associated with the orientation of orbital moments in the cluster depends on the interaction between these orbital moments and can be easily controlled, i.e. by a bias current or by other means. Second, we apply the model to the analysis of the structure of the newly discovered two-dimensional form of carbon, graphene. Carbon atoms in graphene form a planar honeycomb lattice. Actually, the graphene plane is not ideal but corrugated. The displacement of carbon atoms up and down from the plane can be also described in terms of Ising spins, the interaction of which determines the complicated shape of the corrugated graphene plane. The obtained results may be verified in experiments and are also applicable to adiabatic quantum computing where the states are switched adiabatically with the slow change of coupling constant.

  10. D Ising Model with Competing Interactions and its Application to Clusters and Arrays of π-RINGS, Graphene and Adiabatic Quantum Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hare, Anthony; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Kugel, K. I.

    We study the two-dimensional Ising model with competing nearest-neighbour and diagonal interactions and investigate the phase diagram of this model. We show that the ground state at low temperatures is ordered either as stripes or as the Néel antiferromagnet. However, we also demonstrate that the energy of defects and dislocations in the lattice is close to the ground state of the system. Therefore, many locally stable (or metastable) states associated with local energy minima separated by energy barriers may appear forming a glass-like state. We discuss the results in connection with two physically different systems. First, we deal with planar clusters of loops including a Josephson π-junction (a π-rings). Each π-ring carries a persistent current and behaves as a classical orbital moment. The type of particular state associated with the orientation of orbital moments in the cluster depends on the interaction between these orbital moments and can be easily controlled, i.e. by a bias current or by other means. Second, we apply the model to the analysis of the structure of the newly discovered two-dimensional form of carbon, graphene. Carbon atoms in graphene form a planar honeycomb lattice. Actually, the graphene plane is not ideal but corrugated. The displacement of carbon atoms up and down from the plane can be also described in terms of Ising spins, the interaction of which determines the complicated shape of the corrugated graphene plane. The obtained results may be verified in experiments and are also applicable to adiabatic quantum computing where the states are switched adiabatically with the slow change of coupling constant.

  11. Hysteresis in DNA compaction by Dps is described by an Ising model.

    PubMed

    Vtyurina, Natalia N; Dulin, David; Docter, Margreet W; Meyer, Anne S; Dekker, Nynke H; Abbondanzieri, Elio A

    2016-05-03

    In all organisms, DNA molecules are tightly compacted into a dynamic 3D nucleoprotein complex. In bacteria, this compaction is governed by the family of nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs). Under conditions of stress and starvation, an NAP called Dps (DNA-binding protein from starved cells) becomes highly up-regulated and can massively reorganize the bacterial chromosome. Although static structures of Dps-DNA complexes have been documented, little is known about the dynamics of their assembly. Here, we use fluorescence microscopy and magnetic-tweezers measurements to resolve the process of DNA compaction by Dps. Real-time in vitro studies demonstrated a highly cooperative process of Dps binding characterized by an abrupt collapse of the DNA extension, even under applied tension. Surprisingly, we also discovered a reproducible hysteresis in the process of compaction and decompaction of the Dps-DNA complex. This hysteresis is extremely stable over hour-long timescales despite the rapid binding and dissociation rates of Dps. A modified Ising model is successfully applied to fit these kinetic features. We find that long-lived hysteresis arises naturally as a consequence of protein cooperativity in large complexes and provides a useful mechanism for cells to adopt unique epigenetic states.

  12. Spot size variation FCS in simulations of the 2D Ising model.

    PubMed

    Burns, Margaret C; Nouri, Mariam; Veatch, Sarah L

    2016-06-02

    Spot variation fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (svFCS) was developed to study the movement and organization of single molecules in plasma membranes. This experimental technique varies the size of an illumination area while measuring correlations in time using standard fluorescence correlation methods. Frequently, this data is interpreted using the assumption that correlation measurements reflect the dynamics of single molecule motions, and not motions of the average composition. Here, we explore how svFCS measurements report on the dynamics of components diffusing within simulations of a 2D Ising model with a conserved order parameter. Simulated correlation functions report on both the fast dynamics of single component mobility and the slower dynamics of the average composition. Over a range of simulation conditions, a conventional svFCS analysis suggests the presence of anomalous diffusion even though single molecule motions are nearly Brownian in these simulations. This misinterpretation is most significant when the surface density of the fluorescent label is elevated, therefore we suggest future measurements be made over a range of tracer densities. Some simulation conditions reproduce qualitative features of published svFCS experimental data. Overall, this work emphasizes the need to probe membranes using multiple complimentary experimental methodologies in order to draw conclusions regarding the nature of spatial and dynamical heterogeneity in these systems.

  13. Random-field Ising model on isometric lattices: Ground states and non-Porod scattering.

    PubMed

    Bupathy, Arunkumar; Banerjee, Varsha; Puri, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    We use a computationally efficient graph cut method to obtain ground state morphologies of the random-field Ising model (RFIM) on (i) simple cubic (SC), (ii) body-centered cubic (BCC), and (iii) face-centered cubic (FCC) lattices. We determine the critical disorder strength Δ_{c} at zero temperature with high accuracy. For the SC lattice, our estimate (Δ_{c}=2.278±0.002) is consistent with earlier reports. For the BCC and FCC lattices, Δ_{c}=3.316±0.002 and 5.160±0.002, respectively, which are the most accurate estimates in the literature to date. The small-r behavior of the correlation function exhibits a cusp regime characterized by a cusp exponent α signifying fractal interfaces. In the paramagnetic phase, α=0.5±0.01 for all three lattices. In the ferromagnetic phase, the cusp exponent shows small variations due to the lattice structure. Consequently, the interfacial energy E_{i}(L) for an interface of size L is significantly different for the three lattices. This has important implications for nonequilibrium properties.

  14. Hysteresis in DNA compaction by Dps is described by an Ising model

    PubMed Central

    Vtyurina, Natalia N.; Dulin, David; Docter, Margreet W.; Meyer, Anne S.; Dekker, Nynke H.; Abbondanzieri, Elio A.

    2016-01-01

    In all organisms, DNA molecules are tightly compacted into a dynamic 3D nucleoprotein complex. In bacteria, this compaction is governed by the family of nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs). Under conditions of stress and starvation, an NAP called Dps (DNA-binding protein from starved cells) becomes highly up-regulated and can massively reorganize the bacterial chromosome. Although static structures of Dps–DNA complexes have been documented, little is known about the dynamics of their assembly. Here, we use fluorescence microscopy and magnetic-tweezers measurements to resolve the process of DNA compaction by Dps. Real-time in vitro studies demonstrated a highly cooperative process of Dps binding characterized by an abrupt collapse of the DNA extension, even under applied tension. Surprisingly, we also discovered a reproducible hysteresis in the process of compaction and decompaction of the Dps–DNA complex. This hysteresis is extremely stable over hour-long timescales despite the rapid binding and dissociation rates of Dps. A modified Ising model is successfully applied to fit these kinetic features. We find that long-lived hysteresis arises naturally as a consequence of protein cooperativity in large complexes and provides a useful mechanism for cells to adopt unique epigenetic states. PMID:27091987

  15. Exact Enumeration of the Phase Space of an Ising Model of Ni2MnGa

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenbach, Markus; Brown, Greg; Rusanu, Aurelian; Odbadrakh, Khorgolkhuu; Nicholson, Don M; McCarthy, Carrie V.

    2013-01-01

    Exact evaluations of partition functions are generally prohibitively expensive due to exponential growth of phase space with the number of degrees of freedom. For an Ising model with sites the number of possible states is requiring the use of better scaling methods such as importance sampling Monte-Carlo calculations for all but the smallest systems. Yet the ability to obtain exact solutions for as large as possible systems can provide important benchmark results and opportunities for unobscured insight into the underlying physicsofthesystem.HerewepresentanIsingmodelforthemagneticsublatticesoftheimportantmagneto-caloricmaterialNi MnGa and use an exact enumeration algorithm to calculate the number of states for each energy and sublattice magne- tizations and . This allows the efficient calculation of the partition function and derived thermodynamic quantities such as specific heat and susceptibility. Utilizing the jaguarpf system at Oak Ridge we are able to calculate for systems of up to48sites,whichprovidesimportantinsightintothemechanismforthelargemagnet-caloriceffectinNi MnGaaswellasanimportant benchmark for Monte-Carlo (esp. Wang-Landau method).

  16. Quantum correlated cluster mean-field theory applied to the transverse Ising model.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, F M; Schmidt, M; Maziero, Jonas

    2016-06-01

    Mean-field theory (MFT) is one of the main available tools for analytical calculations entailed in investigations regarding many-body systems. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in ameliorating this kind of method, mainly with the aim of incorporating geometric and correlation properties of these systems. The correlated cluster MFT (CCMFT) is an improvement that succeeded quite well in doing that for classical spin systems. Nevertheless, even the CCMFT presents some deficiencies when applied to quantum systems. In this article, we address this issue by proposing the quantum CCMFT (QCCMFT), which, in contrast to its former approach, uses general quantum states in its self-consistent mean-field equations. We apply the introduced QCCMFT to the transverse Ising model in honeycomb, square, and simple cubic lattices and obtain fairly good results both for the Curie temperature of thermal phase transition and for the critical field of quantum phase transition. Actually, our results match those obtained via exact solutions, series expansions or Monte Carlo simulations.

  17. Random-field Ising model on isometric lattices: Ground states and non-Porod scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bupathy, Arunkumar; Banerjee, Varsha; Puri, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    We use a computationally efficient graph cut method to obtain ground state morphologies of the random-field Ising model (RFIM) on (i) simple cubic (SC), (ii) body-centered cubic (BCC), and (iii) face-centered cubic (FCC) lattices. We determine the critical disorder strength Δc at zero temperature with high accuracy. For the SC lattice, our estimate (Δc=2.278 ±0.002 ) is consistent with earlier reports. For the BCC and FCC lattices, Δc=3.316 ±0.002 and 5.160 ±0.002 , respectively, which are the most accurate estimates in the literature to date. The small-r behavior of the correlation function exhibits a cusp regime characterized by a cusp exponent α signifying fractal interfaces. In the paramagnetic phase, α =0.5 ±0.01 for all three lattices. In the ferromagnetic phase, the cusp exponent shows small variations due to the lattice structure. Consequently, the interfacial energy Ei(L ) for an interface of size L is significantly different for the three lattices. This has important implications for nonequilibrium properties.

  18. Operator product expansion coefficients of the 3D Ising model with a trapping potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costagliola, Gianluca

    2016-03-01

    Recently the operator product expansion coefficients of the 3D Ising model universality class have been calculated by studying via Monte Carlo simulation the two-point functions perturbed from the critical point with a relevant field. We show that this method can be applied also when the perturbation is performed with a relevant field coupled to a nonuniform potential acting as a trap. This setting is described by the trap size scaling ansatz, which can be combined with the general framework of the conformal perturbation in order to write down the correlators ⟨σ (r )σ (0 )⟩, ⟨σ (r )ɛ (0 )⟩ and ⟨ɛ (r )ɛ (0 )⟩, from which the operator product expansion coefficients can be estimated. We find Cσɛ σ=1.051 (3 ), in agreement with the results already known in the literature, and Cɛɛ ɛ=1.32 (15 ), confirming and improving the previous estimate obtained in the uniform perturbation case.

  19. Study of spin crossover nanoparticles thermal hysteresis using FORC diagrams on an Ising-like model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atitoaie, Alexandru; Tanasa, Radu; Stancu, Alexandru; Enachescu, Cristian

    2014-11-01

    Recent developments in the synthesis and characterization of spin crossover (SCO) nanoparticles and their prospects of switching at molecular level turned these bistable compounds into possible candidates for replacing the materials used in recording media industry for development of solid state pressure and temperature sensors or for bringing contributions in engineering. Compared to bulk samples with the same chemical structure, SCO nanoparticles display different characteristics of the hysteretic and relaxation properties like the shift of the transition temperature towards lower values along with decrease of the hysteresis width with nanoparticles size. Using an Ising-like model with specific boundary conditions within a Monte Carlo procedure, we here reproduce most of the hysteretic properties of SCO nanoparticles by considering the interaction between spin crossover edge molecules and embedding surfactant molecules and we propose a complex analysis concerning the effect of the interactions and sizes during the thermal transition in systems of SCO nanoparticles by using the First Order Reversal Curves diagram method and by comparison with similar effects in mixed crystal systems.

  20. Influence of thermal fluctuations on the geometry of interfaces of the quenched Ising model.

    PubMed

    Corberi, Federico; Lippiello, Eugenio; Zannetti, Marco

    2008-07-01

    We study the role of the quench temperature Tf in the phase-ordering kinetics of the Ising model with single spin flip in d=2,3 . Equilibrium interfaces are flat at Tf=0 , whereas at Tf>0 they are curved and rough (above the roughening temperature in d=3 ). We show, by means of scaling arguments and numerical simulations, that this geometrical difference is important for the phase-ordering kinetics as well. In particular, while the growth exponent z=2 of the size of domains L(t) approximately t 1/z is unaffected by Tf, other exponents related to the interface geometry take different values at Tf=0 or Tf>0 . For Tf>0 a crossover phenomenon is observed from an early stage where interfaces are still flat and the system behaves as at Tf=0 , to the asymptotic regime with curved interfaces characteristic of Tf>0 . Furthermore, it is shown that the roughening length, although subdominant with respect to L(t) , produces appreciable correction to scaling up to very long times in d=2 .

  1. Degenerate Ising model for atomistic simulation of crystal-melt interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Schebarchov, D.; Schulze, T. P.; Hendy, S. C.

    2014-02-21

    One of the simplest microscopic models for a thermally driven first-order phase transition is an Ising-type lattice system with nearest-neighbour interactions, an external field, and a degeneracy parameter. The underlying lattice and the interaction coupling constant control the anisotropic energy of the phase boundary, the field strength represents the bulk latent heat, and the degeneracy quantifies the difference in communal entropy between the two phases. We simulate the (stochastic) evolution of this minimal model by applying rejection-free canonical and microcanonical Monte Carlo algorithms, and we obtain caloric curves and heat capacity plots for square (2D) and face-centred cubic (3D) lattices with periodic boundary conditions. Since the model admits precise adjustment of bulk latent heat and communal entropy, neither of which affect the interface properties, we are able to tune the crystal nucleation barriers at a fixed degree of undercooling and verify a dimension-dependent scaling expected from classical nucleation theory. We also analyse the equilibrium crystal-melt coexistence in the microcanonical ensemble, where we detect negative heat capacities and find that this phenomenon is more pronounced when the interface is the dominant contributor to the total entropy. The negative branch of the heat capacity appears smooth only when the equilibrium interface-area-to-volume ratio is not constant but varies smoothly with the excitation energy. Finally, we simulate microcanonical crystal nucleation and subsequent relaxation to an equilibrium Wulff shape, demonstrating the model's utility in tracking crystal-melt interfaces at the atomistic level.

  2. From network reliability to the Ising model: A parallel scheme for estimating the joint density of states.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yihui; Eubank, Stephen; Nath, Madhurima

    2016-10-01

    Network reliability is the probability that a dynamical system composed of discrete elements interacting on a network will be found in a configuration that satisfies a particular property. We introduce a reliability property, Ising feasibility, for which the network reliability is the Ising model's partition function. As shown by Moore and Shannon, the network reliability can be separated into two factors: structural, solely determined by the network topology, and dynamical, determined by the underlying dynamics. In this case, the structural factor is known as the joint density of states. Using methods developed to approximate the structural factor for other reliability properties, we simulate the joint density of states, yielding an approximation for the partition function. Based on a detailed examination of why naïve Monte Carlo sampling gives a poor approximation, we introduce a parallel scheme for estimating the joint density of states using a Markov-chain Monte Carlo method with a spin-exchange random walk. This parallel scheme makes simulating the Ising model in the presence of an external field practical on small computer clusters for networks with arbitrary topology with ∼10^{6} energy levels and more than 10^{308} microstates.

  3. From network reliability to the Ising model: A parallel scheme for estimating the joint density of states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yihui; Eubank, Stephen; Nath, Madhurima

    2016-10-01

    Network reliability is the probability that a dynamical system composed of discrete elements interacting on a network will be found in a configuration that satisfies a particular property. We introduce a reliability property, Ising feasibility, for which the network reliability is the Ising model's partition function. As shown by Moore and Shannon, the network reliability can be separated into two factors: structural, solely determined by the network topology, and dynamical, determined by the underlying dynamics. In this case, the structural factor is known as the joint density of states. Using methods developed to approximate the structural factor for other reliability properties, we simulate the joint density of states, yielding an approximation for the partition function. Based on a detailed examination of why naïve Monte Carlo sampling gives a poor approximation, we introduce a parallel scheme for estimating the joint density of states using a Markov-chain Monte Carlo method with a spin-exchange random walk. This parallel scheme makes simulating the Ising model in the presence of an external field practical on small computer clusters for networks with arbitrary topology with ˜106 energy levels and more than 10308 microstates.

  4. Three-dimensional critical phase diagram of the Ising antiferromagnet CeRh2Si2 under intense magnetic field and pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knafo, W.; Settai, R.; Braithwaite, D.; Kurahashi, S.; Aoki, D.; Flouquet, J.

    2017-01-01

    Using novel instrumentation to combine extreme conditions of intense pulsed magnetic field up to 60 T and high pressure up to 4 GPa, we have established the three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field-pressure-temperature phase diagram of a pure stoichiometric heavy-fermion antiferromagnet (CeRh2Si2 ). We find a temperature- and pressure-dependent decoupling of the critical and pseudometamagnetic fields at the borderlines of antiferromagnetism and strongly-correlated paramagnetism. This 3D phase diagram is representative of a class of heavy-fermion Ising antiferromagnets, where long-range magnetic ordering is decoupled from a maximum in the magnetic susceptibility. The combination of extreme conditions enabled us to characterize different quantum phase transitions, where peculiar quantum critical properties are revealed. The interest to couple the effects of magnetic field and pressure on quantum-critical correlated-electron systems is stressed.

  5. Quantum phase transitions and decoupling of magnetic sublattices in the quasi-two-dimensional Ising magnet Co3V2O8 in a transverse magnetic field

    DOE PAGES

    Fritsch, Katharina; Ehlers, G.; Rule, K. C.; ...

    2015-11-05

    We study the application of a magnetic field transverse to the easy axis, Ising direction in the quasi-two-dimensional kagome staircase magnet, Co3V2O8, induces three quantum phase transitions at low temperatures, ultimately producing a novel high field polarized state, with two distinct sublattices. New time-of-flight neutron scattering techniques, accompanied by large angular access, high magnetic field infrastructure allow the mapping of a sequence of ferromagnetic and incommensurate phases and their accompanying spin excitations. Also, at least one of the transitions to incommensurate phases at μ0Hc1~6.25 T and μ0Hc2~7 T is discontinuous, while the final quantum critical point at μ0Hc3~13 T ismore » continuous.« less

  6. Finite-size effects for anisotropic 2D Ising model with various boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izmailian, N. Sh

    2012-12-01

    We analyze the exact partition function of the anisotropic Ising model on finite M × N rectangular lattices under four different boundary conditions (periodic-periodic (pp), periodic-antiperiodic (pa), antiperiodic-periodic (ap) and antiperiodic-antiperiodic (aa)) obtained by Kaufman (1949 Phys. Rev. 76 1232), Wu and Hu (2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 5189) and Kastening (2002 Phys. Rev. E 66 057103)). We express the partition functions in terms of the partition functions Zα, β(J, k) with (α, β) = (0, 0), (1/2, 0), (0, 1/2) and (1/2, 1/2), J is an interaction coupling and k is an anisotropy parameter. Based on such expressions, we then extend the algorithm of Ivashkevich et al (2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 5543) to derive the exact asymptotic expansion of the logarithm of the partition function for all boundary conditions mentioned above. Our result is f = fbulk + ∑∞p = 0fp(ρ, k)S-p - 1, where f is the free energy of the system, fbulk is the free energy of the bulk, S = MN is the area of the lattice and ρ = M/N is the aspect ratio. All coefficients in this expansion are expressed through analytical functions. We have introduced the effective aspect ratio ρeff = ρ/sinh 2Jc and show that for pp and aa boundary conditions all finite size correction terms are invariant under the transformation ρeff → 1/ρeff. This article is part of ‘Lattice models and integrability’, a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of F Y Wu's 80th birthday.

  7. Star-triangle relation for a three-dimensional model

    SciTech Connect

    Bazhanov, V.V. Institute for High Eenrgy Physics, Protvino, Moscow Region ); Baxter, R.J. Australian National Univ., Canberra )

    1993-06-01

    The solvable sl(n)-chiral Potts model can be interpreted as a three-dimensional lattice model with local interactions. To within a minor modification of the boundary conditions it is an Ising-type model on the body-centered cubic lattice with two- and three-spin interactions. The corresponding local Boltzmann weights obey a number of simple relations, including a restricted star-triangle relation, which is a modified version of the well-known star-triangle relation appearing in two-dimensional models. It is shown that these relations lead to remarkable symmetry properties of the Boltzmann weight function of an elementary cube of the lattice, related to the spatial symmetry group of the cubic lattice. These symmetry properties allow one to prove the commutativity of the row-to-row transfer matrices, bypassing the tetrahedron relation. The partition function per site for the infinite lattice is calculated exactly. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Minority-spin dynamics in the nonhomogeneous Ising model: Diverging time scales and exponents.

    PubMed

    Mullick, Pratik; Sen, Parongama

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the dynamical behavior of the Ising model under a zero-temperature quench with the initial fraction of up spins 0≤x≤1. In one dimension, the known results for persistence probability are verified; it shows algebraic decay for both up and down spins asymptotically with different exponents. It is found that the conventional finite-size scaling is valid here. In two dimensions, however, the persistence probabilities are no longer algebraic; in particular for x≤0.5, persistence for the up (minority) spins shows the behavior P_{min}(t)∼t^{-γ}exp[-(t/τ)^{δ}] with time t, while for the down (majority) spins, P_{maj}(t) approaches a finite value. We find that the timescale τ diverges as (x_{c}-x)^{-λ}, where x_{c}=0.5 and λ≃2.31. The exponent γ varies as θ_{2d}+c_{0}(x_{c}-x)^{β} where θ_{2d}≃0.215 is very close to the persistence exponent in two dimensions; β≃1. The results in two dimensions can be understood qualitatively by studying the exit probability, which for different system size is found to have the form E(x)=f[(x-x_{c}/x_{c})L^{1/ν}], with ν≈1.47. This result suggests that τ∼L^{z[over ̃]}, where z[over ̃]=λ/ν=1.57±0.11 is an exponent not explored earlier.

  9. Adaptive multi-GPU Exchange Monte Carlo for the 3D Random Field Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Cristóbal A.; Huang, Wei; Deng, Youjin

    2016-08-01

    This work presents an adaptive multi-GPU Exchange Monte Carlo approach for the simulation of the 3D Random Field Ising Model (RFIM). The design is based on a two-level parallelization. The first level, spin-level parallelism, maps the parallel computation as optimal 3D thread-blocks that simulate blocks of spins in shared memory with minimal halo surface, assuming a constant block volume. The second level, replica-level parallelism, uses multi-GPU computation to handle the simulation of an ensemble of replicas. CUDA's concurrent kernel execution feature is used in order to fill the occupancy of each GPU with many replicas, providing a performance boost that is more notorious at the smallest values of L. In addition to the two-level parallel design, the work proposes an adaptive multi-GPU approach that dynamically builds a proper temperature set free of exchange bottlenecks. The strategy is based on mid-point insertions at the temperature gaps where the exchange rate is most compromised. The extra work generated by the insertions is balanced across the GPUs independently of where the mid-point insertions were performed. Performance results show that spin-level performance is approximately two orders of magnitude faster than a single-core CPU version and one order of magnitude faster than a parallel multi-core CPU version running on 16-cores. Multi-GPU performance is highly convenient under a weak scaling setting, reaching up to 99 % efficiency as long as the number of GPUs and L increase together. The combination of the adaptive approach with the parallel multi-GPU design has extended our possibilities of simulation to sizes of L = 32 , 64 for a workstation with two GPUs. Sizes beyond L = 64 can eventually be studied using larger multi-GPU systems.

  10. Finite-temperature scaling close to Ising-nematic quantum critical points in two-dimensional metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punk, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    We study finite-temperature properties of metals close to an Ising-nematic quantum critical point in two spatial dimensions. In particular we show that at any finite temperature there is a regime where order parameter fluctuations are characterized by a dynamical critical exponent z =2 , in contrast to z =3 found at zero temperature. Our results are based on a simple Eliashberg-type approach, which gives rise to a boson self-energy proportional to Ω /γ (T ) at small momenta, where γ (T ) is the temperature dependent fermion scattering rate. These findings might shed some light on recent Monte Carlo simulations at finite temperature, where results consistent with z =2 were found.

  11. Blocked edges on Eulerian maps and mobiles: application to spanning trees, hard particles and the Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouttier, J.; Di Francesco, P.; Guitter, E.

    2007-07-01

    We introduce Eulerian maps with blocked edges as a general way to implement statistical matter models on random maps by a modification of intrinsic distances. We show how to code these dressed maps by means of mobiles, i.e. decorated trees with labelled vertices, leading to a closed system of recursion relations for their generating functions. We discuss particular solvable cases in detail, as well as various applications of our method to several statistical systems such as spanning trees on quadrangulations, mutually excluding particles on Eulerian triangulations or the Ising model on quadrangulations.

  12. A model of the near-earth plasma environment and application to the ISEE-A and -B orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, K. W.; Sawyer, K. W.; Vette, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    A model of the near-earth environment to obtain a best estimate of the average flux of protons and electrons in the energy range from 0.1 to 100 keV for the International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE)-A and -B spacecraft. The possible radiation damage to the thermal coating on these spinning spacecraft is also studied. Applications of the model to other high-altitude satellites can be obtained with the appropriate orbit averaging. This study is the first attempt to synthesize an overall quantitative environment of low-energy particles for high altitude spacecraft, using data from in situ measurements.

  13. Analysis of Projections of the Transfer Matrix in 2d Ising Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Review, 60:252-262,263-276, 1941. [Ons44] Lars Onsager . Crystal statistics I. A two-dimensional model with an order-disorder transition. Physical Review...lattices but the subject really came to life in 1944 when Onsager [Ons44] derived an exact closed form expression for the partition ,unction (see below

  14. AIM for Allostery: Using the Ising Model to Understand Information Processing and Transmission in Allosteric Biomolecular Systems.

    PubMed

    LeVine, Michael V; Weinstein, Harel

    2015-05-01

    In performing their biological functions, molecular machines must process and transmit information with high fidelity. Information transmission requires dynamic coupling between the conformations of discrete structural components within the protein positioned far from one another on the molecular scale. This type of biomolecular "action at a distance" is termed allostery. Although allostery is ubiquitous in biological regulation and signal transduction, its treatment in theoretical models has mostly eschewed quantitative descriptions involving the system's underlying structural components and their interactions. Here, we show how Ising models can be used to formulate an approach to allostery in a structural context of interactions between the constitutive components by building simple allosteric constructs we termed Allosteric Ising Models (AIMs). We introduce the use of AIMs in analytical and numerical calculations that relate thermodynamic descriptions of allostery to the structural context, and then show that many fundamental properties of allostery, such as the multiplicative property of parallel allosteric channels, are revealed from the analysis of such models. The power of exploring mechanistic structural models of allosteric function in more complex systems by using AIMs is demonstrated by building a model of allosteric signaling for an experimentally well-characterized asymmetric homodimer of the dopamine D2 receptor.

  15. Thermalization, Error Correction, and Memory Lifetime for Ising Anyon Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brell, Courtney G.; Burton, Simon; Dauphinais, Guillaume; Flammia, Steven T.; Poulin, David

    2014-07-01

    We consider two-dimensional lattice models that support Ising anyonic excitations and are coupled to a thermal bath. We propose a phenomenological model for the resulting short-time dynamics that includes pair creation, hopping, braiding, and fusion of anyons. By explicitly constructing topological quantum error-correcting codes for this class of system, we use our thermalization model to estimate the lifetime of the quantum information stored in the encoded spaces. To decode and correct errors in these codes, we adapt several existing topological decoders to the non-Abelian setting. We perform large-scale numerical simulations of these two-dimensional Ising anyon systems and find that the thresholds of these models range from 13% to 25%. To our knowledge, these are the first numerical threshold estimates for quantum codes without explicit additive structure.

  16. A New Proof of the Sharpness of the Phase Transition for Bernoulli Percolation and the Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duminil-Copin, Hugo; Tassion, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    We provide a new proof of the sharpness of the phase transition for Bernoulli percolation and the Ising model. The proof applies to infinite-range models on arbitrary locally finite transitive infinite graphs. For Bernoulli percolation, we prove finiteness of the susceptibility in the subcritical regime {β < β_c}, and the mean-field lower bound {{P}_β[0longleftrightarrow infty ]ge (β-β_c)/β} for {β > β_c}. For finite-range models, we also prove that for any {β < β_c}, the probability of an open path from the origin to distance n decays exponentially fast in n. For the Ising model, we prove finiteness of the susceptibility for {β < β_c}, and the mean-field lower bound {< σ_0rangle_β^+ge sqrt{(β^2-β_c^2)/β^2}} for {β > β_c}. For finite-range models, we also prove that the two-point correlation functions decay exponentially fast in the distance for {β < β_c}.

  17. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Longitudinal-Random-Field Mixed Ising Model with Arbitrary Spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ya-Qiu; Wei, Guo-Zhu; Xu, Xiao-Juan; Song, Guo-Li

    2010-05-01

    The longitudinal-random-field mixed Ising model consisting of arbitrary spin values has been studied by the use of an effective field theory with correlations (EFT). The phase diagrams of systems with mixed spins: σ = 1/2, S = 1; σ = 1/2, S = 3/2 are plotted. Not only the discontinuity at T = 0 K, is found when both longitudinal fields are trimodal distributed, but also the tricritical behavior is observed in these phase diagrams between the bimodal and trimodal distributions of longitudinal fields, which is different from the single-spin one. The appearance of tricritical point is independent of the coordination number and spin values.

  18. Magnetic properties of the spin-3/2 Blume-Capel model on a hexagonal Ising nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Kocakaplan, Y.; Ertaş, M.

    2015-10-15

    Magnetic properties, such as magnetizations, internal energy, specific heat, entropy, Helmholtz free energy, and phase diagrams of the spin-3/2 Blume-Capel model on a hexagonal Ising nanowire with core-shell structure are studied by using the effective-field theory with correlations. The hysteresis behaviors of the system are also investigated and the effects of Hamiltonian parameters on hysteresis behaviors are discussed in detail. The obtained results are compared with some theoretical results and a qualitatively good agreement is found.

  19. Topology of the space of periodic ground states in the antiferromagnetic Ising and Potts models in selected spatial structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Małgorzata J.

    2010-05-01

    Topology of the space of periodic ground states in the antiferromagnetic Ising and Potts (3-state) models is analysed in selected spatial structures. The states are treated as graph nodes, connected by one-spin-flip transitions. The spatial structures are the triangular lattice, the Archimedean ( 3,12) lattice and the cubic Laves C15 lattice with the periodic boundary conditions. In most cases the ground states are isolated nodes, but for selected systems we obtain connected graphs. The latter means that the magnetisation can vary in time with zero energy cost. The ground states are classified according to their degree and type of neighbours.

  20. Comparison between spin restricted and unrestricted post-Hartree—Fock calculations of effective exchange integrals in Ising and Heisenberg models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, K.; Okumura, M.; Mori, W.; Maki, J.; Takada, K.; Noro, T.; Tanaka, K.

    1993-07-01

    Spin-restricted and unrestricted post-Hartree—Fock calculations were carried out for clusters of triplet methylene and nitroxide radicals. The UHF-based methods such as UMP and QCISD followed by approximate spin projection provide reasonable energy differences between the high-and low-spin states of these species. They are close to the corresponding values from spin-restricted multi-reference (MR) approaches such as CASSCF and second-order (SO) CI. Implications of SOCI and MRSDCI results are discussed in relation to the size inconsistency erros involved in ab initio calculations of weak interaction energies, such as the effective exchange integrals in Ising and Heisenberg models.

  1. Inverse Ising Inference Using All the Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurell, Erik; Ekeberg, Magnus

    2012-03-01

    We show that a method based on logistic regression, using all the data, solves the inverse Ising problem far better than mean-field calculations relying only on sample pairwise correlation functions, while still computationally feasible for hundreds of nodes. The largest improvement in reconstruction occurs for strong interactions. Using two examples, a diluted Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model and a two-dimensional lattice, we also show that interaction topologies can be recovered from few samples with good accuracy and that the use of l1 regularization is beneficial in this process, pushing inference abilities further into low-temperature regimes.

  2. Monte-Carlo simulations of spin-crossover phenomena based on a vibronic Ising-like model with realistic parameters.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hong-Zhou; Sun, Chong; Jiang, Hong

    2015-03-14

    Materials with spin-crossover (SCO) properties hold great potential in information storage and therefore have received a lot of concerns in recent decades. The hysteresis phenomena accompanying SCO are attributed to the intermolecular cooperativity whose underlying mechanism may have a vibronic origin. In this work, a new vibronic Ising-like model in which the elastic coupling between SCO centers is included by considering harmonic stretching and bending (SAB) interactions is proposed and solved by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The key parameters in the new model, k1 and k2, corresponding to the elastic constant of the stretching and bending mode, respectively, can be directly related to the macroscopic bulk and shear modulus of the material of study, which can be readily estimated either based on experimental measurements or first-principles calculations. Using realistic parameters estimated based on density-functional theory calculations of a specific polymeric coordination SCO compound, [Fe(pz)Pt(CN)4]·2H2O (pz = pyrazine), temperature-induced hysteresis and pressure effects on SCO phenomena are simulated successfully. Our MC simulations shed light on the role of the vibronic couplings in the thermal hysteresis of SCO systems, and also point out the limitations of highly simplified Ising-like models for quantitative description of real SCO systems, which will be of great value for the development of more realistic SCO models.

  3. Large pseudocounts and L2-norm penalties are necessary for the mean-field inference of Ising and Potts models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, J. P.; Cocco, S.; De Leonardis, E.; Monasson, R.

    2014-07-01

    The mean-field (MF) approximation offers a simple, fast way to infer direct interactions between elements in a network of correlated variables, a common, computationally challenging problem with practical applications in fields ranging from physics and biology to the social sciences. However, MF methods achieve their best performance with strong regularization, well beyond Bayesian expectations, an empirical fact that is poorly understood. In this work, we study the influence of pseudocount and L2-norm regularization schemes on the quality of inferred Ising or Potts interaction networks from correlation data within the MF approximation. We argue, based on the analysis of small systems, that the optimal value of the regularization strength remains finite even if the sampling noise tends to zero, in order to correct for systematic biases introduced by the MF approximation. Our claim is corroborated by extensive numerical studies of diverse model systems and by the analytical study of the m-component spin model for large but finite m. Additionally, we find that pseudocount regularization is robust against sampling noise and often outperforms L2-norm regularization, particularly when the underlying network of interactions is strongly heterogeneous. Much better performances are generally obtained for the Ising model than for the Potts model, for which only couplings incoming onto medium-frequency symbols are reliably inferred.

  4. Analysis of the phase transition in the two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet using a Lempel-Ziv string-parsing scheme and black-box data-compression utilities.

    PubMed

    Melchert, O; Hartmann, A K

    2015-02-01

    In this work we consider information-theoretic observables to analyze short symbolic sequences, comprising time series that represent the orientation of a single spin in a two-dimensional (2D) Ising ferromagnet on a square lattice of size L(2)=128(2) for different system temperatures T. The latter were chosen from an interval enclosing the critical point T(c) of the model. At small temperatures the sequences are thus very regular; at high temperatures they are maximally random. In the vicinity of the critical point, nontrivial, long-range correlations appear. Here we implement estimators for the entropy rate, excess entropy (i.e., "complexity"), and multi-information. First, we implement a Lempel-Ziv string-parsing scheme, providing seemingly elaborate entropy rate and multi-information estimates and an approximate estimator for the excess entropy. Furthermore, we apply easy-to-use black-box data-compression utilities, providing approximate estimators only. For comparison and to yield results for benchmarking purposes, we implement the information-theoretic observables also based on the well-established M-block Shannon entropy, which is more tedious to apply compared to the first two "algorithmic" entropy estimation procedures. To test how well one can exploit the potential of such data-compression techniques, we aim at detecting the critical point of the 2D Ising ferromagnet. Among the above observables, the multi-information, which is known to exhibit an isolated peak at the critical point, is very easy to replicate by means of both efficient algorithmic entropy estimation procedures. Finally, we assess how good the various algorithmic entropy estimates compare to the more conventional block entropy estimates and illustrate a simple modification that yields enhanced results.

  5. Analysis of the phase transition in the two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet using a Lempel-Ziv string-parsing scheme and black-box data-compression utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchert, O.; Hartmann, A. K.

    2015-02-01

    In this work we consider information-theoretic observables to analyze short symbolic sequences, comprising time series that represent the orientation of a single spin in a two-dimensional (2D) Ising ferromagnet on a square lattice of size L2=1282 for different system temperatures T . The latter were chosen from an interval enclosing the critical point Tc of the model. At small temperatures the sequences are thus very regular; at high temperatures they are maximally random. In the vicinity of the critical point, nontrivial, long-range correlations appear. Here we implement estimators for the entropy rate, excess entropy (i.e., "complexity"), and multi-information. First, we implement a Lempel-Ziv string-parsing scheme, providing seemingly elaborate entropy rate and multi-information estimates and an approximate estimator for the excess entropy. Furthermore, we apply easy-to-use black-box data-compression utilities, providing approximate estimators only. For comparison and to yield results for benchmarking purposes, we implement the information-theoretic observables also based on the well-established M -block Shannon entropy, which is more tedious to apply compared to the first two "algorithmic" entropy estimation procedures. To test how well one can exploit the potential of such data-compression techniques, we aim at detecting the critical point of the 2D Ising ferromagnet. Among the above observables, the multi-information, which is known to exhibit an isolated peak at the critical point, is very easy to replicate by means of both efficient algorithmic entropy estimation procedures. Finally, we assess how good the various algorithmic entropy estimates compare to the more conventional block entropy estimates and illustrate a simple modification that yields enhanced results.

  6. Emergent order in the kagome Ising magnet Dy3Mg2Sb3O14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paddison, Joseph A. M.; Ong, Harapan S.; Hamp, James O.; Mukherjee, Paromita; Bai, Xiaojian; Tucker, Matthew G.; Butch, Nicholas P.; Castelnovo, Claudio; Mourigal, Martin; Dutton, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Ising model--in which degrees of freedom (spins) are binary valued (up/down)--is a cornerstone of statistical physics that shows rich behaviour when spins occupy a highly frustrated lattice such as kagome. Here we show that the layered Ising magnet Dy3Mg2Sb3O14 hosts an emergent order predicted theoretically for individual kagome layers of in-plane Ising spins. Neutron-scattering and bulk thermomagnetic measurements reveal a phase transition at ~0.3 K from a disordered spin-ice-like regime to an emergent charge ordered state, in which emergent magnetic charge degrees of freedom exhibit three-dimensional order while spins remain partially disordered. Monte Carlo simulations show that an interplay of inter-layer interactions, spin canting and chemical disorder stabilizes this state. Our results establish Dy3Mg2Sb3O14 as a tuneable system to study interacting emergent charges arising from kagome Ising frustration.

  7. Presence or absence of order by disorder in a highly frustrated region of the spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg model on triangulated Husimi lattices.

    PubMed

    Strečka, Jozef; Ekiz, Cesur

    2015-05-01

    The geometrically frustrated spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg model on triangulated Husimi lattices is exactly solved by combining the generalized star-triangle transformation with the method of exact recursion relations. The ground-state and finite-temperature phase diagrams are rigorously calculated along with both sublattice magnetizations of the Ising and Heisenberg spins. It is evidenced that the Ising-Heisenberg model on triangulated Husimi lattices with two or three interconnected triangles-in-triangles units displays in a highly frustrated region a quantum disorder irrespective of temperature, whereas the same model on triangulated Husimi lattices with a greater connectivity of triangles-in-triangles units exhibits at low enough temperatures an outstanding quantum order due to the order-by-disorder mechanism. The quantum reduction of both sublattice magnetizations in the peculiar quantum ordered state gradually diminishes upon increasing the coordination number of the underlying Husimi lattice.

  8. Tricritical wetting in the two-dimensional Ising magnet due to the presence of localized non-magnetic impurities.

    PubMed

    Trobo, Marta L; Albano, Ezequiel V

    2016-03-31

    Fixed vacancies (non-magnetic impurities) are placed along the centre of Ising strips in order to study the wetting behaviour in this confined system, by means of numerical simulations analysed with the aid of finite size scaling and thermodynamic integration methods. By considering strips of size L × M (L < M) where short-range competitive surface fields (H(s)) act along the M-direction, we observe localization-delocalization transitions of the interface between magnetic domains of different orientation (driven by the corresponding surface fields), which are the precursors of the wetting transitions that occur in the thermodynamic limit. By placing vacancies or equivalently non-magnetic impurities along the centre of the sample, we found that for low vacancy densities the wetting transitions are of second order, while by increasing the concentration of vacancies the transitions become of first order. Second- and first-order lines meet in tricritical wetting points (H(tric)(SW), T(tric)(W)), where H(tric)(SW) and T(Tric)(W) are the magnitude of the surface field and the temperature, respectively. In the phase diagram, tricritical points shift from the high temperature and weak surface field regime at large vacancy densities to the T --> 0, H(tric)(SW) --> 1 limit for low vacancy densities. By comparing the locations of the tricritical points with those corresponding to the case of mobile impurities, we conclude that in order to observe similar effects, in the latter the required density of impurities is much smaller (e.g. by a factor 3-5). Furthermore, a proper density of non magnetic impurities placed along the centre of a strip can effectively pin rather flat magnetic interfaces for suitable values of the competing surface fields and temperature.

  9. Geometric frustration effects in the spin-1 antiferromagnetic Ising model on the kagome-like recursive lattice: exact results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurčišinová, E.; Jurčišin, M.

    2016-09-01

    The antiferromagnetic spin-1 Ising model is studied on the Husimi lattice constructed from elementary triangles with coordination number z  =  4. It is found that the model has a unique solution for arbitrary values of the magnetic field as well as for all temperatures. A detailed analysis of the magnetization is performed and it is shown that in addition to the standard plateau-like ground states, the model also contains well-defined single-point ground states related to definite values of the magnetic field. Exact values of the residual entropies for all ground states are found. The properties of the susceptibility and the specific heat of the model are also discussed. The existence of the Schottky-type behavior of the specific heat and the strong magnetocaloric effect for low enough temperatures and for the external magnetic field close to the values at which the single-point ground states exist are identified.

  10. Investigation of Quantum Correlations for A S = 1/2 Ising-Heisenberg Model on a Symmetrical Diamond Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizi, E.; Eftekhari, H.

    2014-10-01

    We consider quantum correlations for a S = 1/2 Ising-Heisenberg model of a symmetrical diamond chain. First, we compare concurrence, quantum discord and 1-norm geometric quantum discord of an ideal diamond chain (Jm = 0) in the absence of magnetic field. The results show no simple ordering relations between these quantum correlations, so that quantum discord may be smaller or larger than the 1-norm geometric quantum discord, this observation contradicts the previous result provided by F. M. Paula [1]. Symmetrical behaviour of quantum correlation versus ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic coupling constant J is considerable. The effect of external magnetic field B and temperature dependence is also considered. Furthermore, we study quantum discord and geometric measure of quantum discord with the effect of next nearest neighbour interaction between nodal Ising sites for a generalized diamond chain (Jm ≠ 0), and we observe coexistence of phases with different values of magnetic field for quantum correlations. Moreover, entanglement sudden death occurs while quantum discord, 1-norm geometric quantum discord and geometric measure of quantum discord are immune from sudden death.

  11. Superstable cycles for antiferromagnetic Q-state Potts and three-site interaction Ising models on recursive lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananikian, N.; Artuso, R.; Chakhmakhchyan, L.

    2014-10-01

    We consider the superstable cycles of the Q-state Potts (QSP) and the three-site interaction antiferromagnetic Ising (TSAI) models on recursive lattices. The rational mappings describing the models’ statistical properties are obtained via the recurrence relation technique. We provide analytical solutions for the superstable cycles of the second order for both models. A particular attention is devoted to the period three window. Here we present an exact result for the third order superstable orbit for the QSP and a numerical solution for the TSAI model. Additionally, we point out a non-trivial connection between bifurcations and superstability: in some regions of parameters a superstable cycle is not followed by a doubling bifurcation. Furthermore, we use symbolic dynamics to understand the changes taking place at points of superstability and to distinguish areas between two consecutive superstable orbits.

  12. A generalized Ising model for studying alloy evolution under irradiation and its use in kinetic Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen-Hsi; Marian, Jaime

    2016-10-26

    We derive an Ising Hamiltonian for kinetic simulations involving interstitial and vacancy defects in binary alloys. Our model, which we term 'ABVI', incorporates solute transport by both interstitial defects and vacancies into a mathematically-consistent framework, and thus represents a generalization to the widely-used ABV model for alloy evolution simulations. The Hamiltonian captures the three possible interstitial configurations in a binary alloy: A-A, A-B, and B-B, which makes it particularly useful for irradiation damage simulations. All the constants of the Hamiltonian are expressed in terms of bond energies that can be computed using first-principles calculations. We implement our ABVI model in kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and perform a verification exercise by comparing our results to published irradiation damage simulations in simple binary systems with Frenkel pair defect production and several microstructural scenarios, with matching agreement found.

  13. A generalized Ising model for studying alloy evolution under irradiation and its use in kinetic Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chen-Hsi; Marian, Jaime

    2016-10-01

    We derive an Ising Hamiltonian for kinetic simulations involving interstitial and vacancy defects in binary alloys. Our model, which we term ‘ABVI’, incorporates solute transport by both interstitial defects and vacancies into a mathematically-consistent framework, and thus represents a generalization to the widely-used ABV model for alloy evolution simulations. The Hamiltonian captures the three possible interstitial configurations in a binary alloy: A-A, A-B, and B-B, which makes it particularly useful for irradiation damage simulations. All the constants of the Hamiltonian are expressed in terms of bond energies that can be computed using first-principles calculations. We implement our ABVI model in kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and perform a verification exercise by comparing our results to published irradiation damage simulations in simple binary systems with Frenkel pair defect production and several microstructural scenarios, with matching agreement found.

  14. Nonequilibrium magnetic properties in a two-dimensional kinetic mixed Ising system within the effective-field theory and Glauber-type stochastic dynamics approach.

    PubMed

    Ertaş, Mehmet; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa

    2012-11-01

    Nonequilibrium magnetic properties in a two-dimensional kinetic mixed spin-2 and spin-5/2 Ising system in the presence of a time-varying (sinusoidal) magnetic field are studied within the effective-field theory (EFT) with correlations. The time evolution of the system is described by using Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. The dynamic EFT equations are derived by employing the Glauber transition rates for two interpenetrating square lattices. We investigate the time dependence of the magnetizations for different interaction parameter values in order to find the phases in the system. We also study the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetizations, the hysteresis loop area, and dynamic correlation. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the reduced magnetic field amplitude and reduced temperature plane and we observe that the system exhibits dynamic tricritical and reentrant behaviors. Moreover, the system also displays a double critical end point (B), a zero-temperature critical point (Z), a critical end point (E), and a triple point (TP). We also performed a comparison with the mean-field prediction in order to point out the effects of correlations and found that some of the dynamic first-order phase lines, which are artifacts of the mean-field approach, disappeared.

  15. ISE structural dynamic experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, Malcolm H.; Clark, S. Y.

    1988-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: directed energy systems - vibration issue; Neutral Particle Beam Integrated Space Experiment (NPB-ISE) opportunity/study objective; vibration sources/study plan; NPB-ISE spacecraft configuration; baseline slew analysis and results; modal contributions; fundamental pitch mode; vibration reduction approaches; peak residual vibration; NPB-ISE spacecraft slew experiment; goodbye ISE - hello Zenith Star Program.

  16. Finding and proving the exact ground state of a generalized Ising model by convex optimization and MAX-SAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenxuan; Kitchaev, Daniil A.; Dacek, Stephen T.; Rong, Ziqin; Urban, Alexander; Cao, Shan; Luo, Chuan; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2016-10-01

    Lattice models, also known as generalized Ising models or cluster expansions, are widely used in many areas of science and are routinely applied to the study of alloy thermodynamics, solid-solid phase transitions, magnetic and thermal properties of solids, fluid mechanics, and others. However, the problem of finding and proving the global ground state of a lattice model, which is essential for all of the aforementioned applications, has remained unresolved for relatively complex practical systems, with only a limited number of results for highly simplified systems known. In this paper, we present a practical and general algorithm that provides a provable periodically constrained ground state of a complex lattice model up to a given unit cell size and in many cases is able to prove global optimality over all other choices of unit cell. We transform the infinite-discrete-optimization problem into a pair of combinatorial optimization (MAX-SAT) and nonsmooth convex optimization (MAX-MIN) problems, which provide upper and lower bounds on the ground state energy, respectively. By systematically converging these bounds to each other, we may find and prove the exact ground state of realistic Hamiltonians whose exact solutions are difficult, if not impossible, to obtain via traditional methods. Considering that currently such practical Hamiltonians are solved using simulated annealing and genetic algorithms that are often unable to find the true global energy minimum and inherently cannot prove the optimality of their result, our paper opens the door to resolving longstanding uncertainties in lattice models of physical phenomena. An implementation of the algorithm is available at https://github.com/dkitch/maxsat-ising.

  17. Role of further-neighbor interactions in modulating the critical behavior of the Ising model with frustration.

    PubMed

    Liu, R M; Zhuo, W Z; Dong, S; Lu, X B; Gao, X S; Qin, M H; Liu, J-M

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we investigate the phase transitions and critical behaviors of the frustrated J(1)-J(2)-J(3) Ising model on the square lattice using Monte Carlo simulations, and particular attention goes to the effect of the second-next-nearest-neighbor interaction J(3) on the phase transition from a disordered state to the single stripe antiferromagnetic state. A continuous Ashkin-Teller-like transition behavior in a certain range of J(3) is identified, while the four-state Potts-critical end point [J(3)/J(1)](C) is estimated based on the analytic method reported in earlier work [Jin, Sen, and Sandvik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 045702 (2012)]. It is suggested that the interaction J(3) can tune the transition temperature and in turn modulate the critical behaviors of the frustrated model. Furthermore, it is revealed that an antiferromagnetic J(3) can stabilize the staggered dimer state via a phase transition of strong first-order character.

  18. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Coarsening in the 1D Ising model evolving with Swendsen - Wang dynamics: an unusual scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrida, Bernard; Hakim, Vincent

    1996-12-01

    We consider a simple model of domain growth: the zero-temperature 1D Ising model evolving according to the Swendsen - Wang dynamics. We find that in the long-time limit, the pair correlation function scales with a characteristic length increasing as the square of the average domain size. In that limit, a few large domains occupy almost all the space with many small domains between them. In contrast to the usual picture of coarsening, the average domain size here is not a characteristic length of the growth problem. Instead, one finds a power-law distribution for the sizes of large domains with a cut-off at a length which grows as the square of the average size of the domains.

  19. Critical phenomena of the majority voter model in a three-dimensional cubic lattice.

    PubMed

    Acuña-Lara, Ana L; Sastre, Francisco

    2012-10-01

    In this work we investigate the critical behavior of the three-dimensional simple-cubic majority voter model. Using numerical simulations and a combination of two different cumulants, we evaluated the critical point with a higher accuracy than the previous numerical result found by Yang, Kim, and Kwak [Phys. Rev. E 77, 051122 (2008)]. Using standard finite-size scaling theory and scaling corrections, we find that the critical exponents ν,γ, and β are the same as those of the three-dimensional Ising model.

  20. Exact Calculation of Antiferromagnetic Ising Model on an Inhomogeneous Surface Recursive Lattice to Investigate Thermodynamics and Glass Transition on Surface/Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ran; Gujrati, Purushottam D.

    2017-01-01

    An inhomogeneous 2-dimensional recursive lattice formed by planar elements has been designed to investigate the thermodynamics of Ising spin system on the surface/thin film. The lattice is constructed as a hybrid of partial Husimi square lattice representing the bulk and 1D single bonds representing the surface. Exact calculations can be achieved with the recursive property of the lattice. The model has an anti-ferromagnetic interaction to give rise to an ordered phase identified as crystal, and a solution with higher energy to represent the amorphous/metastable phase. Free energy and entropy of the ideal crystal and supercooled liquid state of the model on the surface are calculated by the partial partition function. By analyzing the free energies and entropies of the crystal and supercooled liquid state, we are able to identify the melting and ideal glass transition on the surface. The results show that due to the variation of coordination number, the transition temperatures on the surface decrease significantly compared to the bulk system. Our calculation qualitatively agrees with both experimental and simulation works on the thermodynamics of surfaces and thin films conducted by others. Interactions between particles farther than the nearest neighbor distance are taken into consideration, and their effects are investigated. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11505110, the Shanghai Pujiang Talent Program under Grant No. 16PJ1431900, and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant No. 2016M591666

  1. The democracy ochlocracy dictatorship transition in the Sznajd model and in the Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Johannes J.; Hirtreiter, Christian

    2005-08-01

    Since its introduction in 2000, the Sznajd model has been assumed to simulate a democratic community with two parties. The main flaw in this model is that a Sznajd system freezes in the long term in a non-democratic state, which can be either a dictatorship or a stalemate configuration. Here we show that the Sznajd model has better to be considered as a transition model, transferring a democratic system already at the beginning of a simulation via an ochlocratic scenario, i.e., a regime in which several mobs rule, to a dictatorship, thus reproducing the corresponding Aristotelian theory.

  2. Ecological risk assessment of TBT in Ise Bay.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Joji; Yonezawa, Yoshitaka; Nakata, Kisaburo; Horiguchi, Fumio

    2009-02-01

    An ecological risk assessment of tributyltin (TBT) in Ise Bay was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) method. The assessment endpoint was defined to protect the survival, growth and reproduction of marine organisms. Sources of TBT in this study were assumed to be commercial vessels in harbors and navigation routes. Concentrations of TBT in Ise Bay were estimated using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, an ecosystem model and a chemical fate model. Estimated MOEs for marine organisms for 1990 and 2008 were approximately 0.1-2.0 and over 100 respectively, indicating a declining temporal trend in the probability of adverse effects. The chemical fate model predicts a much longer persistence of TBT in sediments than in the water column. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the harmful effects of TBT on benthic organisms.

  3. Fast two-dimensional model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Douglass, Anne R.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Guthrie, Paul D.; Thompson, A. M.

    1990-01-01

    A two dimensional (altitude and latitude) model of the atmosphere is used to investigate problems relating to the variability of the dynamics and temperature of the atmosphere on the ozone distribution, solar cycle variations of atmospheric constituents, the sensitivity of model results to tropospheric trace gas sources, and assessment computations of changes in ozone related to manmade influences. In a comparison between two dimensional model results in which the odd nitrogen family was transported together and model results in which the odd nitrogen species was transported separately, it was found that the family approximations are adequate for perturbation scenario calculations.

  4. The diagonal two-point correlations of the Ising model on the anisotropic triangular lattice and Garnier systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, N. S.

    2016-01-01

    The diagonal spin-spin correlations < {σ0,0}{σN,N}> of the Ising model on a triangular lattice with general couplings in the three directions are evaluated in terms of a solution to a three-variable extension of the sixth Painlevé system, namely a Garnier system. This identification, which is accomplished using the theory of bi-orthogonal polynomials on the unit circle with regular semi-classical weights, has an additional consequence whereby the correlations are characterised by a simple system of coupled, nonlinear recurrence relations in the spin separation N\\in {{{Z}}≥slant 0} . The later recurrence relations are an example of discrete Garnier equations which, in turn, are extensions to a ‘discrete Painlevé V’ system.

  5. Effect of further-neighbor interactions on the magnetization behaviors of the Ising model on a triangular lattice.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Zhuo, W Z; Qin, M H; Dong, S; Zeng, M; Lu, X B; Gao, X S; Liu, J-M

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we study the magnetization behaviors of the classical Ising model on the triangular lattice using Monte Carlo simulations, and pay particular attention to the effect of further-neighbor interactions. Several fascinating spin states are identified to be stabilized in certain magnetic field regions, respectively, resulting in the magnetization plateaus at 2/3, 5/7, 7/9 and 5/6 of the saturation magnetization M S, in addition to the well-known plateaus at 0, 1/3 and 1/2 of M S. The stabilization of these interesting orders can be understood as the consequence of the competition between Zeeman energy and exchange energy.

  6. Effect of further-neighbor interactions on the magnetization behaviors of the Ising model on a triangular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Zhuo, W. Z.; Qin, M. H.; Dong, S.; Zeng, M.; Lu, X. B.; Gao, X. S.; Liu, J.-M.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we study the magnetization behaviors of the classical Ising model on the triangular lattice using Monte Carlo simulations, and pay particular attention to the effect of further-neighbor interactions. Several fascinating spin states are identified to be stabilized in certain magnetic field regions, respectively, resulting in the magnetization plateaus at 2/3, 5/7, 7/9 and 5/6 of the saturation magnetization M S, in addition to the well-known plateaus at 0, 1/3 and 1/2 of M S. The stabilization of these interesting orders can be understood as the consequence of the competition between Zeeman energy and exchange energy.

  7. Calculation of the probability distribution of basic clusters involved in cluster-variation approximations to the Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinograd, Victor L.; Saxena, Surendra K.; Putnis, Andrew

    1997-11-01

    The free energy of the Ising model in the cluster-variation method (CVM) is traditionally described as a function of many configuration variables (correlation functions) the number of which is equal to the number of all distinct subclusters of the chosen set of basic clusters. According to the present approach the description of the equilibrium distribution of basic clusters such as point, pair, triangle, square, hexagon, octagon, tetrahedron, cube, and octahedron requires no more than four basic variables corresponding to the four basic subclusters, namely, point, pair, triangle, and tetrahedron. The values of all other correlation functions can be found with the help of a set of irreversible transformations on basic clusters which equilibrate the cluster distributions with respect to the given distribution of their basic subclusters. The decrease in the number of cluster variables results in a significant simplification of formulation and minimization of the free-energy expressions used in the CVM.

  8. Unconventional quantum ordered and disordered states in the highly frustrated spin-(1)/(2) Ising-Heisenberg model on triangles-in-triangles lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čisárová, Jana; Strečka, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    The spin-(1)/(2) Ising-Heisenberg model on two geometrically related triangles-in-triangles lattices is exactly solved through the generalized star-triangle transformation, which establishes a rigorous mapping correspondence with the effective spin-(1)/(2) Ising model on a triangular lattice. Basic thermodynamic quantities were exactly calculated within this rigorous mapping method along with the ground-state and finite-temperature phase diagrams. Apart from the classical ferromagnetic phase, both investigated models exhibit several unconventional quantum ordered and disordered ground states. A mutual competition between two ferromagnetic interactions of basically different character generically leads to the emergence of a quantum ferromagnetic phase, in which a symmetric quantum superposition of three up-up-down states of the Heisenberg trimers accompanies a perfect alignment of all Ising spins. In the highly frustrated regime, we have either found the disordered quantum paramagnetic phase with a substantial residual entropy or a similar but spontaneously ordered phase with a nontrivial criticality at finite temperatures. The latter quantum ground state exhibits a striking coexistence of imperfect spontaneous order with partial disorder, which is evidenced by a quantum reduction of the spontaneous magnetization of Heisenberg spins that indirectly causes a small reduction of the spontaneous magnetization of otherwise classical Ising spins.

  9. Potts models coupled to two-dimensional quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baillie, Clive F.

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm of the q=2 (Ising), 3 and 4 Potts models on dynamical phi-cubed graphs of spherical topology with up to 5000 nodes. We find that the measured critical exponents are in reasonable agreement with those from the exact solution of the Ising model and with those calculated from KPZ scaling for q=3,4 where no exact solution is available.

  10. Variational perturbation and extended Plefka approaches to dynamics on random networks: the case of the kinetic Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachschmid-Romano, L.; Battistin, C.; Opper, M.; Roudi, Y.

    2016-10-01

    We describe and analyze some novel approaches for studying the dynamics of Ising spin glass models. We first briefly consider the variational approach based on minimizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between independent trajectories and the real ones and note that this approach only coincides with the mean field equations from the saddle point approximation to the generating functional when the dynamics is defined through a logistic link function, which is the case for the kinetic Ising model with parallel update. We then spend the rest of the paper developing two ways of going beyond the saddle point approximation to the generating functional. In the first one, we develop a variational perturbative approximation to the generating functional by expanding the action around a quadratic function of the local fields and conjugate local fields whose parameters are optimized. We derive analytical expressions for the optimal parameters and show that when the optimization is suitably restricted, we recover the mean field equations that are exact for the fully asymmetric random couplings (Mézard and Sakellariou 2011 J. Stat. Mech. 2011 L07001). However, without this restriction the results are different. We also describe an extended Plefka expansion in which in addition to the magnetization, we also fix the correlation and response functions. Finally, we numerically study the performance of these approximations for Sherrington-Kirkpatrick type couplings for various coupling strengths and the degrees of coupling symmetry, for both temporally constant but random, as well as time varying external fields. We show that the dynamical equations derived from the extended Plefka expansion outperform the others in all regimes, although it is computationally more demanding. The unconstrained variational approach does not perform well in the small coupling regime, while it approaches dynamical TAP equations of (Roudi and Hertz 2011 J. Stat. Mech. 2011 P03031) for strong couplings.

  11. Monte Carlo simulations of the HP model (the "Ising model" of protein folding)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying Wai; Wüst, Thomas; Landau, David P.

    2011-09-01

    Using Wang-Landau sampling with suitable Monte Carlo trial moves (pull moves and bond-rebridging moves combined) we have determined the density of states and thermodynamic properties for a short sequence of the HP protein model. For free chains these proteins are known to first undergo a collapse "transition" to a globule state followed by a second "transition" into a native state. When placed in the proximity of an attractive surface, there is a competition between surface adsorption and folding that leads to an intriguing sequence of "transitions". These transitions depend upon the relative interaction strengths and are largely inaccessible to "standard" Monte Carlo methods.

  12. Monte Carlo simulations of the HP model (the "Ising model" of protein folding).

    PubMed

    Li, Ying Wai; Wüst, Thomas; Landau, David P

    2011-09-01

    Using Wang-Landau sampling with suitable Monte Carlo trial moves (pull moves and bond-rebridging moves combined) we have determined the density of states and thermodynamic properties for a short sequence of the HP protein model. For free chains these proteins are known to first undergo a collapse "transition" to a globule state followed by a second "transition" into a native state. When placed in the proximity of an attractive surface, there is a competition between surface adsorption and folding that leads to an intriguing sequence of "transitions". These transitions depend upon the relative interaction strengths and are largely inaccessible to "standard" Monte Carlo methods.

  13. Inverse Ising inference with correlated samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermayer, Benedikt; Levine, Erel

    2014-12-01

    Correlations between two variables of a high-dimensional system can be indicative of an underlying interaction, but can also result from indirect effects. Inverse Ising inference is a method to distinguish one from the other. Essentially, the parameters of the least constrained statistical model are learned from the observed correlations such that direct interactions can be separated from indirect correlations. Among many other applications, this approach has been helpful for protein structure prediction, because residues which interact in the 3D structure often show correlated substitutions in a multiple sequence alignment. In this context, samples used for inference are not independent but share an evolutionary history on a phylogenetic tree. Here, we discuss the effects of correlations between samples on global inference. Such correlations could arise due to phylogeny but also via other slow dynamical processes. We present a simple analytical model to address the resulting inference biases, and develop an exact method accounting for background correlations in alignment data by combining phylogenetic modeling with an adaptive cluster expansion algorithm. We find that popular reweighting schemes are only marginally effective at removing phylogenetic bias, suggest a rescaling strategy that yields better results, and provide evidence that our conclusions carry over to the frequently used mean-field approach to the inverse Ising problem.

  14. Comparison of the exact thermodynamics of the AF Blume-Emery-Grifiths and of the spin-1 ferromagnetic Ising models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa Silva, E. V.; Thomaz, M. T.

    2016-11-01

    We study in detail the thermodynamics of the anti-ferromagnetic Blume-Emery-Griffiths (AF BEG) model in the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field. Its thermodynamics is derived from the exact Helmholtz free energy (HFE) of the model, valid for T > 0. Numerical simulations of this model on a periodic space chain with 10 sites (N=10) yield the energy spectra of the model at K/J = 2 for D/J = 1 and D/J = 2, thus helping us compare, for a broad range of temperature, how some (per site) thermodynamic functions with the same value of K/J but distinct values of D/J behave, namely: the z-component of the magnetization, the specific heat and the entropy. These thermodynamic functions of the AF BEG model at K/|J| = 2 are compared to those of the spin-1 ferromagnetic Ising model with D/|J| > 1.5, for which the T=0 phase diagrams of both models are identical. This comparison is done in a large interval of temperature.

  15. Functional scale-free networks in the two-dimensional Abelian sandpile model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarepour, M.; Niry, M. D.; Valizadeh, A.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, the similarity of the functional network of the brain and the Ising model was investigated by Chialvo [Nat. Phys. 6, 744 (2010), 10.1038/nphys1803]. This similarity supports the idea that the brain is a self-organized critical system. In this study we derive a functional network of the two-dimensional Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model as a self-organized critical model, and compare its characteristics with those of the functional network of the brain, obtained from functional magnetic resonance imaging.

  16. Truncated Wigner theory of coherent Ising machines based on degenerate optical parametric oscillator network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruo, Daiki; Utsunomiya, Shoko; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2016-08-01

    We present the quantum theory of coherent Ising machines based on networks of degenerate optical parametric oscillators (DOPOs). In a simple model consisting of two coupled DOPOs, both positive-P representation and truncated Wigner representation predict quantum correlation and inseparability between the two DOPOs in spite of the open-dissipative nature of the system. Here, we apply the truncated Wigner representation method to coherent Ising machines with thermal, vacuum, and squeezed reservoir fields. We find that the probability of finding the ground state of a one-dimensional Ising model increases substantially as a result of reducing excess thermal noise and squeezing the incident vacuum fluctuation on the out-coupling port.

  17. Parallelism on the Intel 860 Hypercube:. Ising Magnets, Hydrodynamical Cellular Automata and Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohring, G. A.; Stauffer, D.

    Geometric parallelization was tested on the Intel Hypercube with 32 MIMD processors of 1860 type, each with 16 Mbytes of distributed memory. We applied it to Ising models in two and three dimensions as well as to neural networks and two-dimensional hydrodynamic cellular automata. For system sizes suited to this machine, up to 60960*60960 and 1410*1410*1408 Ising spins, we found nearly hundred percent parallel efficiency in spite of the needed inter-processor communications. For small systems, the observed deviations from full efficiency were compared with the scaling concepts of Heermann and Burkitt and of Jakobs and Gerling. For Ising models, we determined the Glauber kinetic exponent z≃2.18 in two dimensions and confirmed the stretched exponential relaxation of the magnetization towards the spontaneous magnetization below Tc. For three dimensions we found z≃2.09 and simple exponential relaxation.

  18. Four-particle decay of the Bethe-Salpeter kernel in the high-temperature Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auil, F.

    2002-12-01

    In this article we study the four-particle decay of the Bethe-Salpeter (B-S) kernel for the high-temperature Ising model. We use the hyperplane decoupling method [T. Spencer, Commun. Math. Phys. 44, 143 (1975); R. S. Schor, Nucl. Phys. B 222, 71 (1983)] to prove exponential decay in a set of variables particularly adapted to the methods of Spencer and Zirilli [Commun. Math. Phys. 49, 1 (1976)] for the analysis of scattering and bound states in QFT, transcribed to lattice theories by Auil and Barata [Ann. Henri Poincare 2, 1065 (2001)]. We study arbitrary derivatives of the general n-point correlation functions with respect to the interpolating variables, and we are able to obtain, in some cases, information about the third derivatives of the B-S kernel. As a later consequence, we have two-body asymptotic completeness for the (massive) Euclidean lattice field theory implemented by this model. This allows us to analyze the Ornstein-Zernike behavior of four-point functions, related to the specific heat of the model.

  19. Magnetization plateaus and ground-state phase diagrams of the S=1 Ising model on the Shastry Sutherland lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deviren, Seyma Akkaya

    2017-02-01

    In this research, we have investigated the magnetic properties of the spin-1 Ising model on the Shastry Sutherland lattice with the crystal field interaction by using the effective-field theory with correlations. The effects of the applied field on the magnetization are examined in detail in order to obtain the magnetization plateaus, thus different types of magnetization plateaus, such as 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, 3/5, 2/3 and 7/9 of the saturation, are obtained for strong enough magnetic fields (h). Magnetization plateaus exhibit single, triple, quintuplet and sextuple forms according to the interaction parameters, hence the magnetization plateaus originate from the competition between the crystal field (D) and exchange interaction parameters (J, J‧). The ground-state phase diagrams of the system are presented in three varied planes, namely (h/J, J‧/J), (h/J, D/J) and (D/J, J‧/J) planes. These phase diagrams display the Néel (N), collinear (C) and ferromagnetic (F) phases for certain values of the model parameters. The obtained results are in good agreement with some theoretical and experimental studies.

  20. Strongly-coupled Josephson junction array for simulation of frustrated one-dimensional spin models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhengwei; Du, Lianghui; Zhou, Xingxiang; Han, Yongjian; Guo, Guangcan

    2013-03-01

    We study the capacitance-coupled Josephson-junction array beyond the small-coupling limit. We find that, when the scale of the system is large, its Hamiltonian can be obtained without the small-coupling approximation and the system can be used to simulate strongly frustrated one-dimensional Ising spin problems. To engineer the system Hamiltonian for an ideal theoretical model, we apply a dynamical-decoupling technique to eliminate undesirable couplings in the system. Using a six-site junction array as an example, we numerically evaluate the system to show that it exhibits important characteristics of the frustrated spin model.

  1. Majority-vote model on spatially embedded networks: Crossover from mean-field to Ising universality classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaio Filho, C. I. N.; dos Santos, T. B.; Moreira, A. A.; Moreira, F. G. B.; Andrade, J. S.

    2016-05-01

    We study through Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling analysis the nonequilibrium phase transitions of the majority-vote model taking place on spatially embedded networks. These structures are built from an underlying regular lattice over which directed long-range connections are randomly added according to the probability Pi j˜r-α , where ri j is the Manhattan distance between nodes i and j , and the exponent α is a controlling parameter [J. M. Kleinberg, Nature (London) 406, 845 (2000), 10.1038/35022643]. Our results show that the collective behavior of this system exhibits a continuous order-disorder phase transition at a critical parameter, which is a decreasing function of the exponent α . Precisely, considering the scaling functions and the critical exponents calculated, we conclude that the system undergoes a crossover among distinct universality classes. For α ≤3 the critical behavior is described by mean-field exponents, while for α ≥4 it belongs to the Ising universality class. Finally, in the region where the crossover occurs, 3 <α <4 , the critical exponents are dependent on α .

  2. Effect of platykurtic and leptokurtic distributions in the random-field Ising model: mean-field approach.

    PubMed

    Duarte Queirós, Sílvio M; Crokidakis, Nuno; Soares-Pinto, Diogo O

    2009-07-01

    The influence of the tail features of the local magnetic field probability density function (PDF) on the ferromagnetic Ising model is studied in the limit of infinite range interactions. Specifically, we assign a quenched random field whose value is in accordance with a generic distribution that bears platykurtic and leptokurtic distributions depending on a single parameter tau<3 to each site. For tau<5/3, such distributions, which are basically Student-t and r distribution extended for all plausible real degrees of freedom, present a finite standard deviation, if not the distribution has got the same asymptotic power-law behavior as a alpha-stable Lévy distribution with alpha=(3-tau)/(tau-1). For every value of tau, at specific temperature and width of the distribution, the system undergoes a continuous phase transition. Strikingly, we impart the emergence of an inflexion point in the temperature-PDF width phase diagrams for distributions broader than the Cauchy-Lorentz (tau=2) which is accompanied with a divergent free energy per spin (at zero temperature).

  3. Repulsive interactions induced by specific adsorption: Anomalous step diffusivity and inadequacy of nearest-neighbor Ising model. (part I experimental)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shakran, Mohammad; Kibler, Ludwig A.; Jacob, Timo; Ibach, Harald; Beltramo, Guillermo L.; Giesen, Margret

    2016-09-01

    This is Part I of two closely related papers, where we show that the specific adsorption of anions leads to a failure of the nearest-neighbor Ising model to describe island perimeter curvatures on Au(100) electrodes in dilute KBr, HCl and H2SO4 electrolytes and the therewith derived step diffusivity vs. step orientation. This result has major consequences for theoretical studies aiming at the understanding of growth, diffusion and degradation phenomena. Part I focuses on the experimental data. As shown theoretically in detail in Part II (doi:10.1016/j.susc.2016.03.022), a set of nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor interaction energies (ɛNN, ɛNNN) can uniquely be derived from the diffusivity of steps along <100> and <110>. We find strong repulsive next-nearest neighbor (NNN) interaction in KBr and HCl, whereas NNN interaction is negligibly for H2SO4. The NNN repulsive interaction energy ɛNNN therefore correlates positively with the Gibbs adsorption energy of the anions. We find furthermore that ɛNNN increases with increasing Br- and Cl- coverage. The results for ɛNN and ɛNNN are quantitatively consistent with the coverage dependence of the step line tension. We thereby establish a sound experimental base for theoretical studies on the energetics of steps in the presence of specific adsorption.

  4. Exact finite-size corrections for the square-lattice Ising model with Brascamp-Kunz boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izmailian, N. Sh.; Oganesyan, K. B.; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2002-05-01

    Finite-size scaling, finite-size corrections, and boundary effects for critical systems have attracted much attention in recent years. Here we derive exact finite-size corrections for the free energy F and the specific heat C of the critical ferromagnetic Ising model on the M×2N square lattice with Brascamp-Kunz (BK) boundary conditions [J. Math. Phys. 15, 66 (1974)] and compare such results with those under toroidal boundary conditions. When the ratio ξ/2=(M+1)/2N is smaller than 1 the behaviors of finite-size corrections for C are quite different for BK and toroidal boundary conditions; when ln(ξ/2) is larger than 3, finite-size corrections for C in two boundary conditions approach the same values. In the limit N-->∞ we obtain the expansion of the free energy for infinitely long strip with BK boundary conditions. Our results are consistent with the conformal field theory prediction for the mixed boundary conditions by Cardy [Nucl. Phys. B 275, 200 (1986)] although the definitions of boundary conditions in two cases are different in one side of the long strip.

  5. Monte Carlo entropic sampling applied to Ising-like model for 2D and 3D systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jureschi, C. M.; Linares, J.; Dahoo, P. R.; Alayli, Y.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we present the Monte Carlo entropic sampling (MCES) applied to an Ising-like model for 2D and 3D system in order to show the interaction influence of the edge molecules of the system with their local environment. We show that, as for the 1D and the 2D spin crossover (SCO) systems, the origin of multi steps transition in 3D SCO is the effect of the edge interaction molecules with its local environment together with short and long range interactions. Another important result worth noting is the co-existence of step transitions with hysteresis and without hysteresis. By increasing the value of the edge interaction, L, the transition is shifted to the lower temperatures: it means that the role of edge interaction is equivalent to an applied negative pressure because the edge interaction favours the HS state while the applied pressure favours the LS state. We also analyse, in this contribution, the role of the short- and long-range interaction, J respectively G, with respect to the environment interaction, L.

  6. Random field Ising model with conserved kinetics: Super-universality violation, logarithmic growth law and the generalized Tomita sum rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Banerjee, Varsha; Puri, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    We perform comprehensive Monte Carlo (MC) simulations to study ordering dynamics in the random field Ising model with conserved order parameter (C-RFIM) in d=2,3 . The observations from this study are: a) For a fixed value of the disorder Δ, the correlation function C(r,t;Δ) exhibits dynamical scaling. b) The scaling function is not robust with respect to Δ, i.e., super-universality (SU) is violated by C(r,t;Δ) . c) At early times, the domains follow the algebraic growth with a disorder-dependent exponent: L(t,Δ)∼ t1/\\bar{z(Δ)} . At late times, there is a crossover to logarithmic growth: L(t,Δ) ∼ (\\ln t)1/\\varphi , where φ is a disorder-independent exponent. d) The small-r behavior of the correlation function exhibits a cusp singularity: 1-C(r) ∼ rα(Δ) , where α is the cusp exponent signifying rough fractal interfaces. e) The corresponding structure factor exhibits a non-Porod tail: S(k,t;Δ)∼ k-(d+α) , and obeys a generalized Tomita sum rule \\int_0^∞ {d}p p1-α≤ft[pd+αf(p)-C\\right]=0 , where f(p) is the appropriate scaling function, and C is a constant.

  7. Majority-vote model on spatially embedded networks: Crossover from mean-field to Ising universality classes.

    PubMed

    Sampaio Filho, C I N; Dos Santos, T B; Moreira, A A; Moreira, F G B; Andrade, J S

    2016-05-01

    We study through Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling analysis the nonequilibrium phase transitions of the majority-vote model taking place on spatially embedded networks. These structures are built from an underlying regular lattice over which directed long-range connections are randomly added according to the probability P_{ij}∼r^{-α}, where r_{ij} is the Manhattan distance between nodes i and j, and the exponent α is a controlling parameter [J. M. Kleinberg, Nature (London) 406, 845 (2000)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/35022643]. Our results show that the collective behavior of this system exhibits a continuous order-disorder phase transition at a critical parameter, which is a decreasing function of the exponent α. Precisely, considering the scaling functions and the critical exponents calculated, we conclude that the system undergoes a crossover among distinct universality classes. For α≤3 the critical behavior is described by mean-field exponents, while for α≥4 it belongs to the Ising universality class. Finally, in the region where the crossover occurs, 3<α<4, the critical exponents are dependent on α.

  8. Antiferroquadrupolar and Ising-nematic orders of a frustrated bilinear-biquadratic Heisenberg model and implications for the magnetism of FeSe.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rong; Si, Qimiao

    2015-09-11

    Motivated by the properties of the iron chalcogenides, we study the phase diagram of a generalized Heisenberg model with frustrated bilinear-biquadratic interactions on a square lattice. We identify zero-temperature phases with antiferroquadrupolar and Ising-nematic orders. The effects of quantum fluctuations and interlayer couplings are analyzed. We propose the Ising-nematic order as underlying the structural phase transition observed in the normal state of FeSe, and discuss the role of the Goldstone modes of the antiferroquadrupolar order for the dipolar magnetic fluctuations in this system. Our results provide a considerably broadened perspective on the overall magnetic phase diagram of the iron chalcogenides and pnictides, and are amenable to tests by new experiments.

  9. Ground states of an Ising model on an extended Shastry-Sutherland lattice and the 1/2-magnetization plateau in some rare-earth-metal tetraborides.

    PubMed

    Dublenych, Yu I

    2013-08-01

    A complete solution of the ground-state problem for an Ising model on the Shastry-Sutherland lattice with an additional interaction along the diagonals of "empty" squares in an applied magnetic field is presented. A rigorous proof is given that this interaction gives rise to a plateau at one-half of the saturation magnetization. Such a fractional plateau has been observed in some rare-earth-metal tetraborides, in particular in strong Ising magnets ErB(4) (where it is the only one) and TmB(4) (where it is the broadest one), but its origin has remained unclear. Our study sheds new light on the solution of this problem.

  10. A Generalization of Mean Field Theory in a Cluster with Many Sites on the Ising Model from the Bogoliubov Inequality: Hexagonal Nanowire and Nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Jander P.

    2017-01-01

    A generalization of mean field theory in a cluster with many sites was obtained for the spin-1/2 Ising model from the Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality. The expressions for the free energy and the magnetization were obtained. The generalization was applied in a structure of the nanowire and nanotube hexagonal lattices, for clusters of seven sites and six sites, respectively. The results for the magnetization, the free energy, the internal energy, the entropy, the specific heat, and the critical frontiers were obtained. The critical temperature and the compensation temperature in a cylindrical Ising nanowire are investigated, in order to clarify the distinction between the ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic behaviors when the core-shell exchange coupling takes a different sign. The results were compared with other works.

  11. A Generalization of Mean Field Theory in a Cluster with Many Sites on the Ising Model from the Bogoliubov Inequality: Hexagonal Nanowire and Nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Jander P.

    2017-04-01

    A generalization of mean field theory in a cluster with many sites was obtained for the spin-1/2 Ising model from the Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality. The expressions for the free energy and the magnetization were obtained. The generalization was applied in a structure of the nanowire and nanotube hexagonal lattices, for clusters of seven sites and six sites, respectively. The results for the magnetization, the free energy, the internal energy, the entropy, the specific heat, and the critical frontiers were obtained. The critical temperature and the compensation temperature in a cylindrical Ising nanowire are investigated, in order to clarify the distinction between the ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic behaviors when the core-shell exchange coupling takes a different sign. The results were compared with other works.

  12. Antiferroquadrupolar and Ising-Nematic Orders of a Frustrated Bilinear-Biquadratic Heisenberg Model and Implications for the Magnetism of FeSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Rong; Si, Qimiao

    2015-09-01

    Motivated by the properties of the iron chalcogenides, we study the phase diagram of a generalized Heisenberg model with frustrated bilinear-biquadratic interactions on a square lattice. We identify zero-temperature phases with antiferroquadrupolar and Ising-nematic orders. The effects of quantum fluctuations and interlayer couplings are analyzed. We propose the Ising-nematic order as underlying the structural phase transition observed in the normal state of FeSe, and discuss the role of the Goldstone modes of the antiferroquadrupolar order for the dipolar magnetic fluctuations in this system. Our results provide a considerably broadened perspective on the overall magnetic phase diagram of the iron chalcogenides and pnictides, and are amenable to tests by new experiments.

  13. Cluster evolution and critical cluster sizes for the square and triangular lattice Ising models using lattice animals and Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eising, G.; Kooi, B. J.

    2012-06-01

    Growth and decay of clusters at temperatures below Tc have been studied for a two-dimensional Ising model for both square and triangular lattices using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and the enumeration of lattice animals. For the lattice animals, all unique cluster configurations with their internal bonds were identified up to 25 spins for the triangular lattice and up to 29 spins for the square lattice. From these configurations, the critical cluster sizes for nucleation have been determined based on two (thermodynamic) definitions. From the Monte Carlo simulations, the critical cluster size is also obtained by studying the decay and growth of inserted, most compact clusters of different sizes. A good agreement is found between the results from the MC simulations and one of the definitions of critical size used for the lattice animals at temperatures T > ˜0.4 Tc for the square lattice and T > ˜0.2 Tc for the triangular lattice (for the range of external fields H considered). At low temperatures (T ≈ 0.2 Tc for the square lattice and T ≈ 0.1 Tc for the triangular lattice), magic numbers are found in the size distributions during the MC simulations. However, these numbers are not present in the critical cluster sizes based on the MC simulations, as they are present for the lattice animal data. In order to achieve these magic numbers in the critical cluster sizes based on the MC simulation, the temperature has to be reduced further to T ≈ 0.15 Tc for the square lattice. The observed evolution of magic numbers as a function of temperature is rationalized in the present work.

  14. Ising formulations of many NP problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    We provide Ising formulations for many NP-complete and NP-hard problems, including all of Karp's 21 NP-complete problems. This collects and extends mappings to the Ising model from partitioning, covering and satisfiability. In each case, the required number of spins is at most cubic in the size of the problem. This work may be useful in designing adiabatic quantum optimization algorithms.

  15. A comparison of portfolio selection models via application on ISE 100 index data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altun, Emrah; Tatlidil, Hüseyin

    2013-10-01

    Markowitz Model, a classical approach to portfolio optimization problem, relies on two important assumptions: the expected return is multivariate normally distributed and the investor is risk averter. But this model has not been extensively used in finance. Empirical results show that it is very hard to solve large scale portfolio optimization problems with Mean-Variance (M-V)model. Alternative model, Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) model which is proposed by Konno and Yamazaki [7] has been used to remove most of difficulties of Markowitz Mean-Variance model. MAD model don't need to assume that the probability of the rates of return is normally distributed and based on Linear Programming. Another alternative portfolio model is Mean-Lower Semi Absolute Deviation (M-LSAD), which is proposed by Speranza [3]. We will compare these models to determine which model gives more appropriate solution to investors.

  16. Large-scale Ising spin network based on degenerate optical parametric oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, Takahiro; Inaba, Kensuke; Hamerly, Ryan; Inoue, Kyo; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Takesue, Hiroki

    2016-06-01

    Solving combinatorial optimization problems is becoming increasingly important in modern society, where the analysis and optimization of unprecedentedly complex systems are required. Many such problems can be mapped onto the ground-state-search problem of the Ising Hamiltonian, and simulating the Ising spins with physical systems is now emerging as a promising approach for tackling such problems. Here, we report a large-scale network of artificial spins based on degenerate optical parametric oscillators (DOPOs), paving the way towards a photonic Ising machine capable of solving difficult combinatorial optimization problems. We generate >10,000 time-division-multiplexed DOPOs using dual-pump four-wave mixing in a highly nonlinear fibre placed in a cavity. Using those DOPOs, a one-dimensional Ising model is simulated by introducing nearest-neighbour optical coupling. We observe the formation of spin domains and find that the domain size diverges near the DOPO threshold, which suggests that the DOPO network can simulate the behaviour of low-temperature Ising spins.

  17. Fractional magnetization plateaus of the spin-1/2 Heisenberg orthogonal-dimer chain: Strong-coupling approach developed from the exactly solved Ising-Heisenberg model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkholyak, Taras; Strečka, Jozef

    2016-10-01

    The spin-1/2 Heisenberg orthogonal-dimer chain is considered within the perturbative strong-coupling approach, which is developed from the exactly solved spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg orthogonal-dimer chain with the Heisenberg intradimer and the Ising interdimer couplings. Although the spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg orthogonal-dimer chain exhibits just intermediate plateaus at zero, one-quarter, and one-half of the saturation magnetization, the perturbative treatment up to second order stemming from this exactly solvable model additionally corroborates the fractional one-third plateau as well as the gapless Luttinger spin-liquid phase. It is evidenced that the approximate results obtained from the strong-coupling approach are in an excellent agreement with the state-of-the-art numerical data obtained for the spin-1/2 Heisenberg orthogonal-dimer chain within the exact diagonalization and density-matrix renormalization group method. The nature of individual quantum ground states is comprehensively studied within the developed perturbation theory.

  18. An ISEE/Whistler model of equatorial electron density in the magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, D. L.; Anderson, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to an empirical model of equatorial electron density in the magnetosphere covering the L range 2.25-8. Although the model is primarily intended for application to the local time interval 00-15 MLT, a way to extend the model to the 15-24-MLT period is presented. The model describes, in piecewise fashion, the 'saturated' plasmasphere, the region of steep plasmapause gradients, and the plasma trough. Within the plasmasphere the model profile can be expressed as logne - Sigma-xi, where x1 = -0.3145L + 3.9043 is the principal or 'reference' term, and additional terms account for: a solar cycle variation with a peak at solar maximum; an annual variation with a December maximum; and a semiannual variation with equinoctial maxima.

  19. Numerical evidence of hyperscaling violation in wetting transitions of the random-bond Ising model in d =2 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albano, Ezequiel V.; Luque, Luciana; Trobo, Marta L.; Binder, Kurt

    2017-02-01

    We performed extensive simulations of the random-bond Ising model confined between walls where competitive surface fields act. By properly taking the thermodynamic limit we unambiguously determined wetting transition points of the system, as extrapolation of localization-delocalization transitions of the interface between domains of different orientation driven by the respective fields. The finite-size scaling theory for wetting with short-range fields [E. V. Albano and K. Binder, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 036101 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.036101] establishes that the average magnetization of the sample, with critical exponent β , is the proper order parameter for the study of wetting. While the hyperscaling relationship given by γ +2 β =ν∥+ν⊥ requires β =1 /2 (γ =4 , ν∥=3 , and ν⊥=2 ), the thermodynamic scaling establishes that Δs=γ +β , which in contrast requires β =0 (Δs=4 ), where γ , ν∥, ν⊥, and Δs are the critical exponents of the susceptibility, the correlation lengths parallel and perpendicular to the interface, and the gap exponent, respectively. So, we formulate a finite-size scaling theory for wetting without hyperscaling and perform numerical simulations that provide strong evidence of hyperscaling violation (i.e., β =0 ) and a direct measurement of the susceptibility critical exponent γ /ν⊥=2.0 ±0.2 , in agreement with theoretical results for the strong fluctuation regime of wetting transitions with quenched noise.

  20. Numerical evidence of hyperscaling violation in wetting transitions of the random-bond Ising model in d=2 dimensions.

    PubMed

    Albano, Ezequiel V; Luque, Luciana; Trobo, Marta L; Binder, Kurt

    2017-02-01

    We performed extensive simulations of the random-bond Ising model confined between walls where competitive surface fields act. By properly taking the thermodynamic limit we unambiguously determined wetting transition points of the system, as extrapolation of localization-delocalization transitions of the interface between domains of different orientation driven by the respective fields. The finite-size scaling theory for wetting with short-range fields [E. V. Albano and K. Binder, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 036101 (2012)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.109.036101] establishes that the average magnetization of the sample, with critical exponent β, is the proper order parameter for the study of wetting. While the hyperscaling relationship given by γ+2β=ν_{∥}+ν_{⊥} requires β=1/2 (γ=4, ν_{∥}=3, and ν_{⊥}=2), the thermodynamic scaling establishes that Δ_{s}=γ+β, which in contrast requires β=0 (Δ_{s}=4), where γ, ν_{∥}, ν_{⊥}, and Δ_{s} are the critical exponents of the susceptibility, the correlation lengths parallel and perpendicular to the interface, and the gap exponent, respectively. So, we formulate a finite-size scaling theory for wetting without hyperscaling and perform numerical simulations that provide strong evidence of hyperscaling violation (i.e., β=0) and a direct measurement of the susceptibility critical exponent γ/ν_{⊥}=2.0±0.2, in agreement with theoretical results for the strong fluctuation regime of wetting transitions with quenched noise.

  1. Behavior of the finite-sized, three-dimensional, Ising model near the critical point

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, G.A. Jr.; Gupta, R.

    1996-05-01

    Recent work showing the validity of hyperscaling involved results for finite size systems very near the critical point. The authors study this problem in more detail, and give estimators related to the Binder cumulant ratio which seem to approach the critical temperature from above and below. Based on these results, they estimate that the renormalized coupling constant, computed for the temperature fixed at the critical temperature and then taking the large system-size limit, is about 4.9 {+-} 0.1, and give a likely lower bound for it of 4.5. These estimates are argued to suffice to show the validity of hyperscaling.

  2. Theory of quantum annealing of an Ising spin glass.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Giuseppe E; Martonák, Roman; Tosatti, Erio; Car, Roberto

    2002-03-29

    Probing the lowest energy configuration of a complex system by quantum annealing was recently found to be more effective than its classical, thermal counterpart. By comparing classical and quantum Monte Carlo annealing protocols on the two-dimensional random Ising model (a prototype spin glass), we confirm the superiority of quantum annealing relative to classical annealing. We also propose a theory of quantum annealing based on a cascade of Landau-Zener tunneling events. For both classical and quantum annealing, the residual energy after annealing is inversely proportional to a power of the logarithm of the annealing time, but the quantum case has a larger power that makes it faster.

  3. Cluster analysis for percolation on a two-dimensional fully frustrated system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzese, Giancarlo

    1996-12-01

    The percolation of Kandel, Ben-Av and Domany clusters for a two-dimensional fully frustrated Ising model is extensively studied through numerical simulations. Critical exponents, cluster distribution and fractal dimension of a percolating cluster are given.

  4. Phase transitions in the antiferromagnetic Ising model on a body-centered cubic lattice with interactions between next-to-nearest neighbors

    SciTech Connect

    Murtazaev, A. K.; Ramazanov, M. K.; Kassan-Ogly, F. A.; Kurbanova, D. R.

    2015-01-15

    Phase transitions in the antiferromagnetic Ising model on a body-centered cubic lattice are studied on the basis of the replica algorithm by the Monte Carlo method and histogram analysis taking into account the interaction of next-to-nearest neighbors. The phase diagram of the dependence of the critical temperature on the intensity of interaction of the next-to-nearest neighbors is constructed. It is found that a second-order phase transition is realized in this model in the investigated interval of the intensities of interaction of next-to-nearest neighbors.

  5. Quantum Critical Behavior of the Bose-Fermi Kondo Model with Ising Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Tae-Ho

    2005-03-01

    The existence of a continous quantum phase transition of the Bose-Fermi Kondo Model (BFKM) with a self-consistently determined bosonic bath has been demonstrated within the Extended Dynamical Mean Field Approach to the anisotropic Kondo lattice model and φ/T-scaling near the quantum critical point(QCP)was found[1,2]. We study the quantum critical properties of the anisotropic BFKM with specified bath spectral function, where the spectrum of the bosonic bath vanishes in a power-law fashion with exponent γ for small frequencies. Motivated by very recent results that the quantum to classical mapping for a related class of models fails[3,4]. We determine the critical local susceptibility using both the classical and quantum Monte Carlo approaches of Ref.5. Our results cover several values of γ below and above the upper critical dimension of the classical model for temperatures down to 1% of the bare Kondo scale. [1]D. Grempel and Q. Si, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 026402 (2003). [2]J.Zhu, D. Grempel, and Q. Si, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 156404 (2003). [3]L. Zhu, S. Kirchner, Q. Si nad A. Georges, Phys. Rev. Lett. in press (cond-mat/0406293). [4]M. Vojta, N. Tong, and R. Bulla, cond-mat/0410132. [5]D. Grempel and M. Rozenberg, Phys. Rev. B 60, 4702 (1999).

  6. Extra-dimensional models on the lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Knechtli, Francesco; Rinaldi, Enrico

    2016-08-05

    In this paper we summarize the ongoing effort to study extra-dimensional gauge theories with lattice simulations. In these models the Higgs field is identified with extra-dimensional components of the gauge field. The Higgs potential is generated by quantum corrections and is protected from divergences by the higher dimensional gauge symmetry. Dimensional reduction to four dimensions can occur through compactification or localization. Gauge-Higgs unification models are often studied using perturbation theory. Numerical lattice simulations are used to go beyond these perturbative expectations and to include nonperturbative effects. We describe the known perturbative predictions and their fate in the strongly-coupled regime for various extra-dimensional models.

  7. A haplotype inference method based on sparsely connected multi-body ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Masashi; Gao, Qian Ji; Chigira, Hiroshi; Shindo, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Masato

    2010-06-01

    Statistical haplotype inference is an indispensable technique in the field of medical science. The method usually has two steps: inference of haplotype frequencies and inference of diplotype for each subject. The first step can be done by using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, but it incurs an unreasonably large calculation cost when the number of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci of concern is large. In this article, we describe an approximate probabilistic model of haplotype frequencies. The model is constructed by using several distributions of nearby local SNPs. This approximation seems good because SNPs are generally more strongly correlated when they are close to one another on a chromosome. To implement this approach, we use a log linear model, the Walsh-Hadamard transform, and a combinatorial optimization method. Artificial data suggested that the overall haplotype inference of our method is good if there are nine or more local consecutive SNPs. Some minor problems should be dealt with before this method can be applied to real data.

  8. Special transitions in an O(n) loop model with an Ising-like constraint.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhe; Guo, Wenan; Blöte, Henk W J

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the O(n) nonintersecting loop model on the square lattice under the constraint that the loops consist of 90-deg bends only. The model is governed by the loop weight n, a weight x for each vertex of the lattice visited once by a loop, and a weight z for each vertex visited twice by a loop. We explore the (x,z) phase diagram for some values of n. For 01, the O(n)-like transition line appears to be absent. Thus, for z=0, the (n,x) phase diagram displays a line of phase transitions for n≤1. The line ends at n=1 in an infinite-order transition. We determine the conformal anomaly and the critical exponents along this line. These results agree accurately with a recent proposal for the universal classification of this type of model, at least in most of the range -1≤n≤1. We also determine the exponent describing crossover to the generic O(n) universality class, by introducing topological defects associated with the introduction of "straight" vertices violating the 90-deg-bend rule. These results are obtained by means of transfer-matrix calculations and finite-size scaling.

  9. Characterizing correlations with full counting statistics: classical Ising and quantum XY spin chains.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Dmitri A; Abanov, Alexander G

    2013-02-01

    We propose to describe correlations in classical and quantum systems in terms of full counting statistics of a suitably chosen discrete observable. The method is illustrated with two exactly solvable examples: the classical one-dimensional Ising model and the quantum spin-1/2 XY chain. For the one-dimensional Ising model, our method results in a phase diagram with two phases distinguishable by the long-distance behavior of the Jordan-Wigner strings. For the anisotropic spin-1/2 XY chain in a transverse magnetic field, we compute the full counting statistics of the magnetization and use it to classify quantum phases of the chain. The method, in this case, reproduces the previously known phase diagram. We also discuss the relation between our approach and the Lee-Yang theory of zeros of the partition function.

  10. The Ising Model on the Random Planar Causal Triangulation: Bounds on the Critical Line and Magnetization Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napolitano, George M.; Turova, Tatyana S.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate a Gibbs (annealed) probability measure defined on Ising spin configurations on causal triangulations of the plane. We study the region where such measure can be defined and provide bounds on the boundary of this region (critical line). We prove that for any finite random triangulation the magnetization of the central spin is sensitive to the boundary conditions. Furthermore, we show that in the infinite volume limit, the magnetization of the central spin vanishes for values of the temperature high enough.

  11. Ising spin glasses in dimension five

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundow, P. H.; Campbell, I. A.

    2017-01-01

    Ising spin-glass models with bimodal, Gaussian, uniform, and Laplacian interaction distributions in dimension five are studied through detailed numerical simulations. The data are analyzed in both the finite-size scaling regime and the thermodynamic limit regime. It is shown that the values of critical exponents and of dimensionless observables at criticality are model dependent. Models in a single universality class have identical values for each of these critical parameters, so Ising spin-glass models in dimension five with different interaction distributions each lie in different universality classes. This result confirms conclusions drawn from measurements in dimension four and dimension two.

  12. Ising spin glasses in dimension five.

    PubMed

    Lundow, P H; Campbell, I A

    2017-01-01

    Ising spin-glass models with bimodal, Gaussian, uniform, and Laplacian interaction distributions in dimension five are studied through detailed numerical simulations. The data are analyzed in both the finite-size scaling regime and the thermodynamic limit regime. It is shown that the values of critical exponents and of dimensionless observables at criticality are model dependent. Models in a single universality class have identical values for each of these critical parameters, so Ising spin-glass models in dimension five with different interaction distributions each lie in different universality classes. This result confirms conclusions drawn from measurements in dimension four and dimension two.

  13. Quantum phase transitions and decoupling of magnetic sublattices in the quasi-two-dimensional Ising magnet Co3V2O8 in a transverse magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, Katharina; Ehlers, G.; Rule, K. C.; Habicht, Klaus; Ramazanoglu, Mehmet K.; Dabkowska, H. A.; Gaulin, Bruce D.

    2015-11-05

    We study the application of a magnetic field transverse to the easy axis, Ising direction in the quasi-two-dimensional kagome staircase magnet, Co3V2O8, induces three quantum phase transitions at low temperatures, ultimately producing a novel high field polarized state, with two distinct sublattices. New time-of-flight neutron scattering techniques, accompanied by large angular access, high magnetic field infrastructure allow the mapping of a sequence of ferromagnetic and incommensurate phases and their accompanying spin excitations. Also, at least one of the transitions to incommensurate phases at μ0Hc1~6.25 T and μ0Hc2~7 T is discontinuous, while the final quantum critical point at μ0Hc3~13 T is continuous.

  14. Sparse High Dimensional Models in Economics

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Lv, Jinchi; Qi, Lei

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on sparse high dimensional models and discusses some applications in economics and finance. Recent developments of theory, methods, and implementations in penalized least squares and penalized likelihood methods are highlighted. These variable selection methods are proved to be effective in high dimensional sparse modeling. The limits of dimensionality that regularization methods can handle, the role of penalty functions, and their statistical properties are detailed. Some recent advances in ultra-high dimensional sparse modeling are also briefly discussed. PMID:22022635

  15. Physical model of dimensional regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonfeld, Jonathan F.

    2016-12-01

    We explicitly construct fractals of dimension 4{-}ɛ on which dimensional regularization approximates scalar-field-only quantum-field theory amplitudes. The construction does not require fractals to be Lorentz-invariant in any sense, and we argue that there probably is no Lorentz-invariant fractal of dimension greater than 2. We derive dimensional regularization's power-law screening first for fractals obtained by removing voids from 3-dimensional Euclidean space. The derivation applies techniques from elementary dielectric theory. Surprisingly, fractal geometry by itself does not guarantee the appropriate power-law behavior; boundary conditions at fractal voids also play an important role. We then extend the derivation to 4-dimensional Minkowski space. We comment on generalization to non-scalar fields, and speculate about implications for quantum gravity.

  16. Critical aspects of three-dimensional anisotropic spin-glass models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papakonstantinou, Thodoris; Fytas, Nikolaos G.; Malakis, Anastasios; Lelidis, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    We study the three-dimensional ± J Ising model with a longitudinal anisotropic bond randomness on the simple cubic lattice. The random exchange interaction is applied only in the z direction, whereas in the other two directions, xy-planes, we consider ferromagnetic exchange. By implementing an effective parallel tempering scheme, we outline the phase diagram of the model and compare it to the corresponding isotropic one. We present a detailed finite-size scaling analysis of the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic and spin glass-paramagnetic transition lines, and we also discuss the ferromagnetic-spin glass transition regime. We conclude that the present model shares the same universality classes with the isotropic model, but at the symmetric point has a considerably higher transition temperature from the spin-glass state to the paramagnetic phase. Our data for the ferromagnetic-spin glass transition line support a forward behavior in contrast to the reentrant behavior of the corresponding isotropic model.

  17. Aneesur Rahman Prize: The Inverse Ising Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swendsen, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Many methods are available for carrying out computer simulations of a model Hamiltonian to obtain thermodynamic information by generating a set of configurations. The inverse problem consists of recreating the parameters of the Hamiltonian, given a set of configurations. The problem arises in a variety of contexts, and there has been much interest recently in the inverse Ising problem, in which the configurations consist of Ising spins. I will discuss an efficient method for solving the problem and what it can tell us about the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model.

  18. Cluster Monte Carlo distributions in fractal dimensions between two and three: Scaling properties and dynamical aspects for the Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monceau, Pascal; Hsiao, Pai-Yi

    2002-09-01

    We study the Wolff cluster size distributions obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of the Ising phase transition on Sierpinski fractals with Hausdorff dimensions Df between 2 and 3. These distributions are shown to be invariant when going from an iteration step of the fractal to the next under a scaling of the cluster sizes involving the exponent (β/ν)+(γ/ν). Moreover, the decay of the autocorrelation functions at the critical points enables us to calculate the Wolff dynamical critical exponents z for three different values of Df. The Wolff algorithm is more efficient in reducing the critical slowing down when Df is lowered.

  19. One-dimensional frustrated plaquette compass model: Nematic phase and spontaneous multimerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzezicki, Wojciech; Oleś, Andrzej M.

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a one-dimensional (1D) pseudospin model on a ladder where the Ising interactions along the legs and along the rungs alternate between XiXi +1 and ZiZi +1 for even/odd bond (rung). We include also the next-nearest-neighbor Ising interactions on plaquettes' diagonals that alternate in such a way that a model where only leg interactions are switched on is equivalent to the one when only the diagonal ones are present. Thus in the absence of rung interactions the model can interpolate between two 1D compass models. The model possesses local symmetries which are the parities within each 2 ×2 cell (plaquette) of the ladder. We find that for different values of the interaction it can realize ground states that differ by the patterns formed by these local parities. By exact diagonalization we derive detailed phase diagrams for small systems of L =4 , 6, and 8 plaquettes, and use next L =12 to identify generic phases that appear in larger systems as well. Among them we find a nematic phase with macroscopic degeneracy when the leg and diagonal interactions are equal and the rung interactions are larger than a critical value. By performing a perturbative expansion around this phase we find indeed a very complex competition around the nematic phase which has to do with releasing frustration in this range of parameters. The nematic phase is similar to the one found in the two-dimensional compass model. For particular parameters the low-energy sector of the present plaquette model reduces to a 1D compass model with spins S =1 which suggests that it realizes peculiar crossovers within the class of compass models. Finally, we show that the model can realize phases with broken translation invariance which can be either dimerized, trimerized, etc., or completely disordered and highly entangled in a well identified window of the phase diagram.

  20. Ising spin glass that closely resembles the physical glass transition.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Marc L

    2002-07-01

    We consider a modification of the one-dimensional Ising model in an external field in which the higher-energy spin state is assumed to be P-fold degenerate. The model shows a transition that becomes first order in the limit of infinite coupling constant. Here we report a study of the dynamical properties of the model by computer simulation in the vicinity of this transition, under the assumption that the model evolves by single spin flips with Metropolis bias, but with certain forbidden flips. The result is a model that exhibits many well-known empirical properties of the physical glass transition, including the "Kauzmann paradox," the Vogel law, stretched-exponential relaxation, and dynamic heterogeneity.

  1. Low-temperature behavior of the statistics of the overlap distribution in Ising spin-glass models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, Matthew; Yucesoy, B.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.; Machta, J.; Young, A. P.

    2014-10-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study in detail the overlap distribution for individual samples for several spin-glass models including the infinite-range Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, short-range Edwards-Anderson models in three and four space dimensions, and one-dimensional long-range models with diluted power-law interactions. We study three long-range models with different powers as follows: The first is approximately equivalent to a short-range model in three dimensions, the second to a short-range model in four dimensions, and the third to a short-range model in the mean-field regime. We study an observable proposed earlier by some of us which aims to distinguish the "replica symmetry breaking" picture of the spin-glass phase from the "droplet picture," finding that larger system sizes would be needed to unambiguously determine which of these pictures describes the low-temperature state of spin glasses best, except for the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, which is unambiguously described by replica symmetry breaking. Finally, we also study the median integrated overlap probability distribution and a typical overlap distribution, finding that these observables are not particularly helpful in distinguishing the replica symmetry breaking and the droplet pictures.

  2. Emergent order in the kagome Ising magnet Dy3Mg2Sb3O14.

    PubMed

    Paddison, Joseph A M; Ong, Harapan S; Hamp, James O; Mukherjee, Paromita; Bai, Xiaojian; Tucker, Matthew G; Butch, Nicholas P; Castelnovo, Claudio; Mourigal, Martin; Dutton, S E

    2016-12-20

    The Ising model-in which degrees of freedom (spins) are binary valued (up/down)-is a cornerstone of statistical physics that shows rich behaviour when spins occupy a highly frustrated lattice such as kagome. Here we show that the layered Ising magnet Dy3Mg2Sb3O14 hosts an emergent order predicted theoretically for individual kagome layers of in-plane Ising spins. Neutron-scattering and bulk thermomagnetic measurements reveal a phase transition at ∼0.3 K from a disordered spin-ice-like regime to an emergent charge ordered state, in which emergent magnetic charge degrees of freedom exhibit three-dimensional order while spins remain partially disordered. Monte Carlo simulations show that an interplay of inter-layer interactions, spin canting and chemical disorder stabilizes this state. Our results establish Dy3Mg2Sb3O14 as a tuneable system to study interacting emergent charges arising from kagome Ising frustration.

  3. Extra-dimensional models on the lattice

    DOE PAGES

    Knechtli, Francesco; Rinaldi, Enrico

    2016-08-05

    In this paper we summarize the ongoing effort to study extra-dimensional gauge theories with lattice simulations. In these models the Higgs field is identified with extra-dimensional components of the gauge field. The Higgs potential is generated by quantum corrections and is protected from divergences by the higher dimensional gauge symmetry. Dimensional reduction to four dimensions can occur through compactification or localization. Gauge-Higgs unification models are often studied using perturbation theory. Numerical lattice simulations are used to go beyond these perturbative expectations and to include nonperturbative effects. We describe the known perturbative predictions and their fate in the strongly-coupled regime formore » various extra-dimensional models.« less

  4. A two-dimensional analytical subthreshold behavior model for junctionless dual-material cylindrical surrounding-gate MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cong; Zhuang, Yi-Qi; Zhang, Li; Jin, Gang

    2014-03-01

    A two-dimensional analytical subthreshold behavior model for junctionless dual-material cylindrical surrounding-gate (JLDMCSG) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is proposed. It is derived by solving the two-dimensional Poisson's equation in two continuous cylindrical regions with any simplifying assumption. Using this analytical model, the subthreshold characteristics of JLDMCSG MOSFETs are investigated in terms of channel electrostatic potential, horizontal electric field, and subthreshold current. Compared to junctionless single-material cylindrical surrounding-gate MOSFETs, JLDMCSG MOSFETs can effectively suppress short-channel effects and simultaneously improve carrier transport efficiency. It is found that the subthreshold current of JLDMCSG MOSFETs can be significantly reduced by adopting both a thin oxide and thin silicon channel. The accuracy of the analytical model is verified by its good agreement with the three-dimensional numerical simulator ISE TCAD.

  5. Magnetic phase diagrams, domain switching, and quantum phase transition of the quasi-one-dimensional Ising-like antiferromagnet BaCo2V2O8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niesen, S. K.; Kolland, G.; Seher, M.; Breunig, O.; Valldor, M.; Braden, M.; Grenier, B.; Lorenz, T.

    2013-06-01

    In the effective Ising spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic chain system BaCo2V2O8 the magnetic-field influence is highly anisotropic. For magnetic fields along the easy axis c, the Néel order is strongly suppressed already at low fields and an incommensurate order is entered above 4 T. We present a detailed study of the magnetic phase diagrams for different magnetic field directions, which are derived from magnetization data, high-resolution thermal expansion, and magnetostriction measurements as well as from the thermal conductivity. Zero-field thermal-expansion data reveal that the magnetic transition is accompanied by an orthorhombic distortion within the ab plane. Under ambient conditions the crystals are heavily twinned, but the domain orientation can be influenced either by applying uniaxial pressure or a magnetic field along the [100] direction. In addition, our data reveal a pronounced in-plane magnetic anisotropy for fields applied within the ab plane. For H∥[110], the magnetic field influence on TN is weak, whereas for magnetic fields applied along [100], TN vanishes at about 10 T and the zero-field Néel order is completely suppressed as is confirmed by neutron diffraction data. The second-order phase transition strongly suggests a quantum critical point being present at H≃10 T parallel [100].

  6. Nagoya, Ise Bay, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This view of Nagoya, Ise Bay and nearby Kyoto, on the main island of Honshu, Japan (35.0N, 137.0E) combines in a single photo both the political, cultural and educational centers of early Japan as well as one of the main educational and business centers of modern Japan. Besides being a business, cultural and educational center, Nagoya is near the geographic center of the Japanese home islands.

  7. Dynamical transitions of a driven Ising interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Manish K.; Sengupta, Surajit

    2008-03-01

    We study the structure of an interface in a three-dimensional Ising system created by an external nonuniform field H(r,t) . H changes sign over a two-dimensional plane of arbitrary orientation. When the field is pulled with velocity ve , [i.e., H(r,t)=H(r-vet) ], the interface undergoes several dynamical transitions. For low velocities it is pinned by the field profile and moves along with it, the distribution of local slopes undergoing a series of commensurate-incommensurate transitions. For large ve the interface depins and grows with Kardar-Parisi-Zhang exponents.

  8. [Dimensional modeling analysis for outpatient payments].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yi-zhong; Guo, Yi-min

    2008-09-01

    This paper introduces a data warehouse model for outpatient payments, which is designed according to the requirements of the hospital financial management while dimensional modeling technique is combined with the analysis on the requirements. This data warehouse model can not only improve the accuracy of financial management requirements, but also greatly increase the efficiency and quality of the hospital management.

  9. Microemulsion phases in one and two dimensional magnetic models with long-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Erik; Bhatt, R. N.; Huse, David

    2007-03-01

    Spivak and Kivelson have proposed that the first order phase transition between the Wigner crystal and Fermi liquid phases of the interacting electron gas in two dimensions is pre-empted by a series of microemulsion phases characterized by phase separation on the mesoscopic scale, which may be responsible for the anomalous conductivity. We have studied analogous classical magnetic models in one and two dimensions. In particular, we present an exact analytical solution of a one dimensional classical ferromagnetic Ising spin chain frustrated by a long range antiferromagnetic interaction, which clearly exhibits such phase separation in which the mesoscale varies continuously with applied magnetic field. We describe these phases in the 1D model and consider extensions to stripe and bubble phases in two dimensions. B. Spivak and S. A.Kivelson, Physical Review B, 70 155114 (2004) K. Ng and D. Vanderbilt, Physical Review B, 52 2177 (1995)

  10. Dimensionality reduction in epidemic spreading models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frasca, M.; Rizzo, A.; Gallo, L.; Fortuna, L.; Porfiri, M.

    2015-09-01

    Complex dynamical systems often exhibit collective dynamics that are well described by a reduced set of key variables in a low-dimensional space. Such a low-dimensional description offers a privileged perspective to understand the system behavior across temporal and spatial scales. In this work, we propose a data-driven approach to establish low-dimensional representations of large epidemic datasets by using a dimensionality reduction algorithm based on isometric features mapping (ISOMAP). We demonstrate our approach on synthetic data for epidemic spreading in a population of mobile individuals. We find that ISOMAP is successful in embedding high-dimensional data into a low-dimensional manifold, whose topological features are associated with the epidemic outbreak. Across a range of simulation parameters and model instances, we observe that epidemic outbreaks are embedded into a family of closed curves in a three-dimensional space, in which neighboring points pertain to instants that are close in time. The orientation of each curve is unique to a specific outbreak, and the coordinates correlate with the number of infected individuals. A low-dimensional description of epidemic spreading is expected to improve our understanding of the role of individual response on the outbreak dynamics, inform the selection of meaningful global observables, and, possibly, aid in the design of control and quarantine procedures.

  11. 3-Dimensional Topographic Models for the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, J. W.; Roark, J. H.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Stockman, S.; Frey, H. V.

    2003-01-01

    We have recently undertaken a program to develop educational tools using 3-dimensional solid models of digital elevation data acquired by the Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter (MOLA) for Mars as well as a variety of sources for elevation data of the Earth. This work is made possible by the use of rapid prototyping technology to construct solid 3-Dimensional models of science data. We recently acquired rapid prototyping machine that builds 3-dimensional models in extruded plastic. While the machine was acquired to assist in the design and development of scientific instruments and hardware, it is also fully capable of producing models of spacecraft remote sensing data. We have demonstrated this by using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic data and Earth based topographic data to produce extruded plastic topographic models which are visually appealing and instantly engage those who handle them.

  12. Substitution effects on the temperature versus magnetic field phase diagrams of the quasi-one-dimensional effective Ising spin-1/2 chain system BaCo2V2O8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niesen, S. K.; Breunig, O.; Salm, S.; Seher, M.; Valldor, M.; Warzanowski, P.; Lorenz, T.

    2014-09-01

    BaCo2V2O8 is a quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain system with pronounced Ising anisotropy of the magnetic exchange. Due to finite interchain interactions, long-range antiferromagnetic order develops below TN≃5.5K, which is accompanied by a structural distortion in order to lift magnetic frustration effects. The corresponding temperature versus magnetic-field phase diagram is highly anisotropic with respect to the magnetic-field direction and various details are still under vivid discussion. Here, we report the influence of several substitutions on the magnetic properties and the phase diagrams of BaCo2V2O8. We investigate the substitution series Ba1-xSrxCo2V2O8 over the full range 0≤x≤1 as well as the influence of a partial substitution of the magnetic Co2+ by small amounts of other magnetic transition metals or by nonmagnetic magnesium. In all cases, the phase diagrams were obtained on single crystals from magnetization data and/or high-resolution studies of the thermal expansion and magnetostriction.

  13. Thermal hysteresis kinetic effects of spin crossover nanoparticulated systems studied by FORC diagram method on an Ising-like model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atitoaie, Alexandru; Stoleriu, Laurentiu; Tanasa, Radu; Stancu, Alexandru; Enachescu, Cristian

    2016-04-01

    The scientific community is manifesting a high research interest on spin crossover compounds and their recently synthesized nanoparticles, due to their various appealing properties, such as the bistability between a diamagnetic low spin state and a paramagnetic high spin state (HS), inter-switchable by temperature or pressure changes, light irradiation or magnetic field. The utility of these compounds showing hysteresis covers a broad area of applications, from the development of more efficient designs of temperature and pressure sensors to automotive and aeronautic industries and even a new type of molecular actuators. We are proposing in this work a study regarding the kinetic effects and the distribution of reversible and irreversible components on the thermal hysteresis of spin crossover nanoparticulated systems. We are considering here tridimensional systems with different sizes and also systems of nanoparticles with a Gaussian size distribution. The correlations between the kinetics of the thermal hysteresis, the distributions of sizes and intermolecular interactions and the transition temperature distributions were established by using the FORC (First Order Reversal Curves) method using a Monte Carlo technique within an Ising-like system.

  14. An unusual charging event on ISEE 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, R. C.; Whipple, E. C.

    1988-06-01

    Electrostatic cleanliness requirements on ISEE 1 were expected to prevent negative charging in sunlight. This has largely been true, but on three occasions, ISEE 1 has been observed to charge to significant negative potentials in sunlight. Data from the two electric field experiments and from the plasma composition experiment on ISEE 1 show that the spacecraft charged to close to -70 V in sunlight at about 0700 UT on March 17, 1978. Data from the electron spectrometer experiments show that there was a potential barrier of some -10 to -20 V about the spacecraft during this event. The potential barrier was effective in turning back emitted photoelectrons to the spacecraft. Potential barriers can be formed by differential charging on the spacecraft or by the presence of excess space charge in the plasma. The shape of the barrier suggests that it is due to the former, even though electrostatic cleanliness specifications imposed on ISEE were intended to eliminate differential charging. Modeling of this event showed that the barrier could not be produced by the presence of space charge but that it was most likely produced by differential charging of the solar arrays.

  15. One-dimensional model update

    SciTech Connect

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Penner, J.E.; Tarp, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Changes were made in the reaction kinetics constants for the atmospheric chemistry model. The CH/sub 3/CCl/sub 3/ emission rate was changed to 10/sup 9/ lb/y. Values for the solar flux vs wavelength were updated. Solar variability is discussed. Effects of clouds on photolysis rates are considered. (DLC)

  16. Efficient numerical methods for the random-field Ising model: Finite-size scaling, reweighting extrapolation, and computation of response functions.

    PubMed

    Fytas, Nikolaos G; Martín-Mayor, Víctor

    2016-06-01

    It was recently shown [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 227201 (2013)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.110.227201] that the critical behavior of the random-field Ising model in three dimensions is ruled by a single universality class. This conclusion was reached only after a proper taming of the large scaling corrections of the model by applying a combined approach of various techniques, coming from the zero- and positive-temperature toolboxes of statistical physics. In the present contribution we provide a detailed description of this combined scheme, explaining in detail the zero-temperature numerical scheme and developing the generalized fluctuation-dissipation formula that allowed us to compute connected and disconnected correlation functions of the model. We discuss the error evolution of our method and we illustrate the infinite limit-size extrapolation of several observables within phenomenological renormalization. We present an extension of the quotients method that allows us to obtain estimates of the critical exponent α of the specific heat of the model via the scaling of the bond energy and we discuss the self-averaging properties of the system and the algorithmic aspects of the maximum-flow algorithm used.

  17. Excitations in the quantum paramagnetic phase of the quasi-one-dimensional Ising magnet CoNb2O6 in a transverse field: Geometric frustration and quantum renormalization effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Ivelisse; Thompson, J. D.; Coldea, R.; Prabhakaran, D.; Bewley, R. I.; Guidi, T.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; Stock, C.

    We report extensive single-crystal inelastic neutron scattering measurements of the magnetic excitations in the quasi 1D Ising ferromagnet CoNb2O6 in the quantum paramagnetic phase to characterize the effects of the finite interchain couplings. In this phase, we observe that excitations have a sharp, resolution-limited line shape at low energies and over most of the dispersion bandwidth, as expected for spin-flip quasiparticles. We map the full bandwidth along the strongly dispersive chain direction and resolve clear modulations of the dispersions in the plane normal to the chains, characteristic of frustrated interchain couplings in an antiferromagnetic isosceles triangular lattice. The dispersions can be well parametrized using a linear spin-wave model that includes interchain couplings and further neighbor exchanges. The observed dispersion bandwidth along the chain direction is smaller than that predicted by a linear spin-wave model using exchange values determined at zero field. We attribute this effect to quantum renormalization of the dispersion beyond the spin-wave approximation in fields slightly above the critical field, where quantum fluctuations are still significant. We acknowledge support from EPSRC Grant No. EP/H014934/1, the Oxford Clarendon Fund Scholarship and NSERC of Canada.

  18. Emergence of string valence-bond-solid state in the frustrated J1-J2 transverse field Ising model on the square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrzadeh, M.; Haghshenas, R.; Jahromi, S. S.; Langari, A.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the ground-state nature of the transverse field Ising model on the J1-J2 square lattice at the highly frustrated point J2/J1=0.5 . At zero field, the model has an exponentially large degenerate classical ground state, which can be affected by quantum fluctuations for nonzero field toward a unique quantum ground state. We consider two types of quantum fluctuations, harmonic ones by using linear spin-wave theory (LSWT) with single-spin-flip excitations above a long-range magnetically ordered background and anharmonic fluctuations, by employing a cluster-operator approach (COA) with multispin cluster-type fluctuations above a nonmagnetic cluster-ordered background. Our findings reveal that the harmonic fluctuations of LSWT fail to lift the extensive degeneracy as well as signaling a violation of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. However, the string-type anharmonic fluctuations of COA are able to lift the degeneracy toward a string valence-bond-solid (VBS) state, which is obtained from an effective theory consistent with the Hellmann-Feynman theorem as well. Our results are further confirmed by implementing numerical tree tensor network simulation. The emergent nonmagnetic string VBS phase is gapped and breaks lattice rotational symmetry with only twofold degeneracy, which bears a continuous quantum phase transition at Γ /J1≅0.50 to the quantum paramagnet phase of high fields. The critical behavior is characterized by ν ≅1.0 and γ ≅0.33 exponents.

  19. Stepwise positional-orientational order and the multicritical-multistructural global phase diagram of the s=3/2 Ising model from renormalization-group theory.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Çağın; Renklioğlu, Başak; Keskin, Mustafa; Berker, A Nihat

    2016-06-01

    The spin-3/2 Ising model, with nearest-neighbor interactions only, is the prototypical system with two different ordering species, with concentrations regulated by a chemical potential. Its global phase diagram, obtained in d=3 by renormalization-group theory in the Migdal-Kadanoff approximation or equivalently as an exact solution of a d=3 hierarchical lattice, with flows subtended by 40 different fixed points, presents a very rich structure containing eight different ordered and disordered phases, with more than 14 different types of phase diagrams in temperature and chemical potential. It exhibits phases with orientational and/or positional order. It also exhibits quintuple phase transition reentrances. Universality of critical exponents is conserved across different renormalization-group flow basins via redundant fixed points. One of the phase diagrams contains a plastic crystal sequence, with positional and orientational ordering encountered consecutively as temperature is lowered. The global phase diagram also contains double critical points, first-order and critical lines between two ordered phases, critical end points, usual and unusual (inverted) bicritical points, tricritical points, multiple tetracritical points, and zero-temperature criticality and bicriticality. The four-state Potts permutation-symmetric subspace is contained in this model.

  20. Frustration in an exactly solvable mixed-spin Ising model with bilinear and three-site four-spin interactions on a decorated square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaščur, M.; Štubňa, V.; Szałowski, K.; Balcerzak, T.

    2016-11-01

    Competitive effects of so-called three-site four-spin interactions, single ion anisotropy and bilinear interactions is studied in the mixed spin-1/2 and spin-1 Ising model on a decorated square lattice. Exploring the decoration-iteration transformation, we have obtained exact closed-form expressions for the partition function and other thermodynamic quantities of the model. From these relations, we have numerically determined ground-state and finite-temperature phase diagrams of the system. We have also investigated temperature variations of the correlation functions, internal energy, entropy, specific heat and Helmholtz free energy of the system. From the physical point of view, the most interesting result represents our observation of a partially ordered ferromagnetic or phase in the system with zero bilinear interactions. It is remarkable, that due to strong frustrations disordered spins survive in the system even at zero temperature, so that the ground state of the system becomes macroscopically degenerate with non-zero entropy. Introduction of arbitrarily small bilinear interaction completely removes degeneracy and the entropy always goes to zero at the ground state.