Science.gov

Sample records for dimensiones del cuestionario

  1. Evaluación de la utilidad diagnóstica de la versión española del cuestionario al informador «AD8»☆

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, C. Carnero; de la Vega Cotarelo, R.; Alcalde, S. López; Aparicio, C. Martos; Carrillo, R. Vílchez; Gavilán, E. Mora; Galvin, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Introducción El AD8 es un cuestionario al informador breve que puede ser autoaplicado y facilita la identificación de deterioro cognitivo (DC); nuestro objetivo es evaluar la utilidad diagnóstica (UD) de una versión española. Material y métodos Estudio transversal en una muestra clínica de díadas paciente/ informador, 330 sujetos con sospecha de DC o demencia (DEM) y 71 controles. Se ha evaluado la consistencia interna (α de Cronbach) y la validez (correlaciones parciales con estadio GDS, Fototest e índice funcional [IF]). La UD se ha evaluado para no DC vs DC (GDS 3–4) por medio del área bajo la curva ROC (aROC) y se ha considerado mejor punto de corte aquel que hacía máximo el índice de Youden. Resultados En la muestra, 105 no tenían DC, 99 tenían DC sin DEM y 203 DEM. La consistencia interna es alta (α 0,90, IC del 95%, 0,89–0,92), al igual que las correlaciones con GDS (r = 0,72, p < 0,001), Fototest (r = −0,61, p < 0,001) e IF (r = 0,59, p < 0,001). El aROC del AD8 es 0,90 (IC del 95%, 0,86–0,93), sin diferencia significativa con la del Fototest (aROC 0,93, IC del 95%, 0,89–0,96); el mejor punto de corte es 3/4 con sensibilidad de 0,93 (IC del 95%, 0,88–0,96), especificidad de 0,81 (IC del 95%, 0,72–0,88) y el 88,8% de las clasificaciones correctas. El uso conjunto de AD8 y Fototest mejora de forma significativa la UD de ambos (aROC 0,96, IC del 95%, 0,93–0,98, p < 0,05). Conclusiones La versión española del AD8 conserva las cualidades psicométricas y la UD de la versión original; su uso combinado con el Fototest mejora de forma significativa la UD de ambos. PMID:22652137

  2. Cuestionarios | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Los cuestionarios de Smokefree son una manera divertida de obtener información importante sobre temas relacionados con dejar de fumar, como los síntomas de abstinencia, el estrés y el humo de segunda mano. Responda un cuestionario y mejore su método para dejar de fumar.

  3. General nonextremal rotating charged Gödel black holes in minimal five-dimensional gauged supergravity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuang-Qing

    2008-03-28

    I present the general exact solutions for nonextremal rotating charged black holes in the Gödel universe of five-dimensional minimal supergravity theory. They are uniquely characterized by four nontrivial parameters: namely, the mass m, the charge q, the Kerr equal rotation parameter a, and the Gödel parameter j. I calculate the conserved energy, angular momenta, and charge for the solutions and show that they completely satisfy the first law of black hole thermodynamics. I also study the symmetry and separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi and the massive Klein-Gordon equations in these Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Gödel black hole backgrounds. PMID:18517852

  4. General Nonextremal Rotating Charged Gödel Black Holes in Minimal Five-Dimensional Gauged Supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shuang-Qing

    2008-03-01

    I present the general exact solutions for nonextremal rotating charged black holes in the Gödel universe of five-dimensional minimal supergravity theory. They are uniquely characterized by four nontrivial parameters: namely, the mass m, the charge q, the Kerr equal rotation parameter a, and the Gödel parameter j. I calculate the conserved energy, angular momenta, and charge for the solutions and show that they completely satisfy the first law of black hole thermodynamics. I also study the symmetry and separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi and the massive Klein-Gordon equations in these Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Gödel black hole backgrounds.

  5. Black hole remnant and quantum tunnelling in three-dimensionaldel spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui-Ling; Zu, Xiao-Tao

    2015-05-01

    Using the modified Dirac equation in a three-dimensional gravity background, we investigate the quantum correction to tunnelling radiation from a Gödel black hole, and discuss the black hole remnant employing fermion's tunnelling. The corrected tunnelling probability is derived, and the modified Hawking temperature is found as well. It is worth emphasizing that, only when the condition j> αω(3 r -- r +) is satisfied, emitting both a mass particle and a massless particle, the remnant of the Gödel black hole may arise.

  6. HR Del REMNANT ANATOMY USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL SPECTRAL DATA AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL PHOTOIONIZATION SHELL MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Moraes, Manoel; Diaz, Marcos E-mail: marcos@astro.iag.usp.br

    2009-12-15

    The HR Del nova remnant was observed with the IFU-GMOS at Gemini North. The spatially resolved spectral data cube was used in the kinematic, morphological, and abundance analysis of the ejecta. The line maps show a very clumpy shell with two main symmetric structures. The first one is the outer part of the shell seen in H{alpha}, which forms two rings projected in the sky plane. These ring structures correspond to a closed hourglass shape, first proposed by Harman and O'Brien. The equatorial emission enhancement is caused by the superimposed hourglass structures in the line of sight. The second structure seen only in the [O III] and [N II] maps is located along the polar directions inside the hourglass structure. Abundance gradients between the polar caps and equatorial region were not found. However, the outer part of the shell seems to be less abundant in oxygen and nitrogen than the inner regions. Detailed 2.5-dimensional photoionization modeling of the three-dimensional shell was performed using the mass distribution inferred from the observations and the presence of mass clumps. The resulting model grids are used to constrain the physical properties of the shell as well as the central ionizing source. A sequence of three-dimensional clumpy models including a disk-shaped ionization source is able to reproduce the ionization gradients between polar and equatorial regions of the shell. Differences between shell axial ratios in different lines can also be explained by aspherical illumination. A total shell mass of 9 x 10{sup -4} M {sub sun} is derived from these models. We estimate that 50%-70% of the shell mass is contained in neutral clumps with density contrast up to a factor of 30.

  7. [Personality traits in patients with chronic migraine: a categorial and dimensional study in a series of 30 patients].

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Irene; Domínguez, Elena; Hernández, Marta S; Ruiz-Piñero, Marina; Isidro, Guillermo; Mayor-Toranzo, Eduardo; Sotelo, Eva M; Molina, Vicente; Uribe, Fernando; Guerrero-Peral, Ángel L

    2015-07-16

    Introduccion. El papel patogenico de la personalidad en la migraña no esta definido. Para su estudio se pueden utilizar instrumentos de medida dimensional o categorial, sin que haya tampoco acuerdo acerca del abordaje mas adecuado. Objetivo. Analizar la personalidad de pacientes con migraña cronica desde el punto de vista dimensional y categorial. Pacientes y metodos. Como test categorial utilizamos el cuestionario Salamanca, y, como dimensional, el Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). Evaluamos trastornos del animo con la escala de ansiedad y depresion hospitalaria y el impacto de la migraña mediante el Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6). Resultados. Incluimos 30 pacientes (26 mujeres), con una edad media de 40,7 ± 9,6 años. Un caso (3,3%) presentaba criterios de depresion, y 4 (13,3%), de ansiedad. En el test Salamanca, los rasgos de personalidad mas frecuentes fueron los integrados en el cluster C: anancastico (n = 28; 93,3%), ansioso (n = 18; 60%) y dependiente (n = 7; 23,3%). En el MMPI-2, 16 pacientes (53,3%) cumplian criterios de hipocondria; 7 (23,3%), de depresion, y 10 (33,3%), de histeria, rasgos integrados en la triada neurotica. Se objetivo una configuracion denominada 'conversiva V'. No hallamos correlacion entre los rasgos de personalidad y el tiempo de migraña cronica, la intensidad medida por el HIT-6 o el uso excesivo de medicacion sintomatica. Conclusiones. En el analisis de la personalidad en la migraña cronica destaca, desde el punto de vista dimensional, el neuroticismo, y respecto al categorial, el rasgo obsesivo-compulsivo o anancastico. Es necesario el estudio de series mas extensas y la comparacion con pacientes con migraña episodica y poblacion control.

  8. The Dating Violence Questionnaire: Validation of the Cuestionario de Violencia de Novios Using a College Sample From the United States.

    PubMed

    López-Cepero, Javier; Fabelo, Humberto Eduardo; Rodríguez-Franco, Luis; Rodríguez-Díaz, F Javier

    2016-01-01

    This study provides psychometric information for the Dating Violence Questionnaire (DVQ), an instrument developed to assess intimate partner victimization among adolescents and youths. This instrument, an English version of Cuestionario de Violencia de Novios, assesses both frequency and discomfort associated with 8 types of abuse (detachment, humiliation, sexual, coercion, physical, gender-based, emotional punishment, and instrumental). Participant included 859 U.S. students enrolled in undergraduate psychology courses in a mid-Atlantic university (M = 19 years; SD = 1.5 years). One-third of the participants were males, and two-thirds were females. Regarding racial identity, around 55% of participants identified themselves as White, 22% as African American, 12% as Asian, whereas 11% selected other identities. Around 9% of participants identified themselves as Hispanic. Confirmatory factor analysis shows that the DVQ achieved adequate goodness-of-fit indexes for the original eight-factor model (X(2)/df <5; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] <.080), as well as higher parsimony when compared to simpler alternative models. The 8 scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency indexes (α >.700), surpassing those found in the original Spanish validation. Descriptive analysis suggests higher victimization experience on subtle aggressions (detachment, coercion, and emotional punishment), with overt abuses (physical, instrumental) obtaining the smallest means; these findings were similar across gender, race identity, and ethnicity. Results of this validation study encourage the inclusion of DVQ in both research and applied contexts.

  9. The Dating Violence Questionnaire: Validation of the Cuestionario de Violencia de Novios Using a College Sample From the United States.

    PubMed

    López-Cepero, Javier; Fabelo, Humberto Eduardo; Rodríguez-Franco, Luis; Rodríguez-Díaz, F Javier

    2016-01-01

    This study provides psychometric information for the Dating Violence Questionnaire (DVQ), an instrument developed to assess intimate partner victimization among adolescents and youths. This instrument, an English version of Cuestionario de Violencia de Novios, assesses both frequency and discomfort associated with 8 types of abuse (detachment, humiliation, sexual, coercion, physical, gender-based, emotional punishment, and instrumental). Participant included 859 U.S. students enrolled in undergraduate psychology courses in a mid-Atlantic university (M = 19 years; SD = 1.5 years). One-third of the participants were males, and two-thirds were females. Regarding racial identity, around 55% of participants identified themselves as White, 22% as African American, 12% as Asian, whereas 11% selected other identities. Around 9% of participants identified themselves as Hispanic. Confirmatory factor analysis shows that the DVQ achieved adequate goodness-of-fit indexes for the original eight-factor model (X(2)/df <5; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] <.080), as well as higher parsimony when compared to simpler alternative models. The 8 scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency indexes (α >.700), surpassing those found in the original Spanish validation. Descriptive analysis suggests higher victimization experience on subtle aggressions (detachment, coercion, and emotional punishment), with overt abuses (physical, instrumental) obtaining the smallest means; these findings were similar across gender, race identity, and ethnicity. Results of this validation study encourage the inclusion of DVQ in both research and applied contexts. PMID:27076450

  10. Psychometric performance of the brazilian version of the Mini-cuestionario de calidad de vida en la hipertensión arterial (MINICHAL).

    PubMed

    Soutello, Ana Lúcia Soares; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; Jannuzzi, Fernanda Freire; Spana, Thaís Moreira; Gallani, Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme; Nadruz Junior, Wilson

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, ceiling and floor effects, reliability, and convergent construct validity of the Brazilian version of the Mini Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida en la Hipertensión Arterial (MINICHAL). The study included 200 hypertensive outpatients in a university hospital and a primary healthcare unit. The MINICHAL was applied in 3.0 (± 1.0) minutes with 100% of the items answered. A "ceiling effect" was observed in both dimensions and in the total score, as well as evidence of measurement stability (ICC=0.74). The convergent validity was confirmed by significant positive correlations between similar dimensions of the MINICHAL and the SF-36, and significant negative correlations with the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire - MLHFQ, however, correlations between dissimilar constructs were also observed. It was concluded that the Brazilian version of the MINICHAL presents evidence of reliability and validity when applied to hypertensive outpatients.

  11. Dimensional Duality

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Daniel; Lawrence, Albion; McGreevy, John; Morrison, David R.; Silverstein, Eva; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2007-05-18

    We show that string theory on a compact negatively curved manifold, preserving a U(1)b1 winding symmetry, grows at least b1 new effective dimensions as the space shrinks. The winding currents yield a ''D-dual'' description of a Riemann surface of genus h in terms of its 2h dimensional Jacobian torus, perturbed by a closed string tachyon arising as a potential energy term in the worldsheet sigma model. D-branes on such negatively curved manifolds also reveal this structure, with a classical moduli space consisting of a b{sub 1}-torus. In particular, we present an AdS/CFT system which offers a non-perturbative formulation of such supercritical backgrounds. Finally, we discuss generalizations of this new string duality.

  12. Distinción Empírica Entre Engagement y Trabajolismo en Enfermeras Hospitalarias de Japón: Efecto Sobre la Calidad del Sueño y el Desempeño Laboral

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Kazumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo El objetivo de este estudio es demostrar la distinción entre engagement y trabajolismo, estudiando su relación con la calidad del sueño y el desempeño laboral. Método Un total de 447 enfermeras de 3 hospitales de Japón fueron entrevistadas mediante un cuestionario autoadministrado que incluía la escala Utrecht (UWES, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale), la Escala de Adicción al Trabajo Holandesa (DUWAS, Dutch Workaholism Scale), preguntas sobre la calidad del sueño (7 ítems) con respecto a (1) dificultad para conciliar el sueño, (2) dificultad para mantener el sueño, (3) despertar temprano por la mañana, (4) dormirse o tomar siestas durante el día, (5) somnolencia diurna excesiva en el trabajo, (6) dificultad para despertarse por la mañana, y (7) despertar cansado en la mañana, y el Cuestionario sobre Salud y Desempeño (CSD) de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados Los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales demostraron que el engagement se relaciona positivamente con la calidad del sueño y el rendimiento laboral, mientras que el trabajolismo tiene una relación negativa con la calidad del sueño y el desempeño laboral. Conclusión Los resultados indican que el engagement y el trabajolismo son conceptualmente diferentes. El primero tiene una connotación positiva, mientras que el segundo se asocia de manera negativa al bienestar (buena calidad del sueño y buen rendimiento en el trabajo). PMID:26752805

  13. Preguntas y respuestas acerca del Estudio del

    Cancer.gov

    El Estudio del Tamoxifeno y Raloxifeno (STAR, por sus siglas en ingls) es un estudio clnico (un estudio de investigacin conducido con voluntarios) diseado para ver cómo el medicamento raloxifeno (Evista) se compara con el medicamento tamoxifeno (Nolvadex)

  14. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  15. Procesamiento Digital de Imagenes del Cometa Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrin, L.; Fuenmayor, F.; Naranjo, O.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1987-05-01

    Se reportan observaciones fotográficas del cometa Halley, obtenidas con los telescopios Schmidt de 1-m del CIDA, y de 35 cms de la ULA. Se hicieron exposiciones desde 2 segundos a 30 minutos y se utilizaron emulsiones IIa-O, 103a-F, y 103a-D, guladas manualmente 0 automaticámente. Las imágenes fueron digitalizadas con el microdensitómetro PDS, y procesadas con el sistema HACIENDA del CCIBM. Se experimentó con la Transformada de Fourier en dos dimensiones, y con la aplicación de filtros de paso alto y bajo. Se encontró que el metodo de "autocorrelación" es el mejor para separar "la vegetación" de "la montaña". Se aplicaron diversas técnicas a fin de cubrir ambos extremos: a) enfatizar detalles débiles en la cola, y b) penetrar en las regiones más intensas de la coma. Se lograron ambos objetivos. Detalles en la cola permitieron determinar velocidades de propagación de unos 50 a 90 kms/ seg. Se pudieron detectar no menos de tres perturbaciones en "Y", y una en 5? Co de Cisne). Se cree que las primeras están asociadas a eventos de desconexión. Se puede separar la cola de gas de la de polvo. Las fotos de color permiten enfatizar diferentes regiones espectrales con mayor claridad aún. El "balance" del color puede ser hecho con la computadora.

  16. Estudio del CH interestelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olano, C.; Lemarchand, G.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto consiste en el estudio de la distribución y abundancia del CH en nubes interestelares a través de la observación de las líneas hiperfinas del CH en 3,3 GHz. El CH es una molécula de amplia distribución en el espacio interestelar y una de las pocas especies que han sido observadas tanto con técnicas de radio como ópticas. Desde el punto de vista tecnológico se ha desarrollado un cabezal de receptor que permitirá la realización de observaciones polarimétricas en la frecuencia de 3,3 GHz, con una temperatura del sistema de 60 K y un ancho de banda de 140 MHz, y que será instalado en el foco primario de la antena parabólica del IAR. El cabezal del receptor es capaz de detectar señales polarizadas, separando las componentes de polarización circular derecha e izquierda. Para tal fin el cabezal consta de dos ramas receptoras que amplificarán la señal y la trasladarán a una frecuencia más baja (frecuencia intermedia), permitiendo de esa forma un mejor transporte de la señal a la sala de control para su posterior procesamiento. El receptor además de tener características polarimétricas, podrá ser usado en el continuo y en la línea, utilizando las ventajas observacionales y de procesamiento de señal que actualmente posee el IAR.

  17. The Del Rio ataxite, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, E. P.; King, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    Basic data are presented on the Del Rio, Nordheim, and Monahans ataxites found in Texas. Results are reported for bulk-chemistry analysis, metallographic observations, and electron-microprobe analysis of the Del Rio meteorite. It is shown that Del Rio is distinctly different from the other two ataxites in terms of nickel, phosphorous, and carbon content, and is composed of at least three coarse grains in different crystallographic orientations. All the kamacite in Del Rio is found to have transformation structures that are probable shock products, and minor inclusions of daubreelite, schreibersite, and troilite are observed. It is concluded that Del Rio was apparently mildly shocked prior to its fall.

  18. RASTREO DEL CANCER COLORRECTAL CONOCIMIENTO Y ACTITUD DE LA POBLACION

    PubMed Central

    CASAL, ENRIQUE R.; VELAZQUEZ, ELIZABETH N.; MEJIA, RAUL M.; CUNEO, ALDO; PEREZ-STABLE, ELISEO J.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen El rastreo de cáncer colorrectal (CCR) cuenta con fuertes evidencias en su favor. Datos preliminares indican que a pesar de ello no se lleva a cabo con la frecuencia adecuada. Se intenta aquí determinar, dentro de un Sistema de Salud que cuenta con los recursos necesarios, los elementos que facilitan o generan barreras para concretar esta práctica preventiva, cuántos individuos lo ponen en práctica y qué predice esta conducta. Se realizó una encuesta telefónica a los afiliados de una Obra Social de empleados de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, de los que 132 completaron el cuestionario (tasa de respuesta 70%). Los elementos considerados facilitadores del rastreo obtuvieron respuestas afirmativas en el 64 a 97%, mientras que los que definían barreras un 11 a 27%. En este último grupo, una categoría diferenciada la constituía el miedo a los efectos adversos: 39%, y el sentimiento de vergüenza relacionado con los procedimientos: 30%. Un 33% de los encuestados tenían hecho un método de rastreo, mayoritariamente de sangre oculta (27), sigmoideoscopía (11) y colonoscopía (20). Una mayoría afirmó que “se haría el procedimiento si el médico se lo recomendara” (95%), o “no se lo haría excepto que su médico se lo aconseje” (87%). Contestar afirmativamente que “los médicos hacen lo mejor para los pacientes” se asoció con haberse hecho un método de rastreo de CCR, OR 1.55 (IC 95%: 1.02-2.37) p: 0.04. El grupo de individuos estudiado parece bien predispuesto para el rastreo del CCR, la recomendación médica sería aquí un determinante prominente para ponerlo en práctica. PMID:19414294

  19. Higher dimensional massive bigravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Tuan Q.

    2016-08-01

    We study higher-dimensional scenarios of massive bigravity, which is a very interesting extension of nonlinear massive gravity since its reference metric is assumed to be fully dynamical. In particular, the Einstein field equations along with the following constraint equations for both physical and reference metrics of a five-dimensional massive bigravity will be addressed. Then, we study some well-known cosmological spacetimes such as the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker, Bianchi type I, and Schwarzschild-Tangherlini metrics for the five-dimensional massive bigravity. As a result, we find that massive graviton terms will serve as effective cosmological constants in both physical and reference sectors if a special scenario, in which reference metrics are chosen to be proportional to physical ones, is considered for all mentioned metrics. Thanks to the constancy property of massive graviton terms, consistent cosmological solutions will be figured out accordingly.

  20. Three-dimensional photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Bryan; Bernardi, Marco; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2010-02-01

    The concept of three-dimensional (3D) photovoltaics is explored computationally using a genetic algorithm to optimize the energy production in a day for arbitrarily shaped 3D solar cells confined to a given area footprint and total volume. Our simulations demonstrate that the performance of 3D photovoltaic structures scales linearly with height, leading to volumetric energy conversion, and provides power fairly evenly throughout the day. Furthermore, we show that optimal 3D structures are not simple box-like shapes, and that design attributes such as reflectivity could be optimized using three-dimensionality.

  1. Three-dimensional photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Bryan; Bernardi, Marco; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2010-03-01

    The concept of three-dimensional (3D) photovoltaics is explored computationally using a genetic algorithm to optimize the energy production in a day for arbitrarily shaped 3D solar cells confined to a given area footprint and total volume. Our simulations demonstrate that the performance of 3D photovoltaic structures scales linearly with height, leading to volumetric energy conversion, and provides power fairly evenly throughout the day. Furthermore, we show that optimal 3D shapes are not simple box-like shapes, and that design attributes such as reflectivity can be optimized in new ways using three-dimensionality.

  2. Nevado del Huila, Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Nevado del Huila Volcano in Colombia is actually a volcanic chain running north to south, capped by a glacier. With peaks ranging in height from 2,600 to 5,780 meters (8,530 to 18,960 feet), Nevado del Huila is a stratovolcano composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks. Its first recorded eruption occurred in the mid-sixteenth century. The long-dormant volcano erupted again in mid-April 2007. A few months before the eruption, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of Nevado del Huila, on February 23, 2007. In this image, the bright white area just east of the central summit is ice. Immediately west of the summit are bare rocks, appearing as blue-gray. West of those rocks, white reappears, but this patch of white results from clouds hovering in the nearby valley. In the east, the colors turn to brown (indicating bare rock) and bright green (indicating vegetation). ASTER photographed Nevado del Huila near the end of a long phase of quietude. On April 17, 2007, local authorities recorded seismic activity associated with rock fracturing on the volcano's central summit, according to the ReliefWeb Website. Activity intensified the following day with an eruption and mudflows, forcing thousands of nearby residents to evacuate. As the Associated Press reported, the eruption caused avalanches and floods that wiped away both houses and bridges. It marked the volcano's first recorded eruption since the Spanish colonized the area five centuries earlier. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  3. Dimensional regularization is generic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    The absence of the quadratic divergence in the Higgs sector of the Standard Model in the dimensional regularization is usually regarded to be an exceptional property of a specific regularization. To understand what is going on in the dimensional regularization, we illustrate how to reproduce the results of the dimensional regularization for the λϕ4 theory in the more conventional regularization such as the higher derivative regularization; the basic postulate involved is that the quadratically divergent induced mass, which is independent of the scale change of the physical mass, is kinematical and unphysical. This is consistent with the derivation of the Callan-Symanzik equation, which is a comparison of two theories with slightly different masses, for the λϕ4 theory without encountering the quadratic divergence. In this sense the dimensional regularization may be said to be generic in a bottom-up approach starting with a successful low energy theory. We also define a modified version of the mass independent renormalization for a scalar field which leads to the homogeneous renormalization group equation. Implications of the present analysis on the Standard Model at high energies and the presence or absence of SUSY at LHC energies are briefly discussed.

  4. Four-Dimensional Entropy from Three-Dimensional Gravity.

    PubMed

    Carlip, S

    2015-08-14

    At the horizon of a black hole, the action of (3+1)-dimensional loop quantum gravity acquires a boundary term that is formally identical to an action for three-dimensional gravity. I show how to use this correspondence to obtain the entropy of the (3+1)-dimensional black hole from well-understood conformal field theory computations of the entropy in (2+1)-dimensional de Sitter space. PMID:26317707

  5. Four-Dimensional Entropy from Three-Dimensional Gravity.

    PubMed

    Carlip, S

    2015-08-14

    At the horizon of a black hole, the action of (3+1)-dimensional loop quantum gravity acquires a boundary term that is formally identical to an action for three-dimensional gravity. I show how to use this correspondence to obtain the entropy of the (3+1)-dimensional black hole from well-understood conformal field theory computations of the entropy in (2+1)-dimensional de Sitter space.

  6. One-dimensional turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Kerstein, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    One-Dimensional Turbulence is a new turbulence modeling strategy involving an unsteady simulation implemented in one spatial dimension. In one dimension, fine scale viscous and molecular-diffusive processes can be resolved affordably in simulations at high turbulence intensity. The mechanistic distinction between advective and molecular processes is thereby preserved, in contrast to turbulence models presently employed. A stochastic process consisting of mapping {open_quote}events{close_quote} applied to a one-dimensional velocity profile represents turbulent advection. The local event rate for given eddy size is proportional to the velocity difference across the eddy. These properties cause an imposed shear to induce an eddy cascade analogous in many respects to the eddy cascade in turbulent flow. Many scaling and fluctuation properties of self-preserving flows, and of passive scalars introduced into these flows, are reproduced.

  7. Five-dimensional crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Marius; Graber, Tim; Henning, Robert; Srajer, Vukica

    2010-01-01

    A method for determining a comprehensive chemical kinetic mechanism in macromolecular reactions is presented. The method is based on five-dimensional crystallography, where, in addition to space and time, temperature is also taken into consideration and an analysis based on singular value decomposition is applied. First results of such a time-resolved crystallographic study are presented. Temperature-dependent time-resolved X-ray diffraction measurements were conducted on the newly upgraded BioCARS 14-ID-B beamline at the Advanced Photon Source and aimed at elucidating a comprehensive kinetic mechanism of the photoactive yellow protein photocycle. Extensive time series of crystallographic data were collected at two temperatures, 293 K and 303 K. Relaxation times of the reaction extracted from these time series exhibit measurable differences for the two temperatures, hence demonstrating that five-dimensional crystallography is feasible. PMID:20164643

  8. The dimensionality of discourse

    PubMed Central

    Doxas, Isidoros; Dennis, Simon; Oliver, William L.

    2010-01-01

    The paragraph spaces of five text corpora, of different genres and intended audiences, in four different languages, all show the same two-scale structure, with the dimension at short distances being lower than at long distances. In all five cases the short-distance dimension is approximately eight. Control simulations with randomly permuted word instances do not exhibit a low dimensional structure. The observed topology places important constraints on the way in which authors construct prose, which may be universal. PMID:20194761

  9. Three Dimensional Dirac Semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaheer, Saad

    2014-03-01

    Dirac points on the Fermi surface of two dimensional graphene are responsible for its unique electronic behavior. One can ask whether any three dimensional materials support similar pseudorelativistic physics in their bulk electronic spectra. This possibility has been investigated theoretically and is now supported by two successful experimental demonstrations reported during the last year. In this talk, I will summarize the various ways in which Dirac semimetals can be realized in three dimensions with primary focus on a specific theory developed on the basis of representations of crystal spacegroups. A three dimensional Dirac (Weyl) semimetal can appear in the presence (absence) of inversion symmetry by tuning parameters to the phase boundary separating a bulk insulating and a topological insulating phase. More generally, we find that specific rules governing crystal symmetry representations of electrons with spin lead to robust Dirac points at high symmetry points in the Brillouin zone. Combining these rules with microscopic considerations identifies six candidate Dirac semimetals. Another method towards engineering Dirac semimetals involves combining crystal symmetry and band inversion. Several candidate materials have been proposed utilizing this mechanism and one of the candidates has been successfully demonstrated as a Dirac semimetal in two independent experiments. Work carried out in collaboration with: Julia A. Steinberg, Steve M. Young, J.C.Y. Teo, C.L. Kane, E.J. Mele and Andrew M. Rappe.

  10. Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer: Antecedentes

    Cancer.gov

    El Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer es una iniciativa de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH) para crear mapas multidimensionales completos de los cambios genómicos clave en los tipos y subtipos principales de cáncer.

  11. One-Dimensionality and Whiteness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Dolores

    2006-01-01

    This article is a theoretical discussion that links Marcuse's concept of one-dimensional society and the Great Refusal with critical race theory in order to achieve a more robust interrogation of whiteness. The author argues that in the context of the United States, the one-dimensionality that Marcuse condemns in "One-Dimensional Man" is best…

  12. Three-dimensional metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Burckel, David Bruce

    2012-06-12

    A fabrication method is capable of creating canonical metamaterial structures arrayed in a three-dimensional geometry. The method uses a membrane suspended over a cavity with predefined pattern as a directional evaporation mask. Metallic and/or dielectric material can be evaporated at high vacuum through the patterned membrane to deposit resonator structures on the interior walls of the cavity, thereby providing a unit cell of micron-scale dimension. The method can produce volumetric metamaterial structures comprising layers of such unit cells of resonator structures.

  13. Dimensional analysis made simple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lira, Ignacio

    2013-11-01

    An inductive strategy is proposed for teaching dimensional analysis to second- or third-year students of physics, chemistry, or engineering. In this strategy, Buckingham's theorem is seen as a consequence and not as the starting point. In order to concentrate on the basics, the mathematics is kept as elementary as possible. Simple examples are suggested for classroom demonstrations of the power of the technique and others are put forward for homework or experimentation, but instructors are encouraged to produce examples of their own.

  14. Two dimensional vernier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juday, Richard D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A two-dimensional vernier scale is disclosed utilizing a cartesian grid on one plate member with a polar grid on an overlying transparent plate member. The polar grid has multiple concentric circles at a fractional spacing of the spacing of the cartesian grid lines. By locating the center of the polar grid on a location on the cartesian grid, interpolation can be made of both the X and Y fractional relationship to the cartesian grid by noting which circles coincide with a cartesian grid line for the X and Y direction.

  15. Dimensional analysis revisited.

    PubMed

    Günther, Bruno; Morgado, Enrique

    2003-01-01

    The applicability of dimensional analysis (DA) is discussed in relation to the metabolic scaling laws. The evolution of different theories of biological similarity has shown that the calculated reduced exponents (b) of Huxley's allometric equation are closely correlated with the numerical values obtained from the statistical analysis of empirical data. Body mass and body weight are not equivalent as biological reference systems, since in accordance to Newton's second law, the former has a dimension of a mass, while the latter should be dimensionally considered as a force (W = MLT-2). This distinction affects the coefficients of the mass exponent (alpha). This difference is of paramount importance in microgravity conditions (spaceflight) and of buoyancy during the fetal life in mammals. Furthermore, the coefficients (beta) of the length dimension, and (gamma) of the time dimension do not vary when mass or weight are utilized as reference systems. Consequently, the "specific metabolic time," that results from the ratio of basal oxygen consumption and body mass or body weight yields the "biological meaning" of the time dimension, which is of fractal nature.

  16. Three dimensional ultrasonic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G. H.; Benson, S.; Crawford, S.

    1993-03-01

    Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation techniques interrogate components with high frequency acoustic energy. A transducer generates the acoustic energy and converts acoustic energy to electrical signals. The acoustic energy is reflected by abrupt changes in modulus and/or density which can be caused by a defect. Thus defects reflect the ultrasonic energy which is converted into electrical signals. Ultrasonic evaluation typically provides a two dimensional image of internal defects. These images are either planar views (C-scans) or cross-sectional views (B-scans). The planar view is generated by raster scanning an ultrasonic transducer over the component and capturing the amplitude of internal reflections. Depth information is generally ignored. The cross-sectional view is generated by scanning the transducer along a single line and capturing the amplitude and time of flight for each internal reflection. The amplitude and time of flight information is converted into an image of the cross section of the component where the scan was performed. By fusing the C-scan information with the B-scan information a three dimension image of the internal structure of the component can be produced. The three dimensional image can be manipulated by rotating and slicing to produce the optimal view of the internal structure. The high frequency ultrasonic energy requires a liquid coupling media and thus applications for imaging in liquid environments are well suited to ultrasonic techniques. Examples of potential ultrasonic imaging applications are: Inside liquid filled tanks, inside the human body, and underwater.

  17. Dimensional stability of superinvar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Steven R.

    1990-11-01

    The unloaded dimensional stability and thermal expansivity of a single furnace melt of superinvar have been measured at room temperature using interferometric techniques. Thermal expansivity has been determined with an uncertainty of several parts in 108 per degree centigrade while dimensional stability has been determined with an uncertainty of order one part in i09 per day. Samples subjected to plastic deformation in their processing history displayed a stability improvement from 20. 5 x 1O/day to 5. 5 x 109/day and a reduction in thermal expansivity from 0. 56 x 1O/C to 0. 23 x 106/C associated with the increased mechanical work in the material. 1. MATERIAL SELECTION AND PROCESSING Modern scientific instruments place increasingly stringent demands on the dimensional stability of materials used for the construction of precision structures. The dimensional change of a material due to a change in temperature is characterized by its coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Dimensional changes may also occur over time in a fixed environment. In considering the selection of a material for demanding applications both the CTE and temporal stability must be considered. Indeed with reasonable control of the ambient temperature pressure humidity and magnetic field temporal instability may be the factor limiting performance. Superinvar the material studied here is one alloy in a class of materials of practical interest for the construction of precision systems. The invars are relatively inexpensive materials (by comparison other low-CTE materials) and may be fabricated using conventional metalworking techniques. Superinvar is of particular interest because it exhibits a lower CTE than the other invars and because of an early report by Jacobs Bradford and Berthold indicating that it possessed a particularly high degree of temporal stability. 1 This paper reports a series of CTE and temporal stability measurements performed on superinvar samples taken from the same melt but

  18. Yeast DEL assay detects clastogens.

    PubMed

    Kirpnick, Zhanna; Homiski, Michael; Rubitski, Elizabeth; Repnevskaya, Marina; Howlett, Niall; Aubrecht, Jiri; Schiestl, Robert H

    2005-04-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements, including DNA deletions are involved in carcinogenesis. The deletion (DEL) assay scoring for DNA deletions in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to detect a wide range of carcinogens. Among approximately 60 compounds of known carcinogenic activity, the DEL assay detected 86% correctly whereas the Ames Salmonella assay detected only 30% correctly [R.J. Brennan, R.H. Schiestl, Detecting carcinogens with the yeast DEL assay, Methods Mol. Biol. 262 (2004) 111-124]. Since the DEL assay is highly inducible by DNA double strand breaks, this study examined the utility of the DEL assay for detecting clastogens. Ten model compounds, with varied mechanisms of genotoxicity, were examined for their effect on the frequency of DNA deletions with the DEL assay. The compounds tested were: actinomycin D, camptothecin, methotrexate and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, which are anticancer agents, noscapine and furosemide are therapeutics, acridine, methyl acrylate and resorcinol are industrial chemicals and diazinon is an insecticide. The in vitro micronucleus assay (IVMN) in CHO cells, a commonly used tool for detection of clastogens, was performed on the same compounds and the results of the two assays were compared. The results of our study show that there is 70% concordance in the presence of metabolic activation (rat liver S9) and 80% concordance in the absence of metabolic activation between the DEL assay and the standard in vitro micronucleus assay. The lack of cytotoxicity observed for four of the ten compounds examined indicates limited diffusion of lipophilic compounds across the yeast cell wall. Thus, the development of a more permeable yeast tester strain is expected to greatly improve concordance of the DEL assay with the IVMN assay. The yeast DEL assay is inexpensive, amenable to automation and requires less expertise to perform than the IVMN. Thus, it has a strong potential as a robust, fast and economical screen for detecting clastogens in

  19. Dimensional crossover in semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Matthew P.; Chatterjee, Rusha; Si, Jixin; Jankó, Boldizsár; Kuno, Masaru

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in semiconductor nanostructure syntheses provide unprecedented control over electronic quantum confinement and have led to extensive investigations of their size- and shape-dependent optical/electrical properties. Notably, spectroscopic measurements show that optical bandgaps of one-dimensional CdSe nanowires are substantially (approximately 100 meV) lower than their zero-dimensional counterparts for equivalent diameters spanning 5-10 nm. But what, exactly, dictates the dimensional crossover of a semiconductor's electronic structure? Here we probe the one-dimensional to zero-dimensional transition of CdSe using single nanowire/nanorod absorption spectroscopy. We find that carrier electrostatic interactions play a fundamental role in establishing dimensional crossover. Moreover, the critical length at which this transition occurs is governed by the aspect ratio-dependent interplay between carrier confinement and dielectric contrast/confinement energies.

  20. Dimensional crossover in semiconductor nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Matthew P.; Chatterjee, Rusha; Si, Jixin; Jankó, Boldizsár; Kuno, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in semiconductor nanostructure syntheses provide unprecedented control over electronic quantum confinement and have led to extensive investigations of their size- and shape-dependent optical/electrical properties. Notably, spectroscopic measurements show that optical bandgaps of one-dimensional CdSe nanowires are substantially (approximately 100 meV) lower than their zero-dimensional counterparts for equivalent diameters spanning 5–10 nm. But what, exactly, dictates the dimensional crossover of a semiconductor's electronic structure? Here we probe the one-dimensional to zero-dimensional transition of CdSe using single nanowire/nanorod absorption spectroscopy. We find that carrier electrostatic interactions play a fundamental role in establishing dimensional crossover. Moreover, the critical length at which this transition occurs is governed by the aspect ratio-dependent interplay between carrier confinement and dielectric contrast/confinement energies. PMID:27577091

  1. Dimensional crossover in semiconductor nanostructures.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Matthew P; Chatterjee, Rusha; Si, Jixin; Jankó, Boldizsár; Kuno, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in semiconductor nanostructure syntheses provide unprecedented control over electronic quantum confinement and have led to extensive investigations of their size- and shape-dependent optical/electrical properties. Notably, spectroscopic measurements show that optical bandgaps of one-dimensional CdSe nanowires are substantially (approximately 100 meV) lower than their zero-dimensional counterparts for equivalent diameters spanning 5-10 nm. But what, exactly, dictates the dimensional crossover of a semiconductor's electronic structure? Here we probe the one-dimensional to zero-dimensional transition of CdSe using single nanowire/nanorod absorption spectroscopy. We find that carrier electrostatic interactions play a fundamental role in establishing dimensional crossover. Moreover, the critical length at which this transition occurs is governed by the aspect ratio-dependent interplay between carrier confinement and dielectric contrast/confinement energies. PMID:27577091

  2. Higher dimensional nonlinear massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Tuan Q.

    2016-05-01

    Inspired by a recent ghost-free nonlinear massive gravity in four-dimensional spacetime, we study its higher dimensional scenarios. As a result, we are able to show the constantlike behavior of massive graviton terms for some well-known metrics such as the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker, Bianchi type I, and Schwarzschild-Tangherlini (anti-) de Sitter metrics in a specific five-dimensional nonlinear massive gravity under an assumption that its fiducial metrics are compatible with physical ones. In addition, some simple cosmological solutions of the five-dimensional massive gravity are figured out consistently.

  3. Case Study: del Amo Bioventing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study.

  4. Low dimensional quantum paramagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Tao

    A quantum paramagnet is a material with interacting spins that possesses a paramagnetic ground state and an energy gap to all excitations. This dissertation focuses on studying the magnetic excitation spectrum and the quantum critical phenomena of such low dimensional quantum paramagnet systems. Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) measurements of Cu(Quinoxaline)Br 2 was performed on a partially deuterated powder sample. Magnetic neutron scattering was identified above an energy gap of 1.9 meV. Consideration of the sharp spectral max imum and wave vector dependence of the scattering and polymeric structure further identifies the material as a two-legged spin-1/2 ladder. The continuous uniform transformation theory provides an excellent account of the data with leg exchange J‖ =2.0 meV and the rung exchange J⊥ =3.3 meV. INS study of (2,3 - dimethylpyridinium)2CuBr4 (DIMPY) in both powder and single crystalline form are presented to understand the origin of the spin gap and what is the right spin Hamiltonian. Magnetic excitations are found above a 0.3 meV energy gap. The excitation only disperses along the a-direction with a bandwidth that exceeds 1.7 meV. The conclusion to be a S=1/2 two-legged spin ladder is supported by the material structure and INS measurement. External magnetic field drives the system into a critical region and induced low energy excitation continuum above critical field was studied. Piperazinium Hexachlorodicuprate (PHCC) is a two-dimensional antiferromagnet. We studied the behavior in the vicinity of the quantum critical point (QCP) where the spin gap is closed by an applied magnetic field by INS. The energy and damping of the low energy excitations were measured in the vicinity of the QCP where both quantities become strongly temperature dependent, which can be successfully described by a selfconsistent Hartree-Fock theory of strongly interacting bosons developed by Sachdev and Dunkel. A preliminary study of hydrostatic pressure effects

  5. Higher dimensional loop quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangdong

    2016-07-01

    Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is the symmetric sector of loop quantum gravity. In this paper, we generalize the structure of loop quantum cosmology to the theories with arbitrary spacetime dimensions. The isotropic and homogeneous cosmological model in n+1 dimensions is quantized by the loop quantization method. Interestingly, we find that the underlying quantum theories are divided into two qualitatively different sectors according to spacetime dimensions. The effective Hamiltonian and modified dynamical equations of n+1 dimensional LQC are obtained. Moreover, our results indicate that the classical big bang singularity is resolved in arbitrary spacetime dimensions by a quantum bounce. We also briefly discuss the similarities and differences between the n+1 dimensional model and the 3+1 dimensional one. Our model serves as a first example of higher dimensional loop quantum cosmology and offers the possibility to investigate quantum gravity effects in higher dimensional cosmology.

  6. El libro del Relogio del Palacio de las Horas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, J. D.

    2009-08-01

    This paper resume the investigation entitled ``El libro del Relogio del Palacio de las Horas''. That consist in an edition of the original text of the book of the Clock of the Palace of the Hours from the Books of the knowledge of Astronomy of Alfonso X (Manuscript 156, Complutense University). And a description of the astronomical functionality of the Clock of the Palace of the Hours. It includes a geometric description of the positional astronomy on which the operation of the Palace is based.

  7. Conocimientos y autoeficacia asociados a la prevención del VIH y SIDA en mujeres chilenas

    PubMed Central

    Villegas Rodríguez, Natalia; Ferrer Lagunas, Lilian Marcela; Cianelli Acosta, Rosina; Miner, Sarah; Lara Campos, Loreto; Peragallo, Nilda

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Evaluar la relación existente entre conocimientos y autoeficacia asociados al VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas en desventaja social. Metodología Estudio correlacional, que utiliza la medición basal del estudio “Testeando una intervención en VIH y SIDA en mujeres chilenas”, realizada entre 2006 y 2008, que tiene una muestra de 496 mujeres entre 18 y 49 años residentes en dos comunas de Santiago de Chile. Las participantes respondieron un cuestionario estructurado aplicado por entrevistadoras entrenadas. Este cuestionario incluyó preguntas sobre datos sociodemográficos, escala de conocimientos de conductas de riesgo y autoeficacia, entre otros. Resultados Edad promedio de 32.3±9.1 años, 72.2% vive con su pareja y 42.7% poseen educación media completa. La puntuación media de los conocimientos de la infección por el VIH fue de 8.9±2.5, mientras que para las tres escalas empleadas para medir autoeficacia fueron: “Normas de los pares” =9.8±3.6, “Intención de reducir conductas de riesgo” =12.2±3.6 y “Self Efficacy Form”=20.2±4.7. Los conocimientos tuvieron una correlación positiva débil con la “intención de reducir conductas de riesgo” (r=0.19; p<0.0001) y con la escala “Self Efficacy Form” (r=0.34; p<0.0001), pero no se relacionaron con las “normas de los pares en cuanto a relaciones sexuales seguras” (r=0.13; p=0.78). Conclusión Existe una débil correlación positiva entre el nivel de conocimientos sobre el VIH/SIDA y la autoeficacia en mujeres chilenas en desventaja social. PMID:25284914

  8. Three-dimensional marginal separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, Peter W.

    1988-01-01

    The three dimensional marginal separation of a boundary layer along a line of symmetry is considered. The key equation governing the displacement function is derived, and found to be a nonlinear integral equation in two space variables. This is solved iteratively using a pseudo-spectral approach, based partly in double Fourier space, and partly in physical space. Qualitatively, the results are similar to previously reported two dimensional results (which are also computed to test the accuracy of the numerical scheme); however quantitatively the three dimensional results are much different.

  9. Dimensional interpolation for nonlinear filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daum, Fred

    2005-09-01

    Dimensional interpolation has been used successfully by physicists and chemists to solve the Schroedinger equation for atoms and complex molecules. The same basic idea can be used to solve the Fokker-Planck equation for nonlinear filters. In particular, it is well known (by physicists) that two Schroedinger equations are equivalent to two Fokker-Planck equations. Moreover, we can avoid the Schroedinger equation altogether and use dimensional interpolation directly on the Fokker-Planck equation. Dimensional interpolation sounds like a crazy idea, but it works. We will attempt to make this paper accessible to normal engineers who do not have quantum mechanics for breakfast.

  10. Cloaking two-dimensional fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, De-Hone

    2011-09-15

    A cloaking theory for a two-dimensional spin-(1/2) fermion is proposed. It is shown that the spinor of the two-dimensional fermion can be cloaked perfectly through controlling the fermion's energy and mass in a specific manner moving in an effective vector potential inside a cloaking shell. Different from the cloaking of three-dimensional fermions, the scaling function that determines the invisible region is uniquely determined by a nonlinear equation. It is also shown that the efficiency of the cloaking shell is unaltered under the Aharonov-Bohm effect.

  11. Rotating Kaluza-Klein multi-black holes with Gödel parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuno, Ken; Ishihara, Hideki; Nakagawa, Toshiharu; Tomizawa, Shinya

    2008-09-01

    We obtain new five-dimensional supersymmetric rotating multi-Kaluza-Klein black hole solutions with the Gödel parameter in the Einstein-Maxwell system with a Chern-Simons term. These solutions have no closed timelike curve outside the black hole horizons. At infinity, the space-time is effectively four-dimensional. Each horizon admits various lens space topologies L(n;1)=S3/Zn in addition to a round S3. The space-time can have outer ergoregions disjointed from the black hole horizons, as well as inner ergoregions attached to each horizon. We discuss the rich structures of ergoregions.

  12. Ultradilute Low-Dimensional Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, D. S.; Astrakharchik, G. E.

    2016-09-01

    We calculate the energy of one- and two-dimensional weakly interacting Bose-Bose mixtures analytically in the Bogoliubov approximation and by using the diffusion Monte Carlo technique. We show that in the case of attractive inter- and repulsive intraspecies interactions the energy per particle has a minimum at a finite density corresponding to a liquid state. We derive the Gross-Pitaevskii equation to describe droplets of such liquids and solve it analytically in the one-dimensional case.

  13. Two-Dimensional IHCP Code

    1997-11-18

    QUENCH2D* is developed for the solution of general, non-linear, two-dimensional inverse heat transfer problems. This program provides estimates for the surface heat flux distribution and/or heat transfer coefficient as a function of time and space by using transient temperature measurements at appropriate interior points inside the quenched body. Two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric geometries such as turnbine disks and blades, clutch packs, and many other problems can be analyzed using QUENCH2D*.

  14. Lateral probing of the LaAlO3 /SrTiO3 two-dimensional electron liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehno, M. P.; Smink, A. E. M.; Hilgenkamp, H.; Brinkman, A.

    2015-03-01

    The 2-dimensional electron liquid (2DEL) at the interface between the insulating oxides lanthanum aluminate and strontium titanate (LAO/STO) has a complex band structure and hosts novel electronic phases with magnetism and superconductivity. Electrical characterization of the 2DEL has focused mainly on magnetotransport in films or confined geometries, and on z-axis tunneling. We contacted the LAO/STO interface laterally and obtained a gate-tunable barrier between the 2DEL and the metallic electrode. Features in the differential conductance spectra are spaced by energies similar to the confinement energy at the oxide interface and may thus yield information on the (sub-) band structure of 2DEL and barrier region. This research was supported by the Dutch NWO and FOM foundations.

  15. Vacunas contra los virus del papiloma humano

    Cancer.gov

    Una hoja informativa acerca de las vacunas contra los virus del papiloma humano (VPH) para prevenir infecciones con ciertos tipos de VPH, los cuales son la causa principal del cáncer de cuello del útero o cérvix.

  16. Ultradilute Low-Dimensional Liquids.

    PubMed

    Petrov, D S; Astrakharchik, G E

    2016-09-01

    We calculate the energy of one- and two-dimensional weakly interacting Bose-Bose mixtures analytically in the Bogoliubov approximation and by using the diffusion Monte Carlo technique. We show that in the case of attractive inter- and repulsive intraspecies interactions the energy per particle has a minimum at a finite density corresponding to a liquid state. We derive the Gross-Pitaevskii equation to describe droplets of such liquids and solve it analytically in the one-dimensional case. PMID:27636457

  17. Dimensionality of the human electroencephalogram

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer-Kress, G.; Layne, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    The goal was to evaluate anesthetic depth in patients by dimensional analysis. Although it was difficult to obtain clean EEG records from the operating room due to noise of electrocautery and movement of the patient's head by operating room personnel. The results are presented on one case of our calculations, followed by a discussion of problems associated with dimensional analysis of the EEG. We consider only two states: aware but quiet, and medium anesthesia. The EEG data we use comes from Hanley and Walts. It was selected because anesthesia was induced by a single agent, and because of its uninterrupted length and lack of artifacts. 26 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Three-dimensional silicon micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimi, S.; Song, J.; Dang, Z. Y.; Liang, H. D.; Breese, M. B. H.

    2012-11-01

    A process for fabricating arbitrary-shaped, two- and three-dimensional silicon and porous silicon components has been developed, based on high-energy ion irradiation, such as 250 keV to 1 MeV protons and helium. Irradiation alters the hole current flow during subsequent electrochemical anodization, allowing the anodization rate to be slowed or stopped for low/high fluences. For moderate fluences the anodization rate is selectively stopped only at depths corresponding to the high defect density at the end of ion range, allowing true three-dimensional silicon machining. The use of this process in fields including optics, photonics, holography and nanoscale depth machining is reviewed.

  19. Numerical solution of three-dimensional magnetic differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Reiman, A.H.; Greenside, H.S.

    1987-02-01

    A computer code is described that solves differential equations of the form B . del f = h for a single-valued solution f, given a toroidal three-dimensional divergence-free field B and a single-valued function h. The code uses a new algorithm that Fourier decomposes a given function in a set of flux coordinates in which the field lines are straight. The algorithm automatically adjusts the required integration lengths to compensate for proximity to low order rational surfaces. Applying this algorithm to the Cartesian coordinates defines a transformation to magnetic coordinates, in which the magnetic differential equation can be accurately solved. Our method is illustrated by calculating the Pfirsch-Schlueter currents for a stellarator.

  20. Three-dimensional force-free looplike magnetohydrodynamic equilibria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, John M.; Guzdar, Parvez N.; Usikov, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Computations of three-dimensional force-free magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria, del x B = lambdaB with lambda = lambda(sub 0), a constant are presented. These equilibria are determined by boundary conditions on a surface corresponding to the solar photosphere. The specific boundary conditions used correspond to looplike magnetic fields in the corona. It is found that as lambda(sub 0) is increased, the loops of flux become kinked, and for sufficiently large lambda(sub 0), develop knots. The relationship between the kinking and knotting properties of these equilibria and the presence of a kink instability and related loss of equilibrium is explored. Clearly, magnetic reconnection must be involved for an unknotted loop equilibrium to become knotted, and speculations are made about the creation of a closed hyperbolic field line (X-line) about which this reconnection creating knotted field lines is centered.

  1. Dimensional mutation and spacelike singularities

    SciTech Connect

    Silverstein, Eva

    2006-04-15

    I argue that string theory compactified on a Riemann surface crosses over at small volume to a higher dimensional background of supercritical string theory. Several concrete measures of the count of degrees of freedom of the theory yield the consistent result that at finite volume, the effective dimensionality is increased by an amount of order 2h/V for a surface of genus h and volume V in string units. This arises in part from an exponentially growing density of states of winding modes supported by the fundamental group, and passes an interesting test of modular invariance. Further evidence for a plethora of examples with the spacelike singularity replaced by a higher dimensional phase arises from the fact that the sigma model on a Riemann surface can be naturally completed by many gauged linear sigma models, whose RG flows approximate time evolution in the full string backgrounds arising from this in the limit of large dimensionality. In recent examples of spacelike singularity resolution by tachyon condensation, the singularity is ultimately replaced by a phase with all modes becoming heavy and decoupling. In the present case, the opposite behavior ensues: more light degrees of freedom arise in the small radius regime. We comment on the emerging zoology of cosmological singularities that results.

  2. Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Charych, D.; Reichart, A.

    2000-06-27

    A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

  3. The Three-Dimensional Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Dale A.; Powell, Harry D.

    1992-01-01

    Provides instructions for helping students construct a three-dimensional model of a constellation. Aluminum foil spheres with various diameters are used to represent stars with various apparent magnitudes. The positions of the stars in the model are determined from constellation maps and by converting actual star distances into millimeters. (PR)

  4. Three-Dimensional Lissajous Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mura, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Described is a mechanically driven device for generating three-dimensional harmonic space figures with different frequencies and phase angles on the X, Y, and Z axes. Discussed are apparatus, viewing stereo pairs, equations of motion, and using space figures in classroom. (YP)

  5. Creating Three-Dimensional Scenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumpe, Norm

    2005-01-01

    Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray), a free computer program for creating photo-realistic, three-dimensional scenes and a link for Mathematica users interested in generating POV-Ray files from within Mathematica, is discussed. POV-Ray has great potential in secondary mathematics classrooms and helps in strengthening students' visualization…

  6. Dimensional Reduction and Hadronic Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Signer, Adrian; Stoeckinger, Dominik

    2008-11-23

    We consider the application of regularization by dimensional reduction to NLO corrections of hadronic processes. The general collinear singularity structure is discussed, the origin of the regularization-scheme dependence is identified and transition rules to other regularization schemes are derived.

  7. Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Reichart, Anke

    2000-01-01

    A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

  8. Three-dimensional stellarator codes

    PubMed Central

    Garabedian, P. R.

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional computer codes have been used to develop quasisymmetric stellarators with modular coils that are promising candidates for a magnetic fusion reactor. The mathematics of plasma confinement raises serious questions about the numerical calculations. Convergence studies have been performed to assess the best configurations. Comparisons with recent data from large stellarator experiments serve to validate the theory. PMID:12140367

  9. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey Breakwater South Light 1 to Marina Del Rey Light 4. (b) A line drawn from Marina Del...

  10. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey Breakwater South Light 1 to Marina Del Rey Light 4. (b) A line drawn from Marina Del...

  11. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey Breakwater South Light 1 to Marina Del Rey Light 4. (b) A line drawn from Marina Del...

  12. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey Breakwater South Light 1 to Marina Del Rey Light 4. (b) A line drawn from Marina Del...

  13. Dimensional regularization and dimensional reduction in the light cone

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, J.

    2008-06-15

    We calculate all of the 2 to 2 scattering process in Yang-Mills theory in the light cone gauge, with the dimensional regulator as the UV regulator. The IR is regulated with a cutoff in q{sup +}. It supplements our earlier work, where a Lorentz noncovariant regulator was used, and the final results bear some problems in gauge fixing. Supersymmetry relations among various amplitudes are checked by using the light cone superfields.

  14. Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Mitre Peninsula is the easternmost tip of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, (54.5S, 65.5W). Early winter snow can be seen on this south tip of the Andes Mountains. These same mountains continue underwater to Antarctica. The Strait of Magellan, separating the South American mainland from Tierra del Fuego is off the scene to the north and west, but the Strait of LeMaire, separating Tierra del Fuego from the Isla de los Estados can be seen.

  15. Two-dimensional thermofield bosonization

    SciTech Connect

    Amaral, R.L.P.G.

    2005-12-15

    The main objective of this paper was to obtain an operator realization for the bosonization of fermions in 1 + 1 dimensions, at finite, non-zero temperature T. This is achieved in the framework of the real-time formalism of Thermofield Dynamics. Formally, the results parallel those of the T = 0 case. The well-known two-dimensional Fermion-Boson correspondences at zero temperature are shown to hold also at finite temperature. To emphasize the usefulness of the operator realization for handling a large class of two-dimensional quantum field-theoretic problems, we contrast this global approach with the cumbersome calculation of the fermion-current two-point function in the imaginary-time formalism and real-time formalisms. The calculations also illustrate the very different ways in which the transmutation from Fermi-Dirac to Bose-Einstein statistics is realized.

  16. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  17. Two-Dimensional Optical Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Lee, Alexander; Bruls, Dominique; Busch, Christopher; Immink, Andre; Coene, Wim; Hekstra, Andries

    2004-07-01

    Two-dimensional optical storage aims at increasing the data capacity and data rate for a given physical read-out system. It uses parallel read-out in combination with advanced signal-processing. Experimental results results on read only memory (ROM) discs are presented that proof the concept. Laser beam recorded discs proof the concept, and electron beam recorded disc show the feasibility at real physical parameters for a density at 35 GB with ample tilt margins.

  18. Facial three-dimensional morphometry.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Poggio, C E; Serrao, G

    1996-01-01

    Three-dimensional facial morphometry was investigated in a sample of 40 men and 40 women, with a new noninvasive computerized method. Subjects ranged in age between 19 and 32 years, had sound dentitions, and no craniocervical disorders. For each subject, 16 cutaneous facial landmarks were automatically collected by a system consisting of two infrared camera coupled device (CCD) cameras, real time hardware for the recognition of markers, and software for the three-dimensional reconstruction of landmarks' x, y, z coordinates. From these landmarks, 15 linear and 10 angular measurements, and four linear distance ratios were computed and averaged for sex. For all angular values, both samples showed a narrow variability and no significant gender differences were demonstrated. Conversely, all the linear measurements were significantly higher in men than in women. The highest intersample variability was observed for the measurements of facial height (prevalent vertical dimension), and the lowest for the measurements of facial depth (prevalent horizontal dimension). The proportions of upper and lower face height relative to the anterior face height showed a significant sex difference. Mean values were in good agreement with literature data collected with traditional methods. The described method allowed the direct and noninvasive calculation of three-dimensional linear and angular measurements that would be usefully applied in clinics as a supplement to the classic x-ray cephalometric analyses. PMID:8540488

  19. Dimensional psychopharmacology in somatising patients.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Massimo; Pasquini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent DSM-5 review of somatoform disorders, which are now called somatic symptom and related disorders, the categorical definitions of these syndromes have inherent limitations because their causal mechanism or presumed aetiologies are still unknown. These limitations may affect everyday clinical practice and decision-making abilities. As a result, physicians have limited information at their disposal to treat these patients. Furthermore, the clinical presentations of somatic disorders may vary a lot. The purpose of this chapter is to illustrate a psychopathological dimensional approach to the somatising patient. This approach is constantly unconsciously applied in clinical practice using continuous variables, such as rating scales. Moreover, treatment strategies might be improved by adding a dimensional approach, simply recognising the prominent components of the presenting psychopathology of a given patient and addressing them with drugs according to their different mechanisms, targeting circuits and neurotransmitters. Some authors have proposed a shift from the nosological to functional application of psychotropic drugs, in which functional psychopharmacology will be dysfunction oriented and therefore inevitably geared towards utilising drug combinations. Here, we present a summary of the advantages of functional/dimensional psychopharmacology for the treatment of somatic symptoms and related disorders.

  20. Dimensional changes of endodontic sealers.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, R B; Safavi, K E; Spångberg, L S

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this study was a long-term comparison of the dimensional changes of endodontic sealers of diverse properties. The sealers were injected as thin layers on the internal walls of glass pipettes 1 mm in diameter. The pipettes were filled with deionized water, and the water meniscus levels were recorded periodically up to 180 days. The water was removed from the pipettes, samples were allowed to dry, and the mass and the volume of the sealers were measured. AH26 and Endo-Fill had an initial expansion followed by a volumetric loss. The two zinc oxide eugenol-based sealers studied started to shrink within hours after mixing; the first volumetric loss for AH26 was recorded during the first 30 days and for Endo-Fill after 30 days. The least dimensional change at any time was observed for Endo-Fill. It was concluded that a significant dimensional change and continued volume loss can occur in some endodontic sealers. PMID:8284084

  1. Dimensional stability of natural fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, Mark S.

    2013-04-19

    One of the main problems associated with the use of natural fibers as reinforcing agents in composites is their uptake of moisture. Many natural fibers are lignocellulosic, which causes them to swell and shrink as the amount of available moisture changes. Swelling and shrinking can cause composites to prematurely fail. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study that considers the use of two different low molecular weight monomers, hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), polymerized by electron beam ionizing radiation, to dimensionally stabilize natural fibers. Eight different treatments consisting of varying amounts of monomer, encapsulating agent, and cross-linkers, were evaluated for their ability to dimensionally stabilize sisal fiber. Results indicate that both polymerized HEA and HEMA can reduce the swelling of sisal fiber. The effectiveness of HEA and HEMA can be further enhanced with the use of a cross-linker (SR 454). The use of hydroxylated monomers to dimensionally stabilize natural fibers may play an important role in reducing delamination and improving fiber-resin adhesion in composites.

  2. Dimensional stability of natural fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Mark S.; Smith, Jennifer L.; Woods, Sean; Tiss, Kenneth J.; Larsen, L. Scott

    2013-04-01

    One of the main problems associated with the use of natural fibers as reinforcing agents in composites is their uptake of moisture. Many natural fibers are lignocellulosic, which causes them to swell and shrink as the amount of available moisture changes. Swelling and shrinking can cause composites to prematurely fail. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study that considers the use of two different low molecular weight monomers, hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), polymerized by electron beam ionizing radiation, to dimensionally stabilize natural fibers. Eight different treatments consisting of varying amounts of monomer, encapsulating agent, and cross-linkers, were evaluated for their ability to dimensionally stabilize sisal fiber. Results indicate that both polymerized HEA and HEMA can reduce the swelling of sisal fiber. The effectiveness of HEA and HEMA can be further enhanced with the use of a cross-linker (SR 454). The use of hydroxylated monomers to dimensionally stabilize natural fibers may play an important role in reducing delamination and improving fiber-resin adhesion in composites.

  3. Control del cáncer y salud mundial: noticia del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI)

    Cancer.gov

    En combinación con una reunión de alto nivel de las Naciones Unidas sobre enfermedades no transmisibles en países en vías de desarrollo, el doctor Harold Varmus, director del NCI, y el doctor Ted L. Trimble, del NCI, han publicado un comentario en Science

  4. Líneas Vitales: Programas y servicios del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    Artículos y videos sobre los programas y servicios del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer de la serie educativa Líneas Vitales del NCI, la cual está dirigida especialmente a poblaciones multiculturales.

  5. {ital D}-dimensional moments of inertia

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, C.M.; Mead, L.R.

    1995-11-01

    We calculate the moments of inertia of {ital D}-dimensional spheres and spherical shells, where {ital D} is a complex number. We also examine the moments of inertia of fractional-dimensional geometrical objects such as the Cantor set and the Sierpinski carpet and their {ital D}-dimensional analogs. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Association} {ital of} {ital Physics} {ital Teachers}.

  6. Orthogonality preserving infinite dimensional quadratic stochastic operators

    SciTech Connect

    Akın, Hasan; Mukhamedov, Farrukh

    2015-09-18

    In the present paper, we consider a notion of orthogonal preserving nonlinear operators. We introduce π-Volterra quadratic operators finite and infinite dimensional settings. It is proved that any orthogonal preserving quadratic operator on finite dimensional simplex is π-Volterra quadratic operator. In infinite dimensional setting, we describe all π-Volterra operators in terms orthogonal preserving operators.

  7. Teleportation of a 3-dimensional GHZ State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Wang, Huai-Sheng; Li, Peng-Fei; Song, He-Shan

    2012-05-01

    The process of teleportation of a completely unknown 3-dimensional GHZ state is considered. Three maximally entangled 3-dimensional Bell states function as quantum channel in the scheme. This teleportation scheme can be directly generalized to teleport an unknown d-dimensional GHZ state.

  8. Assessment of Dimensionality in Social Science Subtest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozbek Bastug, Ozlem Yesim

    2012-01-01

    Most of the literature on dimensionality focused on either comparison of parametric and nonparametric dimensionality detection procedures or showing the effectiveness of one type of procedure. There is no known study to shown how to do combined parametric and nonparametric dimensionality analysis on real data. The current study is aimed to fill…

  9. On the Benefit of Dimensional Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlmann, Britta; Moller, Jens

    2009-01-01

    People not only use social comparisons to evaluate their abilities, they also engage in dimensional comparisons, comparing their own achievement in different domains. Processes of dimensional comparison have contrasting effects on subject-specific self-concepts: downward dimensional comparisons result in higher self-concept in the…

  10. Five Dimensional Minimal Supergravities and Four Dimensional Complex Geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, Jai; Gutowski, Jan B.; Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Sabra, Wafic

    2009-05-01

    We discuss the relation between solutions admitting Killing spinors of minimal supergravities in five dimensions and four dimensional complex geometries. In the ungauged case (vanishing cosmological constant {lambda} 0) the solutions are determined in terms of a hyper-Kaehler base space; in the gauged case ({lambda}<0) the complex geometry is Kaehler; in the de Sitter case ({lambda}>0) the complex geometry is hyper-Kaehler with torsion (HKT). In the latter case some details of the derivation are given. The method for constructing explicit solutions is discussed in each case.

  11. Statistical Downscaling in Multi-dimensional Wave Climate Forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camus, P.; Méndez, F. J.; Medina, R.; Losada, I. J.; Cofiño, A. S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    Wave climate at a particular site is defined by the statistical distribution of sea state parameters, such as significant wave height, mean wave period, mean wave direction, wind velocity, wind direction and storm surge. Nowadays, long-term time series of these parameters are available from reanalysis databases obtained by numerical models. The Self-Organizing Map (SOM) technique is applied to characterize multi-dimensional wave climate, obtaining the relevant "wave types" spanning the historical variability. This technique summarizes multi-dimension of wave climate in terms of a set of clusters projected in low-dimensional lattice with a spatial organization, providing Probability Density Functions (PDFs) on the lattice. On the other hand, wind and storm surge depend on instantaneous local large-scale sea level pressure (SLP) fields while waves depend on the recent history of these fields (say, 1 to 5 days). Thus, these variables are associated with large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns. In this work, a nearest-neighbors analog method is used to predict monthly multi-dimensional wave climate. This method establishes relationships between the large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns from numerical models (SLP fields as predictors) with local wave databases of observations (monthly wave climate SOM PDFs as predictand) to set up statistical models. A wave reanalysis database, developed by Puertos del Estado (Ministerio de Fomento), is considered as historical time series of local variables. The simultaneous SLP fields calculated by NCEP atmospheric reanalysis are used as predictors. Several applications with different size of sea level pressure grid and with different temporal domain resolution are compared to obtain the optimal statistical model that better represents the monthly wave climate at a particular site. In this work we examine the potential skill of this downscaling approach considering perfect-model conditions, but we will also analyze the

  12. Rescue of F508del-CFTR by RXR motif inactivation triggers proteome modulation associated with the unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Alves, Patrícia; Couto, Francisco; Pesquita, Cátia; Coelho, Ana V; Penque, Deborah

    2010-04-01

    F508del-CFTR, the most common mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, disrupts intracellular trafficking leading to cystic fibrosis (CF). The trafficking defect of F508del-CFTR can be rescued by simultaneous inactivation of its four RXR motifs (4RK). Proteins involved in the F508del-CFTR trafficking defect and/or rescue are therefore potential CF therapeutic targets. We sought to identify these proteins by investigating differential proteome modulation in BHK cells over-expressing wt-CFTR, F508del-CFTR or the revertant F508del/4RK-CFTR. By 2-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics and western blot approaches we demonstrated that over-expression of F508del/4RK-CFTR modulates the expression of a large number of proteins, many of which are reported interactors of CFTR and/or 14-3-3 with potential roles in CFTR trafficking. GRP78/BiP, a marker of ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), is up-regulated in cells over-expressing either F508del-CFTR or F598del/4RK-CFTR. However, over-expression of F508del/4RK-CFTR induces the up-regulation of many other UPR-associated proteins (e.g. GRP94, PDI, GRP75/mortalin) and, interestingly, the down-regulation of proteasome components associated with CFTR degradation, such as the proteasome activator PA28 (PSME2) and COP9 signalosome (COPS5/CSN5). Moreover, the F508del-CFTR-induced proteostasis imbalance, which involves some heat shock chaperones (e.g. HSP72/Hpa2), ER-EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding proteins (calumenin) and the proteasome activator PA28 (PSME2), tends to be 'restored', i.e., in BHK cells over-expressing F508del/4RK-CFTR those proteins tend to have expression levels similar to the wild-type ones. These findings indicate that a particular cellular environment orchestrated by the UPR contributes to and/or is compatible with F508del/4RK-CFTR rescue. PMID:20044041

  13. Rescue of F508del-CFTR by RXR motif inactivation triggers proteome modulation associated with the unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Alves, Patrícia; Couto, Francisco; Pesquita, Cátia; Coelho, Ana V; Penque, Deborah

    2010-04-01

    F508del-CFTR, the most common mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, disrupts intracellular trafficking leading to cystic fibrosis (CF). The trafficking defect of F508del-CFTR can be rescued by simultaneous inactivation of its four RXR motifs (4RK). Proteins involved in the F508del-CFTR trafficking defect and/or rescue are therefore potential CF therapeutic targets. We sought to identify these proteins by investigating differential proteome modulation in BHK cells over-expressing wt-CFTR, F508del-CFTR or the revertant F508del/4RK-CFTR. By 2-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics and western blot approaches we demonstrated that over-expression of F508del/4RK-CFTR modulates the expression of a large number of proteins, many of which are reported interactors of CFTR and/or 14-3-3 with potential roles in CFTR trafficking. GRP78/BiP, a marker of ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), is up-regulated in cells over-expressing either F508del-CFTR or F598del/4RK-CFTR. However, over-expression of F508del/4RK-CFTR induces the up-regulation of many other UPR-associated proteins (e.g. GRP94, PDI, GRP75/mortalin) and, interestingly, the down-regulation of proteasome components associated with CFTR degradation, such as the proteasome activator PA28 (PSME2) and COP9 signalosome (COPS5/CSN5). Moreover, the F508del-CFTR-induced proteostasis imbalance, which involves some heat shock chaperones (e.g. HSP72/Hpa2), ER-EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding proteins (calumenin) and the proteasome activator PA28 (PSME2), tends to be 'restored', i.e., in BHK cells over-expressing F508del/4RK-CFTR those proteins tend to have expression levels similar to the wild-type ones. These findings indicate that a particular cellular environment orchestrated by the UPR contributes to and/or is compatible with F508del/4RK-CFTR rescue.

  14. Instantánea del linfoma

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el linfoma; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  15. Instantánea del melanoma

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el melanoma; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  16. Instantánea del sarcoma

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el sarcoma; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  17. Instantánea del mieloma

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el mieloma; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  18. Vortices of Two Dimensional Guiding Center Plasmas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Antonio Chofai

    A system of two dimensional guiding center plasma in a square conducting boundary is used as a model to study the anomalous transport is magnetically confined plasma. An external gravitational force is introduced to simulate the curvature and gradient of the magnetic field. For finite boundaries, it is a Hamiltonian system with finite phase space and negative temperature states are allowed. The statistical equilibrium states of this system are described by the solutions of a Poisson's equation with self-consistently determined charge density. In the limit of zero gravity, it can be reduced to the sinh-Poisson equation (DEL)('2)u + (lamda)('2)sinh u = 0. Previous numerical efforts have found solutions with vortex structures. A novel method of generating general exact solutions to this nonlinear boundary value problem is presented. These solutions are given by. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). where E(,i)'s are constants and the dependence of (gamma)(,j)'s on x and y are given by a set of coupled first order nonlinear ordinary differential equations. These equations can be linearized to give u(x,y) in terms of Riemann theta functions u(x,y) = 2ln (THETA)(l + 1/2)(THETA)(l) . The phases l evolve linearly in x and y while nonlinear superposition is displayed in the solution u(x,y). The self-consistent Poisson's equation with gravity is studied numerically. Different branches of solutions are obtained and their relations to the zero gravity solutions are discussed. The thermodynamically most favored structure of the system carries the feature of a heavy ion vortex on top of the light electron vortex. Branches of solutions are found to merge into each other as parameters in the equations were smoothly varied. A critical value of gravitational force exists such that below which there is a possibility of hysteresis between different equilibrium states. With the help of the nonzero gravity solutions, we also have a clearer picture of the transition from

  19. Four-dimensional superconformal index reloaded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, M.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the four-dimensional N≥ 1 superconformal index and its generalization to the lens space. We discuss reductions of the latter to the three-dimensional N≥ 2 sphere partition function, the threedimensional N≥ 2 superconformal index, and the two-dimensional N≥ (2, 2) sphere partition function. We apply these reductions to a class of four-dimensional N =1 superconformal field theories dual to toric Calabi-Yau manifolds, and we find surprising connections with integrable spin chains and hyperbolic geometry. We comment on the problem of classifying infrared fixed points of four-dimensional and threedimensional supersymmetric gauge theories.

  20. Dielectric response of metal/SrTiO{sub 3}/two-dimensional electron liquid heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Mikheev, Evgeny; Raghavan, Santosh; Stemmer, Susanne

    2015-08-17

    Maximizing the effective dielectric constant of the gate dielectric stack is important for electrostatically controlling high carrier densities inherent to strongly correlated materials. SrTiO{sub 3} is uniquely suited for this purpose, given its extremely high dielectric constant, which can reach 10{sup 4}. Here, we present a systematic study of the thickness dependence of the dielectric response and leakage of SrTiO{sub 3} that is incorporated into a vertical structure on a high-carrier-density two-dimensional electron liquid (2DEL). A simple model can be used to interpret the data. The results show a need for improved interface control in the design of metal/SrTiO{sub 3}/2DEL devices.

  1. Two-dimensional optical processing using one-dimensional input devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Psaltis, D.

    1984-01-01

    Two-dimensional optical processing architectures that are implemented with one-dimensional input spatial light modulators are reviewed. The advanced state of the art of available one-dimensional devices and the flexibility that exists in the design of two-dimensional architectures with one-dimensional transducers leads to the implementation of the most powerful and versatile optical processors. Signal and image processing architectures of this type are discussed.

  2. Two-dimensional colloidal alloys.

    PubMed

    Law, Adam D; Buzza, D Martin A; Horozov, Tommy S

    2011-03-25

    We study the structure of mixed monolayers of large (3 μm diameter) and small (1 μm diameter) very hydrophobic silica particles at an octane-water interface as a function of the number fraction of small particles ξ. We find that a rich variety of two-dimensional hexagonal super-lattices of large (A) and small (B) particles can be obtained in this system due to strong and long-range electrostatic repulsions through the nonpolar octane phase. The structures obtained for the different compositions are in good agreement with zero temperature calculations and finite temperature computer simulations. PMID:21517357

  3. Dimensional regularization in configuration space

    SciTech Connect

    Bollini, C.G. |; Giambiagi, J.J.

    1996-05-01

    Dimensional regularization is introduced in configuration space by Fourier transforming in {nu} dimensions the perturbative momentum space Green functions. For this transformation, the Bochner theorem is used; no extra parameters, such as those of Feynman or Bogoliubov and Shirkov, are needed for convolutions. The regularized causal functions in {ital x} space have {nu}-dependent moderated singularities at the origin. They can be multiplied together and Fourier transformed (Bochner) without divergence problems. The usual ultraviolet divergences appear as poles of the resultant analytic functions of {nu}. Several examples are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  4. Low dimensional worm-holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samardzija, Nikola

    1995-01-01

    A simple three dimensional physical model is proposed to qualitatively address a particular type of dynamics evolving on toroidal structures. In the phase space this dynamics creates appearance of a worm-hole through which a chaotic, quasiperiodic and periodic behaviors are formed. An intriguing topological property of such a system is that it possesses no steady state solutions. As such, it opens some interesting questions in the bifurcation theory. The model also offers a novel qualitative tool for explaining some recently reported experimental and simulation results observed in physics, chemistry and biology.

  5. Two-Dimensional Colloidal Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Adam D.; Buzza, D. Martin A.; Horozov, Tommy S.

    2011-03-01

    We study the structure of mixed monolayers of large (3μm diameter) and small (1μm diameter) very hydrophobic silica particles at an octane-water interface as a function of the number fraction of small particles ξ. We find that a rich variety of two-dimensional hexagonal super-lattices of large (A) and small (B) particles can be obtained in this system due to strong and long-range electrostatic repulsions through the nonpolar octane phase. The structures obtained for the different compositions are in good agreement with zero temperature calculations and finite temperature computer simulations.

  6. Dimensional renormalization: Ladders and rainbows

    SciTech Connect

    Delbourgo, R.; Kalloniatis, A.C.; Thompson, G.

    1996-10-01

    Renormalization factors are most easily extracted by going to the massless limit of the quantum field theory and retaining only a single momentum scale. We derive the factors and renormalized Green{close_quote}s functions to {ital all} orders in perturbation theory for rainbow graphs and vertex (or scattering) diagrams at zero momentum transfer, in the context of dimensional regularization, and we prove that the correct anomalous dimensions for those processes emerge in the limit {ital D}{r_arrow}4. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  7. Dimensionality Reduction Through Classifier Ensembles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.; Tumer, Kagan; Norwig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    In data mining, one often needs to analyze datasets with a very large number of attributes. Performing machine learning directly on such data sets is often impractical because of extensive run times, excessive complexity of the fitted model (often leading to overfitting), and the well-known "curse of dimensionality." In practice, to avoid such problems, feature selection and/or extraction are often used to reduce data dimensionality prior to the learning step. However, existing feature selection/extraction algorithms either evaluate features by their effectiveness across the entire data set or simply disregard class information altogether (e.g., principal component analysis). Furthermore, feature extraction algorithms such as principal components analysis create new features that are often meaningless to human users. In this article, we present input decimation, a method that provides "feature subsets" that are selected for their ability to discriminate among the classes. These features are subsequently used in ensembles of classifiers, yielding results superior to single classifiers, ensembles that use the full set of features, and ensembles based on principal component analysis on both real and synthetic datasets.

  8. One-Dimensional Heat Conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, Steven B.

    1992-03-09

    ICARUS-LLNL was developed to solve one-dimensional planar, cylindrical, or spherical conduction heat transfer problems. The IBM PC version is a family of programs including ICARUSB, an interactive BASIC heat conduction program; ICARUSF, a FORTRAN heat conduction program; PREICAR, a BASIC preprocessor for ICARUSF; and PLOTIC and CPLOTIC, interpretive BASIC and compiler BASIC plot postprocessor programs. Both ICARUSB and ICARUSF account for multiple material regions and complex boundary conditions, such as convection or radiation. In addition, ICARUSF accounts for temperature-dependent material properties and time or temperature-dependent boundary conditions. PREICAR is a user-friendly preprocessor used to generate or modify ICARUSF input data. PLOTIC and CPLOTIC generate plots of the temperature or heat flux profile at specified times, plots of the variation of temperature or heat flux with time at selected nodes, or plots of the solution grid. First developed in 1974 to allow easy modeling of complex one-dimensional systems, its original application was in the nuclear explosive testing program. Since then it has undergone extensive revision and been applied to problems dealing with laser fusion target fabrication, heat loads on underground tests, magnetic fusion switching tube anodes, and nuclear waste isolation canisters.

  9. Three-dimensional surgical simulation.

    PubMed

    Cevidanes, Lucia H C; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2010-09-01

    In this article, we discuss the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery, which allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3-dimensional surface models from cone-beam computed tomography, dynamic cephalometry, semiautomatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone, and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intraoperative guidance. The system provides further intraoperative assistance with a computer display showing jaw positions and 3-dimensional positioning guides updated in real time during the surgical procedure. The computer-aided surgery system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training, and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures before the surgery. Computer-aided surgery can make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases.

  10. One-Dimensional Heat Conduction

    1992-03-09

    ICARUS-LLNL was developed to solve one-dimensional planar, cylindrical, or spherical conduction heat transfer problems. The IBM PC version is a family of programs including ICARUSB, an interactive BASIC heat conduction program; ICARUSF, a FORTRAN heat conduction program; PREICAR, a BASIC preprocessor for ICARUSF; and PLOTIC and CPLOTIC, interpretive BASIC and compiler BASIC plot postprocessor programs. Both ICARUSB and ICARUSF account for multiple material regions and complex boundary conditions, such as convection or radiation. In addition,more » ICARUSF accounts for temperature-dependent material properties and time or temperature-dependent boundary conditions. PREICAR is a user-friendly preprocessor used to generate or modify ICARUSF input data. PLOTIC and CPLOTIC generate plots of the temperature or heat flux profile at specified times, plots of the variation of temperature or heat flux with time at selected nodes, or plots of the solution grid. First developed in 1974 to allow easy modeling of complex one-dimensional systems, its original application was in the nuclear explosive testing program. Since then it has undergone extensive revision and been applied to problems dealing with laser fusion target fabrication, heat loads on underground tests, magnetic fusion switching tube anodes, and nuclear waste isolation canisters.« less

  11. Three-dimensional visual stimulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Tsunehiro; Fukui, Yukio; Hashimoto, Keizo; Hiruma, Nobuyuki

    1995-02-01

    We describe a newly developed three-dimensional visual stimulator (TVS) that can change independently the directions, distances, sizes, luminance, and varieties of two sets of targets for both eyes. It consists of liquid crystal projectors (LCP's) that generate the flexible images of targets, Badal otometers that change target distances without changing the visual angles, and relay-lens systems that change target directions. A special control program is developed for real-time control of six motors and two LCP's in the TVS together with a three-dimensional optometer III that simultaneously measures eye movement, accommodation, pupil diameter, and head movement. distance, 0 to -20 D; direction, 16 horizontally and 15 vertically; size, 0-2 deg visual angle; and luminance, 10-2-10 2 cd/m2. The target images are refreshed at 60 Hz and speeds with which the target makes a smooth change (ramp stimuli) are size, 10 deg/s. A simple application demonstrates the performance.

  12. Three-dimensional display technologies

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet traditional display devices can show only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that lack depth (i.e., the third dimension) information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits our ability to perceive and to understand the complexity of real-world objects. Nearly 50% of the capability of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information [Human Anatomy & Physiology (Pearson, 2012)]. Flat images and 2D displays do not harness the brain’s power effectively. With rapid advances in the electronics, optics, laser, and photonics fields, true 3D display technologies are making their way into the marketplace. 3D movies, 3D TV, 3D mobile devices, and 3D games have increasingly demanded true 3D display with no eyeglasses (autostereoscopic). Therefore, it would be very beneficial to readers of this journal to have a systematic review of state-of-the-art 3D display technologies. PMID:25530827

  13. Three-Dimensional Schlieren Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Bruce; Cochrane, Andrea

    2004-11-01

    Schlieren systems visualise disturbances that change the index of refraction of a fluid, for example due to temperature or salinity disturbances. `Synthetic schlieren' refers to a recent advance in which these disturbances are visualised with a digital camera and image-processing technology rather than the classical use of parabolic mirrors and a knife-edge. In a typical setup, light from an image of horizontal lines or dots passes almost horizontally through the test section of a fluid to a CCD camera. Refractive index disturbances distort the image and digital comparison of successive images reveals the plan-form structure and time evolution of the disturbances. If the disturbance is effectively two-dimensional, meaning that it is uniform across the line-of-sight of the camera, then its magnitude as well as its structure can measured through simple inversion of an algebraic equation. If the structure is axisymmetric with rotation-axis perpendicular to the line of sight, the magnitude of the disturbance can be measured through inversion of a non-singular square matrix. Here we report upon the extension of this work toward measuring the magnitude of a fully three-dimensional disturbance. This is done by analysing images from two perspectives through the test section and using inversion tomography techniques to reconstruct the disturbance field. The results are tested against theoretical predictions and experimental measurements.

  14. Two dimensionality in quasi-one-dimensional cobalt oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, J.; Nozaki, H.; Brewer, J. H.; Ansaldo, E. J.; Morris, G. D.; Takami, T.; Ikuta, H.; Mizutani, U.

    2006-03-01

    Magnetism of quasi-one-dimensional (1D) cobalt oxides ACoO ( A=Ca, Sr and Ba, n=1-5 and ∞) was investigated by μ+SR using polycrystalline samples, at temperatures from 300 K down to 1.8 K. The wTF- μ+SR experiments showed the existence of a magnetic transition in all six samples investigated. The onset temperature of the transition (Tcon) was found to decrease with n; that is, 100±25, 90±10, 85±10, 65±10 50±10, and 15±1 K for n=1-5, and ∞, respectively. In particular, for the samples with n=2-5, Tcon was detected only by the present μ+SR measurements. A muon spin oscillation was clearly observed in both Ca 3Co 2O 6(n=1) and BaCoO 3(n=∞), whereas only a fast relaxation is apparent even at 1.8 K in the other four samples ( n=2-5). Taking together with the fact that the paramagnetic Curie temperature ranges from -150 to -200 K for the compound with n=2 and 3, the μ+SR result indicates that a two-dimensional (2D) short-range antiferromagnetic (AF) order, which has been thought to be unlikely to exist at high T due to a relatively strong 1D F interaction, appears below Tcon for all compounds with n=1-5; but quasi-static long-range AF order formed only in Ca 3Co 2O 6, below 25 K. For BaCoO 3(n=∞), as T decreased from 300 K, 1D F order appeared below 53 K, and a sharp 2D AF transition occurred at 15 K.

  15. Produccion Gaseosa del Cometa Halley: Erupciones Y Fotodisociacion del Radical OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN:En este trabajo informamos la detecci6n de 20 erupciones en la li'nea de =18cm (1667MHz) del radical OH en el Cometa Halley.Las observaciones incluyen todos los monitoreos existentes y se extienden desde 120 dias antes del perihelio hasta 90 dias despues.Se detectan bruscos crecimientos en el flujo medido,hasta un factor 1O,seguidos por decaimientos lentos asociados con la fotodisociaci6n del OH. Se obtuvieron valores para el tiempo de vida fotoquimico del OH y del H2O basandose en el modelo desarrollado previamente por Silva(1988). Esos tiempos de vida estan de acuerdo con predicciones teoricas y con las observaciones en el Ultravioleta, y los resultados, los que son fuertemente dependientes de la velocidad heliocentrica del Coineta (variando hasta un factor 6), han sido calculados para varios rangos de velocidad entre +28 y -28 km/seg. Key wo'L :

  16. Length and Dimensional Measurements at NIST

    PubMed Central

    Swyt, Dennis A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the past, present, and future of length and dimensional measurements at NIST. It covers the evolution of the SI unit of length through its three definitions and the evolution of NBS-NIST dimensional measurement from early linescales and gage blocks to a future of atom-based dimensional standards. Current capabilities include dimensional measurements over a range of fourteen orders of magnitude. Uncertainties of measurements on different types of material artifacts range down to 7×10−8 m at 1 m and 8 picometers (pm) at 300 pm. Current work deals with a broad range of areas of dimensional metrology. These include: large-scale coordinate systems; complex form; microform; surface finish; two-dimensional grids; optical, scanning-electron, atomic-force, and scanning-tunneling microscopies; atomic-scale displacement; and atom-based artifacts. PMID:27500015

  17. Dimensional Reduction for Generalized Continuum Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmuth, Tyler

    2016-10-01

    The Brydges-Imbrie dimensional reduction formula relates the pressure of a d-dimensional gas of hard spheres to a model of (d+2)-dimensional branched polymers. Brydges and Imbrie's proof was non-constructive and relied on a supersymmetric localization lemma. The main result of this article is a constructive proof of a more general dimensional reduction formula that contains the Brydges-Imbrie formula as a special case. Central to the proof are invariance lemmas, which were first introduced by Kenyon and Winkler for branched polymers. The new dimensional reduction formulas rely on invariance lemmas for central hyperplane arrangements that are due to Mészáros and Postnikov. Several applications are presented, notably dimensional reduction formulas for (i) non-spherical bodies and (ii) for corrections to the pressure due to symmetry effects.

  18. Dimensional Reduction for Generalized Continuum Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmuth, Tyler

    2016-08-01

    The Brydges-Imbrie dimensional reduction formula relates the pressure of a d-dimensional gas of hard spheres to a model of (d+2) -dimensional branched polymers. Brydges and Imbrie's proof was non-constructive and relied on a supersymmetric localization lemma. The main result of this article is a constructive proof of a more general dimensional reduction formula that contains the Brydges-Imbrie formula as a special case. Central to the proof are invariance lemmas, which were first introduced by Kenyon and Winkler for branched polymers. The new dimensional reduction formulas rely on invariance lemmas for central hyperplane arrangements that are due to Mészáros and Postnikov. Several applications are presented, notably dimensional reduction formulas for (i) non-spherical bodies and (ii) for corrections to the pressure due to symmetry effects.

  19. High-dimensional entanglement certification

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zixin; Maccone, Lorenzo; Karim, Akib; Macchiavello, Chiara; Chapman, Robert J.; Peruzzo, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Quantum entanglement is the ability of joint quantum systems to possess global properties (correlation among systems) even when subsystems have no definite individual property. Whilst the 2-dimensional (qubit) case is well-understood, currently, tools to characterise entanglement in high dimensions are limited. We experimentally demonstrate a new procedure for entanglement certification that is suitable for large systems, based entirely on information-theoretics. It scales more efficiently than Bell’s inequality and entanglement witness. The method we developed works for arbitrarily large system dimension d and employs only two local measurements of complementary properties. This procedure can also certify whether the system is maximally entangled. We illustrate the protocol for families of bipartite states of qudits with dimension up to 32 composed of polarisation-entangled photon pairs. PMID:27311935

  20. High-dimensional entanglement certification.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zixin; Maccone, Lorenzo; Karim, Akib; Macchiavello, Chiara; Chapman, Robert J; Peruzzo, Alberto

    2016-06-17

    Quantum entanglement is the ability of joint quantum systems to possess global properties (correlation among systems) even when subsystems have no definite individual property. Whilst the 2-dimensional (qubit) case is well-understood, currently, tools to characterise entanglement in high dimensions are limited. We experimentally demonstrate a new procedure for entanglement certification that is suitable for large systems, based entirely on information-theoretics. It scales more efficiently than Bell's inequality and entanglement witness. The method we developed works for arbitrarily large system dimension d and employs only two local measurements of complementary properties. This procedure can also certify whether the system is maximally entangled. We illustrate the protocol for families of bipartite states of qudits with dimension up to 32 composed of polarisation-entangled photon pairs.

  1. Towards four-dimensional photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Hannah M.; Ozawa, Tomoki; Goldman, Nathan; Zilberberg, Oded; Carusotto, Iacopo

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in silicon ring-resonator arrays have stimulated the development of topological lattices for photons, with potential applications in integrated photonic devices. Taking inspiration from ultracold atoms, we propose how such arrays can be extended into an additional synthetic dimension by coupling together the different modes of each ring resonator.1 In this way, a 1D resonator chain can become an effective 2D system, while a 3D resonator array can be exploited as a 4D photonic lattice. As an example of the power of this approach, we discuss how to experimentally realise an optical analogue of the 4D quantum Hall effect for the first time. This opens up the way towards the exploration of higher-dimensional lattices in integrated photonics.

  2. Three-dimensional coil inductor

    DOEpatents

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.; Malba, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional coil inductor is disclosed. The inductor includes a substrate; a set of lower electrically conductive traces positioned on the substrate; a core placed over the lower traces; a set of side electrically conductive traces laid on the core and the lower traces; and a set of upper electrically conductive traces attached to the side traces so as to form the inductor. Fabrication of the inductor includes the steps of forming a set of lower traces on a substrate; positioning a core over the lower traces; forming a set of side traces on the core; connecting the side traces to the lower traces; forming a set of upper traces on the core; and connecting the upper traces to the side traces so as to form a coil structure.

  3. One-dimensional Cooper pairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, R.; Fortes, M.; de Llano, M.; Solís, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    We study electron pairing in a one-dimensional (1D) fermion gas at zero temperature under zero- and finite-range, attractive, two-body interactions. The binding energy of Cooper pairs (CPs) with zero total or center-of-mass momentum (CMM) increases with attraction strength and decreases with interaction range for fixed strength. The excitation energy of 1D CPs with nonzero CMM display novel, unique properties. It satisfies a dispersion relation with two branches: a phonon-like linear excitation for small CP CMM; this is followed by roton-like quadratic excitation minimum for CMM greater than twice the Fermi wavenumber, but only above a minimum threshold attraction strength. The expected quadratic-in-CMM dispersion in vacuo when the Fermi wavenumber is set to zero is recovered for any coupling. This paper completes a three-part exploration initiated in 2D and continued in 3D.

  4. High-dimensional entanglement certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zixin; Maccone, Lorenzo; Karim, Akib; Macchiavello, Chiara; Chapman, Robert J.; Peruzzo, Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Quantum entanglement is the ability of joint quantum systems to possess global properties (correlation among systems) even when subsystems have no definite individual property. Whilst the 2-dimensional (qubit) case is well-understood, currently, tools to characterise entanglement in high dimensions are limited. We experimentally demonstrate a new procedure for entanglement certification that is suitable for large systems, based entirely on information-theoretics. It scales more efficiently than Bell’s inequality and entanglement witness. The method we developed works for arbitrarily large system dimension d and employs only two local measurements of complementary properties. This procedure can also certify whether the system is maximally entangled. We illustrate the protocol for families of bipartite states of qudits with dimension up to 32 composed of polarisation-entangled photon pairs.

  5. Three-dimensional aromatic networks.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Shinji; Iwanaga, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) networks consisting of aromatic units and linkers are reviewed from various aspects. To understand principles for the construction of such compounds, we generalize the roles of building units, the synthetic approaches, and the classification of networks. As fundamental compounds, cyclophanes with large aromatic units and aromatic macrocycles with linear acetylene linkers are highlighted in terms of transannular interactions between aromatic units, conformational preference, and resolution of chiral derivatives. Polycyclic cage compounds are constructed from building units by linkages via covalent bonds, metal-coordination bonds, or hydrogen bonds. Large cage networks often include a wide range of guest species in their cavity to afford novel inclusion compounds. Topological isomers consisting of two or more macrocycles are formed by cyclization of preorganized species. Some complicated topological networks are constructed by self-assembly of simple building units.

  6. Three-Dimensional Icosahedral Phase Field Quasicrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, P.; Archer, A. J.; Knobloch, E.; Rucklidge, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the formation and stability of icosahedral quasicrystalline structures using a dynamic phase field crystal model. Nonlinear interactions between density waves at two length scales stabilize three-dimensional quasicrystals. We determine the phase diagram and parameter values required for the quasicrystal to be the global minimum free energy state. We demonstrate that traits that promote the formation of two-dimensional quasicrystals are extant in three dimensions, and highlight the characteristics required for three-dimensional soft matter quasicrystal formation.

  7. Efficient Two-Dimensional-FFT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miko, J.

    1992-01-01

    Program computes 64 X 64-point fast Fourier transform in less than 17 microseconds. Optimized 64 X 64 Point Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform combines performance of real- and complex-valued one-dimensional fast Fourier transforms (FFT's) to execute two-dimensional FFT and coefficients of power spectrum. Coefficients used in many applications, including analyzing spectra, convolution, digital filtering, processing images, and compressing data. Source code written in C, 8086 Assembly, and Texas Instruments TMS320C30 Assembly languages.

  8. Topics in low-dimensional field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Crescimanno, M.J.

    1991-04-30

    Conformal field theory is a natural tool for understanding two- dimensional critical systems. This work presents results in the lagrangian approach to conformal field theory. The first sections are chiefly about a particular class of field theories called coset constructions and the last part is an exposition of the connection between two-dimensional conformal theory and a three-dimensional gauge theory whose lagrangian is the Chern-Simons density.

  9. Sparse High Dimensional Models in Economics.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianqing; Lv, Jinchi; Qi, Lei

    2011-09-01

    This paper reviews the literature on sparse high dimensional models and discusses some applications in economics and finance. Recent developments of theory, methods, and implementations in penalized least squares and penalized likelihood methods are highlighted. These variable selection methods are proved to be effective in high dimensional sparse modeling. The limits of dimensionality that regularization methods can handle, the role of penalty functions, and their statistical properties are detailed. Some recent advances in ultra-high dimensional sparse modeling are also briefly discussed. PMID:22022635

  10. Sparse High Dimensional Models in Economics

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Lv, Jinchi; Qi, Lei

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on sparse high dimensional models and discusses some applications in economics and finance. Recent developments of theory, methods, and implementations in penalized least squares and penalized likelihood methods are highlighted. These variable selection methods are proved to be effective in high dimensional sparse modeling. The limits of dimensionality that regularization methods can handle, the role of penalty functions, and their statistical properties are detailed. Some recent advances in ultra-high dimensional sparse modeling are also briefly discussed. PMID:22022635

  11. Gonadal dysgenesis in del (18p) syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Telvi, L.; Ion, A.; Fouquet, F.

    1995-07-17

    We report on a girl with syndromal gonadal dysgenesis and a de novo del (18p). Genetic factors controlling gonadal development are located not only on the X chromosome, but also on autosomes. The present case suggests that one of these genes is situated on 18p. We conclude that patients with del (18p) syndrome should be evaluated for gonadal dysgenesis. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Toric K3-fibred Calabi-Yau manifolds with del Pezzo divisors for string compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicoli, Michele; Kreuzer, Maximilian; Mayrhofer, Christoph

    2012-02-01

    We analyse several explicit toric examples of compact K3-fibred Calabi-Yau three-folds. These manifolds can be used for the study of string dualities and are crucial ingredients for the construction of LARGE Volume type IIB vacua with promising applications to cosmology and particle phenomenology. In order to build a phenomenologically viable model, on top of the two moduli corresponding to the base and the K3 fibre, we demand also the existence of two additional rigid divisors: the first supporting the non-perturbative effects needed to achieve moduli stabilisation, and the second allowing the presence of chiral matter on wrapped D-branes. We clarify the topology of these rigid divisors by discussing the interplay between a diagonal structure of the Calabi-Yau volume and D-terms. Del Pezzo divisors appearing in the volume form in a completely diagonal way are natural candidates for supporting non-perturbative effects and for quiver constructions, while `non-diagonal' del Pezzo and rigid but not del Pezzo divisors are particularly interesting for model building in the geometric regime. Searching through the existing list of four dimensional reflexive lattice polytopes, we find 158 examples admitting a Calabi-Yau hypersurface with a K3 fibration and four Kähler moduli where at least one of the toric divisors is a `diagonal' del Pezzo. We work out explicitly the topological details of a few examples showing how, in the case of simplicial polytopes, all the del Pezzo divisors are `diagonal', while `non-diagonal' ones appear only in the case of non-simplicial polytopes. A companion paper will use these results in the study of moduli stabilisation for globally consistent explicit Calabi-Yau compactifications with the local presence of chirality.

  13. Mapping two-dimensional polar active fluids to two-dimensional soap and one-dimensional sandblasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Leiming; Lee, Chiu Fan; Toner, John

    2016-07-01

    Active fluids and growing interfaces are two well-studied but very different non-equilibrium systems. Each exhibits non-equilibrium behaviour distinct from that of their equilibrium counterparts. Here we demonstrate a surprising connection between these two: the ordered phase of incompressible polar active fluids in two spatial dimensions without momentum conservation, and growing one-dimensional interfaces (that is, the 1+1-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation), in fact belong to the same universality class. This universality class also includes two equilibrium systems: two-dimensional smectic liquid crystals, and a peculiar kind of constrained two-dimensional ferromagnet. We use these connections to show that two-dimensional incompressible flocks are robust against fluctuations, and exhibit universal long-ranged, anisotropic spatio-temporal correlations of those fluctuations. We also thereby determine the exact values of the anisotropy exponent ζ and the roughness exponents χx,y that characterize these correlations.

  14. Mapping two-dimensional polar active fluids to two-dimensional soap and one-dimensional sandblasting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Leiming; Lee, Chiu Fan; Toner, John

    2016-01-01

    Active fluids and growing interfaces are two well-studied but very different non-equilibrium systems. Each exhibits non-equilibrium behaviour distinct from that of their equilibrium counterparts. Here we demonstrate a surprising connection between these two: the ordered phase of incompressible polar active fluids in two spatial dimensions without momentum conservation, and growing one-dimensional interfaces (that is, the 1+1-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation), in fact belong to the same universality class. This universality class also includes two equilibrium systems: two-dimensional smectic liquid crystals, and a peculiar kind of constrained two-dimensional ferromagnet. We use these connections to show that two-dimensional incompressible flocks are robust against fluctuations, and exhibit universal long-ranged, anisotropic spatio-temporal correlations of those fluctuations. We also thereby determine the exact values of the anisotropy exponent ζ and the roughness exponents χx,y that characterize these correlations. PMID:27452107

  15. Three Dimensional Illustrating--Three-Dimensional Vision and Deception of Sensibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szállassy, Noémi; Gánóczy, Anita; Kriska, György

    2009-01-01

    The wide-spread digital photography and computer use gave the opportunity for everyone to make three-dimensional pictures and to make them public. The new opportunities with three-dimensional techniques give chance for the birth of new artistic photographs. We present in detail the biological roots of three-dimensional visualization, the phenomena…

  16. Multi-dimensionally encoded magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging typically achieves spatial encoding by measuring the projection of a q-dimensional object over q-dimensional spatial bases created by linear spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs). Recently, imaging strategies using nonlinear SEMs have demonstrated potential advantages for reconstructing images with higher spatiotemporal resolution and reducing peripheral nerve stimulation. In practice, nonlinear SEMs and linear SEMs can be used jointly to further improve the image reconstruction performance. Here we propose the multi-dimensionally encoded (MDE) MRI to map a q-dimensional object onto a p-dimensional encoding space where p > q. MDE MRI is a theoretical framework linking imaging strategies using linear and nonlinear SEMs. Using a system of eight surface SEM coils with an eight-channel RF coil array, we demonstrate the five-dimensional MDE MRI for a two-dimensional object as a further generalization of PatLoc imaging and O-space imaging. We also present a method of optimizing spatial bases in MDE MRI. Results show that MDE MRI with a higher dimensional encoding space can reconstruct images more efficiently and with a smaller reconstruction error when the k-space sampling distribution and the number of samples are controlled. PMID:22926830

  17. Three-Dimensional Co-Culture Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Wolf, David A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    By the process of the present invention a variety of cells may be co-cultured to produce tissue which has 3-dimensionality and had some of the characteristics of in vivo tissue. The process provides enhanced 3-dimensional tissue which creates a multicellular organoid differentiation model.

  18. Teleportation schemes in infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Fichtner, Karl-Heinz; Freudenberg, Wolfgang; Ohya, Masanori

    2005-10-01

    The success of quantum mechanics is due to the discovery that nature is described in infinite dimension Hilbert spaces, so that it is desirable to demonstrate the quantum teleportation process in a certain infinite dimensional Hilbert space. We describe the teleportation process in an infinite dimensional Hilbert space by giving simple examples.

  19. Measuring Monotony in Two-Dimensional Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachapova, Farida; Kachapov, Ilias

    2010-01-01

    This note introduces a monotony coefficient as a new measure of the monotone dependence in a two-dimensional sample. Some properties of this measure are derived. In particular, it is shown that the absolute value of the monotony coefficient for a two-dimensional sample is between /"r"/ and 1, where "r" is the Pearson's correlation coefficient for…

  20. Educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH: un diagnóstico para América Latina y el Caribe

    PubMed Central

    DeMaria, Lisa M.; Galárraga, Omar; Campero, Lourdes; Walker, Dilys M.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Objetivo Mostrar, a través de un diagnóstico en América Latina y el Caribe, el panorama legislativo y curricular sobre sexualidad y prevención contra el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) en el ámbito escolar, contrastándolo con los comportamientos sexuales reportados en encuestas demográficas y de salud. Métodos En mayo de 2008 se realizó, con el apoyo del Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas (UNFPA), una encuesta a informantes clave en 34 países de la Región. El cuestionario autoaplicado solicitó información sustantiva de agentes de las diferentes partes interesadas, como ministerios de educación y de salud, sobre los programas de prevención contra el VIH/Sida que se están aplicando en las escuelas. Resultados Respondieron a la encuesta 27 países que representan 95,5% de la población objetivo (6 a 18 años de edad). La mayoría de los países informó tener al menos un libro de texto o un capítulo específico para enseñar los temas de educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH. En la escuela secundaria se cubren la mayor parte de los temas pertinentes relevantes para la educación sobre sexualidad, pero no todos. Por ejemplo, el problema de la discriminación por orientación o preferencia sexual no se incluye en los programas escolares. Conclusiones El material educativo sobre sexualidad debe ser revisado y actualizado periódicamente de modo que refleje los avances en los temas y en la forma de tratar los contenidos. En cada país el currículo debe abordar el tema del respeto a la diversidad sobre orientación, preferencia e identidad sexuales, y en particular el manejo apropiado de la educación para prevenir infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres. Los esfuerzos de evaluación de la efectividad de los programas deben contemplar desenlaces tales como marcadores biológicos (incidencia y prevalencia de ITS y embarazo) y no únicamente indicadores de conocimiento y

  1. Dimensional-duality and Its Lie Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Nilotpal

    2009-01-01

    For a claim to a dimensional duality, we consider here that, the relativity is depending on a "double-fold" complex number for locally dense fourth axis within an enveloping 3D-space. This dimensional duality has been made here for locally dense m-dimensional geometry within n-space, for m > n, if every axis of m-space is dimensional-dual to its enveloping n-space. This locally dense m-dimensional geometry describes a reflexive complex function, viz., "transfusion" transformation, which establishes that, Lie group U(2) is the simply connected 1 to 2 enveloping group of SO(3, 1) within D-dual spaces only. Again, using the weight vectors, it is found that, there exists a SU(4) group, which may be a symmetry group for gravitons.

  2. Extra-dimensional models on the lattice

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Knechtli, Francesco; Rinaldi, Enrico

    2016-08-05

    In this paper we summarize the ongoing effort to study extra-dimensional gauge theories with lattice simulations. In these models the Higgs field is identified with extra-dimensional components of the gauge field. The Higgs potential is generated by quantum corrections and is protected from divergences by the higher dimensional gauge symmetry. Dimensional reduction to four dimensions can occur through compactification or localization. Gauge-Higgs unification models are often studied using perturbation theory. Numerical lattice simulations are used to go beyond these perturbative expectations and to include nonperturbative effects. We describe the known perturbative predictions and their fate in the strongly-coupled regime formore » various extra-dimensional models.« less

  3. Increasing the Endoplasmic Reticulum Pool of the F508del Allele of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Leads to Greater Folding Correction by Small Molecule Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Chung, W. Joon; Goeckeler-Fried, Jennifer L.; Havasi, Viktoria; Chiang, Annette; Rowe, Steven M.; Plyler, Zackery E.; Hong, Jeong S.; Mazur, Marina; Piazza, Gary A.; Keeton, Adam B.; White, E. Lucile; Rasmussen, Lynn; Weissman, Allan M.; Denny, R. Aldrin; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.; Sorscher, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Small molecules that correct the folding defects and enhance surface localization of the F508del mutation in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) comprise an important therapeutic strategy for cystic fibrosis lung disease. However, compounds that rescue the F508del mutant protein to wild type (WT) levels have not been identified. In this report, we consider obstacles to obtaining robust and therapeutically relevant levels of F508del CFTR. For example, markedly diminished steady state amounts of F508del CFTR compared to WT CFTR are present in recombinant bronchial epithelial cell lines, even when much higher levels of mutant transcript are present. In human primary airway cells, the paucity of Band B F508del is even more pronounced, although F508del and WT mRNA concentrations are comparable. Therefore, to augment levels of “repairable” F508del CFTR and identify small molecules that then correct this pool, we developed compound library screening protocols based on automated protein detection. First, cell-based imaging measurements were used to semi-quantitatively estimate distribution of F508del CFTR by high content analysis of two-dimensional images. We evaluated ~2,000 known bioactive compounds from the NIH Roadmap Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository in a pilot screen and identified agents that increase the F508del protein pool. Second, we analyzed ~10,000 compounds representing diverse chemical scaffolds for effects on total CFTR expression using a multi-plate fluorescence protocol and describe compounds that promote F508del maturation. Together, our findings demonstrate proof of principle that agents identified in this fashion can augment the level of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident “Band B” F508del CFTR suitable for pharmacologic correction. As further evidence in support of this strategy, PYR-41—a compound that inhibits the E1 ubiquitin activating enzyme—was shown to synergistically enhance F508del rescue by C

  4. Dynamic Three-Dimensional Echocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsusaka, Katsuhiko; Doi, Motonori; Oshiro, Osamu; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2000-08-01

    Conventional three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging equipment for diagnosis requires much time to reconstruct 3D images or fix the view point for observing the 3D image. Thus, it is inconvenient for cardiac diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a new dynamic 3D echocardiography system. The system produces 3D images in real-time and permits changes in view point. This system consists of ultrasound diagnostic equipment, a digitizer and a computer. B-mode images are projected to a virtual 3D space by referring to the position of the probe of the ultrasound diagnosis equipment. The position is obtained by the digitizer to which the ultrasound probe is attached. The 3D cardiac image is constructed from B-mode images obtained simultaneously in the cardiac cycle. To obtain the same moment of heartbeat in the cardiac cycle, this system uses the electrocardiography derived from the diagnosis equipment. The 3D images, which show various scenes of the stage of heartbeat action, are displayed sequentially. The doctor can observe 3D images cut in any plane by pushing a button of the digitizer and zooming with the keyboard. We evaluated our prototype system by observation of a mitral valve in motion.

  5. Three-dimensional laser microvision.

    PubMed

    Shimotahira, H; Iizuka, K; Chu, S C; Wah, C; Costen, F; Yoshikuni, Y

    2001-04-10

    A three-dimensional (3-D) optical imaging system offering high resolution in all three dimensions, requiring minimum manipulation and capable of real-time operation, is presented. The system derives its capabilities from use of the superstructure grating laser source in the implementation of a laser step frequency radar for depth information acquisition. A synthetic aperture radar technique was also used to further enhance its lateral resolution as well as extend the depth of focus. High-speed operation was made possible by a dual computer system consisting of a host and a remote microcomputer supported by a dual-channel Small Computer System Interface parallel data transfer system. The system is capable of operating near real time. The 3-D display of a tunneling diode, a microwave integrated circuit, and a see-through image taken by the system operating near real time are included. The depth resolution is 40 mum; lateral resolution with a synthetic aperture approach is a fraction of a micrometer and that without it is approximately 10 mum. PMID:18357177

  6. Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shilei; Zhang, Jingyan; Baker, Alexander A.; Wang, Shouguo; Yu, Guanghua; Hesjedal, Thorsten

    2014-08-01

    Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme. It is inspired by the idea of second quantisation, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered `quantised' Hall voltage, each representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This new memory system further allows for both flexible scaling of the system and fast communication among cells. The magnetic abacus provides a promising approach for future nonvolatile 3D magnetic random access memory.

  7. Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, ShiLei; Zhang, JingYan; Baker, Alexander A; Wang, ShouGuo; Yu, GuangHua; Hesjedal, Thorsten

    2014-08-22

    Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme. It is inspired by the idea of second quantisation, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered 'quantised' Hall voltage, each representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This new memory system further allows for both flexible scaling of the system and fast communication among cells. The magnetic abacus provides a promising approach for future nonvolatile 3D magnetic random access memory.

  8. Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shilei; Zhang, Jingyan; Baker, Alexander; Wang, Shouguo; Yu, Guanghua; Hesjedal, Thorsten

    2015-03-01

    Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the individual data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme which envisages a classical abacus with the beads operated by electron spins. It is inspired by the idea of second quantization, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered `quantized' Hall voltage, representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This concept of `second quantization of memory' realizes the 3D memory architecture with superior reading and operation efficiency, thus is a promising approach for future nonvolatile magnetic random access memory.

  9. True three-dimensional camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornreich, Philipp; Farell, Bart

    2013-01-01

    An imager that can measure the distance from each pixel to the point on the object that is in focus at the pixel is described. This is accomplished by short photo-conducting lightguides at each pixel. In the eye the rods and cones are the fiber-like lightguides. The device uses ambient light that is only coherent in spherical shell-shaped light packets of thickness of one coherence length. Modern semiconductor technology permits the construction of lightguides shorter than a coherence length of ambient light. Each of the frequency components of the broad band light arriving at a pixel has a phase proportional to the distance from an object point to its image pixel. Light frequency components in the packet arriving at a pixel through a convex lens add constructively only if the light comes from the object point in focus at this pixel. The light in packets from all other object points cancels. Thus the pixel receives light from one object point only. The lightguide has contacts along its length. The lightguide charge carriers are generated by the light patterns. These light patterns, and thus the photocurrent, shift in response to the phase of the input signal. Thus, the photocurrent is a function of the distance from the pixel to its object point. Applications include autonomous vehicle navigation and robotic vision. Another application is a crude teleportation system consisting of a camera and a three-dimensional printer at a remote location.

  10. The addictive dimensionality of obesity.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Tomasi, Dardo; Baler, Ruben D

    2013-05-01

    Our brains are hardwired to respond and seek immediate rewards. Thus, it is not surprising that many people overeat, which in some can result in obesity, whereas others take drugs, which in some can result in addiction. Though food intake and body weight are under homeostatic regulation, when highly palatable food is available, the ability to resist the urge to eat hinges on self-control. There is no homeostatic regulator to check the intake of drugs (including alcohol); thus, regulation of drug consumption is mostly driven by self-control or unwanted effects (i.e., sedation for alcohol). Disruption in both the neurobiological processes that underlie sensitivity to reward and those that underlie inhibitory control can lead to compulsive food intake in some individuals and compulsive drug intake in others. There is increasing evidence that disruption of energy homeostasis can affect the reward circuitry and that overconsumption of rewarding food can lead to changes in the reward circuitry that result in compulsive food intake akin to the phenotype seen with addiction. Addiction research has produced new evidence that hints at significant commonalities between the neural substrates underlying the disease of addiction and at least some forms of obesity. This recognition has spurred a healthy debate to try and ascertain the extent to which these complex and dimensional disorders overlap and whether or not a deeper understanding of the crosstalk between the homeostatic and reward systems will usher in unique opportunities for prevention and treatment of both obesity and drug addiction.

  11. Intertextual Sexual Politics: Illness and Desire in Enrique Gomez Carrillo's "Del amor", "del dolor y del vicio" and Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGreca, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the intertextuality between Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta" (1914) and the novel "Del amor, del dolor y del vicio" (1898) by her ex-husband, Enrique Gomez Carrillo. Caceres strategically mentions Gomez Carrillo's novel in "La rosa muerta" to invite a reading of her work in dialogue with his. Both narratives follow the sexual…

  12. System for generating two-dimensional masks from a three-dimensional model using topological analysis

    DOEpatents

    Schiek, Richard

    2006-06-20

    A method of generating two-dimensional masks from a three-dimensional model comprises providing a three-dimensional model representing a micro-electro-mechanical structure for manufacture and a description of process mask requirements, reducing the three-dimensional model to a topological description of unique cross sections, and selecting candidate masks from the unique cross sections and the cross section topology. The method further can comprise reconciling the candidate masks based on the process mask requirements description to produce two-dimensional process masks.

  13. Dimensional modulation of spontaneous magnetic order in quasi-two-dimensional quantum antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, Shunsuke C.; Dupont, Maxime; Capponi, Sylvain; Laflorencie, Nicolas; Giamarchi, Thierry

    2016-10-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is deeply related to the dimensionality of a system. The Néel order going with spontaneous breaking of U (1 ) symmetry is safely allowed at any temperature for three-dimensional systems but allowed only at zero temperature for purely two-dimensional systems. We closely investigate how smoothly the ordering process of the three-dimensional system is modulated into that of the two-dimensional one with reduction of dimensionality, considering spatially anisotropic quantum antiferromagnets. We first show that the Néel temperature is kept finite even in the two-dimensional limit although the Néel order is greatly suppressed for low dimensionality. This feature of the Néel temperature is highly nontrivial, which dictates how the order parameter is squashed under the reduction of dimensionality. Next, we investigate this dimensional modulation of the order parameter. We develop our argument taking as an example a coupled spin-ladder system relevant for experimental studies. The ordering process is investigated multidirectionally using theoretical techniques of a mean-field method combined with analytical (exact solutions of quantum field theories) or numerical (density-matrix renormalization-group) methods, a variational method, a renormalization-group study, linear spin-wave theory, and quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We show that these methods independent of each other lead to the same conclusion about the dimensional modulation.

  14. Dimensionality-Dependent Generalization Bounds for k-Dimensional Coding Schemes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tongliang; Tao, Dacheng; Xu, Dong

    2016-10-01

    The k-dimensional coding schemes refer to a collection of methods that attempt to represent data using a set of representative k-dimensional vectors and include nonnegative matrix factorization, dictionary learning, sparse coding, k-means clustering, and vector quantization as special cases. Previous generalization bounds for the reconstruction error of the k-dimensional coding schemes are mainly dimensionality-independent. A major advantage of these bounds is that they can be used to analyze the generalization error when data are mapped into an infinite- or high-dimensional feature space. However, many applications use finite-dimensional data features. Can we obtain dimensionality-dependent generalization bounds for k-dimensional coding schemes that are tighter than dimensionality-independent bounds when data are in a finite-dimensional feature space? Yes. In this letter, we address this problem and derive a dimensionality-dependent generalization bound for k-dimensional coding schemes by bounding the covering number of the loss function class induced by the reconstruction error. The bound is of order [Formula: see text], where m is the dimension of features, k is the number of the columns in the linear implementation of coding schemes, and n is the size of sample, [Formula: see text] when n is finite and [Formula: see text] when n is infinite. We show that our bound can be tighter than previous results because it avoids inducing the worst-case upper bound on k of the loss function. The proposed generalization bound is also applied to some specific coding schemes to demonstrate that the dimensionality-dependent bound is an indispensable complement to the dimensionality-independent generalization bounds. PMID:27391679

  15. Three-dimensional head anthropometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enciso, Reyes; Shaw, Alex M.; Neumann, Ulrich; Mah, James

    2003-05-01

    Currently, two-dimensional photographs are most commonly used to facilitate visualization, assessment and treatment of facial abnormalities in craniofacial care but are subject to errors because of perspective, projection, lack metric and 3-dimensional information. One can find in the literature a variety of methods to generate 3-dimensional facial images such as laser scans, stereo-photogrammetry, infrared imaging and even CT however each of these methods contain inherent limitations and as such no systems are in common clinical use. In this paper we will focus on development of indirect 3-dimensional landmark location and measurement of facial soft-tissue with light-based techniques. In this paper we will statistically evaluate and validate a current three-dimensional image-based face modeling technique using a plaster head model. We will also develop computer graphics tools for indirect anthropometric measurements in a three-dimensional head model (or polygonal mesh) including linear distances currently used in anthropometry. The measurements will be tested against a validated 3-dimensional digitizer (MicroScribe 3DX).

  16. Three-dimensional co-culture process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, David A. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to a 3-dimensional co-culture process, more particularly to methods or co-culturing at least two types of cells in a culture environment, either in space or in unit gravity, with minimum shear stress, freedom for 3-dimensional spatial orientation of the suspended particles and localization of particles with differing or similar sedimentation properties in a similar spatial region to form 3-dimensional tissue-like structures. Several examples of multicellular 3-dimensional experiences are included. The protocol and procedure are also set forth. The process allows simultaneous culture of multiple cell types and supporting substrates in a manner which does not disrupt the 3-dimensional spatial orientation of these components. The co-cultured cells cause a mutual induction effect which mimics the natural hormonal signals and cell interactions found in the intact organism. This causes the tissues to differentiate and form higher 3-dimensional structures such as glands, junctional complexes polypoid geometries, and microvilli which represent the corresponding in-vitro structures to a greater degree than when the cell types are cultured individually or by conventional processes. This process was clearly demonstrated for the case of two epithelial derived colon cancer lines, each co-cultured with normal human fibroblasts and with microcarrier bead substrates. The results clearly demonstrate increased 3-dimensional tissue-like structure and biochemical evidence of an increased differentiation state. With the present invention a variety of cells may be co-cultured to produce tissue which has 3-dimensionality and has some of the characteristics of in-vitro tissue. The process provides enhanced 3-dimensional tissue which create a multicellular organoid differentiation model.

  17. Electrical contacts to two-dimensional semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allain, Adrien; Kang, Jiahao; Banerjee, Kaustav; Kis, Andras

    2015-12-01

    The performance of electronic and optoelectronic devices based on two-dimensional layered crystals, including graphene, semiconductors of the transition metal dichalcogenide family such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and tungsten diselenide (WSe2), as well as other emerging two-dimensional semiconductors such as atomically thin black phosphorus, is significantly affected by the electrical contacts that connect these materials with external circuitry. Here, we present a comprehensive treatment of the physics of such interfaces at the contact region and discuss recent progress towards realizing optimal contacts for two-dimensional materials. We also discuss the requirements that must be fulfilled to realize efficient spin injection in transition metal dichalcogenides.

  18. Low-dimensional Te-based nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qisheng; Safdar, Muhammad; Wang, Zhenxing; He, Jun

    2013-07-26

    Low-dimensional Te-based nanomaterials have attracted intense attention in recent years due to their novel physical properties including surface-state effects, photoelectricity, phase changes, and thermoelectricity. The recent development of synthesis methods of low-dimensional Te-based nanostructures is reviewed, such as van der Waals expitaxial growth and template-assisted solution-phase deposition. In addition, the unique properties of these materials, such as tunable surface states, high photoresponsivity, fast phase change, and high thermoelectricity figure of merit, are reviewed. The potential applications of low-dimensional Te-based nanostructures are broad but particularly promising for nanoscale electronic and photoelectronic devices. PMID:24048978

  19. Low-dimensional chaos in turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vastano, John A.

    1989-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations are being performed on two different fluid flows in an attempt to discover the mechanism underlying the transition to turbulence in each. The first system is Taylor-Couette flow; the second, two-dimensional flow over an airfoil. Both flows exhibit a gradual transition to high-dimensional turbulence through low-dimensional chaos. The hope is that the instabilities leading to chaos will be easier to relate to physical processes in this case, and that the understanding of these mechanisms can then be applied to a wider array of turbulent systems.

  20. Three-dimensional laser window formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a unique process for forming flawless three-dimensional laser windows. These windows represent a major part of specialized, nonintrusive laser data acquisition systems used in a variety of compressor and turbine research test facilities. This report discusses in detail the aspects of three-dimensional laser window formation. It focuses on the unique methodology and the peculiarities associated with the formation of these windows. Included in this discussion are the design criteria, bonding mediums, and evaluation testing for three-dimensional laser windows.

  1. Electrical contacts to two-dimensional semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Allain, Adrien; Kang, Jiahao; Banerjee, Kaustav; Kis, Andras

    2015-12-01

    The performance of electronic and optoelectronic devices based on two-dimensional layered crystals, including graphene, semiconductors of the transition metal dichalcogenide family such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and tungsten diselenide (WSe2), as well as other emerging two-dimensional semiconductors such as atomically thin black phosphorus, is significantly affected by the electrical contacts that connect these materials with external circuitry. Here, we present a comprehensive treatment of the physics of such interfaces at the contact region and discuss recent progress towards realizing optimal contacts for two-dimensional materials. We also discuss the requirements that must be fulfilled to realize efficient spin injection in transition metal dichalcogenides.

  2. Three-Dimensional Icosahedral Phase Field Quasicrystal.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, P; Archer, A J; Knobloch, E; Rucklidge, A M

    2016-08-12

    We investigate the formation and stability of icosahedral quasicrystalline structures using a dynamic phase field crystal model. Nonlinear interactions between density waves at two length scales stabilize three-dimensional quasicrystals. We determine the phase diagram and parameter values required for the quasicrystal to be the global minimum free energy state. We demonstrate that traits that promote the formation of two-dimensional quasicrystals are extant in three dimensions, and highlight the characteristics required for three-dimensional soft matter quasicrystal formation. PMID:27563973

  3. Two Dimensional Mechanism for Insect Hovering

    SciTech Connect

    Jane Wang, Z.

    2000-09-04

    Resolved computation of two dimensional insect hovering shows for the first time that a two dimensional hovering motion can generate enough lift to support a typical insect weight. The computation reveals a two dimensional mechanism of creating a downward dipole jet of counterrotating vortices, which are formed from leading and trailing edge vortices. The vortex dynamics further elucidates the role of the phase relation between the wing translation and rotation in lift generation and explains why the instantaneous forces can reach a periodic state after only a few strokes. The model predicts the lower limits in Reynolds number and amplitude above which the averaged forces are sufficient. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  4. Actitudes de los candidatos y maestros de ciencias en servicio acerca del uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayuelo, Ezequiel

    Este estudio examino y comparo las actitudes de los candidatos a maestros de ciencias y los maestros de ciencias en servicio acerca de la utilizacion de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias. Tambien identifico y diferencio el uso que ellos dan a estas herramientas en las clases de ciencias. Este estudio presenta un diseno descriptivo exploratorio. Constituyeron la muestra trescientos diez sujetos que fueron candidatos a maestros de ciencias o maestros de ciencias en servicio. Para recoger los datos se construyo y valido un cuestionario de treinta y un itemes. Se utilizaron las pruebas estadisticas no parametricas Kruskal Wallis y Chi-cuadrado (test de homogeneidad) para establecer las diferencias entre las actitudes de los sujetos con relacion al uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias. Los hallazgos evidenciaron que son positivas y muy parecidas las actitudes de los candidatos a maestros y maestros en servicio hacia el uso de las herramientas computadorizadas. No hubo diferencias entre los candidatos y maestros en servicio en terminos de las actitudes de confianza y empatia hacia el uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias. En aspectos como el uso del banco de datos bibliografico Eric y el uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en actividades educativas como explorar conceptos, conceptuar, aplicar lo aprendido y hacer asignaciones hubo diferencias estadisticamente significativas entre los candidatos y los maestros en servicio. Al comparar las frecuencias observadas con las esperadas hubo mas maestros en servicio y menos candidatos que indicaron usar el anterior banco de datos y las herramientas computadorizadas en las mencionadas actividades educativas.

  5. Visiting the Gödel universe.

    PubMed

    Grave, Frank; Buser, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Visualization of general relativity illustrates aspects of Einstein's insights into the curved nature of space and time to the expert as well as the layperson. One of the most interesting models which came up with Einstein's theory was developed by Kurt Gödel in 1949. The Gödel universe is a valid solution of Einstein's field equations, making it a possible physical description of our universe. It offers remarkable features like the existence of an optical horizon beyond which time travel is possible. Although we know that our universe is not a Gödel universe, it is interesting to visualize physical aspects of a world model resulting from a theory which is highly confirmed in scientific history. Standard techniques to adopt an egocentric point of view in a relativistic world model have shortcomings with respect to the time needed to render an image as well as difficulties in applying a direct illumination model. In this paper we want to face both issues to reduce the gap between common visualization standards and relativistic visualization. We will introduce two techniques to speed up recalculation of images by means of preprocessing and lookup tables and to increase image quality through a special optimization applicable to the Gödel universe. The first technique allows the physicist to understand the different effects of general relativity faster and better by generating images from existing datasets interactively. By using the intrinsic symmetries of Gödel's spacetime which are expressed by the Killing vector field, we are able to reduce the necessary calculations to simple cases using the second technique. This even makes it feasible to account for a direct illumination model during the rendering process. Although the presented methods are applied to Gödel's universe, they can also be extended to other manifolds, for example light propagation in moving dielectric media. Therefore, other areas of research can benefit from these generic improvements. PMID

  6. Calidad de Imagen del Telescopio UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Teiada de Vargas, C.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2, del Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, situado en la Sierra de San Pedro Mártir (Baja California, México), cumplira en un futuro muy cercano siete años de uso para fines de investigación astronómica. Aunque en este tiempo no se ha efectuado un estudio sistemático acerca de su comportamiento óptico y de los factores que influyen en la calidad de las imágenes, se han realizado pruebas diversas, estudios parciales y reuniones especificas, cuyos resultados no siempre se han difundido ampliamente y generalmente no se han presentado por escrito. Es por ello que hemos creido necesario intentar una recopilación de la información existente para poder con ella establecer un diagnóstjco que, aunque no sea definitivo, sirva de base para futuros trabajos tendientes a optimizar el comportamiento óptico del telescopio. Es evidente que un buen número de las conclusiones que se presentan son resultado del trabajo de muchas personas ó de esfuerzos colectivos. Asimismo, hemos tratado de localizar información bibliográfica que pueda ser de utilidad. Nuestro objetivo primordial ha consistido en centrarnos en la óptica del telescopio y su calidad, pero también se han considerado otros aspectos que puedan afectar las imágenes obtenidas tales como: celda del primario, `seeing' local y externo, flexiones posibles en la estructura mecánica del telescopio, etc.

  7. Visiting the Gödel universe.

    PubMed

    Grave, Frank; Buser, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Visualization of general relativity illustrates aspects of Einstein's insights into the curved nature of space and time to the expert as well as the layperson. One of the most interesting models which came up with Einstein's theory was developed by Kurt Gödel in 1949. The Gödel universe is a valid solution of Einstein's field equations, making it a possible physical description of our universe. It offers remarkable features like the existence of an optical horizon beyond which time travel is possible. Although we know that our universe is not a Gödel universe, it is interesting to visualize physical aspects of a world model resulting from a theory which is highly confirmed in scientific history. Standard techniques to adopt an egocentric point of view in a relativistic world model have shortcomings with respect to the time needed to render an image as well as difficulties in applying a direct illumination model. In this paper we want to face both issues to reduce the gap between common visualization standards and relativistic visualization. We will introduce two techniques to speed up recalculation of images by means of preprocessing and lookup tables and to increase image quality through a special optimization applicable to the Gödel universe. The first technique allows the physicist to understand the different effects of general relativity faster and better by generating images from existing datasets interactively. By using the intrinsic symmetries of Gödel's spacetime which are expressed by the Killing vector field, we are able to reduce the necessary calculations to simple cases using the second technique. This even makes it feasible to account for a direct illumination model during the rendering process. Although the presented methods are applied to Gödel's universe, they can also be extended to other manifolds, for example light propagation in moving dielectric media. Therefore, other areas of research can benefit from these generic improvements.

  8. Radio-Observaciones del OH EN la Coma del Cometa Halley Desde EL Hemisferio Sur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M.; Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Cersosimo, J. C.; Martin, M. C.; Arnal, E. M.; Poppel, W. G. L.; Colomb, F. R.; Mazzaro, J.; Olalde, J. C.; Boriakoff, V.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1987-05-01

    Se utilizó una antena de 30 metros del Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía para observaciones diarias Cf ebrero a abril de 1986) de la transición en 1667 MHz ( λ = 18 cm) del OH en la coma del cometa Halley. De las observaciones realizadas se concluye: 1) El número promedio de moléculas de OH en la coma durante 37 días de observación fue de (8.9±3.5)x1034 moléculas, lo que implica una tasa de producción promedio de OH de 1.8x1029 moléculas seg-1 y consecuentemente una pérdida de masa promedio de 17±6 toneladas seg-1 . Este valor está de acuerdo con las mediciones realizadas por las sondas Vega y Giotto. 2) El monitoreo desde el lAR revela la existencia de variaciones bruscas en los flujos de absorción del OH. Estas variaciones son consistentes con los modelos que representan la producción gaseosa a partir de ejecciones y/o desprendimientos discretos de materia congelada del núcleo. 3) Las variaciones en la densidad de flujo son consistentes con las estimaciones de los tiem- pos de vida medios del H2O y del OH en presencia del campo de radiación solar. 4) Se encuentra una correlación entre la intensidad del flujo absorbido y anisotropías en Ia dinamica de la coma.

  9. K7del is a common TPM2 gene mutation associated with nemaline myopathy and raised myofibre calcium sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Mokbel, Nancy; Ilkovski, Biljana; Kreissl, Michaela; Memo, Massimiliano; Jeffries, Cy M; Marttila, Minttu; Lehtokari, Vilma-Lotta; Lemola, Elina; Grönholm, Mikaela; Yang, Nan; Menard, Dominique; Marcorelles, Pascale; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni; Reimann, Jens; Vainzof, Mariz; Monnier, Nicole; Ravenscroft, Gianina; McNamara, Elyshia; Nowak, Kristen J; Laing, Nigel G; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina; Trewhella, Jill; Marston, Steve; Ottenheijm, Coen; North, Kathryn N; Clarke, Nigel F

    2013-02-01

    Mutations in the TPM2 gene, which encodes β-tropomyosin, are an established cause of several congenital skeletal myopathies and distal arthrogryposis. We have identified a TPM2 mutation, p.K7del, in five unrelated families with nemaline myopathy and a consistent distinctive clinical phenotype. Patients develop large joint contractures during childhood, followed by slowly progressive skeletal muscle weakness during adulthood. The TPM2 p.K7del mutation results in the loss of a highly conserved lysine residue near the N-terminus of β-tropomyosin, which is predicted to disrupt head-to-tail polymerization of tropomyosin. Recombinant K7del-β-tropomyosin incorporates poorly into sarcomeres in C2C12 myotubes and has a reduced affinity for actin. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of patient muscle and primary patient cultured myotubes showed that mutant protein is expressed but incorporates poorly into sarcomeres and likely accumulates in nemaline rods. In vitro studies using recombinant K7del-β-tropomyosin and force measurements from single dissected patient myofibres showed increased myofilament calcium sensitivity. Together these data indicate that p.K7del is a common recurrent TPM2 mutation associated with mild nemaline myopathy. The p.K7del mutation likely disrupts head-to-tail polymerization of tropomyosin, which impairs incorporation into sarcomeres and also affects the equilibrium of the troponin/tropomyosin-dependent calcium switch of muscle. Joint contractures may stem from chronic muscle hypercontraction due to increased myofibrillar calcium sensitivity while declining strength in adulthood likely arises from other mechanisms, such as myofibre decompensation and fatty infiltration. These results suggest that patients may benefit from therapies that reduce skeletal muscle calcium sensitivity, and we highlight late muscle decompensation as an important cause of morbidity. PMID:23378224

  10. [Revista de Gastroenterologia del Peru: 25 years].

    PubMed

    Celestino Fernández, Alvaro

    2005-01-01

    In this article is described in a very summarized form the history of the Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú (RGP) that dates from the same origins of the Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú, when based in October 30 of 1952 already glimpse the presence of the RGP as the official organ for the publication for studies of doctors of the society or foreign guests. We spent 29 years, and this idea becomes reality; and today the RGP turns to their XXV anniversary. The RGP, to locate itself as the Peruvian medical publication best reputation.

  11. Manual del McVCO 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McChesney, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    El McVCO es un generador de frecuencias basado en un microcontrolador que reemplaza al oscilador controlado por voltaje (VCO) utilizado en telemetría analógica de datos sísmicas. Acepta señales de baja potencia desde un sismómetro y produce una señal subportadora modulada en frecuencia adecuada para enlaces telefónicos o vía radio a un lugar remoto de recolección de datos. La frecuencia de la subportadora y la ganancia pueden ser seleccionadas mediante un interruptor. Tiene la opción de poder operar con dos canales para la observación con ganancia alta y baja. El McVCO fue diseñado con el propósito de mejorar la telemetría analógica de las señales dentro de la Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network (PNSN) (Red Sismográfica del Noroeste del Pacífico). Su desarrollo recibió el respaldo del Programa de Geofísica de la Universidad de Washington y del "Volcano Hazards and Earthquake Hazards programs of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) (Programa de Investigaciones de Riesgos Volcánicos y Programa de Investigaciones de Riesgos Sísmicos de los EEUU). Cientos de instrumentos se han construido e instalado. Además de utilizarlo el PNSN, el McVCO es usado por el Observatorio Vulcanológico de Alaska para monitorear los volcanes aleutianos y por el USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (Programa de Ayuda en las Catástrofes Volcánicas del USGS) para responder a crisis volcánicas en otros países. Este manual cubre el funcionamiento del McVCO, es una referencia técnica para aquellos que necesitan saber con más detalle cómo funciona el McVCO, y cubre una serie de temas que requieren un trato explícito o que derivan del despliegue del instrumento.

  12. Three Dimensional Optic Tissue Culture and Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OConnor, Kim C. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Aten, Laurie A. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Caldwell, Delmar R. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Fitzgerald, Wendy S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A process for artificially producing three-dimensional optic tissue has been developed. The optic cells are cultured in a bioireactor at low shear conditions. The tissue forms as normal, functional tissue grows with tissue organization and extracellular matrix formation.

  13. Artifacts in three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Faletra, Francesco Fulvio; Ramamurthi, Alamelu; Dequarti, Maria Cristina; Leo, Laura Anna; Moccetti, Tiziano; Pandian, Natesa

    2014-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is subject to the same types of artifacts encountered on two-dimensional TEE. However, when displayed in a 3D format, some of the artifacts appear more "realistic," whereas others are unique to image acquisition and postprocessing. Three-dimensional TEE is increasingly used in the setting of percutaneous catheter-based interventions and ablation procedures, and 3D artifacts caused by the metallic components of catheters and devices are particularly frequent. Knowledge of these artifacts is of paramount relevance to avoid misinterpretation of 3D images. Although artifacts and pitfalls on two-dimensional echocardiography are well described and classified, a systematic description of artifacts in 3D transesophageal echocardiographic images and how they affect 3D imaging is still absent. The aim of this review is to describe the most relevant artifacts on 3D TEE, with particular emphasis on those occurring during percutaneous interventions for structural heart disease and ablation procedures.

  14. Realisation of 3-dimensional data sets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D.; Galsgaard, K.; Ireland, J.; Verwichte, E.; Walsh, R.

    The visualisation of three-dimensional objects on two dimensions is a very common problem, but is a tricky one to solve. Every discipline has its way of solving it. The artist uses light-shade interaction, perspective, special colour coding. The architect produces projections of the object. The cartographer uses both colour-coding and shading to represent height elevations. There have been many attempts in the last century by the entertainment industry to produce a three-dimensional illusion, in the fifties it was fashionable to have 3d movies which utilize the anaglyph method. Nowadays one can buy "Magic Eye" postcards which show a hidden three dimensional picture if you stare at it half cross-eyed. This poster attempts to demonstrate how some of these techniques can be applied to three-dimensional data sets that can occur in solar physics.

  15. Importance of effective dimensionality in manganese pnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zingl, Manuel; Assmann, Elias; Seth, Priyanka; Krivenko, Igor; Aichhorn, Markus

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we investigate the two manganese pnictides BaMn2As2 and LaMnAsO, using fully charge self-consistent density functional plus dynamical mean-field theory calculations. These systems have a nominally half-filled d shell, and as a consequence, electronic correlations are strong, placing these compounds at the verge of a metal-insulator transition. Although their crystal structure is composed of similar building blocks, our analysis shows that the two materials exhibit a very different effective dimensionality, LaMnAsO being a quasi-two-dimensional material in contrast to the much more three-dimensional BaMn2As2 . We demonstrate that the experimentally observed differences in the Néel temperature, the band gap, and the optical properties of the manganese compounds under consideration can be traced back to exactly this effective dimensionality. Our calculations show excellent agreement with measured optical spectra.

  16. Bayesian Methods for High Dimensional Linear Models

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Himel; Yi, Nengjun

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a selective overview of some recent developments in Bayesian model and variable selection methods for high dimensional linear models. While most of the reviews in literature are based on conventional methods, we focus on recently developed methods, which have proven to be successful in dealing with high dimensional variable selection. First, we give a brief overview of the traditional model selection methods (viz. Mallow’s Cp, AIC, BIC, DIC), followed by a discussion on some recently developed methods (viz. EBIC, regularization), which have occupied the minds of many statisticians. Then, we review high dimensional Bayesian methods with a particular emphasis on Bayesian regularization methods, which have been used extensively in recent years. We conclude by briefly addressing the asymptotic behaviors of Bayesian variable selection methods for high dimensional linear models under different regularity conditions. PMID:24511433

  17. Bayesian Methods for High Dimensional Linear Models.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Himel; Yi, Nengjun

    2013-06-01

    In this article, we present a selective overview of some recent developments in Bayesian model and variable selection methods for high dimensional linear models. While most of the reviews in literature are based on conventional methods, we focus on recently developed methods, which have proven to be successful in dealing with high dimensional variable selection. First, we give a brief overview of the traditional model selection methods (viz. Mallow's Cp, AIC, BIC, DIC), followed by a discussion on some recently developed methods (viz. EBIC, regularization), which have occupied the minds of many statisticians. Then, we review high dimensional Bayesian methods with a particular emphasis on Bayesian regularization methods, which have been used extensively in recent years. We conclude by briefly addressing the asymptotic behaviors of Bayesian variable selection methods for high dimensional linear models under different regularity conditions.

  18. One-Dimensional Czedli-Type Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Eszter K.; Mader, Attila; Tepavcevic, Andreja

    2011-01-01

    The notion of an island has surfaced in recent algebra and coding theory research. Discrete versions provide interesting combinatorial problems. This paper presents the one-dimensional case with finitely many heights, a topic convenient for student research.

  19. Three-dimensional tori and Arnold tongues

    SciTech Connect

    Sekikawa, Munehisa; Inaba, Naohiko; Kamiyama, Kyohei; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2014-03-15

    This study analyzes an Arnold resonance web, which includes complicated quasi-periodic bifurcations, by conducting a Lyapunov analysis for a coupled delayed logistic map. The map can exhibit a two-dimensional invariant torus (IT), which corresponds to a three-dimensional torus in vector fields. Numerous one-dimensional invariant closed curves (ICCs), which correspond to two-dimensional tori in vector fields, exist in a very complicated but reasonable manner inside an IT-generating region. Periodic solutions emerge at the intersections of two different thin ICC-generating regions, which we call ICC-Arnold tongues, because all three independent-frequency components of the IT become rational at the intersections. Additionally, we observe a significant bifurcation structure where conventional Arnold tongues transit to ICC-Arnold tongues through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the neighborhood of a quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcation (or a quasi-periodic Neimark-Sacker bifurcation) boundary.

  20. Theory of two-dimensional microcavity lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Harayama, Takahisa; Sunada, Satoshi; Ikeda, Kensuke S.

    2005-07-15

    We present theoretical models of two-dimensional (2D) microcavity lasers. The relation between stationary lasing modes and resonances or metastable states is elucidated for arbitrary shapes of 2D resonant microcavities.

  1. Three dimensional optic tissue culture and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Cardwell, Delmar R. (Inventor); Oconnor, Kim (Inventor); Fitzgerald, Wendy S. (Inventor); Aten, Laurie A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A process for artificially producing three-dimensional optic tissue has been developed. The optic cells are cultured in a bioreactor at low shear conditions. The tissue forms normal, functional tissue organization and extracellular matrix.

  2. Analyzing High-Dimensional Multispectral Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chulhee; Landgrebe, David A.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, through a series of specific examples, we illustrate some characteristics encountered in analyzing high- dimensional multispectral data. The increased importance of the second-order statistics in analyzing high-dimensional data is illustrated, as is the shortcoming of classifiers such as the minimum distance classifier which rely on first-order variations alone. We also illustrate how inaccurate estimation or first- and second-order statistics, e.g., from use of training sets which are too small, affects the performance of a classifier. Recognizing the importance of second-order statistics on the one hand, but the increased difficulty in perceiving and comprehending information present in statistics derived from high-dimensional data on the other, we propose a method to aid visualization of high-dimensional statistics using a color coding scheme.

  3. Two-Dimensional Planetary Surface Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmati, H.; Sengupta, A.; Castillo, J.; McElrath, T.; Roberts, T.; Willis, P.

    2014-06-01

    A systems engineering study was conducted to leverage a new two-dimensional (2D) lander concept with a low per unit cost to enable scientific study at multiple locations with a single entry system as the delivery vehicle.

  4. Three-dimensional tori and Arnold tongues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekikawa, Munehisa; Inaba, Naohiko; Kamiyama, Kyohei; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2014-03-01

    This study analyzes an Arnold resonance web, which includes complicated quasi-periodic bifurcations, by conducting a Lyapunov analysis for a coupled delayed logistic map. The map can exhibit a two-dimensional invariant torus (IT), which corresponds to a three-dimensional torus in vector fields. Numerous one-dimensional invariant closed curves (ICCs), which correspond to two-dimensional tori in vector fields, exist in a very complicated but reasonable manner inside an IT-generating region. Periodic solutions emerge at the intersections of two different thin ICC-generating regions, which we call ICC-Arnold tongues, because all three independent-frequency components of the IT become rational at the intersections. Additionally, we observe a significant bifurcation structure where conventional Arnold tongues transit to ICC-Arnold tongues through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the neighborhood of a quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcation (or a quasi-periodic Neimark-Sacker bifurcation) boundary.

  5. Two-dimensional order and disorder thermofields

    SciTech Connect

    Belvedere, L. V.

    2006-11-15

    The main objective of this paper was to obtain the two-dimensional order and disorder thermal operators using the Thermofield Bosonization formalism. We show that the general property of the two-dimensional world according with the bosonized Fermi field at zero temperature can be constructed as a product of an order and a disorder variables which satisfy a dual field algebra holds at finite temperature. The general correlation functions of the order and disorder thermofields are obtained.

  6. Three-dimensional motor schema based navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, Ronald C.

    1989-01-01

    Reactive schema-based navigation is possible in space domains by extending the methods developed for ground-based navigation found within the Autonomous Robot Architecture (AuRA). Reformulation of two dimensional motor schemas for three dimensional applications is a straightforward process. The manifold advantages of schema-based control persist, including modular development, amenability to distributed processing, and responsiveness to environmental sensing. Simulation results show the feasibility of this methodology for space docking operations in a cluttered work area.

  7. Three-dimensional photogrammetry for laboratory applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alem, Nabih M.

    1994-12-01

    The direct linear transformation (DLT) is a method that simplifies measurements of the three-dimensional coordinates of a point target in the laboratory using photographic two-dimensional imagery. This report describes a procedure to implement the DLT equations and gives the Fortran code of computer programs for the DLT calibration of multicamera system and 3-D reconstruction of a single point from several images.

  8. Dimensional variability of production steel castings

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, F.E.; Risteu, J.W.; Vaupel, W.G.; DeMeter, E.C.; Voigt, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    Work is ongoing to characterize the dimensional variability of steel casting features. Data are being collected from castings produced at representative Steel Founders` Society of America foundries. Initial results based on more than 12,500 production casting feature measurements are presented for carbon and low alloy steel castings produced in green sand, no-bake, and shell molds. A comprehensive database of casting, pattern, and feature variables has been developed so that the influence of the variables on dimensional variability can be determined. Measurement system analysis is conducted to insure that large measurement error is not reported as dimensional variability. Results indicate that the dimensional variability of production casting features is less than indicated in current US (SFSA) and international (ISO) standards. Feature length, casting weight, parting line and molding process all strongly influence dimensional variability. Corresponding pattern measurements indicate that the actual shrinkage amount for casting features varies considerably. This variation in shrinkage will strongly influence the ability of the foundry to satisfy customer dimensional requirements.

  9. Bayesian Analysis of High Dimensional Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhadeep; Liang, Faming

    2009-12-01

    Modern data mining and bioinformatics have presented an important playground for statistical learning techniques, where the number of input variables is possibly much larger than the sample size of the training data. In supervised learning, logistic regression or probit regression can be used to model a binary output and form perceptron classification rules based on Bayesian inference. In these cases , there is a lot of interest in searching for sparse model in High Dimensional regression(/classification) setup. we first discuss two common challenges for analyzing high dimensional data. The first one is the curse of dimensionality. The complexity of many existing algorithms scale exponentially with the dimensionality of the space and by virtue of that algorithms soon become computationally intractable and therefore inapplicable in many real applications. secondly, multicollinearities among the predictors which severely slowdown the algorithm. In order to make Bayesian analysis operational in high dimension we propose a novel 'Hierarchical stochastic approximation monte carlo algorithm' (HSAMC), which overcomes the curse of dimensionality, multicollinearity of predictors in high dimension and also it possesses the self-adjusting mechanism to avoid the local minima separated by high energy barriers. Models and methods are illustrated by simulation inspired from from the feild of genomics. Numerical results indicate that HSAMC can work as a general model selection sampler in high dimensional complex model space.

  10. On infinite-dimensional state spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Tobias

    2013-05-15

    It is well known that the canonical commutation relation [x, p]=i can be realized only on an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. While any finite set of experimental data can also be explained in terms of a finite-dimensional Hilbert space by approximating the commutation relation, Occam's razor prefers the infinite-dimensional model in which [x, p]=i holds on the nose. This reasoning one will necessarily have to make in any approach which tries to detect the infinite-dimensionality. One drawback of using the canonical commutation relation for this purpose is that it has unclear operational meaning. Here, we identify an operationally well-defined context from which an analogous conclusion can be drawn: if two unitary transformations U, V on a quantum system satisfy the relation V{sup -1}U{sup 2}V=U{sup 3}, then finite-dimensionality entails the relation UV{sup -1}UV=V{sup -1}UVU; this implication strongly fails in some infinite-dimensional realizations. This is a result from combinatorial group theory for which we give a new proof. This proof adapts to the consideration of cases where the assumed relation V{sup -1}U{sup 2}V=U{sup 3} holds only up to {epsilon} and then yields a lower bound on the dimension.

  11. Three-dimensional imaging characteristics and depth resolution in digital holographic three-dimensional imaging spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Masaki; Yoshimori, Kyu

    2015-07-01

    A four-dimensional impulse response function for the digital holographic three-dimensional imaging spectrometry has been fully derived in closed form. Due to its factorizing nature of the mathematical expression of four-dimensional impulse response function, three-dimensional spatial part of impulse response function directly corresponds to threedimensional point spread function of in-line digital holography with rectangular aperture. Based on these mathematical results, this paper focuses on the investigation of spectral resolution and three-dimensional spatial resolution in digital holographic three-dimensional imaging spectrometry and digital holography. We found that the theoretical prediction agree well with the experimental results. This work suggests a new criterion and estimate method regarding threedimensional spatial resolution of in-line digital holography.

  12. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118 Section 80.1118 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey Breakwater South Light...

  13. Transition from a Two-Dimensional Superfluid to a One-Dimensional Mott Insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Bergkvist, Sara; Rosengren, Anders; Saers, Robert; Lundh, Emil; Rehn, Magnus; Kastberg, Anders

    2007-09-14

    A two-dimensional system of atoms in an anisotropic optical lattice is studied theoretically. If the system is finite in one direction, it is shown to exhibit a transition between a two-dimensional superfluid and a one-dimensional Mott insulating chain of superfluid tubes. Monte Carlo simulations are consistent with the expectation that the phase transition is of Kosterlitz-Thouless type. The effect of the transition on experimental time-of-flight images is discussed.

  14. Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C.; Munoz, A.

    1998-01-01

    La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

  15. Hopeful (protein InDel) monsters?

    PubMed

    Tóth-Petróczy, Agnes; Tawfik, Dan S

    2014-06-10

    In this issue of Structure, Arpino and colleagues describe in atomic detail how a protein stomachs a deletion within a helix, an event that rarely occurs in nature or in the lab. Can insertions and deletions (InDels) trigger dramatic structural transitions?

  16. Near Infrared Photometry of Nova Del 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cass, A. C.; Carlon, R. L.; Corgan, D. T.; Dykhoff, D. A.; Gehrz, R. D.; Shenoy, D. P.

    2013-09-01

    We continued to follow Nova Del 2013 during the period from 31.15 August 2013 UT through 25.18 September 2013 UT using an As:Si bolometer mounted on the 0.76-m infrared telescope of the University of Minnesota's O'Brien Observatory (Marine on St. Croix, Minnesota, USA). Vega (alpha Lyrae) is used as the standard star.

  17. Inter-dimensional effects in nano-structures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We report on two extensions of the traditional analysis of low-dimensional structures in terms of low-dimensional quantum mechanics. On one hand, we discuss the impact of thermodynamics in one or two dimensions on the behavior of fermions in low-dimensional systems. On the other hand, we use both quantum wells and interfaces with different effective electron or hole mass to study the question when charge carriers in interfaces or layers exhibit two-dimensional or three-dimensional behavior. We find in particular that systems with different effective masses in the bulk and in the interface exhibit separation of two-dimensional and three-dimensional behavior on different length scales, whereas quantum wells exhibit linear combination of two-dimensional and three-dimensional behavior on short length scales while the behavior on large length scales cannot be associated with either two-dimensional or three-dimensional behavior. PMID:23092210

  18. Inter-dimensional effects in nano-structures.

    PubMed

    Dick, Rainer

    2012-10-23

    : We report on two extensions of the traditional analysis of low-dimensional structures in terms of low-dimensional quantum mechanics. On one hand, we discuss the impact of thermodynamics in one or two dimensions on the behavior of fermions in low-dimensional systems. On the other hand, we use both quantum wells and interfaces with different effective electron or hole mass to study the question when charge carriers in interfaces or layers exhibit two-dimensional or three-dimensional behavior. We find in particular that systems with different effective masses in the bulk and in the interface exhibit separation of two-dimensional and three-dimensional behavior on different length scales, whereas quantum wells exhibit linear combination of two-dimensional and three-dimensional behavior on short length scales while the behavior on large length scales cannot be associated with either two-dimensional or three-dimensional behavior.

  19. del and Gödel-type universes in Brans-Dicke theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agudelo, J. A.; Nascimento, J. R.; Petrov, A. Yu.; Porfírio, P. J.; Santos, A. F.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, conditions for existence of Gödel and Gödel-type solutions in Brans-Dicke (BD) scalar-tensor theory and their main features are studied. The consistency of equations of motion, causality violation and existence of CTCs (closed time-like curves) are investigated. The role which cosmological constant and Mach principle play to achieve the consistency of this model is studied.

  20. Three-Dimensional Messages for Interstellar Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    One of the challenges facing independently evolved civilizations separated by interstellar distances is to communicate information unique to one civilization. One commonly proposed solution is to begin with two-dimensional pictorial representations of mathematical concepts and physical objects, in the hope that this will provide a foundation for overcoming linguistic barriers. However, significant aspects of such representations are highly conventional, and may not be readily intelligible to a civilization with different conventions. The process of teaching conventions of representation may be facilitated by the use of three-dimensional representations redundantly encoded in multiple formats (e.g., as both vectors and as rasters). After having illustrated specific conventions for representing mathematical objects in a three-dimensional space, this method can be used to describe a physical environment shared by transmitter and receiver: a three-dimensional space defined by the transmitter--receiver axis, and containing stars within that space. This method can be extended to show three-dimensional representations varying over time. Having clarified conventions for representing objects potentially familiar to both sender and receiver, novel objects can subsequently be depicted. This is illustrated through sequences showing interactions between human beings, which provide information about human behavior and personality. Extensions of this method may allow the communication of such culture-specific features as aesthetic judgments and religious beliefs. Limitations of this approach will be noted, with specific reference to ETI who are not primarily visual.

  1. The Punta del Cobre Formation, Punta del Cobre Candelaria area, northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschik, Robert; Fontboté, Lluís.

    2001-09-01

    The Punta del Cobre Formation hosts the iron oxide-rich Cu-Au(-Zn-Ag) deposits of the Punta del Cobre belt, Chile. Hydrothermal alteration associated with mineralization and/or contact metamorphism caused by the Coastal Batholith exposed in the west resulted in new mineral assemblages and significant changes in the geochemical composition of its rocks. This paper presents a redefinition of the Punta del Cobre Formation and discusses its geologic context. The Punta del Cobre Formation is subdivided, from bottom to top, into: (1) the 'Geraldo-Negro Member', composed mainly of massive andesitic volcanic rocks (>300 m) and locally dacitic rocks (up to 200 m) that overlie the latter, and (2) the 'Algarrobos Member' (up to >800 m) comprising mainly volcaniclastic rocks, basalt andesitic and basaltic flows, and volcanic breccias. The Punta del Cobre Formation is overlain by the Chañarcillo Group, the lowest part of which is represented by alternating carbonate and volcaniclastic beds of the Abundancia Formation, which pass vertically and laterally into limestones of the Nantoco Formation. The contact between the Punta del Cobre Formation and the overlying Abundancia Formation is transitional and defined by the first continuous bed of massive limestone or its metamorphosed equivalent. A pre-upper Valanginian age for the Punta del Cobre Formation is suggested by ammonites of Berriasian age found in the upper part of the Algarrobos Member and Late Valanginian-Early Hauterivian fauna in the overlying Abundancia Formation. Despite the intense alteration, immobile element compositions of the volcanic rocks of the Punta del Cobre Formation enable the recognition of a calc-alkaline suite with a trend to more primitive, less differentiated magmas towards the top of the stratigraphic sequence, reflecting initial stages of basin development. The transgressive nature of the sedimentary part of the Punta del Cobre Formation marks the onset of increased subsidence that eventually

  2. Simple Two-Dimensional Corrections for One-Dimensional Pulse Tube Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. M.; Kittel, P.; Timmerhaus, K. D.; Radebaugh, R.

    2004-01-01

    One-dimensional oscillating flow models are very useful for designing pulse tubes. They are simple to use, not computationally intensive, and the physical relationship between temperature, pressure and mass flow are easy to understand when used in conjunction with phasor diagrams. They do not possess, however, the ability to directly calculate thermal and momentum diffusion in the direction transverse to the oscillating flow. To account for transverse effects, lumped parameter corrections, which are obtained though experiment, must be used. Or two-dimensional solutions of the differential fluid equations must be obtained. A linear two-dimensional solution to the fluid equations has been obtained. The solution provides lumped parameter corrections for one-dimensional models. The model accounts for heat transfer and shear flow between the gas and the tube. The complex Nusselt number and complex shear wall are useful in describing these corrections, with phase relations and amplitudes scaled with the Prandtl and Valensi numbers. The calculated ratio, a, between a two-dimensional solution of the oscillating temperature and velocity and a one-dimensional solution for the same shows a scales linearly with Va for Va less than 30. In this region alpha less than 0.5, that is, the enthalpy flow calculated with a two-dimensional model is 50% of a calculation using a one-dimensional model. For Va greater than 250, alpha = 0.8, showing that diffusion is still important even when it is confined to a thing layer near the tube wall.

  3. The Art of Extracting One-Dimensional Flow Properties from Multi-Dimensional Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baurle, R. A.; Gaffney, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    The engineering design and analysis of air-breathing propulsion systems relies heavily on zero- or one-dimensional properties (e:g: thrust, total pressure recovery, mixing and combustion efficiency, etc.) for figures of merit. The extraction of these parameters from experimental data sets and/or multi-dimensional computational data sets is therefore an important aspect of the design process. A variety of methods exist for extracting performance measures from multi-dimensional data sets. Some of the information contained in the multi-dimensional flow is inevitably lost when any one-dimensionalization technique is applied. Hence, the unique assumptions associated with a given approach may result in one-dimensional properties that are significantly different than those extracted using alternative approaches. The purpose of this effort is to examine some of the more popular methods used for the extraction of performance measures from multi-dimensional data sets, reveal the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, and highlight various numerical issues that result when mapping data from a multi-dimensional space to a space of one dimension.

  4. Visualization of Two Dimensional to Three Dimensional Transformations--Exploration through Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, G. B.; Gorak, M.; Melendez, B. S.

    2006-01-01

    A small class of functions is described that easily lend themselves to two-dimensional and three-dimensional visualizations at the basic calculus level. The intended audience is those educators involved in the instruction of elementary calculus. This note is an educational piece that begins with the question: "What happens if a function defined on…

  5. Dimensional and temporal controls of three-dimensional cell migration by zyxin and binding partners

    PubMed Central

    Fraley, Stephanie I.; Feng, Yunfeng; Giri, Anjil; Longmore, Gregory D.; Wirtz, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous molecular oscillations are ubiquitous in biology. But to our knowledge, periodic cell migratory patterns have not been observed. Here we report the highly regular, periodic migration of cells along rectilinear tracks generated inside three-dimensional matrices, with each excursion encompassing several cell lengths, a phenotype that does not occur on conventional substrates. Short hairpin RNA depletion shows that these one-dimensional oscillations are uniquely controlled by zyxin and binding partners α-actinin and p130Cas, but not vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein and cysteine-rich protein 1. Oscillations are recapitulated for cells migrating along one-dimensional micropatterns, but not on two-dimensional compliant substrates. These results indicate that although two-dimensional motility can be well described by speed and persistence, three-dimensional motility requires two additional parameters, the dimensionality of the cell paths in the matrix and the temporal control of cell movements along these paths. These results also suggest that the zyxin/α-actinin/p130Cas module may ensure that motile cells in a three-dimensional matrix explore the largest space possible in minimum time. PMID:22395610

  6. The Extraction of One-Dimensional Flow Properties from Multi-Dimensional Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baurle, Robert A.; Gaffney, Richard L., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The engineering design and analysis of air-breathing propulsion systems relies heavily on zero- or one-dimensional properties (e.g. thrust, total pressure recovery, mixing and combustion efficiency, etc.) for figures of merit. The extraction of these parameters from experimental data sets and/or multi-dimensional computational data sets is therefore an important aspect of the design process. A variety of methods exist for extracting performance measures from multi-dimensional data sets. Some of the information contained in the multi-dimensional flow is inevitably lost when any one-dimensionalization technique is applied. Hence, the unique assumptions associated with a given approach may result in one-dimensional properties that are significantly different than those extracted using alternative approaches. The purpose of this effort is to examine some of the more popular methods used for the extraction of performance measures from multi-dimensional data sets, reveal the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, and highlight various numerical issues that result when mapping data from a multi-dimensional space to a space of one dimension.

  7. Picture Perception in Infants: Generalization from Two-Dimensional to Three-Dimensional Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jowkar-Baniani, Gelareh; Schmuckler, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments investigated 9-month-old infants' abilities to recognize the correspondence between an actual three-dimensional (3D) object and its two-dimensional (2D) representation, looking specifically at representations that did not literally depict the actual object: schematic line drawings. In Experiment 1, infants habituated to a line…

  8. Unitary equivalent classes of one-dimensional quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Hiromichi

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates unitary equivalent classes of one-dimensional quantum walks. We prove that one-dimensional quantum walks are unitary equivalent to quantum walks of Ambainis type and that translation-invariant one-dimensional quantum walks are Szegedy walks. We also present a necessary and sufficient condition for a one-dimensional quantum walk to be a Szegedy walk.

  9. Six-dimensional methods for four-dimensional conformal field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, Steven

    2010-08-15

    The calculation of both spinor and tensor Green's functions in four-dimensional conformally-invariant field theories can be greatly simplified by six-dimensional methods. For this purpose, four-dimensional fields are constructed as projections of fields on the hypercone in six-dimensional projective space, satisfying certain transversality conditions. In this way some Green's functions in conformal field theories are shown to have structures more general than those commonly found by use of the inversion operator. These methods fit in well with the assumption of AdS/CFT duality. In particular, it is transparent that if fields on AdS{sub 5} approach finite limits on the boundary of AdS{sub 5}, then in the conformal field theory on this boundary these limits transform with conformal dimensionality zero if they are tensors (of any rank), but with conformal dimension 1/2 if they are spinors or spinor-tensors.

  10. Simulating higher-dimensional geometries in GADRAS using approximate one-dimensional solutions.

    SciTech Connect

    Thoreson, Gregory G.; Mitchell, Dean J; Harding, Lee T.

    2013-02-01

    The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) software package is capable of simulating the radiation transport physics for one-dimensional models. Spherical shells are naturally one-dimensional, and have been the focus of development and benchmarking. However, some objects are not spherical in shape, such as cylinders and boxes. These are not one-dimensional. Simulating the radiation transport in two or three dimensions is unattractive because of the extra computation time required. To maintain computational efficiency, higher-dimensional geometries require approximations to simulate them in one-dimension. This report summarizes the theory behind these approximations, tests the theory against other simulations, and compares the results to experimental data. Based on the results, it is recommended that GADRAS users always attempt to approximate reality using spherical shells. However, if fissile material is present, it is imperative that the shape of the one-dimensional model matches the fissile material, including the use of slab and cylinder geometry.

  11. Dark soliton solutions of (N+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiray, Seyma Tuluce; Bulut, Hasan

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigate exact solutions of (N+1)-dimensional double sinh-Gordon equation and (N+1)-dimensional generalized Boussinesq equation by using generalized Kudryashov method. (N+1)-dimensional double sinh-Gordon equation and (N+1)-dimensional generalized Boussinesq equation can be returned to nonlinear ordinary differential equation by suitable transformation. Then, generalized Kudryashov method has been used to seek exact solutions of the (N+1)-dimensional double sinh-Gordon equation and (N+1)-dimensional generalized Boussinesq equation. Also, we obtain dark soliton solutions for these (N+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equations. Finally, we denote that this method can be applied to solve other nonlinear evolution equations.

  12. [Development and validation of an instrument designed to measure the impact of networks of support for breastfeeding].

    PubMed

    Baño Piñero, Isabel; Canteras Jordana, Manuel; Carrillo García, Cesar; López Araez, Alicia; Martínez Roche, María Emilia

    2015-04-01

    Antecedentes: partimos de la hipótesis de que no existen suficientes cuestionarios validados que midan el impacto de las redes de apoyo a la lactancia materna para población hispano hablante. Objetivo: Por ese motivo, nos planteamos como objetivo general de este trabajo, elaborar y validar (a nivel de contenido y constructo) un instrumento de medida cuantitativa. Método: Se evaluó la validez de contenido sometiendo el cuestionario a un juicio de expertos en lactancia materna de la Región de Murcia. La prueba piloto se llevó a cabo entre los meses de marzo y abril de 2014. Las encuestas fueron realizadas directamente por las usuarias que acudían al grupo de apoyo a la lactancia “Lactando”. Para la validez de constructo se realizó un análisis factorial con el que se determinaron las distintas dimensiones que el cuestionario podría medir. Se realizó una estadística descriptiva de cada uno de los ítems. A través del análisis de componentes principales, se obtuvo la varianza total explicada, determinando así, los factores con los elementos que los definían. Resultados: A través del análisis factorial, el cuestionario obtuvo una alta consistencia interna para sus cinco componentes (satisfacción, consultas, experiencia, problemas y apoyo), consiguiendo valores de 0,942 a 0,632. Y un porcentaje de varianza total explicada elevado (11,157% - 5,093%). Conclusión: Este estudio ha servido para crear un instrumento pertinente y válido a nivel de contenido y de constructo, capaz de medir el impacto de las redes de apoyo a la lactancia a través de 5 dimensiones.

  13. Two-Dimensional NMR Lineshape Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Waudby, Christopher A.; Ramos, Andres; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Christodoulou, John

    2016-01-01

    NMR titration experiments are a rich source of structural, mechanistic, thermodynamic and kinetic information on biomolecular interactions, which can be extracted through the quantitative analysis of resonance lineshapes. However, applications of such analyses are frequently limited by peak overlap inherent to complex biomolecular systems. Moreover, systematic errors may arise due to the analysis of two-dimensional data using theoretical frameworks developed for one-dimensional experiments. Here we introduce a more accurate and convenient method for the analysis of such data, based on the direct quantum mechanical simulation and fitting of entire two-dimensional experiments, which we implement in a new software tool, TITAN (TITration ANalysis). We expect the approach, which we demonstrate for a variety of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, to be particularly useful in providing information on multi-step or multi-component interactions. PMID:27109776

  14. Vision in our three-dimensional world

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Many aspects of our perceptual experience are dominated by the fact that our two eyes point forward. Whilst the location of our eyes leaves the environment behind our head inaccessible to vision, co-ordinated use of our two eyes gives us direct access to the three-dimensional structure of the scene in front of us, through the mechanism of stereoscopic vision. Scientific understanding of the different brain regions involved in stereoscopic vision and three-dimensional spatial cognition is changing rapidly, with consequent influences on fields as diverse as clinical practice in ophthalmology and the technology of virtual reality devices. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269595

  15. Three-dimensional effects on airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevallier, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of boundary layer flows along the walls of wind tunnels were studied to validate the transfer of two dimensional calculations to three dimensional transonic flowfield calculations. Results from trials in various wind tunnels were examind to determine the effects of the wall boundary flow on the control surfaces of an airfoil. Models sliding along a groove in the wall of a channel at sub- and transonic speeds were examined, with the finding that with either nonuniformities in the groove, or even if the channel walls are uniform, the lateral boundary layer can cause variations in the central flow region or alter the onset of shock at the transition point. Models for the effects in both turbulence and in the absence of turbulence are formulated, and it is noted that the characteristics of individual wind tunnels must be studied to quantify any existing three dimensional effects.

  16. Three-dimensional separation and reattachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peake, D. J.; Tobak, M.

    1982-01-01

    The separation of three dimensional turbulent boundary layers from the lee of flight vehicles at high angles of attack is investigated. The separation results in dominant, large scale, coiled vortex motions that pass along the body in the general direction of the free stream. In all cases of three dimensional flow separation and reattachment, the assumption of continuous vector fields of skin friction lines and external flow streamlines, coupled with simple laws of topology, provides a flow grammar whose elemental constituents are the singular points: the nodes, spiral nodes (foci), and saddles. The phenomenon of three dimensional separation may be constrained as either a local or a global event, depending on whether the skin friction line that becomes a line of separation originates at a node or a saddle point.

  17. Clustering high dimensional data using RIA

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, Nazrina

    2015-05-15

    Clustering may simply represent a convenient method for organizing a large data set so that it can easily be understood and information can efficiently be retrieved. However, identifying cluster in high dimensionality data sets is a difficult task because of the curse of dimensionality. Another challenge in clustering is some traditional functions cannot capture the pattern dissimilarity among objects. In this article, we used an alternative dissimilarity measurement called Robust Influence Angle (RIA) in the partitioning method. RIA is developed using eigenstructure of the covariance matrix and robust principal component score. We notice that, it can obtain cluster easily and hence avoid the curse of dimensionality. It is also manage to cluster large data sets with mixed numeric and categorical value.

  18. Three dimensional fabrication at small size scales

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Timothy G.; Zarafshar, Aasiyeh M.; Gracias, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that we live in a three-dimensional (3D) world and macroscale engineering is 3D, conventional sub-mm scale engineering is inherently two-dimensional (2D). New fabrication and patterning strategies are needed to enable truly three-dimensionally-engineered structures at small size scales. Here, we review strategies that have been developed over the last two decades that seek to enable such millimeter to nanoscale 3D fabrication and patterning. A focus of this review is the strategy of self-assembly, specifically in a biologically inspired, more deterministic form known as self-folding. Self-folding methods can leverage the strengths of lithography to enable the construction of precisely patterned 3D structures and “smart” components. This self-assembling approach is compared with other 3D fabrication paradigms, and its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. PMID:20349446

  19. Shear dynamics in higher dimensional FLRW cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahwa, Isha; Nandan, Hemwati; Goswami, Umananda Dev

    2015-12-01

    We study the shear dynamics of higher dimensional Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology by considering a non-perfect fluid which exerts different pressure in the normal and extra dimensions. We generalise the definition of shear tensor for higher dimensional spacetime and prove it to be consistent with the evolution equation for shear tensor obtained from the Ricci identities. The shear tensor however vanishes for the case of usual FLRW metric in four dimensions. The evolution of shear tensor for higher dimensional FLRW cosmology is investigated numerically. The role of extra dimensions and other parameters involved in shear dynamics is discussed in detail. We find that with increase in anisotropy parameter, time of decay of shear increases while with increase in number of extra dimensions, shear tends to decay early.

  20. Plasmonics with two-dimensional conductors

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hosang; Yeung, Kitty Y. M.; Kim, Philip; Ham, Donhee

    2014-01-01

    A wealth of effort in photonics has been dedicated to the study and engineering of surface plasmonic waves in the skin of three-dimensional bulk metals, owing largely to their trait of subwavelength confinement. Plasmonic waves in two-dimensional conductors, such as semiconductor heterojunction and graphene, contrast the surface plasmonic waves on bulk metals, as the former emerge at gigahertz to terahertz and infrared frequencies well below the photonics regime and can exhibit far stronger subwavelength confinement. This review elucidates the machinery behind the unique behaviours of the two-dimensional plasmonic waves and discusses how they can be engineered to create ultra-subwavelength plasmonic circuits and metamaterials for infrared and gigahertz to terahertz integrated electronics. PMID:24567472

  1. Topology of three-dimensional separated flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobak, M.; Peake, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis that patterns of skin-friction lines and external streamlines reflect the properties of continuous vector fields, topology rules define a small number of singular points (nodes, saddle points, and foci) that characterize the patterns on the surface and on particular projections of the flow (e.g., the crossflow plane). The restricted number of singular points and the rules that they obey are considered as an organizing principle whose finite number of elements can be combined in various ways to connect together the properties common to all steady three dimensional viscous flows. Introduction of a distinction between local and global properties of the flow resolves an ambiguity in the proper definition of a three dimensional separated flow. Adoption of the notions of topological structure, structural stability, and bifurcation provides a framework to describe how three dimensional separated flows originate and succeed each other as the relevant parameters of the problem are varied.

  2. Two-dimensional Topology of Cosmological Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yougang; Park, Changbom; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei; Kim, Juhan

    2015-11-01

    We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two-dimensional genus curve for the early, middle, and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometre Array.

  3. Plasmonics with two-dimensional conductors.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hosang; Yeung, Kitty Y M; Kim, Philip; Ham, Donhee

    2014-03-28

    A wealth of effort in photonics has been dedicated to the study and engineering of surface plasmonic waves in the skin of three-dimensional bulk metals, owing largely to their trait of subwavelength confinement. Plasmonic waves in two-dimensional conductors, such as semiconductor heterojunction and graphene, contrast the surface plasmonic waves on bulk metals, as the former emerge at gigahertz to terahertz and infrared frequencies well below the photonics regime and can exhibit far stronger subwavelength confinement. This review elucidates the machinery behind the unique behaviours of the two-dimensional plasmonic waves and discusses how they can be engineered to create ultra-subwavelength plasmonic circuits and metamaterials for infrared and gigahertz to terahertz integrated electronics.

  4. Super integrable four-dimensional autonomous mappings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capel, H. W.; Sahadevan, R.; Rajakumar, S.

    2007-05-01

    A systematic investigation of the complete integrability of a fourth-order autonomous difference equation of the type w(n + 4) = w(n)F(w(n + 1), w(n + 2), w(n + 3)) is presented. We identify seven distinct families of four-dimensional mappings which are super integrable and have three (independent) integrals via a duality relation as introduced in a recent paper by Quispel, Capel and Roberts (2005 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 38 3965-80). It is observed that these seven families can be related to the four-dimensional symplectic mappings with two integrals including all the four-dimensional periodic reductions of the integrable double-discrete modified Korteweg-deVries and sine-Gordon equations treated in an earlier paper by two of us (Capel and Sahadevan 2001 Physica A 289 86-106).

  5. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome. PMID:25279337

  6. TWO-DIMENSIONAL TOPOLOGY OF COSMOLOGICAL REIONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr

    2015-11-20

    We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two-dimensional genus curve for the early, middle, and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometre Array.

  7. Three-dimensional Allan fault plane analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, K.S.; Taylor, D.R.; Schnell, R.T.

    1994-12-31

    Allan fault-plane analysis is a useful tool for determining hydrocarbon migration paths and the location of possible traps. While initially developed for Gulf coast deltaic and interdeltaic environments, fault-plane analysis has been successfully applied in many other geologic settings. Where the geology involves several intersecting faults and greater complexity, many two-dimensional displays are required in the investigation and it becomes increasingly difficult to accurately visualize both fault relationships and migration routes. Three-dimensional geospatial fault and structure modeling using computer techniques, however, facilitates both visualization and understanding and extends fault-plane analysis into much more complex situations. When a model is viewed in three dimensions, the strata on both sides of a fault can be seen simultaneously while the true structural character of one or more fault surfaces is preserved. Three-dimensional analysis improves the speed and accuracy of the fault plane methodology.

  8. A new method of measuring dimensional change.

    PubMed

    DaBreo, E L; Herman, P

    1991-05-01

    A new method of measuring linear dimensional change in denture base resins is presented and its precision in determining distances between two points was investigated. Chrome steel ball bearings 1.57 mm in diameter were invested in a stone mold and were used to record measurements by a reflection from the surface of the ball bearings. The accuracy of this method was determined by performing repeated measurements between two points in a stone mold. Random measurements were made to an accuracy of 0.002 mm. The dimensional change of light-cured, heat-cured, and self-cured denture base resins was also determined with this method, followed by an analysis of variance of the data. The findings support the accuracy and reproducibility of this new method in recording linear measurements. The dimensional changes of all three resins were different from each other after the specimens were processed and stored in distilled water for 7 days at 37 degrees C.

  9. Spectral Dimensionality and Scale of Urban Radiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Small, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Characterization of urban radiance and reflectance is important for understanding the effects of solar energy flux on the urban environment as well as for satellite mapping of urban settlement patterns. Spectral mixture analyses of Landsat and Ikonos imagery suggest that the urban radiance field can very often be described with combinations of three or four spectral endmembers. Dimensionality estimates of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) radiance measurements of urban areas reveal the existence of 30 to 60 spectral dimensions. The extent to which broadband imagery collected by operational satellites can represent the higher dimensional mixing space is a function of both the spatial and spectral resolution of the sensor. AVIRIS imagery offers the spatial and spectral resolution necessary to investigate the scale dependence of the spectral dimensionality. Dimensionality estimates derived from Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) eigenvalue distributions show a distinct scale dependence for AVIRIS radiance measurements of Milpitas, California. Apparent dimensionality diminishes from almost 40 to less than 10 spectral dimensions between scales of 8000 m and 300 m. The 10 to 30 m scale of most features in urban mosaics results in substantial spectral mixing at the 20 m scale of high altitude AVIRIS pixels. Much of the variance at pixel scales is therefore likely to result from actual differences in surface reflectance at pixel scales. Spatial smoothing and spectral subsampling of AVIRIS spectra both result in substantial loss of information and reduction of apparent dimensionality, but the primary spectral endmembers in all cases are analogous to those found in global analyses of Landsat and Ikonos imagery of other urban areas.

  10. Dimensionality of high temperature superconductivity in oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, C. W.

    1989-01-01

    Many models have been proposed to account for the high temperature superconductivity observed in oxide systems. Almost all of these models proposed are based on the uncoupled low dimensional carrier Cu-O layers of the oxides. Results of several experiments are presented and discussed. They suggest that the high temperature superconductivity observed cannot be strictly two- or one-dimensional, and that the environment between the Cu-O layers and the interlayer coupling play an important role in the occurrence of such high temperature superconductivity. A comment on the very short coherence length reported is also made.

  11. Three-Dimensional Robotic Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Thinh V.

    1989-01-01

    Stereoscopy and motion provide clues to outlines of objects. Digital image-processing system acts as "intelligent" automatic machine-vision system by processing views from stereoscopic television cameras into three-dimensional coordinates of moving object in view. Epipolar-line technique used to find corresponding points in stereoscopic views. Robotic vision system analyzes views from two television cameras to detect rigid three-dimensional objects and reconstruct numerically in terms of coordinates of corner points. Stereoscopy and effects of motion on two images complement each other in providing image-analyzing subsystem with clues to natures and locations of principal features.

  12. Dimensionality switching in molecule-based magnets.

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, P. A.; Manson, J. L.; Singleton, J.; Franke, I.; Lancaster, T.; Steele, A. J.; Blundell, S. J.; Baines, C.; Pratt, F.; McDonald, R. D.; Valenzuela, O. A.; Sengupta, P.; Corbeyl, J. F.; Southerland, H. I.; Schlueter, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Gaining control of the building blocks of magnetic materials and thereby achieving particular characteristics will make possible the design and growth of bespoke magnetic devices. While progress in the synthesis of molecular materials, and especially coordination polymers, represents a significant step towards this goal, the ability to tune the magnetic interactions within a particular framework remains in its infancy. Here we demonstrate a chemical method which achieves dimensionality selection via preferential inhibition of the magnetic exchange in an S=1/2 antiferromagnet along one crystal direction, switching the system from being quasi-two- to quasi-one-dimensional while effectively maintaining the nearest-neighbor coupling strength.

  13. Three dimensional nanofabrication using surface forces

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jeong-Hyun; Azam, Anum; Gracias, David H.

    2010-01-01

    We describe strategies to curve, rotate, align and bond precisely patterned two dimensional (2D) nanoscale panels using forces derived from a minimization of surface area of liquefying or coalescing metallic grains. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by discussing variations in template size, patterns and material composition. The strategy provides a solution path to overcome the limitation of inherently two dimensional lithographic processes by transforming 2D templates into mechanically robust and precisely patterned nanoscale curved structures and polyhedra with considerable versatility in material composition. PMID:20507147

  14. Three dimensional model of the human mandible.

    PubMed

    Muftić, O; Milcić, D; Saucha, J; Carek, V

    2000-07-01

    A new biomechanical three-dimensional (3D) model for the human mandible is proposed. A simple two-dimensional model cannot explain the biomechanics of the human mandible, where muscular forces through occlusion and condylar surfaces are in a state of dynamical 3D equilibrium. All forces are resolved into components according to a selected coordinate system. The muscular forces, which during clenching act on the jaw, along with the necessary force level for chewing, also act as some kind of stabilizers of the mandibular condyles preventing dislocation and loading of nonarticular tissues.

  15. Three-Dimensional Extended Bargmann Supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Rosseel, Jan

    2016-06-01

    We show that three-dimensional general relativity, augmented with two vector fields, allows for a nonrelativistic limit, different from the standard limit leading to Newtonian gravity, that results in a well-defined action which is of the Chern-Simons type. We show that this three-dimensional "extended Bargmann gravity," after coupling to matter, leads to equations of motion allowing a wider class of background geometries than the ones that one encounters in Newtonian gravity. We give the supersymmetric generalization of these results and point out an important application in the context of calculating partition functions of nonrelativistic field theories using localization techniques.

  16. Three-Dimensional Extended Bargmann Supergravity.

    PubMed

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Rosseel, Jan

    2016-06-24

    We show that three-dimensional general relativity, augmented with two vector fields, allows for a nonrelativistic limit, different from the standard limit leading to Newtonian gravity, that results in a well-defined action which is of the Chern-Simons type. We show that this three-dimensional "extended Bargmann gravity," after coupling to matter, leads to equations of motion allowing a wider class of background geometries than the ones that one encounters in Newtonian gravity. We give the supersymmetric generalization of these results and point out an important application in the context of calculating partition functions of nonrelativistic field theories using localization techniques. PMID:27391712

  17. 1 and 2-Dimensional Line Transfer Package

    1990-07-01

    LXF1D is a one dimensional steady-state line transfer package designed to handle: overlapping and or interacting lines, planar, cylindrical, spherical (and special) geometries, doppler shifts, complete redistribution (CRD), partial redistribution (PRD). PRD requires the use of REDIST or some other package to produce emission profiles. LXF2D is a two dimensional version of LXF1D for xy and rz geometries. Both LXF1D and LXF2D are designed to be added to existing non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) codes withmore » a minimum of effort.« less

  18. Small firm subsistence and market dimensionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggeman, Jeroen; Péli, Gábor

    2014-04-01

    In many markets, large and small firms coexist. As large firms can in principle out-compete small ones, the actual presence of the latter asks for an explanation. In ours, we focus on the dimensionality of markets, which can change as a consequence of product innovations, preference elaboration or institutions. We show that increasing market dimensionality substantially enlarges the market periphery relative to the market center, which creates new potential niches for small firms. We thereby provide a parsimonious explanation for small firm subsistence.

  19. Generalized unitarity and six-dimensional helicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Zvi; Dennen, Tristan; Huang, Yu-tin; Ita, Harald; Carrasco, John Joseph

    2011-04-15

    We combine the unitarity method with the six-dimensional helicity formalism of Cheung and O'Connell to construct loop-level scattering amplitudes. As a first example, we construct dimensionally regularized QCD one-loop four-point amplitudes. As a nontrivial multiloop example, we confirm that the recently constructed four-loop four-point amplitude of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory, including nonplanar contributions, is valid for dimensions D{<=}6. We comment on the connection of our approach to the recently discussed Higgs infrared regulator and on dual conformal properties in six dimensions.

  20. Stationary one-dimensional dispersive shock waves.

    PubMed

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Kamchatnov, Anatoly M

    2012-02-01

    We address shock waves generated upon the interaction of tilted plane waves with negative refractive index defects in defocusing media with linear gain and two-photon absorption. We found that, in contrast to conservative media where one-dimensional dispersive shock waves usually exist only as nonstationary objects expanding away from a defect or generating beam, the competition between gain and two-photon absorption in a dissipative medium results in the formation of localized stationary dispersive shock waves, whose transverse extent may considerably exceed that of the refractive index defect. One-dimensional dispersive shock waves are stable if the defect strength does not exceed a certain critical value.

  1. FRACFLO. Two-Dimensional Ground Water Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Gureghian, A.B.

    1990-07-01

    FRACFLO computes the two-dimensional, space, time dependent, convective dispersive transport of a single radionuclide in an unbounded single or multiple parallel fracture system with constant aperture. It calculates the one-dimensional diffusive transport into the rock matrix as well as the mass flux and cumulative mass flux at any point in the fracture. Steady-state isothermal ground water flow and parallel streamlines are assumed in the fracture, and the rock matrix is considered to be fully saturated with immobile water. The model can treat a single or multiple finite patch source or a Gaussian distributed source subject to a step or band release mode.

  2. Effect of three-dimensionality on the lift and drag of nominally two-dimensional cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, R.; Balachandar, S.

    1995-08-01

    It has been known for some time that two-dimensional numerical simulations of flow over nominally two-dimensional bluff bodies at Reynolds numbers for which the flow is intrinsically three dimensional, lead to inaccurate prediction of the lift and drag forces. In particular, for flow past a normal flat plate (International Symposium on Nonsteady Fluid Dynamics, edited by J. A. Miller and D. P. Telionis, 1990, pp. 455-464) and circular cylinders [J. Wind Eng. Indus. Aerodyn. 35, 275 (1990)], it has been noted that the drag coefficient computed from two-dimensional simulations is significantly higher than what is obtained from experiments. Furthermore, it has been found that three-dimensional simulations of flows lead to accurate prediction of drag [J. Wind Eng. Indus. Aerodyn. 35, 275 (1990)]. The underlying cause for this discrepancy is that the surface pressure distribution obtained from two-dimensional simulations does not match up with that obtained from experiments and three-dimensional simulations and a number of reasons have been put forward to explain this discrepancy. However, the details of the physical mechanisms that ultimately lead to the inaccurate prediction of surface pressure and consequently the lift and drag, are still not clear. In the present study, results of two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations of flow past elliptic and circular cylinders have been systematically compared in an effort to pinpoint the exact cause for the inaccurate prediction of the lift and drag by two-dimensional simulations. The overprediction of mean drag force in two-dimensional simulations is directly traced to higher Reynolds stresses in the wake. It is also found that the discrepancy in the drag between two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations is more pronounced for bluffer cylinders. Finally, the current study also provides a detailed view of how the fluctuation, which are associated with the Kármán vortex shedding in the wake, affect the mean

  3. Del Norte means north to recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Aquino, J.T.

    1998-06-01

    Del Norte Regional Recycling and Transfer Station is owned by the city of Oxnard, California and operated by BLT Enterprises, Inc. The Del Norte facility--located in southwestern Ventura County about an hour northwest of Los Angeles--processes polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic containers, aluminum, steel, glass, old corrugated containers (OCC), newspapers, computer printout paper, white and colored ledger paper, coated book, supermix paper, telephone books, and old magazines. According to the company, there has been virtually no community opposition to the site. The facility has few neighbors, and those are agricultural. To keep the community relationship strong, the facility`s design and location all but eliminated odor and noise complaints. The building was designed against the prevailing wind pattern, and BLT processes odorous material fast. A misting system installed for dust suppression also can be used with a solution for odor control should the need arise.

  4. del, Einstein, Mach, Gamow, and Lanczos: Gödel's remarkable excursion into cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindler, Wolfgang

    2009-06-01

    This article is an expanded version of a talk given at the International Symposium Celebrating the 100th Birthday of Kurt Gödel (Vienna, 2006). It seeks to trace the path which led this preeminent mathematical logician to discover one of the famous results of General Relativity, the rotating Gödel Universe. This universe has some remarkable properties, which gave the philosophers plenty to worry about. It allows a person to travel into his own past, with all the ensuing causal paradoxes; it allows no unique temporal ordering of events; and though Gödel's Universe is rigid and infinite, the Foucault pendulum planes everywhere in it rotate in unison, a clear affront to adherents of Mach's Principle. We also discuss some lesser known precursors in the field, who just missed discovering Gödel's universe. While the article gives all the necessary derivations in simplified form (for example, of the metric and its geodesics), much of it should be accessible to the general reader, who can simply skip most of the mathematics. [Reprinted, with permission, from Kurt Gödel and the Foundations of Mathematics: Horizons of Truth, edited by Matthias Baaz, Christos H. Papadimitriou, Dana S. Scott, Hilary Putnam, and Charles L. Harper, Jr. (Cambridge U. P., New York, 2009).

  5. Visualization of the Gödel universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buser, M.; Kajari, E.; Schleich, W. P.

    2013-01-01

    The standard model of modern cosmology, which is based on the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric, allows the definition of an absolute time. However, there exist (cosmological) models consistent with the theory of general relativity for which such a definition cannot be given since they offer the possibility for time travel. The simplest of these models is the cosmological solution discovered by Kurt Gödel, which describes a homogeneous, rotating universe. Disregarding the paradoxes that come along with the abolishment of causality in such space-times, we are interested in the purely academic question of how an observer would visually perceive the time travel of an object in Gödel's universe. For this purpose, we employ the technique of ray tracing, a standard tool in computer graphics, and visualize various scenarios to bring out the optical effects experienced by an observer located in this universe. In this way, we provide a new perspective on the space-time structure of Gödel's model.

  6. Three-Dimensional Printing Surgical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Michelle F.; Butler, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Three-dimensional printing, a technology used for decades in the industrial field, gains a lot of attention in the medical field for its potential benefits. With advancement of desktop printers, this technology is accessible and a lot of research is going on in the medical field. Objective: To evaluate its application in surgical field, which may include but not limited to surgical planning, surgical education, implants, and prosthesis, which are the focus of this review. Methods: Research was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of science, and other reliable sources. We included original articles and excluded articles based on animals, those more than 10 years old, and those not in English. These articles were evaluated, and relevant studies were included in this review. Discussion: Three-dimensional printing shows a potential benefit in surgical application. Printed implants were used in patient in a few cases and show successful results; however, longer follow-up and more trials are needed. Surgical and medical education is believed to be more efficient with this technology than the current practice. Printed surgical instrument and surgical planning are also believed to improve with three-dimensional printing. Conclusion: Three-dimensional printing can be a very powerful tool in the near future, which can aid the medical field that is facing a lot of challenges and obstacles. However, despite the reported results, further research on larger samples and analytical measurements should be conducted to ensure this technology's impact on the practice. PMID:26301002

  7. Three Dimensional Display Of Meteorological Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotch, Stanley L.

    1988-01-01

    Even a cursory reading of any daily newspaper shows that we are in the midst of a dramatic revolution in computer graphics. Virtually every day some new piece of hardware or software is announced, adding to the tools available to the working scientist. Three dimensional graphics form a significant part of this revolution having become virtually commonplace in advertising and on television.

  8. Dimensionally Stable Ether-Containing Polyimide Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, Catharine C. (Inventor); St.Clair, Anne K. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Novel polyimide copolymers containing ether linkages were prepared by the reaction of an equimolar amount of dianhydride and a combination of diamines. The polyimide copolymers described herein possess the unique features of low moisture uptake, dimensional stability, good mechanical properties, and moderate glass transition temperatures. These materials have potential application as encapsulants and interlayer dielectrics.

  9. Low-Dimensional Topological Crystalline Insulators.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qisheng; Wang, Feng; Li, Jie; Wang, Zhenxing; Zhan, Xueying; He, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) are recently discovered topological phase with robust surface states residing on high-symmetry crystal surfaces. Different from conventional topological insulators (TIs), protection of surface states on TCIs comes from point-group symmetry instead of time-reversal symmetry in TIs. The distinct properties of TCIs make them promising candidates for the use in novel spintronics, low-dissipation quantum computation, tunable pressure sensor, mid-infrared detector, and thermoelectric conversion. However, similar to the situation in TIs, the surface states are always suppressed by bulk carriers, impeding the exploitation of topology-induced quantum phenomenon. One effective way to solve this problem is to grow low-dimensional TCIs which possess large surface-to-volume ratio, and thus profoundly increase the carrier contribution from topological surface states. Indeed, through persistent effort, researchers have obtained unique quantum transport phenomenon, originating from topological surface states, based on controllable growth of low-dimensional TCIs. This article gives a comprehensive review on the recent progress of controllable synthesis and topological surface transport of low-dimensional TCIs. The possible future direction about low-dimensional TCIs is also briefly discussed at the end of this paper.

  10. Hypercontractivity in finite-dimensional matrix algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Junge, Marius; Palazuelos, Carlos

    2015-02-15

    We obtain hypercontractivity estimates for a large class of semigroups defined on finite-dimensional matrix algebras M{sub n}. These semigroups arise from Poisson-like length functions ψ on ℤ{sub n} × ℤ{sub n} and provide new hypercontractive families of quantum channels when ψ is conditionally negative. We also study the optimality of our estimates.

  11. Exploring the Dimensionality of Digit Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Stephen C.; Petrauskas, Vilija M.; Bardenhagen, Fiona J.; Meade, Catherine E.; Simpson, Leonie C.

    2013-01-01

    The Digit Span subtest from the Wechsler Scales is used to measure Freedom from Distractibility or Working Memory. Some published research suggests that Digit Span forward should be interpreted differently from Digit Span backward. The present study explored the dimensionality of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III Digit Span (forward and backward)…

  12. Two-Dimensional Turbulence in Magnetized Plasmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendl, A.

    2008-01-01

    In an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma the transport of energy and particles perpendicular to the magnetic field is in general mainly caused by quasi two-dimensional turbulent fluid mixing. The physics of turbulence and structure formation is of ubiquitous importance to every magnetically confined laboratory plasma for experimental or industrial…

  13. Two-Dimensional Motions of Rockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the…

  14. Three-Dimensional Visualization of Particle Tracks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, Glenn M.

    1993-01-01

    Suggests ways to bring home to the introductory physics student some of the excitement of recent discoveries in particle physics. Describes particle detectors and encourages the use of the Standard Model along with real images of particle tracks to determine three-dimensional views of tracks. (MVL)

  15. Dimensionalism: The Missing Element in American Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Ascribes the basic flaw in American education to lack of dimensionalism, the sense of at-homeness in an ordered world and universe. Praises the Hellenic educators who inspired youth to self-confidence and suprahuman effort, in contrast to Salinger's hero Holden Caufield's feelings of alienation and self-doubt. Cites four references. (MLH)

  16. Three-dimensional RF structure calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, R. K.; Browman, M. J.; Weiland, T.

    1989-04-01

    The calculation of three-dimensional rf structures is rapidly approaching adolescence, after having been in its infancy for the last four years. This paper will show the kinds of calculations that are currently being performed in the frequency domain and is a companion paper to one in which time-domain calculations are described.

  17. Three-dimensional rf structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.K.; Browman, M.J.; Weiland, T.

    1988-01-01

    The calculation of three-dimensional rf structures is rapidly approaching adolescence, after having been in its infancy for the last four years. This paper will show the kinds of calculations that are currently being performed in the frequency domain and is a companion paper to one in which time-domain calculations are described. 13 refs., 14 figs.

  18. Improving Perceptual Skills with 3-Dimensional Animations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Janet Faye; Brander, Julianne Marie

    1998-01-01

    Describes three-dimensional computer aided design (CAD) models for every component in a representative mechanical system; the CAD models made it easy to generate 3-D animations that are ideal for teaching perceptual skills in multimedia computer-based technical training. Fifteen illustrations are provided. (AEF)

  19. Higher dimensional cosmology with string vacuum energy

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, H.; Tabuse, M.

    1987-05-01

    The authors consider higher dimensional cosmology based on the closed bosonic string theory with the one-loop vacuum energy. It is concluded that the winding effect of strings around tori has a chance to prevent the extra space from expanding, even though the curvature of torus is zero.

  20. One-Dimensional Wavefront Sensor Analysis

    1996-04-25

    This software analyzes one-dimensional wavefront sensor data acquired with any of several data acquisition systems. It analyzes the data to determine centroids, wavefront slopes and overall wavefront error. The data can be displayed in many formats, with plots of various parameters vs time and position, including computer generated movies. Data can also be exported for use by other programs.

  1. Experimental investigation of 4-dimensional superspace crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Rasing, T.; Janner, A.

    1983-09-01

    The symmetry of incommensurate crystals can be described by higher dimensional space groups in the so called superspace approach. The basic ideas are explained and used for showing that superspace groups provide an adequate frame for analyzing experimental results on incommensurate crystals.

  2. 3-dimensional imaging at nanometer resolutions

    DOEpatents

    Werner, James H.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Shreve, Andrew P.

    2010-03-09

    An apparatus and method for enabling precise, 3-dimensional, photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM) using selective, two-photon activation of fluorophores in a single z-slice of a sample in cooperation with time-gated imaging for reducing the background radiation from other image planes to levels suitable for single-molecule detection and spatial location, are described.

  3. One-Dimensional Oscillator in a Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amore, Paolo; Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a quantum-mechanical model of two particles that interact by means of a harmonic potential and are confined to a one-dimensional box with impenetrable walls. We apply perturbation theory to the cases of different and equal masses and analyse the symmetry of the states in the latter case. We compare the approximate perturbation results…

  4. Four-Dimensional Spatial Reasoning in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aflalo, T. N.; Graziano, M. S. A.

    2008-01-01

    Human subjects practiced navigation in a virtual, computer-generated maze that contained 4 spatial dimensions rather than the usual 3. The subjects were able to learn the spatial geometry of the 4-dimensional maze as measured by their ability to perform path integration, a standard test of spatial ability. They were able to travel down a winding…

  5. Three-dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Reichert, Anke

    2001-01-01

    A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flue virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

  6. High-resolution two dimensional advective transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, P.E.; Larock, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes a two-dimensional high-resolution scheme for advective transport that is based on a Eulerian-Lagrangian method with a flux limiter. The scheme is applied to the problem of pure-advection of a rotated Gaussian hill and shown to preserve the monotonicity property of the governing conservation law.

  7. Valley excitons in two-dimensional semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hongyi; Cui, Xiaodong; Xu, Xiaodong; Yao, Wang

    2014-12-30

    Monolayer group-VIB transition metal dichalcogenides have recently emerged as a new class of semiconductors in the two-dimensional limit. The attractive properties include: the visible range direct band gap ideal for exploring optoelectronic applications; the intriguing physics associated with spin and valley pseudospin of carriers which implies potentials for novel electronics based on these internal degrees of freedom; the exceptionally strong Coulomb interaction due to the two-dimensional geometry and the large effective masses. The physics of excitons, the bound states of electrons and holes, has been one of the most actively studied topics on these two-dimensional semiconductors, where the excitons exhibit remarkably new features due to the strong Coulomb binding, the valley degeneracy of the band edges, and the valley dependent optical selection rules for interband transitions. Here we give a brief overview of the experimental and theoretical findings on excitons in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides, with focus on the novel properties associated with their valley degrees of freedom.

  8. Valley excitons in two-dimensional semiconductors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yu, Hongyi; Cui, Xiaodong; Xu, Xiaodong; Yao, Wang

    2014-12-30

    Monolayer group-VIB transition metal dichalcogenides have recently emerged as a new class of semiconductors in the two-dimensional limit. The attractive properties include: the visible range direct band gap ideal for exploring optoelectronic applications; the intriguing physics associated with spin and valley pseudospin of carriers which implies potentials for novel electronics based on these internal degrees of freedom; the exceptionally strong Coulomb interaction due to the two-dimensional geometry and the large effective masses. The physics of excitons, the bound states of electrons and holes, has been one of the most actively studied topics on these two-dimensional semiconductors, where the excitons exhibitmore » remarkably new features due to the strong Coulomb binding, the valley degeneracy of the band edges, and the valley dependent optical selection rules for interband transitions. Here we give a brief overview of the experimental and theoretical findings on excitons in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides, with focus on the novel properties associated with their valley degrees of freedom.« less

  9. Dimensionality of 1990 NAEP Mathematics Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, James E.; Jirele, Tom

    Some results are presented relating to the dimensionality of the 1990 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics item-response data. Based on theoretical considerations, practical limitations, and previous research, two procedures were selected for study: full information factor analysis as implemented in the TESTFACT computer…

  10. Three-dimensional strain analysis using Mathematica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mookerjee, Matty; Nickleach, Scott

    2011-10-01

    A suite of geological computer programs written in Mathematica is currently available both within the online repository for the Journal of Structural Geology as well as on the first author's website ( http://www.sonoma.edu/users/m/mookerje/ProgramPage.htm). The majority of these programs focus on three-dimensional strain analysis (e.g., determining best-fit strain ellipsoids, plotting elliptical data on either a Flinn or Hsu diagram, and determining error bounds for three-dimensional strain data). This program suite also includes a ternary diagram plotting program, a rose diagram program, an equal area and equal angle projections program, and an instructional program for creating two-dimensional strain path animations. The bulk of this paper focuses on a new method for determining a best-fit ellipsoid from arbitrarily oriented sectional ellipses and methods for determining appropriate error bounds for strain parameters and orientation data. This best-fit ellipsoid method utilizes a least-squares approach and minimizes the error associated with the two-dimensional data-ellipse matrix elements with the corresponding matrix elements from sectional ellipses through a general ellipsoid. Furthermore, a kernel density estimator is utilized to yield reliable error margins for the strain parameters, octahedral shear strain, Flinn's k-value, and Lode's ratio. By assuming a gamma distribution for the simulated principal axes orientations, more realistic error bounds can be estimated for these axes orientations.

  11. Program Generates Two-Dimensional Computational Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce T.

    1994-01-01

    TDIGG is fast and versatile computer program for generating two-dimensional computational grids for use in programs solving equations of flow by finite-difference methods. Both algebraic and elliptic grid-generation systems included. Enables user to view results of each iteration. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  12. Two and three dimensional magnetotelluric inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J.R.

    1994-07-01

    Improved imaging of underground electrical structure has wide practical importance in exploring for groundwater, mineral and geothermal resources, and in characterizing oil fields and waste sites. Because the electromagnetic inverse problem for natural sources is generally multi-dimensional, most imaging algorithms saturate available computer power long before they can deal with complete data sets. We have developed an algorithm to directly invert large multi-dimensional magnetotelluric data sets that is orders of magnitude faster than competing methods. In the past year, we have extended the two- dimensional (2D) version to permit incorporation of geological constraints, have developed ways to assess model resolution and have completed work on an accurate and fast three-dimensional (3D) forward algorithm. We are proposing to further enhance the capabilities of the 2D code and to incorporate the 3D forward code in a fully 3D inverse algorithm. Finally, we will embark on an investigation of related EM imaging techniques which may have the potential for further increasing resolution.

  13. Two and three dimensional magnetotelluric inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J.

    1993-01-01

    Electrical conductivity depends on properties such as the presence of ionic fluids in interconnected pores that are difficult to sense with other remote sensing techniques. Thus improved imaging of underground electrical structure has wide practical importance in exploring for groundwater, mineral and geothermal resources, and in assessing the diffusion of fluids in oil fields and waste sites. Because the electromagnetic inverse problem is fundamentally multi-dimensional, most imaging algorithms saturate available computer power long before they can deal with the complete data set. We have developed an algorithm to directly invert large multi-dimensional data sets that is orders of magnitude faster than competing methods. We have proven that a two-dimensional (2D) version of the algorithm is highly effective for real data and have made substantial progress towards a three-dimensional (3D) version. We are proposing to cure identified shortcomings and substantially expand the utility of the existing 2D program, overcome identified difficulties with extending our method to three-dimensions (3D) and embark on an investigation of related EM imaging techniques which may have the potential for even further increasing resolution.

  14. Dimensionality reduction in Bayesian estimation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, G. W.

    2013-03-01

    An idealized synthetic database loosely resembling 3-channel passive microwave observations of precipitation against a variable background is employed to examine the performance of a conventional Bayesian retrieval algorithm. For this dataset, algorithm performance is found to be poor owing to an irreconcilable conflict between the need to find matches in the dependent database versus the need to exclude inappropriate matches. It is argued that the likelihood of such conflicts increases sharply with the dimensionality of the observation space of real satellite sensors, which may utilize 9 to 13 channels to retrieve precipitation, for example. An objective method is described for distilling the relevant information content from N real channels into a much smaller number (M) of pseudochannels while also regularizing the background (geophysical plus instrument) noise component. The pseudochannels are linear combinations of the original N channels obtained via a two-stage principal component analysis of the dependent dataset. Bayesian retrievals based on a single pseudochannel applied to the independent dataset yield striking improvements in overall performance. The differences between the conventional Bayesian retrieval and reduced-dimensional Bayesian retrieval suggest that a major potential problem with conventional multichannel retrievals - whether Bayesian or not - lies in the common but often inappropriate assumption of diagonal error covariance. The dimensional reduction technique described herein avoids this problem by, in effect, recasting the retrieval problem in a coordinate system in which the desired covariance is lower-dimensional, diagonal, and unit magnitude.

  15. Dimensionality reduction in Bayesian estimation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, G. W.

    2013-09-01

    An idealized synthetic database loosely resembling 3-channel passive microwave observations of precipitation against a variable background is employed to examine the performance of a conventional Bayesian retrieval algorithm. For this dataset, algorithm performance is found to be poor owing to an irreconcilable conflict between the need to find matches in the dependent database versus the need to exclude inappropriate matches. It is argued that the likelihood of such conflicts increases sharply with the dimensionality of the observation space of real satellite sensors, which may utilize 9 to 13 channels to retrieve precipitation, for example. An objective method is described for distilling the relevant information content from N real channels into a much smaller number (M) of pseudochannels while also regularizing the background (geophysical plus instrument) noise component. The pseudochannels are linear combinations of the original N channels obtained via a two-stage principal component analysis of the dependent dataset. Bayesian retrievals based on a single pseudochannel applied to the independent dataset yield striking improvements in overall performance. The differences between the conventional Bayesian retrieval and reduced-dimensional Bayesian retrieval suggest that a major potential problem with conventional multichannel retrievals - whether Bayesian or not - lies in the common but often inappropriate assumption of diagonal error covariance. The dimensional reduction technique described herein avoids this problem by, in effect, recasting the retrieval problem in a coordinate system in which the desired covariance is lower-dimensional, diagonal, and unit magnitude.

  16. Infrared magneto-spectroscopy of two-dimensional and three-dimensional massless fermions: A comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Orlita, M.; Faugeras, C.; Barra, A.-L.; Martinez, G.; Potemski, M.; Basko, D. M.; Teppe, F.; Knap, W.; Gavrilenko, V. I.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretskii, S. A.; Neugebauer, P.; Berger, C.

    2015-03-21

    Here, we report on a magneto-optical study of two distinct systems hosting massless fermions—two-dimensional graphene and three-dimensional HgCdTe tuned to the zero band gap condition at the point of the semiconductor-to-semimetal topological transition. Both materials exhibit, in the quantum regime, a fairly rich magneto-optical response, which is composed from a series of intra- and interband inter-Landau level resonances with for massless fermions typical √(B) dependence. The impact of the system's dimensionality and of the strength of the spin-orbit interaction on the optical response is also discussed.

  17. Comparison of Dimensional Accuracies Using Two Elastomeric Impression Materials in Casting Three-dimensional Tool Marks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate two types of impression materials which were frequently used for casting three-dimensional tool marks in China, namely (i) dental impression material and (ii) special elastomeric impression material for tool mark casting. The two different elastomeric impression materials were compared under equal conditions. The parameters measured were dimensional accuracies, the number of air bubbles, the ease of use, and the sharpness and quality of the individual characteristics present on casts. The results showed that dental impression material had the advantage of special elastomeric impression material in casting tool marks in crime scenes; hence, it combined ease of use, dimensional accuracy, sharpness and high quality.

  18. Holographic duality between (2 +1 ) -dimensional quantum anomalous Hall state and (3 +1 ) -dimensional topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yingfei; Lee, Ching Hua; Wen, Xueda; Cho, Gil Young; Ryu, Shinsei; Qi, Xiao-Liang

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we study (2 +1 ) -dimensional quantum anomalous Hall states, i.e., band insulators with quantized Hall conductance, using exact holographic mapping. Exact holographic mapping is an approach to holographic duality which maps the quantum anomalous Hall state to a different state living in (3 +1 ) -dimensional hyperbolic space. By studying topological response properties and the entanglement spectrum, we demonstrate that the holographic dual theory of a quantum anomalous Hall state is a (3 +1 ) -dimensional topological insulator. The dual description enables a characterization of topological properties of a system by the quantum entanglement between degrees of freedom at different length scales.

  19. Morphology, geology and geochemistry of the "Salar del Gran Bajo del Gualicho" (Rio Negro, Argentina)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angelucci, A.; Barbieri, M.; Brodtkorb, A.; Ciccacci, S.; Civitelli, G.; De Barrio, R.; Di, Filippo M.; Fredi, P.; Friedman, I.; Lombardi, S.; Schalamuk, A.I.; Toro, B.

    1996-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho area (Rio Negro - Argentina) was carried out; the aim was to delineate its geological and geomorphological evolution and to estabilish the genesis of salts filling the depression. Climatic conditions were analized first to individuate their role in the present morphogenetic processes; moreover the main morphological features of present landscape were examined as well as the stratigraphy of the outcropping formations, and of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho Formation in particular. Finally, a possible geomorphological evolution of the studied area was traced. Geophysical analyses allowed to estabilish that the paleosurface shaped on the crystalline basement is strongly uneven and shows evidence of the strong tectonic phases it underwent. The result of isotope analyses confirmed that the salt deposits on the Gran Bajo del Gualicho bottom were produced by fresh water evaporation, while strontium isotope ratio suggested that such waters were responsible for solubilization of more ancient evaporitic deposits.

  20. Stimuli Reduce the Dimensionality of Cortical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mazzucato, Luca; Fontanini, Alfredo; La Camera, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    The activity of ensembles of simultaneously recorded neurons can be represented as a set of points in the space of firing rates. Even though the dimension of this space is equal to the ensemble size, neural activity can be effectively localized on smaller subspaces. The dimensionality of the neural space is an important determinant of the computational tasks supported by the neural activity. Here, we investigate the dimensionality of neural ensembles from the sensory cortex of alert rats during periods of ongoing (inter-trial) and stimulus-evoked activity. We find that dimensionality grows linearly with ensemble size, and grows significantly faster during ongoing activity compared to evoked activity. We explain these results using a spiking network model based on a clustered architecture. The model captures the difference in growth rate between ongoing and evoked activity and predicts a characteristic scaling with ensemble size that could be tested in high-density multi-electrode recordings. Moreover, we present a simple theory that predicts the existence of an upper bound on dimensionality. This upper bound is inversely proportional to the amount of pair-wise correlations and, compared to a homogeneous network without clusters, it is larger by a factor equal to the number of clusters. The empirical estimation of such bounds depends on the number and duration of trials and is well predicted by the theory. Together, these results provide a framework to analyze neural dimensionality in alert animals, its behavior under stimulus presentation, and its theoretical dependence on ensemble size, number of clusters, and correlations in spiking network models. PMID:26924968

  1. Stimuli Reduce the Dimensionality of Cortical Activity.

    PubMed

    Mazzucato, Luca; Fontanini, Alfredo; La Camera, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    The activity of ensembles of simultaneously recorded neurons can be represented as a set of points in the space of firing rates. Even though the dimension of this space is equal to the ensemble size, neural activity can be effectively localized on smaller subspaces. The dimensionality of the neural space is an important determinant of the computational tasks supported by the neural activity. Here, we investigate the dimensionality of neural ensembles from the sensory cortex of alert rats during periods of ongoing (inter-trial) and stimulus-evoked activity. We find that dimensionality grows linearly with ensemble size, and grows significantly faster during ongoing activity compared to evoked activity. We explain these results using a spiking network model based on a clustered architecture. The model captures the difference in growth rate between ongoing and evoked activity and predicts a characteristic scaling with ensemble size that could be tested in high-density multi-electrode recordings. Moreover, we present a simple theory that predicts the existence of an upper bound on dimensionality. This upper bound is inversely proportional to the amount of pair-wise correlations and, compared to a homogeneous network without clusters, it is larger by a factor equal to the number of clusters. The empirical estimation of such bounds depends on the number and duration of trials and is well predicted by the theory. Together, these results provide a framework to analyze neural dimensionality in alert animals, its behavior under stimulus presentation, and its theoretical dependence on ensemble size, number of clusters, and correlations in spiking network models. PMID:26924968

  2. Sonic morphology: Aesthetic dimensional auditory spatial awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, Martha M.

    The sound and ceramic sculpture installation, " Skirting the Edge: Experiences in Sound & Form," is an integration of art and science demonstrating the concept of sonic morphology. "Sonic morphology" is herein defined as aesthetic three-dimensional auditory spatial awareness. The exhibition explicates my empirical phenomenal observations that sound has a three-dimensional form. Composed of ceramic sculptures that allude to different social and physical situations, coupled with sound compositions that enhance and create a three-dimensional auditory and visual aesthetic experience (see accompanying DVD), the exhibition supports the research question, "What is the relationship between sound and form?" Precisely how people aurally experience three-dimensional space involves an integration of spatial properties, auditory perception, individual history, and cultural mores. People also utilize environmental sound events as a guide in social situations and in remembering their personal history, as well as a guide in moving through space. Aesthetically, sound affects the fascination, meaning, and attention one has within a particular space. Sonic morphology brings art forms such as a movie, video, sound composition, and musical performance into the cognitive scope by generating meaning from the link between the visual and auditory senses. This research examined sonic morphology as an extension of musique concrete, sound as object, originating in Pierre Schaeffer's work in the 1940s. Pointing, as John Cage did, to the corporeal three-dimensional experience of "all sound," I composed works that took their total form only through the perceiver-participant's participation in the exhibition. While contemporary artist Alvin Lucier creates artworks that draw attention to making sound visible, "Skirting the Edge" engages the perceiver-participant visually and aurally, leading to recognition of sonic morphology.

  3. A Shell Multi-dimensional Hierarchical Cubing Approach for High-Dimensional Cube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Shuzhi; Zhao, Li; Hu, Kongfa

    The pre-computation of data cubes is critical for improving the response time of OLAP systems and accelerating data mining tasks in large data warehouses. However, as the sizes of data warehouses grow, the time it takes to perform this pre-computation becomes a significant performance bottleneck. In a high dimensional data warehouse, it might not be practical to build all these cuboids and their indices. In this paper, we propose a shell multi-dimensional hierarchical cubing algorithm, based on an extension of the previous minimal cubing approach. This method partitions the high dimensional data cube into low multi-dimensional hierarchical cube. Experimental results show that the proposed method is significantly more efficient than other existing cubing methods.

  4. Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Hyeung; Kim, Hak-Rin; Kim, Yunhee; Kim, Joohwan; Hong, Jisoo; Lee, Sin-Doo; Lee, Byoungho

    2004-12-01

    A depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display that uses a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal based on the principle of integral imaging is proposed. In the proposed method, a lens array is located behind a transmission-type display panel to form an array of point-light sources, and a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal is electrically controlled to pass or to scatter light coming from these point-light sources. Therefore, three-dimensional-two-dimensional conversion is accomplished electrically without any mechanical movement. Moreover, the nonimaging structure of the proposed method increases the expressible depth range considerably. We explain the method of operation and present experimental results. PMID:15605488

  5. Two-Dimensional Versus Three-Dimensional Conceptualization in Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Michael David

    Numerous science conceptual issues are naturally three-dimensional. Classroom presentations are often two -dimensional or at best multidimensional. Several astronomy topics are of this nature, e. g. mechanics of the phases of the moon. Textbooks present this three-dimensional topic in two-dimensions; such is often the case in the classroom. This study was conducted to examine conceptions exhibited by pairs of like-sex 11th grade standard physics students as they modeled the lunar phases. Student pairs, 13 male and 13 female, were randomly selected and assigned. Pairing comes closer to classroom emulation, minimizes needs for direct probes, and pair discussion is more likely to display variety and depth. Four hypotheses were addressed: (1) Participants who model three-dimensionally will more likely achieve a higher explanation score. (2) Students who experienced more earth or physical science exposure will more likely model three-dimensionally. (3) Pairs that exhibit a strong science or mathematics preference will more likely model three-dimensionally. (4) Males will model in three dimensions more than females. Students provided background information, including science course exposure and subject preference. Each pair laid out a 16-card set representing two complete lunar phase changes. The pair was asked to explain why the phases occur. Materials were provided for use, including disks, spheres, paper and pen, and flashlight. Activities were videotaped for later evaluation. Statistics of choice was a correlation determination between course preference and model type and ANOVA for the other hypotheses. It was determined that pairs who modeled three -dimensionally achieved a higher score on their phases mechanics explanation at p <.05 level. Pairs with earth science or physical science exposure, those who prefer science or mathematics, and male participants were not more likely to model three-dimensionally. Possible reasons for lack of significance was small sample

  6. Describing high-dimensional dynamics with low-dimensional piecewise affine models: applications to renewable energy.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2012-06-01

    We introduce a low-dimensional description for a high-dimensional system, which is a piecewise affine model whose state space is divided by permutations. We show that the proposed model tends to predict wind speeds and photovoltaic outputs for the time scales from seconds to 100 s better than by global affine models. In addition, computations using the piecewise affine model are much faster than those of usual nonlinear models such as radial basis function models.

  7. High-dimensional entanglement concentration of twisted photon pairs High-dimensional entanglement concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L. X.; Wu, Q. P.

    2012-10-01

    Recently, Dada et al. reported on the experimental entanglement concentration and violation of generalized Bell inequalities with orbital angular momentum (OAM) [Nat. Phys. 7, 677 (2011)]. Here we demonstrate that the high-dimensional entanglement concentration can be performed in arbitrary OAM subspaces with selectivity. Instead of violating the generalized Bell inequalities, the working principle of present entanglement concentration is visualized by the biphoton OAM Klyshko picture, and its good performance is confirmed and quantified through the experimental Shannon dimensionalities after concentration.

  8. Kurt Gödels Brünner Verwandte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Dora

    2007-11-01

    The author of this memoir Dora Müller (born 1920) belongs - as well as Kurt Gödel-to the German minority playing an important role in the past life of Brno. The marriage of his son included her among the Gödels collaterals. She was chemist, but also pianist, historician, participant of antinacist movement and iniciator of Czech-German understanding after war. Following her personal experiences, remembrances of Gödels relatives and documental materials, she evokes the atmosphere of broader family milieu of Kurt Gödel.

  9. A sparse grid based method for generative dimensionality reduction of high-dimensional data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Bastian; Garcke, Jochen; Griebel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Generative dimensionality reduction methods play an important role in machine learning applications because they construct an explicit mapping from a low-dimensional space to the high-dimensional data space. We discuss a general framework to describe generative dimensionality reduction methods, where the main focus lies on a regularized principal manifold learning variant. Since most generative dimensionality reduction algorithms exploit the representer theorem for reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces, their computational costs grow at least quadratically in the number n of data. Instead, we introduce a grid-based discretization approach which automatically scales just linearly in n. To circumvent the curse of dimensionality of full tensor product grids, we use the concept of sparse grids. Furthermore, in real-world applications, some embedding directions are usually more important than others and it is reasonable to refine the underlying discretization space only in these directions. To this end, we employ a dimension-adaptive algorithm which is based on the ANOVA (analysis of variance) decomposition of a function. In particular, the reconstruction error is used to measure the quality of an embedding. As an application, the study of large simulation data from an engineering application in the automotive industry (car crash simulation) is performed.

  10. An evening at "La Clinica del Pueblo".

    PubMed

    Shefsky, M L

    1986-01-01

    This article describes a typical evening at the Clinica del Pueblo in the Hispanic neighborhood of Adams-Morgan in Washington, D.c. The Clinical del Pueblo began operating in 1983 in response to the urgen medical needs of Central American refugees arriving in the Washington D.c. area. The refugees bring with them severe trauma, fear, and health problems caused by the civil was and exacerbated by inadequate or non-existant health services. Approximately 80,000 Salvadoran refugees live in the area. They do not receive adequate health care for 3 reasons. 1) Because the US goverment is unwilling to recognize them as true refugees, they live with the constant threat of deportatin back to the violence from which they have fled. 2) Refugees lack the ability to pay for private care. 3) Langauage and culture create frightening barriers to health care for the refugees. For those who do seek care, these barriers can lead to the inadequate or incomplete diagnoses and poor compliance and follow-up. Plenty International and the Central American Refugee Center responded to these problems by organizing a free clinic to provide not only medical care but also a training course for volunteers. The director of the clinic organizes the course, the classes are taught by a variety of people including the clinic's volunteer physicians, nurses, and public health educators as well as graduates of previus training courses and people from the wider community. The services of the clinic reach only a small portion of the population in need. However, the fact that free medical services are now available to some Central American refugees make the Clinica del Pueblo an important program.

  11. Dimensional Reduction in Quantum Dipolar Antiferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Babkevich, P; Jeong, M; Matsumoto, Y; Kovacevic, I; Finco, A; Toft-Petersen, R; Ritter, C; Månsson, M; Nakatsuji, S; Rønnow, H M

    2016-05-13

    We report ac susceptibility, specific heat, and neutron scattering measurements on a dipolar-coupled antiferromagnet LiYbF_{4}. For the thermal transition, the order-parameter critical exponent is found to be 0.20(1) and the specific-heat critical exponent -0.25(1). The exponents agree with the 2D XY/h_{4} universality class despite the lack of apparent two-dimensionality in the structure. The order-parameter exponent for the quantum phase transitions is found to be 0.35(1) corresponding to (2+1)D. These results are in line with those found for LiErF_{4} which has the same crystal structure, but largely different T_{N}, crystal field environment and hyperfine interactions. Our results therefore experimentally establish that the dimensional reduction is universal to quantum dipolar antiferromagnets on a distorted diamond lattice. PMID:27232040

  12. Transient One-dimensional Pipe Flow Analyzer

    1986-04-08

    TOPAZ-SNLL, the Transient One- dimensional Pipe flow AnalyZer code, is a user-friendly computer program for modeling the heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and thermodynamics of multi-species gas transfer in arbitrary arrangements of pipes, valves, vessels, and flow branches. Although the flow conservation equations are assumed to be one-dimensional and transient, multidimensional features of internal fluid flow and heat transfer may be accounted for using the available quasi-steady flow correlations (e.g., Moody friction factor correlation and variousmore » form loss and heat transfer correlations). Users may also model the effects of moving system boundaries such as pistons, diaphragms, and bladders. The features of fully compressible flow are modeled, including the propagation of shocks and rarefaction waves, as well as the establishment of multiple choke points along the flow path.« less

  13. Real time three dimensional sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane. 7 figs.

  14. Quantum transport in d-dimensional lattices

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Manzano, Daniel; Chuang, Chern; Cao, Jianshu

    2016-04-28

    We show that both fermionic and bosonic uniform d-dimensional lattices can be reduced to a set of independent one-dimensional chains. This reduction leads to the expression for ballistic energy fluxes in uniform fermionic and bosonic lattices. By the use of the Jordan–Wigner transformation we can extend our analysis to spin lattices, proving the coexistence of both ballistic and non-ballistic subspaces in any dimension and for any system size. Lastly, we then relate the nature of transport to the number of excitations in the homogeneous spin lattice, indicating that a single excitation always propagates ballistically and that the non-ballistic behaviour ofmore » uniform spin lattices is a consequence of the interaction between different excitations.« less

  15. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2010-10-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  16. Four-dimensional spatial reasoning in humans.

    PubMed

    Aflalo, T N; Graziano, M S A

    2008-10-01

    Human subjects practiced navigation in a virtual, computer-generated maze that contained 4 spatial dimensions rather than the usual 3. The subjects were able to learn the spatial geometry of the 4-dimensional maze as measured by their ability to perform path integration, a standard test of spatial ability. They were able to travel down a winding corridor to its end and then point back accurately toward the occluded origin. One interpretation is that the brain substrate for spatial navigation is not a built-in map of the 3-dimensional world. Instead it may be better described as a set of general rules for manipulating spatial information that can be applied with practice to a diversity of spatial frameworks.

  17. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Helical Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Egelman, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    The field of three-dimensional electron microscopy began more than 45 years ago with a reconstruction of a helical phage tail, and helical polymers continue to be important objects for three-dimensional reconstruction due to the centrality of helical protein and nucleoprotein polymers in all aspects of biology. We are now witnessing a fundamental revolution in this area, made possible by direct electron detectors, which has led to near-atomic resolution for a number of important helical structures. Most importantly, the possibility of achieving such resolution routinely for a vast number of helical samples is within our reach. One of the main problems in helical reconstruction, ambiguities in assigning the helical symmetry, is overcome when one reaches a resolution where secondary structure is clearly visible. However, obstacles still exist due to the intrinsic variability within many helical filaments. PMID:25912526

  18. Intrinsic two-dimensional features as textons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, E.; Zetzsche, C.; Rentschler, I.

    1998-01-01

    We suggest that intrinsic two-dimensional (i2D) features, computationally defined as the outputs of nonlinear operators that model the activity of end-stopped neurons, play a role in preattentive texture discrimination. We first show that for discriminable textures with identical power spectra the predictions of traditional models depend on the type of nonlinearity and fail for energy measures. We then argue that the concept of intrinsic dimensionality, and the existence of end-stopped neurons, can help us to understand the role of the nonlinearities. Furthermore, we show examples in which models without strong i2D selectivity fail to predict the correct ranking order of perceptual segregation. Our arguments regarding the importance of i2D features resemble the arguments of Julesz and co-workers regarding textons such as terminators and crossings. However, we provide a computational framework that identifies textons with the outputs of nonlinear operators that are selective to i2D features.

  19. Quantum transport in d-dimensional lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzano, Daniel; Chuang, Chern; Cao, Jianshu

    2016-04-01

    We show that both fermionic and bosonic uniform d-dimensional lattices can be reduced to a set of independent one-dimensional chains. This reduction leads to the expression for ballistic energy fluxes in uniform fermionic and bosonic lattices. By the use of the Jordan–Wigner transformation we can extend our analysis to spin lattices, proving the coexistence of both ballistic and non-ballistic subspaces in any dimension and for any system size. We then relate the nature of transport to the number of excitations in the homogeneous spin lattice, indicating that a single excitation always propagates ballistically and that the non-ballistic behaviour of uniform spin lattices is a consequence of the interaction between different excitations.

  20. Dimensional Reduction in Quantum Dipolar Antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babkevich, P.; Jeong, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Kovacevic, I.; Finco, A.; Toft-Petersen, R.; Ritter, C.; Mânsson, M.; Nakatsuji, S.; Rønnow, H. M.

    2016-05-01

    We report ac susceptibility, specific heat, and neutron scattering measurements on a dipolar-coupled antiferromagnet LiYbF4 . For the thermal transition, the order-parameter critical exponent is found to be 0.20(1) and the specific-heat critical exponent -0.25 (1 ) . The exponents agree with the 2D X Y /h4 universality class despite the lack of apparent two-dimensionality in the structure. The order-parameter exponent for the quantum phase transitions is found to be 0.35(1) corresponding to (2 +1 )D . These results are in line with those found for LiErF4 which has the same crystal structure, but largely different TN, crystal field environment and hyperfine interactions. Our results therefore experimentally establish that the dimensional reduction is universal to quantum dipolar antiferromagnets on a distorted diamond lattice.

  1. Three dimensional contact/impact methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Kulak, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The simulation of three-dimensional interface mechanics between reactor components and structures during static contact or dynamic impact is necessary to realistically evaluate their structural integrity to off-normal loads. In our studies of postulated core energy release events, we have found that significant structure-structure interactions occur in some reactor vessel head closure designs and that fluid-structure interactions occur within the reactor vessel. Other examples in which three-dimensional interface mechanics play an important role are: (1) impact response of shipping casks containing spent fuel, (2) whipping pipe impact on reinforced concrete panels or pipe-to-pipe impact after a pipe break, (3) aircraft crash on secondary containment structures, (4) missiles generated by turbine failures or tornados, and (5) drops of heavy components due to lifting accidents. The above is a partial list of reactor safety problems that require adequate treatment of interface mechanics and are discussed in this paper.

  2. Three-dimensional bio-printing.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qi; Hao, Jie; Lu, YangJie; Wang, Liu; Wallace, Gordon G; Zhou, Qi

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has been widely used in various manufacturing operations including automotive, defence and space industries. 3D printing has the advantages of personalization, flexibility and high resolution, and is therefore becoming increasingly visible in the high-tech fields. Three-dimensional bio-printing technology also holds promise for future use in medical applications. At present 3D bio-printing is mainly used for simulating and reconstructing some hard tissues or for preparing drug-delivery systems in the medical area. The fabrication of 3D structures with living cells and bioactive moieties spatially distributed throughout will be realisable. Fabrication of complex tissues and organs is still at the exploratory stage. This review summarize the development of 3D bio-printing and its potential in medical applications, as well as discussing the current challenges faced by 3D bio-printing. PMID:25921944

  3. Three-dimensional reconstruction of helical polymers.

    PubMed

    Egelman, Edward H

    2015-09-01

    The field of three-dimensional electron microscopy began more than 45years ago with a reconstruction of a helical phage tail, and helical polymers continue to be important objects for three-dimensional reconstruction due to the centrality of helical protein and nucleoprotein polymers in all aspects of biology. We are now witnessing a fundamental revolution in this area, made possible by direct electron detectors, which has led to near-atomic resolution for a number of important helical structures. Most importantly, the possibility of achieving such resolution routinely for a vast number of helical samples is within our reach. One of the main problems in helical reconstruction, ambiguities in assigning the helical symmetry, is overcome when one reaches a resolution where secondary structure is clearly visible. However, obstacles still exist due to the intrinsic variability within many helical filaments.

  4. Extended inflation from higher dimensional theories

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, R.; Kolb, E.W.; Vadas, S.L.; Wang, Yun.

    1990-04-01

    The possibility is considered that higher dimensional theories may, upon reduction to four dimensions, allow extended inflation to occur. Two separate models are analayzed. One is a very simple toy model consisting of higher dimensional gravity coupled to a scalar field whose potential allows for a first-order phase transition. The other is a more sophisticated model incorporating the effects of non-trivial field configurations (monopole, Casimir, and fermion bilinear condensate effects) that yield a non-trivial potential for the radius of the internal space. It was found that extended inflation does not occur in these models. It was also found that the bubble nucleation rate in these theories is time dependent unlike the case in the original version of extended inflation.

  5. Extended inflation from higher-dimensional theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, Richard; Kolb, Edward W.; Vadas, Sharon L.; Wang, Yun

    1991-02-01

    We consider the possibility that higher-dimensional theories may, upon reduction to four dimensions, allow extended inflation to occur. We analyze two separate models. One is a very simple toy model consisting of higher-dimensional gravity coupled to a scalar field whose potential allows for a first-order phase transition. The other is a more sophisticated model incorporating the effects of nontrivial field configurations (monopole, Casimir, and fermion bilinear condensate effects) that yield a nontrivial potential for the radius of the internal space. We find that extended inflation does not occur in these models. We also find that the bubble nucleation rate in these theories is time dependent unlike the case in the original version of extended inflation.

  6. On the dimensionality of odor space.

    PubMed

    Meister, Markus

    2015-01-01

    There is great interest in understanding human olfactory experience from a principled and quantitative standpoint. The comparison is often made to color vision, where a solid framework with a three-dimensional perceptual space enabled a rigorous search for the underlying neural pathways, and the technological development of lifelike color display devices. A recent, highly publicized report claims that humans can discriminate at least 1 trillion odors, which exceeds by many orders of magnitude the known capabilities of color discrimination. This claim is wrong. I show that the failure lies in the mathematical method used to infer the size of odor space from a limited experimental sample. Further analysis focuses on establishing how many dimensions the perceptual odor space has. I explore the dimensionality of physical, neural, and perceptual spaces, drawing on results from bacteria to humans, and propose some experimental approaches to better estimate the number of discriminable odors.

  7. Thermodynamics of higher dimensional black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Accetta, F.S.; Gleiser, M.

    1986-05-01

    We discuss the thermodynamics of higher dimensional black holes with particular emphasis on a new class of spinning black holes which, due to the increased number of Casimir invariants, have additional spin degrees of freedom. In suitable limits, analytic solutions in arbitrary dimensions are presented for their temperature, entropy, and specific heat. In 5 + 1 and 9 + 1 dimensions, more general forms for these quantities are given. It is shown that the specific heat for a higher dimensional black hole is negative definite if it has only one non-zero spin parameter, regardless of the value of this parameter. We also consider equilibrium configurations with both massless particles and massive string modes. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Extended inflation from higher dimensional theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Richard; Kolb, Edward W.; Vadas, Sharon L.; Wang, Yun

    1990-01-01

    The possibility is considered that higher dimensional theories may, upon reduction to four dimensions, allow extended inflation to occur. Two separate models are analayzed. One is a very simple toy model consisting of higher dimensional gravity coupled to a scalar field whose potential allows for a first-order phase transition. The other is a more sophisticated model incorporating the effects of non-trivial field configurations (monopole, Casimir, and fermion bilinear condensate effects) that yield a non-trivial potential for the radius of the internal space. It was found that extended inflation does not occur in these models. It was also found that the bubble nucleation rate in these theories is time dependent unlike the case in the original version of extended inflation.

  9. Energy dependent 4-dimensional multiple scattering distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschalär, C.

    1984-12-01

    A complete analytic solution in Fourier space is presented of the four dimensional small angle, multiple scattering distribution MSD in angle and space, produced by an energy dependent single scattering cross section from an initial pencil beam of heavy particles. Independently, simple integrals are derived for the central moments of the energy dependent MSD in the continuous-slowing-down approximation. The distributions of the projections t and x of the scattering angle and displacement into a plane through the axis of propagation are evaluated numerically for a truncated Rutherford scattering cross section using a fast Fourier transform. The resulting MSDs for a wide range of particles, initial and final momenta, and scattering materials are found to be approximately represented by one-dimensional set of standard distributions symmetrized by a linear transformation in t- x-space.

  10. Transient One-dimensional Pipe Flow Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    1986-04-08

    TOPAZ-SNLL, the Transient One- dimensional Pipe flow AnalyZer code, is a user-friendly computer program for modeling the heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and thermodynamics of multi-species gas transfer in arbitrary arrangements of pipes, valves, vessels, and flow branches. Although the flow conservation equations are assumed to be one-dimensional and transient, multidimensional features of internal fluid flow and heat transfer may be accounted for using the available quasi-steady flow correlations (e.g., Moody friction factor correlation and various form loss and heat transfer correlations). Users may also model the effects of moving system boundaries such as pistons, diaphragms, and bladders. The features of fully compressible flow are modeled, including the propagation of shocks and rarefaction waves, as well as the establishment of multiple choke points along the flow path.

  11. One-dimensional nano-interconnection formation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jianlong; Zhou, Zhaoying; Yang, Xing; Zhang, Wendong; Sang, Shengbo; Li, Pengwei

    2013-09-23

    Interconnection of one-dimensional nanomaterials such as nanowires and carbon nanotubes with other parts or components is crucial for nanodevices to realize electrical contacts and mechanical fixings. Interconnection has been being gradually paid great attention since it is as significant as nanomaterials properties, and determines nanodevices performance in some cases. This paper provides an overview of recent progress on techniques that are commonly used for one-dimensional interconnection formation. In this review, these techniques could be categorized into two different types: two-step and one-step methods according to their established process. The two-step method is constituted by assembly and pinning processes, while the one-step method is a direct formation process of nano-interconnections. In both methods, the electrodeposition approach is illustrated in detail, and its potential mechanism is emphasized.

  12. Higher Dimensional Operators in the MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniadis, I.; Dudas, E.; Ghilencea, D.; Tziveloglou, P.

    2008-11-23

    The origin and the implications of higher dimensional effective operators in 4-dimensional theories are discussed in non-supersymmetric and supersymmetric cases. Particular attention is paid to the role of general, derivative-dependent field redefinitions which one can employ to obtain a simpler form of the effective Lagrangian. An application is provided for the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model extended with dimension-five R-parity conserving operators, to identify the minimal irreducible set of such operators after supersymmetry breaking. Among the physical consequences of this set of operators are the presence of corrections to the MSSM Higgs sector and the generation of 'wrong'-Higgs Yukawa couplings and fermion-fermion-scalar-scalar interactions. These couplings have implications for supersymmetry searches at the LHC.

  13. Three-dimensional bio-printing.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qi; Hao, Jie; Lu, YangJie; Wang, Liu; Wallace, Gordon G; Zhou, Qi

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has been widely used in various manufacturing operations including automotive, defence and space industries. 3D printing has the advantages of personalization, flexibility and high resolution, and is therefore becoming increasingly visible in the high-tech fields. Three-dimensional bio-printing technology also holds promise for future use in medical applications. At present 3D bio-printing is mainly used for simulating and reconstructing some hard tissues or for preparing drug-delivery systems in the medical area. The fabrication of 3D structures with living cells and bioactive moieties spatially distributed throughout will be realisable. Fabrication of complex tissues and organs is still at the exploratory stage. This review summarize the development of 3D bio-printing and its potential in medical applications, as well as discussing the current challenges faced by 3D bio-printing.

  14. Enhancing genomics information retrieval through dimensional analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinmin; Huang, Jimmy Xiangji

    2013-06-01

    We propose a novel dimensional analysis approach to employing meta information in order to find the relationships within the unstructured or semi-structured document/passages for improving genomics information retrieval performance. First, we make use of the auxiliary information as three basic dimensions, namely "temporal", "journal", and "author". The reference section is treated as a commensurable quantity of the three basic dimensions. Then, the sample space and subspaces are built up and a set of events are defined to meet the basic requirement of dimensional homogeneity to be commensurable quantities. After that, the classic graph analysis algorithm in the Web environments is applied on each dimension respectively to calculate the importance of each dimension. Finally, we integrate all the dimension networks and re-rank the outputs for evaluation. Our experimental results show the proposed approach is superior and promising.

  15. Fractal theory space: Spacetime of noninteger dimensionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Christopher T.

    2003-04-01

    We construct matter field theories in a “theory space” that is fractal, and invariant under geometrical renormalization group (RG) transformations. We treat in detail complex scalars, and discuss issues related to fermions, chirality, and Yang-Mills gauge fields. In the continuum limit these models describe physics in a noninteger spatial dimension which appears above a RG invariant “compactification scale” M. The energy distribution of KK modes above M is controlled by an exponent in a scaling relation of the vacuum energy (Coleman-Weinberg potential), and corresponds to the dimensionality. For truncated-s-simplex lattices with coordination number s the spacetime dimensionality is 1+[3+2 ln(s)/ln(s+2)]. The computations in theory space involve subtleties, owing to the 1+3 kinetic terms, yet the resulting dimensionalites are equivalent to thermal spin systems. Physical implications are discussed.

  16. Two-dimensional optimal sensor placement

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.

    1995-05-01

    A method for determining the optimal two-dimensional spatial placement of multiple sensors participating in a robot perception task is introduced in this paper. This work is motivated by the fact that sensor data fusion is an effective means of reducing uncertainties in sensor observations, and that the combined uncertainty varies with the relative placement of the sensors with respect to each other. The problem of optimal sensor placement is formulated and a solution is presented in the two dimensional space. The algebraic structure of the combined sensor uncertainty with respect to the placement of sensor is studied. A necessary condition for optimal placement is derived and this necessary condition is used to obtain an efficient closed-form solution for the global optimal placement. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the solution. 11 refs.

  17. Three-Dimensional Reflectance Traction Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher A. R.; Groves, Nicholas Scott; Sun, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Cells in three-dimensional (3D) environments exhibit very different biochemical and biophysical phenotypes compared to the behavior of cells in two-dimensional (2D) environments. As an important biomechanical measurement, 2D traction force microscopy can not be directly extended into 3D cases. In order to quantitatively characterize the contraction field, we have developed 3D reflectance traction microscopy which combines confocal reflection imaging and partial volume correlation postprocessing. We have measured the deformation field of collagen gel under controlled mechanical stress. We have also characterized the deformation field generated by invasive breast cancer cells of different morphologies in 3D collagen matrix. In contrast to employ dispersed tracing particles or fluorescently-tagged matrix proteins, our methods provide a label-free, computationally effective strategy to study the cell mechanics in native 3D extracellular matrix. PMID:27304456

  18. Dimensionality influence on passive scalar transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovieno, M.; Ducasse, L.; Tordella, D.

    2011-12-01

    We numerically investigate the advection of a passive scalar through an interface placed inside a decaying shearless turbulent mixing layer. We consider the system in both two and three dimensions. The dimensionality produces a different time scaling of the diffusion, which is faster in the two-dimensional case. Two intermittent fronts are generated at the margins of the mixing layer. During the decay these fronts present a sort of propagation in both the direction of the scalar flow and the opposite direction. In two dimensions, the propagation of the fronts exhibits a significant asymmetry with respect to the initial position of the interface and is deeper for the front merged in the high energy side of the mixing. In three dimensions, the two fronts remain nearly symmetrically placed. Results concerning the scalar spectra exponents are also presented.

  19. Real time three dimensional sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Steven J.

    1996-01-01

    The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane.

  20. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  1. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2016-10-25

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  2. Simulation of complex three-dimensional flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diewert, G. S.; Rothmund, H. J.; Nakahashi, K.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of splitting is used extensively to simulate complex three dimensional flows on modern computer architectures. Used in all aspects, from initial grid generation to the determination of the final converged solution, splitting is used to enhance code vectorization, to permit solution driven grid adaption and grid enrichment, to permit the use of concurrent processing, and to enhance data flow through hierarchal memory systems. Three examples are used to illustrate these concepts to complex three dimensional flow fields: (1) interactive flow over a bump; (2) supersonic flow past a blunt based conical afterbody at incidence to a free stream and containing a centered propulsive jet; and (3) supersonic flow past a sharp leading edge delta wing at incidence to the free stream.

  3. Two-Dimensional Ground Water Transport

    1992-03-05

    FRACFLO computes the two-dimensional, space, time dependent, convective dispersive transport of a single radionuclide in an unbounded single or multiple parallel fracture system with constant aperture. It calculates the one-dimensional diffusive transport into the rock matrix as well as the mass flux and cumulative mass flux at any point in the fracture. Steady-state isothermal ground water flow and parallel streamlines are assumed in the fracture, and the rock matrix is considered to be fully saturatedmore » with immobile water. The model can treat a single or multiple finite patch source or a Gaussian distributed source subject to a step or band release mode.« less

  4. Huave de San Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca (Huave of San Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mexico Coll. (Mexico City)

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Huave, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in San Mateo del Mar, in the state of Oaxaca. The objective of collecting such a representative sampling of…

  5. Near Infrared Photometry of Nova Del 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cass, C. A.; Carlon, L. R.; Corgan, T. D.; Dykhoff, A. D.; Gehrz, D. R.; Shenoy, P. D.

    2013-08-01

    Subjects: Infra-Red, Nova We report RIJHKLM photometry of Nova Del 2013 taken on August 28.13 UT using an As:Si bolometer mounted on the 0.76-m infrared telescope of the University of Minnesota's O'Brien Observatory (Marine on St. Croix, Minnesota, USA). Vega (alpha Lyrae) was used as the standard star. On this date we find: R = 5.6 +/- 0.1, I = 5.2 +/- 0.1, J = 4.5 +/- 0.1, H = 4.7 +/- 0.1, K = 4.7 +/- 0.1, L = 3.3 +/- 0.2, M = +1.8 +/- 0.3.

  6. Three-dimensional Lorentz-violating action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, J. R.; Petrov, A. Yu.; Wotzasek, C.; Zarro, C. A. D.

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate the generation of the three-dimensional Chern-Simons-like Lorentz-breaking "mixed" quadratic action via an appropriate Lorentz-breaking coupling of vector and scalar fields to the spinor field and study some features of the scalar QED with such a term. We show that the same term emerges through a nonperturbative method, namely the Julia-Toulouse approach of condensation of charges and defects.

  7. Three-dimensional ballistocardiography in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scano, A.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment is described the aim of which is to record a three dimensional ballistocardiogram under the condition of weightlessness and to compare it with tracings recorded on the same subject on the ground as a means of clarifying the meaning of ballistocardiogram waves in different physiological and perphaps pathological conditions. Another purpose is to investigate cardiovascular and possibly fluid adaptations to weightlessness from data collected almost simultaneously on the same subjects during the other cardiovascular during the other cardiovascular and metabolic experiments.

  8. Two dimensional wedge/translating shroud nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiden, D. L. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A jet propulsion exhaust nozzle is reported for multi-engine installations which produces high internal/external, thrust-minus-drag, performance for transonic cruise or transonic acceleration as well as improved performance at subsonic and supersonic speeds. A two dimensional wedge/translating shroud provides the variable nozzle exit geometry needed to achieve high engine performance over a wide range of throttle power settings.

  9. On higher dimensional exact Courant algebroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rengifo, Camilo

    2016-09-01

    For a smooth manifold X we show an equivalence of categories between the category of OX♯ [ n ] -extensions of TX♯ and the category of higher-dimensional exact Courant algebroids on X. In addition, for any object in the category of R [ n ] dg-principal bundles over X♯ we construct its Atiyah algebroid which gives rise to an example of OX♯ [ n ] -extensions of TX♯.

  10. Stress tensor correlators in three dimensional gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Grumiller, Daniel; Merbis, Wout

    2016-03-01

    We calculate holographically arbitrary n -point correlators of the boundary stress tensor in three-dimensional Einstein gravity with negative or vanishing cosmological constant. We provide explicit expressions up to 5-point (connected) correlators and show consistency with the Galilean conformal field theory Ward identities and recursion relations of correlators, which we derive. This provides a novel check of flat space holography in three dimensions.

  11. Deeply subrecoil two-dimensional Raman cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, V.; Phillips, W.D.; Lising, L.J.; Rolston, S.L.

    2004-10-01

    We report the implementation of a two-dimensional Raman cooling scheme using sequential excitations along the orthogonal axes. Using square pulses, we have cooled a cloud of ultracold cesium atoms down to an rms velocity spread of 0.39(5) recoil velocities, corresponding to an effective transverse temperature of 30 nK (0.15T{sub rec}). This technique can be useful to improve cold-atom atomic clocks and is particularly relevant for clocks in microgravity.

  12. Three-Dimensional Dispaly Of Document Set

    DOEpatents

    Lantrip, David B.; Pennock, Kelly A.; Pottier, Marc C.; Schur, Anne; Thomas, James J.; Wise, James A.

    2003-06-24

    A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.

  13. Three-dimensional display of document set

    DOEpatents

    Lantrip, David B [Oxnard, CA; Pennock, Kelly A [Richland, WA; Pottier, Marc C [Richland, WA; Schur, Anne [Richland, WA; Thomas, James J [Richland, WA; Wise, James A [Richland, WA

    2001-10-02

    A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.

  14. Three-dimensional display of document set

    DOEpatents

    Lantrip, David B.; Pennock, Kelly A.; Pottier, Marc C.; Schur, Anne; Thomas, James J.; Wise, James A.

    2006-09-26

    A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may e transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.

  15. Three-dimensional display of document set

    DOEpatents

    Lantrip, David B.; Pennock, Kelly A.; Pottier, Marc C.; Schur, Anne; Thomas, James J.; Wise, James A.; York, Jeremy

    2009-06-30

    A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.

  16. Three-dimensional printing of scintillating materials.

    PubMed

    Mishnayot, Y; Layani, M; Cooperstein, I; Magdassi, S; Ron, G

    2014-08-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, the applicability of three-dimensional printing techniques to the manufacture of scintillation detectors. We report on the development of a formulation, usable in stereolithographic printing, that exhibits scintillation efficiency on the order of 30% of that of commercial polystyrene based scintillators. We discuss the applicability of these techniques and propose future enhancements that will allow tailoring the printed scintillation detectors to various applications.

  17. Three-Dimensional Printing in Orthopedic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Nguyen, Eric; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is emerging as a clinically promising technology for rapid prototyping of surgically implantable products. With this commercially available technology, computed tomography or magnetic resonance images can be used to create graspable objects from 3D reconstructed images. Models can enhance patients' understanding of their pathology and surgeon preoperative planning. Customized implants and casts can be made to match an individual's anatomy. This review outlines 3D printing, its current applications in orthopedics, and promising future directions.

  18. Method and apparatus for three dimensional braiding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A machine for three-dimensional braiding of fibers is provided in which carrier members travel on a curved, segmented and movable braiding surface. The carrier members are capable of independent, self-propelled motion along the braiding surface. Carrier member position on the braiding surface is controlled and monitored by computer. Also disclosed is a yarn take-up device capable of maintaining tension in the braiding fiber.

  19. Method and apparatus for three dimensional braiding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A machine for three-dimensional braiding of fibers is provided in which carrier members travel on a curved, segmented and movable braiding surface. The carrier members are capable of independent, self-propelled motion along the braiding surface. Carrier member position on the braiding surface is controlled and monitored by computer. Also disclosed is a yarn take-up device capable of maintaining tension in the braiding fiber.

  20. Dimensional reduction without continuous extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Froehlich, J.; Schubnel, B.; Wyler, D.

    2013-01-15

    We describe a novel approach to dimensional reduction in classical field theory. Inspired by ideas from noncommutative geometry, we introduce extended algebras of differential forms over space-time, generalized exterior derivatives, and generalized connections associated with the 'geometry' of space-times with discrete extra dimensions. We apply our formalism to theories of gauge- and gravitational fields and find natural geometrical origins for an axion- and a dilaton field, as well as a Higgs field.

  1. Mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Mark S. F. (Inventor); Sundaresan, Alamelu (Inventor); Pellis, Neal R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present disclosure provides ex vivo-derived mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs. The bone constructs are obtained by culturing osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors under randomized gravity vector conditions. Preferably, the randomized gravity vector conditions are obtained using a low shear stress rotating bioreactor, such as a High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) culture system. The bone constructs of the disclosure have utility in physiological studies of bone formation and bone function, in drug discovery, and in orthopedics.

  2. DIMENSIONALLY STABLE, CORROSION RESISTANT NUCLEAR FUEL

    DOEpatents

    Kittel, J.H.

    1963-10-31

    A method of making a uranium alloy of improved corrosion resistance and dimensional stability is described. The alloy contains from 0-9 weight per cent of an additive of zirconium and niobium in the proportions by weight of 5 to 1 1/ 2. The alloy is cold rolled, heated to two different temperatures, air-cooled, heated to a third temperature, and quenched in water. (AEC)

  3. Mineralized Three-Dimensional Bone Constructs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Mark S. F. (Inventor); Sundaresan, Alamelu (Inventor); Pellis, Neal R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present disclosure provides ex vivo-derived mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs. The bone constructs are obtained by culturing osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors under randomized gravity vector conditions. Preferably, the randomized gravity vector conditions are obtained using a low shear stress rotating bioreactor, such as a High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) culture system. The bone constructs of the disclosure have utility in physiological studies of bone formation and bone function, in drug discovery, and in orthopedics.

  4. Three-dimensional micro-diffraction modeling.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Román

    2014-03-20

    Squared elementary cells with correlated radiant point sources are presented as basic structures for characterizing the propagation of the field emitted by two-dimensional planar sources of any shape and in arbitrary state of spatial coherence. The field is transported on a finite expansion of nonparaxial modes, whose propagation in the micro-diffraction domain is discussed under both the diffraction and the interference conditions.

  5. Three-dimensional adjustment of trilateration data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sung, L.-Y.; Jackson, D. D.

    1985-01-01

    The three-dimensional locations of the monuments in the USGS Hollister trilateration network were adjusted to fit line length observations observed in 1977, using a Bayesian approach, and incorporating prior elevation estimates as data in the adjustment procedure. No significant discrepancies in the measured line lengths were found, but significant elevation adjustments (up to 1.85 m) were needed to fit the length data.

  6. FASTSPECT: A four-dimensional brain imager

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, D.D.; Barrett, H.H.; Chen, J.C. |

    1994-05-01

    The exact location of a lesion in the brain is most critical. High-resolution quantitative 4-dimensional brain imaging would offer improvement in detecting and characterizing brain lesions over state-of-the-art SPECT systems. We report the first clinical brain images on FASTSPECT (Four-dimensional Arizona Stationary SPECT), a fixed imaging system based on 24 modular 10 cm x 10 cm gamma cameras in 2 rings (13+11) about the bead. Each module views the entire brain continuously from a different perspective through one or more pinhole apertures. The system gathers true 3-dimensional whole-brain data it 1-2 frame/sec, fully adequate for vascular dynamics, and is therefore a 4-dimensional imaging system (dynamic SPECT). To calibrate the system a (3.3 mm){sup 3} point source of Tc-99m is stepped through each voxel in the object space. We measure the response of each detector element on each modular camera to the source at each position. The resulting system matrix (dimensions approximately 100,000 x 160,000) is compressed, stored and used in the iterative reconstruction algorithm. Three volunteers, blindfolded for 20 min to suppress visual cortical uptake, were imaged after bolus IV injection of 30 mCi (1.11 GBq) Tc-99m HMPAO. Dynamic images at 2 sec/frame clearly showed common and internal carotid arteries, and anterior and middle cerebral artery groups. Static images (11 million counts in 20 min imaging time) clearly showed the cerebral cortex and white matter, cerebellar cortex and white matter, thalami, caudate, lentiform nuclei, cingulate gyrus, brain stem, and brachium pontis. Distinguishable only with difficulty were putamen from globus pallidus, ventral from dorsal thalamus, and cerebrospinal fluid from white matter. Comparison with concurrent conventional single-headed SPECT images in the same subjects showed significantly better anatomic definition in the FASTSPECT images. Conventional SPECT is incapable of full-brain dynamic imaging.

  7. Secondary instability in three-dimensional magnetic reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahlburg, R. B.; Antiochos, S. K.; Zang, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    We consider the transition to turbulence in three-dimensional reconnection of a magnetic neutral sheet. We find that the transition can occur via a three-step process. First, the sheet undergoes the usual tearing instability. Second, the tearing mode saturates to form a two-dimensional quasi-steady state. Third, this secondary equilibrium is itself unstable when it is perturbed by three-dimensional disturbances. Most of this paper is devoted to the analysis and simulation of the three-dimensional linear stability properties of the two-dimensional saturated tearing layer. The numerical simulations are performed with a semi-implicit, pseudospectral-Fourier collocation algorithm. We identify a three-dimensional secondary linear stability which grows on the ideal timescale. An examination of the modal energetics reveals that the largest energy transfer is from the mean field to the three-dimensional field, with the two-dimensional field acting as a catalyst.

  8. Dimensionality of object representations in monkey inferotemporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lehky, Sidney R.; Kiani, Roozbeh; Esteky, Hossein; Tanaka, Keiji

    2014-01-01

    We have calculated the intrinsic dimensionality of visual object representations in anterior inferotemporal (AIT) cortex, based on responses of a large sample of cells stimulated with photographs of diverse objects. As dimensionality was dependent on data set size, we determined asymptotic dimensionality as both the number of neurons and number of stimulus image approached infinity. Our final dimensionality estimate was 93 (SD: ± 11), indicating that there is basis set of approximately a hundred independent features that characterize the dimensions of neural object space. We believe this is the first estimate of the dimensionality of neural visual representations based on single-cell neurophysiological data. The dimensionality of AIT object representations was much lower than the dimensionality of the stimuli. We suggest that there may be a gradual reduction in the dimensionality of object representations in neural populations going from retina to inferotemporal cortex, as receptive fields become increasingly complex. PMID:25058707

  9. Visual Chemistry: Three-Dimensional Perception of Chemical Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balaban, Alexandru T.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses in great detail aspects connected with the visual and mental processing of chemical images. Presents various types of conventions for translating three-dimensional objects into two-dimensional representations. (Author/CCM)

  10. Non-Fermi liquids in two and three-dimensional doped SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheev, Evgeny; Raghavan, Santosh; Zhang, Jack; Marshall, Patrick; Kajdos, Adam; Balents, Leon; Stemmer, Susanne

    A remarkable feature of transport in doped SrTiO3 is the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity that is proportional to Tn with n <= 2. This power law suggests electron-electron scattering is the dominant scattering mechanism. It extends to room temperature and above in both three-dimensional, uniformly doped SrTiO3 and in two-dimensional electron liquids (2DELs) at oxide interfaces. In case of n = 2, the behavior is traditionally identified as that of a Landau Fermi liquid. Here we argue that Landau Fermi liquid theory does not apply to the electron liquid in SrTiO3, even when n = 2. Using electrostatic gating and chemical doping, we demonstrate that this regime is associated with a scattering rate and an energy scale that are independent of carrier density. This is in fundamental conflict with the premise of the Fermi liquid theory, where this energy scale is the Fermi energy. This work raises important questions in terms of microscopic scattering mechanism. It appears to be relevant for understanding of transport in many other strongly correlated systems, which also show very robust Tn regimes with carrier density independent scattering rates.

  11. Three-Dimensional Audio Client Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    The Three-Dimensional Audio Client Library (3DAudio library) is a group of software routines written to facilitate development of both stand-alone (audio only) and immersive virtual-reality application programs that utilize three-dimensional audio displays. The library is intended to enable the development of three-dimensional audio client application programs by use of a code base common to multiple audio server computers. The 3DAudio library calls vendor-specific audio client libraries and currently supports the AuSIM Gold-Server and Lake Huron audio servers. 3DAudio library routines contain common functions for (1) initiation and termination of a client/audio server session, (2) configuration-file input, (3) positioning functions, (4) coordinate transformations, (5) audio transport functions, (6) rendering functions, (7) debugging functions, and (8) event-list-sequencing functions. The 3DAudio software is written in the C++ programming language and currently operates under the Linux, IRIX, and Windows operating systems.

  12. Three-dimensional turbopump flowfield analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, O. P.; Belford, K. A.; Ni, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop a flow prediction method applicable to rocket turbopumps. The complex nature of a flowfield in turbopumps is described and examples of flowfields are discussed to illustrate that physics based models and analytical calculation procedures based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are needed to develop reliable design procedures for turbopumps. A CFD code developed at NASA ARC was used as the base code. The turbulence model and boundary conditions in the base code were modified, respectively, to: (1) compute transitional flows and account for extra rates of strain, e.g., rotation; and (2) compute surface heat transfer coefficients and allow computation through multistage turbomachines. Benchmark quality data from two and three-dimensional cascades were used to verify the code. The predictive capabilities of the present CFD code were demonstrated by computing the flow through a radial impeller and a multistage axial flow turbine. Results of the program indicate that the present code operated in a two-dimensional mode is a cost effective alternative to full three-dimensional calculations, and that it permits realistic predictions of unsteady loadings and losses for multistage machines.

  13. Universal entanglement for higher dimensional cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Pablo; Myers, Robert C.

    2015-12-01

    The entanglement entropy of a generic d-dimensional conformal field theory receives a regulator independent contribution when the entangling surface contains a (hyper)conical singularity of opening angle Ω, codified in a function a ( d)(Ω). In arXiv:1505.04804, we proposed that for three-dimensional conformal field theories, the coefficient σ (3) characterizing the limit where the surface becomes smooth is proportional to the central charge C T appearing in the two-point function of the stress tensor. In this paper, we prove this relation for general three-dimensional holographic theories, and extend the result to general dimensions. In particular, we define a generalized coefficient σ ( d) to characterize the almost smooth limit of a (hyper)conical singularity in entangling surfaces in higher dimensions. We show then that this coefficient is universally related to C T for general holographic theories and provide a general formula for the ratio σ ( d) /C T in arbitrary dimensions. We conjecture that the latter ratio is universal for general CFTs. Further, based on our recent results in arXiv:1507.06997, we propose an extension of this relation to general Rényi entropies, which we show passes several consistency checks in d = 4 and 6.

  14. [3-dimensional documentation of wound-healing].

    PubMed

    Körber, A; Grabbe, S; Dissemond, J

    2006-04-01

    The objective evaluation of the course of wound-healing represents a substantial parameter for the quality assurance of a modern wound management in chronic wounds. Established procedures exclusively based on a two-dimensional measurement of the wound surface with planimetry or digital photo documentation in combination with a metric statement of size. Thus so far an objective method is missing for the evaluation of the volumes of chronic wounds. By the linkage of digital photography, optical grid by means of digital scanner and an image processing software in co-operation with the company RSI we were able to do an accurate 3-dimensional documentation of chronic wounds (DigiSkin). The generated scatter-plots allow a visual, computer-assisted 3-dimensional measurement and documentation of chronic wounds. In comparison with available systems it is now possible for the first time to objectify the volume changes of a chronic wound. On the basis of a case report of a female patient with an venous leg ulcer, which has been treated with a vacuum closure therapy before and after performing a mesh-graft transplantation, we would like to describe the advantages and the resulting scientific use of this new, objective wound documentation system in the clinical employment. PMID:16575675

  15. Three-dimensional fluorescence lifetime tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Godavarty, Anuradha; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Eppstein, Margaret J.

    2005-04-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence tomography using molecularly targeted lifetime-sensitive, fluorescent contrast agents have applications for early-stage cancer diagnostics. Yet, although the measurement of fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is extensively used in microscopy and spectroscopy applications, demonstration of fluorescence lifetime tomography for medical imaging is limited to two-dimensional studies. Herein, the feasibility of three-dimensional fluorescence-lifetime tomography on clinically relevant phantom volumes is established, using (i) a gain-modulated intensified charge coupled device (CCD) and modulated laser diode imaging system, (ii) two fluorescent contrast agents, e.g., Indocyanine green and 3-3'-Diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide differing in their fluorescence lifetime by 0.62 ns, and (iii) a two stage approximate extended Kalman filter reconstruction algorithm. Fluorescence measurements of phase and amplitude were acquired on the phantom surface under different target to background fluorescence absorption (70:1, 100:1) and fluorescence lifetime (1:1, 2.1:1) contrasts at target depths of 1.4-2 cm. The Bayesian tomography algorithm was employed to obtain three-dimensional images of lifetime and absorption owing to the fluorophores.

  16. Statistical Physics of High Dimensional Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Advani, Madhu; Ganguli, Surya

    To model modern large-scale datasets, we need efficient algorithms to infer a set of P unknown model parameters from N noisy measurements. What are fundamental limits on the accuracy of parameter inference, given limited measurements, signal-to-noise ratios, prior information, and computational tractability requirements? How can we combine prior information with measurements to achieve these limits? Classical statistics gives incisive answers to these questions as the measurement density α =N/P --> ∞ . However, modern high-dimensional inference problems, in fields ranging from bio-informatics to economics, occur at finite α. We formulate and analyze high-dimensional inference analytically by applying the replica and cavity methods of statistical physics where data serves as quenched disorder and inferred parameters play the role of thermal degrees of freedom. Our analysis reveals that widely cherished Bayesian inference algorithms such as maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori are suboptimal in the modern setting, and yields new tractable, optimal algorithms to replace them as well as novel bounds on the achievable accuracy of a large class of high-dimensional inference algorithms. Thanks to Stanford Graduate Fellowship and Mind Brain Computation IGERT grant for support.

  17. Statistical challenges of high-dimensional data

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Iain M.; Titterington, D. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Modern applications of statistical theory and methods can involve extremely large datasets, often with huge numbers of measurements on each of a comparatively small number of experimental units. New methodology and accompanying theory have emerged in response: the goal of this Theme Issue is to illustrate a number of these recent developments. This overview article introduces the difficulties that arise with high-dimensional data in the context of the very familiar linear statistical model: we give a taste of what can nevertheless be achieved when the parameter vector of interest is sparse, that is, contains many zero elements. We describe other ways of identifying low-dimensional subspaces of the data space that contain all useful information. The topic of classification is then reviewed along with the problem of identifying, from within a very large set, the variables that help to classify observations. Brief mention is made of the visualization of high-dimensional data and ways to handle computational problems in Bayesian analysis are described. At appropriate points, reference is made to the other papers in the issue. PMID:19805443

  18. Multi-dimensional cosmology and GUP

    SciTech Connect

    Zeynali, K.; Motavalli, H.; Darabi, F. E-mail: f.darabi@azaruniv.edu

    2012-12-01

    We consider a multidimensional cosmological model with FRW type metric having 4-dimensional space-time and d-dimensional Ricci-flat internal space sectors with a higher dimensional cosmological constant. We study the classical cosmology in commutative and GUP cases and obtain the corresponding exact solutions for negative and positive cosmological constants. It is shown that for negative cosmological constant, the commutative and GUP cases result in finite size universes with smaller size and longer ages, and larger size and shorter age, respectively. For positive cosmological constant, the commutative and GUP cases result in infinite size universes having late time accelerating behavior in good agreement with current observations. The accelerating phase starts in the GUP case sooner than the commutative case. In both commutative and GUP cases, and for both negative and positive cosmological constants, the internal space is stabilized to the sub-Planck size, at least within the present age of the universe. Then, we study the quantum cosmology by deriving the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, and obtain the exact solutions in the commutative case and the perturbative solutions in GUP case, to first order in the GUP small parameter, for both negative and positive cosmological constants. It is shown that good correspondence exists between the classical and quantum solutions.

  19. Three-dimensional Chiral Plasmonic Oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Mario

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate chiral optical response in stacked arrangements of plasmonic nanostructures. We show that three-dimensional arrangements of plasmonic ``meta-atoms'' only exhibit a chiral optical response if similar plasmonic ``atoms'' are arranged in a handed fashion as we require resonant plasmonic coupling. Moreover, we demonstrate that such particle groupings, similarly to molecular systems, possess the capability to encode their three-dimensional arrangement in unique and well-modulated spectra, making them ideal candidates for a three-dimensional chiral plasmon ruler. Furthermore, we discuss the onset of a broadband chiral optical response in the wavelength regime between 700 nm and 3500 nm upon charge transfer between the nanoparticles. We show in experiment and simulation that this response is due to the ohmic contact between adjacent particles which causes a strong red-shift of the fundamental mode. The geometrical shape of the resulting fused particles allows for efficient excitation of higher order modes. Calculated spectra and field distributions confirm our interpretation and show a number of interacting plasmonic modes. Finally, we will discuss plasmonic diastereomers which consist of multiple chiral centers. We find that the chiral optical response of the composite molecules can be traced back to the properties of the constituting building blocks. We demonstrate that the optical response of complex chiral plasmonic systems can be decomposed and understood in terms of fundamental building blocks, offering simple and straightforward design rules for future applications such as chiral optical elements and enantiomer sensors.

  20. n-dimensional FLRW quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letelier, Patricio S.; Pitelli, João Paulo M.

    2010-11-01

    We introduce the formalism of quantum cosmology in a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe of arbitrary dimension filled with a perfect fluid with p=αρ equation of state. First we show that the Schutz formalism, developed in four dimensions, can be extended to a n-dimensional universe. We compute the quantum representant of the scale factor a(t), in the Many-Worlds, as well as, in the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics. We show that the singularities, which are still present in the n-dimensional generalization of FLRW universe, are excluded with the introduction of quantum theory. We quantize, via the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics, the components of the Riemann curvature tensor in a tetrad basis in a n-dimensional FLRW universe filled with radiation (p=(1)/(n-1)ρ). We show that the quantized version of the Ricci scalar are perfectly regular for all time t. We also study the behavior of the energy density and pressure and show that the ratio ⟨p⟩L/⟨ρ⟩L tends to the classical value 1/(n-1) only for n=4, showing that n=4 is somewhat privileged among the other dimensions. Besides that, as n→∞, ⟨p⟩L/⟨ρ⟩L→1.

  1. 3-dimensional fabrication of soft energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Thomas; Walters, Peter; Rossiter, Jonathan; O'Brien, Benjamin; Anderson, Iain

    2013-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEG) provide an opportunity to harvest energy from low frequency and aperiodic sources. Because DEG are soft, deformable, high energy density generators, they can be coupled to complex structures such as the human body to harvest excess mechanical energy. However, DEG are typically constrained by a rigid frame and manufactured in a simple planar structure. This planar arrangement is unlikely to be optimal for harvesting from compliant and/or complex structures. In this paper we present a soft generator which is fabricated into a 3 Dimensional geometry. This capability will enable the 3-dimensional structure of a dielectric elastomer to be customised to the energy source, allowing efficient and/or non-invasive coupling. This paper demonstrates our first 3 dimensional generator which includes a diaphragm with a soft elastomer frame. When the generator was connected to a self-priming circuit and cyclically inflated, energy was accumulated in the system, demonstrated by an increased voltage. Our 3D generator promises a bright future for dielectric elastomers that will be customised for integration with complex and soft structures. In addition to customisable geometries, the 3D printing process may lend itself to fabricating large arrays of small generator units and for fabricating truly soft generators with excellent impedance matching to biological tissue. Thus comfortable, wearable energy harvesters are one step closer to reality.

  2. In-lab three-dimensional printing

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, Roland; Conlisk, Noel; Davies, Jamie A.

    2012-01-01

    The development of the microscope in 1590 by Zacharias Janssenby and Hans Lippershey gave the world a new way of visualizing details of morphogenesis and development. More recent improvements in this technology including confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical projection tomography (OPT) have enhanced the quality of the resultant image. These technologies also allow a representation to be made of a developing tissue’s three-dimensional (3-D) form. With all these techniques however, the image is delivered on a flat two-dimensional (2-D) screen. 3-D printing represents an exciting potential to reproduce the image not simply on a flat screen, but in a physical, palpable three-dimensional structure. Here we explore the scope that this holds for exploring and interacting with the structure of a developing organ in an entirely novel way. As well as being useful for visualization, 3-D printers are capable of rapidly and cost-effectively producing custom-made structures for use within the laboratory. We here describe the advantages of producing hardware for a tissue culture system using an inexpensive in-lab printer. PMID:22652907

  3. Reconfigurable, braced, three-dimensional DNA nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Russell P.; Heilemann, Mike; Doose, Sören; Erben, Christoph M.; Kapanidis, Achillefs N.; Turberfield, Andrew J.

    2008-02-01

    DNA nanotechnology makes use of the exquisite self-recognition of DNA in order to build on a molecular scale. Although static structures may find applications in structural biology and computer science, many applications in nanomedicine and nanorobotics require the additional capacity for controlled three-dimensional movement. DNA architectures can span three dimensions and DNA devices are capable of movement, but active control of well-defined three-dimensional structures has not been achieved. We demonstrate the operation of reconfigurable DNA tetrahedra whose shapes change precisely and reversibly in response to specific molecular signals. Shape changes are confirmed by gel electrophoresis and by bulk and single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer measurements. DNA tetrahedra are natural building blocks for three-dimensional construction; they may be synthesized rapidly with high yield of a single stereoisomer, and their triangulated architecture conveys structural stability. The introduction of shape-changing structural modules opens new avenues for the manipulation of matter on the nanometre scale.

  4. Geophysical imaging using trans-dimensional trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Rhys; Sambridge, Malcolm

    2015-11-01

    In geophysical inversion, inferences of Earth's properties from sparse data involve a trade-off between model complexity and the spatial resolving power. A recent Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) technique formalized by Green, the so-called trans-dimensional samplers, allows us to sample between these trade-offs and to parsimoniously arbitrate between the varying complexity of candidate models. Here we present a novel framework using trans-dimensional sampling over tree structures. This new class of McMC sampler can be applied to 1-D, 2-D and 3-D Cartesian and spherical geometries. In addition, the basis functions used by the algorithm are flexible and can include more advanced parametrizations such as wavelets, both in Cartesian and Spherical geometries, to permit Bayesian multiscale analysis. This new framework offers greater flexibility, performance and efficiency for geophysical imaging problems than previous sampling algorithms. Thereby increasing the range of applications and in particular allowing extension to trans-dimensional imaging in 3-D. Examples are presented of its application to 2-D seismic and 3-D teleseismic tomography including estimation of uncertainty.

  5. Biochemical Applications Of 3-Dimensional Fluorescence Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiner, Marc J.; Wolfbeis, Otto S.

    1988-06-01

    We investigated the 3-dimensional fluorescence of complex mixtures of bioloquids such as human serum, serum ultrafiltrate, human urine, and human plasma low density lipoproteins. The total fluorescence of human serum can be divided into a few peaks. When comparing fluorescence topograms of sera, from normal and cancerous subjects, we found significant differences in tryptophan fluorescence. Although the total fluorescence of human urine can be resolved into 3-5 distinct peaks, some of them. do not result from single fluorescent urinary metabolites, but rather from. several species having similar spectral properties. Human plasma, low density lipoproteins possess a native fluorescence that changes when submitted to in-vitro autoxidation. The 3-dimensional fluorescence demonstrated the presence of 7 fluorophores in the lipid domain, and 6 fluorophores in the protein. dovain- The above results demonstrated that 3-dimensional fluorescence can resolve the spectral properties of complex ,lxtures much better than other methods. Moreover, other parameters than excitation and emission wavelength and intensity (for instance fluorescence lifetime, polarization, or quenchability) may be exploited to give a multidl,ensio,a1 matrix, that is unique for each sample. Consequently, 3-dimensio:Hhal fluorescence as such, or in combination with separation techniques is therefore considered to have the potential of becoming a useful new H.ethod in clinical chemistry and analytical biochemistry.

  6. Multiparallel Three-Dimensional Optical Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Lam K.; Price, Jeffrey H.; Kellner, Albert L.; Bravo-Zanoquera, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Multiparallel three-dimensional optical microscopy is a method of forming an approximate three-dimensional image of a microscope sample as a collection of images from different depths through the sample. The imaging apparatus includes a single microscope plus an assembly of beam splitters and mirrors that divide the output of the microscope into multiple channels. An imaging array of photodetectors in each channel is located at a different distance along the optical path from the microscope, corresponding to a focal plane at a different depth within the sample. The optical path leading to each photodetector array also includes lenses to compensate for the variation of magnification with distance so that the images ultimately formed on all the photodetector arrays are of the same magnification. The use of optical components common to multiple channels in a simple geometry makes it possible to obtain high light-transmission efficiency with an optically and mechanically simple assembly. In addition, because images can be read out simultaneously from all the photodetector arrays, the apparatus can support three-dimensional imaging at a high scanning rate.

  7. Fabrication of 3-dimensional multicellular microvascular structures

    PubMed Central

    Barreto-Ortiz, Sebastian F.; Fradkin, Jamie; Eoh, Joon; Trivero, Jacqueline; Davenport, Matthew; Ginn, Brian; Mao, Hai-Quan; Gerecht, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Despite current advances in engineering blood vessels over 1 mm in diameter and the existing wealth of knowledge regarding capillary bed formation, studies for the development of microvasculature, the connecting bridge between them, have been extremely limited so far. Here, we evaluate the use of 3-dimensional (3D) microfibers fabricated by hydrogel electrospinning as templates for microvascular structure formation. We hypothesize that 3D microfibers improve extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition from vascular cells, enabling the formation of freestanding luminal multicellular microvasculature. Compared to 2-dimensional cultures, we demonstrate with confocal microscopy and RT-PCR that fibrin microfibers induce an increased ECM protein deposition by vascular cells, specifically endothelial colony-forming cells, pericytes, and vascular smooth muscle cells. These ECM proteins comprise different layers of the vascular wall including collagen types I, III, and IV, as well as elastin, fibronectin, and laminin. We further demonstrate the achievement of multicellular microvascular structures with an organized endothelium and a robust multicellular perivascular tunica media. This, along with the increased ECM deposition, allowed for the creation of self-supporting multilayered microvasculature with a distinct circular lumen following fibrin microfiber core removal. This approach presents an advancement toward the development of human microvasculature for basic and translational studies.—Barreto-Ortiz, S. F., Fradkin, J., Eoh, J., Trivero, J., Davenport, M., Ginn, B., Mao, H.-Q., Gerecht, S. Fabrication of 3-dimensional multicellular microvascular structures. PMID:25900808

  8. Higher-dimensional oscillations of quantum particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedin, Eric

    2013-04-01

    A theoretical framework is developed in which elementary particles have a component of their wave function extending into higher spatial dimensions, based on an extension of the Schr"odinger equation to include 4^th and 5^th spatial components [E. R. Hedin, Physics Essays 25, 2 (2012)]. A higher-dimensional harmonic oscillator confining potential localizes particles into 3-d space (characterizing the ``brane tension'' which confines Standard Model particles to the sub-manifold). Several consistency checks of this model are: a match with the quantum phenomenon of ``zitterbewegung''; the predicted intrinsic spin angular momentum is of order h/2π; the magnetic moment of the electron is determined (with a gyromagnetic ratio of 2); the nuclear force ``hard core'' radius is accurately predicted; the ratio of quark masses (of the up and down quarks) is found to be consistent with QCD theory; and possible explanations of the Planck mass and Planck length. An application of higher-dimensional particle effects to the astrophysics of stars shows that radical physical inconsistencies are not evident. Finally, this model suggests a possible explanation of dark matter as the fractional probability manifestations of a ladder of the higher-dimensional symmetric excited states of ordinary particles.

  9. Three-dimensional printing of the retina

    PubMed Central

    Lorber, Barbara; Hsiao, Wen-Kai; Martin, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Biological three-dimensional printing has received a lot of media attention over recent years with advances made in printing cellular structures, including skin and heart tissue for transplantation. Although limitations exist in creating functioning organs with this method, the hope has been raised that creating a functional retina to cure blindness is within reach. The present review provides an update on the advances made toward this goal. Recent findings It has recently been shown that two types of retinal cells, retinal ganglion cells and glial cells, can be successfully printed using a piezoelectric inkjet printer. Importantly, the cells remained viable and did not change certain phenotypic features as a result of the printing process. In addition, recent advances in the creation of complex and viable three-dimensional cellular structures have been made. Summary Some first promising steps toward the creation of a functional retina have been taken. It now needs to be investigated whether recent findings can be extended to other cells of the retina, including those derived from human tissue, and if a complex and viable retinal structure can be created through three-dimensional printing. PMID:27045545

  10. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets

    PubMed Central

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire–bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design. PMID:23762201

  11. Dimensionality reduction of collective motion by principal manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajamannage, Kelum; Butail, Sachit; Porfiri, Maurizio; Bollt, Erik M.

    2015-01-01

    While the existence of low-dimensional embedding manifolds has been shown in patterns of collective motion, the current battery of nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods is not amenable to the analysis of such manifolds. This is mainly due to the necessary spectral decomposition step, which limits control over the mapping from the original high-dimensional space to the embedding space. Here, we propose an alternative approach that demands a two-dimensional embedding which topologically summarizes the high-dimensional data. In this sense, our approach is closely related to the construction of one-dimensional principal curves that minimize orthogonal error to data points subject to smoothness constraints. Specifically, we construct a two-dimensional principal manifold directly in the high-dimensional space using cubic smoothing splines, and define the embedding coordinates in terms of geodesic distances. Thus, the mapping from the high-dimensional data to the manifold is defined in terms of local coordinates. Through representative examples, we show that compared to existing nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods, the principal manifold retains the original structure even in noisy and sparse datasets. The principal manifold finding algorithm is applied to configurations obtained from a dynamical system of multiple agents simulating a complex maneuver called predator mobbing, and the resulting two-dimensional embedding is compared with that of a well-established nonlinear dimensionality reduction method.

  12. The Law of Cosines for an "n"-Dimensional Simplex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Yiren

    2008-01-01

    Using the divergence theorem technique of L. Eifler and N.H. Rhee, "The n-dimensional Pythagorean Theorem via the Divergence Theorem" (to appear: Amer. Math. Monthly), we extend the law of cosines for a triangle in a plane to an "n"-dimensional simplex in an "n"-dimensional space.

  13. Higher-dimensional Bianchi type-VIh cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz-Petzold, D.

    1985-09-01

    The higher-dimensional perfect fluid equations of a generalization of the (1 + 3)-dimensional Bianchi type-VIh space-time are discussed. Bianchi type-V and Bianchi type-III space-times are also included as special cases. It is shown that the Chodos-Detweiler (1980) mechanism of cosmological dimensional-reduction is possible in these cases.

  14. Beginning Introductory Physics with Two-Dimensional Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2009-01-01

    During the session on "Introductory College Physics Textbooks" at the 2007 Summer Meeting of the AAPT, there was a brief discussion about whether introductory physics should begin with one-dimensional motion or two-dimensional motion. Here we present the case that by starting with two-dimensional motion, we are able to introduce a considerable…

  15. Two-Dimensional Synthetic-Aperture Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, David M.

    2010-01-01

    A two-dimensional synthetic-aperture radiometer, now undergoing development, serves as a test bed for demonstrating the potential of aperture synthesis for remote sensing of the Earth, particularly for measuring spatial distributions of soil moisture and ocean-surface salinity. The goal is to use the technology for remote sensing aboard a spacecraft in orbit, but the basic principles of design and operation are applicable to remote sensing from aboard an aircraft, and the prototype of the system under development is designed for operation aboard an aircraft. In aperture synthesis, one utilizes several small antennas in combination with a signal processing in order to obtain resolution that otherwise would require the use of an antenna with a larger aperture (and, hence, potentially more difficult to deploy in space). The principle upon which this system is based is similar to that of Earth-rotation aperture synthesis employed in radio astronomy. In this technology the coherent products (correlations) of signals from pairs of antennas are obtained at different antenna-pair spacings (baselines). The correlation for each baseline yields a sample point in a Fourier transform of the brightness-temperature map of the scene. An image of the scene itself is then reconstructed by inverting the sampled transform. The predecessor of the present two-dimensional synthetic-aperture radiometer is a one-dimensional one, named the Electrically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR). Operating in the L band, the ESTAR employs aperture synthesis in the cross-track dimension only, while using a conventional antenna for resolution in the along-track dimension. The two-dimensional instrument also operates in the L band to be precise, at a frequency of 1.413 GHz in the frequency band restricted for passive use (no transmission) only. The L band was chosen because (1) the L band represents the long-wavelength end of the remote- sensing spectrum, where the problem of achieving adequate

  16. Desarrollo de un instrumento para medir percepciones sobre el contexto de construccion del conocimiento cientifico de estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Ramirez, Jaime Antonio

    En esta investigacion, se desarrollo un instrumento que permite medir percepciones relacionadas al contexto de constriccion del conocimiento cientifico. Se examinaron instrumentos existentes y se encontro que el VOSTS (Views on science, technology, and society), instrumento desarrollado empiricamente en Canada por Aikenhead, Ryan y Fleming, podia traducirse y validarse en el contexto cultural puertorriqueno. El instrumento es extenso, consta de 113 reactivos, cada uno con una premisa basica relacionada a la tematica ciencia, tecnologia y sociedad y un numero de alternativas relacionadas a la premisa que oscila entre siete y trece. Se delimito su utilizacion a los quince reactivos identificados por los autores como relacionados a la construccion social del conocimiento cientifico. Metodologicamente, se procedio a utilizar el modelo de adaptacion intercultural, que permite que el instrumento desarrollado satisfaga las dimensiones de equivalencia semantica, de contenido, tecnica, de criterio y conceptual, atemperado asi al instrumento original. Se cumplio con este proposito mediante la traduccion de la version original en ingles al espanol y viceversa. Se utilizaron comites para examinar la traduccion y la retro-traduccion del instrumento. Se realizo una prueba piloto con estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso, utilizando el instrumento traducido para asegurar su intelegibilidad. La confiabilidad del instrumento se determino mediante la intervencion de un panel de expertos quienes clasificaron las distintas posiciones dentro de cada reactivo en: realista, con merito e ingenua; se transformaron estas opciones en valores numericos lo que permitio establecer una escala Likert para cada una. Se suministro el instrumento a una muestra de estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso con caracteristicas similares a las de la poblacion puertorriquena en cuanto a ejecucion en las pruebas de aptitud verbal y matematica del College Board. Los resultados de sus contestaciones

  17. Design and fabrication of one-dimensional and two- dimensional photonic bandgap devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kuo-Yi

    1999-10-01

    One-dimensional and two-dimensional photonic bandgap devices have been designed and fabricated using III-V compound semiconductors. The one-dimensional photonic bandgap devices consist of monorail and air-bridge waveguide microcavities, while the two-dimensional photonic bandgap devices consist of light-emitting devices with enhanced extraction efficiency. Fabrication techniques such as gas source molecular beam epitaxy, direct-write electron-beam lithography, reactive ion etching and thermal oxidation of AlxGa1- xAs have been employed. The III-V thermal oxide, in particular, is used as an index confinement material, as a sacrificial material for micromechanical fabrication of the air-bridge microcavity, and in the realization of a wide-bandwidth distributed Bragg reflector. The one-dimensional photonic bandgap waveguide microcavities have been designed to operate in the wavelength regimes of 4.5 m m and 1.55 m m. The devices designed to operate in the 1.55 m m wavelength regime have been optically characterized. The transmission spectra exhibit resonances at around 1.55 m m and cavity quality factors (Q's) ranging from 136 to 334. The resonant modal volume is calculated to be about 0.056 m m3. Tunability in the resonance wavelengths has also been demonstrated by changing the size of the defect in the one-dimensional photonic crystal. The two-dimensional photonic bandgap light-emitting device consists of a In0.51Ga0.49P/In0.2Ga0.8As/In 0.51Ga0.49P quantum well emitting at 980nm with a triangular photonic lattice of holes in the top cladding layer of the quantum well. The photonic crystal prohibits the propagation of guided modes in the semiconductor, thus enhancing the extraction of light vertical to the light-emitting device. A wide-bandwidth GaAs/AlxOy distributed Bragg reflector mirror under the quantum well structure further enhances the extraction of light from the devices. The extraction efficiency of the two-dimensional photonic bandgap light-emitting device

  18. 33 CFR 110.65 - Indian River Bay, Del.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indian River Bay, Del. 110.65 Section 110.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.65 Indian River Bay, Del. Beginning at a point...

  19. 33 CFR 110.65 - Indian River Bay, Del.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Indian River Bay, Del. 110.65 Section 110.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.65 Indian River Bay, Del. Beginning at a point...

  20. 33 CFR 110.65 - Indian River Bay, Del.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian River Bay, Del. 110.65 Section 110.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.65 Indian River Bay, Del. Beginning at a point...

  1. Instantánea del cáncer colorrectal

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer colorrectal; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  2. Pastoral del Nino: Bringing the Abundant Life to Paraguayan Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ann Berghout; Aquino, Cyle; Burro, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Pastoral del Nino is transforming children's lives in rural Paraguay. Part of Pastoral Social (Catholic Social Services), Pastoral del Nino's primary focus is to bring "vida en abundancia" (the abundant life) to families by ensuring that mothers survive childbirth and children reach their first birthdays. In addition, the organization promotes…

  3. 33 CFR 110.65 - Indian River Bay, Del.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Indian River Bay, Del. 110.65... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.65 Indian River Bay, Del. Beginning at a point bearing... State highway bridge across Indian River Inlet; thence 174°, 600 feet; thence 264°, 800 feet; thence...

  4. 33 CFR 110.111 - Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif. 110.111 Section 110.111 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.111 Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif. An area...

  5. Instantánea del sarcoma de Kaposi

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el sarcoma de Kaposi; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  6. Errors in using two dimensional methods for ergonomic assessment of motion in three dimensional space

    SciTech Connect

    Hollerbach, K.; Van Vorhis, R.L.; Hollister, A.

    1996-03-01

    Wrist posture and rapid wrist movements are risk factors for work related musculoskeletal disorders. Measurement studies frequently involve optoelectronic methods in which markers are placed on the subject`s hand and wrist and the trajectories of the markers are tracked in three dimensional space. A goal of wrist posture measurements is to quantitatively establish wrist posture orientation. Accuracy and fidelity of the measurement data with respect to kinematic mechanisms are essential in wrist motion studies. Fidelity with the physical kinematic mechanism can be limited by the choice of kinematic modeling techniques and the representation of motion. Frequently, ergonomic studies involving wrist kinematics make use of two dimensional measurement and analysis techniques. Two dimensional measurement of human joint motion involves the analysis of three dimensional displacements in an obersver selected measurement plane. Accurate marker placement and alignment of joint motion plane with the observer plane are difficult. In nature, joint axes can exist at any orientation and location relative to an arbitrarily chosen global reference frame. An arbitrary axis is any axis that is not coincident with a reference coordinate. We calculate the errors that result from measuring joint motion about an arbitrary axis using two dimensional methods.

  7. Two-dimensional electron liquid at the (111) SmTiO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interface

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavan, Santosh; Zhang, Jack Y.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2015-03-30

    Similar to (001) interfaces, a high carrier density, two-dimensional electron liquid (2DEL) is expected to form at (111) RTiO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces (R is a trivalent rare earth ion). In this study, epitaxial SmTiO{sub 3} layers were grown on (111) SrTiO{sub 3} surfaces using hybrid molecular beam epitaxy. We report on electrical transport measurements and characterize the carrier densities in the 2DEL and the carrier mobilities at these interfaces. The carrier density is in reasonable agreement with the expected carrier density of ∼2 × 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2}. Mobility-limiting mechanisms are analyzed and compared with those of (001) interfaces. Collectively, the results indicate that (111) 2DELs are less confined than those at (001) interfaces. These 2DELs should allow for the study of the phenomena induced by the unique topology of the electron system at (111) interfaces.

  8. A Standardized Generalized Dimensionality Discrepancy Measure and a Standardized Model-Based Covariance for Dimensionality Assessment for Multidimensional Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Roy; Xu, Yuning; Yel, Nedim; Svetina, Dubravka

    2015-01-01

    The standardized generalized dimensionality discrepancy measure and the standardized model-based covariance are introduced as tools to critique dimensionality assumptions in multidimensional item response models. These tools are grounded in a covariance theory perspective and associated connections between dimensionality and local independence.…

  9. Dimensional decoupling at continuous quantum critical Mott transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Liujun; Senthil, T.

    2016-09-01

    For continuous Mott metal-insulator transitions in layered two-dimensional systems, we demonstrate the phenomenon of dimensional decoupling: the system behaves as a three-dimensional metal in the Fermi-liquid side but as a stack of decoupled two-dimensional layers in the Mott insulator. We show that the dimensional decoupling happens at the Mott quantum critical point itself. We derive the temperature dependence of the interlayer electric conductivity in various crossover regimes near such a continuous Mott transition, and discuss experimental implications.

  10. Spatial and temporal constraints on regional-scale groundwater flow in the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin, Atacama Desert, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayne, Richard S.; Pollyea, Ryan M.; Dodd, Justin P.; Olson, Elizabeth J.; Swanson, Susan K.

    2016-08-01

    Aquifers within the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin (Atacama Desert, northern Chile) are the sole source of water for the coastal city of Iquique and the economically important mining industry. Despite this, the regional groundwater system remains poorly understood. Although it is widely accepted that aquifer recharge originates as precipitation in the Altiplano and Andean Cordillera to the east, there remains debate on whether recharge is driven primarily by near-surface groundwater flow in response to periodic flood events or by basal groundwater flux through deep-seated basin fractures. In addressing this debate, the present study quantifies spatial and temporal variability in regional-scale groundwater flow paths at 20.5°S latitude by combining a two-dimensional model of groundwater and heat flow with field observations and δ18O isotope values in surface water and groundwater. Results suggest that both previously proposed aquifer recharge mechanisms are likely influencing aquifers within the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin; however, each mechanism is operating on different spatial and temporal scales. Storm-driven flood events in the Altiplano readily transmit groundwater to the eastern Pampa del Tamarugal Basin through near-surface groundwater flow on short time scales, e.g., 100-101 years, but these effects are likely isolated to aquifers in the eastern third of the basin. In addition, this study illustrates a physical mechanism for groundwater originating in the eastern highlands to recharge aquifers and salars in the western Pampa del Tamarugal Basin over timescales of 104-105 years.

  11. Method for coupling two-dimensional to three-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.L.; Emmett, M.B.; Rhoades, W.A.; Dodds, H.L. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) discrete ordinates transport code, TORT, has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for radiation penetration studies. It is not feasible to solve some 3-D penetration problems with TORT, such as a building located a large distance from a point source, because (1) the discretized 3-D problem is simply too big to fit on the computer or (2) the computing time (and corresponding cost) is prohibitive. Fortunately, such problems can be solved with a hybrid approach by coupling a two-dimensional (2-D) description of the point source, which is assumed to be azimuthally symmetric, to a 3-D description of the building, the region of interest. The purpose of this paper is to describe this hybrid methodology along with its implementation and evaluation in the DOTTOR (Discrete Ordinates to Three-dimensional Oak Ridge Transport) code.

  12. Low-dimensional dynamics in observables from complex and higher-dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Murilo S.; Caldas, Iberê L.; Baptista, Mauricio S.; Baptista, Cassio S.; Ferreira, André A.; Heller, Maria Vittoria A. P.

    2000-11-01

    We analyze fluctuating observables of high-dimensional systems as the New York Stock Market S &P 500 index, the amino-acid sequence in the M. genitalium DNA, the maximum temperature of the San Francisco Bay area, and the toroidal magneto plasma potential. The probability measures of these fluctuations are obtained by the statistical analysis of a rescaling combination of the first Poincaré return time of a low-dimensional chaotic system. This result indicates that it is possible to use a measure of a low-dimensional chaotic attractor to describe a measure of these complex systems. Moreover, within this description we determine scaling power laws for average measurements of the analyzed fluctuations.

  13. Comparison of 1-Dimensional and 2- Dimensional Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) Results in Geothermal Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakmak, Olcay; Uyanık, Osman

    2016-04-01

    This study was performed in a geothermal area in Denizli-Turkey. All measures were taken in 2013 along to three months. VES measurements were taken throughout 3 profiles of parallel to each other in geothermal area. Distance of between profiles was selected as 500m. Each of the VES point lengths were taken as between 3-4km in a total of taken 90 number VES measurements. Also distance between the VES points was selected as 250m. Extensional direction of VES point of inside the same profile was designed to be suitable for two-dimensional. Measurements were evaluated as one-dimensional (1D) and after this two-dimensional (2D) then evaluation results were discussed. The geothermal reservoir depth was investigated and was tried to identify potential mechanical borehole locations depending on 1D and 2D evaluation results. Keywords: Geothermal Area, Vertical Electrical Sounding, 1D-2D resistivity results

  14. MR angiography with two-dimensional acquisition and three-dimensional display. Work in progress.

    PubMed

    Keller, P J; Drayer, B P; Fram, E K; Williams, K D; Dumoulin, C L; Souza, S P

    1989-11-01

    Magnetic resonance arteriograms of healthy volunteers and selected patients were produced with a new spoiled gradient-echo pulse sequence based on time-of-flight phenomena. The procedure involves sequential acquisition of many contiguous, thin (1.5-mm) axial two-dimensional sections. These volume data are then submitted to a raytracing projection program, which retrospectively yields multiple arbitrary projection angles rotating through any plane. Venous structures are suppressed with a presaturation slab superior to the current section. The slab location is advanced in concert with advancement of each new section location. The acquisition time varies from 6 to 13 minutes, depending on the number of sections acquired for three-dimensional display. This method obviates the subtraction of image data sets to suppress signals from stationary spins, is more sensitive to slow blood flow than three-dimensional methods of acquisition, and shows special promise for the study of extracranial vascular disease. PMID:2798885

  15. Tunable electronic and magnetic properties of two‐dimensional materials and their one‐dimensional derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhuhua; Liu, Xiaofei; Yu, Jin; Hang, Yang; Li, Yao; Guo, Yufeng; Xu, Ying; Sun, Xu; Zhou, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Low‐dimensional materials exhibit many exceptional properties and functionalities which can be efficiently tuned by externally applied force or fields. Here we review the current status of research on tuning the electronic and magnetic properties of low‐dimensional carbon, boron nitride, metal‐dichalcogenides, phosphorene nanomaterials by applied engineering strain, external electric field and interaction with substrates, etc, with particular focus on the progress of computational methods and studies. We highlight the similarities and differences of the property modulation among one‐ and two‐dimensional nanomaterials. Recent breakthroughs in experimental demonstration of the tunable functionalities in typical nanostructures are also presented. Finally, prospective and challenges for applying the tunable properties into functional devices are discussed. WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2016, 6:324–350. doi: 10.1002/wcms.1251 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article.

  16. Three-dimensional reconstruction of surface nanoarchitecture from two-dimensional datasets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The design of biomaterial surfaces relies heavily on the ability to accurately measure and visualize the three-dimensional surface nanoarchitecture of substrata. Here, we present a technique for producing three-dimensional surface models using displacement maps that are based on the data obtained from two-dimensional analyses. This technique is particularly useful when applied to scanning electron micrographs that have been calibrated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) roughness data. The evaluation of four different surface types, including thin titanium films, silicon wafers, polystyrene cell culture dishes and dragonfly wings confirmed that this technique is particularly effective for the visualization of conductive surfaces such as metallic titanium. The technique is particularly useful for visualizing surfaces that cannot be easily analyzed using AFM. The speed and ease with which electron micrographs can be recorded, combined with a relatively simple process for generating displacement maps, make this technique useful for the assessment of the surface topography of biomaterials. PMID:24410821

  17. Three-dimensional image reconstruction for electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Kleinermann, F; Avis, N J; Judah, S K; Barber, D C

    1996-11-01

    Very little work has been conducted on three-dimensional aspects of electrical impedance tomography (EIT), partly due to the increased computational complexity over the two-dimensional aspects of EIT. Nevertheless, extending EIT to three-dimensional data acquisition and image reconstruction may afford significant advantages such as an increase in the size of the independent data set and improved spatial resolution. However, considerable challenges are associated with the software aspects of three-dimensional EIT systems due to the requirement for accurate three-dimensional forward problem modelling and the derivation of three-dimensional image reconstruction algorithms. This paper outlines the work performed to date to derive a three-dimensional image reconstruction algorithm for EIT based on the inversion of the sensitivity matrix approach for a finite right circular cylinder. A comparison in terms of the singular-value spectra and the singular vectors between the sensitivity matrices for a three-dimensional cylinder and a two-dimensional disc has been performed. This comparison shows that the three-dimensional image reconstruction algorithm recruits more central information at lower condition numbers than the two-dimensional image reconstruction algorithm.

  18. Slightly two- or three-dimensional self-similar solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, Re'em; Bode, Nate; Yalinewich, Almog; MacFadyen, Andrew

    2012-08-01

    Self-similarity allows for analytic or semi-analytic solutions to many hydrodynamics problems. Most of these solutions are one-dimensional. Using linear perturbation theory, expanded around such a one-dimensional solution, we find self-similar hydrodynamic solutions that are two- or three-dimensional. Since the deviation from a one-dimensional solution is small, we call these slightly two-dimensional and slightly three-dimensional self-similar solutions, respectively. As an example, we treat strong spherical explosions of the second type. A strong explosion propagates into an ideal gas with negligible temperature and density profile of the form ρ(r, θ, ϕ) = r-ω[1 + σF(θ, ϕ)], where ω > 3 and σ ≪ 1. Analytical solutions are obtained by expanding the arbitrary function F(θ, ϕ) in spherical harmonics. We compare our results with two-dimensional numerical simulations, and find good agreement.

  19. Some topological states in one-dimensional cold atomic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Feng; Zhang, Dan-Wei; Zhu, Shi-Liang

    2015-07-15

    Ultracold atoms trapped in optical lattices nowadays have been widely used to mimic various models from condensed-matter physics. Recently, many great experimental progresses have been achieved for producing artificial magnetic field and spin–orbit coupling in cold atomic systems, which turn these systems into a new platform for simulating topological states. In this paper, we give a review focusing on quantum simulation of topologically protected soliton modes and topological insulators in one-dimensional cold atomic system. Firstly, the recent achievements towards quantum simulation of one-dimensional models with topological non-trivial states are reviewed, including the celebrated Jackiw–Rebbi model and Su–Schrieffer–Heeger model. Then, we will introduce a dimensional reduction method for systematically constructing high dimensional topological states in lower dimensional models and review its applications on simulating two-dimensional topological insulators in one-dimensional optical superlattices.

  20. Three-dimensional and four-dimensional HDlive-rendered images of thanatophoric dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Inubashiri, Eisuke; Kuroki, Katumaru; Maeda, Nobuhiko; Kawai, Kiichirou; Akutagawa, Noriyuki; Sugawara, Masaki; Imai, Shosuke; Minami, Kunihiro; Nomura, Yasuhiro

    2015-04-01

    We present herein our first experience with a case of thanatophoric dysplasia (type I) that was diagnosed during the second trimester using three- and four-dimensional HDlive ultrasonography. The HDlive rendering mode clearly showed the anatomical features of thanatophoric dysplasia: external malformations and skeletal abnormalities, including extremely short limbs, flattened vertebral bodies, and short horizontal ribs, among others. HDlive can provide valuable, highly realistic images for the differential diagnosis of skeletal dysplasia. It may also play an important complementary role when conventional two- and three-dimensional ultrasonography does not provide sufficient definition. PMID:26576586

  1. Early diagnosis of conjoined twins using two-dimensional color Doppler and three-dimensional ultrasound.

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla-Musoles, F.; Raga, F.; Bonilla, F.; Blanes, J.; Osborne, N. G.

    1998-01-01

    Transvaginal three-dimensional (3-D) and color Doppler ultrasound were used to establish a first-trimester definitive diagnosis and classification of thoracoomphalopagus conjoined twins following two-dimensional (2-D) transabdominal and transvaginal scans that indicated twin gestation of uncertain classification. Color Doppler in combination with 3-D ultrasound can be a useful complement to 2-D ultrasound to confirm early diagnosis and determine the extent of organ sharing and definitive classification of conjoined twins. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9770956

  2. Melting in three-dimensional and two-dimensional Yukawa systems.

    PubMed

    Vaulina, О S; Koss, X G

    2015-10-01

    Solid-liquid phase transitions in three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) Yukawa systems were studied numerically and analytically, including the melting of the fcc and bcc 3D lattices, and of a hexagonal primitive (hp) 2D lattice. An approach is proposed for the determination of the melting lines in these systems. The suggested approach takes into account the nonlinearity (anharmonicity) of pair interaction forces and allows one to correctly predict the conditions of melting for 3D and 2D crystal systems. The obtained results are compared with the existing theoretical and numerical data. PMID:26565216

  3. Particle mesh Ewald method for three-dimensional systems with two-dimensional periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Masaaki; Nagashima, Umpei

    2001-05-01

    A particle mesh Ewald method for calculating Coulomb interactions in three-dimensional (3D) systems with two-dimensional (2D) periodicity was developed. Computational efficiency and accuracy of this method were evaluated for a TIP3P water system with 2928 particles in a cubic box with 2D periodicity. The accuracy of this method for calculating Coulomb interactions is comparable to our previous method that uses Fourier integral. For calculations with maximum errors in the Coulomb force of 0.4- 20.0 kJ mol -1 nm-1, the current method was up to five times faster than the previous method.

  4. (1+2)-dimensional strongly nonlocal solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang Shigen; Guo Qi

    2007-11-15

    Approximate solutions of (1+2)-dimensional strongly nonlocal solitons (SNSs) are presented. It is shown that the power of a SNS in a nematic liquid crystal is in direct proportion to the second power of the degree of nonlocality, the power of a SNS in a nonlocal medium with a logarithmic nonlocal response is in inverse proportion to the second power of its beamwidth, and the power of a SNS in a nonlocal medium with an sth-power decay nonlocal response is in direct proportion to the (s+2)th power of the degree of nonlocality.

  5. Three-dimensional nanoscopy of colloidal crystals.

    PubMed

    Harke, Benjamin; Ullal, Chaitanya K; Keller, Jan; Hell, Stefan W

    2008-05-01

    We demonstrate the direct three-dimensional imaging of densely packed colloidal nanostructures using stimulated emission depletion microscopy. A combination of two de-excitation patterns yields a resolution of 43 nm in the lateral and 125 nm in the axial direction and an effective focal volume that is by 126-fold smaller than that of a corresponding confocal microscope. The mapping of a model system of spheres organized by confined convective assembly unambiguously identified face-centered cubic, hexagonal close-packed, random hexagonal close-packed, and body-centered cubic structures.

  6. String breaking in four dimensional lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, A.; Eichten, E.; Thacker, H.

    2001-06-01

    Virtual quark pair screening leads to breaking of the string between fundamental representation quarks in QCD. For unquenched four dimensional lattice QCD, this (so far elusive) phenomenon is studied using the recently developed truncated determinant algorithm (TDA). The dynamical configurations were generated on a 650 MHz PC. Quark eigenmodes up to 420 MeV are included exactly in these TDA studies performed at low quark mass on large coarse [but O(a{sup 2}) improved] lattices. A study of Wilson line correlators in Coulomb gauge extracted from an ensemble of 1000 two-flavor dynamical configurations reveals evidence for flattening of the string tension at distances R{approx}>1 fm.

  7. Gauge equivalence in two-dimensional gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, T. ); Igarashi, Y. ); Kubo, J. ); Tabei, T. )

    1993-08-15

    Two-dimensional quantum gravity is identified as a second-class system which we convert into a first-class system via the Batalin-Fradkin (BF) procedure. Using the extended phase space method, we then formulate the theory in the most general class of gauges. The conformal gauge action suggested by David, Distler, and Kawai is derived from first principles. We find a local, light-cone gauge action whose Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin invariance implies Polyakov's curvature equation [partial derivative][sub [minus

  8. Hydrometor classification from 2 dimensional videodisdrometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grazioli, J.; Tuia, D.; Monhart, S.; Schneebeli, M.; Raupach, T.; Berne, A.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a hydrometeor classification technique based on two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD) data. The method provides an estimate of the dominant hydrometeor type falling over time intervals of 60 s during precipitation, using as input the statistical behavior of a set of particle descriptors, calculated for each particle image. The employed supervised algorithm is a support vector machine (SVM), trained over precipitation time steps labeled by visual inspection. In this way, 8 dominant hydrometeor classes could be discriminated. The algorithm achieves accurate classification performances, with median overall accuracies (Cohen's K) of 90% (0.88), and with accuracies higher than 84% for each hydrometeor class.

  9. High resolution three-dimensional doping profiler

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    A semiconductor doping profiler provides a Schottky contact at one surface and an ohmic contact at the other. While the two contacts are coupled to a power source, thereby establishing an electrical bias in the semiconductor, a localized light source illuminates the semiconductor to induce a photocurrent. The photocurrent changes in accordance with the doping characteristics of the semiconductor in the illuminated region. By changing the voltage of the power source the depth of the depletion layer can be varied to provide a three dimensional view of the local properties of the semiconductor.

  10. Three dimensional digital holographic aperture synthesis.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Stephen; Kaylor, Brant M; Barber, Zeb W; Reibel, Randy R

    2015-09-01

    Aperture synthesis techniques are applied to temporally and spatially diverse digital holograms recorded with a fast focal-plane array. Because the technique fully resolves the downrange dimension using wide-bandwidth FMCW linear-chirp waveforms, extremely high resolution three dimensional (3D) images can be obtained even at very long standoff ranges. This allows excellent 3D image formation even when targets have significant structure or discontinuities, which are typically poorly rendered with multi-baseline synthetic aperture ladar or multi-wavelength holographic aperture ladar approaches. The background for the system is described and system performance is demonstrated through both simulation and experiments. PMID:26368474

  11. Three-Dimensional Printing in Orthopedic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Nguyen, Eric; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is emerging as a clinically promising technology for rapid prototyping of surgically implantable products. With this commercially available technology, computed tomography or magnetic resonance images can be used to create graspable objects from 3D reconstructed images. Models can enhance patients' understanding of their pathology and surgeon preoperative planning. Customized implants and casts can be made to match an individual's anatomy. This review outlines 3D printing, its current applications in orthopedics, and promising future directions. PMID:26558661

  12. Three-dimensional Printing in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M. S.; Jose, Rod R.; Rabie, Amr N.; Gerstle, Theodore L.; Lee, Bernard T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: The advent of 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology has facilitated the creation of customized objects. The lack of regulation in developing countries renders conventional means of addressing various healthcare issues challenging. 3D printing may provide a venue for addressing many of these concerns in an inexpensive and easily accessible fashion. These may potentially include the production of basic medical supplies, vaccination beads, laboratory equipment, and prosthetic limbs. As this technology continues to improve and prices are reduced, 3D printing has the potential ability to promote initiatives across the entire developing world, resulting in improved surgical care and providing a higher quality of healthcare to its residents. PMID:26301132

  13. On four dimensional N = 3 superconformal theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharony, Ofer; Evtikhiev, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    In this note we study four dimensional theories with N = 3 superconformal symmetry, that do not also have N = 4 supersymmetry. No examples of such theories are known, but their existence is also not ruled out. We analyze several properties that such theories must have. We show that their conformal anomalies obey a = c. Using the N = 3 superconformal algebra, we show that they do not have any exactly marginal deformations preserving N = 3 supersymmetry, or global symmetries (except for their R-symmetries). Finally, we analyze the possible dimensions of chiral operators labeling their moduli space.

  14. Noise from two-dimensional vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, N. D.; Stockman, N. O.

    1972-01-01

    The fluctuating flow in an idealized model of a turbulent shear layer composed of many discrete vortices is analyzed. Computer solutions reveal irregular motions which are similar in many respects to observed flows in turbulent three-dimensional layers. The model is further simplified to a pair of equal co-rotating vortices and the noise generation is analyzed in terms of equivalent quadrupole oscillations. Results of the analysis in a uniform medium are consistent with Lighthill's results. New results are obtained for the effects of mean velocity gradients, compressibility, temperature inhomogenities, and gradients of the mean Mach number.

  15. Electrode With Porous Three-Dimensional Support

    DOEpatents

    Bernard, Patrick; Dauchier, Jean-Michel; Simonneau, Olivier

    1999-07-27

    Electrode including a paste containing particles of electrochemically active material and a conductive support consisting of a three-dimensional porous material comprising strands delimiting contiguous pores communicating via passages, characterized in that the average width L in .mu.m of said passages is related to the average diameter .O slashed. in .mu.m of said particles by the following equation, in which W and Y are dimensionless coefficients: wherein W=0.16 Y=1.69 X=202.4 .mu.m and Z=80 .mu.m

  16. Quasicondensation in Two-Dimensional Fermi Gases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chien-Te; Anderson, Brandon M; Boyack, Rufus; Levin, K

    2015-12-11

    In this paper we follow the analysis and protocols of recent experiments, combined with simple theory, to arrive at a physical understanding of quasi-condensation in two dimensional Fermi gases. A key signature of quasi-condensation, which contains aspects of Berezinskiĭ-Kosterlitz-Thouless behavior, is a strong zero momentum peak in the pair momentum distribution. Importantly, this peak emerges at a reasonably well defined onset temperature. The resulting phase diagram, pair momentum distribution, and algebraic power law decay are compatible with recent experiments throughout the continuum from BEC to BCS. PMID:26705613

  17. 3DIVS: 3-Dimensional Immersive Virtual Sculpting

    SciTech Connect

    Kuester, F; Duchaineau, M A; Hamann, B; Joy, K I; Uva, A E

    2001-10-03

    Virtual Environments (VEs) have the potential to revolutionize traditional product design by enabling the transition from conventional CAD to fully digital product development. The presented prototype system targets closing the ''digital gap'' as introduced by the need for physical models such as clay models or mockups in the traditional product design and evaluation cycle. We describe a design environment that provides an intuitive human-machine interface for the creation and manipulation of three-dimensional (3D) models in a semi-immersive design space, focusing on ease of use and increased productivity for both designer and CAD engineers.

  18. Two-dimensional photonic crystal surfactant detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Tao; Smith, Natasha; Asher, Sanford A

    2012-08-01

    We developed a novel two-dimensional (2-D) crystalline colloidal array photonic crystal sensing material for the visual detection of amphiphilic molecules in water. A close-packed polystyrene 2-D array monolayer was embedded in a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-based hydrogel film. These 2-D photonic crystals placed on a mirror show intense diffraction that enables them to be used for visual determination of analytes. Binding of surfactant molecules attaches ions to the sensor that swells the PNIPAAm-based hydrogel. The resulting increase in particle spacing red shifts the 2-D diffracted light. Incorporation of more hydrophobic monomers increases the sensitivity to surfactants. PMID:22720790

  19. Higher-dimensional puncture initial data

    SciTech Connect

    Zilhao, Miguel; Ansorg, Marcus; Cardoso, Vitor; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Herdeiro, Carlos; Sperhake, Ulrich; Witek, Helvi

    2011-10-15

    We calculate puncture initial data, corresponding to single and binary black holes with linear momenta, which solve the constraint equations of D-dimensional vacuum gravity. The data are generated by a modification of the pseudospectral code presented in [M. Ansorg, B. Bruegmann, and W. Tichy, Phys. Rev. D 70, 064011 (2004).] and made available as the TwoPunctures thorn inside the Cactus computational toolkit. As examples, we exhibit convergence plots, the violation of the Hamiltonian constraint as well as the initial data for D=4,5,6,7. These initial data are the starting point to perform high-energy collisions of black holes in D dimensions.

  20. One-dimensional hypersonic phononic crystals.

    PubMed

    Gomopoulos, N; Maschke, D; Koh, C Y; Thomas, E L; Tremel, W; Butt, H-J; Fytas, G

    2010-03-10

    We report experimental observation of a normal incidence phononic band gap in one-dimensional periodic (SiO(2)/poly(methyl methacrylate)) multilayer film at gigahertz frequencies using Brillouin spectroscopy. The band gap to midgap ratio of 0.30 occurs for elastic wave propagation along the periodicity direction, whereas for inplane propagation the system displays an effective medium behavior. The phononic properties are well captured by numerical simulations. The porosity in the silica layers presents a structural scaffold for the introduction of secondary active media for potential coupling between phonons and other excitations, such as photons and electrons.

  1. Ultra high purity, dimensionally stable INVAR 36

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, Witold M. (Inventor); Lane, Marc S. (Inventor); Hsieh, Cheng H. (Inventor); Odonnell, Timothy P. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An INVAR 36 material having long-term dimensional stability is produced by sintering a blend of powders of nickel and iron under pressure in an inert atmosphere to form an alloy containing less than 0.01 parts of carbon and less than 0.1 part aggregate and preferably 0.01 part individually of Mn, Si, P, S and Al impurities. The sintered alloy is heat treated and slowly and uniformly cooled to form a material having a coefficient of thermal expansion of less than 1 ppm/C and a temporal stability of less than 1 ppm/year.

  2. Ultra high purity, dimensionally stable INVAR 36

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, Witold M. (Inventor); Lane, Marc S. (Inventor); Odonnell, Timothy P. (Inventor); Hsieh, Cheng H. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An INVAR 36 material having long-term dimensional stability is produced by sintering a blend of powders of nickel and iron under pressure in an inert atmosphere to form an alloy containing less than 0.01 parts of carbon and less than 0.1 part aggregate and preferably 0.01 part individually of Mn, Si, P, S and Al impurities. The sintered alloy is heat treated and slowly and uniformly cooled to form a material having a coefficient of thermal expansion of less than 1 ppm/C and a temporal stability of less than 1 ppm/year.

  3. Pressure of two-dimensional Yukawa liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yan; Goree, J.; Liu, Bin; Wang, Lei; Tian, Wen-de

    2016-06-01

    A simple analytic expression for the pressure of a two-dimensional Yukawa liquid is found by fitting results from a molecular dynamics simulation. The results verify that the pressure can be written as the sum of a potential term which is a simple multiple of the Coulomb potential energy at a distance of the Wigner-Seitz radius, and a kinetic term which is a multiple of the one for an ideal gas. Dimensionless coefficients for each of these terms are found empirically, by fitting. The resulting analytic expression, with its empirically determined coefficients, is plotted as isochores, or curves of constant area. These results should be applicable to monolayer dusty plasmas.

  4. Dimensionality reduction of dynamical systems with parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welshman, Ch.; Brooke, J.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a method for reproducing the dynamical behaviour observed in systems of very high dimension in a state space of much lower dimension. The method is designed for systems where the solution evolves onto an attractor of dimension m which is much lower than that of the state space of the full system, n. Whitney's embedding theorem guarantees that the attractor can be embedded in a space of dimension d = 2m+1. We describe how such methods can be extended to reproducing the vector field on the attractor so that the dynamics of a parameterized family of attractors can be explored in the low dimensional space Rd.

  5. Three-dimensional ultrasonic colloidal crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleap, Mihai; Drinkwater, Bruce W.

    2016-05-01

    Colloidal assembly represents a powerful method for the fabrication of functional materials. In this article, we describe how acoustic radiation forces can guide the assembly of colloidal particles into structures that serve as microscopic elements in novel acoustic metadevices or act as phononic crystals. Using a simple three-dimensional orthogonal system, we show that a diversity of colloidal structures with orthorhombic symmetry can be assembled with megahertz-frequency (MHz) standing pressure waves. These structures allow rapid tuning of acoustic properties and provide a new platform for dynamic metamaterial applications. xml:lang="fr"

  6. Low dimensional modeling of wall turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubry, Nadine

    2015-11-01

    In this talk we will review the original low dimensional dynamical model of the wall region of a turbulent boundary layer [Aubry, Holmes, Lumley and Stone, Journal of Fluid Dynamics 192, 1988] and discuss its impact on the field of fluid dynamics. We will also invite a few researchers who would like to make brief comments on the influence Lumley had on their research paths. In collaboration with Philip Holmes, Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics and Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.

  7. Three-dimensional echocardiography in valve disease

    PubMed Central

    COLOMBO, CHIARA; TAMBORINI, GLORIA; PEPI, MAURO; ALIMENTO, MARINA; FIORENTINI, CESARE

    2007-01-01

    This review covers the role of three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography in the diagnosis of heart valve disease. Several factors have contributed to the evolution of this technique, which is currently a simple and routine method: rapid evolution in probe and computer technologies, demonstration that 3D data sets allowed more complete and accurate evaluation of cardiac structures, emerging clinical experience indicating the strong potential particularly in valve diseases, volume and function of the two ventricle measurements and several other fields. This report will review current and future applications of 3D echocardiography in mitral, aortic and tricuspid valve diseases underlying both qualitative (morphologic) and quantitative advantages of this technique. PMID:21977273

  8. Three-dimensional flow about penguin wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noca, Flavio; Sudki, Bassem; Lauria, Michel

    2012-11-01

    Penguins, contrary to airborne birds, do not need to compensate for gravity. Yet, the kinematics of their wings is highly three-dimensional and seems exceedingly complex for plain swimming. Is such kinematics the result of an evolutionary optimization or is it just a forced adaptation of an airborne flying apparatus to underwater swimming? Some answers will be provided based on flow dynamics around robotic penguin wings. Updates will also be presented on the development of a novel robotic arm intended to simulate penguin swimming and enable novel propulsion devices.

  9. Simple effective interaction for dimensional crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Lucian A.

    2016-03-01

    We show that the effective electron-electron interaction veff[n ] (r ,r') =erf [|r - r'|b (n ) ]/|r -r'| , with n being the electronic density and b (n ) fixed from the compressibility sum rule, is remarkably accurate in both three and two dimensions, competing with the actual state-of-the-art exchange-correlation static kernels. Using this result, we propose a simple isotropic approximation for the quasi-two-dimensional regime, which gives a realistic wave vector analysis of the correlation energy, in the context of the linear response time-dependent density functional theory.

  10. Program For Two-Dimensional Thermoplastic Deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orient, George E.

    1993-01-01

    SOLAS contains number of utility programs for use with finite-element simulations. Designed to handle two-dimensional problems of quasi-static thermoplastic deformation. Includes optional postprocessing software, independent of solution codes, generating unified element-by-element list of quantitative results of computation, plus file containing signed equivalent stresses, equivalent strains, and multiaxiality factor parameter. Signs of equivalent quantities expressed either with respect to maximum principal quantities or with respect to directions defined by user. Written in UNIX shell script and FORTRAN 77.

  11. Enhancing one dimensional sensitivity with plasmonic coupling.

    PubMed

    O'Mullane, Samuel; Peterson, Brennan; Race, Joseph; Keller, Nick; Diebold, Alain C

    2014-10-20

    In this paper, we propose a cross-grating structure to enhance the critical dimension sensitivity of one dimensional nanometer scale metal gratings. Making use of the interaction between slight changes in refractive index and localized plasmons, we demonstrate sub-angstrom scale sensitivity in this structure. Compared to unaltered infinite metal gratings and truncated finite gratings, this cross-grating structure shows robust spectra dependent mostly on the dimension of the smaller line width and pitch. While typical scatterometry simulations show angstrom resolution at best, this structure has demonstrated picometer resolution. Due to the wide range of acceptable specifications, we expect experimental confirmation of such structures to soon follow. PMID:25401657

  12. Numerical simulations of two-dimensional QED

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, S.R.; Kenway, R.D.

    1986-02-01

    We describe the computer simulation of two-dimensional QED on a 64 x 64 Euclidean space-time lattice using the Susskind lattice fermion action. Theorder parameter for chiral symmetry breaking and the low-lying meson masses are calculated for both the model with two continuum flavours, which arises naturally in this formulation, and the model with one continuum falvour obtained by including a nonsymmetric mass term and setting one fermion mass equal to the cut-off. Results are compared with those obtined using the quenched approximation, and with analytic predictions.

  13. Can Two-Dimensional Boron Superconduct?

    PubMed

    Penev, Evgeni S; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I

    2016-04-13

    Two-dimensional boron is expected to exhibit various structural polymorphs, all being metallic. Additionally, its small atomic mass suggests strong electron-phonon coupling, which in turn can enable superconducting behavior. Here we perform first-principles analysis of electronic structure, phonon spectra, and electron-phonon coupling of selected 2D boron polymorphs and show that the most stable structures predicted to feasibly form on a metal substrate should also exhibit intrinsic phonon-mediated superconductivity, with estimated critical temperature in the range of Tc ≈ 10-20 K.

  14. [Strengths and future of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Dolci, Germán

    2014-01-01

    The journals of medicine arose as a communication tool more than 200 years ago. At the beginning, their nature was local; later, their aim was to spread medical information along the nation; and, finally, they sought to reach the world distribution. The Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social was published for the first time 52 years ago, and it has walked its way from local to international distribution. This journal has 23 000 subscribers, it is included in Medline and it reached a 0.112 SCImago Journal Rank in 2012. Its website receives around 200 000 visits monthly and 45 % are foreign visits. In the future, the peer review system is going to be strengthened, and the journal is going to offer audio, video, and applications to reinforce interactive participation between authors, readers in order to reach modernity and draw young new attention.

  15. Illuminating water and life: Emilio Del Giudice.

    PubMed

    Ho, Mae-Wan

    2015-01-01

    The quantum electrodynamics theory of water put forward by Del Giudice and colleagues provides a useful foundation for a new science of water for life. The interaction of light with liquid water generates quantum coherent domains in which the water molecules oscillate between the ground state and an excited state close to the ionizing potential of water. This produces a plasma of almost free electrons favoring redox reactions, the basis of energy metabolism in living organisms. Coherent domains stabilized by surfaces, such as membranes and macromolecules, provide the excited interfacial water that enables photosynthesis to take place, on which most of life on Earth depends. Excited water is the source of superconducting protons for rapid intercommunication within the body. Coherent domains can also trap electromagnetic frequencies from the environment to orchestrate and activate specific biochemical reactions through resonance, a mechanism for the most precise regulation of gene function.

  16. Illuminating water and life: Emilio Del Giudice.

    PubMed

    Ho, Mae-Wan

    2015-01-01

    The quantum electrodynamics theory of water put forward by Del Giudice and colleagues provides a useful foundation for a new science of water for life. The interaction of light with liquid water generates quantum coherent domains in which the water molecules oscillate between the ground state and an excited state close to the ionizing potential of water. This produces a plasma of almost free electrons favoring redox reactions, the basis of energy metabolism in living organisms. Coherent domains stabilized by surfaces, such as membranes and macromolecules, provide the excited interfacial water that enables photosynthesis to take place, on which most of life on Earth depends. Excited water is the source of superconducting protons for rapid intercommunication within the body. Coherent domains can also trap electromagnetic frequencies from the environment to orchestrate and activate specific biochemical reactions through resonance, a mechanism for the most precise regulation of gene function. PMID:26098522

  17. Características del viento en estrellas Be derivadas del perfil Hα

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrmann, R.; Cidale, L.

    El estudio teórico de perfiles Hα y su variabilidad en estrellas Be ha sido frecuentemente desarrollado en base a modelos de envolturas circunestelares inhomogéneas, donde la geometría del material es responsable de la forma del perfil dependiendo de la dirección de observación. Nosotros damos una interpretación alternativa y proponemos que la mayoría de las propiedades de esta línea tienen origen en la base de un viento estelar y de una estructura cromosférica anexa a la fotósfera. Encontramos que típicos perfiles Hα en Be, como son los llamados pole-on y winebottle, pueden ser reproducidos cualitativamente sin recurrir a la existencia de una envoltura asimétrica. Analizamos como la línea Hα permite identificar la posible estructura del viento en la región donde éste se inicia.

  18. Estudio teórico del CO2. Orbitales de valencia y del ``core''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalla Gutiérrez, E.

    Hemos calculado las intensidades de las transiciones E1 a los miembros de las series de Rydberg con origen en los orbitales ``no enlazantes'' del dióxido de carbono, especie de conocida relevancia atmosférica. Se han computado, asimismo, los continuos de fotoionización correspondientes a los distintos canales de ionización, representándolos como densidad espectral de fuerza de oscilador frente a la energía del fotón incidente; mostramos los resultados df/dE para la fotoionización total de esta especie en el intervalo 15-60 eV. Todos los cálculos se han llevado a cabo mediante la formulación Molecular del Método de los Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico, MQDO [1,2]. La calidad de los resultados que presentamos se ha evaluado en base a la comparación con los datos, tanto experimentales como teóricos, disponibles en la bibliografía. El acuerdo encontrado es altamente satisfactorio

  19. Three-dimensional television: a broadcaster's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, S. J. E.; Armstrong, M.; Salmon, R. A.

    2009-02-01

    The recent resurgence of interest in the stereoscopic cinema and the increasing availability to the consumer of stereoscopic televisions and computer displays are leading broadcasters to consider, once again, the feasibility of stereoscopic broadcasting. High Definition Television is now widely deployed, and the R&D departments of broadcasters and consumer electronics manufacturers are starting to plan future enhancements to the experience of television. Improving the perception of depth via stereoscopy is a strong candidate technology. In this paper we will consider the challenges associated with the production, transmission and display of different forms of "three-dimensional" television. We will explore options available to a broadcaster wishing to start a 3D service using the technologies available at the present time, and consider how they could be improved to enable many more television programmes to be recorded and transmitted in a 3D-compatible form, paying particular attention to scenarios such as live broadcasting, where the workflows developed for the stereoscopic cinema are inapplicable. We will also consider the opportunities available for broadcasters to reach audiences with "three-dimensional" content via other media in the near future: for example, distributing content via the existing stereoscopic cinema network, or over the Internet to owners of stereoscopic computer displays.

  20. Low-dimensional Representation of Error Covariance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tippett, Michael K.; Cohn, Stephen E.; Todling, Ricardo; Marchesin, Dan

    2000-01-01

    Ensemble and reduced-rank approaches to prediction and assimilation rely on low-dimensional approximations of the estimation error covariances. Here stability properties of the forecast/analysis cycle for linear, time-independent systems are used to identify factors that cause the steady-state analysis error covariance to admit a low-dimensional representation. A useful measure of forecast/analysis cycle stability is the bound matrix, a function of the dynamics, observation operator and assimilation method. Upper and lower estimates for the steady-state analysis error covariance matrix eigenvalues are derived from the bound matrix. The estimates generalize to time-dependent systems. If much of the steady-state analysis error variance is due to a few dominant modes, the leading eigenvectors of the bound matrix approximate those of the steady-state analysis error covariance matrix. The analytical results are illustrated in two numerical examples where the Kalman filter is carried to steady state. The first example uses the dynamics of a generalized advection equation exhibiting nonmodal transient growth. Failure to observe growing modes leads to increased steady-state analysis error variances. Leading eigenvectors of the steady-state analysis error covariance matrix are well approximated by leading eigenvectors of the bound matrix. The second example uses the dynamics of a damped baroclinic wave model. The leading eigenvectors of a lowest-order approximation of the bound matrix are shown to approximate well the leading eigenvectors of the steady-state analysis error covariance matrix.

  1. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  2. Three-dimensional flow in Kupffer's Vesicle.

    PubMed

    Montenegro-Johnson, T D; Baker, D I; Smith, D J; Lopes, S S

    2016-09-01

    Whilst many vertebrates appear externally left-right symmetric, the arrangement of internal organs is asymmetric. In zebrafish, the breaking of left-right symmetry is organised by Kupffer's Vesicle (KV): an approximately spherical, fluid-filled structure that begins to form in the embryo 10 hours post fertilisation. A crucial component of zebrafish symmetry breaking is the establishment of a cilia-driven fluid flow within KV. However, it is still unclear (a) how dorsal, ventral and equatorial cilia contribute to the global vortical flow, and (b) if this flow breaks left-right symmetry through mechanical transduction or morphogen transport. Fully answering these questions requires knowledge of the three-dimensional flow patterns within KV, which have not been quantified in previous work. In this study, we calculate and analyse the three-dimensional flow in KV. We consider flow from both individual and groups of cilia, and (a) find anticlockwise flow can arise purely from excess of cilia on the dorsal roof over the ventral floor, showing how this vortical flow is stabilised by dorsal tilt of equatorial cilia, and (b) show that anterior clustering of dorsal cilia leads to around 40 % faster flow in the anterior over the posterior corner. We argue that these flow features are supportive of symmetry breaking through mechano-sensory cilia, and suggest a novel experiment to test this hypothesis. From our new understanding of the flow, we propose a further experiment to reverse the flow within KV to potentially induce situs inversus.

  3. Two-Dimensional Phononic Crystals: Disorder Matters.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Markus R; Graczykowski, Bartlomiej; Reparaz, Juan Sebastian; El Sachat, Alexandros; Sledzinska, Marianna; Alzina, Francesc; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M

    2016-09-14

    The design and fabrication of phononic crystals (PnCs) hold the key to control the propagation of heat and sound at the nanoscale. However, there is a lack of experimental studies addressing the impact of order/disorder on the phononic properties of PnCs. Here, we present a comparative investigation of the influence of disorder on the hypersonic and thermal properties of two-dimensional PnCs. PnCs of ordered and disordered lattices are fabricated of circular holes with equal filling fractions in free-standing Si membranes. Ultrafast pump and probe spectroscopy (asynchronous optical sampling) and Raman thermometry based on a novel two-laser approach are used to study the phononic properties in the gigahertz (GHz) and terahertz (THz) regime, respectively. Finite element method simulations of the phonon dispersion relation and three-dimensional displacement fields furthermore enable the unique identification of the different hypersonic vibrations. The increase of surface roughness and the introduction of short-range disorder are shown to modify the phonon dispersion and phonon coherence in the hypersonic (GHz) range without affecting the room-temperature thermal conductivity. On the basis of these findings, we suggest a criteria for predicting phonon coherence as a function of roughness and disorder. PMID:27580163

  4. Two-dimensional cyanates: stabilization through hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Tsetseris, Leonidas

    2016-06-01

    According to first-principles calculations, it should be possible to grow two-dimensional (2D) forms of copper thio-cyanate (CuSCN) and copper seleno-cyanate (CuSeCN) since their energies are only marginally higher than those of their most stable three-dimensional (3D) wurtzite structures. Here we show using the same theoretical approach that chemisorption reactions of hydrogen molecules with the above-mentioned 2D CuSCN and CuSeCN systems enhance their stability as they decrease the energy difference with respect to the corresponding hydrogenated forms of the wurtzite crystals. Hydrogenation causes a sizeable decrease in the energy band gap by 0.56 eV and 0.65 eV for hydrogenated 2D-CuSCN (CuSCNH2) and 2D-CuSeCN (CuSeCNH2), respectively. Finally, we describe the stability of hydrogen vacancies in CuSCNH2 and CuSeCNH2 and show that the presence of isolated single H vacancies or di-vacancies does not affect significantly the electronic properties of the host systems close to the valence and conduction band edges. PMID:27183226

  5. Two-Dimensional Phononic Crystals: Disorder Matters.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Markus R; Graczykowski, Bartlomiej; Reparaz, Juan Sebastian; El Sachat, Alexandros; Sledzinska, Marianna; Alzina, Francesc; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M

    2016-09-14

    The design and fabrication of phononic crystals (PnCs) hold the key to control the propagation of heat and sound at the nanoscale. However, there is a lack of experimental studies addressing the impact of order/disorder on the phononic properties of PnCs. Here, we present a comparative investigation of the influence of disorder on the hypersonic and thermal properties of two-dimensional PnCs. PnCs of ordered and disordered lattices are fabricated of circular holes with equal filling fractions in free-standing Si membranes. Ultrafast pump and probe spectroscopy (asynchronous optical sampling) and Raman thermometry based on a novel two-laser approach are used to study the phononic properties in the gigahertz (GHz) and terahertz (THz) regime, respectively. Finite element method simulations of the phonon dispersion relation and three-dimensional displacement fields furthermore enable the unique identification of the different hypersonic vibrations. The increase of surface roughness and the introduction of short-range disorder are shown to modify the phonon dispersion and phonon coherence in the hypersonic (GHz) range without affecting the room-temperature thermal conductivity. On the basis of these findings, we suggest a criteria for predicting phonon coherence as a function of roughness and disorder.

  6. On the dimensionality of odor space

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Markus

    2015-01-01

    There is great interest in understanding human olfactory experience from a principled and quantitative standpoint. The comparison is often made to color vision, where a solid framework with a three-dimensional perceptual space enabled a rigorous search for the underlying neural pathways, and the technological development of lifelike color display devices. A recent, highly publicized report claims that humans can discriminate at least 1 trillion odors, which exceeds by many orders of magnitude the known capabilities of color discrimination. This claim is wrong. I show that the failure lies in the mathematical method used to infer the size of odor space from a limited experimental sample. Further analysis focuses on establishing how many dimensions the perceptual odor space has. I explore the dimensionality of physical, neural, and perceptual spaces, drawing on results from bacteria to humans, and propose some experimental approaches to better estimate the number of discriminable odors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07865.001 PMID:26151672

  7. Two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zhenyue; Deng, Junkai; Chandrakumara, Ganaka G.; Yan, Wenyi; Liu, Jefferson Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Driven by the increasing demand for micro-/nano-technologies, stimuli-responsive shape memory materials at nanoscale have recently attracted great research interests. However, by reducing the size of conventional shape memory materials down to approximately nanometre range, the shape memory effect diminishes. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we report the discovery of a shape memory effect in a two-dimensional atomically thin graphene oxide crystal with ordered epoxy groups, namely C8O. A maximum recoverable strain of 14.5% is achieved as a result of reversible phase transition between two intrinsically stable phases. Our calculations conclude co-existence of the two stable phases in a coherent crystal lattice, giving rise to the possibility of constructing multiple temporary shapes in a single material, thus, enabling highly desirable programmability. With an atomic thickness, excellent shape memory mechanical properties and electric field stimulus, the discovery of a two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide opens a path for the development of exceptional micro-/nano-electromechanical devices. PMID:27325441

  8. Three-Dimensional Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutin, Mikhail; Wang, Xu-Ming; Gutin, Olga

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an advanced method of noninvasive infrared imaging of tissues in depth. Heretofore, commercial OCT systems for 3D imaging have been designed principally for external ophthalmological examination. As explained below, such systems have been based on a one-dimensional OCT principle, and in the operation of such a system, 3D imaging is accomplished partly by means of a combination of electronic scanning along the optical (Z) axis and mechanical scanning along the two axes (X and Y) orthogonal to the optical axis. In 3D OCT, 3D imaging involves a form of electronic scanning (without mechanical scanning) along all three axes. Consequently, the need for mechanical adjustment is minimal and the mechanism used to position the OCT probe can be correspondingly more compact. A 3D OCT system also includes a probe of improved design and utilizes advanced signal- processing techniques. Improvements in performance over prior OCT systems include finer resolution, greater speed, and greater depth of field.

  9. The one-dimensional hydrogen atom revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, G.; Raff, U.

    2006-09-01

    The one-dimensional Schrodinger hydrogen atom is an interesting mathematical and physical problem for the study of bound states, eigenfunctions, and quantum-degeneracy issues. This one-dimensional physical system has given rise to some intriguing controversy for more than four decades. Presently, still no definite consensus seems to have been reached. We reanalyzed this apparently controversial problem, approaching it from a Fourier-transform representation method combined with some fundamental (basic) ideas found in self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators. In disagreement with some previous claims, we found that the complete Balmer energy spectrum is obtained together with an odd-parity set of eigenfunctions. Closed-form solutions in both coordinate and momentum spaces were obtained. No twofold degeneracy was observed as predicted by the degeneracy theorem in one dimension, though it does not necessarily have to hold for potentials with singularities. No ground state with infinite energy exists since the corresponding eigenfunction does not satisfy the Schrodinger equation at the origin.

  10. TSOM Method for Nanoelectronics Dimensional Metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Attota, Ravikiran

    2011-11-10

    Through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) is a relatively new method that transforms conventional optical microscopes into truly three-dimensional metrology tools for nanoscale to microscale dimensional analysis. TSOM achieves this by acquiring and analyzing a set of optical images collected at various focus positions going through focus (from above-focus to under-focus). The measurement resolution is comparable to what is possible with typical light scatterometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). TSOM method is able to identify nanometer scale difference, type of the difference and magnitude of the difference between two nano/micro scale targets using a conventional optical microscope with visible wavelength illumination. Numerous industries could benefit from the TSOM method--such as the semiconductor industry, MEMS, NEMS, biotechnology, nanomanufacturing, data storage, and photonics. The method is relatively simple and inexpensive, has a high throughput, provides nanoscale sensitivity for 3D measurements and could enable significant savings and yield improvements in nanometrology and nanomanufacturing. Potential applications are demonstrated using experiments and simulations.

  11. Two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Zhenyue; Deng, Junkai; Chandrakumara, Ganaka G.; Yan, Wenyi; Liu, Jefferson Zhe

    2016-06-01

    Driven by the increasing demand for micro-/nano-technologies, stimuli-responsive shape memory materials at nanoscale have recently attracted great research interests. However, by reducing the size of conventional shape memory materials down to approximately nanometre range, the shape memory effect diminishes. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we report the discovery of a shape memory effect in a two-dimensional atomically thin graphene oxide crystal with ordered epoxy groups, namely C8O. A maximum recoverable strain of 14.5% is achieved as a result of reversible phase transition between two intrinsically stable phases. Our calculations conclude co-existence of the two stable phases in a coherent crystal lattice, giving rise to the possibility of constructing multiple temporary shapes in a single material, thus, enabling highly desirable programmability. With an atomic thickness, excellent shape memory mechanical properties and electric field stimulus, the discovery of a two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide opens a path for the development of exceptional micro-/nano-electromechanical devices.

  12. Three-dimensional model of lignin structure

    SciTech Connect

    Jurasek, L.

    1995-12-01

    An attempt to build a three-dimensional model of lignin structure using a computer program is described. The program simulates the biosynthesis of spruce lignin by allowing coniferyl alcohol subunits to be added randomly by six different types of linkages, assumed to be most common. The simulated biosynthesis starts from a number of seed points within restricted space, corresponding to 50 mM initial concentration of coniferyl alcohol. Rules of three-dimensional packing of the subunits within the lignin macro-molecule are observed during the simulated biosynthetic process. Branched oligomeric structures thus generated form crosslinks at those positions where the chains grow close enough to form a link. Inter-chain crosslinking usually joins the oligomers into one macromolecule. Intra-chain crosslinks are also formed and result in closed loops. Typically, a macromolecule with molecular weight of approx. 2 x 105 is formed, with internal density of 1.35g/cm3. Various characteristics of the internal structure, such as branching, crosslinking, bond frequencies, and chain length distribution are described. Breakdown of the polymer was also simulated and the effect of closed loops on the weight average molecular weight is shown. The effect of the shape of the biosynthetic space on the degree of crosslinking is discussed and predictions of the overall molecular shape of lignin particles are made.

  13. Nanowired three-dimensional cardiac patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvir, Tal; Timko, Brian P.; Brigham, Mark D.; Naik, Shreesh R.; Karajanagi, Sandeep S.; Levy, Oren; Jin, Hongwei; Parker, Kevin K.; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2011-11-01

    Engineered cardiac patches for treating damaged heart tissues after a heart attack are normally produced by seeding heart cells within three-dimensional porous biomaterial scaffolds. These biomaterials, which are usually made of either biological polymers such as alginate or synthetic polymers such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA), help cells organize into functioning tissues, but poor conductivity of these materials limits the ability of the patch to contract strongly as a unit. Here, we show that incorporating gold nanowires within alginate scaffolds can bridge the electrically resistant pore walls of alginate and improve electrical communication between adjacent cardiac cells. Tissues grown on these composite matrices were thicker and better aligned than those grown on pristine alginate and when electrically stimulated, the cells in these tissues contracted synchronously. Furthermore, higher levels of the proteins involved in muscle contraction and electrical coupling are detected in the composite matrices. It is expected that the integration of conducting nanowires within three-dimensional scaffolds may improve the therapeutic value of current cardiac patches.

  14. Two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhenyue; Deng, Junkai; Chandrakumara, Ganaka G; Yan, Wenyi; Liu, Jefferson Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Driven by the increasing demand for micro-/nano-technologies, stimuli-responsive shape memory materials at nanoscale have recently attracted great research interests. However, by reducing the size of conventional shape memory materials down to approximately nanometre range, the shape memory effect diminishes. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we report the discovery of a shape memory effect in a two-dimensional atomically thin graphene oxide crystal with ordered epoxy groups, namely C8O. A maximum recoverable strain of 14.5% is achieved as a result of reversible phase transition between two intrinsically stable phases. Our calculations conclude co-existence of the two stable phases in a coherent crystal lattice, giving rise to the possibility of constructing multiple temporary shapes in a single material, thus, enabling highly desirable programmability. With an atomic thickness, excellent shape memory mechanical properties and electric field stimulus, the discovery of a two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide opens a path for the development of exceptional micro-/nano-electromechanical devices.

  15. Two component-three dimensional catalysis

    DOEpatents

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to catalytic reactor membranes having a gas-impermeable membrane for transport of oxygen anions. The membrane has an oxidation surface and a reduction surface. The membrane is coated on its oxidation surface with an adherent catalyst layer and is optionally coated on its reduction surface with a catalyst that promotes reduction of an oxygen-containing species (e.g., O.sub.2, NO.sub.2, SO.sub.2, etc.) to generate oxygen anions on the membrane. The reactor has an oxidation zone and a reduction zone separated by the membrane. A component of an oxygen containing gas in the reduction zone is reduced at the membrane and a reduced species in a reactant gas in the oxidation zone of the reactor is oxidized. The reactor optionally contains a three-dimensional catalyst in the oxidation zone. The adherent catalyst layer and the three-dimensional catalyst are selected to promote a desired oxidation reaction, particularly a partial oxidation of a hydrocarbon.

  16. Two-dimensional laser interferometry analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehr, Leo; Concepcion, Ricky; Duggan, Robert; Moore, Hannah; Novick, Asher; Ransohoff, Lauren; Gourdain, Pierre-Alexandre; Hammer, David; Kusse, Bruce

    2013-10-01

    The objective of our research was to create a two-dimensional interferometer which we will use to measure plasma densities at the Cornell Research Beam Accelerator (COBRA). We built two shearing interferometers and mounted them on an optics table. They intercept the probe laser beam which travels directly through the plasma and is captured by a 16-bit CCD camera. In comparing the interferometer images before the shot and during the plasma shot, we observed both lateral and vertical shifts in the interference pattern caused by the change of the refractive index due to the plasma electrons. We developed a computer program using Matlab to map a vector field depicting the shift between the two images. This shift is proportional to the line integral of electron density through the plasma chamber. We show this method provides a reliable way to determine the plasma electron density profile. Additionally, we hope this method can improve upon the diagnostic capabilities and efficiency of data collection used with standard one-dimensional interferometry. Undergraduate.

  17. Two and three dimensional magnetotelluric inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booker, J. R.

    Improved imaging of underground electrical structure has wide practical importance in exploring for groundwater, mineral, and geothermal resources, and in characterizing oil fields and waste sites. Because the electromagnetic inverse problem for natural sources is generally multidimensional, most imaging algorithms saturate available computer power long before they can deal with complete data sets. We have developed an algorithm to directly invert large multidimensional magnetotelluric data sets that is orders of magnitude faster than competing methods. In the past year, we have extended the two-dimensional (2D) version to permit incorporation of geological constraints, have developed ways to assess model resolution, and have completed work on an accurate and fast three-dimensional (3D) forward algorithm. We are proposing to further enhance the capabilities of the 2D code and to incorporate the 3D forward code in a fully 3D inverse algorithm. Finally, we will embark on an investigation of related EM imaging techniques which may have the potential for further increasing resolution.

  18. Calculation of two-dimensional lambda modes

    SciTech Connect

    Belchior, A. Jr. ); Moreira, J.M.L. )

    1991-01-01

    A system for on-line monitoring of power distribution in small reactors (known as MAP) is under development at COPESP-IPEN. Signals of self-powered neutron detectors are input to a program that estimates the power distribution as an expansion of lambda modes. The modal coefficients are obtained from a least-mean-squares technique adequate for real-time analysis. Three-dimensional lambda modes are synthesized out of one- and two-dimensional lambda modes. As a part of this project, a modification of a computer code was carried out in order to obtain the lambda modes. The results of this effort are summarized. The lambda modes are the solutions of the time-independent multigroup neutron diffusion equation, an eigenvalue equation. Normally, the computer codes produce the fundamental mode corresponding to the largest eigenvalue; their respective interpretations are neutron flux distribution and effective multiplication factor. For calculating higher order lambda modes it is usually necessary to eliminate the contribution of the lower modes from the fission source.

  19. [La Medicina del Lavoro: 100 volumes].

    PubMed

    Zocchetti, C

    2009-01-01

    With these pages La Medicina del Lavoro starts its 100th volume, so we have yet another historical occasion to celebrate the oldest occupational health journal in the world that is still publishing. Over the last few years we have had many occasions to celebrate, for example several anniversaries of the Journal (the 80th volume in 1989, 90 years in 1992, 100 years in 2001); the centenary of the foundation of the Clinica del Lavoro "Luigi Devoto" of Milan in 2001; the celebration of the 300 years' anniversary of the publication of De Morbis Artificum Diatriba by Bernardino Ramazzini, and we obviously hope to continue for many years to come in this positive outlook. One hundred volumes makes for a very large collection, with the highs and lows ofthe Journal's history (here we mean the variations in number of pages and physical size of the Journal). It is thanks to the Editors-in-chief(there have been very few so we can cite them all: Luigi Devoto, 1901-1936; Luigi Preti, 1936-1941; Enrico Vigliani, 1943-1992; e Vito Foà, 1992 to the present); the contributors who in various ways and with varying degrees of commitment but always with an exceptional personal participation, that it has been possible to reach 100 volumes, starting with C. Moreschi who, along with Luigi Devoto, was the first and sole editor at the Journal's foundation; up to the present extended and impressive editorial board; the printers (from the first. Tipografia Cooperativa, Via dei Molini in Pavia, to the latest: Casa Editrice Mattioli in Fidenza); the sponsors, including the most evident who, via advertising (rather limited as a matter offact), directly gave information about themselves, but also those who have often been or are behind the scenes, ensuring fundamental support which is not visible; content. articles, news, events, reports, ideas, opinions, photographs, tables, numbers... etc, which are really impossible to sum up. But the true collection which, for obvious reasons, cannot be

  20. Low Dimensionality Effects in Complex Magnetic Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Paula J. Lampen

    Complex magnetic oxides represent a unique intersection of immense technological importance and fascinating physical phenomena originating from interwoven structural, electronic and magnetic degrees of freedom. The resulting energetically close competing orders can be controllably selected through external fields. Competing interactions and disorder represent an additional opportunity to systematically manipulate the properties of pure magnetic systems, leading to frustration, glassiness, and other novel phenomena while finite sample dimension plays a similar role in systems with long-range cooperative effects or large correlation lengths. A rigorous understanding of these effects in strongly correlated oxides is key to manipulating their functionality and device performance, but remains a challenging task. In this dissertation, we examine a number of problems related to intrinsic and extrinsic low dimensionality, disorder, and competing interactions in magnetic oxides by applying a unique combination of standard magnetometry techniques and unconventional magnetocaloric effect and transverse susceptibility measurements. The influence of dimensionality and disorder on the nature and critical properties of phase transitions in manganites is illustrated in La0.7 Ca0.3MnO3, in which both size reduction to the nanoscale and chemically-controlled quenched disorder are observed to induce a progressive weakening of the first-order nature of the transition, despite acting through the distinct mechanisms of surface effects and site dilution. In the second-order material La0.8Ca0.2MnO3, a strong magnetic field is found to drive the system toward its tricritical point as competition between exchange interactions in the inhomogeneous ground state is suppressed. In the presence of large phase separation stabilized by chemical disorder and long-range strain, dimensionality has a profound effect. With the systematic reduction of particle size in microscale-phase-separated (La, Pr

  1. Radial Stellar Pulsation and Three-dimensional Convection. IV. Full Amplitude Three-dimensional Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geroux, Christopher M.; Deupree, Robert G.

    2015-02-01

    Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of full amplitude RR Lyrae stars have been computed for several models across the instability strip. The three-dimensional nature of the calculations allows convection to be treated without reference to a phenomenological approach such as the local mixing length theory. Specifically, the time-dependent interaction of large-scale eddies and radial pulsation is controlled by conservation laws, while the effects of smaller convective eddies are simulated by an eddy viscosity model. The light amplitudes for these calculations are quite similar to those of our previous two-dimensional calculations in the middle of the instability strip, but somewhat lower near the red edge, the fundamental blue edge, and for the one first overtone model we computed. The time-dependent interaction between the radial pulsation and the convective energy transport is essentially the same in three dimensions as it is in two dimensions. There are some differences between the light curves of the two- and three-dimensional simulations, particularly during decreasing light. Reasons for the differences, both numerical and physical, are explored.

  2. Comparison of Brain Activation in Response to Two Dimensional and Three Dimensional On-Line Games

    PubMed Central

    Song, Woo Hyun; Shim, Hyung Jin

    2013-01-01

    Objective The present study assessed the difference in the brain activity of professional gamers (excessive players, but not addicts) in response to playing a 3-dimensional online game with an improved interface. Methods Twenty-three StarCraft I pro gamers and 16 StarCraft II pro gamers were recruited at Chung Ang University Medical Center. Brain activity in response to StarCraft I or II cues was assessed with a 1.5 Tesla Espree MRI scanner. Results StarCraft I pro gamers showed significantly greater activity in 4 clusters in response to the video game cues compared to StarCraft II pro gamers: right superior frontal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus, right occipital lobe, and left medial frontal gyrus. StarCraft II pro gamers showed significantly greater activity in 3 clusters in response to the video game cues compared to StarCraft I pro gamers: left middle frontal gyrus, left temporal fusiform gyrus and left cerebellum. Discussion This is the first study to show the difference in brain activity between gamers playing either a 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional online game. Current brain imaging studies may confirm the pro gamers' experience when playing StarCraft II, a 3-dimensional game with an improved interface, relative to playing StarCraft I. PMID:23798958

  3. Crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional aggregations of clusters on square lattice substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yi; Zhu, Yu-Hong; Pan, Qi-Fa; Yang, Bo; Tao, Xiang-Ming; Ye, Gao-Xiang

    2015-11-01

    A Monte Carlo study on the crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional aggregations of clusters is presented. Based on the traditional cluster-cluster aggregation (CCA) simulation, a modified growth model is proposed. The clusters (including single particles and their aggregates) diffuse with diffusion step length l (1 ≤ l ≤ 7) and aggregate on a square lattice substrate. If the number of particles contained in a cluster is larger than a critical size sc, the particles at the edge of the cluster have a possibility to jump onto the upper layer, which results in the crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional aggregations. Our simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental findings. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374082 and 11074215), the Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province Department of Education, China (Grant No. Y201018280), the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2012QNA3010), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20100101110005).

  4. RADIAL STELLAR PULSATION AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL CONVECTION. IV. FULL AMPLITUDE THREE-DIMENSIONAL SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Geroux, Christopher M.; Deupree, Robert G.

    2015-02-10

    Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of full amplitude RR Lyrae stars have been computed for several models across the instability strip. The three-dimensional nature of the calculations allows convection to be treated without reference to a phenomenological approach such as the local mixing length theory. Specifically, the time-dependent interaction of large-scale eddies and radial pulsation is controlled by conservation laws, while the effects of smaller convective eddies are simulated by an eddy viscosity model. The light amplitudes for these calculations are quite similar to those of our previous two-dimensional calculations in the middle of the instability strip, but somewhat lower near the red edge, the fundamental blue edge, and for the one first overtone model we computed. The time-dependent interaction between the radial pulsation and the convective energy transport is essentially the same in three dimensions as it is in two dimensions. There are some differences between the light curves of the two- and three-dimensional simulations, particularly during decreasing light. Reasons for the differences, both numerical and physical, are explored.

  5. On the Transition from Two-Dimensional to Three-Dimensional MHD Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thess, A.; Zikanov, Oleg

    2004-01-01

    We report a theoretical investigation of the robustness of two-dimensional inviscid MHD flows at low magnetic Reynolds numbers with respect to three-dimensional perturbations. We analyze three model problems, namely flow in the interior of a triaxial ellipsoid, an unbounded vortex with elliptical streamlines, and a vortex sheet parallel to the magnetic field. We demonstrate that motion perpendicular to the magnetic field with elliptical streamlines becomes unstable with respect to the elliptical instability once the velocity has reached a critical magnitude whose value tends to zero as the eccentricity of the streamlines becomes large. Furthermore, vortex sheets parallel to the magnetic field, which are unstable for any velocity and any magnetic field, are found to emit eddies with vorticity perpendicular to the magnetic field and with an aspect ratio proportional to N(sup 1/2). The results suggest that purely two-dimensional motion without Joule energy dissipation is a singular type of flow which does not represent the asymptotic behaviour of three-dimensional MHD turbulence in the limit of infinitely strong magnetic fields.

  6. Comparison of various dimensionality methods on the Sabalan megnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarvandani, Mohamadhasan Mohamadian; Nejati, Ali; Ghaedrahmati, Reza

    2016-05-01

    Dimensionality of MT data is a powerful tool that selects which type of approach is more suitable to accomplish the modeling, or interpretation: one dimensionality, two dimensionality or three dimensionality. Moreover dimensionality analysis can be a tool to determine whether data are affected or not by local heterogeneities. In this paper, a part of the Sabalan geothermal field in the NW of Iran was selected as a test area to determine the dimensionality models. Different methods were used to assess the structural dimensionality of the electrical conductivity of the earth and identify distortions from observed data. A comparison has been made between the results of the methods and the main limitations existing in dimensionality characterization were discussed. The analysis of all sites in the Sabalan area using various methods indicates the electrical conductivity structure is less complex at the shallowest depths, with mixed 1D and 2D cases that are affected by galvanic distortion, whereas at middle and lower depths, dimensionality is mainly 3D. The dimensionality of the underlying conductivity distribution coincide with the known geological evaluations in the study area.

  7. 394delTT: a Nordic cystic fibrosis mutation.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, M; Anvret, M; Claustres, M; Eiken, H G; Eiklid, K; Schaedel, C; Stolpe, L; Tranebjaerg, L

    1994-02-01

    In a systematic screening for mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator among Danish cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, we identified a mutation in exon 3 (394delTT); this mutation was found to be relatively common in Denmark. We therefore screened for 394delTT in Sweden and Norway, where it turned out to be the second most frequent mutation, accounting for 4% of all CF mutations. It also occurs with a high frequency in Finland, but has not been found in larger surveys of mutations in the CFTR gene. Thus, 394delTT seems to be a specific Nordic CF mutation.

  8. In vitro two-dimensional and three-dimensional tenocyte culture for tendon tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yiwei; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Yaonan; Carr, Andrew J; Zhu, Liwei; Xia, Zhidao; Sabokbar, Afsie

    2016-03-01

    In order to examine the differentiation potential of the tenocytes expanded in our defined culture medium (reported previously) and the effect of sequential combination of the two culture conditions on human tenocytes, a two-dimensional and three-dimensional experimental approach was used. Human tenocytes were sequentially exposed to 1% fetal bovine serum (FBS) + 50 ng/ml platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGFBB ) + 50 ng/ml basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) for the first 14 days (expansion phase) followed by a further 14-day culture in the presence of 10 ng/ml transforming growth factor β-3 plus 50 ng/ml insulin-like growth factor 1, but in the absence of serum (differentiation phase). The results showed that by sequential treatment of human tenocytes maintaining a long-term two-dimensional tenocyte culture in vitro for up to 28 days was possible. These findings were further verified using a three-dimensional scaffold (Bombyx silk) whereby the tendon-like constructs formed resembled macroscopically and microscopically the constructs formed in 10% FBS supplemented culture media and the human hamstring tendon. These findings were further substantiated using haematoxylin and eosin staining, scanning electron microscopy and by immunohistochemical detection of type I collagen. In addition, the mechanical properties of the three-dimensional constructs were determined to be significantly superior to that of the natural human hamstring tendon. This is the first report to demonstrate a possible approach in expanding and differentiating human tenocytes for tendon tissue engineering.

  9. The use of virtual reality to reimagine two-dimensional representations of three-dimensional spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fath, Elaine

    2015-03-01

    A familiar realm in the world of two-dimensional art is the craft of taking a flat canvas and creating, through color, size, and perspective, the illusion of a three-dimensional space. Using well-explored tricks of logic and sight, impossible landscapes such as those by surrealists de Chirico or Salvador Dalí seem to be windows into new and incredible spaces which appear to be simultaneously feasible and utterly nonsensical. As real-time 3D imaging becomes increasingly prevalent as an artistic medium, this process takes on an additional layer of depth: no longer is two-dimensional space restricted to strategies of light, color, line and geometry to create the impression of a three-dimensional space. A digital interactive environment is a space laid out in three dimensions, allowing the user to explore impossible environments in a way that feels very real. In this project, surrealist two-dimensional art was researched and reimagined: what would stepping into a de Chirico or a Magritte look and feel like, if the depth and distance created by light and geometry were not simply single-perspective illusions, but fully formed and explorable spaces? 3D environment-building software is allowing us to step into these impossible spaces in ways that 2D representations leave us yearning for. This art project explores what we gain--and what gets left behind--when these impossible spaces become doors, rather than windows. Using sketching, Maya 3D rendering software, and the Unity Engine, surrealist art was reimagined as a fully navigable real-time digital environment. The surrealist movement and its key artists were researched for their use of color, geometry, texture, and space and how these elements contributed to their work as a whole, which often conveys feelings of unexpectedness or uneasiness. The end goal was to preserve these feelings while allowing the viewer to actively engage with the space.

  10. Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1937-01-01

    Construction of the Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel. The Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel was originally called the Refrigeration or 'Ice' tunnel because it was intended to support research on aircraft icing. The tunnel was built of wood, lined with sheet steel, and heavily insulated on the outside. Refrigeration equipment was installed to generate icing conditions inside the test section. The NACA sent out a questionnaire to airline operators, asking them to detail the specific kinds of icing problems they encountered in flight. The replies became the basis for a comprehensive research program begun in 1938 when the tunnel commenced operation. Research quickly focused on the concept of using exhaust heat to prevent ice from forming on the wing's leading edge. This project was led by Lewis Rodert, who later would win the Collier Trophy for his work on deicing. By 1940, aircraft icing research had shifted to the new Ames Research Laboratory, and the Ice tunnel was refitted with screens and honeycomb. Researchers were trying to eliminate all turbulence in the test section. From TN 1283: 'The Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence pressure tunnel is a single-return closed-throat tunnel.... The tunnel is constructed of heavy steel plate so that the pressure of the air may be varied from approximately full vacuum to 10 atmospheres absolute, thereby giving a wide range of air densities. Reciprocating compressors with a capacity of 1200 cubic feet of free air per minute provide compressed air. Since the tunnel shell has a volume of about 83,000 cubic feet, a compression rate of approximately one atmosphere per hour is obtained. ... The test section is rectangular in shape, 3 feet wide, 7 1/2 feet high, and 7 1/2 feet long. ... The over-all size of the wind-tunnel shell is about 146 feet long and 58 feet wide with a maximum diameter of 26 feet. The test section and entrance and exit cones are surrounded by a 22-foot diameter section of the shell to provide a

  11. Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1938-01-01

    Construction of the wood frame for the Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel. The Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel was originally called the Refrigeration or 'Ice' tunnel because it was intended to support research on aircraft icing. The tunnel was built of wood, lined with sheet steel, and heavily insulated on the outside. Refrigeration equipment was installed to generate icing conditions inside the test section. The NACA sent out a questionnaire to airline operators, asking them to detail the specific kinds of icing problems they encountered in flight. The replies became the basis for a comprehensive research program begun in 1938 when the tunnel commenced operation. Research quickly focused on the concept of using exhaust heat to prevent ice from forming on the wing's leading edge. This project was led by Lewis Rodert, who later would win the Collier Trophy for his work on deicing. By 1940, aircraft icing research had shifted to the new Ames Research Laboratory, and the Ice tunnel was refitted with screens and honeycomb. Researchers were trying to eliminate all turbulence in the test section. From TN 1283: 'The Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence pressure tunnel is a single-return closed-throat tunnel.... The tunnel is constructed of heavy steel plate so that the pressure of the air may be varied from approximately full vacuum to 10 atmospheres absolute, thereby giving a wide range of air densities. Reciprocating compressors with a capacity of 1200 cubic feet of free air per minute provide compressed air. Since the tunnel shell has a volume of about 83,000 cubic feet, a compression rate of approximately one atmosphere per hour is obtained. ... The test section is rectangular in shape, 3 feet wide, 7 1/2 feet high, and 7 1/2 feet long. ... The over-all size of the wind-tunnel shell is about 146 feet long and 58 feet wide with a maximum diameter of 26 feet. The test section and entrance and exit cones are surrounded by a 22-foot diameter section of the

  12. Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1938-01-01

    Manometer for the Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel. The Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel was originally called the Refrigeration or 'Ice' tunnel because it was intended to support research on aircraft icing. The tunnel was built of wood, lined with sheet steel, and heavily insulated on the outside. Refrigeration equipment was installed to generate icing conditions inside the test section. The NACA sent out a questionnaire to airline operators, asking them to detail the specific kinds of icing problems they encountered in flight. The replies became the basis for a comprehensive research program begun in 1938 when the tunnel commenced operation. Research quickly focused on the concept of using exhaust heat to prevent ice from forming on the wing's leading edge. This project was led by Lewis Rodert, who later would win the Collier Trophy for his work on deicing. By 1940, aircraft icing research had shifted to the new Ames Research Laboratory, and the Ice tunnel was refitted with screens and honeycomb. Researchers were trying to eliminate all turbulence in the test section. From TN 1283: 'The Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence pressure tunnel is a single-return closed-throat tunnel.... The tunnel is constructed of heavy steel plate so that the pressure of the air may be varied from approximately full vacuum to 10 atmospheres absolute, thereby giving a wide range of air densities. Reciprocating compressors with a capacity of 1200 cubic feet of free air per minute provide compressed air. Since the tunnel shell has a volume of about 83,000 cubic feet, a compression rate of approximately one atmosphere per hour is obtained. ... The test section is rectangular in shape, 3 feet wide, 7 1/2 feet high, and 7 1/2 feet long. ... The over-all size of the wind-tunnel shell is about 146 feet long and 58 feet wide with a maximum diameter of 26 feet. The test section and entrance and exit cones are surrounded by a 22-foot diameter section of the shell to provide a space

  13. Denoising and dimensionality reduction of genomic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capobianco, Enrico

    2005-05-01

    Genomics represents a challenging research field for many quantitative scientists, and recently a vast variety of statistical techniques and machine learning algorithms have been proposed and inspired by cross-disciplinary work with computational and systems biologists. In genomic applications, the researcher deals with noisy and complex high-dimensional feature spaces; a wealth of genes whose expression levels are experimentally measured, can often be observed for just a few time points, thus limiting the available samples. This unbalanced combination suggests that it might be hard for standard statistical inference techniques to come up with good general solutions, likewise for machine learning algorithms to avoid heavy computational work. Thus, one naturally turns to two major aspects of the problem: sparsity and intrinsic dimensionality. These two aspects are studied in this paper, where for both denoising and dimensionality reduction, a very efficient technique, i.e., Independent Component Analysis, is used. The numerical results are very promising, and lead to a very good quality of gene feature selection, due to the signal separation power enabled by the decomposition technique. We investigate how the use of replicates can improve these results, and deal with noise through a stabilization strategy which combines the estimated components and extracts the most informative biological information from them. Exploiting the inherent level of sparsity is a key issue in genetic regulatory networks, where the connectivity matrix needs to account for the real links among genes and discard many redundancies. Most experimental evidence suggests that real gene-gene connections represent indeed a subset of what is usually mapped onto either a huge gene vector or a typically dense and highly structured network. Inferring gene network connectivity from the expression levels represents a challenging inverse problem that is at present stimulating key research in biomedical

  14. Fermion tunneling from higher-dimensional black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Kai; Yang Shuzheng

    2009-03-15

    Via the semiclassical approximation method, we study the 1/2-spin fermion tunneling from a higher-dimensional black hole. In our work, the Dirac equations are transformed into a simple form, and then we simplify the fermion tunneling research to the study of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation in curved space-time. Finally, we get the fermion tunneling rates and the Hawking temperatures at the event horizon of higher-dimensional black holes. We study fermion tunneling of a higher-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole and a higher-dimensional spherically symmetric quintessence black hole. In fact, this method is also applicable to the study of fermion tunneling from four-dimensional or lower-dimensional black holes, and we will take the rainbow-Finsler black hole as an example in order to make the fact explicit.

  15. Three-dimensional rogue waves in nonstationary parabolic potentials.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhenya; Konotop, V V; Akhmediev, N

    2010-09-01

    Using symmetry analysis we systematically present a higher-dimensional similarity transformation reducing the (3+1) -dimensional inhomogeneous nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with variable coefficients and parabolic potential to the (1+1) -dimensional NLS equation with constant coefficients. This transformation allows us to relate certain class of localized exact solutions of the (3+1) -dimensional case to the variety of solutions of integrable NLS equation of the (1+1) -dimensional case. As an example, we illustrated our technique using two lowest-order rational solutions of the NLS equation as seeding functions to obtain rogue wavelike solutions localized in three dimensions that have complicated evolution in time including interactions between two time-dependent rogue wave solutions. The obtained three-dimensional rogue wavelike solutions may raise the possibility of relative experiments and potential applications in nonlinear optics and Bose-Einstein condensates.

  16. Emergent reduced dimensionality by vertex frustration in artificial spin ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Ian; Lao, Yuyang; Carrasquillo, Isaac; O'Brien, Liam; Watts, Justin D.; Manno, Michael; Leighton, Chris; Scholl, Andreas; Nisoli, Cristiano; Schiffer, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Reducing the dimensionality of a physical system can have a profound effect on its properties, as in the ordering of low-dimensional magnetic materials, phonon dispersion in mercury chain salts, sliding phases, and the electronic states of graphene. Here we explore the emergence of quasi-one-dimensional behaviour in two-dimensional artificial spin ice, a class of lithographically fabricated nanomagnet arrays used to study geometrical frustration. We extend the implementation of artificial spin ice by fabricating a new array geometry, the so-called tetris lattice. We demonstrate that the ground state of the tetris lattice consists of alternating ordered and disordered bands of nanomagnetic moments. The disordered bands can be mapped onto an emergent thermal one-dimensional Ising model. Furthermore, we show that the level of degeneracy associated with these bands dictates the susceptibility of island moments to thermally induced reversals, thus establishing that vertex frustration can reduce the relevant dimensionality of physical behaviour in a magnetic system.

  17. Information Gain Based Dimensionality Selection for Classifying Text Documents

    SciTech Connect

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2013-06-01

    Selecting the optimal dimensions for various knowledge extraction applications is an essential component of data mining. Dimensionality selection techniques are utilized in classification applications to increase the classification accuracy and reduce the computational complexity. In text classification, where the dimensionality of the dataset is extremely high, dimensionality selection is even more important. This paper presents a novel, genetic algorithm based methodology, for dimensionality selection in text mining applications that utilizes information gain. The presented methodology uses information gain of each dimension to change the mutation probability of chromosomes dynamically. Since the information gain is calculated a priori, the computational complexity is not affected. The presented method was tested on a specific text classification problem and compared with conventional genetic algorithm based dimensionality selection. The results show an improvement of 3% in the true positives and 1.6% in the true negatives over conventional dimensionality selection methods.

  18. Fermion tunneling from higher-dimensional black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kai; Yang, Shu-Zheng

    2009-03-01

    Via the semiclassical approximation method, we study the 1/2-spin fermion tunneling from a higher-dimensional black hole. In our work, the Dirac equations are transformed into a simple form, and then we simplify the fermion tunneling research to the study of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation in curved space-time. Finally, we get the fermion tunneling rates and the Hawking temperatures at the event horizon of higher-dimensional black holes. We study fermion tunneling of a higher-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole and a higher-dimensional spherically symmetric quintessence black hole. In fact, this method is also applicable to the study of fermion tunneling from four-dimensional or lower-dimensional black holes, and we will take the rainbow-Finsler black hole as an example in order to make the fact explicit.

  19. Gaussian processes with built-in dimensionality reduction: Applications to high-dimensional uncertainty propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Rohit; Bilionis, Ilias; Gonzalez, Marcial

    2016-09-01

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) tasks, such as model calibration, uncertainty propagation, and optimization under uncertainty, typically require several thousand evaluations of the underlying computer codes. To cope with the cost of simulations, one replaces the real response surface with a cheap surrogate based, e.g., on polynomial chaos expansions, neural networks, support vector machines, or Gaussian processes (GP). However, the number of simulations required to learn a generic multivariate response grows exponentially as the input dimension increases. This curse of dimensionality can only be addressed, if the response exhibits some special structure that can be discovered and exploited. A wide range of physical responses exhibit a special structure known as an active subspace (AS). An AS is a linear manifold of the stochastic space characterized by maximal response variation. The idea is that one should first identify this low dimensional manifold, project the high-dimensional input onto it, and then link the projection to the output. If the dimensionality of the AS is low enough, then learning the link function is a much easier problem than the original problem of learning a high-dimensional function. The classic approach to discovering the AS requires gradient information, a fact that severely limits its applicability. Furthermore, and partly because of its reliance to gradients, it is not able to handle noisy observations. The latter is an essential trait if one wants to be able to propagate uncertainty through stochastic simulators, e.g., through molecular dynamics codes. In this work, we develop a probabilistic version of AS which is gradient-free and robust to observational noise. Our approach relies on a novel Gaussian process regression with built-in dimensionality reduction. In particular, the AS is represented as an orthogonal projection matrix that serves as yet another covariance function hyper-parameter to be estimated from the data. To train the

  20. Superintegrability of d-Dimensional Conformal Blocks.

    PubMed

    Isachenkov, Mikhail; Schomerus, Volker

    2016-08-12

    We observe that conformal blocks of scalar four-point functions in a d-dimensional conformal field theory can be mapped to eigenfunctions of a two-particle hyperbolic Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian. The latter describes two coupled Pöschl-Teller particles. Their interaction, whose strength depends smoothly on the dimension d, is known to be superintegrable. Our observation enables us to exploit the rich mathematical literature on Calogero-Sutherland models in deriving various results for conformal field theory. These include an explicit construction of conformal blocks in terms of Heckman-Opdam hypergeometric functions. We conclude with a short outlook, in particular, on the consequences of integrability for the theory of conformal blocks. PMID:27563949

  1. Automatic three-dimensional underground mine mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, D.F.; Vandapel, N.

    2006-01-15

    For several years, our research group has been developing methods for automated modeling of three-dimensional environments. In September 2002, we were given the opportunity to demonstrate our mapping capability in an underground coal mine. The opportunity arose as a result of the Quecreek mine accident, in which an inaccurate map caused miners to breach an abandoned, water-filled mine, trapping them for several days. Our field test illustrates the feasibility and potential of high-resolution 3D mapping of an underground coal mine using a cart-mounted 3D laser scanner In this paper we present our experimental setup, the automatic 3D modeling method used, and the results of the field test.

  2. Three-dimensional hologram display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Frederick (Inventor); Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Bryant, Nevin (Inventor); Tsou, Peter (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a three-dimensional (3D) hologram display system. The 3D hologram display system includes a projector device for projecting an image upon a display medium to form a 3D hologram. The 3D hologram is formed such that a viewer can view the holographic image from multiple angles up to 360 degrees. Multiple display media are described, namely a spinning diffusive screen, a circular diffuser screen, and an aerogel. The spinning diffusive screen utilizes spatial light modulators to control the image such that the 3D image is displayed on the rotating screen in a time-multiplexing manner. The circular diffuser screen includes multiple, simultaneously-operated projectors to project the image onto the circular diffuser screen from a plurality of locations, thereby forming the 3D image. The aerogel can use the projection device described as applicable to either the spinning diffusive screen or the circular diffuser screen.

  3. Three-dimensional printing physiology laboratory technology.

    PubMed

    Sulkin, Matthew S; Widder, Emily; Shao, Connie; Holzem, Katherine M; Gloschat, Christopher; Gutbrod, Sarah R; Efimov, Igor R

    2013-12-01

    Since its inception in 19th-century Germany, the physiology laboratory has been a complex and expensive research enterprise involving experts in various fields of science and engineering. Physiology research has been critically dependent on cutting-edge technological support of mechanical, electrical, optical, and more recently computer engineers. Evolution of modern experimental equipment is constrained by lack of direct communication between the physiological community and industry producing this equipment. Fortunately, recent advances in open source technologies, including three-dimensional printing, open source hardware and software, present an exciting opportunity to bring the design and development of research instrumentation to the end user, i.e., life scientists. Here we provide an overview on how to develop customized, cost-effective experimental equipment for physiology laboratories.

  4. 3-dimensional bioprinting for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bon Kang; Choi, Dong Jin; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Min Sup; Kang, Chang Mo; Kim, Chun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies, referred to as additive manufacturing (AM) or rapid prototyping (RP), have acquired reputation over the past few years for art, architectural modeling, lightweight machines, and tissue engineering applications. Among these applications, tissue engineering field using 3D printing has attracted the attention from many researchers. 3D bioprinting has an advantage in the manufacture of a scaffold for tissue engineering applications, because of rapid-fabrication, high-precision, and customized-production, etc. In this review, we will introduce the principles and the current state of the 3D bioprinting methods. Focusing on some of studies that are being current application for biomedical and tissue engineering fields using printed 3D scaffolds.

  5. Multiscale modeling of two-dimensional contacts.

    PubMed

    Luan, B Q; Hyun, S; Molinari, J F; Bernstein, N; Robbins, Mark O

    2006-10-01

    A hybrid simulation method is introduced and used to study two-dimensional single-asperity and multi-asperity contacts both quasistatically and dynamically. The method combines an atomistic treatment of the interfacial region with a finite-element method description of subsurface deformations. The dynamics in the two regions are coupled through displacement boundary conditions applied at the outer edges of an overlap region. The two solutions are followed concurrently but with different time resolution. The method is benchmarked against full atomistic simulations. Accurate results are obtained for contact areas, pressures, and static and dynamic friction forces. The time saving depends on the fraction of the system treated atomistically and is already more than a factor of 20 for the relatively small systems considered here.

  6. High temperature dimensional reduction in Snyder space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozari, K.; Hosseinzadeh, V.; Gorji, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we formulate the statistical mechanics in Snyder space that supports the existence of a minimal length scale. We obtain the corresponding invariant Liouville volume which properly determines the number of microstates in the semiclassical regime. The results show that the number of accessible microstates drastically reduces at the high energy regime such that there is only one degree of freedom for a particle. Using the Liouville volume, we obtain the deformed partition function and we then study the thermodynamical properties of the ideal gas in this setup. Invoking the equipartition theorem, we show that 2/3 of the degrees of freedom freeze at the high temperature regime when the thermal de Broglie wavelength becomes of the order of the Planck length. This reduction of the number of degrees of freedom suggests an effective dimensional reduction of the space from 3 to 1 at the Planck scale.

  7. Numerical simulation of three dimensional transonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahu, Jubaraj; Steger, Joseph L.

    1987-01-01

    The three-dimensional flow over a projectile has been computed using an implicit, approximately factored, partially flux-split algorithm. A simple composite grid scheme has been developed in which a single grid is partitioned into a series of smaller grids for applications which require an external large memory device such as the SSD of the CRAY X-MP/48, or multitasking. The accuracy and stability of the composite grid scheme has been tested by numerically simulating the flow over an ellipsoid at angle of attack and comparing the solution with a single grid solution. The flowfield over a projectile at M = 0.96 and 4 deg angle-of-attack has been computed using a fine grid, and compared with experiment.

  8. Some properties of n-dimensional triangulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    A number of mathematical results relevant to the problem of constructing a triangulation, i.e., a simplicial tessellation, of the convex hull of an arbitrary finite set of points in n-space are described. The principal results achieved are: (1) a set of n+2 points in n-space may be triangulated in at most 2 different ways; (2) the sphere test defined in this report selects a preferred one of these two triangulations; (3) a set of parameters is defined that permits the characterization and enumeration of all sets of n+2 points in n-space that are significantly different from the point of view of their possible triangulation; (4) the local sphere test induces a global sphere test property for a triangulation; and (5) a triangulation satisfying the global sphere property is dual to the n-dimensional Dirichlet tesselation, i.e., it is a Delaunay triangulation.

  9. Two-dimensional swimming behavior of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ye; Zhai, He; Sanchez, Sandra; Kearns, Daniel; Wu, Yilin

    Many bacteria swim by flagella motility which is essential for bacterial dispersal, chemotaxis, and pathogenesis. Here we combined single-cell tracking, theoretical analysis, and computational modeling to investigate two-dimensional swimming behavior of a well-characterized flagellated bacterium Bacillus subtilis at the single-cell level. We quantified the 2D motion pattern of B. subtilis in confined space and studied how cells interact with each other. Our findings shed light on bacterial colonization in confined environments, and will serve as the ground for building more accurate models to understand bacterial collective motion. Mailing address: Room 306 Science Centre North Block, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. Hong Kong SAR. Phone: +852-3943-6354. Fax: +852-2603-5204. E-mail: ylwu@phy.cuhk.edu.hk.

  10. Two-Dimensional Speckle Strain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pignatelli, Ricardo; Law, Mark A.; Martinez, Hugo; Altman, Carolyn; Ayres, Nancy; Jefferies, John L.; Ganame, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Two-dimensional speckle-tracking strain imaging (speckle strain imaging) is useful for evaluating left ventricular myocardial function in patients with ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy, including hypertrophic and dilated phenotypes. The usefulness of speckle strain imaging in patients with pheochromocytoma who are undergoing adrenal surgery has been described, but we found no reports of the use of this method to evaluate ventricular dysfunction longitudinally in children. Herein, we describe the case of a 10-year-old girl with a paraganglioma, acute junctional tachycardia, and myocardial dysfunction. After control of the tachycardia and partial resection of the tumor, speckle strain imaging enabled clinical management that led to substantial improvement in the patient's initially diffuse myocardial dysfunction. Because conventional echocardiographic methods alone may be inadequate to guide the management of pediatric patients with partially resected neuroendocrine tumors, we recommend speckle strain imaging as an additional noninvasive option for treatment guidance and monitoring of cardiac tissue response. PMID:22412245

  11. Three dimensional fabric evolution of sheared sand

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, Alsidqi; Alshibli, Khalid

    2012-10-24

    Granular particles undergo translation and rolling when they are sheared. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) experimental assessment of fabric evolution of sheared sand at the particle level. F-75 Ottawa sand specimen was tested under an axisymmetric triaxial loading condition. It measured 9.5 mm in diameter and 20 mm in height. The quantitative evaluation was conducted by analyzing 3D high-resolution x-ray synchrotron micro-tomography images of the specimen at eight axial strain levels. The analyses included visualization of particle translation and rotation, and quantification of fabric orientation as shearing continued. Representative individual particles were successfully tracked and visualized to assess the mode of interaction between them. This paper discusses fabric evolution and compares the evolution of particles within and outside the shear band as shearing continues. Changes in particle orientation distributions are presented using fabric histograms and fabric tensor.

  12. Dimensional overlap between time and space.

    PubMed

    Eikmeier, Verena; Schröter, Hannes; Maienborn, Claudia; Alex-Ruf, Simone; Ulrich, Rolf

    2013-12-01

    Several pieces of evidence suggest that our mental representations of time and space are linked. However, the extent of this linkage between the two domains has not yet been assessed. We present the results of two experiments that draw on the predictions of the dimensional overlap model (Kornblum, Hasbroucq, & Osman, Psychological Review 97:253-270, 1990). The stimulus and response sets in these reaction time experiments were related to either time or space. The obtained stimulus-response congruency effects were of about the same size for identical stimulus-response sets (time-time or space-space) and for different stimulus-response sets (time-space or space-time). These results support the view that our representations of time and space are strongly linked.

  13. Vlasov multi-dimensional model dispersion relation

    SciTech Connect

    Lushnikov, Pavel M.; Rose, Harvey A.; Silantyev, Denis A.; Vladimirova, Natalia

    2014-07-15

    A hybrid model of the Vlasov equation in multiple spatial dimension D > 1 [H. A. Rose and W. Daughton, Phys. Plasmas 18, 122109 (2011)], the Vlasov multi dimensional model (VMD), consists of standard Vlasov dynamics along a preferred direction, the z direction, and N flows. At each z, these flows are in the plane perpendicular to the z axis. They satisfy Eulerian-type hydrodynamics with coupling by self-consistent electric and magnetic fields. Every solution of the VMD is an exact solution of the original Vlasov equation. We show approximate convergence of the VMD Langmuir wave dispersion relation in thermal plasma to that of Vlasov-Landau as N increases. Departure from strict rotational invariance about the z axis for small perpendicular wavenumber Langmuir fluctuations in 3D goes to zero like θ{sup N}, where θ is the polar angle and flows are arranged uniformly over the azimuthal angle.

  14. Five-dimensional Janis-Newman algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbin, Harold; Heurtier, Lucien

    2015-08-01

    The Janis-Newman algorithm has been shown to be successful in finding new stationary solutions of four-dimensional gravity. Attempts for a generalization to higher dimensions have already been found for the restricted cases with only one angular momentum. In this paper we propose an extension of this algorithm to five-dimensions with two angular momenta—using the prescription of Giampieri—through two specific examples, that are the Myers-Perry and BMPV black holes. We also discuss possible enlargements of our prescriptions to other dimensions and maximal number of angular momenta, and show how dimensions higher than six appear to be much more challenging to treat within this framework. Nonetheless this general algorithm provides a unification of the formulation in d=3,4,5 of the Janis-Newman algorithm, from which several examples are exposed, including the BTZ black hole.

  15. Superintegrability of d -Dimensional Conformal Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isachenkov, Mikhail; Schomerus, Volker

    2016-08-01

    We observe that conformal blocks of scalar four-point functions in a d -dimensional conformal field theory can be mapped to eigenfunctions of a two-particle hyperbolic Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian. The latter describes two coupled Pöschl-Teller particles. Their interaction, whose strength depends smoothly on the dimension d , is known to be superintegrable. Our observation enables us to exploit the rich mathematical literature on Calogero-Sutherland models in deriving various results for conformal field theory. These include an explicit construction of conformal blocks in terms of Heckman-Opdam hypergeometric functions. We conclude with a short outlook, in particular, on the consequences of integrability for the theory of conformal blocks.

  16. Epitaxial growth of two-dimensional stanene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Feng-Feng; Chen, Wei-Jiong; Xu, Yong; Gao, Chun-Lei; Guan, Dan-Dan; Liu, Can-Hua; Qian, Dong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Jia, Jin-Feng

    2015-10-01

    Following the first experimental realization of graphene, other ultrathin materials with unprecedented electronic properties have been explored, with particular attention given to the heavy group-IV elements Si, Ge and Sn. Two-dimensional buckled Si-based silicene has been recently realized by molecular beam epitaxy growth, whereas Ge-based germanene was obtained by molecular beam epitaxy and mechanical exfoliation. However, the synthesis of Sn-based stanene has proved challenging so far. Here, we report the successful fabrication of 2D stanene by molecular beam epitaxy, confirmed by atomic and electronic characterization using scanning tunnelling microscopy and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, in combination with first-principles calculations. The synthesis of stanene and its derivatives will stimulate further experimental investigation of their theoretically predicted properties, such as a 2D topological insulating behaviour with a very large bandgap, and the capability to support enhanced thermoelectric performance, topological superconductivity and the near-room-temperature quantum anomalous Hall effect.

  17. 3-dimensional bioprinting for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bon Kang; Choi, Dong Jin; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Min Sup; Kang, Chang Mo; Kim, Chun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies, referred to as additive manufacturing (AM) or rapid prototyping (RP), have acquired reputation over the past few years for art, architectural modeling, lightweight machines, and tissue engineering applications. Among these applications, tissue engineering field using 3D printing has attracted the attention from many researchers. 3D bioprinting has an advantage in the manufacture of a scaffold for tissue engineering applications, because of rapid-fabrication, high-precision, and customized-production, etc. In this review, we will introduce the principles and the current state of the 3D bioprinting methods. Focusing on some of studies that are being current application for biomedical and tissue engineering fields using printed 3D scaffolds. PMID:27114828

  18. Role of dimensionality in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Samuraí; da Silva, L. R.; Tsallis, Constantino

    2016-01-01

    Deep connections are known to exist between scale-free networks and non-Gibbsian statistics. For example, typical degree distributions at the thermodynamical limit are of the form , where the q-exponential form optimizes the nonadditive entropy Sq (which, for q → 1, recovers the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy). We introduce and study here d-dimensional geographically-located networks which grow with preferential attachment involving Euclidean distances through . Revealing the connection with q-statistics, we numerically verify (for d = 1, 2, 3 and 4) that the q-exponential degree distributions exhibit, for both q and k, universal dependences on the ratio αA/d. Moreover, the q = 1 limit is rapidly achieved by increasing αA/d to infinity. PMID:27320047

  19. Janus Spectra in Two-Dimensional Flows.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory T; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2016-09-01

    In large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows, and other two-dimensional flows, the exponent of the turbulent energy spectra, α, may theoretically take either of two distinct values, 3 or 5/3, but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed α=3. Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which α transitions from 3 to 5/3 for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to 3 for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our results may open up new vistas in the study of turbulence and geophysical flows. PMID:27661693

  20. Spencer Cohomology and 11-Dimensional Supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, José; Santi, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    We recover the classification of the maximally supersymmetric bosonic backgrounds of 11-dimensional supergravity by Lie algebraic means. We classify all filtered deformations of the Z-graded subalgebras h=h_{-2} oplus {h}_{-1} oplus{h}0} of the Poincaré superalgebra {{g}={g}_{-2} oplus{g}_{-1} oplus{g}0=Voplus Soplus {so}(V)} which differ only in zero degree, that is {{h}_0subset{g}_0} and {{h}_{j}={g}_{j}} for {{j}<0} . Aside from the Poincaré superalgebra itself and its {{{Z}}} -graded subalgebras, there are only three other Lie superalgebras, which are the symmetry superalgebras of the non-flat maximally supersymmetric backgrounds. In passing we identify the gravitino variation with (a component of) a Spencer cocycle.