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Sample records for dimethoxylated polybrominated biphenyl

  1. Developmental neurotoxicity of polybrominated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Henck, J W; Mattsson, J L; Rezabek, D H; Carlson, C L; Rech, R H

    1994-01-01

    Female F0 generation Sprague-Dawley rats received daily oral doses of 0, 0.2, or 2 mg/kg polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) as fireMaster BP-6 from Day 6 of gestation through Day 24 postpartum. Maternal parameters were assessed, and F1 generation offspring were evaluated for growth and survival, as well as physical and behavioral development. No adverse maternal effects were observed nor were there PBB-related effects on survival of the F1 generation or acquisition of developmental landmarks. Crown-rump length of 0.2 and 2 mg/kg male offspring was significantly less than that of controls and 2 mg/kg male and female offspring gained significantly less weight than did controls for the entire 60-day postnatal observation period. An overall evaluation of behavior by multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant PBB-related effects for acquisition of forward locomotion, cliff avoidance, cage emergence, and open-field activity of male and female offspring from dams administered 2 mg/kg. Delays in acquisition of forward locomotion and suppressed open-field activity were the most prominent effects. These indications of growth retardation and neurobehavioral toxicity occurred at concentrations of PBB in offspring body fat in the range of those which have been reported for highly exposed human subjects with neurological sequelae.

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated biphenyls in Australian sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Bradley; Porter, Nichola; Symons, Robert; Marriott, Philip; Ades, Peter; Stevenson, Gavin; Blackbeard, Judy

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the international scientific literature of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in sewage sludge and a survey of these compounds in sewage sludge from 16 Australian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The SigmaPBDE mean concentration in the Australian study was 1137microgkg(-1) dry weight (d.w.) (s.d. 1116) and ranged between 5 and 4 230microgkg(-1)d.w. The urban mean of 1308microgkg(-1) (s.d. 1320) and the rural mean of 911microgkg(-1) (s.d. 831) are not statistically different and are similar to levels in European sludges. Principal components analysis was performed on the data set and revealed that 76% of the data variation could be explained by two components that corresponded to overall concentration of the pentaBDE and the decaBDE commercial formulations. An analysis of variance was performed comparing PBDEs levels at three WWTPs over the years 2005 and 2006, finding differences between treatment plants (BDE-47) but no significant difference in PBDE levels in the years 2005 and 2006. Low levels of BB-153 were detected in all samples of this survey (n=16); mean 0.6microgkg(-1)d.w. (s.d. 0.5). This compound has rarely been reported in any other study of sewage sludges undertaken outside Australia. This work highlights the need for a risk assessment of PBDEs in sewage sludge when used for land application, taking into account typical levels found in Australian sludges and soils.

  3. Toxicity of polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in Domestic and laboratory animals.

    PubMed Central

    Damstra, T; Jurgelski, W; Posner, H S; Vouk, V B; Bernheim, N J; Guthrie, J; Luster, M; Falk, H L

    1982-01-01

    The composition, environmental fate, and effects of the polybrominated biphenyls (Firemaster BP-6 or FF-1) involved in the accidental contamination of cattle feed in Michigan in 1973 are reviewed. Toxic effects referred to in this report are limited to those occurring in domestic and laboratory animals and include general toxicity, neurobehavioral toxicity, immunotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. The absorption, distribution, biotransformation and elimination of these polybrominated biphenyls are discussed along with the interactions with other chemicals and drugs. PMID:6282577

  4. Endometriosis among Women Exposed to Polybrominated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Caroline S.; Small, Chanley M.; Blanck, Heidi Michels; Tolbert, Paige; Rubin, Carol; Marcus, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Purpose We examined the association between endometriosis and exposure to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) among women inadvertently exposed to PBBs in 1973. Methods Serum PBB and PCB were measured in the late 1970s. Women self-reported endometriosis at interview in 1997. We constructed Cox models to estimate the relative incidence of endometriosis in relation to PBB and PCB levels. Results Seventy-nine of 943 women (9%) reported endometriosis. Compared to women with low PBB exposure (≤ 1 parts per billion [ppb]), women with moderate PBB (1–4 ppb) (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39–1.31) and high PBB (≥ 4 ppb) (HR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.51–1.59) exposure did not have increased incidence of endometriosis. Increased incidence of endometriosis was suggested among women exposed to moderate PCB (5–8 ppb) (HR = 1.67; 95% CI, 0.91–3.10) and high PCB (≥ 8 ppb) (HR = 1.68; 95% CI, 0.95–2.98) levels compared to low PCB exposure (≤ 5 ppb). Conclusions Our study does not support an association between PBB exposure and endometriosis. Findings for serum PCB level are consistent with an emerging body of literature suggesting an association between PCB exposure and endometriosis. PMID:17448678

  5. Risk of Spontaneous Abortion among Women Exposed to Polybrominated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Small, Chanley M.; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Terrell, Metrecia; Blanck, Heidi Michels; Tolbert, Paige; Rubin, Carol; Henderson, Alden; Marcus, Michele

    2008-01-01

    Accidental contamination of livestock in Michigan in 1973 with polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) led to the establishment of a registry of exposed individuals in 1976. At the time of enrollment, serum was collected and analyzed for PBBs and polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs. In 1997, women aged 18 years or older and active in the registry were invited to participate in a telephone interview about their health. Using generalized estimating equations to account for correlated outcomes within the same woman, we assessed the risk of spontaneous abortion among 529 women with 1344 potentially exposed pregnancies. PBB and PCB exposure were not associated with risk of spontaneous abortion after adjusting for maternal age at conception, age at menarche, and prior infertility. Compared to pregnancies with PBB exposure below the limit of detection, those with levels above 2.9 ppb had a non-significant reduced odds of spontaneous abortion (adjusted OR=0.73; 95% CI= 0.47-1.13). Compared to pregnancies with PCB exposure below the limit of detection, those with levels above 6.5 ppb had little difference in risk (adjusted OR=0.91; 95% CI= 0.59-1.41). Maternal age at conception above 34 years was significantly associated with elevated risk of spontaneous abortion (OR=2.46; 95% CI= 1.10-5.49). The effect of prior infertility was of borderline significance (OR=1.52; 95% CI= 0.98-2.38). Older age at menarche was associated with decreased risk of spontaneous abortion (adjusted OR=0.58; 95% CI: 0.38-0.89, comparing menarche at 12-13 with menarche <12). Our results do not support an association between exposure to PBBs or PCBs and risk of spontaneous abortion. PMID:17239850

  6. Cytogenetic and teratogenic test of polybrominated biphenyls in rodents.

    PubMed

    Wertz, G F; Ficsor, G

    1978-04-01

    Previously we reported negative terata and c-mitosis synergism of FireMaster (polybrominated biphenyls) with colchicine in subacutely treated rats. Now we report absence of chromosome aberrations from FireMaster and absence of c-mitosis synergism of FireMaster and colchicine in male mice. For the study of chromosome aberrations groups of three mice received 0, 50, or 500 mg/kg FireMaster or 4.5 mg/kg triethylenemelamine (TEM) dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide through a single stomach gavage administration. Five hours before killing the animals were injected with 5 mg colchicine/kg. Groups of 3 mice from each treatment killed 12, 24, and 48 hr after treatment. From the bone marrow of each of 36 mice 100 metaphases were scored for gaps, chromatid and chromosome breaks, rearrangements and pulverized chromosomes. Only TEM induced chromosome damage. For detection of synergism between FireMaster and colchicine, slides prepared for chromosome analysis were also scored for metaphase and mitotic indeces. Control mice for detection of synergism were treated as for the chromosome study but were not injected with colchicine. Approximately 1000 cells were scored from each of 72 animals for determination of metaphase and mitotic indeces. FireMaster did not show c-mitosis synergism with colchicine in mice. Treatment with FireMaster did not cause visually recognizable toxicity.

  7. Effects of polybrominated biphenyls on the excretion of steroids.

    PubMed

    Willett, L B; Schanbacher, F L; Moorhead, P D

    1983-05-01

    When polybrominated biphenyls (fireMaster BP-6, PBB) are ingested by cattle, they have been shown to alter hepatic enzyme systems, and produce renal lesions with chronic high exposure. These changes provide mechanisms for alteration of the metabolism and clearance of steroid hormones that might then affect reproductive function. This study was conducted to examine the effects of PBB on the excretion of radiolabel from injected estradiol-17 beta and progesterone. Toxicity was induced by dosing two Holstein cows with 25 g of fireMaster BP-6/d for 39 or 50 d. Single iv injections of 35 microCi [4-14C] progesterone and 400 microCi [2,4,6,7-3H] estradiol-17 beta were given on d -5, 10, 30 and 38 or 48 relative to dosing. Last injections were given when animals were terminally toxic. Clinical signs and necropsy findings confirmed the typical toxic syndrome and renal lesions. Excretion of 14C was primarily in feces, while 3H appeared in both urine and feces. As toxicosis developed, the excretion of steroids in feces was delayed as anorexia reduced mass and rate of passage of feces. This had little effect on the amount of steroid excreted and the rate of urinary excretion was affected only minimally. Recovery of both radiolabels declined 10 to 20% by d 30 of dosing as excretion rate was reduced from pre-PBB dosing. Excretion declined sharply when animals were moribund. Despite developing toxicosis, both animals continued to have estrous cycles with normal periodicity.

  8. POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYL EXPOSURE AND BENIGN BREAST DISEASE IN A COHORT OF US WOMEN. (R825300)

    EPA Science Inventory

    PURPOSE: We examined the relation between serum polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) levels and the risk of benign breast disease in a cohort of Michigan women unintentionally exposed to PBBs in 1973 and interviewed in 1997.

    METHODS: We used extend...

  9. The comparative biologic and toxic potencies of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Andres, J; Lambert, I; Robertson, L; Bandiera, S; Sawyer, T; Lovering, S; Safe, S

    1983-09-15

    Aroclor 1254 and fireMaster BP-6, two commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) preparations, exhibit comparable biologic and toxic effects. In the present study the commercial PBB was more active than Aroclor 1254 in causing thymic atrophy in male Wistar rats. However, a direct comparison of the relative effects of bromine vs chlorine substituents is not possible with the commercial PBB and PCB mixtures due to their complex congeneric composition. This study reports the synthesis and biologic and toxic effects of a series of laterally substituted 3,3',4,4'-tetrahalobiphenyls which contain the following variable molecular Cl/Br ratios; Br4, Br3Cl, Br2Cl2 (two isomers), BrCl3, and Cl4. 3,3',4,4'-Tetrabromobiphenyl and 3,4,4'-tribromo-3'-chlorobiphenyl (150 mumol/kg)-pretreated animals significantly inhibited the growth rate of and caused thymic atrophy in immature male Wistar rats whereas those isostereomers with reduced Br (and increased Cl) content were either less active or inactive. Pretreatment of male Wistar rats with 10 mumol/kg of the 3,3',4,4'-tetrahalobiphenyls and determination of their effects as inducers of the hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes also illustrated the effects of the relative Cl/Br ratios on induction potencies. Both 3,3',4,4'-tetrabromo- and 3,4,4'-tribromo-3'-chlorobiphenyl maximally induced the cytochrome P-448-dependent monooxygenases, benzo[a]pyrene and 4-chlorobiphenyl hydroxylase; the order of potency of the other isostereomers was 4,4'-dibromo-3,3'-dichloro- congruent to 3,4-dibromo-3',4'-dichlorobiphenyl greater than 4-bromo-3,3',4'-trichloro- greater than 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl. With few exceptions this order of potency was observed for the induction of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase in rat hepatoma cells in culture and for their relative binding affinities to the rat cytosolic receptor protein. The data clearly demonstrate that the biologic

  10. Polybrominated biphenyl exposure and human cancer: Report of a case and public health implications

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, J.D.

    1991-05-01

    This is a human case report of documented exposure to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), with serial PBB determinations, obtained over an 11 year period, and signs and symptoms characteristic of PBB exposure, culminating in cancer. No epidemiological studies of PBB and cancer are available, but structure-activity relationships and animal studies were predictive of malignancy. The patient did not have the risk factors of alcoholism or cigarette smoking.

  11. Spatial distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated biphenyls in lake trout from the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Luross, Jennifer M; Alaee, Mehran; Sergeant, David B; Cannon, Christina M; Whittle, D Michael; Solomon, Keith R; Muir, Derek C G

    2002-02-01

    Concentrations of two types of brominated flame-retardants (BFRs); polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were determined in a single age class of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) collected from the Laurentian Great Lakes in 1997. Mean concentrations of total PBDE were highest in samples from Lake Ontario at 95+/-22 ng/g wet weight (ww) or 434+/-100 ng/g lipid weight (lw) while the lowest concentrations were observed in Lake Erie lake trout (27+/-8.6 ng/g ww, 117+/-37 ng/g lw). In all samples, the predominant PBDE congeners were 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), and 2,2',4,4', 6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100), which are the primary components of the commonly used penta-BDE formulation flame retardant. Lake trout collected from Lake Huron had the highest concentrations of PBBs (3.1+/-1.7 ng/g ww, 15+/-8.5 ng/g lw), while the lowest levels were detected in fish from Lake Superior (0.25+/-0.13 ng/g ww, 1.7+/-0.89 ng/g lw). In all lake trout samples, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153), a major constituent of the flame-retardant FireMaster BP-6, was the predominant PBB congener.

  12. Reductive debromination of the commercial polybrominated biphenyl mixture firemaster BP6 by anaerobic microorganisms from sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, P.J.; Quensen, J.F. III; Tiedje, J.M.; Boyd, S.A. )

    1992-10-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms eluted from three sediments, one contaminated with polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and two contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls, were compared for their ability to debrominate the commercial PBB mixture Firemaster. These microorganisms were incubated with reduced anaerobic mineral medium and noncontaminated sediment amended with Firemaster. Firemaster averages six bromines per biphenyl molecule; four of the bromines are substituted in the meta or para position. The inocula from all three sources were able to debrominate the meta and para positions. Microorganisms from the Pine River (St. Louis, Mich.) contaminated with Firemaster, the Hudson River (Hudson Falls, N.Y.) contaminated with Aroclor 1242, and Silver Lake (Pittsfield, Mass.) contaminated with Aroclor 1260 removed 32, 12, and 3% of the meta plus para bromines, respectively, after 32 weeks of incubation. This suggests that previous environmental exposure to PBBs enhances the debromination capability of the sediment microbial community through selection for different strains of microorganisms. The Pine River inoculum removed an average of 1.25 bromines per biphenyl molecule during a 32-week incubation period, resulting in a mixture potentially more accessible to aerobic degradation processes. No ortho bromine removal was observed. However, when Firemaster was incubated with Hudson River microorganisms that had been repeatedly transferred on a pyruvate medium amended with Aroclor 1242, 17% of the meta and para bromines were removed after 16 weeks of incubation and additional debromination products, including 2-bromobiphenyl and biphenyl, were detected.

  13. Investigation of hyperkeratotic activity of polybrominated biphenyls in Firemaster FF-1.

    PubMed

    Needham, L L; Hill, R H; Orti, D L; Patterson, D G; Kimbrough, R D; Groce, D F; Liddle, J A

    1982-01-01

    A polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) mixture was fractionated by normal-phase preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. The hexane fractions were concentrated and applied to rabbit ears. Only the most polar fraction produced hyperkeratosis on the rabbit ears. This active fraction was subfractionated by using the same procedure. Again, the extent of hyperkeratotic activity increased with increasing polarity. The PBBs of the largest concentration levels in the active fraction were purified by preparative gas chromatography and tested on rabbit ears. The major compounds did not demonstrate hyperkeratotic activity.

  14. Evidence of degradation of polybrominated biphenyls in soil samples from Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.H. Jr.; Patterson, D.G.; Orti, D.L.; Holler, J.S.; Needham, L.L.; Sirmans, S.L.; Liddle, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Soil samples obtained from the former polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) manufacturing site in Michigan were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. The results indicate significant degradation of the PBB residue in the soil sample. The soil sample with the highest concentration of PBB had the greatest degree of degradation. Principal degradation products include 2,3', 4,4', 5-pentabromobiphenyl, 2,2', 4,4', 5-pentabromobiphenyl and two unidentified tetrabromobiphenyls. The degradation pattern observed supports a photochemical decomposition mechanism. These degraded residues may be more toxic than the original Firemaster residues. The implications of the results are discussed.

  15. Induction of monooxygenation in rainbow trout by polybrominated biphenyls: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Elcombe, C R; Lech, J J

    1978-04-01

    Two commercial polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures (Aroclor 1254 and Aroclor 1242) and one polybrominated biphenyl mixture (FireMaster BP-6) were examined for their abilities to induce hepatic microsomal monooxygenation in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Pretreatment of rainbow trout with Aroclors 1254 and 1242 (150 mg/kg IP) resulted in an approximate 10-fold induction of arylhydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylation, ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylation and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation within 7 days after injection. These enzyme activities remained elevated above control values for at least 2-3 weeks. Administration of FireMaster BP-6 (150 mg/kg IP) also resulted in an induction of several monooxygenase activities. Arylhydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylation, ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylation and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation were increased by 6-, 3,- and 25-fold, respectively. Only the latter two activities remained elevated two weeks post-injection. Ethylmorphine-N-demethylation was unaffected by the polyhalogenated biphenyls. Significant increases in P-450 hemoprotein were not observed after pretreatment with any of the polyhalogenated biphenyls studied.

  16. Reductive debromination of the commercial polybrominated biphenyl mixture firemaster BP6 by anaerobic microorganisms from sediments.

    PubMed

    Morris, P J; Quensen, J F; Tiedje, J M; Boyd, S A

    1992-10-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms eluted from three sediments, one contaminated with polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and two contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls, were compared for their ability to debrominate the commercial PBB mixture Firemaster. These microorganisms were incubated with reduced anaerobic mineral medium and noncontaminated sediment amended with Firemaster. Firemaster averages six bromines per biphenyl molecule; four of the bromines are substituted in the meta or para position. The inocula from all three sources were able to debrominate the meta and para positions. Microorganisms from the Pine River (St. Louis, Mich.) contaminated with Firemaster, the Hudson River (Hudson Falls, N.Y.) contaminated with Aroclor 1242, and Silver Lake (Pittsfield, Mass.) contaminated with Aroclor 1260 removed 32, 12, and 3% of the meta plus para bromines, respectively, after 32 weeks of incubation. This suggests that previous environmental exposure to PBBs enhances the debromination capability of the sediment microbial community through selection for different strains of microorganisms. The Pine River inoculum removed an average of 1.25 bromines per biphenyl molecule during a 32-week incubation period, resulting in a mixture potentially more accessible to aerobic degradation processes. No ortho bromine removal was observed. However, when Firemaster was incubated with Hudson River microorganisms that had been repeatedly transferred on a pyruvate medium amended with Aroclor 1242, 17% of the meta and para bromines were removed after 16 weeks of incubation and additional debromination products, including 2-bromobiphenyl and biphenyl, were detected. This suggests the possibility for ortho debromination, since all components of the Firemaster mixture have at least one ortho-substituted bromine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Diphenol Ethers (PBDEs) in Current and Historical Samples of Avian Eggs from Nesting Sites in Buzzards Bay, MA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in eggs from breeding colonies in Buzzards Bay, MA, USA. Eggs from two piscivorous bird species, common (Sterna hirundo) and roseate (Sterna dougallii) terns, were collected...

  18. Cutaneous effects of exposure to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs): the Michigan PBB incident

    SciTech Connect

    Chanda, J.J.; Anderson, H.A.; Glamb, R.W.; Lomatch, D.L.; Wolff, M.S.; Voorhees, J.J.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1982-10-01

    In 1973 an environmental accident occurred in northern Michigan in which 1000-2000 pounds of the toxic fire retardant polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) was added to the livestock food supply of much of northern Michigan. PBB is highly lipophilic, poorly metabolized, and biocumulative. It subsequently entered the human food chain of the entire state of Michigan. Health effects were noted in contaminated animals and among exposed farmers some months after the contamination; these often included cutaneous problems. Three years later a multidisciplinary study of the farming population was undertaken. Detected cutaneous abnormalities included halogen acne, hair loss, skin redness, skin peeling, and scaling, itching, increased sweating, and increased growth of fingernails and toenails. The mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. PBBs appear to be etiologically implicated for significant cutaneous toxicity.

  19. Evaluating daily exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish oil supplements.

    PubMed

    Ashley, J T F; Ward, J S; Schafer, M W; Stapleton, H M; Velinsky, D J

    2010-08-01

    Fish oil supplements have become a popular means of increasing one's dietary intake of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, there is growing concern that the levels and potential health effects of lipophilic organic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) may diminish some of the health benefits associated with the daily consumption of fish oil supplements. In this study, ten over-the-counter fish oil supplements available in the United States were analysed for PCBs and PBDEs and daily exposures calculated. Based on manufacturers' recommended dosages, daily intakes of PCBs and PBDEs ranged from 5 to 686 ng day(-1) and from 1 to 13 ng day(-1), respectively. Daily consumption of fish oil supplements expose consumers to PCBs and PBDEs. However, in comparison with fish ingestion, fish supplements may decrease daily PCB exposure and provide a safer pathway for individuals seeking to maintain daily recommended levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  20. Reductive dehalogenation of polybrominated and polychlorinated biphenyls by anaerobic microorganisms from sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are stable industrial chemicals that consist of complex mixtures considered to be highly recalcitrant to biological degradation in the environment. Reductive dehalogenation is the only known biodegradation process for the more highly halogenated PCB and PBB mixtures. Studies were undertaken to: (1) examine in situ reductive debromination in sediments of the Pine River Reservoir, (2) compare the ability of microorganisms from PCB-contaminated and PBB-contaminated sediments to debrominate the commercial PBB mixture, Firemaster, (3) examine factors which might enhance reductive dehalogenation in sediments, (4) evaluate the role of sediment for dechlorinating microorganisms. Sediments in the heavily contaminated region of the Pine River have undergone little or no debromination. Anaerobic microorganisms previously shown to dechlorinate PCB mixtures were unable to dechlorinate Aroclor 1242 in the presence of Pine River sediments located close to the PBB manufacturing site. Microorganisms downstream of the heaviest contamination were able to debrominate Firemaster. Microorganisms from the Pine River (contaminated with Firemaster), Hudson River (contaminated with Aroclor 1242) and Silver Lake (contaminated with Aroclor 1260), removed 32%, 12%, and 3% of the meta plus para bromines, respectively, after 32 weeks. The Pine River inoculum removed an average of 1.25 bromines from the biphenyl molecule. When Firemaster was incubated with Hudson River microorganisms, 17% of the meta and para bromines were removed after 16 weeks, and additional debromination products, 2-bromobiphenyl and biphenyl, were detected suggesting ortho debromination. A PCB enrichment culture was established using pyruvate as an electron donor and Aroclor 1242 as the electron acceptor. Three Michigan surface soils, Pine River sediments, and ashed sediment supported reductive dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 by Hudson River microorganisms.

  1. Maternal Exposure to Polybrominated and Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Infant Birth Weight and Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Givens, Marjory L.; Small, Chanley M.; Terrell, Metrecia L.; Cameron, Lorraine L.; Blanck, Heidi Michels; Tolbert, Paige E.; Rubin, Carol; Henderson, Alden K.; Marcus, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the influence of maternal exposures on gestational age and birth weight is essential given that pre-term and/or low birth weight infants are at risk for increased mortality and morbidity. We performed a retrospective analysis of a cohort exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) through accidental contamination of cattle feed and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) through residual contamination in the geographic region. Our study population consisted of 444 mothers and their 899 infants born between 1975 and 1997. Using restricted maximum likelihood estimation, no significant association was found between estimated maternal serum PBB at conception or enrollment PCB levels and gestational age or infant birth weight in unadjusted models or in models that adjusted for maternal age, smoking, parity, infant gender, and decade of birth. For enrollment maternal serum PBB, no association was observed for gestational age. However, a negative association with high levels of enrollment maternal serum PBB and birth weight was suggested. We also examined the birth weight and gestational age among offspring of women with the highest (10%) PBB or PCB exposure, and observed no significant association. Because brominated compounds are currently used in consumer products and therefore, are increasingly prevalent in the environment, additional research is needed to better understand the potential relationship between in utero exposure to brominated compounds and adverse health outcomes. PMID:17617441

  2. GC-EC analysis of polybrominated biphenyl constituents of Firemaster FF-1 using tetrabromobiphenyl as an internal standard.

    PubMed

    Domino, E F; Wright, D D; Domino, S E

    1980-01-01

    The polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) constituents of Firemaster FF-1 were determined using gas chromatography-electron capture (GC-EC). The absolute and relative retention times of each of eight major constituents were obtained. It was shown that 2,2',5,5'-tetrabromobiphenyl was a suitable internal standard for the quantitative analysis of the PBBs in Firemaster FF-1 in mammalian tissues and fluids.

  3. Effects of a polybrominated biphenyl mixture in the rat and mouse. II. Lifetime study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, B N; McConnell, E E; Moore, J A; Haseman, J K

    1983-03-30

    This study was undertaken to characterize the long-term toxic and carcinogenic potential of a polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) mixture in rats and mice of both sexes. Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice were given 125 po doses of PBB over a 6-month period at 0 (control), 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, and 10.0 mg/kg body weight/day (5 days/week) and observed for an additional 23 months for rats and 24 months for mice (lifetime observation). The treatments (0.3 mg/kg or higher dosages) shortened the survival time in male rats whereas no such effect was observed in treated females. There was also evidence of shortened survival time in mice treated with 10.0 mg/kg PBB. As observed by uv light, hepatic porphyrin markedly increased at the 6-month observation, then tended to decrease, primarily in mice, following cessation of exposure. Significantly higher incidences of atypical hepatocellular foci, neoplastic nodules, hepatocellular carcinomas, and cholangiocarcinomas were observed in exposed rats. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma was also increased in both male (95%) and female (88%) mice (highest dose level) compared with control male (48%) and female (0%) mice. The incidence of hepatic neoplasms appeared to be dose dependent in both species. Liver tumors were observed primarily in those groups of animals to which PBB was given in doses sufficient to induce readily observable hepatic toxicity. Under the conditions of this experiment, polybrominated biphenyl mixture (Firemaster FF-1) was carcinogenic for Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice of both sexes. Lesions included neoplastic nodules, hepatocellular carcinomas, and cholangiocarcinomas in rats and hepatocellular carcinomas in mice. Other manifestations of toxicity included porphyrogenic effects and hepatotoxicity. A significantly higher incidence of chronic progressive nephropathy was observed in male rats of the 1.0, 3.0, and 10.0 mg/kg dosage groups when compared with control males. Gastric ulcers and hyperplastic

  4. Menstrual function among women exposed to polybrominated biphenyls: A follow-up prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Stephanie I; Blanck, Heidi Michels; Hertzberg, Vicki S; Tolbert, Paige E; Rubin, Carol; Cameron, Lorraine L; Henderson, Alden K; Marcus, Michele

    2005-01-01

    Background Alteration in menstrual cycle function is suggested among rhesus monkeys and humans exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and structurally similar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The feedback system for menstrual cycle function potentially allows multiple pathways for disruption directly through the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and indirectly through alternative neuroendocrine axes. Methods The Michigan Female Health Study was conducted during 1997–1998 among women in a cohort exposed to PBBs in 1973. This study included 337 women with self-reported menstrual cycles of 20–35 days (age range: 24–56 years). Current PBB levels were estimated by exponential decay modeling of serum PBB levels collected from 1976–1987 during enrollment in the Michigan PBB cohort. Linear regression models for menstrual cycle length and the logarithm of bleed length used estimated current PBB exposure or enrollment PBB exposure categorized in tertiles, and for the upper decile. All models were adjusted for serum PCB levels, age, body mass index, history of at least 10% weight loss in the past year, physical activity, smoking, education, and household income. Results Higher levels of physical activity were associated with shorter bleed length, and increasing age was associated with shorter cycle length. Although no overall association was found between PBB exposure and menstrual cycle characteristics, a significant interaction between PBB exposures with past year weight loss was found. Longer bleed length and shorter cycle length were associated with higher PBB exposure among women with past year weight loss. Conclusion This study suggests that PBB exposure may impact ovarian function as indicated by menstrual cycle length and bleed length. However, these associations were found among the small number of women with recent weight loss suggesting either a chance finding or that mobilization of PBBs from lipid stores may be important. These results should be

  5. Assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Tibetan butter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yawei; Yang, Ruiqiang; Wang, Thanh; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, Yingming; Jiang, Guibin

    2010-02-01

    The Tibetan plateau is considered a potential cold trap for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and plays an important role in the global long-range transport of these compounds. This present work surveyed the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Tibetan butter samples collected from different prefectures in Tibet autonomous region (TAR). summation operator(25)PCB concentrations ranged from 137 to 2518 pg g(-1) with a mean value 519 pg g(-1), which were far lower than those in the butter from other regions in the world. The highest level was found in butter from Sichuan province, which is located to the east of the Tibetan plateau and the lowest value was in samples from southeast TAR. The average concentration of summation Sigma(12)PBDE was 125 pg g(-1). The sample with highest and lowest summation Sigma(12)PBDE concentration (955 and 18.0 pg g(-1)) was from the south and southeast part of the plateau, respectively. Back trajectory model implied that the sources of these two groups of POPs were by atmospheric deposition in south, whereas the western plateau was mainly influenced by the tropical monsoon from south Asia. Air currents from Sichuan and Gansu province are further responsible for the atmospheric transport of PCBs and PBDEs to the eastern and northern side of the plateau. Local air concentrations of summation Sigma(5)PCBs predicted using air-milk transfer factor were at the lower end of published global levels.

  6. Occurrence, distribution and risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in nine water sources.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuyi; Xie, Qilai; Liu, Xinyu; Wang, Jun

    2015-05-01

    Water quality of water sources is a critical issue for human health in South China, which experiences rapid economic development and is the most densely populated region in China. In this study, the pollution of organohalogen compounds in nine important water sources, South China was investigated. Twenty six organohalogen compounds including seventeen polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and nine polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected using gas chromatograph analysis. The concentrations of total PCBs ranged from 0.93 to 13.07ngL(-1), with an average value of 7.06ngL(-1). The total concentrations of nine PBDE congeners were found in range not detected (nd) to 7.87ngL(-1) with an average value of 2.59ngL(-1). Compositions of PCBs and PBDEs indicated the historical use of Aroclors 1248, 1254 and 1260, and commercial PBDEs may be the main source of organohalogen compounds in water sources in South China. The nine water sources could be classified into three clusters by self-organizing map neural network. Low halogenated PCBs and PBDEs showed similar distribution in the nine water sources. Cancer risks of PCBs and PBDEs via water consumption were all below 10(-6), indicating the water quality in the nine water sources, South China was safe for human drinking.

  7. Deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the vicinity of a steel manufacturing plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Mingliang; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Baek, Song-Yee; Jin, Guangzhu; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2012-03-01

    Spatial distribution and seasonal variation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) bulk deposition were investigated at four sites at and around an iron and steel making plant in Pohang, South Korea from January 2008 to May 2009. The steel complex site showed the highest average deposition fluxes of 74.0, 2.1, and 41.6 ng m-2 day-1 for ∑tri-decaPCBs (Tri-DecaCBs), ∑12PCBs (dioxin-like PCBs), and ∑8PBDEs (8 PBDE congeners), respectively, indicating the steel complex is an important source of PCBs and PBDEs. The PCB deposition was dominated by Tri-TetraCBs and BDE209 was the most abundant PBDE congener. No clear seasonal variation of PCB and PBDE deposition was observed except at the steel complex site. Precipitation appeared to play an important role in the deposition distribution of PCBs, especially when the lowly chlorinated homologues dominated. In addition, the contribution of DL PCBs (dioxin-like PCBs) to the total TEQ (toxicity equivalent quantity) showed a seasonal variation and should not be neglected in the vicinity of a steel complex.

  8. Temporal trends of hexabromocyclododecane, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in ringed seals from East greenland.

    PubMed

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Rigét, Frank F; Bossi, Rossana; Dietz, Rune

    2011-02-15

    Concentrations of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were determined in a combination of archived and fresh blubber samples of juvenile ringed seals from East Greenland collected between 1986 and 2008. α-HBCD was the only diastereoisomer consistently above levels of quantification and showed a significant log-linear (exponential) increase from 2.0 to 8.7 ng/g lipid weight (median concentrations) with an annual rate of +6.1%. The concentrations were up to several orders of magnitude lower than those reported for marine mammals from industrialized areas. Previously presented time trends on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been extended with new data for 2006 and 2008. ΣPBDE in juvenile seals was the only parameter with a slight upward trend, however, dependent on the low 1986 concentration. Removing this data point resulted in a downward trend, which also was found for adult seals with a time trend starting in 1994. ΣPCB decreased significantly in juvenile seals, again due to the 1986 value, while no trend was found for the adult animals. This indicates stagnating PCB concentrations at a relatively high level, in some cases possibly exceeding tolerable daily intake rates for seal blubber as traditional Arctic food items.

  9. Differential tissue distribution of various polybrominated biphenyls of Firemaster FF-1 in male rats.

    PubMed

    Domino, E F; Fivenson, D P; Domino, S E

    1980-01-01

    Gas chromatography with an electron-capture detector was used to identify the major components of the polybrominated biphenyls (PBB's) in Firemaster FF-1. The distribution and clearance of the PBB's in rat whole blood, grey and white matter, cerebellum, heart, kidney, liver, spleen, lung, jejunum, testes, and subcutaneous fat from the inguinal region were determined at various times after a single dose of 10 mg/kg of Firemaster FF-1 given orally. Peak blood levels of PBB occurred within 4 hr whereas levels in inguinal subcutaneous fat peaked 7--14 days after the single oral dose. Concentrations in other tissues peaked usually within 12 hr and showed complex logarithmic decline over time. 2,2',4,5,5'-Pentabromobiphenyl (PnBBa) was cleared much more rapidly from the rat than 2,3',4,4',5-pentabromobiphenyl (PnBBb) or any of the higher molecular weight analogs. Furthermore, PnBBa penetrated the brain more rapidly. Each of the PBB analogs was found in all tissues examined but varied in both rate of absorption and clearance.

  10. Effect of diet on the hepatotoxicity of polybrominated biphenyls (FireMaster PB-6).

    PubMed

    Babish, J G; Stoewsand, G S; Lisk, D J

    1978-04-01

    The consumption of diets formulated with Cruciferae vegetables, e.g., cauliflower, cabbage, and Brussels sprouts, has been shown to result in a stimulation of the intestinal and hepatic microsomal enzyme systems in rats. This study was designed to determine if this increase in intestinal and hepatic microsomal enzyme activity affected the hepatic response to polybrominated biphenyls (PBB). After three weeks of consuming either a semipurified or 25% cauliflower leaf-supplemented diet (CLD), male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for an additional 20 days on their respective diets containing either 0, 1, or 50 ppm PBB. A significant decrease in body weights, but not feed efficiency, was observed over all levels of PBB in animals consuming CLD compared to semipurified diets; consumption of up to 50 ppm of PBB had no effect on body weights with either diet. Relative liver weights (RLW), hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), N- and O-demethylase, as well as intestinal AHH were all increased in CLD-consuming animals before the addition of PBB. While PBB supplementation alone resulted in increased RLW, hepatic AHH, N- and O-demethylase, microsomal protein, and cytochrome P-450, rats consuming cauliflower diets + PBB had even higher RLW and N- and O-demethylase activity and microsomal protein concentrations. Hepatic PBB residue and total hepatic lipids were significantly reduced in CLD groups receiving 50 ppm PBB. These results suggest that the antitoxic effects of certain vegetables are related to more rapid metabolism and excretion of xenobiotic compounds.

  11. EM changes and other toxic effects of firemaster BP-6 (polybrominated biphenyls) in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Corbett, T H; Simmons, J L; Kawanishi, H; Endres, J L

    1978-04-01

    Groups of Swiss ICR mice were fed 1000 ppm polybrominated biphenyls (FireMaster BP-6) in rodent chow for 4, 8, 11, and 14 days. Control groups were fed standard rodent chow without FireMaster BP-6. Animals were killed at the end of each feeding period and the livers examined by electron microscopy. EM changes noted were progressive increase in size of hepatocytes, a decrease in rough endoplasmic reticulum, a marked increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrial degeneration, increased lysosomes, and a decrease in glycogen. In addition, there was increasing proliferation of microvilli in bile canaliculi with increasing feeding times. A group of mice fed 1000 ppm FireMaster BP-6 in rodent chow for 11 days had livers with a mean of 13.93% of total body weight as compared with 6.49% for the control group (P=0.02). Tissue distribution following ingestion of 100 ppm FireMaster BP-6 for 14 days was studied. Twelve weeks post-feeding, the tissue concentrations of hexabromobiphenyl in order of highest concentration to lowest were as follows: perithymic fat, perirenal fat, adrenal glands, thymus gland, liver and stomach.

  12. Chromatographic enrichment and enantiomer separation of axially chiral polybrominated biphenyls in a technical mixture.

    PubMed

    Berger, Urs; Vetter, Walter; Götsch, Arntraut; Kallenborn, Roland

    2002-10-11

    The separation properties of different chromatographic methods regarding the enantioselective separation of axially chiral (atropisomeric) polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) were studied. For this purpose, the technical hexabromobiphenyl product Firemaster BP-6 was characterised by gas-chromatography coupled to electron capture detection (GC/ECD) and electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS) as well as by liquid chromatographic fractionating on active carbon and celite. Twelve individual PBBs including potential atropisomeric PBBs were isolated from Firemaster BP-6 by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on three serially coupled octadecylsilane columns. Six of the 12 isolated PBBs (three tri-ortho and di-ortho substituted PBBs, respectively) were separated into atropisomers on a HPLC column containing permethylated beta-cyclodextrin on silica. Moreover, the temperature dependency of the enantiomer separations is discussed. Gas chromatographic enantiomer separation of PBBs is a very demanding task due to high elution temperatures. However, the atropisomers of one tri-ortho substituted PBB congener (PBB 149) could be resolved on a column coated with randomly modified heptakis(6-O-tert.-butyldimethylsilyl-2,3-di-O-methyl)-beta-cyclodextrin in OV 1701.

  13. Toxicologic assessments of a commercial polybrominated biphenyl mixture in the rat.

    PubMed

    Gupta, B N; Moore, J A

    1979-10-01

    A polybrominated biphenyl fire retardant (Firemaster FF-1) was responsible for the widespread environmental contamination and animal losses in Michigan during 1973 and 1974. In Fischer 344/N rats orally given 30,100,300, and 1,000 mg/kg (5 days/week, 22 total doses) for 4.5 weeks and observed for 90 days after the start of treatment, the LD50 was determined to be 65 mg/kg/day (total 1.43 g/kg) for the female rat and 149 mg/kg/day (total 3.28 g/kg) for the male. All female rats given the dosage of 100 mg/kg/day (22 doses, total 2.20 g/kg) died between 41 and 53 days after the start of treatment, whereas 38% of the males died between 50 and 73 days. Pathologic changes in treated rats were large liver, accentuation of the hepatic lobular markings, and atrophy of thymus and spleen. Microscopically, hepatic changes were characterized by congestion, fatty metamorphosis, and multifocal liquefactive necrosis. Male rats given 100 mg/kg/day and dying after 90 days had subacute to chronic hepatitis with marked focal proliferation of bile ducts. Exposure to Firemaster FF-1 may produce atypical liver nodules in the rat as early as 6 months after they were first given the preparation. Marked hepatotoxic effect persisted in surviving rats when examined after 6 months.

  14. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) induction by polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs): enchancement by photolysis.

    PubMed

    Robertson, L W; Parkinson, A; Chittim, B; Bandiera, S; Sawyer, T W; Safe, S

    1981-01-01

    Irradiation of the commercial polybrominated biphenyl (PBB( mixture, fireMaster BP-6, in cyclohexane solution at 300 nm for 930 min resulted in a marked diminution of the major components of the mixture. Administration of the photolyzed PBB mixture of fireMaster BP-6 to immature male Wistar rats caused both dose-related decreases in thymus weight and increase in hepatic microsomal benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase (AHH), 4-dimethylaminoantipyrine N-demethylase and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activities and cytochrome P-450 content. The dose effecting half-maximal AHH induction for the photolyzed PBBs (9 mg . KG-1) was approximately 6 times lower than that of fireMaster BP-6 (50 mg. kg-1). Furthermore, the concentration of photolyzed PBBs (2 micrometers) required to displace 50% of the specifically-bound [3H] TCDD from its high-affinity cytosolic Ah receptor was approximately 150 times lower than that required for fireMaster BP-6 (300 micrometers), as measured by sucrose density gradient centrifugation analysis. The results suggest that the photolysis of the commercial PBB mixture yields products which possess increased biologic activity.

  15. Formation of brominated dibenzofurans from pyrolysis of the polybrominated biphenyl fire retardant, firemaster FF-1.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, P W

    1978-04-01

    The polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) fire retardant, FireMaster FF-1, was pyrolyzed for 20 min at 380-400 degrees C in open glass tubes and in tubes sealed after nitrogen flushing. The pyrolyzed residue was extracted with benzene, and extracts were cleaned up on columns of graphite (Carbopack A) and alumina. Analysis was carried out by low resolution direct probe mass spectrometry (MS). Spectra from extracts of the open tube pyrolyzed material had a series of ions characteristic of tetra- and pentabrominated dibenzofurans as evidenced by comparison with spectra from 2,3,7,8-tetrabromodibenzofuran (TBDF). Confirmatory evidence for the brominated dibenzofurans was obtained by high resolution MS dual ion analysis of certain fragment and molecular ions. Recovery values of TBDF through the cleanup procedure averaged 50% and, using this recovery value and TBDF as an external standard, dual ion analyses indicated that 40 ppm tetra- and 4 ppm pentabrominanted dibenzofuran were produced based on the PBB level used in the pyrolysis experiments. Additional analysis of the open tube pyrolyzed material by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry provided evidence that there was one tetrabromodibenzofuran compound with a retention time equal to that of TBDF. Trace levels (less than 1 ppm) of the molecular ion of tetrabrominated dibenzofuran were found after analysis by low resolution MS of the PBB pyrolyzed under nitrogen in sealed tubes. The experimental evidence is consistent with a mechanism for brominated dibenzofuran formation involving attack of oxygen on PBB compounds.

  16. Spatial trends of organochlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Atlantic Anguillid eels.

    PubMed

    Byer, Jonathan D; Lebeuf, Michel; Alaee, Mehran; Stephen, Brown R; Trottier, Steve; Backus, Sean; Keir, Michael; Couillard, Catherine M; Casselman, John; Hodson, Peter V

    2013-02-01

    The bioaccumulation of lipophilic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) can result in a reduction in fitness and spawner quality in eels and may be a factor in Anguillid sp. population declines. Contaminant concentrations in eels have been studied extensively in Europe, but data for American eels are severely lacking. Concentrations of PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs were determined in American eel from eastern Canada and New York, USA, along with European eel from Belgium. Principal component analysis revealed that eels captured in the St. Lawrence estuary were a mixture of upstream migrants from the St. Lawrence River watershed, and fish captured in local tributaries. Contaminant concentrations were dependent on origin, related to the local environment, and were lower than historic values. In Canada, concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in eel tissues were below the Canadian human consumption guidelines for contaminants in fish, indicating that the current risk to consumers is low. However, concentrations of PCBs, total DDT, and mirex in eels from L. Ontario and the upper St. Lawrence R. were above Great Lakes guidelines for the protection of piscivorous predators. Concentrations of penta-BDE homologs exceeded the Canadian guideline for environmental quality in over half of the eels in this study, but concentrations of the other homolog groups were below the guideline.

  17. Immunotoxicology: environmental contamination by polybrominated biphenyls and immune dysfunction among residents of the State of Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Bekesi, J.G.; Roboz, J.P.; Fischbein, A.; Mason, P.

    1987-01-01

    In 1973, inadvertent contamination occurred in a special farm feed supplement for lactating cows. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were used in place of magnesium oxide resulting in serious harm to farm animals, including cattle, chickens, geese, ducks. Farm families, accustomed to eating their own products, were most heavily exposed. To study the impact of PBBs, 336 adult Michigan farm residents, 117 general consumers for comparison, 75 dairy farm residents in Wisconsin, who had not eaten PBB-contaminated food, were examined, as were 79 healthy subjects in New York City. Abnormalities in the Michigan groups included hypergammaglobulinemia, exaggerated hypersensitive response to streptococci, significant decrease in absolute numbers and percentage of T and B-lymphocytes, and increased number of lymphocytes with no detectable surface markers (''null cells''). Significant reduction of in vitro immune function was noted in 20-25% of the Michigan farm residents who had eaten food containing PBB. The decreased immune function detected among the PBB-exposed farm residents tended to affect families as a unit and was independent of exposed individuals' age or sex, pointing against the possibility of genetic predisposition.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki).

    PubMed

    Alava, Juan J; Ikonomou, Michael G; Ross, Peter S; Costa, Daniel; Salazar, Sandie; Aurioles-gamboa, David; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2009-11-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in muscle-blubber biopsy samples from 21 Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) pups that were live captured in the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador) using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Only traces of PBDEs were detected in one male pup, whereas PCDDs and PCDFs were not detected in any sample. The total concentration of PCBs (ΣPCB) in the pups averaged 104 μg/kg lipid (range, 49-384 μg/kg). No statistically significant differences in ΣPCB were observed among the four study sites in the Galapagos Islands. Concentrations of PCB congeners in Galapagos sea lion pups were dominated by low-molecular-weight congeners. These results suggest that global transport is the main source for PCBs in Galapagos sea lions. The ΣPCB levels were below immunotoxic and endocrine-disruption thresholds in pinnipeds, suggesting a limited risk of adverse health effects. The present study indicates that Galapagos sea lions can serve as a useful sentinel of pollutants with a long-range transport capacity and that Galapagos Islands are not exempt from the threats of global pollutants despite its remote locale.

  19. Breast-feeding among women exposed to polybrominated biphenyls in Michigan.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, A R; Marcus, M; Zhang, R H; Blanck, H M; Tolbert, P E; Hertzberg, V; Henderson, A K; Rubin, C

    2001-01-01

    In the early 1970s, the largest industrial accident in the United States resulted in widespread contamination of the food supply in Michigan with polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). The chemical similarity of PBBs to compounds implicated as endocrine disruptors has raised the question of whether PBBs could affect the reproductive system. In the present analysis we examine the relation between serum measurements of PBBs and the frequency and duration of lactation. Persons who lived on or received food from farms exposed to PBBs were enrolled in a registry by the Michigan Department of Public Health. Female members of the cohort were invited to participate in a telephone survey of reproductive outcomes. The three outcomes of interest in the present analysis were a) the decision to breast-feed (yes/no); b) the duration, in months, of breast-feeding as the main source of nutrition; and c) the total duration, in months, of breast-feeding. None of the three outcomes was significantly associated with serum PBB levels, even after controlling for maternal age, previous history of breast-feeding, body mass index, maternal education, household income, history of smoking in the year before pregnancy, consumption of alcohol during the first trimester of pregnancy, history of thyroid disorder, gestational age of the infant in weeks, time to pregnancy, and year of birth. PMID:11712998

  20. CONCENTRATIONS AND COMPOSITIONS OF POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS, -DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS, AND -DIBENZOFURANS IN TECHNICAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER PREPARATIONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used as flame retardants in textiles, electronic equipment and plastics.1 The three major commercial products available in the market are penta-BDE, octa-BDE, and deca-BDE products. Due to their widespread use, persistence, and bio...

  1. Transplacental Transfer of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Polybrominated Diphenylethers, and Organochlorine Pesticides in Ringed Seals (Pusa hispida).

    PubMed

    Brown, T M; Ross, P S; Reimer, K J

    2016-01-01

    The transplacental transfer of persistent organic pollutants in marine mammals takes place at a formative developmental period, thereby exposing the fetus to endocrine-disrupting compounds. We evaluated the transplacental transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in five pregnant ringed seals in Northern Labrador, Canada. PCBs, PBDEs, and OCPs were transferred from the mother to the fetus with average concentrations in the fetuses ranging from 0.3 ng/g lipid weight (lw) of mirex to 94 ng/g lw of PCBs. The average percent transferred to the blubber in the fetus was very low with <0.02 % for each of the compounds studied. Based on relationships observed, transfer for full-term fetuses is estimated to range from 0.03 to 0.27 %. Log K(ow) explained the transfer of PCBs (r (2) = 0.67, p < 0.001) and OCPs (r (2) = 0.62, p < 0.001) with those PCB congeners and OCP compounds having a log K(ow) of <6.0 and 4.6, respectively, because they are preferentially transferred to the fetus. Adult females transferred a contaminant mixture to their fetuses, which correlated with estimated fetal age (p < 0.001; r (2) = 0.697), with younger fetuses showing a greater proportion of compounds with low K(ow) compared with later-term fetuses. The implications for the prenatal exposure to these developmental toxicants remains unknown because current toxicity thresholds in marine mammals have only been derived from juveniles or adults.

  2. Air-surface exchange of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Gouin, T; Thomas, G O; Cousins, I; Barber, J; Mackay, D; Jones, K C

    2002-04-01

    Air and leaf-litter samples were collected from a rural site in southern Ontario under meteorologically stable conditions in the early spring, prior to bud burst, over a three-day period to measure the simultaneous diurnal variations in polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). PBDEs are used in a wide range of commercial products as flame retardants and are being assessed internationally as potential persistent organic pollutants. Total PBDE concentrations in the air ranged between 88 and 1250 pg m(-3), and were dominated primarily by the lighter congeners PBDEs 17, 28, and 47, and concentrations of total PCBs ranged between 96 and 950 pg m(-3), and were dominated by the lower chlorinated (tri- to tetra-) congeners. Slopes of Clausius-Clapeyron plots indicate that both PCBs and PBDEs are experiencing active air-surface exchange. Fugacities were estimated from concentrations in the air and leaf-litter and suggest near equilibrium conditions. Following the three-day intensive sampling period, 40 air samples were collected at 24-hour intervals in an attempt to evaluate the effect of bud burst on atmospheric concentrations. Total PBDE concentrations in the daily air samples ranged between 10 and 230 pg m(-3), and were dominated by the lighter congeners PBDE 17, 28, and 47, whereas concentrations of total PCBs ranged between 30 and 450 pg m(-3) during this period. It is hypothesized thatthe high PBDE concentrations observed at the beginning of the sampling period are the result of an "early spring pulse" in which PBDEs deposited in the snowpack over the winter are released with snowmelt, resulting in elevated concentrations in the surface and air. Later in the sampling period, following bud burst, PBDE concentrations in air fell to 10 to 20 pg m(-3), possibly due to the high sorption capacity of this freshly emerging foliage compartment.

  3. Partitioning of polybrominated biphenyl ethers from mother to fetus and potential health-related implications.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Mei-Yun; Li, Xing-Hong; Zhang, Yun; Yang, You-Lin; Wang, Wen-Yue; Tian, Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Presently, knowledge on the partitioning of polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from mother to fetus and the relationship between PBDE exposure and the levels of thyroid hormones (THs) needs to be extended further. In the present study, we investigated the concentrations of PBDEs in paired mother-fetus samples from 72 pregnant women in Wenling, China. The detection of PBDE concentration suggested that the expectant women living in Wenling for over 20 years might be highly exposed to PBDEs, which is largely ascribed to e-waste recycling activities in the local environment. The median concentration ratios between paired cord serum and maternal serum for higher-brominated BDEs were smaller than those for lower-brominated BDEs (p < 0.05). This result indicated that the placenta could hinder the transfer of PBDEs from mother to fetus, and the hindrance effect increased with higher-brominated congeners. Median ratios of paired placenta vs. maternal serum concentrations varied in a narrow range (0.15-0.25), with significantly lower value for BDE-209 than that for BDE-28 (p < 0.01). The extent of transplacental transfer was larger than that of placental retention for eight BDE congeners (p < 0.01). The concentration of BDE congeners among the paired samples could be fitted by equations, implying that their distribution could be predicted for each other (p < 0.001). There was a significant association between BDE-153 and TT4 levels in maternal serum from Wenling local residents (p < 0.05), suggesting potential implications for fetal development and their mothers' health in e-waste recycling environment. In addition, it was found that the relationship between BDEs and TH levels was likely affected by the exposure duration of the population to PBDEs.

  4. Induction of drug metabolizing enzymes in polybrominated biphenyl-fed lactating rats and their pups.

    PubMed

    Moore, R W; Dannan, G A; Aust, S D

    1978-04-01

    Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) cause a mixed-type (phenobarbital- plus 3-methylcholanthrene-like) induction of liver microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes in rats. However, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl and 2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-heptabromobiphenyl, which together comprise less than 80% of PBBs (FireMaster), were shown to be strictly phenobarbital-type inducers. Other components (unidentified) must therefore cause the 3-methylcholanthrene-like effects. The potential for PBBs to exert effects on neonates through milk was examined. Lactating rats were fed 0, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 ppm FireMaster for the 18 days following delivery, at which time mothers and most pups were sacrificed. Pups nursing from mothers fed 10 ppm PBBs showed significant increases in liver weights and microsomal protein, and both mothers and pups had increased cytochrome P-450, aminopyrine demethylation, benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylation, and UDP-glucuronyltransferase. Pups nursing from rats fed 1.0 ppm had increases in microsomal protein, cytochrome P-450, aminopyrine demethylation, and benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylation, while their mothers were unaffected. Several pups from the 0, 0.1, and 1.0 ppm groups were maintained on their mother's diets, raised, and allowed to mate. Their pups showed much the same responses to PBBs as did the original group of pups. The effects on both generations of adult female rats were also comparable. PBBs cause a mixed-type induction in both lactating rats and their nursing pups; PBB components responsible for both aspects of this induction must be transmitted through milk. Nursing rats are approximately tenfold more sensitive to the effects of PBBs in their mother's diets than are the dams. The approximate no-effect level for microsomal induction in nursing rats is 0.1 ppm PBBs in the diet of the adult.

  5. Determinants of polybrominated biphenyl serum decay among women in the Michigan PBB cohort.

    PubMed Central

    Blanck, H M; Marcus, M; Hertzberg, V; Tolbert, P E; Rubin, C; Henderson, A K; Zhang, R H

    2000-01-01

    Accidental contamination of the food chain in Michigan in 1973 with polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) led to the establishment of a registry of exposed individuals in 1976. Serum was collected and analyzed for PBB at the time of enrollment and for targeted studies in the following years. We used the archived PBB data to study the elimination of PBB and to identify factors associated with elimination. A total of 380 women >= 16 years of age who had an initial PBB level of 2 ppb and at least two serum samples drawn when they were not pregnant were included in the analysis. The mean initial PBB level was 20.9 ppb (median 4) and mean time between the first and last measurement was 4.2 years (range 0.5-11.1). PBB was assumed to reach equilibrium in the body before substantial amounts were eliminated and before the first serum measurements were taken; therefore, the entire body was modeled as a single compartment for PBB with exponential decay. Subject-specific decay rate estimates were regressed on predictor variables including initial age, body mass index (BMI), smoking history, breast-feeding duration, and parity. In women with an initial PBB level < 10 ppb, the median half-life was 12.9 years; in those with > 10 ppb, the median half-life was 28.7 years. Decay was significantly slower among women with an initial BMI at or above the median (BMI >= 23). The calculated half-life values are estimates of decay and can be used to estimate body burden of PBB at various points in time other than at the time of serum collection. PMID:10656855

  6. Stunted growth, increased mortality, and liver tumors in offspring of polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) dosed sherman rats.

    PubMed

    Groce, D F; Kimbrough, R D

    1984-01-01

    Firemaster FF-1, a polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) mixture, was dissolved in corn oil and given as a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight to Sherman rats on d 7 and 14 of pregnancy. Control rats received equivalent doses of corn oil alone. Selected pups and all dams were killed 1 mo after pups were weaned. A total of 50 male and 50 female offspring per group were followed until they were 2 yr old. The livers of offspring killed at the ages of 2 mo and 2 yr had PBB levels of 2,4 (SD 1.2) and 0.8 (SD 0.65) mg/kg for females and 3.0 (SD 1.6) and 0.6 (SD 0.37) mg/kg for males, respectively. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas was 3/51 (5.9%) and 4/41 (9.6%) after 2 yr in females and males, respectively. Hepatocellular carcinomas were not observed among the controls. Neoplastic (hyperplastic) nodules of the liver were present in 9/51 (17.6%) and 2/41 (4.9%) of exposed females and males, respectively, whereas only 2/48 (4.2%) of control females and no control males had neoplastic (hyperplastic) nodules. Body weights were lower in PBB-exposed rats at ages 1, 6, 12, and 24 mo. Survival rates from birth to weaning were lower in PBB-exposed pups (89%) than in controls (98%). Mortality was two times higher in PBB-exposed males (64%) than in control males (32%) after 2 yr. Transplacental PBB exposure and exposure through milk resulted in PBB body burdens in the offspring still measurable at the end of their lifespan. These offspring had increased mortality rates and lower body weights than controls, and they developed hepatocellular carcinomas.

  7. Effects of polybrominated biphenyls on the concentration and clearance of steroids from blood.

    PubMed

    Willett, L B; Liu, T T; Durst, H I; Schanbacher, F L

    1983-05-01

    Hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxidases have been stimulated when cattle were experimentally fed polybrominated biphenyls (PBB; fireMaster BP-6). These changes provide mechanisms for alteration of the metabolism and clearance of steroid hormones that might then affect reproductive function. This study was conducted to examine the effects of PBB on the clearance of radiolabel from injected estradiol-17 beta and progesterone along with daily determinations of concentrations of endogenous estradiol-17 beta and progestins in blood plasma. Toxicity was induced by dosing two Holstein cows with 25 g of fireMaster BP-6/d for 39 or 50 d. Single iv injections of 35 microCi [4-14C] progesterone and 400 microCi [2,4,6,7-3H] estradiol-17 beta were given on d -5, 10, 30 and 38 or 48 relative to dosing. Last injections were given when severe toxic symptoms were observed in each animal. Clinical signs, blood constituents, and necropsy findings confirmed the toxic syndrome. Clearance of 14C from progesterone was described by a biexponential function of time, while 3H from estradiol was cleared more slowly with a triexponential function. The total clearance rate for radiolabel from progesterone was approximately four times greater than estradiol throughout the experiments. The total clearance rates were similar for both steroids before and 10 d after dosing with PBB. A toxic syndrome was well developed by d 30 of PBB dosing and the total clearance rate of both steroids decreased approximately 50% with precipitous decreases when animals were terminally toxic. Despite the developing toxic syndrome, plasma concentrations of estradiol-17 beta and total progestins were normal and the periodicity of estrous cycles was maintained.

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in a marine foodweb of coastal Florida.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Addink, Rudolf; Adams, Douglas H

    2005-11-01

    Nine species of marine fish, including teleost fishes, sharks, and stingrays, and two species of marine mammals (dolphins) collected from Florida coastal waters were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to evaluate biomagnification factors (BMF) of these contaminants in a coastal foodweb. In addition, bottlenose dolphins and bull sharks collected from the Florida coast during the 1990s and the 2000s were analyzed for evaluation of temporal trends in PBDE and PCB levels in coastal ecosystems. Mean concentrations of PBDEs in muscle tissues of teleost fishes ranged from 8.0 ng/g, lipid wt (in silver perch), to 88 ng/g, lipid wt (in hardhead catfish), with an overall mean concentration of 43 +/- 30 ng/g, lipid wt. Mean concentrations of PBDEs in muscle of sharks ranged from 37.8 ng/g, lipid wt, in spiny dogfish to 1630 ng/g, lipid wt, in bull sharks. Mean concentrations of PBDEs in the blubber of bottlenose dolphins and striped dolphins were 1190 +/- 1580 and 660 ng/g, lipid wt, respectively. Tetra-BDE 47 (2,2',4,4'-) was the major congener detected in teleost fishes and dolphin samples, followed by BDE-99, BDE-153, BDE-100, and BDE-154. In contrast, BDE-209 was the most abundant congener in sharks. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in dolphins and sharks were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than those in lower trophic-level fish species, indicating biomagnification of both of these contaminants in the marine foodweb. Based on the analysis of sharks and dolphins collected over a 10-year period, an exponential increase in the concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs has occurred in these marine predators. The doubling time of PBDE and PCB concentrations was estimated to be 2-3 years for bull sharks and 3-4 years for bottlenose dolphin.

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in dust from cars, homes, and offices in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Harrad, Stuart; Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Oluseyi, Temilola

    2016-03-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in dust from 16 cars, 12 homes, and 18 offices in Lagos, Nigeria. These represent the first and second reports respectively of contamination of Nigerian indoor dust with these contaminants, and the second report on PCBs in car dust worldwide. Concentrations of BDE-47 and BDE-99 in two car dust samples (9300 and 3700 ng g(-1) for BDE-47 and 4200 and 19,000 ng g(-1) for BDE-99), are amongst the highest ever reported in car dust. ANOVA comparison with Canada, New Zealand, the UK, and the USA; reveals concentrations of BDEs-28, 49, 47, 66, 100, 99, 154, and 153 in Nigerian house dust, to be significantly lower than in Canada and the USA, with those of BDE-49 and 154 significantly lower than in New Zealand and the UK. Concentrations of BDE-209 in Nigeria were significantly lower than concentrations in the UK and the USA; while concentrations of PCB-180 were significantly greater than those in New Zealand, the UK, and the USA. Median concentrations of PCBs in cars were substantially higher than in the only previous study (in Kuwait and Pakistan). While median concentrations of PBDEs in cars generally exceeded those in homes, this was significant only for BDEs-49, 154, and 197, with concentrations in cars significantly greater than those in offices for BDEs-49 and 154. Contrastingly, concentrations of all target PCBs in offices exceeded significantly those in cars. This study underlines the truly global distribution of indoor contamination with PBDEs and PCBs.

  10. Dehalogenation of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Polychlorinated Biphenyl by Bimetallic, Impregnated, and Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yuan; Ahn, Sungwoo; Seyfferth, Angelia L.; Masue-Slowey, Yoko; Fendorf, Scott; Luthy, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (nZVI), bimetallic nanoparticles (nZVI/Pd), and nZVI/Pd impregnated activated carbon (nZVI/Pd-AC) composite particles were synthesized and investigated for their effectiveness to remove polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and/or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Palladization of nZVI promoted the dehalogenation kinetics for mono- to tri-BDEs and 2,3,4-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 21). Compared to nZVI, the iron-normalized rate constants for nZVI/Pd were about 2-, 3-, and 4-orders of magnitude greater for tri-, di-, and mono-BDEs, respectively, with diphenyl ether as a main reaction product. The reaction kinetics and pathways suggest an H-atom transfer mechanism. The reaction pathways with nZVI/Pd favor preferential removal of para-halogens on PBDEs and PCBs. X-ray fluorescence mapping of nZVI/Pd-AC showed that Pd mainly deposits on the outer part of particles, while Fe was present throughout the activated carbon particles. While BDE 21 was sorbed onto activated carbon composites quickly, debromination was slower compared to reaction with freely dispersed nZVI/Pd. Our XPS and chemical data suggest about 7% of the total iron within the activated carbon was zero-valent, which shows the difficulty with in-situ synthesis of a significant fraction of zero-valent iron in the micro-porous material. Related factors that likely hinder the reaction with nZVI/Pd-AC are the heterogenous distribution of nZVI and Pd on activated carbon and/or immobilization of hydrophobic organic contaminants at the adsorption sites thereby inhibiting contact with nZVI. PMID:21557574

  11. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS ON [3H]ARACHIDONIC ACID RELEASE IN RAT CEREBELLAR GRANULE NEURONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are widely used as flame-retardants, have been increasing in the past 20-30 years while the presence of other structurally related persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-d...

  12. Multi-class, multi-residue analysis of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and novel flame retardants....mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multi-class, multi-residue method for the analysis of 13 novel flame retardants, 18 representative pesticides, 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in catfish muscle was developed and evaluated...

  13. Hexabromonaphthalene contaminants of polybrominated biphenyls: chemical composition and disposition in the rat.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, L S; Darcey, D J; McKinney, J D

    1983-01-01

    Hexabromonaphthalene (HBN) has been identified as a toxic contaminant of Firemaster BP-6, a mixture of polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) that is used commercially as a fire retardant and that was responsible for a major public health emergency in Michigan in 1974. Previously reported to be a single compound, the hexabrominated naphthalene derived from direct bromination of naphthalene was here shown by high-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to be a mixture of two closely related isomers, 1,2,3,4,6,7-HBN and 2,3,4,5,6,7-HBN, in a ratio of 60:40. The absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of the HBN mixture was studied in the male Fischer-344 rat. [14C] HBN was incompletely absorbed after oral doses of 0.4 and 4.0 mumol/kg body weight. After iv treatment, fecal excretion accounted for 24% of the total dose by the end of d 1, 44% by d 3, and 62% by d 35. Urinary excretion was negligible. The excreted radioactivity was in the form of metabolite(s). Biliary excretion studies confirmed the nature of the excreted dose. The tissue distribution pattern showed accumulation and redistribution during early time points (0.5-3 h). By the end of the first day, 30.7% and 12.3% of the total dose remained in the liver and fat, respectively. All other tissues accounted for less than 5% of the total dose by d 1. The major tissue depots remained liver and adipose tissue, which contained 26% and 4.6% of the total dose, respectively, by d 35. This residual radioactivity was found to be unmetabolized HBN. Thus, over 60% of the dose of HBN is readily metabolized and excreted and was tentatively identified with the toxic isomer 1,2,3,4,6,7-HBN. The remainder, probably 2,3,4,5,6,7-HBN, was relatively nontoxic and extremely persistent, with the liver being the primary site of long-term accumulation.

  14. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls, selected persistent organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated flame retardants in fillets of fishes from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenylether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 50 to 300 nanograms per gram. In samples with elevated contaminant concentrations, chlordanes, DDT-related chemicals, and dieldrin constituted the primary classes of pesticides present, and ranged from 5 to 75 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of 5 to 86 nanograms per gram. Channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River and lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton exhibited different polybrominated diphenyl ethers ratios. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers all were greatest in samples of channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River, and in samples of lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton.

  15. Toxicity and residue studies in dairy animals with firemaster FF-1 (polybrominated biphenyls).

    PubMed

    Robl, M G; Jenkins, D H; Wingender, R J; Gordon, D E

    1978-04-01

    Two studies (one in Holstein calves and one in Holstein cows) were conducted to determine potential toxicity and residue levels following oral ingestion of polybrominated biphenyls (PBB). The material was FireMaster FF-1. Administration was by gelatin capsules. Doses in calves were 0.1, 1.0, 10, or 100 mg/kg body weight, while doses in cows were equivalent to 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 ppm in the diet. The calves were sacrificed after 2, 4, 6, or 12 weeks. The cows were fed 158 or 228 days, and were then in a recovery period for 182 or 112 days. In the calf study, signs of toxicity were observed only in animals fed 100 mg/kg-day. Administration of 10 mg/kg-day or less for up to 12 weeks caused no overt signs of toxicity. Histologic studies were conducted upon selected organs and tissues taken at time of sacrifice. The only treatment-induced lesions among animals fed 0.1 mg/kg-day were minimal lesions in the kidney and skin in the one calf fed at this level for 12 weeks. Treatment-induced lesions were present in the kidneys, skin, and/or liver from some animals fed levels of 1.0 mg/kg-day and above. The relative severity of these lesions was related to the level and length of exposure. Treatment-associated changes were observed in the testes of all males in this study. The hypospermatogenesis observed was consistent with the age of the animals due to prepuberal development of the testes. No clinical signs of toxicity or histologic changes attributed to PBB were observed in the cows. Two cows were pregnant at the initiation of the study and give birth to normal, healthy calves during the study. These calves grew normally and appeared healthy when sacrificed at about 6 months of age. Residue levels were quantitated as the hexabromobiphenyl isomer (BP-6) which is the major isomer present in the PBB mixture. Tissue residue levels in calves increased with dose and duration of administration of PBB with highest levels being found in the fat. At 100 mg/kg the levels in fat were

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and organic pesticides in United Kingdom harbor seals (Phoca vitulina)--mixed exposures and thyroid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ailsa J; Thomas, Gareth O

    2007-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT and its metabolites, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and selected organochlorine pesticide concentrations were measured in blubber samples from 60 free-living harbor seals in 2003 from five sites around the United Kingdom coast. Significant regional differences among contaminant levels were found, with seals on Islay and Jura (southwest Scotland) having the highest levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and seals in the Wash (eastern England) having the highest polybrominated diphenyl ether levels. Animals from the north and northeast of Scotland (Orkney and the Moray Firth) had the lowest levels of all the contaminant groups studied. Congener-specific profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers showed relatively higher levels of the lower chlorinated and brominated compounds at the more northerly sites, with the lowest total levels of both chemical groups. Significant positive relationships between blubber contaminants and total triiodothyronine (TT3) concentrations were found after controlling for the potential effects of confounding because of sex, mass, and season. Increased serum TT3 levels were significantly related to higher blubber contaminant concentrations in the following order: sum of all contaminants > polybrominated diphenyl ethers > polychlorinated biphenyls > DDT. Serum TT3 levels in the harbor seals with the highest exposures might be indicative of a T3 thyrotoxicosis, but without information on free T3 and circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, it is difficult to determine the importance of this observation for the health of the individuals or populations. However, the mixture of contaminants to which United Kingdom harbor seals are exposed has changed over the last few decades, and the toxicological and epidemiological importance of adding the brominated compounds to the classical organochlorine and heavy metal mixture is not known.

  17. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls, selected persistent organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated flame retardants in fillets of fishes from the 2006 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; May, Thomas W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample, and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 20 to 1,200 nanograms per gram. Chlordanes and DDT-related chemicals constituted the primary classes of pesticides present at elevated concentrations in most samples, and ranged from 5 to 340 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of about 5 to about 410 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of total technical chlordane ranged from less than 5 to 260 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers were all greatest in samples of blue catfish from Cape Girardeau and Weldon Spring.

  18. Monohydroxylated Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (OH-PBDEs) and Dihydroxylated Polybrominated Biphenyls (di-OH-PBBs): Novel Photoproducts of 2,6-Dibromophenol

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongxia; Jiang, Jingqiu; Wang, Yanli; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Buettner, Garry R.; Quan, Xie; Chen, Jingwen

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxylated polybromodiphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) are emerging aquatic pollutants, but their origins in the environment are not fully understood. There is evidence that OH-PBDEs are formed from bromophenols, but the underlying transformation processes remain unknown. Here we investigate if the photoformation of OH-PBDEs from 2,6-dibromophenol in aqueous solution involves 2,6-bromophenoxyl radicals. After UV irradiation of an aqueous 2,6-dibromophenol solution, HPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS and GC/MS analysis revealed the formation of a OH-PBDE and a dihydroxylated polybrominated biphenyl (di-OH-PBB). Both dimeric photoproducts were tentatively identified as 4′-OH-BDE73 and 4,4′-di-OH-PBB80. In addition, three debromination products (4-OH-BDE34, 4′-OH-BDE27, and 4,4′-di-OH-PBBs) were observed. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed the presence of a 2,6-dibromophenoxyl radical with a six-line spectrum (aH (2 meta) = 3.45 G, aH (1 para) = 1.04 G, g = 2.0046) during irradiation of a 2,6-dibromophenol solution in water. The 2,6-dibromophenoxyl radical had a relatively long half-life (122 ± 5 μs) according to laser flash photolysis experiments. The para-para C-C and O-para-C couplings of these 2,6-dibromophenoxyl radicals are consistent with the observed formation of both dimeric OH-PBDE and di-OH-PBB photoproducts. These findings show that bromophenoxyl radical-mediated phototransformation of bromophenols is a source of OH-PBDEs and di-OH-PBBs in aqueous environments that requires further attention. PMID:26545041

  19. Temporal trends in the levels of polychlorinated dioxins, -furans, -biphenyls and polybrominated diethyl ethers in bank voles in Northern Finland.

    PubMed

    Murtomaa-Hautala, Mari; Viluksela, Matti; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Rautio, Arja

    2015-09-01

    Dioxin-like chemicals and brominated flame retardants are ubiquitous in the environment, despite the introduction of international prohibitions and restrictions. These chemicals do not remain in the vicinity of their source, instead they can be transported over long distances, in fact even to pristine areas in the northern latitudes. However, there have been rather few time series experiments monitoring the trends in the levels of chlorinated and brominated forms of these chemicals in the environment. In this study, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDDs/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diethyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in the liver and muscle of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) caught in a remote area in Finnish Lapland during 1986-2007. Five time points were selected: years 1986, 1992, 1998, 2003 and 2007. The levels of PCDDs/Fs and PCBs declined from 1986 until 2003 in both females and males, but tended to increase again in 2007. The peak levels of the most abundant PBDE congeners (PBDEs 47, 99, 100 and 153) were measured in 1998 and 2003. These results reveal that the levels of dioxin-like chemicals remain high also in rural areas in Lapland, whereas the concentrations of brominated flame retardants decreased and follow the current restriction prohibitions.

  20. Dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from fish and meat by residents of Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Guanyong; Liu, Xiaohua; Gao, Zishen; Xian, Qimin; Feng, Jianfang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Giesy, John P; Wei, Si; Liu, Hongling; Yu, Hongxia

    2012-07-01

    Concentrations of 14 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) and 28 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) congers were measured in 137 samples of fish and meat from Nanjing, a city in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Total concentrations of PBDEs were less in fish (mean of 180 pg/g ww; range 8.0-1100 pg/g ww), but more in non fish foods (mean of 180 pg/g ww; range 15-950 pg/g ww) than those reported from other countries. The total dietary intake of PBDEs and PCBs by humans were 9.9 ng PBDE/d and 870 ng PCB/d, respectively. The daily intake by a 60 kg adult of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQ(WHO)) from PCBs was estimated to be 49 pg (PCB)TEQ(WHO)/d (0.82 pg (PCB)TEQ(WHO)/kg bw), which is less than the tolerable daily intake suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO). The daily intake of meat and fish accounted for 57.2% and 42.8% of the total intake of (PCB)TEQ(WHO).

  1. A preliminary assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in deep-sea sediments from the Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhineng; Lin, Tian; Xu, Weihai; Xu, Yue; Li, Jun; Luo, Chunling; Zhang, Gan

    2015-05-15

    Ten surface sediments were collected from the open Indian Ocean at depths below 4000 m in 2011, for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The concentrations of Σ32 PCBs, Σ7 PBDEs, and BDE-209 were 120-514, 49-152, and 7-133 pg/g, respectively. These concentrations are close to the lowest values recorded in the global marine environment. The PCBs had a relatively uniform composition, and were dominated by low chlorinated congeners. The concentrations of di-, tri-, and tetra-PCBs were strongly correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC), suggesting the dissolved PCBs were derived from the atmosphere via diffusive air-water exchange, and absorbed by phytoplankton. A high proportion of BDE209 was only detected in the sediment of the low fan of the Ganga River. There were weak correlations between low brominated BDEs and TOC, implying the degradation of BDE209 is a possible source of lower-brominated BDEs in deep-sea sediments.

  2. Plant consumption by grizzly bears reduces biomagnification of salmon-derived polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jennie R; Yunker, Mark B; MacDuffee, Misty; Ross, Peter S

    2013-04-01

    The present study characterizes the uptake and loss of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) by sampling and analyzing their terrestrial and marine foods and fecal material from a remote coastal watershed in British Columbia, Canada. The authors estimate that grizzly bears consume 341 to 1,120 µg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 3.9 to 33 µg of polybrominated diphenyl ethers daily in the fall when they have access to an abundant supply of returning salmon. The authors also estimate that POP elimination by grizzly bears through defecation is very low following salmon consumption (typically <2% of intake) but surprisingly high following plant consumption (>100% for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides). Excretion of individual POPs is largely driven by a combination of fugacity (differences between bear and food concentrations) and the digestibility of the food. The results of the present study are substantiated by a principal components analysis, which also demonstrates a strong role for log KOW in governing the excretion of different POPs in grizzly bears. Collectively, the present study's results reveal that grizzly bears experience a vegetation-associated drawdown of POPs previously acquired through the consumption of salmon, to such an extent that net biomagnification is reduced.

  3. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls: inclusion in the toxicity equivalency factor concept for dioxin-like compounds.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Martin; Denison, Michael S; Birnbaum, Linda S; Devito, Michael J; Fiedler, Heidelore; Falandysz, Jerzy; Rose, Martin; Schrenk, Dieter; Safe, Stephen; Tohyama, Chiharu; Tritscher, Angelika; Tysklind, Mats; Peterson, Richard E

    2013-06-01

    In 2011, a joint World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) expert consultation took place, during which the possible inclusion of brominated analogues of the dioxin-like compounds in the WHO Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF) scheme was evaluated. The expert panel concluded that polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and some dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PBBs) may contribute significantly in daily human background exposure to the total dioxin toxic equivalencies (TEQs). These compounds are also commonly found in the aquatic environment. Available data for fish toxicity were evaluated for possible inclusion in the WHO-UNEP TEF scheme (van den Berg et al., 1998). Because of the limited database, it was decided not to derive specific WHO-UNEP TEFs for fish, but for ecotoxicological risk assessment, the use of specific relative effect potencies (REPs) from fish embryo assays is recommended. Based on the limited mammalian REP database for these brominated compounds, it was concluded that sufficient differentiation from the present TEF values of the chlorinated analogues (van den Berg et al., 2006) was not possible. However, the REPs for PBDDs, PBDFs, and non-ortho dl-PBBs in mammals closely follow those of the chlorinated analogues, at least within one order of magnitude. Therefore, the use of similar interim TEF values for brominated and chlorinated congeners for human risk assessment is recommended, pending more detailed information in the future.

  4. Determination of organochlorines, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human hair: estimation of external and internal exposure.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dasheng; Feng, Chao; Lin, Yuanjie; Wang, Dongli; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Qiu, Xinlei; Wang, Guoquan; She, Jianwen

    2014-11-01

    A novel method was developed for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in human hair samples. External contaminants of hair were extracted with acetone under sonication, while washed hair was further hydrolyzed in formic acid and acetone (1:4, v/v) with microwave assisted extraction (MAE) for internal contaminant measurements. Both internal and external extracts were cleaned up with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and then solid phase extraction (SPE), before analyzed by a large volume injection-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS/MS) using triple quadruple mass analyzer. Good linearity (R(2)⩾ 0.996) was established within a concentration range between 0.1 and 100 ng mL(-)(1) among all target analytes. The method was validated for accuracy, precision and sensitivity. The developed method is intended to be cost effective and robust for the routine human hair analysis of PCBs, PBDEs and OCPs including acid-labile OCPs. The described method has been applied in pilot biomonitoring study and the preliminary data suggested that the contaminant profiles with the use of partial least-squares analysis discriminant analysis (PLA-DA) could be useful in differentiating external and internal exposure.

  5. The caffeine breath test and caffeine urinary metabolite ratios in the Michigan cohort exposed to polybrominated biphenyls: A preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, G.H.; Schoeller, D.A.; Kotake, A.N.; Lietz, H. ); Humphrey, H.E.B.; Budd, M. ); Campbell, M.; Kalow, W.; Spielberg, P. )

    1990-11-01

    A field biochemical epidemiology study was conducted using the Michigan cohort consisting of 51 rural residents exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBB). The study had three major objectives: (a) to determine the serum half-life of the major PBB congener, hexabromobiphenyl (HBB), in the human, (b) to determine if the PBB-exposed subjects had elevated cytochrome P-450I function as determined by the caffeine breath test (CBT) and the caffeine urinary metabolite ratio (CMR), and (c) to determine the applicability of the CBT and CMR in field studies. PBB serum levels were detected in 36 of the 51 PBB-exposed subjects. The serum half-life of HBB was determined by comparing the current serum HBB values to the subject's previous serum values obtained 5 to 8 years earlier. The median HBB half-life was 12 years (range 4-97 years). The CBT and CMR were elevated in the subjects exposed to PBBs as compared to the values obtained from urban nonsmokers and were similar to those found in adults who smoke. A gender effect was seen in the PBB-exposed subjects. There was a correlation between the CBT and the HBB serum values but not between CMR and HBB serum values. The CBT and CMR were easily conducted in the field and appear to be useful metabolic probes of cytochrome P-450I activity in human environmental toxicology.

  6. Acute response of rat liver microsomal lipids, lipid peroxidation, and membrane anisotropy to a single oral dose of polybrominated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Bernert, J T; Groce, D F

    1984-01-01

    Liver microsomal lipids and lipid peroxidation activities were examined in adult male rats at intervals over a 2-mo period after the administration of a single oral dose of 0 or 500 mg/kg of FireMaster BP-6 in corn oil. Microsomal lipids were markedly altered in the polybrominated biphenyl- (PBB-) dosed animals at the earliest time examined (1 wk), and these changes persisted throughout the remainder of the study. An early decrease in the cholesterol-phospholipid ratio was noted, which probably contributed to the significant decrease in the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy demonstrable in both intact microsomes and in liposomes prepared from microsomal lipid extracts. Significant concentrations of PBBs were present in dosed rat microsomes, but the changes in anisotropy appeared to result from membrane lipid alterations rather than from a direct perturbation by PBBs. Iron ascorbate-induced peroxidation was also greatly enhanced in dosed rat microsomes, even when rats were maintained on a low-iron (25 ppm) diet. These early alterations in membrane fluidity and peroxidative capacity of microsomes may ultimately contribute to the hepatotoxicity of PBBs.

  7. Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls: Inclusion in the Toxicity Equivalency Factor Concept for Dioxin-Like Compounds

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a joint World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) expert consultation took place, during which the possible inclusion of brominated analogues of the dioxin-like compounds in the WHO Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF) scheme was evaluated. The expert panel concluded that polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and some dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PBBs) may contribute significantly in daily human background exposure to the total dioxin toxic equivalencies (TEQs). These compounds are also commonly found in the aquatic environment. Available data for fish toxicity were evaluated for possible inclusion in the WHO-UNEP TEF scheme (van den Berg et al., 1998). Because of the limited database, it was decided not to derive specific WHO-UNEP TEFs for fish, but for ecotoxicological risk assessment, the use of specific relative effect potencies (REPs) from fish embryo assays is recommended. Based on the limited mammalian REP database for these brominated compounds, it was concluded that sufficient differentiation from the present TEF values of the chlorinated analogues (van den Berg et al., 2006) was not possible. However, the REPs for PBDDs, PBDFs, and non-ortho dl-PBBs in mammals closely follow those of the chlorinated analogues, at least within one order of magnitude. Therefore, the use of similar interim TEF values for brominated and chlorinated congeners for human risk assessment is recommended, pending more detailed information in the future. PMID:23492812

  8. Concentrations and patterns of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Routti, Heli; Andersen, Martin S; Fuglei, Eva; Polder, Anuschka; Yoccoz, Nigel G

    2016-09-01

    Concentrations and patterns of hydroxylated (OH) polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in liver from arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) sampled from Svalbard 1997-2011 (n = 100). The most important OH-PBDE in the arctic foxes was 6-OH-BDE47 detected in 24% of the samples. Relationships between 6-OH-BDE47, δ(13)C and BDE47 suggest that 6-OH-BDE47 residues in arctic foxes are related to marine dietary input, while the relative importance of the metabolic/natural origin of this compound remains unclear. 4-OH-CB187 and 4-OH-CB146 were the main OH-PCBs among the analyzed compounds. The OH-PCB pattern in the present arctic foxes indicates that arctic foxes have a capacity to biotransform a wide range of PCBs of different structures. Formation and retention of OH-PCBs was tightly related to PCB exposure. Furthermore, ΣOH-PCB concentrations were four times higher in the leanest compared to the fattest foxes. Concentrations of 4-OH-CB187 and 4-OH-CB146 among the highest contaminated arctic foxes were similar to the previously reported concentrations for polar bears. Given the high endocrine disruptive potential of OH-PCBs, we suggest that endocrine system may be affected by the relatively high OH-PCB residues in the Svalbard arctic fox population.

  9. Comparative induction of xenobiotic metabolism in rodent kidney, testis and liver by commercial mixtures of polybrominated biphenyls and polychlorinated biphenyls, phenobarbital and 3-methylcholanthrene: absolute and temporal effects.

    PubMed

    Kluwe, W M; Hook, J B

    1981-01-01

    Male Fischer 344 rats were killed at various times after single or multiple treatments with polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), sodium phenobarbital (NaPB) or 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC). p-Chloro-N-methyl-aniline N-demethylase (PCNMA) and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activities were determined in the 14 000 g supernatant fraction (postmitochondrial supernate, PMS) of renal, testicular and hepatic homogenates. Cytochrome P-450 (p-450) concentrations were determined in the 100 000 g pellet fractions of the same homogenates and the effects of enzyme induction on the sensitivities of AHH in PMS to inhibition by alpha-napthoflavone (ANF) and metyrapone (MET) in vitro were determined. Single treatments with PBB or PCB induced hepatic P-450 only, while multiple treatments with PBB, PCB or 3MC induced both renal and hepatic P-450; NaPB induced only hepatic P-450, while testicular P-450 concentration was unaffected by the inducers. Treatments with PBB, PCB or 3MC shifted the Soret maxima of renal and hepatic dithionite-reduced P-450 difference spectra to shorter wavelengths. Multiple treatments with PBB, PCB or 3MC increased renal and hepatic AHH activities, but NaPB induced hepatic AHH only. Renal AHH activity was increased more rapidly than hepatic AHH after a single treatment with PBB, PCB or 3MC and returned more rapidly to control. The renal AHH induced by PBB and PCB, like that induced by 3MC, was more sensitive to inhibition by ANF in vitro than was renal AHH from naive rats. Hepatic AHH induced by PBB and PCB, unlike that induced by NaPB or 3MC, exhibited no net alterations in sensitivities to the inhibitory effects of ANF or MET. Testicular AHH activity was not induced by PBB, PCB , NaPB or 3MC. Multiple treatments with PBB, PCB or NaPB increased hepatic, but not renal or testicular PCNMA activities. The organ-specificity and time-dependency of the effects of PBB, PCB, NaPB and 3MC on P-450 concentrations and AHH activities

  10. The caffeine breath test and caffeine urinary metabolite ratios in the Michigan cohort exposed to polybrominated biphenyls: a preliminary study.

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, G H; Schoeller, D A; Humphrey, H E; Kotake, A N; Lietz, H; Campbell, M; Kalow, W; Spielberg, S P; Budd, M

    1990-01-01

    A field biochemical epidemiology study was conducted using the Michigan cohort consisting of 51 rural residents exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBB). The study had three major objectives: a) to determine the serum half-life of the major PBB congener, hexabromobiphenyl (HBB), in the human, b) to determine if the PBB-exposed subjects had elevated cytochrome P-450I function as determined by the caffeine breath test (CBT) and the caffeine urinary metabolite ratio (CMR), and c) to determine the applicability of the CBT and CMR in field studies. PBB serum levels were detected in 36 of the 51 PBB-exposed subjects. The serum half-life of HBB was determined by comparing the current serum HBB values to the subject's previous serum values obtained 5 to 8 years earlier. The median HBB half-life was 12 years (range 4-97 years). The CBT and CMR were elevated in the subjects exposed to PBBs as compared to the values obtained from urban nonsmokers and were similar to those found in adults who smoke. A gender effect was seen in the PBB-exposed subjects, the median CBT and CMR values of the females being lower than the values of males. There was a correlation between the CBT and the HBB serum values (r2 = 0.2, p = 0.01) but not between CMR and HBB serum values. The CBT and CMR were easily conducted in the field and appear to be useful metabolic probes of cytochrome P-450I activity in human environmental toxicology. PMID:1965165

  11. A Review on Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in South Asia with a Focus on Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kaw, Han Yeong; Kannan, Narayanan

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia is a developing country in Southeast Asia, with rapid industrial and economic growth. Speedy population growth and aggressive consumerism in the past five decades have resulted in environmental pollution issues, including products containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). PCBs and PBDEs are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention due to their persistence, bioaccumulation in the environment and toxicity to humans and wildlife. These compounds are known to cause liver dysfunction, thyroid toxicity, developmental neuro-toxicity and possibly cancer. PCBs in air, mussels, pellets, seawater, fresh water, and human breast milk samples were analyzed in Malaysia, while studies on the pollution level of PBDEs in Malaysia were conducted on mussels, soils, leachate and sediment samples. PCBs in breast milk collected from Malaysia was the highest among Asian developing countries, with mean concentration of 80 ng/g lipid weight. On the other hand, the mean concentration of PCBs in mussels collected from Malaysia recorded the second lowest, with 56 ng/g and 89 ng/g lipid weight in two studies respectively. The concentrations of PBDEs in mussels taken from Malaysia fall in the range of 0.84-16 ng/g lipid weight, which is considerably low compared to 104.5 ng/g lipid weight in Philippines and 90.59 ng/g in Korea. Nevertheless, there are limited studies on these compounds in Malaysia, particularly there is no research on PBDEs in breast milk and sediment samples. This review will summarize the contamination levels of PCBs and PBDEs in different samples collected from Asian countries since 1988 until 2010 with a focus on Malaysia and will provide needed information for further research in this field.

  12. Distribution and uptake of key polychlorinated biphenyl and polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners in benthic infauna relative to sediment organic enrichment.

    PubMed

    Burd, Brenda J; Macdonald, Tara A; Macdonald, Robie W; Ross, Peter S

    2014-10-01

    As part of a broader study of budgets, transport, and bioaccumulation of persistent organic contaminants in the Strait of Georgia, Canada, matching samples of sediment and bulk benthos were collected near two marine sewage outfalls, two large urban harbours, and background areas. Samples were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners. We present data for those congeners that fell within the top six rankings by concentration (23 PCBs and 10 PBDEs) within at least one of the environmental media measured in other studies (air, water, sediments, benthos, pelagic biota). Multifactor regression analyses incorporating sediment characteristics (total organic carbon, fines) predicted uptake (r (2) = 0.74 to 0.98, p < 0.04) over the range of congeners and habitats examined. PBDEs were taken up by biota more readily than PCBs, suggesting a large, potentially available biological reservoir of PBDEs in sediments. Dominant congeners in benthos comprised PBDEs 47, 99, 209, and 100 and PCBs 138/163, 153, 101, 118, and 110. PBDE uptake was anomalously high near one wastewater outfall, likely due to selective feeding on PBDE-enriched particulates from that source. Conversely, outfalls supply food and sediments with PCB concentrations similar to ambient sediments. However, organic enrichment of sediments near outfalls clearly enhanced PCB uptake by benthos, probably due to greatly increased biomass turnover near these sources. Data suggest there to be an initial reservoir of PCBs in newly settled juvenile benthos, which is much less evident for PBDEs. This is likely a consequence of the ecosystem-wide distribution of legacy PCBs but not the more current-use PBDEs. Congener-uptake patterns were dependent on source and input dynamics, feeding methods, and contaminant metabolism or debromination, particularly of deca-BDE.

  13. Effects of dietary retinyl acetate on the promotion of hepatic enzyme-altered foci by polybrominated biphenyls in initiated rats.

    PubMed

    Rezabek, M S; Sleight, S D; Jensen, R K; Aust, S D

    1989-08-01

    Vitamin A inhibits the development of some chemically-induced tumours. Since polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are hepatic tumour promoters and they affect vitamin A homeostasis in rats, we put forward the hypothesis that dietary levels of vitamin A would influence tumour promotion by PBBs. In the study described here, female Sprague-Dawley rats were initiated on day 1 by ip administration of diethylnitrosamine. On day 7 after initiation, the rats were fed a vitamin A-deficient basal diet that was supplemented with either 2000 IU (low-vitamin A) or 200,000 IU (high-vitamin A) retinyl acetate/kg feed. From day 30 after initiation until the end of the study the following PBBs were added to the diets: Firemaster BP-6 (10 ppm), 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl (10 ppm) or 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl (1 ppm). The control animals received low- or high-vitamin A diets containing no PBBs. On day 180, the rats were necropsied, sections of various tissues were stained for histopathological examination and an evaluation of hepatic enzyme-altered foci was performed. Numbers of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive foci/cm3 liver and the mean volumes of these foci were lower in the high-vitamin A groups than those in the corresponding low-vitamin A groups, but these differences were not significant. The percentage of the liver volume occupied by foci was significantly greater in the low-vitamin A with 345-HBB group than in the corresponding high-vitamin A group. Thus, high dietary levels of vitamin A had some inhibitory effect on the promotion of hepatic-altered foci by 345-HBB in initiated rats.

  14. Depuration of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Breast Milk from California First-Time Mothers (Primiparae)

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Kim; She, Jianwen; Sharp, Margaret; Chow, Joan; Jewell, Nicholas; Gephart, Rosanne; Holden, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Background Little is known about the rates of loss (depuration) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from mothers during lactation. Depuration rates affect infant exposure to chemicals during breast-feeding, and fetal and lactational transfers during subsequent pregnancies. Objective Our objective in this study was to estimate depuration rates of PBDEs and PCBs using serial samples of breast milk. Method Nine first-time mothers (primiparae) each collected samples at 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks after birth. Nine additional primiparae each collected two samples at varying time intervals (18 to > 85 weeks after birth). Analytical precision was assessed to evaluate the accuracy of measured monthly percentage declines in PBDEs and PCBs. Results The four major PBDE congeners decreased 2 or 3% ± 1% per month over the 6-month period. These decreases were consistent over a 50-fold range (21–1,330 ng/g lipid weight) of initial PBDE concentrations in breast milk. The change in PCB-153 ranged from + 0.3% to –0.6% per month, with heterogeneous slopes and greater intraindividual variability. PBDE and PCB concentrations declined 1% per month over longer periods (up to 136 weeks). Conclusions Our data indicate that PBDEs and PCBs are not substantially (4–18%) reduced in primiparae after 6 months of breast-feeding. Consequently, the fetal and lactational exposures for a second child may not be markedly lower than those for the first. Participants were volunteers from a larger study population (n = 82), and were typical in their PBDE/PCB levels and in many demographic and lifestyle factors. These similarities suggest that our results may have broader applicability. PMID:17805415

  15. A cohort study of the association between secondary sex ratio and parental exposure to polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Polybrominated biphenyl (PBB), a brominated flame retardant, was accidently mixed into animal feed in Michigan (1973–1974) resulting in human exposure through consumption of contaminated meat, milk and eggs. Beginning in 1976 individuals who consumed contaminated products were enrolled in the Michigan Long-Term PBB Study. This cohort presents a unique opportunity to study the association between parental exposures to PBB and offspring sex ratio. Methods We identified offspring of female PBB cohort participants (born 1975–1988) and obtained electronic birth records for those born in the state of Michigan. We linked this information to parental serum PBB and PCB concentrations collected at enrollment into the cohort. We modeled the odds of a male birth with generalized estimating equations accounting for the non-independence of siblings born to the same parents. We explored potential confounders: parental age and education at offspring's birth, parental body mass index at cohort enrollment, birth order, gestational age and year of offspring's birth. Results The overall proportion of male offspring among 865 live births to cohort mothers was 0.542. This was higher than the national male proportion of 0.514 (binomial test: p = 0.10). When both parents were in the cohort (n = 300), we found increased odds of a male birth with combined parents' enrollment PBB exposure ≥ the median concentrations (3 μg/L for mothers; 6 μg/L for fathers) compared to combined parents' PBB exposure < the median concentrations (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI: 0.89–2.29), although this did not reach statistical significance. In addition, there was a suggestion of increased odds of a male birth for combined parents' enrollment PCB exposure ≥ the median concentrations (6 μg/L for mothers; 8 μg/L for fathers) compared to combined parents' enrollment PCB exposure < the median concentrations (AOR = 1.53, 95% CI: 0.93–2.52). Conclusion This study adds to the body of literature on

  16. Toxicity and microsomal enzyme induction effects of several polybrominated biphenyls of Firemaster.

    PubMed

    Dannan, G A; Sleight, S D; Aust, S D

    1982-01-01

    Some toxicological and pharmacological effects of 2,4,5,2',5'-penta- (congener 1), 2,3,4,2',4',5'-hexa- (congener 5), 2,4,5,3',4',5'-hexa- (congener 6), 2,3,4,5,3',4',-hexa- (congener 7), and 2,3,4,5,2',3',4'-heptabromobiphenyl (congener 9) were evaluated in male rats given a single 90 mg/kg ip injection and killed seven days later. Only congener 7 depressed body weight gain, spleen and thymus weights, and caused severe histopathological changes in the thymus. Congener 7 caused the largest increase in liver weight and the most changes in liver pathology while congener 1 failed to enlarge this organ and caused the mildest ultrastructural changes. Liver microsomes were isolated and evaluated for enzyme induction from all treated rats except those administered congener 6, which was previously identified as a mixed-type enzyme inducer (Dannan et al., 1978b). All congeners increased the liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 content, but only congener 7 shifted the carbon monoxide difference spectrum absorption maximum to 448.0 nm. The microsomal ethyl isocyanide difference spectrum 455/430 nm ratio was increased the most by congener 7 (3 fold). All congeners increased cytochrome P-450 reductase and microsomal epoxide hydrase activities by nearly 1.5-3 fold. Congener 7 failed to induce aminopyrine-N-demethylase activity but the remaining congeners increased it by 2 fold. Congener 7 was the most effective inducer of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase and p-nitrophenol UDP-glucuronyl transferase. These results add to the suggestion that the presence of an ortho halogen on a polyhalogenated biphenyl does not completely abolish toxicity or 3-methylcholanthrene-type microsomal enzyme induction.

  17. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDES) and hexa-brominated biphenyls (Hexa-BBs) in fresh foods ingested in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jung-Wei; Hung, Chung-Feng; Hsu, Ya-Chen; Kao, Yi-Ting; Lee, Ching-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexa-brominated biphenyls (Hexa-BBs) are bioaccumulative and aggregate in the food chain. Therefore, background monitoring and risk assessment for dietary intake are necessary. In present study, a systematic sampling method was first used to collect the high fat content foodstuff such as poultry, livestock, eggs, fish, other seafood, dairy products, and the infant foods and then foodstuff with high consumption in seven categories of 600 food samples. After integrating four years of background surveys of PBDE levels (2010-2013) and one year of that of Hexa-BBs (2013), the highest estimated daily intake (EDI) of PBDEs for Taiwanese food consumption was found in 0- to 3-year-olds (mean = 9.38 ng kg-1 bw d-1, the 95% upper limit of Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS P95) was 21.52 ng kg-1 bw d-1), and the lowest in 16- to 18-year-old girls (mean = 3.35 ng kg-1 bw d-1, MCS P95 was 6.53 ng kg-1 bw d-1). Moreover, the highest of EDI of Hexa-BBs was found in 0-3 years old (mean = 0.007 ng kg-1 bw d-1, MCS P95 = 0.019 ng kg-1 bw d-1), and lowest in 17-18 years old female (mean = 0.002 ng/kg/day, MCS P95 = 0.005 ng kg-1 bw d-1). This study suggests that the large MOEs (>2.5) for the four important congeners BDE-47, -99, -153, and -209, indicate that the dietary exposures are not probably a significant health concern for Taiwanese.

  18. Temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated compounds in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) eggs (1984-2008).

    PubMed

    Jianxian, Sun; Hui, Peng; Jianying, Hu

    2015-02-03

    Because investigation on the temporal trends of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs) is necessary to predict their future impacts on the environment and human health and evaluate the effectiveness of regulations on their production and usage, it is of concern to investigate annual temporal trends of PHCs in biota samples. This study examined the temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) eggs over a period of 25 years (1984-2008), and 62 PCBs (19.2-1030 ng/g dw for total PCBs), 16 PBDEs (4.7-572 ng/g dw for total PBDEs), and 14 PFCs (26-46 ng/g dw for total PFCs) were detected. Although a decreasing temporal trend was observed for total PCBs with annual reduction rate of 3.4% (ρ = 0.005), a clear break point was observed around 1991, indicating their continuing emission in the 1980s in China. All major PBDEs showed increasing temporal trends, with annual change rates at 3.5-10.2% over the 25 years, but a sharp decreasing trend was observed after 2006, indicating a rapid response to the banning of PBDE usage in China in 2004. The greatest annual rate of increase was observed for BDE-28 (10.2%) followed by BDE-100 (7.7%), which would be due to metabolism input from higher brominated PBDEs. Significantly increasing temporal trends were observed for all PFCs, and the annual rates of increase were 7.9% and 5.9% for total perfluorinated carboxylic acids and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), respectively. A peak concentration for PFOS was observed in 1989, which may be related to the import history of PFCs in China. The present study is the first report of systematic temporal trends of PHCs in biota samples from China and shows that regulatory policy is needed to reduce their potential health and ecological risk in China considering the increasing temporal trends of PBDEs and PFCs.

  19. Changes in mitogen-activated protein kinase in cerebellar granule neurons by polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Chunyang; Besas, Jonathan

    2010-05-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as additive flame retardants and have been detected in human blood, adipose tissue, and breast milk. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that the effects of PBDEs are similar to the known human developmental neurotoxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on a molar basis. Previously, we reported that PBDE mixtures and congeners, perturbed calcium homeostasis which is critical for the development and function of the nervous system. In the present study, we tested whether environmentally relevant PBDE/PCB mixtures and congeners affected mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, which are down-stream events of calcium signaling in cerebellar granule neuronal cultures. In this study, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK)1/2, a widely studied MAPK cascade and known to be involved in learning and memory, levels were quantitated using western blot technique with phospho-specific antibodies. Glutamate (a positive control) increased pERK1/2 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner reaching maximum activation at 5-30 min of exposure and at doses >= 10 muM. Both Aroclor 1254 (a commercial penta PCB mixture) and DE-71 (a commercial penta PBDE mixture) elevated phospho-ERK1/2, producing maximum stimulation at 30 min and at concentrations >= 3 mug/ml; Aroclor 1254 was more efficacious than DE-71. DE-79 (an octabrominated diphenyl ether mixture) also elevated phospho-ERK1/2, but to a lesser extent than that of DE-71. PBDE congeners 47, 77, 99, and 153 also increased phospo-ERK1/2 in a concentration-dependent manner. The data indicated that PBDE congeners are more potent than the commercial mixtures. PCB 47 also increased phospho-ERK1/2 like its structural analog PBDE 47, but to a lesser extent, suggesting that these chemicals affect similar pathways. Cytotoxicity, measured as %LDH release, data showed that higher concentrations (> 30 muM) and longer exposures (> 30 min) are

  20. Effect of varying the length of exposure to polybrominated biphenyls on the development of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase enzyme-altered foci.

    PubMed

    Jensen, R K; Sleight, S D; Aust, S D

    1984-01-01

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) for 15 or 140 days after a 70% partial hepatectomy and diethylnitrosamine administration (10 mg/kg body weight) to determine the effect of varying the length of exposure to PBBs on the enhancement of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase enzyme-altered foci. fireMaster BP-6R, a commercial mixture of PBBs, was fed to rats at a dietary concentration of 100 mg/kg for 15 days or 10 mg/kg for 140 days during the promotion phase of a two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis assay. Results indicate that short term exposure to PBBs is as effective as long term exposure in enhancing the development of enzyme-altered foci.

  1. Biphenyl

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 11 / 005F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF BIPHENYL ( CAS No . 92 - 52 - 4 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) August 2013 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in

  2. Changes in mitogen-activated protein kinase in cerebeller granule neurons by polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as additive flame retardants and have been detected in human blood, adipose tissue, and breast milk. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that the effects of PBDEs are similar to the known human developmental neurotoxicants ...

  3. CONGENER PROFILES OF POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS, -DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND -DIBENZOFURANS AS IMPURITIES IN TECHNICAL PREPARATION OF POLYBROMIANTED DIPHENYL ETHERS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants used in textiles, and electronic equipment to prevent these products from burning. PBDEs have been marketed as penta- (DE-71), octa- (DE-79), and deca-brominated (DE-83) preparations. Commercial PBDE preparations were an...

  4. Alterations in hepatic mixed-function oxidase activity of rainbow trout after acute treatment with polybrominated biphenyl isomers and FireMaster BP-6.

    PubMed

    Franklin, R B; Vodicnik, M J; Elcombe, C R; Lech, J J

    1981-05-01

    The effects of FireMaster BP-6 and several pure isomers on hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxidase (MFO) activity in rainbow trout have been investigated. After one parenteral injection of these agents at 150 mg/kg and sacrifice 5 d later, there was no elevation of hepatic cytochrome P-450. The noncoplanar isomers 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexa and 2,3,4,5,2',4',5'-heptabromobiphenyl did not increase any MFO activity generally associated with an increase in cytochrome P-450 levels, including the dealkylations of ethoxycoumarin and benzphetamine. The coplanar isomer 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl produced an increase in O-deethylation of both ethoxycoumarin and ethoxyresorufin, suggesting enhancement of cytochrome P-448 associated activity, but produced no increase in benzphetamine N-dealkylation. The "mixed inducer" 2,4,5,3',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl, produced a small but insignificant elevation of cytochrome P-448 associated MFO activities and no increase in cytochrome P-450 associated activities. At both 150 and 500 mg/kg, the commercial mixture of polybrominated biphenyls FireMaster BP-6 produced marked elevations of both ethoxycoumarin and ethoxy-resorufin dealkylations but had no effect on demethylation of benzphetamine. When microsomes from rainbow trout treated with FireMaster BP-6 were examined electrophoretically, A coomassie Blue-staining band at 57,000 daltons was intensified, as seen after treatment of fish with the cytochrome P-448 inducer beta-naphthoflavone. It is concluded that coplanar polybrominated isomers produce an induction of hepatic cytochrome P-448 associated activity, while noncoplanar isomers are ineffective as inducers of cytochrome P-450 related MFO activities in rainbow trout.

  5. Prevalence of diabetes and body burdens of polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and p,p'-diphenyldichloroethene in Great Lakes sport fish consumers.

    PubMed

    Turyk, Mary; Anderson, Henry A; Knobeloch, Lynda; Imm, Pamela; Persky, Victoria W

    2009-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated ubiquitous exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as p,p'-diphenyldichloroethene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Although several studies have noted associations of dioxins, PCBs and DDE with diabetes, the results have not always been consistent, with few examining effects of PBDEs or simultaneous exposures. The purpose of this study was to determine whether POP body burdens are related to diabetes in a cross section of Great Lake sport fish consumers. The cohort, which was established in the early 1990s, was recontacted in 2004-2005. Serum was collected and tested for DDE, PCBs, PBDEs, hemoglobin A1c and lipids, and diabetes diagnosis, demographics and fish consumption were assessed by self report. Associations of diabetes with exposures were examined in cross sectional data from 2004 to 2005. DDE exposure and dioxin-like mono-ortho PCBs were associated with diabetes, but the association of dioxin-like mono-ortho PCBs with diabetes did not remain significant after control for DDE exposure. Neither the sum of PCBs or years of sport fish consumption were associated with prevalent diabetes. There was a non-significant association of PBDEs with diabetes only in those with hypothyroid disease. The current study confirms previous cross sectional associations of DDE exposure with diabetes. Future studies should address biologic pathways by which selective POPs affect glucose homeostasis.

  6. Modeling and predicting pKa values of mono-hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (HO-PBDEs) by local molecular descriptors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haiying; Wondrousch, Dominik; Yuan, Quan; Lin, Hongjun; Chen, Jianrong; Hong, Huachang; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2015-11-01

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (HO-PBDEs) are attracting considerable concerns because of their multiple endocrine-disrupting effects and wide existence in environment and organisms. The hydroxyl groups enable these chemicals to be ionizable, and dissociation constant, pKa, becomes an important parameter for investigating their environmental behavior and biological activities. In this study, a new pKa prediction model was developed using local molecular descriptors. The dataset contains 21 experimental pKa values of HO-PCBs and HO-PBDEs. The optimized geometries by ab initio HF/6-31G(∗∗) algorithm were used to calculate the site-specific molecular readiness to accept or donate electron charges. The developed model obtained good statistical performance, which significantly outperformed commercial software ACD and SPARC. Mechanism analysis indicates that pKa values increase with the charge-limited donor energy EQocc on hydroxyl oxygen atom and decrease with the energy-limited acceptor charge QEvac on hydroxyl hydrogen atom. The regression model was also applied to calculate pKa values for all 837 mono-hydroxylated PCBs and PBDEs in each class, aiming to provide basic data for the ecological risk assessment of these chemicals.

  7. Current levels, composition profiles, source identification and potentially ecological risks of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the surface sediments from Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoguang; Peng, Jialin; Yang, Dandan; Zhang, Dahai; Li, Xianguo

    2015-12-30

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed to assess the environmental quality in the surface sediments from Bohai Sea (BS), China. Concentrations of ∑37PCBs, ∑7PBDEs and BDE-209 were 0.157-1.699, 0.100-0.479 and 0.464-6.438 ng/g (dry weight), respectively. All of these concentrations decreased generally from the coastal areas towards the outer sea, indicating intensive influences of anthropogenic activities. Principal component analysis (PCA) coupled with multiple linear regression (MLR) revealed that 82.1% of the PCBs in BS came from direct discharge of local anthropogenic activities, 16.3% from surface runoff of contaminated soils and 1.6% from atmospheric deposition. PBDEs were mainly derived from the usage and dismantling of products containing commercial Penta-, Octa- and Deca-BDEs. According to sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), the ecological risks of PCBs could be negligible, and penta- and deca-BDE homologs might be the major contributors of ecological risks in the BS sediments.

  8. Endocrine disruption by Bisphenol A, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ether, in zebra fish (Danio rerio) model: an in silico approach.

    PubMed

    Vutukuru, S S; Ganugapati, Jayasree; Ganesh, Vardhini; Atheeksha, P; Potti, Ravindra Babu

    2016-12-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals may induce adverse health effects in humans and wildlife. Recent studies demonstrate that endocrine disrupting chemicals like Bisphenol A (BPA), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) affect the reproductive characters shared by wide range of creatures including fish. An attempt was made to evaluate the toxicity of these chemicals on the vitellogenin protein of zebra fish (Danio rerio) using in silico approach. The protein structure of zebra fish vitellogenin was predicted using homology modelling, and the stereochemical quality of the model was validated by Ramachandran plot. The 3-D structure of vitellogenin was docked with the aforementioned chemicals that have demonstrated endocrine-disrupting activity. The pair-wise alignments between vitellogenin with phosvitin, lipovitellin-2 and YGP40 obtained by CLUSTALW alignment suggest that the vitellogenin contained lipovitellin-2- phosvitin- and YGP40-related amino acid sequences. Based on the prediction of CASTp and CLUSTALW, BPA and PCB predominantly interacted with lipovitellin-2 site of the protein, while PBDE interacts predominantly with the YGP40 site of the vitellogenin protein. The results indicate that the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (BPA, PCB and PBDE) dock with the vitellogenin cleavage sites lipovitellin-2 and YGP40 that play a crucial role in lipid-protein complex formation in the egg yolk. We hypothesize that these chemicals could potentially impair the egg yolk formation and eventually impact the zebra fish population which occupies an important niche among testing models used in drug discovery and related toxicity studies.

  9. A comparative analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in southern sea otters that died of infectious diseases and noninfectious causes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannan, K.; Perrota, E.; Thomas, N.J.; Aldous, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    Southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) from the California coast continue to exhibit a slower population regrowth rate than the population in Alaska. Infectious diseases have been identified as a frequent cause of death. Infectious diseases caused by varied pathogens including bacteria, fungi, and parasites were suggestive of compromised immunological health of mature animals in this population. To test the hypothesis that elevated exposure to immunotoxic contaminants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contribute to disease susceptibility via immunosuppression, we determined concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in livers of 80 adult female sea otters that died of infectious diseases, noninfectious causes, or emaciation. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in sea otter livers varied widely (10a??26,800 ng/g and 81a??210,000 ng/g, lipid weight, respectively). Concentrations of PBDEs in sea otters were some of the highest values reported for marine mammals so far. Although PCB concentrations in sea otters have declined during 1992a??2002, the mean concentration was at the threshold at which adverse health effects are elicited. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs were significantly correlated, suggesting co-exposure of these contaminants in sea otters. No significant association was found between the concentrations of PBDEs and the health status of sea otters. Concentrations of PCBs were significantly higher in otters in the infectious disease category than in the noninfectious category, suggesting an association between elevated PCB concentrations and infectious diseases in Southern sea otters.

  10. A comparative analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in Southern sea otters that died of infectious diseases and noninfectious causes.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Perrotta, Emily; Thomas, Nancy J; Aldous, Kenneth M

    2007-08-01

    Southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) from the California coast continue to exhibit a slower population regrowth rate than the population in Alaska. Infectious diseases have been identified as a frequent cause of death. Infectious diseases caused by varied pathogens including bacteria, fungi, and parasites were suggestive of compromised immunological health of mature animals in this population. To test the hypothesis that elevated exposure to immunotoxic contaminants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contribute to disease susceptibility via immunosuppression, we determined concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in livers of 80 adult female sea otters that died of infectious diseases, noninfectious causes, or emaciation. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in sea otter livers varied widely (10-26,800 ng/g and 81-210,000 ng/g, lipid weight, respectively). Concentrations of PBDEs in sea otters were some of the highest values reported for marine mammals so far. Although PCB concentrations in sea otters have declined during 1992-2002, the mean concentration was at the threshold at which adverse health effects are elicited. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs were significantly correlated, suggesting co-exposure of these contaminants in sea otters. No significant association was found between the concentrations of PBDEs and the health status of sea otters. Concentrations of PCBs were significantly higher in otters in the infectious disease category than in the noninfectious category, suggesting an association between elevated PCB concentrations and infectious diseases in Southern sea otters.

  11. Development of preneoplastic lesions in the liver and nasal epithelium of rats initiated with N-nitrosodimethylamine or N-nitrosopyrrolidine and promoted with polybrominated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Rangga-Tabbu, C; Sleight, S D

    1992-11-01

    In rats, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) induce liver tumours and, to a lesser extent, nasal tumours. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are liver tumour promoters and are highly persistent in tissues of rats. To characterize the development of preneoplastic lesions in the liver and nasal cavity, female Sprague-Dawley rats were initiated with NDMA or NPYR and promoted with Firemaster (FM), a commercial mixture of PBBs. Rats were killed after 30, 120 or 180 days of promotion. Liver and nasal tissues were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and were tested immunohistochemically for glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P). Significantly more altered hepatocellular foci (AHF) were evident in rats initiated with NDMA or NPYR and promoted with FM compared with non-promoted groups or rats given only FM. Appreciable numbers of AHF were seen at 120 and 180 days in livers of rats in all other treatment groups, whereas the untreated control rats had no AHF. The percentage volume of the liver occupied by AHF was significantly higher in promoted rats given NDMA than in rats given only NDMA or FM. These results indicate that a single oral dose of PBB can significantly enhance development of AHF in rats initiated with NDMA or NPYR. Preneoplastic lesions in nasal tissues were not detected by staining with GST-P.

  12. Persistent liver lesions in rats after a single oral dose of polybrominated biphenyls (firemaster FF-1) and concomitant PBB tissue levels.

    PubMed

    Kimbrough, R D; Burse, V W; Liddle, J A

    1978-04-01

    In a preliminary study, 12 male and 12 female weanling Sherman strain rats were given a single dose of 1000 mg polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) FireMaster FF1 Lot 7042 kg/body weight as a 5% solution in corn oil. Three male and three female weanling rats were given corn oil. One day after dosing PBB blood levels ranged from 78 to 162 ppm and 42 days later they ranged from 1.1 to 2.99 ppm. The liver was the only organ with pathological changes. In a long-term recovery study groups of 20 male and female rats, 2 months old, were given 0 or 1000 mg PBBs/kg body weight as a single dose in peanut oil. Five rats per group killed 2, 6, 10, and 14 months after dosing had pronounced liver pathology, including hepatic porphyria in the female rats and neoplastic nodules also mainly in female rats. Chemical analyses of blood, liver, and adipose tissue for PPBs 10 and 14 months after dosing gave the following mean results. Blood levels in females were 2.9 and 2.92 ppm, respectively, and males 0.94 and 1.34 ppm, respectively. Adipose tissue levels in females were 1202 and 783 ppm and in males 713 and 866 ppm, respectively. The liver levels in females were 37 and 22 ppm and in males 60 and 63 ppm, respectively.

  13. Occurrences, composition profiles and source identifications of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in ship ballast sediments.

    PubMed

    Su, Peng-Hao; Lv, Bao-Yi; Tomy, Gregg T; Xu, Jin-Xiang; Tian, Wen; Hou, Chun-Yan; Yin, Fang; Li, Yi-Fan; Feng, Dao-Lun

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in ship ballast sediments. The ballast sediment samples were collected from six merchant ships docked in 2015 in Jiangyin City, China. Ballast sediments represent a potential vector for the transport of POPs and invasive species between marine environments. An attempt was also made to determine the sources of these compounds in the ballast sediment. The results indicated ballast sediments generally contain greater amounts of BDE-209 and comparable amounts of PAHs, PBDEs (exclusive of BDE-209) and PCBs compared to those in marine surface sediments. Based on the sediment quality guidelines, PAHs and PCBs in ballast sediments were estimated to have median or high potential of posing ecological risks, respectively, to marine life if ballast sediments were disposed without specific treatment. POPs in ballast sediments were derived from multiple sources with atmospheric deposition being an important origin. Ship activities including diesel exhaust and illegal oil sewage discharge were considerable contributors of certain individual POPs to ballast sediments. Our study is important because it represents the first report on levels, health risk assessment and source apportionments of POPs in ballast sediments and is a first step in the implementation of specific ballast sediment management measures.

  14. Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in fishery and aquaculture products using sequential solid phase extraction and large volume injection gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dasheng; Lin, Yuanjie; Feng, Chao; Wang, Dongli; Qiu, Xinlei; Jin, Yu'e; Xiong, Libei; Jin, Ying; Wang, Guoquan

    2014-01-15

    A new method was developed to determine polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fishery and aquaculture products. Samples were extracted by an accelerated solvent extraction system and cleaned up by sequential solid phase extraction (SPE) including dispersive SPE (D-SPE) and tandem SPE. PBDEs and PCBs were analyzed by a large-volume injection gas chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-QqQ-MS/MS). Good linearity (R(2)≥0.9958) was achieved. Method detection limits (MDLs) were 0.16-3.3pgg(-1) (wet weight, ww) for PBDEs and 0.13-0.97pgg(-1)ww for PCBs. Mean recoveries were 60-140% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 20% in weever fish, scallop and shrimp samples spiked at a lower level of 13-31pgg(-1)ww and a higher level of 50-125pgg(-1)ww. Certified reference materials were analyzed with acceptable results. The method reduced solvent consumption, analytical time and labor, and is suitable for the routine analysis of PBDEs and PCBs in fishery and aquaculture products.

  15. Simultaneous separation of chlorinated/brominated dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their methoxylated derivatives from hydroxylated analogues on molecularly imprinted polymers prior to gas/liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2015-11-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are important contaminants in the environment. In recent years also polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) have been reported as emerging environmental stressors. It has been suggested that hydroxylated polybrominated biphenyl ethers (OH-BDEs) are important - may be even the most important - precursors of brominated dioxins/furans. The aim of this study was to develop a robust, time-saving analytical procedure to collectively separate in animal tissues such compounds prior to determination of individual substances with a gas/liquid chromatograph coupled to an ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC/IT-MS or UPLC/TOF-MS). Two OH-CB/BDE separation methods including alkaline extraction and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) were compared. Performance of both methods was validated: absolute recovery values were in the 47-90% range depending on the compound, while recovery relative standard deviation was below 20% in most cases. Levels of the studied compounds have been assessed in some real life samples.

  16. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Polybrominated Biphenyls (CAS No. 67774-32-7)(Firemaster FF-1(R)) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Studies).

    PubMed

    1993-08-01

    Polybrominated biphenyls are synthetic chemicals used as flame retardants. The technical product used in these studies, Firemaster FF-1(R)), is a mixture of brominated biphenyls. Firemaster FF-1(R)) is a known liver carcinogen in rats and mice and is one of three compounds chosen by the National Toxicology Program to investigate the potential value of perinatal exposures in assessing chemical carcinogenicity. Chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of polybrominated biphenyls (Firemaster FF-1(R)) were conducted in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of each sex. The studies were designed to determine: a) the effects of polybrominated biphenyls in rats and mice receiving adult ( F1) exposure only (a typical carcinogenicity study), b) the toxic and carcinogenic effects of polybrominated biphenyls in rats and mice receiving perinatal (F0) exposure only (dietary exposure of dams prior to breeding and throughout gestation and lactation), and c) the effects of combined perinatal and adult exposure to polybrominated biphenyls. STUDIES IN F344/N RATS: The exposure levels selected for F1 exposure, based on studies of polybrominated biphenyls in the literature, were 3, 10, and 30 ppm. In a preliminary study to determine the perinatal dietary concentrations for the 2-year study, female rats were administered 1 to 30 ppm polybrominated biphenyls in the feed beginning 60 days prior to breeding and continuing throughout gestation, lactation, and up to 4 weeks postweaning. The mean preweaning litter weight of the 30 ppm group was less than 80% of the mean litter weight of the control group at days 0, 4, and 12. At weaning, the mean weight of litters in this group was 80% of the control group mean. The final mean body weights (28 days after weaning) of males and females receiving 30 ppm were 13% to 19% lower than the final mean body weights of the controls. Therefore, dietary concentrations of 0, 1, 3, and 10 ppm were selected for the F0 exposure levels in the 2-year study. The eight

  17. The in vitro metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene by polychlorinated and polybrominated biphenyl induced rat hepatic microsomal monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Haake, J M; Merrill, J C; Safe, S

    1985-09-01

    The metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene by halogenated biphenyl-induced rat hepatic microsomal monooxygenases was determined using a high pressure liquid chromatographic assay system. Incubation of benzo[a]pyrene with microsomes from rats pretreated with phenobarbitone or phenobarbitone-type inducers (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,2',4,4',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl, and 2,2',5,5'-tetrabromobiphenyl) resulted in increased overall metabolism of the hydrocarbon (less than fourfold) into phenolic, quinone, and diol metabolites, with the most striking increase observed in the formation of 4,5-dihydro-4,5-dihydroxybenzo[a]pyrene. In contrast, the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene by microsomes from rats induced with 3-methylcholanthrene or 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl resulted in a greater than 10-fold increase in overall benzo[a]pyrene metabolism, with the largest increases observed in the formation of the trans-7,8- and -9,10-dihydrodiol metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene. However, in comparison to control and phenobarbitone-induced microsomes, the oxidative conversion of benzo[a]pyrene by microsomes induced with 3-methylcholanthrene and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl into the 6,12-quinone was substantially inhibited. Previous reports have shown that the commercial halogenated biphenyl mixtures, fireMaster BP-6, and Aroclor 1254 are mixed-type inducers and that microsomes from rats pretreated with these mixtures markedly enhance the overall metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene. Not surprisingly, the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene by microsomes from rats pretreated with the mixed-type inducers, 2,3,3',4,4'-penta-,2,3,3',4,4',5-hexa-, and 2',3,3',4,4',5-hexa- chlorobiphenyl was also increased and the metabolic profile was similar to that observed with fireMaster BP-6 and Aroclor 1254 induced microsomes.

  18. An assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in the indoor dust of e-waste recycling facilities in South Africa: implications for occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Abafe, Ovokeroye A; Martincigh, Bice S

    2015-09-01

    Workplace exposure to persistent organic pollutants is a concern for human health. This study examined the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the indoor dust from two major e-waste recycling sites and a university electronic equipment repair workshop in Durban, South Africa, in order to evaluate the implication of dust for occupational exposure. The mean ∑(n = 8)PBDEs and ∑(n = 3)PCBs were 20,094 and 235 ng g(-1), respectively. The levels of PBDEs and PCBs obtained in one of the recycling sites (123-27,530 and 161-593 ng g(-1)) were significantly higher than the levels obtained (91-7686 and

  19. Concentrations and time trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic bird eggs from San Francisco Bay, CA 2000-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    She, J.; Holden, A.; Adelsbach, T.L.; Tanner, M.; Schwarzbach, S.E.; Yee, J.L.; Hooper, K.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 169 avian eggs. We analyzed randomly collected eggs of two species of piscivorous birds: Caspian tern (Sterna caspia) (n = 78) and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) (n = 76). We also analyzed fail-to-hatch eggs from two species protected under the Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973, that breed in the San Francisco Bay region: the piscivorous California Least tern (Sterna antillarum brownii) (n = 11) and the omnivorous California Clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) (n = 4). San Francisco Bay eggs were collected annually for four years (2000-2003), and additional 20 eggs were collected and analyzed from Gray's Harbor, Washington in 2001. Geometric mean PBDE concentrations did not significantly differ in the three tern species, but concentrations in eggs from the fail to hatch California Clapper rail eggs were significantly lower than those found in the randomly collected tern eggs. Median concentrations of ???PBDEs in Caspian tern eggs for 2000-2003 were 2410, 4730, 3720 and 2880 ng/g lipid weight (lw), respectively, in Forster's terns 1820, 4380, 5460 and 3600 ng/g lw, respectively, and in California Least terns for 2001 and 2002 were 5060 and 5170 ng/g lw, respectively. In contrast, median ???PBDEs concentration in California Clapper rail eggs for 2001 was 379 ng/g lw. Five PBDEs were the major congeners found and decreased in the order BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, and -154. BDE-32, -28, -71, -66, -85, -183 were less prevalent, minor congeners, as was BDE-209, which was measured in a subset of samples. PBDE concentrations in bird eggs from San Francisco Bay were site related. There was no significant difference in PBDE concentrations in Caspian tern eggs from San Francisco Bay and Gray's Harbor, WA. Average PBDE concentrations in eggs did not significantly increase over the period 2000-2003. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Heightened biological uptake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers relative to polychlorinated biphenyls near-source revealed by sediment and plankton profiles along a coastal transect in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Dangerfield, Neil; Shaw, Patrick D; Ross, Peter S

    2014-06-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations and profiles in paired sediment-plankton samples were determined along a 500 km transect in coastal British Columbia, Canada. PCB and PBDE levels in sediment were both greater in the industrialized Strait of Georgia than in remote northern sites and exhibited parallel spatial trends. In plankton, recent-use PBDE levels were higher near-source, while levels of legacy PCBs were uniform across sites. Principal component analysis of 95 PCB congeners illustrated the influence of proximity to source (i.e., latitude) on congener patterns for both matrices (sediment, r(2) = 0.52, p = 0.012; plankton, r(2) = 0.59, p = 0.016). The PCB pattern in plankton grew lighter with latitude, but the opposite pattern in sediments suggested that temperature-related fractionation, sediment processes, and basin-wide oceanography had divergent effects on each matrix. Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were greater for PBDEs than PCBs, but spatial profiles were similar; PCBs and PBDEs were near equilibrium in remote atmospherically driven sites (BSAF = 1.7 and 1.3) but accumulated preferentially in sediments at source-driven sites (BSAF = 0.2 and 0.4). The influences of particle-binding and hydrophobicity on the aquatic fate of PCBs and PBDEs was evident by the strong influence of log KOW on congener-specific BSAFs (PCBs, r(2) = 0.18 p < 0.001; PBDEs, r(2) = 0.61 p < 0.001). While biotic uptake of PCBs has become spatially uniform in coastal BC because of dilution over time, biomagnification of PBDEs remains higher in industrialized waters.

  1. Quantification of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Commercial Cows’ Milk from California by Gas Chromatography–Triple Quadruple Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    We determined 12 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 19 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners in eight different brands of commercial whole milk (WM) and fat free milk (FFM) produced and distributed in California. Congeners were extracted using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method, purified by gel permeation chromatography, and quantified using gas chromatography-triple quadruple mass spectrometry. PBDEs and PCBs were detected in all FFM and WM samples. The most prevalent PBDE congeners in WM were BDE-47 (geometric mean: 18.0 pg/mL, 0.51 ng/g lipid), BDE-99 (geometric mean: 9.9 pg/mL, 0.28 ng/g lipid), and BDE-49 (geometric mean: 6.0 pg/mL, 0.17 ng/g lipid). The dominant PCB congeners in WM were PCB-101(geometric mean: 23.6 pg/mL, 0.67 ng/g lipid), PCB-118 (geometric mean: 25.2 pg/mL, 0.72 ng/g lipid), and PCB-138 (geometric mean: 25.3 pg/mL, 0.72 ng/g lipid). The sum of all 19 PCB congeners in FFM and WM were several orders of magnitude below the U.S. FDA tolerance. The sum of PBDEs in milk samples suggest close proximity to industrial emissions, and confirm previous findings of elevated PBDE levels in California compared to other regions in the United States. PMID:28085917

  2. Polypropylene membrane coated with carbon nanotubes functionalized with chitosan: Application in the microextraction of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers from environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Ge, Dandan; Lee, Hian Kee

    2015-08-21

    Acid oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) functionalized with chitosan were coated on polypropylene membrane and used as sorbent to extract trace polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from environmental water samples. The analytes were extracted by the hydrophobic interaction between analytes and the functionalized CNTs. The chitosan polymer coating also contributed to extraction efficiency. Microextraction conditions (different types of desorption solvent, extraction time, salt concentration, stirring rate and desorption time) were optimized by means of orthogonal array design (OAD). A mixed level OAD matrix, OA16 (4(1)×2(12)) was employed for the initial optimization. Based on the results of the first step, n-hexane was chosen as desorption solvent and 5min was selected as desorption time. Extraction time, stirring rate and salt concentration were further optimized in the second step by an OA16 (4(5)) matrix. Under the optimized conditions, calibration curves with coefficients of determination higher than 0.993 over the concentration range of 0.2 and 50ng/ml. Low limits of detection (<0.60ng/l) and acceptable reproducibility with relative standard deviations in the range of 0.17% and 5.01%, were achieved. The developed method was applied to extract PCBs and PBDEs from environmental water samples. The relative recoveries of the analytes spiked into the real water samples ranged from 85.6 to 104.1% at 0.2ng/ml of each analyte, and from 82.4 to 98.6% at 2ng/ml of each analyte.

  3. Suppression of Peroxisomal Enzyme Activities and Cytochrome P450 4A Isozyme Expression by Congeneric Polybrominated and Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Larry W.; Berberian, Isabelle; Borges, Tim; Chen, Li-Chuan; Chow, Ching K.; Glauert, Howard P.; Filser, Johannes G.; Thomas, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of PCBs and PBBs on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α-(PPARα-) associated enzyme activities or protein levels. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a single IP injection (150 μ mol/kg) of either 3,3′,4,4′-tetrabromobiphenyl, 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 3,3′,5,5′-tetrabromobiphenyl, 2′,3,3′,4,5-pentachlorobiphenyl, 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl, 2,2′,3,3′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl, or 3,3′,4,4′,5,5′-hexabromobiphenyl in corn oil (10 ml/kg). One week later, the activities of catalase, peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, and peroxisomal beta-oxidation as well as cytochrome P450 4A (CYP4A) protein content were determined in subcellular liver fractions. None of the peroxisomal enzyme activities were significantly increased by any of the halogenated biphenyl congeners tested. Except for minor (approx. 25%) increases in the total CYP4A content following treatment with 2,2′,3,3′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl and 3,3′,5,5′-tetrabromobiphenyl, CYP4A protein contents were not increased by any treatment. The two Ah receptor agonists, 3,3′,4,4′-tetrabromobiphenyl and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl, significantly diminished the liver content of CYP4A proteins and activities of the peroxisomal enzymes studied. Since a range of congeners with different biologic and toxicologic activities were selected for this study, it may be concluded that the polyhalogenated biphenyls do not induce peroxisome proliferation in the male rat, but rather certain members of this class of compounds down regulate peroxisome-associated enzymes. Since PCBs and PBBs do not increase enzyme activities and expression of proteins associated with PPARα, these agents are therefore exerting their carcinogenic and promoting activities by some other mechanism. PMID:18274624

  4. Assessment of human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Japan using archived samples from the early 1980s and mid-1990s.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Akio; Yoshinaga, Takeo; Harada, Kouji; Inoue, Kayoko; Morikawa, Akiko; Muroi, Junko; Inoue, Sumiko; Eslami, Bita; Fujii, Shigeo; Fujimine, Yoshinori; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Koda, Shigeki; Kusaka, Yukinori; Murata, Katsuyuki; Nakatsuka, Haruo; Omae, Kazuyuki; Saito, Norimitsu; Shimbo, Shinichiro; Takenaka, Katsunobu; Takeshita, Tatsuya; Todoriki, Hidemi; Wada, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Takao; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2005-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants have been linked to various adverse effects on human health. We conducted a retrospective exposure assessment for 11polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 4 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners. We analyzed paired samples of blood and food duplicate portions collected in the 1980s (1980 survey, N=40) and the mid-1990s (1995 survey, N=40) from females (five participants from each of eight sites per survey) living throughout Japan, from Hokkaido to Okinawa. The study populations in the 1980 and 1995 surveys were different but had lived in the same community. We measured PCBs and PBDEs in serum and PCBs in diet. Total serum PCBs (ng/g lipid) [geometric mean (geometric standard deviation)] were similar in the 1980 [163.0 (1.7)] and the 1995 [142.6 (2.0)] surveys. In contrast, dietary intake (ng/day) between 1980 and 1995 decreased significantly, from 522.8 (2.5) to 165.9 (3.3), respectively, (P<0.05). We classified the participants by birth year-before 1941 (older generation) and equal to or after 1941 (younger generation). Serum PCB levels decreased significantly in the younger generation, from 179.1 (1.8) in the 1980 survey to 115.4 (2.0) in the 1995 survey (P<0.05). However, in the older generation, serum levels (ng/g lipid) did not change: 150.4 (1.6) in the 1980 survey and 180 (1.8) in the 1995 survey. Total PBDE serum levels (ng/g lipid) increased significantly during the 15 years, from 0.5 (3.5) to 1.8 (3.7) (P<0.05). At the Shimane site, PBDE serum levels (ng/g lipid) increased 20-fold, from 1.3 (4.8) to 26.0 (5.0). The serum levels of PCBs decreased in the younger generation but not in the older, although levels in daily intakes decreased significantly. Exposure levels of PBDEs appear to be increasing in an area-specific manner.

  5. Toxicology and NTP Carcinogenesis Studies of a Polybrominated Biphenyl Mixture (Firemaster FF-1) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies).

    PubMed

    1983-06-01

    Firemaster FF-1, a flame retardant composed of polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), was responsible for widespread environmental contamination and animal losses in Michigan starting in 1973. This study was undertaken to characterize the long-term toxic and carcinogenic potential of this PBB mixture in rats and mice of each sex. Fisher 344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were given 125 oral doses of PBB over a 6-month period--0, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, or 10.0 mg/kg body weight/day (5 days/week). A dose-related decrease in body weight gain was observed in both male and female rats and male mice, although there was no significant difference in food consumption. At the end of the 6-month exposure, there was a dose-dependent decrease in thymus weights in rats. The liver appeared to be the primary target organ. Dose-related hepatotoxic effects were characterized by a marked increase in liver weight, with accentuation of hepatic lobular markings. Microscopically, there was moderate to marked hepatocellular swelling, disorganization and single cell necrosis of hepatocytes, fatty infiltration, and bile duct proliferation. At the 6-month observation, atypical hepatocellular foci were observed at a low incidence in dosed rats and mice. Hepatic porphyrin levels were markedly increased in both rats and mice, excessively in females. Levels of porphyrin tended to decrease gradually, primarily in mice, following cessation of exposure. The significant decreases in serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in rats suggest that PBB may interfere with thyroid hormone secretion. Total serum protein was decreased in dose-related fashion in female rats primarily due to dose-related decreases in albumin. There was a significant increase in the serum levels of gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP) in female rats given 10.0 mg/kg of PBB. There was a dose-related decrease in serum glucose in female rats, a dose-related decrease in the serum triglyceride level in dosed male rats, except at the lowest dose

  6. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS (PBDES) CONTAMINATION OF UNITED STATES FOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevated levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a type of brominated flame retardant, were recently detected in United States (U.S.) nursing mothers' milk. These halogenated compounds chemically and toxicologically resemble others such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PC...

  7. Selective pressurized liquid extraction of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a whale earplug (earwax): a novel method for analyzing organic contaminants in lipid-rich matrices.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eleanor M; Trumble, Stephen J; Subedi, Bikram; Sanders, Rebel; Usenko, Sascha

    2013-12-06

    Lipid-rich matrices are often sinks for lipophilic contaminants, such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Typically methods for contaminant extraction and cleanup for lipid-rich matrices require multiple cleanup steps; however, a selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) technique requiring no additional cleanup has been developed for the simultaneous extraction and cleanup of whale earwax (cerumen; a lipid-rich matrix). Whale earwax accumulates in select whale species over their lifetime to form wax earplugs. Typically used as an aging technique in cetaceans, layers or laminae that comprise the earplug are thought to be associated with annual or semiannual migration and feeding patterns. Whale earplugs (earwax) represent a unique matrix capable of recording and archiving whales' lifetime contaminant profiles. This study reports the first analytical method developed for identifying and quantifying lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a whale earplug including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The analytical method was developed using SPLE to extract contaminants from ∼0.25 to 0.5g aliquots of each lamina of sectioned earplug. The SPLE was optimized for cleanup adsorbents (basic alumina, silica gel, and Florisil(®)), adsorbent to sample ratio, and adsorbent order. In the optimized SPLE method, the earwax homogenate was placed within the extraction cell on top of basic alumina (5g), silica gel (15g), and Florisil(®) (10g) and the target analytes were extracted from the homogenate using 1:1 (v/v) dichloromethane:hexane. POPs were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron capture negative ionization and electron impact ionization. The average percent recoveries for the POPs were 91% (±6% relative standard deviation), while limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.00057 to 0.96ngg(-1

  8. A validated method for rapid determination of dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk: focus on utility of tandem solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuanjie; Feng, Chao; Xu, Qian; Lu, Dasheng; Qiu, Xinlei; Jin, Yu'e; Wang, Guoquan; Wang, Dongli; She, Jianwen; Zhou, Zhijun

    2016-07-01

    An improved method based on tandem solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) has been validated for a rapid determination of dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), marker polychlorinated biphenyls (M-PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) using a large volume (50 mL) of human milk. This method was well validated for the measurement of these analytes in human milk from the general population with low limits of detection (LODs, 0.004-0.12 ng/g lipid), satisfactory accuracy (75-120 % of recoveries), and precision [less than 10 % of relative standard deviations (RSDs)]. To comprehensively evaluate the performance of this method, a good, presently validated and routinely used method based on an automated sample clean-up system (ASCS, based on the commercial acid multilayer silica, basic alumina, and carbon columns) was used in parallel for comparison. Compared with the ASCS method, this method presented comparable specificity. Additionally, this method, in contrast to ASCS method, highly reduced consumption of solvents (40 mL versus 500 mL), which results in much lower background in the procedural blank, reduced time, and enhanced sample pretreatment throughput. This method was also applied in a pilot study to measure a batch of human milk samples with satisfactory results. Graphical Abstract Characteristics of the application of tandem SPE cleanup for determination of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs,M-PCBs and PBDEs in human milk.

  9. Novel flame retardants (N-FRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in fish, penguin, and skua from King George Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Wolschke, Hendrik; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Cai, Minghong

    2015-07-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), are frequently detected in biota from Antarctica, whereas no data are available for their replacements, such as novel flame retardants (N-FRs). This study presented the occurrence of several N-FRs, PBDEs, and PCBs in tissue samples of an Antarctic rock cod (Trematomus bernacchii), a young gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), and a brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus) collected from King George Island. The total concentrations of N-FRs (ΣN-FRs; mean: 931 pg/g dry weight (dw)) were comparable to PBDEs (Σ8PBDEs; 681 pg/gdw), which were much lower than PCBs (ΣDL-PCBs; 12,800 pg/gdw). Overall, skua contained two to three orders of magnitude higher contamination than penguin and fish. In the future, more attention should be focused on the fate of N-FRs in Antarctica, where usages have increased since PBDEs were banned. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N-FRs in biota from Antarctica.

  10. Disruption of thyroid hormone (TH) levels and TH-regulated gene expression by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and hydroxylated PCBs in e-waste recycling workers.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jing; He, Chun-Tao; Chen, She-Jun; Yan, Xiao; Guo, Mi-Na; Wang, Mei-Huan; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2017-02-25

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are the primary toxicants released by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling, but their adverse effects on people working in e-waste recycling or living near e-waste sites have not been studied well. In the present study, the serum concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and hydroxylated PCBs, the circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs), and the mRNA levels of seven TH-regulated genes in peripheral blood leukocytes of e-waste recycling workers were analyzed. The associations of the hormone levels and gene expression with the exposure to these contaminants were examined using multiple linear regression models. There were nearly no associations of the TH levels with PCBs and hydroxylated PCBs, whereas elevated hormone (T4 and T3) levels were associated with certain lower-brominated BDEs. While not statistically significant, we did observe a negative association between highly brominated PBDE congeners and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in the e-waste workers. The TH-regulated gene expression was more significantly associated with the organohalogen compounds (OHCs) than the TH levels in these workers. The TH-regulated gene expression was significantly associated with certain PCB and hydroxylated PCB congeners. However, the expression of most target genes was suppressed by PBDEs (mostly highly brominated congeners). This is the first evidence of alterations in TH-regulated gene expression in humans exposed to OHCs. Our findings indicated that OHCs may interfere with TH signaling and/or exert TH-like effects, leading to alterations in related gene expression in humans. Further research is needed to investigate the mechanisms of action and associated biological consequences of the gene expression disruption by OHCs.

  11. STIMULATION OF [3H] ARACHIDONIC ACID RELEASE IN RAT CEREBELLAR GRANULE NEURONS BY POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants in electronic equipment, plastics, textiles, and building materials. While the presence of other persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin...

  12. Influence of trophic ecology on the accumulation of dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Mediterranean gulls (Larus michahellis and L. audouinii): A three-isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Roscales, Jose L; Vicente, Alba; Muñoz-Arnanz, Juan; Morales, Laura; Abad, Esteban; Aguirre, Jose I; Jiménez, Begoña

    2016-05-01

    The impact of pollution caused by severe anthropogenic pressure in the Mediterranean Sea, an important biodiversity hotspot, requires continuous research efforts. Sources of highly toxic chemicals such as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are misunderstood in representative Mediterranean species, which limits our capability to establish proper conservation strategies. In the present study, eggs of Audouin's and yellow-legged gulls (Larus audouinii and L. michahellis) were used to investigate the trophic sources, as measured by δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and δ(34)S, of legacy POPs, in particular, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (no-PCBs), as well as recently-regulated POPs, e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Special attention was paid to the usefulness of rarely-explored δ(34)S ratios in explaining POP exposure in wildlife, and δ(34)S was the isotopic ratio that best explained POP variations among gulls in most cases, thus demonstrating its usefulness for understanding POP exposure in wildlife. Significant relationships between stable isotope signatures and POP concentrations revealed increasing levels of no-PCBs and low halogenated PCDD/Fs and PBDEs in Mediterranean gulls as the consumption of marine resources increases. In contrast, highly chlorinated and brominated congeners appeared to preferentially accumulate in gulls feeding primarily on refuse from dump sites and terrestrial food webs. The use of suitable dietary tracers in the study of POPs in yellow-legged gulls revealed the importance of dump sites as a source of POPs in Mediterranean seabirds, which has not previously been reported. In contrast, the preferential accumulation through marine food webs of low chlorinated PCCD/Fs and no-PCBs, which show the highest toxic equivalents factors (TEFs), led to a significantly greater toxicological concern in Audouin's as compared to yellow-legged gulls. Audouin's gull exposure to POPs appears

  13. Reaction of thallium(III) salts with homoallylic alcohols: ring contraction vs. dimethoxylation.

    PubMed

    Silvia, Luiz F; Craveiro, Marcus V

    2005-11-30

    The oxidation of 2-(3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1-yl)-ethanol (1) with a variety of thallium(III) salts was investigated. An indan, formed by a ring contraction reaction, was obtained in good to moderate yields under a variety of reaction conditions: i) thallium triacetate (TTA) in aqueous AcOH; ii) thallium tris-trifluoroacetate (TTFA) in aqueous TFA; iii) TTFA in CH(2)Cl(2); iv) thallium tripropionate (TTP) in aqueous propionic acid and v) thallium tris-[(S)-(-)-triacetoxypropionate] in aqueous (S)-(-)-2-acetoxypropionic acid. On the other hand, the reaction of compound 1 with TTA in methanol led to a 2:1 mixture of the corresponding cis- and trans-dimethoxylated compounds, respectively. These compounds were formed by a thallium-promoted addition of methanol to the double bond.

  14. Failure to induce mutations in Chinese hamster V79 cells and WB rat liver cells by the polybrominated biphenyls, Firemaster BP-6, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl, 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl, and 3,3',4,4'-tetrabromobiphenyl.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, T J; Rubinstein, C; Liu, P L; Chang, C C; Trosko, J E; Sleight, S D

    1985-06-15

    Firemaster BP-6 (FM), a mixture of polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), and the congeners 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (2,4,5-HBB), 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (3,4,5-HBB), and 3,3',4,4'-tetrabromobiphenyl (3,4-TBB) were tested for their ability to induce mutations in mammalian cells in culture. A rat liver microsome-mediated (S 15) Chinese hamster V79 cell mutation assay was used to test the mutagenicity of PBB and 3,4-TBB. V79 cells and WB rat liver cells were used to detect the mutagenicity of 2,4,5-HBB and 3,4,5-HBB. No mutagenic effects were detected at the dose levels tested. The possibility that these compounds promote liver neoplasms via a nongenotoxic mechanism is discussed.

  15. Comparison of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenylethers, and organochlorine pesticides in Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) from offshore oil platforms and natural reefs along the California coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; Tanner, Michael J.; Love, Milton S.; Nishimoto, Mary M.; Schroeder, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the relative exposure of Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at oil-production platforms was reported, indicating negligible exposure to PAHs and no discernible differences between exposures at platforms and nearby natural areas sites. In this report, the potential for chronic PAH exposure in fish is reported, by measurement of recalcitrant, higher molecular weight PAHs in tissues of fish previously investigated for PAH metabolites in bile. A total of 34 PAHs (20 PAHs, 11 alkylated PAHs, and 3 polycyclic aromatic thiophenes) were targeted. In addition, legacy contaminants—polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs),—and current contaminants, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) linked to endocrine disruption, were measured by gas chromatography with electron-capture or mass spectrometric detection, to form a more complete picture of the contaminant-related status of fishes at oil production platforms in the Southern California Bight. No hydrocarbon profiles or unresolved complex hydrocarbon background were found in fish from platforms and from natural areas, and concentrations of aliphatics were low less than 100 nanograms per gram (ng/g) per component]. Total-PAH concentrations in fish ranged from 15 to 37 ng/g at natural areas and from 8.7 to 22 ng/g at platforms. Profiles of PAHs were similar at all natural and platform sites, consisting mainly of naphthalene and methylnaphthalenes, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Total-PCB concentrations (excluding non-ortho-chloro-substituted congeners) in fish were low, ranging from 7 to 22 ng/g at natural areas and from 10 to 35 ng/g at platforms. About 50 percent of the total-PCBs at all sites consisted of 11 congeners: 153 > 138/163/164 > 110 > 118 > 15 > 99 > 187 > 149 > 180. Most OCPs, except dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-related compounds, were not detectable or were at concentrations of less than 1 ng/g in fish. p

  16. Assessment of the hazards of polybrominated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Di Carlo, F J; Seifter, J; DeCarlo, V J

    1978-01-01

    During their peak use period, PBBs represented under 1% of the total sales of fire retardant chemicals, and very probably would have escaped intensive study if they had not been mixed accidentally with animal feed preparations. Instead, international attention was drawn to PBBs by the state-supervised killing of over 35,000 cattle which had been contaminated with PBBs. Interestingly, low doses of PBBs exert a broad spectrum of toxicological, pharmacological, and biochemical effects despite low acute toxicity. These effects and the intensive bioaccumulation of PBBs derive from their structure and their consequent resistance of biotransformation and high solubility in fat. In rodents, PBBs are teratogenic, immunosuppressive, and potentially carcinogenic. In bovine, rodent, and avian species, PBBs reduce feed intake and induce mixed function oxidases of liver microsomes. The latter effect may be responsible for steroid level changes which underline hormonal toxicities observed in cows, mink, rats, and chickens. The effects of PBBs on humans are controversial, but data suggestive of immunological, skin, and liver disorders continue to accumulate. Concern about the clinical effects of PBBs is heightened by the knowledge that these compounds readily enter the fetus by crossing the placental barrier and can be transferred to newborn children after extensive passage into breast milk. PMID:209999

  17. Assessment of the hazards of polybrominated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Di Carlo, F J; Seifter, J; DeCarlo, V J

    1978-04-01

    During their peak use period, PBBs represented under 1% of the total sales of fire retardant chemicals, and very probably would have escaped intensive study if they had not been mixed accidentally with animal feed preparations. Instead, international attention was drawn to PBBs by the state-supervised killing of over 35,000 cattle which had been contaminated with PBBs. Interestingly, low doses of PBBs exert a broad spectrum of toxicological, pharmacological, and biochemical effects despite low acute toxicity. These effects and the intensive bioaccumulation of PBBs derive from their structure and their consequent resistance of biotransformation and high solubility in fat. In rodents, PBBs are teratogenic, immunosuppressive, and potentially carcinogenic. In bovine, rodent, and avian species, PBBs reduce feed intake and induce mixed function oxidases of liver microsomes. The latter effect may be responsible for steroid level changes which underline hormonal toxicities observed in cows, mink, rats, and chickens. The effects of PBBs on humans are controversial, but data suggestive of immunological, skin, and liver disorders continue to accumulate. Concern about the clinical effects of PBBs is heightened by the knowledge that these compounds readily enter the fetus by crossing the placental barrier and can be transferred to newborn children after extensive passage into breast milk.

  18. Altered cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulation during hyperosmotic stress in adult rats developmentally exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and the structurally similar chemicals polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) disrupt the function of multiple endocrine systems. PCBs and PBDEs disrupt the secretion of vasopressin (VP) from the hypothalamus during osmotic activation. Since the p...

  19. Separation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans, non-ortho/mono/di/tri/tetra-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers groups of compounds prior to their determination with large volume injection gas chromatography-Quadrupole ion storage tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2013-10-17

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are important environmental contaminants. Their maximum legally allowable levels in food and environment are in the low pg g(-1) range. Therefore some highly selective and sensitive analytical methods must be used to determine them. Prior to final determination by GC/MS the cleaned-up samples have to be split into some fractions in view of large differences in concentrations of various analytes and existence of numerous chromatographic co-elutions (which in any case cannot be fully avoided). The aim of this study was to: (i) develop a robust, time-saving analytical method to isolate, clean-up and fractionate PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs prior to their determination with gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry; (ii) assess method performance using laboratory validation data and some certified reference materials; (iii) use the developed method to assess PCB/PBDE/PCDD/F levels in samples of commercially available food. A combination of alumina, florisil, modified silica gel and two carbon columns were used for sample cleanup and fractionation. Separate fractions containing dioxins/furans, PBDE, non-ortho, mono-ortho and di-/tri-/tetra-ortho PCBs were obtained. The method statistical parameters were compatible with 1883/2006 EC Regulation (80-120%, RSD below 15%). The method performance was successfully used to evaluation of some real life food samples.

  20. Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peakall, David B.; Lincer, Jeffrey L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes structure, use, analysis, and toxicological properties of polychlorinated biphenyls. Provides data on occurrence and biological magnification in ecosystems. Significance, and synergistic relationships with DDT summarized. (AL)

  1. Octanol-air partition coefficients of polybrominated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Hongxia, Zhao; Jingwen, Chen; Xie, Quan; Baocheng, Qu; Xinmiao, Liang

    2009-03-01

    The octanol-air partition coefficients (K(OA)) for PBB15, PBB26, PBB31, PBB49, PBB103 and PBB153 were determined as a function of temperature using a gas chromatographic retention time technique with 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (p,p'-DDT) as a reference substance. The internal energies of phase change from octanol to air (Delta(OA)U) were calculated for the six compounds and were in the range from 74 to 116 kJ mol(-1). Simple regression equations of log K(OA) versus relative retention times (RRTs) on gas chromatography (GC), and log K(OA) versus molecular connectivity indexes (MCI) were obtained, for which the correlation coefficients (r(2)) were greater than 0.985 at 283.15K and 298.15K. Thus the K(OA) values of the remaining PBBs can be predicted by using their RRTs and MCI according to these relationships.

  2. Process for removing polychlorinated and polybrominated biphenyls from oils

    DOEpatents

    Orlett, M.J.

    The invention is a relatively simple and inexpensive process for detoxifying oils contaminated with PCBs and/or PBBs. The process is especially suitable for processing lubricating oils containing such contaminants. In one aspect of the invention, the contaminated lubricating oil is contacted with a particulate reagent comprising adsorbent particles carrying a dispersion of metallic sodium. The solid sodium reagent converts the PCB and/or PBB contaminants to environmentally acceptable products and also converts various sodium-reactive additives normally present in lubricating oil to reaction products. The adsorbent reagent retains most of the products and is easily separated from the detoxified oil. The detoxified oil may be fortified with various additives functionally equivalent to those removed during detoxification.

  3. Spectroscopic detection, reactivity, and acid-base behavior of ring-dimethoxylated phenylethanoic acid radical cations and radical zwitterions in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Bietti, Massimo; Capone, Alberto

    2004-01-23

    A product and time-resolved kinetic study of the one-electron oxidation of ring-dimethoxylated phenylethanoic acids has been carried out at different pH values. Oxidation leads to the formation of aromatic radical cations or radical zwitterions depending on pH, and pK(a) values for the corresponding acid-base equilibria have been measured. The radical cations undergo decarboxylation with first-order rate constants (k(dec)) ranging from <10(2) to 5.6 x 10(4) s(-1) depending on radical cation stability. A significant increase in k(dec) (between 10 and 40 times) is observed on going from the radical cations to the corresponding radical zwitterions. The results are discussed in terms of the ease of intramolecular side chain to ring electron transfer required for decarboxylation, in both the radical cations and radical zwitterions.

  4. GROWTH IN GIRLS EXPOSED TO POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS. (R825300)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  5. A reassessment of the nomenclature of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Maervoet, Johan; Covaci, Adrian; Schepens, Paul; Sandau, Courtney D; Letcher, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a widespread class of persistent organic chemicals that accumulate in the environment and humans and are associated with a broad spectrum of health effects. PCB biotransformation has been shown to lead to two classes of PCB metabolites that are present as contaminant residues in the tissues of selected biota: hydroxylated (HO) and methyl sulfone (MeSO2) PCBs. Although these two types of metabolites are related structures, different rules for abbreviation of both classes have emerged. It is important that a standardized nomenclature for the notation of PCB metabolites be universally agreed upon. We suggest that the full chemical name of the PCB metabolite and a shorthand notation should be adopted using the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's chemical name/original Ballschmiter and Zell number of the parent congener, followed by the assignment of the phenyl ring position number of the MeSO2- or HO-substituent. This nomenclature provides a clear, unequivocal set of rules in naming and abbreviating the PCB metabolite structure. Furthermore, this unified PCB metabolite nomenclature approach can be extended to the naming and abbreviation of potential metabolites of structurally analogous contaminants such as HO-polybrominated biphenyls and HO-polybrominated diphenyl ethers. PMID:14998742

  6. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) Action Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used as flame retardants in a number of applications. EPA is concerned that some of the component congeners are persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic.

  7. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Gus T.; Holshouser, Stephen K.; Coleman, Richard M.; Harless, Charles E.; Whinnery, III, Walter N.

    1983-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  8. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOEpatents

    Cook, G.T.; Holshouser, S.K.; Coleman, R.M.; Harless, C.E.; Whinnery, W.N. III

    1982-03-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  9. Determination of brominated flame retardants, with emphasis on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in environmental and human samples--a review.

    PubMed

    Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan; de Boer, Jacob

    2003-09-01

    Analytical methods for the determination of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), with a special emphasis on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are reviewed. A number of procedures, which can be applied to the analysis of PBDEs and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and in some cases for hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), in environmental and human samples are described. Because several BFRs, such as tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), BDE 209 and, to some extent, HBCD, may require a different approach, specific advice on their analysis is given separately when needed. Sample pretreatment, extraction, cleanup and fractionation, injection techniques, chromatographic separation, detection methods, quality control and method validation are discussed. For each topic, an overview is given of the current status of the field and recommendations for an appropriate analytical approach are presented.

  10. Aerobic biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by bacterial isolates

    PubMed Central

    Robrock, Kristin R.; Coelhan, Mehmet; Sedlak, David; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants that have been used in consumer products and furniture for three decades. Currently, very little is known about their fate in the environment and specifically about their susceptibility to aerobic biotransformation. Here, we investigated the ability of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading bacteria Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 to transform mono- through hexa-BDEs at ppb levels. We also tested the PBDE transforming abilities of related strain Rhodococcus sp. RR1 and the ether-degrading Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190. The two PCB-degrading strains transformed all of the mono- through penta-BDEs and strain LB400 transformed one of the hexa-BDEs. The extent of transformation was inversely proportional to the degree of bromination. Strains RR1 and CB1190 were only able to transform the less brominated mono- and di- BDE congeners. RHA1 released stoichiometric quantities of bromide while transforming mono- and tetra-BDE congeners. LB400 instead converted most of a mono-BDE to a hydroxylated mono-BDE. This is the first report of aerobic transformation of tetra-, penta- and hexa-BDEs as well as the first report of stoichiometric release of bromide during PBDE transformation. PMID:19731666

  11. Synthesis, characterization and biologic effects of polybrominated naphthalenes.

    PubMed

    Robertson, L W; Thompson, K; Parkinson, A

    1984-07-01

    Although polybrominated naphthalenes (PBNs) are contaminants of the commercial fire retardant fireMaster BP-6, the individual PBN isomers have not been identified. In order to study PBNs possessing an analogous level of bromination to those found in fireMaster BP-6, three synthetic PBN mixtures, averaging 5.0, 5.3, and 5.6 bromines per naphthalene were synthetized and partially characterized. The PBN mixtures were administered to immature male Wistar rats and found to be potent inducers of cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases. At the lowest dose tested, 30 mumol X kg-1, each PBN mixture caused maximal induction of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase activity. On the basis of enzyme activities, ligand-binding spectra and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the PBN mixtures were determined to be 3-methylcholanthrene-type inducers of cytochrome P-450 (P-448), resembling qualitatively the most toxic polyhalogenated biphenyls, dibenzofurans, and dioxins in this respect. Liver weights were significantly increased and thymus weights diminished by PBN treatment. Light microscopy revealed proliferation of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum in periportal hepatocytes as a consistent change; some rats also had mild fatty changes in centrilobular hepatocytes. Thymuses displayed mild to marked depletion of cortical lymphocytes. The PBN mixtures were much more potent than fireMaster BP-6 in causing these effects; raising the possibility that PBNs are among the minor components of fireMaster BP-6 that contribute significantly to the toxicity of this environmental contaminant.

  12. Aerobic biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Robrock, Kristin R; Coelhan, Mehmet; Sedlak, David L; Alvarez-Cohent, Lisa

    2009-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants that have been used in consumer products and furniture for three decades. Currently, very little is known about their fate in the environment and specifically about their susceptibility to aerobic biotransformation. Here, we investigated the ability of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading bacteria Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 to transform mono- through hexa-BDEs at ppb levels. We also tested the PBDE transforming abilities of the related strain Rhodococcus sp. RR1 and the ether-degrading Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190. The two PCB-degrading strains transformed all of the mono- through penta-BDEs and strain LB400 transformed one of the hexa-BDEs. The extent of transformation was inversely proportional to the degree of bromination. Strains RR1 and CB1190 were only able to transform the less brominated mono- and di-BDE congeners. RHA1 released stoichiometric quantities of bromide while transforming mono- and tetra-BDE congeners. LB400 instead converted most of a mono-BDE to a hydroxylated mono-BDE. This is the first report of aerobic transformation of tetra-, penta,- and hexa-BDEs as well as the first report of stoichiometric release of bromide during PBDE transformation.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCBs ) ; CASRN 1336 - 36 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  14. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN US SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical analysis of thirty-three soil samples from 15 US states reveals Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs), in every sample.PBDE concentrations rangefrom 0.09 to 1200 parts per billion by mass. These data are the first analysis of soil concentrations of PBDEs in soils from a...

  15. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI CATFISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in a wide variety of consumer products. Concerns surrounding these compounds are primarily due do their ubiquitous presence in the environment as well as in human tissue, such as milk, coupled with evidence indi...

  16. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction with saponification (MAES) for the determination of polybrominated flame retardants in aquaculture samples.

    PubMed

    Fajar, N M; Carro, A M; Lorenzo, R A; Fernandez, F; Cela, R

    2008-08-01

    The efficiency of microwave-assisted extraction with saponification (MAES) for the determination of seven polybrominated flame retardants (polybrominated biphenyls, PBBs; and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs) in aquaculture samples is described and compared with microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). Chemometric techniques based on experimental designs and desirability functions were used for simultaneous optimization of the operational parameters used in both MAES and MAE processes. Application of MAES to this group of contaminants in aquaculture samples, which had not been previously applied to this type of analytes, was shown to be superior to MAE in terms of extraction efficiency, extraction time and lipid content extracted from complex matrices (0.7% as against 18.0% for MAE extracts). PBBs and PBDEs were determined by gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection (GC-muECD). The quantification limits for the analytes were 40-750 pg g(-1) (except for BB-15, which was 1.43 ng g(-1)). Precision for MAES-GC-muECD (%RSD < 11%) was significantly better than for MAE-GC-muECD (%RSD < 20%). The accuracy of both optimized methods was satisfactorily demonstrated by analysis of appropriate certified reference material (CRM), WMF-01.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) Toxicology. April 1978-July 1989 (Citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for April 1978-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the toxicology and metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). Included are adverse health effects, especially liver and kidney function, neurological disorders, immune response, ecological impacts on animal species, reproductive consequences, poisoning, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, biological accumulation, and occupational exposure to PCB's. Mechanisms of PCB toxicity are examined for both humans and animals. Metabolism and fate of these compounds is also discussed. The occurrence of PCB's as pollutants, and toxicological studies of polybrominated biphenyl compounds are referenced in related published bibliographies. (Contains 294 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  18. Promoting environmentally sound management of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Asia.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Zhao, Nana; Liu, Xue; Wu, Xiaoyang

    2014-06-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers with persistent organic pollutant properties are required to be controlled by the Stockholm Convention. Recently, polybrominated diphenyl ether contamination has become widespread in Asia, mainly because of the disposal and recycling processes of polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing wastes. The management status, production, usage, import/export, treatment, and disposal, as well as implementation deficiencies for the environmentally sound management of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing materials in ten Asian countries were investigated and assessed in this study. This information could help the participating countries implement the Stockholm Convention and could promote the regional environmentally sound management of polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing articles and products. The results obtained were as follows. (1) Most of the countries studied lacked environmental policies and regulations, or even standards of polybrominated diphenyl ether pollution management and emission control actions. Accurate data on the consumption and importation of polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing materials, however, were not available for all the participating countries. In addition, there were no special treatment or disposal systems for polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing materials, or emission-cutting measures for the treatment of waste in these countries, owing to the lack of sufficient funding or technologies. (2) The improper dismantling of e-waste is a major source of polybrominated diphenyl ether emissions in these countries. (3) Proper e-waste management could result in a breakthrough in the environmentally sound management of this major polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing material flow, and could significantly reduce polybrominated diphenyl ether emissions. Finally, based on the study results, this article puts forward some recommendations for improving the environmentally

  19. Toxic Substances; Biphenyl; Test Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This rule promulgates EPA’s decision to require manufacturers and processors to test biphenyl (CAS No: 92—52—4) for environmental effects and chemical fate under section 4(a) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).

  20. AGE AT MENARCHE IN GIRLS EXPOSED PERINATALLY TO POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYL. (R825300)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  1. Hyperkeratosis induced by sunlight degradation products of the major polybrominated biphenyl in Firemaster

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, D.G.; Hill, R.H.; Needham, L.L.; Orti, D.L.; Kimbrough, R.D.; Liddle, J.A.

    1981-08-21

    Sunlight photodegradation of 2,2', 4,4', 5,5' -hexabromobiphenyl, the major component of Firemaster, gave a mixture that produces severe hyperkeratosis of the rabbit ear. This component in its pure state does not cause hyperkeratosis. One or more of the four major photolysis products must be responsible for this activity. A similar photodegradation pattern was observed for 2,2', 3,4,4', 5,5' -heptabromobiphenyl, the second largest component of Firemaster.

  2. Hyperkeratosis induced by sunlight degradation products of the major polybrominated biphenyl in Firemaster.

    PubMed

    Patterson, D G; Hill, R H; Needham, L L; Orti, D L; Kimbrough, R D; Liddle, J A

    1981-08-21

    Sunlight photodegradation of 2,2', 4,4', 5,5' -hexabromobiphenyl, the major component of Firemaster, gave a mixture that produces severe hyperkeratosis of the rabbit ear. This component in its pure state does not cause hyperkeratosis. One or more of the four major photolysis products must be responsible for this activity. A similar photodegradation pattern was observed for 2,2', 3,4,4', 5,5' -heptabromobiphenyl, the second largest component of Firemaster.

  3. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in U.S. mothers' milk.

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, Arnold; Pavuk, Marian; Päpke, Olaf; Ryan, John Jake; Birnbaum, Linda; Rosen, Robin

    2003-01-01

    No previous reports exist on polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in human milk from individual U.S. mothers. This article on PBDEs is an extension of our previous studies on concentrations of dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, and other chlorinated organic compounds in human milk in a number of countries. PBDE commercial products are used as flame retardants in flexible polyurethane foam (penta-BDE), in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resins (octa-BDE), and in high-impact polystyrene resins (deca-BDE). Their use is permitted in the United States but is banned in some European countries because of presumed toxicity, demonstrated persistence, and bioaccumulation. Different commercial products can be found in various consumer products such as television sets, computers, computer monitors and printers, carpets, and upholstery. Analyses of human levels of these compounds suggest low but rising levels in European human milk, which may have peaked, at least in Sweden, in the late 1990s. Very few data exist on levels of PBDEs in humans in the United States, and none from milk from individual nursing mothers. To address this issue, we analyzed 47 individual milk samples from nursing mothers, 20-41 years of age, from a milk bank in Austin, Texas, and a community women's health clinic in Dallas, Texas. Up to 13 PBDE congeners were measured. The concentrations of the sum of PBDE congeners varied from 6.2 to 419 ng/g (or parts per billion) lipid, with a median of 34 ng/g and a mean of 73.9 ng/g lipid. The PBDE levels in breast milk from Texas were similar to levels found in U.S. blood and adipose tissue lipid from California and Indiana and are 10-100 times greater than human tissue levels in Europe. Their detection in breast milk raises concern for potential toxicity to nursing infants, given the persistence and bioaccumulative nature of some of the PBDE congeners. These results indicate a need for more detailed investigation of the levels of PBDE in

  4. Bioconcentration and biomagnification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through lower-trophic-level coastal marine food web.

    PubMed

    Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Takada, Hideshige; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Ikemoto, Tokutaka; Omori, Koji; Tsuchiya, Kotaro

    2009-08-01

    Bivalves, crabs, fishes, seawater, and sediment collected from the inner part of Tokyo Bay, Japan, were measured for 20 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and 5 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. To determine the trophic levels of the organisms, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) were also measured. Bioconcentration factors of PBDE and PCB congeners increased as the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)) rose to log K(ow)=7, above which they decreased again. Biomagnification of PCBs and several PBDE congeners (BDE47, 99, 100, 153 and 154) up the trophic ladder was confirmed by a positive correlation between their concentrations and delta(15)N. Other PBDE congeners showed a negative or no correlation, suggesting their biotransformation through metabolism. The more hydrophobic congeners of both PBDEs (Br=2-6) and PCBs (Cl=6-9) were biomagnified more. It thus appears that PBDEs are less biomagnified than PCBs.

  5. Laboratory and human studies on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Kimbrough, R D

    1985-01-01

    Similar qualitative toxic effects have been observed in animals for a class of halogenated aromatic compounds, which include the halogenated biphenyls, naphthalenes, dibenzodioxins, and dibenzofurans. All of these compounds are lipid soluble and persist in the environment and in mammals. The polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are the most persistent. They are predominantly stored in fatty tissue; they pass the placenta and are excreted in milk. Some isomers of the halogenated biphenyls are more toxic than others. With some exceptions, the more toxic isomers are retained longer in tissues and are also the carcinogenic components of the mixture. Most of these chemicals seem to be promoters of carcinogenesis in animals rather than initiators. An array of toxic effects in laboratory animals has been ascribed to these compounds and numerous reviews summarizing this information are available. Less information is available on the human health effects of environmental and occupational exposure. Results of recent studies in animals to further elucidate the effects of these chemicals are presented, and results from some human studies conducted in the United States are reviewed. PMID:3921372

  6. Chemical Detoxification of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The present invention relates to the chemical detoxification of polychlorinated biphenyls by converting them to non-hazardous substances. In...particular, the invention relates to chemically destroying polychlorinated biphenyls on site for decontamination purposes without creating pollution or...hazardous situations. The invention provides a two-step process where polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), i.e. biphenyl having 2 to 10 chlorine atoms, are

  7. Carcinogenic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Faroon, O M; Keith, S; Jones, D; De Rosa, C

    2001-03-01

    As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals found at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) sites that have the greatest public health impact. These profiles comprehensively summarize toxicological and environmental information. This article constitutes the release of an important section of the Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls [ATSDR. 2000: Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.] into the scientific literature. This article focuses on the carcinogenic effects of this group of synthetic organic chemicals (polychlorinated biphenyls) in humans and animals. Information on other health effects, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, biomarkers, interactions, chemical and physical properties, potential for human exposure, and regulations and advisories is detailed in the profile.

  8. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HOUSE DUST AND CLOTHES DRYER LINT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants are now considered ubiquitous and persistent pollutants. Few studies have examined the concentrations of these chemicals in the home and here we report measurements of PBDEs in house dust samples collected from the Washington...

  9. Microwave-assisted extraction followed by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (MAE-HSSPME-GC-MS/MS) for determination of polybrominated compounds in aquaculture samples.

    PubMed

    Carro, A M; Lorenzo, R A; Fernández, F; Phan-Tan-Luu, R; Cela, R

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes the first validated method for the extraction, purification and determination of trace levels of a number of pollutants of growing concern, including polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in aquaculture feeds and products. The new procedure comprises microwave-assisted extraction (MAE; optimized, using a central composite experimental design, to 15 min at 85 degrees C in 14 mL of 1:1 hexane/dichloromethane), and concentration by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HSSPME), and separation/quantification by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS/MS). The method was validated on the reference materials IAEA-406 and WMF-01. Limits of detection for fourteen of the fifteen analytes considered range from 10 to 600 pg g(-1), and limits of quantification from 50 pg g(-1) to 1.9 ng g(-1). Linear ranges, accuracies and precisions are reported.

  10. Current shot noise characteristics in biphenyl diamine and biphenyl dithiol devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kalsoom, Ambreen; Song, Siyu; Li, Guiqin

    2014-09-01

    Current shot noise characteristics, away from their average current, in biphenyl diamine and biphenyl dithiol devices are investigated. The relations among the shot noise and the applied bias, the coupling factors, as well as the alligator clips are revealed. The regular change of the shot noise in biphenyl diamine device and irregular change of the shot noise in biphenyl dithiol device are shown as the coupling strength change from full coupling to weak coupling. It is found that the shot noise suppression in biphenyl diamine device is enhanced at the higher bias. The large differences of the shot noise suppression in the biphenyl dithiol device are revealed.

  11. Anaerobic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls ethers (PBDEs), and microbial community dynamics of electronic waste-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Song, Mengke; Luo, Chunling; Li, Fangbai; Jiang, Longfei; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Dayi; Zhang, Gan

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination caused by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is attracting increasing attention worldwide because of the threats posed to ecosystems and human safety. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of e-waste-contaminated soils. We found that, in the presence of lactate as an electron donor, higher halogenated congeners were converted to lower congeners via anaerobic halorespiration using ferrous ions in contaminated soil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of terminal restriction fragments indicated that the three dominant strains were closely related to known dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and those able to perform dehalogenation upon respiration. The functional species performed the activities of ferrous oxidation to ferric ions and further ferrous reduction for dehalogenation. The present study links iron cycling to degradation of halogenated materials in natural e-waste-contaminated soil, and highlights the synergistic roles of soil bacteria and ferrous/ferric ion cycling in the dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs).

  12. High liver content of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) in otters (Lutra lutra) from England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Pountney, Angela; Filby, Amy L; Thomas, Gareth O; Simpson, Vic R; Chadwick, Elizabeth A; Stevens, Jamie R; Tyler, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), used as flame retardants since the 1970s, are being phased out of use, but are persistent and widespread in the environment. Historical declines in Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) populations have been associated with exposure to dieldrin and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but links with other persistent organic pollutants have not been explored. In this study, liver samples from 129 otters, collected across England and Wales from 1995-2006, were analysed for PBDEs, together with PCBs, DDT breakdown products, and hexachlorobenzene. Associations with geographical location and life history parameters were explored. Concentrations of PBDEs in otters (∑BDE 12-70000ngg(-1) lipid) paralleled those measured in marine mammals, with PBDE-47 the dominant congener and high levels of PBDE-99 and -100. Otter livers contained high concentrations of PBDE-153 and -209, typical of terrestrial top predators. Inter-individual variation in PBDE concentrations was high and correlated with geographical location. ∑PBDE was 25% of ∑PCB, and comparable with ∑DDT, identifying PBDEs as a major contaminant in otter populations in England and Wales.

  13. Biomagnification and debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a coastal ecosystem in Tokyo Bay.

    PubMed

    Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Yamada, Toshiko; Matsuo, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Tsuchiya, Kotaro; Takada, Hideshige

    2013-04-01

    By field sampling and laboratory experiments we compared the mechanisms by which polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are biomagnified. We measured PBDEs and PCBs, together with stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes as an index of trophic level, in low-trophic-level organisms collected from a coastal area in Tokyo Bay. PBDEs were biomagnified to a lesser degree than PCBs. The more hydrophobic congeners of each were biomagnified more. However, the depletion of BDE congeners BDE99 and BDE153 from fish was suggested. To study congener-specific biotransformation of halogenated compounds, we conducted an in vitro experiment using hepatic microsomes of two species of fish and five BDE congeners (BDE47, 99, 100, 153, and 154) and five CB congeners with the same substitution positions as the PBDEs. BDE99 and 153 were partially debrominated, but BDE47 and 154 were not debrominated. This congener-specific debromination is consistent with the field results. Both in vitro and field results suggested selective debromination at the meta position. The CB congeners were not transformed in vitro. This result is also consistent with the field results, that PCBs were more biomagnified than PBDEs. We conclude that metabolizability is an important factor in the biomagnification of chemicals, but other factors must be responsible for the lower biomagnification of PBDEs in natural ecosystems.

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, toxaphenes, and other halogenated organic pollutants in great blue heron eggs.

    PubMed

    Champoux, Louise; Moisey, John; Muir, Derek C G

    2010-02-01

    The great blue heron (Ardea herodias) has been used as a bioindicator of the state of the St. Lawrence River (Québec, Canada) since 1996. At 5-year intervals, selected breeding colonies along the River and its estuary are visited to estimate reproductive success and determine levels of contamination. Brominated flame retardants are found in many ecosystems and are increasing in concentration in the Great Lakes, which is the source of much of the water for the St. Lawrence River. In 2001 and 2002, in addition to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides, the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated bornanes (toxaphene) congeners and non-ortho-substituted PCBs were measured for the first time in pools of great blue heron eggs. The PBDE levels in great blue heron eggs (70-1,377 ng/g wet wt) were comparable to those measured in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from the Great Lakes. Toxaphene was detected in great blue heron eggs at levels comparable to those of other major chlorinated pesticides. Major toxaphene congeners were octachlorobornane P44 and the nonachlorobornane P50. Environ.

  15. High levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in vacuum cleaner dust from California fire stations.

    PubMed

    Shen, Beverly; Whitehead, Todd P; McNeel, Sandra; Brown, F Reber; Dhaliwal, Joginder; Das, Rupali; Israel, Leslie; Park, June-Soo; Petreas, Myrto

    2015-04-21

    Firefighters are exposed to chemicals during fire events and may also experience chemical exposure in their fire stations. Dust samples from used vacuum cleaner bags were collected from 20 fire stations in California and analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Median dust concentrations were higher for PBDEs (e.g., 47 000 ng/g for BDE-209) than for PAHs (e.g., 220 ng/g for benzo[a]pyrene) or PCBs (e.g., 9.3 ng/g for PCB-180). BDE-209 concentrations in dust from California fire stations were among the highest of any previously documented homes or occupational settings in the world. We examined factors such as the frequency of emergency responses, the number of fire vehicles on site, and building age, but we could not account for the high levels of BDE-209 observed in fire station dust. Based on the findings of our pilot study, we hypothesize that possible sources of BDE-209 in fire stations include contaminated ash tracked back from fire events via boots, clothing, and other equipment as well as specialized equipment treated with BDE-209, including turnout gear and fire vehicles. We suggest possible follow-up studies to confirm these hypotheses.

  16. Bioaccumulation kinetics of brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafsson, K.; Bjoerk, M.; Burreau, S.; Gilek, M. )

    1999-06-01

    Baltic Sea blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, IUPAC congeners 47, 99, and 153) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners 31, 52, 77, 118, and 153) in a flow-through experimental setup for 44 d. After the exposure phase, the mussels were allowed to depurate in natural brackish water for 26 d. After analyses, uptake clearance rate coefficients (k[sub u]), depuration rate coefficients (k[sub d]), and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) were calculated. A rapid uptake of all PBDEs and PCBs was observed, especially for PBDE congeners 47 and 99. The depuration rate decreased with increasing hydrophobicity as expected for the PCBs, but for the PBDEs, depuration rate coefficients appeared to be of the same magnitude for all three congeners independently of log K[sub OW]. The BAFs obtained for PBDE 47 and PBDE 99 were higher than for all other substances in the study, severalfold higher than for PCBs of similar hydrophobicity. The presented data indicate that the bioaccumulation potential of PBDEs, extensively used as flame retardants, is similar or higher than that of PCBs for filter feeding organisms such as blue mussels.

  17. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in California wastestreams.

    PubMed

    Petreas, Myrto; Oros, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used in consumer products, including electronics, fabrics, and polyurethane foam. Exposures may occur during the products' useful lifetime and also after the products' disposal. A survey of California wastestreams (e-wastes, autoshredder waste and wastewater sewage sludge) attempted to assess the relative importance of these wastestreams as repositories of PBDEs. Based on measurements of PBDEs in samples of such wastestreams and on assumptions regarding use patterns, e-wastes appeared to be by far the predominant wastestream with 1200 metric tons (MT) of PBDEs year(-1), followed by autoshredder waste (31 MT of PBDEs year(-1)) and sewage sludge (2.3 MT of PBDEs year(-1)). When these estimates were compared with the reported use of PBDEs in California, about half of the PBDEs could not be accounted for in the wastestreams examined. This suggests that additional wastestreams, such as household wastes should be evaluated for their PBDE content. Information on the presence and fate of PBDEs in all wastestreams needs to be included in decision making practices for waste management to avoid public health and ecologic catastrophes.

  18. Environment Partitioning and Reactivity of Polybrominated Diphenylethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Inez; Iraci, Laura T.; Jafvert, Chad; Bezares-Cruz, Juan

    2004-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are an important class of flame retardants. Annual global demand for these compounds was over 67,000 metric tons in 2001. PBDEs have recently been extensively investigated as environmental contaminants because they have been detected in air, sediment, and tissue samples from urban and remote areas. Important issues include quantifying PBDE partitioning in various environmental compartments, and elucidating transformation pathways. The partitioning of PBDE congeners to aerosols was estimated for 16 sites in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. The aerosol particles were PM2.5, the total suspended particle (TSP) concentration varied between 3.0 - 55.4 micro g/cubic meter, and the organic fraction ranged from 11 - 41%; these data are published values for each site. It is estimated that the largest fraction of each PBDE associated with the aerosol particles occurs in Mexico City, and the smallest fraction in Colorado Plateau. Although the organic fraction in Mexico City is about 60% of that observed in the Colorado Plateau, the TSP is larger by a factor of about 18.5, and it is the difference in TSP that strongly influences the fraction of particle-bound PBDE in this case. PBDE partitioning to PM2.5 particles also varies seasonally because of temperature variations. For the less brominated congeners the percentage that is particle-bound is relatively low, regardless of air temperature. In contrast, the heavier congeners exhibit a significant temperature dependence: as the temperature decreases (fall, winter) the percentage of PBDE that is particle-bound increases. The partitioning calculations complement experimental data indicating that decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDE) dissolved in hexane transforms very rapidly when irradiated with solar light. DBDE is the most highly brominated PBDE congener (10 bromine atoms) and occurs in the commercial formulation which is subject to the largest global demand.

  19. Dioxygenation of the Biphenyl Dioxygenation Product

    PubMed Central

    Overwin, Heike; González, Myriam; Méndez, Valentina; Seeger, Michael; Wray, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Two biphenyl dioxygenases (BphAs) were shown to catalyze dioxygenation of biphenyldienediol in the nonoxidized ring to form the respective symmetrical biphenyl-bis-dienediol. This novel metabolite served as a growth substrate for both BphA source strains. Its catabolism through the upper bph pathway of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 was analyzed. PMID:22504819

  20. Inhibition of human placental aromatase activity by hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs)

    SciTech Connect

    Canton, Rocio F. Scholten, Deborah E.A.; Marsh, Goeran; Jong, Paul C. de; Berg, Martin van den

    2008-02-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants in many different polymers, resins and substrates. Due to their widespread production and use, their high binding affinity to particles, and their lipophilic properties, several PBDE congeners can bioaccumulate in the environment. As a result, PBDEs and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PBDEs) have been detected in humans and various wildlife samples, such as birds, seals, and whales. Furthermore, certain OH-PBDEs and their methoxylated derivatives (MeO-PBDEs) are natural products in the marine environment. Recently, our laboratory focused on the possible effects on steroidogenesis of PBDEs and OH-PBDEs, e.g. in the human adrenocortical carcinoma (H295R) cell line indicating that some OH-PBDEs can significantly influence steroidogenic enzymes like CYP19 (aromatase) and CYP17. In the present study, human placental microsomes have been used to study the possible interaction of twenty two OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs with aromatase, the enzyme that mediates the conversion of androgens into estrogens. All OH-PBDE derivates showed significant inhibition of placental aromatase activity with IC{sub 50} values in the low micromolar range, while the MeO-PBDEs did not have any effect on this enzyme activity. Enzyme kinetics studies indicated that two OH-PBDEs, 5-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (5-OH-BDE47) and 6-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE47), had a mixed-type inhibition of aromatase activity with apparent K{sub i}/K{sub i}' of 7.68/0,02 {mu}M and 5.01/0.04 {mu}M respectively. For comparison, some structurally related compounds, a dihydroxylated polybrominated biphenyl, which is a natural product (2,2'-dihyroxy-3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobiphenyl (2,2'-diOH-BB80)) and its non-bromo derivative were also included in the study. Again inhibition of aromatase activity could be measured, but their potency was significantly less than those observed for the OH-PBDEs. These results show

  1. Inhibition of human placental aromatase activity by hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs).

    PubMed

    Cantón, Rocío F; Scholten, Deborah E A; Marsh, Göran; de Jong, Paul C; van den Berg, Martin

    2008-02-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants in many different polymers, resins and substrates. Due to their widespread production and use, their high binding affinity to particles, and their lipophilic properties, several PBDE congeners can bioaccumulate in the environment. As a result, PBDEs and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PBDEs) have been detected in humans and various wildlife samples, such as birds, seals, and whales. Furthermore, certain OH-PBDEs and their methoxylated derivatives (MeO-PBDEs) are natural products in the marine environment. Recently, our laboratory focused on the possible effects on steroidogenesis of PBDEs and OH-PBDEs, e.g. in the human adrenocortical carcinoma (H295R) cell line indicating that some OH-PBDEs can significantly influence steroidogenic enzymes like CYP19 (aromatase) and CYP17. In the present study, human placental microsomes have been used to study the possible interaction of twenty two OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs with aromatase, the enzyme that mediates the conversion of androgens into estrogens. All OH-PBDE derivates showed significant inhibition of placental aromatase activity with IC(50) values in the low micromolar range, while the MeO-PBDEs did not have any effect on this enzyme activity. Enzyme kinetics studies indicated that two OH-PBDEs, 5-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (5-OH-BDE47) and 6-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE47), had a mixed-type inhibition of aromatase activity with apparent K(i)/K(i)' of 7.68/0,02 microM and 5.01/0.04 microM respectively. For comparison, some structurally related compounds, a dihydroxylated polybrominated biphenyl, which is a natural product (2,2'-dihyroxy-3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobiphenyl (2,2'-diOH-BB80)) and its non-bromo derivative were also included in the study. Again inhibition of aromatase activity could be measured, but their potency was significantly less than those observed for the OH-PBDEs. These results show that a

  2. Contamination by polybrominated diphenyl ethers and persistent organochlorines in catfish and feed from Mekong River Delta, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Minh, Nguyen Hung; Minh, Tu Binh; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Iwata, Hisato; Viet, Pham Hung; Tu, Nguyen Phuc Cam; Tuyen, But Cach; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-10-01

    Commercial feeds for aquaculture and catfish samples were collected from the Mekong River Delta, Vietnam, for determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and selected persistent organochlorines, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane-related compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The most abundant contaminants were DDTs, with concentrations ranging from 10 to 700 ng/g lipid weight, followed by PCBs (1.0-80 ng/g), CHLs (<0.01-8.2 ng/g), PBDEs (0.12-3.7 ng/g), HCHs (<0.03-5.1 ng/g), and HCB (<0.07-3.2 ng/g). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers were detected in all samples, suggesting their widespread contamination in the region. However, PBDE contamination levels in the present catfish specimens were low in comparison to levels worldwide. Interestingly, residue levels of all the contaminants were significantly higher in catfish collected near a municipal dumping site compared to farmed catfish. This suggests that runoffs from the dumping site during floods and rains may have brought pollutants to the surrounding areas. Contamination pattern in aquaculture feeds revealed elevated levels of PCBs and PBDEs in samples from foreign companies, perhaps implying their higher residues in some imported ingredients. Congener profiles of PBDEs and PCBs demonstrated similarity between the farmed catfish and the aquaculture feeds, suggesting these feeds as a major source of pollution to the farmed catfish. On the other hand, the PBDE and PCB profiles in the dumpsite catfish are clearly different from those of the farmed catfish, revealing their exposure to different sources. Risk assessment showed significantly higher intake of the contaminants by people who eat catfish cultured near the dumping areas. Further investigation regarding fate and occurrence of the contaminants in dumping sites is necessary.

  3. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Dryer Lint: An Advanced Analysis Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robert Q.

    2008-01-01

    An advanced analytical chemistry laboratory experiment is described that involves environmental analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Students analyze lint from clothes dryers for traces of flame retardant chemicals, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), compounds receiving much attention recently. In a typical experiment, ng/g…

  4. 40 CFR 721.10000 - Certain polybrominated diphenylethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... combination of these substances resulting from a chemical reaction are subject to reporting under this section...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10000 Certain polybrominated diphenylethers. (a) Chemical substances...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10000 - Certain polybrominated diphenylethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... combination of these substances resulting from a chemical reaction are subject to reporting under this section...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10000 Certain polybrominated diphenylethers. (a) Chemical substances...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10000 - Certain polybrominated diphenylethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... combination of these substances resulting from a chemical reaction are subject to reporting under this section...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10000 Certain polybrominated diphenylethers. (a) Chemical substances...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10000 - Certain polybrominated diphenylethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... combination of these substances resulting from a chemical reaction are subject to reporting under this section...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10000 Certain polybrominated diphenylethers. (a) Chemical substances...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10000 - Certain polybrominated diphenylethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... combination of these substances resulting from a chemical reaction are subject to reporting under this section...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10000 Certain polybrominated diphenylethers. (a) Chemical substances...

  9. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS (PBDES) IN AMERICAN MOTHERS' MILK

    EPA Science Inventory

    No previous reports exist on polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in individual American mothers' milk. This report on PBDEs is an extension of our previous studies on concentrations of dioxins, dibenzofurans, PCBs, and other chlorinated organics in human milk in a num...

  10. An Exposure Assessment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (Pbde) (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, An Exposure Assessment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers. This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the exposure of Americans to this class of persistent organic pollutants. Individual chapters in this document ...

  11. Bacterial metabolism of hydroxylated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Higson, F K; Focht, D D

    1989-01-01

    Isolates able to grow on 3- or 4-hydroxybiphenyl (HB) as the sole carbon source were obtained by enrichment culture. The 3-HB degrader Pseudomonas sp. strain FH12 used an NADPH-dependent monooxygenase restricted to 3- and 3,3'-HBs to introduce an ortho-hydroxyl. The 4-HB degrader Pseudomonas sp. strain FH23 used either a mono- or dioxygenase to generate a 2,3-diphenolic substitution pattern which allowed meta-fission of the aromatic ring. By using 3-chlorocatechol to inhibit catechol dioxygenase activity, it was found that 2- and 3-HBs were converted by FH23 to 2,3-HB, whereas biphenyl and 4-HB were attacked by dioxygenation. 4-HB was metabolized to 2,3,4'-trihydroxybiphenyl. Neither organism attacked chlorinated HBs. The degradation of 3- and 4-HBs by these strains is therefore analogous to the metabolism of biphenyl, 2-HB, and naphthalene in the requirement for 2,3-catechol formation. PMID:2729993

  12. Biomagnification of naturally-produced methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) in harbour seals and harbour porpoises from the southern North Sea.

    PubMed

    Weijs, Liesbeth; Losada, Sara; Das, Krishna; Roosens, Laurence; Reijnders, Peter J H; Santos, Javier F; Neels, Hugo; Blust, Ronny; Covaci, Adrian

    2009-08-01

    Harbour seals and harbour porpoises are top predator species from the North Sea, have long life spans and hence, are known to accumulate high levels of anthropogenic contaminants. To gain knowledge about the behaviour of naturally-produced compounds in these marine mammals, the biomagnification of naturally-produced methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) was assessed. The biomagnification of MeO-PBDEs (2'-MeO-BDE 68 and 6-MeO-BDE 47) was lower in harbour seals (all biomagnification factors (BMFs)<1) compared to the same age-gender groups of the harbour porpoises (all BMFs>1). This may indicate a better metabolic breakdown of MeO-PBDEs in harbour seals, as was previously suggested for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). In both predators, 6-MeO-BDE 47 had the highest concentrations (range: 45-483 ng/g lw and 2-38 ng/g lw for harbour porpoises and seals, respectively) compared to 2'-MeO-BDE 68 (range: 2-28 ng/g lw and 1-6 ng/g lw for harbour porpoises and seals, respectively). In general, the highest concentrations were found in juveniles, suggesting an increased biotransformation capacity with age or the influence of dilution by growth for both species. Here we show that naturally-produced brominated organic compounds can biomagnify and accumulate in North Sea top predators, although to a lesser extent than anthropogenic lipophilic contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or PBDEs.

  13. Use of fluorinated polybrominated diphenyl ethers and simplified cleanup for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in house dust

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple, cost-effective method is described for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in house dust using pressurized fluid extraction, cleanup with modified silica solid phase extraction tubes, and fluorinated internal standards. There are 14 PBDE congeners inc...

  14. Sublethal responses of avian embryos exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; McKernan, M.A.; Ottinger, M.

    2007-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers PBDEs) have been detected in bird eggs worldwide, and despite increasing concentrations over the past 25 years, toxicological thresholds have yet to be established. We previously reported embryonic survival, and pipping and hatching success in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and American kestrel (Falco sparverius) embryos receiving 0.01-20 :g PBDE/g egg. Survival, pipping and hatching success were decreased in kestrels, suggesting that they are more sensitive to PBDEs than chickens and mallards. Adverse effects were detected in kestrels at levels (> 1 :g/g egg) believed to approach environmentally relevant PBDE concentrations. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener 126 (PCB 126) was used as a positive control (1000 pg/g egg) in this study, and survival endpoints in chicken and kestrel were decreased at this dose. Some PBDE and PCB congeners are structurally similar to thyroid hormones and have been demonstrated to affect thyroid homeostasis in laboratory rodents. In the present study, thyroid glands collected from day old hatchling chickens, mallards, and kestrels and were analyzed for thryoxine (T4) using a solid phase radioimmunoassay (DPC, Inc.) specifically validated for each of these species. Results indicated that thyroid gland T4 stores (total gland content and T4 /mg thyroid) in these species were relatively consistent and not significantly affected by PBDE exposure. In contrast, glandular T4 stores were significantly lower (P < 0.01) in PCB 126 treated kestrels. Decreases in circulating T4 levels in response to contaminants (e.g., PCBs, ammonium perchlorate) may lead to greater release of glandular T4 to maintain a euthyroid state, which could decrease thyroidal T4 stores. While PBDEs have been suggested to influence circulating T4 in kestrel fledglings (Fernie et al., 2005), it appears that glandular T4 was not affected in chicken, mallard or kestrel hatchlings exposed in ovo. Histopathological changes in

  15. Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in 10 Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Forde, Martin S; Dewailly, Eric; Robertson, Lyndon; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Dumas, Pierre; Ayotte, Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Prenatal exposures to legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like compounds (DLC), as well as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), were analyzed in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries. A total of 438 samples were collected and descriptive statistics calculated and compared to comparable Canadian Health Measure Survey (CHMS) and U.S. National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets. Maternal POPs blood concentrations were found to be generally relatively low in the Caribbean samples compared with the U.S. and Canada datasets. Evidence of exposure to DLC and PBDE was established. DLC levels ranged from a geometric mean low of 3.96 pg/g lipids in Antigua and Barbuda to a high of 11.4 pg/g lipids in St. Lucia. Several of the PBDEs (15, 17, 25, 28, 33, 100) were detected in less than 60% of the country' samples. For PBDE-47, significantly higher levels were found in Bermuda, while Jamaica recorded a significantly low level. The overall calculated concentration of PBDE-47 for the Caribbean (5.33 μg/kg lipids) was significantly lower than the concentrations measured for the U.S. (10.83 μg/kg lipids) and Canada (23.90 μg/kg lipids). This study confirms that prenatal expose to multiple environmental chemicals is taking place in the Caribbean and highlights the need to implement surveillance programs that continuously monitor, intervene, and evaluate the levels of these toxic environmental contaminants to ensure that they are reduced as much as possible and that the health risk to humans, in particular the unborn child, are minimized.

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls in honey bees

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, R.A.; Culliney, T.W.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) may traverse a radius of several miles from their hives and contact innumerable surfaces during their collection of nectar, pollen, propolis and water. In the process, they may become contaminated with surface constituents which are indicative of the type of environmental pollution in their particular foraging area. Honey has also been analyzed as a possible indicator of heavy metal pollution. Insecticides used in the vicinity of bee hives have been found in bees and honey. It has been recently reported that appreciable concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found in honey bees sampled throughout Connecticut. In the work reported here, an analytical survey was conducted on PCBs in honey bees, honey, propolis and related samples in several states to learn the extent of contamination and possible sources.

  17. Has the Bacterial Biphenyl Catabolic Pathway Evolved Primarily To Degrade Biphenyl? The Diphenylmethane Case

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Thi Thanh My

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we have compared the ability of Pandoraea pnomenusa B356 and of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 to metabolize diphenylmethane and benzophenone, two biphenyl analogs in which the phenyl rings are bonded to a single carbon. Both chemicals are of environmental concern. P. pnomenusa B356 grew well on diphenylmethane. On the basis of growth kinetics analyses, diphenylmethane and biphenyl were shown to induce the same catabolic pathway. The profile of metabolites produced during growth of strain B356 on diphenylmethane was the same as the one produced by isolated enzymes of the biphenyl catabolic pathway acting individually or in coupled reactions. The biphenyl dioxygenase oxidizes diphenylmethane to 3-benzylcyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-diol very efficiently, and ultimately this metabolite is transformed to phenylacetic acid, which is further metabolized by a lower pathway. Strain B356 was also able to cometabolize benzophenone through its biphenyl pathway, although in this case, this substrate was unable to induce the biphenyl catabolic pathway and the degradation was incomplete, with accumulation of 2-hydroxy-6,7-dioxo-7-phenylheptanoic acid. Unlike strain B356, B. xenovorans LB400 did not grow on diphenylmethane. Its biphenyl pathway enzymes metabolized diphenylmethane, but they poorly metabolize benzophenone. The fact that the biphenyl catabolic pathway of strain B356 metabolized diphenylmethane and benzophenone more efficiently than that of strain LB400 brings us to postulate that in strain B356, this pathway evolved divergently to serve other functions not related to biphenyl degradation. PMID:23749969

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated biphenyl ethers in adipose tissue and matched serum from an E-waste recycling area (Wenling, China).

    PubMed

    Lv, Quan-Xia; Wang, Wenyue; Li, Xing-Hong; Yu, Lianlian; Zhang, Yun; Tian, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    To Date, the knowledge on relationship between PCBs/PBDEs exposure and thyroid hormones (THs) levels during pregnancy still needs to be extended. Meanwhile, studies on congener-specific adipose-serum ratios for PCBs/PBDEs were limited. This study reports the levels of PCBs/PBDEs in serum-adipose tissue samples (n = 64) from expectant women living surrounding e-waste recycling sites in Wenling, China. Their concentrations varied from several to hundreds of ng g(-1) lipid. Maternal exposure to PCBs was associated with lower TSH during pregnancy, suggesting possible implication for maternal health and fetal development. The compound levels between the adipose tissue and matched serum samples were highly correlated (p < 0.001), generating a predicted adipose-serum partitioning relationship for individual PCB congener and PBDE congener. Molecular characteristics, such as Kow value, molecular weight and molecular volume, may play a key role in the variable partitioning of some compounds between serum and adipose tissue.

  19. Enzymatic synthesis of polybrominated dioxins from the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Vinayak; Moore, Bradley S

    2014-09-19

    Polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins are arguably among the most toxic molecules known to man. In addition to anthropogenic sources, marine invertebrates also harbor polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins of as yet unknown biogenic origin. Here, we report that the bmp gene locus in marine bacteria, a recently characterized source of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, can also synthesize dibenzo-p-dioxins by employing different phenolic initiator molecules. Our findings also diversify the structural classes of diphenyl ethers accessed by the bmp biosynthetic pathway. This report lays the biochemical foundation of a likely biogenetic origin of dibenzo-p-dioxins present in the marine metabolome and greatly expands the toxicity potential of marine derived polyhaloganated natural products.

  20. Biosynthesis of polybrominated aromatic organic compounds by marine bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Vinayak; El Gamal, Abrahim A.; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Poth, Dennis; Kersten, Roland D.; Schorn, Michelle; Allen, Eric E.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated bipyrroles are natural products that bioaccumulate in the marine food chain. PBDEs have attracted widespread attention due to their persistence in the environment and potential toxicity to humans. However, the natural origins of PBDE biosynthesis are not known. Here we report marine bacteria as producers of PBDEs and establish a genetic and molecular foundation for their production that unifies paradigms for the elaboration of bromophenols and bromopyrroles abundant in marine biota. We provide biochemical evidence of marine brominase enzymes revealing decarboxylative-halogenation enzymology previously unknown among halogenating enzymes. Biosynthetic motifs discovered in our study were used to mine sequence databases to discover unrealized marine bacterial producers of organobromine compounds. PMID:24974229

  1. Exposure to the polybrominated diphenyl ether mixture DE-71 damages the nigrostriatal dopamine system: role of dopamine handling in neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bradner, Joshua M; Suragh, Tiffany A; Wilson, W Wyatt; Lazo, Carlos R; Stout, Kristen A; Kim, Hye Mi; Wang, Min Z; Walker, Douglas I; Pennell, Kurt D; Richardson, Jason R; Miller, Gary W; Caudle, W Michael

    2013-03-01

    In the last several decades polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have replaced the previously banned polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in multiple flame retardant utilities. As epidemiological and laboratory studies have suggested PCBs as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), the similarities between PBDEs and PCBs suggest that PBDEs have the potential to be neurotoxic to the dopamine system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neurotoxic effects of the PBDE mixture, DE-71, on the nigrostriatal dopamine system and address the role of altered dopamine handling in mediating this neurotoxicity. Using an in vitro model system we found DE-71 effectively caused cell death in a dopaminergic cell line as well as reducing the number of TH+ neurons isolated from VMAT2 WT and LO animals. Assessment of DE-71 neurotoxicity in vivo demonstrated significant deposition of PBDE congeners in the brains of mice, leading to reductions in striatal dopamine and dopamine handling, as well as reductions in the striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) and VMAT2. Additionally, DE-71 elicited a significant locomotor deficit in the VMAT2 WT and LO mice. However, no change was seen in TH expression in dopamine terminal or in the number of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). To date, these are the first data to demonstrate that exposure to PBDEs disrupts the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Given their similarities to PCBs, additional laboratory and epidemiological research should be considered to assess PBDEs as a potential risk factor for PD and other neurological disorders.

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish tissue may be an indicator of plastic contamination in marine habitats.

    PubMed

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Lewison, Rebecca L; Eriksen, Marcus; Allen, Harry; Cook, Anna-Marie; Teh, Swee J

    2014-04-01

    The accumulation of plastic debris in pelagic habitats of the subtropical gyres is a global phenomenon of growing concern, particularly with regard to wildlife. When animals ingest plastic debris that is associated with chemical contaminants, they are at risk of bioaccumulating hazardous pollutants. We examined the relationship between the bioaccumulation of hazardous chemicals in myctophid fish associated with plastic debris and plastic contamination in remote and previously unmonitored pelagic habitats in the South Atlantic Ocean. Using a published model, we defined three sampling zones where accumulated densities of plastic debris were predicted to differ. Contrary to model predictions, we found variable levels of plastic debris density across all stations within the sampling zones. Mesopelagic lanternfishes, sampled from each station and analyzed for bisphenol A (BPA), alkylphenols, alkylphenol ethoxylates, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), exhibited variability in contaminant levels, but this variability was not related to plastic debris density for most of the targeted compounds with the exception of PBDEs. We found that myctophid sampled at stations with greater plastic densities did have significantly larger concentrations of BDE#s 183 -209 in their tissues suggesting that higher brominated congeners of PBDEs, added to plastics as flame-retardants, are indicative of plastic contamination in the marine environment. Our results provide data on a previously unsampled pelagic gyre and highlight the challenges associated with characterizing plastic debris accumulation and associated risks to wildlife.

  3. Bioelectrochemical Immunoassay of Polychlorinated Biphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ying-Ying; Liu, Guodong; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-04-01

    A simple, rapid, and highly sensitive bioelectrochemical immunoassay method based on magnetic beads (MBs) and disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPE) has been developed to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The principle of this bioassay is based on a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using PCB-antibody-coated MBs and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled PCB (HRP-PCB). A magnetic process platform was used to mix and shake the samples during the immunoreactions and to separate free and unbound reagents after the liquid-phase competitive immunoreactions among PCB-antibody-coated MBs, PCB analyte, and HRP-PCB. After a complete immunoassay, the HRP tracers attached to MBs were transferred to a substrate solution containing o-aminophenol and hydrogen peroxide for electrochemical detection. The different parameters, including the amount of HRP-PCB conjugates, immunoreaction time, and the concentration of substrate that governs the analytical performance of the immunoassay have been studied in detail and optimized. The detection limit of 5 pg mL-1 was obtained under optimum experimental conditions. The performance of this bioelectrochemical immunoassay was successfully evaluated with untreated river water spiked with PCBs, and the results were validated by commercial PCB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, indicating that this convenient and sensitive technique offers great promise for decentralized environmental application and trace PCBs monitoring.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, M.C.; Foley, L.O.; Jarnagin, R.E.

    1990-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) is planning to implement a conservation acquisition program in new and existing commercial buildings. In anticipation of that program, Bonneville is examining the potential environmental effects of conservation measures in commercial buildings. An important conservation measure is the installation of new energy-efficient lighting fixtures. Some of the old lighting fixtures that these new lights will be replacing were manufactured before 1978, when polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were still used in the capacitors of the lighting ballasts. This report focuses on a summary of information about PCBs in fluorescent light fixtures manufactured before 1978. A key issue associated with these PCBs is the potential effect of lamp change-outs on ballast failure. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) speculates that installing energy-efficient lamps in old, PCB-laden ballasts may contribute to ballast failure and PCB leaks, which is addressed in Section 3 of this report. Section 2 discusses applicable standards and regulations; Section 4 describes PCB concentrations in commercial buildings. Sections 5 and 6 discuss cleanup practices and disposal options. 4 tabs.

  5. A study on the levels of a polybrominated biphenyl in Chinese human milk samples collected in 2007 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Wen, Sheng; Li, Jingguang; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2016-09-01

    The levels of a 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153) were measured in human milk samples collected in 2007 and 2011 from residents in China by high-resolution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass chromatography (HRGC-HRMS) with isotope dilution. The median concentrations of BB-153 from the samples collected in 2007 and 2011 were 8.3 and 7.2 pg/g lipid weight, respectively. The levels of BB-153 in the human milk collected from rural areas were not significantly different to those collected from the urban areas in China. Meanwhile, significant positive correlations were found between the levels of BB-153 in human milk and the consumption of animal-origin foods. In the present study, the mean levels of BB-153 in human milk from Chinese mothers were found to be lower than those from European and American mothers.

  6. Storage of serum in plastic and glass containers may alter the serum concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Karmaus, Wilfried; Riebow, John F

    2004-05-01

    Valid exposure assessment and biomonitoring of toxicants rely on standardized specimen collection, handling, storage, and measurement. In a study designed to determine organochlorine concentrations in blood samples, we recruited participants from registered anglers in Michigan. After participants were interviewed, blood was collected from study subjects, either at home by a phlebotomist or in a commercial blood-draw station. The phlebotomists stored their samples in glass containers, but without our knowledge, the commercial laboratory transferred the specimens to plastic containers for freezing in its central facility. Samples were analyzed in the Analytical Chemistry Section Laboratory of the Michigan Department of Community Health. This laboratory also provided information on storage in glass (n = 28) versus plastic containers (n = 113). We conducted linear regression analyses to assess factors that may explain the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). Our results indicate that storage of serum in plastic containers altered the total concentrations of PCBs, in particular, the higher chlorinated PCBs (PCB-180 and PCB-199), but not DDE or PBBs. No other characteristics of the samples could explain the higher PCB values (0.75 micro g/L vs. 0.45 micro g/L; p = 0.025) of those stored in plastic containers. The proportion of PCB detects in both subsamples did not differ. Some preceding studies have provided information on whether specimens were stored in glass or plastic containers; however, a number of studies have not. We suggest the initiation of a new review process to determine whether these earlier reports were based on unbiased PCB determinations. We recommend standardizing specimen collection, handling, storage, and measurement, which is particularly necessary for newly emerging analytes.

  7. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  12. In vitro estrogenicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, hydroxylated PDBEs, and polybrominated bisphenol A compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Meerts, I A; Letcher, R J; Hoving, S; Marsh, G; Bergman, A; Lemmen, J G; van der Burg, B; Brouwer, A

    2001-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used in large quantities as additive flame retardants in plastics and textile materials. PBDEs are persistent compounds and have been detected in wildlife and in human adipose tissue and plasma samples. In this study, we investigated the (anti)estrogenic potencies of several PBDE congeners, three hydroxylated PBDEs (HO-PBDEs), and differently brominated bisphenol A compounds in three different cell line assays based on estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent luciferase reporter gene expression. In human T47D breast cancer cells stably transfected with an estrogen-responsive luciferase reporter gene construct (pEREtata-Luc), 11 PBDEs showed estrogenic potencies, with concentrations leading to 50% induction (EC(50)) varying from 2.5 to 7.3 microM. The luciferase induction of the most potent HO-PBDE [2-bromo-4-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)phenol] exceeded that of estradiol (E(2)), though at concentrations 50,000 times higher. As expected, brominated bisphenol A compounds with the lowest degree of bromination showed highest estrogenic potencies (EC(50) values of 0.5 microM for 3-monobromobisphenol A). In an ER alpha-specific, stably transfected human embryonic kidney cell line (293-ER alpha-Luc), the HO-PBDE 4-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)phenol was a highly potent estrogen with an EC(50) < 0.1 microM and a maximum 35- to 40-fold induction, which was similar to E(2). In an analogous ER beta-specific 293-ER betas-Luc cell line, the agonistic potency of the 4-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)phenol was much lower (maximum 50% induction compared to E(2)), but EC(50) values were comparable. These results indicate that several pure PBDE congeners, but especially HO-PBDEs and brominated bisphenol A-analogs, are agonists of both ER alpha and ER beta receptors, thus stimulating ER-mediated luciferase induction in vitro. These data also suggest that in vivo metabolism of PBDEs may produce more potent pseudoestrogens. PMID:11335189

  13. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers: Structure Determination and Trends in Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbing; Lohith, Katheryn; Rosario, Margaret; Pulliam, Thomas H; O'Connor, Robert D; Bell, Lori J; Bewley, Carole A

    2016-07-22

    Antibacterial-guided fractionation of the Dictyoceratid sponges Lamellodysidea sp. and two samples of Dysidea granulosa yielded 14 polybrominated, diphenyl ethers including one new methoxy-containing compound (8). Their structures were elucidated by interpretation of spectroscopic data of the natural product and their methoxy derivatives. Most of the compounds showed strong antimicrobial activity with low- to sub-microgram mL(-1) minimum inhibitory concentrations against drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium, and two compounds inhibited Escherichia coli in a structure-dependent manner.

  14. Construction of a bioluminescent reporter strain to detect polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, A.C.; Muccini, M.; Ghosh, M.M.; Sayler, G.S.

    1998-12-01

    A bioluminescent reporter strain, Ralstonia eutropha ENV307 (pUTK60), was constructed for the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls by inserting the biphenyl promoter upstream of the bioluminescence genes. In the presence of a nonionic surfactant, which enhances the solubility of chlorinated biphenyls, bioluminescence was induced three- to fourfold over background by biphenyl, monochlorinated biphenyls, and Aroclor 1242. The minimum detection limits for these compounds ranged from 0.15 mg/liter for 4-chlorobiphenyl to 1.5 mg/liter for Aroclor 1242.

  15. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, O.; Sudo, R.

    1980-05-01

    The biodegradation of PCB's by microorganisms and the degradation pathway of PCB's are investigated. Experimental methods and materials are described. Only several strains of bacteria, Achromobacter sp., Alcaligenes sp., Acinetobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., and soil microorganisms were able to decompose PCB's. A possible relationships between the structure and biodegradability of related biphenyl compounds was examined. (5 diagrams, 11 graphs, 18 references, 1 table)

  16. IRIS Toxicological Review of Biphenyl (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EEPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Biphenyl: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.

  17. Chronic toxicity of biphenyl to Daphnia magna Straus

    SciTech Connect

    Gersich, F.M.; Bartlett, E.A.; Murphy, P.G.; Milazzo, D.P. )

    1989-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a final test rule (1985) for biphenyl on the authority of Section 4(a) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Contained within this rule was the requirement for generating chronic daphnid toxicity data for biphenyl. Biphenyl is used primarily to produce dye carriers, heat-transfer fluids and alkylated biphenyls. The acute toxicity of biphenyl to Daphnia magna has been reported. The 48-hr LC50 values were 4.7 and 2.1 mg/L, respectively. To date, the chronic toxicity of biphenyl to fish and aquatic invertebrates has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the chronic toxicity of biphenyl to D. magna. The daphnid chronic toxicity test is designed to estimate the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC). The MATC is defined as the concentration falling between the highest concentration showing no effect and the next higher concentration showing a toxic effect when compared to the controls.

  18. Spatial and temporal trends of alternative flame retardants and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) across the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Houde, M; Wang, X; Ferguson, S H; Gagnon, P; Brown, T M; Tanabe, S; Kunito, T; Kwan, M; Muir, D C G

    2017-04-01

    Concentrations of alternative flame retardants and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed in ringed seal (Phoca hispida) blubber collected across the Canadian Arctic during subsistence hunts between 1998 and 2013. More than 80% of sampled animals were females and juvenile males. The highest mean ΣPBDE concentrations (sum of 13 congeners) were found in seals from Nain (Nunatsiavut) as well as Inukjuaq and Arviat (Hudson Bay) and the lowest mean levels were found in seals from Lancaster Sound. BDE-47 and -99 were the predominant PBDE congeners quantified in ringed seals. The most frequently detected non-PBDE flame retardants were polybrominated biphenyl 101 (BB-101, 57% of samples analyzed for this chemical), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD; 38%), hexabromobenzene (HBB, 30%), and 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTeBB, 23%). The relative trophic position of seals, estimated using stable isotopes, did not vary over time and did not influence flame retardant blubber concentrations. The relative carbon source increased over time at Arviat and Resolute Bay and weak relationships were observed with ΣPBDEs in blubber of seals. ΣPBDEs increased significantly from 1998 to 2008 in ringed seals from East Baffin and subsequently decreased in recent years. PBDE levels at other sites fluctuated slightly over time. HBCDD concentrations increased at several sites over the past decade. The presence of flame retardants in ringed seals suggests their persistence and their continuous inputs in the Canadian Arctic environment. Monitoring and research on the effects of these contaminants in seals are warranted given the importance of this species in Arctic marine food webs and for local communities.

  19. Selective extraction of trace levels of polychlorinated and polybrominated contaminants by supercritical fluid-solid-phase microextraction and determination by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Application to aquaculture fish feed and cultured marine species.

    PubMed

    Rodil, R; Carro, A M; Lorenzo, R A; Cela Torrijos, R

    2005-04-01

    The persistence, ubiquity, and toxicity of polyhalogenated compounds, together with their presence in fish feed, make it necessary to monitor these organic pollutants in the routine quality assurance programs of aquaculture activities, as this food chain is a source of these toxic compounds for human consumers. A new approach based on simultaneous supercritical fluid extraction-sample cleanup, followed by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SFE-SPME-GC/MS/MS) has been developed as an advantageous analytical tool for the determination of 15 organohalogenated compounds (including pesticides, polychlorinated and polybrominated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers) in aquaculture feed at very low levels. The influence of several parameters in the efficiency of the SPE/SPME combination was systematically investigated by chemometric approaches. In the optimal conditions, the developed procedure provides an excellent linearity, detection, and quantification limits (below 10 pg/g) for most of the analytes investigated, being at the same time advantageous in terms of rapidity, convenience, and avoiding the need of toxic organic solvents. The procedure was applied to the analysis of aquaculture feed and cultured marine species and tested for accuracy against IAEA 406 reference material.

  20. 75 FR 28804 - An Exposure Assessment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ...'s 2006 Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) Project Plan. This document ] provides an assessment... retardants. It includes chapters on use and production of PBDEs, environmental fate, environmental and... Management Team (Address: Information Management Team, National Center for Environmental Assessment...

  1. Investigation of Reagent Gases for the Positive Chemical Ionization of Select Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) fall into the class of compounds known as brominated flame retardants and their incorporation in a multitude of products is responsible for saving numerous lives. However, toxicology studies have alerted researchers to the potential adverse...

  2. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURES TO POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYLETHERS: DISRUPTION OF THYROID HORMONES, HEPATIC METABOLISM AND NEUROBEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), produced commercially as mixtures, are used as flame-retardants in numerous consumer products. Previous work has demonstrated that the DE-71 induces hypothyroxinemia in various animal models. In a series of studies, primiparous dams were...

  3. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS DOES NOT ALTER SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND LTP IN HIPPOCAMPUS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PDE) flame retardants bioaccumulate in the environment, in wildlife, and in humans. Concern has been raised over potential thyrotoxic effects of this class of xenobiotics. Severe hypothyroidism during critical periods of brain development leads to...

  4. Exposure to the Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Mixture DE-71 Damages the Nigrostriatal Dopamine System: Role of Dopamine Handling in Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Bradner, Joshua M.; Suragh, Tiffany A.; Wilson, W. Wyatt; Lazo, Carlos R.; Stout, Kristen A.; Kim, Hye Mi; Wang, Min Z.; Walker, Douglas I.; Pennell, Kurt D.; Richardson, Jason R.; Miller, Gary W.; Caudle, W. Michael

    2013-01-01

    In the last several decades polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have replaced the previously banned polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in multiple flame retardant utilities. As epidemiological and laboratory studies have suggested PCBs as a risk factor for Parkinson’s disease (PD), the similarities between PBDEs and PCBs suggest that PBDEs have the potential to be neurotoxic to the dopamine system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neurotoxic effects of the PBDE mixture, DE-71, on the nigrostriatal dopamine system and address the role of altered dopamine handling in mediating this neurotoxicity. Using an in vitro model system we found DE-71 effectively caused cell death in a dopaminergic cell line as well as reducing the number of TH+ neurons isolated from VMAT2 WT and LO animals. Assessment of DE-71 neurotoxicity in vivo demonstrated significant deposition of PBDE congeners in the brains of mice, leading to reductions in striatal dopamine and dopamine handling, as well as reductions in the striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) and VMAT2. Additionally, DE-71 elicited a significant locomotor deficit in the VMAT2 WT and LO mice. However, no change was seen in TH expression in dopamine terminal or in the number of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). To date, these are the first data to demonstrate that exposure to PBDEs disrupts the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Given their similarities to PCBs, additional laboratory and epidemiological research should be considered to assess PBDEs as a potential risk factor for PD and other neurological disorders. PMID:23287494

  5. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in U.S. computers and domestic carpet vacuuming: possible sources of human exposure.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Päpke, Olaf; Joseph, Jean Elizabeth; Tung, Kuang-Chi

    2005-04-09

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a type of brominated flame retardant chemically and toxicologically similar to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are a class of emerging environmental and human contaminants. They have recently been detected in U.S. milk, blood, and food at the highest levels in the world. This pilot study was undertaken with the aim of determining levels of PBDE in the U.S. indoor environment, to assess the potential exposure to PBDEs from computer surfaces and carpets. Food of animal origin is the usual source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and PCBs in humans, but there may also be environmental sources for intake of PBDEs. It was also our aim to characterize the PBDE congener profile in these indoor environmental samples. Four computer wipe samples and 9 domestic vacuum-sweeping samples were analyzed for 13 PBDE congeners, PBDEs 17 (2,2',4), 28 (2,4,4'?), 47 (2,2',4,4'?), 66 (2,3',4,4'?), 77 (3,3',4,4'?), 85 (2,2',3,4,4'?), 99 (2,2'4,4',5), 100 (2,2',4,4',6), 138 (2,2',3,4,4',5'?), 153 (2,2',4,4',5,5'?), 154 (2,2',4,4',5,6'?), 183 (2,2',3,4,4',5',6), and 209 (2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'?). All samples tested positive for PBDEs. PBDE 209 was the dominant congener in all 4 computer wipe samples and in 7 out of the 9 vacuum dust samples. The congener profiles observed in this study varied considerably, a finding that has been observed previously. However these congener profiles differ from the pattern seen in U.S. human milk, human blood and in food, where PBDEs 47 and 99 predominate.

  6. Electronic and thermal properties of Biphenyl molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, F. G.; Ojeda, J. H.; Duque, C. A.; Laroze, D.

    2015-11-01

    Transport properties of a single Biphenyl molecule coupled to two contacts are studied. We characterise this system by a tight-binding Hamiltonian. Based on the non-equilibrium Green's functions technique with a Landauer-Büttiker formalism the transmission probability, current and thermoelectrical power are obtained. We show that the Biphenyl molecule may have semiconductor behavior for certain values of the electrode-molecule-electrode junctions and different values of the angle between the two rings of the molecule. In addition, the density of states (DOS) is calculated to compare the bandwidths with the profile of the transmission probability. DOS allows us to explain the asymmetric shape with respect to the molecule's Fermi energy.

  7. Developmental Exposure to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Mall, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) during sensitive developmental windows can interfere with cognitive function and behavior, which are critical components of neurodevelopment. The association between developmental exposure to PBDEs and neurodevelopment has been extensively studied using animal models. In this review, we focus on the accumulating evidence in humans. Despite methodological, geographical, and temporal differences between studies, the majority of the epidemiologic evidence supports that early life exposure to PBDEs measured during pregnancy and/or during childhood is detrimental to child neurodevelopment in domains related to child behavior, cognition, and motor skills. While the precise mechanism of action of PBDEs on neurodevelopment is unknown, PBDE-induced neurotoxicity via thyroid hormone disruption and direct action of PBDEs on the developing brain have been proposed and tested. Additional studies are suggested to better understand how early life and/or childhood PBDE exposures, including exposure to specific PBDE congeners, impact neurodevelopmental indices. PMID:25530937

  8. Isobutoxypentabromocyclododecanes (iBPBCDs): a new class of polybrominated compounds.

    PubMed

    Heeb, Norbert V; Graf, Heidi; Bernd Schweizer, W; Lienemann, P

    2010-02-01

    Isobutoxypentabromocyclododecanes (iBPBCDs) represent a new class of polybrominated compounds found in several flame-proofed polystyrene materials and in a technical mixture of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). Of the 64 stereoisomers possible, we now have analytical evidence for 16 different stereoisomers. By reversed- and chiral-phase liquid chromatography we distinguished 8 diastereomeric pairs of enantiomers, named alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta-, epsilon-, xi-, eta-, and theta-iBPBCDs in accordance with their chromatographic retention on a C(18)-RP-column. Crystal structure analysis revealed the stereochemistry of the most prominent theta-iBPBCD stereoisomers, which were determined to be (1R)-1-iso-butoxy-(2R,5R,6S,9S,10R)-2,5,6,9,10-pentabromocyclododecane and its enantiomer. The eight iBPBCD diastereomers were also found in several expanded (EPS) and extruded polystyrene materials (XPS). Stereoisomer pattern varied to a large extent with delta-, eta-, and theta-iBPBCDs dominating in EPS- and alpha-, beta-, epsilon-, and xi-isomers in XPS-materials. The substitution of a bromine atom with an alkoxy group is expected to result in more lipophilic compounds than the parent HBCD compounds. The chromatographic retention on the reversed-phase column supports this assumption. Therefore, we expect that certain iBPBCD stereoisomers may also have the potential to accumulate in biota like e.g. alpha-HBCDs. The presented spectroscopic and chromatographic data allow the identification of 16 different iBPBCD stereoisomers in plastic materials, environmental samples, and biota. With this, the occurrence, fate, and toxicological relevance of this new class of polybrominated compounds can now be studied in more detail.

  9. Time trends (1983-1999) for organochlorines and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) from Lakes Michigan, Huron and Superior, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chernyak, Sergei M.; Rice, Clifford P.; Quintal, Richard T.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Hickey, James P.; Vinyard, Bryan T.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Service Great Lakes Science Center has archived rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) collected from the early 1980s to the present. These fish were collected to provide time- and site-dependent contaminant residue data needed by researchers and managers to fill critical data gaps regarding trends and behavior of persistent organic contaminants in the Great Lakes ecosystem. In the present study, data are presented for concentrations of several organochlorine (OC) contaminants in the archived smelt, including DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), toxaphene, and chlordanes in Lakes Michigan and Huron (MI, USA) and in Lake Superior (MN, USA). The trends for all the OCs were declining as a first-order decay over the sampled time series (1983/1985–1993/1999) with the exception of toxaphene in Lake Superior and PCBs at the Charlevoix/Little Traverse Bay site in Lake Michigan. Concentration of the emerging contaminant, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), also was traced from its apparent entry into this ecosystem in approximately 1980 until 1999. Time trends for the PBDEs were increasing exponentially at all sites, with concentration-doubling times varying from 1.58 to 2.94 years.

  10. GAS-PHASE OXIDATION PRODUCTS OF BIPHENYL AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (R825377)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our laboratory recently measured the gas-phase reaction rate constants of
    polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with the hydroxyl radical (OH) and concluded
    that OH reactions are the primary removal pathway of PCBs from the atmosphere.
    With the reaction system previousl...

  11. Determinants of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the sera of mothers and children from Michigan farms with PCB-contaminated silos

    SciTech Connect

    Schantz, S.L.; Jacobson, J.L.; Jacobson, S.W.; Humphrey, H.E.B.; Welch, R.; Gasior, D.

    1994-11-01

    Blood samples were collected from 28 mothers and from 38 school-aged children from Michigan farms on which there were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated silos. The samples were analyzed for PCBs and other contaminants, including polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p{prime}-DDT + p,p{prime}-DDE) via packed column gas chromatography. The PCBs were quantified, using the Webb-McCall method, with Aroclors 1016 and 1260 used as reference standards. Approximately 42% of the children had serum PCB levels above the detection limit of 3.0 ng/ml. The values ranged from 3.1 to 23.3 ng/ml, with a mean of 6.8 ng/ml. In contrast, PCBs were detected in 86% of the mothers. The mean serum concentration was somewhat higher for the mothers (9.6 ng/ml), but the range was similar to that found for the children. PBBs were not detected in any of the children, but were present in trace amounts in 25% of the mothers. Conversely, DDT was present in 66% of the children and 93% of the mothers. As with PCBs, DDT concentrations were somewhat higher in the mothers. DDE accounted for 89% of the total DDT in serum. Various potential sources of exposure were evaluated as possible determinants of serum PCB levels, using hierarchical multiple regression. Years of residence on a silo farm and consumption of PCB-contaminated Great Lakes fish both accounted for significant portions of the variance in maternal serum PCB levels. Exposure via breast-feeding explained a large and highly significant proportion of the variance in the children`s serum PCB concentrations, suggesting that breast milk was the primary source of PCB exposure for these children. Years of residence on a silo farm also explained a significant proportion of the variance in children`s serum PCBs. 29 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  12. Polyhalogenated biphenyls and phenobarbital: evaluation as inducers of drug metabolizing enzymes in the sheepshead, Archosargus probatocephalus.

    PubMed

    James, M O; Little, P J

    1981-08-01

    Several doses of Aroclor 1254 (polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture), Firemaster FF1 (polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) mixture), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (HBB), 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCB) and phenobarbital (PB) were administered to the marine fish sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus). The PCB and PBB mixtures caused induction of hepatic microsomal benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase (AHH), 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (7-EC) and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (ERF) activities, but not benzphetamine N-demethylase (BND), epoxide hydrolase (EH) or glutathione S-transferase (GSH-T) activities. This induction pattern is typical of that caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in fish and mammals or by tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in mammals. The extent of induction of AHH-activity and cytochrome P-450 content was higher when experiments were carried out in summer (water temperature 25 +/- 4 degrees C) than in winter (water temperature 11 +/- 3 degrees C). Firemaster FF1 (15 mg/kg) induced fish for at least 56 days in both summer and winter at which time the liver concentrations of PBB were in the ppm range. PCB concentrations in the ppm range have been found in fish from polluted lakes and seas, thus we may expect that environmental exposure to PCB is sufficient to induce hepatic mixed function oxidase (MFO) activities. The PCB isomer 3,3'4,4'5,5'-HCB, which induces the same spectrum of hepatic drug-metabolizing activities as TCDD and PAH in rats, had a broadly similar effect in the sheepshead. Another purified isomer, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-HBB, which induces the same enzymes as PB in rats, had no effect on drug-metabolizing activities in sheepshead. PB was also without effect on sheepshead hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes, although a typical narcotic effect was produced in PB-treated sheepshead. Our studies provide further evidence that drug-metabolizing activities in fish liver are readily induced by chemicals like TCDD or PAH, but we fail to

  13. Metabolism and metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Fabian A; Hu, Dingfei; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Ludewig, Gabriele; Hornbuckle, Keri C; Duffel, Michael W; Bergman, Åke; Robertson, Larry W

    2015-03-01

    Abstract The metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is complex and has an impact on toxicity, and thereby on the assessment of PCB risks. A large number of reactive and stable metabolites are formed in the processes of biotransformation in biota in general, and in humans in particular. The aim of this document is to provide an overview of PCB metabolism, and to identify the metabolites of concern and their occurrence. Emphasis is given to mammalian metabolism of PCBs and their hydroxyl, methylsulfonyl, and sulfated metabolites, especially those that persist in human blood. Potential intracellular targets and health risks are also discussed.

  14. Metabolism and metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, FA; Hu, D; Kania-Korwel, I; Lehmler, HJ; Ludewig, G; Hornbuckle, KC; Duffel, MW; Bergman, A; Robertson, LW

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is complex and has an impact on toxicity and thereby assessment of PCB risks. A large number of reactive and stable metabolites are formed in the processes of biotransformation in biota in general and in humans in particular. The aim of this document is to provide an overview of PCB metabolism and to identify metabolites of concern and their occurrence. Emphasis is given to mammalian metabolism of PCBs and their hydroxyl, methylsulfonyl, and sulfated metabolites, especially those that persist in human blood. Potential intracellular targets and health risks are also discussed. PMID:25629923

  15. Human Health Effects of Biphenyl: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Hogan, Karen A.; Cai, Christine; Rieth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background: In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the human health hazards of biphenyl exposure. Objectives: We review key findings and scientific issues regarding expected human health effects of biphenyl. Methods: Scientific literature from 1926 through September 2012 was critically evaluated to identify potential human health hazards associated with biphenyl exposure. Key issues related to the carcinogenicity and noncancer health hazards of biphenyl were examined based on evidence from experimental animal bioassays and mechanistic studies. Discussion: Systematic consideration of experimental animal studies of oral biphenyl exposure took into account the variety of study designs (e.g., study sizes, exposure levels, and exposure durations) to reconcile differing reported results. The available mechanistic and toxicokinetic evidence supports the hypothesis that male rat urinary bladder tumors arise through urinary bladder calculi formation but is insufficient to hypothesize a mode of action for liver tumors in female mice. Biphenyl and its metabolites may induce genetic damage, but a role for genotoxicity in biphenyl-induced carcinogenicity has not been established. Conclusions: The available health effects data for biphenyl provides suggestive evidence for carcinogenicity in humans, based on increased incidences of male rat urinary bladder tumors at high exposure levels and on female mouse liver tumors. Kidney toxicity is also a potential human health hazard of biphenyl exposure. Citation: Li Z, Hogan KA, Cai C, Rieth S. 2016. Human health effects of biphenyl: key findings and scientific issues. Environ Health Perspect 124:703–712; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509730 PMID:26529796

  16. Process for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil

    DOEpatents

    Hancher, C.W.; Saunders, M.B.; Googin, J.M.

    1984-11-16

    The present invention relates to a method of removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil. The polychlorinated biphenyls are extracted from the soil by employing a liquid organic solvent dispersed in water in the ratio of about 1:3 to 3:1. The organic solvent includes such materials as short-chain hydrocarbons including kerosene or gasoline which are immiscible with water and are nonpolar. The organic solvent has a greater affinity for the PCB's than the soil so as to extract the PCB's from the soil upon contact. The organic solvent phase is separated from the suspended soil and water phase and distilled for permitting the recycle of the organic solvent phase and the concentration of the PCB's in the remaining organic phase. The present process can be satisfactorily practiced with soil containing 10 to 20% petroleum-based oils and organic fluids such as used in transformers and cutting fluids, coolants and the like which contain PCB's. The subject method provides for the removal of a sufficient concentration of PCB's from the soil to provide the soil with a level of PCB's within the guidelines of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  17. Bioaccumulation of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers by Tubifex Tubifex.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Boris; Arnuš, Lovro; Križanec, Boštjan; Peijnenburg, Willie; Kos Durjava, Mojca

    2016-01-01

    The selective uptake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by oligochaetes makes it possible to assess the bioaccumulation of individual congeners in commercial mixtures. Twenty-one congeners from three BDE commercial mixtures (TBDE-71, TBDE-79 and TBDE-83R) and as individual congeners (BDE-77, BDE-126, BDE-198 and BDE-204) were tested on Tubifex tubifex in accordance with the OECD TG 315 "Bioaccumulation in Sediment-Dwelling Benthic Oligochaetes". All the congeners that were spiked in the sediment were detected at the end of the uptake phase and at the end of the experiment. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF), the kinetic bioaccumulation factor (BAFK) and the biotasediment accumulation factor (BSAF) were calculated, and indicate a high bioaccumulation potential for tri- to hexa-BDEs and a lower bioaccumulation potential for hepta- to deca-BDEs. The penta-homologues BDE-99 and BDE-100 showed the highest BSAFs of 4.84 and 5.85 (BAFs of 7.34 and 9.01), while the nona- and deca-BDEs exhibit bioaccumulation in up to one-order-lower concentrations. The change in the bioaccumulation potential between the group of trito hexa-BDEs and hepta- to deca-BDEs correlated with the generally accepted molecular-mass threshold for the molecular transition through biological membranes (700 g/mol).

  18. Sex difference in polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations of walleyes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Trombka, Autumn W.; Rediske, Richard R.; Jude, David J.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations were determined for mature male and mature female walleyes (Sander vitreus) sampled from the Saginaw Bay population during 2007. PBDE concentrations in prey fish caught in the Saginaw River, the primary tributary to Saginaw Bay, and in Saginaw Bay during 2005 and 2007 also were determined. Mature male and mature female walleyes averaged 70.3 ng/g and 24.8 ng/g, respectively, in ΣPBDE, which was equal to the sum of concentrations of six PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, and BDE-154). This sex difference was likely due to males spending more time in the Saginaw River system than females. Prey fish captured in the Saginaw River were roughly ten times higher in ΣPBDE than those caught in Saginaw Bay. BDE-47 was the predominant congener in both walleyes and prey fish, and this congener contributed about 50%, on average, to ΣPBDE. Congener profiles differed significantly between the two sexes of walleyes. In contrast, congener profiles of the prey fish did not differ significantly between the river-caught fish and the bay-caught fish. One plausible explanation for these congener profile results was that net trophic transfer efficiencies of PBDEs to walleyes from their prey were similar for all congeners except BDE-28, and that diet composition differed between the two sexes of walleyes.

  19. A mechanistic view of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) developmental neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Lucio G.; de Laat, Rian; Tagliaferri, Sara; Pellacani, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), extensively used in the past few decades as flame retardants in a variety of consumer products, have become world-wide persistent environmental pollutants. Levels in North America are usually higher than those in Europe and Asia, and body burden is 3 to 9-fold higher in infants and toddlers than in adults. The latter has raised concern for potential developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity of PBDEs. Experimental studies in animals and epidemiological observations in humans suggest that PBDEs may be developmental neurotoxicants. Pre- and/or post-natal exposure to PBDEs may cause long-lasting behavioral abnormalities, particularly in the domains of motor activity and cognition. The mechanisms underlying the developmental neurotoxic effects of PBDEs are not known, though several hypotheses have been put forward. One general mode of action relates to the ability of PBDEs to impair thyroid hormone homeostasis, thus indirectly affecting the developing brain. An alternative or additional mode of action involves a direct effect of PBDEs on nervous system cells; PBDEs can cause oxidative stress-related damage (DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis), and interfere with signal transduction (particularly calcium signaling), and with neurotransmitter systems. Important issues such as bioavailability and metabolism of PBDEs, extrapolation of results to low level of exposures, and the potential effects of interactions among PBDE congeners and between PBDEs and other contaminants also need to be taken into account. PMID:24270005

  20. Phthalates and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in retail stores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ying; Liang, Yirui; Urquidi, Jorge R.; Siegel, Jeffrey A.

    2014-04-01

    Retail stores contain a wide range of products that can emit a variety of indoor pollutants. Among these chemicals, phthalate esters and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two important categories, because they are extensively used as additives in consumer products and associated with serious health concerns. This study measured six phthalate and 14 PBDE compounds inside of 12 retail stores in Texas and Pennsylvania, U.S. Phthalates and PBDEs were widely found in the retail environment, indicating that they are ubiquitous indoor air pollutants. DEP, DnBP, and DEHP were the most abundant phthalates, with DnBP showing the highest concentration (0.23 ± 0.36 μg m-3). PBDEs were dominated by BDE-28, -99, and -209, having concentrations as high as 0.85 ± 1.99 ng m-3 (BDE-99). The levels of phthalates and PBDEs measured in this study are comparable to concentrations found in previous investigations of residential buildings, with phthalates showing lower concentrations and PBDEs exhibiting higher concentrations in retail stores. The potential co-occurrence of phthalates was not as strong as that of PBDEs, suggesting that phthalates might have more diverse sources. Whole building emission rates were calculated and showed similar patterns of variations as indoor air concentrations, suggestion the diversity of indoor sources of phthalates and PBDEs in retail environments.

  1. Seasonal variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congener profiles in butter in Poland: dietary risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Rzepkowska, Małgorzata; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Various statistical methods have been employed to analyse in details seasonal diversification of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)/polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congener profiles found in butter fat. The variability of the PCB/PBDE congener profiles indicates the presence of various sources of the milk fat contamination. The obtained results suggest that the environmental chemical background has the highest share in the contamination sources pattern. Ion trap mass spectrometry coupled to high-resolution gas chromatography with semi-permeable membrane dialysis sample cleanup was used for determination of PCBs and PBDEs in milk fat. Determined butter fat PCB profiles were similar to the profiles characteristic for Aroclor 1254 technical mixture. Our data indicate that dietary intake of PCB/PBDE with milk and milk products may be estimated to be about 717.5 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for six-indicator PCBs, 0.329 (equivalent toxicity, TEQ) pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for 12 DL PCBs and 50 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for PBDEs (sum of 14 congeners).

  2. Oxidation of polychlorinated biphenyls by Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707.

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, D T; Cruden, D L; Haddock, J D; Zylstra, G J; Brand, J M

    1993-01-01

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in the substrate specificity of the biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenases from both organisms. PMID:8331086

  3. The Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Mixture DE-71 Is Mildly Estrogenic

    PubMed Central

    Mercado-Feliciano, Minerva; Bigsby, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely found in the environment, and they may act as endocrine disruptors. Objective Our goal in this study was to test the PBDE mixture DE-71 for estrogenic activity. Methods We used proliferation of cultured breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and trophic effects in the reproductive tracts of ovariectomized mice as estrogen bioassays. DE-71 was administered to mice by subcutaneous injection (sc) or oral gavage (po), alone or in combination with estradiol, for 3 or 34 days. Liver weights and cytochrome P450 enzyme activities were also measured. Results DE-71 increased MCF-7 cell proliferation, and this was prevented by antiestrogen. DE-71 cotreatment reduced the effect of estradiol in MCF-7 cells. In the mouse 3-day assay, DE-71 administered alone had no effect on uterine weight, uterine epithelial height (UEH), or vaginal epithelial thickness (VET); however, when DE-71 was administered as a cotreatment, it potentiated estradiol’s effect on uterine weight. DE-71 administered sc to BALB/c mice for 34 days slightly increased UEH and VET, and attenuated the estradiol-induced increase in UEH; these effects were not seen in BALB/c mice treated po or in C57BL/6 mice treated sc. DE-71 increased liver weight in BALB/c, C57BL/6, and estrogen receptor-α knockout mice. We also found an increase in liver cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and CYP2B activities when DE-71 was administered po, but only CYP2B increased after sc treatment. Conclusion DE-71 behaves as a weak estrogen. In mice, the treatment route and duration determined if DE-71 was estrogenic. BALB/c mice are more susceptible to DE-71 effects in estrogen target tissues than C57BL/6 mice. DE-71 increased liver weight independently of estrogen receptor-α. PMID:18470304

  4. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY OF POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER (PBDE) FLAME RETARDANTS

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Lucio G.; Giordano, Gennaro

    2007-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of flame retardants used in a variety of consumer products. In the past 25 years, PBDEs have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They have been detected in soil, air, sediments, birds, marine species, fish, house dust, and human tissues, blood and breast milk. Diet and house dust appear to be the major sources of PBDE exposure in the general population, though occupational exposure can also occur. Levels of PBDEs in human tissues are particularly high in North America, compared to Asian and European countries, and have been increasing in the past 30 years. Concentrations of PBDEs are particularly high in breast milk, resulting in high exposure of infants. In addition, for toddlers, dust has been estimated to account for a large percentage of exposure. PBDEs can also cross the placenta, as they have been detected in fetal blood and liver. Tetra-, penta- and hexa BDEs are most commonly present in human tissues. The current greatest concern for potential adverse effects of PBDEs relates to their developmental neurotoxicity. Pre- or postnatal exposure of mice or rats to various PBDEs has been shown to cause long-lasting changes in spontaneous motor activity, mostly characterized as hyperactivity or decreased habituation, and to disrupt performance in learning and memory tests. While a reduction in circulating thyroid hormone (T4) may contribute to the developmental neurotoxicity of PBDEs, direct effects on the developing brain have also been reported. Among these, PBDEs have been shown to affect signal transduction pathways and to cause oxidative stress. Levels of PBDEs causing developmental neurotoxicity in animals are not much dissimilar from levels found in highly exposed infants and toddlers. PMID:17904639

  5. Depositional characteristics of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers on tree barks

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Man Young

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to determine the depositional characteristics of several tree barks, including Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), Pine (Pinus densiflora), Platanus (Platanus), and Metasequoia (Metasequoia glyptostroboides). These were used as passive air sampler (PAS) of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Methods Tree barks were sampled from the same site. PBDEs were analyzed by highresolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometer, and the lipid content was measured using the gravimetric method by n-hexane extraction. Results Gingko contained the highest lipid content (7.82 mg/g dry), whereas pine (4.85 mg/g dry), Platanus (3.61 mg/g dry), and Metasequoia (0.97 mg/g dry) had relatively lower content. The highest total PBDEs concentration was observed in Metasequoia (83,159.0 pg/g dry), followed by Ginkgo (53,538.4 pg/g dry), Pine (20,266.4 pg/g dry), and Platanus (12,572.0 pg/g dry). There were poor correlations between lipid content and total PBDE concentrations in tree barks (R2=0.1011, p =0.682). Among the PBDE congeners, BDE 206, 207 and 209 were highly brominated PBDEs that are sorbed to particulates in ambient air, which accounted for 90.5% (84.3-95.6%) of the concentration and were therefore identified as the main PBDE congener. The concentrations of particulate PBDEs deposited on tree barks were dependent on morphological characteristics such as surface area or roughness of barks. Conclusions Therefore, when using the tree barks as the PAS of the atmospheric PBDEs, samples belonging to same tree species should be collected to reduce errors and to obtain reliable data. PMID:25116365

  6. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers: occurrence, dietary exposure, and toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Darnerud, P O; Eriksen, G S; Jóhannesson, T; Larsen, P B; Viluksela, M

    2001-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in plastics (concentration, 5--30%) and in textile coatings. Commercial products consist predominantly of penta-, octa-, and decabromodiphenyl ether mixtures, and global PBDE production is about 40,000 tons per year. PBDEs are bioaccumulated and biomagnified in the environment, and comparatively high levels are often found in aquatic biotopes from different parts of the world. During the mid-1970--1980s there was a substantial increase in the PBDE levels with time in both sediments and aquatic biota, whereas the latest Swedish data (pike and guillemot egg) may indicate that levels are at steady state or are decreasing. However, exponentially increasing PBDE levels have been observed in mother's milk during 1972--1997. Based on levels in food from 1999, the dietary intake of PBDE in Sweden has been estimated to be 0.05 microg per day. Characteristic end points of animal toxicity are hepatotoxicity, embryotoxicity, and thyroid effects as well as maternal toxicity during gestation. Recently, behavioral effects have been observed in mice on administration of PBDEs during a critical period after birth. Based on the critical effects reported in available studies, we consider the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) value of the PBDE group to be 1 mg/kg/day (primarily based on effects of pentaBDEs). In conclusion, with the scientific knowledge of today and based on Nordic intake data, the possible consumer health risk from PBDEs appears limited, as a factor of over 10(6) separates the estimated present mean dietary intake from the suggested LOAEL value. However, the presence of many and important data gaps, including those in carcinogenicity, reproduction, and developmental toxicity, as well as additional routes of exposure, make this conclusion only preliminary. Moreover, the time trend of PBDEs in human breast milk is alarming for the future. PMID:11250805

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in maternal and fetal blood samples.

    PubMed Central

    Mazdai, Anita; Dodder, Nathan G; Abernathy, Mary Pell; Hites, Ronald A; Bigsby, Robert M

    2003-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants in consumer goods, such as plastics, electronics, textiles, and construction material. PBDEs have been found in human milk, fat, and blood samples. Rodent studies indicate that PBDEs may be detrimental to neurodevelopment, possibly by lowering thyroid hormone concentrations in blood. In the present study, we determined concentrations of PBDEs and thyroid hormones in human fetal and maternal serum. Patients presenting in labor to Indiana University and Wishard Memorial County hospitals in Indianapolis, who were older than 18 years, were recruited to participate. Twelve paired samples of maternal and cord blood were obtained and analyzed using gas chromatographic mass spectrometry; thyroid hormone concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. Six congeners of PBDE were measured in maternal and fetal serum samples. The concentrations of total PBDEs found in maternal sera ranged from 15 to 580 ng/g lipid, and the concentrations found in fetal samples ranged from 14 to 460 ng/g lipid. Individual fetal blood concentrations did not differ from the corresponding maternal concentrations, indicating that measurement of maternal PBDE blood levels is useful in predicting fetal exposure; similarly, other reports have shown a high correlation between PBDE in mother's milk and fetal exposure. In accord with reports on other biologic samples, the tetrabrominated PBDE congener BDE-47 accounted for 53-64% of total PBDEs in the serum. The concentrations of PBDEs found in maternal and fetal serum samples were 20-106-fold higher than the levels reported previously in a similar population of Swedish mothers and infants. In this small sample, there was no apparent correlation between serum PBDEs and thyroid hormone concentrations. Our study shows that human fetuses in the United States may be exposed to relatively high levels of PBDEs. Further investigation is required to determine if these levels are

  8. Altered cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulation during hyperosmotic stress in adult rats developmentally exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Ashini; Coburn, Cary G.; Watson-Siriboe, Abena; Whitley, Rebecca; Shahidzadeh, Anoush; Gillard, Elizabeth R.; Nichol, Robert; Leon-Olea, Martha; Gaertner, Mark; Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.

    2011-10-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and the structurally similar chemicals polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) disrupt the function of multiple endocrine systems. PCBs and PBDEs disrupt the secretion of vasopressin (VP) from the hypothalamus during osmotic activation. Since the peripheral and central vasopressinergic axes are critical for osmotic and cardiovascular regulation, we examined whether perinatal PBDE exposure could impact these functions during physiological activation. Rats were perinatally dosed with a commercial PBDE mixture, DE-71. Dams were given 0 (corn oil control), 1.7 (low dose) or 30.6 mg/kg/day (high dose) in corn oil from gestational day (GD) 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21 by oral gavage. In the male offspring exposed to high dose PBDE plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels were reduced at PND 21 and recovered to control levels by PND 60 when thyroid stimulating hormone levels were elevated. At 14-18 months of age, cardiovascular responses were measured in four groups of rats: Normal (Oil, normosmotic condition), Hyper (Oil, hyperosmotic stress), Hyper PBDE low (1.7 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress), and Hyper PBDE high (30.6 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress). Systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and heart rate (HR) were determined using tail cuff sphygmomanometry and normalized to pretreatment values (baseline) measured under basal conditions. Hyperosmotic treatment yielded significant changes in systolic BP in PBDE exposed rats only. Hyper PBDE low and high dose rats showed 36.1 and 64.7% greater systolic BP responses at 3 h post hyperosmotic injection relative to pretreatment baseline, respectively. No treatment effects were measured for diastolic BP and HR. Hyper and Hyper PBDE rats showed increased mean plasma osmolality values by 45 min after injection relative to normosmotic controls. In contrast to Hyper rats, Hyper PBDE (high) rats showed a further increase in mean plasma osmolality at 3

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in eggs may reduce reproductive success of ospreys in Oregon and Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Kaiser, J.L.; Grove, R.A.; Johnson, B.L.; Letcher, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Spatial and temporal assessments and reports of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in birds remain sparse. In the present study, PBDEs were detected in all 120 osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs collected. The eggs were collected from nests along the Columbia, Willamette and Yakima rivers of Oregon (OR) and Washington (WA) and in Puget Sound (WA) between 2002 and 2007. PBDE congeners: 17, 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154 (possible coelution with brominated biphenyl 153 [BB153]), 183, 190 (detected in one egg), 209 (not detected), and BB101 (only detected in 2006 and 2007) and total-??-hexabromocyclododecane (only detected in five eggs) were analyzed for in the egg samples. Eggs from reservoirs in the forested headwaters of the Willamette River (2002) contained the lowest concentrations of ???PBDEs (geometric mean [range], 98 [55.2-275] ng/g wet weight [ww]), while those from the middle Willamette River (2006) contained the highest (897 [507-1,880] ng/g ww). Concentrations in eggs from the Columbia River progressively increased downstream from Umatilla, OR (River Mile [RM] 286) to Skamokoa, WA (RM 29), which indicated additive PBDE sources along the river. In general, regardless of the year of egg collection, differences in PBDE concentrations reported in osprey eggs along the three major rivers studied (Columbia, Willamette and Yakima) seem to reflect differences in river flow (dilution effect) and the extent of human population and industry (source inputs) along the rivers. PBDE concentrations increased over time at two locations (Seattle, WA; Columbia River, RM 29-84) where temporal patterns could be evaluated. Only during 2006 (on the middle Willamette River, RM 61-157) and 2007 (on the lower Columbia River, RM 29-84) did ???PBDE concentrations in osprey eggs exceed 1,000 ng/g ww with negative relationships indicated at both locations between productivity and ???PBDE concentrations in eggs (P = 0.008, P = 0.057). Osprey eggs from

  10. PRACTICAL APPROACHES TO REMEDIATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of international concern because of global distribution, persistence, and toxicity. Removal of these compounds from the environment presents a very tough challenge because they are highly hydro...

  11. IRIS Toxicological Review of Biphenyl (External Review Draft) (September 2011)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of biphenyl that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  12. SYMPOSIUM #127 – ARE POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS FROM HOUSEHOLD DUST BIOAVAILABLE AND BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, household dust has been implicated as a major source of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure in humans. This finding may have important implications for young children, who are thought to ingest more dust than adults and may be more susceptible to some of the ...

  13. A National Probabilistic Study of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Fish from US Lakes and Reservoirs

    EPA Science Inventory

    National estimates were developed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish from lakes and reservoirs of the conterminous United States (excluding the Laurentian Great Lakes and Great Salt Lake) using an unequal probability design. Predator (fillet) and bottom-dweller (w...

  14. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS DOES IMPAIRS SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND LTP IN HIPPOCAMPUS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants bioaccumulate in wildlife and in humans and reduce circulating levels of thyroxine (T4). The present work examined hippocampal function in adult offspring of LE rats treated daily by oral gavage with 0, 30 or 100 mg/kg of a ...

  15. 77 FR 30972 - Certain Polybrominated Diphenylethers; Significant New Use Rule and Test Rule; Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ...EPA issued a proposed rule in the Federal Register of April 2, 2012, that would amend the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) section 5(a) Significant New Use Rule (SNUR) for certain polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and that would require persons that manufacture, import, or process any of three commercial PBDEs, including in articles, for any use after December 31, 2013, to conduct......

  16. Persistence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in agicultural soils after biosolids applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as additives in consumer products for their fire-retardant properties. While scientists observe PBDEs in various environmental media, little is known of their fate in soils. This study examines the potential fate of PBDEs in agricultural soils treate...

  17. Tissue distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in male ratsand implications for biomonitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of widely-used flame retardants which have been found to persist, bioaccumulate, and potentially affect development in animals. Exposure to PBDEs can be through both diet and the environment and is generally estimated by measuri...

  18. ASSESSMENT OF DE-71, A COMMERCIAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYLETHER (PBDE) MIXTURE, IN THE EDSP MALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    ASSESSMENT OF DE-71, A COMMERCIAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER (PBDE) MIXTURE, IN THE EDSP MALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOL. T.E. Stoker1, J. Ferrell1, J.M. Hedge2, K. M. Crofton2, R.L. Cooper1 and S.C. Laws1. 1 Reprod. Tox. Div., 2 Neurotox. Div., NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, NC.

    P...

  19. Neurochemical Changes Following a Single Dose Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether 47 in Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Previous studies in our laboratory, and in the literature, have shown that exposure to a specific PBDE congener (PBDE 47) during a cri...

  20. Development of an electrochemical immunoassay for the detection of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent environmental substances that were commonly used as fire retardants in a wide number of commercial products. Their low reactivity, high hydrophobicity and bioaccumulative properties cause their ubiquity in the air, water, food and lead to extensi...

  1. CHANGES IN MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE IN CEREBELLAR GRANULE NEURONAL CULTURES BY POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as additive flame-retardants and have been detected in human blood, adipose tissue, and breast milk; clarifying the nature of the risks posed is important for clean-up and remediation. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown t...

  2. Neurobehavioral Development following Exposure of Male Mice to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether 47 on Postnatal Day 10

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Previous studies in our laboratory and in the literature have shown that exposure to a specific PBDE congener, PBDE 47, during a crit...

  3. NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL MAPPING OF THE GENES ENCODING BIPHENYL DIOXYGENASE, A MULTICOM- PONENT POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYL-DEGRADING ENZYME IN PSEUDOMONAS STRAIN LB400

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DNA region encoding biphenyl dioxygenase, the first enzyme in the biphenyl-polychlorinated biphenyl degradation pathway of Pseudomonas species strain LB400, was sequenced. Six open reading frames were identified, four of which are homologous to the components of toluene dioxy...

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Degrading Bacterium Pseudomonas putida KF715 (NBRC 110667) Isolated from Biphenyl-Contaminated Soil

    PubMed Central

    Yamazoe, Atsushi; Hosoyama, Akira; Kimura, Nobutada; Hirose, Jun; Watanabe, Takahito; Fujihara, Hidehiko; Futagami, Taiki; Goto, Masatoshi; Furukawa, Kensuke

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas putida KF715 (NBRC 110667) utilizes biphenyl as a sole source of carbon and degrades polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Here, we report a complete genome sequence of the KF715 strain, which comprises a circular chromosome and four plasmids. Biphenyl catabolic genes were located on the largest plasmid, pKF715A. PMID:28209826

  5. Structural Characterization of Pandoraea pnomenusa B-356 Biphenyl Dioxygenase Reveals Features of Potent Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Degrading Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Chakko, Mathew N.; Sinha, Sangita C.; Powlowski, Justin B.; Eltis, Lindsay D.; Bolin, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    The oxidative degradation of biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is initiated in Pandoraea pnomenusa B-356 by biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDOB356). BPDOB356, a heterohexameric (αβ)3 Rieske oxygenase (RO), catalyzes the insertion of dioxygen with stereo- and regioselectivity at the 2,3-carbons of biphenyl, and can transform a broad spectrum of PCB congeners. Here we present the X-ray crystal structures of BPDOB356 with and without its substrate biphenyl 1.6-Å resolution for both structures. In both cases, the Fe(II) has five ligands in a square pyramidal configuration: H233 Nε2, H239 Nε2, D386 Oδ1 and Oδ2, and a single water molecule. Analysis of the active sites of BPDOB356 and related ROs revealed structural features that likely contribute to the superior PCB-degrading ability of certain BPDOs. First, the active site cavity readily accommodates biphenyl with minimal conformational rearrangement. Second, M231 was predicted to sterically interfere with binding of some PCBs, and substitution of this residue yielded variants that transform 2,2′-dichlorobiphenyl more effectively. Third, in addition to the volume and shape of the active site, residues at the active site entrance also apparently influence substrate preference. Finally, comparison of the conformation of the active site entrance loop among ROs provides a basis for a structure-based classification consistent with a phylogeny derived from amino acid sequence alignments. PMID:23308114

  6. Occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in electrical workers. I. Environmental and blood polychlorinated biphenyls concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Maroni, M; Colombi, A; Cantoni, S; Ferioli, E; Foa, V

    1981-01-01

    Industrial exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and internal dose were investigated in 80 worker exposed for many years to PCB mixtures with a 42% chlorine content (Pyralene 3010 and Apirolio). PCBs were determined by liquid gas chromatography on samples taken from workroom air, workroom surfaces and tools, the palms of the hand, and the blood of the workers. In the workroom air samples, PCB concentrations ranged from 48 to 275 micrograms/m3. All tested surfaces and tools were heavily contaminated, with a range from 0.2 to 159 micrograms PCBs per cm2 of surface. Considerable amounts of PCBs were detected on the palms of the hands of the workers (2-28 microgram/cm2 of skin surface). In blood, total PCB concentrations from 88 to 1319 micrograms/kg were observed: comparing the blood concentrations of low and high chlorine content biphenyls, a significant difference was found for the low-chlorinated biphenyl concentrations between workers currently exposed and workers exposed only in the past. In groups of workers who were homogeneous as regards work area and job, the PCB concentrations in the blood were closely correlated with the length of actual occupational exposure to these compounds. These findings led to the conclusion that absorption of PCBs in these workers had occurred mainly through the skin, therefore industrial preventive surveillance must take this route of exposure into account. Since blood PCB concentrations appear to be correlated with the length of exposure, PCB determination on whole blood may be used to monitor industrial and environmental exposure to PCBs. PMID:6781529

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ether serum concentrations in a Californian population of children, their parents, and older adults: an exposure assessment study

    EPA Science Inventory

    BackgroundPolybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in many household items. Given concerns over their potential adverse health effects, we identified predictors and evaluated temporal changes of PBDE serum concentrations.MethodsPBDE serum concentrations...

  8. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO A POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER MIXTURE (DE-71) DISRUPTS THYROID HORMONES BUT NOT NEUROBEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), produced commercially as mixtures, are used as flame-retardants for numerous consumer products. Because of their lipophilicity and persistence, PBDEs have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Previous work in our lab has demonstra...

  9. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO A POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER MIXTURE (DE-71): DISRUPTION OF THYROID HOMEOSTASIS AND NEUROBEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), produced commercially as mixtures, are used as flame-retardants in numerous consumer products. Previous work has demonstrated that the DE-71 induces hypothyroxinemia in both adults and developing rats. In these studies, primiparous rats w...

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls and links to cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Jordan T; Petriello, Michael C; Newsome, Bradley J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2016-02-01

    The pathology of cardiovascular disease is multi-faceted, with links to many modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Epidemiological evidence now implicates exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with an increased risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, and obesity; all of which are clinically relevant to the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease. PCBs exert their cardiovascular toxicity either directly or indirectly via multiple mechanisms, which are highly dependent on the type and concentration of PCBs present. However, many PCBs may modulate cellular signaling pathways leading to common detrimental outcomes including induction of chronic oxidative stress, inflammation, and endocrine disruption. With the abundance of potential toxic pollutants increasing globally, it is critical to identify sensible means of decreasing associated disease risks. Emerging evidence now implicates a protective role of lifestyle modifications such as increased exercise and/or nutritional modulation via anti-inflammatory foods, which may help to decrease the vascular toxicity of PCBs. This review will outline the current state of knowledge linking coplanar and non-coplanar PCBs to cardiovascular disease and describe the possible molecular mechanism of this association.

  11. Tris(biphenyl-4-yl)arsane

    PubMed Central

    Shawkataly, Omar bin; Khan, Imthyaz Ahmed; Sirat, Siti Syaida; Yeap, Chin Sing; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of title compound, C36H27As, contains two crystallographically independent mol­ecules, A and B, with similar conformations. The two phenyl rings of each biphenyl unit are twisted slightly away from each other with dihedral angles of 6.0 (2), 27.7 (3) and 33.4 (2)° in mol­ecule A and 5.7 (3), 27.5 (2) and 33.0 (2)° in mol­ecule B. The As-bonded phenyl rings make dihedral angles of 54.9 (2), 76.0 (2) and 88.2 (2),° with each other in mol­ecule A, and 60.3 (2), 78.1 (2) and 79.5 (2)° in mol­ecule B. In the crystal, the mol­ecules are stacked down the b axis. Weak inter­molecular C—H⋯π inter­actions stabilize the crystal structure. The crystal studied was a racemic twin, the refined ratio of twin components being 0.461 (7):0.539 (7). PMID:21523119

  12. Polychlorinated Biphenyls and links to Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Jordan T.; Petriello, Michael C.; Newsome, Bradley J.; Hennig, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    The pathology of cardiovascular disease is multi-faceted, with links to many modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Epidemiological evidence now implicates exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with an increased risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, and obesity; all of which are clinically relevant to the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease. PCBs exert their cardiovascular toxicity either directly or indirectly via multiple mechanisms, which are highly dependent on the type and concentration of PCBs present. However, many PCBs may modulate cellular signaling pathways leading to common detrimental outcomes including induction of chronic oxidative stress, inflammation, and endocrine disruption. With the abundance of potential toxic pollutants increasing globally, it is critical to identify sensible means of decreasing associated disease risks. Emerging evidence now implicates a protective role of lifestyle modifications such as increased exercise and/or nutritional modulation via anti-inflammatory foods, which may help to decrease the vascular toxicity of PCBs. This review will outline the current state of knowledge linking coplanar and non-coplanar PCBs to cardiovascular disease and describe the possible molecular mechanism of this association. PMID:25877901

  13. Inadvertent polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial paint pigments.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dingfei; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2010-04-15

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound's presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments.

  14. Chamber study of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The sorption of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by twenty building materials and their subsequent re-emission (desorption) from concrete were investigated using two 53-L environmental chambers connected in series with a field-collected caulk in the source chamber serving as a stable source of PCBs and building materials in the test chamber. During the tests, the PCB concentrations in the outlet air of the test chamber were monitored and the building materials were removed from the test chamber at different times to determine their PCB content. Among the materials tested, a petroleum-based paint, a latex paint, and a certain type of carpet were among the strongest sinks. Solvent-free epoxy coating, certain types of flooring materials, and brick were among the weakest sinks. For a given sink material, PCB congeners with lower vapor pressures were sorbed in larger quantities. Rough estimates of the partition and diffusion coefficients were obtained by applying a sink model to the data acquired from the chamber studies. A desorption test with the concrete panels showed that re-emission is a slow process, suggesting that PCB sinks, e.g. concrete, can release PCBs into the air for a prolonged period of time (years or decades). This study could fill some of the data gaps associated with the characterization of PCB sinks in contaminated buildings. This paper summarizes the laboratory research results for PCB transport from primary sources to PCB sinks, includ

  15. Chamber study of polychlorinated biphenyl {PCB} emissions ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The sorption of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by twenty building materials and their subsequent re-emission (desorption) from concrete were investigated using two 53-L environmental chambers connected in series with a field-collected caulk in the source chamber serving as a stable source of PCBs and building materials in the test chamber. During the tests, the PCB concentrations in the outlet air of the test chamber were monitored and the building materials were removed from the test chamber at different times to determine their PCB content. Among the materials tested, a petroleum-based paint, a latex paint, and a certain type of carpet were among the strongest sinks. Solvent-free epoxy coating, certain types of flooring materials, and brick were among the weakest sinks. For a given sink material, PCB congeners with lower vapor pressures were sorbed in larger quantities. Rough estimates of the partition and diffusion coefficients were obtained by applying a sink model to the data acquired from the chamber studies. A desorption test with the concrete panels showed that re-emission is a slow process, suggesting that PCB sinks, e.g. concrete, can release PCBs into the air for a prolonged period of time (years or decades). This study could fill some of the data gaps associated with the characterization of PCB sinks in contaminated buildings. This paper summarizes the laboratory research results for PCB transport from primary sources to PCB sinks, includ

  16. Octanol/air partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Komp, P.; McLachlan, M.S.

    1997-12-01

    The partitioning of 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) between air and 1-octanol was investigated using a fugacity meter. The measurements were conducted over an environmentally relevant temperature range (10--43 C). For a given congener the measured 1-octanol/air partition coefficient K{sub OA} was exponentially proportional to the reciprocal temperature. The enthalpy of phase change (octanol to air) {Delta}H{sub OA} ranged from 71 to 93 kJ/mol. Up to log K{sub OA} values of 9.37 (corresponding to 2,2{prime},3,4{prime},5{prime},6-hexachlorobiphenyl), the enthalpy of phase change was similar to the enthalpy of vaporization of the subcooled liquid PCB. For the less volatile congeners (log K{sub OA} > 9.37), the enthalpies of vaporization exceeded the enthalpies of phase change, the difference increasing with increasing log K{sub OA}. Solubilities of the PCBs in 1-octanol were calculated from the data, and the results were in excellent agreement with octanol solubilities calculated using the OCTASOL fragment method. A very good correlation between the measured octanol/air partition coefficients and values calculated from octanol/water and air/water partition coefficients was obtained. This yielded a method to estimate reliably the octanol/air partitioning of all PCB congeners.

  17. Inadvertent Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Commercial Paint Pigments†

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound’s presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments. PMID:19957996

  18. Structures of cyano-biphenyl liquid crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Yuan-Chao; Tsang, Tung; Rahimzadeh, E.; Yin, L.

    1989-01-01

    The structures of p-alkyl- p'-cyano- bicyclohexanes, C(n)H(2n+1) (C6H10)(C6H10) CN (n-CCH), and p-alkyl- p'-cyano- biphenyls, C(n)H(2n+1) (C6H4)(C6H4) CN (n-CBP), were studied. It is convenient to use an x ray image intensification device to search for symmetric x ray diffraction patterns. Despite the similarities in molecular structures of these compounds, very different crystal structures were found. For the smectic phase of 2CCH, the structure is close to rhombohedral with threefold symmetry. In contrast, the structure is close to hexagonal close-packed with two molecules per unit cell for 4CCH. Since intermolecular forces may be quite weak for these liquid crystals systems, it appears that crystal structures change considerably when the alkyl chain length is slightly altered. Different structures were also found in the crystalline phase of n-CBP for n = 6 to 9. For n = 7 to 9, the structures are close to monclinic. The structures are reminiscent of the smectic-A liquid crystal structures with the linear molecules slightly tilted away from the c-axis. In contrast, the structure is quite different for n = 6 with the molecules nearly perpendicular to the c-axis.

  19. Studies on populations exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Kreiss, K

    1985-01-01

    Mean serum levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in U.S. population groups without occupational exposure to PCBs are usually between 4 and 8 ng/mL, with 95% of individuals having serum PCB measurements of less than 20. Subpopulations consuming fish taken from contaminated waters, such as Lake Michigan and near Triana, AL, have mean serum PCB levels several times those found in other general population groups and ranges that extend into concentrations found in industrial populations involved in capacitor manufacture. Two studies of general populations and several studies of industrial workers have demonstrated associations of PCBs with various serum lipids and liver enzyme levels. Six groups of investigators have found associations between PCB or chlorinated pesticide levels and blood pressure. Research efforts are needed in clarifying determinants of serum-adipose partition ratios; the utility of urinary porphyrins as a measure of subclinical hepatic effects; human metabolites and excretion of chlorinated hydrocarbons; and the relation, if any, between blood pressure and organochlorine compounds when controlled for confounding variables. Established cohorts, such as those in Triana, Lake Michigan sportsfishers, the Michigan PBB cohort, residents of farms with PCB-lined silos, and occupational groups, could all be studied further with attention to these research questions. PMID:3928345

  20. Can Stress Enhance Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls?

    PubMed Central

    Kalinowski, Tomasz; Halden, Rolf U.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Phytoremediation—plant-facilitated remediation of polluted soil and groundwater—is a potentially effective treatment technology for the remediation of heavy metals and certain organic compounds. However, contaminant attenuation rates are often not rapid enough to make phytoremediation a viable option when compared with alternative treatment approaches. Different strategies are being employed to enhance the efficacy of phytoremediation, including modification to the plant genome, inoculation of the rhizosphere with specialized and/or engineered bacteria, and treatment of the soil with supplementary chemicals, such as surfactants, chelators, or fertilizers. Despite these efforts, greater breakthroughs are necessary to make phytoremediation a viable technology. Here, we introduce and discuss the concept of integrating controlled environmental stresses as a strategy for enhancing phytoremediation. Plants have a diverse suite of defense mechanisms that are only induced in response to stress. Here, we examine some stress-response mechanisms in plants, focusing on defenses involving physiological changes that alter the soil microenvironment (rhizosphere), and outline how these defense mechanisms can be co-opted to enhance the effectiveness of phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls and other contaminants. PMID:23236249

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in Chesapeake Bay region, U.S.A., peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs: urban/rural trends.

    PubMed

    Potter, Katherine E; Watts, Bryan D; La Guardia, Mark J; Harvey, Ellen P; Hale, Robert C

    2009-05-01

    A total of 23 peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs were obtained between 1993 and 2002 from 13 nests, encompassing 11 locations in the Chesapeake Bay region, U.S.A. When multiple eggs were available from the same clutch, average clutch contaminant concentrations were calculated. An overall median total polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) level of 201 ng/g wet weight was determined for the eggs/clutches examined. The maximum in an individual egg, from an urban highway bridge site, was 354 ng/g. This egg also exhibited the highest BDE 209 burden (48.2 ng/g). Compared to distributions reported in fish and piscivorous birds, falcon eggs were enriched in the more brominated congeners. The BDE congeners 153, 99, and 100 constituted 26.0, 24.8, and 13.1%, respectively, of total PBDEs. In most aquatic species, BDE 47 is the most abundant congener reported; however, it constituted only 4.4% of total PBDEs in the eggs of the present study. The median BDE 209 concentration was 6.3 ng/g. The sum of the octa- to nonabrominated congeners (BDEs 196, 197, 206, 207, and 208) contributed, on average, 14.0% of total PBDEs, exceeding the contribution of BDE 209 (5.9%). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (4,4'-DDE) also were determined in a subset of 16 eggs (collected in 2001-2002 from six nests) and were an order of magnitude greater than the corresponding PBDEs. Median BDE 209 concentrations were significantly correlated (p < 0.01, Spearman R = 0.690) with the human population density of the area surrounding the nest. Total PBDEs, total PCBs, and 4,4'-DDE levels were not correlated to human population density.

  2. Waste disposal technologies for polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T; Lindstrom, F T

    1985-01-01

    Improper practices in the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes by land burial, chemical means and incineration distribute these chemicals and related compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) throughout the environment. The complete range of methods for disposal that have been proposed and are in use are examined and analyzed, with emphasis given to the two most commonly used methods: land burial and incineration. The understanding of aquifer contamination caused by migration of PCBs from subsurface burial sites requires a description of the physical, chemical and biological processes governing transport in unsaturated and saturated soils. For this purpose, a model is developed and solved for different soil conditions and external driving functions. The model couples together the fundamental transport phenomena for heat, mass, and moisture flow within the soil. To rehabilitate a contaminated aquifer, contaminated groundwaters are withdrawn through drainage wells, PCBs are extracted with solvents or activated carbon and treated by chemical, photochemical or thermal methods. The chemical and photochemical methods are reviewed, but primary emphasis is devoted to the use of incineration as the preferred method of disposal. After discussing the formation of PCDFs and PCDDs during combustion from chloroaromatic, chloroaliphatic, as well as organic and inorganic chloride precursors, performance characteristics of different thermal destructors are presented and analyzed. To understand how this information can be used, basic design equations are developed from governing heat and mass balances that can be applied to the construction of incinerators capable of more than 99.99% destruction with minimal to nondetectable levels of PCDFs and PCDDs. PMID:3921358

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls as hormonally active structural analogues

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, J.D. ); Waller, C.L. )

    1994-03-01

    Among the environmental chemicals that may be able to disrupt the endocrine systems of animals and humans, the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a chemical class of considerable concern. One possible mechanism by which PCBs may interfere with endocrine function is their ability to mimic natural hormones. These actions reflect a close relationship between the physicochemical properties encoded in the PCB molecular structure and the responses they evoke in biological systems. These physiocochemical properties determine the molecular reactivities of PCBs and are responsible for their recognition as biological acceptors and receptors, as well as for triggering molecular mechanisms that lead to tissue response. [open quotes]Coplanarity[close quotes] of PCB phenyl rings and [open quotes]laterality[close quotes] of chlorine atoms are important structural features determining specific binding behavior with proteins and certain toxic responses in biological systems. We compare qualitative structure-activity relationships for PCBs with the limited information on the related non-coplanar chlorinated diphenyl ethers, providing further insights into the nature of the molecular recognition processes and support for the structural relationship of PCBs to thyroid hormones. Steriodlike activity requires conformational restriction and possibility hydroxylation. We offer some simple molecular recognition models to account for the importance of these different structural features in the structure-activity relationships that permit one to express PCB reactivities in terms of dioxin, thyroxine, and estradiol equivalents. The available data support the involvement of PCBs as mimics of thyroid and other steroidal hormones. The potential for reproductive and developmental toxicity associated with human exposure to PCBs is of particular concern. 53 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Triclosan and Hydroxylated Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Lake and Esturaine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, W. A.; Kerrigan, J. F.; McNeill, K.; Erickson, P. R.; Grandbois, M.

    2014-12-01

    Halogenated diphenyl ethers are a class of emerging contaminants that includes the antibacterial compound triclosan and the flame retardant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Both triclosan and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-BDEs) are known to form dioxins when exposed to sunlight in aqueous solution. Thus, it is important to understand the sources and presence of these compounds in the environment, especially because OH-BDEs are breakdown products of PBDEs and also naturally produced compounds. In this work, the levels of OH-BDEs were determined in lake sediments from Minnesota and esturaine sediments from San Francisco Bay. Both surface sediments over a broad spatial area and sediment cores were collected and analyzed. Triclosan was used as a marker of wastewater as a source of the targeted emerging contaminants. The relationship between triclosan and OH-BDE levels provides insight into the importance of natural and anthropogenic influences on the levels of OH-BDEs.

  5. Process for gamma ray induced degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Mincher, Bruce J.; Arbon, Rodney E.

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a process for the in-situ destruction of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in transformer oils and transformers. These compounds are broken down selectively by irradiation of the object or mixture using spent nuclear fuel or any isotopic source of high energy gamma radiation. For example, the level of applied dose required to decompose 400 ppm of polychlorinated biphenyl in transformer oil to less than 50 ppm is 500 kilogray. Destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls to levels of less than 50 ppm renders the transformer oil or transformer non-PCB contaminated under current regulations. Therefore, this process can be used to treat PCB contaminated oil and equipment to minimize or eliminate the generation of PCB hazardous waste.

  6. Process for gamma ray induced degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, D.H.; Mincher, B.J.; Arbon, R.E.

    1998-08-25

    The invention is a process for the in-situ destruction of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in transformer oils and transformers. These compounds are broken down selectively by irradiation of the object or mixture using spent nuclear fuel or any isotopic source of high energy gamma radiation. For example, the level of applied dose required to decompose 400 ppm of polychlorinated biphenyl in transformer oil to less than 50 ppm is 500 kilograms. Destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls to levels of less than 50 ppm renders the transformer oil or transformer non-PCB contaminated under current regulations. Therefore, this process can be used to treat PCB contaminated oil and equipment to minimize or eliminate the generation of PCB hazardous waste. 5 figs.

  7. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by mixed microbial cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R R; Chian, E S; Griffin, R A

    1979-01-01

    Three different enriched mixed cultures capable of degrading polychlorinated biphenylas were isolated from two soil samples and a river sediment, respectively. The predominant organisms found in all three mixed cultures were Alcaligenes odorans, Alcaligenes dentrificans, and an unidentified bacterium. The polychlorinated biphenyl isomers that were more water soluble and had lower chlorination were not only degraded at a faster rate than those that were less water soluble and had higher chlorination, but were also more completely utilized by these mixed cultures. This resulted in the presence in the environment of polychlorinated biphenyl residues consisting mainly of higher-chlorinated isomers. A form of cometabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls was also found with these cultures in the presence of acetate as the cosubstrate. PMID:110265

  8. OXIDATION OF BIPHENYL BY A MULTICOMPONENT ENZYME SYSTEM FROM PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 grows on biphenyl as the sole carbon and energy source. This organism also cooxidizes several chlorinated biphenyl congeners. Biphenyl dioxygenase activity in cell extract required addition of NAD(P)H as an electron donor for the conversion of bipheny...

  9. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400 AND PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOALCALIGENES KF707

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in th...

  10. Exposure Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Biphenyl in the Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeon-Yeong; Shin, Sae-Mi; Ham, Miran; Lim, Cheol-Hong; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to assess exposure to and the risk caused by biphenyl in the workplace. Biphenyl is widely used as a heat transfer medium and as an emulsifier and polish in industry. Vapor or high levels of dust inhalation and dermal exposure to biphenyl can cause eye inflammation, irritation of respiratory organs, and permanent lesions in the liver and nervous system. In this study, the workplace environment concentrations were assessed as central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure and were shown to be 0.03 and 0.12 mg/m3, respectively. In addition, the carcinogenic risk of biphenyl as determined by risk assessment was 0.14 × 10−4 (central tendency exposure) and 0.56 × 10−4 (reasonable maximum exposure), which is below the acceptable risk value of 1.0 × 10−4. Furthermore, the central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure hazard quotients were 0.01 and 0.06 for oral toxicity, 0.05 and 0.23 for inhalation toxicity, and 0.08 and 0.39 for reproduction toxicity, respectively, which are all lower than the acceptable hazard quotient of 1.0. Therefore, exposure to biphenyl was found to be safe in current workplace environments. Because occupational exposure limits are based on socioeconomic assessment, they are generally higher than true values seen in toxicity experiments. Based on the results of exposure monitoring of biphenyl, the current occupational exposure limits in Korea could be reviewed. PMID:25985312

  11. Air-sea Exchange of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammel, G. P.; Heil, A.; Kukucka, P.; Meixner, F. X.; Mulder, M. D.; Prybilova, P.; Prokes, R.; Rusina, T. S.; Song, G. Z.; Vrana, B.

    2015-12-01

    The marine atmospheric environment is a receptor for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which are advected from sources on land, primary, such as biomass burning by-products (PAHs, dioxins), and secondary, such as volatilization from contaminated soils (PCBs, pesticides). Primary sources do not exist in the marine environment, except for PAHs (ship engines) but following previous atmospheric deposition, the sea surface may turn to a secondary source by reversal of diffusive air-sea mass exchange. No monitoring is in place. We studied the vertical fluxes of a wide range of primary and secondary emitted POPs based on measurements in air and surface seawater at a remote coastal site in the eastern Mediterranean (2012). To this end, silicon rubbers were used as passive water samplers, vertical concentration gradients were determined in air and fluxes were quantified based on Eddy covariance. Diffusive air-sea exchange fluxes of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and semivolatile PAHs were found close to phase equilibrium, except one PAH, retene, a wood burning tracer, was found seasonally net-volatilisational. Some PCBs, p,p'-DDE, penta- and hexachlorobenzene (PeCB, HCB) were mostly net-depositional, while PBDEs were net-volatilizational. Fluxes determined at a a remote coastal site ranged -33 - +2.4 µg m-2 d-1 for PAHs and -4.0 - +0.3 µg m-2 d-1for halogenated compounds (< 0 means net-deposition, > 0 means net-volatilization). It is concluded that nowadays in open seas more pollutants are undergoing reversal of the direction of air-sea exchange. Recgional fire activity records in combination with box model simulations suggest that deposition of retene during summer is followed by a reversal of air-sea exchange. The seawater surface as secondary source of pollution should be assessed based on flux measurements across seasons and over longer time periods.

  12. Evaluation of Soxhlet extraction, accelerated solvent extraction and microwave-assisted extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil and fish samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Yawei; Wang, Thanh; Li, Xiaomin; Ding, Lei; Jiang, Guibin

    2010-03-17

    Three commonly applied extraction techniques for persistent organic chemicals, Soxhlet extraction (SE), accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), were applied on soil and fish samples in order to evaluate their performances. For both PCBs and PBDEs, the two more recent developed techniques (ASE and MAE) were in general capable of producing comparable extraction results as the classical SE, and even higher extraction recoveries were obtained for some PCB congeners with large octanol-water partitioning coefficients (K(ow)). This relatively uniform extraction results from ASE and MAE indicated that elevated temperature and pressure are favorable to the efficient extraction of PCBs from the solid matrices. For PBDEs, difference between the results from MAE and ASE (or SE) suggests that the MAE extraction condition needs to be carefully optimized according to the characteristics of the matrix and analyte to avoid degradation of higher brominated BDE congeners and improve the extraction yields.

  13. Passive atmospheric sampling of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in urban, rural, and wetland sites along the coastal length of India.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gan; Chakraborty, Paromita; Li, Jun; Sampathkumar, Pichai; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Kathiresan, Kandasamy; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Jones, Kevin C

    2008-11-15

    India is of prime interest due to the large past and ongoing use of pesticidal persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Rapid dissipation of POPs to the atmosphere in the tropical climate of India infers an atmospheric outflow of these chemicals. Yet data on POPs in the atmosphere of India are sparse. Passive air samplers consisting of polyurethane foam disks were therefore deployed concurrently at 18 locations and exposed for 6 weeks from July 30, 2006, to September 26, 2006, along the coastal length of India to screen for POPs in the atmosphere. The sampling sites were selected to form categories of urban, rural, and background (mangrove/wetlands) locations. Derived air concentrations (pg/m3) ranged as fellows: the sum of 28 PCB congeners, 120-1080; DDTs, 16-2950; HCHs, 66-5400; chlordanes, 9-921; endosulfans, 0.45-1120; and the sum of 9 PBDE congeners, 1-181. The highest levels of all the detected POPs (except endosulfan) were observed at the urban sites, indicating the dominant areas of usage and emissions. An urban-rural composition fractionation of PCBs indicates their atmospheric movement. The gamma-HCH levels were more than double those of alpha-HCH, indicating the sporadic use of lindane. DDT concentrations were elevated, at levels comparable to China, but with much higher percentages of p,p'-DDE, reflecting a more 'weathered' feature. Although no dicofol use was recorded in India, the o,p'-/p,p'-DDT ratios were observed to be even higher than in China. Chlordanes showed high trans-/cis-chlordane (TC/CC) ratios, indicative of the current use of technical chlordane and a contribution from heptachlor usage.

  14. POLYBROMINATED DEPHENYL ETHERS (PBDES) AND ORTHO-SUBSTITUTED POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) AS NEUROENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS OF VASOPRESSIN RELEASE: EFFECTS DURING PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIVATION IN VITRO AND STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The neuropeptide, vasopressin (VP) is synthesized in magnocellular neuroendocrine cells (MNCs) located within the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the mammalian hypothalamus. VP has multiple functions including maintenance of body fluid homeostasis, cardiovasc...

  15. Distribution, potential source and ecotoxicological risk of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the surface water of the Three Gorges Dam region of the Yangtze River, China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jing; Yun, Xiaoyan; Liu, Minxia; Yang, Yuyi; Zhang, Miaomiao; Wang, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Distributions, potential sources and ecotoxicological risks of PCBs and PBDEs in surface water of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) region (Yangtze River, China) were investigated. Samples were collected from 18 sites from upstream (UTGD) and downstream (DTGD) of the TGD. Thirty-two PCBs and ten PBDEs were analyzed. ΣPCBs from the UTGD and DTGD ranged from 10.6 to 26.1 and 1.7 to 29.8 ng L(-1), respectively. ΣPBDEs from the UTGD and DTGD ranged from 2.0 to 17.6 and 0.8 to 11.1 ng L(-1), respectively. The total concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs showed a declining trend from the UTGD to DTGD. Independent-samples t test analysis showed no statistical significance of ΣPCBs and ΣPBDEs between the UTGD and DTGD samples. Principal component analysis indicated the difference of potential sources and levels of PCBs and PBDEs in the study area. The potential eco-toxicological risk of PCBs in surface water of the TGD region is very low, whereas special attention needs to be paid to PBDEs in the study area.

  16. Chicago's Sanitary and Ship Canal sediment: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, and organophosphate esters.

    PubMed

    Peverly, Angela A; O'Sullivan, Colin; Liu, Liang-Ying; Venier, Marta; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C; Hites, Ronald A

    2015-09-01

    The Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) links the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River starting in downtown Chicago. In addition to storm water, the CSSC receives water from Chicago's wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Such effluents are known to be sources of organic pollutants to water and sediment. Therefore in 2013, we collected 10 sediment samples from the CSSC and measured the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants, and organophosphate esters (OPEs). Geometric mean concentrations of the summed concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 11,000 to 420,000 ng/g dw, with the highest concentrations located at each end of the canal. Total PCB concentrations had a geometric mean of 1,400 ± 500 ng/g dw. Brominated flame retardants were separated into two groups: polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and non-PBDEs. Concentrations of PBDEs and those of the non-PBDE flame retardants had a geometric average of 83 ± 19 and 7.0 ± 5.8 ng/g dw, respectively. The summed concentrations of 8 OPEs ranged from 470 to 2,800 ng/g dw, with the highest concentration detected at a site located downstream of the Stickney water reclamation plant. Using ANOVA results, some hypotheses on sources to the CSSC could be formulated: downtown Chicago is probably a source of PAHs, the Cal-Sag Channel may be a source of PCBs, and neither the WWTP nor the Cal-Sag Channel seem to be significant sources of brominated flame retardants or OPEs.

  17. Brominated flame retardants and polychlorinated biphenyls in human breast milk from several locations in India: potential contaminant sources in a municipal dumping site.

    PubMed

    Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sudaryanto, Agus; Takahashi, Shin; Isobe, Tomohiko; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated the status of contamination of organohalogen compounds (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brominated flame retardant (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in human milk samples from several locations in India. The levels of OCs were significantly higher in the milk of mothers living in and near municipal dumping site than other locations indicating that the open dumping sites for municipal wastes act as potential sources of these contaminants in India. The PCB concentrations observed in this study tended to decrease compared to those in the matched locations reported previously, probably due to the restriction of technical PCB usage in India. PBDE levels in human milk were two to three folds lower than those of PCBs in all the sampling locations investigated. Congener profiles of PCBs and PBDEs were different between samples from the dumping site mothers and general populations in other areas suggesting the presence of region-specific sources and pathways. HBCDs were detected in human milk from only two sites, with much lower concentrations and detection frequencies compared to PCBs and PBDEs. When hazard quotients (HQs) of PCBs and PBDEs were estimated for infant health risk, the HQs in some milk samples from the dumping site exceeded the threshold value (HQ>1) of PCBs, indicating the potential risk for infants in the specific site.

  18. Brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in captive giant panda (ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens) from China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guo-Cheng; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Dai, Jia-Yin; Zhang, Xiu-Lan; Wu, Hua; Zhang, Cheng-Lin; Guo, Wei; Xu, Mu-Qi; Mai, Bi-Xian; Weit, Fu-Wen

    2008-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were investigated in captive giant and red panda tissues from China. The total concentrations of OCPs, PCBs, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in tissues ranged from 16.3 to 888 ng/g lipid weight (lw), 24.8 to 854 ng/g lw, and 16.4 to 2158 ng/g lw, respectively. p,p'-DDE and beta-HCH were major OCP contaminants. PCBs 99, 118, 153/132, 170, 180, and 209 were the major contributing congeners determined. Among PBDEs, congener BDE-209 was the most frequent and abundant, followed by BDE-206, BDE-208, BDE-207, BDE-203, BDE-47, and BDE-153. Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DeBDethane) was detected in 87 and 71% of the giant and red panda samples with concentrations up to 863 ng/g lw, respectively. The remarkable levels and dominance of BDE-209 and DeBDethane may relate to significant production, usage, or disposal of BFRs in China. The positive significant correlation between concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in captive pandas may suggest that the exposure routes of PBDEs and PCBs to panda are similar. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the occurrence of DeBDethane in captive wildlife samples. Therefore, further studies are warranted to better understand DeBDethane production, transport, uptake, and toxicological effect.

  19. IRIS Toxicological Review of Biphenyl (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On September 30, 2011, the draft Toxicological Review of Biphenyl and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House...

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Biphenyl (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Biphenyl, that was distributed to other federal agencies and the Executive Office of the President for comment during Interagency Science Discussion (IASD) (Step 6b) of the IRIS assessment development process. Interagenc...

  1. DIRECT ELECTROCHEMICAL IMMUNOSENSOR FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS. (R825323)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A direct electrochemical immunosensor has been developed for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in water. The assay is based on the measurement of the current due to the specific binding between PCB and anti-PCB antibody-immobilized conducting polymer matrix. T...

  2. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-2 - Polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY 42.11-Special Types of Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.1102-2 Polychlorinated biphenyls. (a... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Polychlorinated...

  3. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-2 - Polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY 42.11-Special Types of Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.1102-2 Polychlorinated biphenyls. (a... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Polychlorinated...

  4. A cohort study on mortality and exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, S F; Yen, Y Y; Lan, S J; Hsieh, C C; Lee, C H; Ko, Y C

    1996-01-01

    In 1979, an outbreak of food poisoning ("Yu-Cheng") occurred in Central Taiwan, ROC, involving more than 2000 people. The event was caused by ingestion of rice oil contaminated with polychlorinated derivatives of biphenyls, dibenzofurans, and quaterphenyls. A retrospective cohort study on mortality was undertaken, and possible long-term health effects in the affected individuals were studied. The mortality experience of 1940 victims (929 males, 1011 females) between 1980 and 1991 was compared with the expected numbers, which were calculated from national and local mortality rates. By the end of 1991, 102 deaths were identified, thus producing a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of overall mortality of 0.99 for males and 1.34 for females. Total cancer mortality was lower than in each comparison group. Mortality from liver diseases was elevated significantly (SMR = 3.22), especially during the first 3 y after the food-poisoning event (SMR = 10.76). Increased clinical severity of polychlorinated biphenyl intoxication was associated with increased mortality from all causes and from liver diseases. In summary, there was a positive association between mortality and intoxication dose, and severe polychlorinated biphenyl poisoning acutely affected mainly the liver. A continued follow-up of this cohort would be valuable in the study of long-term health effects of polychlorinated biphenyl poisoning.

  5. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Sources, Emissions, and Environmental Levels in School Buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building materials and components containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in some U.S. school buildings until the late 1970s and may be present today. PCB emission rates from caulk and fluorescent light ballasts were measured in laboratory chambers. PCB concentrat...

  6. Polychlorinated Biphenyls: In situ Bioremediation from the Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of hydrophobic and stable organic compounds consisting of 209 possible congeners. Because of their unique physico-chemical properties, PCBs were used in a wide range of industrial applications. The properties that made PCBs useful in i...

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl sources, environmental levels, and exposures in school buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Building materials and components containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in some U.S. school buildings until the late 1970s and may be present today. There is limited information on source factors and occupant exposures. Methods: Analysis of PCBs in mat...

  8. 77 FR 54818 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Revisions to Manifesting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (``EPA'' or ``the Agency'') is issuing this direct final rule to update and clarify several sections of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) regulations associated with the manifesting requirements, which uses the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest, under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Today's changes are......

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in San Francisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Davis, J A; Hetzel, F; Oram, J J; McKee, L J

    2007-09-01

    San Francisco Bay is facing a legacy of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) spread widely across the land surface of the watershed, mixed deep into the sediment of the Bay, and contaminating the Bay food web to a degree that poses health risks to humans and wildlife. In response to this persistent problem, water quality managers are establishing a PCB total maximum daily load (TMDL) and implementation plan to accelerate the recovery of the Bay from decades of PCB contamination. This article provides a review of progress made over the past 15 years in managing PCBs and understanding their sources, pathways, fate, and effects in the Bay, and highlights remaining information needs that should be addressed in the next 10 years. The phaseout of PCBs during the 1970s and the 1979 federal ban on sale and production led to gradual declines from the 1970s to the present. However, 25 years after the ban, PCB concentrations in some Bay sport fish today are still more than ten times higher than the threshold of concern for human health. Without further management action it appears that the general recovery of the Bay from PCB contamination will take many more decades. PCB concentrations in sport fish were, along with mercury, a primary cause of a consumption advisory for the Bay and the consequent classification of the Bay as an impaired water body. Several sources of information indicate that PCB concentrations in the Bay may also be high enough to adversely affect wildlife, including rare and endangered species. The greater than 90% reduction in food web contamination needed to meet the targets for protection of human health would likely also generally eliminate risks to wildlife. PCB contamination in the Bay is primarily associated with industrial areas along the shoreline and in local watersheds. Strong spatial gradients in PCB concentrations persist decades after the release of these chemicals to Bay Area waterways. Through the TMDL process, attention is being more sharply

  10. Two-photon spectroscopy of the biphenyl chromophore. The electronic excited states of biphenyl and fluorene below 50000 cm -1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Bernhard; Hohlneicher, Georg

    1985-03-01

    The two-proton excitation spectra of biphenyl and fluorene in dilute solution have been measured up to 50000 cm -1. Both spectra exhibit a medium intense band system in the range 32000-42000 cm -1, and a strong band above 45000 cm -1. The lowest frequency feature is assigned to a B 3 symmetry transition in biphenyl and the corresponding B 2 transition in fluorene. The polarization of the higher bands leads to the assignment of two A states at 38000 and 47000 cm -1. The origin of the electronically excited states of the biphenyl chromophore is discussed by simple composite molecule considerations as well as CNDO Cl calculations. The latter give a semiquantitative picture of transition energies and transition probabilities for one-and two-photon allowed excitations. A compilation of one-photon spectra and calculations from the literature is included in the analysis to provide a consistent picture of the electronically excited states of the biphenyl chromophore up to 50000 cm -1.

  11. Classification of polychlorinated biphenyl residues: isomers vs. homologue concentrations in modeling aroclors and polychlorinated biphenyl residues

    SciTech Connect

    Stalling, D.L.; Schwartz, T.R.; Dunn, W.J. III; Wold, S.

    1987-07-15

    SIMCA (soft independent modeling by class analogy), a principal components chemometric modeling program, was used to examine complex mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyl residues (PCBs) in fish and turtles. Individual PCB isomers were measured by electron capture capillary gas chromatography. The authors calculated PCB (Cl/sub 1-10/) congener concentrations by summing 105 isomer concentrations into homologue subgroups. Information theory was used to estimate the maximum information content of the two data sets. The authors compared the results from principal components modeling of samples and Aroclors by using both isomer and Cl/sub 1-10/ homologue concentrations. Modeling of normalized data from Aroclors or their mixtures gave similar sample score plots for both data sets. However, modeling environmental sample congener concentrations gave erroneous classification results when compared to results from modeling isomer data. Although the Cl/sub 1-10/ sums accurately reflect the concentration of PCBs in the sample, calculations to determine PCB profiles as Aroclor mixtures should be made by using individual PCB isomers.

  12. Airborne polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), and dechlorane plus (DP) in concentrated vehicle parking areas.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiru; Liu, Hehuan; Mo, Ligui; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Peng, Ping'an

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), and dechlorane plus (DP) in air around three concentrated vehicle parking areas (underground, indoor, and outdoor) in a metropolitan of South China. The parking areas showed higher concentrations of PBDEs, PBDD/Fs, and DP than their adjacent urban area or distinct congener/isomer profiles, which indicate their local emission sources. The highest PBDE and DP concentrations were found in the outdoor parking lot, which might be related to the heating effect of direct sunlight exposure. Multi-linear regression analysis results suggest that deca-BDEs without noticeable transformation contributed most to airborne PBDEs in all studied areas, followed by penta-BDEs. The statistically lower anti-DP fractions in the urban area than that of commercial product signified its degradation/transformation during transportation. Neither PBDEs nor vehicle exhaust contributed much to airborne PBDD/Fs in the parking areas. There were 68.1-100 % of PBDEs, PBDD/Fs, and DP associated with particles. Logarithms of gas-particle distribution coefficients (K ps) of PBDEs were significantly linear-correlated with those of their sub-cooled vapor pressures (p Ls) and octanol-air partition coefficients (K OAs) in all studied areas. The daily inhalation doses of PBDEs, DP, and PBDD/Fs were individually estimated as 89.7-10,741, 2.05-39.4, and 0.12-4.17 pg kg(-1) day(-1) for employees in the parking areas via Monte Carlo simulation.

  13. IRIS Toxicological Review of Biphenyl (External Review Draft) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of biphenyl that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. EPA is undertaking a new health assessment for biphenyl for the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The outcome of this project will be a Toxicological Review and IRIS and IRIS Summary of biohenyl that will be entered on the IRIS database. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effects that may result from chronic (or lifetime) exposure to chemicals in the environment. IRIS contains chemical-specific summaries of qualitative and quantitative health information to evaluate potential public health risks associated with exposure assessment information to evaluate potential public health risks associated with environmental contaminants. The IRIS database is relied on for the development of risk assessments sites-specific environmental decisions, and rule making.

  14. Hydroxylated biphenyls as tyrosinase inhibitor: A spectrophotometric and electrochemical study.

    PubMed

    Ruzza, Paolo; Serra, Pier Andrea; Fabbri, Davide; Dettori, Maria Antonietta; Rocchitta, Gaia; Delogu, Giovanna

    2017-01-27

    A small collection of C2-symmetry hydroxylated biphenyls was prepared by straightforward methods and the capability to act as inhibitors of tyrosinase has been evaluated by both spectrophotometric and electrochemical assays. Our attention was focused on the diphenolase activity of this enzyme characterized by the absence of the characteristic lag time of enzymatic reaction of its monophenolase activity. To this purpose, we evaluated the capability of tyrosinase to oxidize a natural o-diphenol substrate to o-quinone analyzing the changes in the UV-Vis spectrum of a solution of caffeic acid and the reduction of the cathodic current in a tyrosinase-biosensor, respectively. Results of both the methods were comparable. Most of the compounds possessed higher inhibitory activity compared to compound 1, a known hydroxylated biphenyl inhibitor of tyrosinase.

  15. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Presence in the Columbia River Corridor

    SciTech Connect

    R. M. Hermann

    2007-09-06

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 regulations to develop a conceptual understanding of potential contaminant releases from the Hanford Site based on an evaluation of existing data and known historical practices. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one environmental contaminant potentially released through leaks, spills, or disposal. This document presents a summary of selected relevant existing information, including environmental studies and Hanford Site analytical data.

  16. Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case Control Study in Alaskan Natives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    1-0490 TITLE: Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case Control Study in Alaskan Natives PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0490 Control Study in Alaskan Natives 5b. GRANT NUMBER...to pol ychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) residues, organochlorine pesticides and methylmercury with PD. The hy pothesis is that increased exposure to t

  17. Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case Control Study in Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    TITLE: Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case Control Study in Alaska PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Caroline M. Tanner, M.D...2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0490 Control Study in...now in progress in Anchorage. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Parkinson’s disease, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Organochlorine pesticides, Methylmercury, Alaska

  18. Complete Reductive Dehalogenation of Brominated Biphenyls by Anaerobic Microorganisms in Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Bedard, Donna L.; Van Dort, Heidi M.

    1998-01-01

    We sought to determine whether microorganisms from the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediment in Woods Pond (Lenox, Mass.) could dehalogenate brominated biphenyls. The PCB dechlorination specificities for the microorganisms in this sediment have been well characterized. This allowed us to compare the dehalogenation specificities for brominated biphenyls and chlorinated biphenyls within a single sediment. Anaerobic sediment microcosms were incubated separately at 25°C with 16 different mono- to tetrabrominated biphenyls (350 μM) and disodium malate (10 mM). Samples were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector and a mass spectrometer detector at various times for up to 54 weeks. All of the tested brominated biphenyls were dehalogenated. For most congeners, including 2,6-dibromobiphenyl (26-BB) and 24-25-BB, the dehalogenation began within 1 to 2 weeks. However, for 246-BB and 2-2-BB, debromination was first observed at 7 and 14 weeks, respectively. Most intermediate products did not persist, but when 2-2-BB was produced as a dehalogenation product, it persisted for at least 15 weeks before it was dehalogenated to 2-BB and then to biphenyl. The dehalogenation specificities for brominated and chlorinated biphenyls were similar: meta and para substituents were generally removed first, and ortho substituents were more recalcitrant. However, the brominated biphenyls were better dehalogenation substrates than the chlorinated biphenyls. All of the tested bromobiphenyls, including those with ortho and unflanked meta and para substituents, were ultimately dehalogenated to biphenyl, whereas their chlorinated counterparts either were not dehalogenation substrates or were only partially dehalogenated. Our data suggest that PCB-dechlorinating microorganisms may be able to dehalogenate brominated biphenyls and may exhibit a relaxed specificity for these substrates. PMID:16349530

  19. CORRECTIVE ACTION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 528: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS CONTAMINATION NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 528: Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination is listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 528 was created to address polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination identified during the CAU 262 corrective action investigation. CAU 528 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): CAS 25-27-03, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Surface Contamination.

  20. Wastewater dilution index partially explains observed polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardant concentrations in osprey eggs from Columbia River Basin, 2008-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, Charles J.; Grove, Robert A.; Kaiser, James L.; Johnson, Branden L.; Furl, Chad V.; Letcher, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Several polybrominated biphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were found in all 175 osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs collected from the Columbia River Basin between 2002 and 2009. ΣPBDE concentrations in 2008–2009 were highest in osprey eggs from the two lowest flow rivers studied; however, each river flowed through relatively large and populous metropolitan areas (Boise, Idaho and Spokane, Washington). We used the volume of Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) discharge, a known source of PBDEs, as a measure of human activity at a location, and combined with river flow (both converted to millions of gallons/day) created a novel approach (an approximate Dilution Index) to relate waterborne contaminants to levels of these contaminants that reach avian eggs. This approach provided a useful understanding of the spatial osprey egg concentration patterns observed. Individual osprey egg concentrations along the Upper Willamette River co-varied with the Dilution Index, while combined egg data (geometric means) from rivers or segments of rivers showed a strong, significant relationship to the Dilution Index with one exception, the Boise River. There, we believe osprey egg concentrations were lower than expected because Boise River ospreys foraged perhaps 50–75% of the time off the river at ponds and lakes stocked with fish that contained relatively low ΣPBDE concentrations. Our limited temporal data at specific localities (2004–2009) suggests that ΣPBDE concentrations in osprey eggs peaked between 2005 and 2007, and then decreased, perhaps in response to penta- and octa-PBDE technical mixtures no longer being used in the USA after 2004. Empirical estimates of biomagnification factors (BMFs) from fish to osprey eggs were 3.76–7.52 on a wet weight (ww) basis or 4.37–11.0 lipid weight. Our earlier osprey study suggested that ΣPBDE egg concentrations >1,000 ng/g ww may reduce osprey reproductive success. Only two of the study areas sampled in 2008–2009 contained

  1. Determination and prediction of octanol-air partition coefficients of hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongxia; Xie, Qing; Tan, Feng; Chen, Jingwen; Quan, Xie; Qu, Baocheng; Zhang, Xin; Li, Xiaona

    2010-07-01

    The octanol-air partition coefficient (K(OA)) of 19 hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and 10 methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were measured as a function of temperature using a gas chromatographic retention time technique. At room temperature (298.15K), log K(OA) ranged from 8.30 for monobrominated OH/MeO-PBDEs to 13.29 for hexabrominated OH/MeO-PBDEs. The internal energies of phase change from octanol to air (Delta(OA)U) for 29 OH/MeO-PBDE congeners ranged from 72 to 126 kJ mol(-1). Using partial least-squares (PLS) analysis, a statistically quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) model for logK(OA) of OH/MeO-PBDE congeners was developed based on the 16 fundamental quantum chemical descriptors computed by PM3 Hamiltonian, for which the Q(cum)(2) was about 0.937. The molecular weight (Mw) and energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (E(LUMO)) were found to be main factors governing the log K(OA).

  2. Assessment of bioaccumulation of biphenyls in the trophic chain of a coastal area of Parana, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Froehner, Sandro; Maceno, Marcell

    2010-05-01

    The presence of biphenyl was investigated in sediments and water in Paranagua Bay. Chemicals compounds like biphenyl can cause several effects on the ecosystems such as bioaccumulation. Biphenyl and similar compounds are subject to bioaccumulation, which in turn may harm the local ecosystem. The bioaccumulation in the local trophic chain was evaluated using a mathematical model based on toxicokinetic properties of the compound in the organisms. The results showed that even in water, the concentration of biphenyl was high, 0.82 ng/L. Also, in the fishes, the concentrations calculated by the model were higher than the maximum than the maximum allowed for human consumption.

  3. Tissue distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in rats following oral exposure and the relationship to body burdens

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of widely-used flame retardants which have been found to persist, bioaccumulate, and potentially affect development in animals. Humans are exposed to PBDEs through both their diet and indoor environment. In human exposure studies...

  4. Comparative absorption and bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers following ingestion via dust and oil in male rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Household dust has been implicated as a major source of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure in humans. This finding has important implications especially for young children, who tend to ingest more dust than adults and may be more susceptible to some of the putative developmental effects ...

  5. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Alter Hepatic Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Enzyme Kinetics in Male Wistar Rats: Implications for Lipid and Glucose Metabolism

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are a family of lipophilic brominated flame-retardants consisting of 209 possible congeners. Three PBDE commercially-produced mixtures are decabrominated diphenyl ether (e.g. deca-BDE or DE-83R); octabrominated diphenyl ether (e.g. octa-BDE o...

  6. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers from the marine organisms Lendenfeldia dendyi and Sinularia dura with anti-MRSa activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the marine sponge Lendenfeldia dendyi and the soft coral Sinularia dura resulted in the isolation of five polybrominated diphenyl ethers (1-5). The structures of the isolated compounds were determined using spectroscopic methods(lD and 2D NMR) and HRMS analyses. The ...

  7. Improving Infant Exposure and Health Risk Estimates: Using Serum Data to Predict Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Concentrations in Breast Milk

    EPA Science Inventory

    Women in the United States have breast milk concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) that are among the highest in the world, leading to concerns over the potential health implications to breastfeeding infants during critical stages of growth and development. Deve...

  8. THE EFFECTS OF DE-71, A COMMERCIAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL EITHER MIXTURE, ON FEMALE PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT AND THYROID FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE EFFECTS OF DE-71, A COMMERICAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER MIXTURE, ON FEMALE PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT AND THYROID FUNCTION. S.C. Laws1, J. M. Ferrell1, J. M Hedge2, K. M. Crofton2, R.L. Cooper1, and T.E. Stoker1. 1Reprod. Tox. Div., 2Neurotox. Div., NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, R...

  9. Acute developmental exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether 47 (PBDE 47) alters dopamine concentration within the brains of male mice.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Previous studies in our laboratory and in the literature have shown that exposure to a specific PBDE congener, PBDE 47, during a criti...

  10. IN VITRO EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTALLY RELEVANT POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER (PBDE) CONGENERS ON CALCIUM BUFFERING MECHANISMS IN RAT BRAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as additive flame-retardants and have been detected in human blood, adipose tissue, and breast milk. Developmental and long-term exposures to these chemicals may pose a human health risk, especially to children. We have previ...

  11. Comparative Absorption and Bioaccumulation of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers following Ingestion via Dust and Oil in Male Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Household dust has been implicated as a major source of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure in humans. This finding has important implications for young children, who tend to ingest more dust than adults and may be more susceptible to some of the putative developmental...

  12. Synergistic Processing of Biphenyl and Benzoate: Carbon Flow Through the Bacterial Community in Polychlorinated-Biphenyl-Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Uhlik, Ondrej; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2016-02-26

    Aerobic mineralization of PCBs, which are toxic and persistent organic pollutants, involves the upper (biphenyl, BP) and lower (benzoate, BZ) degradation pathways. The activity of different members of the soil microbial community in performing one or both pathways, and their synergistic interactions during PCB biodegradation, are not well understood. This study investigates BP and BZ biodegradation and subsequent carbon flow through the microbial community in PCB-contaminated soil. DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify the bacterial guilds involved in utilizing (13)C-biphenyl (unchlorinated analogue of PCBs) and/or (13)C-benzoate (product/intermediate of BP degradation and analogue of chlorobenzoates). By performing SIP with two substrates in parallel, we reveal microbes performing the upper (BP) and/or lower (BZ) degradation pathways, and heterotrophic bacteria involved indirectly in processing carbon derived from these substrates (i.e. through crossfeeding). Substrate mineralization rates and shifts in relative abundance of labeled taxa suggest that BP and BZ biotransformations were performed by microorganisms with different growth strategies: BZ-associated bacteria were fast growing, potentially copiotrophic organisms, while microbes that transform BP were oligotrophic, slower growing, organisms. Our findings provide novel insight into the functional interactions of soil bacteria active in processing biphenyl and related aromatic compounds in soil, revealing how carbon flows through a bacterial community.

  13. Synergistic Processing of Biphenyl and Benzoate: Carbon Flow Through the Bacterial Community in Polychlorinated-Biphenyl-Contaminated Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Uhlik, Ondrej; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2016-02-01

    Aerobic mineralization of PCBs, which are toxic and persistent organic pollutants, involves the upper (biphenyl, BP) and lower (benzoate, BZ) degradation pathways. The activity of different members of the soil microbial community in performing one or both pathways, and their synergistic interactions during PCB biodegradation, are not well understood. This study investigates BP and BZ biodegradation and subsequent carbon flow through the microbial community in PCB-contaminated soil. DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify the bacterial guilds involved in utilizing 13C-biphenyl (unchlorinated analogue of PCBs) and/or 13C-benzoate (product/intermediate of BP degradation and analogue of chlorobenzoates). By performing SIP with two substrates in parallel, we reveal microbes performing the upper (BP) and/or lower (BZ) degradation pathways, and heterotrophic bacteria involved indirectly in processing carbon derived from these substrates (i.e. through crossfeeding). Substrate mineralization rates and shifts in relative abundance of labeled taxa suggest that BP and BZ biotransformations were performed by microorganisms with different growth strategies: BZ-associated bacteria were fast growing, potentially copiotrophic organisms, while microbes that transform BP were oligotrophic, slower growing, organisms. Our findings provide novel insight into the functional interactions of soil bacteria active in processing biphenyl and related aromatic compounds in soil, revealing how carbon flows through a bacterial community.

  14. Synergistic Processing of Biphenyl and Benzoate: Carbon Flow Through the Bacterial Community in Polychlorinated-Biphenyl-Contaminated Soil

    PubMed Central

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Uhlik, Ondrej; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic mineralization of PCBs, which are toxic and persistent organic pollutants, involves the upper (biphenyl, BP) and lower (benzoate, BZ) degradation pathways. The activity of different members of the soil microbial community in performing one or both pathways, and their synergistic interactions during PCB biodegradation, are not well understood. This study investigates BP and BZ biodegradation and subsequent carbon flow through the microbial community in PCB-contaminated soil. DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify the bacterial guilds involved in utilizing 13C-biphenyl (unchlorinated analogue of PCBs) and/or 13C-benzoate (product/intermediate of BP degradation and analogue of chlorobenzoates). By performing SIP with two substrates in parallel, we reveal microbes performing the upper (BP) and/or lower (BZ) degradation pathways, and heterotrophic bacteria involved indirectly in processing carbon derived from these substrates (i.e. through crossfeeding). Substrate mineralization rates and shifts in relative abundance of labeled taxa suggest that BP and BZ biotransformations were performed by microorganisms with different growth strategies: BZ-associated bacteria were fast growing, potentially copiotrophic organisms, while microbes that transform BP were oligotrophic, slower growing, organisms. Our findings provide novel insight into the functional interactions of soil bacteria active in processing biphenyl and related aromatic compounds in soil, revealing how carbon flows through a bacterial community. PMID:26915282

  15. [Diversity of the Key Biphenyl Destruction Genes in the Microbial Community of the Anadyr Bay Coastal Sediments].

    PubMed

    Shumkova, E S; Voronina, A O; Kuznetsova, N V; Plotnikova, E G

    2015-07-01

    Biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase is the key enzyme involved in the bacterial destruction of biphenyl and polychlo- rinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are highly stable toxic compounds. The diversity of bphA1 genes encoding the biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase a subunit of biphenyl-decomposing bacteria from the microbial community of the Bering Sea coastal sediments (the Anadyr port area) was studied. The enrichment culture was obtained by the incubation of bottom sediments samples with biphenyl as the only carbon source. It was followed by total DNA extraction and PCR analysis with degenerate primers specific to the bacterial biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase a subunit genes. Subsequent cloning of the PCR products led to the identification of three types of aromatic dioxygenase genes, which appeared to be phylogenetically close to the genes of the biphenyl/toluene dioxygenase and 3-phenylpropionate dioxygenase subfamilies of the Actinomycetales bacteria.

  16. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (DE-71)Interferes with Thyroid Hormone Action Independent Of Effects On Circulating Levels of Thyroid Hormone in Male Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are routinely found in human tissues including cord blood and breast milk. PBDEs may interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) during development, which could produce neurobehavioral deficits. An assumption in experimental and epidemiological stud...

  17. LACK OF EFFECT OF PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO A POLYBROMINATED DEPHENYL OTHER MIXTURE (DE-71) ON THE HABITUATION OF MOTOR ACTIVITY IN ADULT RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants and are becoming increasingly evident in environmental media, wildlife and human breast milk. Published research in mice has shown that early postnatal exposure to some PBDEs attenuates the habituation of motor ...

  18. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations and resulting exposure in homes in California: relationships among passive air, surface wipe and dust concentrations, and temporal variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in furniture foam, electronics, and other home furnishings. A field study was conducted that enrolled 139 households from California, which has had more stringent flame retardant requirements than other countries...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10417 - Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (generic) (P-11-338). 721.10417 Section 721.10417 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10417 Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338). (a... generically as biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (PMN P-11-338) is subject to reporting under this section...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10417 - Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (generic) (P-11-338). 721.10417 Section 721.10417 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10417 Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338). (a... generically as biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (PMN P-11-338) is subject to reporting under this section...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10417 - Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (generic) (P-11-338). 721.10417 Section 721.10417 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10417 Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338). (a... generically as biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (PMN P-11-338) is subject to reporting under this section...

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degrader Rhodococcus sp. WB1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Man; Shen, Alin

    2016-01-01

    Rhodococcus sp. WB1 is a polychlorinated biphenyl degrader which was isolated from contaminated soil in Zhejiang, China. Here, we present the complete genome sequence. The analysis of this genome indicated that a biphenyl-degrading gene cluster and several xenobiotic metabolism pathways are harbored. PMID:27738025

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls may alter marine trophic pathways by reducing phytoplankton size and production.

    PubMed

    O'Connors, H B; Wurster, C F; Powers, C D; Biggs, D C; Rowland, R G

    1978-08-25

    Polychlorinated biphenyls at concentrations of 1 to 10 micrograms per liter reduced phytoplankton biomass and size in natural estuarine phytoplankton communities grown within dialysis bags in situ in an estuarine marsh. In polychlorinated biphenyls-contaminated waters, these changes could increase the number of trophic levels and divert the flow of biomass from harvestable fish to jellyfish and other gelatinous predators.

  4. Pesticide Monitoring Study. Evaluation of Silicic Acid Column Pesticide/Polychlorinated Biphenyl Separation Procedure: Recovery and Elution Patterns of 24 Pesticides and Pesticide Metabolites and Two Polychlorinated Biphenyls.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-02-01

    This report presents silicic acid column recovery and elution characteristics for 24 pesticides and pesticide metabolites and two polychlorinated ... biphenyls . The average percent recoveries for all except a few compounds studied were essentially quantitative. The average percent relative standard

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) depress allogeneic natural cytotoxicity by earthworm coelomocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, M.M.; Cooper, E.L.; Eyambe, G.S.; Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Venables, B.J. |

    1995-10-01

    Coelomocytes of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris caused significant spontaneous allogeneic cytotoxicity in a 24-h trypan blue assay, but not in an assay using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Allogeneic cytotoxicity assays using cells from worms exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) suggest that PCBs can suppress a natural killing (NK-like) reaction. The implications of this work are twofold: understanding the evolution of natural killing (NK-like) activity and providing preliminary information on how spontaneous killing, a component of cellular immunity, may be compromised by pollutants.

  6. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using palladized iron

    SciTech Connect

    West, O.R.; Liang, L.; Holden, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    Contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a persistent problem within the Department of Energy complex, as well as in numerous industrial sites around the US. To date, commercially available technologies for destroying these highly stable compounds involve degradation at elevated temperatures either through incineration or base-catalyzed dehalogenation at 300{degrees}C. Since the heating required with these processes substantially increases the costs for treatment of PCB-contaminated wastes, there is a need for finding an alternative approach where PCB can be degraded at ambient temperatures. This report describes the degradation of PCB`s utilizing the bimetallic substrate of iron/palladium.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) partitioning between adipose tissue and serum

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.F. Jr.; Lawton, R.W.

    1984-09-01

    It has been recently suggested that variabilities in the partitioning of chronically retained lipophilic xenobiotics between adipose tissue and serum may be relatable to variations in the lipid content of the serum. Here, the authors present theoretical considerations and experimental data showing that this is indeed the case for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in humans. At equilibrium, in the absence of active transport, any lipophilic substance must distribute itself among body tissues in such a way that its chemical activity and also its chemical potential are the same at all points. In order to verify the theoretical relationships, three sorts of data relating to serum PCB levels in a human population were examined.

  8. Oxidation of biphenyl by a multicomponent enzyme system from Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400.

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, J D; Nadim, L M; Gibson, D T

    1993-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 grows on biphenyl as the sole carbon and energy source. This organism also cooxidizes several chlorinated biphenyl congeners. Biphenyl dioxygenase activity in cell extract required addition of NAD(P)H as an electron donor for the conversion of biphenyl to cis-2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl. Incorporation of both atoms of molecular oxygen into the substrate was shown with 18O2. The nonlinear relationship between enzyme activity and protein concentration suggested that the enzyme is composed of multiple protein components. Ion-exchange chromatography of the cell extract gave three protein fractions that were required together to restore enzymatic activity. Similarities with other multicomponent aromatic hydrocarbon dioxygenases indicated that biphenyl dioxygenase may consist of a flavoprotein and iron-sulfur proteins that constitute a short electron transport chain involved in catalyzing the incorporation of both atoms of molecular oxygen into the aromatic ring. Images PMID:8419290

  9. Isolation and characterization of bacteria degrading polychlorinated biphenyls from transformer oil.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Avelizapa, N G; Rodríguez-Vázquez, R; Martínez-Cruz, J; Esparza-García, F; Montes de Oca-García, A; Ríos-Leal, E; Fernández-Villagómez, G

    1999-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls from transformer oil were degraded in liquid culture under aerobic conditions using a mixed bacterial culture isolated from a transformer oil sample with a high content of polychlorinated biphenyls and other hydrocarbons. Four strains were identified, three of them corresponded to genus Bacillus, the other one to Erwinia. Bacteria in the transformer oil could remove as much as 65% of polychlorinated biphenyls (88% W/V in the transformer oil). Additional data showed that the two isolated strains of B. lentus were able to grow on transformer oil and degrade polychlorinated biphenyls by 80 and 83%. Our results provide evidence that microorganisms occurring in transformer oil have the potential to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls.

  10. Biphenyl-Metabolizing Bacteria in the Rhizosphere of Horseradish and Bulk Soil Contaminated by Polychlorinated Biphenyls as Revealed by Stable Isotope Probing▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Uhlik, Ondrej; Jecna, Katerina; Mackova, Martina; Vlcek, Cestmir; Hroudova, Miluse; Demnerova, Katerina; Paces, Vaclav; Macek, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    DNA-based stable isotope probing in combination with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism was used in order to identify members of the microbial community that metabolize biphenyl in the rhizosphere of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) cultivated in soil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) compared to members of the microbial community in initial, uncultivated bulk soil. On the basis of early and recurrent detection of their 16S rRNA genes in clone libraries constructed from [13C]DNA, Hydrogenophaga spp. appeared to dominate biphenyl catabolism in the horseradish rhizosphere soil, whereas Paenibacillus spp. were the predominant biphenyl-utilizing bacteria in the initial bulk soil. Other bacteria found to derive carbon from biphenyl in this nutrient-amended microcosm-based study belonged mostly to the class Betaproteobacteria and were identified as Achromobacter spp., Variovorax spp., Methylovorus spp., or Methylophilus spp. Some bacteria that were unclassified at the genus level were also detected, and these bacteria may be members of undescribed genera. The deduced amino acid sequences of the biphenyl dioxygenase α subunits (BphA) from bacteria that incorporated [13C]into DNA in 3-day incubations of the soils with [13C]biphenyl are almost identical to that of Pseudomonas alcaligenes B-357. This suggests that the spectrum of the PCB congeners that can be degraded by these enzymes may be similar to that of strain B-357. These results demonstrate that altering the soil environment can result in the participation of different bacteria in the metabolism of biphenyl. PMID:19700551

  11. Contamination of indoor dust and air by polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants and relevance of non-dietary exposure in Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites.

    PubMed

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Suzuki, Go; Isobe, Tomohiko; Viet, Pham Hung; Kobara, Yuso; Seike, Nobuyasu; Zhang, Gan; Sudaryanto, Agus; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and several additive brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in indoor dust and air from two Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) and an urban site in order to assess the relevance of these media for human exposure. The levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) in settled house dust from the EWRSs (130-12,000, 5.4-400, 5.2-620 and 31-1400 ng g(-1), respectively) were significantly higher than in urban house dust but the levels of PCBs (4.8-320 ng g(-1)) were not higher. The levels of PCBs and PBDEs in air at e-waste recycling houses (1000-1800 and 620-720 pg m(-3), respectively), determined using passive sampling, were also higher compared with non-e-waste houses. The composition of BFRs in EWRS samples suggests the influence from high-temperature processes and occurrence of waste materials containing older BFR formulations. Results of daily intake estimation for e-waste recycling workers are in good agreement with the accumulation patterns previously observed in human milk and indicate that dust ingestion contributes a large portion of the PBDE intake (60%-88%), and air inhalation to the low-chlorinated PCB intake (>80% for triCBs) due to their high levels in dust and air, respectively. Further investigation of both indoor dust and air as the exposure media for other e-waste recycling-related contaminants and assessment of health risk associated with exposure to these contaminant mixtures is necessary.

  12. Iron as a synergist for hepatocellular carcinoma induced by polychlorinated biphenyls in Ah-responsive C57BL/10ScSn mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, A G; Francis, J E; Carthew, P

    1990-03-01

    Male Ah-responsive C57BL/10ScSn mice received a single dose of iron-dextran (600 mg Fe/kg) and were fed a diet containing 0.01% of the PCBs mixture Aroclor 1254 for up to 12 months. Iron caused a marked synergistic increase in liver size from 2 months with greatly elevated mitotic rates, numbers of basophilic foci and incidences of bile duct and oval cell proliferation. Although at 4 months much of the liver enlargement was due to iron-depleted hyperplastic regions and lipid accumulation, by 8 months seven out of nine mice had nodules (hepatocellular adenomas) whereas none were observed in the Aroclor alone group. After 12 months, 16 out of 18 mice had multiple nodules and/or hepatocellular carcinomas whereas only one of 16 mice was positive in a group not given iron. Basophilic nodules were more common than clear cell nodules in those mice with carcinomas than in those animals without. Preloading with iron also greatly enhanced the development of cholangiofibrosis at 8 and 12 months. Preliminary experiments with the polybrominated biphenyl mixture Firemaster BP-6 indicated a similar synergistic interaction with iron. No effects of iron and Aroclor 1254 on the liver were observed in the Ah-nonresponsive strain DBA/2. Iron potentiated the development of uroporphyria after exposure to those chemicals in C57BL/10ScSn mice but not in the DBA/2 mice. Therefore in C57BL/10ScSn mice the carcinogenicity of PCBs and possibly PBBs, is modulated by iron status and probably not at a late stage where these chemicals may act in a promotional manner.

  13. Instrumental methods and challenges in quantifying polybrominated diphenyl ethers in environmental extracts: a review

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Increased interest in the fate, transport and toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) over the past few years has led to a variety of studies reporting different methods of analysis for these persistent organic pollutants. Because PBDEs encompass a range of vapor pressures, molecular weights and degrees of bromine substitution, various analytical methods can lead to discrimination of some PBDE congeners. Recent improvements in injection techniques and mass spectrometer ionization methods have led to a variety of options to determine PBDEs in environmental samples. The purpose of this paper is therefore to review the available literature describing the advantages and disadvantages in choosing an injection technique, gas chromatography column and detector. Additional discussion is given to the challenges in measuring PBDEs, including potential chromatographic interferences and the lack of commercial standards for higher brominated congeners, which provides difficulties in examining degradation and debromination of BDE congeners, particularly for BDE 209. PMID:17165211

  14. The Sequestration of Oxy-Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in the Nudibranchs Miamira magnifica and Miamira miamirana

    PubMed Central

    Dewi, Ariyanti S.; Cheney, Karen L.; Urquhart, Holly H.; Blanchfield, Joanne T.; Garson, Mary J.

    2016-01-01

    A series of oxy-polybrominated diphenyl ethers (O-PBDEs) has been isolated from the extracts of Miamira magnifica and Miamira miamirana collected from Queensland, Australia. M. magnifica sequesters the new OH-PBDE 1 and six known OH-PBDEs containing four to six bromines (2–7). M. miamirana also accumulates known tribromo- and tetrabromo OMe-PBDEs 8–10 in both mantle and viscera tissues. To date, Miamira is the only genus of the family Chromodorididae that is known to incorporate O-PBDEs, rather than terpenes, in the mantle where the metabolites may play a putative role in chemical defense. The extract of M. magnifica was tested in a brine shrimp lethality assay and exhibited an LD50 of 58 μg/mL. PMID:27801777

  15. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in thirteen shark species from offshore and coastal waters of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Sang-Jo; Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Jeong, Woochang; Lee, Won-Chan; Choy, Eun-Jung; Kang, Chang-Keun; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2015-06-15

    Limited reports are available on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sharks. In this study, PBDEs were measured in dorsal muscles (n=105) from 13 shark species collected from offshore and coastal waters of Korea. The PBDE concentrations varied greatly not only among species but also within species of sharks. The major PBDE congeners detected in our samples were BDEs 47, 28, 99, 153, 100, and 154. Concentrations of PBDEs in sharks in this study were lower than those reported for previous studies. The high PBDE concentrations were found for aggressive shark species. Inter-species differences in the concentrations and accumulation profiles of PBDEs are explained by differences in feeding habits and sampling locations. Several contributing factors such as growth velocity, trophic level, and local contamination may affect the bioaccumulation of PBDEs in sharks. The present study provides baselines for the occurrence and accumulation status of PBDEs in various shark species.

  16. Interaction of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Aerobic Granular Sludge: Biosorption and Microbial Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Shou-Qing; Cui, Qingjie; Zheng, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    As a new category of persistent organic pollutants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have become ubiquitous global environmental contaminants. No literature is available on the aerobic biotransformation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209). Herein, we investigated the interaction of PBDEs with aerobic granular sludge. The results show that the removal of BDE-209 from wastewater is mainly via biosorption onto aerobic granular sludge. The uptake capacity increased when temperature, contact time, and sludge dosage increased or solution pH dropped. Ionic strength had a negative influence on BDE-209 adsorption. The modified pseudo first-order kinetic model was appropriate to describe the adsorption kinetics. Microbial debromination of BDE-209 did not occur during the first 30 days of operation. Further study found that aerobic microbial degradation of 4,4′-dibromodiphenyl ether happened with the production of lower BDE congeners. PMID:25009812

  17. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected from Central Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Piersanti, Arianna; Tavoloni, Tamara; Bastari, Eleonora; Lestingi, Carmela; Romanelli, Sara; Saluti, Giorgio; Moretti, Simone; Galarini, Roberta

    2015-12-15

    One-hundred and thirty-four samples of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected along Central Adriatic Sea in 2013 were examined to determine the levels of fifteen congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The purified samples were analysed by gas-chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) applying the isotopic dilution. Only four congeners (PBDE 47, PBDE 99, PBDE 49 and PBDE 100) were present above the established limits of quantification with mean concentrations equal to 73, 30, 19 and 18 pg g(-1), respectively. The concentrations of PBDEs (sum) ranged from 27 to 386 pg g(-1), with the highest levels around the coastal area of Ancona town. The here found levels were comparable to those measured in mussels collected along Southern Adriatic Sea.

  18. AQUATOX coupled foodweb model for ecosystem risk assessment of Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in lake ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lulu; Liu, Jingling

    2014-08-01

    The AQUATOX model considers the direct toxic effects of chemicals and their indirect effects through foodwebs. For this study, the AQUATOX model was applied to evaluating the ecological risk of Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in a highly anthropogenically disturbed lake-Baiyangdian Lake. Calibration and validation results indicated that the model can adequately describe the dynamics of 18 biological populations. Sensitivity analysis results suggested that the model is highly sensitive to temperature limitation. PBDEs risk estimate results demonstrate that estimated risk for natural ecosystems cannot be fully explained by single species toxicity data alone. The AQUATOX model could provide a good basis in ascertaining ecological protection levels of "chemicals of concern" for aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, AQUATOX can potentially be used to provide necessary information corresponding to early warning and rapid forecasting of pollutant transport and fate in the management of chemicals that put aquatic ecosystems at risk.

  19. Maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and the secondary sex ratio: an occupational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Though commercial production of polychlorinated biphenyls was banned in the United States in 1977, exposure continues due to their environmental persistence. Several studies have examined the association between environmental polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and modulations of the secondary sex ratio, with conflicting results. Objective Our objective was to evaluate the association between maternal preconceptional occupational polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and the secondary sex ratio. Methods We examined primipara singleton births of 2595 women, who worked in three capacitor plants at least one year during the period polychlorinated biphenyls were used. Cumulative estimated maternal occupational polychlorinated biphenyl exposure at the time of the infant's conception was calculated from plant-specific job-exposure matrices. A logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between maternal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and male sex at birth (yes/no). Results Maternal body mass index at age 20, smoking status, and race did not vary between those occupationally exposed and those unexposed before the child's conception. Polychlorinated biphenyl-exposed mothers were, however, more likely to have used oral contraceptives and to have been older at the birth of their first child than non-occupationally exposed women. Among 1506 infants liveborn to polychlorinated biphenyl-exposed primiparous women, 49.8% were male; compared to 49.9% among those not exposed (n = 1089). Multivariate analyses controlling for mother's age and year of birth found no significant association between the odds of a male birth and mother's cumulative estimated polychlorinated biphenyl exposure to time of conception. Conclusions Based on these data, we find no evidence of altered sex ratio among children born to primiparous polychlorinated biphenyl-exposed female workers. PMID:21418576

  20. Lactational Exposure to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Its Relation to Early Childhood Anthropometric Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Kate; Mendez, Michelle; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy H.; Sjödin, Andreas; Daniels, Julie L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that may influence growth and development. Objective: We investigated the association between exposure to PBDEs via breast milk and anthropometric measurements in early childhood. Methods: The Pregnancy Infection and Nutrition (PIN) Babies studies followed a cohort of North Carolina pregnant women and their children through 36 months of age. Breast milk samples obtained at 3 months postpartum were analyzed for PBDEs. We collected height and weight records from well-baby doctor visits and also measured children during study visits (n = 246 children with > 1,400 anthropometric measurements). We assessed the relationship between breast milk concentrations of five PBDE congeners—BDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, and 153—and child’s weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height z-scores (WAZ, HAZ, and WHZ, respectively), adjusting for age; maternal age, race, prepregnancy BMI; parity; smoking during pregnancy; and breastfeeding, and stratifying by sex. Results: Overall, PBDE exposures via breast milk were not associated with early-life anthropometric measures in the PIN Babies cohort. When stratified by sex, PBDEs in milk were inversely associated with WHZ for boys; however, associations did not follow a consistent pattern across the concentration gradient and were imprecisely estimated. Among girls, PBDEs tended to be associated with increased WHZ except for BDE-153, which was inversely associated with WHZ, though all estimates were imprecisely estimated. Conclusions: We observed little evidence of associations between early-life PBDE exposures via breast milk and anthropometric measurements overall; however, our results prompt the need for sex-specific investigations in larger cohorts. Citation: Hoffman K, Mendez M, Siega-Riz AM, Herring AH, Sjödin A, Daniels JL. 2016. Lactational exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and its relation to early childhood anthropometric

  1. Semipermeable membrane devices used to estimate bioconcentration of polychlorinated biphenyls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, D.B.

    1999-01-01

    Aquatic organisms passively accumulate hydrophobic organic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, even when ambient water concentrations of the contaminant are below analytical detection limits. However, contaminant concentrations in tissue samples are subject to an inherently high level of variability due to differences in species, life stage, and gender bioconcentration potentials. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to sample Aroclor 1254, a mixture of readily bioconcentrated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), in a contaminated wetland near Flat Top, WV. The devices consisted of triolein, a lipid found in fish, enclosed in a polyethylene membrane. SPMDs were deployed in the water column and in direct contact with wetland sediments along a previously identified concentration gradient of PCBs. The devices were retrieved after a 25-day exposure period. Analytes were recovered by dialyzing the devices in nanograde hexane. Hexane dialysates were condensed and analyzed by gas chromatography. All deployed devices sequestered quantifiable amounts of Aroclor 1254. Water-column SPMDs accumulated PCBs far in excess of ambient water concentrations. The devices contacting sediments accumulated PCBs at all sites, though accumulated concentrations did not exceed concentrations in sediment. Patterns of PCB concentration in the devices corresponded to the identified gradient at the site. Results from the water-column SPMDs were used to estimate the concentration of the dissolved, bioavailable fraction of PCBs present in the water column. These concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.09 ??g/L of bioavailable Aroclor 1254.

  2. Fungal laccase-catalyzed degradation of hydroxy polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Keum, Young Soo; Li, Qing X

    2004-07-01

    Hydroxy polychlorinated biphenyls (hydroxy PCBs) are toxic metabolites of PCBs. Their toxicity such as strong endocrine disruption demands effective remediation methods. Laccases from Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus were tested to degrade hydroxy PCBs. Optimum pHs for both enzymes were around 4.0. Laccase from T. versicolor degrades hydroxy PCBs more rapidly than that from P. ostreatus. The enzymatic activities remained little changes in up to 10% organic solvents, but decreased rapidly in more than 10% acetone, acetonitrile or DMSO. Degradation rate constants decreased with increase of chlorination and no degradation was observed with tetra-, penta- and hexa-chloro hydroxy PCBs in non-mediated reactions. However, the tetra- to hexa-chloro hydroxy PCBs were degraded by laccase from T. versicolor in the presence of the mediator 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxy radical. The other mediators, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole and humic acid, also enhanced degradation of all the hydroxy PCBs except 4-hydroxy-2',3,3',4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl. The results showed that 3-hydroxy biphenyl was more resistant to laccase degradation than 2- or 4-hydroxy analogues. Significant linear-correlations (coefficient of determination, r2 = 0.9097 and 0.8186 for laccases from P. ostreatus and T. versicolor, respectively) were found between the ionization potentials and the removal rate constants of hydroxy PCBs.

  3. Momentum space analysis of the electronic structure of biphenyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morini, F.; Shojaei, S. H. Reza; Deleuze, M. S.

    2014-11-01

    The results of a yet to come experimental study of the electronic structure of biphenyl employing electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS) have been theoretically predicted, taking into account complications such as structural mobility in the electronic ground state, electronic correlation and relaxation, and a dispersion of the inner-valence ionization intensity to electronically excited (shake-up) configurations in the cation. The main purpose of this work is to explore the current limits of EMS in unraveling details of the molecular structure, namely the torsional characteristics of large and floppy aromatic molecules. At the benchmark ADC(3)/cc-pVDZ level of theory, the influence of the twist angle between the two phenyl rings is found to be extremely limited, except for individual orbital momentum profiles corresponding to ionization lines at electron binding energies ranging from 15 to 18 eV. When taking band overlap effects into account, this influence is deceptively far too limited to allow for any experimental determination of the torsional characteristics of biphenyl by means of EMS.

  4. Aryl biphenyl-3-ylmethylpiperazines as 5-HT7 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeeyeon; Kim, Youngjae; Tae, Jinsung; Yeom, Miyoung; Moon, Bongjin; Huang, Xi-Ping; Roth, Bryan L; Lee, Kangho; Rhim, Hyewhon; Choo, Il Han; Chong, Youhoon; Keum, Gyochang; Nam, Ghilsoo; Choo, Hyunah

    2013-11-01

    The 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7 R) is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of depression and neuropathic pain. The 5-HT7 R antagonist SB-269970 exhibited antidepressant-like activity, whereas systemic administration of the 5-HT7 R agonist AS-19 significantly inhibited mechanical hypersensitivity and thermal hyperalgesia. In our efforts to discover selective 5-HT7 R antagonists or agonists, aryl biphenyl-3-ylmethylpiperazines were designed, synthesized, and biologically evaluated against the 5-HT7 R. Among the synthesized compounds, 1-([2'-methoxy-(1,1'-biphenyl)-3-yl]methyl)-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (28) was the best binder to the 5-HT7 R (pKi =7.83), and its antagonistic property was confirmed by functional assays. The selectivity profile of compound 28 was also recorded for the 5-HT7 R over other serotonin receptor subtypes, such as 5-HT1 R, 5-HT2 R, 5-HT3 R, and 5-HT6 R. In a molecular modeling study, the 2-methoxyphenyl moiety attached to the piperazine ring of compound 28 was proposed to be essential for the antagonistic function.

  5. Perfluorinated compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in great blue heron eggs from Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Kannan, K.; Tao, L.; Saxena, A.R.; Route, B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 archived great blue heron (Ardea herodias) eggs collected from Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, IN, (Indiana Dunes) in 1993 were analyzed for 11 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate, the major contributor to total PFC concentrations, were below the toxicity thresholds estimated for bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), but within the toxicity threshold estimated for white leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus). The ranking of PBDE congener concentrations by percent concentration (PBDE-47 > -99 > -100 > -153 > -154 > -28 > -183) was consistent with the Penta-PBDE formulation. Total PBDE concentrations in great blue heron eggs from Indiana Dunes were elevated and probably reflect local contamination from highly urbanized and industrialized inputs into Lake Michigan. Polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations were within levels associated with altered reproductive behavior in other avian species and based on trends in other Great Lakes birds are probably higher today.

  6. 4-Substituted-2-Methoxyphenol: Suitable Building Block to Prepare New Bioactive Natural-like Hydroxylated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Dettori, Maria Antonietta; Fabbri, Davide; Pisano, Marina; Rozzo, Carla; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Dessµ, Alessandro; Dallocchio, Roberto; Delogu, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    A small collection of eugenol- and curcumin-analog hydroxylated biphenyls was prepared by straightforward methods starting from natural 4-substituted-2-methoxyphenols and their antitumoral activity was evaluated in vitro. Two curcumin-biphenyl derivatives showed interesting growth inhibitory activities on different malignant melanoma cell lines with IC50 ranging from 13 to 1 µM. Preliminary molecular modeling studies were carried out to evaluate conformations and dihedral angles suitable for antiproliferative activity in hydroxylated biphenyls bearing a side aliphatic chain. PMID:26074750

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl partitioning and bioaccumulation in Green Bay, Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Endicott, D.; Griesmer, D.; Kreis, R.; Mackelburg, L.

    1994-12-31

    The 1989--1990 Green Bay Mass Balance Study generated an extensive data set for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in water, sediment and biological matrices. The analytes included several mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners. From these data, ratios between dissolved, particulate, and biotic concentrations in the water column and sediment have been calculated. These ratios provide a basis for evaluating the distribution of hydrophobic organic chemicals in the aquatic ecosystem. The Mass Balance Study also supported development of mathematical models of PCB transport, fate, and food chain bioaccumulation in Green Bay. The models provide significant additional insight as to processes affecting the observed PCB distribution, including spatial-temporal variability, organic carbon sorbent dynamics, sediment-water column disequilibria, and kinetics of bioaccumulation.

  8. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment: sources, fate, and toxicities.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Rouzbeh; Van Aken, Benoit

    2014-05-01

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) are produced in the environment by the oxidation of PCBs through a variety of mechanisms, including metabolic transformation in living organisms and abiotic reactions with hydroxyl radicals. As a consequence, OH-PCBs have been detected in a wide range of environmental samples, including animal tissues, water, and sediments. OH-PCBs have recently raised serious environmental concerns because they exert a variety of toxic effects at lower doses than the parent PCBs and they are disruptors of the endocrine system. Although evidence about the widespread dispersion of OH-PCBs in various compartments of the ecosystem has accumulated, little is currently known about their biodegradation and behavior in the environment. OH-PCBs are, today, increasingly considered as a new class of environmental contaminants that possess specific chemical, physical, and biological properties not shared with the parent PCBs. This article reviews recent findings regarding the sources, fate, and toxicities of OH-PCBs in the environment.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the Great Lakes: 1990`s concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Bloem, T.B.; Stanko, T.A.; Blankenbaker, R.K.; Higgins, J.H.; De Vault, D.S.; Anderson, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the water column of the Laurentian Great Lakes have declined over the last decade. The measurement of current concentrations of these hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCS) requires the sampling of large sample volumes, typically 100--400 liters. This paper will present results from the water column HOC trend program, begun by GLNPO in 1991. Water samples were filtered with a 0.7{mu}M glass fiber filter, and the filtrate was collected and extracted using the Goulden Large Sample Extractor (GLSE). PCBs were extracted from the filters with Soxhlet extraction, and the resulting operationally-defined particulate and dissolved phases were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Results indicate concentrations in the 100s of picograms/liter for total PCBs. Spatial differences within and between Lakes, and temporal differences will be presented.

  10. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on development and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Faroon, O M; Keith, S; Jones, D; de Rosa, C

    2001-04-01

    As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals found at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) sites that have the greatest public health impact. These profiles comprehensively summarize toxicological and environmental information. This article, which constitutes the release of an important section of the Toxicological Profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (ATSDR 2000) into the scientific literature, focuses on the developmental and reproductive effects of this group of synthetic organic chemicals (PCBs) in humans and animals. Information on other health effects, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, biomarkers, interactions, chemical and physical properties, potential for human exposure, and regulations and advisories is detailed in the profile. Interested readers are encouraged to consult the original toxicological profile for more information. Profiles can be requested from ATSDR's Information Center by telephone (1-888-42-ATSDR [1-888-422-8737] or E-mail: (atsdric@cdc.gov).

  11. Donor's position-specific channel interference in substituted biphenyl molecules.

    PubMed

    Mehboob Alam, Md

    2015-07-21

    The channel interference mechanism describes the two-photon absorption process in terms of the relative orientations of different transition dipole moment vectors (TDMVs) in a molecule. Controlling these interferences is a difficult but important task, because it can provide new information about such absorption/emission processes. The present contribution aims to explain the reversal in the nature of these interferences with the relative positions of the donor-acceptor groups in substituted biphenyl molecules. The results obtained from the linear and quadratic response theories indicate that having the donor at the para position leads to a constructive interference whereas having it at any of the other two positions results in a destructive interference. This is explained by a systematic analysis of the relative orientations of all the TDMVs involved in a three-state model.

  12. Integration of sample analysis method (SAM) for polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Monagle, M.; Johnson, R.C.

    1996-05-01

    A completely integrated Sample Analysis Method (SAM) has been tested as part of the Contaminant Analysis Automation program. The SAM system was tested for polychlorinated biphenyl samples using five Standard Laboratory Modules{trademark}: two Soxtec{trademark} modules, a high volume concentrator module, a generic materials handling module, and the gas chromatographic module. With over 300 samples completed within the first phase of the validation, recovery and precision data were comparable to manual methods. Based on experience derived from the first evaluation of the automated system, efforts are underway to improve sample recoveries and integrate a sample cleanup procedure. In addition, initial work in automating the extraction of semivolatile samples using this system will also be discussed.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyl accumulation in tree bark and wood growth rings

    SciTech Connect

    Meredith, M.L.; Hites, R.A.

    1987-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found in the bark of black walnut and tulip poplar trees growing near a PCB-contaminated landfill. PCBs were also found in the bark of white oak trees growing 14 km away from the landfill. The concentration of individual congeners in the bark averaged 18 ppb at the landfill and 0.5 ppb at the other site. The PCB congeners were accumulated into the bark in proportion to their lipophilicity (as measured by octanol-water partition coefficients). The authors findings suggest that tree bark could be used for biomonitoring of lipophilic organic pollutants in the atmosphere. There is little evidence that PCBs are present in the wood of trees. The signal to blank ratios are always less than 3, and the relative concentrations between 20-year time intervals do not show trends that correlate with the known inputs of PCBs in Bloomington, IN. 2 tables.

  14. Developmental neurotoxicology of polychlorinated biphenyls and related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Tilson, H.A.; Harry, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are stable, lipophilic industrial compounds that are present in residue levels in human tissue, wildlife and freshwater sediment. They are toxic and are known to pass the placenta and intoxicate the fetus. Two large outbreaks of poisoning have occurred in Asia and women pregnant at or after the exposures had children who were developmentally impaired. Laboratory experiments in rhesus monkeys and rodents designed to assess neural or developmental neurotoxic effects show altered activity levels, impaired learning, and delayed ontogeny of reflexes. Children exposed transplacentally to PCBs in North America have been reported to display hypotonia and hyporeflexia at birth, delay in psychomotor development at 6 and 12 months of age and poorer visual recognition at 7 months. PCBs appear to be developmental neurotoxicants in both humans and animals and may pose a significant health risk, particularly to pregnant women and their offspring.

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in plastics ingested by seabirds.

    PubMed

    Colabuono, Fernanda Imperatrice; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2010-04-01

    The occurrence of plastic objects in the digestive tract was assessed in eight species of Procellariiformes collected in southern Brazil and the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the ingested plastics pellets and plastic fragments was evaluated. PCBs were detected in plastic pellets (491 ng g(-1)) and plastic fragments (243-418 ng g(-1)). Among the OCPs, p,p'-DDE had the highest concentrations, ranging from 68.0 to 99.0 ng g(-1). The occurrence of organic pollutants in post-consumer plastics supports the fact that plastics are an important source carrying persistent organic pollutants in the marine environment. Although transfer through the food chain may be the main source of exposure to POPs to seabirds, plastics could be an additional source for the organisms which ingest them, like Procellariiformes which are the seabirds most affected by plastic pollution.

  16. Determination of acute toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls to photobactrium phosphoreum

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, S.; Xu, X.; He, Y.

    1997-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a highly lipophilic group of global pollutants, consisting of 209 congeners. PCBs were discovered before the turn of the century and their usefulness for industry, because of their physical properties, was recognized early. The distribution of PCBs in the environment was not noticed until Jensen and his colleagues found PCBs in wildlife samples. Since then, investigations in many parts of the world have revealed the widespread distribution of PCBs in environmental samples and PCVs are persistent and accumulate in food webs. Thus, determination of toxicities of commercial PCB mixtures and PCB congeners are required. Toxicity tests using luminous bacteria have shown high correlation to traditional bioassays. This study compared the EC50 values of the commercial mixtures, PCB3 and PCB5, with those of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Sorption and Availability in Field-Contaminated Sediments†

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Traditional and new relationships of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) distribution among the solid phases, the free aqueous phase, and biolipids are comprehensively reviewed using seven well-characterized freshwater and marine sediments polluted with PCBs. The traditional relationship relating free aqueous concentration and biolipid concentration to sediment total organic carbon, compound octanol−water partitioning coefficient, and solid-phase contaminant concentration overestimates measured free aqueous concentrations and biolipid concentrations by mean factors of 8 and 33, respectively. By contrast, relationships based on measured free aqueous phase concentrations or the PCB mass fraction desorbed from sediment provide reasonable predictions of biolipid concentrations. Solid-phase concentration-based predictions perform better when sorption to amorphous organic matter and black carbon (BC) is distinguished. Contrary to previously published relationships, BC sorption appears to be linear for free aqueous PCB-congener concentrations in the picogram to microgram per liter range. PMID:19961220

  18. Polychlorinated Biphenyls as Probes of Biogeochemical Processes in Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzgerald, S.A.; Steuer, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the use of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) congener and homolog assemblages as tracers of biogeochemical processes in the Milwaukee and Manitowoc Rivers in southeastern Wisconsin from 1993 to 1995. PCB congeners in the dissolved and suspended particle phases, along with various algal indicators (algal carbon and pigments), were quantitated in the water seasonally. In addition, PCB congener assemblages were determined seasonally in surficial bed sediments. Biogeochemical processes investigated included: determination of the source of suspended particles and bottom sediments by comparison with known Aroclor mixtures, water-solid partitioning, and algal uptake of PCBs. Seasonal differences among the PCB assemblages were observed mainly in the dissolved phase, somewhat less in the suspended particulate phase, and not at all in the bed sediments.

  19. Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: New Trends and Promises

    PubMed Central

    Van Aken, Benoit; Correa, Paola A.; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic plants and associated bacteria constitute a new generation of genetically modified organisms for efficient and environmental-friendly treatment of soil and water contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This review focuses on recent advances in phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs, including the development of transgenic plants and associated bacteria. Phytoremediation, or the use of higher plants for rehabilitation of soil and groundwater, is a promising strategy for cost-effective treatment of sites contaminated by toxic compounds, including toxic PCBs. Plants can help mitigate environmental pollution by PCBs through a range of mechanisms: besides uptake from soil (phytoextraction), plants are capable of enzymatic transformation of PCBs (phytotransformation); by releasing a variety of secondary metabolites, plants also enhance the microbial activity in the root zone, improving biodegradation of PCBs (rhizoremediation). However, because of their hydrophobicity and chemical stability, PCBs are only slowly taken up and degraded by plants and associated bacteria, resulting in incomplete treatment and potential release of toxic metabolites into the environment. Moreover, naturally occurring plant-associated bacteria may not possess the enzymatic machinery necessary for PCB degradation. In order to overcome these limitations, bacterial genes involved in the metabolism of PCBs, such as biphenyl dioxygenases, have been introduced into higher plants, following a strategy similar to the development of transgenic crops. Similarly, bacteria have then been genetically modified that exhibit improved biodegradation capabilities and are able to maintain stable relationships with plants. Transgenic plants and associated bacteria bring hope for a broader and more efficient application of phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs. PMID:20384372

  20. Guidance on the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of synthetic organic chemicals including 209 known isomers, each with from 1 to 10 chlorine atoms on a biphenyl ring. PCBs have a number of desirable properties for industrial applications including thermal stability, flame retardance, and low vapor pressure. Because of these properties, PCBs were widely used as dielectric fluid in electrical equipment such as utility transformers and capacitors. PCBs were also extensively used in hydraulic fluid and heat transfer fluid, in gaskets, as additives in cutting oils and lubricant, and in a variety of other uses. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 in response to emerging information about the adverse health effects of PCBs and their persistence in the environment. In addition, TSCA directed the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prescribe methods for disposal of PCBS, require marking of PCBs with warning labels, and control their use. The TSCA regulations allow continued use of PCBs provided that the use is totally enclosed and does not pose a risk to human health or the environment. However, at the end of their useful life, all PCB materials must be disposed of according to the TSCA regulations. This guidance document uses graphics and flow charts where possible to present the TSCA regulations according to management activities such as use, storage, disposal, and spill cleanup. The document is designed to be read on an as-needed basis; that is, each chapter can stand alone or may be read in combination with others to help the reader determine the regulations relevant to his or her individual situation and needs. Every attempt has been made to include the requirements of other statutes and regulations that apply to PCB materials and provide references for the reader to consult for additional information.

  1. Residential Levels of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in California

    PubMed Central

    Colt, Joanne S.; Deziel, Nicole C.; Whitehead, Todd P.; Reynolds, Peggy; Gunier, Robert B.; Nishioka, Marcia; Dahl, Gary V.; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Buffler, Patricia A.; Metayer, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background: House dust is a major source of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are found at high levels in U.S. homes. Methods: We studied 167 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cases 0–7 years of age and 214 birth certificate controls matched on date of birth, sex, and race/ethnicity from the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study. In 2001–2007, we sampled carpets in the room where the child spent the most time while awake; we used a high-volume small-surface sampler or we took dust from the home vacuum. We measured concentrations of 14 PBDE congeners including penta (28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154), octa (183, 196, 197, 203), and decaBDEs (206–209). Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using logistic regression, adjusting for demographics, income, year of dust collection, and sampling method. Results: BDE-47, BDE-99, and BDE-209 were found at the highest concentrations (medians, 1,173, 1,579, and 938 ng/g, respectively). Comparing the highest to lowest quartile, we found no association with ALL for summed pentaBDEs (OR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.4, 1.3), octaBDEs (OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 0.7, 2.3), or decaBDEs (OR = 1.0; 95% CI: 0.6, 1.8). Comparing homes in the highest concentration (nanograms per gram) tertile to those with no detections, we observed significantly increased ALL risk for BDE-196 (OR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.8), BDE-203 (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.6), BDE-206 (OR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.9), and BDE-207 (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.03, 3.8). Conclusion: We found no association with ALL for common PBDEs, but we observed positive associations for specific octa and nonaBDEs. Additional studies with repeated sampling and biological measures would be informative. Citation: Ward MH, Colt JS, Deziel NC, Whitehead TP, Reynolds P, Gunier RB, Nishioka M, Dahl GV, Rappaport SM, Buffler PA, Metayer C. 2014. Residential levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in California. Environ Health Perspect 122:1110–1116

  2. An intercalibration study on organobromine compounds: Results on polybrominated diphenylethers and related dioxin-like compounds.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shin; Sakai, Shin-Ichi; Watanabe, Isao

    2006-06-01

    An intercalibration study on organobromine compounds has been conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability in the analysis of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their related compounds like polybrominated and monobromo-polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and -furans (PBDDs/DFs, MoBPCDDs/DFs). This paper reports the results for these compounds in 'Mixed Standard Solutions' and 'Air-Dried Sediment'. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for PBDEs, PBDDs/DFs and MoBPCDDs/DFs in mixed standard solutions ranged from 9% to 24%, 4% to 20% and 8% to 27%, respectively. The results of this study are better than those reported in earlier international interlaboratory studies due to general improvement in analytical methods and an increasing number of available authentic standards, particularly for PBDEs. In the analysis for higher brominated compounds such as octabromodibenzodioxin, the participants were advised to optimize the calibration curves befitting the range of concentrations found in samples because variation of relative response factors was noted. The results for 'Air-Dried Sediment' were also reasonable with RSDs from 10% to 38% for PBDEs, 8% to 38% for PBDDs/DFs and 17% to 36% for MoBPCDDs/DFs. In the sediment sample, possible errors in the sample pretreatment and/or interference by other compounds/impurities were indicated. The concentrations of pentabromodiphenylether, BDE100, varied more than the other PBDE isomers due to its poor separation in some chromatographic conditions. In addition, interference by PBDEs was observed in the analysis for PBDFs. Potential degradation/secondary formulation of PBDEs and PBDFs during the Soxhlet extraction were suggested when copper powder was added into the sediment samples. Inspite of these observations, the results in this study are better than those reported in other interlaboratory studies due to the advice given to participants for improving the results. Compared

  3. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposure and Thyroid Function Tests in North American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Makey, Colleen M.; McClean, Michael D.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; He, Xue-Mei; Sjödin, Andreas; Weinberg, Janice M.; Webster, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame-retardant chemicals that are added to many consumer products. Multiple animal studies have shown PBDEs to be thyroid hormone (TH) disruptors. Epidemiologic evidence of PBDE exposure associated with TH disruption has been inconclusive. Objectives: We used repeated measures to estimate associations between serum PBDE concentrations and THs in a North American adult cohort. Methods: From 2010 to 2011, we collected ≤ 3 serum samples at approximately 6-month intervals from 52 healthy adult office workers from Boston, Massachusetts, for analysis of PBDE congeners and THs. Results: The geometric mean sum concentrations of the most prevalent PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, and BDE-153) were 22 ng/g lipid in winter 2010, 23 ng/g lipid in summer 2010, and 19 ng/g lipid in winter 2011. BDE-47 was the predominant congener. Based on a multivariable mixed regression model, we estimated that on average, a 1-ng/g serum increase in BDE-47 was associated with a 2.6-μg/dL decrease in total thyroxine (T4) (95% CI: –4.7, –0.35). Total T4 was inversely associated with each PBDE congener. Serum concentrations of PBDEs were not strongly associated with total triiodothyronine (T3), free T4, or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Conclusion: These results are consistent with those from animal studies showing that exposure to PBDEs is associated with a decrease in serum T4. Because the other TH concentrations did not appear to be associated with BDE exposures, our findings do not indicate effects on the pituitary–thyroid axis. Taken together, our findings suggest that PBDE exposure might decrease the binding of T4 to serum T4 binding proteins. Citation: Makey CM, McClean MD, Braverman LE, Pearce EN, He XM, Sjödin A, Weinberg JM, Webster TF. 2016. Polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure and thyroid function tests in North American adults. Environ Health Perspect 124:420–425; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp

  4. EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AS PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as products of incomplete combustion from incinerators. PCBs were used widely as industrial chemicals, particularly as additives in electrical transformer cooling oil. Growing evidence of PCBs' role as a persistent...

  5. ENANTIOMERIC COMPOSITION OF CHIRAL POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL ATROPISOMERS IN AQUATIC AND RIPARIAN BIOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The enantiomeric composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers was measured in river and riparian biota (fish, bivalves, crayfish, water snakes, barn swallows) from selected sites throughout the United States by using chiral gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Nonr...

  6. ONTOGENETIC ALTERATIONS IN MOLECULAR AND STRUCTURAL CORRELATES OF DENDRITIC GROWTH FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the first report showing both molecular and structural changes in brain following developmental exposure to a neurotoxicant. It is known that perinatal exposure to a neurotoxicant, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is associated with decreased IQ scores, impaired learnin...

  7. DECHLORINATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SEDIMENT SLURRIES BY PALLADIUM MODIFIED ZEROVALENT IRON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of international concern because of global distribution, persistence, and toxicity. Removal of these compounds from the environment presents a very tough challenge because they are highly hydro...

  8. COMPARING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN FARM-RAISED AND WILD-CAUGHT CATFISH FROM SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most thermally stable organic chemicals known. This characteristic has historically made them useful in a wide array of applications including use in electrical transformers and capacitors, varnishes, waxes, synthetic resins, epoxy ...

  9. Biotransformation and reduction of estrogenicity of bisphenol A by the biphenyl-degrading Cupriavidus basilensis.

    PubMed

    Zühlke, Marie-Katherin; Schlüter, Rabea; Mikolasch, Annett; Zühlke, Daniela; Giersberg, Martin; Schindler, Henning; Henning, Ann-Kristin; Frenzel, Heidi; Hammer, Elke; Lalk, Michael; Bornscheuer, Uwe T; Riedel, Katharina; Kunze, Gotthard; Schauer, Frieder

    2017-01-03

    The biphenyl-degrading Gram-negative bacterium Cupriavidus basilensis (formerly Ralstonia sp.) SBUG 290 uses various aromatic compounds as carbon and energy sources and has a high capacity to transform bisphenol A (BPA), which is a hormonally active substance structurally related to biphenyl. Biphenyl-grown cells initially hydroxylated BPA and converted it to four additional products by using three different transformation pathways: (a) formation of multiple hydroxylated BPA, (b) ring fission, and (c) transamination followed by acetylation or dimerization. Products of the ring fission pathway were non-toxic and all five products exhibited a significantly reduced estrogenic activity compared to BPA. Cell cultivation with phenol and especially in nutrient broth (NB) resulted in a reduced biotransformation rate and lower product quantities, and NB-grown cells did not produce all five products in detectable amounts. Thus, the question arose whether enzymes of the biphenyl degradation pathway are involved in the transformation of BPA and was addressed by proteomic analyses.

  10. 77 FR 74006 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics From Shredder Residue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... AGENCY Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics From Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental... interpretation of its regulations currently under consideration that would generally allow for the recycling of... Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue, relying principally on the regulatory provisions for excluded...

  11. 78 FR 20640 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... AGENCY Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental... will generally allow for the recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue, relying principally...

  12. Air Sampling of Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Arnold AFS, Tennessee.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    DIBENZOFURANS, AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS ARNOLD AFS TN ISAAC ATKINS, JR., CAPTAIN, USAF, BSC January 1987 D I ~ELECTE FINAL REPORT 0Wfl D LU...NO 11. TITLE (Include Security ClassificatiOtl) Air Sampling of Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans, and Polychlorinated ... Biphenyls at Arnold AFS TN (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Captaiq Isaac Atkins, Jr. 13a. TYP OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month

  13. Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case Control Study in Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case Control Study in Alaska 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0490 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...biphenyl (PCBs) residues, organochlorine pesticides and methylmercury with PD. The hypothesis is that increased exposure to these compounds will be...Parkinson’s disease, polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticides, methylmercury, Alaska natives, neurodegeneration 16. SECURITY

  14. Preliminary results of the comparison of the electrochemical behavior of a thioether and biphenyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, W.; Jones, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    An electrochemical cell was constructed to explore the feasibility of using electrochemical techniques to simulate the tribochemistry of various substances. The electrochemical cell was used to study and compare the behavior of a thioether 1,3-bis(phenylthio) benzene and biphenyl. It is found that under controlled conditions biphenyl undergoes a reversible reduction to a radical anion whereas the thioether undergoes an irreversible reduction yielding several products. The results are discussed in relationship to boundary lubrication.

  15. Investigation of saponification for determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Numata, Masahiko; Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Yamazaki, Misako; Takatsu, Akiko

    2005-02-01

    The effects of saponification conditions (temperature and water content of saponifying solution) on the determination of chlorinated biphenyls (CBs) in marine sediments were investigated. Although highly chlorinated biphenyls (nona- to deca-CBs) decomposed during high-temperature saponification, the degree of degradation was reduced by adding water to the ethanolic potassium hydroxide saponifying solution. Room-temperature saponification yielded quantitative recovery of highly chlorinated biphenyl surrogates but low extraction efficiencies of lightly chlorinated biphenyls (mono- to di-CBs). The same samples were analyzed by other extraction techniques, for example, pressurized liquid extraction, and analytical results were compared. The mono- and di-CB concentrations were correlated with the extraction temperatures of various extraction techniques. In particular, the concentrations of some CB congeners (CB11, CB14) were higher with saponification. The low degree of degradation of highly chlorinated biphenyls and the high recovery of lightly chlorinated biphenyls were compatible when room-temperature and high-temperature saponification were combined. Except for the anomalies of CB11 and CB14, the combined method gave satisfactory results for analysis of PCBs.

  16. Microcosm enrichment of biphenyl-degrading microbial communities from soils and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner-Doebler, I.; Bennasar, A.; Stroempl, C.; Bruemmer, I.; Eichner, C.; Grammel, I.; Moore, E.R.B.; Vancanneyt, M.

    1998-08-01

    A microcosm enrichment approach was employed to isolate bacteria which are representative of long-term biphenyl-adapted microbial communities. Growth of microorganisms was stimulated by incubating soil and sediment samples from polluted and nonpolluted sites with biphenyl crystals. After 6 months, stable population densities between 8 {times} 10{sup 9} and 2 {times} 10{sup 11} CFU/ml were established in the microcosms, and a large percentage of the organisms were able to grow on biphenyl-containing minimal medium plates. A total of 177 biphenyl-degrading strains were subsequently isolated and characterized by their ability to grow on biphenyl in liquid culture and to accumulate a yellow meta cleavage product when they were sprayed with dihydroxy-biphenyl. Isolates were identified by using a polyphasic approach, including fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole-cell proteins, and genomic fingerprinting based on sequence variability in the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer region. In all of the microcosms, isolates identified as Rhodococcus opacus dominated the cultivable microbial community, comprising a cluster of 137 isolates with very similar FAME profiles (Euclidean distances, <10) and identical 16S rRNA gene sequences.

  17. Gridded field observations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and decabromodiphenyl ethane in the atmosphere of north China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yifan; Ma, Jin; Qiu, Xinghua; Lin, Yan; Yang, Qiaoyun; Zhu, Tong

    2013-08-06

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are important pollutants, yet few data on ambient BFRs levels have been available for North China, one of the most developed regions of the country. In this study, we investigated levels and spatial distributions of BFRs based on gridded field observations coupled with passive air sampling in the aforementioned region. A model incorporating both point and nonpoint sources was developed to simulate the spatial distribution and to achieve source apportionment. Although high concentration was observed at an electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling site, the median level of the sum of tri-, tetra-, hepta-, hexa-, and hepta-PBDEs (∑10PBDEs) was 0.56 ng/sample, which was lower than those observed previously in mainland China. Source apportionment revealed that nonpoint emissions contributed nearly 78% of ∑10PBDEs observed in this study. In contrast, high levels of BDE-209 and DBDPE were observed, with median concentrations of 4.0 and 10.2 ng/sample, respectively. Point sources located in the region around Laizhou Bay, Shandong Province were the major sources, which contributed 31% of BDE-209 and 70% of DBDPE observed in this study, indicating that this manufacturing base was the most important source region for atmospheric deca-BFRs in North China. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report source apportionment of atmospheric BFRs based on gridded field observations.

  18. An overview of policies for managing polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Great Lakes basin.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jessica; Mohapatra, Satya P; Mitchell, Anne

    2008-11-01

    The Great Lakes are an important environmental and economic resource for Canada and the United States. The ecological integrity of the Great Lakes, however, is becoming increasingly threatened by a number of persistent, bio-accumulative and harmful chemicals that enter the Great Lakes ecosystem through fluvial and atmospheric deposition. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardant, are among such chemicals, whose concentration in the Great Lakes has greatly increased in recent years. Despite growing concern over the possible health and environmental effects of these compounds, only four of the eight Great Lakes states have enacted regulations to ban/restrict the use of PBDE while the two Canadian Great Lakes provinces are yet to endorse any regulation. Of the three main commercial PBDE mixtures (pentaBDE, octaBDE and decaBDE), penta- and octaBDE are no longer manufactured or imported into the United States and Canada. DecaBDE, however, still finds use in a variety of products. In the present paper, the authors review the current regulations and policies for managing PBDEs in the Great Lakes jurisdictions and briefly review commercially available non-bromine chemical alternatives to PBDE. As these alternatives are comparatively more expensive than PBDE, future adoption of more eco-friendly flame retardants by the polymer industry will likely depend on stricter legislation regulating the use of PBDE and/or an increased public demand for PBDE-free products.

  19. A fluorescence-based method for rapid and direct determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, Huimei; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Ma, Teng; Shang, Jianying; Pan, Duoqiang

    2015-01-01

    A new method was developed for rapid and direct measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aqueous samples using fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence spectra of tri- to deca-BDE (BDE 28, 47, 99, 153, 190, and 209) commonly found in environment were measured at variable emission and excitation wavelengths. The results revealed that the PBDEs have distinct fluorescence spectral profiles and peak positions that can be exploited to identify these species and determine their concentrations in aqueous solutions. The detection limits as determined in deionized water spiked with PBDEs are 1.71-5.82 ng/L for BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 190, and BDE 209 and 45.55–69.95 ng/L for BDE 99 and BDE 153. The effects of environmental variables including pH, humic substance, and groundwater chemical composition on PBDEs measurements were also investigated. These environmental variables affected fluorescence intensity, but their effect can be corrected through linear additivity and separation of spectral signal contribution. Compared with conventional GC-based analytical methods, the fluorescence spectroscopy method is more efficient as it only uses a small amount of samples (2-4 mL), avoids lengthy complicated concentration and extraction steps, and has a low detection limit of a few ng/L.

  20. A fluorescence-based method for rapid and direct determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water

    DOE PAGES

    Shan, Huimei; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; ...

    2015-01-01

    A new method was developed for rapid and direct measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aqueous samples using fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence spectra of tri- to deca-BDE (BDE 28, 47, 99, 153, 190, and 209) commonly found in environment were measured at variable emission and excitation wavelengths. The results revealed that the PBDEs have distinct fluorescence spectral profiles and peak positions that can be exploited to identify these species and determine their concentrations in aqueous solutions. The detection limits as determined in deionized water spiked with PBDEs are 1.71-5.82 ng/L for BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 190, and BDEmore » 209 and 45.55–69.95 ng/L for BDE 99 and BDE 153. The effects of environmental variables including pH, humic substance, and groundwater chemical composition on PBDEs measurements were also investigated. These environmental variables affected fluorescence intensity, but their effect can be corrected through linear additivity and separation of spectral signal contribution. Compared with conventional GC-based analytical methods, the fluorescence spectroscopy method is more efficient as it only uses a small amount of samples (2-4 mL), avoids lengthy complicated concentration and extraction steps, and has a low detection limit of a few ng/L.« less

  1. Comparing black carbon types in sequestering polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediments

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Fang; Gan, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely found in sediments, especially congeners from the penta-BDE formula. Due to their strong affinity for black carbon (BC), bioavailability of PBDEs may be decreased in BC-amended sediments. In this study, we used a matrix-SPME method to measure the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree) of PBDEs as a parameter of their potential bioavailability and evaluated the differences among biochar, charcoal, and activated carbon. Activated carbon displayed a substantially greater sequestration capacity than biochar or charcoal. At 1% amendment rate in sediment with low organic carbon (OC) content (0.12%), Cfree of six PBDEs was reduced by 47.5–78.0%, 47.3–77.5%, and 94.1–98.3% with biochar, charcoal, and activated carbon, respectively, while the sequestration was more limited in sediment with high OC content (0.87%). Therefore, it is important to consider the type and properties of the BC and the sediment in BC-based remediation or mitigation. PMID:24047549

  2. Temporal Variability of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Serum Concentrations over One Year

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardant chemicals used in consumer products. They are common contaminants in human serum and associated with adverse health effects. Our objectives were to characterize PBDE serum concentrations in a New England cohort and assess temporal variability of this exposure biomarker over a one-year period. We collected three repeated measurements at six-month intervals from 52 office workers from the greater Boston (MA, United States) area from 2010 to 2011. The intraclass correlation coefficient for BDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, and 153 ranged from 0.87 to 0.99, indicating that a single serum measurement can reliably estimate exposure over a one-year period. This was true for both lipid adjusted and nonlipid adjusted concentrations. The kappa statistics, quantifying the level of agreement of categorical exposure classification, based on medians, tertiles, or quartiles ranged from 0.67 to 0.90. Some congeners showed nonsignificant increases from sampling round 1 (winter) to round 2 (summer) and significant decreases from round 2 to round 3 (winter). This study highlights the high reliability of a single serum PBDE measurement for use in human epidemiologic studies. PMID:25383963

  3. GC-MS analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Lake Erie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagula, Mary C.; Vartak, Marissa; Tallmadge, Weslene

    2012-06-01

    Lake Erie is one of the five great lakes of North America. It is the shallowest, the warmest, and the most biologically productive of the Great Lakes producing more fish than all of the other four lakes combined. It is also a source of drinking water for 11 million people and a recreational asset. On the flipside, it is also very vulnerable and troubled with environmental challenges because it has the smallest water volume, but the greatest pressures from the human settlement. One of the many issues faced by the Lake is pollution. It receives larger loads of many pollutants than any other Great Lake. Even with the best pollution controls many pesticides and organohalogens continue to enter the lake. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of flame-retardants that have been used in a variety of consumer products since the 1970s. They are added to many commercial and household products such as computers, foam mattresses, carpets, etc. Being largely non-polar and chemically stable, these chemicals are extremely lipophilic and resist degradation in the environment, thus giving them a high affinity for their bioaccumulation. Due to these properties PBDEs have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants. These compounds are reported to be endocrine disruptors and could cause oxidative damage. This report presents the sample preparation protocol, the GC-MS analysis of PBDEs in Lake Erie sediment samples.

  4. Global pollution monitoring of polybrominated diphenyl ethers using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Daisuke; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Subramanian, Annamalai; Fillmann, Gilberto; Lam, Paul K S; Zheng, Gene J; Muchitar, Muswerry; Razak, Hamidah; Prudente, Maricar; Chung, Kyu-Hyuck; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2004-04-15

    To elucidate the global distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), these chemicals were determined in the muscle of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from offshore waters of various regions in the world (Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles, and Brazil, and the Japan Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea, Indian Ocean, and North Pacific Ocean). PBDEs were detected in almost all the skipjack tuna collected from the locations surveyed (from < 0.1 to 53 ng/g of lipid), indicating widespread contamination by these compounds in the marine environment. Residue levels of PBDEs in these samples from the northern hemisphere seem to be higher than those from the southern hemisphere, which is plausibly due to larger usage of these compounds in the northern hemisphere. Higher concentrations of PBDEs were detected in the samples from waters around the East China Sea (up to 53 ng/g of lipid). Developing countries around the East China Sea are supposedly the "hot spots" releasing these chemicals into the marine environment. With regard to the composition of PBDE congeners, the percentage contribution by lower brominated congeners (BDE15, -28, and -47) showed an increasing trend with increasing latitude. On the other hand, higher brominated congeners (BDE153, -154, and -183) showed a reverse trend. These patterns suggest that lower brominated congeners of PBDEs (di-, tri-, and tetra-BDEs) were preferentially transported from pollution sources to northern colder regions through the atmosphere. PBDEs may have a high potency to cause global pollution like PCBs.

  5. Bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Waszak, Ilona; Dabrowska, Henryka; Góra, Agnieszka

    2012-08-01

    Concentrations of seven polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were examined in flounder (Platichthys flesus) and sediment in three southern Baltic Sea sites, representing a range of exposure conditions, in order to evaluate spatial differences in PBDE contamination. Additionally, PBDEs were measured in muscle, liver, and gonads of flounder from one of the sites in order to examine inter-tissue distribution. Mean muscle Σ(7)PBDE levels, in the range of 10-21 ng g(-1) lipid, showed inter-site differences attributed to the distance from the Gulf of Gdańsk, and were overall lower than reported earlier in herring, sprat, and salmon. Biota sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for Σ(7)PBDE and individual BDE congeners, in the range of 0.5-24.5, were generally consistent with predicted models for persistent hydrophobic halogenated contaminants. Wet weight (wet wt) PBDE levels in muscle and liver, but not in gonads, were related to tissue lipid content and did not correlate with the fish length and weight. These tissues differed in PBDE levels and profiles as a result of varying lipid content and presumably lipid composition and congener-specific physico-chemical properties.

  6. Synthesis of novel polybrominated benzimidazole derivatives-potential CK2 inhibitors with anticancer and proapoptotic activity.

    PubMed

    Łukowska-Chojnacka, Edyta; Wińska, Patrycja; Wielechowska, Monika; Poprzeczko, Martyna; Bretner, Maria

    2016-02-15

    The efficient method for the synthesis of novel cell permeable inhibitors of protein kinase CK2 with anticancer and proapoptotic activity has been developed. A series of polybrominated benzimiadazole derivatives substituted by various cyanoalkyl groups have been synthesized. Cyanoethyl derivatives were obtained by Michael type addition of 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (TBBi) and 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-2-methyl-1H-benzimidazole to acrylonitrile, whilst cyanomethyl, cyanopropyl and cyanobutyl analogs by N-alkylation of 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole and 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-2-methyl-1H-benzimidazole with appropriate cyanoalkyl halides. The inhibitory activity against protein kinase rhCK2α catalytic subunit and cytotoxicity against two human cancer cell lines: acute lymphocytic leukemia (CCRF-CEM) and breast (MCF-7) were evaluated for all newly synthesized compounds. Additionally, the proapoptotic activity toward leukemia cells and intracellular inhibition of CK2 for the most cytotoxic derivatives have been performed, demonstrating 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-2-methyl-1H-benzimidazole as a new selective inhibitor of rhCK2 with twenty-fold better proapoptotic activity than parental compound (TBBi).

  7. Associations of birth outcomes with maternal polybrominated diphenyl ethers and thyroid hormones during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Anthopolos, Rebecca; Wolkin, Amy; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous research has linked polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure to poor birth outcomes and altered thyroid hormone levels. Objectives We examined whether maternal PBDE serum levels were associated with infant birth weight (g), head circumference (cm), birth length (cm), and birth weight percentile for gestational age. We explored the potential for a mediating role of thyroid hormone levels. Methods During 2008–2010, we recruited 140 pregnant women in their third trimester as part of a larger clinical obstetrics study known as Healthy Pregnancy, Healthy Baby. Blood samples were collected during a routine pre-natal clinic visit. Serum was analyzed for PBDEs, phenolic metabolites, and thyroid hormones. Birth outcome information was abstracted from medical records. Results In unadjusted models, a two-fold increase in maternal BDE 153 was associated with an average decrease in head circumference of 0.32 cm (95% CI: −0.53, −0.12); however, this association was attenuated after control for maternal risk factors. BDE 47 and 99 were similarly negatively associated but with 95% confidence intervals crossing the null. Associations were unchanged in the presence of thyroid hormones. Conclusions Our data suggest a potential deleterious association between maternal PBDE levels and infant head circumference; however, confirmatory studies are needed in larger sample sizes. A mediating role of thyroid hormones was not apparent. PMID:26431883

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in articles: a review of its applications and legislation.

    PubMed

    Jinhui, Li; Yuan, Chen; Wenjing, Xiao

    2017-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), especially commercial decabrominated diphenyl ethers (c-decaBDE), have been widely produced and applied to numerous materials because of their highly effective flame-retardant capabilities. The production of commercial pentaBDE (c-pentaBDE) and commercial octaBDE (c-octaBDE) ended in 2004 because they are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic to both humans and the environment, but decaBDE production and use continue. Furthermore, many congeners of PBDEs are still prevalent in consumer products and articles that they pose enormous threat to both the environment and human health. PBDEs have been detected in the casing of electrical and electronic equipment, textile materials, automotive interiors, polyurethane foam (PUF) in seat cushions, children's toys, kitchenware, and other products. With increasing evidence about PBDE pollution and the adoption of international conventions, many developed countries have drawn more public attention to PBDEs and developed sound strategies for their management. This review summaries the utilization and management of PBDEs in a number of countries and reaches the conclusion that PBDEs are still prevalent in consumer articles, while specific regulations or policies for articles containing PBDEs are rare. Public awareness should be raised on the importance of sound management of articles containing PBDEs.

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in lichens and mosses from King George Island, maritime Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Yogui, G T; Sericano, J L

    2008-11-01

    Lichens and mosses are considered good indicators of atmospheric pollution as they absorb contaminants directly from the air. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are man-made chemicals used as flame retardants in materials such as plastics, textiles, electronic circuitry and furnishing foam. Few studies have investigated PBDEs in the southern hemisphere including Antarctica. This paper presents the first evaluation of PBDEs in lichens (Usnea antarctica and Usnea aurantiaco-atra) and mosses (Sanionia uncinata) collected at King George Island, maritime Antarctica. PBDEs were detected at low levels in all lichen and moss samples. On average, the levels of PBDEs in mosses (818 pg g(-1) dry weight; 101 ng g(-1) lipid) were significantly higher than in lichens (168 pg g(-1) dry weight; 9.11 ng g(-1) lipid). This difference is most likely due to the differing mechanisms of PBDEs uptake from the atmosphere which are controlled by a number of chemical, environmental and plant variables. Contaminant concentrations were not statistically different at sites close to and distant from human facilities. Long-range atmospheric transport is believed to be the primary source of PBDEs to King George Island. The pattern of congeners in plants resembles those found in commercial mixtures of Penta-BDE. In addition, the presence of BDE-183 in lichens and mosses suggests that other technical formulations (e.g., Octa-BDE and Deca-BDE) have reached Antarctica. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of Antarctic vegetation as a sink for anthropogenic organic pollutants.

  10. Binding of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers with human serum albumin: Spectroscopic characterization and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lulu; Yang, Wu; Wu, Zhiwei; Yi, Zhongsheng

    2017-02-21

    Three hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), 3-OH-BDE-47, 5-OH-BDE-47, and 6-OH-BDE-47, were selected to investigate the interactions between OH-PBDEs with human serum albumin (HSA) under physiological conditions. The observed fluorescence quenching can be attributed to the formation of complexes between HSA and OH-PBDEs. The thermodynamic parameters at different temperatures indicate that the binding was caused by hydrophobic forces and hydrogen bonds. Molecular modeling and three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum showed conformational and microenvironmental changes in HSA. Circular dichroism analysis showed that the addition of OH-PBDEs changed the conformation of HSA with a minor reduction in α-helix content and increase in β-sheet content. Furthermore, binding distance r between the donor (HSA) and acceptor (three OH-PBDEs) calculated using Förster's nonradiative energy transfer theory was <7 nm; therefore, the quenching mechanisms for the binding between HSA and OH-PBDEs involve static quenching and energy transfer. Combined with molecular dynamics simulations, the binding free energies (ΔGbind ) were calculated using molecular mechanics/Poisson - Boltzmann surface area method, and the crucial residues in HSA were identified.

  11. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in foodstuffs: human exposure through the diet.

    PubMed

    Bocio, A; Llobet, J M; Domingo, J L; Corbella, J; Teixidó, A; Casas, C

    2003-05-07

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in a variety of materials, including synthetic polymers and textiles. Although these chemicals have been detected in environmental samples and human tissues, there is little information about human exposure to PBDEs through the diet. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of PBDEs in a number of food samples acquired in Catalonia (Spain) during 2000. The dietary intake of PBDEs was estimated for the general population living in this Spanish region. The highest PBDE concentrations were found in oils and fats, fish and shellfish, meat and meat products, and eggs, while the lowest levels corresponded to fruits, vegetables, and tubers. The dietary intake of PBDEs for an adult male was 97.3 ng/day (assuming not detected (ND) = (1)/(2) limit of detection (LOD)) or 81.9 ng/day (assuming ND = 0) The greatest contribution to these values corresponded to fish and shellfish, with approximately one-third of the total intake. TetraBDEs and pentaBDEs were the homologues showing the highest percentages of contribution to the sum of total PBDEs. The comparison of the current dietary intake with the suggested lowest observed adverse effect level value of 1 mg/kg/day for the most sensitive endpoints for toxic effects of PBDEs results in a safety factor over 5 orders of magnitude in relation to PBDE exposure from food.

  12. An overview of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyo Jin; Kim, Gi Beum

    2015-06-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are used extensively as brominated flame retardants, are found ubiquitously in marine environments worldwide. In this paper, we review all available data on the occurrence and trends of PBDEs in marine environments. PBDE levels in different marine environmental compartments vary from nanograms per gram to micrograms per gram, and differ widely, depending on the exposed species and the collection site. The PBDE congener profiles in biota, which are dominated by the lower brominated congeners, such as BDE-47 and BDE-99, are different from those in sediments, where BDE-209 is dominant. Temporal trends in PBDE levels in sediment cores vary considerably, depending on the region or country studied, with possible correlations with the historic and current use of PBDEs. Low brominated BDE congeners have the potential for bioaccumulation in marine organisms, but BDE- 209 has a very low potential for bioaccumulating within the marine food web. The toxicological effects of PBDEs on marine organisms are largely unknown. However, PBDE isomers may be sufficient to elicit adverse effects in some marine organisms. Here, we discuss naturally occurring brominated diphenyl ethers and recommend further research to improve future monitoring.

  13. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers with potent and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity from the marine sponge Dysidea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shi; Canning, Corene B; Bhargava, Kanika; Sun, Xiuxiu; Zhu, Wenjun; Zhou, Ninghui; Zhang, Yifan; Zhou, Kequan

    2015-01-01

    Three polybrominated diphenyl ethers, 2-(2',4'-dibromophenoxy)-3,5-dibromophenol (1) and 2-(2',4'-dibromophenoxy)-3,4,5-tribromophenol (2) were isolated from the marine sponge Dysidea granulosa; and 2-(2',4'-dibromophenoxy)-4,6-dibromophenol (3) from Dysidea spp. They exhibited potent and broad spectrum in vitro antibacterial activity, especially against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated against 12 clinical and standard strains of Gram positive and negative bacteria. The observed MIC range was 0.1-4.0mg/L against all the Gram positive bacteria and 0.1-16.0mg/L against Gram negative bacteria. 2-(2',4″-Dibromophenoxy)-3,5-dibromophenol showed stronger broad spectrum antibacterial activity than other two compounds. 2-(2',4″-Dibromophenoxy)-3,5-dibromophenol and 2-(2',4'-dibromophenoxy)-4,6-dibromophenol are thermo-stable. The results suggest that 2-(2',4'-dibromophenoxy)-3,5-dibromophenol could be used as a potential lead molecule for anti-MRSA, anti-E. coli O157:H7, and anti-Salmonella for drug development.

  14. Enhanced bioremediation of soil from Tianjin, China, contaminated with polybrominated diethyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Cuiping; Li, Jing; Wang, Baolin; Wu, Jianyu; Jiang, Yan; Sun, Hongwen

    2014-12-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of nutrients, H2O2, and tourmaline on the bioremediation of fields where the soil was contaminated with polybrominated diethyl ethers (PBDEs). The results showed that 39.2, 38.3, and 48.1 % of total PBDE removal was observed in microcosms with the addition of nutrients, such as NaNO3, NH4Cl, and NH4NO3, respectively, compared to only 15.2 and 5.8 % of PBDE removal from soil with added Aspergillus niger and control soil, respectively, after 50 days of incubation. In addition, 50.8 and 56.5 % of total PBDE removal were observed in microcosms with 0.5 and 1 μL H2O2. The addition of tourmaline increased total PBDE removal to 32.4 %. Significant increases in soil enzymatic activity with PBDE degraders and bacterial communities were observed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)--denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). These observations suggested that the combination of inorganic nutrients with chemical, mineral, and biological treatment could improve the PBDE removal efficiency. However, the combination of H2O2 and biological treatment processes is the most efficient technology. This combination of technologies would not cause adverse effects on the subsequent bioremediation process. Therefore, this work offers a potential alternative for the remediation of soil contaminated with PBDE pollutants.

  15. Estimating stepwise debromination pathways of polybrominated diphenyl ethers with an analogue Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yonghong; Christensen, Erik R; Zheng, Wei; Wei, Hua; Li, An

    2014-11-01

    A stochastic process was developed to simulate the stepwise debromination pathways for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The stochastic process uses an analogue Markov Chain Monte Carlo (AMCMC) algorithm to generate PBDE debromination profiles. The acceptance or rejection of the randomly drawn stepwise debromination reactions was determined by a maximum likelihood function. The experimental observations at certain time points were used as target profiles; therefore, the stochastic processes are capable of presenting the effects of reaction conditions on the selection of debromination pathways. The application of the model is illustrated by adopting the experimental results of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) in hexane exposed to sunlight. Inferences that were not obvious from experimental data were suggested by model simulations. For example, BDE206 has much higher accumulation at the first 30 min of sunlight exposure. By contrast, model simulation suggests that, BDE206 and BDE207 had comparable yields from BDE209. The reason for the higher BDE206 level is that BDE207 has the highest depletion in producing octa products. Compared to a previous version of the stochastic model based on stochastic reaction sequences (SRS), the AMCMC approach was determined to be more efficient and robust. Due to the feature of only requiring experimental observations as input, the AMCMC model is expected to be applicable to a wide range of PBDE debromination processes, e.g. microbial, photolytic, or joint effects in natural environments.

  16. Environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from industrial plants in China: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chao; Chen, Yuan; Li, Jinhui; Li, Ying; Li, Huafen

    2016-04-01

    Although numerous studies have shown the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in various environmental media, attention to their distribution in the environmental media surrounding industrial facilities is limited. In this study, eight PBDEs congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -209) were investigated in surface soils and water samples collected from commercial PBDE manufacturers, flame-retardant plastic modification plants and waste electrical and electronic equipment recycling facilities in China. Analysis of target compounds was performed using the model NCI GC-MS in SIM mode. The concentrations of ∑8PBDEs varied from 193.1 to 22,004.3 ng/L in water samples and from 1209.3 to 226,906 ng/g dry wt in surface soils, respectively. More severe PBDE contamination, when compared with previously reported data, was found in industrial areas in this study. This indicates that these industrial areas are highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for more than 94% in this study, except for a 68.75% portion at one site. Our results show that PBDE manufacturing and flame-retardant plastic modification plants, easily overlooked by the public, are two primary PBDE pollution sources although they affect surrounding areas. Further research is needed, aimed at managing industrial PBDE emissions and eliminating environmental PBDE pollution, to investigate the material flows and environmental fates of PBDEs in all stages of the life cycle.

  17. Complexity of Naturally Produced Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Revealed via Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Vinayak; Li, Jie; Rahman, Imran; Borgen, Miles; Aluwihare, Lihini I.; Biggs, Jason S.; Paul, Valerie J.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent and bioaccumulative anthropogenic and natural chemicals that are broadly distributed in the marine environment. PBDEs are potentially toxic due to inhibition of various mammalian signaling pathways and enzymatic reactions. PBDE isoforms vary in toxicity in accordance with structural differences, primarily in the number and pattern of hydroxyl moieties afforded upon a conserved core structure. Over four decades of isolation and discovery-based efforts have established an impressive repertoire of natural PBDEs. Based on our recent reports describing the bacterial biosyntheses of PBDEs, we predicted the presence of additional classes of PBDEs to those previously identified from marine sources. Using mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy, we now establish the existence of new structural classes of PBDEs in marine sponges. Our findings expand the chemical space explored by naturally produced PBDEs, which may inform future environmental toxicology studies. Furthermore, we provide evidence for iodinated PBDEs and direct attention toward the contribution of promiscuous halogenating enzymes in further expanding the diversity of these polyhalogenated marine natural products. PMID:25559102

  18. [Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in camphor bark from speedy developing urban in Jiangsu Province].

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuang-Xin; Zeng, Liang-Zi; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Li-Fei; Zhang, Ting; Dong, Liang; Huang, Ye-Ru

    2011-09-01

    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) were measured in camphor bark samples from 40 locations in Suzhou, Nantong and Wuxi, Jiangsu Province. The samples were extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The 8 PBDEs were detected in all samples and the average concentrations of total PBDEs (BDE28, 47, 100, 99, 153, 154, 183, 209) was 835 microg/kg lipid weight (ranged from 112 to 7 460 microg/kg lipid weight). The BDE209 was the main homologues and accounted for 65.7% -99.6% of sigma 8 PBDEs. The predominant commercial products source for PBDEs in bark was Deca-BDE commercial products. Concentration of sigma 8 PBDEs detected in central district of Nantong were significantly higher than those in industrial park, suggesting the discharge of industrial point source might be the main source of PBDEs in this city. No significant difference was found between the levels of sigma 8 PBDEs in camphor bark collected from Suzhou and Wuxi. It can be concluded that the two cities are contaminated interactionally by PBDEs through atmospheric dispersion. The homologue and congener profiles of penta-BDEs for camphor bark were not consistent with commercial products, atmosphere and dust soil, which related with adsorption effect of tree bark and degradation effect of PBDEs.

  19. Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine fishes from Chinese coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chonghuan; Lam, James C W; Wu, Xiaoguo; Sun, Liguang; Xie, Zhouqing; Lam, Paul K S

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in yellow croakers (Pseudosciaena crocea) and silver pomfrets (Pampus argenteus) collected from nine coastal cities along the eastern China coastline were investigated. PBDE congeners with mono- to hexa-brominated substitutions were detected in the samples, indicating their ubiquitous distribution in the marine environment of China. The total PBDE concentration averaged 3.04 ng g⁻¹ lipid wt, a level that was relatively lower than in other regions of the world, especially North America where Penta-BDE was extensively used. Geographically, the highest concentration of PBDEs was found in Xiamen, and the PBDE levels in yellow croakers were significantly higher than those in pomfrets in most of the selected cities, a pattern which may be related to the different feeding habits of the two species. The congener profiles of PBDEs were found to be different from the commonly detected pattern in fishes from other regions of the world (i.e., BDE47>BDE99, BDE100>BDE153, BDE154). BDE47 and BDE154 were the predominant congeners in both species, accounting for more than 60% of the total PBDE concentrations. The reasons for the relatively high proportion of BDE154 may be due to the debromination of higher brominated congeners such as BDE183 and BDE209 by these two species.

  20. Uptake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by carrot and lettuce crops grown in compost-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Bizkarguenaga, E; Iparraguirre, A; Oliva, E; Quintana, J B; Rodil, R; Fernández, L A; Zuloaga, O; Prieto, A

    2016-02-01

    The uptake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by carrot and lettuce was investigated. Degradation of PBDEs in soil in the absence of the plants was discarded. Different carrot (Nantesa and Chantenay) and lettuce (Batavia Golden Spring and Summer Queen) varieties were grown in fortified or contaminated compost-amended soil mixtures under greenhouse conditions. After plant harvesting, roots (core and peel) and leaves were analyzed separately for carrot, while for lettuce, leaves and hearts were analyzed together. The corresponding bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were calculated. In carrots, a concentration gradient of 2,2',3,4,4',5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-138) became evident that decreased from the root peel via root core to the leaves. For decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) at the low concentration level (7 and 20 ng g(-1)), the leaves incorporated the highest concentration of the target substance. For lettuce, a decrease in the BCF value (from 0.24 to 0.02) was observed the higher the octanol-water partition coefficient, except in the case of BDE-183 (BCF = 0.51) and BDE-209 (BCF values from 0.41 to 0.74). Significant influence of the soils and crop varieties on the uptake could not be supported. Metabolic debromination, hydroxylation or methylation of the target PBDEs in the soil-plant system was not observed.

  1. Brominated flame retardants in Chinese air before and after the phase out of polybrominated diphenyl ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen-Long; Qi, Hong; Ma, Wan-Li; Liu, Li-Yan; Zhang, Zhi; Mohammed, Mohammed O. A.; Song, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Zifeng; Li, Yi-Fan

    2015-09-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel non-BDE flame retardants (NBFRs), were analyzed in Chinese air during China's POPs Soil and Air Monitoring Program Phase I (SAMP-I) and Phase II (SAMP-II). The levels of Σ12PBDEs and Σ6NBFRs in urban sites were significantly higher than those in rural sites and background sites. The higher detection rate and concentrations of high molecular weight PBDEs and NBFRs in Phase II indicated the changing of the commercial pattern of BFRs after the phase out of PBDEs in China. Temperature was the major factor affecting the seasonal variations of molecular weight BFRs in atmosphere. A significant correlation between BFRs concentration and gross domestic product (GDP) was observed, with the GDP parameter explained 59.4% and 72.7% of the total variability for Octa-BDEs and low molecular weight NBFRs, respectively. Our findings indicated an evolving commercial usage of BFRs from SAMP-I to SAMP-II, i.e. shifting from lower molecular weight to higher molecular weight congeners in China.

  2. Human Excretion of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Flame Retardants: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Shelagh K.; Birkholz, Detlef

    2017-01-01

    Commonly used as flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are routinely detected in the environment, animals, and humans. Although these persistent organic pollutants are increasingly recognized as having serious health implications, particularly for children, this is the first study, to our knowledge, to investigate an intervention for human elimination of bioaccumulated PBDEs. Objectives. To determine the efficacy of blood, urine, and perspiration as PBDE biomonitoring mediums; assess excretion of five common PBDE congeners (28, 47, 99, 100, and 153) in urine and perspiration; and explore the potential of induced sweating for decreasing bioaccumulated PBDEs. Results. PBDE congeners were not found in urine samples; findings focus on blood and perspiration. 80% of participants tested positive in one or more body fluids for PBDE 28, 100% for PBDE 47, 95% for PBDE 99, and 90% for PBDE 100 and PBDE 153. Induced perspiration facilitated excretion of the five congeners, with different rates of excretion for different congeners. Conclusion. Blood testing provides only a partial understanding of human PBDE bioaccumulation; testing of both blood and perspiration provides a better understanding. This study provides important baseline evidence for regular induced perspiration as a potential means for therapeutic PBDE elimination. Fetotoxic and reproductive effects of PBDE exposure highlight the importance of further detoxification research. PMID:28373979

  3. Assimilation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from microplastics by the marine amphipod, Allorchestes compressa.

    PubMed

    Chua, Evan M; Shimeta, Jeff; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Morrison, Paul D; Clarke, Bradley O

    2014-07-15

    Microplastic particles (MPPs; <5 mm) are found in skin cleansing soaps and are released into the environment via the sewage system. MPPs in the environment can sorb persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that can potentially be assimilated by organisms mistaking MPPs for food. Amphipods (Allorchestes compressa) exposed to MPPs isolated from a commercial facial cleansing soap ingested ≤45 particles per animal and evacuated them within 36 h. Amphipods were exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, and -183) in the presence or absence of MPPs. This study has demonstrated that PBDEs derived from MPPs can be assimilated into the tissue of a marine amphipod. MPPs reduced PBDE uptake compared to controls, but they caused greater proportional uptake of higher-brominated congeners such as BDE-154 and -153 compared to BDE-28 and -47. While MPPs in the environment may lower PBDE uptake compared to unabsorbed free chemicals, our study has demonstrated they can transfer PBDEs into a marine organism. Therefore, MPPs pose a risk of contaminating aquatic food chains with the potential for increasing public exposure through dietary sources. This study has demonstrated that MPPs can act as a vector for the assimilation of POPs into marine organisms.

  4. Methods for determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in environmental samples--review.

    PubMed

    Fulara, Izabela; Czaplicka, Marianna

    2012-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of persistent organic pollutants. They are used as flame retardants in plastics, paints, varnishes and textile materials. PBDEs pose great risk to the environment because of their high persistence and ability to get into the environment easily due to the lack of chemical bonds with the matrix of materials, to which they are added. Global research studies confirmed the occurrence of those compounds in the majority of elements of water and land environment. Analysis of PBDEs in environmental samples is one of the specific analytical methods of criteria that comprise low detection limits and high selectivity. The analysis of PBDEs in environmental samples is one of the specific analytical methods, in which the main criteria are low detection limits and high selectivity. In this article, a literature review of methods for environmental sample preparation and analysis of the PBDE content was presented. The article discusses the potential of modern extraction techniques such as: solid-phase microextraction, single-drop microextraction, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, microwave-assisted extraction, cloud point extraction, hollow fibre-liquid phase microextraction and others for the separation of PBDEs from environmental samples with a complex matrix. Among the methods for qualitative and quantitative determination of PBDEs, a particular focus was put on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with various injection techniques and different types of sample ionisation.

  5. Assessing bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers for aquatic species by QSAR modeling.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Kamel; Consonni, Viviana; Durjava, Mojca Kos; Kolar, Boris; Öberg, Tomas; Todeschini, Roberto

    2012-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in textiles, foams and plastics. Highly bioaccumulative with toxic effects including developmental neurotoxicity estrogen and thyroid hormones disruption, they are considered as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and have been found in human tissues, wildlife and biota worldwide. But only some of them are banned from EU market. For the environmental fate studies of these compounds the bioconcentration factor (BCF) is one of the most important endpoints to start with. We applied quantitative structure-activity relationships techniques to overcome the limited experimental data and avoid more animal testing. The aim of this work was to assess the bioaccumulation of PBDEs by means of QSAR. First, a BCF dataset of specifically conducted experiments was modeled. Then the study was extended by predicting the bioaccumulation and biomagnification factors using some experimental values from the literature. Molecular descriptors were calculated using DRAGON 6. The most relevant ones were selected and resulting models were compared paying attention to the applicability domain.

  6. Genotoxicity of several polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hydroxylated PBDEs, and their mechanisms of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ji, Kyunghee; Choi, Kyungho; Giesy, John P; Musarrat, Javed; Takeda, Shunichi

    2011-06-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been extensively utilized as flame retardants, and recently there has been concern about potential adverse effects in humans and wildlife. Their hydroxylated analogs (OH-BDEs) have received increasing attention due to their potential for endocrine and neurological toxicities. However, the potentials and mechanisms of genotoxicity of these brominated compounds have scarcely been investigated. In the present study, genotoxicity of tetra-BDEs, penta BDE, octa-BDE, deca-BDE, and tetra-OH-BDEs were investigated by use of chicken DT40 cell lines including wild-type cells and a panel of mutant cell lines deficient in DNA repair pathways. Tetra-BDEs have greater genotoxic potential than do the other BDEs tested. OH-tetra-BDEs were more genotoxic than tetra-BDEs. DT40 cells, deficient in base excision repair (Polβ(-/-)) and translesion DNA synthesis (REV3(-/-)) pathways, were hypersensitive to the genotoxic effects of tetra-BDEs and OH-tetra-BDEs. The observation of chromosomal aberrations and gamma-H2AX assay confirmed that the studied brominated compounds caused double strand breaks. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) significantly rescued the Polβ(-/-) and REV3(-/-) mutants, which is consistent with the hypothesis that PBDEs and OH-BDEs cause DNA damage mediated through reactive oxygen species (ROS). Some tetra-BDEs and OH-tetra-BDEs caused base damage through ROS leading to replication blockage and subsequent chromosomal breaks.

  7. Do Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) Increase the Risk of Thyroid Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yawei; Guo, Grace L.; Han, Xuesong; Zhu, Cairong; Kilfoy, Briseis A.; Zhu, Yong; Boyle, Peter; Zheng, Tongzhang

    2008-01-01

    An increased incidence of thyroid cancer has been reported in many parts of the world including the United States during the past several decades. Recently emerging evidence has demonstrated that polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs), particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), alter thyroid hormone homeostasis and cause thyroid dysfunction. However, few studies have been conducted to test whether exposure to PBDEs and other PHAHs increases the risk of thyroid cancer. Here, we hypothesize that elevated exposure to PHAHs, particularly PBDEs, increases the risk of thyroid cancer and may explain part of the increase in incidence of thyroid cancer during the past several decades. In addition, genetic and epigenetic variations in metabolic pathway genes may alter the expression and function of metabolic enzymes which are involved in the metabolism of endogenous thyroid hormones and the detoxification of PBDEs and other PHAHs. Such variation may result in different individual susceptibilities to PBDEs and other PHAHs and the subsequent development of thyroid cancer. The investigation of this hypothesis will lead to an improved understanding of the role of PBDEs and other PHAHs in thyroid tumorigenesis and may provide a real means to prevent this deadly disease. PMID:19122824

  8. Seasonality in polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations in the atmosphere of the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifei; Dong, Liang; Huang, Yeru; Shi, Shuangxin; Yang, Wenlong; Zhou, Li

    2016-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations in the atmosphere in rapidly developing parts of China have been studied little. In this study, polyurethane foam disk passive air samplers were used to comprehensively investigate PBDE concentrations in the atmosphere of the Yangtze River Delta in different seasons in 2010 and 2011. The mean sum of the concentrations of 13 PBDE congeners was 3.3 pg/m(3) in spring, 7.3 pg/m(3) in summer, 1.0 pg/m(3) in autumn, and 12 pg/m(3) in winter. Higher PBDE concentrations were found in urban areas than in rural areas. The PBDE concentrations were comparable to concentrations that have been found in cities around the world. BDE28, BDE47, BDE99, BDE153, and BDE183 were the dominant PBDE congeners in all seasons. High PBDE concentrations were found in satellite cities, such as Changshu, Wujiang, and Zhangjiagang, suggesting that commercial PBDEs (including pentabromodiphenyl ether products) are produced and/or used in those cities. The PBDE concentrations in the atmosphere were used to estimate daily doses through the inhalation of outdoor air. The most severe risks posed by exposure to PBDEs were found to occur in winter, for both adults and children, but the PBDE concentrations were found not to pose appreciable risks to human health.

  9. Quantitative structure-property relationships for octanol-water partition coefficients of polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Li, Linnan; Xie, Shaodong; Cai, Hao; Bai, Xuetao; Xue, Zhao

    2008-08-01

    Theoretical molecular descriptors were tested against logK(OW) values for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) using the Partial Least-Squares Regression method which can be used to analyze data with many variables and few observations. A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) model was successfully developed with a high cross-validated value (Q(cum)(2)) of 0.961, indicating a good predictive ability and stability of the model. The predictive power of the QSPR model was further cross-validated. The values of logK(OW) for PBDEs are mainly governed by molecular surface area, energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the net atomic charges on the oxygen atom. All these descriptors have been discussed to interpret the partitioning mechanism of PBDE chemicals. The bulk property of the molecules represented by molecular surface area is the leading factor, and K(OW) values increase with the increase of molecular surface area. Higher energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and higher net atomic charge on the oxygen atom of PBDEs result in smaller K(OW). The energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the net atomic charge on PBDEs oxygen also play important roles in affecting the partition of PBDEs between octanol and water by influencing the interactions between PBDEs and solvent molecules.

  10. [Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in aquatic species from the Pearl River Estuary].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Cai-hong; Luo, Xiao-jun; Yu, Mei; Meng, Xiang-zhou; Mai, Bi-xian; Zeng, Eddy

    2006-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected in biota samples collected from the Pearl River Estuary. The concentrations of sigma10 PBDEs (BDE28, 47, 66, 100, 99, 85, 154, 153, 138, 183) in fish species (including Platycephalus indicus, Pseudosiaena crocea , Pampus argenteus, Cynoglossus robustus, and Harpodon nehereus), shrimps (including Metapenaeus ensis and Metapenaeus affinis) and Squilla oratoria were from 37.8 ng x g(-1) to 407.1 ng x g(-1) (normalized to lipid), from 49.0 ng x g(-1) to 239.1 ng x g(-1) and from 142 ng x g(-1) to 444.5 ng x g(-1), respectively. BDE47 was the dominant congener in all biota samples, with a contribution to sigma10 PBDEs ranging from 53.7% to 66.9%. Differences in concentrations of PBDEs and PBDE patterns in different species may be related to the different feeding habit, living environment and uptaking or elimination rate. High ratios of concentrations of PBDEs in liver /muscle in fish species indicated that PBDEs tended to accumulate more in liver than in muscle.

  11. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in marine ecosystems of the American continents: foresight from current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Susan D; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of synthetic halogenated organic compounds used in commercial and household products, such as textiles, furniture, and electronics, to increase their flame ignition resistance and to meet fire safety standards. The demonstrated persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxic potential of these compounds in animals and in humans are of increasing concern. The oceans are considered global sinks for PBDEs, as higher levels are found in marine organisms than in terrestrial biota. For the past three decades, North America has dominated the world market demand for PBDEs, consuming 95% of the penta-BDE formulation. Accordingly, the PBDE concentrations in marine biota and people from North America are the highest in the world and are increasing. Despite recent restrictions on penta- and octa-BDE commercial formulations, penta-BDE containing products will remain a reservoir for PBDE release for years to come, and the deca-BDE formulation is still in high-volume use. In this paper, we review all available data on the occurrence and trends of PBDEs in the marine ecosystems (air, water, sediments, invertebrates, fish, seabirds, and marine mammals) of North and South America. We outline here our concerns about the potential future impacts of large existing stores of banned PBDEs in consumer products, and the vast and growing reservoirs of deca-BDE as well as new and naturally occurring brominated compounds on marine ecosystems.

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in herbaceous Centaurium erythraea affected by various sources of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Brudzińska-Kosior, Anna; Kosior, Grzegorz; Klánová, Jana; Vaňková, Lenka; Kukučka, Petr; Chropeňová, Mária; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Mróz, Lucyna; Kempers, Alexander J

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent xenobiotics with harmful effects on humans and wildlife. Their levels in the environment and accumulation in biota must be carefully controlled especially in species harvested from wild populations and commonly used as medicines. Our objective has been to determine PBDE concentrations (BDEs 28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209) in Centaurium erythraea collected at sites with various levels of environmental pollution. PBDE congener profiles in C. erythraea were dominated by BDE209, which accounted for 47-89% of the total PBDE burden in the plants. Principal Component and Classification Analysis, which classifies the concentration of PBDEs in C. erythraea, allowed us to distinguish the pattern of these compounds characteristic for the origin of pollution: BDEs 28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100 for lignite and general chemical industry and the vicinity of an expressway and BDEs 183 and 209 for a thermal power plant and ferrochrome smelting industry. Careful selection of sites with C. erythraea for medicinal purposes is necessary as this herb can accumulate PBDEs while growing at polluted sites.

  13. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediments and mussel tissues from Hong Kong marine waters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Zheng, Gene J; Yu, Hongxia; Martin, Michael; Richardson, Bruce J; Lam, Michael H W; Lam, Paul K S

    2005-11-01

    Sediments and green-lipped mussels, Perna viridis, were used to investigate concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Hong Kong's marine environment. PBDEs have been used extensively over the past two decades as flame retardants in polymer additives for a variety of plastics, computers, furniture, building materials, and fabrics. Many measurements of PBDEs in various environmental matrices have been reported from Belgium, Holland, Japan, Europe and North America, but few measurements are available for the southeast Asian region and Hong Kong. PBDE congeners (n=15) were measured in 13 sediments and nine mussel samples, taken from Hong Kong marine waters. The Sigma15PBDEs in sediments ranged between 1.7 and 53.6 ng g(-1) dry wt, with the highest concentrations located around the most heavily populated areas of Victoria Harbour and Sai Kung, while the lowest concentrations of Sigma15PBDEs were found at more remote locations of Sha Tau Kok, Wong Chuk Bay, Castle Peak Bay, and Gold Coast. Sigma15PBDEs ranged from 27.0 to 83.7 ng g(-1) dry wt of mussel tissues. Although not identical, most of the congeners in sediments were found in mussel tissues, with BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-153 and BDE-183 being the most prominent in both matrices. On the basis of a literature survey, the concentrations of PBDEs reported in Hong Kong sediments and mussel tissues are amongst the highest in the world.

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in pinnipeds stranded along the southern California coast.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Blasius, Mary Ellen; Gossett, Richard W; Maruya, Keith A

    2009-10-01

    Little to no information exists for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine mammals frequenting the highly urbanized southern California (USA) coast. Fourteen PBDE congeners were determined by GC-ECNI-MS in blubber of pinnipeds stranded locally between 1994 and 2006. Total PBDE concentrations (SigmaPBDE) in California sea lion (n = 63) ranged from 0.04 to 33.7 microg/g wet weight (mean: 5.24 microg/g). To our knowledge, these are the highest reported PBDE levels in marine mammals to date. By comparison, mean SigmaPBDE in Pacific harbor seals (n = 9) and northern elephant seals (n = 16) were 0.96 and 0.09 microg/g, respectively. PBDEs in adult males were higher than for adult females, however, no age class differences or temporal trends were observed. As the first PBDE data reported for marine mammals in this region, the elevated levels underscore the need for additional studies on the sources, temporal trends, and potential effects of PBDEs in highly urbanized coastal zones.

  15. Assessment of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) via seafood consumption and dust ingestion in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunggyu; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2013-01-15

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in commonly consumed seafood and house dust collected from Korea. Total concentrations of PBDEs in seafood and house dust samples were in the ranges of 0.06 to 6.25 ng/g wet weight and 80 to 16,000 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Predominant congeners in seafood were BDEs 47, 99 and 100 and those in dust samples were BDE 209. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of PBDEs through seafood consumption and dust ingestion for adults (>20 years) and toddlers (<2 years) were 1.83 and 11.4 ng/kg body weight/day, respectively. In comparison with the EDIs reported for PBDEs by general population in several countries, the contribution of seafood consumption to PBDE intake in Korea was the highest. Seafood consumption and dust ingestion contributed equally to the total PBDE intakes in Korean adults, while dust ingestion was the major contributor to toddlers. This study was the first to assess exposure of humans to PBDEs through two major exposure pathways.

  16. Environmental Characteristics of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Marine System, with Emphasis on Marine Organisms and Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Weiliang; Yuan, Huamao; Yan, Huijun; Zhang, Jinpeng; Pei, Zhen; He, Zhipeng

    2016-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), due to their widespread usage as flame retardants and their lipophilicity and persistence, have become ubiquitous in the environment. It is urgent to understand the environmental characteristics of PBDEs in marine system, but they have attracted little attention. We summarize the available data and analyze the regional distributions, controlling factors, and congener patterns of PBDEs in marine and associated environmental matrixes worldwide. Based on meta-analysis, after separating the estuarial sites from the marine sites, ignoring the extraordinary sample sites such as those located just near the point source, the PBDE concentration levels are still in the same order of magnitude from global scale. Despite Principal Component Analysis, the congener patterns of sediments are predominant with the heavy brominated congeners (BDE-209 contributing over 75% to the total load) while the biota abound with the light ones (BDE-47, BDE-99, and BDE-100 taking about 80%). The ratio between BDE-99 and BDE-100 for the lower trophic-level species often turns to be greater than 1, while for those higher species the ratio may be below 1, and some species feed mainly on the crustaceans and zooplankton seems to have a higher ratio value. The data of the PBDEs in marine system are currently limited; thus, data gaps are identified as well. PMID:27999788

  17. Bioaccumulation, maternal transfer and elimination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in wild frogs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng-Yan; Du, Guo-Dong; Zhao, Ya-Xian; Mu, Yun-Song; Zhang, Ai-Qian; Qin, Zhan-Fen; Zhang, Xiao-You; Yan, Shi-Shuai; Li, Yan; Wei, Rong-Guo; Qin, Xiao-Fei; Yang, Yong-Jian

    2011-08-01

    To investigate bioaccumulation, maternal transfer and elimination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in amphibians, we collected adult frogs (Rana limnocharis) from a rice field in an e-waste recycling site in China. We found that ∑PBDEs in the whole frogs and various tissues (brain, liver, testis and egg) ranged from 17.10 to 141.11 ng g(-1) wet weight. Various tissues exhibited a similar PBDE congener profile, which was characterized by intermediate brominated congeners (BDE-99 and BDE-153) as the largest contributors, with less lower brominated congeners (BDE-28 and BDE-47) and higher brominated congeners (BDE-209). The maternal transfer capacity of PBDEs declined with the increase in bromine numbers of PBDE congeners. We suggest that the bromine atom number (the molecular size, to some degree) might be a determining factor for the maternal transport of a PBDE congener rather than K(ow) (Octanol-Water partition coefficient), which expresses a compound's lipophilicity. ∑PBDEs concentrations in frogs decreased over time during a depuration period of 54 days when these wild frogs were brought to the lab from the e-waste recycling site. The half-life of ∑PBDEs was 35 days, with about 14 days for BDE-47, and 36 and 81 days for BDE-99 and BDE-153, respectively. The data shows that the elimination of PBDEs has no essential difference from aquatic and terrestrial species.

  18. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in indoor air during waste TV recycling process.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jie; Lin, Kuangfei; Deng, Jingjing; Fu, Xiaoxu; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-01-01

    Recycling process for waste TV sets mainly consists of dismantling, printed wiring board (PWB) heating, PWB recycling, and plastic crushing in formal recycling plant. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) contained in waste TV sets are released to indoor air. Air samples at 4 different workshops were collected to measure the PBDEs concentrations in both gaseous and particulate phases. The mean concentrations of ∑PBDEs in indoor air were in the range of 6780-2,280,000 pg/m(3). The highest concentration in gaseous phase (291,000 pg/m(3)) was detected in the PWB heating workshop. The ∑12PBDEs concentrations in PM2.5 and PM10 at the 4 workshops ranged in 6.8-6670 μg/g and 32.6-6790 μg/g, respectively. The gas-particle partitioning of PBDEs was disrupted as PBDEs were continuously released during the recycling processes. Occupational exposure assessment showed that only the exposure concentration of BDE-47 (0.118 μg/kg/day) through inhalation in the PWB heating workshop for workers without facemask exceeded the reference dose (0.1 μg/kg/day), posing a health hazard to workers. All the results demonstrated that recycling of TV sets was an important source of PBDEs emission, and PBDEs emission pollution was related to the composition of TV sets, interior dust, and recycling process.

  19. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sewage sludge and treated biosolids: effect factors and mass balance.

    PubMed

    Kim, M; Guerra, P; Theocharides, M; Barclay, K; Smyth, S A; Alaee, M

    2013-11-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have been consistently detected in sewage sludge and treated biosolids. Two hundred and eighty-eight samples including primary sludge (PS), waste biological sludge (WBS) and treated biosolids from fifteen wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Canada were analyzed to investigate the factors affecting accumulation of PBDEs in sludge and biosolids. Factors examined included environmental/sewershed conditions and operational parameters of the WWTPs. PBDE concentrations in PS, WBS and treated biosolids were 230-82,000 ng/g, 530-8800 ng/g and 420-6000 ng/g, respectively; BDE-209,-99, and -47 were the predominant congeners. Concentrations were influenced by industrial input, leachate, and temperature. Several examinations including the measurement of BDE-202 indicated minimal debromination during wastewater treatment. Estimated solids-liquid distribution coefficients were moderately correlated to hydraulic retention time, solids loading rate, mixed liquor suspended solids, solids retention time, and removal of organic solids, indicating that PBDE partitioning to solids can be optimized by WWTPs' operational conditions. Solids treatment type strongly affected PBDE levels in biosolids: 1.5 times increase after solids digestion, therefore, digestion efficiency could be a potential factor for variability of PBDEs concentration. In contrast, alkaline treatment reduced PBDE concentrations in biosolids. Overall, mass balance approaches confirmed that PBDEs were removed from the liquid stream through partitioning to solids. Variability of PBDE levels in biosolids could result in different PBDEs burdens to agricultural land, and different exposure levels to soil organisms.

  20. Toddler's behavior and its impacts on exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Kate; Webster, Thomas F; Sjödin, Andreas; Stapleton, Heather M

    2017-03-01

    Children have higher polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) body burdens than adults, which may be related to hand-to-mouth behavior. We investigate associations between children's behavior, including hand-to-mouth contacts, and markers of PBDE exposure. In addition, we investigate associations between characteristics of the home environment and exposure. Eighty-three children aged 12-36 months were recruited from North Carolina (2009-2010). Children provided blood and handwipes samples, which were analyzed for PBDEs. Parents completed questionnaires, providing demographic, behavioral, and environmental data. More active children had higher levels of PBDEs on their hands and in their bodies. For example, children who spent more time sleeping had lower exposures to PBDEs; each additional hour of sleep resulted in a 30% decrease in handwipe BDE-99 levels (P<0.001) and a 15% decrease in serum (P=0.03). After accounting for handwipe PBDE levels, children who licked their fingers while eating had higher serum PBDEs. Other behaviors were not consistently associated with serum levels. Playing with plastic toys was associated with higher handwipe levels of PBDEs, while frequent vacuuming decreased handwipe PBDE levels. Characteristics of the home environment generally were not associated with serum PBDEs. Our results suggest that certain aspects of children's behavior and their environment impact exposure to PBDEs.

  1. A review of human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in China.

    PubMed

    Ni, Kun; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Gosens, Jorrit; Xu, Li; Li, Qiushuang; Wang, Lin; Liu, Shijie

    2013-11-01

    This paper reviews recent studies on human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in China, with particular focus on external exposure routes (e.g. diet and dust ingestion, inhalation of air) and internal doses based on biomonitoring studies of PBDEs (e.g. breast milk, blood and hair). PBDE concentrations reported for fish samples collected from electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sites, PBDE manufacturing sites, local markets in selected cities and estuarine areas in China have been compiled. House dust has been a significant contributor to human exposure to PBDEs in many countries. This is especially true for toddlers, who are exposed to significantly higher doses of PBDEs than adults. Infants are also exposed to high levels of PBDEs via breast-feeding. The general population's inhalation exposure to PBDEs from household products is likely a less significant source into the indoor environment. In addition, the contribution of several exposure pathways to PBDEs among various age groups was analyzed. We found that house dust contributed most to the daily exposure to PBDEs for both toddlers and adults in urban areas of China. Furthermore, workers and residents in and around electronic recycling and PBDE manufacturing sites are exposed to the highest PBDE levels among all populations studied thus far. For the occupationally exposed populations, BDE209 was the dominant congener, in most cases. Rigorous pollution prevention and occupational protection measures are needed in China to mitigate potential health effects associated with PBDE exposures.

  2. Method for the purification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediment for compound-specific isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Hua-Shan; Chen, She-Jun; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2013-07-15

    A purification method for lower polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, from tri- to hexa-BDE) in sediment for compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) was developed in this study. The compounds were extracted using a Soxhlet apparatus with addition of activated alumina and Florisil in the paper tube during the Soxhlet extraction provided for less complex extracts. Then, the extract was isolated from polar compounds using a multi-layer silica gel column, separated into different fractions using alumina/silica (Al/Si) gel columns and finally purified using a Florisil column. The mean recoveries of the major PBDE congeners in the spiked samples ranged from 76.2% to 82.4%. The purity of the samples was verified by GC-MS in full scan mode. The stable isotopic integrity of the spiked samples after the purification was tested by comparing the stable carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C) of the processed and the unprocessed standard materials. The differences in the δ(13)C values for each compound between the processed and unprocessed standards were less than 0.5‰, with the exception of BDE100 (0.54‰). Finally, the purification and isotope analysis method was successfully applied to measure the δ(13)C of PBDEs in sediments. This application of the method indicated that CSIA seems to be a promising method for providing intrinsic characteristics for further environmental fate studies of PBDEs.

  3. Occurrence, profiles, and ecological risks of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in mangrove sediments of Shantou, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu-Cheng; Wu, Wen-Cheng; Zhang, Yin-Bo; Wang, Tao; Zhao, Jian-Gang; Chen, Zhang-He

    2016-11-23

    Surface sediments were collected from three mangrove wetlands (Yifeng Xi, Shuanghan, and Su'ai Wan) in Shantou coastal zone of South China to investigate spatial distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The results demonstrate that PBDEs were detected in all the samples, indicating their widespread occurrence in coastal sediments of the studied area. Σ9PBDEs (defined as the sum of nine targeted PBDE congeners except BDE-209) and BDE-209 are in the range of 2.3 to 11.5 and 16.7 to 58.2 ng/g, respectively. BDE-209 is the dominant PBDE congener in all sediment samples. The sediment concentrations of ∑9PBDEs and BDE-209 among the three wetlands decrease in the order of Su'ai Wan > Shuanghan > Yifeng Xi. The concentrations of ∑9PBDEs are higher in mangrove sediments than in mudflats, but no obvious regularity can be found on the correlation between mangrove species and PBDE levels in sediments. The contents of total organic carbon are moderately correlated with BDE-209 concentrations in sediments but not with ∑9PBDE concentrations. The samples collected from different locations show slightly different composition profiles except BDE-209, with BDE-100 and BDE-47 being the pre-dominated congeners. The mudflats exhibit higher abundances of tri- to hexa-substituted congeners than the mangrove sediments. Ecological risk assessment demonstrates that the surface sediments from Shantou may pose a potential ecological risk of exposure to sediment-dwelling organisms.

  4. Debromination of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers by Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron: Pathways, Kinetics, and Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yuan; Ahn, Sungwoo; Luthy, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    The debromination of selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (nZVI) was studied to investigate the degradation pathways and the reaction kinetics of the PBDEs. The primary PBDE investigated was 2,3,4-tribromo diphenyl ether (BDE 21) to assess degradation pathways. nZVI could effectively debrominate the selected PBDEs into lower brominated compounds and diphenyl ether, a completely debrominated form of PBDEs. The susceptibility of the meta-bromine by nZVI was observed from the debromination tests for PBDEs with single-flanked (2,3-diBDE and 3,4-diBDE) and unflanked (three monoBDEs) bromines. The stepwise debromination from n-bromo- to (n-1)-bromodiphenyl ether was observed as the dominant reaction process, although simultaneous multistep debromination seemed to be plausible for di-BDEs having two bromines adjacent on the same phenyl ring. The reaction rate constants were estimated by assuming the reaction between PBDEs and nZVI was a pseudo-first order reaction and the rates decreased with fewer bromine substituents. The reaction rate constants were correlated with the heat of formation and the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the corresponding compounds, and these appear to be useful descriptors of relative reaction rates among PBDE homologue groups. PMID:20923154

  5. A Fluorescence-Based Method for Rapid and Direct Determination of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Water

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Huimei; Ma, Teng; Shang, Jianying; Pan, Duoqiang

    2015-01-01

    A new method was developed for rapid and direct measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aqueous samples using fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence spectra of tri- to deca-BDE (BDE 28, 47, 99, 153, 190, and 209) commonly found in environment were measured at variable emission and excitation wavelengths. The results revealed that the PBDEs have distinct fluorescence spectral profiles and peak positions that can be exploited to identify these species and determine their concentrations in aqueous solutions. The detection limits as determined in deionized water spiked with PBDEs are 1.71–5.82 ng/L for BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 190, and BDE 209 and 45.55–69.95 ng/L for BDE 99 and BDE 153. The effects of environmental variables including pH, humic substance, and groundwater chemical composition on PBDEs measurements were also investigated. These environmental variables affected fluorescence intensity, but their effect can be corrected through linear additivity and separation of spectral signal contribution. Compared with conventional GC-based analytical methods, the fluorescence spectroscopy method is more efficient as it only uses a small amount of samples (2–4 mL), avoids lengthy complicated concentration and extraction steps, and has a low detection limit of a few ng/L. PMID:25705548

  6. Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and HBCD in sediments of the Hunhe River in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Su, Jiao; Lu, Yingzhuan; Liu, Zhiyang; Gao, Shutao; Zeng, Xiangying; Yu, Zhiqiang; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jia-mo

    2015-11-01

    Forty surface sediment samples from the Hunhe River in Northeast China were evaluated for contamination by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). The results showed that decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) was the predominant congener, accounting for >98 % of PBDEs in all sediment. The concentrations of BDE-209 and HBCD ranged from 3.96 to 327 ng/g dry weight and 0.05 to 25.8 ng/g dry weight, respectively, suggesting that BDE-209 was more widely applied in the study area. The mean concentrations of BDE-209 and HBCD in the downstream portion of the Hunhe River (BDE-209 148 ng/g dry weight and HBCD 3.74 ng/g dry weight) were found to be relatively higher than those in the upstream portion of the Hunhe River and the Dahuofang Reservoir, revealing an association with municipal sewage and industrial effluent received from the cities of Fushun and Shenyang. γ-HBCD was the most abundant diastereoisomer of all three analyzed HBCD isomers; however, marked elevations of α-HBCD were also found in most sediment samples. Surprisingly, the relative abundance (mean 38%) of α-HBCD in sediment from the upstream portion of the Hunhe River was significantly higher (p < 0.006, t test) than those in Dahuofang Reservoir (mean 24%). Moreover, the severe heavy metal contamination associated with the frequent mining activities in this region was tentatively suggested as being responsible for the increased levels of α-HBCD.

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and HBCD in bird eggs of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Polder, A; Venter, B; Skaare, J U; Bouwman, H

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, the first data on brominated flame retardants (BFRs), in particular polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in eggs of bird species from South Africa are described (N=43). Concentrations of PBDEs were detected in all the studied species and in all the geographic areas. Highest concentrations of PBDEs were measured in bird eggs from the Vaal River, which is situated downstream of the most industrialized area in South Africa. Sum-PBDE concentrations were highest in eggs of one African sacred ibis (396 ng g(-1) lipid weight (lw)), possibly due to foraging on dumping sites. Lowest mean level of sum-PBDEs (2.3 ng g(-1) lw) was measured in cattle egrets (N=11) from Barberspan Sanctuary, a Ramsar site. The PBDE congener pattern showed large differences, reflecting different trophic levels, migratory behavior, distance to the source, and, exposure to different PBDE mixtures, among others. HBCD was detected only in four species, and highest levels were measured in one egg of African sacred ibis (71 ng g(-1) lw). In most species, levels of PBDEs were one to several orders of magnitude lower than levels of DDTs and PCBs. PBDEs correlated strongly with DDTs, PCBs and some other organochlorines (OCs), indicating the same source. The widespread occurrence of PBDEs in the South African avian species showed a strong need for further investigations of PBDEs in the Southern African environment.

  8. Invited Commentary: Maternal Plasma Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Thyroid Hormones—Challenges and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Chevrier, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormones play a fundamental role in fetal and child development. While iodine deficiency-related maternal and child hypothyroidism may cause severe mental retardation, recent evidence suggests that milder forms of maternal hypothyroidism and hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy are also associated with altered neurodevelopment. On the other hand, hyperthyroidism during pregnancy has been associated with adverse fetal outcomes. Findings published by Abdelouahab et al. in the American Journal of Epidemiology (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;178(5):701–713) suggest that plasma concentrations of maternal polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which were used as flame retardants until recently and are detected in the tissues of virtually every North American, are associated with umbilical cord and maternal thyroid hormone levels during pregnancy. Although PBDEs have been consistently shown to reduce levels of free and total thyroxine in experimental animal studies, the direction of associations in human studies has been inconsistent. In this commentary, I discuss challenges beyond the factors often cited in the epidemiologic literature to explain inconsistent findings which more specifically apply to the study of PBDEs and thyroid hormones. These include the determination of iodine intake status, the method used to adjust for blood lipid concentrations, the measurement of free thyroid hormone levels, the possible effect of PBDE metabolites, and the potential for reverse causality. PMID:23924577

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in seven different marine bird species from Iceland.

    PubMed

    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn; Löfstrand, Karin; Svavarsson, Jörundur; Bignert, Anders; Bergman, Åke

    2013-11-01

    Data on distribution, concentration and trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) is scarce in biota from the sub-Arctic region of the Atlantic. The present study is an investigation on PBDE and HBCD concentrations in eggs from seven marine bird species from Iceland, i.e. common eider (Somateria mollissima), arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), guillemot (Uria aalge), fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus), great black-backed gull (Larus marinus) and great skua (Stercorarius skua). Concentrations of sum PBDEs ranged from 44 ng g(-1)fat in eider eggs to 2400 ng g(-1)fat in great skua eggs. The contribution of different PBDE congeners to the sum concentration differed between species. Concentration of HBCDs (sum of α-,β(-) and γ-HBCD) ranged from 1.3 ng g(-1)fat in arctic tern eggs to 41 ng g(-1)fat in great black-backed gull. PCA on PBDE and HBCD shows different trends between the two BFR groups, further indicating different sources/usage. Investigations on any potential health or population effects of environmental pollutants on the great skua are advised since both the PBDE and HBCD concentrations are high.

  10. [Atmospheric Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Eight Cities of China: Pollution Characteristics and Human Exposure].

    PubMed

    Lin, Hai-tao; Li, Qi-lu; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun

    2016-01-15

    The gas and particle samples of eight cities were collected by high flow active air sampler in the Eastern and Western China and eight congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of BDE-28 (tri-BDE) in the gas-phase (three bromide components) was the highest, which was different from previous studies where BDE-99 and-47 were the predominant homologues in the gas-phase while the concentration of BDE-209 [(25.4 ± 124) pg · m⁻³] in particle-phase was the highest. The atmospheric concentrations of PBDEs in Beijing and Guangzhou were relatively higher, especially the BDE-209 concentration in particle phases of Guangzhou was two orders higher than those of other cities. However, the atmospheric concentrations of PBDEs declined significantly when compared with the data from previous studies. Meanwhile, the results indicated that the gas-phase concentrations decreased slowly and the particle-phase concentrations decreased rapidly. Combined with the results of correlation analysis, this phenomenon might be ascribed to the ceased commercial production of penta- and octa-BDE, the light degradation of high bromide components and reduced concentrations of atmospheric particles in urban area. Inhalation exposure for infants was about 2-3 times higher than that of adults. This reflected that the potential health risk of atmospheric PBDEs in city for residents, especially infants and young children, should not be ignored.

  11. Suitability of polydimethylsiloxane rods for the headspace sorptive extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from water samples.

    PubMed

    Montes, R; Rodríguez, I; Rubí, E; Cela, R

    2007-03-02

    The suitability of an inexpensive polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) sorbent, produced on an industrial scale, for the extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), from tetra- to hexabrominated congeners, from water samples was assessed. Experiments were carried out using samples spiked with a pentabromo diphenyl ether (pentaBDE) mixture, PDMS rods with a diameter of 2 mm and gas chromatography with micro-electron-capture detection (GC-micro-ECD). Influence of several variables on the efficiency of the enrichment step and the further desorption of the analytes was investigated in detail. The best performance was achieved in the headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE) mode, at 95 degrees C, using 80 mL water samples containing a 30% of sodium chloride. Extractions were performed overnight using disposable PDMS rods with a length of 10 mm (31 microL volume). Analytes were further recovered from the PDMS sorbent using just 1 mL of diethyl ether. This solvent was evaporated and extracts reconstituted with 25 microL of isooctane. Under final working conditions absolute extraction efficiencies from 69 to 93% and enrichment factors higher than 2200 folds were achieved for all species. The proposed method provided acceptable precisions (relative standard deviations values under 12%), correlation coefficients higher than 0.998 and the yield of the HSSE process remained constant for different water samples.

  12. Optimization of the Finnigan MAT 5100 Capillary Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer for the Analysis of Polychlorinated Biphenyls.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    FINNIGAN MAT 5100 CAPILLARY GAS CHROMATOGRAPH-MASS SPECTROMETER FOR THE ANALYSIS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS J.A. Hiltz - J. Power ,¢., DJ : .,:.JAN 1 4...CAPILLARY GAS CHROMATOGRAPH-MASS SPECTROMETER FOR THE ANALYSIS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS J.A. Hiltz - J.J. Power November 1986 Approved by B.F. Peters A...INTRODUCTION The use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as dielectric fluids in electrical transformers and capacitors has been commomplace over the

  13. Effects of selected polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) thymocyte viability, apoptosis, and necrosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birchmeier, Kelly L.; Smith, Kimberly A.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Sweet, Leonard I.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Adams, Jean V.; Omann, Geneva M.

    2005-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame-retardants have been identified as an emergent contaminants issue in many parts of the world. In vitro analyses were conducted to test the hypothesis that selected PBDEs congeners affect viability, apoptosis, and necrosis of thymocytes from laboratory-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). At current environmental levels (<1 mg/L), effects of the tested PBDEs on thymocytes were negligible. However, at 100 mg/L, major effects were seen for congener brominated diphenyl ether 47 (BDE-47) and minor effects were seen for congener BDE-99.

  14. Brominated Biphenyls Prime Extensive Microbial Reductive Dehalogenation of Aroclor 1260 in Housatonic River Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Bedard, Donna L.; Van Dort, Heidi; Deweerd, Kim A.

    1998-01-01

    The upper Housatonic River and Woods Pond (Lenox, Mass.), a shallow impoundment on the river, are contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the residue of partially dechlorinated Aroclor 1260. Certain PCB congeners have the ability to activate or “prime” anaerobic microorganisms in Woods Pond sediment to reductively dehalogenate the Aroclor 1260 residue. We proposed that brominated biphenyls might have the same effect and tested the priming activities of 14 mono-, di-, and tribrominated biphenyls (350 μM) in anaerobic microcosms of sediment from Woods Pond. All of the brominated biphenyls were completely dehalogenated to biphenyl, and 13 of them primed PCB dechlorination. Measured in terms of chlorine removal and decrease in the proportion of hexa- through nonachlorobiphenyls, the microbial PCB dechlorination primed by several brominated biphenyls was nearly twice as effective as that primed by chlorinated biphenyls. Congeners containing a meta bromine primed Dechlorination Process N (flanked meta dechlorination), and congeners containing an unflanked para bromine primed Dechlorination Process P (flanked para dechlorination). Two ortho-substituted congeners, 2-bromobiphenyl and 2,6-dibromobiphenyl (2-BB and 26-BB), also primed Process N dechlorination. The most effective primers were 26-BB, 245-BB, 25-3-BB, and 25-4-BB. The microbial dechlorination primed by 26-BB converted ∼75% of the hexa- through nonachlorobiphenyls to tri- and tetrachlorobiphenyls in 100 days and removed ∼75% of the PCBs that are most persistent in humans. These results represent a major step toward identifying an effective method for accelerating PCB dechlorination in situ. The challenge now is to identify naturally occurring compounds that are safe and effective primers. PMID:9572952

  15. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A.; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A.

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt. PMID:26798844

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls in blue crabs from South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, J.M.; Mathews, T.D.

    1987-11-01

    Blue crabs are important members of the estuarine food web due to their numbers and their multiple roles as scavengers, predators and prey. Because of their omnivorous feeding characteristics, wide distribution an close association with bottom sediments, the potential exists for blue crabs to bioaccumulate pollutants residing in those sediments as has been shown for fiddler crabs. It follows that human health risk upon consumption of such crabs and biomagnification through the food web become primary concerns. During the spring of 1985, commercial crab fishermen in Beaufort County, South Carolina contacted the South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department (SCWMRD) concerning their perceptions of significantly declining catch rates in the Campbell Creek-Whale Branch area. Using knowledge of previously documented elevated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels in the sediments of the upper portion of Campbell Creek, the SCWMRD initiated analysis of crab tissue from the area to ascertain the body burdens of PCBs. Initial screening results indicated potentially significant levels of PCBs in blue crabs at which time, SCWMRD contacted the SC Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) for more intensive study and definition of the situation. The work reported here was conducted between June and October 1985.

  17. Reliability of the determinations of polychlorinated contaminants (biphenyls, dioxins, furans)

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, W.; Albert, R.

    1996-05-01

    Precision performance parameters from results of 34 interlaboratory performance studies of polychlorinated aromatic ring compounds (biphenyls, dioxins, and furans) (PCCs) have been recalculated by using the Internation Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry-1987 harmonized protocol. Most studies of 1052 test samples, 56 analytes, 19 matrixes, and 2 types of detectors (electron capture and mass spectrometers) provide among-laboratories relative standard deviations (RSD{sub R}s), that are considerably better than those predicted form the Horwitz equation at fractional concentrations of 10{sup {minus}6} down to 10{sup {minus}15}. The explanation suggested is that supplying common reference calibration solutions, as was done in many of these studies, does not reflect realistic operating conditions. Furthermore, the ability to repeat, discuss, and reassess aberrant reported values results in underestimating the true RSD{sub R}. The commonly reported problems of preparation of standard calibrating solutions, instability of the detections system, and failure to follow quality control instructions and good laboratory practices may be important sources of inter-laboratory variability in PCC determinations. 55 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Chiral Polychlorinated Biphenyl Transport, Metabolism and Distribution - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Harrad, Stuart J.; Hühnerfuss, Heinrich; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Lee, Cindy M.; Lu, Zhe; Wong, Charles S.

    2009-01-01

    Chirality can be exploited to gain insight into enantioselective fate processes that may otherwise remain undetected because only biological, but not physical and chemical transport and transformation processes in an achiral environment will change enantiomer compositions. This review provides an in-depth overview of the application of chirality to the study of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), an important group of legacy pollutants. Like other chiral compounds, individual PCB enantiomers may interact enantioselectively (or enantiospecifically) with chiral macromolecules, such as cytochrome P-450 enzymes or ryanodine receptors, leading to differences in their toxicological effects and the enantioselective formation of chiral biotransformation products. Species and congener-specific enantiomer enrichment has been demonstrated in environmental compartments, wildlife and mammals, including humans, typically due to a complex combination of biotransformation processes and uptake via the diet by passive diffusion. Changes in the enantiomer composition of chiral PCBs in the environment have been used to understand complex aerobic and anaerobic microbial transformation pathways, to delineate and quantify PCB sources and transport in the environment, to gain insight into the biotransformation of PCBs in aquatic food webs, and to investigate the enantioselective disposition of PCBs and their methylsulfonyl PCBs metabolites in rodents. Overall, changes in chiral signatures are powerful, but currently underutilized tools for studies of environmental and biological processes of PCBs. PMID:20384371

  19. Modeling polychlorinated biphenyl sorption isotherms for soot and coal.

    PubMed

    Jantunen, A P K; Koelmans, A A; Jonker, M T O

    2010-08-01

    Sorption isotherms (pg-ng/L) were measured for 11 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of varying molecular planarity from aqueous solution to two carbonaceous geosorbents, anthracite coal and traffic soot. All isotherms were reasonably log-log-linear, but smooth for traffic soot and staircase-shaped for coal, to which sorption was stronger and more nonlinear. The isotherms were modeled using seven sorption models, including Freundlich, (dual) Langmuir, and Polanyi-Dubinin-Manes (PDM). PDM provided the best combination of reliability and mechanistically-interpretable parameters. The PDM normalizing factor Z appeared to correlate negatively with sorbate molecular volume, dependent on the degree of molecular planarity. The modeling results supported the hypothesis that maximum adsorption capacities (Q(max)) correlate positively with the sorbent's specific surface area. Q(max) did not decrease with increasing sorbate molecular size, and adsorption affinities clearly differed between the sorbents. Sorption was consistently stronger but not less linear for planar than for nonplanar PCBs, suggesting surface rather than pore sorption.

  20. Thyroid function in Yusho patients exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)

    SciTech Connect

    Murai, K.; Okamura, K.; Tsuji, H.; Kajiwara, E.; Watanabe, H.; Akagi, K.; Fujishima, M.

    1987-12-01

    Thyroid function was investigated in 123 Yusho patients who were exposed to toxic levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 16 years ago. In Yusho patients, compared with the patients without evidence of Yusho or normal controls, the serum triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) and thyroxine (T/sub 4/) levels were significantly higher, while thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels measured by sensitive assay were normal. There was no difference in serum levels of albumin, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) between the two groups and the prevalence of positive antithyroid autoantibodies was almost the same, suggesting that hyperthyroxinemia in Yusho patients was not due to increased TBG binding or abnormal autoimmune mechanism. Serum free T/sub 4/ levels, however, were not elevated, although T/sub 4//TBG ratio was significantly higher. The thyroid hormone levels were higher than normal value in 4 of 123 Yusho patients but only 1 case had clinical symptoms such as excessive perspiration. Despite higher serum PCBs in Yusho patients, there was no correlation between PCB levels and levels of T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/, or TSH. The present results suggest hyperthyroxinemia without obvious clinical symptoms in Yusho patients long after exposure to PCBs.

  1. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oils from Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Tae Seung

    2006-10-11

    Using Korean waste official method, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed from 33 transformer oils collected under National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) in Republic of Korea (ROK) and their emission rate in Korea was estimated. Practical quantification limits analyzed by this method were in the ranges of 0.02 and 0.05 mg L(-1), and recovery of samples was in the ranges of 77-97%. The analytical results showed that PCBs in the transformer oils were identified as Aroclor 1242, 1254 or 1260. Twenty-nine samples were determined to contain PCBs of >0.05 mg L(-1) and among these samples, nine samples contained to have >2 mg kg(-1) which is limit of Waste Control Act (WCA) with regard to PCBs in transformer oil from Korea. The concentrations of PCBs in transformer oils were between N.D. (not detected) and 48.33 mg kg(-1). PCBs concentrations did not exceed 50 mg kg(-1) which is generally accepted limit for the definition of waste in POPs Guideline of Basel Convention.

  2. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) among welders in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Lankatilake, Kantha; Samaranayake, Dulani; Piyathunga, Kasun

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of persistent organic pollutants with the ability to cause adverse impacts on human health and the environment. This study describes the indiscriminate use of PCB-contaminated transformer oil as a coolant in informal welding shops in Kalutara, Sri Lanka. Sixty-three welders, one each from a convenience sample of 63 welding workshops participated in the study. We administered a questionnaire and observed work practices. Sixty-two (98%) workplaces used transformer oil as the coolant in the welding equipment, 60 (95%) claiming that it was the only one available. Sixty-two (98%) did not use any protective measures when refilling coolant oil, while none of them safely disposed of the empty coolant oil containers. Only four (6%) were aware of the possible health effects of PCB-contaminated coolant oil. Health and safety measures in the work places studied were very poor. Coolant oil samples from a sub-sample of 30 welding workshops were tested for PCBs; 19 (63%) were positive. PCB-contaminated coolant oil is widely used by the welders in Kalutara without adequate precautions or safety measures.

  3. Continuous catalytic hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oil.

    PubMed

    Veriansyah, Bambang; Choi, Hye-Min; Lee, Youn-Woo; Kang, Jeong Won; Kim, Jae-Duck; Kim, Jaehoon

    2009-12-01

    Continuous catalytic hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the presence of transformer oils was carried out in a fixed bed reactor using a 57.6 wt% Ni on silicon oxide-aluminum oxide (SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)) catalyst. Reaction temperatures ranging 150-300 degrees C, PCBs concentrations ranging 50-200 ppm, and reaction times ranging 1-8 h were tested. At a higher reaction temperature or at a lower PCBs concentration, catalytic activity was higher and complete dechlorination of PCBs resulted even at long reaction time. Catalyst regeneration using hexane and 0.1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was effective to restore the catalytic activity. Fresh, spent and regenerated catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. XRD analysis revealed growth of Ni crystallite size of the spent and the regenerated catalysts. XPS analysis showed that a considerable amount of chlorine and carbon species were deposited on the surface of the spent catalyst, which may play a role in the catalysts deactivation.

  4. Toxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on cardiac development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengmeng; Wang, Xuejie; Zhu, Jingai; Zhu, Shasha; Hu, Xiaoshan; Zhu, Chun; Guo, Xirong; Yu, Zhangbin; Han, Shuping

    2014-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that may pose significant health-risks to various organisms including humans. Although the mixed PCB Aroclor 1254 is widespread in the environment, its potential toxic effect on heart development and the mechanism underlying its developmental toxicity have not been previously studied. Here, we used the zebrafish as a toxicogenomic model to examine the effects of Aroclor 1254 on heart development. We found that PCB exposure during zebrafish development induced heart abnormalities including pericardial edema and cardiac looping defects. Further malformations of the zebrafish embryo were observed and death of the larvae occurred in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Our mechanistic studies revealed that abnormalities in the arylhydrocarbon receptor, Wnt and retinoic acid signaling pathways may underlie the effects of PCBs on zebrafish heart development. Interestingly, co-administration of Aroclor 1254 and diethylaminobenzaldehyde, an inhibitor of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase, partially rescued the toxic effects of PCBs on zebrafish heart development. In conclusion, PCBs can induce developmental defects in the zebrafish heart, which may be mediated by abnormal RA signaling.

  5. Health effects of low-level exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Stark, A D; Costas, K; Chang, H G; Vallet, H L

    1986-10-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) spill resulting from a transformer explosion in Syracuse, New York, with no subsequent fire, provided an opportunity for the examination of the effects of low-level PCB exposure without the confounding presence of furans and dioxins. The incident provided 52 individuals exposed to PCB among building personnel, police, firemen, and public utility employees. Sixty-eight nonexposed were matched to the exposed group by sex, age, employer, and job description. Data were collected on the exposed relative to their activities at the spill site, their location, possible routes of exposure, duration of exposure, and subsequent health effects. Exposed and nonexposed were interviewed for past medical history and relevant symptoms. Blood chemistries were studied inclusive of SGOT, SGPT, total protein, CBC, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, as well as a fasting blood PCB level measurement. Six weeks after the spill, exposed and nonexposed were reinterviewed and had their blood work repeated except for the CBC and PCB levels. Exposed and nonexposed laboratory results were unremarkable. Some transient skin irritation believed to be associated with PCBs was noted. There were significant PCBs in blood level trends for occupation, age, duration of exposure, and level of alcohol consumption. Triglyceride level was highly correlated with PCB level. This relationship held when age and alcohol consumption were controlled for.

  6. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in California sea lions.

    PubMed

    Kannan, K; Kajiwara, N; Le Boeuf, B J; Tanabe, S

    2004-10-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, chlordanes, HCHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) were measured in the blubber of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) collected in 2000. DDTs were the most predominant contaminants, followed by PCBs, chlordanes, TCPMe, HCHs, TCPMOH, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs varied from a few microg/g to several hundreds of microg/g on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of DDTs have declined by an order of magnitude over the last three decades in California sea lions; nevertheless, the measured concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in California sea lions are still some of the highest values reported for marine mammals in recent years. Concentrations of organochlorines were highly correlated with one another. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in the blubber of gray whale, humpback whale, northern elephant seal, and harbor seal, and in the adipose fat of sea otter, were lower than the levels found in California sea lions, and were in the range of a few to several microg/g on a lipid weight basis.

  7. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Kira C.; Jackson, Leila W.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Buck Louis, Germaine M. . E-mail: louisg@mail.nih.gov

    2007-01-15

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio.

  8. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Disrupt Hepatic Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Hardesty, Josiah E; Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K Cameron; Clair, Heather B; Clark, Barbara J; Ceresa, Brian P; Prough, Russell A; Cave, Matthew C

    2016-07-26

    1. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that disrupt hepatic xenobiotic and intermediary metabolism, leading to metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). 2. Since phenobarbital indirectly activates Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) by antagonizing growth factor binding to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), we hypothesised that PCBs may also diminish EGFR signaling. 3. The effects of the PCB mixture Aroclor 1260 on the protein phosphorylation cascade triggered by EGFR activation were determined in murine (in vitro and in vivo) and human models (in vitro). EGFR tyrosine residue phosphorylation was decreased by PCBs in all models tested. 4. The IC50 values for Aroclor 1260 concentrations that decreased Y1173 phosphorylation of EGFR were similar in murine AML-12 and human HepG2 cells (∼2-4 μg/mL). Both dioxin and non-dioxin-like PCB congeners decreased EGFR phosphorylation in cell culture. 5. PCB treatment reduced phosphorylation of downstream EGFR effectors including Akt and mTOR, as well as other phosphoprotein targets including STAT3 and c-RAF in vivo. 6. PCBs diminish EGFR signaling in human and murine hepatocyte models and may dysregulate critical phosphoprotein regulators of energy metabolism and nutrition, providing a new mechanism of action in environmental diseases.

  9. Atmospheric emission of polychlorinated biphenyls from multiple industrial thermal processes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Cai, Mingwei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Du, Bing; Dong, Shujun; Hu, Jicheng; Xiao, Ke

    2013-03-01

    In this study, field measurements were conducted to estimate and characterize the atmospheric emission levels and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from multiple industrial thermal processes. The emission levels and profiles of PCBs from five types of thermal processes at twenty-three plants were studied and compared with eight processes reported in our previous studies. Correlation analysis was preformed to identify a marker congener for emission of ΣPCB. A significant correlation was observed between congener CB-118 and ΣPCB (R(2)=0.65 and p<0.01), which suggests that CB-118 is a good marker congener for emission of ΣPCB. The profiles of PCBs emitted from the thirteen thermal processes were compared, and this information could be used for studying source-receptor relationships and identifying the specific sources of PCBs. To prioritize the sources for control, the concentrations of PCBs from thirteen industrial thermal sources were compared. The PCB concentrations from secondary zinc smelting and thermal wire reclamation were about one to three order magnitude higher than those of other sources, which suggests that these two sources be given priority in PCB source control. Finally, the atmospheric emission factors of PCBs from the thirteen industrial sources were summarized, and these data will be useful for developing an integrated emission inventory of PCBs.

  10. Environmental determinants of polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in residential carpet dust

    PubMed Central

    DellaValle, Curt T.; Wheeler, David C.; Deziel, Nicole C.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Cerhan, James R.; Cozen, Wendy; Severson, Richard K.; Flory, Abigail R.; Locke, Sarah J.; Colt, Joanne S.; Hartge, Patricia; Ward, Mary H.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), banned in the United Sates in the late 1970s, are still found in indoor and outdoor environments. Little is known about the determinants of PCB levels in homes. We measured concentrations of 5 PCB congeners (105, 138, 153, 170, 180) in carpet dust collected between 1998–2000 from 1,187 homes in four sites: Detroit, Iowa, Los Angeles, and Seattle. Home characteristics, occupational history, and demographic information were obtained by interview. We used a geographic information system to geocode addresses and determine distances to the nearest major road, freight route, and railroad, percentage of developed land, number of industrial facilities within 2 km of residences, and population density. Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between the covariates of interest and the odds of PCB detection in each site separately. Total PCBs levels (all congeners < maximum practical quantitation limit [MPQL] vs. at least one congener ≥ MPQL to < median concentration vs. at least one congener >median concentration) were positively associated with either percentage of developed land (ORrange: 1.01-1.04 for each percentage increase) or population density (OR: 1.08 for every 1,000/mi2) in each site. The number of industrial facilities within 2 km of a home was associated with PCB concentrations; however, facility type and the direction of the association varied by site. Our findings suggest that outdoor sources of PCBs may be significant determinants of indoor concentrations. PMID:23952055

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottom sediments: identification of sources.

    PubMed

    Wolska, Lidia; Mechlińska, Agata; Rogowska, Justyna; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can enter the environment from various sources. They are synthetic chemicals and as such are present in the environment mainly as mixtures containing various amounts of PCB congeners. It is therefore difficult to pinpoint the source of PCB emissions into the environment and the pathways along which they migrate there. The situation is different where locating the emission sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is concerned. There is much information in the literature on the molecular markers that can be used to identify the sources of PAH emissions into the environment. Environmental samples like soil or bottom sediments are usually analysed for their contents of both groups of compounds. Therefore, with data on the origins of PAHs to hand, and seeking and comparing mutual correlations, one can attempt to define the probable sources of emission of PCBs. The purpose of this work was to identify the probable PCBs emission sources in bottom sediments using available data, that is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diagnostic ratios. The numerical ratios of pairs of compounds such as fluoranthene/pyrene, phenanthrene/anthracene, fluoranthene/(fluoranthene+pyrene) and chrysene/benzo[a]anthracene are generally used as a tool for identifying and assessing pollution emission sources.

  12. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) carcinogenicity with special emphasis on airborne PCBs

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial chemicals used in various applications requiring chemical stabilityand have now become widely dispersed. Their characteristics of persistence, low water/higher lipid solubility, contribute to their ability to bioconcentrate and bioaccumulate. Traditionally PCBs have been regulated as food contaminants and the general population is primarily exposed by that route. PCBs in foodstuffs are generally higher chlorinated, resistant to metabolic breakdown, and elicit toxic changes that are thought to be predominantly receptor/parent PCB-driven. But for certain occupational exposures, and for those persons residing or working in contaminated buildings, and in large cities, an inhalation route of exposure may predominate. Airborne PCBs are, in contrast to foodborne PCBs, lower chlorinated, more volatile, and subject to metabolic attack. In this review, we have explored (geno-) toxic manifestations of PCBs typical of those found in air. Here metabolic conversion of the parent PCB to hydroxylated and other metabolic progeny appear to play a dominant role, especially in genotoxicity. We should be cognizant of the impact of exposures to airborne PCBs for those individuals who are occupationally exposed, for persons living near contaminated sites, for those who work or go to school in contaminated buildings, and especially cognizant of the young, the socio-economically disadvantaged and medically-underserved or nutritionally-deficient populations. PMID:21686028

  13. Electrode materials for biphenyl-based rectification devices.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Sweta; Srivastava, Pankaj; Pattanaik, Manisha

    2013-10-01

    An ab initio approach was utilized to explore the electronic transport properties of 4'-thiolate-biphenyl-4-dithiocarboxylate (TBDT) sandwiched between two electrodes made of various materials X (X = Cu, Ag, and Au). Analysis of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, rectification performance, transmission functions, and the projected density of states (PDOS) under various external voltage biases showed that the transport properties of these constructed systems are markedly impacted by the choice of electrode materials. Further, Cu electrodes yield the best rectifying behavior, followed by Ag and then Au electrodes. Interestingly, the rectification effects can be tuned by changing the torsion angle between the two phenyl rings, as well as by stretching the contact distances between the end group and the electrodes. For Cu, the maximum rectifying ratio increases by 37 % as the contact distance changes from 1.7 Å to 1.9 Å. This is due to an increase in coupling strength asymmetry between the molecule and the electrodes. Our findings are compared with the results reported for other systems. The present calculations are helpful not only for predicting the optimal electrode material for practical applications but also for achieving better control over rectifying performance in molecular devices.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their interaction with the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, K.S.; Korte, N.E.

    1994-05-01

    This document is a review of the existing technical literature regarding the physical and biological properties of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their interaction with the environment. It is intended to be used when evaluating PCB-contaminated soil and the effects of specific environmental conditions on PCB degradation. PCBs are a class of chlorinated aromatic compounds with 209 possible structural arrangements. The composition of PCBs in the environment changes over time due to various physiochemical and biological properties and processes: vapor pressure, solubility, octanol-water partitioning, adsorption, and biodegradation. As the number of chlorine atoms increases, both vapor pressure and water solubility decrease, while adsorption and the octanol-water partitioning coefficient increase. Dechlorination of PCBs occurs primarily through aerobic and anaerobic microbial degradation. Aerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate less-chlorinated PCBs, while anaerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate more highly chlorinated PCBs. The less-chlorinated PCB congeners are less persistent in the environment due to volatilization, solubility, and aerobic biodegradation, while the more-chlorinated PCBs are more persistent in the environment due to adsorption. The composition of an original PCB mixture in the environment can be expected to change due to a combination of processes described above. Any attempt to determine the source of PCBs or Aroclors identified in an environment sample must be approached with caution to avoid inaccurate conclusions.

  15. Sex effect on polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in fish: a synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) accumulate in fish primarily via food intake, and therefore, PCBs serve as a chemical tracer for food consumption. Sex differences in PCB concentrations of fish have been attributed to the following three mechanisms: (i) females losing a substantial portion of their PCB body burden during spawning and consequently their PCB concentration is considerably reduced immediately after spawning; (ii) sex differences in habitat utilization leading to sex differences in the PCB concentrations of the prey; and (iii) sex differences in gross growth efficiency, which is defined as growth divided by the amount of food consumption needed to achieve that growth. Based on my analyses and synthesis, mechanisms (i) and (ii) operate in relatively few fish populations, but can lead to mature males having PCB concentrations two to three times higher than mature female PCB concentrations. In contrast, mechanism (iii) operates in all fish populations, but typically, mechanism (iii) results in relatively modest sex differences, with mature males only between 15 and 35% higher in PCB concentration than mature females. In summary, the study of sex differences in PCB concentrations of fish has led to insights into fish behaviour and fish physiology.

  16. Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Environment: Sources, Fate, and Toxicities

    PubMed Central

    Tehrani, Rouzbeh; Van Aken, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) are produced in the environment by the oxidation of PCBs through a variety of mechanisms, including metabolic transformation in living organisms and abiotic reactions with hydroxyl radicals. As a consequence, OH-PCBs have been detected in a wide range of environmental samples, including animal tissues, water, and sediments. OH-PCBs have recently raised serious environmental concerns because they exert a variety of toxic effects at lower doses than the parent PCBs and they are disruptors of the endocrine system. Although evidence has accumulated about the widespread dispersion of OH-PCBs in various compartments of the ecosystem, little is currently known about their biodegradation and behavior in the environment. OH-PCBs are today increasingly considered as a new class of environmental contaminants that possess specific chemical, physical, and biological properties not shared with the parent PCBs. This article reviews recent findings regarding the sources, fate, and toxicities of OH-PCBs in the environment. PMID:23636595

  17. Inhalation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Produces Hyperactivity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, John P; Berger, David F; Hunt, Anne; Carpenter, David O

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious behavioral syndrome seen in children, and more common in males than females. There is increasing evidence that prenatal and/or early life exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POP) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) is associated with increased risk of ADHD occurrence. While PCB exposure is usually attributed to ingestion of contaminated food, recent reports of elevated PCB concentrations in indoor air, especially in schools, raised concern regarding inhalation as an important route of exposure to PCB with consequent effects on neurobehavior. The effects of exposure to air contaminated with Aroclor 1248 or contaminated sediment (SED) from the St. Lawrence River were examined on operant behavior of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Data showed that relative to controls, vapor-phase inhalation of PCB, whether from blowing air over Aroclor 1248 or from blowing air over sediment contaminated with PCB, resulted in hyperactivity and impatience in rats, more pronounced in males than females. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that inhalation of PCB may contribute to behavioral abnormalities in children.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls as initiators in liver carcinogenesis: resistant hepatocyte model.

    PubMed

    Espandiari, Parvaneh; Glauert, Howard P; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Lee, Eun Y; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Robertson, Larry W

    2003-01-01

    A modified Solt-Farber protocol was established to investigate the potential initiating activity of lower chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in rat liver. Two different studies were conducted in male Fisher 344 rats. PCBs investigated were PCB3, PCB12, PCB38, and PCB77 in study 1 and PCB15, PCB52, PCB77, and the combination of PCB52 and PCB77 in study 2. Rats were subjected to partial hepatectomy followed by a single dose of the suspected initiating agent, diethylnitrosamine, or vehicle. Two weeks later all groups received selection treatment consisting of three daily doses of 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) and then a single dose of carbon tetrachloride, followed by three additional daily treatments of 2-AAF via gavage. Rats were killed 2 weeks after the last treatment of 2-AAF, and the number and volume of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT)-positive foci were determined. Among the PCBs tested, PCB3, PCB15, PCB52, and PCB77 significantly increased the number of GGT-positive foci per cm(3) of liver and per liver. Only PCB3 and PCB15 increased the volume fraction of GGT-positive foci. Histopathologic analysis of hematoxylin- and eosin-stained liver sections showed that rats with significantly increased GGT-positive foci also had extensive cellular alteration. This effect was not seen in nonselection groups. We conclude that, under the conditions and time courses of these experiments, several PCBs have initiating activity in male Fischer 344 rats.

  19. Biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls through a riverine food web

    SciTech Connect

    Zaranko, D.T.; Kaushik, N.K.; Griffiths, R.W.

    1997-07-01

    From 1989 to 1993, biota collected from Pottersburg Creek, London, ON, Canada were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lipids. Data were analyzed by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with lipid as the covariate, to investigate station, time, and trophic effects on PCB accumulation in aquatic organisms. All three variables were highly significant. PCB concentrations in biota decreased along the length of the creek away from the point source. PCB concentrations in biota collected in July 1993 were not significantly different from concentrations in biota collected in July 1990, suggesting that sources into the creek have not been alleviated. The relationship between PCBs and lipid for biota from Pottersburg Creek suggests that organisms accumulate PCBs relative to their position in the food web. Fish and leeches occupying the top of the food web accumulated more PCBs than organisms occupying a lower trophic position (crayfish and oligochaetes/chironomids), indicating that biomagnification through trophic transfer (i.e., the uptake of a chemical through ingestion) is the primary mechanism governing contaminant levels in biota and not bioconcentration (i.e, the uptake of a chemical from water).

  20. Bioaccumulation characteristics of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the marine food web of Bohai Bay.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Binghui; Zhao, Xingru; Ni, Xinjuan; Ben, Yujie; Guo, Rui; An, Lihui

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants, but its bioaccumulation and debromination in biota have remained largely unclear. In this study, we analyzed six PBDEs (BDE47, 99, 100, 153, 154, and 209) in various tissues (i.e., viscera, muscle, and gill) of 11 types of marine organisms including zooplankton, invertebrate and fish. The concentrations of six PBDE including BDE209 in marine organisms ranged from 0.75 to 7.29 ng/g dry weight, BDE209 from 0.46 to 6.78 ng/g dry weight, respectively. BDE209 was the dominant congener in all samples, followed by BDE47. The concentration ratio of BDE47, 99, 154 to ΣPBDEs in various tissues of organisms (i.e., Rapana venosa, shrimp, crab, cuttlefish, octopus, Synechogobius hasta, tonguefish and wolfish) increased, while the concentration ratio of BDE209 to ΣPBDEs decreased. Large differences of the concentration ratios between BDE99 and BDE100 in tissues of crab was found, ranging from 32:68 in crab viscera to 83:17 in crab leg muscle. Biomagnification factors for individual PBDE congeners ranged from 0.16 to 78.6. In general, the BMFs for BDE209 in muscle were higher than those in viscera within feeding relationships. The study results suggesting BDE209 can be biodegraded to BDE47 through BDE154 and BDE99 in marine organism, its metabolite importantly influenced by organism type not trophic level; higher percentage of BDE154 was found in viscera than that in other tissues in the analyzed marine organisms of Bohai Bay.

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners and toxaphene in selected marine standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Kucklick, John R; Tuerk, Karen J S; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Schantz, Michele M; Wise, Stephen A

    2004-03-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and components of the complex mixture toxaphene are stable in the environment and readily bioaccumulated into wildlife and human tissues. PBDEs are presently used in large quantities worldwide as flame retardants in textiles, furniture, computer equipment, and cables. Toxaphene is a complex mixture of chlorinated bornanes and bornenes that was the most heavily used pesticide in the United States until it was banned in 1982; however, some countries continue to use toxaphene. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has quantified PBDE congeners and toxaphene in several available Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) using methods of gas chromatography with electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS) and GC negative chemical ionization (NCI) MS, respectively. SRM 1588a Organics in Cod Liver Oil and SRM 1945 Organics in Whale Blubber were examined for PBDE congeners 47, 99, 100, 153, and 154, total toxaphene, and toxaphene congeners 26, 50, and 62. SRM 1946 Lake Superior Fish Tissue was also examined for total toxaphene and toxaphene congeners. The sum of the PBDE congeners (mean, (1 SD) wet basis) for SRM 1945 was 150 ng g(-1) (7 ng g(-1)). The concentration of PBDE 47 in SRM 1588a was 82.7 ng g(-1) (2.8 ng g(-1)). Other PBDEs were detected in SRM 1588a but were not quantified due their low levels. The total toxaphene (wet mass basis) was 1,210 ng g(-1) (127 ng g(-1)), 1,960 ng g(-1) (133 ng g(-1)), and 3,980 ng g(-1) (248 ng g(-1)) in SRMs 1945, 1946, and 1588a, respectively. The values for PBDEs and toxaphene determined in the SRMs, while not certified, indicate that the SRMs will be suitable control materials for PBDE and toxaphene analyses.

  2. Concentrations of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) and 2,4,6-Tribromophenol in Human Placental Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Leonetti, Christopher; Butt, Craig M.; Hoffman, Kate; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2015-01-01

    Legacy environmental contaminants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely detected in human tissues. However, few studies have measured PBDEs in placental tissues, and there are no reported measurements of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) in placental tissues. Measurements of these contaminants are important for understanding potential fetal exposures, as these compounds have been shown to alter thyroid hormone regulation in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we measured a suite of PBDEs and 2,4,6-TBP in 102 human placental tissues collected between 2010–2011 in Durham County, North Carolina, USA. The most abundant PBDE congener detected was BDE-47, with a mean concentration of 5.09 ng/g lipid (range: 0.12–141 ng/g lipid; detection frequency 91%); however, 2,4,6-TBP was ubiquitously detected and present at higher concentrations with a mean concentration of 15.4 ng/g lipid (range:1.31–316 ng/g lipid; detection frequency 100%). BDE-209 was also detected in more than 50% of the samples, and was significantly associated with 2,4,6-TBP in placental tissues, suggesting they may have a similar source, or that 2,4,6-TBP may be a degradation product of BDE-209. Interestingly, BDE-209 and 2,4,6-TBP were negatively associated with age (rs=−0.16; p=0.10 and rs=−0.17; p=0.08, respectively). The results of this work indicate that PBDEs and 2,4,6-TBP bioaccumulate in human placenta tissue and likely contribute to prenatal exposures to these environmental contaminants. Future studies are needed to determine if these joint exposures are associated with any adverse health measures in infants and children. PMID:26700418

  3. Review on the occurrence and profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Mackintosh, Susan A; Wallace, Joshua S; Gross, Michael S; Navarro, Denise D; Pérez-Fuentetaja, Alicia; Alaee, Mehran; Montecastro, Doris; Aga, Diana S

    2015-12-01

    The environmental occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has been a subject of concern for the past decade because they are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic. These compounds have been listed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention and are expected to disperse in the global environment even after their use and production. While the occurrence of PBDEs has been well characterized in environmental and biological samples from North America, Europe, and some Asian countries (i.e. China, Japan, and Korea), there is a scarcity of available data in developing Asian countries, such as the Philippines. Examination of PBDE contamination in the Philippine environment is particularly important because regulations have only recently been implemented on the production and use of PBDEs in this country. Additionally, the Philippines receives e-waste from Western countries, which is becoming a major source of organic contaminants in the tropical Asian regions. Ultimately, the Philippines may be a hot spot for contributing to on-going global PBDE pollution due to long-range atmospheric transport. This paper presents a review of the available literature on PBDEs in both environmental and biological samples collected from the Philippines. It is also intended to provide an overview on the levels and congener profiles of PBDEs in samples from the Philippines and to compare these data with other Asian countries. New data are presented on PBDE occurrence and congener profiles in fish commonly consumed by Filipinos and in particulate matter samples collected in Metro Manila, the capital of the Philippines. Both studies contribute to the available knowledge of PBDEs in the Philippines. We aim to stress the importance of future studies in countries receiving e-wastes, such as the Philippines, and suggest what future directions might be taken to enhance the available data on the presence of PBDEs in the Philippine environment.

  4. Flame retardant exposure: polybrominated diphenyl ethers in blood from Swedish workers.

    PubMed

    Sjödin, A; Hagmar, L; Klasson-Wehler, E; Kronholm-Diab, K; Jakobsson, E; Bergman, A

    1999-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as additives in polymers and textiles to prohibit the development of fires. Because of the production and use of PBDEs, their lipophilic characteristics, and persistence, these compounds have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The aim of the present study was to determine potential exposures of PBDEs to clerks working full-time at computer screens and personnel at an electronics-dismantling plant, with hospital cleaners as a control group. Five PBDE congeners--2,2',4,4'-tetraBDE; 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaBDE; 2,2',4,4',5, 6'-hexaBDE; 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptaBDE; and decaBDE--were quantified in blood serum from all three categories of workers. Subjects working at the dismantling plant showed significantly higher levels of all PBDE congeners in their serum as compared to the control group. Decabromodiphenyl ether is present in concentrations of 5 pmol/g lipid weight (lw) in the personnel dismantling electronics; these concentrations are comparable to the concentrations of 2,2',4, 4'-tetraBDE. The latter compound was the dominating PBDE congener in the clerks and cleaners. The major compound in personnel at the dismantling plant was 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptaBDE. Concentrations of this PBDE congener are almost twice as high as for 2,2',4, 4'-tetraBDE in these workers and seventy times the level of this heptaBDE in cleaners. The total median PBDE concentrations in the serum from workers at the electronics-dismantling plant, clerks, and cleaners were 37, 7.3, and 5.4 pmol/g lw, respectively. The results show that decabromodiphenyl ether is bioavailable and that occupational exposure to PBDEs occurs at the electronics-dismantling plant.

  5. Editor's Highlight: Comparative Toxicity of Organophosphate Flame Retardants and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers to Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Behl, Mamta; Rice, Julie R; Smith, Marjo V; Co, Caroll A; Bridge, Matthew F; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Freedman, Jonathan H; Boyd, Windy A

    2016-12-01

    With the phasing-out of the polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants due to concerns regarding their potential developmental toxicity, the use of replacement compounds such as organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) has increased. Limited toxicity data are currently available to estimate the potential adverse health effects of the OPFRs. The toxicological effects of 4 brominated flame retardants, including 3 PBDEs and 3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobisphenol A, were compared with 6 aromatic OPFRs and 2 aliphatic OPFRs. The effects of these chemicals were determined using 3 biological endpoints in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (feeding, larval development, and reproduction). Because C. elegans development was previously reported to be sensitive to mitochondrial function, results were compared with those from an in vitro mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP) assay. Overall 11 of the 12 flame retardants were active in 1 or more C. elegans biological endpoints, with only tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate inactive across all endpoints including the in vitro MMP assay. For 2 of the C. elegans endpoints, at least 1 OPFR had similar toxicity to the PBDEs: triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) inhibited larval development at levels comparable to the 3 PBDEs; whereas TPHP and isopropylated phenol phosphate (IPP) affected C. elegans reproduction at levels similar to the PBDE commercial mixture, DE-71. The PBDEs reduced C. elegans feeding at lower concentrations than any OPFR. In addition, 9 of the 11 chemicals that inhibited C. elegans larval development also caused significant mitochondrial toxicity. These results suggest that some of the replacement aromatic OPFRs may have levels of toxicity comparable to PBDEs.

  6. Prenatal and postnatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure and visual spatial abilities in children.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Ann M; Braun, Joseph M; Yolton, Kimberly; Xie, Changchun; Webster, Glenys M; Sjödin, Andreas; Dietrich, Kim N; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin

    2017-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are associated with impaired visual spatial abilities in toxicological studies, but no epidemiologic study has investigated PBDEs and visual spatial abilities in children. The Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a prospective birth cohort (2003-2006, Cincinnati, OH), was used to examine prenatal and childhood PBDEs and visual spatial abilities in 199 children. PBDEs were measured at 16±3 weeks gestation and at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 years using gas chromatography/isotope dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry. We used the Virtual Morris Water Maze to measure visual spatial abilities at 8 years. In covariate-adjusted models, 10-fold increases in BDE-47, -99, and -100 at 5 years were associated with shorter completion times by 5.2s (95% Confidence Interval [CI] -9.3, -1.1), 4.5s (95% CI -8.1, -0.9), and 4.7s (95% CI -9.0, -0.3), respectively. However, children with higher BDE-153 at 3 years had longer completion times (β=5.4s, 95% CI -0.3, 11.1). Prenatal PBDEs were associated with improved visual spatial memory retention, with children spending a higher percentage of their search path in the correct quadrant. Child sex modified some associations between PBDEs and visual spatial learning. Longer path lengths were observed among males with increased BDE-47 at 2 and 3 years, while females had shorter paths. In conclusion, prenatal and postnatal BDE-28, -47, -99, and -100 at 5 and 8 years were associated with improved visual spatial abilities, whereas a pattern of impairments in visual spatial learning was noted with early childhood BDE-153 concentrations.

  7. Prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and child attention problems at 3–7 years

    PubMed Central

    Cowell, Whitney J.; Lederman, Sally A.; Sjödin, Andreas; Jones, Richard; Wang, Shuang; Perera, Frederica P.; Wang, Richard; Rauh, Virginia A.; Herbstman, Julie B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) comprise a class of halogenated compounds used extensively as flame retardant chemicals in consumer products resulting in nearly ubiquitous human exposure. Mounting evidence suggests that PBDEs are developmental neurotoxicants; however, associations between early life exposure and child behavior have been largely limited to a single developmental time point. Methods The study population consists primarily of white, black and Chinese women who were pregnant on 11 September 2001 and delivered at 1 of 3 downtown New York City hospitals. Maternal–child pairs were followed through age 7 years. Cord blood was collected at delivery and PBDE plasma levels for 210 samples were analyzed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Child Behavior Checklist, a validated maternal-report instrument used for assessing child behavior, was administered annually between the ages of 3 and 7 years. We analyzed the association between natural log-transformed and dichotomized (low vs. high) PBDEs and attention problems using multivariable adjusted negative binomial regression. Results We detected 4 PBDE congeners in more than 50% of samples, with concentrations highest for BDE-47 (median ± IQR: 11.2 ± 19.6 ng/g). In adjusted analyses, we detected associations between BDE-47 (1.21, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.47), and BDE-153 (1.18, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.39) in cord plasma and increased attention problems among children at age 4 (n = 109) but not 6 (n = 107) years. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate a positive trend between prenatal PBDE exposure and early childhood attention problems, and are consistent with previous research reporting associations between prenatal PBDE exposure and disrupted child behaviors. PMID:26344673

  8. Methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDE) in human milk from Bizerte, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Hassine, Sihem; Ben Ameur, Walid; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Touil, Soufiane; Driss, Mohamed Ridha

    2015-04-01

    Methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were determined in 36 human milk samples collected in 2010 from healthy mothers living in Bizerte region from Tunisia. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry working with negative ion chemical ionization (GC-NCI-MS) was used to identify and quantify residue levels on a lipid basis of organo-brominated compounds. Among the 8 examined MeO-PBDE congeners 6-MeO-BDE-47, 2'-MeO-BDE-68, 4'-MeO-BDE-49 and 5'-MeO-BDE-100 were detected in human milk at different levels and frequencies. This is the first study reporting 5'-MeO-BDE-100 and 4'-MeO-BDE-49 levels in human milk samples. Levels of ∑MeO-PBDEs ranged from 0.23 to 4.70ngg(-)(1) lipid weight (lw) in the samples, with a mean and median value of 1.52 and 1.11ngg(-1)lw respectively. Concentrations of ∑MeO-PBDEs in human milk were negatively correlated with age of primapara mothers (p<0.05) and no age-dependency was observed for multipara mothers. Primapara mothers had higher levels of MeO-PBDEs than multipara mothers however no statistical significance was observed. A weak correlation between ∑PBDEs and ∑MeO-PBDEs was found but not between BDE-47 and its methoxylated analog 6-MeO-BDE-47, suggesting differences in exposure pathways for these contaminants in humans and further supporting the hypothesis that MeO-PBDEs were likely not only originated from PBDE precursors.

  9. Measurement and modeling of diel variability of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and chlordanes in air.

    PubMed

    Moeckel, Claudia; Macleod, Matthew; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Jones, Kevin C

    2008-05-01

    Short-term variability of concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and chlordanes in air at a semirural site in England over a 5 day period is reported. Four-hour air samples were collected during a period dominated by a high pressure system that produced stable diel (24-h) patterns of meteorological conditions such as temperature and atmospheric boundary layer height. PBDE and chlordane concentrations showed clear diel variability with concentrations in the afternoon and evening being 1.9 - 2.7 times higher than in the early morning. The measurements are interpreted using a multimedia mass balance model parametrized with forcing functions representing local temperature, atmospheric boundary layer height, wind speed and hydroxyl radical concentrations. Model results indicate that reversible, temperature-controlled air-surface exchange is the primary driver of the diel concentration pattern observed for chlordanes and PBDE 28. For higher brominated PBDE congeners (47, 99 and 100), the effect of variable atmospheric mixing height in combination with irreversible deposition on aerosol particles is dominant and explains the diel patterns almost entirely. Higher concentrations of chlordanes and PBDEs in air observed at the end of the study period could be related to likely source areas using back trajectory analysis. This is the first study to clearly document diel variability in concentrations of PBDEs in air over a period of several days. Our model analysis indicates that high daytime and low nighttime concentrations of semivolatile organic chemicals can arise from different underlying driving processes, and are not necessarily evidence of reversible air-surface exchange on a 24-h time scale.

  10. Evaluation of hepatic biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Krieger, Lisa K; Szeitz, András; Bandiera, Stelvio M

    2016-03-01

    Polar bears are at the top of the Arctic marine food chain and are subject to exposure and bioaccumulation of environmental chemicals of concern such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which were widely used as flame retardants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro oxidative metabolism of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-47) and 2,2',4,4',5-pentabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-99) by polar bear liver microsomes. The identification and quantification of the hydroxy-brominated diphenyl ethers formed were assessed using an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method. Incubation of BDE-47 with archived individual liver microsomes, prepared from fifteen polar bears from northern Canada, produced a total of eleven hydroxylated metabolites, eight of which were identified using authentic standards. The major metabolites were 4'-hydroxy-2,2',4,5'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether and 5'-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether. Incubation of BDE-99 with polar bear liver microsomes produced a total of eleven hydroxylated metabolites, seven of which were identified using authentic standards. The major metabolites were 2,4,5-tribromophenol and 4-hydroxy-2,2',3,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether. Among the CYP specific antibodies tested, anti-rat CYP2B was found to be the most active in inhibiting the formation of hydroxylated metabolites of both BDE-47 and BDE-99, indicating that CYP2B was the major CYP enzyme involved in the oxidative biotransformation of these two congeners. Our study shows that polar bears are capable of forming multiple hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47 and BDE-99 in vitro and demonstrates the role of CYP2B in the biotransformation and possibly in the toxicity of BDE-47 and BDE-99 in polar bears.

  11. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): turning the corner in Great Lakes trout 1980-2009.

    PubMed

    Crimmins, Bernard S; Pagano, James J; Xia, Xiaoyan; Hopke, Philip K; Milligan, Michael S; Holsen, Thomas M

    2012-09-18

    Lake trout and walleye composites were collected between 2004 and 2009 as part of the Great Lakes Fish Monitoring and Surveillance Program (GLFMSP) and analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Yearly mean total PBDE concentrations (sum of congeners BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154) ranged from 44-192, 28-113, 50-107, 37-111, and 11-22 ng/g wet wt. for Lakes Michigan, Huron, Ontario, and Superior lake trout, and Lake Erie walleye, respectively. A 1980-2009 temporal record of PBDE concentrations in the Great Lakes' top predator fish (lake trout and walleye) was assembled by integrating previous GLFMSP data (1980-2003) with current results (2004-2009). Temporal profiles show obvious breakpoints between periods of PBDE accumulation and decline in trout for Lakes Huron, Michigan and Ontario with a significant (p < 0.0001 and r = 0.55, 0.72, and 0.51, respectively) decrease in concentration after 2000-2001. A similar transition was observed in Lake Superior for the nearshore site accompanied by a less significant decreasing trend (p = 0.016, r = 0.33), suggesting concentrations are declining very slowly or have leveled off. In contrast, Lake Erie walleye concentrations began leveling off in the late 1990s and no statistically significant trend (increasing or decreasing) has been observed in recent years. A decrease in the BDE-47/BDE-153 ratio was also recently observed, suggesting a transition to more highly brominated PBDEs is occurring in Great Lakes trout. This study provides region-wide evidence that PBDE concentrations are generally declining in Great Lakes trout, although there are clear exceptions to this trend. Results from this study reflect the positive impact of the 2004 PentaBDE ban on macro-scale aquatic freshwater ecosystems.

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers enhance the production of proinflammatory cytokines by the placenta.

    PubMed

    Peltier, M R; Klimova, N G; Arita, Y; Gurzenda, E M; Murthy, A; Chawala, K; Lerner, V; Richardson, J; Hanna, N

    2012-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether(s) (PBDE) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that bind and cross the placenta but their effects on pregnancy outcome are unclear. It is possible that environmental contaminants increase the risk of inflammation-mediated pregnancy complications such as preterm birth by promoting a proinflammatory environment at the maternal-fetal interface. We hypothesized that PBDE would reduce IL-10 production and enhance the production of proinflammatory cytokines associated with preterm labor/birth by placental explants. Second-trimester placental explants were cultured in either vehicle (control) or 2 μM PBDE mixture of congers 47, 99 and 100 for 72 h. Cultures were then stimulated with 10(6) CFU/ml heat-killed Escherichia coli for a final 24 h incubation and conditioned medium was harvested for quantification of cytokines and PGE(2). COX-2 content and viability of the treated tissues were then quantified by tissue ELISA and MTT reduction activity, respectively. PBDE pre-treatment reduced E. coli-stimulated IL-10 production and significantly increased E. coli-stimulated IL-1β secretion. PBDE exposure also increased basal and bacteria-stimulated COX-2 expression. Basal, but not bacteria-stimulated PGE(2), was also enhanced by PBDE exposure. No effect of PBDE on viability of the explants cultures was detected. In summary, pre-exposure of placental explants to congers 47, 99, and 100 enhanced the placental proinflammatory response to infection. This may increase the risk of infection-mediated preterm birth by lowering the threshold for bacteria to stimulate a proinflammatory response(s).

  13. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and perfluorinated compounds in the atmosphere of North Greenland.

    PubMed

    Bossi, Rossana; Vorkamp, Katrin; Skov, Henrik

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and neutral per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been measured at Villum Research Station, Station Nord (North Greenland) in the period 2008-2013. Atmospheric concentrations of OCPs at the same site have been previously reported for the years 2008-2010. The detection frequency and the average concentrations of OCPs have not significantly changed since the previous study. PBDE congeners (∑13PBDEs) were measured for the first time in North Greenland at concentrations similar to those observed for other remote sites, confirming that these compounds are ubiquitous in the Northern Hemisphere. The ∑13PBDEs concentration ranged from not detected (n.d.) to 6.26 pg m(-3). The BDE congeners found in more than 30% of the samples were BDE-17, BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-71, BDE-99 and BDE-100. Also for neutral PFAS we present for the first time a multiyear series of measurements for North Greenland. The average sum of the seven measured neutral PFAS (∑7PFAS) ranged from 1.82 to 32.1 pg m(-3). The most abundant compound was 8:2 FTOH (44% of ∑7PFAS), followed by 6:2 FTOH and 10:2 FTOH. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (FOSA) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamidoethanols (FOSE) were also detected but at much lower concentrations than FTOHs. Temporal trends were investigated for all measured compounds but no significant trend in concentration was observed. Monthly average concentrations for the six years were calculated for each compound and the seasonal variation was investigated. Some OCPs and FTOHs showed seasonal variations, and in most cases a maximum was found during summer.

  14. Increasing polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) contamination in sediment cores from the inner Clyde Estuary, UK.

    PubMed

    Vane, Christopher H; Ma, Yun-Juan; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2010-02-01

    The concentrations of 16 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in six short sediment cores from the Clyde Estuary were determined by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry. Total PBDE concentrations ranged from 1 to 2,645 mug/kg and the average concentration was 287 mug/kg. BDE-209 was the main congener and varied from 1 to 2,337 mug/kg. Elevated total PBDE concentrations were observed close to the sediment surface in the uppermost 10 cm of four of the six sediment cores. Comparison of the down core PBDE profiles revealed that the increase was driven by the accumulation of deca-BDE. Although the deca-BDE mix was dominant, the presence of lower molecular weight congeners BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-183 and BDE-153 at most sediment intervals suggested additional sources of penta-BDE and octa-BDE pollution. Changing PBDE source input was the major factor in influencing the proportion of nona-brominated congeners, although other explanations such as post burial photo-debromination of BDE-209 cannot be entirely discounted. A clear cascading to lower hepta-, hexa-, and penta-homologues was not found. The increase in total PBDE concentrations and particularly the deca-BDE may possibly be ascribed to the use and subsequent disposal of electrical appliances such as televisions and computers. In the Clyde sediments, the proportion of nona-brominated congeners was higher than that reported for commercial mixtures. This might be due to changing sources of PBDEs or post burial photo-debromination of BDE-209.

  15. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Breast Milk and Neuropsychological Development in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Fort, Marta; Martínez, David; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Forns, Joan; Grimalt, Joan O.; Santa Marina, Loreto; Lertxundi, Nerea; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest in the potential effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) on children’s neuropsychological development, but only a few small studies have evaluated such effects. Objectives: Our goal was to examine the association between PBDE concentrations in colostrum and infant neuropsychological development and to assess the influence of other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on such association. Methods: We measured concentrations of PBDEs and other POPs in colostrum samples of 290 women recruited in a Spanish birth cohort. We tested children for mental and psychomotor development with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 12–18 months of age. We analyzed the sum of the seven most common PBDE congeners (BDEs 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, 209) and each congener separately. Results: Increasing Σ7PBDEs concentrations showed an association of borderline statistical significance with decreasing mental development scores (β per log ng/g lipid = –2.25; 95% CI: –4.75, 0.26). BDE-209, the congener present in highest concentrations, appeared to be the main congener responsible for this association (β = –2.40, 95% CI: –4.79, –0.01). There was little evidence for an association with psychomotor development. After adjustment for other POPs, the BDE-209 association with mental development score became slightly weaker (β = –2.10, 95% CI: –4.66, 0.46). Conclusions: Our findings suggest an association between increasing PBDE concentrations in colostrum and a worse infant mental development, particularly for BDE-209, but require confirmation in larger studies. The association, if causal, may be due to unmeasured BDE-209 metabolites, including OH-PBDEs (hydroxylated PBDEs), which are more toxic, more stable, and more likely to cross the placenta and to easily reach the brain than BDE-209. PMID:23052368

  16. Flame retardant exposure: polybrominated diphenyl ethers in blood from Swedish workers.

    PubMed Central

    Sjödin, A; Hagmar, L; Klasson-Wehler, E; Kronholm-Diab, K; Jakobsson, E; Bergman, A

    1999-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as additives in polymers and textiles to prohibit the development of fires. Because of the production and use of PBDEs, their lipophilic characteristics, and persistence, these compounds have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The aim of the present study was to determine potential exposures of PBDEs to clerks working full-time at computer screens and personnel at an electronics-dismantling plant, with hospital cleaners as a control group. Five PBDE congeners--2,2',4,4'-tetraBDE; 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaBDE; 2,2',4,4',5, 6'-hexaBDE; 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptaBDE; and decaBDE--were quantified in blood serum from all three categories of workers. Subjects working at the dismantling plant showed significantly higher levels of all PBDE congeners in their serum as compared to the control group. Decabromodiphenyl ether is present in concentrations of 5 pmol/g lipid weight (lw) in the personnel dismantling electronics; these concentrations are comparable to the concentrations of 2,2',4, 4'-tetraBDE. The latter compound was the dominating PBDE congener in the clerks and cleaners. The major compound in personnel at the dismantling plant was 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptaBDE. Concentrations of this PBDE congener are almost twice as high as for 2,2',4, 4'-tetraBDE in these workers and seventy times the level of this heptaBDE in cleaners. The total median PBDE concentrations in the serum from workers at the electronics-dismantling plant, clerks, and cleaners were 37, 7.3, and 5.4 pmol/g lw, respectively. The results show that decabromodiphenyl ether is bioavailable and that occupational exposure to PBDEs occurs at the electronics-dismantling plant. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10417362

  17. Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether and perfluoroalkyl substance exposures and executive function in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Ann M; Yolton, Kimberly; Webster, Glenys M; Sjödin, Andreas; Calafat, Antonia M; Braun, Joseph M; Dietrich, Kim N; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin

    2016-05-01

    Executive function is a critical behavioral trait rarely studied in relation to potential neurotoxicants. Prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been associated with adverse neurodevelopment, but there is limited research on executive function. Data from 256 mother-child pairs in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a prospective birth cohort (2003-2006, Cincinnati, OH), was used to examine maternal serum PBDEs and PFASs and executive function in children ages 5 and 8 years. Maternal serum PBDEs and PFASs were measured at 16±3 weeks gestation. Executive function was assessed with the parent-rated Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), which yields composite measures: behavioral regulation index, metacognition index, and global executive composite. Higher BRIEF scores indicate executive function impairments. Linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations were used to estimate covariate-adjusted associations between PBDEs and PFASs and executive function. A 10-fold increase in BDE-153 was associated with poorer behavior regulation (β=3.23, 95% CI 0.60, 5.86). Higher odds of having a score ≥60 in behavior regulation (OR=3.92, 95% CI 1.76, 8.73) or global executive functioning (OR=2.34, 95% CI 1.05, 5.23) was observed with increased BDE-153. Each ln-unit increase in perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was associated with poorer behavior regulation (β=3.14, 95% CI 0.68, 5.61), metacognition (β=3.10, 95% CI 0.62, 5.58), and global executive functioning (β=3.38, 95% CI 0.86, 5.90). However, no association was observed between perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and executive function. Prenatal exposures to BDE-153 and PFOS may be associated with executive function deficits in school-age children.

  18. Theoretical Studies on Structures, Properties and Dominant Debromination Pathways for Selected Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lingyun; Hu, Jiwei; Shi, Xuedan; Ruan, Wenqian; Luo, Jin; Wei, Xionghui

    2016-01-01

    The B3LYP/6-311+G(d)-SDD method, which considers the relativistic effect of bromine, was adopted for the calculations of the selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the present study, in which the B3LYP/6-311+G(d) method was also applied. The calculated values and experimental data for structural parameters of the selected PBDEs were compared to find the suitable theoretical methods for their structural optimization. The results show that the B3LYP/6-311+G(d) method can give the better results (with the root mean square errors (RMSEs) of 0.0268 for the C–Br bond and 0.0161 for the C–O bond) than the B3LYP/6-311+G(d)-SDD method. Then, the B3LYP/6-311+G(d) method was applied to predict the structures for the other selected PBDEs (both neutral and anionic species). The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and the electron affinity are of a close relationship. The electron affinities (vertical electron affinity and adiabatic electron affinity) were discussed to study their electron capture abilities. To better estimate the conversion of configuration for PBDEs, the configuration transition states for BDE-5, BDE-22 and BDE-47 were calculated at the B3LYP/ 6-311+G(d) level in both gas phase and solution. The possible debromination pathway for BDE-22 were also studied, which have bromine substituents on two phenyl rings and the bromine on meta-position prefers to depart from the phenyl ring. The reaction profile of the electron-induced reductive debromination for BDE-22 were also shown in order to study its degradation mechanism. PMID:27322242

  19. Investigation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in old consumer products in India.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Kanchan; Sharma, Jitendra K; Kanade, Gajanan S; Kashyap, Sanjay M; Juwarkar, Asha A; Wate, Satish R

    2014-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) used extensively over the past 3 decades as flame retardants in most types of polymers, all over the world, have been identified as global pollutants. PBDEs pose various health problems such as thyroid hormone disruption, permanent learning and memory impairment, behavioral changes, hearing deficits, delayed puberty onset, fetal malformations, and possibly cancer. Many measurements of PBDEs in various matrices from Sweden, Holland, Japan, the USA, and elsewhere have been reported, but few measurements are available for India. In this study, a preliminary screening of different congeners of PBDEs has been performed in different old electronic and consumer products with an objective to build capacity in order to analyze PBDEs and BFRs. Six different samples, foam from upholstery, motherboard of a computer, children toy composite sample, old vanishing window blind sample, electrical wire sample, and PVC flooring sample, were collected and analyzed for the presence of the following PBDE congeners: BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154, BDE-183, and BDE-209. It was found that three out of six samples were positive for the presence of PBDEs. Three congeners were detected in the samples, i.e., BDE-47, BDE-153, and BDE-209, of which, highest concentration was of BDE-209. Among the samples, motherboard of computer showed the highest concentration of BDE-209 followed by window blind and foam from upholstery. The results of this preliminary investigation indicate that PBDEs are still present in the old consumer products which can be an important additional source of exposure to the population.

  20. Infant exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) via consumption of homemade baby food in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Young Don; Cho, Geumjoon; Suh, Eunsook; Kim, Sung Koo; Eun, So-Hee; Eom, Soyong; Kim, Seunghyo; Kim, Gun-Ha; Lee, Won Chan; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2014-10-01

    Limited data are available on the residue levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in baby food. In this study, 24 PBDE congeners were determined in 147 homemade baby food samples collected from 97 households for 6-, 9-, 12-, 15-, and from 24 to 27-month-old infant groups during the period of 2012-2013. The concentrations of total PBDEs (ΣPBDE) ranged from 24.5 to 6000 (mean: 263) pg/g fresh weight, higher than those found in commercial formulae from the United States. The predominant congeners were BDEs 209 and 47, accounting for 92% of the ΣPBDE concentrations, reflected by high deca-BDE consumption in Korea. The residue levels and detection rates of BDE 47 in the baby food samples showed a gradual increasing trend with an increase in infant ages, due to changes in the food ingredients from hypoallergenic to greasy. The daily intakes of BDEs 47 and 209 via baby food consumption ranged from 0.04 to 0.58, 0.80 to 20.3, and 1.06 to 22.3 ng/kg body weight/day for 6-, 9-, 12-, 15-, and 24-27-month-old infant groups, respectively; these intakes were lower than the oral reference doses proposed by the US EPA. Together with three exposure sources, baby food, breast milk and dust ingestion for 6-month-old infants, the daily intake of ΣPBDE was 25.5 ng/kg body weight/day, which was similar to the intake via baby food consumption only for over 24-month-old infants in our study. This indicates that baby food is an important exposure pathway of PBDEs for over 24-month-old infants. This is the first study regarding the occurrence and exposure assessment of PBDEs via homemade baby food.

  1. Dependence of mass spectrometric fragmentation on the bromine substitution pattern of polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hua; Zhang, Siyu; Wang, Yawei; Wang, Ying; Li, An; Negrusz, Adam; Yu, Gang

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates the link between the bromine substitution and the mass spectrometric fragmentation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The mass spectra of 180 PBDEs were obtained in both electron impact (EI) and electron capture negative ionization (ECNI) modes using a single quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS) as well as EI using a tandem MS (MS/MS). The major ions are M(+), [M-2Br](+), [M-2Br](2+) and [M-nBr-28](+) in EI, and Br(-), [HBr2](-) and [C6BrnO](-) in ECNI. In EI-MS, congeners without ortho bromine or having 2,3 substitution on one ring and no ortho bromines on the other were more robust than the others in each homolog. These congeners generated low [M-2Br](+) but relatively high [M-2Br](2+) in EI-MS and negligible [HBr2](-) in ECNI-MS. In EI-MS/MS, the molecular ions of these congeners required higher collision energy to debrominate, and produced additional ions of [M-nBr](+) and [M-nBr-28](+). Full ortho substitution promotes C-O cleavage forming [C6BrnO](-) in ECNI for congeners with >5 bromines. The relationship between the abundance of M(+) and collision energy of the EI-MS/MS was well characterized with a logistic regression model. Principle component analysis found associations between the inflection point collision energy and a few molecular descriptors. Quantum chemistry simulations revealed different EI-induced fragmentation mechanisms among four dibrominated congeners, supporting the hypothesized formation of a stable dibenzofuran-like intermediate during the fragmentation of some congeners but not of others.

  2. Theoretical Studies on Structures, Properties and Dominant Debromination Pathways for Selected Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingyun; Hu, Jiwei; Shi, Xuedan; Ruan, Wenqian; Luo, Jin; Wei, Xionghui

    2016-06-16

    The B3LYP/6-311+G(d)-SDD method, which considers the relativistic effect of bromine, was adopted for the calculations of the selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the present study, in which the B3LYP/6-311+G(d) method was also applied. The calculated values and experimental data for structural parameters of the selected PBDEs were compared to find the suitable theoretical methods for their structural optimization. The results show that the B3LYP/6-311+G(d) method can give the better results (with the root mean square errors (RMSEs) of 0.0268 for the C-Br bond and 0.0161 for the C-O bond) than the B3LYP/6-311+G(d)-SDD method. Then, the B3LYP/6-311+G(d) method was applied to predict the structures for the other selected PBDEs (both neutral and anionic species). The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and the electron affinity are of a close relationship. The electron affinities (vertical electron affinity and adiabatic electron affinity) were discussed to study their electron capture abilities. To better estimate the conversion of configuration for PBDEs, the configuration transition states for BDE-5, BDE-22 and BDE-47 were calculated at the B3LYP/ 6-311+G(d) level in both gas phase and solution. The possible debromination pathway for BDE-22 were also studied, which have bromine substituents on two phenyl rings and the bromine on meta-position prefers to depart from the phenyl ring. The reaction profile of the electron-induced reductive debromination for BDE-22 were also shown in order to study its degradation mechanism.

  3. Emission behavior of hexabromocyclododecanes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers from flame-retardant-treated textiles.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Natsuko; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the emission behavior of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) added to textile products as flame retardants, we used a small stainless steel container (7 cm i.d. × 5.5 cm height, ca. 210 cm(3)) to conduct emission tests on three upholstery textile samples at temperatures of 20, 40, 60, and 80 °C. The textile samples, which were intended for use in curtain manufacture and had been treated with either technical HBCD or technical DecaBDE, emitted HBCDs and PBDEs, including BDE 209, even at room temperature (20 °C), and the emission rates increased with increasing test temperature. These results indicate that flame-retardant-treated upholstery textiles have the potential to be major sources of brominated flame retardant contamination in indoor air and dust. The HBCD diastereomer emission profiles at the test temperatures of 20 and 40 °C were similar to the profiles of the original textile samples; in contrast, at the higher test temperatures, the proportion of α-HBCD was larger (up to 70% of the total HBCD emission) than in the original samples. At the higher test temperatures, the proportions of di- to hexa-BDEs in the emissions were clearly larger than in the original sample, suggesting that the textile products treated with technical DecaBDE could be a source of environmentally relevant PBDE congeners such as BDE 47, 99, and 100. The emission rates of HBCDs from the textiles were two orders of magnitude higher than those of PBDEs, suggesting that HBCDs volatilize more easily from textile products to the indoor environment than PBDEs.

  4. Investigating the distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers through an Australian wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Bradley O; Porter, Nichola A; Symons, Robert K; Marriott, Philip J; Stevenson, Gavin J; Blackbeard, Judy R

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the amount of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) released into the environment (biosolids, effluent) from a conventional Australian activated sludge treatment wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The concentration of PBDE congeners was measured at various treatment stages and included four aqueous samples (raw, primary, secondary and tertiary effluents) and three sludges (primary, secondary and lime stabilized biosolids), collected at three sampling events over the course of the experiment (29 days). Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were also installed for the duration of the experiment, the first time that SPMDs have been used to measure PBDEs in a WWTP. Over 99% of the PBDEs entering the WWTP were removed through the treatment processes, principally by sedimentation. The main congeners detected were BDE 47, 99 and 209, which are characteristic of the two major commercial formulations viz penta-BDE and deca-BDE. All the PBDE congeners measured were highly correlated with each other, suggesting a similar origin. In this case, the PBDEs are thought to be from domestic sources since domestic wastewater is the main contribution to the in-flow (approximately 95%). The mean concentration of SigmaPBDEs in chemically stabilized sewage sludge (biosolids) was 300microg kg(-1) dry weight. It is calculated that 2.3+/-0.3kg of PBDEs are disposed of each year with biosolids generated from the WWTP. If all Australian sewage sludge is contaminated to at least this concentration then at least 110kg of PBDEs are associated with Australian sewage sludge annually. Less than 10g are released annually into the environment via ocean outfall and field irrigation; this level of contamination is unlikely to pose risk to humans or the environment. The environmental release of treated effluent and biosolids is not considered a large source of PBDE environmental emissions compared to the quantities used annually in Australia.

  5. Toxicokinetics of sediment-associated polybrominated diphenylethers (flame retardants) in benthic invertebrates (Lumbriculus variegatus, Oligochaeta).

    PubMed

    Leppänen, Matti T; Kukkonen, Jussi V K

    2004-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants showing rapid temporal increase in some sample types. The compounds are known to biomagnify in aquatic food webs and are assumed to archive into sediments and soils. Currently, no direct evidence indicates whether sediment-associated PBDEs are available for biota. The aim of the present study was to explore the uptake and elimination of two common congeners (47 and 99) in sediment-inhabiting invertebrates to shed light on possible bioavailability of sediment-associated PBDEs. Two clean lake sediments were spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of 14C-labeled tetra- and pentabromo diphenylether, and oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) were exposed for three or four weeks to allow kinetic accumulation calculations. Subsequent depuration tests were performed after three weeks of exposure to obtain depuration rates. Both congeners were clearly bioavailable, and only slight differences in steady-state tissue concentrations were found between the four sediment-ingesting oligochaete treatments (biota sediment accumulation factors [BSAFs], 3.0-3.7). The tetrabromo diphenylether-exposed oligochaetes that did not ingest sediment had clearly lower influx rates (0.1 vs 1-3 nmol h(-1)) than sediment-ingesting worms. Also, the estimated BSAF (1.8) was statistically different from that of the sediment-ingesting oligochaetes. These findings support the significance of feeding behavior in bioaccumulation of very hydrophobic organic contaminants. Depuration of both congeners was biphasic, indicating two kinetically different compartments in L. variegatus. Compartment A made up 73 to 92% of total radioactivity in tissues and had relatively fast depuration rates (half-lives, 10.5-47.5 h); the smaller compartment B had very slow depuration rates. No significant biotransformation of PBDEs was evident. The present study clearly demonstrates that the sediment-associated PBDEs, like other

  6. Distribution and accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Hong Kong mangrove sediments.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haowen; Wang, Ying; Wang, Xiaowei; Luan, Tiangang; Tam, Nora F Y

    2014-01-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used extensively as brominated flame retardants in various polymers, and have become serious environmental contaminants, particularly in coastal sediments. Mangrove wetlands are important coastal ecosystems in tropical and subtropical regions, and mangrove sediments are often the pollutant sinks due to their close proximity with human activities. In Hong Kong, sediment samples collected from five mangrove swamps were found to be contaminated with PBDEs and the eight measured BDE congeners, including BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183 and -209 were detected in all mangrove sediments, indicating that these pollutants were widespread in Hong Kong mangrove wetlands. Among the five swamps, relatively high concentrations of PBDEs were recorded in Mai Po mangrove swamp in the northwestern Hong Kong, which is part of the RAMSAR site but is severely influenced by the pollution from the Pearl River Delta. The depth profile of PBDEs in sediment cores collected from Mai Po also showed the inputs of PBDEs in this mangrove swamp increased year by year. In all sediments, the concentrations of BDE-209 were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the other congeners in the same sediment. The concentrations of BDE-209 and ∑PBDEs (defined as the sum of seven targeted BDE congeners except BDE-209) ranged from 1.53 to 75.9 ng g(-1) and from 0.57 to 14.4 ng g(-1), respectively. Among the targeted BDE congeners except BDE-209, slightly different composition was recorded among samples collected from different locations, with BDE-153 and -183 being the pre-dominated congeners. In all mangrove swamps, except Tai O in the southwest of Hong Kong, ∑PBDEs concentrations showed a common trend of landward>seaward>mudflat. The concentrations of ∑PBDEs were significantly correlated with total organic matter (TOM) content in sediments but not with the sediment particle sizes in each mangrove swamp.

  7. Parental transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and thyroid endocrine disruption in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liqin; Lam, James C W; Guo, Yongyong; Wu, Rudolf S S; Lam, Paul K S; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2011-12-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have the potential to disrupt the thyroid endocrine system. The objective of the present study was to characterize the disrupting effects of long-term exposure on the thyroid endocrine system in adult fish and their progeny following parental exposure to PBDEs. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations (1, 3, and 10 μg/L) of the PBDE mixture DE-71 for 5 months until sexual maturation. In the F0 generation, exposure to DE-71 significantly increased plasma thyroxine (T4) but not 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) in females. This increased T4 was accompanied by decreased mRNA levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and thyrotropin β-subunit (TSHβ) in the brain. The F1 generation was further examined with or without continued DE-71 treatment conditions. Exposure to DE-71 in the F0 fish caused significant increases in T4 and T3 levels in the F1 larvae and modified gene expressions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT axis) under both conditions. Decreased hatching and inhibition of growth in the F1 offspring were observed in the condition without DE-71 treatment. Continued DE-71 treatment in the F1 embryos/larvae resulted in further decreased hatching, and increased malformation rates compared with those without DE-71 exposure. Analysis of F1 eggs indicated that parental exposure to DE-71 could result in a transfer of PBDEs and thyroid hormones (THs) to their offspring. For the first time, we demonstrated that parental exposure to low concentrations of PBDEs could affect THs in the offspring and the transgenerational PBDE-induced toxicity in subsequent nonexposed generations.

  8. In Utero and Childhood Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Exposures and Neurodevelopment in the CHAMACOS Study

    PubMed Central

    Chevrier, Jonathan; Rauch, Stephen A.; Kogut, Katherine; Harley, Kim G.; Johnson, Caroline; Trujillo, Celina; Sjödin, Andreas; Bradman, Asa

    2012-01-01

    background: California children’s exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs) are among the highest worldwide. PBDEs are known endocrine disruptors and neurotoxicants in animals. Objective: Here we investigate the relation of in utero and child PBDE exposure to neurobehavioral development among participants in CHAMACOS (Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas), a California birth cohort. Methods: We measured PBDEs in maternal prenatal and child serum samples and examined the association of PBDE concentrations with children’s attention, motor functioning, and cognition at 5 (n = 310) and 7 years of age (n = 323). Results: Maternal prenatal PBDE concentrations were associated with impaired attention as measured by a continuous performance task at 5 years and maternal report at 5 and 7 years of age, with poorer fine motor coordination—particularly in the nondominant—at both age points, and with decrements in Verbal and Full-Scale IQ at 7 years. PBDE concentrations in children 7 years of age were significantly or marginally associated with concurrent teacher reports of attention problems and decrements in Processing Speed, Perceptual Reasoning, Verbal Comprehension, and Full-Scale IQ. These associations were not altered by adjustment for birth weight, gestational age, or maternal thyroid hormone levels. Conclusions: Both prenatal and childhood PBDE exposures were associated with poorer attention, fine motor coordination, and cognition in the CHAMACOS cohort of school-age children. This study, the largest to date, contributes to growing evidence suggesting that PBDEs have adverse impacts on child neurobehavioral development. PMID:23154064

  9. Lipid-soluble conjugates of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in blue mussels from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Dennis; Jensen, Sören; Asplund, Lillemor

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) of proposed natural origin have been detected throughout the food web of the Baltic Sea. Some OH-PBDEs have been shown to disrupt oxidative phosphorylation and the thyroid hormone system in exposed organisms. This paper describes an investigation into the fate of OH-PBDEs in the Baltic Sea's predominant specie, the blue mussel. The main focus was on the conjugation of OH-PBDEs with lipophilic moieties (e.g., fatty acids) and the potential role this transformation mechanism may have in heavily exposed mussels in nature. Analytical methods were developed to accurately determine the concentrations of these conjugates in blue mussels collected on different occasions during the summer in a coastal area of the Baltic proper. The measured concentrations of conjugated OH-PBDEs were compared to those of the unconjugated parent compounds, and it was found that in some cases, the levels of the conjugated derivatives can be equal or even higher than the levels of the unconjugated OH-PBDEs. This is, to our knowledge, the first study on lipid-soluble OH-PBDE conjugates, and the first study to investigate the occurrence of such conjugates of halogenated phenolic compounds in environmentally exposed mussels. The mussels were also found to contain hydrolysable water-soluble derivatives of OH-PBDEs (such as e.g., glucuronic acid and/or sulfate conjugates etc.). These were tentatively determined to be of lower concentration (by up to an order of magnitude) than that of the OH-PBDEs which were conjugated with lipophilic moieties.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners as markers of toxic equivalents of polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Glynn, A W; Atuma, S; Aune, M; Darnerud, P O; Cnattingius, S

    2001-07-01

    In breast milk, concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are higher than those of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), making PCB analyses less time-consuming and expensive. We searched for PCB "markers" of PCDD/DF concentrations, by studying associations between concentrations of PCB and PCDD/DFs (expressed as toxic equivalents, TEQs) in breast milk from 27 women (primiparas, 22-35 years). These women donated breast milk in 1996-1999 together with 183 other primiparas from Uppsala County, Sweden. Regression analyses showed that both dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like penta- to hepta-chlorinated PCBs could be used as markers of TEQ concentrations in this group of women, in some cases after age adjustment of the regressions. The strong positive association between concentrations of dioxin-like PCB/DD/DFs and non-dioxin-like PCBs will in future epidemiological studies make it difficult to separate Ah receptor-dependent effects from non-Ah receptor-dependent effects. With the use of regression equations and concentrations in breast milk samples collected in 1994, TEQ concentrations were estimated in the 1994 samples. Comparisons between estimated and measured concentrations indicated that associations between concentrations of marker substances and TEQs should be determined separately within each study population, in order to obtain reliable TEQ exposure assessments from PCB markers.

  11. Factors influencing combined exposure to three indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in an adult cohort from Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Arrebola, J P; Mutch, E; Cuellar, M; Quevedo, M; Claure, E; Mejía, L M; Fernández-Rodríguez, M; Freire, C; Olea, N; Mercado, L A

    2012-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are persistent organic pollutants that have been used for decades in several industrial applications. Although production of polychlorinated biphenyls was restricted from the 1970s in most countries, substantial amounts remain in old equipment and buildings and they have been detected in various environmental and biological matrices. The main objective of this study was to analyze predictors of the combined exposure to three non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (congeners 138, 153 and 180) in serum and adipose tissue from an adult cohort (n=112) living in the city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra (Bolivia) and surrounding towns/villages. A second aim was to identify modifiers that might influence the statistical associations found, using crude, partially-adjusted, and global multiple linear regression models. Main predictors of serum concentrations were occupation and fatty food consumption, while those for adipose tissue concentrations included age, smoking habit, fatty food consumption, and residence. The differences between the two matrices might be derived from their biological meaning, given that adipose tissue concentrations are an indicator of chronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls while serum levels are a good predictor of ongoing exposure and the mobilization of polychlorinated biphenyls stored in fatty tissues. Body mass index was found to be an important modifier of these associations.

  12. Novel biphenyl ester derivatives as tyrosinase inhibitors: Synthesis, crystallographic, spectral analysis and molecular docking studies

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Huey Chong; Chidan Kumar, C. S.; Mah, Siau Hui; Chia, Tze Shyang; Loh, Zi Han; Chandraju, Siddegowda; Lim, Gin Keat

    2017-01-01

    Biphenyl-based compounds are clinically important for the treatments of hypertension and inflammatory, while many more are under development for pharmaceutical uses. In the present study, a series of 2-([1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-2-oxoethyl benzoates, 2(a-q), and 2-([1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-2-oxoethyl pyridinecarboxylate, 2(r-s) were synthesized by reacting 1-([1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-2-bromoethan-1-one with various carboxylic acids using potassium carbonate in dimethylformamide at ambient temperature. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed a more closely packed crystal structure can be produced by introduction of biphenyl moiety. Five of the compounds among the reported series exhibited significant anti-tyrosinase activities, in which 2p, 2r and 2s displayed good inhibitions which are comparable to standard inhibitor kojic acid at concentrations of 100 and 250 μg/mL. The inhibitory effects of these active compounds were further confirmed by computational molecular docking studies and the results revealed the primary binding site is active-site entrance instead of inner copper binding site which acted as the secondary binding site. PMID:28241010

  13. Chronic oral exposure of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to a polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254): pathological effects.

    PubMed Central

    Nestel, H; Budd, J

    1975-01-01

    Groups of eight rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were fed rations containing 0 ppm, 1 ppm, 10 ppm and 100 ppm of the polychlorinated biphenyl, Aroclor 1254, over a period of up to 330 days. Growth rates were unaffected by these levels. Pathological changes were found in the kidneys of 13 fish on the polychlorinated biphenyl ration. Foci of nephrosis with cellular or granular cast formation were seen. The greatest number of cases occured in fish at the 10 ppm concentration. An increase in the number of hepatocytes per unit area was related to the greater concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls in the diet. A reduction in the amount of white pulp in the spleen was observed in 23 of 27 fish on the 10 ppm and 100 ppm diets. The fish with nephrosis had reduced splenic white pulp and lowered white cell counts. Fish fed the 1 ppm and 10 ppm levels had mean tissue residues of 1.4 and 2.3 ppm polychlorinated biphenyl respectively. Fish on the 100 ppm ration had a mean value of 80.1 ppm polychlorinated biphenyl content. Images Fig. 1. PMID:804980

  14. Bioavailability of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in biosolids and spiked sediment to the aquatic oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus.

    PubMed

    Ciparis, Serena; Hale, Robert C

    2005-04-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have become distributed ubiquitously in the environment. High concentrations have been reported in U.S. sewage sludge (biosolids). The burgeoning practice of land-applying biosolids as fertilizer creates an avenue for reintroduction of PBDEs to surface waters and aquatic sediments. Bioavailability of biosolids- and sediment-associated PBDEs was assessed using the freshwater oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus. Oligochaetes were exposed to composted biosolids (1,600 ng/g total PBDEs) and artificial sediment spiked with penta- and deca-brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) formulations (1,300 ng/g total PBDEs). Uptake (28-d exposure) and depuration (21 d) of eight congeners were studied. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in both substrates were bioavailable, but bioaccumulation was 5 to 10 times greater from spiked artificial sediment. The congeners BDE 47 and BDE 99 were the most prevalent congeners in oligochaetes after exposure. Congener BDE 47 was more bioaccumulative, possibly due to the threefold greater depuration rate of BDE 99. Bioaccumulation of penta- and hexa-brominated congeners appeared to be affected more strongly by substitution pattern than degree of bromination. Uptake of BDE 209, the dominant congener in deca-BDE, was minimal. Accumulation of certain PBDE congeners from biosolids and sediments by benthos provides a pathway for transfer to higher trophic levels, and congener discrimination may increase with each trophic transfer.

  15. Occurrence, spatial distribution, sources, and risks of polychlorinated biphenyls and heavy metals in surface sediments from a large eutrophic Chinese lake (Lake Chaohu).

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Bai, Ze-Lin; Liu, Wen-Xiu; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Yang, Bin; Yang, Chen; Jørgensen, Sven Erik; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2016-06-01

    Surface sediment from large and eutrophic Lake Chaohu was investigated to determine the occurrence, spatial distribution, sources, and risks of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals in one of the five biggest freshwater lakes in China. Total concentration of PCBs (Σ34PCBs) in Lake Chaohu was 672 pg g(-1) dry weight (dw), with a range of 7 to 3999 pg g(-1) dw, which was lower than other water bodies worldwide. The majority of heavy metals were detected at all sampling locations, except for Sr, B, and In. Concentrations of Al, Fe, Ca, Mn, Sr, Co, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Hg were similar to that reported for other lakes globally. Concentrations of K, Mg, Na, Li, Ga, and Ag were greater than the average, whereas those of Cr, Ni, and Cu were lower. Cluster analysis (CA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) yielded accordant results for the source apportionment of PCBs. The technical PCBs and microbial degradation accounted for 34.2 % and 65.8 % of total PCBs using PMF, and PMF revealed that natural and anthropogenic sources of heavy metals accounted for 38.1 % and 61.8 %, respectively. CA indicated that some toxic heavy metals (e.g., Cd, In, Tl, and Hg) were associated with Ca-Na-Mg minerals rather than Fe-Mn minerals. The uncorrelated results between organic matter revealed by pyrolysis technology and heavy metals might be caused by the existence of competitive adsorption between organic matter and minerals. PCBs and heavy metals were coupling discharge without organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), but with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). No sediment sample exceeded the toxic threshold for dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) set at 20 pg toxicity equivalency quantity (TEQ) g(-1), (max dl-PCBs, 10.9 pg TEQ g(-1)). However, concentrations of Ag, Cd, and Hg were at levels of environmental concern. The sediment in the drinking water source area (DWSA) was threatened by heavy metals from other areas, and some

  16. Accumulation of brominated flame retardants and polychlorinated biphenyls in human breast milk and scalp hair from the Philippines: levels, distribution and profiles.

    PubMed

    Malarvannan, Govindan; Isobe, Tomohiko; Covaci, Adrian; Prudente, Maricar; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    Paired human breast milk and scalp hair samples (n=30) were obtained in 2008 from primipara and multipara mothers living in two locations in the Philippines viz., Payatas, a waste dumpsite, and Malate, a non-dumpsite. Samples were analyzed for three groups of organohalogenated compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). PCBs were the predominantly identified compounds (median: 70 ng/g lipid wt.) in all the breast milk samples. In the human milk, CB-153 was the most dominant PCB congener (17-44% contribution to the sum PCB), closely followed by CB-138 (12-35%), CB-118 (4-12%), CB-180 (2-13%), CB-187 (3-13%), and CB-170 (1.5-10%). Levels of PBDEs (median: 3.0 ng/g lipid wt.) in human milk samples from the Philippines were similar to other Asian or European countries. BDE-47, -99, -100 and -153 were the major PBDE congeners. For HBCDs, the α-isomer was predominant followed by the γ-HBCD isomer in the both locations. PBDE levels in human milk were significantly higher in the dumpsite (3.9 ng/g lipid wt.) than in the non-dump site (2.2 ng/g lipid wt.). PBDE concentrations (including BDE-209) were significantly higher (median: 70 ng/g hair) than those of PCBs (median: 30 ng/g hair) and HBCDs (median: 1.0 ng/g hair) in all the scalp hair samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report on HBCDs in human scalp hair. PBDE congeners in scalp hair were dominated by BDE-209 and BDE-47. On a congener basis, the levels of PBDEs found in scalp hair were higher than those in Spain (children and adults) and China (general people). PCB levels found in scalp hair were higher than those in Greece, Romania and Belgium, but lower than those in China. In this study, there were no significant differences in the concentration of PCBs and HBCDs in human milk; and PCBs, HBCDs and PBDEs in human scalp hair from the two different locations. No significant correlations were observed between PCBs, PBDEs and

  17. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in U.S. meat and poultry from two statistically designed surveys showing trends and levels from 2002 to 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) body burdens in the general U.S. population have been linked to the consumption of red meat and poultry. Exposure estimates have also indicated that meat products are a major contributor to PBDE dietary intake. In order to establish solid estimates of PBDE concen...

  18. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER (PBDE) LEVELS IN AN EXPANDED MARKET BASKET SURVEY OF UNITED STATES (U.S) FOOD AND ESTIMATED PBDE DIETARY INTAKE BY AGE AND SEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study enhances a previously reported U.S. market basket survey of food for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels with a larger sample size of 62 individual analyses for 13 congeners. In addition, it estimates levels of PBDE intake from food by gender and age for the U....

  19. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER (PBDE) EFFECTS IN RAT NEURONAL CULTURES: 14C-PBDE ACCUMULATION, BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS AND STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame-retardants, are now recognized as a globally distributed pollutants, and are detected in most environmental and biological samples, including human blood, adipose tissue, and breast milk. Due to their wide use in com...

  20. IN VIVO AND IN VITRO ANTI-ANDROGENIC EFFECTS OF DE-71, A COMMERCIAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER MIXTURE, IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Vivo and In Vitro Anti-androgenic Effects of DE-71, A Commerical Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Mixture.

    Stoker, T.E., Lambright, C.S. and Gray, L.E.
    Endocrinology Branch, RTD, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    PBDEs are synthesized in...