Science.gov

Sample records for dimethoxylated polybrominated biphenyl

  1. Toxicological profile for polybrominated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Statement was prepared to give one information about polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and to emphasize the human health effects that may result from exposure to them. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified 1,408 hazardous waste sites as the most serious in the nation. PBBs have been found that at least eight of the sites on the NPL.

  2. OCCURRENCE OF POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS, POLYBROMINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYBROMINATED DIBENZOFURANS AS IMPURITIES IN COMMERCIAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER MIXTURES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the present study is to determine the concentrations and compositions of polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), and polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) as contaminants in the commercial polybrominated diphenylether (PBDE) mixt...

  3. Formation of polybrominated dibenzofurans from polybrominated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z

    2015-01-01

    Decades after phasing out their production and use, especially in the formulations of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) still pose serious environmental and health problems. The oxidation of PBB has been hypothesised as a pathway for the formation of the notorious polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) and their dispersion in the environment. However, the exact reaction corridor remains misunderstood, with the existing mechanisms predicting the reaction to proceed via a high energy process that involves the breakage of C-C linkage (∼118.0 kcal mol(-1)) and the subsequent formation of bromophenols molecules, where the latter are supposed to act as precursors for the formation of PBDFs (∼40.0-60.0 kcal mol(-1)). Herein, we show that PBBs produce PBDFs in a facile mechanism through a series of highly exothermic reactions (i.e., overall barriers reside 8.2-10.0 kcal mol(-1) below the entrance channel). Whilst the fate of the ROO-type intermediates in oxidation of all aromatics is to emit CO or CO2, PBDFs constitute the dominant products from the oxidation of PBBs. Initially formed R-OO adduct evolves in a very exoergic mechanism to yield PBDFs. In view of the facile oxidative transformation of PBBs into PBDFs, we conclude that, it is unsafe to dispose BFRs in oxidation processes, as this practice generates high yields of toxic PBDFs. PMID:25303667

  4. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated biphenyls in Australian sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Bradley; Porter, Nichola; Symons, Robert; Marriott, Philip; Ades, Peter; Stevenson, Gavin; Blackbeard, Judy

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the international scientific literature of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in sewage sludge and a survey of these compounds in sewage sludge from 16 Australian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The SigmaPBDE mean concentration in the Australian study was 1137microgkg(-1) dry weight (d.w.) (s.d. 1116) and ranged between 5 and 4 230microgkg(-1)d.w. The urban mean of 1308microgkg(-1) (s.d. 1320) and the rural mean of 911microgkg(-1) (s.d. 831) are not statistically different and are similar to levels in European sludges. Principal components analysis was performed on the data set and revealed that 76% of the data variation could be explained by two components that corresponded to overall concentration of the pentaBDE and the decaBDE commercial formulations. An analysis of variance was performed comparing PBDEs levels at three WWTPs over the years 2005 and 2006, finding differences between treatment plants (BDE-47) but no significant difference in PBDE levels in the years 2005 and 2006. Low levels of BB-153 were detected in all samples of this survey (n=16); mean 0.6microgkg(-1)d.w. (s.d. 0.5). This compound has rarely been reported in any other study of sewage sludges undertaken outside Australia. This work highlights the need for a risk assessment of PBDEs in sewage sludge when used for land application, taking into account typical levels found in Australian sludges and soils. PMID:18682307

  5. Toxicity of polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in Domestic and laboratory animals.

    PubMed Central

    Damstra, T; Jurgelski, W; Posner, H S; Vouk, V B; Bernheim, N J; Guthrie, J; Luster, M; Falk, H L

    1982-01-01

    The composition, environmental fate, and effects of the polybrominated biphenyls (Firemaster BP-6 or FF-1) involved in the accidental contamination of cattle feed in Michigan in 1973 are reviewed. Toxic effects referred to in this report are limited to those occurring in domestic and laboratory animals and include general toxicity, neurobehavioral toxicity, immunotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. The absorption, distribution, biotransformation and elimination of these polybrominated biphenyls are discussed along with the interactions with other chemicals and drugs. PMID:6282577

  6. 40 CFR 721.1790 - Polybrominated biphenyls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 4,4′-dibromo- (CAS No. 92-86-4); 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 2-bromo- (CAS No. 2052-07-5); 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 3-bromo- (CAS No. 2113-57-7); 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 2,2′, 3,3′, 4,4′, 5,5′, 6,6′-decabromo- (CAS No. 13654-09-6); Nonabromobiphenyl (CAS No....

  7. 40 CFR 721.1790 - Polybrominated biphenyls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...′-(Biphenyl, 2-bromo- (CAS No. 2052-07-5); 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 3-bromo- (CAS No. 2113-57-7); 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 2,2′, 3,3′, 4,4′, 5,5′, 6,6′-decabromo- (CAS No. 13654-09-6); Nonabromobiphenyl (CAS No. 27753-52-2... 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 4-bromo- (CAS No. 92-66-0) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1790 - Polybrominated biphenyls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...′-(Biphenyl, 2-bromo- (CAS No. 2052-07-5); 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 3-bromo- (CAS No. 2113-57-7); 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 2,2′, 3,3′, 4,4′, 5,5′, 6,6′-decabromo- (CAS No. 13654-09-6); Nonabromobiphenyl (CAS No. 27753-52-2... 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 4-bromo- (CAS No. 92-66-0) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs): biochemistry, toxicology, and mechanism of action

    SciTech Connect

    Safe, S.

    1984-01-01

    Polychlorinated and polybrominated biphenyls are industrial chemical mixtures which have been implicated in numerous human poisonings in Taiwan and Japan (PCBs) and Michigan (PBBs). Moreover, these polyhalogenated biphenyls have been widely detected in the environment including the air, water, fish, wildlife, human adipose tissue, and blood and breast milk. A major problem associated with the analysis and toxicology of this group of chemicals is their chemical complexity (e.g., there are 209 possible PCB isomers and congeners) and the remarkable effects of structure on activity. This article will discuss the effects of structure on the biologic and toxic effects of individual PCB and PBB congeners as well as reconstituted mixtures. The results clearly show that like ''dioxin'' (or 2,3,7,8-TCDD), the PCBs and PBBs elicit their effects through a cytosolic receptor protein which preferentially binds with the toxins which are approximate isostereomers of 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The evidence for this mechanism of action will be discussed in detail.

  10. Immunological studies in cattle exposed to polybrominated biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Kateley, John R.; Bazzell, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    The intactness of the immune system in cattle exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) has been investigated by using several immunoassays. Eighty-seven animals have been studied, 35 control animals (not exposed to PBBs) and 52 animals exposed to PBBs (0.02–30 ppm/g fat equivalent). The immunoassays included a complete blood count, identification of peripheral blood T and B lymphocyte subpopulations, serum immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgM, and IgA), the in vitro response to lymphocytes to phytolectins (PHA, Con A, PWM), the antibody response to Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), the cell-mediated response to PPD, and determination of autoantibodies and/or immunosuppressive serum factors. For control and PBB-exposed cattle, there was no statistical difference between the number of circulating erythrocytes or leukocytes, the hematocrit, or hemoglobin content; the percentage or number of T and B lymphocytes; the isotope incorporation index (DNA synthesis) of lymphocytes in response to mitogens; the concentrations of serum immunoglobulins IgG, IgM, or IgA; the mean peak titer to KLH; or in vivo or in vitro immune response to PPD. Additional evaluation of cattle with tissue levels of PBB greater than 3 ppm/g tissue for hematological and immunological parameters revealed no statistical difference from control animals. Other experiments were performed to evaluate serum from cattle exposed to PBBs for autoantibodies to smooth muscle, mitochondrial or nuclear antigens. No evidence for autoantibodies was observed. Further studies were done to examine the cytotoxic and/or immunosuppressive activity of sera from PBB-exposed animals. In these studies, the blastogenic response of lymphocytes from control cattle and humans were evaluated in the presence and absence of serum from animals exposed to PBBs (> 3 ppm/g tissue). No evidence for either a cytotoxic or an immunosuppressive influence of such sera was demonstrable. Our studies indicate that PBB, at the levels studied, does

  11. Immunological studies in cattle exposed to polybrominated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Kateley, J R; Bazzell, S J

    1978-04-01

    The intactness of the immune system in cattle exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) has been investigated by using several immunoassays. Eighty-seven animals have been studied, 35 control animals (not exposed to PBBs) and 52 animals exposed to PBBs (0.02-30 ppm/g fat equivalent). The immunoassays included a complete blood count, identification of peripheral blood T and B lymphocyte subpopulations, serum immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgM, and IgA), the in vitro response to lymphocytes to phytolectins (PHA, Con A, PWM), the antibody response to Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), the cell-mediated response to PPD, and determination of autoantibodies and/or immunosuppressive serum factors. For control and PBB-exposed cattle, there was no statistical difference between the number of circulating erythrocytes or leukocytes, the hematocrit, or hemoglobin content; the percentage or number of T and B lymphocytes; the isotope incorporation index (DNA synthesis) of lymphocytes in response to mitogens; the concentrations of serum immunoglobulins IgG, IgM, or IgA; the mean peak titer to KLH; or in vivo or in vitro immune response to PPD.Additional evaluation of cattle with tissue levels of PBB greater than 3 ppm/g tissue for hematological and immunological parameters revealed no statistical difference from control animals. Other experiments were performed to evaluate serum from cattle exposed to PBBs for autoantibodies to smooth muscle, mitochondrial or nuclear antigens. No evidence for autoantibodies was observed. Further studies were done to examine the cytotoxic and/or immunosuppressive activity of sera from PBB-exposed animals. In these studies, the blastogenic response of lymphocytes from control cattle and humans were evaluated in the presence and absence of serum from animals exposed to PBBs (> 3 ppm/g tissue). No evidence for either a cytotoxic or an immunosuppressive influence of such sera was demonstrable. Our studies indicate that PBB, at the levels studied, does not

  12. Polybrominated biphenyls: Metabolism and toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the adverse health effects resulting from polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) exposure, including liver and kidney function, neurological effects, and immune response. The biochemistry and mechanism of PBB toxicity in man and animals are examined. (Contains a minimum of 93 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYL EXPOSURE AND BENIGN BREAST DISEASE IN A COHORT OF US WOMEN. (R825300)

    EPA Science Inventory

    PURPOSE: We examined the relation between serum polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) levels and the risk of benign breast disease in a cohort of Michigan women unintentionally exposed to PBBs in 1973 and interviewed in 1997.

    METHODS: We used extend...

  14. Incidence of thyroid disease following exposure to polybrominated biphenyls and polychlorinated biphenyls, Michigan, 1974-2006.

    PubMed

    Yard, Ellen E; Terrell, Metrecia L; Hunt, Danielle Rentz; Cameron, Lorraine L; Small, Chanley M; McGeehin, Michael A; Marcus, Michele

    2011-08-01

    Thyroid hormones, which influence body metabolism and development, could be affected by persistent organic pollutants. We sought to examine the relationship between polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and thyroid disease. We employed incidence density sampling to perform a nested case control analysis of the Michigan Long-Term PBB Cohort. Cohort members (n=3333) were exposed to PBBs through contaminated cattle feed in 1973-1974 and to PCBs through daily life. Those with detectable serum PBB and PCB concentrations at enrollment were categorized into tertiles of PBB and PCB exposure. Case-patients were cohort members answering "Yes" to "Has a healthcare provider ever told you that you had a thyroid problem?" during follow-up interviews; control-patients were cohort members answering "No". We used odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare odds of thyroid disease by PBB and PCB exposure and by various risk factors. Total cumulative thyroid disease incidence after 33 years was 13.9% among women and 2.6% among men. After adjusting for body mass index, we found no statistically significant differences in odds of any type of thyroid disease among women or men with elevated PBB or PCB exposure. Compared to control-patients, women with thyroid disease had increased odds of being overweight/obese (OR=2.82, 95% CI: 1.94-4.11) and developing infertility (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.08-2.69), diabetes (OR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.04-2.51), or arthritis (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.18-2.50) during follow-up. Additional research should explore potential associations between PBBs/PCBs and thyroid disease among children exposed in utero. PMID:21737118

  15. Incidence of thyroid disease following exposure to polybrominated biphenyls and polychlorinated biphenyls, Michigan, 1974-2006.

    PubMed

    Yard, Ellen E; Terrell, Metrecia L; Hunt, Danielle Rentz; Cameron, Lorraine L; Small, Chanley M; McGeehin, Michael A; Marcus, Michele

    2011-08-01

    Thyroid hormones, which influence body metabolism and development, could be affected by persistent organic pollutants. We sought to examine the relationship between polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and thyroid disease. We employed incidence density sampling to perform a nested case control analysis of the Michigan Long-Term PBB Cohort. Cohort members (n=3333) were exposed to PBBs through contaminated cattle feed in 1973-1974 and to PCBs through daily life. Those with detectable serum PBB and PCB concentrations at enrollment were categorized into tertiles of PBB and PCB exposure. Case-patients were cohort members answering "Yes" to "Has a healthcare provider ever told you that you had a thyroid problem?" during follow-up interviews; control-patients were cohort members answering "No". We used odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare odds of thyroid disease by PBB and PCB exposure and by various risk factors. Total cumulative thyroid disease incidence after 33 years was 13.9% among women and 2.6% among men. After adjusting for body mass index, we found no statistically significant differences in odds of any type of thyroid disease among women or men with elevated PBB or PCB exposure. Compared to control-patients, women with thyroid disease had increased odds of being overweight/obese (OR=2.82, 95% CI: 1.94-4.11) and developing infertility (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.08-2.69), diabetes (OR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.04-2.51), or arthritis (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.18-2.50) during follow-up. Additional research should explore potential associations between PBBs/PCBs and thyroid disease among children exposed in utero.

  16. Determinants of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) levels in the sera of young children

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.L.; Humphrey, H.E.; Jacobson, S.W.; Schantz, S.L.; Mullin, M.D.; Welch, R. )

    1989-10-01

    Serum samples from 285 4-year-old Michigan children were evaluated for levels of 11 environmental contaminants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found in half the samples tested; polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in 13-21 percent; dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), in more than 70 percent. Nursing (Mothers' milk) was the principal source of these exposures. Congener-specific analysis documented the presence of at least one highly toxic PCB congener, 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl. The data demonstrate the multigenerational impact of female exposure to persistent organic environmental contaminants.

  17. Determinants of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) levels in the sera of young children

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.L.; Humphrey, H.E.B.; Jacobson, S.W.; Schantz, S.L.; Mullin, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Serum samples from 285 4-year old Michigan children were evaluated for levels of 11 environmental contaminants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found in half the samples tested; polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in 13-21%; dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), in more than 70%. Nursing (Mothers milk) was the principal source of these exposures. Congener-specific analysis documented the presence of at least one highly toxic PCB congener, 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl. The data demonstrate the multigenerational impact of female exposure to persistent organic environmental contaminants.

  18. Transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) across the human placenta and into maternal milk

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.L.; Fein, G.G.; Jacobson, S.W.; Schwartz, P.M.; Dowler, J.K.

    1984-04-01

    Cord serum and maternal milk levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were examined in relation to maternal serum levels. Maternal serum levels were significantly higher than cord serum levels for both types of compounds. Placental passage was indicated by significant maternal to cord serum correlations for both PCBs (r = .42) and PBBs (r = .81). Correlations between maternal serum and milk levels were similar. Higher PBB correlations were probably due to greater reliability in the measurement of PBB levels in serum and milk.

  19. The transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) across the human placenta and into maternal milk

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.L.; Fein, G.G.; Jacobson, S.W.; Schwartz, P.M.; Dowler, J.K.

    1984-04-01

    Cord serum and maternal milk levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were examined in relation to maternal serum levels. Maternal serum levels were significantly higher than cord serum levels for both types of compounds. Placental passage was indicated by significant maternal to cord serum correlations for both PCBs (r . .42) and PBBs (r . .81). Correlations between maternal serum and milk levels were similar. Higher PBB correlations were probably due to greater reliability in the measurement of PBB levels in serum and milk.

  20. Polybrominated biphenyl exposure and human cancer: Report of a case and public health implications

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, J.D.

    1991-05-01

    This is a human case report of documented exposure to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), with serial PBB determinations, obtained over an 11 year period, and signs and symptoms characteristic of PBB exposure, culminating in cancer. No epidemiological studies of PBB and cancer are available, but structure-activity relationships and animal studies were predictive of malignancy. The patient did not have the risk factors of alcoholism or cigarette smoking.

  1. Reductive debromination of the commercial polybrominated biphenyl mixture firemaster BP6 by anaerobic microorganisms from sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, P.J.; Quensen, J.F. III; Tiedje, J.M.; Boyd, S.A. )

    1992-10-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms eluted from three sediments, one contaminated with polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and two contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls, were compared for their ability to debrominate the commercial PBB mixture Firemaster. These microorganisms were incubated with reduced anaerobic mineral medium and noncontaminated sediment amended with Firemaster. Firemaster averages six bromines per biphenyl molecule; four of the bromines are substituted in the meta or para position. The inocula from all three sources were able to debrominate the meta and para positions. Microorganisms from the Pine River (St. Louis, Mich.) contaminated with Firemaster, the Hudson River (Hudson Falls, N.Y.) contaminated with Aroclor 1242, and Silver Lake (Pittsfield, Mass.) contaminated with Aroclor 1260 removed 32, 12, and 3% of the meta plus para bromines, respectively, after 32 weeks of incubation. This suggests that previous environmental exposure to PBBs enhances the debromination capability of the sediment microbial community through selection for different strains of microorganisms. The Pine River inoculum removed an average of 1.25 bromines per biphenyl molecule during a 32-week incubation period, resulting in a mixture potentially more accessible to aerobic degradation processes. No ortho bromine removal was observed. However, when Firemaster was incubated with Hudson River microorganisms that had been repeatedly transferred on a pyruvate medium amended with Aroclor 1242, 17% of the meta and para bromines were removed after 16 weeks of incubation and additional debromination products, including 2-bromobiphenyl and biphenyl, were detected.

  2. Method development for the simultaneous determination of polybrominated, polychlorinated, mixed polybrominated/chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish.

    PubMed

    Zacs, D; Rjabova, J; Viksna, A; Bartkevics, V

    2015-01-01

    An analytical methodology was developed for simultaneous determination of five groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polybrominated, polychlorinated and mixed brominated-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/DFs, PCDD/DFs and PXDD/DFs, respectively), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish samples. The presented analytical approach was based on well established and robust method for determination of PCDD/DFs and PCBs, which was augmented with gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) to include PBDEs, as well as poorly investigated PBDD/DFs and PXDD/DFs at toxicologically significant levels. Intensive clean-up and fractionation procedures in combination with optimized instrumental parameters provided reliable detection and quantification of these compounds. The application of (13)C12-labeled surrogates of analyzed compounds allowed the internal standardization and accurate measurement of selected contaminants. The developed procedure was validated while taking into account the Commission Regulation (EU) 252/2012 requirements for PCDD/DFs and PCBs, and was used to measure the occurrence of priority POPs in Baltic wild salmon.

  3. Nonrespiratory metabolic function and morphology of lung following exposure to polybrominated biphenyls in rats

    SciTech Connect

    McCormack, K.M.; Roth, R.A.; Wallace, K.B.; Ross, L.M.; Hook, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Exposure to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) resulted in increased activity of microsomal arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase in rat lung. Clearance of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and angiotensin I by perfused lungs was decreased by PBBs. However, PBBs had no effect on the activity of epoxide hydrolase, monoamine oxidase, or angiotensin-converting enzyme in lung. The only hisotpathlogic change detected in lungs from PBB-treated rats was an increase in alveolar type II cell lamellar bodies. Selective accumulation of certain PBB congeners by lung was not observed in this investigation.

  4. Long-term performance and health cows experimentally exposed to polybrominated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Willett, L B; Schanbacher, F L; Durst, H I; Moorhead, P D

    1980-12-01

    Fifteen Holstein cows were studied for up to 15 00 days to determine whether exposure to polybrominated biphenyls produced latent or subtle toxicosis not evident in previous acute or short studies. Animals for these long studies came from three groups given 0, .25, or 250 mg of fireMaster BP-6 per day for 60 days in 1975. Another group that received 250 mg of BP-6 for 180 or 202 days in 1976 also was studied. Individual animals were in their second, third, or fourth lactations. Milk production was not different among experimental groups, and mature body weights were similar. Increases in the amount or duration of exposure did not increase number of infections, dysfunctions, or general injuries. Exposure to 250 mg/day for 60, 180, or 202 days increased frequencies of reproductive disorders at parturition, particularly related to and following a high incidence of dystocia. A contributing factor to dystocia was larger birth weights of calves from cows exposed to 250 mg daily as compared to calves from cows exposed to 0 or .25 mg polybrominated biphenyls. Although reproductive dysfunctions required more veterinary care, numbers of services per conception were not different among groups. PMID:6259226

  5. Retrospective time-trend study of polybrominated diphenyl ether and polybrominated and polychlorinated biphenyl levels in human serum from the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Sjödin, Andreas; Jones, Richard S; Focant, Jean-François; Lapeza, Chester; Wang, Richard Y; McGahee, Ernest E; Zhang, Yalin; Turner, Wayman E; Slazyk, Bill; Needham, Larry L; Patterson, Donald G

    2004-01-01

    Six polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), one hexabromobiphenyl [polybrominated biphenyl (PBB)], and one hexachlorobiphenyl [polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)] were measured in 40 human serum pools collected in the southeastern United States during 1985 through 2002 and in Seattle, Washington, for 1999 through 2002. The concentrations of most of the PBDEs, which are commercially used as flame retardants in common household and commercial applications, had significant positive correlations with time of sample collection, showing that the concentrations of these compounds are increasing in serum collected in the United States. In contrast, PCB and PBB levels were negatively correlated with sample collection year, indicating that the levels of these compounds have been decreasing since their phaseout in the 1970s. PMID:15121506

  6. Serum concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and a polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) in men from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Lenters, Virissa; Thomsen, Cathrine; Smit, Lidwien A M; Jönsson, Bo A G; Pedersen, Henning S; Ludwicki, Jan K; Zviezdai, Valentyna; Piersma, Aldert H; Toft, Gunnar; Bonde, Jens Peter; Becher, Georg; Vermeulen, Roel; Heederik, Dick

    2013-11-01

    Many brominated flame retardants (BFRs)-including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)-have been shown to persist in the environment, and some have been associated with adverse health effects. The aim of the present study was to quantify serum concentrations of common brominated flame retardants in Inuit men from across Greenland, and in men from Warsaw, Poland and Kharkiv, Ukraine. Serum was sampled between 2002 and 2004 from men 19 to 50years of age. 299 samples were analyzed for BDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154 and 183 and the brominated biphenyl BB-153 using gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. BDE-47 and BDE-153 were detected in more than 95% of samples from all three populations. All other congeners, except BDE-154, were detected in more than 70% of samples from Greenland; lower detection frequencies were observed in Polish and Ukrainian samples. Concentrations of individual congeners were 2.7 to 15 fold higher in Greenlandic relative to Polish and Ukrainian men. Geometric mean concentrations of the sum of the most abundant PBDEs of the Penta-BDE commercial mixture (BDE-47, 99, 100, 153 and 154) were 6.1, 1.7 and 0.87ng/g lipids in the Greenlandic, Polish and Ukrainian men, respectively. Furthermore, significant geographical differences in BFR concentrations were observed within Greenland. Principal component analysis revealed distinct clustering of samples by country of origin. The associations between ΣPBDEs and age were inconsistent, varying from no association in Greenlandic and Polish study populations to a U-shaped relationship in Ukrainians. We report BFR levels for three populations for which sparse biomonitoring data exists.

  7. Transplacental transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in arctic beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Ross, Peter S; Loseto, Lisa L

    2012-02-01

    This study found that arctic beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) transferred, on average, 11.4% (7.5 mg) and 11.1% (0.1 mg) of their polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) blubber burden to their near-term fetuses. A single physicochemical parameter, log K(OW), largely explained this transplacental transfer for PCBs (r(2) =0.79, p < 0.00001) and PBDEs (r(2) = 0.37, p = 0.007), with congeners having a log K(OW) < 6.5 preferentially transferred to the fetus. Blubber concentrations of 257 ng/g lipid weight (lw) PCBs and 3.8 ng/g (lw) PBDEs in beluga fetuses highlights the exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds during a critical developmental stage. The implications of detecting these levels of legacy PCBs and the flame retardant PBDEs in unborn arctic beluga are unclear.

  8. Transplacental transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in arctic beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Ross, Peter S; Loseto, Lisa L

    2012-02-01

    This study found that arctic beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) transferred, on average, 11.4% (7.5 mg) and 11.1% (0.1 mg) of their polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) blubber burden to their near-term fetuses. A single physicochemical parameter, log K(OW), largely explained this transplacental transfer for PCBs (r(2) =0.79, p < 0.00001) and PBDEs (r(2) = 0.37, p = 0.007), with congeners having a log K(OW) < 6.5 preferentially transferred to the fetus. Blubber concentrations of 257 ng/g lipid weight (lw) PCBs and 3.8 ng/g (lw) PBDEs in beluga fetuses highlights the exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds during a critical developmental stage. The implications of detecting these levels of legacy PCBs and the flame retardant PBDEs in unborn arctic beluga are unclear. PMID:22095624

  9. Cutaneous effects of exposure to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs): the Michigan PBB incident

    SciTech Connect

    Chanda, J.J.; Anderson, H.A.; Glamb, R.W.; Lomatch, D.L.; Wolff, M.S.; Voorhees, J.J.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1982-10-01

    In 1973 an environmental accident occurred in northern Michigan in which 1000-2000 pounds of the toxic fire retardant polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) was added to the livestock food supply of much of northern Michigan. PBB is highly lipophilic, poorly metabolized, and biocumulative. It subsequently entered the human food chain of the entire state of Michigan. Health effects were noted in contaminated animals and among exposed farmers some months after the contamination; these often included cutaneous problems. Three years later a multidisciplinary study of the farming population was undertaken. Detected cutaneous abnormalities included halogen acne, hair loss, skin redness, skin peeling, and scaling, itching, increased sweating, and increased growth of fingernails and toenails. The mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. PBBs appear to be etiologically implicated for significant cutaneous toxicity.

  10. Reductive dehalogenation of polybrominated and polychlorinated biphenyls by anaerobic microorganisms from sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are stable industrial chemicals that consist of complex mixtures considered to be highly recalcitrant to biological degradation in the environment. Reductive dehalogenation is the only known biodegradation process for the more highly halogenated PCB and PBB mixtures. Studies were undertaken to: (1) examine in situ reductive debromination in sediments of the Pine River Reservoir, (2) compare the ability of microorganisms from PCB-contaminated and PBB-contaminated sediments to debrominate the commercial PBB mixture, Firemaster, (3) examine factors which might enhance reductive dehalogenation in sediments, (4) evaluate the role of sediment for dechlorinating microorganisms. Sediments in the heavily contaminated region of the Pine River have undergone little or no debromination. Anaerobic microorganisms previously shown to dechlorinate PCB mixtures were unable to dechlorinate Aroclor 1242 in the presence of Pine River sediments located close to the PBB manufacturing site. Microorganisms downstream of the heaviest contamination were able to debrominate Firemaster. Microorganisms from the Pine River (contaminated with Firemaster), Hudson River (contaminated with Aroclor 1242) and Silver Lake (contaminated with Aroclor 1260), removed 32%, 12%, and 3% of the meta plus para bromines, respectively, after 32 weeks. The Pine River inoculum removed an average of 1.25 bromines from the biphenyl molecule. When Firemaster was incubated with Hudson River microorganisms, 17% of the meta and para bromines were removed after 16 weeks, and additional debromination products, 2-bromobiphenyl and biphenyl, were detected suggesting ortho debromination. A PCB enrichment culture was established using pyruvate as an electron donor and Aroclor 1242 as the electron acceptor. Three Michigan surface soils, Pine River sediments, and ashed sediment supported reductive dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 by Hudson River microorganisms.

  11. Detailed analysis of polybrominated biphenyl congeners in bird eggs from Norway.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Walter; von der Recke, Roland; Herzke, Dorte; Nygård, Torgeir

    2008-12-01

    Individual eggs of six species of birds from Norway representing different food chains were analysed for residues of polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). In all species, the residue pattern was dominated by hexaBBs. The dominating congeners were PBB 153, PBB 154, and PBB 155. Whereas PBB 153 is present in technical hexabromobiphenyl, PBB 154 and PBB 155 are formed by the reductive debromination of decabromobiphenyl. This was evidenced by the detection of several heptaBBs and octaBBs all of which are typical degradation intermediates of PBB 209. Hepta- and octaBBs were more than one order of magnitude less abundant than the hexaBBs. The second most prevailing homologue group was pentaBBs. The most relevant pentabrominated isomers were PBB 99 and PBB 101. Concentrations of the three hexaBBs--PBB 153, PBB 154, and PBB 155--amounted to 1.3-13 ng/g wet weight or 3-23% of the contamination with polybrominated diphenyl ethers. PMID:18472199

  12. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Diphenol Ethers (PBDEs) in Current and Historical Samples of Avian Eggs from Nesting Sites in Buzzards Bay, MA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in eggs from breeding colonies in Buzzards Bay, MA, USA. Eggs from two piscivorous bird species, common (Sterna hirundo) and roseate (Sterna dougallii) terns, were collected...

  13. Global contamination of coplanar polybrominated/chlorinated biphenyls (Co-PXBs) in the market fishes from Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Souichi; Tokusawa, Hidekazu; Nakao, Teruyuki; Aozasa, Osamu; Miyata, Hideaki; Alaee, Mehran

    2008-08-01

    Polybrominated chlorinated biphenyls (PXBs, X=Br, Cl) are a group of environmental contaminants that have not been studied previously. The introduction of the second halogen to the biphenyl backbone increases the number of possible congeners to more than 9000. Only a limited number of PXBs are commercially available. In order to determine the occurrence of these compounds in environmental matrices, an isotope dilution HRGC/HRMS method for determination of five co-planar polybrominated/chlorinated biphenyls (Co-PXBs) in biota was developed. The method detection limit for these compounds ranged between 0.05 and 0.5 pg/g for 4'-monobromo-3,3',4,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl and 3',4',5'-tribromo-3,4-dichlorobiphenyl, respectively. Concentrations of five co-planar polybrominated and chlorinated biphenyls in eighteen different fish fillets from Japanese markets ranged between 4 and 46 pg/g wet weight for mink whale and young yellow-tail fish. These values are substantially lower than those reported for Co-PCBs; however, it should be noted that due to the unavailability of standards, identification and quantification of all the isomers was not possible.

  14. Patterns of bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ether and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in marine mussels.

    PubMed

    Debruyn, Adrian M H; Meloche, Lizanne M; Lowe, Christopher J

    2009-05-15

    Marine mussels (Modiolus modiolus) and sediment from 14 stations near a municipal outfall and three reference locations were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to evaluate and compare patterns of bioaccumulation of individual congeners between these two groups of chemicals. Of the 47 PBDEs and 209 PCBs analyzed, 34 PBDE and 153 PCB congeners or coeluting groups of congeners were detected in one or more matrices. The predominant PBDE congeners were BDEs 47, 99, 100, and 209, accounting for 80-90% of the total PBDEs in all matrices. PCBs and PBDEs exhibited a parabolic relationship of the biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) versus the log octanol-water partition coefficient(Kow). Below Kow 10(5.5), BSAFs ranged between 1 and 3, reflecting approximate equilibrium between mussels and sedimentforthese relatively water soluble congeners. BSAFs increased with increasing Kow to maximum values of approximately 30-100 for congeners with Kow approximately 10(7) and then declined at higher Kow to a value of approximately 1 for BDE 209. BSAFs for PBDEs were generally 2- to 3-fold higher than those for PCBs of a similar Kow. The calculated BSAFs for PBDE congeners indicate that PBDEs have a pattern of bioaccumulative behavior in mussels similar to that of the PCBs, and that some PBDE congeners may be more bioaccumulative in mussels than PCBs. PMID:19544876

  15. Effect of polybrominated biphenyls on hepatic excretory function in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Cagen, S Z; Gibson, J E

    1978-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) on hepatic excretory function in developing and adult rats and mice. Prenatal or postnatal dietary exposure to PBBs (50 ppm in diet of pregnant or lactating mother or in diet of rat weanlings) resulted in elevated liver weight in developing rats. In 15-day-old rats that had been treated with PBBs increased liver weight correlated to enhanced ouabain transport from plasma into bile. Liver weight was also elevated in 21, 35, and 49-day-old rats exposed to PBBs, but this effect was not associated with stimulation of ouabain transport in these animals. However, adult rats fed 100 ppm PBBs for two weeks had significantly lower plasma concentrations of sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and increased biliary excretion of BSP, when compared to controls. PBBs-fed adult rats also excreted a greater percentage conjugated BSP (BSP-GSH) into bile. Two week dietary treatment of 100, 150, and 200 ppm PBBs resulted in enhanced initial disappearance of indocyanine green (ICG) from plasma of adult mice. However, dietary doses of 100 and 200 ppm PBBs to adult mice was not associated with enhanced capacity for ouabain excretion. In contrast, treatment with PBBs through the mother's diet (50 ppm) resulted in an almost twofold increase in cumulative ouabain excretion in 15-day-old mice. The results suggest that PBBs stimulate hepatic drug elimination in rats and mice, but the magnitude of the effect is dependent on age and transported compound.

  16. Deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the vicinity of a steel manufacturing plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Mingliang; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Baek, Song-Yee; Jin, Guangzhu; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2012-03-01

    Spatial distribution and seasonal variation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) bulk deposition were investigated at four sites at and around an iron and steel making plant in Pohang, South Korea from January 2008 to May 2009. The steel complex site showed the highest average deposition fluxes of 74.0, 2.1, and 41.6 ng m-2 day-1 for ∑tri-decaPCBs (Tri-DecaCBs), ∑12PCBs (dioxin-like PCBs), and ∑8PBDEs (8 PBDE congeners), respectively, indicating the steel complex is an important source of PCBs and PBDEs. The PCB deposition was dominated by Tri-TetraCBs and BDE209 was the most abundant PBDE congener. No clear seasonal variation of PCB and PBDE deposition was observed except at the steel complex site. Precipitation appeared to play an important role in the deposition distribution of PCBs, especially when the lowly chlorinated homologues dominated. In addition, the contribution of DL PCBs (dioxin-like PCBs) to the total TEQ (toxicity equivalent quantity) showed a seasonal variation and should not be neglected in the vicinity of a steel complex.

  17. Effects of polybrominated biphenyls on kidney function and activity of renal microsomal enzymes.

    PubMed

    McCormack, K M; Kluwe, W M; Sanger, V L; Hook, J B

    1978-04-01

    Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) cause hepatic microsomal enzyme stimulation and histopathological alterations in several organs, including kidney. Concern about effects of PBBs on the health of newborns has increased after the discovery of PBBs in milk of nursing mothers. Therefore, it was of interest to investigate the effects of PBBs on kidney function and the activity of renal microsomal enzymes in adult and immature animals. Seven and eleven day old pups were treated with a single IP injection of either peanut oil or 150 mg/kg PBBs (FireMaster BP-6) in peanut oil. Adult virgin rats were fed diet containing 0 or 100 ppm PBBs for 30 or 90 days. Treatment with PBBs only retarded weight gain after 90 days exposure. Kidney-to-body weight ratio was not altered by PBBs. Arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase activity was increased while epoxide hydratase activity was decreased (adults) or not affected (immature rats) in kidney following treatment with PBBs. Administration of PBBs had no effect on blood urea nitrogen, the clearance of inulin, p-aminohippurate (PAH), or fractional sodium excretion. Similarly, the in vitro accumulation of PAH and N-methylnicotinamide (NMN) by thin renal cortical slices and ammoniagenesis and gluconeogenesis in renal cortical slices were not affected by PBBs. In conclusion, treatment with PBBs resulted in modification of the activity of renal microsomal enzyme activities but had no detectable effect on renal function. PMID:209969

  18. Immunotoxicology: environmental contamination by polybrominated biphenyls and immune dysfunction among residents of the State of Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Bekesi, J.G.; Roboz, J.P.; Fischbein, A.; Mason, P.

    1987-01-01

    In 1973, inadvertent contamination occurred in a special farm feed supplement for lactating cows. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were used in place of magnesium oxide resulting in serious harm to farm animals, including cattle, chickens, geese, ducks. Farm families, accustomed to eating their own products, were most heavily exposed. To study the impact of PBBs, 336 adult Michigan farm residents, 117 general consumers for comparison, 75 dairy farm residents in Wisconsin, who had not eaten PBB-contaminated food, were examined, as were 79 healthy subjects in New York City. Abnormalities in the Michigan groups included hypergammaglobulinemia, exaggerated hypersensitive response to streptococci, significant decrease in absolute numbers and percentage of T and B-lymphocytes, and increased number of lymphocytes with no detectable surface markers (''null cells''). Significant reduction of in vitro immune function was noted in 20-25% of the Michigan farm residents who had eaten food containing PBB. The decreased immune function detected among the PBB-exposed farm residents tended to affect families as a unit and was independent of exposed individuals' age or sex, pointing against the possibility of genetic predisposition.

  19. CONCENTRATIONS AND COMPOSITIONS OF POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS, -DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS, AND -DIBENZOFURANS IN TECHNICAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER PREPARATIONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used as flame retardants in textiles, electronic equipment and plastics.1 The three major commercial products available in the market are penta-BDE, octa-BDE, and deca-BDE products. Due to their widespread use, persistence, and bio...

  20. Metabolic transformation shapes polychlorinated biphenyl and polybrominated diphenyl ether patterns in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Ross, Peter S; Loseto, Lisa L

    2013-04-01

    While the accumulation of persistent contaminants in marine mammals can be attributed directly to their prey, the role of metabolism in shaping patterns is often overlooked. In the present study, the authors investigated the role of metabolic transformation in influencing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) patterns in offshore and nearshore groups of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) and their prey. Congener profiles and principal components analysis (PCA) revealed similar PCB and PBDE patterns in beluga whales feeding either offshore or nearshore, despite divergent contaminant patterns in the putative prey of these two feeding groups. The clustering of PCBs into metabolically derived structure-activity groups (SAGs) and the separation of metabolizable and recalcitrant groups along principal component 1 of the PCA revealed the important role of metabolic transformation in shaping PCB patterns in beluga. Lack of metabolism for congeners with high ortho-chlorine content was revealed by metabolic slopes equal to or greater than 1.0. Metabolic slopes for all other SAGs were less than 1.0 (p<0.001), suggesting metabolism of congeners with ortho-meta and meta-para vicinal hydrogens via induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP1A/2B/3A). Metabolic indices less than 1.0 for PBDEs (p<0.001) suggested that beluga metabolized these poorly understood flame retardants. The strikingly similar PCB patterns in a captive beluga and free-ranging beluga from the Beaufort Sea provide additional evidence that metabolic transformation is a dominant driver of contaminant patterns in beluga.

  1. [Simultaneous determination of 8 polybrominated biphenyls in human serum using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Li, Jingguang; Huang, Feifei; Wu, Yongning

    2012-05-01

    A comprehensive analytical method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 8 polybrominated biphenyl congeners (PBBs: BB-15, 18, 52, 101, 153, 180, 194 and 206) in human serum. After the protein was removed, the sample was cleaned-up by an Oasis HLB solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge, then purified further by a two-layer cartridge containing activated silica gel and a mixture of silica gel and sulfuric acid, in which elution solvent was optimized. The eluent was evaporated to about 100 microL by a gentle nitrogen stream for GC-MS analysis. The separation was performed on a DB-5ms column (15 m x 0.25 mm x 0.1 microm) and the qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out in electron impact (EI) selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode, in which isotope was used as internal standard. The limits of detection (LODs, 3.14 times of standard deviation) and the limits of quantification (LOQs, 10 times of standard deviation) were 0.002-0.029 ng/mL and 0.008-0.092 ng/mL respectively for the 8 PBBs. The average recoveries for all PBBs at three spiked levels were 74.24%-119.49% with the relative standard deviations in the range of 1.23%-12.02%. The method was verified by accurate analysis of BB-153 in organic contaminant standard reference materials (SRM) 1957 and 1958. This method is simple, rapid, accurate, precise and fit for the determination of PBBs in human serum. PMID:22934409

  2. Dehalogenation of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Polychlorinated Biphenyl by Bimetallic, Impregnated, and Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yuan; Ahn, Sungwoo; Seyfferth, Angelia L.; Masue-Slowey, Yoko; Fendorf, Scott; Luthy, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (nZVI), bimetallic nanoparticles (nZVI/Pd), and nZVI/Pd impregnated activated carbon (nZVI/Pd-AC) composite particles were synthesized and investigated for their effectiveness to remove polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and/or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Palladization of nZVI promoted the dehalogenation kinetics for mono- to tri-BDEs and 2,3,4-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 21). Compared to nZVI, the iron-normalized rate constants for nZVI/Pd were about 2-, 3-, and 4-orders of magnitude greater for tri-, di-, and mono-BDEs, respectively, with diphenyl ether as a main reaction product. The reaction kinetics and pathways suggest an H-atom transfer mechanism. The reaction pathways with nZVI/Pd favor preferential removal of para-halogens on PBDEs and PCBs. X-ray fluorescence mapping of nZVI/Pd-AC showed that Pd mainly deposits on the outer part of particles, while Fe was present throughout the activated carbon particles. While BDE 21 was sorbed onto activated carbon composites quickly, debromination was slower compared to reaction with freely dispersed nZVI/Pd. Our XPS and chemical data suggest about 7% of the total iron within the activated carbon was zero-valent, which shows the difficulty with in-situ synthesis of a significant fraction of zero-valent iron in the micro-porous material. Related factors that likely hinder the reaction with nZVI/Pd-AC are the heterogenous distribution of nZVI and Pd on activated carbon and/or immobilization of hydrophobic organic contaminants at the adsorption sites thereby inhibiting contact with nZVI. PMID:21557574

  3. Air-surface exchange of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Gouin, T; Thomas, G O; Cousins, I; Barber, J; Mackay, D; Jones, K C

    2002-04-01

    Air and leaf-litter samples were collected from a rural site in southern Ontario under meteorologically stable conditions in the early spring, prior to bud burst, over a three-day period to measure the simultaneous diurnal variations in polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). PBDEs are used in a wide range of commercial products as flame retardants and are being assessed internationally as potential persistent organic pollutants. Total PBDE concentrations in the air ranged between 88 and 1250 pg m(-3), and were dominated primarily by the lighter congeners PBDEs 17, 28, and 47, and concentrations of total PCBs ranged between 96 and 950 pg m(-3), and were dominated by the lower chlorinated (tri- to tetra-) congeners. Slopes of Clausius-Clapeyron plots indicate that both PCBs and PBDEs are experiencing active air-surface exchange. Fugacities were estimated from concentrations in the air and leaf-litter and suggest near equilibrium conditions. Following the three-day intensive sampling period, 40 air samples were collected at 24-hour intervals in an attempt to evaluate the effect of bud burst on atmospheric concentrations. Total PBDE concentrations in the daily air samples ranged between 10 and 230 pg m(-3), and were dominated by the lighter congeners PBDE 17, 28, and 47, whereas concentrations of total PCBs ranged between 30 and 450 pg m(-3) during this period. It is hypothesized thatthe high PBDE concentrations observed at the beginning of the sampling period are the result of an "early spring pulse" in which PBDEs deposited in the snowpack over the winter are released with snowmelt, resulting in elevated concentrations in the surface and air. Later in the sampling period, following bud burst, PBDE concentrations in air fell to 10 to 20 pg m(-3), possibly due to the high sorption capacity of this freshly emerging foliage compartment.

  4. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in dust from cars, homes, and offices in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Harrad, Stuart; Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Oluseyi, Temilola

    2016-03-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in dust from 16 cars, 12 homes, and 18 offices in Lagos, Nigeria. These represent the first and second reports respectively of contamination of Nigerian indoor dust with these contaminants, and the second report on PCBs in car dust worldwide. Concentrations of BDE-47 and BDE-99 in two car dust samples (9300 and 3700 ng g(-1) for BDE-47 and 4200 and 19,000 ng g(-1) for BDE-99), are amongst the highest ever reported in car dust. ANOVA comparison with Canada, New Zealand, the UK, and the USA; reveals concentrations of BDEs-28, 49, 47, 66, 100, 99, 154, and 153 in Nigerian house dust, to be significantly lower than in Canada and the USA, with those of BDE-49 and 154 significantly lower than in New Zealand and the UK. Concentrations of BDE-209 in Nigeria were significantly lower than concentrations in the UK and the USA; while concentrations of PCB-180 were significantly greater than those in New Zealand, the UK, and the USA. Median concentrations of PCBs in cars were substantially higher than in the only previous study (in Kuwait and Pakistan). While median concentrations of PBDEs in cars generally exceeded those in homes, this was significant only for BDEs-49, 154, and 197, with concentrations in cars significantly greater than those in offices for BDEs-49 and 154. Contrastingly, concentrations of all target PCBs in offices exceeded significantly those in cars. This study underlines the truly global distribution of indoor contamination with PBDEs and PCBs.

  5. Sources, emissions, and fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls indoors in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianming; Diamond, Miriam L; Robson, Matthew; Harrad, Stuart

    2011-04-15

    Indoor air concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in 20 locations in Toronto ranged 0.008-16 ng·m(-3) (median 0.071 ng·m(-3)) and 0.8-130.5 ng·m(-3) (median 8.5 ng·m(-3)), respectively. PBDE and PCB air concentrations in homes tended to be lower than that in offices. Principal component analysis of congener profiles suggested that electrical equipment was the main source of PBDEs in locations with higher concentrations, whereas PUF furniture and carpets were likely sources to locations with lower concentrations. PCB profiles in indoor air were similar to Aroclors 1248, 1232, and 1242 and some exterior building sealant profiles. Individual PBDE and PCB congener concentrations in air were positively correlated with colocated dust concentrations, but total PBDE and total PCB concentrations in these two media were not correlated. Equilibrium partitioning between air and dust was further examined using log-transformed dust/air concentration ratios for which lower brominated PBDEs and all PCBs were correlated with K(OA). This was not the case for higher brominated BDEs for which the measured ratios fell below those based on K(OA) suggesting the air-dust partitioning process could be kinetically limited. Total emissions of PBDEs and PCBs to one intensively studied office were estimated at 87-550 ng·h(-1) and 280-5870 ng·h(-1), respectively, using the Multimedia Indoor Model of Zhang et al. Depending on the air exchange rate, up to 90% of total losses from the office could be to outdoors by means of ventilation. These results support the hypotheses that dominant sources of PBDEs differ according to location and that indoor concentrations and hence emissions contribute to outdoor concentrations due to higher indoor than outdoor concentrations along with estimates of losses via ventilation.

  6. Metabolic transformation shapes polychlorinated biphenyl and polybrominated diphenyl ether patterns in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Ross, Peter S; Loseto, Lisa L

    2013-04-01

    While the accumulation of persistent contaminants in marine mammals can be attributed directly to their prey, the role of metabolism in shaping patterns is often overlooked. In the present study, the authors investigated the role of metabolic transformation in influencing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) patterns in offshore and nearshore groups of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) and their prey. Congener profiles and principal components analysis (PCA) revealed similar PCB and PBDE patterns in beluga whales feeding either offshore or nearshore, despite divergent contaminant patterns in the putative prey of these two feeding groups. The clustering of PCBs into metabolically derived structure-activity groups (SAGs) and the separation of metabolizable and recalcitrant groups along principal component 1 of the PCA revealed the important role of metabolic transformation in shaping PCB patterns in beluga. Lack of metabolism for congeners with high ortho-chlorine content was revealed by metabolic slopes equal to or greater than 1.0. Metabolic slopes for all other SAGs were less than 1.0 (p<0.001), suggesting metabolism of congeners with ortho-meta and meta-para vicinal hydrogens via induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP1A/2B/3A). Metabolic indices less than 1.0 for PBDEs (p<0.001) suggested that beluga metabolized these poorly understood flame retardants. The strikingly similar PCB patterns in a captive beluga and free-ranging beluga from the Beaufort Sea provide additional evidence that metabolic transformation is a dominant driver of contaminant patterns in beluga. PMID:23400821

  7. Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Irrawaddy dolphins from India.

    PubMed

    Kannan, K; Ramu, K; Kajiwara, N; Sinha, R K; Tanabe, S

    2005-10-01

    The Irrawaddy dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) is at risk of extinction throughout its range as a result of incidental catches, habitat degradation, and pollution. Populations of Irrawaddy dolphins are constrained by the species' narrow habitat requirement-lagoons, estuaries, rivers, and lakes-and are therefore particularly vulnerable to the effects of human activities. In this study, for the first time, concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in tissues of Irrawaddy dolphins collected from Chilika Lake, India, to understand the status of contamination. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) were the predominant contaminants found in Irrawaddy dolphins; the highest concentration found was 10,000 ng/g lipid weight in blubber. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the second most prevalent contaminants in dolphin tissues. Concentrations of PCBs, chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane, and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol were in the ranges of few ng/g to few hundreds of ng/g on a lipid-weight basis. In general, concentrations of OC pesticides and PCBs in Irrawaddy dolphins were lower than the concentrations reported for coastal and riverine dolphins collected in Asia. PBDEs were detected in the blubber of Irrawaddy dolphins at concentrations ranging from 0.98 to 18 ng/g lipid weight. BDE congener 47 accounted for 60% to 75% of the total PBDE concentrations. Although these results establish the baseline levels of persistent organic pollutants in Irrawaddy dolphins, efforts should be made to decrease the sources of contamination by DDTs and HCHs in Chilika Lake. PMID:16170447

  8. pK(a) values of the monohydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs), polybrominated biphenyls (OH-PBBs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (OH-PCDEs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs).

    PubMed

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2010-09-01

    The SPARC software program aqueous pK(a) prediction module was validated against corresponding experimental acidity constants for chlorinated and brominated phenols and the limited experimental aqueous pK(a) data sets for monohydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (OH-PCDEs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs). pK(a) values were then estimated for all 837 monohydroxylated mono- through nona-halogenated congeners in each of the OH-PCB, OH-PCDE, and OH-PBDE classes, as well as for the monohydroxylated polybrominated biphenyls (OH-PBBs), giving a total of 3348 compounds. Large intrahomolog pK(a) variation by up to six units is expected within each contaminant class, with pK(a) values ranging from about 4 to 11 dependent on the degree and pattern of halogenation. Increasing halogenation generally decreased the average pK(a) within each homolog group. Significant intrahomolog differences in pK(a) values exist between OH-PCB, OH-PBB, OH-PCDE, and OH-PBDE congeners, including large acidity constant variation between isomers with equivalent halogenation patterns but varying location of the hydroxy moiety. Congener specific pH dependent investigations into the partitioning and degradation behaviors of these compounds are necessary, including greater consideration of analyte ionization effects during their extraction and analysis. PMID:20658412

  9. Toxic equivalency factors of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, biphenyl, and polyhalogenated diphenyl ether congeners based on rainbow trout early life stage mortality.

    PubMed

    Hornung, M W; Zabel, E W; Peterson, R E

    1996-10-01

    Polybrominated and polychlorinated biphenyls (PBBs/PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs/PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs/PCDFs), and diphenyl ethers (PBDEs/PCDEs) are persistent, lipophilic environmental contaminants that may pose a risk to fish early life stage survival. To determine this potential risk, a rainbow trout early life stage mortality bioassay was used in which the potency of individual polybrominated chemicals was compared to the potency of the most potent polychlorinated chemical in these classes, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Following injection of newly fertilized rainbow trout eggs, fish-specific toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) were calculated as the molar ratio of TCDD LD50 to brominated compound LD50. Signs of toxicity were identical to those produced by polychlorinated TCDD-like chemicals and included yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, multifocal hemorrhages, reduced growth, and craniofacial malformations. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls exhibited decreased potency with increased bromine substitution. Only 2,3,7,8-TBDD was more potent than 2,3,7,8-TCDD, whereas other polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins were equipotent or less potent than identically substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in this assay. Although two PBDF congeners were equipotent to identically substituted PCDFs, 2,3,7,8-TBDF was 9-fold more potent than 2,3,7,8-TCDF. Both 3,3',4,4'-TBB and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-HxBB were 10-fold more potent than identically substituted polychlorinated biphenyls. The halogenated diphenyl ethers and di-ortho polybrominated biphenyls were inactive in this assay. Thus, in this in vivo assay the polybrominated and polychlorinated TCDD-like chemicals were not always equally potent. To assess the risk posed by mixtures of these chemicals to feral fish populations, fish-specific TEFs for both polybrominated and polychlorinated chemicals should be used.

  10. Deposition of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to a boreal deciduous forest.

    PubMed

    Su, Yushan; Wania, Frank; Harner, Tom; Lei, Ying D

    2007-01-15

    The atmospheric deposition of several groups of semi-volatile organic compounds to a deciduous forest in Canada was determined using an indirect technique based on ratios of measured canopy interception and air concentrations. Air (gas and particle phase) and bulk deposition were sampled for 14 months from October 2001 to December 2002 at both a forest and a nearby clearing, and extracts were quantified for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Long-term average dry deposition velocities for vapors and particle-bound species were then derived for the canopy growing period. The mean dry gaseous deposition velocity for PBDEs and PCBs to the Canadian deciduous forest was 2.7 +/- 0.52 cm x s(-1), which is similar to the only other measured value for a deciduous canopy. Particle-bound deposition velocities to the canopy due to diffusion and impaction were 0.8 cm x s(-1) for the PBDEs and 0.11 cm x s(-1) for the PAHs. Differences in the particle-bound deposition velocities between PBDEs and PAHs and between deciduous canopies in Canada and Germany are explainable by differences in particle size distribution. The interception/concentration ratios for several PAHs were too low to be interpretable as dry gaseous deposition velocities. This is likely because the measured deposition flux under the canopy was less than the deposition flux to the canopy, possibly as a result of photodegradation in the canopy. From the ratio of canopy interception and average gas-phase concentration of less chlorinated PCBs, a predictive relationship between the canopy/air partition coefficient KPA and the octanol/air partition coefficient KOA was derived (KPA = 110 KOA0.67). Despite differences in local climate and canopy composition and structure, the deposition velocities and the canopy uptake capacity measured in Canada were remarkably similar to those reported in Germany, lending credibility to the suggestion

  11. Multi-class, multi-residue analysis of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and novel flame retardants....mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multi-class, multi-residue method for the analysis of 13 novel flame retardants, 18 representative pesticides, 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in catfish muscle was developed and evaluated...

  12. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS ON [3H]ARACHIDONIC ACID RELEASE IN RAT CEREBELLAR GRANULE NEURONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are widely used as flame-retardants, have been increasing in the past 20-30 years while the presence of other structurally related persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-d...

  13. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Selected Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides, and Polybrominated Flame Retardants in Fillets of Fishes from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenylether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 50 to 300 nanograms per gram. In samples with elevated contaminant concentrations, chlordanes, DDT-related chemicals, and dieldrin constituted the primary classes of pesticides present, and ranged from 5 to 75 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of 5 to 86 nanograms per gram. Channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River and lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton exhibited different polybrominated diphenyl ethers ratios. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers all were greatest in samples of channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River, and in samples of lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in environmental samples from Ny-Ålesund and London Island, Svalbard, the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chaofei; Li, Yingming; Wang, Pu; Chen, Zhaojing; Ren, Daiwei; Ssebugere, Patrick; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in environmental samples collected from Ny-Ålesund and London Island, Svalbard, the Arctic. Total PCB concentrations (∑25PCBs) varied from 0.57 to 2.52 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) in soil, 0.30 to 1.16 ng g(-1) dw in plants and 0.56 to 0.98 ng g(-1) dw in reindeer dung. The non-Aroclor congener of CB-11 was predominant in most samples compared to other congeners, accounting for 16.0±9.8% to the ∑25PCBs. The ∑13PBDEs concentrations were 1.7-416, 36.7-495 and 28.1-104 pg g(-1) dw in soil, plants and reindeer dung, respectively. The signature of enantioselective biotransformation was observed in all samples for chiral CB-95, whereas in parts of samples for other chiral PCBs. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in six plant species varied within individual contaminant congeners and plant species, with BAFs less than 1 for ∑PCBs and higher than 1 for ∑PBDEs. BAF values decreased with increasing soil concentrations, suggesting that high background levels in soil restricted the accumulation of these contaminants by plants.

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in environmental samples from Ny-Ålesund and London Island, Svalbard, the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chaofei; Li, Yingming; Wang, Pu; Chen, Zhaojing; Ren, Daiwei; Ssebugere, Patrick; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in environmental samples collected from Ny-Ålesund and London Island, Svalbard, the Arctic. Total PCB concentrations (∑25PCBs) varied from 0.57 to 2.52 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) in soil, 0.30 to 1.16 ng g(-1) dw in plants and 0.56 to 0.98 ng g(-1) dw in reindeer dung. The non-Aroclor congener of CB-11 was predominant in most samples compared to other congeners, accounting for 16.0±9.8% to the ∑25PCBs. The ∑13PBDEs concentrations were 1.7-416, 36.7-495 and 28.1-104 pg g(-1) dw in soil, plants and reindeer dung, respectively. The signature of enantioselective biotransformation was observed in all samples for chiral CB-95, whereas in parts of samples for other chiral PCBs. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in six plant species varied within individual contaminant congeners and plant species, with BAFs less than 1 for ∑PCBs and higher than 1 for ∑PBDEs. BAF values decreased with increasing soil concentrations, suggesting that high background levels in soil restricted the accumulation of these contaminants by plants. PMID:25697952

  16. Biomagnification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls in a highly contaminated freshwater food web from South China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ying; Yu, Mei; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the biomagnification extent of polybrominated diphenyls ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a highly contaminated freshwater food web from South China, trophic magnification factors (TMFs) for 18 PBDE congeners and 53 PCB congeners were calculated. The TMF values ranged 0.26-4.47 for PBDEs and 0.75-5.10 for PCBs. Forty-five of 53 PCBs and BDEs 47, 100 and 154 had TMFs greater than one, suggesting their biomagnification in the present food web. The TMFs for PBDEs were generally smaller than those for PCBs with the same degree of halogenation, indicating a lower biomagnification potential for PBDEs compared to PCBs. For PCBs, it followed a parabolic relationship between TMFs and logK(OW) (octanol-water partition coefficient). However, this relationship was not significant for PBDEs, possibly due to the more complex behaviors of PBDEs in the food web (e.g., metabolism), compared to that of PCBs. PMID:19062142

  17. Sampling and analysis of selected toxic substances. Task 1: polybrominated biphenyls in air and soil at user sites. Final report 28 dec 78-5 jun 79

    SciTech Connect

    Zweidinger, R.A.; Pellizzari, E.D.

    1980-02-01

    Field sampling for air and soil was conducted in the vicinity of two Borg Warner Co. facilities - one in Oxnard, CA and the other near Parkersburg, WV. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were found in all of the soil samples from Oxnard with the highest levels (36,000 microgram/kg) nearest the facility and the lowest (5 microgram/kg) upwind the greatest distance. No PBBs were found in any of the air samples (<3 ng/cu m). Polybrominated biphenyls were confirmed in seven of the thirteen soil samples from West Virginia (up to 12 microgram/kg) traces detected but not confirmed in three, and no PBBs were detected in the other three. The highest levels were from samples collected in the Ohio River basin especially along the eastern bank. No PBBs were confirmed in the air samples (<4 ng/cu m).

  18. Monohydroxylated Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (OH-PBDEs) and Dihydroxylated Polybrominated Biphenyls (Di-OH-PBBs): Novel Photoproducts of 2,6-Dibromophenol.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongxia; Jiang, Jingqiu; Wang, Yanli; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Buettner, Garry R; Quan, Xie; Chen, Jingwen

    2015-12-15

    Hydroxylated polybromodiphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) are emerging aquatic pollutants, but their origins in the environment are not fully understood. There is evidence that OH-PBDEs are formed from bromophenols, but the underlying transformation processes remain unknown. Here, we investigate if the photoformation of OH-PBDEs from 2,6-dibromophenol in aqueous solution involves 2,6-bromophenoxyl radicals. After the UV irradiation of an aqueous 2,6-dibromophenol solution, HPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS and GC-MS analysis revealed the formation of a OH-PBDE and a dihydroxylated polybrominated biphenyl (di-OH-PBB). Both dimeric photoproducts were tentatively identified as 4'-OH-BDE73 and 4,4'-di-OH-PBB80. In addition, three debromination products (4-OH-BDE34, 4'-OH-BDE27, and 4,4'-di-OH-PBBs) were observed. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed the presence of a 2,6-dibromophenoxyl radical with a six-line spectrum (a(H) (2 meta) = 3.45 G, a(H) (1 para) = 1.04 G, g = 2.0046) during irradiation of a 2,6-dibromophenol solution in water. The 2,6-dibromophenoxyl radical had a relatively long half-life (122 ± 5 μs) according to laser flash photolysis experiments. The para-para C-C and O-para-C couplings of these 2,6-dibromophenoxyl radicals are consistent with the observed formation of both dimeric OH-PBDE and di-OH-PBB photoproducts. These findings show that bromophenoxyl radical-mediated phototransformation of bromophenols is a source of OH-PBDEs and di-OH-PBBs in aqueous environments that requires further attention. PMID:26545041

  19. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Selected Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides, and Polybrominated Flame Retardants in Fillets of Fishes from the 2006 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; May, Thomas W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample, and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 20 to 1,200 nanograms per gram. Chlordanes and DDT-related chemicals constituted the primary classes of pesticides present at elevated concentrations in most samples, and ranged from 5 to 340 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of about 5 to about 410 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of total technical chlordane ranged from less than 5 to 260 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers were all greatest in samples of blue catfish from Cape Girardeau and Weldon Spring.

  20. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in commercially wild caught and farm-raised fish fillets in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Douglas; Wong, Jon; Krynitsky, Alexander J

    2007-01-01

    Wild caught and farm-raised fish fillets collected in fish markets and large-chain super markets located in the Maryland, Washington, DC, and North Carolina were measured for their polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) levels. PCB and PBDE concentrations were the highest in a wild bluefish fillet (800 and 38 ng/g wet weight, respectively) and the lowest in wild Coho salmon fillet (0.35 and 0.04 ng/g, respectively). Levels for both PCBs and PBDEs in ng/g wet weight decreased from bluefish with medians of 200 and 6.2, to rockfish 66 and 4.7, followed by farmed-raised salmon with 9.0 and 1.1, with the lowest in wild salmon, 4.0 and 0.3 ng/g for PCBs and PBDEs, respectively (PCBs are the sum of 25 congeners). The chlorinated biphenyl (CB)-153 and brominated diphenyl ether (BDE)-47 levels correlated in the 22 fish fillets with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.94. Bluefish, rockfish (striped bass), wild caught and farm-raised salmons all showed different linear regression slopes between CB-153 and BDE-47 of 7.5, 2.7, 0.97, and 1.5, respectively. A Wilcoxon rank sum test showed no significant difference in the CB-153/BDE-47 ratios between farmed raised and all species of wild salmon combined, but was significant between bluefish and rockfish, farmed raised salmon or wild salmon.

  1. A preliminary assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in deep-sea sediments from the Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhineng; Lin, Tian; Xu, Weihai; Xu, Yue; Li, Jun; Luo, Chunling; Zhang, Gan

    2015-05-15

    Ten surface sediments were collected from the open Indian Ocean at depths below 4000 m in 2011, for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The concentrations of Σ32 PCBs, Σ7 PBDEs, and BDE-209 were 120-514, 49-152, and 7-133 pg/g, respectively. These concentrations are close to the lowest values recorded in the global marine environment. The PCBs had a relatively uniform composition, and were dominated by low chlorinated congeners. The concentrations of di-, tri-, and tetra-PCBs were strongly correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC), suggesting the dissolved PCBs were derived from the atmosphere via diffusive air-water exchange, and absorbed by phytoplankton. A high proportion of BDE209 was only detected in the sediment of the low fan of the Ganga River. There were weak correlations between low brominated BDEs and TOC, implying the degradation of BDE209 is a possible source of lower-brominated BDEs in deep-sea sediments.

  2. Influence of hydrological parameters on organohalogenated micropollutant (polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls) behaviour in the Seine (France).

    PubMed

    Tlili, Khawla; Labadie, Pierre; Alliot, Fabrice; Bourges, Catherine; Desportes, Annie; Chevreuil, Marc

    2012-05-01

    The temporal dynamics of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in a heavily urbanized river (Seine River, Paris, France) from November 2009 to May 2010. Pollutant concentrations were in the range of 0.2 to 3.8 ng l(-1) (median 1.1) and 0.4 to 3.6 ng l(-1) (median 1.1) for ∑ tri-deca BDEs and ∑ 7PCBs, respectively. In addition, for both PBDEs and PCBs, the partitioning between the particulate and dissolved phases was investigated. Due to their low water solubility, PBDEs were mainly (>70%) bound to particles. In contrast, only 54% of ∑ 7PCBs occurred in the particulate phase, and their partitioning was influenced by the degree of chlorination. During the sampling period, PBDE/PCB fluxes were quite similar and ranged from 3 to 128 and from 6 to 125 g day(-1), respectively. The annual mass flow of PBDEs and PCBs was estimated to 10 kg for both. Contrary to PCBs and BDE-209, the temporal evolution of ∑ tri-hepta BDEs was related to particulate organic matter content, which is controlled by river flow variations. This suggests that they exhibit different sources or behavior in the Seine River. PMID:22143943

  3. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls: inclusion in the toxicity equivalency factor concept for dioxin-like compounds.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Martin; Denison, Michael S; Birnbaum, Linda S; Devito, Michael J; Fiedler, Heidelore; Falandysz, Jerzy; Rose, Martin; Schrenk, Dieter; Safe, Stephen; Tohyama, Chiharu; Tritscher, Angelika; Tysklind, Mats; Peterson, Richard E

    2013-06-01

    In 2011, a joint World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) expert consultation took place, during which the possible inclusion of brominated analogues of the dioxin-like compounds in the WHO Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF) scheme was evaluated. The expert panel concluded that polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and some dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PBBs) may contribute significantly in daily human background exposure to the total dioxin toxic equivalencies (TEQs). These compounds are also commonly found in the aquatic environment. Available data for fish toxicity were evaluated for possible inclusion in the WHO-UNEP TEF scheme (van den Berg et al., 1998). Because of the limited database, it was decided not to derive specific WHO-UNEP TEFs for fish, but for ecotoxicological risk assessment, the use of specific relative effect potencies (REPs) from fish embryo assays is recommended. Based on the limited mammalian REP database for these brominated compounds, it was concluded that sufficient differentiation from the present TEF values of the chlorinated analogues (van den Berg et al., 2006) was not possible. However, the REPs for PBDDs, PBDFs, and non-ortho dl-PBBs in mammals closely follow those of the chlorinated analogues, at least within one order of magnitude. Therefore, the use of similar interim TEF values for brominated and chlorinated congeners for human risk assessment is recommended, pending more detailed information in the future. PMID:23492812

  4. Concentrations and patterns of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Routti, Heli; Andersen, Martin S; Fuglei, Eva; Polder, Anuschka; Yoccoz, Nigel G

    2016-09-01

    Concentrations and patterns of hydroxylated (OH) polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in liver from arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) sampled from Svalbard 1997-2011 (n = 100). The most important OH-PBDE in the arctic foxes was 6-OH-BDE47 detected in 24% of the samples. Relationships between 6-OH-BDE47, δ(13)C and BDE47 suggest that 6-OH-BDE47 residues in arctic foxes are related to marine dietary input, while the relative importance of the metabolic/natural origin of this compound remains unclear. 4-OH-CB187 and 4-OH-CB146 were the main OH-PCBs among the analyzed compounds. The OH-PCB pattern in the present arctic foxes indicates that arctic foxes have a capacity to biotransform a wide range of PCBs of different structures. Formation and retention of OH-PCBs was tightly related to PCB exposure. Furthermore, ΣOH-PCB concentrations were four times higher in the leanest compared to the fattest foxes. Concentrations of 4-OH-CB187 and 4-OH-CB146 among the highest contaminated arctic foxes were similar to the previously reported concentrations for polar bears. Given the high endocrine disruptive potential of OH-PCBs, we suggest that endocrine system may be affected by the relatively high OH-PCB residues in the Svalbard arctic fox population. PMID:27267742

  5. The caffeine breath test and caffeine urinary metabolite ratios in the Michigan cohort exposed to polybrominated biphenyls: A preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, G.H.; Schoeller, D.A.; Kotake, A.N.; Lietz, H. ); Humphrey, H.E.B.; Budd, M. ); Campbell, M.; Kalow, W.; Spielberg, P. )

    1990-11-01

    A field biochemical epidemiology study was conducted using the Michigan cohort consisting of 51 rural residents exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBB). The study had three major objectives: (a) to determine the serum half-life of the major PBB congener, hexabromobiphenyl (HBB), in the human, (b) to determine if the PBB-exposed subjects had elevated cytochrome P-450I function as determined by the caffeine breath test (CBT) and the caffeine urinary metabolite ratio (CMR), and (c) to determine the applicability of the CBT and CMR in field studies. PBB serum levels were detected in 36 of the 51 PBB-exposed subjects. The serum half-life of HBB was determined by comparing the current serum HBB values to the subject's previous serum values obtained 5 to 8 years earlier. The median HBB half-life was 12 years (range 4-97 years). The CBT and CMR were elevated in the subjects exposed to PBBs as compared to the values obtained from urban nonsmokers and were similar to those found in adults who smoke. A gender effect was seen in the PBB-exposed subjects. There was a correlation between the CBT and the HBB serum values but not between CMR and HBB serum values. The CBT and CMR were easily conducted in the field and appear to be useful metabolic probes of cytochrome P-450I activity in human environmental toxicology.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) in traditional seafood items from western Greenland.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Pernilla; Herzke, Dorte; Kallenborn, Roland

    2014-03-01

    In this study, contamination levels were determined for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) in traditional Greenland seafood items, such as raw and smoked fish fillet (salmon and halibut), whale and seal meat and narwhal mattak (skin and blubber). The daily intake of PCBs, PBDEs and PFASs through traditional seafood items in Greenland was assessed. Based on the presented levels of contaminants, in combination with earlier food intake studies, suggests that the daily exposure was below the tolerable daily intake threshold for all compounds. BDE-47 was the only PBDE-congener detected in all food items, except in smoked halibut. The levels of BDE-47 varied from < LOD in smoked halibut up to 18 ng/g lw in narwhal mattak and 21 ng/g lw in whale beef. ∑PCB were lowest in smoked halibut (37 ng/g lw) and highest in narwhal mattak with 1,146 ng/g lw. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the most common of the PFASs. However, ΣPFASs were below detection limits in most fish fillet samples, and varied from 2.9 ng/g ww in whale beef to 13.5 ng/g ww in seal beef. The present study shows that the exclusion from the diet of local food items such as intestines and blubber have a strong positive effect for the reduction of POPs levels in food, without a reducing the health benefits of traditional food intake considerably. PMID:24352552

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) in traditional seafood items from western Greenland.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Pernilla; Herzke, Dorte; Kallenborn, Roland

    2014-03-01

    In this study, contamination levels were determined for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) in traditional Greenland seafood items, such as raw and smoked fish fillet (salmon and halibut), whale and seal meat and narwhal mattak (skin and blubber). The daily intake of PCBs, PBDEs and PFASs through traditional seafood items in Greenland was assessed. Based on the presented levels of contaminants, in combination with earlier food intake studies, suggests that the daily exposure was below the tolerable daily intake threshold for all compounds. BDE-47 was the only PBDE-congener detected in all food items, except in smoked halibut. The levels of BDE-47 varied from < LOD in smoked halibut up to 18 ng/g lw in narwhal mattak and 21 ng/g lw in whale beef. ∑PCB were lowest in smoked halibut (37 ng/g lw) and highest in narwhal mattak with 1,146 ng/g lw. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the most common of the PFASs. However, ΣPFASs were below detection limits in most fish fillet samples, and varied from 2.9 ng/g ww in whale beef to 13.5 ng/g ww in seal beef. The present study shows that the exclusion from the diet of local food items such as intestines and blubber have a strong positive effect for the reduction of POPs levels in food, without a reducing the health benefits of traditional food intake considerably.

  8. Maternal and cord-blood thyroid hormone levels and exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Abdelouahab, Nadia; Langlois, Marie-France; Lavoie, Laetiscia; Corbin, François; Pasquier, Jean-Charles; Takser, Larissa

    2013-09-01

    Thyroid hormones play a critical role in the growth of many organs, especially the brain. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) interact with the thyroid pathway and may disturb neurodevelopment. This prospective study was designed to examine associations between maternal blood PBDEs and PCBs in early pregnancy and levels of thyroid hormones in maternal and umbilical-cord blood. Levels of low-brominated PBDEs, 3 PCB congeners, total and free thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)), thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid peroxidase antibodies, iodine, selenium, and mercury were measured in 380 pregnant women in the first trimester who were recruited at the University Hospital Center of Sherbrooke (Quebec, Canada) between September 2007 and December 2008. Thyroid hormone levels were also assessed at delivery and in cord blood (n = 260). Data were analyzed on both a volume basis and a lipid basis. At less than 20 weeks of pregnancy, no relationship was statistically significant in volume-based analysis. In lipid-based models, an inverse association between maternal PBDEs and total T3 and total T4 and a direct association with free T3 and free T4 were observed. At delivery, in both analyses, we observed negative associations between maternal total T4, free T3, cord-blood free T4, and PBDEs and between maternal free T3 and PCBs. Our results suggest that exposure to PBDEs and PCBs in pregnancy may interfere with thyroid hormone levels.

  9. Plant consumption by grizzly bears reduces biomagnification of salmon-derived polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jennie R; Yunker, Mark B; MacDuffee, Misty; Ross, Peter S

    2013-04-01

    The present study characterizes the uptake and loss of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) by sampling and analyzing their terrestrial and marine foods and fecal material from a remote coastal watershed in British Columbia, Canada. The authors estimate that grizzly bears consume 341 to 1,120 µg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 3.9 to 33 µg of polybrominated diphenyl ethers daily in the fall when they have access to an abundant supply of returning salmon. The authors also estimate that POP elimination by grizzly bears through defecation is very low following salmon consumption (typically <2% of intake) but surprisingly high following plant consumption (>100% for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides). Excretion of individual POPs is largely driven by a combination of fugacity (differences between bear and food concentrations) and the digestibility of the food. The results of the present study are substantiated by a principal components analysis, which also demonstrates a strong role for log KOW in governing the excretion of different POPs in grizzly bears. Collectively, the present study's results reveal that grizzly bears experience a vegetation-associated drawdown of POPs previously acquired through the consumption of salmon, to such an extent that net biomagnification is reduced.

  10. Plant consumption by grizzly bears reduces biomagnification of salmon-derived polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jennie R; Yunker, Mark B; MacDuffee, Misty; Ross, Peter S

    2013-04-01

    The present study characterizes the uptake and loss of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) by sampling and analyzing their terrestrial and marine foods and fecal material from a remote coastal watershed in British Columbia, Canada. The authors estimate that grizzly bears consume 341 to 1,120 µg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 3.9 to 33 µg of polybrominated diphenyl ethers daily in the fall when they have access to an abundant supply of returning salmon. The authors also estimate that POP elimination by grizzly bears through defecation is very low following salmon consumption (typically <2% of intake) but surprisingly high following plant consumption (>100% for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides). Excretion of individual POPs is largely driven by a combination of fugacity (differences between bear and food concentrations) and the digestibility of the food. The results of the present study are substantiated by a principal components analysis, which also demonstrates a strong role for log KOW in governing the excretion of different POPs in grizzly bears. Collectively, the present study's results reveal that grizzly bears experience a vegetation-associated drawdown of POPs previously acquired through the consumption of salmon, to such an extent that net biomagnification is reduced. PMID:23401324

  11. A preliminary assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in deep-sea sediments from the Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhineng; Lin, Tian; Xu, Weihai; Xu, Yue; Li, Jun; Luo, Chunling; Zhang, Gan

    2015-05-15

    Ten surface sediments were collected from the open Indian Ocean at depths below 4000 m in 2011, for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The concentrations of Σ32 PCBs, Σ7 PBDEs, and BDE-209 were 120-514, 49-152, and 7-133 pg/g, respectively. These concentrations are close to the lowest values recorded in the global marine environment. The PCBs had a relatively uniform composition, and were dominated by low chlorinated congeners. The concentrations of di-, tri-, and tetra-PCBs were strongly correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC), suggesting the dissolved PCBs were derived from the atmosphere via diffusive air-water exchange, and absorbed by phytoplankton. A high proportion of BDE209 was only detected in the sediment of the low fan of the Ganga River. There were weak correlations between low brominated BDEs and TOC, implying the degradation of BDE209 is a possible source of lower-brominated BDEs in deep-sea sediments. PMID:25686867

  12. Occurrence of polybrominated diphenylethers, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls in coastal sediments from Spain.

    PubMed

    Eljarrat, Ethel; De La Cal, Agustina; Larrazabal, David; Fabrellas, Begoña; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo Rodriguez; Borrull, Francesc; Marce, Rosa Maria; Barcelo, Damia

    2005-08-01

    Fifteen sediment samples were analysed in order to determine their content of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs). Samples were collected from several hot spots on the Spanish coast, such as the harbours of Almeria and Tarragona, and the mouths of the Besos and Llobregat rivers in Barcelona. A generic analytical procedure based on Soxhlet extraction followed by an automated cleanup system and gas chromatography-ion trap-mass spectrometry was employed for determining the toxic congeners of PCDDs and PCDFs, as well as dioxin-like PCBs. As regards PBDE determinations, a rapid method based on the use of selective pressurized liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry was applied. Total toxicity equivalent (WHO-TEQ) values were calculated using the toxicity equivalent factors proposed by WHO for dioxin-like PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs. WHO-TEQ values ranged from 0.3 to 75 pg/g dry weight (dw), with PCB contribution on the toxicity of the samples between 1 and 84%. Total PBDE levels ranged from 2.7 to 134 ng/g dw, with BDE-209 contribution on the total PBDE contamination between 50 and 99%.

  13. Temporal trends in the levels of polychlorinated dioxins, -furans, -biphenyls and polybrominated diethyl ethers in bank voles in Northern Finland.

    PubMed

    Murtomaa-Hautala, Mari; Viluksela, Matti; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Rautio, Arja

    2015-09-01

    Dioxin-like chemicals and brominated flame retardants are ubiquitous in the environment, despite the introduction of international prohibitions and restrictions. These chemicals do not remain in the vicinity of their source, instead they can be transported over long distances, in fact even to pristine areas in the northern latitudes. However, there have been rather few time series experiments monitoring the trends in the levels of chlorinated and brominated forms of these chemicals in the environment. In this study, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDDs/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diethyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in the liver and muscle of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) caught in a remote area in Finnish Lapland during 1986-2007. Five time points were selected: years 1986, 1992, 1998, 2003 and 2007. The levels of PCDDs/Fs and PCBs declined from 1986 until 2003 in both females and males, but tended to increase again in 2007. The peak levels of the most abundant PBDE congeners (PBDEs 47, 99, 100 and 153) were measured in 1998 and 2003. These results reveal that the levels of dioxin-like chemicals remain high also in rural areas in Lapland, whereas the concentrations of brominated flame retardants decreased and follow the current restriction prohibitions.

  14. Dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from fish and meat by residents of Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Guanyong; Liu, Xiaohua; Gao, Zishen; Xian, Qimin; Feng, Jianfang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Giesy, John P; Wei, Si; Liu, Hongling; Yu, Hongxia

    2012-07-01

    Concentrations of 14 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) and 28 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) congers were measured in 137 samples of fish and meat from Nanjing, a city in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Total concentrations of PBDEs were less in fish (mean of 180 pg/g ww; range 8.0-1100 pg/g ww), but more in non fish foods (mean of 180 pg/g ww; range 15-950 pg/g ww) than those reported from other countries. The total dietary intake of PBDEs and PCBs by humans were 9.9 ng PBDE/d and 870 ng PCB/d, respectively. The daily intake by a 60 kg adult of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQ(WHO)) from PCBs was estimated to be 49 pg (PCB)TEQ(WHO)/d (0.82 pg (PCB)TEQ(WHO)/kg bw), which is less than the tolerable daily intake suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO). The daily intake of meat and fish accounted for 57.2% and 42.8% of the total intake of (PCB)TEQ(WHO).

  15. Levels and Concentration Ratios of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Serum and Breast Milk in Japanese Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kayoko; Harada, Kouji; Takenaka, Katsunobu; Uehara, Shigeki; Kono, Makoto; Shimizu, Takashi; Takasuga, Takumi; Senthilkumar, Kurunthachalam; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Koizumi, Akio

    2006-01-01

    Blood and/or breast milk have been used to assess human exposure to various environmental contaminants. Few studies have been available to compare the concentrations in one matrix with those in another. The goals of this study were to determine the current levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Japanese women, with analysis of the effects of lifestyle and dietary habits on these levels, and to develop a quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) with which to predict the ratio of serum concentration to breast milk concentration. We measured PBDEs and PCBs in 89 paired samples of serum and breast milk collected in four regions of Japan in 2005. The geometric means of the total concentrations of PBDE (13 congeners) in milk and serum were 1.56 and 2.89 ng/g lipid, respectively, whereas those of total PCBs (15 congeners) were 63.9 and 37.5 ng/g lipid, respectively. The major determinant of total PBDE concentration in serum and milk was the geographic area within Japan, whereas nursing duration was the major determinant of PCB concentration. BDE-209 was the most predominant PBDE congener in serum but not in milk. The excretion of BDE 209 in milk was lower than that of BDE 47 and BDE 153. QSAR analysis revealed that two parameters, calculated octanol/water partition and number of hydrogen-bond acceptors, were significant descriptors. During the first weeks of lactation, the predicted partitioning of PBDE and PCB congeners from serum to milk agreed with the observed values. However, the prediction became weaker after 10 weeks of nursing. PMID:16882522

  16. Quantification of Polybrominated and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Human Matrices by Isotope-Dilution Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Marder, M Elizabeth; Panuwet, Parinya; Hunter, Ronald E; Ryan, P Barry; Marcus, Michele; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a highly sensitive and selective analytical method capable of quantifying a total of 15 polybrominated and polychlorinated biphenyls (11 PBBs and 4 PCBs) in human serum. Samples were subjected to liquid-liquid extraction followed by solid-phase extraction prior to measurement using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Quantification was performed using isotope-dilution calibration covering a concentration range of 0.005-12.5 ng/mL. Limits of detection for all target compounds were in the low range (0.7-6.5 pg/mL). The method was validated using in-house pooled human serum fortified at two concentrations (0.5 ng/mL and 1.0 ng/mL), whole semen fortified at one concentration (0.25 ng/mL), and NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1958, which includes five of the target compounds. Method accuracies for all target compounds ranged from 84 to 119% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of <19%. The measured values for the five target compounds present in the SRM agreed with the certified reference values (89-119% accuracy with RSDs <9%). As this method was developed to support ongoing epidemiologic investigations, we evaluated its suitability by analyzing subsets of serum and whole semen samples from the Michigan PBB Registry cohort. PBB-153, PCB-118, PCB-138, PCB-153 and PCB-180 were detected in all serum samples analyzed, with PBB-77 and PBB-101 detected less frequently in serum. PBB-153, PCB-118, PCB-138, PCB-153 and PCB-180 were detected in at least one whole semen sample. PMID:27445313

  17. A decay model for assessing polybrominated biphenyl exposure among women in the Michigan Long-Term PBB Study.

    PubMed

    Terrell, Metrecia L; Manatunga, Amita K; Small, Chanley M; Cameron, Lorraine L; Wirth, Julie; Blanck, Heidi Michels; Lyles, Robert H; Marcus, Michele

    2008-07-01

    The Michigan Long-Term PBB Study was established following exposure to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in the early 1970s. Serum samples from cohort members were analyzed for PBB during 1976-1993. More than 20 years following this industrial incident, some participants still had measurable serum PBB concentration levels. Thus, there is continuing interest in understanding the elimination of PBB from the body. In the present study, we estimated serum PBB decay and investigated the effects of covariates on serum PBB decay rates among 406 female cohort members. We developed a decay model using a general linear mixed model, which attributes unique intercept and slope estimates for each individual while borrowing information across individuals for predicting these quantities. Age at exposure and body mass index (BMI) at the initial measurement were time-independent covariates. Time since exposure, smoking history, pregnancy status, and breast-feeding status were time-dependent covariates. Higher BMI was associated with a slower decay rate; smokers had a faster decay rate than nonsmokers; and increasing age at exposure was marginally associated with a slower decay rate. Our results suggest a faster serum PBB decay rate for women who breast-fed during the interval between serum PBB measurements. To evaluate the predictive performance of our modeling approach, we compared the results from this model with those from a previously developed ordinary least squares (OLS) two-stage decay model. The mixed-effects decay model predicted the observed serum PBB concentration levels significantly better than the OLS two-stage decay model (mixed-effects model, r=0.93; OLS two-stage model, r=0.86; P<0.0001). PMID:18183045

  18. Distribution and uptake of key polychlorinated biphenyl and polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners in benthic infauna relative to sediment organic enrichment.

    PubMed

    Burd, Brenda J; Macdonald, Tara A; Macdonald, Robie W; Ross, Peter S

    2014-10-01

    As part of a broader study of budgets, transport, and bioaccumulation of persistent organic contaminants in the Strait of Georgia, Canada, matching samples of sediment and bulk benthos were collected near two marine sewage outfalls, two large urban harbours, and background areas. Samples were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners. We present data for those congeners that fell within the top six rankings by concentration (23 PCBs and 10 PBDEs) within at least one of the environmental media measured in other studies (air, water, sediments, benthos, pelagic biota). Multifactor regression analyses incorporating sediment characteristics (total organic carbon, fines) predicted uptake (r (2) = 0.74 to 0.98, p < 0.04) over the range of congeners and habitats examined. PBDEs were taken up by biota more readily than PCBs, suggesting a large, potentially available biological reservoir of PBDEs in sediments. Dominant congeners in benthos comprised PBDEs 47, 99, 209, and 100 and PCBs 138/163, 153, 101, 118, and 110. PBDE uptake was anomalously high near one wastewater outfall, likely due to selective feeding on PBDE-enriched particulates from that source. Conversely, outfalls supply food and sediments with PCB concentrations similar to ambient sediments. However, organic enrichment of sediments near outfalls clearly enhanced PCB uptake by benthos, probably due to greatly increased biomass turnover near these sources. Data suggest there to be an initial reservoir of PCBs in newly settled juvenile benthos, which is much less evident for PBDEs. This is likely a consequence of the ecosystem-wide distribution of legacy PCBs but not the more current-use PBDEs. Congener-uptake patterns were dependent on source and input dynamics, feeding methods, and contaminant metabolism or debromination, particularly of deca-BDE.

  19. Developmental coexposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers has additive effects on circulating thyroxine levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Miller, Veronica M; Sanchez-Morrissey, Susana; Brosch, Karl O; Seegal, Richard F

    2012-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widespread environmental contaminants found in seafood and dairy products. PCBs and PBDEs are structurally similar chemicals and affect thyroid hormone function and behavior in children and laboratory rodents. Although coexposure frequently exists, the in vivo developmental effects of combined exposure to PCBs and PBDEs on thyroxine (T4) levels are unknown. We examined the effects of PCB and PBDE coexposure from gestational day 6 through postnatal day (p) 21, alone and in combination, on T4 levels in rat offspring. In males, exposure to PCBs and PBDEs at 1.7, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 μmol/kg/day induced equivalent and dose-dependent reductions in T4 from p 7 to p 21. Exposure to equimolar mixtures of PCBs and PBDEs at 3.4, 10, 20, 40, and 80 μmol/kg/day additively reduced T4 from p 7 to p 21 in males. In a second series of experiments, we determined sex effects on the mixture exposures and found that coexposure to PCBs and PBDEs had similar additive effects on T4 levels in male and female offspring. This study demonstrates that equimolar exposure to PCBs and PBDEs induces similar reductions in T4 levels and that coexposure to a mixture of PCBs and PBDEs has additive effects on T4 levels. These thyroid hormone effects of coexposure to PCBs and PBDEs are important when considering the cumulative effects of coexposure to multiple environmental thyroid hormone-disrupting agents in risk assessment for developmental disorders. PMID:22345314

  20. Polybrominated diphenyl ether congener patterns, hexabromocyclododecane, and brominated biphenyl 153 in eggs of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) breeding in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Anna-Karin; Sellström, Ulla; Lindberg, Peter; Bignert, Anders; De Witt, Cynthia A

    2009-01-01

    Previous analyses of 52 peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs collected from two wild and one captive population in Sweden 1987 through 1999 were complemented by including additional polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (BDE-35, -183, -184, -185, -196, -197, -203, and -207). In addition, 31 eggs not previously analyzed for hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and BDE-209 were analyzed for these. Geometric mean concentrations of BPBDEs, HBCD, and the hexabrominated biphenyl (BB-153) were 3,100, 140, and 81 ng/g of lipid weight for the southern population; 2,500, 110, and 84 ng/g of lipid weight for the northern population; and 47, not detected, and 8 ng/g of lipid weight for the captive population. The BDE congener pattern was dominated by BDE-153, -99, and -100. The results were used to investigate whether a difference in PBDE congener pattern could be distinguished between the two wild populations of peregrine falcons due to different diets, as the southern population preys mainly on birds belonging to the terrestrial food chain while the northern population preys more on aquatic birds. A multivariate t-test showed a subtle but significant (p < 0.001) difference in PBDE congener pattern between the two populations. However, our hypothesis that higher-brominated congeners of PBDEs would be present to a greater extent in the terrestrial food chain was not supported by principal component analysis. The average brood size for individual females from the southern population decreased with increasing concentrations of IPBDE in the eggs (log-linear regression p < 0.01).

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in marine fish from four areas of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yin-ping; Li, Jing-guang; Zhao, Yun-feng; Wen, Sheng; Huang, Fei-fei; Wu, Yong-ning

    2011-03-01

    The levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in marine fish from four areas of China (South China Sea, Bohai Sea, East China Sea, and Yellow Sea) using GC/NCI-MS and GC/ITMS, respectively. Total concentrations of eight PBDEs (BDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209) in all samples ranged from 0.3ngg(-1)ww (wet weight) to 700 ng g(-1)ww, with median and mean values of 85 ng g(-1)ww and 200 ng g(-1)ww, respectively. BDE-209 and BDE-47 were the major congeners in all samples, contributing 54% and 19% to the total concentration, respectively. The sum of seven indicator PCB levels (CB-28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) ranged from 0.3 ng g(-1)ww to 3.1 μg g(-1)ww, with median and mean values of 6.4 ng g(-1)ww and 398 ng g(-1)ww, respectively. High contributions of CB-138 (32%) and CB-153 (25%) were found in all samples. In general, pollutants measured in this study were at high levels when compared with previous studies from other regions in the world. The relative abundance of BDE-209 may suggest that deca-BDE sources existed in studied area. And principal component analysis (PCA) showed that there were other PBDE sources in Yellow Sea. The pattern and PCA showed that PCB pollutions came from similar sources in the studied areas. In addition, concentrations of ∑(7)PBDEs (u/209) were strongly correlated with those of ∑(7)PCBs in all fish (r=0.907, n=44).

  2. Temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated compounds in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) eggs (1984-2008).

    PubMed

    Jianxian, Sun; Hui, Peng; Jianying, Hu

    2015-02-01

    Because investigation on the temporal trends of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs) is necessary to predict their future impacts on the environment and human health and evaluate the effectiveness of regulations on their production and usage, it is of concern to investigate annual temporal trends of PHCs in biota samples. This study examined the temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) eggs over a period of 25 years (1984-2008), and 62 PCBs (19.2-1030 ng/g dw for total PCBs), 16 PBDEs (4.7-572 ng/g dw for total PBDEs), and 14 PFCs (26-46 ng/g dw for total PFCs) were detected. Although a decreasing temporal trend was observed for total PCBs with annual reduction rate of 3.4% (ρ = 0.005), a clear break point was observed around 1991, indicating their continuing emission in the 1980s in China. All major PBDEs showed increasing temporal trends, with annual change rates at 3.5-10.2% over the 25 years, but a sharp decreasing trend was observed after 2006, indicating a rapid response to the banning of PBDE usage in China in 2004. The greatest annual rate of increase was observed for BDE-28 (10.2%) followed by BDE-100 (7.7%), which would be due to metabolism input from higher brominated PBDEs. Significantly increasing temporal trends were observed for all PFCs, and the annual rates of increase were 7.9% and 5.9% for total perfluorinated carboxylic acids and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), respectively. A peak concentration for PFOS was observed in 1989, which may be related to the import history of PFCs in China. The present study is the first report of systematic temporal trends of PHCs in biota samples from China and shows that regulatory policy is needed to reduce their potential health and ecological risk in China considering the increasing temporal trends of PBDEs and PFCs. PMID:25558919

  3. Variability of concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in air: implications for monitoring, modeling and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouin, T.; Harner, T.; Daly, G. L.; Wania, F.; Mackay, D.; Jones, K. C.

    Monitoring data indicate that organic compounds with high octanol-air partition coefficients ( KOA), such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exhibit seasonally variable air concentrations, especially during early spring, shortly after snow melt and before bud-burst when levels are elevated. This variability can complicate the interpretation of monitoring data designed to assess year-to-year changes. It is suggested that relatively simple dynamic multimedia mass balance models can assist interpretation by "factoring out" variability attributable to temperature and other seasonal effects as well as identifying likely contaminant sources. To illustrate this approach, high-volume air samples were collected from January to June, 2002 at a rural location in southern Ontario. Gas-phase concentrations for both ΣPBDE and ΣPCB rose from below the detection limit during the winter to 19 and 110 pg m -3, respectively, in early spring, only to decrease again following bud-burst. Passive air samples (PAS), deployed at seven urban, rural and remote sites for two one-month periods prior and following bud-burst, indicate a strong urban-rural gradient for both the PBDEs and PCBs. Calculated air concentrations from the PAS are shown to agree favorably with the high-volume air sampling data, with concentrations ranging 6-85 pg m -3 and 6-360 pg m -3 for ΣPBDE and ΣPCB, respectively. Concentrations in urban areas are typically 5 times greater than in rural locations. These data were interpreted using simulation results from a fate model including a seasonally variable forest canopy and snow pack, suggesting that the primary source is urban and that the "spring pulse" is the result of several interacting factors. Such contaminants are believed to be efficiently deposited in winter, accumulate in the snow pack and are released to terrestrial surfaces upon snow melt in spring. Warmer temperatures cause volatilization and a rise in air

  4. Temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated compounds in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) eggs (1984-2008).

    PubMed

    Jianxian, Sun; Hui, Peng; Jianying, Hu

    2015-02-01

    Because investigation on the temporal trends of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs) is necessary to predict their future impacts on the environment and human health and evaluate the effectiveness of regulations on their production and usage, it is of concern to investigate annual temporal trends of PHCs in biota samples. This study examined the temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) eggs over a period of 25 years (1984-2008), and 62 PCBs (19.2-1030 ng/g dw for total PCBs), 16 PBDEs (4.7-572 ng/g dw for total PBDEs), and 14 PFCs (26-46 ng/g dw for total PFCs) were detected. Although a decreasing temporal trend was observed for total PCBs with annual reduction rate of 3.4% (ρ = 0.005), a clear break point was observed around 1991, indicating their continuing emission in the 1980s in China. All major PBDEs showed increasing temporal trends, with annual change rates at 3.5-10.2% over the 25 years, but a sharp decreasing trend was observed after 2006, indicating a rapid response to the banning of PBDE usage in China in 2004. The greatest annual rate of increase was observed for BDE-28 (10.2%) followed by BDE-100 (7.7%), which would be due to metabolism input from higher brominated PBDEs. Significantly increasing temporal trends were observed for all PFCs, and the annual rates of increase were 7.9% and 5.9% for total perfluorinated carboxylic acids and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), respectively. A peak concentration for PFOS was observed in 1989, which may be related to the import history of PFCs in China. The present study is the first report of systematic temporal trends of PHCs in biota samples from China and shows that regulatory policy is needed to reduce their potential health and ecological risk in China considering the increasing temporal trends of PBDEs and PFCs.

  5. Changes in mitogen-activated protein kinase in cerebellar granule neurons by polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Chunyang; Besas, Jonathan

    2010-05-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as additive flame retardants and have been detected in human blood, adipose tissue, and breast milk. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that the effects of PBDEs are similar to the known human developmental neurotoxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on a molar basis. Previously, we reported that PBDE mixtures and congeners, perturbed calcium homeostasis which is critical for the development and function of the nervous system. In the present study, we tested whether environmentally relevant PBDE/PCB mixtures and congeners affected mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, which are down-stream events of calcium signaling in cerebellar granule neuronal cultures. In this study, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK)1/2, a widely studied MAPK cascade and known to be involved in learning and memory, levels were quantitated using western blot technique with phospho-specific antibodies. Glutamate (a positive control) increased pERK1/2 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner reaching maximum activation at 5-30 min of exposure and at doses >= 10 muM. Both Aroclor 1254 (a commercial penta PCB mixture) and DE-71 (a commercial penta PBDE mixture) elevated phospho-ERK1/2, producing maximum stimulation at 30 min and at concentrations >= 3 mug/ml; Aroclor 1254 was more efficacious than DE-71. DE-79 (an octabrominated diphenyl ether mixture) also elevated phospho-ERK1/2, but to a lesser extent than that of DE-71. PBDE congeners 47, 77, 99, and 153 also increased phospo-ERK1/2 in a concentration-dependent manner. The data indicated that PBDE congeners are more potent than the commercial mixtures. PCB 47 also increased phospho-ERK1/2 like its structural analog PBDE 47, but to a lesser extent, suggesting that these chemicals affect similar pathways. Cytotoxicity, measured as %LDH release, data showed that higher concentrations (> 30 muM) and longer exposures (> 30 min) are

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and phthalates in roach from the Seine River basin (France): impact of densely urbanized areas.

    PubMed

    Teil, Marie-Jeanne; Tlili, Khawla; Blanchard, Martine; Labadie, Pierre; Alliot, Fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) from three chemical classes-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and phthalates-were investigated in the Seine River and one tributary, the Orge River, upstream and downstream of urban areas. The impact of urban areas was characterized by a concentration increase of all compounds in the Seine River and for phthalates and PBDEs in the Orge River. In the Seine River, from upstream (Marnay) to downstream (Triel) of urban areas, water concentration increases were greater for diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) (6 times, p < 0.05) and ∑tri-hexa BDE (5 times [p < 0.05]) than for ∑7PCBi (2.6 times). Simultaneously, sediments displayed a strong accumulation of contaminants downstream and compared with upstream values, their concentrations increased greatly: 202-fold for DEHP, 69-fold for BDE209, 25-fold for ∑tri-hexa-BDE, and 11-fold for ∑7PCBi. Variations of fish ED concentrations gave an indication of their habitat contamination increase observed downstream of densely urbanized areas of the Seine River, especially for PBDEs (∑tri-hexa-PBDEs = 14-fold increase ≤15.7 ± 6.9 ng g(-1) dry weight [dw; p < 0.001]) and for PCBs (∑7PCBi eightfold increase ≤211 ± 55 ng g(-1) dw [p < 0.01]). PCA results highlighted relationships between the different ED classes. A correlation (p < 0.05) was observed between PCB and PBDE fish concentrations, suggesting common sources and similar absorption mechanisms. For PCBs, which were poorly biodegraded, the bioaccumulation factor was strongly correlated (p < 0.001) to molecular hydrophobicity, whereas for PBDEs a negative correlation (p < 0.05) was observed related active debromination processes. This multichemical study investigates for the first time the occurrence of a wide range of EDs in roach, which was chosen as a sentinel species for this survey of surface water contamination. PMID:24132598

  7. Specific profiles of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish and tucuxi dolphins from the estuary of Paraíba do Sul River, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Quinete, Natalia; Lavandier, Ricardo; Dias, Patrick; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda; Moreira, Isabel

    2011-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous pollutants in the environment and subject of several studies due to their adverse effects as endocrine disruptors. Despite the concern over widespread distribution of PBDEs even in sparsely populated regions of the world, few studies have reported their occurrence in Brazil. In this study, PBDEs and PCBs levels were measured in selected fish species and dolphins from Paraiba do Sul River, Brazil. BDE 47 and 85 were the predominant congeners. Low chlorinated congeners showed the highest concentrations in fish; however dolphins presented the highest proportion of PCBs 153, followed by 138 and 180. The daily intake of PBDEs and PCBs was estimated for the population of this region. PCB daily intake through consumption of croaker was above the limits set by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, raising great concern over the existence of a source of PCB contamination in Brazil.

  8. Seasonal and geographical variations in levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in Polish butter fat used as an indicator of environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Roszko, M; Obiedziński, M W; Szymczyk, K; Rzepkowska, M; Szterk, A; Jędrzejczak, R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the seasonal variation/geographical distribution of environmental concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) across Poland using butter fat as an indicator of the contaminants. The average concentration of six indicator PCBs determined in the studied samples was 1500 pg g(-1) fat. The average concentration of 12 dioxin-like PCBs expressed as lower-bound dioxin-equivalent toxicity was 0.684 pg TEQ g(-1) fat. The average total concentration of 14 investigated PBDE congeners was 105 pg g(-1) fat. Statistically significant concentration differences between summer and winter samples were found. The results of this study indicate also a significant geographical diversification of butter contamination reflecting regional differences in environmental contamination. The seasonal variation of PBDE profiles evidences transformation of PBDE within the environment.

  9. CONGENER PROFILES OF POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS, -DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND -DIBENZOFURANS AS IMPURITIES IN TECHNICAL PREPARATION OF POLYBROMIANTED DIPHENYL ETHERS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants used in textiles, and electronic equipment to prevent these products from burning. PBDEs have been marketed as penta- (DE-71), octa- (DE-79), and deca-brominated (DE-83) preparations. Commercial PBDE preparations were an...

  10. Changes in mitogen-activated protein kinase in cerebeller granule neurons by polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as additive flame retardants and have been detected in human blood, adipose tissue, and breast milk. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that the effects of PBDEs are similar to the known human developmental neurotoxicants ...

  11. Biphenyl

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Biphenyl ; CASRN 92 - 52 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S . EPA health scientists from several program offices , regional offices , and the Office of Research and Development . Sections I ( H

  12. [Development of Self-assembled Dumbbell-like Fe3O4 Micro/nanomaterial for Application in Thermocatalytic Degradation of Polybrominated Biphenyls].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin-chen; Zong, Gang; Liu, Ye-xuan; Lu, Hui-jie; Li, Qian-qian; Li, Bin-ke; Zhao, Yan-hui; Su, Gui-jin

    2016-02-15

    Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are a group of new persistent organic pollutants, which have high toxicity and long-term bioaccumulation, and cause potential risks to human beings and aquatic ecosystem. Self-assembled dumbbell-like Fe3O4 was synthesized via ethylene-glycol mediated method to degrade PBBs, using BB209 as a model compound. The results showed that the growth process of dumbbell-like Fe3O4 precursor had two stages involving a fast nucleation of amorphous primary particles followed by a slow aggregation and crystallization of primary particles. Dumbbell-like Fe3O4 showed high activity for degradation of BB209 at the reaction time of 30 min with the degradation efficiency of nearly 100% at 300 degrees C. A whole series of nonabromobiphenyl to monobromobiphenyl and biphenyls were detected as the degradation products of BB209 by dumbbell-like Fe3O4, indicating the occurrence of successive hydrodebromination reaction. Furthermore, the amounts of three NoBB isomers followed the order of BB207 > BB208 > BB206, indicating that the reactivity of C--Br of BB209 was in order of meta- > para- > ortho-positions. PMID:27363171

  13. Preliminary hazard assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans to Yangtze finless porpoise in Dongting Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fangxing; Zhang, Qinghua; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Guibin; Wang, Yawei; Wang, Ding

    2008-04-01

    Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis), a protected endangered species, is the sole freshwater subspecies of finless porpoise, living only in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China, and its appended lakes. Its population has decreased sharply to 1,400 because of human activities, including environmental contamination. In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were determined in the blubber, liver, kidney, stomach, small intestine, and brains of five individual Yangtze finless porpoises collected from 1998 to 2004. The results showed PCB concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 1.89 microg/g lipid weight in the organs and consisted mainly of penta-, hexa-, and decachlorinated biphenyls. The PBDE concentrations were between 5.32 and 72.76 ng/g lipid weight. Tetra-, penta-, and hexabrominated diphenyl ethers were the major homologues. The PCDD/F concentrations ranged from 65 to 1,563 pg/g lipid weight, and their predominant homologues were penta- and hexachlorinated dibenzofurans and hepta- and octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins. The hazard quotients (HQs) based on toxic equivalency were determined to be greater than one in all individuals for PCBs, for PCDD/Fs, and for PCBs and PCDD/Fs In addition, HQs would be higher if PBDEs were included. The results suggest that reduction of environmental contamination may contribute greatly to protecting this highly endangered species. PMID:18333690

  14. [Development of Self-assembled Dumbbell-like Fe3O4 Micro/nanomaterial for Application in Thermocatalytic Degradation of Polybrominated Biphenyls].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin-chen; Zong, Gang; Liu, Ye-xuan; Lu, Hui-jie; Li, Qian-qian; Li, Bin-ke; Zhao, Yan-hui; Su, Gui-jin

    2016-02-15

    Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are a group of new persistent organic pollutants, which have high toxicity and long-term bioaccumulation, and cause potential risks to human beings and aquatic ecosystem. Self-assembled dumbbell-like Fe3O4 was synthesized via ethylene-glycol mediated method to degrade PBBs, using BB209 as a model compound. The results showed that the growth process of dumbbell-like Fe3O4 precursor had two stages involving a fast nucleation of amorphous primary particles followed by a slow aggregation and crystallization of primary particles. Dumbbell-like Fe3O4 showed high activity for degradation of BB209 at the reaction time of 30 min with the degradation efficiency of nearly 100% at 300 degrees C. A whole series of nonabromobiphenyl to monobromobiphenyl and biphenyls were detected as the degradation products of BB209 by dumbbell-like Fe3O4, indicating the occurrence of successive hydrodebromination reaction. Furthermore, the amounts of three NoBB isomers followed the order of BB207 > BB208 > BB206, indicating that the reactivity of C--Br of BB209 was in order of meta- > para- > ortho-positions.

  15. Preliminary hazard assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans to Yangtze finless porpoise in Dongting Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fangxing; Zhang, Qinghua; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Guibin; Wang, Yawei; Wang, Ding

    2008-04-01

    Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis), a protected endangered species, is the sole freshwater subspecies of finless porpoise, living only in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China, and its appended lakes. Its population has decreased sharply to 1,400 because of human activities, including environmental contamination. In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were determined in the blubber, liver, kidney, stomach, small intestine, and brains of five individual Yangtze finless porpoises collected from 1998 to 2004. The results showed PCB concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 1.89 microg/g lipid weight in the organs and consisted mainly of penta-, hexa-, and decachlorinated biphenyls. The PBDE concentrations were between 5.32 and 72.76 ng/g lipid weight. Tetra-, penta-, and hexabrominated diphenyl ethers were the major homologues. The PCDD/F concentrations ranged from 65 to 1,563 pg/g lipid weight, and their predominant homologues were penta- and hexachlorinated dibenzofurans and hepta- and octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins. The hazard quotients (HQs) based on toxic equivalency were determined to be greater than one in all individuals for PCBs, for PCDD/Fs, and for PCBs and PCDD/Fs In addition, HQs would be higher if PBDEs were included. The results suggest that reduction of environmental contamination may contribute greatly to protecting this highly endangered species.

  16. A comparative analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in southern sea otters that died of infectious diseases and noninfectious causes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannan, K.; Perrota, E.; Thomas, N.J.; Aldous, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    Southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) from the California coast continue to exhibit a slower population regrowth rate than the population in Alaska. Infectious diseases have been identified as a frequent cause of death. Infectious diseases caused by varied pathogens including bacteria, fungi, and parasites were suggestive of compromised immunological health of mature animals in this population. To test the hypothesis that elevated exposure to immunotoxic contaminants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contribute to disease susceptibility via immunosuppression, we determined concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in livers of 80 adult female sea otters that died of infectious diseases, noninfectious causes, or emaciation. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in sea otter livers varied widely (10a??26,800 ng/g and 81a??210,000 ng/g, lipid weight, respectively). Concentrations of PBDEs in sea otters were some of the highest values reported for marine mammals so far. Although PCB concentrations in sea otters have declined during 1992a??2002, the mean concentration was at the threshold at which adverse health effects are elicited. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs were significantly correlated, suggesting co-exposure of these contaminants in sea otters. No significant association was found between the concentrations of PBDEs and the health status of sea otters. Concentrations of PCBs were significantly higher in otters in the infectious disease category than in the noninfectious category, suggesting an association between elevated PCB concentrations and infectious diseases in Southern sea otters.

  17. Simultaneous pressurized liquid extraction and clean-up for the analysis of polybrominated biphenyls by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Malavia, J; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T

    2011-05-30

    This paper describes a fast and simple pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method combined with gas chromatography coupled to ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-ITMS-MS) for the determination of polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in fish samples. The method is based on a simultaneous extraction/clean-up step to reduce analysis time and solvent consumption. The effect of several PLE operating conditions, such as solvent type, extraction temperature and time, number of cycles, and lipid retainer, was optimized to obtain maximum recovery of the analytes with the minimum presence of matrix-interfering compounds. The best conditions were obtained at 100°C with n-hexane using 15 g of silica modified with sulphuric acid (44%, w/w) as sorbent for lipid removal. Quality parameters of the GC-ITMS-MS method were established, achieving good linearity (r>0.998), between 1 and 500 ng ml(-1), and low instrumental limits of detection (0.14-0.76 pg injected). For the whole method, limits of detection ranging from 0.03 to 0.16 ng g(-1) wet weight and good precision (RSD<16%) were obtained. PMID:21530792

  18. Suppression of thyroid hormone receptor-mediated transcription and disruption of thyroid hormone-induced cerebellar morphogenesis by the polybrominated biphenyl mixture, BP-6.

    PubMed

    Ibhazehiebo, Kingsley; Iwasaki, Toshiharu; Okano-Uchida, Takayuki; Shimokawa, Noriaki; Ishizaki, Yasuki; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2011-08-01

    Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are polyhalogenated, bioaccumulative flame retardant chemicals, which have been used in a variety of consumer and household products. They were accidentally introduced into the food chain in Michigan in 1973 and have remained a source of health concern. Studies have shown that exposure to PBB may cause adverse neurotoxic effects. We therefore examined the effects of BP-6, a PBB mixture, on thyroid hormone (TH) receptor (TR)-mediated transcription, on TH-induced Purkinje cell dendritogenesis, and on TH-induced cerebellar granule cell neurite extension. Our study shows that BP-6 suppressed TR-mediated transcription in CV-1 cells. Mammalian two-hybrid studies revealed that BP-6 did not inhibit coactivator binding to TR nor did it recruit corepressors to TR. Further examination using the liquid chemiluminescent DNA pull down assay revealed partial dissociation of TR from TH response element (TRE). In primary rat cerebellar culture, BP-6 significantly suppressed TH-induced dendrite arborization of Purkinje cells, and in reaggregate rat granule cell culture, impaired TH-induced neurite extension of granule cells. Taken together, our results indicate that BP-6 may disrupt TH homeostasis and consequently impair normal neuronal development. PMID:21396401

  19. Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in fishery and aquaculture products using sequential solid phase extraction and large volume injection gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dasheng; Lin, Yuanjie; Feng, Chao; Wang, Dongli; Qiu, Xinlei; Jin, Yu'e; Xiong, Libei; Jin, Ying; Wang, Guoquan

    2014-01-15

    A new method was developed to determine polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fishery and aquaculture products. Samples were extracted by an accelerated solvent extraction system and cleaned up by sequential solid phase extraction (SPE) including dispersive SPE (D-SPE) and tandem SPE. PBDEs and PCBs were analyzed by a large-volume injection gas chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-QqQ-MS/MS). Good linearity (R(2)≥0.9958) was achieved. Method detection limits (MDLs) were 0.16-3.3pgg(-1) (wet weight, ww) for PBDEs and 0.13-0.97pgg(-1)ww for PCBs. Mean recoveries were 60-140% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 20% in weever fish, scallop and shrimp samples spiked at a lower level of 13-31pgg(-1)ww and a higher level of 50-125pgg(-1)ww. Certified reference materials were analyzed with acceptable results. The method reduced solvent consumption, analytical time and labor, and is suitable for the routine analysis of PBDEs and PCBs in fishery and aquaculture products.

  20. Levels and distribution of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediments and biota from the Danube Delta, Romania.

    PubMed

    Covaci, Adrian; Gheorghe, Adriana; Hulea, Orieta; Schepens, Paul

    2006-03-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and analogues, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were measured in sediments and biota (invertebrates, 11 fish species and cormorant tissues) collected in 2001 from the Danube Delta, the biggest European wetland. DDTs were the predominant pollutants in all samples. A high variability in the concentrations of pollutants within the same species was observed and this was related to sampling location, age, length and sex. DDTs were also the main organohalogenated contaminants in cormorant muscle and liver, followed by PCBs, HCHs, HCB and PBDEs. The present levels of DDTs in cormorant tissues are lower than levels measured in cormorant eggs sampled from the Danube Delta in 1982 and 1997, respectively. The variance of delta15N for herbivores was much greater than for carnivores, while carp and bream showed higher delta15N signatures than expected, probably due to a higher dietary proportion of benthos, typically more delta15N enriched relative to pelagic biota. PMID:16112310

  1. Atmospheric levels and distribution of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the vicinity of an iron and steel making plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sung-Deuk; Baek, Song-Yee; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    Polyurethane foam disk passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed in a steel complex, and in residential and semi-rural areas of a city in Southern Korea between January and April 2006. Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were monitored to investigate the influence of the steel complex on the residential and semi-rural areas. The average levels of ∑ 12PCB (26.2; 6.1-61.8 pg m -3) and ∑ 9PBDE (25.2; 9.0-61.6 pg m -3) in the steel complex were higher than those of neighboring areas, indicating that the steel complex is a major source of both chemical groups. No significant difference in the congener patterns for the different areas suggests that the study area is commonly affected by the same sources. Elevated air concentrations at the eastern sites of the city and relatively low concentrations at the residential area close to the steel complex were observed. According to air dispersion modeling, the major wind direction plays a key role in determining this spatial distribution of PCBs and PBDEs. Consequently, the levels of these chemicals at the residential area might not be strongly influenced by the emissions from the steel complex. This study suggests that the combination of passive air sampling and air dispersion modeling is a useful tool for assessing source-receptor relationships of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on a local scale.

  2. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk from Zhejiang, China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Haitao; Ding, Gangqiang; Wu, Yongning; Pan, Guoshao; Zhou, Xiaoping; Han, Jianlong; Li, Jingguang; Wen, Sheng

    2012-07-01

    Breast milk samples (n=74) from the general maternal population of Zhejiang province were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Samples were divided into urban and rural groups. Mean ∑PCDD/F, ∑PCB and ∑PBDE concentrations were 71.4±40.8, 42774±27841 and 2679±944 pg g(-1) lipid in the urban group and 38.6±38.1, 26546±11375 and 2731±1093 pg g(-1) lipid in the rural group, respectively. WHO-TEQ concentrations for dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs were 2.66±1.43 and 3.90±2.60 pg g(-1) lipid in the urban group and 1.83±0.93 and 2.27±1.55 pg g(-1) lipid in the rural group, respectively. Congener profiles for these pollutants were compared between human samples (adipose tissue and breast milk) and foodstuffs (seafood, hen eggs, and freshwater fish). Similar PCB and PCDD/F congener patterns were observed, suggesting that dietary intake is a significant source for human exposure to PCBs and PCDD/Fs. However, much lower PBDE congener levels were detected in breast milk than in foodstuffs, which implies that pathways other than dietary intake may also account for human exposure to PBDEs.

  3. Polybrominated biphenyl ethers in breast milk and infant formula from Shanghai, China: temporal trends, daily intake, and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Kaiqiong; Yang, Dan; Ma, Li; Lei, Bingli; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhou, Jing; Fang, Xiangming; Yu, Yingxin

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the temporal trend of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk and assess the risks to breast- and formula-fed infants, breast milk and infant formula samples were collected from Shanghai, China. The PBDE concentrations decreased from 14.8 to 4.85 pmol/g lipid weight during 2006-2012, with a rate of decrease by half approximately every four years. Although there were no significant correlations between the total PBDEs in breast milk and age, parity, and pre-pregnant BMI of mothers, there were significant differences between primiparous and multiparous mothers for tri- to hepta-BDEs. PBDEs in breast milk were much higher than those in infant formula (equivalent to 91.9 vs. 5.25 pg/mL). Among the different brand infant formulas, there were no significant differences in their PBDE concentrations. The estimated daily intake of PBDEs by breast- and formula-fed infants suggested that breast-fed infants are exposed to much more PBDEs than formula-fed ones (12.9 vs. 0.72 ng/kg-bw/day). However, the hazard quotient values were much smaller than one, indicating that the ingested PBDEs did not exert obvious adverse effects on both breast- and formula-fed infants considering non-carcinogenic effect endpoint. This is the first report on temporal trend of PBDEs in breast milk from China.

  4. Suppression of peroxisomal enzyme activities and cytochrome P450 4A isozyme expression by congeneric polybrominated and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Larry W; Berberian, Isabelle; Borges, Tim; Chen, Li-Chuan; Chow, Ching K; Glauert, Howard P; Filser, Johannes G; Thomas, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of PCBs and PBBs on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha-(PPARalpha-) associated enzyme activities or protein levels. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a single IP injection (150 mu mol/kg) of either 3,3',4,4'-tetrabromobiphenyl, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobiphenyl, 2',3,3',4,5-pentachlorobiphenyl, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl, 2,2',3,3',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, or 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl in corn oil (10 ml/kg). One week later, the activities of catalase, peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, and peroxisomal beta-oxidation as well as cytochrome P450 4A (CYP4A) protein content were determined in subcellular liver fractions. None of the peroxisomal enzyme activities were significantly increased by any of the halogenated biphenyl congeners tested. Except for minor (approx. 25%) increases in the total CYP4A content following treatment with 2,2',3,3',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl and 3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobiphenyl, CYP4A protein contents were not increased by any treatment. The two Ah receptor agonists, 3,3',4,4'-tetrabromobiphenyl and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl, significantly diminished the liver content of CYP4A proteins and activities of the peroxisomal enzymes studied. Since a range of congeners with different biologic and toxicologic activities were selected for this study, it may be concluded that the polyhalogenated biphenyls do not induce peroxisome proliferation in the male rat, but rather certain members of this class of compounds down regulate peroxisome-associated enzymes. Since PCBs and PBBs do not increase enzyme activities and expression of proteins associated with PPARalpha, these agents are therefore exerting their carcinogenic and promoting activities by some other mechanism. PMID:18274624

  5. Polypropylene membrane coated with carbon nanotubes functionalized with chitosan: Application in the microextraction of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers from environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Ge, Dandan; Lee, Hian Kee

    2015-08-21

    Acid oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) functionalized with chitosan were coated on polypropylene membrane and used as sorbent to extract trace polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from environmental water samples. The analytes were extracted by the hydrophobic interaction between analytes and the functionalized CNTs. The chitosan polymer coating also contributed to extraction efficiency. Microextraction conditions (different types of desorption solvent, extraction time, salt concentration, stirring rate and desorption time) were optimized by means of orthogonal array design (OAD). A mixed level OAD matrix, OA16 (4(1)×2(12)) was employed for the initial optimization. Based on the results of the first step, n-hexane was chosen as desorption solvent and 5min was selected as desorption time. Extraction time, stirring rate and salt concentration were further optimized in the second step by an OA16 (4(5)) matrix. Under the optimized conditions, calibration curves with coefficients of determination higher than 0.993 over the concentration range of 0.2 and 50ng/ml. Low limits of detection (<0.60ng/l) and acceptable reproducibility with relative standard deviations in the range of 0.17% and 5.01%, were achieved. The developed method was applied to extract PCBs and PBDEs from environmental water samples. The relative recoveries of the analytes spiked into the real water samples ranged from 85.6 to 104.1% at 0.2ng/ml of each analyte, and from 82.4 to 98.6% at 2ng/ml of each analyte. PMID:26195038

  6. Concentrations and time trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic bird eggs from San Francisco Bay, CA 2000-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    She, J.; Holden, A.; Adelsbach, T.L.; Tanner, M.; Schwarzbach, S.E.; Yee, J.L.; Hooper, K.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 169 avian eggs. We analyzed randomly collected eggs of two species of piscivorous birds: Caspian tern (Sterna caspia) (n = 78) and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) (n = 76). We also analyzed fail-to-hatch eggs from two species protected under the Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973, that breed in the San Francisco Bay region: the piscivorous California Least tern (Sterna antillarum brownii) (n = 11) and the omnivorous California Clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) (n = 4). San Francisco Bay eggs were collected annually for four years (2000-2003), and additional 20 eggs were collected and analyzed from Gray's Harbor, Washington in 2001. Geometric mean PBDE concentrations did not significantly differ in the three tern species, but concentrations in eggs from the fail to hatch California Clapper rail eggs were significantly lower than those found in the randomly collected tern eggs. Median concentrations of ???PBDEs in Caspian tern eggs for 2000-2003 were 2410, 4730, 3720 and 2880 ng/g lipid weight (lw), respectively, in Forster's terns 1820, 4380, 5460 and 3600 ng/g lw, respectively, and in California Least terns for 2001 and 2002 were 5060 and 5170 ng/g lw, respectively. In contrast, median ???PBDEs concentration in California Clapper rail eggs for 2001 was 379 ng/g lw. Five PBDEs were the major congeners found and decreased in the order BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, and -154. BDE-32, -28, -71, -66, -85, -183 were less prevalent, minor congeners, as was BDE-209, which was measured in a subset of samples. PBDE concentrations in bird eggs from San Francisco Bay were site related. There was no significant difference in PBDE concentrations in Caspian tern eggs from San Francisco Bay and Gray's Harbor, WA. Average PBDE concentrations in eggs did not significantly increase over the period 2000-2003. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Finnish semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.).

    PubMed

    Suutari, Anniina; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Kiviranta, Hannu; Verta, Matti; Korhonen, Markku; Nieminen, Mauri; Laaksonen, Sauli

    2011-02-01

    To explore the concentrations and dynamics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Finnish semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) the reindeer milk and tissue samples were collected from the sub-arctic northern Finland. Reindeer milk's PCB sum (1.20 ng g(-1) wet weight) and PCDD/F sum (0.70 pg g(-1) ww) in autumn were higher than in summer (PCBs 0.50 ng g(-1) ww and PCDD/Fs 0.20 pg g(-1) ww). The mean fat content in autumn milk (26%) was significantly higher than in summer (10%). Concentrations in reindeer milk were generally far below 50% of that in adult reindeer body burden. However, the bioaccumulation factors were multiple in milk/reindeer calf ratio and that aroused the question of other important exposure routes than lactation. The muscle and liver of reindeer calves had higher PCDD/F and PCB concentrations than adult animals that possibly indicate the significance of transfer of these compounds from dam to calf through lactation and placenta. However, PBDE concentrations were higher in adult reindeer, especially in liver. In addition, reindeer liver seems to have a special feature to collect highly toxic PCDD/Fs, although the PCB sum concentrations (range from 0.33 to 1.69 ng g(-1) wet weight) were clearly higher than the sums of PCDD/Fs (range from 3.78 to 39.2 pg g(-1) ww). Stillborn reindeer calves represented individuals who had got their PCDD/F, PCB and PBDE load only via the placenta. Concentrations in muscle and brown adipose tissue samples did not indicate dependency on fat content. Obviously effective placental transfer of PCBs and PBDEs from reindeer dam to foetus was seen in this study.

  8. Long-term daily intake estimates of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenylethers from food in Finnish children: risk assessment implications.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Anna K; Hirvonen, Tero; Kiviranta, Hannu; Sinkko, Harri; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Virtanen, Suvi M; Hallikainen, Anja; Leino, Olli; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, Olli; Tuomisto, Jouni T

    2012-01-01

    Food is contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) worldwide. Previous data show elevated intakes in children. We determined intakes of POPs in Finnish children. Because no children-specific safe limit values exist, we used tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) set for adults by international expert bodies to examine the proportion of the study population that exceed those limits. We utilised dietary monitoring data with food consumption of Finnish boys and girls aged 1-6 years, measured the contaminant concentrations in all the main food items and calculated age-specific contaminant sum and congener-specific long-term daily intake levels. Our food intake and contaminant data correspond to years 2002-2005. The long-term upper-bound dioxin intakes ranged between 0.1 and 12.8 pg WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ/kg bw/d (min and max). An immediate TDI for WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQs of 4.0 pg/kg bw/d were exceeded by 2.5%-7.5% of the children. PBDE long-term upper-bound intake was between 0.1 and 5.8 ng/kg bw/d (min and max). Congener-specific analyses indicated a typical Finnish adult exposure pattern of the children to PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs. The highest POP intakes were observed in children aged 3 years. Long-term daily PCDD/F, PCB and PBDE intakes among Finnish children varied greatly between individuals and ages. In each age group of the study population, there was a proportion of children with their WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ intake exceeding considered safe limits set for adults. Based on the exposure profile reported herein, children should be clearly considered as a specific sub-population in food-mediated contaminant risk assessment.

  9. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a U.S. meat market basket and estimates of dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Huwe, Janice K; Larsen, Gerald L

    2005-08-01

    Persistent environmental contaminants including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed in 65 meat samples collected from supermarkets across the U.S. in 2001. The samples included hamburger, sirloin steaks, pork chops, bacon, and whole chickens from nine different cities. The average PCDD/F/non-ortho-PCB toxic equivalency (TEQ) for all the samples was 0.55 pg/g of lipid (nd (nondetect) = DL (detection limit)/2) with a range from nondetectable to 3.21 pg/g of lipid. For PBDEs, eight congeners were routinely found in the meat samples with an average sum of 1.71 ng/g of lipid (nd = DL/2) and a range from nondetectable to 16.6 ng/g of lipid. While average TEQs were similar to recent values reported in Europe and Asia, the sums of PBDEs in chicken and pork were 3-20 times higher than levels reported in Spain and Japan for these foods. The presence of a few outliers raised the average PBDE sums and indicated that isolated sources of contamination may exist that, if identified, could be removed from the U.S. animal production chain. Using these TEQ and PBDE values and USDA food consumption data, the estimated dietary intake ranges from meat products were 5.3-16.0 pg TEQ and 14.9-44.7 ng of PBDEs/d or 0.1-0.3 pg TEQ and 0.3-0.5 (ng of PBDEs/kg of body mass)/d for an average individual, similar to intakes in other countries.

  10. Occurrence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Lake Maggiore (Italy and Switzerland).

    PubMed

    Vives, Ingrid; Canuti, Elisabetta; Castro-Jiménez, Javier; Christoph, Eugen H; Eisenreich, Steven J; Hanke, Georg; Huber, Tania; Mariani, Giulio; Mueller, Anne; Skejo, Helle; Umlauf, Gunther; Wollgast, Jan

    2007-06-01

    Samples of air (gas and particulate phases), bulk deposition, aquatic settling material and sediments were collected in Lake Maggiore (LM) in order to determine their content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Air (gas and particulate phases) concentrations were 0.5 pg m(-3), 80 pg m(-3), 13 pg m(-3) and 106 pg m(-3) for SigmaPCDD/Fs, SigmaPCBs, Sigma dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and SigmaPBDEs, respectively. Deposition fluxes ranged from 0.7 ng m(-2) d(-1) for SigmaPCDD/Fs to 32 ng m(-2) d(-1) for SigmaPCBs. Aquatic settling material presented concentrations of 0.4 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) for SigmaPCDD/Fs, 13 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaPCB, 3.4 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaDL-PCBs and 5.7 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaPBDEs. Mean sediment concentrations were 0.4 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaPCDD/Fs, 11 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaPCB, 3 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaDL-PCBs and 5.1 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaPBDEs. Similar PCDD/F and DL-PCB congener patterns in all the environmental compartments of LM point to an important, if not dominant, contribution of atmospheric deposition as source of these pollutants into LM. In contrast, PBDE congener distribution was not similar in the different environmental compartments. BDE 47 dominated air and settling material, while BDE 209 was the predominant congener in the bulk atmospheric deposition. Moreover, sediments showed two distinct PBDE congener profiles. Lower PBDE concentrated sediments were dominated by congeners 47 and 99, while BDE 209 dominated in higher PBDE concentrated samples. This suggests the influence of local sources as well as atmospheric input of PBDEs into LM.

  11. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in human blood samples from Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Hoon; Ikonomou, Michael G; Lee, Se-Jin; Kim, Hee-Sun; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of blood samples is an effective way of evaluating contamination by persistent pollutants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furans (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human population. Concentrations of PBDEs, PCDD/Fs and PCBs were measured in the blood of laborers (n = 13) working full time in two different municipal waste incinerator (MWI) plants and residents from the general population (n = 22) living in areas near MWIs in Korea. The concentrations of PBDEs were found to be slightly higher in the blood of incineration workers (8.61-46.05 ng/g lipid; mean, 19.33 ng/g lipid; median, 15.94 ng/g lipid) in comparison to that of residents from the general population (7.24-28.89 ng/g lipid; mean, 15.06 ng/g lipid; median, 14.34 ng/g lipid). The total average PCDD/Fs and PCB TEQ concentration was 20.11 pg/g lipid, averaged over incineration workers (17.73 pg/g lipid) and the general population (21.52 pg/g lipid). In addition, the average total crude concentration of PCDD/Fs was 7.40 ng/g lipids, which was 4.1 times greater than for PBDEs. Congener specific analysis confirmed that BDE 47 was a predictive indicator for total PBDE concentration (correlation coefficient r = 0.912), and that PCB 153 was a predictive indicator for total PCB concentration (r = 0.967). The PBDE levels in human blood in Korea are much higher than those reported in other countries. The presence of the BDE 183 congener was characteristic in the blood of workers from an electronic dismantling facility in MWIs.

  12. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, paraffins and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in marine fish species from Ebro River Delta (Spain).

    PubMed

    Parera, J; Abalos, M; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T; Abad, E

    2013-09-01

    The results of a surveillance programme on the determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in marine fish and shellfish species which are fished, commercialised and consumed in the Ebro River Delta area (NE, Spain) are presented. The study included the analysis of five marine fish species (sardine, gilthead sea bream, conger, eel and flounder) and three shellfish species (murex, carpet shell and mussel) collected in 2012 in five fishing harbours near to this area. WHO-TEQ concentrations for PCDD/Fs and dioxin like PCBs (dl-PCBs) ranged from 0.03 to 0.31 pg WHO-TEQ2005PCDD/Fg(-1)wetweight (ww) and from 0.02 to 3.15 pg WHO-TEQ2005PCBg(-1)ww, respectively. All levels were below the maximum concentrations established by the EU Regulation. The PCBs and PCDD/Fs accumulation pattern found in the samples analysed showed a distribution typically reported for marine samples. For marker PCBs and PBDEs, concentration levels ranging from 929 to 57494 pg g(-1)ww and from 36.2 to 827 pg g(-1)ww were obtained, respectively, meanwhile for SCCPs levels were between 3.1 and 141 ng g(-1)ww. Finally, the trends in the levels of PCDD/F and dl-PCBs found from 2006 to 2012 in fish and shellfish species were studied. A slight decrease of PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations was found since 2006.

  13. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in the U.S. population: current levels, temporal trends, and comparison with dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Päpke, Olaf; Tung, Kuang Chi; Joseph, Jean; Harris, T Robert; Dahlgren, James

    2005-03-01

    Brominated flame retardants have come into common use in the United States during the past 3 decades. This study reports levels of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in blood from the U.S. population at the present time and 30 years previously and also current human milk levels. This is also the first study to report measured congeners and dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from archived, 1973, blood and compare them with current levels. The findings indicate there have been significant changes in levels of each class of these persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in U.S. human blood. Although dioxin, dibenzofuran, and PCB levels are markedly higher in the 1973 blood, the opposite is true for PBDEs. Furthermore, unlike dioxins, dibenzofurans, and PCBs, which increase with age, there was no significant correlation found in our study between PBDE levels and age. Current total PBDE levels in U.S. blood are the highest reported worldwide to date, with 2 pooled samples (N = 100 each) measuring 61.7 and 79.7 parts per billion (ppb) lipid, and in a series of 39 individual analyses, the range was 4.6 to 365.5 ppb with a median of 29 ppb and a mean of 52.6 ppb. The median for women in this study was 43.3 ppb, and for men it was 25.1 ppb. Although women have a higher level of PBDEs in blood than men, in our study, this is not statistically significant. Blood levels are similar to levels in U.S. human milk from 59 women, 6.2 to 418.8 ppb lipid. Levels of PBDE in pooled 2003 serum are far higher at 61.7 ppb than in 1973 archived pooled serum in which almost no PBDEs were quantified, although the estimated level using half the detection limit for nondetects was 0.77 ppb. Although no human health studies have been conducted on PBDEs, they are of concern because in vivo and in vitro animal studies show nervous system, reproductive, developmental, and endocrine effects, as well as cancer in

  14. Biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) and rat mammalian model using an in vitro hepatic microsomal assay.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Melissa A; De Guise, Sylvain; Martineau, Daniel; Béland, Pierre; Arukwe, Augustine; Letcher, Robert J

    2006-04-20

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants are important organic contaminants in the tissues of marine mammals, including those species from the Arctic, there is exceedingly little direct evidence on congener-specific biotransformation. We determined and compared the in vitro metabolism of environmentally relevant PCB (4,4'-di-CB15, 2,3',5-tri-CB26, 2,4,5-tri-CB31, 2,2',5,5'-tetra-CB52, 3,3',4,4'-tetra-CB77, 2,2',4,5,5'-penta-CB101, 2,3,3',4,4'-penta-CB105 and 2,3',4,4',5-penta-CB118), and PBDE (4,4'-di-BDE15, 2,4,4'-tri-BDE28, 2,2',4,4'-tetra-BDE47, 2,2',4,5'-tetra-BDE49, 2,2',4,4',5-penta-BDE99, 2,2',4,4',6-penta-BDE100, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexa-BDE153, 2,2',4,4',5,6'-hexa-BDE154 and 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-hepta-BDE183) congeners using hepatic microsomes of a beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) from the Arviat (western Hudson Bay) area of the Canadian Arctic. Ortho-meta bromine-unsubstituted BDE15, BDE28 and BDE47 were significantly metabolized (100%, 11% and 5% depleted, respectively) by beluga, whereas control rat microsomes (from pooled male Wistar Han rats) metabolized BDE28, BDE49, BDE99 and BDE154 (13%, 44%, 11% and 17% depleted, respectively). CB15 and CB77 (putative CYP1A substrates) were more rapidly metabolized (100% and 93% depleted, respectively) by male beluga than CB26 and CB31 (CYP1A/CYP2B-like) (25% and 29% depleted, respectively), which were more rapidly metabolized than CB52 (CYP2B-like) (13% depleted). Higher chlorinated CB101 and CB105 showed no depletion. Rat control microsomes metabolized CB15 to a lesser extent (32% depleted) than beluga, but much more rapidly transformed CB52 (51% depleted, respectively). Within the 90 min in vitro assay time frame, the preference was towards metabolism of ortho-meta unsubstituted congeners (for both PCBs and PBDEs) in beluga whale, whereas for rat controls, meta-para unsubstituted congeners also substantially metabolized. For both beluga whale and rat

  15. Biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) and rat mammalian model using an in vitro hepatic microsomal assay.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Melissa A; De Guise, Sylvain; Martineau, Daniel; Béland, Pierre; Arukwe, Augustine; Letcher, Robert J

    2006-04-20

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants are important organic contaminants in the tissues of marine mammals, including those species from the Arctic, there is exceedingly little direct evidence on congener-specific biotransformation. We determined and compared the in vitro metabolism of environmentally relevant PCB (4,4'-di-CB15, 2,3',5-tri-CB26, 2,4,5-tri-CB31, 2,2',5,5'-tetra-CB52, 3,3',4,4'-tetra-CB77, 2,2',4,5,5'-penta-CB101, 2,3,3',4,4'-penta-CB105 and 2,3',4,4',5-penta-CB118), and PBDE (4,4'-di-BDE15, 2,4,4'-tri-BDE28, 2,2',4,4'-tetra-BDE47, 2,2',4,5'-tetra-BDE49, 2,2',4,4',5-penta-BDE99, 2,2',4,4',6-penta-BDE100, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexa-BDE153, 2,2',4,4',5,6'-hexa-BDE154 and 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-hepta-BDE183) congeners using hepatic microsomes of a beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) from the Arviat (western Hudson Bay) area of the Canadian Arctic. Ortho-meta bromine-unsubstituted BDE15, BDE28 and BDE47 were significantly metabolized (100%, 11% and 5% depleted, respectively) by beluga, whereas control rat microsomes (from pooled male Wistar Han rats) metabolized BDE28, BDE49, BDE99 and BDE154 (13%, 44%, 11% and 17% depleted, respectively). CB15 and CB77 (putative CYP1A substrates) were more rapidly metabolized (100% and 93% depleted, respectively) by male beluga than CB26 and CB31 (CYP1A/CYP2B-like) (25% and 29% depleted, respectively), which were more rapidly metabolized than CB52 (CYP2B-like) (13% depleted). Higher chlorinated CB101 and CB105 showed no depletion. Rat control microsomes metabolized CB15 to a lesser extent (32% depleted) than beluga, but much more rapidly transformed CB52 (51% depleted, respectively). Within the 90 min in vitro assay time frame, the preference was towards metabolism of ortho-meta unsubstituted congeners (for both PCBs and PBDEs) in beluga whale, whereas for rat controls, meta-para unsubstituted congeners also substantially metabolized. For both beluga whale and rat

  16. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS (PBDES) CONTAMINATION OF UNITED STATES FOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevated levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a type of brominated flame retardant, were recently detected in United States (U.S.) nursing mothers' milk. These halogenated compounds chemically and toxicologically resemble others such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PC...

  17. Determination of polybrominated biphenyls in Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture negative ion tandem mass spectrometry or electron ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Walter; Recke, Roland von der; Symons, Robert; Pyecroft, Stephen

    2008-12-01

    Two gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods for the determination of polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) by isotope dilution analysis (IDA) using (13)C(12)-PBB 153 in the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were compared. Recovery of (13)C(12)-PBB 153 which was added to the extracted lipids before sample purification was commenced ranged from 88-117% (mean value 98.2 +/- 8.9%). Nevertheless, IDA analysis of PBBs using (13)C(12)-labelled congeners is limited by the potential co-elution of PBBs with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The pair PBB 153 and BDE 154 was inspected since M(+) and [M-2Br](+) ions of (13)C(12)-PBB 153 and BDE 154 were only separated by 4 u. Gas chromatography/electron ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring (GC/EI-HRMS-SIM) was suitable when m/z 475.7449 and m/z 477.7429 were used for (13)C(12)-PBB 153 because they are below the monoisotopic peak of the [M-2Br](+) fragment ion of hexaBDEs at m/z 479.7. Gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion tandem mass spectrometry selected reaction monitoring (GC/ECNI-MS/MS-SRM) measurements could be applied because (13)C(12)-PBB 153 and BDE 154 were separated by GC on a 25-m Factor Four CP-Sil 8MS column.Comparative measurements with GC/EI-HRMS-SIM and GC/ECNI-MSMS-SRM were carried out with samples of Tasmanian devils from Tasmania (Australia), an endangered species due to a virus epidemy which has already proved fatal for half of the population. Both techniques verified concentrations of PBB 153 in the range 0.3-11 ng/g lipids with excellent agreement of the levels in all but two samples. The PBB residue pattern demonstrated that PBB pollution originated from the previous discharge with technical hexabromobiphenyl which is dominated by PBB 153. Other congeners such as PBB 132 and PBB 138 were detected in the Tasmanian devils but the proportions relative to PBB 153 were lower than in the technical product. Samples of healthy and

  18. Selective pressurized liquid extraction of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a whale earplug (earwax): a novel method for analyzing organic contaminants in lipid-rich matrices.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eleanor M; Trumble, Stephen J; Subedi, Bikram; Sanders, Rebel; Usenko, Sascha

    2013-12-01

    Lipid-rich matrices are often sinks for lipophilic contaminants, such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Typically methods for contaminant extraction and cleanup for lipid-rich matrices require multiple cleanup steps; however, a selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) technique requiring no additional cleanup has been developed for the simultaneous extraction and cleanup of whale earwax (cerumen; a lipid-rich matrix). Whale earwax accumulates in select whale species over their lifetime to form wax earplugs. Typically used as an aging technique in cetaceans, layers or laminae that comprise the earplug are thought to be associated with annual or semiannual migration and feeding patterns. Whale earplugs (earwax) represent a unique matrix capable of recording and archiving whales' lifetime contaminant profiles. This study reports the first analytical method developed for identifying and quantifying lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a whale earplug including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The analytical method was developed using SPLE to extract contaminants from ∼0.25 to 0.5g aliquots of each lamina of sectioned earplug. The SPLE was optimized for cleanup adsorbents (basic alumina, silica gel, and Florisil(®)), adsorbent to sample ratio, and adsorbent order. In the optimized SPLE method, the earwax homogenate was placed within the extraction cell on top of basic alumina (5g), silica gel (15g), and Florisil(®) (10g) and the target analytes were extracted from the homogenate using 1:1 (v/v) dichloromethane:hexane. POPs were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron capture negative ionization and electron impact ionization. The average percent recoveries for the POPs were 91% (±6% relative standard deviation), while limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.00057 to 0.96ngg(-1

  19. Selective pressurized liquid extraction of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a whale earplug (earwax): a novel method for analyzing organic contaminants in lipid-rich matrices.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eleanor M; Trumble, Stephen J; Subedi, Bikram; Sanders, Rebel; Usenko, Sascha

    2013-12-01

    Lipid-rich matrices are often sinks for lipophilic contaminants, such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Typically methods for contaminant extraction and cleanup for lipid-rich matrices require multiple cleanup steps; however, a selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) technique requiring no additional cleanup has been developed for the simultaneous extraction and cleanup of whale earwax (cerumen; a lipid-rich matrix). Whale earwax accumulates in select whale species over their lifetime to form wax earplugs. Typically used as an aging technique in cetaceans, layers or laminae that comprise the earplug are thought to be associated with annual or semiannual migration and feeding patterns. Whale earplugs (earwax) represent a unique matrix capable of recording and archiving whales' lifetime contaminant profiles. This study reports the first analytical method developed for identifying and quantifying lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a whale earplug including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The analytical method was developed using SPLE to extract contaminants from ∼0.25 to 0.5g aliquots of each lamina of sectioned earplug. The SPLE was optimized for cleanup adsorbents (basic alumina, silica gel, and Florisil(®)), adsorbent to sample ratio, and adsorbent order. In the optimized SPLE method, the earwax homogenate was placed within the extraction cell on top of basic alumina (5g), silica gel (15g), and Florisil(®) (10g) and the target analytes were extracted from the homogenate using 1:1 (v/v) dichloromethane:hexane. POPs were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron capture negative ionization and electron impact ionization. The average percent recoveries for the POPs were 91% (±6% relative standard deviation), while limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.00057 to 0.96ngg(-1

  20. A validated method for rapid determination of dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk: focus on utility of tandem solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuanjie; Feng, Chao; Xu, Qian; Lu, Dasheng; Qiu, Xinlei; Jin, Yu'e; Wang, Guoquan; Wang, Dongli; She, Jianwen; Zhou, Zhijun

    2016-07-01

    An improved method based on tandem solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) has been validated for a rapid determination of dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), marker polychlorinated biphenyls (M-PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) using a large volume (50 mL) of human milk. This method was well validated for the measurement of these analytes in human milk from the general population with low limits of detection (LODs, 0.004-0.12 ng/g lipid), satisfactory accuracy (75-120 % of recoveries), and precision [less than 10 % of relative standard deviations (RSDs)]. To comprehensively evaluate the performance of this method, a good, presently validated and routinely used method based on an automated sample clean-up system (ASCS, based on the commercial acid multilayer silica, basic alumina, and carbon columns) was used in parallel for comparison. Compared with the ASCS method, this method presented comparable specificity. Additionally, this method, in contrast to ASCS method, highly reduced consumption of solvents (40 mL versus 500 mL), which results in much lower background in the procedural blank, reduced time, and enhanced sample pretreatment throughput. This method was also applied in a pilot study to measure a batch of human milk samples with satisfactory results. Graphical Abstract Characteristics of the application of tandem SPE cleanup for determination of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs,M-PCBs and PBDEs in human milk.

  1. A validated method for rapid determination of dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk: focus on utility of tandem solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuanjie; Feng, Chao; Xu, Qian; Lu, Dasheng; Qiu, Xinlei; Jin, Yu'e; Wang, Guoquan; Wang, Dongli; She, Jianwen; Zhou, Zhijun

    2016-07-01

    An improved method based on tandem solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) has been validated for a rapid determination of dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), marker polychlorinated biphenyls (M-PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) using a large volume (50 mL) of human milk. This method was well validated for the measurement of these analytes in human milk from the general population with low limits of detection (LODs, 0.004-0.12 ng/g lipid), satisfactory accuracy (75-120 % of recoveries), and precision [less than 10 % of relative standard deviations (RSDs)]. To comprehensively evaluate the performance of this method, a good, presently validated and routinely used method based on an automated sample clean-up system (ASCS, based on the commercial acid multilayer silica, basic alumina, and carbon columns) was used in parallel for comparison. Compared with the ASCS method, this method presented comparable specificity. Additionally, this method, in contrast to ASCS method, highly reduced consumption of solvents (40 mL versus 500 mL), which results in much lower background in the procedural blank, reduced time, and enhanced sample pretreatment throughput. This method was also applied in a pilot study to measure a batch of human milk samples with satisfactory results. Graphical Abstract Characteristics of the application of tandem SPE cleanup for determination of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs,M-PCBs and PBDEs in human milk. PMID:27178547

  2. Novel flame retardants (N-FRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in fish, penguin, and skua from King George Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Wolschke, Hendrik; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Cai, Minghong

    2015-07-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), are frequently detected in biota from Antarctica, whereas no data are available for their replacements, such as novel flame retardants (N-FRs). This study presented the occurrence of several N-FRs, PBDEs, and PCBs in tissue samples of an Antarctic rock cod (Trematomus bernacchii), a young gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), and a brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus) collected from King George Island. The total concentrations of N-FRs (ΣN-FRs; mean: 931 pg/g dry weight (dw)) were comparable to PBDEs (Σ8PBDEs; 681 pg/gdw), which were much lower than PCBs (ΣDL-PCBs; 12,800 pg/gdw). Overall, skua contained two to three orders of magnitude higher contamination than penguin and fish. In the future, more attention should be focused on the fate of N-FRs in Antarctica, where usages have increased since PBDEs were banned. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N-FRs in biota from Antarctica.

  3. Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) may influence birth weight among infants in a Swedish cohort with background exposure: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has been suggested to negatively affect birth weight although epidemiological evidence is still inconclusive. We investigated if prenatal exposure to PCBs and PBDEs is related to birth weight in a Swedish population with background exposure. Methods Breast milk was sampled during the third week after delivery from first-time mothers in Uppsala county, Sweden 1996–2010 (POPUP cohort) (N = 413). Samples were analysed for di-ortho PCBs (CB-138, 153, 180) and tetra- to hexa- brominated PBDEs (BDE-47, 99, 100, 153). Simple and multiple linear regression models were used to investigate associations between lipid-adjusted, ln-transformed PCB and PBDE concentrations, and birth weight. Covariates included in the multivariate regression model were PCB and PBDE exposure, maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, education, smoking, gender of the infant and gestational length. The effect of including fish consumption was also investigated. Results In the multivariate model, prenatal exposure to di-ortho PCBs was significantly associated with increased birth weight (β = 137; p = 0.02). The result did not change when gestational length was added to the model. An inverse association between PBDE(4) (sum of BDE-47, -99, -100 and −153) and birth weight was observed in the multivariate model including gestational length (β = −106; p = 0.04). Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and weight gain during pregnancy were important confounders of the association between di-ortho PCBs and birth weight. The associations were not alleviated after adjustment for fish consumption, a major source of PCB and PBDE exposure. The observed associations were stronger for boys than for girls. Conclusions Our results indicate that prenatal exposure to di-ortho PCBs and PBDE(4) may influence birth weight in different

  4. Part 1: (Previous year`s abstract) toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) of polychlorinated and polybrominated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and polychlorinated diphenylethers based on early life stage mortality of rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Hornung, M.W.; Zabel, W.E.; Abnet, C.C.; Peterson, R.E.; Chu, I.; Safe, S.H.; Cook, P.M.

    1994-12-31

    Polychlorinated and polybrominated biphenyls (PCBs, PBBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs, PBDDs) and furans (PCDFs, PBDFs), along with mixed polychlorinated/brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PC/BDDs) and polychlorinated diphenylethers (PCDPEs), comprise a complex mixture of chemicals found in aquatic environments which may pose a risk to fish early life stage survival. To evaluate this potential risk, the lethal potency of individual congeners relative to TCDD must be determined. TEFs were calculated based on the ratio of TCDD LD{sub 50} to congener LD{sub 50} in rainbow trout. Mortality was assessed from hatching to swim-up; no congener related mortality occurred during the egg stage. TEFs from PCBs and PBBs were; 3,4,4{prime},5-TCB (IUPAC {number_sign}81) = 0.0056; 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-TBB ({number_sign}77) = 0.002; 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-HxBB ({number_sign}169) = 0.0001. PCBs {number_sign}4, {number_sign}28, {number_sign}52, {number_sign}105, {number_sign}118, {number_sign}128, {number_sign}138, {number_sign}156, {number_sign}170 and PBBs {number_sign}4, {number_sign}52, {number_sign}153 all had TEF values < 0.00005. TEFs for PCDDs and PBDDs were: 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD = 0.024; 1,2,3,4, 6,7,8-HpCDD = 0.0020; 2,3,7,8-TBDD = 1.5; 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDD = 0.08. Of two PBDFs tested, 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDF had TEF = 0.04 and 2,7-DBDF, had TEF < 0.0004. TEFs for two equipotent PC/BDDs, 2,3,7,-Cl-8-BrDD and 2,8-Cl-3,7-BrDD were 0.6. PCDPEs 3,3{prime}4,4{prime}-; 2,3{prime},4{prime}, 6-; 2,2{prime},4,5,6{prime}-; 2,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-; and 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5 had TEFs < 0.000002.

  5. Influence of trophic ecology on the accumulation of dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Mediterranean gulls (Larus michahellis and L. audouinii): A three-isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Roscales, Jose L; Vicente, Alba; Muñoz-Arnanz, Juan; Morales, Laura; Abad, Esteban; Aguirre, Jose I; Jiménez, Begoña

    2016-05-01

    The impact of pollution caused by severe anthropogenic pressure in the Mediterranean Sea, an important biodiversity hotspot, requires continuous research efforts. Sources of highly toxic chemicals such as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are misunderstood in representative Mediterranean species, which limits our capability to establish proper conservation strategies. In the present study, eggs of Audouin's and yellow-legged gulls (Larus audouinii and L. michahellis) were used to investigate the trophic sources, as measured by δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and δ(34)S, of legacy POPs, in particular, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (no-PCBs), as well as recently-regulated POPs, e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Special attention was paid to the usefulness of rarely-explored δ(34)S ratios in explaining POP exposure in wildlife, and δ(34)S was the isotopic ratio that best explained POP variations among gulls in most cases, thus demonstrating its usefulness for understanding POP exposure in wildlife. Significant relationships between stable isotope signatures and POP concentrations revealed increasing levels of no-PCBs and low halogenated PCDD/Fs and PBDEs in Mediterranean gulls as the consumption of marine resources increases. In contrast, highly chlorinated and brominated congeners appeared to preferentially accumulate in gulls feeding primarily on refuse from dump sites and terrestrial food webs. The use of suitable dietary tracers in the study of POPs in yellow-legged gulls revealed the importance of dump sites as a source of POPs in Mediterranean seabirds, which has not previously been reported. In contrast, the preferential accumulation through marine food webs of low chlorinated PCCD/Fs and no-PCBs, which show the highest toxic equivalents factors (TEFs), led to a significantly greater toxicological concern in Audouin's as compared to yellow-legged gulls. Audouin's gull exposure to POPs appears

  6. Exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through the consumption of prepared meals in Italy.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Stefania P; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Dellatte, Elena; Corrado, Federica; Esposito, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Diet is a relevant source of exposure to environmental pollutants. Dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by the Italian population was assessed through a duplicate diet study on prepared meals. Baby food composite representative of the diet of toddlers aged 9-12 months and school canteen servings from four towns in Italy representing the diet of children aged 4-9 years were collected on a 5-day basis. Similarly, 5-day lunches from an office canteen, 7-day lunches from a hotel-school, three fast food meals, and eight duplicate 1-day meals of individuals (one vegetarian) were selected to represent the diet of adults aged above 18 years. Servings from each diet were then pooled to form a composite and analysed. Dietary intake was estimated from the resulting contaminant levels in composites combined with age-related food consumption data from national survey. The mean upper bound (UB) intakes for cumulative PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs were 0.67, 0.63-0.92, and 0.27-0.63 pg WHO2005-TE kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) for toddlers, children and adults, respectively. BDE-47 (UB) ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) estimates were 2.75 in toddlers, 0.08-0.16 in children and 0.03-0.09 in adults. Similarly, for BDE-99 higher UB intakes (ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) resulted in toddlers (1.26), than those in children (0.06-0.08) and adults (0.03-0.10), respectively. The above estimates fall below the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) (14 WHO2005-TE kg(-1) bw day(-1)) established by the European Union Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs. The margin of exposure (MOE = 3) of toddlers to BDE-99 clearly indicates this age group as target for a risk-oriented approach. This study is proposed as a first cost-effective screening in PCDD, PCDF, DL-PCB and PBDE intake assessment, with a focus also on time trends. PMID:24645918

  7. Exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through the consumption of prepared meals in Italy.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Stefania P; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Dellatte, Elena; Corrado, Federica; Esposito, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Diet is a relevant source of exposure to environmental pollutants. Dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by the Italian population was assessed through a duplicate diet study on prepared meals. Baby food composite representative of the diet of toddlers aged 9-12 months and school canteen servings from four towns in Italy representing the diet of children aged 4-9 years were collected on a 5-day basis. Similarly, 5-day lunches from an office canteen, 7-day lunches from a hotel-school, three fast food meals, and eight duplicate 1-day meals of individuals (one vegetarian) were selected to represent the diet of adults aged above 18 years. Servings from each diet were then pooled to form a composite and analysed. Dietary intake was estimated from the resulting contaminant levels in composites combined with age-related food consumption data from national survey. The mean upper bound (UB) intakes for cumulative PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs were 0.67, 0.63-0.92, and 0.27-0.63 pg WHO2005-TE kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) for toddlers, children and adults, respectively. BDE-47 (UB) ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) estimates were 2.75 in toddlers, 0.08-0.16 in children and 0.03-0.09 in adults. Similarly, for BDE-99 higher UB intakes (ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) resulted in toddlers (1.26), than those in children (0.06-0.08) and adults (0.03-0.10), respectively. The above estimates fall below the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) (14 WHO2005-TE kg(-1) bw day(-1)) established by the European Union Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs. The margin of exposure (MOE = 3) of toddlers to BDE-99 clearly indicates this age group as target for a risk-oriented approach. This study is proposed as a first cost-effective screening in PCDD, PCDF, DL-PCB and PBDE intake assessment, with a focus also on time trends.

  8. STIMULATION OF [3H] ARACHIDONIC ACID RELEASE IN RAT CEREBELLAR GRANULE NEURONS BY POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants in electronic equipment, plastics, textiles, and building materials. While the presence of other persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin...

  9. Comparison of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenylethers, and organochlorine pesticides in Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) from offshore oil platforms and natural reefs along the California coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; Tanner, Michael J.; Love, Milton S.; Nishimoto, Mary M.; Schroeder, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the relative exposure of Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at oil-production platforms was reported, indicating negligible exposure to PAHs and no discernible differences between exposures at platforms and nearby natural areas sites. In this report, the potential for chronic PAH exposure in fish is reported, by measurement of recalcitrant, higher molecular weight PAHs in tissues of fish previously investigated for PAH metabolites in bile. A total of 34 PAHs (20 PAHs, 11 alkylated PAHs, and 3 polycyclic aromatic thiophenes) were targeted. In addition, legacy contaminants—polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs),—and current contaminants, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) linked to endocrine disruption, were measured by gas chromatography with electron-capture or mass spectrometric detection, to form a more complete picture of the contaminant-related status of fishes at oil production platforms in the Southern California Bight. No hydrocarbon profiles or unresolved complex hydrocarbon background were found in fish from platforms and from natural areas, and concentrations of aliphatics were low less than 100 nanograms per gram (ng/g) per component]. Total-PAH concentrations in fish ranged from 15 to 37 ng/g at natural areas and from 8.7 to 22 ng/g at platforms. Profiles of PAHs were similar at all natural and platform sites, consisting mainly of naphthalene and methylnaphthalenes, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Total-PCB concentrations (excluding non-ortho-chloro-substituted congeners) in fish were low, ranging from 7 to 22 ng/g at natural areas and from 10 to 35 ng/g at platforms. About 50 percent of the total-PCBs at all sites consisted of 11 congeners: 153 > 138/163/164 > 110 > 118 > 15 > 99 > 187 > 149 > 180. Most OCPs, except dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-related compounds, were not detectable or were at concentrations of less than 1 ng/g in fish. p

  10. Altered cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulation during hyperosmotic stress in adult rats developmentally exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and the structurally similar chemicals polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) disrupt the function of multiple endocrine systems. PCBs and PBDEs disrupt the secretion of vasopressin (VP) from the hypothalamus during osmotic activation. Since the p...

  11. Separation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans, non-ortho/mono/di/tri/tetra-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers groups of compounds prior to their determination with large volume injection gas chromatography-Quadrupole ion storage tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2013-10-17

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are important environmental contaminants. Their maximum legally allowable levels in food and environment are in the low pg g(-1) range. Therefore some highly selective and sensitive analytical methods must be used to determine them. Prior to final determination by GC/MS the cleaned-up samples have to be split into some fractions in view of large differences in concentrations of various analytes and existence of numerous chromatographic co-elutions (which in any case cannot be fully avoided). The aim of this study was to: (i) develop a robust, time-saving analytical method to isolate, clean-up and fractionate PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs prior to their determination with gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry; (ii) assess method performance using laboratory validation data and some certified reference materials; (iii) use the developed method to assess PCB/PBDE/PCDD/F levels in samples of commercially available food. A combination of alumina, florisil, modified silica gel and two carbon columns were used for sample cleanup and fractionation. Separate fractions containing dioxins/furans, PBDE, non-ortho, mono-ortho and di-/tri-/tetra-ortho PCBs were obtained. The method statistical parameters were compatible with 1883/2006 EC Regulation (80-120%, RSD below 15%). The method performance was successfully used to evaluation of some real life food samples.

  12. Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peakall, David B.; Lincer, Jeffrey L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes structure, use, analysis, and toxicological properties of polychlorinated biphenyls. Provides data on occurrence and biological magnification in ecosystems. Significance, and synergistic relationships with DDT summarized. (AL)

  13. Octanol-air partition coefficients of polybrominated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Hongxia, Zhao; Jingwen, Chen; Xie, Quan; Baocheng, Qu; Xinmiao, Liang

    2009-03-01

    The octanol-air partition coefficients (K(OA)) for PBB15, PBB26, PBB31, PBB49, PBB103 and PBB153 were determined as a function of temperature using a gas chromatographic retention time technique with 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (p,p'-DDT) as a reference substance. The internal energies of phase change from octanol to air (Delta(OA)U) were calculated for the six compounds and were in the range from 74 to 116 kJ mol(-1). Simple regression equations of log K(OA) versus relative retention times (RRTs) on gas chromatography (GC), and log K(OA) versus molecular connectivity indexes (MCI) were obtained, for which the correlation coefficients (r(2)) were greater than 0.985 at 283.15K and 298.15K. Thus the K(OA) values of the remaining PBBs can be predicted by using their RRTs and MCI according to these relationships. PMID:19117592

  14. Acute toxicity of dietary polybrominated biphenyls in Bobwhite Quail

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.O.; Ringer, R.K.; Babish, J.G.

    1984-09-01

    This investigation was undertaken to study the acute oral toxicity of PBB to Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus). The median lethal dietary concentration (LC/sub 56/) of PBB was determined over 8 days and clinical signs of intoxication are described.

  15. Process for removing polychlorinated and polybrominated biphenyls from oils

    DOEpatents

    Orlett, M.J.

    The invention is a relatively simple and inexpensive process for detoxifying oils contaminated with PCBs and/or PBBs. The process is especially suitable for processing lubricating oils containing such contaminants. In one aspect of the invention, the contaminated lubricating oil is contacted with a particulate reagent comprising adsorbent particles carrying a dispersion of metallic sodium. The solid sodium reagent converts the PCB and/or PBB contaminants to environmentally acceptable products and also converts various sodium-reactive additives normally present in lubricating oil to reaction products. The adsorbent reagent retains most of the products and is easily separated from the detoxified oil. The detoxified oil may be fortified with various additives functionally equivalent to those removed during detoxification.

  16. GROWTH IN GIRLS EXPOSED TO POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS. (R825300)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. Gas chromatography coupled to electron capture negative ion mass spectrometry with nitrogen as the reagent gas--an alternative method for the determination of polybrominated compounds.

    PubMed

    Rosenfelder, Natalie; Vetter, Walter

    2009-12-01

    Gas chromatography in combination with electron capture negative ion mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS) is a sensitive method for the determination of polybrominated compounds in environmental and food samples via detection of the bromide ion isotopes m/z 79 and 81. The standard reagent gas for inducing chemical ionization in GC/ECNI-MS is methane. However, the use of methane has some drawbacks as it promotes carbonization of the filament and ion source. In this study, we explored the suitability of nitrogen as reagent gas for the determination of brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), allyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (ATE) and 2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE)) and halogenated natural products (for instance, methoxylated tetrabrominated diphenylethers and polybrominated hexahydroxanthene derivatives). An ion source temperature of 250 degrees C and a nitrogen pressure of 7 Torr in the ion source gave the highest response for m/z 79 and 81 of virtually all investigated polybrominated compounds. Using these conditions, nitrogen-mediated GC/ECNI-MS usually gave higher sensitivity than the method with methane previously used in our lab. In addition, the ion source was not contaminated to the same degree and the lifetime of the filament was significantly increased. Moreover, the response factors of the different polybrominated compounds with the exception of 2,4,6-tribromophenol were more uniform than with methane. Nitrogen is available at very high purity at relatively low price. PMID:19904736

  18. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOEpatents

    Cook, G.T.; Holshouser, S.K.; Coleman, R.M.; Harless, C.E.; Whinnery, W.N. III

    1982-03-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  19. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Gus T.; Holshouser, Stephen K.; Coleman, Richard M.; Harless, Charles E.; Whinnery, III, Walter N.

    1983-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  20. High exposure of California firefighters to polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Park, June-Soo; Voss, Robert W; McNeel, Sandra; Wu, Nerissa; Guo, Tan; Wang, Yunzhu; Israel, Leslie; Das, Rupali; Petreas, Myrto

    2015-03-01

    Concern about persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Californians prompted the state's biomonitoring program to conduct a study in firefighters, who are occupationally exposed to high levels of POPs. In this work we present serum concentrations of several classes of POPs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], and organochlorine pesticides [OCPs]) in 101 Southern California firefighters. Despite recently reported declining trends of PBDEs in Californians, high levels were measured in firefighters' serum (Σ5PBDEs: median = 59.1 ng/(g of lipid); range = 18.8-714 ng/(g of lipid)) in comparison to other populations in California during the same period. In addition, nearly one-third of subjects had particularly high serum levels of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), consistent with other recent results in firefighters; this pattern may be a marker of recent firefighting activity. In contrast, serum levels of PCBs and OCPs measured in firefighters' sera were not elevated compared to U.S. levels. Multivariable analysis indicated that lower levels of serum PBDEs were associated with turnout gear cleaning and storage practices after fires. Our study supports the hypothesis that firefighting activities are likely to increase exposure to PBDEs and that good housekeeping and personal hygiene practices may reduce exposure to these compounds. PMID:25643236

  1. Aerobic biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Robrock, Kristin R; Coelhan, Mehmet; Sedlak, David L; Alvarez-Cohent, Lisa

    2009-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants that have been used in consumer products and furniture for three decades. Currently, very little is known about their fate in the environment and specifically about their susceptibility to aerobic biotransformation. Here, we investigated the ability of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading bacteria Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 to transform mono- through hexa-BDEs at ppb levels. We also tested the PBDE transforming abilities of the related strain Rhodococcus sp. RR1 and the ether-degrading Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190. The two PCB-degrading strains transformed all of the mono- through penta-BDEs and strain LB400 transformed one of the hexa-BDEs. The extent of transformation was inversely proportional to the degree of bromination. Strains RR1 and CB1190 were only able to transform the less brominated mono- and di-BDE congeners. RHA1 released stoichiometric quantities of bromide while transforming mono- and tetra-BDE congeners. LB400 instead converted most of a mono-BDE to a hydroxylated mono-BDE. This is the first report of aerobic transformation of tetra-, penta,- and hexa-BDEs as well as the first report of stoichiometric release of bromide during PBDE transformation.

  2. Aerobic biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by bacterial isolates

    PubMed Central

    Robrock, Kristin R.; Coelhan, Mehmet; Sedlak, David; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants that have been used in consumer products and furniture for three decades. Currently, very little is known about their fate in the environment and specifically about their susceptibility to aerobic biotransformation. Here, we investigated the ability of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading bacteria Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 to transform mono- through hexa-BDEs at ppb levels. We also tested the PBDE transforming abilities of related strain Rhodococcus sp. RR1 and the ether-degrading Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190. The two PCB-degrading strains transformed all of the mono- through penta-BDEs and strain LB400 transformed one of the hexa-BDEs. The extent of transformation was inversely proportional to the degree of bromination. Strains RR1 and CB1190 were only able to transform the less brominated mono- and di- BDE congeners. RHA1 released stoichiometric quantities of bromide while transforming mono- and tetra-BDE congeners. LB400 instead converted most of a mono-BDE to a hydroxylated mono-BDE. This is the first report of aerobic transformation of tetra-, penta- and hexa-BDEs as well as the first report of stoichiometric release of bromide during PBDE transformation. PMID:19731666

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCBs ) ; CASRN 1336 - 36 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  4. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI CATFISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in a wide variety of consumer products. Concerns surrounding these compounds are primarily due do their ubiquitous presence in the environment as well as in human tissue, such as milk, coupled with evidence indi...

  5. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN US SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical analysis of thirty-three soil samples from 15 US states reveals Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs), in every sample.PBDE concentrations rangefrom 0.09 to 1200 parts per billion by mass. These data are the first analysis of soil concentrations of PBDEs in soils from a...

  6. Promoting environmentally sound management of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Asia.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Zhao, Nana; Liu, Xue; Wu, Xiaoyang

    2014-06-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers with persistent organic pollutant properties are required to be controlled by the Stockholm Convention. Recently, polybrominated diphenyl ether contamination has become widespread in Asia, mainly because of the disposal and recycling processes of polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing wastes. The management status, production, usage, import/export, treatment, and disposal, as well as implementation deficiencies for the environmentally sound management of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing materials in ten Asian countries were investigated and assessed in this study. This information could help the participating countries implement the Stockholm Convention and could promote the regional environmentally sound management of polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing articles and products. The results obtained were as follows. (1) Most of the countries studied lacked environmental policies and regulations, or even standards of polybrominated diphenyl ether pollution management and emission control actions. Accurate data on the consumption and importation of polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing materials, however, were not available for all the participating countries. In addition, there were no special treatment or disposal systems for polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing materials, or emission-cutting measures for the treatment of waste in these countries, owing to the lack of sufficient funding or technologies. (2) The improper dismantling of e-waste is a major source of polybrominated diphenyl ether emissions in these countries. (3) Proper e-waste management could result in a breakthrough in the environmentally sound management of this major polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing material flow, and could significantly reduce polybrominated diphenyl ether emissions. Finally, based on the study results, this article puts forward some recommendations for improving the environmentally

  7. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction with saponification (MAES) for the determination of polybrominated flame retardants in aquaculture samples.

    PubMed

    Fajar, N M; Carro, A M; Lorenzo, R A; Fernandez, F; Cela, R

    2008-08-01

    The efficiency of microwave-assisted extraction with saponification (MAES) for the determination of seven polybrominated flame retardants (polybrominated biphenyls, PBBs; and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs) in aquaculture samples is described and compared with microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). Chemometric techniques based on experimental designs and desirability functions were used for simultaneous optimization of the operational parameters used in both MAES and MAE processes. Application of MAES to this group of contaminants in aquaculture samples, which had not been previously applied to this type of analytes, was shown to be superior to MAE in terms of extraction efficiency, extraction time and lipid content extracted from complex matrices (0.7% as against 18.0% for MAE extracts). PBBs and PBDEs were determined by gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection (GC-muECD). The quantification limits for the analytes were 40-750 pg g(-1) (except for BB-15, which was 1.43 ng g(-1)). Precision for MAES-GC-muECD (%RSD < 11%) was significantly better than for MAE-GC-muECD (%RSD < 20%). The accuracy of both optimized methods was satisfactorily demonstrated by analysis of appropriate certified reference material (CRM), WMF-01.

  8. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction with saponification (MAES) for the determination of polybrominated flame retardants in aquaculture samples.

    PubMed

    Fajar, N M; Carro, A M; Lorenzo, R A; Fernandez, F; Cela, R

    2008-08-01

    The efficiency of microwave-assisted extraction with saponification (MAES) for the determination of seven polybrominated flame retardants (polybrominated biphenyls, PBBs; and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs) in aquaculture samples is described and compared with microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). Chemometric techniques based on experimental designs and desirability functions were used for simultaneous optimization of the operational parameters used in both MAES and MAE processes. Application of MAES to this group of contaminants in aquaculture samples, which had not been previously applied to this type of analytes, was shown to be superior to MAE in terms of extraction efficiency, extraction time and lipid content extracted from complex matrices (0.7% as against 18.0% for MAE extracts). PBBs and PBDEs were determined by gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection (GC-muECD). The quantification limits for the analytes were 40-750 pg g(-1) (except for BB-15, which was 1.43 ng g(-1)). Precision for MAES-GC-muECD (%RSD < 11%) was significantly better than for MAE-GC-muECD (%RSD < 20%). The accuracy of both optimized methods was satisfactorily demonstrated by analysis of appropriate certified reference material (CRM), WMF-01. PMID:18608498

  9. Environmental pollutants in the Swedish marine ecosystem, with special emphasis on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE).

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Pernilla; Herzke, Dorte; Wedborg, Margareta; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2011-02-01

    Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) were analysed in whole herring (Clupea harengus) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus), eggs from common eider (Somateria mollissima) and eggs and livers from herring gull (Larus argentatus) from the Swedish west coast. The contaminant values obtained were compared with published values from the Arctic marine ecosystem. Tetra- and penta-brominated PBDEs were detected at low levels in herring, sprat and common eider (ΣPBDE 0.3-2.0 ng g(-1) ww), while the levels were higher in the herring gull samples (ΣPBDE 1.3-29.9 ng g(-1) ww). Hexa-decaBDEs were also found in samples from herring gulls. Eggs from herring gulls from the sub-Arctic contained four times more PBDE than the Swedish herring gulls eggs. Fish samples from the Arctic had two times higher levels of PBDEs and DDTs than similar samples from Sweden. The higher levels of contaminants in fish and seabirds from the Arctic reflect differences in transport processes, feeding ecology (reflected by trophic levels) and metabolism. PBDEs contributed to <10% of the total contaminant load in all investigated samples. The relative contribution of DDTs was higher in fish and bird samples from the Arctic when compared to Swedish samples, e.g. 65% in glaucous gull livers compared to 10% in herring gull livers. This study shows that even though the Swedish west coast is more urban than the Arctic, higher pollutants levels are found in seabird species from the Arctic. PMID:21220151

  10. Part 2: Potencies and interactions of polybrominated aromatic hydrocarbons in rainbow trout early life stage mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Hornung, M.W.; Zabel, E.W.; Peterson, R.E.; Bergman, A.; Safe, S.

    1994-12-31

    Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and diphenylethers (PBDPES) in aquatic environments may pose a risk to fish early life stage survival. Following rainbow trout egg microinjection, the potencies of these polybrominated aromatic hydrocarbons were determined using fish specific toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). TEFs are defined as the ratio of TCDD LD{sub 50} to brominated congener LD{sub 50}. Sac fry stage specific TCDD like toxicity included yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, multifocal hemorrhages and craniofacial malformations. TEFs of active congeners were: 2,3,7,8-TBDF = 0.23; 2,3,4,7,8-PBDF = 0.069; 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxBDD = 0.009. No signs of toxicity with 2,2{prime},4,4{prime}-TBDPE, 2,2{prime},3,4,4{prime}-PBDPE, or 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5-PBDPE occurred at egg concentrations up to 126,37 {mu}g/g. Since these congeners occur as complex mixtures, the potential for additive, antagonistic, or synergistic interactions must also be determined for accurate risk assessment. Graded doses of 2,3,7,8-TBDD or 1,2,3,7,8-PBDD alone, or graded doses of fixed ratios of the two congeners were injected into newly fertilized rainbow trout eggs. Separate dose response curves were determined for each ratio and each individual congener. Isobolographic analysis supports the hypothesis that these congeners act additively.

  11. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): new pollutants-old diseases.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Muhammad Akmal; Laessig, Ronald H; Reed, Kurt D

    2003-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of recalcitrant and bioaccumulative halogenated compounds that have emerged as a major environmental pollutant. PBDEs are used as a flame-retardant and are found in consumer goods such as electrical equipment, construction materials, coatings, textiles and polyurethane foam (furniture padding). Similar in structure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), PBDEs resist degradation in the environment. Less brominated PBDEs like tetra-, penta- and hexa- demonstrate high affinity for lipids and can accumulate in the bodies of animals and humans. Breast milk from North American women contained much higher amounts of PBDEs than levels in breast milk from Swedish women, indicating that North American exposures to PBDEs may be particularly high. Evidence to date suggests that tetra- and penta-BDEs are likely to be the more toxic and bioaccumulative of the PBDE compounds, compared to octa- and deca-congeners. PBDEs are sold as mixtures, under names such as "pentabromodiphenyl ether" and "octabromodiphenyl ether." The pentabromo product is a mixture of tetra-BDEs and penta-BDEs in approximately equal amounts. Pentabromo consists of PBDEs that are believed to be the most toxic. This mixture has been banned by the European Union, but is still used in North America. The United States is the leading producer and user of pentabromo. In August 2003, the State of California passed a bill to phase out the use of penta- and octa-PBDE by 2008. The toxicology of PBDEs is not well understood, but PBDEs have been associated with tumors, neurodevelopmental toxicity and thyroid hormone imbalance. The neurotoxic effects of PBDEs are similar to those observed for PCBs. Children exposed to PBDEs are prone to subtle but measurable developmental problems. It is presumed that PBDEs are endocrine disruptors, but research in this area is scant. Further studies are imperative in a multitude of health and environmental disciplines to determine the

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): new pollutants-old diseases.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Muhammad Akmal; Laessig, Ronald H; Reed, Kurt D

    2003-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of recalcitrant and bioaccumulative halogenated compounds that have emerged as a major environmental pollutant. PBDEs are used as a flame-retardant and are found in consumer goods such as electrical equipment, construction materials, coatings, textiles and polyurethane foam (furniture padding). Similar in structure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), PBDEs resist degradation in the environment. Less brominated PBDEs like tetra-, penta- and hexa- demonstrate high affinity for lipids and can accumulate in the bodies of animals and humans. Breast milk from North American women contained much higher amounts of PBDEs than levels in breast milk from Swedish women, indicating that North American exposures to PBDEs may be particularly high. Evidence to date suggests that tetra- and penta-BDEs are likely to be the more toxic and bioaccumulative of the PBDE compounds, compared to octa- and deca-congeners. PBDEs are sold as mixtures, under names such as "pentabromodiphenyl ether" and "octabromodiphenyl ether." The pentabromo product is a mixture of tetra-BDEs and penta-BDEs in approximately equal amounts. Pentabromo consists of PBDEs that are believed to be the most toxic. This mixture has been banned by the European Union, but is still used in North America. The United States is the leading producer and user of pentabromo. In August 2003, the State of California passed a bill to phase out the use of penta- and octa-PBDE by 2008. The toxicology of PBDEs is not well understood, but PBDEs have been associated with tumors, neurodevelopmental toxicity and thyroid hormone imbalance. The neurotoxic effects of PBDEs are similar to those observed for PCBs. Children exposed to PBDEs are prone to subtle but measurable developmental problems. It is presumed that PBDEs are endocrine disruptors, but research in this area is scant. Further studies are imperative in a multitude of health and environmental disciplines to determine the

  13. Field concentrations and persistence of polybrominated biphenyls in soils and solubility of PBB in natural waters.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, L W; Chou, S F; Tiedje, J M

    1978-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from 28 fields which had received manure from Michigan's most highly contaminated dairy herds. The number of fields in each concentration range of PBB in soil were: 2, not detectable; 15, 0.0 to 8.0 ppb; 6, 14-102 ppb, and 5, 153 to 371 ppb. Plant tissue sampled from the 10 most highly contaminated fields contained no detectable PBB. No evidence of significant degradation of PBB was noted after 1 year incubation in soil. When 14C hexabromobiphenyl and heptabromobiphenyl isomers were incubated in soil less than 0.2% of the 14C was volatilized. Also gas chromatographic analysis of soil extracts showed no difference in recovery of the six major PBB isomers between sterilized and nonsterilized soil. Analysis of these extracts by thin layer chromatography and autoradiography showed no 14C-PBB intermediates. Photodegradation products of the major hexa- and heptabromobiphenyl isomers showed more but still minor (approximately 3%) biodegradation in soil. Much of the photodegradation products appeared bound to soil, since these products could not be extracted from soil. Photodegradation does not appear to be a significant fate of PBB in manures spread on fields since no change was noted in the relative concentrations of isomers in soil samples from our field survey. Studies with distilled, tap, river, and soil waters showed that PBB solubility was markedly influenced by water composition. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. PMID:209960

  14. Polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) contamination of the Pine River, Gratiot, and Midland Counties, Michigan.

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, J L; Powers, R A

    1978-01-01

    Michigan Chemical Corporation, St. Louis, Michigan manufactured PBB from 1970 until November 20, 1974. Studies in 1974 showed significant quantities of PBB in effluent discharged from the facility and in water, fish, ducks, and sediments from the Pine River. Fish uptake rates and bioconcentration factors were estimated. Followup surveys over the three year period since the termination of PBB production indicate a decline in PBB loadings to the river but no significant corresponding decline of PBB levels in sediments, fish and duck tissue. A Michigan Department of Public Health warning against consumption of Pine River fish from St. Louis downstream to its confluence with Chippewa River remains in effect. PMID:209975

  15. Polybrominated biphenyl and diphenylether flame retardants: analysis, toxicity, and environmental occurrence.

    PubMed

    Pijnenburg, A M; Everts, J W; de Boer, J; Boon, J P

    1995-01-01

    Data on two classes of brominated polyaromatic flame retardants are reviewed with emphasis on analytical aspects, occurrence, fate, and toxicity in the environment. Concentrations of brominated fire retardants are quantified as equivalents of commercial mixtures. Because different congeners behave differently in the environment and show large differences in toxicity, future studies would benefit from the availability of analytical standards of individual congeners. The main environmental properties and mechanisms of toxicity of the PBBs and PBDEs are similar to those of the structurally related PCBs and dibenzodioxins. Although the present concentrations of brominated fire retardants do not yet appear to represent a major environmental risk in marine food chains, their replacement by environmentally less harmful alternatives is recommended.

  16. AGE AT MENARCHE IN GIRLS EXPOSED PERINATALLY TO POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYL. (R825300)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. Effects of polybrominated biphenyl on milk production, reproduction, and health problems in Holstein cows.

    PubMed Central

    Wastell, M E; Moody, D L; Plog, J F

    1978-01-01

    PBB found in relatively low levels among animals present on a cross-section of Michigan farms during the time PBB was inadvertantly added to dairy feeds had no effect upon these animals' milk production, body weight, weight gain, breeding and reproduction performance, incidence of commonly experienced health problems, calving rate, and the health of their calves. No significant differences in these vital areas could be seen between Michigan animals exposed to PBB and equivalent Wisconsin animals which had not been exposed to PBB when both groups were subjected to equivalent management practices. No pattern of gross of histopathological lesions was seen upon necropsy between test animals and control animals. PMID:210008

  18. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in U.S. mothers' milk.

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, Arnold; Pavuk, Marian; Päpke, Olaf; Ryan, John Jake; Birnbaum, Linda; Rosen, Robin

    2003-01-01

    No previous reports exist on polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in human milk from individual U.S. mothers. This article on PBDEs is an extension of our previous studies on concentrations of dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, and other chlorinated organic compounds in human milk in a number of countries. PBDE commercial products are used as flame retardants in flexible polyurethane foam (penta-BDE), in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resins (octa-BDE), and in high-impact polystyrene resins (deca-BDE). Their use is permitted in the United States but is banned in some European countries because of presumed toxicity, demonstrated persistence, and bioaccumulation. Different commercial products can be found in various consumer products such as television sets, computers, computer monitors and printers, carpets, and upholstery. Analyses of human levels of these compounds suggest low but rising levels in European human milk, which may have peaked, at least in Sweden, in the late 1990s. Very few data exist on levels of PBDEs in humans in the United States, and none from milk from individual nursing mothers. To address this issue, we analyzed 47 individual milk samples from nursing mothers, 20-41 years of age, from a milk bank in Austin, Texas, and a community women's health clinic in Dallas, Texas. Up to 13 PBDE congeners were measured. The concentrations of the sum of PBDE congeners varied from 6.2 to 419 ng/g (or parts per billion) lipid, with a median of 34 ng/g and a mean of 73.9 ng/g lipid. The PBDE levels in breast milk from Texas were similar to levels found in U.S. blood and adipose tissue lipid from California and Indiana and are 10-100 times greater than human tissue levels in Europe. Their detection in breast milk raises concern for potential toxicity to nursing infants, given the persistence and bioaccumulative nature of some of the PBDE congeners. These results indicate a need for more detailed investigation of the levels of PBDE in

  19. Bioconcentration and biomagnification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through lower-trophic-level coastal marine food web.

    PubMed

    Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Takada, Hideshige; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Ikemoto, Tokutaka; Omori, Koji; Tsuchiya, Kotaro

    2009-08-01

    Bivalves, crabs, fishes, seawater, and sediment collected from the inner part of Tokyo Bay, Japan, were measured for 20 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and 5 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. To determine the trophic levels of the organisms, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) were also measured. Bioconcentration factors of PBDE and PCB congeners increased as the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)) rose to log K(ow)=7, above which they decreased again. Biomagnification of PCBs and several PBDE congeners (BDE47, 99, 100, 153 and 154) up the trophic ladder was confirmed by a positive correlation between their concentrations and delta(15)N. Other PBDE congeners showed a negative or no correlation, suggesting their biotransformation through metabolism. The more hydrophobic congeners of both PBDEs (Br=2-6) and PCBs (Cl=6-9) were biomagnified more. It thus appears that PBDEs are less biomagnified than PCBs. PMID:19376538

  20. Use of mechanistic data in the IARC evaluations of the carcinogenicity of polychlorinated biphenyls and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Lauby-Secretan, Béatrice; Loomis, Dana; Baan, Robert; El Ghissassi, Fatiha; Bouvard, Véronique; Benbrahim-Tallaa, Lamia; Guha, Neela; Grosse, Yann; Straif, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    The IARC Monographs are a series of scientific reviews that identify environmental factors that can increase the risk of cancer in humans. In its first part, the principles and procedures of the IARC Monographs evaluations are summarized. In a second part, we present the most recent IARC evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), performed in February 2013: PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs were both classified into group 1 "carcinogens," while PBBs were evaluated as "probably carcinogenic to humans" (group 2A). Noteworthy is that the relative contributions of different PCB congeners to the carcinogenicity of PCB mixtures are not known. The use of mechanistic data for the classification into a higher category is discussed in the context of the history of the consecutive evaluations of several related polychlorinated compounds. PMID:26077316

  1. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HOUSE DUST AND CLOTHES DRYER LINT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants are now considered ubiquitous and persistent pollutants. Few studies have examined the concentrations of these chemicals in the home and here we report measurements of PBDEs in house dust samples collected from the Washington...

  2. Carcinogenic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Faroon, O M; Keith, S; Jones, D; De Rosa, C

    2001-03-01

    As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals found at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) sites that have the greatest public health impact. These profiles comprehensively summarize toxicological and environmental information. This article constitutes the release of an important section of the Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls [ATSDR. 2000: Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.] into the scientific literature. This article focuses on the carcinogenic effects of this group of synthetic organic chemicals (polychlorinated biphenyls) in humans and animals. Information on other health effects, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, biomarkers, interactions, chemical and physical properties, potential for human exposure, and regulations and advisories is detailed in the profile. PMID:12117297

  3. Laboratory and human studies on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbrough, R.D.

    1985-02-01

    Similar qualitative toxic effects have been observed in animals for a class of halogenated aromatic compounds, which include the halogenated biphenyls, naphthalenes, dibenzodioxins, and dibenzofurans. All of these compounds are lipid soluble and persist in the environment and in mammals. The polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are the most persistent. They are predominantly stored in fatty tissue; they pass the placenta and are excreted in milk. Some isomers of the halogenated biphenyls are more toxic than others. With some exceptions, the more toxic isomers are retained longer in tissues and are also the carcinogenic components of the mixture. Most of these chemicals seem to be promoters of carcinogenesis in animals rather than initiators. An array of toxic effects in laboratory animals has been ascribed to these compounds and numerous reviews summarizing this information are available. Less information is available on the human health effects of environmental and occupational exposure. Results of recent studies in animals to further elucidate the effects of these chemicals are presented, and results from some human studies conducted in the United States are reviewed. 77 references.

  4. Nonoccupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, F.E.

    1988-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls became worldwide environmental contaminants during five decades of industrial use. They cause cancer in some animals and are suspected of causing birth defects and elevated triglycerides in humans. The risk to humans from low-level exposure is unclear. No clinical symptoms have yet been identified in people who eat contaminated fish, a major source of low-level exposure. 19 references.

  5. Current shot noise characteristics in biphenyl diamine and biphenyl dithiol devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kalsoom, Ambreen; Song, Siyu; Li, Guiqin

    2014-09-01

    Current shot noise characteristics, away from their average current, in biphenyl diamine and biphenyl dithiol devices are investigated. The relations among the shot noise and the applied bias, the coupling factors, as well as the alligator clips are revealed. The regular change of the shot noise in biphenyl diamine device and irregular change of the shot noise in biphenyl dithiol device are shown as the coupling strength change from full coupling to weak coupling. It is found that the shot noise suppression in biphenyl diamine device is enhanced at the higher bias. The large differences of the shot noise suppression in the biphenyl dithiol device are revealed.

  6. High liver content of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) in otters (Lutra lutra) from England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Pountney, Angela; Filby, Amy L; Thomas, Gareth O; Simpson, Vic R; Chadwick, Elizabeth A; Stevens, Jamie R; Tyler, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), used as flame retardants since the 1970s, are being phased out of use, but are persistent and widespread in the environment. Historical declines in Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) populations have been associated with exposure to dieldrin and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but links with other persistent organic pollutants have not been explored. In this study, liver samples from 129 otters, collected across England and Wales from 1995-2006, were analysed for PBDEs, together with PCBs, DDT breakdown products, and hexachlorobenzene. Associations with geographical location and life history parameters were explored. Concentrations of PBDEs in otters (∑BDE 12-70000ngg(-1) lipid) paralleled those measured in marine mammals, with PBDE-47 the dominant congener and high levels of PBDE-99 and -100. Otter livers contained high concentrations of PBDE-153 and -209, typical of terrestrial top predators. Inter-individual variation in PBDE concentrations was high and correlated with geographical location. ∑PBDE was 25% of ∑PCB, and comparable with ∑DDT, identifying PBDEs as a major contaminant in otter populations in England and Wales.

  7. Bioaccumulation kinetics of brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafsson, K.; Bjoerk, M.; Burreau, S.; Gilek, M. )

    1999-06-01

    Baltic Sea blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, IUPAC congeners 47, 99, and 153) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners 31, 52, 77, 118, and 153) in a flow-through experimental setup for 44 d. After the exposure phase, the mussels were allowed to depurate in natural brackish water for 26 d. After analyses, uptake clearance rate coefficients (k[sub u]), depuration rate coefficients (k[sub d]), and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) were calculated. A rapid uptake of all PBDEs and PCBs was observed, especially for PBDE congeners 47 and 99. The depuration rate decreased with increasing hydrophobicity as expected for the PCBs, but for the PBDEs, depuration rate coefficients appeared to be of the same magnitude for all three congeners independently of log K[sub OW]. The BAFs obtained for PBDE 47 and PBDE 99 were higher than for all other substances in the study, severalfold higher than for PCBs of similar hydrophobicity. The presented data indicate that the bioaccumulation potential of PBDEs, extensively used as flame retardants, is similar or higher than that of PCBs for filter feeding organisms such as blue mussels.

  8. Cell type-dependent agonist/antagonist activities of polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, N; Matsubara, K; Sanoh, S; Ohta, S; Uramaru, N; Kitamura, S; Yamaguchi, M; Sugihara, K; Fujimoto, N

    2013-11-25

    There have been many concerns expressed regarding the possible adverse effects of thyroid hormone-disrupting chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), since thyroid hormones play crucial roles in normal vertebrate development. A vast amount of PBDEs have been used as flame retardants for the last two decades and our environment has been contaminated with them. Some PBDEs, especially hydroxylated PBDEs, reportedly show an affinity to the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) and act as thyroid hormone agonists, but in other studies they were reported to inhibit the actions of thyroid hormones. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the binding affinities of PBDEs and their metabolites to TR and their ability to induce thyroid hormone-responsive transcription using luciferase reporter gene assays in two different cell lines, a pituitary cell line, MtT/E-2, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The binding assay showed that many of the examined PBDEs have significant affinity to TR. Interestingly, some of these PBDEs, such as 4'-OH-BDE-17 and 2'-OH-BDE-28, acted as agonists in the reporter gene assay in MtT/E-2 cells, while they acted as antagonists in CHO cells. Our results demonstrated that whether PBDEs and their metabolites are TR agonists or antagonists depends on the cell type used in the assay, which may suggest that the thyroid hormone-disrupting actions of PBDEs differ among target tissues or species. PMID:24076165

  9. High liver content of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) in otters (Lutra lutra) from England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Pountney, Angela; Filby, Amy L; Thomas, Gareth O; Simpson, Vic R; Chadwick, Elizabeth A; Stevens, Jamie R; Tyler, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), used as flame retardants since the 1970s, are being phased out of use, but are persistent and widespread in the environment. Historical declines in Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) populations have been associated with exposure to dieldrin and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but links with other persistent organic pollutants have not been explored. In this study, liver samples from 129 otters, collected across England and Wales from 1995-2006, were analysed for PBDEs, together with PCBs, DDT breakdown products, and hexachlorobenzene. Associations with geographical location and life history parameters were explored. Concentrations of PBDEs in otters (∑BDE 12-70000ngg(-1) lipid) paralleled those measured in marine mammals, with PBDE-47 the dominant congener and high levels of PBDE-99 and -100. Otter livers contained high concentrations of PBDE-153 and -209, typical of terrestrial top predators. Inter-individual variation in PBDE concentrations was high and correlated with geographical location. ∑PBDE was 25% of ∑PCB, and comparable with ∑DDT, identifying PBDEs as a major contaminant in otter populations in England and Wales. PMID:25014662

  10. Global assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in farmed and wild salmon.

    PubMed

    Hites, Ronald A; Foran, Jeffery A; Schwager, Steven J; Knuth, Barbara A; Hamilton, M Coreen; Carpenter, David O

    2004-10-01

    We have shown recently that levels of persistent, bioaccumulative contaminants (polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, and several chlorinated pesticides) are significantly higher in farmed than in wild salmon and that European farm-raised salmon have significantly greater toxic contaminant loads than those raised in North and South America. In this paper, we extend these results to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and show that farm-raised salmon have higher levels of these compounds than wild salmon. We also show that farm-raised salmon from Europe have higher PBDE levels than those raised in North America and that both European and North American farm-raised salmon have higher PBDE levels than those farm-raised in Chile. Among the species of wild salmon, chinook had significantly elevated PBDE levels relative to the other wild species. These elevated PBDE levels may be related to chinook's feeding behavior and trophic level. Among all of the wild species we studied, chinook tend to feed higher in the food web throughout their adult life and grow to be larger individuals.

  11. Anaerobic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls ethers (PBDEs), and microbial community dynamics of electronic waste-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Song, Mengke; Luo, Chunling; Li, Fangbai; Jiang, Longfei; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Dayi; Zhang, Gan

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination caused by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is attracting increasing attention worldwide because of the threats posed to ecosystems and human safety. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of e-waste-contaminated soils. We found that, in the presence of lactate as an electron donor, higher halogenated congeners were converted to lower congeners via anaerobic halorespiration using ferrous ions in contaminated soil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of terminal restriction fragments indicated that the three dominant strains were closely related to known dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and those able to perform dehalogenation upon respiration. The functional species performed the activities of ferrous oxidation to ferric ions and further ferrous reduction for dehalogenation. The present study links iron cycling to degradation of halogenated materials in natural e-waste-contaminated soil, and highlights the synergistic roles of soil bacteria and ferrous/ferric ion cycling in the dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs).

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Rahman, F; Langford, K H; Scrimshaw, M D; Lester, J N

    2001-07-25

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether, PBDE, flame retardants are now a world-wide pollution problem reaching even remote areas. They have been found to bioaccumulate and there are concerns over the health effects of exposure to PBDEs, they also have potential endocrine disrupting properties. They are lipophilic compounds so are easily removed from the aqueous environment and are predicted to sorb onto sediments and particulate matter or to fatty tissue, aiding their distribution throughout the environment. PBDEs are structurally similar to PCBs and DDT and, therefore, their chemical properties, persistence and distribution in the environment follow similar patterns. Concentrations of PBDEs found in environmental samples are now higher than those of PCBs. Evidence to date demonstrates that PBDEs are a growing problem in the environment and concern over their fate and effects is warranted. The manufacture of reactive and additive flame retardants is briefly discussed and their fate and behaviour in the environment is assessed. PBDE toxicology is reviewed and methods of analysis are evaluated.

  13. Photochemical formation of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins from environmentally abundant hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Arnoldsson, Kristina; Andersson, Patrik L; Haglund, Peter

    2012-07-17

    High levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) have been found in Baltic Sea biota, where the toxic load owing to, for example, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and other organic pollutants is already high. The levels and geographic pattern of PBDDs suggest biogenic rather than anthropogenic origin, and both biotic and abiotic formation pathways have been proposed. Photochemical formation from hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDE) is a proposed pathway for PBDDs in marine environments. Ultraviolet radiation-initiated transformations of OH-BDEs 47, 68, 85, 90, 99, and 123, which all are abundant in the environment, were investigated. It was shown that the most abundant PBDDs in the environment (1,3,7-triBDD and 1,3,8-triBDD) can be formed from the most abundant OH-BDEs (OH-BDE 47 and OH-BDE 68) at high rates and with percentage yields. In fact, most of the PBDDs that have been identified in the Baltic Sea environment were formed with high yield from the six studied OH-PBDE, through initial cyclization and subsequent debromination reactions. The high formation yields point to this route as an important source of PBDDs in biota. However, congeners showing relatively high retention in fish, specifically 1,3,6,8- and 1,3,7,9-tetraBDD, were not formed. These are likely formed by enzymatic coupling of brominated phenols.

  14. Environment Partitioning and Reactivity of Polybrominated Diphenylethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Inez; Iraci, Laura T.; Jafvert, Chad; Bezares-Cruz, Juan

    2004-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are an important class of flame retardants. Annual global demand for these compounds was over 67,000 metric tons in 2001. PBDEs have recently been extensively investigated as environmental contaminants because they have been detected in air, sediment, and tissue samples from urban and remote areas. Important issues include quantifying PBDE partitioning in various environmental compartments, and elucidating transformation pathways. The partitioning of PBDE congeners to aerosols was estimated for 16 sites in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. The aerosol particles were PM2.5, the total suspended particle (TSP) concentration varied between 3.0 - 55.4 micro g/cubic meter, and the organic fraction ranged from 11 - 41%; these data are published values for each site. It is estimated that the largest fraction of each PBDE associated with the aerosol particles occurs in Mexico City, and the smallest fraction in Colorado Plateau. Although the organic fraction in Mexico City is about 60% of that observed in the Colorado Plateau, the TSP is larger by a factor of about 18.5, and it is the difference in TSP that strongly influences the fraction of particle-bound PBDE in this case. PBDE partitioning to PM2.5 particles also varies seasonally because of temperature variations. For the less brominated congeners the percentage that is particle-bound is relatively low, regardless of air temperature. In contrast, the heavier congeners exhibit a significant temperature dependence: as the temperature decreases (fall, winter) the percentage of PBDE that is particle-bound increases. The partitioning calculations complement experimental data indicating that decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDE) dissolved in hexane transforms very rapidly when irradiated with solar light. DBDE is the most highly brominated PBDE congener (10 bromine atoms) and occurs in the commercial formulation which is subject to the largest global demand.

  15. Inhibition of human placental aromatase activity by hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs)

    SciTech Connect

    Canton, Rocio F. Scholten, Deborah E.A.; Marsh, Goeran; Jong, Paul C. de; Berg, Martin van den

    2008-02-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants in many different polymers, resins and substrates. Due to their widespread production and use, their high binding affinity to particles, and their lipophilic properties, several PBDE congeners can bioaccumulate in the environment. As a result, PBDEs and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PBDEs) have been detected in humans and various wildlife samples, such as birds, seals, and whales. Furthermore, certain OH-PBDEs and their methoxylated derivatives (MeO-PBDEs) are natural products in the marine environment. Recently, our laboratory focused on the possible effects on steroidogenesis of PBDEs and OH-PBDEs, e.g. in the human adrenocortical carcinoma (H295R) cell line indicating that some OH-PBDEs can significantly influence steroidogenic enzymes like CYP19 (aromatase) and CYP17. In the present study, human placental microsomes have been used to study the possible interaction of twenty two OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs with aromatase, the enzyme that mediates the conversion of androgens into estrogens. All OH-PBDE derivates showed significant inhibition of placental aromatase activity with IC{sub 50} values in the low micromolar range, while the MeO-PBDEs did not have any effect on this enzyme activity. Enzyme kinetics studies indicated that two OH-PBDEs, 5-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (5-OH-BDE47) and 6-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE47), had a mixed-type inhibition of aromatase activity with apparent K{sub i}/K{sub i}' of 7.68/0,02 {mu}M and 5.01/0.04 {mu}M respectively. For comparison, some structurally related compounds, a dihydroxylated polybrominated biphenyl, which is a natural product (2,2'-dihyroxy-3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobiphenyl (2,2'-diOH-BB80)) and its non-bromo derivative were also included in the study. Again inhibition of aromatase activity could be measured, but their potency was significantly less than those observed for the OH-PBDEs. These results show

  16. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS (PBDES) IN AMERICAN MOTHERS' MILK

    EPA Science Inventory

    No previous reports exist on polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in individual American mothers' milk. This report on PBDEs is an extension of our previous studies on concentrations of dioxins, dibenzofurans, PCBs, and other chlorinated organics in human milk in a num...

  17. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Dryer Lint: An Advanced Analysis Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robert Q.

    2008-01-01

    An advanced analytical chemistry laboratory experiment is described that involves environmental analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Students analyze lint from clothes dryers for traces of flame retardant chemicals, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), compounds receiving much attention recently. In a typical experiment, ng/g…

  18. 40 CFR 721.10000 - Certain polybrominated diphenylethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... combination of these substances resulting from a chemical reaction are subject to reporting under this section...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10000 Certain polybrominated diphenylethers. (a) Chemical substances...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10000 - Certain polybrominated diphenylethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... combination of these substances resulting from a chemical reaction are subject to reporting under this section...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10000 Certain polybrominated diphenylethers. (a) Chemical substances...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10000 - Certain polybrominated diphenylethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... combination of these substances resulting from a chemical reaction are subject to reporting under this section...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10000 Certain polybrominated diphenylethers. (a) Chemical substances...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10000 - Certain polybrominated diphenylethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... combination of these substances resulting from a chemical reaction are subject to reporting under this section...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10000 Certain polybrominated diphenylethers. (a) Chemical substances...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10000 - Certain polybrominated diphenylethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... combination of these substances resulting from a chemical reaction are subject to reporting under this section...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10000 Certain polybrominated diphenylethers. (a) Chemical substances...

  3. Dioxygenation of the Biphenyl Dioxygenation Product

    PubMed Central

    Overwin, Heike; González, Myriam; Méndez, Valentina; Seeger, Michael; Wray, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Two biphenyl dioxygenases (BphAs) were shown to catalyze dioxygenation of biphenyldienediol in the nonoxidized ring to form the respective symmetrical biphenyl-bis-dienediol. This novel metabolite served as a growth substrate for both BphA source strains. Its catabolism through the upper bph pathway of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 was analyzed. PMID:22504819

  4. Persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in firefighters from Northern California.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Susan D; Berger, Michelle L; Harris, Jennifer H; Yun, Se Hun; Wu, Qian; Liao, Chunyang; Blum, Arlene; Stefani, Anthony; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-06-01

    Polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and PBDD/Fs) were measured in serum of twelve firefighters sampled after a fire event in San Francisco, California, along with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), bisphenol-A (BPA) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA). TEQPCDD/F concentrations were relatively low (mean 5pgg(-1) (lipid weight), lw, range 1-11pgg(-1)lw), but concentrations of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, a congener indicative of exposure during firefighting, were elevated. Tentative WHO2005-TEQs calculated for PBDD/Fs in our samples (mean 104pgg(-1)lw, range 0.2-734pgg(-1)lw) suggested that PBDD/Fs may contribute substantially to dioxin-like toxicity in individual firefighters. PBDE concentrations were elevated in firefighter serum (mean 135ngg(-1)lw, range 48-442ngg(-1)lw). PBDE-209, PBDE-47 and PBDE-153 were prevalent congeners; PBDE-209 contributed >50% of the total PBDE concentration in four individuals, implying continuous occupational exposure to deca-BDE. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFC in serum (mean 12ngml(-1) (wet weight), ww, range 3ngml(-1)ww to 59ngml(-1)ww), followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (mean 7ngml(-1)ww, range 2ngml(-1)ww to 12ngml(-1)ww). Concentrations of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (mean 2ngml(-1)ww, range 1-4ngml(-1)ww) were higher than those reported in the high-smoke exposure group of World Trade Center fire responders, suggesting that the California firefighters were exposed to PFNA in smoke during firefighting. Given their elevated rates of cancers, these results illustrate the importance of monitoring halogenated contaminants including PBDD/Fs in firefighters.

  5. Use of fluorinated polybrominated diphenyl ethers and simplified cleanup for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in house dust

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple, cost-effective method is described for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in house dust using pressurized fluid extraction, cleanup with modified silica solid phase extraction tubes, and fluorinated internal standards. There are 14 PBDE congeners inc...

  6. Bacterial metabolism of hydroxylated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Higson, F K; Focht, D D

    1989-01-01

    Isolates able to grow on 3- or 4-hydroxybiphenyl (HB) as the sole carbon source were obtained by enrichment culture. The 3-HB degrader Pseudomonas sp. strain FH12 used an NADPH-dependent monooxygenase restricted to 3- and 3,3'-HBs to introduce an ortho-hydroxyl. The 4-HB degrader Pseudomonas sp. strain FH23 used either a mono- or dioxygenase to generate a 2,3-diphenolic substitution pattern which allowed meta-fission of the aromatic ring. By using 3-chlorocatechol to inhibit catechol dioxygenase activity, it was found that 2- and 3-HBs were converted by FH23 to 2,3-HB, whereas biphenyl and 4-HB were attacked by dioxygenation. 4-HB was metabolized to 2,3,4'-trihydroxybiphenyl. Neither organism attacked chlorinated HBs. The degradation of 3- and 4-HBs by these strains is therefore analogous to the metabolism of biphenyl, 2-HB, and naphthalene in the requirement for 2,3-catechol formation. PMID:2729993

  7. Phytoalexins of the Pyrinae: Biphenyls and dibenzofurans

    PubMed Central

    Chizzali, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    Summary Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are the phytoalexins of the Pyrinae, a subtribe of the plant family Rosaceae. The Pyrinae correspond to the long-recognized Maloideae. Economically valuable species of the Pyrinae are apples and pears. Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are formed de novo in response to infection by bacterial and fungal pathogens. The inducible defense compounds were also produced in cell suspension cultures after treatment with biotic and abiotic elicitors. The antimicrobial activity of the phytoalexins was demonstrated. To date, 10 biphenyls and 17 dibenzofurans were isolated from 14 of the 30 Pyrinae genera. The most widely distributed compounds are the biphenyl aucuparin and the dibenzofuran γ-cotonefuran. The biosynthesis of the two classes of defense compounds is not well understood, despite the importance of the fruit crops. More recent studies have revealed simultaneous accumulation of biphenyls and dibenzofurans, suggesting sequential, rather than the previously proposed parallel, biosynthetic pathways. Elicitor-treated cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia served as a model system for studying phytoalexin metabolism. The key enzyme that forms the carbon skeleton is biphenyl synthase. The starter substrate for this type-III polyketide synthase is benzoyl-CoA. In apples, biphenyl synthase is encoded by a gene family, members of which are differentially regulated. Metabolism of the phytoalexins may provide new tools for designing disease control strategies for fruit trees of the Pyrinae subtribe. PMID:22563359

  8. Sublethal responses of avian embryos exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; McKernan, M.A.; Ottinger, M.

    2007-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers PBDEs) have been detected in bird eggs worldwide, and despite increasing concentrations over the past 25 years, toxicological thresholds have yet to be established. We previously reported embryonic survival, and pipping and hatching success in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and American kestrel (Falco sparverius) embryos receiving 0.01-20 :g PBDE/g egg. Survival, pipping and hatching success were decreased in kestrels, suggesting that they are more sensitive to PBDEs than chickens and mallards. Adverse effects were detected in kestrels at levels (> 1 :g/g egg) believed to approach environmentally relevant PBDE concentrations. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener 126 (PCB 126) was used as a positive control (1000 pg/g egg) in this study, and survival endpoints in chicken and kestrel were decreased at this dose. Some PBDE and PCB congeners are structurally similar to thyroid hormones and have been demonstrated to affect thyroid homeostasis in laboratory rodents. In the present study, thyroid glands collected from day old hatchling chickens, mallards, and kestrels and were analyzed for thryoxine (T4) using a solid phase radioimmunoassay (DPC, Inc.) specifically validated for each of these species. Results indicated that thyroid gland T4 stores (total gland content and T4 /mg thyroid) in these species were relatively consistent and not significantly affected by PBDE exposure. In contrast, glandular T4 stores were significantly lower (P < 0.01) in PCB 126 treated kestrels. Decreases in circulating T4 levels in response to contaminants (e.g., PCBs, ammonium perchlorate) may lead to greater release of glandular T4 to maintain a euthyroid state, which could decrease thyroidal T4 stores. While PBDEs have been suggested to influence circulating T4 in kestrel fledglings (Fernie et al., 2005), it appears that glandular T4 was not affected in chicken, mallard or kestrel hatchlings exposed in ovo. Histopathological changes in

  9. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) and Hexabromocyclodecane (HBCD) in Composite U.S. Food Samples

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, Arnold; Haffner, Darrah; Colacino, Justin; Patel, Keyur; Päpke, Olaf; Opel, Matthias; Birnbaum, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to update previous U.S. market basket surveys of levels and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) dietary intake calculations. This study also quantifies hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) levels in U.S.-purchased foods for the first time and estimates U.S. dietary intake of HBCD. This is part of a larger market basket study reported in two companion articles, of current levels of certain persistent organic pollutants (POPs) PBDEs, HBCD, perfluorinated compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides in composite food samples collected in 2008–2009. Methods In this study, we measured concentrations of 24 PBDE congeners and total HBCD in composite samples of 31 food types (310 samples). U.S. dietary intake of PBDEs and HBCD was estimated referencing the most current U.S. Department of Agriculture loss-adjusted food availability report. Results Total PBDE concentrations in food varied by food type, ranging from 12 pg/g wet weight (ww) in whole milk to 1,545 pg/g ww in canned sardines and 6,211 pg/g ww in butter. Total HBCD concentrations also varied substantially within and among food groups, ranging from 23 pg/g in canned beef chili to 593 pg/g in canned sardines. HBCD was not detected in any dairy samples. Dietary intake of all PBDE congeners measured was estimated to be 50 ng/day, mostly from dairy consumption but also from meat and fish. HBCD intake was estimated at 16 ng/day, primarily from meat consumption. Conclusion PBDEs and HBCDs currently contaminate some food purchased in the United States, although PBDE intake estimated in this study is lower than reported in our previous market basket surveys. HBCD is in food at higher levels than expected based on previously reported levels in milk and blood compared with PBDE levels and is comparable to European levels. PMID:20064778

  10. Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in 10 Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Forde, Martin S; Dewailly, Eric; Robertson, Lyndon; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Dumas, Pierre; Ayotte, Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Prenatal exposures to legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like compounds (DLC), as well as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), were analyzed in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries. A total of 438 samples were collected and descriptive statistics calculated and compared to comparable Canadian Health Measure Survey (CHMS) and U.S. National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets. Maternal POPs blood concentrations were found to be generally relatively low in the Caribbean samples compared with the U.S. and Canada datasets. Evidence of exposure to DLC and PBDE was established. DLC levels ranged from a geometric mean low of 3.96 pg/g lipids in Antigua and Barbuda to a high of 11.4 pg/g lipids in St. Lucia. Several of the PBDEs (15, 17, 25, 28, 33, 100) were detected in less than 60% of the country' samples. For PBDE-47, significantly higher levels were found in Bermuda, while Jamaica recorded a significantly low level. The overall calculated concentration of PBDE-47 for the Caribbean (5.33 μg/kg lipids) was significantly lower than the concentrations measured for the U.S. (10.83 μg/kg lipids) and Canada (23.90 μg/kg lipids). This study confirms that prenatal expose to multiple environmental chemicals is taking place in the Caribbean and highlights the need to implement surveillance programs that continuously monitor, intervene, and evaluate the levels of these toxic environmental contaminants to ensure that they are reduced as much as possible and that the health risk to humans, in particular the unborn child, are minimized.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls in honey bees

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, R.A.; Culliney, T.W.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) may traverse a radius of several miles from their hives and contact innumerable surfaces during their collection of nectar, pollen, propolis and water. In the process, they may become contaminated with surface constituents which are indicative of the type of environmental pollution in their particular foraging area. Honey has also been analyzed as a possible indicator of heavy metal pollution. Insecticides used in the vicinity of bee hives have been found in bees and honey. It has been recently reported that appreciable concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found in honey bees sampled throughout Connecticut. In the work reported here, an analytical survey was conducted on PCBs in honey bees, honey, propolis and related samples in several states to learn the extent of contamination and possible sources.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated biphenyl ethers in adipose tissue and matched serum from an E-waste recycling area (Wenling, China).

    PubMed

    Lv, Quan-Xia; Wang, Wenyue; Li, Xing-Hong; Yu, Lianlian; Zhang, Yun; Tian, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    To Date, the knowledge on relationship between PCBs/PBDEs exposure and thyroid hormones (THs) levels during pregnancy still needs to be extended. Meanwhile, studies on congener-specific adipose-serum ratios for PCBs/PBDEs were limited. This study reports the levels of PCBs/PBDEs in serum-adipose tissue samples (n = 64) from expectant women living surrounding e-waste recycling sites in Wenling, China. Their concentrations varied from several to hundreds of ng g(-1) lipid. Maternal exposure to PCBs was associated with lower TSH during pregnancy, suggesting possible implication for maternal health and fetal development. The compound levels between the adipose tissue and matched serum samples were highly correlated (p < 0.001), generating a predicted adipose-serum partitioning relationship for individual PCB congener and PBDE congener. Molecular characteristics, such as Kow value, molecular weight and molecular volume, may play a key role in the variable partitioning of some compounds between serum and adipose tissue.

  13. Biosynthesis of polybrominated aromatic organic compounds by marine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Vinayak; El Gamal, Abrahim A; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Poth, Dennis; Kersten, Roland D; Schorn, Michelle; Allen, Eric E; Moore, Bradley S

    2014-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated bipyrroles are natural products that bioaccumulate in the marine food chain. PBDEs have attracted widespread attention because of their persistence in the environment and potential toxicity to humans. However, the natural origins of PBDE biosynthesis are not known. Here we report marine bacteria as producers of PBDEs and establish a genetic and molecular foundation for their production that unifies paradigms for the elaboration of bromophenols and bromopyrroles abundant in marine biota. We provide biochemical evidence of marine brominases revealing decarboxylative-halogenation enzymology previously unknown among halogenating enzymes. Biosynthetic motifs discovered in our study were used to mine sequence databases to discover unrealized marine bacterial producers of organobromine compounds.

  14. Enzymatic Synthesis of Polybrominated Dioxins from the Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins are arguably among the most toxic molecules known to man. In addition to anthropogenic sources, marine invertebrates also harbor polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins of as yet unknown biogenic origin. Here, we report that the bmp gene locus in marine bacteria, a recently characterized source of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, can also synthesize dibenzo-p-dioxins by employing different phenolic initiator molecules. Our findings also diversify the structural classes of diphenyl ethers accessed by the bmp biosynthetic pathway. This report lays the biochemical foundation of a likely biogenetic origin of dibenzo-p-dioxins present in the marine metabolome and greatly expands the toxicity potential of marine derived polyhaloganated natural products. PMID:25061970

  15. Biosynthesis of polybrominated aromatic organic compounds by marine bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Vinayak; El Gamal, Abrahim A.; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Poth, Dennis; Kersten, Roland D.; Schorn, Michelle; Allen, Eric E.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated bipyrroles are natural products that bioaccumulate in the marine food chain. PBDEs have attracted widespread attention due to their persistence in the environment and potential toxicity to humans. However, the natural origins of PBDE biosynthesis are not known. Here we report marine bacteria as producers of PBDEs and establish a genetic and molecular foundation for their production that unifies paradigms for the elaboration of bromophenols and bromopyrroles abundant in marine biota. We provide biochemical evidence of marine brominase enzymes revealing decarboxylative-halogenation enzymology previously unknown among halogenating enzymes. Biosynthetic motifs discovered in our study were used to mine sequence databases to discover unrealized marine bacterial producers of organobromine compounds. PMID:24974229

  16. Brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in bird eggs from the Yellow River Delta, North China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fan; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Zhi-Feng; Wang, Xin-Ming; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2009-09-15

    Concentrations of several persistent organohalogen compounds such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), and polybrominated biphenyl 153 (PBB 153) were measured in eggs of six species of wild aquatic birds, one species of wild terrestrial bird, and two species of captive birds from North China. Among the contaminants measured, DDTs were the dominant compounds, HCHs and PCBs were in nearly the same concentration range, and PBDEs exhibited lower concentrations than other compound groups. The median concentrations of DDTs, HCHs, PCBs, and PBDEs in all avian species ranged from 21 to 11034, 5.5 to 623, 1.0 to 613, and 4.6 to 146 ng/g lipid wt, respectively. Median concentrations of DBDPE and PBB 153 in all avian species were in the range of not detectable (ND)-1.7 and ND-0.7 ng/g lipid wt, respectively. Significant differences among species in contaminant profiles and contaminant levels were found depending on their feeding habits, habitat, and migration. The captive birds had the lowest contaminant levels and entirely different congener profiles in PCBs and PBDEs from those of wild birds, which can be attributed to differences in dietary compositions and reproduction rates. Octa- to deca-BDEs contributed more to the total PBDEs in wild terrestrial and captive birds than in wild aquatic birds, except for one insectivorous species, possibly due to greater exposure to terrestrial food sources. Preliminary risk assessment suggests that there is no risk of a reduction in offspring survival in avian species from North China due to organohalogen compounds, except for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), which would be expected to affect some proportion of the populations of several species of birds studied.

  17. Brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in bird eggs from the Yellow River Delta, North China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fan; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Zhi-Feng; Wang, Xin-Ming; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2009-09-15

    Concentrations of several persistent organohalogen compounds such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), and polybrominated biphenyl 153 (PBB 153) were measured in eggs of six species of wild aquatic birds, one species of wild terrestrial bird, and two species of captive birds from North China. Among the contaminants measured, DDTs were the dominant compounds, HCHs and PCBs were in nearly the same concentration range, and PBDEs exhibited lower concentrations than other compound groups. The median concentrations of DDTs, HCHs, PCBs, and PBDEs in all avian species ranged from 21 to 11034, 5.5 to 623, 1.0 to 613, and 4.6 to 146 ng/g lipid wt, respectively. Median concentrations of DBDPE and PBB 153 in all avian species were in the range of not detectable (ND)-1.7 and ND-0.7 ng/g lipid wt, respectively. Significant differences among species in contaminant profiles and contaminant levels were found depending on their feeding habits, habitat, and migration. The captive birds had the lowest contaminant levels and entirely different congener profiles in PCBs and PBDEs from those of wild birds, which can be attributed to differences in dietary compositions and reproduction rates. Octa- to deca-BDEs contributed more to the total PBDEs in wild terrestrial and captive birds than in wild aquatic birds, except for one insectivorous species, possibly due to greater exposure to terrestrial food sources. Preliminary risk assessment suggests that there is no risk of a reduction in offspring survival in avian species from North China due to organohalogen compounds, except for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), which would be expected to affect some proportion of the populations of several species of birds studied. PMID:19806727

  18. Perfluorinated Compounds, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticide Contamination in Composite Food Samples from Dallas, Texas, USA

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, Arnold; Colacino, Justin; Haffner, Darrah; Patel, Keyur; Opel, Matthias; Päpke, Olaf; Birnbaum, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this article is to extend our previous studies of persistent organic pollutant (POP) contamination of U.S. food by measuring perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in composite food samples. This study is part of a larger study reported in two articles, the other of which reports levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane brominated flame retardants in these composite foods [Schecter et al. 2010. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclodecane (HBCD) in composite U.S. food samples, Environ Health Perspect 118:357–362]. Methods In this study we measured concentrations of 32 organochlorine pesticides, 7 PCBs, and 11 PFCs in composite samples of 31 different types of food (310 individual food samples) purchased from supermarkets in Dallas, Texas (USA), in 2009. Dietary intake of these chemicals was calculated for an average American. Results Contamination varied greatly among chemical and food types. The highest level of pesticide contamination was from the dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolite p,p′- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, which ranged from 0.028 ng/g wet weight (ww) in whole milk yogurt to 2.3 ng/g ww in catfish fillets. We found PCB congeners (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) primarily in fish, with highest levels in salmon (PCB-153, 1.2 ng/g ww; PCB-138, 0.93 ng/g ww). For PFCs, we detected perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in 17 of 31 samples, ranging from 0.07 ng/g in potatoes to 1.80 ng/g in olive oil. In terms of dietary intake, DDT and DDT metabolites, endosulfans, aldrin, PCBs, and PFOA were consumed at the highest levels. Conclusion Despite product bans, we found POPs in U.S. food, and mixtures of these chemicals are consumed by the American public at varying levels. This suggests the need to expand testing of food for chemical contaminants. PMID:20146964

  19. Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the aquatic and terrestrial environment around a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Thanh; Yu, Junchao; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua

    2016-08-01

    The distribution and fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in a riparian ecosystem nearby a wastewater treatment plant effluent were investigated. Different aqueous and terrestrial samples such as soil, sediment, plants, and invertebrates were collected and analyzed for tri- to heptabrominated PBDEs. Furthermore, the food web structure was elucidated using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. The highest PBDE levels were found for sediment- and soil-dwelling invertebrates, such as earthworms (Σ13 PBDEs 144 ng/g lipid weight), Tubifex tubifex (77 ng/g lw), and scarab larvae (49 ng/g lw). Differences in congener composition profiles among the different matrices show that the environmental distribution and fate of PBDEs in ecosystems can be very complex. Among the analyzed PBDEs in this ecosystem, the tetra-brominated BDE-47 was the dominant PBDE congener and followed by the penta-brominated BDE-99. A potential trend of increasing BDE-47/99 ratio with the increase of δ(15)N was observed for species with similar energy sources (δ(13)C), indicating a higher bioaccumulation potential for BDE-47 in this ecosystem. A significant correlation was also found between PBDEs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), indicating similar sources and fate between the two compound groups in this area. The biota-soil or biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were somewhat different among the PBDE congeners and species, but were generally highest for those with log Kow values around 6.5-7.

  20. Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the aquatic and terrestrial environment around a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Thanh; Yu, Junchao; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua

    2016-08-01

    The distribution and fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in a riparian ecosystem nearby a wastewater treatment plant effluent were investigated. Different aqueous and terrestrial samples such as soil, sediment, plants, and invertebrates were collected and analyzed for tri- to heptabrominated PBDEs. Furthermore, the food web structure was elucidated using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. The highest PBDE levels were found for sediment- and soil-dwelling invertebrates, such as earthworms (Σ13 PBDEs 144 ng/g lipid weight), Tubifex tubifex (77 ng/g lw), and scarab larvae (49 ng/g lw). Differences in congener composition profiles among the different matrices show that the environmental distribution and fate of PBDEs in ecosystems can be very complex. Among the analyzed PBDEs in this ecosystem, the tetra-brominated BDE-47 was the dominant PBDE congener and followed by the penta-brominated BDE-99. A potential trend of increasing BDE-47/99 ratio with the increase of δ(15)N was observed for species with similar energy sources (δ(13)C), indicating a higher bioaccumulation potential for BDE-47 in this ecosystem. A significant correlation was also found between PBDEs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), indicating similar sources and fate between the two compound groups in this area. The biota-soil or biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were somewhat different among the PBDE congeners and species, but were generally highest for those with log Kow values around 6.5-7. PMID:27164882

  1. A study on the levels of a polybrominated biphenyl in Chinese human milk samples collected in 2007 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Wen, Sheng; Li, Jingguang; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2016-09-01

    The levels of a 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153) were measured in human milk samples collected in 2007 and 2011 from residents in China by high-resolution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass chromatography (HRGC-HRMS) with isotope dilution. The median concentrations of BB-153 from the samples collected in 2007 and 2011 were 8.3 and 7.2 pg/g lipid weight, respectively. The levels of BB-153 in the human milk collected from rural areas were not significantly different to those collected from the urban areas in China. Meanwhile, significant positive correlations were found between the levels of BB-153 in human milk and the consumption of animal-origin foods. In the present study, the mean levels of BB-153 in human milk from Chinese mothers were found to be lower than those from European and American mothers.

  2. A study on the levels of a polybrominated biphenyl in Chinese human milk samples collected in 2007 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Wen, Sheng; Li, Jingguang; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2016-09-01

    The levels of a 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153) were measured in human milk samples collected in 2007 and 2011 from residents in China by high-resolution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass chromatography (HRGC-HRMS) with isotope dilution. The median concentrations of BB-153 from the samples collected in 2007 and 2011 were 8.3 and 7.2 pg/g lipid weight, respectively. The levels of BB-153 in the human milk collected from rural areas were not significantly different to those collected from the urban areas in China. Meanwhile, significant positive correlations were found between the levels of BB-153 in human milk and the consumption of animal-origin foods. In the present study, the mean levels of BB-153 in human milk from Chinese mothers were found to be lower than those from European and American mothers. PMID:27521000

  3. An improved analysis for chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human and bovine sera using solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Brock, J W; Burse, V W; Ashley, D L; Najam, A R; Green, V E; Korver, M P; Powell, M K; Hodge, C C; Needham, L L

    1996-01-01

    Chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) remain public health concerns because of their unresolved health impact and their persistence in humans. Current epidemiological studies of cancer, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, and endocrine disruption in National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) laboratories require exposure assessment of many analytes in thousands of people. Previous methods of analyzing pesticides and PCBs in serum have proven inadequate for timely processing of the number of samples required for epidemiological studies. A new method that involves solid-phase extraction (SPE) and cleanup followed by dual-column gas chromatographic separation and electron capture detection has been developed. Nine surrogate compounds were added to the serum prior to sample workup to provide quality assurance for the SPE steps. These surrogates mimic the chemistry of the analytes in the extraction, cleanup, and gas chromatographic analysis steps. To increase selectivity, extracts were injected onto two gas chromatographs with different capillary columns, a DB-1701 and a DB-5. Recoveries of 17 pesticides, 28 PCB congeners, and one polybrominated biphenyl congener ranged from 40 to 80%. Recoveries from this procedure were found to be similar to those from the previously used liquid-liquid extraction method. Correlation of analyte and surrogate recoveries were compared to examine the ruggedness of the technique. The SPE method was found to provide improved sample throughput by a factor of 15.

  4. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers: Structure Determination and Trends in Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbing; Lohith, Katheryn; Rosario, Margaret; Pulliam, Thomas H; O'Connor, Robert D; Bell, Lori J; Bewley, Carole A

    2016-07-22

    Antibacterial-guided fractionation of the Dictyoceratid sponges Lamellodysidea sp. and two samples of Dysidea granulosa yielded 14 polybrominated, diphenyl ethers including one new methoxy-containing compound (8). Their structures were elucidated by interpretation of spectroscopic data of the natural product and their methoxy derivatives. Most of the compounds showed strong antimicrobial activity with low- to sub-microgram mL(-1) minimum inhibitory concentrations against drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium, and two compounds inhibited Escherichia coli in a structure-dependent manner. PMID:27399938

  5. Reactive Functionalized Membranes for Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation.

    PubMed

    Gui, Minghui; Ormsbee, Lindell E; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar

    2013-08-01

    Membranes have been widely used in water remediation (e.g. desalination and heavy metal removal) because of the ability to control membrane pore size and surface charge. The incorporation of nanomaterials into the membranes provides added benefits through increased reactivity with different functionality. In this study, we report the dechlorination of 2-chlorobiphenyl in the aqueous phase by a reactive membrane system. Fe/Pd bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized (in-situ) within polyacrylic acid (PAA) functionalized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes for degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Biphenyl formed in the reduction was further oxidized into hydroxylated biphenyls and benzoic acid by an iron-catalyzed hydroxyl radical (OH•) reaction. The formation of magnetite on Fe surface was observed. This combined pathway (reductive/oxidative) could reduce the toxicity of PCBs effectively while eliminating the formation of chlorinated degradation byproducts. The successful manufacturing of full-scale functionalized membranes demonstrates the possibility of applying reactive membranes in practical water treatment.

  6. Storage of serum in plastic and glass containers may alter the serum concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Karmaus, Wilfried; Riebow, John F

    2004-01-01

    Valid exposure assessment and biomonitoring of toxicants rely on standardized specimen collection, handling, storage, and measurement. In a study designed to determine organochlorine concentrations in blood samples, we recruited participants from registered anglers in Michigan. After participants were interviewed, blood was collected from study subjects, either at home by a phlebotomist or in a commercial blood-draw station. The phlebotomists stored their samples in glass containers, but without our knowledge, the commercial laboratory transferred the specimens to plastic containers for freezing in its central facility. Samples were analyzed in the Analytical Chemistry Section Laboratory of the Michigan Department of Community Health. This laboratory also provided information on storage in glass (n = 28) versus plastic containers (n = 113). We conducted linear regression analyses to assess factors that may explain the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). Our results indicate that storage of serum in plastic containers altered the total concentrations of PCBs, in particular, the higher chlorinated PCBs (PCB-180 and PCB-199), but not DDE or PBBs. No other characteristics of the samples could explain the higher PCB values (0.75 micro g/L vs. 0.45 micro g/L; p = 0.025) of those stored in plastic containers. The proportion of PCB detects in both subsamples did not differ. Some preceding studies have provided information on whether specimens were stored in glass or plastic containers; however, a number of studies have not. We suggest the initiation of a new review process to determine whether these earlier reports were based on unbiased PCB determinations. We recommend standardizing specimen collection, handling, storage, and measurement, which is particularly necessary for newly emerging analytes. PMID:15121504

  7. Storage of serum in plastic and glass containers may alter the serum concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Karmaus, Wilfried; Riebow, John F

    2004-05-01

    Valid exposure assessment and biomonitoring of toxicants rely on standardized specimen collection, handling, storage, and measurement. In a study designed to determine organochlorine concentrations in blood samples, we recruited participants from registered anglers in Michigan. After participants were interviewed, blood was collected from study subjects, either at home by a phlebotomist or in a commercial blood-draw station. The phlebotomists stored their samples in glass containers, but without our knowledge, the commercial laboratory transferred the specimens to plastic containers for freezing in its central facility. Samples were analyzed in the Analytical Chemistry Section Laboratory of the Michigan Department of Community Health. This laboratory also provided information on storage in glass (n = 28) versus plastic containers (n = 113). We conducted linear regression analyses to assess factors that may explain the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). Our results indicate that storage of serum in plastic containers altered the total concentrations of PCBs, in particular, the higher chlorinated PCBs (PCB-180 and PCB-199), but not DDE or PBBs. No other characteristics of the samples could explain the higher PCB values (0.75 micro g/L vs. 0.45 micro g/L; p = 0.025) of those stored in plastic containers. The proportion of PCB detects in both subsamples did not differ. Some preceding studies have provided information on whether specimens were stored in glass or plastic containers; however, a number of studies have not. We suggest the initiation of a new review process to determine whether these earlier reports were based on unbiased PCB determinations. We recommend standardizing specimen collection, handling, storage, and measurement, which is particularly necessary for newly emerging analytes.

  8. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  13. Interactions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Peters, A K; Nijmeijer, S; Gradin, K; Backlund, M; Bergman, A; Poellinger, L; Denison, M S; Van den Berg, M

    2006-07-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are brominated flame retardants that have been in use as additives in various consumer products. Structural similarities of PBDEs with other polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons that show affinity for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), such as some polychlorinated biphenyls, raised concerns about their possible dioxin-like properties. We studied the ability of environmentally relevant PBDEs (BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154, and -183) and the "planar" congener BDE-77 to bind and/or activate the AhR in stably transfected rodent hepatoma cell lines with an AhR-responsive enhanced green fluorescent protein (AhR-EGFP) reporter gene (H1G1.1c3 mouse and H4G1.1c2 rat hepatoma). 7-Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation (EROD) was used as a marker for CYP1A1 activity. Dose- and bromination-specific inhibition of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced responses was measured by their ability to inhibit the induction of AhR-EGFP expression and EROD activity. Individual exposure to these PBDEs did not result in any increase in induction of AhR-EGFP or CYP1A1 activity. The lower brominated PBDEs showed the strongest inhibitory effect on TCDD-induced activities in both cell lines. While the highest brominated PBDE tested, BDE-183, inhibited EROD activity, it did not affect the induction of AhR-EGFP expression. Similar findings were observed after exposing stably transfected human hepatoma (xenobiotic response element [XRE]-HepG2) cells to these PBDEs, resulting in a small but statically significant agonistic effect on XRE-driven luciferase activity. Co-exposure with TCDD resulted again in antagonistic effects, confirming that the inhibitory effect of these PBDEs on TCDD-induced responses was not only due to direct interaction at receptor level but also at DNA-binding level. This antagonism was confirmed for BDE-99 in HepG2 cells transiently transfected with a Gal4-AhR construct and the corresponding Gal4-Luc reporter gene. In addition, a

  14. Interactions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Peters, A K; Nijmeijer, S; Gradin, K; Backlund, M; Bergman, A; Poellinger, L; Denison, M S; Van den Berg, M

    2006-07-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are brominated flame retardants that have been in use as additives in various consumer products. Structural similarities of PBDEs with other polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons that show affinity for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), such as some polychlorinated biphenyls, raised concerns about their possible dioxin-like properties. We studied the ability of environmentally relevant PBDEs (BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154, and -183) and the "planar" congener BDE-77 to bind and/or activate the AhR in stably transfected rodent hepatoma cell lines with an AhR-responsive enhanced green fluorescent protein (AhR-EGFP) reporter gene (H1G1.1c3 mouse and H4G1.1c2 rat hepatoma). 7-Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation (EROD) was used as a marker for CYP1A1 activity. Dose- and bromination-specific inhibition of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced responses was measured by their ability to inhibit the induction of AhR-EGFP expression and EROD activity. Individual exposure to these PBDEs did not result in any increase in induction of AhR-EGFP or CYP1A1 activity. The lower brominated PBDEs showed the strongest inhibitory effect on TCDD-induced activities in both cell lines. While the highest brominated PBDE tested, BDE-183, inhibited EROD activity, it did not affect the induction of AhR-EGFP expression. Similar findings were observed after exposing stably transfected human hepatoma (xenobiotic response element [XRE]-HepG2) cells to these PBDEs, resulting in a small but statically significant agonistic effect on XRE-driven luciferase activity. Co-exposure with TCDD resulted again in antagonistic effects, confirming that the inhibitory effect of these PBDEs on TCDD-induced responses was not only due to direct interaction at receptor level but also at DNA-binding level. This antagonism was confirmed for BDE-99 in HepG2 cells transiently transfected with a Gal4-AhR construct and the corresponding Gal4-Luc reporter gene. In addition, a

  15. Construction of a bioluminescent reporter strain to detect polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, A.C.; Muccini, M.; Ghosh, M.M.; Sayler, G.S.

    1998-12-01

    A bioluminescent reporter strain, Ralstonia eutropha ENV307 (pUTK60), was constructed for the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls by inserting the biphenyl promoter upstream of the bioluminescence genes. In the presence of a nonionic surfactant, which enhances the solubility of chlorinated biphenyls, bioluminescence was induced three- to fourfold over background by biphenyl, monochlorinated biphenyls, and Aroclor 1242. The minimum detection limits for these compounds ranged from 0.15 mg/liter for 4-chlorobiphenyl to 1.5 mg/liter for Aroclor 1242.

  16. Aerobic biodegradation of biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyls by Arctic soil microorganisms.

    PubMed Central

    Mohn, W W; Westerberg, K; Cullen, W R; Reimer, K J

    1997-01-01

    We examined the degradation of biphenyl and the commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture Aroclor 1221 by indigenous Arctic soil microorganisms to assess both the response of the soil microflora to PCB pollution and the potential of the microflora for bioremediation. In soil slurries, Arctic soil microflora and temperate-soil microflora had similar potentials to mineralize [14C]biphenyl. Mineralization began sooner and was more extensive in slurries of PCB-contaminated Arctic soils than in slurries of uncontaminated Arctic soils. The maximum mineralization rates at 30 and 7 degrees C were typically 1.2 to 1.4 and 0.52 to 1.0 mg of biphenyl g of dry soil-1 day-1, respectively. Slurries of PCB-contaminated Arctic soils degraded Aroclor 1221 more extensively at 30 degrees C (71 to 76% removal) than at 7 degrees C (14 to 40% removal). We isolated from Arctic soils organisms that were capable of psychrotolerant (growing at 7 to 30 degrees C) or psychrophilic (growing at 7 to 15 degrees C) growth on biphenyl. Two psychrotolerant isolates extensively degraded Aroclor 1221 at 7 degrees C (54 to 60% removal). The soil microflora and psychrotolerant isolates degraded all mono-, most di-, and some trichlorobiphenyl congeners. The results suggest that PCB pollution selected for biphenyl-mineralizing microorganisms in Arctic soils. While low temperatures severely limited Aroclor 1221 removal in slurries of Arctic soils, results with pure cultures suggest that more effective PCB biodegradation is possible under appropriate conditions. PMID:9292988

  17. Chronic toxicity of biphenyl to Daphnia magna Straus

    SciTech Connect

    Gersich, F.M.; Bartlett, E.A.; Murphy, P.G.; Milazzo, D.P. )

    1989-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a final test rule (1985) for biphenyl on the authority of Section 4(a) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Contained within this rule was the requirement for generating chronic daphnid toxicity data for biphenyl. Biphenyl is used primarily to produce dye carriers, heat-transfer fluids and alkylated biphenyls. The acute toxicity of biphenyl to Daphnia magna has been reported. The 48-hr LC50 values were 4.7 and 2.1 mg/L, respectively. To date, the chronic toxicity of biphenyl to fish and aquatic invertebrates has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the chronic toxicity of biphenyl to D. magna. The daphnid chronic toxicity test is designed to estimate the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC). The MATC is defined as the concentration falling between the highest concentration showing no effect and the next higher concentration showing a toxic effect when compared to the controls.

  18. Occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153) in water samples from the Diep River, Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Daso, Adegbenro P; Fatoki, Olalekan S; Odendaal, James P

    2013-08-01

    Until recently, studies reporting the concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as well as polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are generally scarce in the literature. Consequently, this study was aimed to investigate the occurrence and concentrations of certain PBDE congeners (BDE 28, 47, 100, 99, 154, 153, 183 and 209) and BB 153 in river water samples collected bi-monthly from the Diep River. The routine analyses of the target compounds were performed using a high-capillary GC-microelectron capture detection, while their structural elucidation was assessed using GC-TOF-MS technique. The overall mean concentrations of the sum of the eight PBDE congeners were 2.60, 4.83 and 4.29 ng/L for the upstream, point of discharge and downstream sampling points, respectively. Similarly, the overall mean concentrations of BB 153 were 0.25, 4.85 and 1.56 ng/L for the upstream, point of discharge and downstream sampling points, respectively. BDE 47 was the dominant congener found in these samples contributing between 19 and 26 % to the total PBDEs across the sampling points. The statistical analyses performed on the results obtained showed that all the congeners, except BDE 209 in certain instances, had strong positive correlations with one another, thus suggesting that these contaminants could be emanating from the same source. In this study, potential sources of these pollutants other than WWTP discharges into the investigated river were also identified. However, the relatively high concentrations of the target compounds found at the point of discharge sampling point coupled with the large volume of treated effluent being discharged suggested that the contributions from this source could be very significant over time. PMID:23361180

  19. Levels of brominated flame retardants and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in eggs of white-tailed sea eagles breeding in different regions of Sweden.

    PubMed

    Nordlöf, Ulrika; Helander, Björn; Bignert, Anders; Asplund, Lillemor

    2010-12-01

    Forty-four unhatched eggs from white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), collected in four regions in Sweden in 1992-2005, were analysed for contents of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyl (PBB), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and naturally occurring methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs). Two freshwater areas-Lapland in the arctic zone (LAP) and inland lakes in central and southern Sweden (INL), and two brackish marine areas in the Baltic Sea-the south Bothnian Sea (SB) and the Baltic Proper (BP)-were chosen for comparison of the concentrations and congener distributions in white-tailed sea eagles with different diet and migratory patterns. The geometric mean (GM) concentrations (ng/g lipid weight (l.w.)) of ∑(5)PBDE (BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, and -154) were 720 (LAP), 1500 (INL), 4 100 (SB) and 4 300 (BP), whereas BDE-209 was not detectable in any of the samples. The GM concentrations for HBCD content in LAP, INL, SB and BP were 60, 90, 150 and 140ng/g l.w., respectively, whereas the corresponding values for BB-153 were 20, 30, 100 and 120ng/g l.w. In general, the eggs from all four regions demonstrated similar patterns of PBDE congeners, with concentrations in descending order of BDE-47, -100, -99, -153 and -154. The ∑(3)-MeO-BDEs (6-MeO-BDE47, 2'-MeO-BDE68, 5-Cl-6-MeO-BDE47) for these same regions (as above) were 80, 40, 340 and 240ng/g l.w., respectively. ∑(3)-MeO-BDEs for LAP and INL (freshwaters) were significantly different, whereas those for SB and BP were not. The presence of MeO-PBDEs in all of the inland samples indicates that there is an as-yet-unidentified source of these compounds in the freshwater ecosystem. Between the two more contaminated subpopulations from the Baltic Sea coast, SB showed significantly lower productivity than BP, but no correlation was found between productivity and PBDE, PBB and HBCD at the concentrations found in this study.

  20. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS DOES NOT ALTER SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND LTP IN HIPPOCAMPUS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PDE) flame retardants bioaccumulate in the environment, in wildlife, and in humans. Concern has been raised over potential thyrotoxic effects of this class of xenobiotics. Severe hypothyroidism during critical periods of brain development leads to...

  1. Investigation of Reagent Gases for the Positive Chemical Ionization of Select Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) fall into the class of compounds known as brominated flame retardants and their incorporation in a multitude of products is responsible for saving numerous lives. However, toxicology studies have alerted researchers to the potential adverse...

  2. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURES TO POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYLETHERS: DISRUPTION OF THYROID HORMONES, HEPATIC METABOLISM AND NEUROBEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), produced commercially as mixtures, are used as flame-retardants in numerous consumer products. Previous work has demonstrated that the DE-71 induces hypothyroxinemia in various animal models. In a series of studies, primiparous dams were...

  3. Developmental Exposure to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Mall, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) during sensitive developmental windows can interfere with cognitive function and behavior, which are critical components of neurodevelopment. The association between developmental exposure to PBDEs and neurodevelopment has been extensively studied using animal models. In this review, we focus on the accumulating evidence in humans. Despite methodological, geographical, and temporal differences between studies, the majority of the epidemiologic evidence supports that early life exposure to PBDEs measured during pregnancy and/or during childhood is detrimental to child neurodevelopment in domains related to child behavior, cognition, and motor skills. While the precise mechanism of action of PBDEs on neurodevelopment is unknown, PBDE-induced neurotoxicity via thyroid hormone disruption and direct action of PBDEs on the developing brain have been proposed and tested. Additional studies are suggested to better understand how early life and/or childhood PBDE exposures, including exposure to specific PBDE congeners, impact neurodevelopmental indices. PMID:25530937

  4. Assessing the long-range transport potential of polybrominated diphenyl ethers: a comparison of four multimedia models.

    PubMed

    Wania, Frank; Dugani, Chandrasagar B

    2003-06-01

    Data from a comprehensive literature search of environmentally relevant physical-chemical properties for nine polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), ranging from a monobrominated congener to the fully brominated decabromodiphenyl ether, were evaluated and adjusted to achieve both internal and interhomologue consistency. These data were then used in four model-based long-range transport potential (LRTP) assessment methods. The models TaPL3-2.10, ELPOS-1.1.1, Chemrange-2, and Globo-POP-1.1 were found to yield comparable predictions. A comparison of the LRTP estimates for the PBDEs with those of benchmark chemicals (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]) suggest that the lower-brominated congeners have a LRTP comparable to that of PCBs known to be subject to significant LRT, whereas the highly brominated congeners have a very low potential to reach remote areas. This is in agreement with field measurements in remote regions that indicate that the lighter components of commercially produced PBDE mixtures predominate. Deviations between Chemrange and the models based on the concept of a characteristic travel distance were due to differences in the assumed height of the air compartment, which influences the relative importance of atmospheric degradation and deposition processes. The three models assuming a uniform temperature of 25 degrees C may underestimate the LRTP of the smaller congeners. Only atmospheric parameters had a notable influence on the LRTP estimates by TaPL3, ELPOS, and Chemrange. whereas the relative enrichment of chemicals in the Arctic calculated by Globo-POP is additionally sensitive to the parameters related to the interaction of temperature with air-surface exchange and degradation in surface compartments. PMID:12785581

  5. Assessing the long-range transport potential of polybrominated diphenyl ethers: a comparison of four multimedia models.

    PubMed

    Wania, Frank; Dugani, Chandrasagar B

    2003-06-01

    Data from a comprehensive literature search of environmentally relevant physical-chemical properties for nine polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), ranging from a monobrominated congener to the fully brominated decabromodiphenyl ether, were evaluated and adjusted to achieve both internal and interhomologue consistency. These data were then used in four model-based long-range transport potential (LRTP) assessment methods. The models TaPL3-2.10, ELPOS-1.1.1, Chemrange-2, and Globo-POP-1.1 were found to yield comparable predictions. A comparison of the LRTP estimates for the PBDEs with those of benchmark chemicals (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]) suggest that the lower-brominated congeners have a LRTP comparable to that of PCBs known to be subject to significant LRT, whereas the highly brominated congeners have a very low potential to reach remote areas. This is in agreement with field measurements in remote regions that indicate that the lighter components of commercially produced PBDE mixtures predominate. Deviations between Chemrange and the models based on the concept of a characteristic travel distance were due to differences in the assumed height of the air compartment, which influences the relative importance of atmospheric degradation and deposition processes. The three models assuming a uniform temperature of 25 degrees C may underestimate the LRTP of the smaller congeners. Only atmospheric parameters had a notable influence on the LRTP estimates by TaPL3, ELPOS, and Chemrange. whereas the relative enrichment of chemicals in the Arctic calculated by Globo-POP is additionally sensitive to the parameters related to the interaction of temperature with air-surface exchange and degradation in surface compartments.

  6. A novel pollution pattern: Highly chlorinated biphenyls retained in Black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) and Whiskered tern (Chlidonias hybrida) from the Yangtze River Delta.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yihui; Yin, Ge; Asplund, Lillemor; Qiu, Yanling; Bignert, Anders; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu; Bergman, Åke

    2016-05-01

    Contamination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated diphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and their methylated counterparts (MeO-PBDEs) were determined in Black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) and Whiskered tern (Chlidonias hybrida) from two drinking water sources, e.g. Tianmu lake and East Tai lake in Yangtze River Delta, China. A novel PCBs contamination pattern was detected, including 11% and 6.9% highly chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs with eight to ten chlorines) in relation to total PCB concentrations in the Black-crowned night heron and Whiskered tern eggs, respectively. The predominating OCPs detected in the present study were 4,4'-DDE, with concentration range 280-650 ng g(-1) lw in Black-crowned night heron and 240-480 ng g(-1) lw in Whiskered tern, followed by β-HCH and Mirex. 6-MeO-BDE-90 and 6-MeO-BDE-99 are the two predominant congeners of MeO-PBDEs whereas 6-OH-BDE-47 contributes mostly to the OH-PBDEs in both species. Contamination level was considered as median or low level compared global data. PMID:26705146

  7. A novel pollution pattern: Highly chlorinated biphenyls retained in Black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) and Whiskered tern (Chlidonias hybrida) from the Yangtze River Delta.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yihui; Yin, Ge; Asplund, Lillemor; Qiu, Yanling; Bignert, Anders; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu; Bergman, Åke

    2016-05-01

    Contamination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated diphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and their methylated counterparts (MeO-PBDEs) were determined in Black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) and Whiskered tern (Chlidonias hybrida) from two drinking water sources, e.g. Tianmu lake and East Tai lake in Yangtze River Delta, China. A novel PCBs contamination pattern was detected, including 11% and 6.9% highly chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs with eight to ten chlorines) in relation to total PCB concentrations in the Black-crowned night heron and Whiskered tern eggs, respectively. The predominating OCPs detected in the present study were 4,4'-DDE, with concentration range 280-650 ng g(-1) lw in Black-crowned night heron and 240-480 ng g(-1) lw in Whiskered tern, followed by β-HCH and Mirex. 6-MeO-BDE-90 and 6-MeO-BDE-99 are the two predominant congeners of MeO-PBDEs whereas 6-OH-BDE-47 contributes mostly to the OH-PBDEs in both species. Contamination level was considered as median or low level compared global data.

  8. Reactive Functionalized Membranes for Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Minghui; Ormsbee, Lindell E.; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar

    2014-01-01

    Membranes have been widely used in water remediation (e.g. desalination and heavy metal removal) because of the ability to control membrane pore size and surface charge. The incorporation of nanomaterials into the membranes provides added benefits through increased reactivity with different functionality. In this study, we report the dechlorination of 2-chlorobiphenyl in the aqueous phase by a reactive membrane system. Fe/Pd bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized (in-situ) within polyacrylic acid (PAA) functionalized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes for degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Biphenyl formed in the reduction was further oxidized into hydroxylated biphenyls and benzoic acid by an iron-catalyzed hydroxyl radical (OH•) reaction. The formation of magnetite on Fe surface was observed. This combined pathway (reductive/oxidative) could reduce the toxicity of PCBs effectively while eliminating the formation of chlorinated degradation byproducts. The successful manufacturing of full-scale functionalized membranes demonstrates the possibility of applying reactive membranes in practical water treatment. PMID:24954974

  9. Time trends (1983-1999) for organochlorines and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) from Lakes Michigan, Huron and Superior, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chernyak, Sergei M.; Rice, Clifford P.; Quintal, Richard T.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Hickey, James P.; Vinyard, Bryan T.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Service Great Lakes Science Center has archived rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) collected from the early 1980s to the present. These fish were collected to provide time- and site-dependent contaminant residue data needed by researchers and managers to fill critical data gaps regarding trends and behavior of persistent organic contaminants in the Great Lakes ecosystem. In the present study, data are presented for concentrations of several organochlorine (OC) contaminants in the archived smelt, including DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), toxaphene, and chlordanes in Lakes Michigan and Huron (MI, USA) and in Lake Superior (MN, USA). The trends for all the OCs were declining as a first-order decay over the sampled time series (1983/1985–1993/1999) with the exception of toxaphene in Lake Superior and PCBs at the Charlevoix/Little Traverse Bay site in Lake Michigan. Concentration of the emerging contaminant, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), also was traced from its apparent entry into this ecosystem in approximately 1980 until 1999. Time trends for the PBDEs were increasing exponentially at all sites, with concentration-doubling times varying from 1.58 to 2.94 years.

  10. Polychlorinated camphenes (toxaphenes), polybrominated diphenylethers and other halogenated organic pollutants in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) from Svalbard and Bjørnøya (Bear Island).

    PubMed

    Herzke, Dorte; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Evenset, Anita; Burkow, Ivan C

    2003-01-01

    The levels of polychlorinated camphenes (toxaphenes) were investigated in liver samples from 18 glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from Bjørnøya (74 degrees N, 19 degrees E) and four individuals from Longyearbyen (78 degrees N, 15 degrees E). Additionally brominated flame retardants (BFRs), PCBs and chlorinated pesticides were investigated in liver and intestinal contents of 15 of the glaucous gulls from Bjørnøya. Of the analysed BFRs only 2,2',4,4'-tetra- and 2,2',4,4',5-pentabrominated diphenylethers (PBDE 47 and 99) could be detected. The concentrations ranged between 2 and 25 ng/g ww. In addition, high resolution measurements with GC/HRMS revealed the existence of several, not quantified, PBDEs and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) congeners in the samples. B9-1679 and B8-1413 were the dominating toxaphenes with median concentrations of 8 and 15 ng/g ww. Concentrations of toxaphenes and PBDEs were up to 100-times lower than the concentrations of PCB and some of the pesticides. PCB and p,p/-DDE constituted 90% of the contaminants found. PMID:12521115

  11. GAS-PHASE OXIDATION PRODUCTS OF BIPHENYL AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (R825377)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our laboratory recently measured the gas-phase reaction rate constants of
    polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with the hydroxyl radical (OH) and concluded
    that OH reactions are the primary removal pathway of PCBs from the atmosphere.
    With the reaction system previousl...

  12. Modelling the environmental fate of the polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Gouin, T; Harner, T

    2003-09-01

    In response to growing alarm over the occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in remote regions, this study considers their physical chemistry, environmental partitioning and considerations regarding potential for long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT). Internally consistent physical-chemical property data are presented for five representative congeners (PBDE-15, -28, -47, -99, -153) and used in a multimedia modelling approach. Results of the Level II model indicate that PBDEs will largely partition to organic carbon in soil and sediment and that their persistence will be strongly influenced by degradation rates in these media that are not well known. TaPL3 model estimates of their characteristic travel distance (CTD) suggest limited LRAT potential. The LRAT is also evaluated qualitatively, in terms of surface-air exchange behaviour. PBDEs are shown to be sensitive to seasonally and diurnally fluctuating temperatures. When vegetation is included in the model, 50% of the total mass of PBDE-47 deposited to vegetation returns to the atmosphere, suggesting that it may migrate through a series of deposition/volatilisation hops. Key data that needs to be identified in this evaluation include a better understanding of air-surface exchange, particularly to foliage, and measurements of degradation rates in soil, sediment and vegetation. PMID:12850091

  13. Improved measurements of partition coefficients for polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Ye, Qingfu; Gan, Jay

    2011-02-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of widely used brominated flame retardants with strong hydrophobicity. Due to their strong affinity for organic matter, accurate measurement of adsorption coefficients for PBDEs using conventional batch methods can be confounded by biases caused by their sorption to dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In this study, sorption isotherms were constructed for BDE-47 and BDE-99 in sediments by using different methods to measure the aqueous phase concentration Cw. Upon centrifugation, Cw measured by automated solid-phase microextraction (Cw-SPME) was consistently smaller than by liquid-liquid extraction (Cw-LLE), suggesting substantial association of PBDEs with DOC. Significant underestimations (1.2-106-fold) of sediment-water partition coefficient Kd occurred when Cw was measured by LLE. The log KDOC values derived from the SPME measurements ranged from 5.10 to 8.02 for eight congeners from BDE-28 to BDE-183, suggesting a strong tendency for PBDEs to complex with DOC. This study showed that PBDE congeners have larger sorption coefficients than would be measured by the conventional method. The high affinity to DOC also means a potential for DOC-facilitated transport, thus enhancing the environmental mobility of PBDEs. PMID:21210679

  14. Children's exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through mouthing toys.

    PubMed

    Ionas, Alin C; Ulevicus, Jocelyn; Gómez, Ana Ballesteros; Brandsma, Sicco H; Leonards, Pim E G; van de Bor, Margot; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have previously been detected in children toys, yet the risk of child exposure to these chemicals through the mouthing of toys or other items is still unknown. We aimed to expand on the current knowledge by investigating the impact of infants' mouthing activities on exposure to PBDEs present in toys. This was established by a leaching model for determining the amount PBDEs that can leach from toys into saliva in simulated conditions. The PBDE migration rate was at its highest for the 15 min low-exposure scenario incubations (198 pg/cm(2) × min) with the ERM EC-591 certified reference material (CRM) (0.17% w/w PBDEs). The leaching process was congener-dependent, since the percentage of lower brominated PBDE congeners that leached out was up to 4.5 times higher than for the heavier PBDEs. To study the scenario in which a child would mouth on a toy flame retarded with BDE 209 alone, a plastic item containing 7% BDE 209 (w/w) was also tested. The BDE 209 amounts leached out in only 15 min were higher than the amounts leached from the CRM after the 16 h incubation. For the Belgian population, the exposure scenario from mouthing on toys containing PBDEs in amounts similar to the REACH threshold was found to be lower than the exposure from mother's milk, but higher than the exposure through diet or even dust. PMID:26655676

  15. Phthalates and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in retail stores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ying; Liang, Yirui; Urquidi, Jorge R.; Siegel, Jeffrey A.

    2014-04-01

    Retail stores contain a wide range of products that can emit a variety of indoor pollutants. Among these chemicals, phthalate esters and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two important categories, because they are extensively used as additives in consumer products and associated with serious health concerns. This study measured six phthalate and 14 PBDE compounds inside of 12 retail stores in Texas and Pennsylvania, U.S. Phthalates and PBDEs were widely found in the retail environment, indicating that they are ubiquitous indoor air pollutants. DEP, DnBP, and DEHP were the most abundant phthalates, with DnBP showing the highest concentration (0.23 ± 0.36 μg m-3). PBDEs were dominated by BDE-28, -99, and -209, having concentrations as high as 0.85 ± 1.99 ng m-3 (BDE-99). The levels of phthalates and PBDEs measured in this study are comparable to concentrations found in previous investigations of residential buildings, with phthalates showing lower concentrations and PBDEs exhibiting higher concentrations in retail stores. The potential co-occurrence of phthalates was not as strong as that of PBDEs, suggesting that phthalates might have more diverse sources. Whole building emission rates were calculated and showed similar patterns of variations as indoor air concentrations, suggestion the diversity of indoor sources of phthalates and PBDEs in retail environments.

  16. Body Burdens of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers among Urban Anglers

    PubMed Central

    Morland, Kimberly B.; Landrigan, Philip J.; Sjödin, Andreas; Gobeille, Alayne K.; Jones, Richard S.; McGahee, Ernest E.; Needham, Larry L.; Patterson, Donald G.

    2005-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used in the United States and worldwide as flame retardants. Recent PBDE production figures show that worldwide use has increased. To determine whether fish consumption is a source of PBDE exposure for humans, a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of New York and New Jersey urban anglers was conducted during the summers of 2001–2003. Frequency of local fish consumption was assessed by questionnaire, and blood samples for PBDE analysis were collected from 94 anglers fishing from piers on the lower Hudson River and Newark Bay. We analyzed PBDEs by gas chromatography–isotope dilution–high-resolution mass spectrometry. The congeners found in anglers’ serum at the highest concentrations were, by International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry numbers, BDE-47, BDE-153, and BDE-99. Anglers reporting consumption of local fish had higher, but nonstatistically significantly different, concentrations of PBDEs than did anglers who did not eat local fish. For some congeners (BDE-100 and BDE-153), we observed moderate dose–response relationships between serum PBDE levels and frequency of reported fish intake. These findings suggest that consumption of locally caught fish is not a major route of human exposure for this study population. PMID:16330348

  17. [Research progress of health effect of polybrominated diphenyl ethers].

    PubMed

    Zhai, J X; Tong, S L

    2016-06-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was one of the most common brominated flame retardants, it has been widely used in products such as furnitures, polymer and plastical material, textiles, electronic products and building materials. PBDEs have potential effect such as neurodevelopmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, thyroid toxicity, immunological toxicity, embryo toxicity, liver toxicity, teratogenicity and potential carcinogenicity. This paper was aimed to review the environmental exposure way, current level, neurotoxicity, neurodevelopmental toxicity and reproductive toxicity of PBDEs. In recent years, PBDEs has been detected in environment, wildlife animal and human body around the world, there were the significant differences of exposure levels of PBDEs. The most abundant congener were tetra-BDE or BDE-47, hexa-BDE or BDE-153, and deca-BDE or BDE-209. Prenatal exposure to PBDEs has great impact on the infants' neurodevelopmental function, induces changes in neuropsychological developmental behavior, decreases of congnition, motivation and attention. High levels of PBDEs have positive relationship with Luteinizing hormone levels, testis disfunction and children's cryptorchidism, and have negative relationship with sperm number and testis size. PMID:27256741

  18. Sex difference in polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations of walleyes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Trombka, Autumn W.; Rediske, Richard R.; Jude, David J.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations were determined for mature male and mature female walleyes (Sander vitreus) sampled from the Saginaw Bay population during 2007. PBDE concentrations in prey fish caught in the Saginaw River, the primary tributary to Saginaw Bay, and in Saginaw Bay during 2005 and 2007 also were determined. Mature male and mature female walleyes averaged 70.3 ng/g and 24.8 ng/g, respectively, in ΣPBDE, which was equal to the sum of concentrations of six PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, and BDE-154). This sex difference was likely due to males spending more time in the Saginaw River system than females. Prey fish captured in the Saginaw River were roughly ten times higher in ΣPBDE than those caught in Saginaw Bay. BDE-47 was the predominant congener in both walleyes and prey fish, and this congener contributed about 50%, on average, to ΣPBDE. Congener profiles differed significantly between the two sexes of walleyes. In contrast, congener profiles of the prey fish did not differ significantly between the river-caught fish and the bay-caught fish. One plausible explanation for these congener profile results was that net trophic transfer efficiencies of PBDEs to walleyes from their prey were similar for all congeners except BDE-28, and that diet composition differed between the two sexes of walleyes.

  19. Factors influencing atmospheric concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Dien, Nguyen Thanh; Hirai, Yasuhiro; Miyazaki, Toru; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2016-02-01

    We used polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) data in air at 38 sites across Japan (2009-2012), which were measured by the Japan Ministry of Environment (JMOE), to elucidate the time trend and seasonality of atmospheric PBDEs. In order to address few (7% for BDE-47) to many (63% for BDE-153 and 183) non-detect data, Tobit model, also called a censored regression model was used. The model revealed that the concentrations of PBDE congeners were influenced by a combination of year, temperature, rainfall rate, and population density. Greater declines were observed for BDE-47, -99, -153 and -183 (-21, -25, -17, -23%/year, p < 0.05) than for BDE-209 (-6%/year, p = 0.065). These trends were consistent with the estimated trends of penta-, octa- and deca-BDE contained in in-use products based on domestic demand for PBDEs in Japan and product lifespan. Seasonal patterns were opposite for light congeners (BDE-47 and -99), which increased with temperature, and heavy congeners (BDE-183, and -209), which decreased with temperature. Temperature-dependent emission (evaporation) for light congeners and temperature-independent emission (abrasion) for heavy congeners, coupled with seasonality of atmospheric boundary layer height, might explain these seasonal patterns. Human population density showed a positive correlation with all PBDE congener concentrations, whereas PBDEs showed negative correlation with rainfall rate.

  20. Hydroxylated Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Paired Maternal and Cord Sera

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aimin; Park, June-Soo; Linderholm, Linda; Rhee, Alexandra; Petreas, Myrto; DeFranco, Emily A.; Dietrich, Kim N.; Ho, Shuk-mei

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were widely used as flame retardants in the past three decades. These compounds are lipophilic and easily cross the placenta from pregnant woman to fetus. It is not clear whether hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs), with greater hydrophilicity, have different concentrations in maternal and cord serum samples. We analyzed PBDEs (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -209) and OH-PBDEs (6-OH-BDE-47, 5-OH-BDE-47, 4′-OH-BDE-49, 5′-OH-BDE-99) in 20 pairs of maternal and cord serum samples collected in Cincinnati, OH in 2011. The geometric mean concentration of ΣOH-BDEs (the sum of four OH-PBDEs) was 49.76 pg/ml in cord sera, higher than 32.84 pg/ml in maternal sera. Similarly, cord serum total BDEs had a higher geometric mean than maternal serum (45.51 vs. 32.07 ng/g lipid). Equal or higher levels of total OH-BDEs and total BDEs in cord serum were observed in 85% and 80% of the mother-neonate pairs, respectively. The study suggests fetuses might receive higher OH-PBDE and PBDE exposure than their mothers. PMID:23506475

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in seafood products of south China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian-Yang; Wu, Feng-Chang; Mai, Bi-Xian; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2007-10-31

    South China is probably one of the heaviest polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) polluted regions in the world, thanks to the presence of huge and rapidly growing electronics manufacturing industries, as well as several of the world's largest e-waste recycling sites in the region. In the present work, a wide variety of nonfish seafood products collected from South China was analyzed for PBDE residues. The concentrations of PBDEs in seafood products were highly species-specific, and the magnitude of PBDE pollution was moderate in South China compared to the global levels. Congener patterns of PBDEs in seafood samples suggested that seafood products are prone to accumulating low-brominated congeners, and possible metabolic debromination of BDE-99 to BDE-47 could occur in certain organisms, such as crabs and mantis shrimp. Generally, the congener profile was dominated by BDE-209, and to a lesser extent by BDE-47 and BDE-99, which was consistent with the fact that Deca-BDE is mass-produced in China and with previous sediment results from the same area. The occurrence of BDE-209 in aquatic species from South China suggests that BDE-209 appears to be more bioavailable than previously thought, and the environmental fate and safety of BDE-209 require further investigation and call for a thorough reassessment. PMID:17927196

  2. Children's exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through mouthing toys.

    PubMed

    Ionas, Alin C; Ulevicus, Jocelyn; Gómez, Ana Ballesteros; Brandsma, Sicco H; Leonards, Pim E G; van de Bor, Margot; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have previously been detected in children toys, yet the risk of child exposure to these chemicals through the mouthing of toys or other items is still unknown. We aimed to expand on the current knowledge by investigating the impact of infants' mouthing activities on exposure to PBDEs present in toys. This was established by a leaching model for determining the amount PBDEs that can leach from toys into saliva in simulated conditions. The PBDE migration rate was at its highest for the 15 min low-exposure scenario incubations (198 pg/cm(2) × min) with the ERM EC-591 certified reference material (CRM) (0.17% w/w PBDEs). The leaching process was congener-dependent, since the percentage of lower brominated PBDE congeners that leached out was up to 4.5 times higher than for the heavier PBDEs. To study the scenario in which a child would mouth on a toy flame retarded with BDE 209 alone, a plastic item containing 7% BDE 209 (w/w) was also tested. The BDE 209 amounts leached out in only 15 min were higher than the amounts leached from the CRM after the 16 h incubation. For the Belgian population, the exposure scenario from mouthing on toys containing PBDEs in amounts similar to the REACH threshold was found to be lower than the exposure from mother's milk, but higher than the exposure through diet or even dust.

  3. A mechanistic view of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) developmental neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Lucio G.; de Laat, Rian; Tagliaferri, Sara; Pellacani, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), extensively used in the past few decades as flame retardants in a variety of consumer products, have become world-wide persistent environmental pollutants. Levels in North America are usually higher than those in Europe and Asia, and body burden is 3 to 9-fold higher in infants and toddlers than in adults. The latter has raised concern for potential developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity of PBDEs. Experimental studies in animals and epidemiological observations in humans suggest that PBDEs may be developmental neurotoxicants. Pre- and/or post-natal exposure to PBDEs may cause long-lasting behavioral abnormalities, particularly in the domains of motor activity and cognition. The mechanisms underlying the developmental neurotoxic effects of PBDEs are not known, though several hypotheses have been put forward. One general mode of action relates to the ability of PBDEs to impair thyroid hormone homeostasis, thus indirectly affecting the developing brain. An alternative or additional mode of action involves a direct effect of PBDEs on nervous system cells; PBDEs can cause oxidative stress-related damage (DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis), and interfere with signal transduction (particularly calcium signaling), and with neurotransmitter systems. Important issues such as bioavailability and metabolism of PBDEs, extrapolation of results to low level of exposures, and the potential effects of interactions among PBDE congeners and between PBDEs and other contaminants also need to be taken into account. PMID:24270005

  4. Metabolism and metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, FA; Hu, D; Kania-Korwel, I; Lehmler, HJ; Ludewig, G; Hornbuckle, KC; Duffel, MW; Bergman, A; Robertson, LW

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is complex and has an impact on toxicity and thereby assessment of PCB risks. A large number of reactive and stable metabolites are formed in the processes of biotransformation in biota in general and in humans in particular. The aim of this document is to provide an overview of PCB metabolism and to identify metabolites of concern and their occurrence. Emphasis is given to mammalian metabolism of PCBs and their hydroxyl, methylsulfonyl, and sulfated metabolites, especially those that persist in human blood. Potential intracellular targets and health risks are also discussed. PMID:25629923

  5. 40 CFR 721.3480 - Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers... Substances § 721.3480 Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... ethers (PMNs P-90-1844, P-90-1845, and P-90-1846) are subject to reporting under this section for...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3480 - Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers... Substances § 721.3480 Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... ethers (PMNs P-90-1844, P-90-1845, and P-90-1846) are subject to reporting under this section for...

  7. Determinants of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the sera of mothers and children from Michigan farms with PCB-contaminated silos

    SciTech Connect

    Schantz, S.L.; Jacobson, J.L.; Jacobson, S.W.; Humphrey, H.E.B.; Welch, R.; Gasior, D.

    1994-11-01

    Blood samples were collected from 28 mothers and from 38 school-aged children from Michigan farms on which there were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated silos. The samples were analyzed for PCBs and other contaminants, including polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p{prime}-DDT + p,p{prime}-DDE) via packed column gas chromatography. The PCBs were quantified, using the Webb-McCall method, with Aroclors 1016 and 1260 used as reference standards. Approximately 42% of the children had serum PCB levels above the detection limit of 3.0 ng/ml. The values ranged from 3.1 to 23.3 ng/ml, with a mean of 6.8 ng/ml. In contrast, PCBs were detected in 86% of the mothers. The mean serum concentration was somewhat higher for the mothers (9.6 ng/ml), but the range was similar to that found for the children. PBBs were not detected in any of the children, but were present in trace amounts in 25% of the mothers. Conversely, DDT was present in 66% of the children and 93% of the mothers. As with PCBs, DDT concentrations were somewhat higher in the mothers. DDE accounted for 89% of the total DDT in serum. Various potential sources of exposure were evaluated as possible determinants of serum PCB levels, using hierarchical multiple regression. Years of residence on a silo farm and consumption of PCB-contaminated Great Lakes fish both accounted for significant portions of the variance in maternal serum PCB levels. Exposure via breast-feeding explained a large and highly significant proportion of the variance in the children`s serum PCB concentrations, suggesting that breast milk was the primary source of PCB exposure for these children. Years of residence on a silo farm also explained a significant proportion of the variance in children`s serum PCBs. 29 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  8. Human Health Effects of Biphenyl: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Hogan, Karen A.; Cai, Christine; Rieth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background: In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the human health hazards of biphenyl exposure. Objectives: We review key findings and scientific issues regarding expected human health effects of biphenyl. Methods: Scientific literature from 1926 through September 2012 was critically evaluated to identify potential human health hazards associated with biphenyl exposure. Key issues related to the carcinogenicity and noncancer health hazards of biphenyl were examined based on evidence from experimental animal bioassays and mechanistic studies. Discussion: Systematic consideration of experimental animal studies of oral biphenyl exposure took into account the variety of study designs (e.g., study sizes, exposure levels, and exposure durations) to reconcile differing reported results. The available mechanistic and toxicokinetic evidence supports the hypothesis that male rat urinary bladder tumors arise through urinary bladder calculi formation but is insufficient to hypothesize a mode of action for liver tumors in female mice. Biphenyl and its metabolites may induce genetic damage, but a role for genotoxicity in biphenyl-induced carcinogenicity has not been established. Conclusions: The available health effects data for biphenyl provides suggestive evidence for carcinogenicity in humans, based on increased incidences of male rat urinary bladder tumors at high exposure levels and on female mouse liver tumors. Kidney toxicity is also a potential human health hazard of biphenyl exposure. Citation: Li Z, Hogan KA, Cai C, Rieth S. 2016. Human health effects of biphenyl: key findings and scientific issues. Environ Health Perspect 124:703–712; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509730 PMID:26529796

  9. Process for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil

    DOEpatents

    Hancher, C.W.; Saunders, M.B.; Googin, J.M.

    1984-11-16

    The present invention relates to a method of removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil. The polychlorinated biphenyls are extracted from the soil by employing a liquid organic solvent dispersed in water in the ratio of about 1:3 to 3:1. The organic solvent includes such materials as short-chain hydrocarbons including kerosene or gasoline which are immiscible with water and are nonpolar. The organic solvent has a greater affinity for the PCB's than the soil so as to extract the PCB's from the soil upon contact. The organic solvent phase is separated from the suspended soil and water phase and distilled for permitting the recycle of the organic solvent phase and the concentration of the PCB's in the remaining organic phase. The present process can be satisfactorily practiced with soil containing 10 to 20% petroleum-based oils and organic fluids such as used in transformers and cutting fluids, coolants and the like which contain PCB's. The subject method provides for the removal of a sufficient concentration of PCB's from the soil to provide the soil with a level of PCB's within the guidelines of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  10. Seasonal variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congener profiles in butter in Poland: dietary risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Rzepkowska, Małgorzata; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Various statistical methods have been employed to analyse in details seasonal diversification of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)/polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congener profiles found in butter fat. The variability of the PCB/PBDE congener profiles indicates the presence of various sources of the milk fat contamination. The obtained results suggest that the environmental chemical background has the highest share in the contamination sources pattern. Ion trap mass spectrometry coupled to high-resolution gas chromatography with semi-permeable membrane dialysis sample cleanup was used for determination of PCBs and PBDEs in milk fat. Determined butter fat PCB profiles were similar to the profiles characteristic for Aroclor 1254 technical mixture. Our data indicate that dietary intake of PCB/PBDE with milk and milk products may be estimated to be about 717.5 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for six-indicator PCBs, 0.329 (equivalent toxicity, TEQ) pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for 12 DL PCBs and 50 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for PBDEs (sum of 14 congeners).

  11. Oxidation of polychlorinated biphenyls by pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 and pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, D.T.; Cruden, D.L.; Haddock, J.D.; Zylstra, G.J.; Brand, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls that do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in the substrate specificity of the biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenases from both organisms.

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in the North American environment.

    PubMed

    Hale, Robert C; Alaee, Mehran; Manchester-Neesvig, Jon B; Stapleton, Heather M; Ikonomou, Michael G

    2003-09-01

    North America consumes over half of the world's production of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants. About 98% of global demand for the Penta-BDE mixture, the constituents of which are the most bioaccumulative and environmentally widespread, resides here. However, research on the environmental distribution of PBDEs in North America has lagged behind that in Northern Europe. Examination of available governmentally maintained release data suggests that Deca-BDE use in the US substantially exceeds that in Canada. Penta-BDE use probably follows a similar pattern. PBDE demand in Mexico is uncertain, but is assumed to be comparatively modest. Recent research examining air, water, sediment, sewage sludge and aquatic biota suggests that Penta-BDE constituents are present in geographically disparate locations in the US and Canada. The less brominated congeners have been observed in areas distant from their known use or production, e.g. the Arctic. PBDEs have been detected in low concentrations in North American air, water and sediment, but much higher levels in aquatic biota. Increased burdens as a function of position in the food web have been noted. PBDE concentrations in US and Canadian sewage sludges appear to be at least 10-fold greater than European levels and may be a useful barometer of release. In general, PBDE concentrations in environmental media reported in North America are comparable or exceed those observed elsewhere in the world. In contrast to Europe, environmental burdens are increasing over time here, consistent with the greater consumption of the commercial mixtures. However, data remain relatively scarce. Deca-BDE in the North American environment appears largely restricted to points of release, e.g. urban areas and those where PBDE-containing sewage sludges have been applied. This lack of redistribution is likely due to its extremely low volatility and water solubility. Penta-BDE and Deca-BDE products are used in different applications

  13. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in maternal and fetal blood samples.

    PubMed Central

    Mazdai, Anita; Dodder, Nathan G; Abernathy, Mary Pell; Hites, Ronald A; Bigsby, Robert M

    2003-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants in consumer goods, such as plastics, electronics, textiles, and construction material. PBDEs have been found in human milk, fat, and blood samples. Rodent studies indicate that PBDEs may be detrimental to neurodevelopment, possibly by lowering thyroid hormone concentrations in blood. In the present study, we determined concentrations of PBDEs and thyroid hormones in human fetal and maternal serum. Patients presenting in labor to Indiana University and Wishard Memorial County hospitals in Indianapolis, who were older than 18 years, were recruited to participate. Twelve paired samples of maternal and cord blood were obtained and analyzed using gas chromatographic mass spectrometry; thyroid hormone concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. Six congeners of PBDE were measured in maternal and fetal serum samples. The concentrations of total PBDEs found in maternal sera ranged from 15 to 580 ng/g lipid, and the concentrations found in fetal samples ranged from 14 to 460 ng/g lipid. Individual fetal blood concentrations did not differ from the corresponding maternal concentrations, indicating that measurement of maternal PBDE blood levels is useful in predicting fetal exposure; similarly, other reports have shown a high correlation between PBDE in mother's milk and fetal exposure. In accord with reports on other biologic samples, the tetrabrominated PBDE congener BDE-47 accounted for 53-64% of total PBDEs in the serum. The concentrations of PBDEs found in maternal and fetal serum samples were 20-106-fold higher than the levels reported previously in a similar population of Swedish mothers and infants. In this small sample, there was no apparent correlation between serum PBDEs and thyroid hormone concentrations. Our study shows that human fetuses in the United States may be exposed to relatively high levels of PBDEs. Further investigation is required to determine if these levels are

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ether congener (BDE-100) induces mitochondrial impairment.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Lílian Cristina; de Souza, Alecsandra Oliveira; Dorta, Daniel Junqueira

    2013-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants are used in various consumer products to increase their resistance to fire and/or high temperatures. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are representatives of this class and among the most widely used congeners, and BDE-100 is produced on a large scale. There is a lack of toxicological data about these compounds, which has recently become a matter of concern to the scientific community. The mitochondria are recognized as the main energy-producing organelles, as well as playing a vital role in the maintenance of many cell functions. Therefore, mitochondria were used in the present work as an experimental model to evaluate the effects of the BDE-100 congeners at concentrations ranging from 0.1 μM to 50 μM. The results showed that high concentrations of BDE-100 were able to induce mitochondrial alterations. It was observed that the substance had an affinity for the hydrophilic portion of the mitochondrial membrane, as monitored by ANS, inhibiting the glutamate + malate-stimulated mitochondrial respiration and also inducing dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, deregulation of calcium homoeostasis and mitochondrial swelling, the latter being insensitive to cyclosporin A (CsA) but partially inhibited by Ruthenium Red and N-ethyl maleimide. In addition, a significant reduction in mitochondrial ATP content was found, but on the other hand, no oxidative stress was observed after exposure of the mitochondria to BDE-100. These results show the key role of mitochondria in the cytotoxicity induced by BDE-100.

  15. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY OF POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER (PBDE) FLAME RETARDANTS

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Lucio G.; Giordano, Gennaro

    2007-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of flame retardants used in a variety of consumer products. In the past 25 years, PBDEs have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They have been detected in soil, air, sediments, birds, marine species, fish, house dust, and human tissues, blood and breast milk. Diet and house dust appear to be the major sources of PBDE exposure in the general population, though occupational exposure can also occur. Levels of PBDEs in human tissues are particularly high in North America, compared to Asian and European countries, and have been increasing in the past 30 years. Concentrations of PBDEs are particularly high in breast milk, resulting in high exposure of infants. In addition, for toddlers, dust has been estimated to account for a large percentage of exposure. PBDEs can also cross the placenta, as they have been detected in fetal blood and liver. Tetra-, penta- and hexa BDEs are most commonly present in human tissues. The current greatest concern for potential adverse effects of PBDEs relates to their developmental neurotoxicity. Pre- or postnatal exposure of mice or rats to various PBDEs has been shown to cause long-lasting changes in spontaneous motor activity, mostly characterized as hyperactivity or decreased habituation, and to disrupt performance in learning and memory tests. While a reduction in circulating thyroid hormone (T4) may contribute to the developmental neurotoxicity of PBDEs, direct effects on the developing brain have also been reported. Among these, PBDEs have been shown to affect signal transduction pathways and to cause oxidative stress. Levels of PBDEs causing developmental neurotoxicity in animals are not much dissimilar from levels found in highly exposed infants and toddlers. PMID:17904639

  16. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers: occurrence, dietary exposure, and toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Darnerud, P O; Eriksen, G S; Jóhannesson, T; Larsen, P B; Viluksela, M

    2001-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in plastics (concentration, 5--30%) and in textile coatings. Commercial products consist predominantly of penta-, octa-, and decabromodiphenyl ether mixtures, and global PBDE production is about 40,000 tons per year. PBDEs are bioaccumulated and biomagnified in the environment, and comparatively high levels are often found in aquatic biotopes from different parts of the world. During the mid-1970--1980s there was a substantial increase in the PBDE levels with time in both sediments and aquatic biota, whereas the latest Swedish data (pike and guillemot egg) may indicate that levels are at steady state or are decreasing. However, exponentially increasing PBDE levels have been observed in mother's milk during 1972--1997. Based on levels in food from 1999, the dietary intake of PBDE in Sweden has been estimated to be 0.05 microg per day. Characteristic end points of animal toxicity are hepatotoxicity, embryotoxicity, and thyroid effects as well as maternal toxicity during gestation. Recently, behavioral effects have been observed in mice on administration of PBDEs during a critical period after birth. Based on the critical effects reported in available studies, we consider the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) value of the PBDE group to be 1 mg/kg/day (primarily based on effects of pentaBDEs). In conclusion, with the scientific knowledge of today and based on Nordic intake data, the possible consumer health risk from PBDEs appears limited, as a factor of over 10(6) separates the estimated present mean dietary intake from the suggested LOAEL value. However, the presence of many and important data gaps, including those in carcinogenicity, reproduction, and developmental toxicity, as well as additional routes of exposure, make this conclusion only preliminary. Moreover, the time trend of PBDEs in human breast milk is alarming for the future. PMID:11250805

  17. Polybrominated diphenyl ether congener (BDE-100) induces mitochondrial impairment.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Lílian Cristina; de Souza, Alecsandra Oliveira; Dorta, Daniel Junqueira

    2013-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants are used in various consumer products to increase their resistance to fire and/or high temperatures. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are representatives of this class and among the most widely used congeners, and BDE-100 is produced on a large scale. There is a lack of toxicological data about these compounds, which has recently become a matter of concern to the scientific community. The mitochondria are recognized as the main energy-producing organelles, as well as playing a vital role in the maintenance of many cell functions. Therefore, mitochondria were used in the present work as an experimental model to evaluate the effects of the BDE-100 congeners at concentrations ranging from 0.1 μM to 50 μM. The results showed that high concentrations of BDE-100 were able to induce mitochondrial alterations. It was observed that the substance had an affinity for the hydrophilic portion of the mitochondrial membrane, as monitored by ANS, inhibiting the glutamate + malate-stimulated mitochondrial respiration and also inducing dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, deregulation of calcium homoeostasis and mitochondrial swelling, the latter being insensitive to cyclosporin A (CsA) but partially inhibited by Ruthenium Red and N-ethyl maleimide. In addition, a significant reduction in mitochondrial ATP content was found, but on the other hand, no oxidative stress was observed after exposure of the mitochondria to BDE-100. These results show the key role of mitochondria in the cytotoxicity induced by BDE-100. PMID:23302053

  18. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Residential Dust: Sources of Variability

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Todd P.; Brown, F. Reber; Metayer, Catherine; Park, June-Soo; Does, Monique; Petreas, Myrto X.; Buffler, Patricia A.; Rappaport, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    We characterized the sources of variability for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in residential dust and provided guidance for investigators who plan to use residential dust to assess exposure to PBDEs. We collected repeat dust samples from 292 households in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study during two sampling rounds (from 2001–2007 and during 2010) using household vacuum cleaners and measured 22 PBDEs using high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Median concentrations for individual PBDEs ranged from <0.1–2,500 ng per g of dust. For each of eight representative PBDEs, we used a random-effects model to apportion total variance into regional variability (0–11%), intra-regional between-household variability (17–50%), within-household variability over time (38–74%), and within-sample variability (0–23%) and we used a mixed-effects model to identify determinants of PBDE levels. Regional differences in PBDE dust levels were associated with residential characteristics that differed by region, including the presence of furniture with exposed or crumbling foam and the recent installation of carpets in the residence. Intra-regional differences between households were associated with neighborhood urban density, racial and ethnic characteristics, and to a lesser extent, income. For some PBDEs, a decreasing time trend explained a modest fraction of the within-household variability; however, most of the within-household variability was unaccounted for by our mixed-effects models. Our findings indicate that it may be feasible to use residential dust for retrospective assessment of PBDE exposures in studies of children’s health (e.g., the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study). PMID:23628589

  19. Depositional characteristics of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers on tree barks

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Man Young

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to determine the depositional characteristics of several tree barks, including Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), Pine (Pinus densiflora), Platanus (Platanus), and Metasequoia (Metasequoia glyptostroboides). These were used as passive air sampler (PAS) of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Methods Tree barks were sampled from the same site. PBDEs were analyzed by highresolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometer, and the lipid content was measured using the gravimetric method by n-hexane extraction. Results Gingko contained the highest lipid content (7.82 mg/g dry), whereas pine (4.85 mg/g dry), Platanus (3.61 mg/g dry), and Metasequoia (0.97 mg/g dry) had relatively lower content. The highest total PBDEs concentration was observed in Metasequoia (83,159.0 pg/g dry), followed by Ginkgo (53,538.4 pg/g dry), Pine (20,266.4 pg/g dry), and Platanus (12,572.0 pg/g dry). There were poor correlations between lipid content and total PBDE concentrations in tree barks (R2=0.1011, p =0.682). Among the PBDE congeners, BDE 206, 207 and 209 were highly brominated PBDEs that are sorbed to particulates in ambient air, which accounted for 90.5% (84.3-95.6%) of the concentration and were therefore identified as the main PBDE congener. The concentrations of particulate PBDEs deposited on tree barks were dependent on morphological characteristics such as surface area or roughness of barks. Conclusions Therefore, when using the tree barks as the PAS of the atmospheric PBDEs, samples belonging to same tree species should be collected to reduce errors and to obtain reliable data. PMID:25116365

  20. Sphingobium fuliginis HC3: A Novel and Robust Isolated Biphenyl- and Polychlorinated Biphenyls-Degrading Bacterium without Dead-End Intermediates Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jinxing; Qian, Mingrong; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Jinglan; Yu, Chunna; Su, Xiaomei; Shen, Chaofeng; Hashmi, Muhammad Z.; Shi, Jiyan

    2015-01-01

    Biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are typical environmental pollutants. However, these pollutants are hard to be totally mineralized by environmental microorganisms. One reason for this is the accumulation of dead-end intermediates during biphenyl and PCBs biodegradation, especially benzoate and chlorobenzoates (CBAs). Until now, only a few microorganisms have been reported to have the ability to completely mineralize biphenyl and PCBs. In this research, a novel bacterium HC3, which could degrade biphenyl and PCBs without dead-end intermediates accumulation, was isolated from PCBs-contaminated soil and identified as Sphingobium fuliginis. Benzoate and 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CBA) transformed from biphenyl and 3-chlorobiphenyl (3-CB) could be rapidly degraded by HC3. This strain has strong degradation ability of biphenyl, lower chlorinated (mono-, di- and tri-) PCBs as well as mono-CBAs, and the biphenyl/PCBs catabolic genes of HC3 are cloned on its plasmid. It could degrade 80.7% of 100 mg L −1 biphenyl within 24 h and its biphenyl degradation ability could be enhanced by adding readily available carbon sources such as tryptone and yeast extract. As far as we know, HC3 is the first reported that can degrade biphenyl and 3-CB without accumulation of benzoate and 3-CBA in the genus Sphingobium, which indicates the bacterium has the potential to totally mineralize biphenyl/PCBs and might be a good candidate for restoring biphenyl/PCBs-polluted environments. PMID:25875180

  1. Preliminary health risk assessment for polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans in seafood from Guangzhou and Zhoushan, China.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yuichi; Jiang, Qinting; Yuan, Wang; Hanari, Nobuyasu; Okazawa, Tsuyoshi; Wyrzykowska, Barbara; So, Man Ka; Lam, Paul K S; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Dietary intake is one of the important routes of human exposure to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The use of PBDEs may also result in exposure to polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/DFs), as these compounds are impurities in technical mixtures of BFRs and can also be formed unintentionally by the same processes that generate chlorinated dioxins. This study determined the concentrations of polybrominated compounds in common seafood in Guangzhou and Zhoushan, and assessed the health risks of these chemicals via consumption of contaminated seafood. Seafood samples (fish, bivalves, shrimp, crab, and cephalopods) purchased from local markets in 2003 and 2004 were analyzed for PBDEs and PBDDs/DFs. The highest concentration of total PBDEs (46.3 ng g(-1) lipid wt.) was detected in fish from Guangzhou, in which BDEs 47 and 209 were the two predominant congeners. The total daily intakes of PBDEs, PBDDs, and PBDFs were, 946, 6.39, and 6.54 pg kg(-1) body weight (bw) in Guangzhou, and 489, 4.99, and 7.65 pg kg(-1) bw in Zhoushan, respectively. The hazard ratios for PBDDs and PBDFs were both greater than unity, indicating that these compounds may pose some health risks to the local population.

  2. Testing for polychlorinated biphenyls in human milk

    SciTech Connect

    Wickizer, T.M.; Brilliant, L.B.

    1981-09-01

    Reports of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of human milk have raised questions about the possible risks of breast-feeding and whether nursing mothers ought to have their breast milk tested. Current data on contamination of human milk are needed so that pediatricians can make informed recommendations about breast milk testing and breast-feeding. With consideration of recent findings of PCB contamination of human milk in Michigan, recommendations concerning breast milk testing and breast-feeding are made. No major changes in current breast-feeding practices are advised. However, breast milk testing is recommended for certain nursing mothers who have had potentially high exposure to PCBs. Limiting the duration of breast-feeding may also be advisable for mothers with high PCB milk fat levels in order to reduce infant exposure to PCBs.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls: influence on birthweight and gestation

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.R.; Lawrence, C.E.; Hwang, H.L.; Paulson, A.S.

    1984-10-01

    Fifty-one infants born to women employed at two capacitor manufacturing facilities with a history of high exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) had a mean birthweight of 153 grams less than that of 337 infants born to women who had worked in low-exposure areas (90 per cent confidence interval, -286 to -20 g); mean gestational age was 6.6 days shorter in the high-exposure infants (90 per cent CI, -10.3 to -2.9 days). After adjusting for gestational age, the difference in birthweight was markedly reduced, indicating that the observed reduction in birthweight was due mainly to shortening of gestational age in the high-exposure group.

  4. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in eggs may reduce reproductive success of ospreys in Oregon and Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Kaiser, J.L.; Grove, R.A.; Johnson, B.L.; Letcher, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Spatial and temporal assessments and reports of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in birds remain sparse. In the present study, PBDEs were detected in all 120 osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs collected. The eggs were collected from nests along the Columbia, Willamette and Yakima rivers of Oregon (OR) and Washington (WA) and in Puget Sound (WA) between 2002 and 2007. PBDE congeners: 17, 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154 (possible coelution with brominated biphenyl 153 [BB153]), 183, 190 (detected in one egg), 209 (not detected), and BB101 (only detected in 2006 and 2007) and total-??-hexabromocyclododecane (only detected in five eggs) were analyzed for in the egg samples. Eggs from reservoirs in the forested headwaters of the Willamette River (2002) contained the lowest concentrations of ???PBDEs (geometric mean [range], 98 [55.2-275] ng/g wet weight [ww]), while those from the middle Willamette River (2006) contained the highest (897 [507-1,880] ng/g ww). Concentrations in eggs from the Columbia River progressively increased downstream from Umatilla, OR (River Mile [RM] 286) to Skamokoa, WA (RM 29), which indicated additive PBDE sources along the river. In general, regardless of the year of egg collection, differences in PBDE concentrations reported in osprey eggs along the three major rivers studied (Columbia, Willamette and Yakima) seem to reflect differences in river flow (dilution effect) and the extent of human population and industry (source inputs) along the rivers. PBDE concentrations increased over time at two locations (Seattle, WA; Columbia River, RM 29-84) where temporal patterns could be evaluated. Only during 2006 (on the middle Willamette River, RM 61-157) and 2007 (on the lower Columbia River, RM 29-84) did ???PBDE concentrations in osprey eggs exceed 1,000 ng/g ww with negative relationships indicated at both locations between productivity and ???PBDE concentrations in eggs (P = 0.008, P = 0.057). Osprey eggs from

  5. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in eggs may reduce reproductive success of ospreys in Oregon and Washington, USA.

    PubMed

    Henny, Charles J; Kaiser, James L; Grove, Robert A; Johnson, Branden L; Letcher, Robert J

    2009-10-01

    Spatial and temporal assessments and reports of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in birds remain sparse. In the present study, PBDEs were detected in all 120 osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs collected. The eggs were collected from nests along the Columbia, Willamette and Yakima rivers of Oregon (OR) and Washington (WA) and in Puget Sound (WA) between 2002 and 2007. PBDE congeners: 17, 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154 (possible coelution with brominated biphenyl 153 [BB153]), 183, 190 (detected in one egg), 209 (not detected), and BB101 (only detected in 2006 and 2007) and total-alpha-hexabromocyclododecane (only detected in five eggs) were analyzed for in the egg samples. Eggs from reservoirs in the forested headwaters of the Willamette River (2002) contained the lowest concentrations of SigmaPBDEs (geometric mean [range], 98 [55.2-275] ng/g wet weight [ww]), while those from the middle Willamette River (2006) contained the highest (897 [507-1,880] ng/g ww). Concentrations in eggs from the Columbia River progressively increased downstream from Umatilla, OR (River Mile [RM] 286) to Skamokoa, WA (RM 29), which indicated additive PBDE sources along the river. In general, regardless of the year of egg collection, differences in PBDE concentrations reported in osprey eggs along the three major rivers studied (Columbia, Willamette and Yakima) seem to reflect differences in river flow (dilution effect) and the extent of human population and industry (source inputs) along the rivers. PBDE concentrations increased over time at two locations (Seattle, WA; Columbia River, RM 29-84) where temporal patterns could be evaluated. Only during 2006 (on the middle Willamette River, RM 61-157) and 2007 (on the lower Columbia River, RM 29-84) did SigmaPBDE concentrations in osprey eggs exceed 1,000 ng/g ww with negative relationships indicated at both locations between productivity and SigmaPBDE concentrations in eggs (P = 0.008, P = 0.057). Osprey eggs

  6. Altered cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulation during hyperosmotic stress in adult rats developmentally exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Ashini; Coburn, Cary G.; Watson-Siriboe, Abena; Whitley, Rebecca; Shahidzadeh, Anoush; Gillard, Elizabeth R.; Nichol, Robert; Leon-Olea, Martha; Gaertner, Mark; Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.

    2011-10-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and the structurally similar chemicals polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) disrupt the function of multiple endocrine systems. PCBs and PBDEs disrupt the secretion of vasopressin (VP) from the hypothalamus during osmotic activation. Since the peripheral and central vasopressinergic axes are critical for osmotic and cardiovascular regulation, we examined whether perinatal PBDE exposure could impact these functions during physiological activation. Rats were perinatally dosed with a commercial PBDE mixture, DE-71. Dams were given 0 (corn oil control), 1.7 (low dose) or 30.6 mg/kg/day (high dose) in corn oil from gestational day (GD) 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21 by oral gavage. In the male offspring exposed to high dose PBDE plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels were reduced at PND 21 and recovered to control levels by PND 60 when thyroid stimulating hormone levels were elevated. At 14-18 months of age, cardiovascular responses were measured in four groups of rats: Normal (Oil, normosmotic condition), Hyper (Oil, hyperosmotic stress), Hyper PBDE low (1.7 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress), and Hyper PBDE high (30.6 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress). Systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and heart rate (HR) were determined using tail cuff sphygmomanometry and normalized to pretreatment values (baseline) measured under basal conditions. Hyperosmotic treatment yielded significant changes in systolic BP in PBDE exposed rats only. Hyper PBDE low and high dose rats showed 36.1 and 64.7% greater systolic BP responses at 3 h post hyperosmotic injection relative to pretreatment baseline, respectively. No treatment effects were measured for diastolic BP and HR. Hyper and Hyper PBDE rats showed increased mean plasma osmolality values by 45 min after injection relative to normosmotic controls. In contrast to Hyper rats, Hyper PBDE (high) rats showed a further increase in mean plasma osmolality at 3

  7. Neurobehavioral Development following Exposure of Male Mice to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether 47 on Postnatal Day 10

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Previous studies in our laboratory and in the literature have shown that exposure to a specific PBDE congener, PBDE 47, during a crit...

  8. The partitioning of alkylphenolic surfactants and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in activated sludge batch tests.

    PubMed

    Langford, Katherine H; Scrimshaw, Mark D; Birkett, Jason W; Lester, John N

    2005-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and nonylphenol polyethoxylates have been reported to be estrogenic and may enter the aquatic environment through the discharge of treated sewage effluent. Therefore, their fate during wastewater treatment processes is an important factor in determining their environmental impact. Batch tests with activated sludge from a Husmann apparatus were used to determine the effects of physico-chemical properties and sludge characteristics on the partitioning of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants and nonylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants during biological wastewater treatment. Hydrophobic compounds, those with high logK(ow) values, were sorbed more rapidly and to a greater extent to the solid phase than more soluble compounds. For these hydrophobic compounds sorption may become an increasingly important removal mechanism as sludge age and therefore solids content increase. The initial rate of partitioning was greatest for the most hydrophobic compounds but all rates diminished with time as a result of progressive saturation of sorbent binding sites, a reduction of sorbate availability and as a consequence of the system reaching equilibrium. The sorption of polybrominated diphenyl ethers fit Freundlich adsorption isotherms demonstrating generally increasing adsorption capacity and efficiency with increasing hydrophobic nature. A correlation between increasing logK(ow) and increasing organic matter content was also observed for both polybrominated diphenyl ethers and nonylphenol polyethoxylates indicating the organic content of mixed liquor will also be influential in removing compounds during wastewater treatment. PMID:15950259

  9. Neurochemical Changes Following a Single Dose Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether 47 in Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Previous studies in our laboratory, and in the literature, have shown that exposure to a specific PBDE congener (PBDE 47) during a cri...

  10. A National Probabilistic Study of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Fish from US Lakes and Reservoirs

    EPA Science Inventory

    National estimates were developed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish from lakes and reservoirs of the conterminous United States (excluding the Laurentian Great Lakes and Great Salt Lake) using an unequal probability design. Predator (fillet) and bottom-dweller (w...

  11. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in U.S. Meat and Poultry: Levels, Congener Patterns, and Temporal Trends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Statistical surveys for dioxin residues in domestic meat and poultry were conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 2002 and again in 2008. Because polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are also found in animal products and because the production of PentaBDE and OctaBDE formulations in th...

  12. Development of an electrochemical immunoassay for the detection of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent environmental substances that were commonly used as fire retardants in a wide number of commercial products. Their low reactivity, high hydrophobicity and bioaccumulative properties cause their ubiquity in the air, water, food and lead to extensi...

  13. ASSESSMENT OF DE-71, A COMMERCIAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYLETHER (PBDE) MIXTURE, IN THE EDSP MALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    ASSESSMENT OF DE-71, A COMMERCIAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER (PBDE) MIXTURE, IN THE EDSP MALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOL. T.E. Stoker1, J. Ferrell1, J.M. Hedge2, K. M. Crofton2, R.L. Cooper1 and S.C. Laws1. 1 Reprod. Tox. Div., 2 Neurotox. Div., NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, NC.

    P...

  14. TOXICOKINETICS OF POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER CONGENERS 47, 99, 100, AND 153 IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The congener profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in human and wildlife samples are dominated by PBDE congeners 47, 99, 100, 153, and 154; all of which are components of the commercial pentaBDE mixtures commonly used in a variety of flammable consumer products. Ver...

  15. SYMPOSIUM #127 – ARE POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS FROM HOUSEHOLD DUST BIOAVAILABLE AND BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, household dust has been implicated as a major source of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure in humans. This finding may have important implications for young children, who are thought to ingest more dust than adults and may be more susceptible to some of the ...

  16. CHANGES IN MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE IN CEREBELLAR GRANULE NEURONAL CULTURES BY POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as additive flame-retardants and have been detected in human blood, adipose tissue, and breast milk; clarifying the nature of the risks posed is important for clean-up and remediation. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown t...

  17. Tissue distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in male ratsand implications for biomonitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of widely-used flame retardants which have been found to persist, bioaccumulate, and potentially affect development in animals. Exposure to PBDEs can be through both diet and the environment and is generally estimated by measuri...

  18. 77 FR 30972 - Certain Polybrominated Diphenylethers; Significant New Use Rule and Test Rule; Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ...EPA issued a proposed rule in the Federal Register of April 2, 2012, that would amend the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) section 5(a) Significant New Use Rule (SNUR) for certain polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and that would require persons that manufacture, import, or process any of three commercial PBDEs, including in articles, for any use after December 31, 2013, to conduct......

  19. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS DOES IMPAIRS SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND LTP IN HIPPOCAMPUS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants bioaccumulate in wildlife and in humans and reduce circulating levels of thyroxine (T4). The present work examined hippocampal function in adult offspring of LE rats treated daily by oral gavage with 0, 30 or 100 mg/kg of a ...

  20. 77 FR 19861 - Certain Polybrominated Diphenylethers; Significant New Use Rule and Test Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ...The Agency is proposing to amend the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) section 5(a) Significant New Use Rule (SNUR), for certain polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) by: Designating processing of six PBDEs, or any combination of these chemical substances resulting from a chemical reaction, as a significant new use; designating manufacturing, importing, and processing of a seventh PBDE,......

  1. Tissue-specific accumulation and lactational transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated pesticides, and brominated flame retardants in hooded seals (Cistophora cristata) from the Gulf of St. Lawrence: applications for monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wolkers, Hans; Hammill, Mike O; van Bavel, Bert

    2006-08-01

    Accumulation and mother-pup transfer of halogenated organic contaminants was studied in hooded seal tissues from eastern Canada. Blubber polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and total pesticide concentrations were relatively high, possibly due to their high trophic level and demersal feeding habits. Blood plasma showed the lowest contaminant concentrations compared to blubber and liver, possibly due to a lower affinity of these compounds to lipoproteins in blood plasma. Total contaminant body burden correlated well with blubber, liver, and milk contaminants, but not with blood plasma contaminants, indicating that blood plasma might be less suitable to monitor contaminants in hooded seals. Lactational transfer favored less lipophilic contaminants and was associated with relatively high blood plasma PCB and polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations in females. Despite lactational transfer, females did not show significantly lower blubber contaminant concentrations or burdens than males. This might be caused by their low blubber, and thus contaminant, loss during lactation compared to other species.

  2. PRACTICAL APPROACHES TO REMEDIATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of international concern because of global distribution, persistence, and toxicity. Removal of these compounds from the environment presents a very tough challenge because they are highly hydro...

  3. IRIS Toxicological Review of Biphenyl (External Review Draft) (September 2011)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of biphenyl that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  4. NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL MAPPING OF THE GENES ENCODING BIPHENYL DIOXYGENASE, A MULTICOM- PONENT POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYL-DEGRADING ENZYME IN PSEUDOMONAS STRAIN LB400

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DNA region encoding biphenyl dioxygenase, the first enzyme in the biphenyl-polychlorinated biphenyl degradation pathway of Pseudomonas species strain LB400, was sequenced. Six open reading frames were identified, four of which are homologous to the components of toluene dioxy...

  5. ENANTIOMER SEPARATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL ATROPISOMERS AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL RETENTION BEHAVIOR ON MODIFIED CYCLODEXTRIN CAPILLARY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY COLUMNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seven commercially-available chiral capillary gas chromatography columns containing modified cyclodextrins were evaluated for their ability to separate enantiomers of the 19 stable chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers, and for their ability to separate these enantio...

  6. Polybrominated diphenyl ether serum concentrations in a Californian population of children, their parents, and older adults: an exposure assessment study

    EPA Science Inventory

    BackgroundPolybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in many household items. Given concerns over their potential adverse health effects, we identified predictors and evaluated temporal changes of PBDE serum concentrations.MethodsPBDE serum concentrations...

  7. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO A POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER MIXTURE (DE-71): DISRUPTION OF THYROID HOMEOSTASIS AND NEUROBEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), produced commercially as mixtures, are used as flame-retardants in numerous consumer products. Previous work has demonstrated that the DE-71 induces hypothyroxinemia in both adults and developing rats. In these studies, primiparous rats w...

  8. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO A POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER MIXTURE (DE-71) DISRUPTS THYROID HORMONES BUT NOT NEUROBEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), produced commercially as mixtures, are used as flame-retardants for numerous consumer products. Because of their lipophilicity and persistence, PBDEs have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Previous work in our lab has demonstra...

  9. Occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in electrical workers. I. Environmental and blood polychlorinated biphenyls concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Maroni, M; Colombi, A; Cantoni, S; Ferioli, E; Foa, V

    1981-01-01

    Industrial exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and internal dose were investigated in 80 worker exposed for many years to PCB mixtures with a 42% chlorine content (Pyralene 3010 and Apirolio). PCBs were determined by liquid gas chromatography on samples taken from workroom air, workroom surfaces and tools, the palms of the hand, and the blood of the workers. In the workroom air samples, PCB concentrations ranged from 48 to 275 micrograms/m3. All tested surfaces and tools were heavily contaminated, with a range from 0.2 to 159 micrograms PCBs per cm2 of surface. Considerable amounts of PCBs were detected on the palms of the hands of the workers (2-28 microgram/cm2 of skin surface). In blood, total PCB concentrations from 88 to 1319 micrograms/kg were observed: comparing the blood concentrations of low and high chlorine content biphenyls, a significant difference was found for the low-chlorinated biphenyl concentrations between workers currently exposed and workers exposed only in the past. In groups of workers who were homogeneous as regards work area and job, the PCB concentrations in the blood were closely correlated with the length of actual occupational exposure to these compounds. These findings led to the conclusion that absorption of PCBs in these workers had occurred mainly through the skin, therefore industrial preventive surveillance must take this route of exposure into account. Since blood PCB concentrations appear to be correlated with the length of exposure, PCB determination on whole blood may be used to monitor industrial and environmental exposure to PCBs. PMID:6781529

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in Chesapeake Bay region, U.S.A., peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs: urban/rural trends.

    PubMed

    Potter, Katherine E; Watts, Bryan D; La Guardia, Mark J; Harvey, Ellen P; Hale, Robert C

    2009-05-01

    A total of 23 peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs were obtained between 1993 and 2002 from 13 nests, encompassing 11 locations in the Chesapeake Bay region, U.S.A. When multiple eggs were available from the same clutch, average clutch contaminant concentrations were calculated. An overall median total polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) level of 201 ng/g wet weight was determined for the eggs/clutches examined. The maximum in an individual egg, from an urban highway bridge site, was 354 ng/g. This egg also exhibited the highest BDE 209 burden (48.2 ng/g). Compared to distributions reported in fish and piscivorous birds, falcon eggs were enriched in the more brominated congeners. The BDE congeners 153, 99, and 100 constituted 26.0, 24.8, and 13.1%, respectively, of total PBDEs. In most aquatic species, BDE 47 is the most abundant congener reported; however, it constituted only 4.4% of total PBDEs in the eggs of the present study. The median BDE 209 concentration was 6.3 ng/g. The sum of the octa- to nonabrominated congeners (BDEs 196, 197, 206, 207, and 208) contributed, on average, 14.0% of total PBDEs, exceeding the contribution of BDE 209 (5.9%). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (4,4'-DDE) also were determined in a subset of 16 eggs (collected in 2001-2002 from six nests) and were an order of magnitude greater than the corresponding PBDEs. Median BDE 209 concentrations were significantly correlated (p < 0.01, Spearman R = 0.690) with the human population density of the area surrounding the nest. Total PBDEs, total PCBs, and 4,4'-DDE levels were not correlated to human population density.

  11. Levels of dioxins and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human milk from three regions of northern China and potential dietary risk factors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Suju; Zhao, Jianhong; Leng, Junhong; Wang, Peiyu; Wang, Yan; Fukatsu, Hideo; Liu, Dianwu; Liu, Xuehui; Kayama, Fujio

    2010-08-01

    Human milk samples were collected from 50 breast-feeding mothers in Shijiazhuang, 60 in Tianjin and 48 in Yantai from November 2006 to April 2007. The three areas are located in northern China. We selected randomly 20 samples from each area for detection of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/frans (PCDD/Fs), polycholorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Our results show the average concentrations of PCDD/Fs plus dl-PCBs were 6.24 TEQ pg g(-1)fat, 7.54 TEQ pg g(-1)fat and 6.69 TEQ pg g(-1) fat in human milk from Shijiazhuang, Tianjin and Yantai, respectively. The average concentrations of PBDEs were 3.71 ng g(-1) fat, 3.42 ng g(-1) fat and 4.16 ng g(-1) fat in human milk from Shijiazhuang, Tianjin and Yantai, respectively. Among congeners of PBDEs, the high and low brominated congeners BDE209, BDE207, BDE197, BDE153, BDE15, BDE28 and BDE47 were the predominant PBDE congeners, accounting for 91%, 90% and 84% of total PBDEs in samples from Shijiazhuang, Tianjin and Yantai, respectively. Based on the results of an in-person interview of mothers using a questionnaire, freshwater fish consumption was found to correlate with total mono-ortho dl-PCBs (mo-PCBs) and sea fish consumption was found to correlate with total non-ortho dl-PCBs (no-PCBs) of human milk in these areas. However, no correlation was found between concentrations of total PBDEs and total TEQ of PCDD/Fs plus dl-PCBs and food consumption. Continuous surveillance on dioxins and dl-PCBs levels in human milk is needed to correctly evaluate both the environmental impact and human health risk in China.

  12. Updated Abraham solvation parameters for polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    van Noort, Paul C M; Haftka, Joris J H; Parsons, John R

    2010-09-15

    This study shows that the recently published polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Abraham solvation parameters predict PCB air-n-hexadecane and n-octanol-water partition coefficients very poorly, especially for highly ortho-chlorinated congeners. Therefore, an updated set of PCB solvation parameters was derived from four PCB properties and associated Abraham solvation equations. Additionally, the influence of ortho-chlorination on PCB solvent accessible volume and surface area was investigated. The updated PCB solvation parameters were tested on partitioning between five other phase combinations. Compared to the original PCB solvation parameter set, the updated PCB solvation parameters resulted in substantially improved estimates from Abraham solvation equations for (subcooled) liquid vapor pressures, aqueous solubilities, HPLC capacity factors, and for coefficients of air-n-hexadecane, air-water, organic carbon-water, and n-octanol-water partitioning. For water to polydimethyl siloxane and sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) partitioning, the updated PCB solvation parameters yielded no improvement compared to the original data set. The main difference between the updated and the original parameter set is that updated PCB McGowan specific volumes depend on the degree of ortho-chlorination, which is qualitatively confirmed by trends in the PCB solvent accessible volumes and surface areas. The use of the updated PCB solvation parameters instead of the original values is therefore recommended.

  13. Estimation of polychlorinated biphenyl fugacity ratios.

    PubMed

    Van Noort, Paul C M

    2006-11-01

    On the quantitative comparison of solubilities or vapor pressures of homologous series, the variation in the effect of crystal structure on solid properties may substantially influence the outcome of the comparison. Usually, the effect of this variation is eliminated by comparing values of the liquid state. The ratio of solid to liquid properties is called the fugacity ratio. Fugacity ratios are usually calculated from fusion thermodynamic data. For 41 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), fusion enthalpy was found to be correlated with fusion entropy. Highly linear correlations were observed for non-ortho-PCBs, mono-ortho-PCBs, and diortho-PCBs. Fugacity ratios estimated from the fusion enthalpy-entropy linear regression parameters were equal, within 10% on average, to fugacity ratios calculated from fusion enthalpy for ortho chlorinated PCBs with melting points below 380 K and for non-ortho-PCBs. For ortho chlorinated PCBs with melting points above 380 K, fugacity ratios were better estimated from a nonlinear regression of fugacity ratios against the melting point and the system temperature. For all 209 PCB congeners, fugacity ratios at 298 K are listed on the basis of experimental fusion data or estimates from the regressions.

  14. Inadvertent polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial paint pigments.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dingfei; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2010-04-15

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound's presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments.

  15. Can Stress Enhance Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls?

    PubMed Central

    Kalinowski, Tomasz; Halden, Rolf U.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Phytoremediation—plant-facilitated remediation of polluted soil and groundwater—is a potentially effective treatment technology for the remediation of heavy metals and certain organic compounds. However, contaminant attenuation rates are often not rapid enough to make phytoremediation a viable option when compared with alternative treatment approaches. Different strategies are being employed to enhance the efficacy of phytoremediation, including modification to the plant genome, inoculation of the rhizosphere with specialized and/or engineered bacteria, and treatment of the soil with supplementary chemicals, such as surfactants, chelators, or fertilizers. Despite these efforts, greater breakthroughs are necessary to make phytoremediation a viable technology. Here, we introduce and discuss the concept of integrating controlled environmental stresses as a strategy for enhancing phytoremediation. Plants have a diverse suite of defense mechanisms that are only induced in response to stress. Here, we examine some stress-response mechanisms in plants, focusing on defenses involving physiological changes that alter the soil microenvironment (rhizosphere), and outline how these defense mechanisms can be co-opted to enhance the effectiveness of phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls and other contaminants. PMID:23236249

  16. Structures of cyano-biphenyl liquid crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Yuan-Chao; Tsang, Tung; Rahimzadeh, E.; Yin, L.

    1989-01-01

    The structures of p-alkyl- p'-cyano- bicyclohexanes, C(n)H(2n+1) (C6H10)(C6H10) CN (n-CCH), and p-alkyl- p'-cyano- biphenyls, C(n)H(2n+1) (C6H4)(C6H4) CN (n-CBP), were studied. It is convenient to use an x ray image intensification device to search for symmetric x ray diffraction patterns. Despite the similarities in molecular structures of these compounds, very different crystal structures were found. For the smectic phase of 2CCH, the structure is close to rhombohedral with threefold symmetry. In contrast, the structure is close to hexagonal close-packed with two molecules per unit cell for 4CCH. Since intermolecular forces may be quite weak for these liquid crystals systems, it appears that crystal structures change considerably when the alkyl chain length is slightly altered. Different structures were also found in the crystalline phase of n-CBP for n = 6 to 9. For n = 7 to 9, the structures are close to monclinic. The structures are reminiscent of the smectic-A liquid crystal structures with the linear molecules slightly tilted away from the c-axis. In contrast, the structure is quite different for n = 6 with the molecules nearly perpendicular to the c-axis.

  17. Can Stress Enhance Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls?

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, Tomasz; Halden, Rolf U

    2012-12-01

    Phytoremediation-plant-facilitated remediation of polluted soil and groundwater-is a potentially effective treatment technology for the remediation of heavy metals and certain organic compounds. However, contaminant attenuation rates are often not rapid enough to make phytoremediation a viable option when compared with alternative treatment approaches. Different strategies are being employed to enhance the efficacy of phytoremediation, including modification to the plant genome, inoculation of the rhizosphere with specialized and/or engineered bacteria, and treatment of the soil with supplementary chemicals, such as surfactants, chelators, or fertilizers. Despite these efforts, greater breakthroughs are necessary to make phytoremediation a viable technology. Here, we introduce and discuss the concept of integrating controlled environmental stresses as a strategy for enhancing phytoremediation. Plants have a diverse suite of defense mechanisms that are only induced in response to stress. Here, we examine some stress-response mechanisms in plants, focusing on defenses involving physiological changes that alter the soil microenvironment (rhizosphere), and outline how these defense mechanisms can be co-opted to enhance the effectiveness of phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls and other contaminants.

  18. Inadvertent Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Commercial Paint Pigments†

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound’s presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments. PMID:19957996

  19. Four new bioactive polybrominated diphenyl ethers of the sponge Dysidea herbacea from West Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Handayani, D; Edrada, R A; Proksch, P; Wray, V; Witte, L; Van Soest, R W; Kunzmann, A; Soedarsono

    1997-12-01

    The marine sponge Dysidea herbacea collected from Indonesia yielded four new polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners 2-5 and the known derivatives 1, 6, and 7. The structures of the new compounds were unambiguously established on the basis of NMR spectroscopic (1H, 13C, COSY, 1H-detected direct and long-range 13C-1H correlations) and mass spectrometric (EIMS) data. All of the compounds were active against the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and the phytopathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum. The isolated polybrominated compounds were also active in the brine shrimp lethality test. In the latter bioassay, compounds 1 and 6 were the most active with LC50's of 0.96 [SE +/- 0.19] and 0.94 [SE +/- 0.70] microg/mL, respectively.

  20. Triclosan and Hydroxylated Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Lake and Esturaine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, W. A.; Kerrigan, J. F.; McNeill, K.; Erickson, P. R.; Grandbois, M.

    2014-12-01

    Halogenated diphenyl ethers are a class of emerging contaminants that includes the antibacterial compound triclosan and the flame retardant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Both triclosan and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-BDEs) are known to form dioxins when exposed to sunlight in aqueous solution. Thus, it is important to understand the sources and presence of these compounds in the environment, especially because OH-BDEs are breakdown products of PBDEs and also naturally produced compounds. In this work, the levels of OH-BDEs were determined in lake sediments from Minnesota and esturaine sediments from San Francisco Bay. Both surface sediments over a broad spatial area and sediment cores were collected and analyzed. Triclosan was used as a marker of wastewater as a source of the targeted emerging contaminants. The relationship between triclosan and OH-BDE levels provides insight into the importance of natural and anthropogenic influences on the levels of OH-BDEs.

  1. POLYBROMINATED DEPHENYL ETHERS (PBDES) AND ORTHO-SUBSTITUTED POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) AS NEUROENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS OF VASOPRESSIN RELEASE: EFFECTS DURING PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIVATION IN VITRO AND STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The neuropeptide, vasopressin (VP) is synthesized in magnocellular neuroendocrine cells (MNCs) located within the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the mammalian hypothalamus. VP has multiple functions including maintenance of body fluid homeostasis, cardiovasc...

  2. Air-sea Exchange of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammel, G. P.; Heil, A.; Kukucka, P.; Meixner, F. X.; Mulder, M. D.; Prybilova, P.; Prokes, R.; Rusina, T. S.; Song, G. Z.; Vrana, B.

    2015-12-01

    The marine atmospheric environment is a receptor for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which are advected from sources on land, primary, such as biomass burning by-products (PAHs, dioxins), and secondary, such as volatilization from contaminated soils (PCBs, pesticides). Primary sources do not exist in the marine environment, except for PAHs (ship engines) but following previous atmospheric deposition, the sea surface may turn to a secondary source by reversal of diffusive air-sea mass exchange. No monitoring is in place. We studied the vertical fluxes of a wide range of primary and secondary emitted POPs based on measurements in air and surface seawater at a remote coastal site in the eastern Mediterranean (2012). To this end, silicon rubbers were used as passive water samplers, vertical concentration gradients were determined in air and fluxes were quantified based on Eddy covariance. Diffusive air-sea exchange fluxes of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and semivolatile PAHs were found close to phase equilibrium, except one PAH, retene, a wood burning tracer, was found seasonally net-volatilisational. Some PCBs, p,p'-DDE, penta- and hexachlorobenzene (PeCB, HCB) were mostly net-depositional, while PBDEs were net-volatilizational. Fluxes determined at a a remote coastal site ranged -33 - +2.4 µg m-2 d-1 for PAHs and -4.0 - +0.3 µg m-2 d-1for halogenated compounds (< 0 means net-deposition, > 0 means net-volatilization). It is concluded that nowadays in open seas more pollutants are undergoing reversal of the direction of air-sea exchange. Recgional fire activity records in combination with box model simulations suggest that deposition of retene during summer is followed by a reversal of air-sea exchange. The seawater surface as secondary source of pollution should be assessed based on flux measurements across seasons and over longer time periods.

  3. Distribution, potential source and ecotoxicological risk of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the surface water of the Three Gorges Dam region of the Yangtze River, China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jing; Yun, Xiaoyan; Liu, Minxia; Yang, Yuyi; Zhang, Miaomiao; Wang, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Distributions, potential sources and ecotoxicological risks of PCBs and PBDEs in surface water of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) region (Yangtze River, China) were investigated. Samples were collected from 18 sites from upstream (UTGD) and downstream (DTGD) of the TGD. Thirty-two PCBs and ten PBDEs were analyzed. ΣPCBs from the UTGD and DTGD ranged from 10.6 to 26.1 and 1.7 to 29.8 ng L(-1), respectively. ΣPBDEs from the UTGD and DTGD ranged from 2.0 to 17.6 and 0.8 to 11.1 ng L(-1), respectively. The total concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs showed a declining trend from the UTGD to DTGD. Independent-samples t test analysis showed no statistical significance of ΣPCBs and ΣPBDEs between the UTGD and DTGD samples. Principal component analysis indicated the difference of potential sources and levels of PCBs and PBDEs in the study area. The potential eco-toxicological risk of PCBs in surface water of the TGD region is very low, whereas special attention needs to be paid to PBDEs in the study area.

  4. Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as bioindicators in Canadian areas of concern in the Great Lakes Basin. 1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in eggs.

    PubMed

    De Solla, S R; Fernie, K J; Letcher, R J; Chu, S G; Drouillard, K G; Shahmiri, S

    2007-11-01

    We examined the concentrations and spatial patterns of congeners of PBDEs, PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides in snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) eggs from Areas of Concern (AOCs) on the Canadian shores of Lake Ontario, St. Lawrence River, and connecting channels. Eggs from Lyons Creek (Niagara River AOC) reflected a local PCB source over a range of 7.5 km (3.2-10.8) from the Welland Canal. PCB contamination in eggs declined with increasing distance from the Welland Canal, whereas the relative contribution of congeners associated with Aroclor 1248/1254 increased with sigma PCB concentrations. Compared to turtle eggs from other sites in Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, eggs from Lyons Creek and Snye Marsh had PCB congener patterns that reflected a strong contribution from Aroclor 1254. PCBs in the eggs were associated with industrial sources and reflected the composition of different Aroclor technical mixtures. Organochlorine pesticides in eggs tended to be highest at Hamilton Harbour and Bay of Quinte AOCs, and were dominated by DDE, sigma chlordane, and mirex. In contrast, PBDE congener patterns in turtle eggs resembled PentaBDE technical formulations regardless of absolute concentrations or location, and were largely associated with urban environments. PMID:18044496

  5. Distribution, potential source and ecotoxicological risk of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the surface water of the Three Gorges Dam region of the Yangtze River, China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jing; Yun, Xiaoyan; Liu, Minxia; Yang, Yuyi; Zhang, Miaomiao; Wang, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Distributions, potential sources and ecotoxicological risks of PCBs and PBDEs in surface water of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) region (Yangtze River, China) were investigated. Samples were collected from 18 sites from upstream (UTGD) and downstream (DTGD) of the TGD. Thirty-two PCBs and ten PBDEs were analyzed. ΣPCBs from the UTGD and DTGD ranged from 10.6 to 26.1 and 1.7 to 29.8 ng L(-1), respectively. ΣPBDEs from the UTGD and DTGD ranged from 2.0 to 17.6 and 0.8 to 11.1 ng L(-1), respectively. The total concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs showed a declining trend from the UTGD to DTGD. Independent-samples t test analysis showed no statistical significance of ΣPCBs and ΣPBDEs between the UTGD and DTGD samples. Principal component analysis indicated the difference of potential sources and levels of PCBs and PBDEs in the study area. The potential eco-toxicological risk of PCBs in surface water of the TGD region is very low, whereas special attention needs to be paid to PBDEs in the study area. PMID:24748369

  6. Waste disposal technologies for polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T; Lindstrom, F T

    1985-01-01

    Improper practices in the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes by land burial, chemical means and incineration distribute these chemicals and related compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) throughout the environment. The complete range of methods for disposal that have been proposed and are in use are examined and analyzed, with emphasis given to the two most commonly used methods: land burial and incineration. The understanding of aquifer contamination caused by migration of PCBs from subsurface burial sites requires a description of the physical, chemical and biological processes governing transport in unsaturated and saturated soils. For this purpose, a model is developed and solved for different soil conditions and external driving functions. The model couples together the fundamental transport phenomena for heat, mass, and moisture flow within the soil. To rehabilitate a contaminated aquifer, contaminated groundwaters are withdrawn through drainage wells, PCBs are extracted with solvents or activated carbon and treated by chemical, photochemical or thermal methods. The chemical and photochemical methods are reviewed, but primary emphasis is devoted to the use of incineration as the preferred method of disposal. After discussing the formation of PCDFs and PCDDs during combustion from chloroaromatic, chloroaliphatic, as well as organic and inorganic chloride precursors, performance characteristics of different thermal destructors are presented and analyzed. To understand how this information can be used, basic design equations are developed from governing heat and mass balances that can be applied to the construction of incinerators capable of more than 99.99% destruction with minimal to nondetectable levels of PCDFs and PCDDs. PMID:3921358

  7. Process for gamma ray induced degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, D.H.; Mincher, B.J.; Arbon, R.E.

    1998-08-25

    The invention is a process for the in-situ destruction of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in transformer oils and transformers. These compounds are broken down selectively by irradiation of the object or mixture using spent nuclear fuel or any isotopic source of high energy gamma radiation. For example, the level of applied dose required to decompose 400 ppm of polychlorinated biphenyl in transformer oil to less than 50 ppm is 500 kilograms. Destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls to levels of less than 50 ppm renders the transformer oil or transformer non-PCB contaminated under current regulations. Therefore, this process can be used to treat PCB contaminated oil and equipment to minimize or eliminate the generation of PCB hazardous waste. 5 figs.

  8. Estrogenicity of selected biphenyls evaluated using a recombinant yeast assay

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, T.W.; Kraut, D.H.; Sayler, G.S.; Layton, A.C.

    1998-09-01

    The estrogenic activity of biphenyl and 4-hydroxylated derivatives with varied levels of chloro- and/or hydroxyl substitution was measured in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based lac-Z ({beta}-galactosidase) reporter assay, {beta}-Galactosidase activity was compared with competitive binding to soluble mouse uterine estrogen receptor protein. The comparison of relative potency for biphenyls hydroxylated on one ring and chlorinated on the other ring (n = 5) revealed excellent correlation between the two systems (r{sup 2} = 0.995). However, estrogenicities of biphenyls hydroxylated and chlorinated on the same ring were not in agreement. Although weak ligand binding was demonstrated for these compounds, {beta}-galactosidase activity was not observed. Rather, these compounds were shown to be cytotoxic to yeast. The results of this study further support the hypothesis that both an unhindered phenolic ring and molecular symmetry are structural features associated with estrogenicity.

  9. Process for gamma ray induced degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Mincher, Bruce J.; Arbon, Rodney E.

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a process for the in-situ destruction of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in transformer oils and transformers. These compounds are broken down selectively by irradiation of the object or mixture using spent nuclear fuel or any isotopic source of high energy gamma radiation. For example, the level of applied dose required to decompose 400 ppm of polychlorinated biphenyl in transformer oil to less than 50 ppm is 500 kilogray. Destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls to levels of less than 50 ppm renders the transformer oil or transformer non-PCB contaminated under current regulations. Therefore, this process can be used to treat PCB contaminated oil and equipment to minimize or eliminate the generation of PCB hazardous waste.

  10. Characterizing the emissions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) from metallurgical processes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Chi; Wang, Ya-Fen; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2010-02-15

    This study investigated the characteristics of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) in the stack flue gases of the metallurgical processes. An examination of the PBDEs existing in the stack flue gases of sinter plants revealed that PBDEs can form during the combustion processes through the similar formation conditions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The PBDD/F and PBDE emission rates of the metallurgical facilities were 0.446-3.19 microg TEQ/h and 4470-27000 microg/h, correspondingly. Both emission rates could reach several orders higher than those of the reported sources, revealing that the metallurgical facilities are not only important PCDD/F but also significant PBDD/F and PBDE emission sources to the environment. BDE-209 is the most abundant PBDE congener in the emissions of metallurgical facilities and is found to be dominant in the atmosphere and soils. However, few studies have considered metallurgical facilities as potential PBDE contributors to the environment. Because PBDEs could form or not be completely destroyed in the feeding materials in the combustion system, PBDE contributions from combustion emission sources to the atmosphere should not be ignored and need further investigation.

  11. Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) in municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Chi; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Wang, Ya-Fen; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2010-05-01

    The stack flue gases and the ashes in different units of two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) are sampled to investigate the characteristics of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Bottom ashes (BA) exhibited much higher PBDD/F (8.11-52.2 pg TEQ/g) and PBDE contents (20.4-186 ng/g) than those of fly ashes (0.0932-2.02 pg TEQ/g and 0.332-25.5 ng/g), revealing that the PBDD/Fs and PBDEs in the feeding waste may not be completely destroyed. The PBDE concentrations/contents in the stack flue gases (26.1-109 ng/Nm(3)) and in the BA (20.4-186 ng/g) of the MSWIs could reach three orders higher than those in the atmosphere and reference soils. PBDE contributions to the environment from the stack flue gases or the reutilization of BA of MSWIs should not be ignored from the developing PBDE inventory.

  12. Exposure Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Biphenyl in the Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeon-Yeong; Shin, Sae-Mi; Ham, Miran; Lim, Cheol-Hong; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to assess exposure to and the risk caused by biphenyl in the workplace. Biphenyl is widely used as a heat transfer medium and as an emulsifier and polish in industry. Vapor or high levels of dust inhalation and dermal exposure to biphenyl can cause eye inflammation, irritation of respiratory organs, and permanent lesions in the liver and nervous system. In this study, the workplace environment concentrations were assessed as central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure and were shown to be 0.03 and 0.12 mg/m3, respectively. In addition, the carcinogenic risk of biphenyl as determined by risk assessment was 0.14 × 10−4 (central tendency exposure) and 0.56 × 10−4 (reasonable maximum exposure), which is below the acceptable risk value of 1.0 × 10−4. Furthermore, the central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure hazard quotients were 0.01 and 0.06 for oral toxicity, 0.05 and 0.23 for inhalation toxicity, and 0.08 and 0.39 for reproduction toxicity, respectively, which are all lower than the acceptable hazard quotient of 1.0. Therefore, exposure to biphenyl was found to be safe in current workplace environments. Because occupational exposure limits are based on socioeconomic assessment, they are generally higher than true values seen in toxicity experiments. Based on the results of exposure monitoring of biphenyl, the current occupational exposure limits in Korea could be reviewed. PMID:25985312

  13. 40 CFR 721.10417 - Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10417 Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338). (a... generically as biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (PMN P-11-338) is subject to reporting under this section...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10417 - Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10417 Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338). (a... generically as biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (PMN P-11-338) is subject to reporting under this section...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10417 - Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10417 Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338). (a... generically as biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (PMN P-11-338) is subject to reporting under this section...

  16. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400 AND PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOALCALIGENES KF707

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in th...

  17. OXIDATION OF BIPHENYL BY A MULTICOMPONENT ENZYME SYSTEM FROM PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 grows on biphenyl as the sole carbon and energy source. This organism also cooxidizes several chlorinated biphenyl congeners. Biphenyl dioxygenase activity in cell extract required addition of NAD(P)H as an electron donor for the conversion of bipheny...

  18. Chicago's Sanitary and Ship Canal sediment: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, and organophosphate esters.

    PubMed

    Peverly, Angela A; O'Sullivan, Colin; Liu, Liang-Ying; Venier, Marta; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C; Hites, Ronald A

    2015-09-01

    The Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) links the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River starting in downtown Chicago. In addition to storm water, the CSSC receives water from Chicago's wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Such effluents are known to be sources of organic pollutants to water and sediment. Therefore in 2013, we collected 10 sediment samples from the CSSC and measured the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants, and organophosphate esters (OPEs). Geometric mean concentrations of the summed concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 11,000 to 420,000 ng/g dw, with the highest concentrations located at each end of the canal. Total PCB concentrations had a geometric mean of 1,400 ± 500 ng/g dw. Brominated flame retardants were separated into two groups: polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and non-PBDEs. Concentrations of PBDEs and those of the non-PBDE flame retardants had a geometric average of 83 ± 19 and 7.0 ± 5.8 ng/g dw, respectively. The summed concentrations of 8 OPEs ranged from 470 to 2,800 ng/g dw, with the highest concentration detected at a site located downstream of the Stickney water reclamation plant. Using ANOVA results, some hypotheses on sources to the CSSC could be formulated: downtown Chicago is probably a source of PAHs, the Cal-Sag Channel may be a source of PCBs, and neither the WWTP nor the Cal-Sag Channel seem to be significant sources of brominated flame retardants or OPEs.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides in selected cereals available on the Polish retail market.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Szymczyk, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (DDT, HCH, HCB, chlordane, endrin, dieldrin, aldrin, nitrophene, metoxychlor) are man-made chemicals manufactured for numerous applications. The aim of this study was to assess levels of PCBs, PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides in selected types of cereals available on the Polish retail market. 191 samples of various cereals have been analyzed in total. Average EC6 concentrations ranged from 56.4 (snacks) to 442.2 pg g(-1) (bran) while the concentration of 12 dioxin-like PCBs was in 15 (groats)-37.6 pg g(-1) (snacks) range. Mean dioxin equivalency concentration calculated as lower bound results in 2005 TEF values amounted to 0.120 ± 0.445 pg TEQ g(-1), while 0.091 ± 0.338 pg TEQ g(-1) if 1998 TEF values were used. Average concentration of all 14 studied BDEs (∑14 BDE) was 112 ± 80 pg g(-1), while average concentration of 13 BDEs excluding BDE #209 was only 15 ± 6 pg g(-1). Pesticide concentrations observed in the analyzed samples were generally low in comparison to maximum residue levels (MRLs) actually permitted by the European Union. However, MRLs were exceeded in 7 out of all 191 analyzed samples. Total concentration of DDT isomers in one of the tested bran samples was as high as 0.053 mg kg(-1). DMDT concentrations slightly above MRL = 0.01 mg kg(-1)were observed in 6 other samples (2 × bran, 1 × children porridge, 2 × snacks and 1 × bread). This study has shown that levels of PCBs, PBDEs and organochlorine pesticides in cereal products available on the Polish market are generally low. However, elevated levels of individual pollutants were observed in several instances. PMID:23906852

  20. Chicago's Sanitary and Ship Canal sediment: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, and organophosphate esters.

    PubMed

    Peverly, Angela A; O'Sullivan, Colin; Liu, Liang-Ying; Venier, Marta; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C; Hites, Ronald A

    2015-09-01

    The Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) links the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River starting in downtown Chicago. In addition to storm water, the CSSC receives water from Chicago's wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Such effluents are known to be sources of organic pollutants to water and sediment. Therefore in 2013, we collected 10 sediment samples from the CSSC and measured the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants, and organophosphate esters (OPEs). Geometric mean concentrations of the summed concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 11,000 to 420,000 ng/g dw, with the highest concentrations located at each end of the canal. Total PCB concentrations had a geometric mean of 1,400 ± 500 ng/g dw. Brominated flame retardants were separated into two groups: polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and non-PBDEs. Concentrations of PBDEs and those of the non-PBDE flame retardants had a geometric average of 83 ± 19 and 7.0 ± 5.8 ng/g dw, respectively. The summed concentrations of 8 OPEs ranged from 470 to 2,800 ng/g dw, with the highest concentration detected at a site located downstream of the Stickney water reclamation plant. Using ANOVA results, some hypotheses on sources to the CSSC could be formulated: downtown Chicago is probably a source of PAHs, the Cal-Sag Channel may be a source of PCBs, and neither the WWTP nor the Cal-Sag Channel seem to be significant sources of brominated flame retardants or OPEs. PMID:25981316

  1. Thyrotoxic and dopaminergic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    Perturbations in the developing nervous system have been associated with perinatal exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). To determine which PCBs accumulate in brain following perinatal exposure, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by gavage to Aroclor 1242 (4 or 16 mg/kg/day) during days 10-16 of gestation. At weaning (day 21), analysis of pup brain (frontal cortex, hippocampus, and caudate putamen) by gas chromatography revealed ten peaks representing 10-14 congeners in PCB-exposed animals. Brain PCB concentrations were greatest in high-dose pups for all congeners except for 2,4,4[prime]-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 28) which had a higher concentration in the low-dose group. Congeners differed significantly in their degree of bioaccumulation, but no significant differences among brain regions were found. A lack of regionalization of PCB residues in the brain was also demonstrated by autoradiography in weanling rats treated iv with [[sup 14]C]-3,3[prime],4,4[prime]-tetrachlorobiphenyl or [[sup 14]C]-2,2[prime],4,4[prime]-tetrachlorobiphenyl. Time-mated Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed on days 10-16 of gestation to three environmentally-relevant PCBs: 2,4,4[prime]-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 28), 8 or 32 mg/kg/day; 2,3[prime],4,4[prime],5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118), 4 or 16 mg/kg/day; or 2,2[prime],4,4[prime],5,5[prime]-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), 16 or 64 mg/kg/day. At weaning, serum total thyroxin, but not triiodothyronine, was markedly depressed in pups exposed perinatally to PCB 118 or 153; and thyroid glands from PCB 118-treated pups revealed histologic changes suggestive of sustained TSH stimulation. No significant PCB-induced changes were detected in the activity of the rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines, tyrosine hydroxylase, in the caudate putamen at weaning or in adulthood. Likewise no significant changes were detected in dopamine receptor (D1 and D2) concentrations in several regions in the mesocortical and nigrostriatal pathways.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls in agricultural soils from the Yangtze River Delta of China: Regional contamination characteristics, combined ecological effects and human health risks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianteng; Pan, Lili; Tsang, Daniel C W; Zhan, Yu; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Xilong; Zhu, Lizhong; Li, Xiangdong

    2016-11-01

    The current contamination status of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was studied in the agricultural soils of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), one of the largest economic zones in China. The concentrations of PCBs ranged from <0.1 to 130 ng/g dry weight. Higher concentrations of PCBs were observed in the 0-30 cm surface layers relative to the subsurface soils. A distinct spatial distribution was observed with a declining concentration gradient from the northwest to the southeast of the region. The composition of PCBs in the soils was consistent with the Chinese commercial PCB mixtures, but different from the compositions in global background soil. Local sources including large-scale use and disposal of PCB-containing products were the main potential sources to soil. The ecological effects and human health risks associated with combined persistent organic pollutants, including PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were further estimated. The four toxic organic compounds and seven physicochemical parameters together could only explain 12.7% of the variation in microbial community composition, suggesting the soil ecosystem function was not strongly influenced by the combined pollution at low concentrations. However, the potential health risks to residents via multiple pathways were notably higher for PCBs than other chemicals. The potential risks were mainly derived from PCB-126, 81, and 169. PMID:27565309

  3. Brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in captive giant panda (ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens) from China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guo-Cheng; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Dai, Jia-Yin; Zhang, Xiu-Lan; Wu, Hua; Zhang, Cheng-Lin; Guo, Wei; Xu, Mu-Qi; Mai, Bi-Xian; Weit, Fu-Wen

    2008-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were investigated in captive giant and red panda tissues from China. The total concentrations of OCPs, PCBs, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in tissues ranged from 16.3 to 888 ng/g lipid weight (lw), 24.8 to 854 ng/g lw, and 16.4 to 2158 ng/g lw, respectively. p,p'-DDE and beta-HCH were major OCP contaminants. PCBs 99, 118, 153/132, 170, 180, and 209 were the major contributing congeners determined. Among PBDEs, congener BDE-209 was the most frequent and abundant, followed by BDE-206, BDE-208, BDE-207, BDE-203, BDE-47, and BDE-153. Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DeBDethane) was detected in 87 and 71% of the giant and red panda samples with concentrations up to 863 ng/g lw, respectively. The remarkable levels and dominance of BDE-209 and DeBDethane may relate to significant production, usage, or disposal of BFRs in China. The positive significant correlation between concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in captive pandas may suggest that the exposure routes of PBDEs and PCBs to panda are similar. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the occurrence of DeBDethane in captive wildlife samples. Therefore, further studies are warranted to better understand DeBDethane production, transport, uptake, and toxicological effect.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls in agricultural soils from the Yangtze River Delta of China: Regional contamination characteristics, combined ecological effects and human health risks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianteng; Pan, Lili; Tsang, Daniel C W; Zhan, Yu; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Xilong; Zhu, Lizhong; Li, Xiangdong

    2016-11-01

    The current contamination status of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was studied in the agricultural soils of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), one of the largest economic zones in China. The concentrations of PCBs ranged from <0.1 to 130 ng/g dry weight. Higher concentrations of PCBs were observed in the 0-30 cm surface layers relative to the subsurface soils. A distinct spatial distribution was observed with a declining concentration gradient from the northwest to the southeast of the region. The composition of PCBs in the soils was consistent with the Chinese commercial PCB mixtures, but different from the compositions in global background soil. Local sources including large-scale use and disposal of PCB-containing products were the main potential sources to soil. The ecological effects and human health risks associated with combined persistent organic pollutants, including PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were further estimated. The four toxic organic compounds and seven physicochemical parameters together could only explain 12.7% of the variation in microbial community composition, suggesting the soil ecosystem function was not strongly influenced by the combined pollution at low concentrations. However, the potential health risks to residents via multiple pathways were notably higher for PCBs than other chemicals. The potential risks were mainly derived from PCB-126, 81, and 169.

  5. IRIS Toxicological Review of Biphenyl (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Biphenyl, that was distributed to other federal agencies and the Executive Office of the President for comment during Interagency Science Discussion (IASD) (Step 6b) of the IRIS assessment development process. Interagenc...

  6. IRIS Toxicological Review of Biphenyl (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On September 30, 2011, the draft Toxicological Review of Biphenyl and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House...

  7. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 109.30 Section 109.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...

  8. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Sources, Emissions, and Environmental Levels in School Buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building materials and components containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in some U.S. school buildings until the late 1970s and may be present today. PCB emission rates from caulk and fluorescent light ballasts were measured in laboratory chambers. PCB concentrat...

  9. DIRECT ELECTROCHEMICAL IMMUNOSENSOR FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS. (R825323)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A direct electrochemical immunosensor has been developed for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in water. The assay is based on the measurement of the current due to the specific binding between PCB and anti-PCB antibody-immobilized conducting polymer matrix. T...

  10. Polychlorinated Biphenyls: In situ Bioremediation from the Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of hydrophobic and stable organic compounds consisting of 209 possible congeners. Because of their unique physico-chemical properties, PCBs were used in a wide range of industrial applications. The properties that made PCBs useful in i...

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyl sources, environmental levels, and exposures in school buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Building materials and components containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in some U.S. school buildings until the late 1970s and may be present today. There is limited information on source factors and occupant exposures. Methods: Analysis of PCBs in mat...

  12. 77 FR 54863 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Revisions to Manifesting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 761 ] RIN 2050-AG71 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Revisions to Manifesting... Protection Agency (``EPA'' or ``the Agency'') is issuing this proposed rule to update and clarify several... Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Today's changes are to match, as much as possible, the...

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls in human blood samples of Bombay

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, C.V. ); Banerji, S. )

    1989-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have received considerable attention in the last two decades, since studies have shown that these are extremely persistent environmental pollutants worldover. Presence of PCBs in human blood has been reported by several investigators. This paper reports the levels of PCBs in the blood of 60 professional and 20 voluntary blood donors.

  14. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-2 - Polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) General. (1) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one member of a class of chlorinated aromatic compounds... Protection Agency regulation (40 CFR 761), applicable State laws, and 41 CFR 101-42.1102-2. For proper disposal information, contact the nearest EPA office. For transportation requirements, see 49 CFR Parts...

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in San Francisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Davis, J A; Hetzel, F; Oram, J J; McKee, L J

    2007-09-01

    San Francisco Bay is facing a legacy of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) spread widely across the land surface of the watershed, mixed deep into the sediment of the Bay, and contaminating the Bay food web to a degree that poses health risks to humans and wildlife. In response to this persistent problem, water quality managers are establishing a PCB total maximum daily load (TMDL) and implementation plan to accelerate the recovery of the Bay from decades of PCB contamination. This article provides a review of progress made over the past 15 years in managing PCBs and understanding their sources, pathways, fate, and effects in the Bay, and highlights remaining information needs that should be addressed in the next 10 years. The phaseout of PCBs during the 1970s and the 1979 federal ban on sale and production led to gradual declines from the 1970s to the present. However, 25 years after the ban, PCB concentrations in some Bay sport fish today are still more than ten times higher than the threshold of concern for human health. Without further management action it appears that the general recovery of the Bay from PCB contamination will take many more decades. PCB concentrations in sport fish were, along with mercury, a primary cause of a consumption advisory for the Bay and the consequent classification of the Bay as an impaired water body. Several sources of information indicate that PCB concentrations in the Bay may also be high enough to adversely affect wildlife, including rare and endangered species. The greater than 90% reduction in food web contamination needed to meet the targets for protection of human health would likely also generally eliminate risks to wildlife. PCB contamination in the Bay is primarily associated with industrial areas along the shoreline and in local watersheds. Strong spatial gradients in PCB concentrations persist decades after the release of these chemicals to Bay Area waterways. Through the TMDL process, attention is being more sharply

  16. Airborne polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), and dechlorane plus (DP) in concentrated vehicle parking areas.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiru; Liu, Hehuan; Mo, Ligui; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Peng, Ping'an

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), and dechlorane plus (DP) in air around three concentrated vehicle parking areas (underground, indoor, and outdoor) in a metropolitan of South China. The parking areas showed higher concentrations of PBDEs, PBDD/Fs, and DP than their adjacent urban area or distinct congener/isomer profiles, which indicate their local emission sources. The highest PBDE and DP concentrations were found in the outdoor parking lot, which might be related to the heating effect of direct sunlight exposure. Multi-linear regression analysis results suggest that deca-BDEs without noticeable transformation contributed most to airborne PBDEs in all studied areas, followed by penta-BDEs. The statistically lower anti-DP fractions in the urban area than that of commercial product signified its degradation/transformation during transportation. Neither PBDEs nor vehicle exhaust contributed much to airborne PBDD/Fs in the parking areas. There were 68.1-100 % of PBDEs, PBDD/Fs, and DP associated with particles. Logarithms of gas-particle distribution coefficients (K ps) of PBDEs were significantly linear-correlated with those of their sub-cooled vapor pressures (p Ls) and octanol-air partition coefficients (K OAs) in all studied areas. The daily inhalation doses of PBDEs, DP, and PBDD/Fs were individually estimated as 89.7-10,741, 2.05-39.4, and 0.12-4.17 pg kg(-1) day(-1) for employees in the parking areas via Monte Carlo simulation.

  17. Photochemical decomposition of dissolved hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers under various aqueous conditions.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Patricia Moreira; Eriksson, Johan; Bergman, Ake

    2009-10-01

    The area of fire protection has grown over the last decades with an increasing use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). Some of the BFRs are phenolic compounds as applied, e.g. tetrabromobisphenol A and 2,4,6-tribromophenol. Others, like the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), can be metabolized to phenolic compounds, i.e. polybrominated phenoxyphenols (OH-PBDEs). OH-PBDEs, have to our knowledge never been commercially produced, but some are well known natural products, and found in high concentrations in biota. The present study is aimed to determine the susceptibility of OH-PBDEs to undergo photolysis when dissolved in water and to compare their reactivity with a couple of PBDE congeners. A previously developed method for studies of photolysis was applied and adapted to include OH-PBDEs in water at pH 7 and 11, water/methanol and water/hydrogen peroxide. The results indicate a change in reaction rates for the photolysis of OH-PBDE in different aqueous media and pH dependence. The results from the present study show that hydroxylated compounds rapidly undergo photolytic transformations in water. The OH-PBDEs are more rapidly transformed then PBDE congeners with similar numbers of bromine substituents. All the OH-PBDEs, independent of structure, are rapidly transformed, with approx. the same rate, when hydrogen peroxide is present, indicating another route of reaction. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) are indicated as transformation products upon photolysis of OH-PBDEs with a favorable bromine substitution pattern.

  18. Composition, distribution, and characterization of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Fu, S; Yang, Z Z; Zhang, L; Li, K; Xu, X B

    2009-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of 8 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China. The PBDE concentrations in 10 samples collected in Beijing ranged from 8.47 to 29.02 ng g(-1), with BDE-209 as the predominant congener (>85%). Principal component analysis revealed that the major source of PBDEs in Beijing may be potentially associated with deca-BDE. Furthermore, increasing PBDE contamination was observed from northwest to east Beijing. Finally, possible factors affecting contamination of the sandstorm depositions were subsequently explored revealing a significant correlation between SigmaPBDEs and the minimum particle size of the sandstorm deposition samples. PMID:19322505

  19. Classification of polychlorinated biphenyl residues: isomers vs. homologue concentrations in modeling aroclors and polychlorinated biphenyl residues

    SciTech Connect

    Stalling, D.L.; Schwartz, T.R.; Dunn, W.J. III; Wold, S.

    1987-07-15

    SIMCA (soft independent modeling by class analogy), a principal components chemometric modeling program, was used to examine complex mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyl residues (PCBs) in fish and turtles. Individual PCB isomers were measured by electron capture capillary gas chromatography. The authors calculated PCB (Cl/sub 1-10/) congener concentrations by summing 105 isomer concentrations into homologue subgroups. Information theory was used to estimate the maximum information content of the two data sets. The authors compared the results from principal components modeling of samples and Aroclors by using both isomer and Cl/sub 1-10/ homologue concentrations. Modeling of normalized data from Aroclors or their mixtures gave similar sample score plots for both data sets. However, modeling environmental sample congener concentrations gave erroneous classification results when compared to results from modeling isomer data. Although the Cl/sub 1-10/ sums accurately reflect the concentration of PCBs in the sample, calculations to determine PCB profiles as Aroclor mixtures should be made by using individual PCB isomers.

  20. Characterization of biphenyl catabolic genes of gram-positive polychlorinated biphenyl degrader rhodococcus sp. strain RHA1

    SciTech Connect

    Masai, Eiji; Hatta, Takashi; Kimbara, Kazuhide

    1995-06-01

    Rhodococcus sp. strain RHA1 is a gram-positive polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrader which can degrade 10 ppm of PCB-48 (equivalent to Aroclor 1248), including tri-, tetra-, and pentachlorobiphenyls, in a few days. We isolated the 7.6-kb EcoRI-BamHI fragment carrying the biphenyl catabolic genes of RHA1 and determined their nucleotide sequence. On the basis of deduced amino acid sequence homology, we identified six bph genes, bphA1A2A3A4, bphB, and bphC, that are responsible for the initial three steps of biphenyl degradation. The order of bph genes in RHA1 is bphA1A2A3A4-bphC-bphB. This gene order differs from that of other PCB degraders reported previously. The amino acid sequences deduced from the RHA1 bph genes have a higher degree of homology with the tod genes from Pseudomonas putida F1 (49 to 79%) than with the bph genes of Pseudomonas sp. strains KF707 and KKS102 (30-65%). FIn Escherichia coli, bphA gene activity was not observed even when expression vectors were used. The activities of bphB and bphC, however, were confirmed by observing the transformation of biphenyl to a meta-cleavage compound with the aid of benzene dioxygenase activity that complemented the bphA gene activity (S. Irie, S. Djoi, T. Yorifuji, M. Takagi, and K. Yano, J. Bacteriol. 169:5174-5179, 1987). The expected products of the cloned bph genes, except bphA3, were observed in E. coli in an in vitro transcription-translation system. Insertion mutations of bphA1 and bphC of Rhodococcus sp. strain RHA1 were constructed by gene replacement with cloned gene fragments. The bphA1 and bphC insertion mutants lost the ability to grow on biphenyl, demonstrating that the cloned bph genes are essential for biphenyl catabolism in this strain. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) in biosolids from municipal wastewater treatment plants in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianteng; Liu, Jiyan; Liu, Qian; Ruan, Ting; Yu, Miao; Wang, Yawei; Wang, Thanh; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-03-01

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) along with methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) have been frequently identified as natural compounds in marine environment and also assumed as metabolites of PBDEs. In the present study, nine OH-PBDE, nine MeO-PBDE and 10 PBDE congeners were studied in the sewage sludge collected from 36 municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in 27 cities of China. The results suggest that OH-PBDEs and PBDEs are ubiquitous in sewage sludge in China, however, methoxylated PBDEs were not detectable. Composition profiles of detected OH-PBDE congeners were different depending on the sampling location. ΣOH-PBDEs in WWTPs sludge ranged from 0.04 to 2.24 ng g(-1) dry weight (mean: 0.35 ng g(-1) dry weight). The total amount of the two most prominent congeners (6-OH-BDE-47+2'-OH-BDE-68) accounted for about 53.3-100% of the sum of all six identified congeners. A significant linear relationship was found between 6-OH-BDE-47 and 2'-OH-BDE-68. A distinct geographical distribution of ΣOH-PBDEs was observed with greater concentrations of OH-PBDEs at coastal areas than inland regions in China. PMID:23141840

  2. Brominated-chlorinated diphenyl ethers formed by thermolysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Silke; Metzger, Jörg W

    2005-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) used mainly as additives in different kinds of plastic material. Various PBDEs are found in all environmental compartments as well as in tissue and blood serum of animals and humans due to their persistence and tendency to bioaccumulate. Emission of PBDEs into the environment can occur during recycling of PBDE-containing plastic material or during their uncontrolled or insufficient combustion as e.g. in accidental fires or landfill fires. Under these circumstances, PBDEs can also function as precursor molecules for the formation of polybrominated dibenzodioxins (PBDDs) and dibenzofurans (PBDFs). In this study, we qualitatively investigated the reaction of two PBDE congeners, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (BDE 47) and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromo diphenyl ether (BDE 153), as well as hexabromobenzene (HBB), a flame retardant used in the past, when exposed to temperatures between 250 degrees C and 500 degrees C. The formed reaction products were analysed by high resolution gas chromatography-low resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-LRMS). Among others brominated-chlorinated diphenyl ethers were formed by chlorodebromination of the PBDEs. In addition, thermolysis of BDE 47 and BDE 153 in the presence of tetrachloromethane as model substance for an organic chlorine source was studied. Thermal treatment of HBB resulted in the formation of brominated-chlorinated benzenes. PMID:16083771

  3. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Presence in the Columbia River Corridor

    SciTech Connect

    R. M. Hermann

    2007-09-06

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 regulations to develop a conceptual understanding of potential contaminant releases from the Hanford Site based on an evaluation of existing data and known historical practices. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one environmental contaminant potentially released through leaks, spills, or disposal. This document presents a summary of selected relevant existing information, including environmental studies and Hanford Site analytical data.

  4. Wastewater dilution index partially explains observed polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardant concentrations in osprey eggs from Columbia River Basin, 2008-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, Charles J.; Grove, Robert A.; Kaiser, James L.; Johnson, Branden L.; Furl, Chad V.; Letcher, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Several polybrominated biphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were found in all 175 osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs collected from the Columbia River Basin between 2002 and 2009. ΣPBDE concentrations in 2008–2009 were highest in osprey eggs from the two lowest flow rivers studied; however, each river flowed through relatively large and populous metropolitan areas (Boise, Idaho and Spokane, Washington). We used the volume of Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) discharge, a known source of PBDEs, as a measure of human activity at a location, and combined with river flow (both converted to millions of gallons/day) created a novel approach (an approximate Dilution Index) to relate waterborne contaminants to levels of these contaminants that reach avian eggs. This approach provided a useful understanding of the spatial osprey egg concentration patterns observed. Individual osprey egg concentrations along the Upper Willamette River co-varied with the Dilution Index, while combined egg data (geometric means) from rivers or segments of rivers showed a strong, significant relationship to the Dilution Index with one exception, the Boise River. There, we believe osprey egg concentrations were lower than expected because Boise River ospreys foraged perhaps 50–75% of the time off the river at ponds and lakes stocked with fish that contained relatively low ΣPBDE concentrations. Our limited temporal data at specific localities (2004–2009) suggests that ΣPBDE concentrations in osprey eggs peaked between 2005 and 2007, and then decreased, perhaps in response to penta- and octa-PBDE technical mixtures no longer being used in the USA after 2004. Empirical estimates of biomagnification factors (BMFs) from fish to osprey eggs were 3.76–7.52 on a wet weight (ww) basis or 4.37–11.0 lipid weight. Our earlier osprey study suggested that ΣPBDE egg concentrations >1,000 ng/g ww may reduce osprey reproductive success. Only two of the study areas sampled in 2008–2009 contained

  5. Wastewater dilution index partially explains observed polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardant concentrations in osprey eggs from Columbia River Basin, 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Henny, Charles J; Grove, Robert A; Kaiser, James L; Johnson, Branden L; Furl, Chad V; Letcher, Robert J

    2011-06-01

    Several polybrominated biphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were found in all 175 osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs collected from the Columbia River Basin between 2002 and 2009. ΣPBDE concentrations in 2008-2009 were highest in osprey eggs from the two lowest flow rivers studied; however, each river flowed through relatively large and populous metropolitan areas (Boise, Idaho and Spokane, Washington). We used the volume of Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) discharge, a known source of PBDEs, as a measure of human activity at a location, and combined with river flow (both converted to millions of gallons/day) created a novel approach (an approximate Dilution Index) to relate waterborne contaminants to levels of these contaminants that reach avian eggs. This approach provided a useful understanding of the spatial osprey egg concentration patterns observed. Individual osprey egg concentrations along the Upper Willamette River co-varied with the Dilution Index, while combined egg data (geometric means) from rivers or segments of rivers showed a strong, significant relationship to the Dilution Index with one exception, the Boise River. There, we believe osprey egg concentrations were lower than expected because Boise River ospreys foraged perhaps 50-75% of the time off the river at ponds and lakes stocked with fish that contained relatively low ΣPBDE concentrations. Our limited temporal data at specific localities (2004-2009) suggests that ΣPBDE concentrations in osprey eggs peaked between 2005 and 2007, and then decreased, perhaps in response to penta- and octa-PBDE technical mixtures no longer being used in the USA after 2004. Empirical estimates of biomagnification factors (BMFs) from fish to osprey eggs were 3.76-7.52 on a wet weight (ww) basis or 4.37-11.0 lipid weight. Our earlier osprey study suggested that ΣPBDE egg concentrations >1,000 ng/g ww may reduce osprey reproductive success. Only two of the study areas sampled in 2008-2009 contained individual eggs with

  6. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and multiple stressors influence the reproduction of free-ranging tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting at wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Tiffany T; Letcher, Robert J; Thomas, Philippe; Fernie, Kim J

    2014-02-15

    Reproductive success of birds is influenced by maternal factors, ambient temperatures, predation, food supply, and/or exposure to environmental contaminants e.g., flame retardants (FRs). Reproduction of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) was compared among waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and a reference reservoir in Ontario, Canada (2007-2010), to determine the importance of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) FRs within a complex contaminant cocktail, relative to natural and biological factors known to influence avian reproduction. The birds primarily consumed insects emerging from the reference reservoir and WWTP outflows, where effluent mixed with receiving waters. FR egg concentrations were dominated by 5 PBDE congeners (∑5PBDEs): 2,2'.4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2'4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153), and 2,2',4,4',5,6'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-154), with much lower concentrations of decabromodiphenylether (BDE-209), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), and novel FRs. Although higher than ∑5PBDEs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) egg concentrations were unlikely to affect the swallows' reproduction. Clutch size and timing, fledging, breeding success, and predation, varied significantly among sites, generally being poorer at WWTP1 and better at WWTP2. The early reproductive stages were sensitive to some FRs at measured concentrations. The ∑5PBDEs, maternal age, and minimum ambient temperatures predicted onset of egg laying in the most parsimonious statistical model, and there were positive relationships between egg size and HBCDD or BDE-209 concentrations. However, there were no significant correlations with any reproductive measures, individual BDE congeners or low concentrations of novel FRs, in this first such report for novel FRs and wild birds. Tree swallows are passerines, and passerines may differ from birds of prey

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and multiple stressors influence the reproduction of free-ranging tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting at wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Tiffany T; Letcher, Robert J; Thomas, Philippe; Fernie, Kim J

    2014-02-15

    Reproductive success of birds is influenced by maternal factors, ambient temperatures, predation, food supply, and/or exposure to environmental contaminants e.g., flame retardants (FRs). Reproduction of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) was compared among waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and a reference reservoir in Ontario, Canada (2007-2010), to determine the importance of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) FRs within a complex contaminant cocktail, relative to natural and biological factors known to influence avian reproduction. The birds primarily consumed insects emerging from the reference reservoir and WWTP outflows, where effluent mixed with receiving waters. FR egg concentrations were dominated by 5 PBDE congeners (∑5PBDEs): 2,2'.4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2'4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153), and 2,2',4,4',5,6'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-154), with much lower concentrations of decabromodiphenylether (BDE-209), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), and novel FRs. Although higher than ∑5PBDEs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) egg concentrations were unlikely to affect the swallows' reproduction. Clutch size and timing, fledging, breeding success, and predation, varied significantly among sites, generally being poorer at WWTP1 and better at WWTP2. The early reproductive stages were sensitive to some FRs at measured concentrations. The ∑5PBDEs, maternal age, and minimum ambient temperatures predicted onset of egg laying in the most parsimonious statistical model, and there were positive relationships between egg size and HBCDD or BDE-209 concentrations. However, there were no significant correlations with any reproductive measures, individual BDE congeners or low concentrations of novel FRs, in this first such report for novel FRs and wild birds. Tree swallows are passerines, and passerines may differ from birds of prey

  8. Metabolic and health consequences of occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, A B; Schloemer, J; Lowry, L K; Smallwood, A W; Ligo, R N; Tanaka, S; Stringer, W; Jones, M; Hervin, R; Glueck, C J

    1982-01-01

    In surveys of three groups of workers occupationally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) serum PCB concentrations were quantitated as lower chlorinated biphenyls (L-PCBs) and higher chlorinated biphenyls (H-PCBs). Serum L-PCB and H-PCB concentrations were many times greater among workers employed in power capacitor manufacturing than exposed areas. Statistically significant positive correlations of symptoms suggestive of mucous membrane and skin irritation, of systemic malaise, and altered peripheral sensation were noted with increasing concentrations of serum PCB. No clinical abnormalities attributable to exposure to PCB were observed. Serum PCB concentrations were positively and significantly correlated with glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP), and plasma triglyceride, and inversely correlated with plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol. These correlations were present across all study sites. These findings are indicative of PCBs' physiological effect on the liver, whose long-range health significance is unknown. Nevertheless, the consistent positive association of serum PCB with plasma triglyceride and negative association with plasma HDL-cholesterol may have long-term cardiovascular consequences. PMID:6128023

  9. Acute developmental exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether 47 (PBDE 47) alters dopamine concentration within the brains of male mice.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Previous studies in our laboratory and in the literature have shown that exposure to a specific PBDE congener, PBDE 47, during a criti...

  10. THE EFFECTS OF DE-71, A COMMERCIAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL EITHER MIXTURE, ON FEMALE PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT AND THYROID FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE EFFECTS OF DE-71, A COMMERICAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER MIXTURE, ON FEMALE PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT AND THYROID FUNCTION. S.C. Laws1, J. M. Ferrell1, J. M Hedge2, K. M. Crofton2, R.L. Cooper1, and T.E. Stoker1. 1Reprod. Tox. Div., 2Neurotox. Div., NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, R...

  11. Comparative Absorption and Bioaccumulation of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers following Ingestion via Dust and Oil in Male Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Household dust has been implicated as a major source of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure in humans. This finding has important implications for young children, who tend to ingest more dust than adults and may be more susceptible to some of the putative developmental...

  12. Tissue distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in rats following oral exposure and the relationship to body burdens

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of widely-used flame retardants which have been found to persist, bioaccumulate, and potentially affect development in animals. Humans are exposed to PBDEs through both their diet and indoor environment. In human exposure studies...

  13. IN VITRO EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTALLY RELEVANT POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER (PBDE) CONGENERS ON CALCIUM BUFFERING MECHANISMS IN RAT BRAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as additive flame-retardants and have been detected in human blood, adipose tissue, and breast milk. Developmental and long-term exposures to these chemicals may pose a human health risk, especially to children. We have previ...

  14. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Alter Hepatic Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Enzyme Kinetics in Male Wistar Rats: Implications for Lipid and Glucose Metabolism

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are a family of lipophilic brominated flame-retardants consisting of 209 possible congeners. Three PBDE commercially-produced mixtures are decabrominated diphenyl ether (e.g. deca-BDE or DE-83R); octabrominated diphenyl ether (e.g. octa-BDE o...

  15. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers from the marine organisms Lendenfeldia dendyi and Sinularia dura with anti-MRSa activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the marine sponge Lendenfeldia dendyi and the soft coral Sinularia dura resulted in the isolation of five polybrominated diphenyl ethers (1-5). The structures of the isolated compounds were determined using spectroscopic methods(lD and 2D NMR) and HRMS analyses. The ...

  16. Improving Infant Exposure and Health Risk Estimates: Using Serum Data to Predict Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Concentrations in Breast Milk

    EPA Science Inventory

    Women in the United States have breast milk concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) that are among the highest in the world, leading to concerns over the potential health implications to breastfeeding infants during critical stages of growth and development. Deve...

  17. Subculturing of a polychlorinated biphenyl-dechlorinating anaerobic enrichment on solid media.

    PubMed Central

    May, H D; Boyle, A W; Price, W A; Blake, C K

    1992-01-01

    An anaerobic culture capable of dechlorinating polychlorinated biphenyls was subcultured under strict anaerobic conditions on solid media containing sterilized river sediment. The dechlorination activity was transferred as a bacterial colony on a solid medium three times. After two transfers on solid medium, the culture was no longer methanogenic but still dechlorinated a mixture of tri- and tetrachlorobiphenyls. This demonstrates that anaerobic bacteria are responsible for the polychlorinated biphenyl dechlorination and can be grown without polychlorinated biphenyl on solid media. PMID:1476444

  18. Synergistic Processing of Biphenyl and Benzoate: Carbon Flow Through the Bacterial Community in Polychlorinated-Biphenyl-Contaminated Soil

    PubMed Central

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Uhlik, Ondrej; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic mineralization of PCBs, which are toxic and persistent organic pollutants, involves the upper (biphenyl, BP) and lower (benzoate, BZ) degradation pathways. The activity of different members of the soil microbial community in performing one or both pathways, and their synergistic interactions during PCB biodegradation, are not well understood. This study investigates BP and BZ biodegradation and subsequent carbon flow through the microbial community in PCB-contaminated soil. DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify the bacterial guilds involved in utilizing 13C-biphenyl (unchlorinated analogue of PCBs) and/or 13C-benzoate (product/intermediate of BP degradation and analogue of chlorobenzoates). By performing SIP with two substrates in parallel, we reveal microbes performing the upper (BP) and/or lower (BZ) degradation pathways, and heterotrophic bacteria involved indirectly in processing carbon derived from these substrates (i.e. through crossfeeding). Substrate mineralization rates and shifts in relative abundance of labeled taxa suggest that BP and BZ biotransformations were performed by microorganisms with different growth strategies: BZ-associated bacteria were fast growing, potentially copiotrophic organisms, while microbes that transform BP were oligotrophic, slower growing, organisms. Our findings provide novel insight into the functional interactions of soil bacteria active in processing biphenyl and related aromatic compounds in soil, revealing how carbon flows through a bacterial community. PMID:26915282

  19. Synergistic Processing of Biphenyl and Benzoate: Carbon Flow Through the Bacterial Community in Polychlorinated-Biphenyl-Contaminated Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Uhlik, Ondrej; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2016-02-01

    Aerobic mineralization of PCBs, which are toxic and persistent organic pollutants, involves the upper (biphenyl, BP) and lower (benzoate, BZ) degradation pathways. The activity of different members of the soil microbial community in performing one or both pathways, and their synergistic interactions during PCB biodegradation, are not well understood. This study investigates BP and BZ biodegradation and subsequent carbon flow through the microbial community in PCB-contaminated soil. DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify the bacterial guilds involved in utilizing 13C-biphenyl (unchlorinated analogue of PCBs) and/or 13C-benzoate (product/intermediate of BP degradation and analogue of chlorobenzoates). By performing SIP with two substrates in parallel, we reveal microbes performing the upper (BP) and/or lower (BZ) degradation pathways, and heterotrophic bacteria involved indirectly in processing carbon derived from these substrates (i.e. through crossfeeding). Substrate mineralization rates and shifts in relative abundance of labeled taxa suggest that BP and BZ biotransformations were performed by microorganisms with different growth strategies: BZ-associated bacteria were fast growing, potentially copiotrophic organisms, while microbes that transform BP were oligotrophic, slower growing, organisms. Our findings provide novel insight into the functional interactions of soil bacteria active in processing biphenyl and related aromatic compounds in soil, revealing how carbon flows through a bacterial community.

  20. Photochemical Formation of Hydroxylated Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (OH-PBDEs) from Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Aqueous Solution under Simulated Solar Light Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Zhao, Huimin; Quan, Xie; He, Xin; Chen, Shuo

    2015-08-01

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) are of great concern due to their higher toxicity compared to PBDEs. However, the abiologic process whereby PBDEs are converted to OH-PBDEs in the aquatic environment is not well understood. To explore the possibility of OH-PBDEs photoformation in natural water, the photohydroxylation of BDE-47 has been investigated in aqueous Fe(III) and/or fulvic acid (FA) solutions and in natural lake water under simulated solar light irradiation. The results showed that 6-OH-BDE-47 and 2'-OH-BDE-68 were generated from BDE-47 under these conditions. Based on the identification of derivatives and reactive radicals, OH-PBDEs formation can be ascribed to an addition reaction of ortho-tetra-BDE radical and hydroxyl radical ((•)OH), with or without a subsequent Smiles rearrangement reaction. Since the ortho-tetra-BDE radical could be readily produced by the photolysis of BDE-47, even in pure water, (•)OH production was considered as critical for the photoformation of OH-PBDEs. Thus, it is reasonable to deduce that the photoreactive components (Fe(III), FA) in aqueous solution played an important role through influencing (•)OH generation. Although the yields of OH-PBDEs did not increase regularly with increasing concentration of these photoreactive components in solution, this study suggests a possible abiotic origin of OH-PBDEs formation in the aquatic environment. PMID:26134578

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations and resulting exposure in homes in California: relationships among passive air, surface wipe and dust concentrations, and temporal variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in furniture foam, electronics, and other home furnishings. A field study was conducted that enrolled 139 households from California, which has had more stringent flame retardant requirements than other countries...

  2. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (DE-71)Interferes with Thyroid Hormone Action Independent Of Effects On Circulating Levels of Thyroid Hormone in Male Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are routinely found in human tissues including cord blood and breast milk. PBDEs may interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) during development, which could produce neurobehavioral deficits. An assumption in experimental and epidemiological stud...

  3. LACK OF EFFECT OF PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO A POLYBROMINATED DEPHENYL OTHER MIXTURE (DE-71) ON THE HABITUATION OF MOTOR ACTIVITY IN ADULT RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants and are becoming increasingly evident in environmental media, wildlife and human breast milk. Published research in mice has shown that early postnatal exposure to some PBDEs attenuates the habituation of motor ...

  4. [Diversity of the Key Biphenyl Destruction Genes in the Microbial Community of the Anadyr Bay Coastal Sediments].

    PubMed

    Shumkova, E S; Voronina, A O; Kuznetsova, N V; Plotnikova, E G

    2015-07-01

    Biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase is the key enzyme involved in the bacterial destruction of biphenyl and polychlo- rinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are highly stable toxic compounds. The diversity of bphA1 genes encoding the biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase a subunit of biphenyl-decomposing bacteria from the microbial community of the Bering Sea coastal sediments (the Anadyr port area) was studied. The enrichment culture was obtained by the incubation of bottom sediments samples with biphenyl as the only carbon source. It was followed by total DNA extraction and PCR analysis with degenerate primers specific to the bacterial biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase a subunit genes. Subsequent cloning of the PCR products led to the identification of three types of aromatic dioxygenase genes, which appeared to be phylogenetically close to the genes of the biphenyl/toluene dioxygenase and 3-phenylpropionate dioxygenase subfamilies of the Actinomycetales bacteria. PMID:26410940

  5. Biodegradation of biphenyl and 2-chlorobiphenyl by a Pseudomonas sp. KM-04 isolated from PCBs-contaminated coal mine soil.

    PubMed

    Nam, In-Hyun; Chon, Chul-Min; Jung, Ka-Young; Kim, Jae-Gon

    2014-07-01

    The biphenyl-degrading strain, Pseudomonas sp. KM-04, was isolated from polychlorinated biphenyls-contaminated soil sample obtained from the vicinity of a former coal mine. We herein report that strain KM-04 can use biphenyl as a sole carbon source, and resting cells convert biphenyl to its corresponding metabolic intermediates. Incubation of KM-04 with autoclaved mining-contaminated soil for 10 days in a slurry system reduced the levels of biphenyl and 2-chlorobiphenyl by 98.5 % and 82.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, treatment of a mine-soil microcosm with strain KM-04 for 15 days in a composting system under laboratory conditions reduced the levels of biphenyl and 2-chlorobiphenyl by 87.1 % and 68.7 %, respectively. These results suggest that KM-04 is a potential candidate for the biological removal of biphenyl and its chlorinated derivatives from polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated mining areas.

  6. Hair as a biomarker of polybrominated diethyl ethers' exposure in infants, children and adults.

    PubMed

    Aleksa, Katarina; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Koren, Gideon

    2012-04-25

    Over the last 20 years hair has moved from being a highly questionable biological matrix to mainstream and acceptable biomarker in forensic sciences where it is primarily used to determine past and present exposure to illicit drugs. In contrast, the use of hair to assess exposure to pesticides and persistent environmental pollutants is still not common. The applicability of this matrix to assess an individual's body burden of chemicals such as polybrominated diethyl ethers (PBDEs) can provide critical insight into current, but also to past exposure levels, which is not possible with more conventional matrices such as blood and urine. Furthermore, as PBDEs cross the placenta and since the hair the fetus is born with begins to grow during the third trimester, this matrix can be used to assess in utero exposure. These features of hair may therefore be used to determine the potential roles of chemicals such as PBDEs in mediating physiological or anatomical abnormalities in infants, children or adults.

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected from Central Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Piersanti, Arianna; Tavoloni, Tamara; Bastari, Eleonora; Lestingi, Carmela; Romanelli, Sara; Saluti, Giorgio; Moretti, Simone; Galarini, Roberta

    2015-12-15

    One-hundred and thirty-four samples of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected along Central Adriatic Sea in 2013 were examined to determine the levels of fifteen congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The purified samples were analysed by gas-chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) applying the isotopic dilution. Only four congeners (PBDE 47, PBDE 99, PBDE 49 and PBDE 100) were present above the established limits of quantification with mean concentrations equal to 73, 30, 19 and 18 pg g(-1), respectively. The concentrations of PBDEs (sum) ranged from 27 to 386 pg g(-1), with the highest levels around the coastal area of Ancona town. The here found levels were comparable to those measured in mussels collected along Southern Adriatic Sea.

  8. Levels and pattern of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in eggs of Antarctic seabirds: Endemic versus migratory species.

    PubMed

    Yogui, G T; Sericano, J L

    2009-03-01

    Chinstrap and gentoo penguins are endemic species that live year round south of the Antarctic Convergence. South polar skua is a migratory seabird that can be observed in Antarctica during the breeding season (i.e., austral summer). This study compares concentration and pattern of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in eggs of seabirds breeding at King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula. PBDEs in south polar skua eggs are approximately 20 times higher than in penguin eggs suggesting that skuas are more exposed to contaminants during the non-breeding season when they migrate to waters of the northern hemisphere. The pattern of PBDE congeners also differs between south polar skua and penguin eggs. The latter exhibited a pattern similar to that found in the local biota. In contrast, the congener pattern in south polar skua eggs suggests that birds breeding at King George Island may winter in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

  9. Vapor Pressure of Solid Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Determined via Knudsen Effusion Method

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jinxia; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants used in a variety of consumer products. The solid vapor pressures of BDE15 and BDE209 were determined by use of the Knudsen effusion method, and the values measured extrapolated to 298.15 K are 3.12×10−3 and 9.02×10−13 Pa, respectively. The enthalpies of sublimation for these compounds have also been estimated by using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and are 102.0 ± 3.5 and 157.1 ± 3.5 kJ/mol, respectively. Additionally, the melting points and enthalpies of fusion were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. PMID:21766320

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in thirteen shark species from offshore and coastal waters of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Sang-Jo; Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Jeong, Woochang; Lee, Won-Chan; Choy, Eun-Jung; Kang, Chang-Keun; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2015-06-15

    Limited reports are available on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sharks. In this study, PBDEs were measured in dorsal muscles (n=105) from 13 shark species collected from offshore and coastal waters of Korea. The PBDE concentrations varied greatly not only among species but also within species of sharks. The major PBDE congeners detected in our samples were BDEs 47, 28, 99, 153, 100, and 154. Concentrations of PBDEs in sharks in this study were lower than those reported for previous studies. The high PBDE concentrations were found for aggressive shark species. Inter-species differences in the concentrations and accumulation profiles of PBDEs are explained by differences in feeding habits and sampling locations. Several contributing factors such as growth velocity, trophic level, and local contamination may affect the bioaccumulation of PBDEs in sharks. The present study provides baselines for the occurrence and accumulation status of PBDEs in various shark species.

  11. Vapor pressure of solid polybrominated diphenyl ethers determined via Knudsen effusion method.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jinxia; Suuberg, Eric M

    2011-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants used in a variety of consumer products. The solid vapor pressures of BDE 15 and BDE 209 were determined by using the Knudsen effusion method, and the values measured extrapolated to 298.15 K are 3.12 × 10(-3) and 9.02 × 10(-13) Pa, respectively. The enthalpies of sublimation for these compounds have also been estimated by using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and are 102.0 ± 3.5 and 157.1 ± 3.5 kJ/mol, respectively. In addition, the melting points and enthalpies of fusion were measured by differential scanning calorimetry.

  12. Instrumental methods and challenges in quantifying polybrominated diphenyl ethers in environmental extracts: a review

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Increased interest in the fate, transport and toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) over the past few years has led to a variety of studies reporting different methods of analysis for these persistent organic pollutants. Because PBDEs encompass a range of vapor pressures, molecular weights and degrees of bromine substitution, various analytical methods can lead to discrimination of some PBDE congeners. Recent improvements in injection techniques and mass spectrometer ionization methods have led to a variety of options to determine PBDEs in environmental samples. The purpose of this paper is therefore to review the available literature describing the advantages and disadvantages in choosing an injection technique, gas chromatography column and detector. Additional discussion is given to the challenges in measuring PBDEs, including potential chromatographic interferences and the lack of commercial standards for higher brominated congeners, which provides difficulties in examining degradation and debromination of BDE congeners, particularly for BDE 209. PMID:17165211

  13. Interaction of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Aerobic Granular Sludge: Biosorption and Microbial Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Shou-Qing; Cui, Qingjie; Zheng, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    As a new category of persistent organic pollutants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have become ubiquitous global environmental contaminants. No literature is available on the aerobic biotransformation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209). Herein, we investigated the interaction of PBDEs with aerobic granular sludge. The results show that the removal of BDE-209 from wastewater is mainly via biosorption onto aerobic granular sludge. The uptake capacity increased when temperature, contact time, and sludge dosage increased or solution pH dropped. Ionic strength had a negative influence on BDE-209 adsorption. The modified pseudo first-order kinetic model was appropriate to describe the adsorption kinetics. Microbial debromination of BDE-209 did not occur during the first 30 days of operation. Further study found that aerobic microbial degradation of 4,4′-dibromodiphenyl ether happened with the production of lower BDE congeners. PMID:25009812

  14. Assessment of the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in blood samples from Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Orta-Garcia, Sandra Teresa; León-Moreno, Lilia Carolina; González-Vega, Carolina; Dominguez-Cortinas, Gabriela; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the blood of children (50 individuals) living in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. We analyzed six PBDE congeners by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total PBDE levels ranged from not detectable (nd) to 15.2 μg/L on a whole-weight basis and from nd to 6,435 ng/g lipid on a lipid-weight basis. The dominant congener in our study was BDE-153, followed by BDE-154, BDE-99, BDE-100, and BDE-47. Levels of BDE-209 were below the detection limit. Our data indicate that children living in the areas studied in this work are exposed to high levels of PBDEs.

  15. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected from Central Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Piersanti, Arianna; Tavoloni, Tamara; Bastari, Eleonora; Lestingi, Carmela; Romanelli, Sara; Saluti, Giorgio; Moretti, Simone; Galarini, Roberta

    2015-12-15

    One-hundred and thirty-four samples of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected along Central Adriatic Sea in 2013 were examined to determine the levels of fifteen congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The purified samples were analysed by gas-chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) applying the isotopic dilution. Only four congeners (PBDE 47, PBDE 99, PBDE 49 and PBDE 100) were present above the established limits of quantification with mean concentrations equal to 73, 30, 19 and 18 pg g(-1), respectively. The concentrations of PBDEs (sum) ranged from 27 to 386 pg g(-1), with the highest levels around the coastal area of Ancona town. The here found levels were comparable to those measured in mussels collected along Southern Adriatic Sea. PMID:26497256

  16. Lactational Exposure to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Its Relation to Early Childhood Anthropometric Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Kate; Mendez, Michelle; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy H.; Sjödin, Andreas; Daniels, Julie L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that may influence growth and development. Objective: We investigated the association between exposure to PBDEs via breast milk and anthropometric measurements in early childhood. Methods: The Pregnancy Infection and Nutrition (PIN) Babies studies followed a cohort of North Carolina pregnant women and their children through 36 months of age. Breast milk samples obtained at 3 months postpartum were analyzed for PBDEs. We collected height and weight records from well-baby doctor visits and also measured children during study visits (n = 246 children with > 1,400 anthropometric measurements). We assessed the relationship between breast milk concentrations of five PBDE congeners—BDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, and 153—and child’s weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height z-scores (WAZ, HAZ, and WHZ, respectively), adjusting for age; maternal age, race, prepregnancy BMI; parity; smoking during pregnancy; and breastfeeding, and stratifying by sex. Results: Overall, PBDE exposures via breast milk were not associated with early-life anthropometric measures in the PIN Babies cohort. When stratified by sex, PBDEs in milk were inversely associated with WHZ for boys; however, associations did not follow a consistent pattern across the concentration gradient and were imprecisely estimated. Among girls, PBDEs tended to be associated with increased WHZ except for BDE-153, which was inversely associated with WHZ, though all estimates were imprecisely estimated. Conclusions: We observed little evidence of associations between early-life PBDE exposures via breast milk and anthropometric measurements overall; however, our results prompt the need for sex-specific investigations in larger cohorts. Citation: Hoffman K, Mendez M, Siega-Riz AM, Herring AH, Sjödin A, Daniels JL. 2016. Lactational exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and its relation to early childhood anthropometric

  17. O-Methyltransferases involved in biphenyl and dibenzofuran biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohammed N A; Brandt, Wolfgang; Beuerle, Till; Reckwell, Dennis; Groeneveld, Josephine; Hänsch, Robert; Gaid, Mariam M; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2015-07-01

    Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are the phytoalexins of the Malinae involving apple and pear. Biosynthesis of the defence compounds includes two O-methylation reactions. cDNAs encoding the O-methyltransferase (OMT) enzymes were isolated from rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) cell cultures after treatment with an elicitor preparation from the scab-causing fungus, Venturia inaequalis. The preferred substrate for SaOMT1 was 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl, supplied by the first pathway-specific enzyme, biphenyl synthase (BIS). 3,5-Dihydroxybiphenyl underwent a single methylation reaction in the presence of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). The second enzyme, SaOMT2, exhibited its highest affinity for noraucuparin, however the turnover rate was greater with 5-hydroxyferulic acid. Both substrates were only methylated at the meta-positioned hydroxyl group. The substrate specificities of the OMTs and the regiospecificities of their reactions were rationalized by homology modeling and substrate docking. Interaction of the substrates with SAM also took place at a position other than the sulfur group. Expression of SaOMT1, SaOMT2 and SaBIS3 was transiently induced in rowan cell cultures by the addition of the fungal elicitor. While the immediate SaOMT1 products were not detectable in elicitor-treated cell cultures, noraucuparin and noreriobofuran accumulated transiently, followed by increasing levels of the SaOMT2 products aucuparin and eriobofuran. SaOMT1, SaOMT2 and SaBIS3 were N- and C-terminally fused with the super cyan fluorescent protein and a modified yellow fluorescent protein, respectively. All the fluorescent reporter fusions were localized to the cytoplasm of Nicotiana benthamiana leaf epidermis cells. A revised biosynthetic pathway of biphenyls and dibenzofurans in the Malinae is presented.

  18. O-Methyltransferases involved in biphenyl and dibenzofuran biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohammed N A; Brandt, Wolfgang; Beuerle, Till; Reckwell, Dennis; Groeneveld, Josephine; Hänsch, Robert; Gaid, Mariam M; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2015-07-01

    Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are the phytoalexins of the Malinae involving apple and pear. Biosynthesis of the defence compounds includes two O-methylation reactions. cDNAs encoding the O-methyltransferase (OMT) enzymes were isolated from rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) cell cultures after treatment with an elicitor preparation from the scab-causing fungus, Venturia inaequalis. The preferred substrate for SaOMT1 was 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl, supplied by the first pathway-specific enzyme, biphenyl synthase (BIS). 3,5-Dihydroxybiphenyl underwent a single methylation reaction in the presence of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). The second enzyme, SaOMT2, exhibited its highest affinity for noraucuparin, however the turnover rate was greater with 5-hydroxyferulic acid. Both substrates were only methylated at the meta-positioned hydroxyl group. The substrate specificities of the OMTs and the regiospecificities of their reactions were rationalized by homology modeling and substrate docking. Interaction of the substrates with SAM also took place at a position other than the sulfur group. Expression of SaOMT1, SaOMT2 and SaBIS3 was transiently induced in rowan cell cultures by the addition of the fungal elicitor. While the immediate SaOMT1 products were not detectable in elicitor-treated cell cultures, noraucuparin and noreriobofuran accumulated transiently, followed by increasing levels of the SaOMT2 products aucuparin and eriobofuran. SaOMT1, SaOMT2 and SaBIS3 were N- and C-terminally fused with the super cyan fluorescent protein and a modified yellow fluorescent protein, respectively. All the fluorescent reporter fusions were localized to the cytoplasm of Nicotiana benthamiana leaf epidermis cells. A revised biosynthetic pathway of biphenyls and dibenzofurans in the Malinae is presented. PMID:26017378

  19. Fluorescent biphenyl derivatives of phenylalanine suitable for protein modification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shengxi; Fahmi, Nour Eddine; Bhattacharya, Chandrabali; Wang, Lin; Jin, Yuguang; Benkovic, Stephen J; Hecht, Sidney M

    2013-11-26

    In a recent study, we demonstrated that structurally compact fluorophores incorporated into the side chains of amino acids could be introduced into dihydrofolate reductase from Escherichia coli (ecDHFR) with minimal disruption of protein structure or function, even when the site of incorporation was within a folded region of the protein. The modified proteins could be employed for FRET measurements, providing sensitive monitors of changes in protein conformation. The very favorable results achieved in that study encouraged us to prepare additional fluorescent amino acids of potential utility for studying protein dynamics. Presently, we describe the synthesis and photophysical characterization of four positional isomers of biphenyl-phenylalanine, all of which were found to exhibit potentially useful fluorescent properties. All four phenylalanine derivatives were used to activate suppressor tRNA transcripts and incorporated into multiple positions of ecDHFR. All phenylalanine derivatives were incorporated with good efficiency into position 16 of ecDHFR and afforded modified proteins that consumed NADPH at rates up to about twice the rate measured for wild type. This phenomenon has been noted on a number of occasions previously and shown to be due to an increase in the off-rate of tetrahydrofolate from the enzyme, altering a step that is normally rate limiting. When introduced into sterically accessible position 49, the four phenylalanine derivatives afforded DHFRs having catalytic function comparable to wild type. The four phenylalanine derivatives were also introduced into position 115 of ecDHFR, which is known to be a folded region of the protein less tolerant of structural alteration. As anticipated, significant differences were noted in the catalytic efficiencies of the derived proteins. The ability of two of the sizable biphenyl-phenylalanine derivatives to be accommodated at position 115 with minimal perturbation of DHFR function is attributed to rotational

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) depress allogeneic natural cytotoxicity by earthworm coelomocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, M.M.; Cooper, E.L.; Eyambe, G.S.; Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Venables, B.J. |

    1995-10-01

    Coelomocytes of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris caused significant spontaneous allogeneic cytotoxicity in a 24-h trypan blue assay, but not in an assay using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Allogeneic cytotoxicity assays using cells from worms exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) suggest that PCBs can suppress a natural killing (NK-like) reaction. The implications of this work are twofold: understanding the evolution of natural killing (NK-like) activity and providing preliminary information on how spontaneous killing, a component of cellular immunity, may be compromised by pollutants.

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degrader Rhodococcus sp. WB1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Man; Shen, Alin

    2016-01-01

    Rhodococcus sp. WB1 is a polychlorinated biphenyl degrader which was isolated from contaminated soil in Zhejiang, China. Here, we present the complete genome sequence. The analysis of this genome indicated that a biphenyl-degrading gene cluster and several xenobiotic metabolism pathways are harbored. PMID:27738025

  2. Biphenyl-Metabolizing Bacteria in the Rhizosphere of Horseradish and Bulk Soil Contaminated by Polychlorinated Biphenyls as Revealed by Stable Isotope Probing▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Uhlik, Ondrej; Jecna, Katerina; Mackova, Martina; Vlcek, Cestmir; Hroudova, Miluse; Demnerova, Katerina; Paces, Vaclav; Macek, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    DNA-based stable isotope probing in combination with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism was used in order to identify members of the microbial community that metabolize biphenyl in the rhizosphere of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) cultivated in soil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) compared to members of the microbial community in initial, uncultivated bulk soil. On the basis of early and recurrent detection of their 16S rRNA genes in clone libraries constructed from [13C]DNA, Hydrogenophaga spp. appeared to dominate biphenyl catabolism in the horseradish rhizosphere soil, whereas Paenibacillus spp. were the predominant biphenyl-utilizing bacteria in the initial bulk soil. Other bacteria found to derive carbon from biphenyl in this nutrient-amended microcosm-based study belonged mostly to the class Betaproteobacteria and were identified as Achromobacter spp., Variovorax spp., Methylovorus spp., or Methylophilus spp. Some bacteria that were unclassified at the genus level were also detected, and these bacteria may be members of undescribed genera. The deduced amino acid sequences of the biphenyl dioxygenase α subunits (BphA) from bacteria that incorporated [13C]into DNA in 3-day incubations of the soils with [13C]biphenyl are almost identical to that of Pseudomonas alcaligenes B-357. This suggests that the spectrum of the PCB congeners that can be degraded by these enzymes may be similar to that of strain B-357. These results demonstrate that altering the soil environment can result in the participation of different bacteria in the metabolism of biphenyl. PMID:19700551

  3. Oxidation of biphenyl by a multicomponent enzyme system from pseudomonas sp. strain LB400

    SciTech Connect

    Haddock, J.D.; Nadim, L.M.; Gibson, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 grows on biphenyl as the sole carbon and energy source. The organism also cooxidizes several chlorinated biphenyl congeners. Biphenyl dioxygenase activity in cell extract required addition of NAD(P)H as an electron donor for the conversion of biphenyl to cis-2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl. Incorporation of both atoms of molecular oxygen into the substrate was shown with (18)O2. The nonlinear relationship between enzyme activity and protein concentration suggested that the enzyme is composed of multiple protein components. Ion-exchange chromatography of the cell extract gave three protein fractions that were required together to restore enzymatic activity. Similarities with other multicomponent aromatic hydrocarbon dioxygenases indicated that biphenyl dioxygenase may consist of a flavoprotein and iron-sulfur proteins that constitute a short electron transport chain involved in catalyzing the incorporation of both atoms of molecular oxygen into the aromatic ring.

  4. Contamination of indoor dust and air by polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants and relevance of non-dietary exposure in Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites.

    PubMed

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Suzuki, Go; Isobe, Tomohiko; Viet, Pham Hung; Kobara, Yuso; Seike, Nobuyasu; Zhang, Gan; Sudaryanto, Agus; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and several additive brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in indoor dust and air from two Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) and an urban site in order to assess the relevance of these media for human exposure. The levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) in settled house dust from the EWRSs (130-12,000, 5.4-400, 5.2-620 and 31-1400 ng g(-1), respectively) were significantly higher than in urban house dust but the levels of PCBs (4.8-320 ng g(-1)) were not higher. The levels of PCBs and PBDEs in air at e-waste recycling houses (1000-1800 and 620-720 pg m(-3), respectively), determined using passive sampling, were also higher compared with non-e-waste houses. The composition of BFRs in EWRS samples suggests the influence from high-temperature processes and occurrence of waste materials containing older BFR formulations. Results of daily intake estimation for e-waste recycling workers are in good agreement with the accumulation patterns previously observed in human milk and indicate that dust ingestion contributes a large portion of the PBDE intake (60%-88%), and air inhalation to the low-chlorinated PCB intake (>80% for triCBs) due to their high levels in dust and air, respectively. Further investigation of both indoor dust and air as the exposure media for other e-waste recycling-related contaminants and assessment of health risk associated with exposure to these contaminant mixtures is necessary.

  5. Perfluorinated compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in great blue heron eggs from Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Kannan, K.; Tao, L.; Saxena, A.R.; Route, B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 archived great blue heron (Ardea herodias) eggs collected from Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, IN, (Indiana Dunes) in 1993 were analyzed for 11 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate, the major contributor to total PFC concentrations, were below the toxicity thresholds estimated for bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), but within the toxicity threshold estimated for white leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus). The ranking of PBDE congener concentrations by percent concentration (PBDE-47 > -99 > -100 > -153 > -154 > -28 > -183) was consistent with the Penta-PBDE formulation. Total PBDE concentrations in great blue heron eggs from Indiana Dunes were elevated and probably reflect local contamination from highly urbanized and industrialized inputs into Lake Michigan. Polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations were within levels associated with altered reproductive behavior in other avian species and based on trends in other Great Lakes birds are probably higher today.

  6. Biobatteries and biofuel cells with biphenylated carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolarczyk, Krzysztof; Kizling, Michał; Majdecka, Dominika; Żelechowska, Kamila; Biernat, Jan F.; Rogalski, Jerzy; Bilewicz, Renata

    2014-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) covalently biphenylated are used for the construction of cathodes in a flow biobattery and in flow biofuel cell. Zinc covered with a hopeite layer is the anode in the biobattery and glassy carbon electrode covered with bioconjugates of single-walled carbon nanotubes with glucose oxidase and catalase is the anode of the biofuel cell. The potentials of the electrodes are measured vs. the Ag/AgCl reference electrode under changing loads of the fuel cell/biobattery. The power density of the biobattery with biphenylated nanotubes at the cathode is ca. 0.6 mW cm-2 and the open circuit potential is ca. 1.6 V. In order to obtain larger power densities and voltages three biobatteries are connected in a series which leads to the open circuit potential of ca. 4.8 V and power density 2.1 mW cm-2 at 3.9 V under 100 kΩ load. The biofuel cell shows power densities of ca. 60 μW cm-2 at 20 kΩ external resistance but the open circuit potential for such biofuel cell is only 0.5 V. The biobattery showing significantly larger power densities and open circuit voltages are especially useful for testing novel cathodes and applications such as powering units for clocks and sensing devices.

  7. Degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Metabolites by Naphthalene-Catabolizing Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Barriault, Diane; Durand, Jacinthe; Maaroufi, Halim; Eltis, Lindsay D.; Sylvestre, Michel

    1998-01-01

    The ability of the dehydrogenase and ring cleavage dioxygenase of the naphthalene degradation pathway to transform 3,4-dihydroxylated biphenyl metabolites was investigated. 1,2-Dihydro-1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene dehydrogenase was expressed as a histidine-tagged protein. The purified enzyme transformed 2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl, 3,4-dihydro-3,4-dihydroxybiphenyl, and 3,4-dihydro-3,4-dihydroxy-2,2′,5,5′-tetrachlorobiphenyl to 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl, 3,4-dihydroxybiphenyl (3,4-DHB), and 3,4-dihydroxy-2,2′,5,5′-tetrachlorobiphenyl (3,4-DH-2,2′,5,5′-TCB), respectively. Our data also suggested that purified 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene dioxygenase catalyzed the meta cleavage of 3,4-DHB in both the 2,3 and 4,5 positions. This enzyme cleaved 3,4-DH-2,2′,5,5′-TCB and 3,4-DHB at similar rates. These results demonstrate the utility of the naphthalene catabolic enzymes in expanding the ability of the bph pathway to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls. PMID:9835542

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shan; Yang, Zhong-Zhi; Li, Ke; Xu, Xiao-Bai

    2008-10-01

    Sandstorms, which distribute many particles, are a special atmospheric occurrence and are frequent in northern China. We conducted this study to determine, for the first time, the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sandstorm depositions. We collected 13 samples from urban areas of Beijing, and we measured a total of 144 PCB congeners. Thirteen samples all contained PCB residues. The total PCB concentration ranged from 1.6 to 15.6ngg(-1) (median, 4.8ngg(-1), dry weight), with trichlorinated biphenyls as the predominant homologue (>50.4%). Furthermore, we observed increasing PCB contamination from northwest to east Beijing. We later explored possible factors affecting contamination of the sandstorm depositions, which revealed a significant correlation between SigmaPCBs and the minimum particle size of the sandstorm deposition samples. Principal-component analysis revealed that the major source of PCBs in Beijing may be potentially associated with the number-one commercial PCB through the long-range transmission. In previous results, PCBs were not a severe component of contamination in sandstorm depositions of Beijing. However, this study suggested that sandstorm deposition may be a potential source of exposure to PCBs for the residents of Beijing, China. PMID:18674798

  9. Semipermeable membrane devices used to estimate bioconcentration of polychlorinated biphenyls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, D.B.

    1999-01-01

    Aquatic organisms passively accumulate hydrophobic organic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, even when ambient water concentrations of the contaminant are below analytical detection limits. However, contaminant concentrations in tissue samples are subject to an inherently high level of variability due to differences in species, life stage, and gender bioconcentration potentials. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to sample Aroclor 1254, a mixture of readily bioconcentrated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), in a contaminated wetland near Flat Top, WV. The devices consisted of triolein, a lipid found in fish, enclosed in a polyethylene membrane. SPMDs were deployed in the water column and in direct contact with wetland sediments along a previously identified concentration gradient of PCBs. The devices were retrieved after a 25-day exposure period. Analytes were recovered by dialyzing the devices in nanograde hexane. Hexane dialysates were condensed and analyzed by gas chromatography. All deployed devices sequestered quantifiable amounts of Aroclor 1254. Water-column SPMDs accumulated PCBs far in excess of ambient water concentrations. The devices contacting sediments accumulated PCBs at all sites, though accumulated concentrations did not exceed concentrations in sediment. Patterns of PCB concentration in the devices corresponded to the identified gradient at the site. Results from the water-column SPMDs were used to estimate the concentration of the dissolved, bioavailable fraction of PCBs present in the water column. These concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.09 ??g/L of bioavailable Aroclor 1254.

  10. Phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls: new trends and promises.

    PubMed

    Aken, Benoit Van; Correa, Paola A; Schnoor, Jerald L

    2010-04-15

    Transgenic plants and associated bacteria constitute a new generation of genetically modified organisms for efficient and environment-friendly treatment of soil and water contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This review focuses on recent advances in phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs, including the development of transgenic plants and associated bacteria. Phytoremediation, or the use of higher plants for rehabilitation of soil and groundwater, is a promising strategy for cost-effective treatment of sites contaminated by toxic compounds, including PCBs. Plants can help mitigate environmental pollution by PCBs through a range of mechanisms: besides uptake from soil (phytoextraction), plants are capable of enzymatic transformation of PCBs (phytotransformation); by releasing a variety of secondary metabolites, plants also enhance the microbial activity in the root zone, improving biodegradation of PCBs (rhizoremediation). However, because of their hydrophobicity and chemical stability, PCBs are only slowly taken up and degraded by plants and associated bacteria, resulting in incomplete treatment and potential release of toxic metabolites into the environment. Moreover, naturally occurring plant-associated bacteria may not possess the enzymatic machinery necessary for PCB degradation. To overcome these limitations, bacterial genes involved in the metabolism of PCBs, such as biphenyl dioxygenases, have been introduced into higher plants, following a strategy similar to the development of transgenic crops. Similarly, bacteria have been genetically modified that exhibit improved biodegradation capabilities and are able to maintain stable relationships with plants. Transgenic plants and associated bacteria bring hope for a broader and more efficient application of phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs.

  11. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposure and Thyroid Function Tests in North American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Makey, Colleen M.; McClean, Michael D.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; He, Xue-Mei; Sjödin, Andreas; Weinberg, Janice M.; Webster, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame-retardant chemicals that are added to many consumer products. Multiple animal studies have shown PBDEs to be thyroid hormone (TH) disruptors. Epidemiologic evidence of PBDE exposure associated with TH disruption has been inconclusive. Objectives: We used repeated measures to estimate associations between serum PBDE concentrations and THs in a North American adult cohort. Methods: From 2010 to 2011, we collected ≤ 3 serum samples at approximately 6-month intervals from 52 healthy adult office workers from Boston, Massachusetts, for analysis of PBDE congeners and THs. Results: The geometric mean sum concentrations of the most prevalent PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, and BDE-153) were 22 ng/g lipid in winter 2010, 23 ng/g lipid in summer 2010, and 19 ng/g lipid in winter 2011. BDE-47 was the predominant congener. Based on a multivariable mixed regression model, we estimated that on average, a 1-ng/g serum increase in BDE-47 was associated with a 2.6-μg/dL decrease in total thyroxine (T4) (95% CI: –4.7, –0.35). Total T4 was inversely associated with each PBDE congener. Serum concentrations of PBDEs were not strongly associated with total triiodothyronine (T3), free T4, or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Conclusion: These results are consistent with those from animal studies showing that exposure to PBDEs is associated with a decrease in serum T4. Because the other TH concentrations did not appear to be associated with BDE exposures, our findings do not indicate effects on the pituitary–thyroid axis. Taken together, our findings suggest that PBDE exposure might decrease the binding of T4 to serum T4 binding proteins. Citation: Makey CM, McClean MD, Braverman LE, Pearce EN, He XM, Sjödin A, Weinberg JM, Webster TF. 2016. Polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure and thyroid function tests in North American adults. Environ Health Perspect 124:420–425; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp

  12. Residential Levels of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in California

    PubMed Central

    Colt, Joanne S.; Deziel, Nicole C.; Whitehead, Todd P.; Reynolds, Peggy; Gunier, Robert B.; Nishioka, Marcia; Dahl, Gary V.; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Buffler, Patricia A.; Metayer, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background: House dust is a major source of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are found at high levels in U.S. homes. Methods: We studied 167 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cases 0–7 years of age and 214 birth certificate controls matched on date of birth, sex, and race/ethnicity from the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study. In 2001–2007, we sampled carpets in the room where the child spent the most time while awake; we used a high-volume small-surface sampler or we took dust from the home vacuum. We measured concentrations of 14 PBDE congeners including penta (28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154), octa (183, 196, 197, 203), and decaBDEs (206–209). Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using logistic regression, adjusting for demographics, income, year of dust collection, and sampling method. Results: BDE-47, BDE-99, and BDE-209 were found at the highest concentrations (medians, 1,173, 1,579, and 938 ng/g, respectively). Comparing the highest to lowest quartile, we found no association with ALL for summed pentaBDEs (OR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.4, 1.3), octaBDEs (OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 0.7, 2.3), or decaBDEs (OR = 1.0; 95% CI: 0.6, 1.8). Comparing homes in the highest concentration (nanograms per gram) tertile to those with no detections, we observed significantly increased ALL risk for BDE-196 (OR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.8), BDE-203 (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.6), BDE-206 (OR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.9), and BDE-207 (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.03, 3.8). Conclusion: We found no association with ALL for common PBDEs, but we observed positive associations for specific octa and nonaBDEs. Additional studies with repeated sampling and biological measures would be informative. Citation: Ward MH, Colt JS, Deziel NC, Whitehead TP, Reynolds P, Gunier RB, Nishioka M, Dahl GV, Rappaport SM, Buffler PA, Metayer C. 2014. Residential levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in California. Environ Health Perspect 122:1110–1116

  13. 4-Substituted-2-Methoxyphenol: Suitable Building Block to Prepare New Bioactive Natural-like Hydroxylated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Dettori, Maria Antonietta; Fabbri, Davide; Pisano, Marina; Rozzo, Carla; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Dessµ, Alessandro; Dallocchio, Roberto; Delogu, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    A small collection of eugenol- and curcumin-analog hydroxylated biphenyls was prepared by straightforward methods starting from natural 4-substituted-2-methoxyphenols and their antitumoral activity was evaluated in vitro. Two curcumin-biphenyl derivatives showed interesting growth inhibitory activities on different malignant melanoma cell lines with IC50 ranging from 13 to 1 µM. Preliminary molecular modeling studies were carried out to evaluate conformations and dihedral angles suitable for antiproliferative activity in hydroxylated biphenyls bearing a side aliphatic chain. PMID:26074750

  14. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment: sources, fate, and toxicities.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Rouzbeh; Van Aken, Benoit

    2014-05-01

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) are produced in the environment by the oxidation of PCBs through a variety of mechanisms, including metabolic transformation in living organisms and abiotic reactions with hydroxyl radicals. As a consequence, OH-PCBs have been detected in a wide range of environmental samples, including animal tissues, water, and sediments. OH-PCBs have recently raised serious environmental concerns because they exert a variety of toxic effects at lower doses than the parent PCBs and they are disruptors of the endocrine system. Although evidence about the widespread dispersion of OH-PCBs in various compartments of the ecosystem has accumulated, little is currently known about their biodegradation and behavior in the environment. OH-PCBs are, today, increasingly considered as a new class of environmental contaminants that possess specific chemical, physical, and biological properties not shared with the parent PCBs. This article reviews recent findings regarding the sources, fate, and toxicities of OH-PCBs in the environment.

  15. Donor's position-specific channel interference in substituted biphenyl molecules.

    PubMed

    Mehboob Alam, Md

    2015-07-21

    The channel interference mechanism describes the two-photon absorption process in terms of the relative orientations of different transition dipole moment vectors (TDMVs) in a molecule. Controlling these interferences is a difficult but important task, because it can provide new information about such absorption/emission processes. The present contribution aims to explain the reversal in the nature of these interferences with the relative positions of the donor-acceptor groups in substituted biphenyl molecules. The results obtained from the linear and quadratic response theories indicate that having the donor at the para position leads to a constructive interference whereas having it at any of the other two positions results in a destructive interference. This is explained by a systematic analysis of the relative orientations of all the TDMVs involved in a three-state model.

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in plastics ingested by seabirds.

    PubMed

    Colabuono, Fernanda Imperatrice; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2010-04-01

    The occurrence of plastic objects in the digestive tract was assessed in eight species of Procellariiformes collected in southern Brazil and the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the ingested plastics pellets and plastic fragments was evaluated. PCBs were detected in plastic pellets (491 ng g(-1)) and plastic fragments (243-418 ng g(-1)). Among the OCPs, p,p'-DDE had the highest concentrations, ranging from 68.0 to 99.0 ng g(-1). The occurrence of organic pollutants in post-consumer plastics supports the fact that plastics are an important source carrying persistent organic pollutants in the marine environment. Although transfer through the food chain may be the main source of exposure to POPs to seabirds, plastics could be an additional source for the organisms which ingest them, like Procellariiformes which are the seabirds most affected by plastic pollution.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyl transport in the Hudson River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turk, John T.; Troutman, David E.

    1981-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) have been entering the Hudson River estuary since 1951. Concentration and loading of PCB 's in the river below Waterford, N.Y., are controlled at present by resuspension of sediments containing these substances; therefore , until the amount of PCB 's in the sediments is significantly lowered, reduction of point-source PCB discharge from the present rate of 0.4 kilograms per day will produce no more than a 10% reduction in loading to the river. Potential concentrations of PCB 's in solution and suspension in the river can be predicted by a simple model for mixing and dilution. From a known range of PCB influent rates, total PCB loading to the Hudson River from above Waterford is shown to be between 2,000 and 12,000 kilograms per year. (USGS)

  18. Determination of acute toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls to photobactrium phosphoreum

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, S.; Xu, X.; He, Y.

    1997-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a highly lipophilic group of global pollutants, consisting of 209 congeners. PCBs were discovered before the turn of the century and their usefulness for industry, because of their physical properties, was recognized early. The distribution of PCBs in the environment was not noticed until Jensen and his colleagues found PCBs in wildlife samples. Since then, investigations in many parts of the world have revealed the widespread distribution of PCBs in environmental samples and PCVs are persistent and accumulate in food webs. Thus, determination of toxicities of commercial PCB mixtures and PCB congeners are required. Toxicity tests using luminous bacteria have shown high correlation to traditional bioassays. This study compared the EC50 values of the commercial mixtures, PCB3 and PCB5, with those of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Studies on the vapor behavior of selected polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Haque, R; Kohnert, R

    1976-01-01

    The vapor loss of several PCB isomers from stainless steel planchets surfaces has been studied. Experiments were carried out under two different conditions. In one case, the vapor loss was observed from 2 molecular layers of PCB, while in the other series, the loss from approximately 200 molecular layers was observed. In both cases the loss of PCB from the surface was substantial, although the controlling mechanism of vapor loss was different. In the first case, the transport was approximated by a simple first order rate law, whereas in the latter case, it was a diffusion controlled process. In general, the vapor loss decreased with increasing number of chlorine atoms present in the isomer. The 4,4(1)-dichlorobiphenyl showed a deviation as compared to others indicating that such factors as the electronic distribution, position of chlorine atom on the biphenyl ring and symmentry of the molecule are also important in discussing the vapor transport. PMID:824339

  20. Developmental neurotoxicology of polychlorinated biphenyls and related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Tilson, H.A.; Harry, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are stable, lipophilic industrial compounds that are present in residue levels in human tissue, wildlife and freshwater sediment. They are toxic and are known to pass the placenta and intoxicate the fetus. Two large outbreaks of poisoning have occurred in Asia and women pregnant at or after the exposures had children who were developmentally impaired. Laboratory experiments in rhesus monkeys and rodents designed to assess neural or developmental neurotoxic effects show altered activity levels, impaired learning, and delayed ontogeny of reflexes. Children exposed transplacentally to PCBs in North America have been reported to display hypotonia and hyporeflexia at birth, delay in psychomotor development at 6 and 12 months of age and poorer visual recognition at 7 months. PCBs appear to be developmental neurotoxicants in both humans and animals and may pose a significant health risk, particularly to pregnant women and their offspring.

  1. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on development and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Faroon, O M; Keith, S; Jones, D; de Rosa, C

    2001-04-01

    As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals found at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) sites that have the greatest public health impact. These profiles comprehensively summarize toxicological and environmental information. This article, which constitutes the release of an important section of the Toxicological Profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (ATSDR 2000) into the scientific literature, focuses on the developmental and reproductive effects of this group of synthetic organic chemicals (PCBs) in humans and animals. Information on other health effects, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, biomarkers, interactions, chemical and physical properties, potential for human exposure, and regulations and advisories is detailed in the profile. Interested readers are encouraged to consult the original toxicological profile for more information. Profiles can be requested from ATSDR's Information Center by telephone (1-888-42-ATSDR [1-888-422-8737] or E-mail: (atsdric@cdc.gov). PMID:12117298

  2. [Microbial anaerobic dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in paddy soil slurry].

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Yao, Xiao-yan; Chen, Chen; Shen, Chao-feng; Qin, Zhi-hui; Huang, Rong-lang

    2015-10-01

    We studied the dechlorination process of Aroclor1260, a high-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) mixture in an anaerobic paddy soil slurry, and further analyzed the related microbial community structures. The Aroclor1260 was reduced up to 55.5% in the natural paddy soil slurry in 128 days, and the reduction percentage dropped to 46.9% after incoculating the paddy soil slurry with a PCBs-dechlorination enrichment culture. The dechlorination mainly occurred in congeners of pentachlorobiphenyl, hexachlorobiphenyl, and specially, the heptachlorobiphenyl, with pentachlorobiphenyl accumulated as dechlorination intermediate. Hydrogen gas produced from fermentation of organic matters was maintained at a lower partial pressure due to its consumption during the dechlorination process, so that the methanogens was suppressed as well. The microbial community structure was significantly different between natural and inoculated paddy soils. Introducing the PCBs-dechlorination enrichment culture changed the local microbial community by the competition between the exogenetic dchlorinators and the indigenous bacteria, overall decreasing the dechlorination activity.

  3. Polychlorinated Biphenyls as Probes of Biogeochemical Processes in Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzgerald, S.A.; Steuer, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the use of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) congener and homolog assemblages as tracers of biogeochemical processes in the Milwaukee and Manitowoc Rivers in southeastern Wisconsin from 1993 to 1995. PCB congeners in the dissolved and suspended particle phases, along with various algal indicators (algal carbon and pigments), were quantitated in the water seasonally. In addition, PCB congener assemblages were determined seasonally in surficial bed sediments. Biogeochemical processes investigated included: determination of the source of suspended particles and bottom sediments by comparison with known Aroclor mixtures, water-solid partitioning, and algal uptake of PCBs. Seasonal differences among the PCB assemblages were observed mainly in the dissolved phase, somewhat less in the suspended particulate phase, and not at all in the bed sediments.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyl accumulation in tree bark and wood growth rings

    SciTech Connect

    Meredith, M.L.; Hites, R.A.

    1987-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found in the bark of black walnut and tulip poplar trees growing near a PCB-contaminated landfill. PCBs were also found in the bark of white oak trees growing 14 km away from the landfill. The concentration of individual congeners in the bark averaged 18 ppb at the landfill and 0.5 ppb at the other site. The PCB congeners were accumulated into the bark in proportion to their lipophilicity (as measured by octanol-water partition coefficients). The authors findings suggest that tree bark could be used for biomonitoring of lipophilic organic pollutants in the atmosphere. There is little evidence that PCBs are present in the wood of trees. The signal to blank ratios are always less than 3, and the relative concentrations between 20-year time intervals do not show trends that correlate with the known inputs of PCBs in Bloomington, IN. 2 tables.

  5. Infecundity and consumption of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated fish.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, B M; Buck, G M; Mendola, P; Sever, L E; Vena, J E

    2001-01-01

    Biologic capacity for reproduction, or fecundity, may be threatened by environmental contaminants, especially compounds capable of disrupting endocrine pathways. Telephone interviews that focused on reproductive events were conducted with female members of the New York State Angler Cohort Study who became pregnant between 1991 and 1993 and who reported known time to pregnancy (N = 895; 73%). Consumption of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated Lake Ontario sportfish and other factors were ascertained in 1991. The authors classified the women as follows: (a) fecund (time to pregnancy < or =12 cycles; n = 723); (b) having resolved infecundity (time to pregnancy > 12 cycles; n = 81); or (c) having unresolved infecundity (time to pregnancy > 12 cycles without pregnancy; n = 94). Adjusted odds ratios for duration of fish consumption for both resolved and unresolved infecundity were elevated (1.46 and 1.19, respectively), although confidence intervals included unity. Frequency of recent fish consumption was associated with an increased risk for select categories, although confidence intervals included one.

  6. Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: New Trends and Promises

    PubMed Central

    Van Aken, Benoit; Correa, Paola A.; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic plants and associated bacteria constitute a new generation of genetically modified organisms for efficient and environmental-friendly treatment of soil and water contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This review focuses on recent advances in phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs, including the development of transgenic plants and associated bacteria. Phytoremediation, or the use of higher plants for rehabilitation of soil and groundwater, is a promising strategy for cost-effective treatment of sites contaminated by toxic compounds, including toxic PCBs. Plants can help mitigate environmental pollution by PCBs through a range of mechanisms: besides uptake from soil (phytoextraction), plants are capable of enzymatic transformation of PCBs (phytotransformation); by releasing a variety of secondary metabolites, plants also enhance the microbial activity in the root zone, improving biodegradation of PCBs (rhizoremediation). However, because of their hydrophobicity and chemical stability, PCBs are only slowly taken up and degraded by plants and associated bacteria, resulting in incomplete treatment and potential release of toxic metabolites into the environment. Moreover, naturally occurring plant-associated bacteria may not possess the enzymatic machinery necessary for PCB degradation. In order to overcome these limitations, bacterial genes involved in the metabolism of PCBs, such as biphenyl dioxygenases, have been introduced into higher plants, following a strategy similar to the development of transgenic crops. Similarly, bacteria have then been genetically modified that exhibit improved biodegradation capabilities and are able to maintain stable relationships with plants. Transgenic plants and associated bacteria bring hope for a broader and more efficient application of phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs. PMID:20384372

  7. BIOLUMINESCENCE INHIBITION ASSAY FOR THE DETECTION OF HYDROXYLATED POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS

    PubMed Central

    Hamorsky, Krystal Teasley; Ensor, C. Mark; Dikici, Emre; Pasini, Patrizia; Bachas, Leonidas; Daunert, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) are an important class of contaminants that mainly originate from polychlorinated biphenyl metabolism. They may conceivably be as dangerous and persistent as the parent compounds; most prominently, OH-PCBs are endocrine disruptors. Due to increasing evidence of the presence of OH-PCBs in the environment and in living organisms, including humans, and of their toxicity, methods of detection for OH-PCBs are needed in the environmental and medical fields. Herein we describe the development and optimization of a protein+based inhibition assay for the quantification of OH-PCBs. Specifically, the photoprotein aequorin was utilized for the detection of OH-PCBs. We hypothesized that OH-PCBs interact with aequorin and we established that OH-PCBs actually inhibit the bioluminescence of aequorin in a dose-dependent manner. We took advantage of this phenomenon to develop an assay that is capable of detecting a wide variety of OH-PCBs with a range of detection limits, the best detection limit being 11 nM for the compound 2-hydroxy-2',3,4',5',6-pentachorobiphenyl. The viability of this system for the screening of OH-PCBs in spiked biological and environmental samples was also established. We envision the implementation of this novel bioluminescence inhibition assay as a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective method for monitoring OH-PCBs. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge this is the first time aequorin has been employed to detect an analyte by the inhibition of its bioluminescence reaction. Hence, this strategy may prove to be a general approach for the development of a new generation of protein-based inhibition assays. PMID:22908962

  8. Guidance on the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of synthetic organic chemicals including 209 known isomers, each with from 1 to 10 chlorine atoms on a biphenyl ring. PCBs have a number of desirable properties for industrial applications including thermal stability, flame retardance, and low vapor pressure. Because of these properties, PCBs were widely used as dielectric fluid in electrical equipment such as utility transformers and capacitors. PCBs were also extensively used in hydraulic fluid and heat transfer fluid, in gaskets, as additives in cutting oils and lubricant, and in a variety of other uses. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 in response to emerging information about the adverse health effects of PCBs and their persistence in the environment. In addition, TSCA directed the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prescribe methods for disposal of PCBS, require marking of PCBs with warning labels, and control their use. The TSCA regulations allow continued use of PCBs provided that the use is totally enclosed and does not pose a risk to human health or the environment. However, at the end of their useful life, all PCB materials must be disposed of according to the TSCA regulations. This guidance document uses graphics and flow charts where possible to present the TSCA regulations according to management activities such as use, storage, disposal, and spill cleanup. The document is designed to be read on an as-needed basis; that is, each chapter can stand alone or may be read in combination with others to help the reader determine the regulations relevant to his or her individual situation and needs. Every attempt has been made to include the requirements of other statutes and regulations that apply to PCB materials and provide references for the reader to consult for additional information.

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers vs alternate brominated flame retardants and Dechloranes from East Asia to the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Möller, Axel; Xie, Zhiyong; Cai, Minghong; Zhong, Guangcai; Huang, Peng; Cai, Minggang; Sturm, Renate; He, Jianfeng; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2011-08-15

    Marine boundary layer air and seawater samples taken during a polar expedition cruise from East China Sea to the Arctic were analyzed in order to compare the occurrence, distribution, and fate of the banned polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) with their brominated alternatives as well as the chlorinated Dechloranes. The sum of PBDEs (∑(10)PBDEs) in the atmosphere ranged from 0.07 to 8.1 pg m(-3) with BDE-209 being the dominating congener and from not detected (n.d.) to 0.6 pg L(-1) in seawater. Alternate brominated flame retardants (BFRs), especially hexabromobenzene (HBB), (2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE), pentabromotoluene (PBT), 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTBB), bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate (TBPH), were detected in higher concentrations than PBDEs, even in the high Arctic (0.6 to 15.4 pg m(-3) for sum of alternate BFRs), indicating the change of PBDEs toward alternate BFRs in the environmental predominance. In addition, Dechlorane Plus (DP) as well as Dechlorane 602, 603, and 604 were detected both in the atmosphere and in seawater. The highest concentrations as well as the highest compound variability were observed in East Asian samples suggesting the Asian continent as source of these compounds in the marine environment. The air-seawater exchange indicates strong deposition, especially of alternate BFRs, as well as dry particle-bound deposition of BDE-209 into the ocean. PMID:21751774

  10. [Indoor deposition flux and congener profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Shanghai, China].

    PubMed

    Han, Wen-liang; Feng, Jia-liang; Peng, Xiao-xia; Wu, Ming-hong; Fu, Jia-mo

    2010-03-01

    Indoor dry deposition of eight homes and offices in the urban area of Shanghai, China were sampled with clean glass plate during July to August of 2008 to study the indoor deposition flux and congener profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). 16 PBDEs congeners which including BDE-17, -28, -71, 47, -66, -77, -100, -99, -85, -118, -154, -153, -138, -183, -190 and BDE-209 were measured by GC-MS with negative chemical ionization (NCI) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The particulate deposition flux of PBDEs in homes and offices were (10.9 +/- 8.2) and (14.2 +/- 11.9) ng x (m2 x d)(-1) respectively. Deca-BDE (BDE-209) was the major compound, accounting for 88.2% -99.2% of the quantified PBDEs. The particulate deposition flux in the offices [(3.1 +/- 2.0) mg x (m2 x d)(-1)] was relatively lower than that of homes, but the concentration of PBDEs in the particles [(3361.6 +/- 1987.4) ng x g(-1)] was significantly higher than that of homes [(1169.1 +/- 647.1) ng x g(-1)]. The concentration of PBDEs in the indoor dry deposition of Shanghai ranked in the middle level comparing with other cities around the world. The indoor deposition flux of PBDEs was mainly correlated with the flux of particle deposition and the usage of electrical and electronic products, but not the interior decoration and the amount of furniture.

  11. Comparing black carbon types in sequestering polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediments

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Fang; Gan, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely found in sediments, especially congeners from the penta-BDE formula. Due to their strong affinity for black carbon (BC), bioavailability of PBDEs may be decreased in BC-amended sediments. In this study, we used a matrix-SPME method to measure the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree) of PBDEs as a parameter of their potential bioavailability and evaluated the differences among biochar, charcoal, and activated carbon. Activated carbon displayed a substantially greater sequestration capacity than biochar or charcoal. At 1% amendment rate in sediment with low organic carbon (OC) content (0.12%), Cfree of six PBDEs was reduced by 47.5–78.0%, 47.3–77.5%, and 94.1–98.3% with biochar, charcoal, and activated carbon, respectively, while the sequestration was more limited in sediment with high OC content (0.87%). Therefore, it is important to consider the type and properties of the BC and the sediment in BC-based remediation or mitigation. PMID:24047549

  12. [Pollution characterization and source apportionment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in autumn air of Xi'an].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun-Li; Zhang, Cheng-Zhong; Ma, Wan-Li; Yany, Meng; Zhou, Bian-Hong; Liu, Li-Zhong; Li, Yi-Fan

    2011-08-01

    Air samples in gas and particle phases were collected using a high volume active sampler from August to October in 2008 at Xi'an for evaluating the pollution level of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Lower brominated PBDEs and BDE-209 were analyzed via GC-MS and GC/ECD, respectively. The total concentrations (gas plus particle phases) of 12 PBDEs were ranged from 37.43 to 620.30 pg/m3, with an average of 216.28 pg/m3, while tri- to hexa-brominated congeners (Sigma11 PBDEs) ranged from 16.32 to 86. 49 pg/m3, BDE-209 ranged from 16. 34 to 576.01 pg/m3. Tri- to tetra-brominated congeners existed mainly in gas phase, tetra- to hexa-brominated congeners were predominated in particle phase, and BDE-209 was detected only in particle phase. The proportion of PBDEs in particle phase increased with bromine number. Gas-particle partition coefficient of PBDEs was well correlated with sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure, and the partitioning of PBDEs between gas and particle phases were close to equilibrium. Correlation analysis indicated that all the PBDEs have good coefficients except BDE-85. Source analysis indicated that PBDEs in the atmosphere of Xi'an were mainly from the Penta-BDE and Deca-BDE contamination. PMID:22619941

  13. Leaching characteristics of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from flame-retardant plastics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Jin; Osako, Masahiro; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the effect of leachant on the leachability of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), we determined the leaching concentrations of PBDEs from flame-retardant plastic samples (TV housings and raw materials before molding processing) that are regarded as a source of PBDEs in landfill sites. The leachants used were distilled water, 20% methanol solution, and dissolved humic solution (DHS) of 1000 mg/l based on organic carbon. The leaching test conditions were a liquid-to-solid ratio of 100:1, and a contact period of five days, with twice-daily agitation in a temperature-controlled room of 30 degrees C without pH or ionic strength control. The leaching concentrations of PBDEs increased with increased content, and were found to be remarkably enhanced when methanol and DHS were used instead of distilled water. The enhancement of leachability in the presence of the latter was attributed to the cosolvency effect, and complex formations between the PBDEs and dissolved humic matter (DHM). PBDE concentrations in the leachate obtained from the leaching test and an actual landfill site revealed a significant presence of congeners below heptabromodiphenyl ethers (H7BDEs), detected in the leachate of the actual landfill, while significant amounts of nonabromodiphenyl ethers (N9BDEs) and decabromodiphenyl ether (D10BDE) were detected in the leachate of the leaching test. PMID:16483632

  14. Environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from industrial plants in China: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chao; Chen, Yuan; Li, Jinhui; Li, Ying; Li, Huafen

    2016-04-01

    Although numerous studies have shown the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in various environmental media, attention to their distribution in the environmental media surrounding industrial facilities is limited. In this study, eight PBDEs congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -209) were investigated in surface soils and water samples collected from commercial PBDE manufacturers, flame-retardant plastic modification plants and waste electrical and electronic equipment recycling facilities in China. Analysis of target compounds was performed using the model NCI GC-MS in SIM mode. The concentrations of ∑8PBDEs varied from 193.1 to 22,004.3 ng/L in water samples and from 1209.3 to 226,906 ng/g dry wt in surface soils, respectively. More severe PBDE contamination, when compared with previously reported data, was found in industrial areas in this study. This indicates that these industrial areas are highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for more than 94% in this study, except for a 68.75% portion at one site. Our results show that PBDE manufacturing and flame-retardant plastic modification plants, easily overlooked by the public, are two primary PBDE pollution sources although they affect surrounding areas. Further research is needed, aimed at managing industrial PBDE emissions and eliminating environmental PBDE pollution, to investigate the material flows and environmental fates of PBDEs in all stages of the life cycle.

  15. An overview of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyo Jin; Kim, Gi Beum

    2015-06-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are used extensively as brominated flame retardants, are found ubiquitously in marine environments worldwide. In this paper, we review all available data on the occurrence and trends of PBDEs in marine environments. PBDE levels in different marine environmental compartments vary from nanograms per gram to micrograms per gram, and differ widely, depending on the exposed species and the collection site. The PBDE congener profiles in biota, which are dominated by the lower brominated congeners, such as BDE-47 and BDE-99, are different from those in sediments, where BDE-209 is dominant. Temporal trends in PBDE levels in sediment cores vary considerably, depending on the region or country studied, with possible correlations with the historic and current use of PBDEs. Low brominated BDE congeners have the potential for bioaccumulation in marine organisms, but BDE- 209 has a very low potential for bioaccumulating within the marine food web. The toxicological effects of PBDEs on marine organisms are largely unknown. However, PBDE isomers may be sufficient to elicit adverse effects in some marine organisms. Here, we discuss naturally occurring brominated diphenyl ethers and recommend further research to improve future monitoring.

  16. Brominated flame retardants in Chinese air before and after the phase out of polybrominated diphenyl ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen-Long; Qi, Hong; Ma, Wan-Li; Liu, Li-Yan; Zhang, Zhi; Mohammed, Mohammed O. A.; Song, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Zifeng; Li, Yi-Fan

    2015-09-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel non-BDE flame retardants (NBFRs), were analyzed in Chinese air during China's POPs Soil and Air Monitoring Program Phase I (SAMP-I) and Phase II (SAMP-II). The levels of Σ12PBDEs and Σ6NBFRs in urban sites were significantly higher than those in rural sites and background sites. The higher detection rate and concentrations of high molecular weight PBDEs and NBFRs in Phase II indicated the changing of the commercial pattern of BFRs after the phase out of PBDEs in China. Temperature was the major factor affecting the seasonal variations of molecular weight BFRs in atmosphere. A significant correlation between BFRs concentration and gross domestic product (GDP) was observed, with the GDP parameter explained 59.4% and 72.7% of the total variability for Octa-BDEs and low molecular weight NBFRs, respectively. Our findings indicated an evolving commercial usage of BFRs from SAMP-I to SAMP-II, i.e. shifting from lower molecular weight to higher molecular weight congeners in China.

  17. Complexity of naturally produced polybrominated diphenyl ethers revealed via mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Vinayak; Li, Jie; Rahman, Imran; Borgen, Miles; Aluwihare, Lihini I; Biggs, Jason S; Paul, Valerie J; Moore, Bradley S

    2015-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent and bioaccumulative anthropogenic and natural chemicals that are broadly distributed in the marine environment. PBDEs are potentially toxic due to inhibition of various mammalian signaling pathways and enzymatic reactions. PBDE isoforms vary in toxicity in accordance with structural differences, primarily in the number and pattern of hydroxyl moieties afforded upon a conserved core structure. Over four decades of isolation and discovery-based efforts have established an impressive repertoire of natural PBDEs. Based on our recent reports describing the bacterial biosyntheses of PBDEs, we predicted the presence of additional classes of PBDEs to those previously identified from marine sources. Using mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy, we now establish the existence of new structural classes of PBDEs in marine sponges. Our findings expand the chemical space explored by naturally produced PBDEs, which may inform future environmental toxicology studies. Furthermore, we provide evidence for iodinated PBDEs and direct attention toward the contribution of promiscuous halogenating enzymes in further expanding the diversity of these polyhalogenated marine natural products.

  18. A Fluorescence-Based Method for Rapid and Direct Determination of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Water

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Huimei; Ma, Teng; Shang, Jianying; Pan, Duoqiang

    2015-01-01

    A new method was developed for rapid and direct measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aqueous samples using fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence spectra of tri- to deca-BDE (BDE 28, 47, 99, 153, 190, and 209) commonly found in environment were measured at variable emission and excitation wavelengths. The results revealed that the PBDEs have distinct fluorescence spectral profiles and peak positions that can be exploited to identify these species and determine their concentrations in aqueous solutions. The detection limits as determined in deionized water spiked with PBDEs are 1.71–5.82 ng/L for BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 190, and BDE 209 and 45.55–69.95 ng/L for BDE 99 and BDE 153. The effects of environmental variables including pH, humic substance, and groundwater chemical composition on PBDEs measurements were also investigated. These environmental variables affected fluorescence intensity, but their effect can be corrected through linear additivity and separation of spectral signal contribution. Compared with conventional GC-based analytical methods, the fluorescence spectroscopy method is more efficient as it only uses a small amount of samples (2–4 mL), avoids lengthy complicated concentration and extraction steps, and has a low detection limit of a few ng/L. PMID:25705548

  19. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil from three typical industrial areas in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongfei; Fu, Shan; Liu, Xinchun; Li, Zheng; Dong, Yuan

    2013-12-01

    Areas containing industrial facilities belonging to three different typical industries that may cause pollution by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Beijing, China were investigated. Specifically, the areas contained a solid waste incineration plant, a chemical factory, and a heat and power plant. Investigation of the pollution status of PBDEs in the surface soil from areas around these industries revealed the highest concentration of 42 PBDE congeners (118 ng/g, dry mass) at the solid waste incineration plant. In the other two plants, the highest concentrations were both 26 ng/g (dry mass). Among the PBDE homologues, the PBDE contamination at all sites showed similar congener compositions, with BDE 209 being the dominant congener. Our findings established the first contamination status of three typical industrial areas in Beijing. Furthermore, the total concentrations of 42 PBDE congeners tended to decrease as the distance from the investigated plants increased. Overall, these plants were identified as potential pollution sources of PBDEs in Beijing. Moreover, Pearson correlation analysis revealed that the major PBDE source in Beijing may be associated with the technical deca-BDE and penta-BDE mixture. Based on the data obtained in this preliminary investigation, further study of the potential of these sources to emit PBDEs in Beijing is warranted. PMID:24649676

  20. Spatial distributions and temporal trends in polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Detroit River suspended sediments.

    PubMed

    Marvin, Chris; Waltho, Jasmine; Jia, Julia; Burniston, Debbie

    2013-05-01

    Suspended sediments from the Detroit River were collected using sediment traps at sites ranging from western Lake Erie to southern Lake St. Clair to assess spatial distributions and temporal trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The distribution of PBDEs in suspended sediments in the Detroit River appeared influenced by shoreline-based contemporary urban and industrial activities, which stood in contrast to PCBs that were associated with areas of historic industrial activity. Temporal trend data indicate that total PBDE concentrations decreased in the period after 2000 in response to cessation of production of the penta- and octa BDE formulations. Concentrations of total PBDEs ranged from roughly 7 ng g(-1) (4 ng g(-1) BDE 209) in southern Lake St. Clair to several hundred ng g(-1) (60-180 ng g(-1) BDE 209) in the lower reaches of the Detroit River. The widespread occurrence of PBDEs in Detroit River suspended sediments suggests that large urban areas can act as diffuse sources of these chemicals that are used in modern industrial applications and consumer products.

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in precipitation in Southern Sweden (Skåne, Lund)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ter Schure, Arnout F. H.; Larsson, Per

    The presence of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in total deposition (wet+dry) was assessed with the simultaneous use of three bulk samplers during a 2 week period. The particle associated and the 'dissolved' phase were separated during sampling. Volume weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of ∑PBDE (9 congeners) in rain were 209 pg l -1. Total deposition rates were 2±1 ng ∑PBDE m -2 day -1. The total PBDE deposition was dominated by decaBDE(209) and thereafter 2,2'4,4'-tetraBDE(47) and 2,2'4,4',5-pentaBDE(99). Concentrations of particle associated and 'dissolved' PBDEs in total deposition were used to calculate filter/adsorbent ratios ( F/ A). We found that 65±18% of the total PBDEs were particle associated. Low F/ A ratios for higher brominated congeners (Br>5) were observed. This is contradictory with predictions based on the PBDEs' physico-chemical properties and was attributed to sampling artefacts, such as particle size distribution, and/or non-equilibrium processes. There was a negative relationship between the particulate ∑PBDE concentration and rain volume suggesting a dilution effect and the importance of particle scavenging for wet deposition of PBDEs.

  2. Validation of a flow-through sampler for pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hang; Hung, Hayley; Lei, Ying Duan; Wania, Frank

    At locations without access to the electrical grid, a flow-through sampler (FTS) collects large volumes of air for the analysis of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). To test its performance under field conditions, an FTS and a traditional pumped high volume air sampler, both using polyurethane foam (PUF) as sampling medium, were co-deployed at the campus of the University of Toronto Scarborough from August 2006 to June 2007. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and various pesticides were quantified in the samples taken by both samplers to test the FTS's applicability to relatively non-volatile and slightly polar SVOCs. Air concentrations in samples taken with the FTS over five 2-week periods compare favourably with the average of the concentrations in several 24-h active high volume samples taken during the same period. In particular, time trends, temperature dependence relationships, and isomer ratios show a reasonable agreement between the two sampling techniques. An empirical linear solvation energy relationship for predicting the apparent theoretical plate number of the PUF assembly used in the FTS illustrates the effect of chemical properties, as well as temperature and wind speed, on sampling efficiency. In the absence of electrical power, the FTS can collect SVOCs from large air volumes as reliably and quantitatively as traditional HiVol samplers, although without separating gas and particle phase.

  3. The developmental neurotoxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers: Effect of DE-71 on dopamine in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianfeng; Yang, Lihua; Wu, Yuanyuan; Huang, Changjiang; Wang, Qiangwei; Han, Jian; Guo, Yongyong; Shi, Xiongjie; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2015-05-01

    The potential neurotoxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) is still a great concern. In the present study, the authors investigated whether exposure to PBDEs could affect the neurotransmitter system and cause developmental neurotoxicity in zebrafish. Zebrafish embryos (2 h postfertilization) were exposed to different concentrations of the PBDE mixture DE-71 (0-100 μg/L). The larvae were harvested at 120 h postfertilization, and the impact on dopaminergic signaling was investigated. The results revealed significant reductions in content of whole-body dopamine and its metabolite, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, in DE-71-exposed larvae. The transcription of genes involved in the development of dopaminergic neurons (e.g., manf, bdnf, and nr4a2b) was significantly downregulated upon exposure to DE-71. Also, DE-71 resulted in a significant decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter protein levels in dopaminergic neurons. The expression level of tyrosine hydroxylase in forebrain neurons was assessed by whole-mount immunofluorescence, and the results further demonstrated that the tyrosine hydroxylase protein expression level was reduced in dopaminergic neurons. In addition to these molecular changes, the authors observed reduced locomotor activity in DE-71-exposed larvae. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate that acute exposure to PBDEs can affect dopaminergic signaling by disrupting the synthesis and transportation of dopamine in zebrafish, thereby disrupting normal neurodevelopment. In accord with its experimental findings, the present study extends knowledge of the mechanisms governing PBDE-induced developmental neurotoxicity. PMID:25651517

  4. Atmospheric Chemistry of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers: The Importance of Photolysis as a Fate Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raff, J. D.; Hites, R. A.

    2006-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are heavily used as flame-retardants in polyurethane foam and synthetic commercial fibers. These semivolatile compounds have between 2 and 10 bromines and have been found to undergo long-range atmospheric transport to remote regions such as the Arctic Circle, where they enter food chains and biomagnify in top predators. Unfortunately, existing environmental fate models are unable to accurately describe the long-range transport potential of these compounds due to a lack of comprehensive data on the physical and chemical properties of PBDEs, especially those that describe photolysis in the vapor and particle phases. We have used a small-volume reaction chamber coupled to a mass spectrometer to measure the gas-phase quantum yields of select PBDEs relative to well-characterized actinometers. Our results are used to derive photolysis lifetimes of PBDEs and enable us, in conjunction with our measured OH rate constants and estimates of deposition velocities, to understand and quantify the most important loss processes for PBDEs in the atmosphere.

  5. [Atmospheric Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Eight Cities of China: Pollution Characteristics and Human Exposure].

    PubMed

    Lin, Hai-tao; Li, Qi-lu; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun

    2016-01-15

    The gas and particle samples of eight cities were collected by high flow active air sampler in the Eastern and Western China and eight congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of BDE-28 (tri-BDE) in the gas-phase (three bromide components) was the highest, which was different from previous studies where BDE-99 and-47 were the predominant homologues in the gas-phase while the concentration of BDE-209 [(25.4 ± 124) pg · m⁻³] in particle-phase was the highest. The atmospheric concentrations of PBDEs in Beijing and Guangzhou were relatively higher, especially the BDE-209 concentration in particle phases of Guangzhou was two orders higher than those of other cities. However, the atmospheric concentrations of PBDEs declined significantly when compared with the data from previous studies. Meanwhile, the results indicated that the gas-phase concentrations decreased slowly and the particle-phase concentrations decreased rapidly. Combined with the results of correlation analysis, this phenomenon might be ascribed to the ceased commercial production of penta- and octa-BDE, the light degradation of high bromide components and reduced concentrations of atmospheric particles in urban area. Inhalation exposure for infants was about 2-3 times higher than that of adults. This reflected that the potential health risk of atmospheric PBDEs in city for residents, especially infants and young children, should not be ignored. PMID:27078934

  6. Physiological effects of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE-47) on pregnant gartersnakes and resulting offspring.

    PubMed

    Neuman-Lee, Lorin A; Carr, James; Vaughn, Katelynn; French, Susannah S

    2015-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants and are persistent contaminants found in virtually every environment and organism sampled to date, including humans. There is growing evidence that PBDEs are the source of thyroid, neurodevelopmental, and reproductive toxicity. Yet little work has focused on how this pervasive contaminant may influence the reproduction and physiology of non-traditional model species. This is especially critical because in many cases non-model species, such as reptiles, are most likely to come into contact with PBDEs in nature. We tested how short-term, repeated exposure to the PBDE congener BDE-47 during pregnancy affected physiological processes in pregnant female gartersnakes (thyroid follicular height, bactericidal ability, stress responsiveness, reproductive output, and tendency to terminate pregnancy) and their resulting offspring (levels of corticosterone, bactericidal ability, and size differences). We found potential effects of BDE-47 on both the mother, such as increased size and higher thyroid follicular height, and her offspring (increased size), suggesting the effects on physiological function of PBDEs do indeed extend beyond the traditional rodent models. PMID:25845721

  7. Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soils and sediment of Hanfeng Lake, Three Gorges.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenrui; Lu, Yingzhuan; Gao, Shutao; Jia, Xuwei; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Xiangying; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2015-01-01

    As ubiquitous organic contaminants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were evaluated to explore the impacts of the water level fluctuating zone (WLFZ) on organic pollutant behavior and the retention mechanism of organic pollutants in the bank-WLFZ-water system of Hanfeng Lake in the Three Gorges region of China. The mean concentrations of total PBDEs were 103, 75.2, and 568 ng g(-1) dry wt for bank soils, WLFZ soils, and sediment samples, respectively. Except for sampling sites S1 and S2, the levels of PBDEs decreased in the order of sediment>WLFZ soil > bank soil, suggesting that PBDEs were transferred from bank soil to WLFZ soil and finally deposited in the sediment. Decabromodiphenyl ethers (deca-BDEs) were the predominant congener in the study area, comprising 93.8% to 98.3% of the total PBDEs. Greater photolytic degradation of deca-BDEs was suggested in bank soils based on a higher relative abundance of octa- and nona-BDEs than in WLFZ soils and sediment. This may have occurred because deca-BDEs in bank soils have relatively longer sunlight exposure than in WLFZ soils and sediment due to the annual alternation of water storage and drainage in the catchments of the Three Gorges Reservoir. More in-depth investigations of contaminants in bank-WLFZ-water systems are needed due to the large areas of WLFZ created by the construction of the Three Gorges Dam and their importance to the balance of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26181085

  8. Induction of Adipocyte Differentiation by Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in 3T3-L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Emily W. Y.; Boudreau, Adèle; Wade, Michael G.; Atlas, Ella

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame retardants that were extensively used in commercial products. PBDEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that are both lipophilic and bioaccumulative. Effects of PBDEs on adipogenesis were studied in the 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell model in the presence and absence of a known adipogenic agent, dexamethasone (DEX). A PBDE mixture designed to mimic body burden of North Americans was tested, in addition to the technical mixture DE-71 and the individual congener BDE-47. The mixture, DE-71, and BDE-47 all induced adipocyte differentiation as assessed by markers for terminal differentiation [fatty acid binding protein 4 (aP2) and perilipin] and lipid accumulation. Characterization of the differentiation process in response to PBDEs indicated that adipogenesis induced by a minimally effective dose of DEX was enhanced by these PBDEs. Moreover, C/EBPα, PPARγ, and LXRα were induced late in the differentiation process. Taken together, these data indicate that adipocyte differentiation is induced by PBDEs; they act in the absence of glucocorticoid and enhance glucocorticoid-mediated adipogenesis. PMID:24722056

  9. Enhanced bioremediation of soil from Tianjin, China, contaminated with polybrominated diethyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Cuiping; Li, Jing; Wang, Baolin; Wu, Jianyu; Jiang, Yan; Sun, Hongwen

    2014-12-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of nutrients, H2O2, and tourmaline on the bioremediation of fields where the soil was contaminated with polybrominated diethyl ethers (PBDEs). The results showed that 39.2, 38.3, and 48.1 % of total PBDE removal was observed in microcosms with the addition of nutrients, such as NaNO3, NH4Cl, and NH4NO3, respectively, compared to only 15.2 and 5.8 % of PBDE removal from soil with added Aspergillus niger and control soil, respectively, after 50 days of incubation. In addition, 50.8 and 56.5 % of total PBDE removal were observed in microcosms with 0.5 and 1 μL H2O2. The addition of tourmaline increased total PBDE removal to 32.4 %. Significant increases in soil enzymatic activity with PBDE degraders and bacterial communities were observed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)--denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). These observations suggested that the combination of inorganic nutrients with chemical, mineral, and biological treatment could improve the PBDE removal efficiency. However, the combination of H2O2 and biological treatment processes is the most efficient technology. This combination of technologies would not cause adverse effects on the subsequent bioremediation process. Therefore, this work offers a potential alternative for the remediation of soil contaminated with PBDE pollutants.

  10. Seasonality in polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations in the atmosphere of the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifei; Dong, Liang; Huang, Yeru; Shi, Shuangxin; Yang, Wenlong; Zhou, Li

    2016-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations in the atmosphere in rapidly developing parts of China have been studied little. In this study, polyurethane foam disk passive air samplers were used to comprehensively investigate PBDE concentrations in the atmosphere of the Yangtze River Delta in different seasons in 2010 and 2011. The mean sum of the concentrations of 13 PBDE congeners was 3.3 pg/m(3) in spring, 7.3 pg/m(3) in summer, 1.0 pg/m(3) in autumn, and 12 pg/m(3) in winter. Higher PBDE concentrations were found in urban areas than in rural areas. The PBDE concentrations were comparable to concentrations that have been found in cities around the world. BDE28, BDE47, BDE99, BDE153, and BDE183 were the dominant PBDE congeners in all seasons. High PBDE concentrations were found in satellite cities, such as Changshu, Wujiang, and Zhangjiagang, suggesting that commercial PBDEs (including pentabromodiphenyl ether products) are produced and/or used in those cities. The PBDE concentrations in the atmosphere were used to estimate daily doses through the inhalation of outdoor air. The most severe risks posed by exposure to PBDEs were found to occur in winter, for both adults and children, but the PBDE concentrations were found not to pose appreciable risks to human health. PMID:26791420

  11. GC-MS analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Lake Erie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagula, Mary C.; Vartak, Marissa; Tallmadge, Weslene

    2012-06-01

    Lake Erie is one of the five great lakes of North America. It is the shallowest, the warmest, and the most biologically productive of the Great Lakes producing more fish than all of the other four lakes combined. It is also a source of drinking water for 11 million people and a recreational asset. On the flipside, it is also very vulnerable and troubled with environmental challenges because it has the smallest water volume, but the greatest pressures from the human settlement. One of the many issues faced by the Lake is pollution. It receives larger loads of many pollutants than any other Great Lake. Even with the best pollution controls many pesticides and organohalogens continue to enter the lake. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of flame-retardants that have been used in a variety of consumer products since the 1970s. They are added to many commercial and household products such as computers, foam mattresses, carpets, etc. Being largely non-polar and chemically stable, these chemicals are extremely lipophilic and resist degradation in the environment, thus giving them a high affinity for their bioaccumulation. Due to these properties PBDEs have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants. These compounds are reported to be endocrine disruptors and could cause oxidative damage. This report presents the sample preparation protocol, the GC-MS analysis of PBDEs in Lake Erie sediment samples.

  12. Estimating stepwise debromination pathways of polybrominated diphenyl ethers with an analogue Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yonghong; Christensen, Erik R; Zheng, Wei; Wei, Hua; Li, An

    2014-11-01

    A stochastic process was developed to simulate the stepwise debromination pathways for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The stochastic process uses an analogue Markov Chain Monte Carlo (AMCMC) algorithm to generate PBDE debromination profiles. The acceptance or rejection of the randomly drawn stepwise debromination reactions was determined by a maximum likelihood function. The experimental observations at certain time points were used as target profiles; therefore, the stochastic processes are capable of presenting the effects of reaction conditions on the selection of debromination pathways. The application of the model is illustrated by adopting the experimental results of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) in hexane exposed to sunlight. Inferences that were not obvious from experimental data were suggested by model simulations. For example, BDE206 has much higher accumulation at the first 30 min of sunlight exposure. By contrast, model simulation suggests that, BDE206 and BDE207 had comparable yields from BDE209. The reason for the higher BDE206 level is that BDE207 has the highest depletion in producing octa products. Compared to a previous version of the stochastic model based on stochastic reaction sequences (SRS), the AMCMC approach was determined to be more efficient and robust. Due to the feature of only requiring experimental observations as input, the AMCMC model is expected to be applicable to a wide range of PBDE debromination processes, e.g. microbial, photolytic, or joint effects in natural environments.

  13. Incidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in central air conditioner filter dust from a new office building.

    PubMed

    Ni, Hong-Gang; Cao, Shan-Ping; Chang, Wen-Jing; Zeng, Hui

    2011-07-01

    This study examined polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air conditioner filter (CACF) dust from a new office building in Shenzhen, China. Human exposure to PBDE via dust inhalation and ingestion were also estimated. PBDEs level in CACF dust was lower than those in the other countries and regions. Approximately 0.671 pg/kg bw/day PM(2.5) (Particulate Matter up to 2.5 μm in size) bounded Σ(15)PBDEs can be inhaled deep into the lungs and 4.123 pg/kg bw/day PM(10) (Particulate Matter up to 10 μm in size) bounded Σ(15)PBDEs tend to be deposited in the upper parts of the respiratory system. The average total intake of Σ(15)PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion for adults reached ∼ 141 pg/kg bw/day in this building. This value was far below the reference dose (RfD) recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency. Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than the old ones. PMID:21497428

  14. Assessment of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) via seafood consumption and dust ingestion in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunggyu; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2013-01-15

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in commonly consumed seafood and house dust collected from Korea. Total concentrations of PBDEs in seafood and house dust samples were in the ranges of 0.06 to 6.25 ng/g wet weight and 80 to 16,000 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Predominant congeners in seafood were BDEs 47, 99 and 100 and those in dust samples were BDE 209. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of PBDEs through seafood consumption and dust ingestion for adults (>20 years) and toddlers (<2 years) were 1.83 and 11.4 ng/kg body weight/day, respectively. In comparison with the EDIs reported for PBDEs by general population in several countries, the contribution of seafood consumption to PBDE intake in Korea was the highest. Seafood consumption and dust ingestion contributed equally to the total PBDE intakes in Korean adults, while dust ingestion was the major contributor to toddlers. This study was the first to assess exposure of humans to PBDEs through two major exposure pathways.

  15. Chemical and photochemical degradation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in liquid systems - A review.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mónica S F; Alves, Arminda; Madeira, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are brominated flame retardants which have received a great deal of attention due to their persistence, potential to bioaccumulate and possible toxic effects. PBDEs have been globally detected in humans, wildlife and environment, highlighting the urgency of looking for effective removal technologies to mitigate their spread and accumulation in the environment. Among all environmental compartments, the water has raised particular attention. This paper aims to provide information about the suitability of the main degradation processes investigated to date (photolysis, zerovalent iron and TiO2 photocatalysis) for the degradation of PBDEs in water matrices. The most relevant criteria behind the design of a system for such purpose are discussed in detail for each individual process. The comparative analysis suggests that the oxidative degradation by TiO2 is the most appropriated technology to treat waters contaminated with PBDEs because higher debromination and mineralization degrees are achieved, preventing the formation/accumulation of lower brominated PBDE congeners and promoting the cracking of aromatic cores. PMID:26465809

  16. A fluorescence-based method for rapid and direct determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, Huimei; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Ma, Teng; Shang, Jianying; Pan, Duoqiang

    2015-01-01

    A new method was developed for rapid and direct measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aqueous samples using fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence spectra of tri- to deca-BDE (BDE 28, 47, 99, 153, 190, and 209) commonly found in environment were measured at variable emission and excitation wavelengths. The results revealed that the PBDEs have distinct fluorescence spectral profiles and peak positions that can be exploited to identify these species and determine their concentrations in aqueous solutions. The detection limits as determined in deionized water spiked with PBDEs are 1.71-5.82 ng/L for BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 190, and BDE 209 and 45.55–69.95 ng/L for BDE 99 and BDE 153. The effects of environmental variables including pH, humic substance, and groundwater chemical composition on PBDEs measurements were also investigated. These environmental variables affected fluorescence intensity, but their effect can be corrected through linear additivity and separation of spectral signal contribution. Compared with conventional GC-based analytical methods, the fluorescence spectroscopy method is more efficient as it only uses a small amount of samples (2-4 mL), avoids lengthy complicated concentration and extraction steps, and has a low detection limit of a few ng/L.

  17. Debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by nanoscale zerovalent iron: pathways, kinetics, and reactivity.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yuan; Ahn, Sungwoo; Luthy, Richard G

    2010-11-01

    The debromination of selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (nZVI) was studied to investigate the degradation pathways and the reaction kinetics of the PBDEs. The primary PBDE investigated was 2,3,4-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE 21) to assess degradation pathways. nZVI could effectively debrominate the selected PBDEs into lower brominated compounds and diphenyl ether, a completely debrominated form of PBDEs. The susceptibility of the meta-bromine by nZVI was observed from the debromination tests for PBDEs with single-flanked (2,3-diBDE and 3,4-diBDE) and unflanked (three mono-BDEs) bromines. The stepwise debromination from n-bromo- to (n-1)-bromodiphenyl ether was observed as the dominant reaction process, although simultaneous multistep debromination seemed to be plausible for di-BDEs having two bromines adjacent on the same phenyl ring. The reaction rate constants were estimated by assuming the reaction between PBDEs and nZVI was a pseudo-first-order reaction and the rates decreased with fewer bromine substituents. The reaction rate constants were correlated with the heat of formation and the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the corresponding compounds, and these appear to be useful descriptors of relative reaction rates among PBDE homologue groups. PMID:20923154

  18. The feline thyroid gland: a model for endocrine disruption by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)?

    PubMed

    Mensching, Donna A; Slater, Margaret; Scott, John W; Ferguson, Duncan C; Beasley, Val R

    2012-01-01

    The role of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) was investigated in the occurrence of feline hyperthyroidism (FH) by evaluating 15 PBDE congeners in serum from 62 client-owned (21 euthyroid, 41 hyperthyroid) and 10 feral cats. Total serum PBDE concentrations in euthyroid cats were not significantly different from those of hyperthyroid cats. Total serum PBDE in feral cats were significantly lower than in either of the groups of client-owned cats. Total serum PBDE did not correlate with serum total T4 concentration. Ten samples of commercial canned cat food and 19 dust samples from homes of client-owned cats were analyzed. Total PBDE in canned cat food ranged from 0.42 to 3.1 ng/g, and total PBDE in dust from 510 to 95,000 ng/g. Total PBDE in dust from homes of euthyroid cats ranged from 510 to 4900 ng/g. In dust from homes of hyperthyroid cats, total PBDE concentrations were significantly higher, ranging from 1100 to 95,000 ng/g. Dust PBDE and serum total T4 concentration were also significantly correlated. Estimates of PBDE exposures calculated from canned cat food and dust data suggest that domestic cats are primarily exposed through ingestion of household dust. These findings indicate further study of the role of PBDE is needed in the development of FH, which might identify the cat as a model and sentinel for humans with toxic nodular goiter (TNG). PMID:22352329

  19. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in mussels from cultures and natural population.

    PubMed

    Dosis, Ioannis; Athanassiadis, Ioannis; Karamanlis, Xanthippos

    2016-06-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) mass fractions were determined in mussel samples collected from 6 locations around Thermaikos Gulf in north Greece. PBDEs were present in all sampling sites and the average total (ΣPBDEs) ranged from 17.7 to 32.3ng/g l.w., characterising Thermaikos as low polluted, a fact further supported by congener ratios and literature comparison. Distribution was even among stations with one exception. Congener profiles exhibited predominance of penta-/octa-BDEs as well as BDE-209. Statistical analysis showed significant difference in pollution levels between the two types of mussel cultures. No variations were observed for mussel bunch position or between cultures and natural population. Congener correlation analysis suggested different pollution sources between higher and lower brominated congeners as well as different metabolic/degradation processes. Bioaccumulation factors indicated that an increase in congener bromination degree leads to bioaccumulation capacity reduction. Consumption of mussels from Thermaikos gulf area poses no threat for public health concerning PBDEs. PMID:27105726

  20. Developmental neurotoxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers mixture de71 in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Gill, Santokh; Hou, Yangxun; Li, Nanqin; Pulido, Olga; Bowers, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are a class of brominated flame retardants that are recognized as global environmental contaminants and a potential adverse health risk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the developmental impacts on rat Sprague-Dawley (SD) pups at postnatal day (PND) 11, 21, 50, 105, and 250 after perinatal exposure to a DE71 mixture. These PNDs corresponded to juveniles, young, and mature adults, respectively. The analysis included histopathological, transcriptional evaluation, and Western blots in both hippocampus and midbrain. There were no marked histopathological changes, but significant transcriptional alterations were observed at PND 21 and 250 in midbrain. These changes occurred in a number of the markers of the cholinergic system, including acetylcholinesterase, muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, and structural gene,s including those of neurofilaments, cell adhesion molecules including N-cadherin and CAMKII, and cytokines. The markers were upregulated at least twofold or greater at PND 21. These biomarkers were predominantly altered in males at low dose (0.3 mg/kg), whereas females were affected only at high concentration (30 mg/kg). At PND 250 both males and females showed downregulation of markers in both intermediate- and high-dose groups. Our results support the findings that in utero and lactational exposure to DE71 mixture leads to transcriptional alterations in midbrain of adult SD rats. PMID:27294297

  1. A national probabilistic study of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish from US lakes and reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Leanne L; Snyder, Blaine D; Olsen, Anthony R; Walters, Lynn S

    2013-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemicals that are present in air, water, soil, sediment, and biota (including fish). Most previous studies of PBDEs in fish were spatially focused on targeted waterbodies. National estimates were developed for PBDEs in fish from lakes and reservoirs of the conterminous US (excluding the Laurentian Great Lakes) using an unequal probability design. Predator (fillet) and bottom-dweller (whole-body) composites were collected during 2003 from 166 lakes selected randomly from the target population of 147,343 lakes. Both composite types comprised nationally representative samples that were extrapolated to the sampled population of 76,559 and 46,190 lakes for predators and bottom dwellers, respectively. Fish were analyzed for 34 individual PBDE congeners and six co-eluting congener pairs representing a total of 46 PBDEs. All samples contained detectable levels of PBDEs, and BDE-47 predominated. The maximum aggregated sums of congeners ranged from 38.3 ng/g (predators) to 125 ng/g (bottom dwellers). Maximum concentrations in fish from this national probabilistic study exceeded those reported from recent targeted studies of US inland lakes, but were lower than those from Great Lakes studies. The probabilistic design allowed the development of cumulative distribution functions to quantify PBDE concentrations versus the cumulative number of US lakes from the sampled population.

  2. Do Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) Increase the Risk of Thyroid Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yawei; Guo, Grace L.; Han, Xuesong; Zhu, Cairong; Kilfoy, Briseis A.; Zhu, Yong; Boyle, Peter; Zheng, Tongzhang

    2008-01-01

    An increased incidence of thyroid cancer has been reported in many parts of the world including the United States during the past several decades. Recently emerging evidence has demonstrated that polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs), particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), alter thyroid hormone homeostasis and cause thyroid dysfunction. However, few studies have been conducted to test whether exposure to PBDEs and other PHAHs increases the risk of thyroid cancer. Here, we hypothesize that elevated exposure to PHAHs, particularly PBDEs, increases the risk of thyroid cancer and may explain part of the increase in incidence of thyroid cancer during the past several decades. In addition, genetic and epigenetic variations in metabolic pathway genes may alter the expression and function of metabolic enzymes which are involved in the metabolism of endogenous thyroid hormones and the detoxification of PBDEs and other PHAHs. Such variation may result in different individual susceptibilities to PBDEs and other PHAHs and the subsequent development of thyroid cancer. The investigation of this hypothesis will lead to an improved understanding of the role of PBDEs and other PHAHs in thyroid tumorigenesis and may provide a real means to prevent this deadly disease. PMID:19122824

  3. Aerobic biodegradation of selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in wastewater sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Stiborova, Hana; Vrkoslavova, Jana; Lovecka, Petra; Pulkrabova, Jana; Hradkova, Petra; Hajslova, Jana; Demnerova, Katerina

    2015-01-01

    Due to widespread accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in our surroundings, it is important to clarify their fate in the environment and the options of their elimination. The aim of this study was to monitor the biodegradation of the most frequent congeners (BDE 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209) under aerobic condition by indigenous microflora in 2 industrially contaminated sewage sludge samples. BDE 209 was detected as the predominating congener in concentrations 685 ng/g and 1403 ng/g dry weight in sewage sludge from WWTPs (waste water treatment plants) Hradec Kralove and Brno, respectively. The total amount of 10 lower PBDEs was 605 and 205 ng/g dry weight, respectively. The aerobic degradation was significantly enhanced by the addition of yeast extract and 4-bromobiphenyl. The total concentrations of all 11 PBDE congeners were lowered and their elimination was detected reaching 62–78% of their initial amounts after 11 months of cultivation. The degradation of most abundant congener BDE 209 followed the first-order kinetics with constant detected between 2.77 × 10(−3) d(−1) and 3.79 × 10−(3)d(−1) and the half-lives of BDE 209 degradation ranged between 6.0 and 8.2 months. This work clearly demonstrates that both lower brominated PBDEs as well as the major representative BDE 209 could be successfully removed from municipally contaminated sludge under aerobic conditions. PMID:25463256

  4. Invited Commentary: Maternal Plasma Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Thyroid Hormones—Challenges and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Chevrier, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormones play a fundamental role in fetal and child development. While iodine deficiency-related maternal and child hypothyroidism may cause severe mental retardation, recent evidence suggests that milder forms of maternal hypothyroidism and hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy are also associated with altered neurodevelopment. On the other hand, hyperthyroidism during pregnancy has been associated with adverse fetal outcomes. Findings published by Abdelouahab et al. in the American Journal of Epidemiology (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;178(5):701–713) suggest that plasma concentrations of maternal polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which were used as flame retardants until recently and are detected in the tissues of virtually every North American, are associated with umbilical cord and maternal thyroid hormone levels during pregnancy. Although PBDEs have been consistently shown to reduce levels of free and total thyroxine in experimental animal studies, the direction of associations in human studies has been inconsistent. In this commentary, I discuss challenges beyond the factors often cited in the epidemiologic literature to explain inconsistent findings which more specifically apply to the study of PBDEs and thyroid hormones. These include the determination of iodine intake status, the method used to adjust for blood lipid concentrations, the measurement of free thyroid hormone levels, the possible effect of PBDE metabolites, and the potential for reverse causality. PMID:23924577

  5. Association of Prenatal Exposure to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Infant Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Kim G.; Chevrier, Jonathan; Schall, Raul Aguilar; Sjödin, Andreas; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of persistent compounds that have been used as flame retardants in vehicles, household furnishings, and consumer electronics. This study examined whether concentrations of PBDEs in maternal serum during pregnancy were associated with infant birth weight, length, head circumference, and length of gestation. Participants were pregnant women (n = 286) enrolled in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) Study, a longitudinal cohort study of low-income, predominantly Mexican families living in the Salinas Valley, California. Blood samples were collected near the 26th week of pregnancy in 1999–2000, and concentrations of 10 PBDE congeners (BDE-17, -28, -47, -66, -85, -99, -100, -153, -154, and -183) were measured. Multiple linear regression models were used to investigate the association of lipid-adjusted, log10-transformed PBDE concentrations and birth outcome. In adjusted analyses, negative associations with birth weight were seen with BDE-47 (β = −115 g, 95% confidence interval (CI): −229, −2), BDE-99 (β = −114 g, 95% CI: −225, −4), and BDE-100 (β = −122 g, 95% CI: −235, −9). These findings were diminished slightly and were no longer statistically significant when maternal weight gain was included in the models. PBDE congeners were not associated with birth length, head circumference, or gestational duration. PMID:21878423

  6. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in farmland soils: source characterization, deposition contribution and apportionment.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yian; Li, Li; Bie, Pengju; Jia, Shenglan; Wang, Qiang; Huang, Zhi; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Jianbo; Hu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), are caused for concern recently due to their adverse health effects and environmental ubiquity. In this study, atmospheric and soil PBDE levels in Taizhou, one of the largest WEEE dismantling areas in the world, were measured, ranging from 884 to 2791 pg m(-3) with an average of 1968 pg m(-3) for atmosphere and 2.96 to 200 ng g(-1)dry weight (dw) with the mean of 65.2 ng g(-1)dw for farmland soils, respectively. The close connection between soil PBDE accumulation and atmospheric deposition was also revealed by the estimation of the annual PBDE deposition flux (3.1 ± 0.9 mg m(-2)a(-1)) and the similarity between deposited congener pattern and soil congener profile. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was conducted to extract possible sources of farmland soil PBDEs and to calculate their contributions. Based on the measured source profiles of PBDE-related activities, five sources were identified representing WEEE dumping, WEEE dismantling, WEEE open burning, residential waste dismantling, and residential waste open burning. WEEE-related recycling activities contributed primary percentage (52%) to farmland soil PBDE concentration, and open burning was an important pathway for PBDEs entering the environment.

  7. Bioaccumulation, maternal transfer and elimination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in wild frogs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng-Yan; Du, Guo-Dong; Zhao, Ya-Xian; Mu, Yun-Song; Zhang, Ai-Qian; Qin, Zhan-Fen; Zhang, Xiao-You; Yan, Shi-Shuai; Li, Yan; Wei, Rong-Guo; Qin, Xiao-Fei; Yang, Yong-Jian

    2011-08-01

    To investigate bioaccumulation, maternal transfer and elimination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in amphibians, we collected adult frogs (Rana limnocharis) from a rice field in an e-waste recycling site in China. We found that ∑PBDEs in the whole frogs and various tissues (brain, liver, testis and egg) ranged from 17.10 to 141.11 ng g(-1) wet weight. Various tissues exhibited a similar PBDE congener profile, which was characterized by intermediate brominated congeners (BDE-99 and BDE-153) as the largest contributors, with less lower brominated congeners (BDE-28 and BDE-47) and higher brominated congeners (BDE-209). The maternal transfer capacity of PBDEs declined with the increase in bromine numbers of PBDE congeners. We suggest that the bromine atom number (the molecular size, to some degree) might be a determining factor for the maternal transport of a PBDE congener rather than K(ow) (Octanol-Water partition coefficient), which expresses a compound's lipophilicity. ∑PBDEs concentrations in frogs decreased over time during a depuration period of 54 days when these wild frogs were brought to the lab from the e-waste recycling site. The half-life of ∑PBDEs was 35 days, with about 14 days for BDE-47, and 36 and 81 days for BDE-99 and BDE-153, respectively. The data shows that the elimination of PBDEs has no essential difference from aquatic and terrestrial species.

  8. Complexity of Naturally Produced Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Revealed via Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Vinayak; Li, Jie; Rahman, Imran; Borgen, Miles; Aluwihare, Lihini I.; Biggs, Jason S.; Paul, Valerie J.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent and bioaccumulative anthropogenic and natural chemicals that are broadly distributed in the marine environment. PBDEs are potentially toxic due to inhibition of various mammalian signaling pathways and enzymatic reactions. PBDE isoforms vary in toxicity in accordance with structural differences, primarily in the number and pattern of hydroxyl moieties afforded upon a conserved core structure. Over four decades of isolation and discovery-based efforts have established an impressive repertoire of natural PBDEs. Based on our recent reports describing the bacterial biosyntheses of PBDEs, we predicted the presence of additional classes of PBDEs to those previously identified from marine sources. Using mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy, we now establish the existence of new structural classes of PBDEs in marine sponges. Our findings expand the chemical space explored by naturally produced PBDEs, which may inform future environmental toxicology studies. Furthermore, we provide evidence for iodinated PBDEs and direct attention toward the contribution of promiscuous halogenating enzymes in further expanding the diversity of these polyhalogenated marine natural products. PMID:25559102

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in pinnipeds stranded along the southern California coast.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Blasius, Mary Ellen; Gossett, Richard W; Maruya, Keith A

    2009-10-01

    Little to no information exists for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine mammals frequenting the highly urbanized southern California (USA) coast. Fourteen PBDE congeners were determined by GC-ECNI-MS in blubber of pinnipeds stranded locally between 1994 and 2006. Total PBDE concentrations (SigmaPBDE) in California sea lion (n = 63) ranged from 0.04 to 33.7 microg/g wet weight (mean: 5.24 microg/g). To our knowledge, these are the highest reported PBDE levels in marine mammals to date. By comparison, mean SigmaPBDE in Pacific harbor seals (n = 9) and northern elephant seals (n = 16) were 0.96 and 0.09 microg/g, respectively. PBDEs in adult males were higher than for adult females, however, no age class differences or temporal trends were observed. As the first PBDE data reported for marine mammals in this region, the elevated levels underscore the need for additional studies on the sources, temporal trends, and potential effects of PBDEs in highly urbanized coastal zones. PMID:19487060

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in herbaceous Centaurium erythraea affected by various sources of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Brudzińska-Kosior, Anna; Kosior, Grzegorz; Klánová, Jana; Vaňková, Lenka; Kukučka, Petr; Chropeňová, Mária; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Mróz, Lucyna; Kempers, Alexander J

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent xenobiotics with harmful effects on humans and wildlife. Their levels in the environment and accumulation in biota must be carefully controlled especially in species harvested from wild populations and commonly used as medicines. Our objective has been to determine PBDE concentrations (BDEs 28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209) in Centaurium erythraea collected at sites with various levels of environmental pollution. PBDE congener profiles in C. erythraea were dominated by BDE209, which accounted for 47-89% of the total PBDE burden in the plants. Principal Component and Classification Analysis, which classifies the concentration of PBDEs in C. erythraea, allowed us to distinguish the pattern of these compounds characteristic for the origin of pollution: BDEs 28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100 for lignite and general chemical industry and the vicinity of an expressway and BDEs 183 and 209 for a thermal power plant and ferrochrome smelting industry. Careful selection of sites with C. erythraea for medicinal purposes is necessary as this herb can accumulate PBDEs while growing at polluted sites.

  11. Toxicity Assessment of Air-delivered Particle-bound Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Sung; Klösener, Johannes; Flor, Susanne; Peters, Thomas M.; Ludewig, Gabriele; Thorne, Peter S.; Robertson, Larry W.; Luthe, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) can occur via ingestion of indoor dust, inhalation of PBDE-contaminated air and dust-bound PBDEs. However, few studies have examined the pulmonary toxicity of particle-bound PBDEs, mainly due to the lack of an appropriate particle-cell exposure system. In this study we developed an in vitro exposure system capable of generating particle-bound PBDEs mimicking dusts containing PBDE congeners (BDEs 35, 47, 99) and delivering them directly onto lung cells grown at an air-liquid interface (ALI). The silica particles and particle-coated with PBDEs ranged in diameter from 4.3 to 4.5 μm and were delivered to cells with no apparent aggregation. This experimental set up demonstrated high reproducibility and sensitivity for dosing control and distribution of particles. ALI exposure of cells to PBDE-bound particles significantly decreased cell viability and induced reactive oxygen species generation in A549 and NCI-H358 cells. In male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed via intratracheal insufflation (0.6 mg/rat), particle-bound PBDE exposures induced inflammatory responses with increased recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs compared to sham-exposed rats. The present study clearly indicates the potential of our exposure system for studying the toxicity of particle-bound compounds. PMID:24451063

  12. Determinants of Serum Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Levels among Pregnant Women in the CHAMACOS Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Castorina, Rosemary; Bradman, Asa; Sjödin, Andreas; Fenster, Laura; Jones, Richard S.; Harley, Kim G.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    We measured levels of 10 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in serum collected during pregnancy and at delivery from 416 pregnant, predominantly immigrant, women living in Monterey County, CA. The most frequently detected congeners were BDE-47, -99, -100, and -153, all components of the penta mixture, detected in >97% of samples. We used multivariable regression models to examine factors associated with exposure to individual PBDE congeners as well as their total summed concentration (ng/g lipid). Prenatal and delivery total PBDE levels were correlated between sampling times (n = 21; Pearson r = 0.99, p < 0.001). In multivariable models, total PBDE levels increased significantly with time residing in the U.S. (p < 0.001) and among women with ≥3 pieces of stuffed furniture in their homes (p < 0.05). Women’s total PBDE levels increased 4.0% (95% CI = 2.8, 5.3) for each additional year residing in the U.S., after adjustment for prepregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, and SES. Having ≥3 pieces of stuffed furniture in the home was associated with a 26.8% (95% CI = 2.0, 57.5) increase in women’s serum PBDE levels. Findings suggest PBDE indoor contamination in California homes is contributing to human exposures in a population of recent immigrants. PMID:21793581

  13. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in indoor air during waste TV recycling process.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jie; Lin, Kuangfei; Deng, Jingjing; Fu, Xiaoxu; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-01-01

    Recycling process for waste TV sets mainly consists of dismantling, printed wiring board (PWB) heating, PWB recycling, and plastic crushing in formal recycling plant. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) contained in waste TV sets are released to indoor air. Air samples at 4 different workshops were collected to measure the PBDEs concentrations in both gaseous and particulate phases. The mean concentrations of ∑PBDEs in indoor air were in the range of 6780-2,280,000 pg/m(3). The highest concentration in gaseous phase (291,000 pg/m(3)) was detected in the PWB heating workshop. The ∑12PBDEs concentrations in PM2.5 and PM10 at the 4 workshops ranged in 6.8-6670 μg/g and 32.6-6790 μg/g, respectively. The gas-particle partitioning of PBDEs was disrupted as PBDEs were continuously released during the recycling processes. Occupational exposure assessment showed that only the exposure concentration of BDE-47 (0.118 μg/kg/day) through inhalation in the PWB heating workshop for workers without facemask exceeded the reference dose (0.1 μg/kg/day), posing a health hazard to workers. All the results demonstrated that recycling of TV sets was an important source of PBDEs emission, and PBDEs emission pollution was related to the composition of TV sets, interior dust, and recycling process.

  14. Association between Serum Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Levels and Residential Proximity to Solid-Waste Facilities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruiling; Nelson, David O; Hurley, Susan; Petreas, Myrto; Park, June-Soo; Wang, Yunzhu; Guo, Weihong; Bernstein, Leslie; Hertz, Andrew; Reynolds, Peggy

    2016-04-01

    As consumer products treated with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) reach the end of their life cycle, they often are discarded into solid-waste facilities, offering a potential reservoir for exposure. The likelihood of exposures to PBDEs by residents living near those sites rarely has been explored. This study collected blood samples from 923 female participants in the California Teachers Study in 2011-2013 and examined the association between participants' residential proximity to solid-waste facilities with potential release of PBDEs and serum levels of three congeners (BDE-47, BDE-100, and BDE-153). General linear regression analysis was used to examine the association, adjusting for age, race, body-mass index, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and urban residency. Compared to participants living >10 km from any selected site, those living within 2 km had 45% higher BDE-47 (95% CI: 5-100%) and BDE-100 (95% CI: 0-109%) levels, and those living between 2 and 10 km had 35% higher BDE-47 (95% CI: 0-82%) and 29% higher BDE-100 (95% CI: -9 to 82%) levels. No associations were found for BDE-153. Living close to some solid waste sites may be related to higher serum BDE-47 and BDE-100 levels. Studies with comprehensive exposure assessments are needed to confirm these initial observations. PMID:26906616

  15. Chemical and photochemical degradation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in liquid systems - A review.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mónica S F; Alves, Arminda; Madeira, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are brominated flame retardants which have received a great deal of attention due to their persistence, potential to bioaccumulate and possible toxic effects. PBDEs have been globally detected in humans, wildlife and environment, highlighting the urgency of looking for effective removal technologies to mitigate their spread and accumulation in the environment. Among all environmental compartments, the water has raised particular attention. This paper aims to provide information about the suitability of the main degradation processes investigated to date (photolysis, zerovalent iron and TiO2 photocatalysis) for the degradation of PBDEs in water matrices. The most relevant criteria behind the design of a system for such purpose are discussed in detail for each individual process. The comparative analysis suggests that the oxidative degradation by TiO2 is the most appropriated technology to treat waters contaminated with PBDEs because higher debromination and mineralization degrees are achieved, preventing the formation/accumulation of lower brominated PBDE congeners and promoting the cracking of aromatic cores.

  16. Enhanced bioremediation of soil from Tianjin, China, contaminated with polybrominated diethyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Cuiping; Li, Jing; Wang, Baolin; Wu, Jianyu; Jiang, Yan; Sun, Hongwen

    2014-12-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of nutrients, H2O2, and tourmaline on the bioremediation of fields where the soil was contaminated with polybrominated diethyl ethers (PBDEs). The results showed that 39.2, 38.3, and 48.1 % of total PBDE removal was observed in microcosms with the addition of nutrients, such as NaNO3, NH4Cl, and NH4NO3, respectively, compared to only 15.2 and 5.8 % of PBDE removal from soil with added Aspergillus niger and control soil, respectively, after 50 days of incubation. In addition, 50.8 and 56.5 % of total PBDE removal were observed in microcosms with 0.5 and 1 μL H2O2. The addition of tourmaline increased total PBDE removal to 32.4 %. Significant increases in soil enzymatic activity with PBDE degraders and bacterial communities were observed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)--denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). These observations suggested that the combination of inorganic nutrients with chemical, mineral, and biological treatment could improve the PBDE removal efficiency. However, the combination of H2O2 and biological treatment processes is the most efficient technology. This combination of technologies would not cause adverse effects on the subsequent bioremediation process. Therefore, this work offers a potential alternative for the remediation of soil contaminated with PBDE pollutants. PMID:25043595

  17. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in foodstuffs: human exposure through the diet.

    PubMed

    Bocio, A; Llobet, J M; Domingo, J L; Corbella, J; Teixidó, A; Casas, C

    2003-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in a variety of materials, including synthetic polymers and textiles. Although these chemicals have been detected in environmental samples and human tissues, there is little information about human exposure to PBDEs through the diet. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of PBDEs in a number of food samples acquired in Catalonia (Spain) during 2000. The dietary intake of PBDEs was estimated for the general population living in this Spanish region. The highest PBDE concentrations were found in oils and fats, fish and shellfish, meat and meat products, and eggs, while the lowest levels corresponded to fruits, vegetables, and tubers. The dietary intake of PBDEs for an adult male was 97.3 ng/day (assuming not detected (ND) = (1)/(2) limit of detection (LOD)) or 81.9 ng/day (assuming ND = 0) The greatest contribution to these values corresponded to fish and shellfish, with approximately one-third of the total intake. TetraBDEs and pentaBDEs were the homologues showing the highest percentages of contribution to the sum of total PBDEs. The comparison of the current dietary intake with the suggested lowest observed adverse effect level value of 1 mg/kg/day for the most sensitive endpoints for toxic effects of PBDEs results in a safety factor over 5 orders of magnitude in relation to PBDE exposure from food.

  18. Assessing bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers for aquatic species by QSAR modeling.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Kamel; Consonni, Viviana; Durjava, Mojca Kos; Kolar, Boris; Öberg, Tomas; Todeschini, Roberto

    2012-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in textiles, foams and plastics. Highly bioaccumulative with toxic effects including developmental neurotoxicity estrogen and thyroid hormones disruption, they are considered as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and have been found in human tissues, wildlife and biota worldwide. But only some of them are banned from EU market. For the environmental fate studies of these compounds the bioconcentration factor (BCF) is one of the most important endpoints to start with. We applied quantitative structure-activity relationships techniques to overcome the limited experimental data and avoid more animal testing. The aim of this work was to assess the bioaccumulation of PBDEs by means of QSAR. First, a BCF dataset of specifically conducted experiments was modeled. Then the study was extended by predicting the bioaccumulation and biomagnification factors using some experimental values from the literature. Molecular descriptors were calculated using DRAGON 6. The most relevant ones were selected and resulting models were compared paying attention to the applicability domain.

  19. Invited commentary: Maternal plasma polybrominated diphenyl ethers and thyroid hormones--challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Chevrier, Jonathan

    2013-09-01

    Thyroid hormones play a fundamental role in fetal and child development. While iodine deficiency-related maternal and child hypothyroidism may cause severe mental retardation, recent evidence suggests that milder forms of maternal hypothyroidism and hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy are also associated with altered neurodevelopment. On the other hand, hyperthyroidism during pregnancy has been associated with adverse fetal outcomes. Findings published by Abdelouahab et al. in the American Journal of Epidemiology (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;178(5):701-713) suggest that plasma concentrations of maternal polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which were used as flame retardants until recently and are detected in the tissues of virtually every North American, are associated with umbilical cord and maternal thyroid hormone levels during pregnancy. Although PBDEs have been consistently shown to reduce levels of free and total thyroxine in experimental animal studies, the direction of associations in human studies has been inconsistent. In this commentary, I discuss challenges beyond the factors often cited in the epidemiologic literature to explain inconsistent findings which more specifically apply to the study of PBDEs and thyroid hormones. These include the determination of iodine intake status, the method used to adjust for blood lipid concentrations, the measurement of free thyroid hormone levels, the possible effect of PBDE metabolites, and the potential for reverse causality. PMID:23924577

  20. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in surface soils near the Changwengluozha Glacier of Central Tibetan Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong; Yuan, Guo-Li; Li, Jun; Li, Jing-Chao; Wang, Gen-Hou

    2015-04-01

    Forty-two congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected for each of 27 surface-soil samples collected at an area near the Changwengluozha Glacier in the Central Tibetan Plateau (CTP), a remote background area at altitude from 5080 to 5217 m. The total concentrations of BDEs in soils ranged from 15.3 to 248.0 ng/kg, which were found to be positively correlated with the clay contents in the soil. In addition to adsorption, the clay was found to serve as a catalyst for the debromination of PBDEs in soils. Three pieces of evidence confirmed that the clay was significantly correlated with the debrominating transformation from the higher brominated congeners to the less brominated congeners. The transforming rate was found to be increased 3.5% with a 10% increase in clays. Debromination is an important way for highly brominated congeners to transform into lighter brominated congeners that are more toxic. This study first provided the direct field evidences for clays contributing to the debromination of PBDEs, and elucidated the importance of it in PBDEs' environmental fate. PMID:25569575

  1. An Immunoassay for Monitoring Environmental and Human Exposure to the Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether BDE-47

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ki Chang; Gee, Shirley J.; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Bennett, Deborah; Nishioka, Marcia G.; Blum, Arlene; Fishman, Elana; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a selective competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to monitor environmental and human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether BDE-47 that is used as a flame retardant. 2,2’,4,4’-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) a dominant PBDE congener of toxicological concern, was the target analyte. To achieve effective hapten presentation on the carrier protein for antibody production, immunizing haptens with a rigid double-bonded hydrocarbon linker introduced at different positions on the target molecule were synthesized as well as coating haptens that mimic a characteristic fragment of the molecule. Rabbit antisera produced against each immunizing antigen were screened against competitive hapten coating antigens. Under optimized competitive indirect ELISA conditions, the linear detection range in the assay buffer that includes 50% dimethyl sulfoxide was 0.35 - 8.50 μg/L with an IC50 value of 1.75 μg/L for BDE-47. Little or no cross-reactivity (< 6%) was observed to related PBDE congeners containing the BDE-47 moiety and other halogenated compounds. Using a magnetic particle-based competitive direct ELISA increased the sensitivity by 10-fold over the indirect ELISA. The ELISA provided quantitative results when performed on small volume/weight samples such as dust, furniture foam, and blood/serum following sample preparation, suggesting a convenient screening tool. PMID:19921894

  2. Household Exposures to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in a Wisconsin Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Imm, Pamela; Knobeloch, Lynda; Buelow, Carol; Anderson, Henry A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) is virtually universal in the United States. Although the uses of these chemicals as flame retardants in fabrics, foams, and plastics are well defined, human exposure pathways are not well understood. Objectives This study was designed to assess current PBDE body burdens and identify residential sources of exposure among 29 men and 15 women in 38 households. Methods Portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzers were used to measure bromine levels in upholstered furnishings, bedding, vehicle interiors, and electronic devices. Vacuum cleaner contents, indoor air samples, and blood sera were analyzed for PBDE congeners using conventional gas chromatograph methods. Results Bromine levels varied widely within similar household items. The greatest range for upholstered items was found among vehicle seat cushions (7–30,600 ppm). For electronic devices, television sets ranged from 4 ppm to 128,300 ppm. Based on mixed effects modeling, adjusting for couple households, the bromine content in the participants’ sleeping pillows and primary vehicle seat cushions were the strongest predictors of log lipid-adjusted blood serum PBDE concentrations (p-values = 0.005 and 0.03, respectively). The total pentaBDE congener levels found in dust samples and in passive air samples were not significant predictors of blood sera levels. Conclusions This study demonstrates the usefulness of the portable XRF analyzer in identifying household items that may contribute to human exposure to PBDEs. PMID:20049208

  3. Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soils and sediment of Hanfeng Lake, Three Gorges.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenrui; Lu, Yingzhuan; Gao, Shutao; Jia, Xuwei; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Xiangying; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2015-01-01

    As ubiquitous organic contaminants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were evaluated to explore the impacts of the water level fluctuating zone (WLFZ) on organic pollutant behavior and the retention mechanism of organic pollutants in the bank-WLFZ-water system of Hanfeng Lake in the Three Gorges region of China. The mean concentrations of total PBDEs were 103, 75.2, and 568 ng g(-1) dry wt for bank soils, WLFZ soils, and sediment samples, respectively. Except for sampling sites S1 and S2, the levels of PBDEs decreased in the order of sediment>WLFZ soil > bank soil, suggesting that PBDEs were transferred from bank soil to WLFZ soil and finally deposited in the sediment. Decabromodiphenyl ethers (deca-BDEs) were the predominant congener in the study area, comprising 93.8% to 98.3% of the total PBDEs. Greater photolytic degradation of deca-BDEs was suggested in bank soils based on a higher relative abundance of octa- and nona-BDEs than in WLFZ soils and sediment. This may have occurred because deca-BDEs in bank soils have relatively longer sunlight exposure than in WLFZ soils and sediment due to the annual alternation of water storage and drainage in the catchments of the Three Gorges Reservoir. More in-depth investigations of contaminants in bank-WLFZ-water systems are needed due to the large areas of WLFZ created by the construction of the Three Gorges Dam and their importance to the balance of aquatic ecosystems.

  4. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in lichens and mosses from King George Island, maritime Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Yogui, G T; Sericano, J L

    2008-11-01

    Lichens and mosses are considered good indicators of atmospheric pollution as they absorb contaminants directly from the air. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are man-made chemicals used as flame retardants in materials such as plastics, textiles, electronic circuitry and furnishing foam. Few studies have investigated PBDEs in the southern hemisphere including Antarctica. This paper presents the first evaluation of PBDEs in lichens (Usnea antarctica and Usnea aurantiaco-atra) and mosses (Sanionia uncinata) collected at King George Island, maritime Antarctica. PBDEs were detected at low levels in all lichen and moss samples. On average, the levels of PBDEs in mosses (818 pg g(-1) dry weight; 101 ng g(-1) lipid) were significantly higher than in lichens (168 pg g(-1) dry weight; 9.11 ng g(-1) lipid). This difference is most likely due to the differing mechanisms of PBDEs uptake from the atmosphere which are controlled by a number of chemical, environmental and plant variables. Contaminant concentrations were not statistically different at sites close to and distant from human facilities. Long-range atmospheric transport is believed to be the primary source of PBDEs to King George Island. The pattern of congeners in plants resembles those found in commercial mixtures of Penta-BDE. In addition, the presence of BDE-183 in lichens and mosses suggests that other technical formulations (e.g., Octa-BDE and Deca-BDE) have reached Antarctica. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of Antarctic vegetation as a sink for anthropogenic organic pollutants.

  5. Temporal variability of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) serum concentrations over one year.

    PubMed

    Makey, Colleen M; McClean, Michael D; Sjödin, Andreas; Weinberg, Janice; Carignan, Courtney C; Webster, Thomas F

    2014-12-16

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardant chemicals used in consumer products. They are common contaminants in human serum and associated with adverse health effects. Our objectives were to characterize PBDE serum concentrations in a New England cohort and assess temporal variability of this exposure biomarker over a one-year period. We collected three repeated measurements at six-month intervals from 52 office workers from the greater Boston (MA, United States) area from 2010 to 2011. The intraclass correlation coefficient for BDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, and 153 ranged from 0.87 to 0.99, indicating that a single serum measurement can reliably estimate exposure over a one-year period. This was true for both lipid adjusted and nonlipid adjusted concentrations. The kappa statistics, quantifying the level of agreement of categorical exposure classification, based on medians, tertiles, or quartiles ranged from 0.67 to 0.90. Some congeners showed nonsignificant increases from sampling round 1 (winter) to round 2 (summer) and significant decreases from round 2 to round 3 (winter). This study highlights the high reliability of a single serum PBDE measurement for use in human epidemiologic studies.

  6. Bacterial communities associated with aerobic degradation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from river sediments.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chu-Wen; Huang, Huang-Wen; Chao, Wei-Liang; Chang, Bea-Ven

    2015-03-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent organic pollutants and have therefore drawn much environmental concern. We aimed to compare aerobic degradation of different PBDE congeners under various treatments and reveal the bacterial community associated with PBDE degradation in sediment. Results of this study indicate that degradation rates of BDE-15 were enhanced 45.1 and 81.3 % with the addition of suspended and microencapsulated Pseudomonas sp., respectively. However, the degradation rates of BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, and BDE-100 did not differ among experimental treatments. Degradation rates of PBDE congeners were in the order of BDE-15 > BDE-28 > BDE-47 > BDE-99 > BDE-100. Using a pyrosequencing-based metagenomic approach, we found that addition of various treatments altered the microbial community composition in the sediment. Twenty-four bacterial genera associated with degradation of PBDEs; six are the core bacterial genera common among PBDE degraders. The diverse bacterial composition among different PBDE congener degradation indicates different combinations of bacteria involved in degradation of different PBDE congeners.

  7. Estimating stepwise debromination pathways of polybrominated diphenyl ethers with an analogue Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yonghong; Christensen, Erik R; Zheng, Wei; Wei, Hua; Li, An

    2014-11-01

    A stochastic process was developed to simulate the stepwise debromination pathways for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The stochastic process uses an analogue Markov Chain Monte Carlo (AMCMC) algorithm to generate PBDE debromination profiles. The acceptance or rejection of the randomly drawn stepwise debromination reactions was determined by a maximum likelihood function. The experimental observations at certain time points were used as target profiles; therefore, the stochastic processes are capable of presenting the effects of reaction conditions on the selection of debromination pathways. The application of the model is illustrated by adopting the experimental results of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) in hexane exposed to sunlight. Inferences that were not obvious from experimental data were suggested by model simulations. For example, BDE206 has much higher accumulation at the first 30 min of sunlight exposure. By contrast, model simulation suggests that, BDE206 and BDE207 had comparable yields from BDE209. The reason for the higher BDE206 level is that BDE207 has the highest depletion in producing octa products. Compared to a previous version of the stochastic model based on stochastic reaction sequences (SRS), the AMCMC approach was determined to be more efficient and robust. Due to the feature of only requiring experimental observations as input, the AMCMC model is expected to be applicable to a wide range of PBDE debromination processes, e.g. microbial, photolytic, or joint effects in natural environments. PMID:25113201

  8. A fluorescence-based method for rapid and direct determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shan, Huimei; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Ma, Teng; Shang, Jianying; Pan, Duoqiang

    2015-01-01

    A new method was developed for rapid and direct measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aqueous samples using fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence spectra of tri- to deca-BDE (BDE 28, 47, 99, 153, 190, and 209) commonly found in environment were measured at variable emission and excitation wavelengths. The results revealed that the PBDEs have distinct fluorescence spectral profiles and peak positions that can be exploited to identify these species and determine their concentrations in aqueous solutions. The detection limits as determined in deionized water spiked with PBDEs are 1.71-5.82 ng/L for BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 190, and BDEmore » 209 and 45.55–69.95 ng/L for BDE 99 and BDE 153. The effects of environmental variables including pH, humic substance, and groundwater chemical composition on PBDEs measurements were also investigated. These environmental variables affected fluorescence intensity, but their effect can be corrected through linear additivity and separation of spectral signal contribution. Compared with conventional GC-based analytical methods, the fluorescence spectroscopy method is more efficient as it only uses a small amount of samples (2-4 mL), avoids lengthy complicated concentration and extraction steps, and has a low detection limit of a few ng/L.« less

  9. Environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from industrial plants in China: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chao; Chen, Yuan; Li, Jinhui; Li, Ying; Li, Huafen

    2016-04-01

    Although numerous studies have shown the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in various environmental media, attention to their distribution in the environmental media surrounding industrial facilities is limited. In this study, eight PBDEs congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -209) were investigated in surface soils and water samples collected from commercial PBDE manufacturers, flame-retardant plastic modification plants and waste electrical and electronic equipment recycling facilities in China. Analysis of target compounds was performed using the model NCI GC-MS in SIM mode. The concentrations of ∑8PBDEs varied from 193.1 to 22,004.3 ng/L in water samples and from 1209.3 to 226,906 ng/g dry wt in surface soils, respectively. More severe PBDE contamination, when compared with previously reported data, was found in industrial areas in this study. This indicates that these industrial areas are highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for more than 94% in this study, except for a 68.75% portion at one site. Our results show that PBDE manufacturing and flame-retardant plastic modification plants, easily overlooked by the public, are two primary PBDE pollution sources although they affect surrounding areas. Further research is needed, aimed at managing industrial PBDE emissions and eliminating environmental PBDE pollution, to investigate the material flows and environmental fates of PBDEs in all stages of the life cycle. PMID:26728288

  10. Temporal Variability of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Serum Concentrations over One Year

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardant chemicals used in consumer products. They are common contaminants in human serum and associated with adverse health effects. Our objectives were to characterize PBDE serum concentrations in a New England cohort and assess temporal variability of this exposure biomarker over a one-year period. We collected three repeated measurements at six-month intervals from 52 office workers from the greater Boston (MA, United States) area from 2010 to 2011. The intraclass correlation coefficient for BDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, and 153 ranged from 0.87 to 0.99, indicating that a single serum measurement can reliably estimate exposure over a one-year period. This was true for both lipid adjusted and nonlipid adjusted concentrations. The kappa statistics, quantifying the level of agreement of categorical exposure classification, based on medians, tertiles, or quartiles ranged from 0.67 to 0.90. Some congeners showed nonsignificant increases from sampling round 1 (winter) to round 2 (summer) and significant decreases from round 2 to round 3 (winter). This study highlights the high reliability of a single serum PBDE measurement for use in human epidemiologic studies. PMID:25383963

  11. Seasonality in polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations in the atmosphere of the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifei; Dong, Liang; Huang, Yeru; Shi, Shuangxin; Yang, Wenlong; Zhou, Li

    2016-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations in the atmosphere in rapidly developing parts of China have been studied little. In this study, polyurethane foam disk passive air samplers were used to comprehensively investigate PBDE concentrations in the atmosphere of the Yangtze River Delta in different seasons in 2010 and 2011. The mean sum of the concentrations of 13 PBDE congeners was 3.3 pg/m(3) in spring, 7.3 pg/m(3) in summer, 1.0 pg/m(3) in autumn, and 12 pg/m(3) in winter. Higher PBDE concentrations were found in urban areas than in rural areas. The PBDE concentrations were comparable to concentrations that have been found in cities around the world. BDE28, BDE47, BDE99, BDE153, and BDE183 were the dominant PBDE congeners in all seasons. High PBDE concentrations were found in satellite cities, such as Changshu, Wujiang, and Zhangjiagang, suggesting that commercial PBDEs (including pentabromodiphenyl ether products) are produced and/or used in those cities. The PBDE concentrations in the atmosphere were used to estimate daily doses through the inhalation of outdoor air. The most severe risks posed by exposure to PBDEs were found to occur in winter, for both adults and children, but the PBDE concentrations were found not to pose appreciable risks to human health.

  12. Microcosm study on fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in contaminated mangrove sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haowen; Wang, Ying; Tam, Nora F Y

    2014-01-30

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are toxic and ubiquitous environmental contaminants, but their fate in aquatic environments is not clear. A mangrove microcosm study was employed to investigate the fate of two abundant congeners, BDE-47 and BDE-209, in contaminated sediment. After seven months, more than 90% of the spiked BDE-47 in the mangrove sediment was removed with the formation of lower brominated PBDEs, including BDE-28, -17, -15, -8, -7/4, suggesting that microbial debromination was the main contributor. Debromination of BDE-209 was also observed in the sediment but its dissipation rate was significantly lower than BDE-47. All these congeners were taken up, translocated and accumulated into the tissues of two typical mangrove plants, Kandelia obovata and Avicennia marina. PBDEs, even at very high contamination levels, in the sediment (5000ngg(-1)) and the debrominated congeners did not pose any adverse effect on the dry weight, augmentation and root/shoot ratio of either mangrove species. This is the first study to reveal that anaerobic microbial debromination and uptake by mangrove plants are the key processes controlling the fate of PBDEs in mangrove sediment. PMID:24333715

  13. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers: A Case Study for Using Biomonitoring Data to Address Risk Assessment Questions

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Linda S.; Cohen Hubal, Elaine A.

    2006-01-01

    The use of biomonitoring data holds promise for characterizing exposure and informing risk assessment. Biomonitoring data have been used successfully to track population trends, identify susceptible populations, and provide indications of emerging environmental health issues. However, there remain challenges associated with interpreting biomonitoring data for risk assessment. An international biomonitoring workshop was convened in September 2004 to explore the use of biomonitoring data in the context of risk assessment. Six compounds were examined as case studies for this workshop, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The PBDE case study was developed to provide an example of a persistent compound for which relatively few data are available for human exposure, biomonitoring, and health outcomes. PBDEs are used in hard plastics, electronics, textiles, and polyurethane foam products. The congener pattern downstream of production facilities often resembles the commercial mixture. However, because these compounds persist in the environment and in biota, the patterns of congeners evolve. PBDEs partition into body lipids, and direct measurement of bromodiphenyl ether congeners in biologic specimens provides a good marker of exposure. Data indicate significant variability (> 100-fold range) in lipid-adjusted levels for PBDEs in the general population. It is hypothesized that both exposure and pharmacokinetics may play a role in observed congener profiles. Significant gaps in our ability to interpret PBDE biomonitoring data to address public health and risk assessment questions include limited knowledge of environmental fate and transport of PBDE congeners, limited population-based data for adults, and lack of data for potentially vulnerable populations such as children. PMID:17107866

  14. Uptake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by carrot and lettuce crops grown in compost-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Bizkarguenaga, E; Iparraguirre, A; Oliva, E; Quintana, J B; Rodil, R; Fernández, L A; Zuloaga, O; Prieto, A

    2016-02-01

    The uptake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by carrot and lettuce was investigated. Degradation of PBDEs in soil in the absence of the plants was discarded. Different carrot (Nantesa and Chantenay) and lettuce (Batavia Golden Spring and Summer Queen) varieties were grown in fortified or contaminated compost-amended soil mixtures under greenhouse conditions. After plant harvesting, roots (core and peel) and leaves were analyzed separately for carrot, while for lettuce, leaves and hearts were analyzed together. The corresponding bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were calculated. In carrots, a concentration gradient of 2,2',3,4,4',5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-138) became evident that decreased from the root peel via root core to the leaves. For decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) at the low concentration level (7 and 20 ng g(-1)), the leaves incorporated the highest concentration of the target substance. For lettuce, a decrease in the BCF value (from 0.24 to 0.02) was observed the higher the octanol-water partition coefficient, except in the case of BDE-183 (BCF = 0.51) and BDE-209 (BCF values from 0.41 to 0.74). Significant influence of the soils and crop varieties on the uptake could not be supported. Metabolic debromination, hydroxylation or methylation of the target PBDEs in the soil-plant system was not observed. PMID:26498966

  15. A fluorescence-based method for rapid and direct determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water.

    PubMed

    Shan, Huimei; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Ma, Teng; Shang, Jianying; Pan, Duoqiang

    2015-01-01

    A new method was developed for rapid and direct measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aqueous samples using fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence spectra of tri- to deca-BDE (BDE 28, 47, 99, 153, 190, and 209) commonly found in environment were measured at variable emission and excitation wavelengths. The results revealed that the PBDEs have distinct fluorescence spectral profiles and peak positions that can be exploited to identify these species and determine their concentrations in aqueous solutions. The detection limits as determined in deionized water spiked with PBDEs are 1.71-5.82 ng/L for BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 190, and BDE 209 and 45.55-69.95 ng/L for BDE 99 and BDE 153. The effects of environmental variables including pH, humic substance, and groundwater chemical composition on PBDEs measurements were also investigated. These environmental variables affected fluorescence intensity, but their effect can be corrected through linear additivity and separation of spectral signal contribution. Compared with conventional GC-based analytical methods, the fluorescence spectroscopy method is more efficient as it only uses a small amount of samples (2-4 mL), avoids lengthy complicated concentration and extraction steps, and has a low detection limit of a few ng/L.

  16. Metals and polybrominated diphenyl ethers leaching from electronic waste in simulated landfills.

    PubMed

    Kiddee, Peeranart; Naidu, Ravi; Wong, Ming H

    2013-05-15

    Landfills established prior to the recognition of potential impacts from the leaching of heavy metals and toxic organic compounds often lack appropriate barriers and pose significant risks of contamination of groundwater. In this study, bioavailable metal(oids) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in leachates from landfill columns that contained intact or broken e-waste were studied under conditions that simulate landfills in terms of waste components and methods of disposal of e-wastes, and with realistic rainfall. Fourteen elements and PBDEs were analysed in leachates over a period of 21 months. The results demonstrate that the average concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb and V in leachates from the column that contained broken e-waste items were significantly higher than the column without e-waste. BDE-153 was the highest average PBDEs congener in all columns but the average of ∑PBDEs levels in columns that contained intact e-waste were (3.7 ng/l) and were not significantly higher than that in the leachates from the control column.

  17. Bioaccumulation and historical deposition of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Deep Bay, South China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yao-Wen; Zhang, Gan; Guo, Ling-Li; Zheng, Gene J; Cai, Shu-Qun

    2010-08-01

    To characterize the bioaccumulation and historical trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Deep Bay, an important water body between Hong Kong and main land China with a Ramsar mangrove wetland (Maipo), marine organisms and core sediments were collected to determine their PBDEs concentrations. Sediment core dating was accomplished using the (210)Pb method. PBDEs concentrations in fish ranged from 0.17 to 4.16 ng g(-1) wet wt., with a mean value of 2.00 ng g(-1) wet wt. Temporal trends of the target PBDE congeners levels in core sediment generally increased from 1948 to 2003, with the highest levels in top sediment, suggesting an ongoing PBDEs input. The average sedimentation flux of PBDEs was 0.25 ng cm(-2) a(-1), and the double time of total PBDEs concentration was ca. 12.3 a. Correlations between the biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) of PBDEs and their corresponding octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)) were discussed.

  18. [Levels and sources of gaseous polybrominated diphenyl ethers in air over the northern South China Sea].

    PubMed

    Li, Qi-lu; Li, Jun; Liu, Xiang; Xu, Wei-hai; Zhang, Gan

    2012-08-01

    A total of 32 air samples collected during a Shiyan III voyage over the northern South China Sea (SCS) were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The concentrations of sigma 7 PBDEs ranged from 0.07 to 35.9 pg x m(-3). The sigma 7 PBDEs were dominated by tetra-(BDE-47) and penta-(BDE-99 and -100) components, which accounted for 51.5% and 36.9%, respectively. This result indicated that the widely used commercial penta-BDE product was the original source. The higher concentrations of PBDEs were monitored close to the coastline of the South China and Philippine, while the lower concentrations were found over the SCS adjacent to central coast of Vietnam. Back trajectory analysis showed that the high PBDE concentrations observed in air over the northern SCS may be related to the continental pollutant outflows from the southeast coast of China, especially the Pearl River Delta, Taiwan and Philippine, by prevailing northeast wind transport.

  19. Global pollution monitoring of polybrominated diphenyl ethers using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Daisuke; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Subramanian, Annamalai; Fillmann, Gilberto; Lam, Paul K S; Zheng, Gene J; Muchitar, Muswerry; Razak, Hamidah; Prudente, Maricar; Chung, Kyu-Hyuck; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2004-04-15

    To elucidate the global distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), these chemicals were determined in the muscle of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from offshore waters of various regions in the world (Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles, and Brazil, and the Japan Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea, Indian Ocean, and North Pacific Ocean). PBDEs were detected in almost all the skipjack tuna collected from the locations surveyed (from < 0.1 to 53 ng/g of lipid), indicating widespread contamination by these compounds in the marine environment. Residue levels of PBDEs in these samples from the northern hemisphere seem to be higher than those from the southern hemisphere, which is plausibly due to larger usage of these compounds in the northern hemisphere. Higher concentrations of PBDEs were detected in the samples from waters around the East China Sea (up to 53 ng/g of lipid). Developing countries around the East China Sea are supposedly the "hot spots" releasing these chemicals into the marine environment. With regard to the composition of PBDE congeners, the percentage contribution by lower brominated congeners (BDE15, -28, and -47) showed an increasing trend with increasing latitude. On the other hand, higher brominated congeners (BDE153, -154, and -183) showed a reverse trend. These patterns suggest that lower brominated congeners of PBDEs (di-, tri-, and tetra-BDEs) were preferentially transported from pollution sources to northern colder regions through the atmosphere. PBDEs may have a high potency to cause global pollution like PCBs.

  20. Uptake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by carrot and lettuce crops grown in compost-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Bizkarguenaga, E; Iparraguirre, A; Oliva, E; Quintana, J B; Rodil, R; Fernández, L A; Zuloaga, O; Prieto, A

    2016-02-01

    The uptake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by carrot and lettuce was investigated. Degradation of PBDEs in soil in the absence of the plants was discarded. Different carrot (Nantesa and Chantenay) and lettuce (Batavia Golden Spring and Summer Queen) varieties were grown in fortified or contaminated compost-amended soil mixtures under greenhouse conditions. After plant harvesting, roots (core and peel) and leaves were analyzed separately for carrot, while for lettuce, leaves and hearts were analyzed together. The corresponding bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were calculated. In carrots, a concentration gradient of 2,2',3,4,4',5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-138) became evident that decreased from the root peel via root core to the leaves. For decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) at the low concentration level (7 and 20 ng g(-1)), the leaves incorporated the highest concentration of the target substance. For lettuce, a decrease in the BCF value (from 0.24 to 0.02) was observed the higher the octanol-water partition coefficient, except in the case of BDE-183 (BCF = 0.51) and BDE-209 (BCF values from 0.41 to 0.74). Significant influence of the soils and crop varieties on the uptake could not be supported. Metabolic debromination, hydroxylation or methylation of the target PBDEs in the soil-plant system was not observed.

  1. Dechlorination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls by Pd/Mg Bimetallic Corrosion Nano-Cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), manufactured until mid-1970's for use as electrical insulators, were banned in 1979 due to their toxicity and persistence in the environment (1). Dechlorination of PCBs using bimetallic systems is a promising technology wherein enhanced corrosio...

  2. EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AS PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as products of incomplete combustion from incinerators. PCBs were used widely as industrial chemicals, particularly as additives in electrical transformer cooling oil. Growing evidence of PCBs' role as a persistent...

  3. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN HOUSE DUST AND YARD SOIL NEAR A SUPERFUND SITE. (R825173)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in house dust and yard soil at 34 homes surrounding New Bedford Harbor during dredging of highly contaminated harbor sediments. PCBs can volatilize from sediments and seawater and subsequently deposit on surrounding soil, resulting i...

  4. ENANTIOMERIC COMPOSITION OF CHIRAL POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL ATROPISOMERS IN AQUATIC AND RIPARIAN BIOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The enantiomeric composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers was measured in river and riparian biota (fish, bivalves, crayfish, water snakes, barn swallows) from selected sites throughout the United States by using chiral gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Nonr...

  5. Synthesis, characterization and fluorescence studies of novel bi-phenyl based acrylate and methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskar, R.; Subramanian, K.

    2011-09-01

    4-[(1 E)-3-(biphenyl-4-yl)buta-1,3-dien-1-yl]phenyl prop-2-enoate ( ACH) and 4-[(1 E)-3-(biphenyl-4-yl)buta-1,3-dien-1-yl]phenyl 2-methylprop-2-enoate ( MCH) was synthesized from biphenyl in three steps and their structures were confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, NMR ( 1H, 13C, DEPT135, 1H- 1H COSY, 1H- 13C HSQC and 1H- 13C HMBC) spectroscopic techniques. In this present study, various physicochemical characteristics we demonstrate solubility, color, absorbance and fluorescence property of novel biphenyl based acrylate and methacrylate measured in different solvents like benzene, dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, acetonitrile, dimethylsulfoxide and ethanol.

  6. 77 FR 74006 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics From Shredder Residue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... AGENCY Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics From Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental... interpretation of its regulations currently under consideration that would generally allow for the recycling of... Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue, relying principally on the regulatory provisions for excluded...

  7. 78 FR 20640 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... Residue (77 FR 74006). Additional background information on recycling activities that would be affected by... AGENCY Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental... will generally allow for the recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the...

  8. DECHLORINATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SEDIMENT SLURRIES BY PALLADIUM MODIFIED ZEROVALENT IRON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of international concern because of global distribution, persistence, and toxicity. Removal of these compounds from the environment presents a very tough challenge because they are highly hydro...

  9. The metabolism of biphenyl. V. Phenolic metabolites in some marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Meyer, T; Bakke, T

    1977-02-01

    The phenolic metabolites of biphenyl in the crustacean Cirolana borealis LILJEBORG (ISOPODA), the gastropod Buccinum undatum L and the ophiuroid Ophiocomina nigra ABILDGAARD have been analysed qualitatively and semi-quantitatively as trimethylsilyl (TMS) ethers by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography, respectively. The findings demonstrate the in vivo metabolic capacity of these organisms to convert biphenyl into its hydroxylated derivatives. Thus, 2-hydroxybiphenyl is the most prominent metabolite detected in all these experiments, which also showed that minor amounts of the 4-hydroxy and 4,4'-dihydroxy metabolites are formed. Metabolites of biphenyl origin are found both in the sea water from the aquaria and in the tissue of the respective marine organisms. The experiments, moreover, indicate a slow metabolism of biphenyl in C. borealis, B. undatum and O. nigra, between which no qualitative metabolic differences are found.

  10. ONTOGENETIC ALTERATIONS IN MOLECULAR AND STRUCTURAL CORRELATES OF DENDRITIC GROWTH FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the first report showing both molecular and structural changes in brain following developmental exposure to a neurotoxicant. It is known that perinatal exposure to a neurotoxicant, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is associated with decreased IQ scores, impaired learnin...

  11. COMPARING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN FARM-RAISED AND WILD-CAUGHT CATFISH FROM SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most thermally stable organic chemicals known. This characteristic has historically made them useful in a wide array of applications including use in electrical transformers and capacitors, varnishes, waxes, synthetic resins, epoxy ...

  12. Some polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants with wide environmental distribution inhibit TCDD-induced EROD activity in primary cultured carp (Cyprinus carpio) hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, R V; Bergman, A; Vos, J G; van den Berg, M

    2004-06-10

    Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, a catalytic function of the cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) microsomal oxygenase subfamily, is a popular biomarker for exposure to xenobiotics, polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) in particular. It has found wide use in aquatic pollution assessment both in vivo and in vitro. In such studies, subjects are often exposed to complex mixtures where various constituents can interfere with EROD-activity, possibly resulting in inadequate estimation of toxic hazard or biological response. The present study investigates the effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a relatively new and increasingly detected group of environmental contaminants, on the validity of EROD activity as exposure marker in carp (Cyprinus carpio) hepatocytes. Freshly isolated hepatocytes of a genetically uniform strain of male carp were co-exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at concentrations of 0, 1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 pM, and one of the highly purified PBDE/PCB congeners (at concentrations of 0, 0.25, and 2.5 microM) or cleaned-up and untreated DE-71 samples (0, 0.1, and 1 microM). PBDEs were selected from the 209 possible congeners based on their relative abundance in environmental samples: BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, and BDE-153. A tentative metabolite of BDE-47, 6OH-BDE-47, was also included. In addition, a commercial pentabrominated dipenylether mixture (DE-71) was tested for interference with EROD activity both with and without clean-up by carbon fractionating which removed possible planar contaminants. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-153, a reported inhibitor of EROD activity in flounder, was included for comparison. Cells were cultured for a total period of 8 days; exposure started at day 3 after cell isolation. After 5 days of exposure, cell pellets were frozen before EROD activity was determined. Upon exposure to TCDD, the cells responded with increased EROD activity as expected. Significant reduction of TCDD

  13. Preliminary results of the comparison of the electrochemical behavior of a thioether and biphenyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, W.; Jones, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    An electrochemical cell was constructed to explore the feasibility of using electrochemical techniques to simulate the tribochemistry of various substances. The electrochemical cell was used to study and compare the behavior of a thioether 1,3-bis(phenylthio) benzene and biphenyl. It is found that under controlled conditions biphenyl undergoes a reversible reduction to a radical anion whereas the thioether undergoes an irreversible reduction yielding several products. The results are discussed in relationship to boundary lubrication.

  14. Investigation of saponification for determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Numata, Masahiko; Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Yamazaki, Misako; Takatsu, Akiko

    2005-02-01

    The effects of saponification conditions (temperature and water content of saponifying solution) on the determination of chlorinated biphenyls (CBs) in marine sediments were investigated. Although highly chlorinated biphenyls (nona- to deca-CBs) decomposed during high-temperature saponification, the degree of degradation was reduced by adding water to the ethanolic potassium hydroxide saponifying solution. Room-temperature saponification yielded quantitative recovery of highly chlorinated biphenyl surrogates but low extraction efficiencies of lightly chlorinated biphenyls (mono- to di-CBs). The same samples were analyzed by other extraction techniques, for example, pressurized liquid extraction, and analytical results were compared. The mono- and di-CB concentrations were correlated with the extraction temperatures of various extraction techniques. In particular, the concentrations of some CB congeners (CB11, CB14) were higher with saponification. The low degree of degradation of highly chlorinated biphenyls and the high recovery of lightly chlorinated biphenyls were compatible when room-temperature and high-temperature saponification were combined. Except for the anomalies of CB11 and CB14, the combined method gave satisfactory results for analysis of PCBs.

  15. Microcosm enrichment of biphenyl-degrading microbial communities from soils and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner-Doebler, I.; Bennasar, A.; Stroempl, C.; Bruemmer, I.; Eichner, C.; Grammel, I.; Moore, E.R.B.; Vancanneyt, M.

    1998-08-01

    A microcosm enrichment approach was employed to isolate bacteria which are representative of long-term biphenyl-adapted microbial communities. Growth of microorganisms was stimulated by incubating soil and sediment samples from polluted and nonpolluted sites with biphenyl crystals. After 6 months, stable population densities between 8 {times} 10{sup 9} and 2 {times} 10{sup 11} CFU/ml were established in the microcosms, and a large percentage of the organisms were able to grow on biphenyl-containing minimal medium plates. A total of 177 biphenyl-degrading strains were subsequently isolated and characterized by their ability to grow on biphenyl in liquid culture and to accumulate a yellow meta cleavage product when they were sprayed with dihydroxy-biphenyl. Isolates were identified by using a polyphasic approach, including fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole-cell proteins, and genomic fingerprinting based on sequence variability in the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer region. In all of the microcosms, isolates identified as Rhodococcus opacus dominated the cultivable microbial community, comprising a cluster of 137 isolates with very similar FAME profiles (Euclidean distances, <10) and identical 16S rRNA gene sequences.

  16. Biosynthesis of the biphenyl phytoalexin aucuparin in Sorbus aucuparia cell cultures treated with Venturia inaequalis.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohammed N A; Beuerle, Till; Müller, Andreas; Ernst, Ludger; Bhavanam, Vijaya B R; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2013-12-01

    Aucuparin is the most widely distributed biphenyl phytoalexin in the rosaceous subtribe Pyrinae, which includes the economically important fruit trees apple and pear. The biphenyl scaffold is formed by biphenyl synthase, which catalyzes biosynthesis of 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl. Conversion of this precursor to aucuparin (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybiphenyl) was studied in cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia after treatment with an elicitor preparation from the scab-causing fungus Venturia inaequalis. The sequence of the biosynthetic steps detected was O-methylation - 4-hydroxylation - O-methylation. The two alkylation reactions were catalyzed by distinct methyltransferases, which differed in pH and temperature optima as well as stability. Biphenyl 4-hydroxylase was a microsomal cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, whose activity was appreciably decreased by the addition of established P450 inhibitors. When fed to V. inaequalis-treated S. aucuparia cell cultures, radioactively labeled 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl was not only incorporated into aucuparin but also into the dibenzofuran eriobofuran, the accumulation of which paralleled that of aucuparin. However, biphenyl 2'-hydroxylase activity proposed to be involved in dibenzofuran formation was detected in neither microsomes nor cell-free extracts in the presence of NADPH and 2-oxoglutarate, respectively. Nevertheless, a basis for studying biphenyl biosynthesis at the gene level is provided.

  17. Discussion of "Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in aircraft cabins--a source of human exposure?" by Anna Christiansson et al. [Chemosphere 73(10) (2008) 1654-1660].

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Colacino, Justin; Haffner, Darrah; Patel, Keyur; Opel, Matthias; Päpke, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents new data on the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in American airline workers. This pilot study did not find elevated total PBDEs in the blood of nine flight attendants and one aircraft pilot who have worked in airplanes for at least the past 5 years. These findings are not consistent with the findings of elevated blood levels of PBDEs from the 2008 Christiansson et al. publication "Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in aircraft cabins - A source of human exposure?" We agree that more research needs to be done on larger, more representative samples of airline workers to better characterize exposure of airline workers and other frequent flyers to PBDEs.

  18. Metabolism of chlorofluorocarbons and polybrominated compounds by pseudomonas putida G786(pHG-2) via an engineered metabolic pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, H.G.; Sadowsky, M.J.; Wackett, L.P.

    1994-11-01

    Polyhalogenated EPA Priority Pollutants are among the most toxic and persistent of the xenobiotic compounds found in the environment. In those instances when biodegradation does occure, it is typically via reductive dechlorination reactions in anaerobic sediments. These reactions are very slow and difficult to study. In this study, cytochrome P-450{sub cam} from Pseudomonas putida G786 and toluene dioxygenase from P. putida F1 were used to catalyze consecutive cometabolic dehalogenation reactions. New halogenated substrates for both were identified. The results demonstrate the metabolism of polybrominated compounds and chlorofluoroalkanes via the engineered metabolic pathway in P. putida G786(pHG-2). 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Effects of selected polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) thymocyte viability, apoptosis, and necrosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birchmeier, Kelly L.; Smith, Kimberly A.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Sweet, Leonard I.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Adams, Jean V.; Omann, Geneva M.

    2005-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame-retardants have been identified as an emergent contaminants issue in many parts of the world. In vitro analyses were conducted to test the hypothesis that selected PBDEs congeners affect viability, apoptosis, and necrosis of thymocytes from laboratory-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). At current environmental levels (<1 mg/L), effects of the tested PBDEs on thymocytes were negligible. However, at 100 mg/L, major effects were seen for congener brominated diphenyl ether 47 (BDE-47) and minor effects were seen for congener BDE-99.

  20. Emission behavior of hexabromocyclododecanes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers from flame-retardant-treated textiles.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Natsuko; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the emission behavior of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) added to textile products as flame retardants, we used a small stainless steel container (7 cm i.d. × 5.5 cm height, ca. 210 cm(3)) to conduct emission tests on three upholstery textile samples at temperatures of 20, 40, 60, and 80 °C. The textile samples, which were intended for use in curtain manufacture and had been treated with either technical HBCD or technical DecaBDE, emitted HBCDs and PBDEs, including BDE 209, even at room temperature (20 °C), and the emission rates increased with increasing test temperature. These results indicate that flame-retardant-treated upholstery textiles have the potential to be major sources of brominated flame retardant contamination in indoor air and dust. The HBCD diastereomer emission profiles at the test temperatures of 20 and 40 °C were similar to the profiles of the original textile samples; in contrast, at the higher test temperatures, the proportion of α-HBCD was larger (up to 70% of the total HBCD emission) than in the original samples. At the higher test temperatures, the proportions of di- to hexa-BDEs in the emissions were clearly larger than in the original sample, suggesting that the textile products treated with technical DecaBDE could be a source of environmentally relevant PBDE congeners such as BDE 47, 99, and 100. The emission rates of HBCDs from the textiles were two orders of magnitude higher than those of PBDEs, suggesting that HBCDs volatilize more easily from textile products to the indoor environment than PBDEs.