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Sample records for dimethyl sulfoxide skin

  1. Dimethyl Sulfoxide

    PubMed Central

    Capriotti, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide is a colorless liquid derived as a by-product from wood pulp in the production of paper. This colorless liquid found immediate application as a polar, aprotic solvent miscible with water and able to dissolve an enormous catalog of polar and nonpolar small molecules. It is presently scarcely used in dermatology, but given its useful properties as a penetration-enhancing solvent excipient and active anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical agent, dimethyl sulfoxide has the potential to be used in a much broader capacity. The authors review the history, chemistry, and clinical utility of dimethyl sulfoxide as it pertains to dermatology. PMID:23050031

  2. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Enhances Effectiveness of Skin Antiseptics and Reduces Contamination Rates of Blood Cultures

    PubMed Central

    LaSala, Paul R.; Han, Xiang-Yang; Rolston, Kenneth V.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2012-01-01

    Effective skin antisepsis is of central importance in the prevention of wound infections, colonization of medical devices, and nosocomial transmission of microorganisms. Current antiseptics have a suboptimal efficacy resulting in substantial infectious morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. Here, we introduce an in vitro method for antiseptic testing and a novel alcohol-based antiseptic containing 4 to 5% of the polar aprotic solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The DMSO-containing antiseptic resulted in a 1- to 2-log enhanced killing of Staphylococcus epidermidis and other microbes in vitro compared to the same antiseptic without DMSO. In a prospective clinical validation, blood culture contamination rates were reduced from 3.04% for 70% isopropanol–1% iodine (control antiseptic) to 1.04% for 70% isopropanol–1% iodine–5% DMSO (P < 0.01). Our results predict that improved skin antisepsis is possible using new formulations of antiseptics containing strongly polarized but nonionizing (polar aprotic) solvents. PMID:22378911

  3. Dimethyl sulfoxide could be a useful probe to evaluate unusual skin angioneurotic reaction and epidermal permeability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang Y; Wang, Xue M; Liu, Yan Q; Gao, Yan R; Liu, Xiao P; Li, Shu Y; Dong, Ya Q

    2014-03-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been suggested as a traditional chemical probe for assessing skin susceptibility and barrier function. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of DMSO test for the evaluation of unusual skin angioneurotic reaction and epidermal permeability. Thirty healthy volunteers were exposed to 98% DMSO on the flexor forearm skin for three exposure durations (5 min, 10 min and 15 min). Clinical visual score and biological physical parameters were obtained. The volunteers were divided into two groups according to the clinical visual scoring. The skin parameters were subsequently analyzed. There was a significant correlation between clinical visual score and biological physical parameters. The skin color parameters (a*, oxyhemoglobin, erythema and melanin index) and blood flow values were significant between two groups regardless of duration of DMSO exposure, and a significant difference between density values could also be detected if we regrouped the volunteers according to the sting-producing score. Our results also suggested there was no correlation between questionnaire score and clinical visual score or other parameters. Application of 98% DMSO for 10 min combined with a* (at 30 min) and blood flow (at 10 min) values could help us to identify persons with a hyper-angionerotic reaction to chemical stimulus. The penetrative activity of DMSO correlated with the thickness of the individual's skin.

  4. Characterization of damaged skin by impedance spectroscopy: chemical damage by dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    White, Erick A; Orazem, Mark E; Bunge, Annette L

    2013-10-01

    To relate changes in the electrochemical impedance spectra to the progression and mechanism of skin damage arising from exposure to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Electrochemical impedance spectra measured before and after human cadaver skin was treated with neat DMSO or phosphate buffered saline (control) for 1 h or less were compared with electrical circuit models representing two contrasting theories describing the progression of DMSO damage. Flux of a model lipophilic compound (p-chloronitrobenzene) was also measured. The impedance spectra collected before and after 1 h treatment with DMSO were consistent with a single circuit model; whereas, the spectra collected after DMSO exposure for 0.25 h were consistent with the model circuits observed before and after DMSO treatment for 1 h combined in series. DMSO treatments did not significantly change the flux of p-chloronitrobenzene compared to control. Impedance measurements of human skin exposed to DMSO for less than about 0.5 h were consistent with the presence of two layers: one damaged irreversibly and one unchanged. The thickness of the damaged layer increased proportional to the square-root of treatment time until about 0.5 h, when DMSO affected the entire stratum corneum. Irreversible DMSO damage altered the lipophilic permeation pathway minimally.

  5. Morphological study of rat skin flaps treated with subcutaneous dimethyl sulfoxide combined with hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Almeida, K G; Oliveira, R J; Dourado, D M; Filho, E A; Fernandes, W S; Souza, A S; Araújo, F H S

    2015-12-28

    This study investigated the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in tissue necrosis, genotoxicity, and cell apoptosis. Random skin flaps were made in 50 male Wistar rats, randomly divided into the following groups. Control group (CT), wherein a rectangular skin section (2 x 8 cm) was dissected from the dorsal muscle layer, preserving the cranial vessels, lifted, and refixed to the bed; distilled water (DW) group, in which DW was injected into the distal half of the skin flap; DMSO group, wherein 5% DMSO was injected; HBOT group, comprising animals treated only with HBOT; and HBOT + DMSO group, comprising animals treated with 100% oxygen at 2.5 atmospheres absolute for 1 h, 2 h after the experiment, daily for 10 consecutive days. A skinflap specimen investigated by microscopy. The percentage of necrosis was not significantly different between groups. The cell viability index was significantly different between groups (P < 0.001): 87.40% (CT), 86.20% (DW), 84.60% (DMSO), 86.60% (DMSO + HBO), and 91% (HBO) (P < 0.001), as was the cell apoptosis index of 12.60 (CT), 12.00 (DW), 15.40 (DMSO), 9.00 (HBO), and 12.00 (DMSO + HBO) (P < 0.001). The genotoxicity test revealed the percentage of cells with DNA damage to be 22.80 (CT), 22.60 (DW), 26.00 (DMSO), 8.80 (DMSO + HBO), and 7.20 (HBO) (P < 0.001). Although the necrotic area was not different between groups, there was a significant reduction in the cellular DNA damage and apoptosis index in the HBOT group.

  6. Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Albert K.; McClure, R. Anthony; Chang, Jennell; Stoianovici, Charles; Hirshburg, Jason; Yeh, Alvin T.; Choi, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Functional optical characterization of disease progression and response to therapy suffers from loss of spatial resolution and imaging depth due to scattering. Here we report on the ability of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) alone to reduce the optical scattering of skin. We observed a three-fold reduction in the scattering of skin with topical DMSO application. With an in vivo window chamber model, we observed a three-fold increase in light transmittance through the preparation and enhanced visualization of subsurface microvasculature. Collectively, our data demonstrate the potential of DMSO alone to mitigate effects of scattering, which we expect will improve molecular imaging studies. PMID:19226579

  7. Respiratory Toxicity of Dimethyl Sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kotaro; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw; Sato, Yutaka; Oyamada, Yoshitaka; Okada, Yasumasa

    2016-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is one of the most commonly used solvents for hydrophobic substances in biological experiments. In addition, the compound exhibits a plethora of bioactivities, which makes it of potential pharmacological use of its own. The influence on respiration, and thus on arterial blood oxygenation, of DMSO is unclear, contentious, and an area of limited study. Thus, in the present investigation we set out to determine the influence on lung ventilation of cumulated doses of DMSO in the amount of 0.5, 1.5, 3.5, 7.5, and 15.5 g/kg; each dose given intraperitoneally at 1 h interval in conscious mice. Ventilation and its responses to 7 % hypoxia (N(2) balanced) were recorded in a whole body plethsymograph. We demonstrate a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of DMSO on lung ventilation and its hypoxic responsiveness, driven mostly by changes in the tidal component. The maximum safe dose of DMSO devoid of meaningful consequences for respiratory function was 3.5 g/kg. The dose of 7.5 g/kg of DMSO significantly dampened respiration, with yet well preserved hyperventilatory response to hypoxia. The highest dose of 15.5 g/kg severely impaired ventilation and its responses. The study delineates the safety profile of DMSO regarding the respiratory function which is essential for maintaining proper tissue oxygenation. Caution should be exercised concerning dose concentration of DMSO.

  8. 21 CFR 524.660a - Dimethyl sulfoxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dimethyl sulfoxide solution. 524.660a Section 524.660a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dimethyl sulfoxide solution. (a) Specifications. Dimethyl sulfoxide contains 90 percent of...

  9. 21 CFR 524.660a - Dimethyl sulfoxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dimethyl sulfoxide solution. 524.660a Section 524.660a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dimethyl sulfoxide solution. (a) Specifications. Dimethyl sulfoxide contains 90 percent of...

  10. 21 CFR 524.660a - Dimethyl sulfoxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dimethyl sulfoxide solution. 524.660a Section 524.660a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dimethyl sulfoxide solution. (a) Specifications. Dimethyl sulfoxide contains 90 percent of...

  11. Thermal Sensitivity and Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO).

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kotaro; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw; Okada, Yasumasa

    2016-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is commonly used as a solvent for hydrophobic substances, but the compound's innate bioactivity is an area of limited understanding. In this investigation we seek to determine the analgesic potential of DMSO. We addressed the issue by assessing the perception of thermal pain stimulus, using a 55 °C hotplate design, in conscious mice. The latency of withdrawal behaviors over a range of incremental accumulative intraperitoneal DMSO doses (0.5-15.5 g/kg) in the same mouse was taken as a measure of thermal endurance. The findings were that the latency, on average, amounted to 15-30 s and it differed inappreciably between the sequential DMSO conditions. Nor was it different from the pre-DMSO control conditions. Thus, DMSO did not influence the cutaneous thermal pain perception. The findings do not lend support to those literature reports that point to the plausible antinociceptive potential of DMSO as one of a plethora of its innate bioactivities. However, the findings concern the mouse's footpad nociceptors which have specific morphology and stimulus transduction pathways, which cannot exclude DMSO's antinociceptive influence on other types of pain or in other types of skin. Complex and as yet unresolved neural mechanisms of perception of cutaneous noxious heat stimulus should be further explored with alternative experimental designs.

  12. Dimethyl sulfoxide: history, chemistry, and clinical utility in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Kara; Capriotti, Joseph A

    2012-09-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide is a colorless liquid derived as a by-product from wood pulp in the production of paper. This colorless liquid found immediate application as a polar, aprotic solvent miscible with water and able to dissolve an enormous catalog of polar and nonpolar small molecules. It is presently scarcely used in dermatology, but given its useful properties as a penetration-enhancing solvent excipient and active anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical agent, dimethyl sulfoxide has the potential to be used in a much broader capacity. The authors review the history, chemistry, and clinical utility of dimethyl sulfoxide as it pertains to dermatology.

  13. Dimethyl sulfoxide inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Huijeong; Kim, Jeeyoung; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Lee, Geun-Shik

    2014-04-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an amphipathic molecule that is commonly/widely used as a solvent for biological compounds. In addition, DMSO has been studied as a medication for the treatment of inflammation, cystitis, and arthritis. Based on the anti-inflammatory characteristics of DMSO, we elucidated the effects of DMSO on activation of inflammasomes, which are cytoplasmic multi-protein complexes that mediate the maturation of interleukin (IL)-1β by activating caspase-1 (Casp1). In the present study, we prove that DMSO attenuated IL-1β maturation, Casp1 activity, and ASC pyroptosome formation via NLRP3 inflammasome activators. Further, NLRC4 and AIM2 inflammasome activity were not affected, suggesting that DMSO is a selective inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasomes. The anti-inflammatory effect of DMSO was further confirmed in animal, LPS-endotoxin sepsis and inflammatory bowel disease models. In addition, DMSO inhibited LPS-mediating IL-1s transcription. Taken together, DMSO shows anti-inflammatory characteristics, attenuates NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and mediates inhibition of IL-1s transcription.

  14. Modulation of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine monolayers by dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Dabkowska, Aleksandra P; Collins, Louise E; Barlow, David J; Barker, Robert; McLain, Sylvia E; Lawrence, M Jayne; Lorenz, Christian D

    2014-07-29

    The action of the penetration-enhancing agent, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), on phospholipid monolayers was investigated at the air-water interface using a combination of experimental techniques and molecular dynamics simulations. Brewster angle microscopy revealed that DPPC monolayers remained laterally homogeneous at subphase concentrations up to a mole fraction of 0.1 DMSO. Neutron reflectometry of the monolayers in combination with isotopic substitution enabled the determination of solvent profiles as a function of distance perpendicular to the interface for the different DMSO subphase concentrations. These experimental results were compared to those obtained from molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of the corresponding monolayer systems. There was excellent agreement found between the MD-derived reflectivity curves and the measured data for all of the H/D contrast variations investigated. The MD provide a detailed description of the distribution of water and DMSO molecules around the phosphatidylcholine headgroup, and how this distribution changes with increasing DMSO concentrations. Significantly, the measurements and simulations that are reported here support the hypothesis that DMSO acts by dehydrating the phosphatidylcholine headgroup, and as such provide the first direct evidence that it does so primarily by displacing water molecules bound to the choline group.

  15. Decryptification of Acid Phosphatase in Arthrospores of Geotrichum Species Treated with Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Acetone

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, David A.; Martel, Anita J.; MacDonald, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Decryptification of acid phosphatase in Geotrichum sp. arthrospores was accomplished using acetone or dimethyl sulfoxide treatment. Both dimethyl sulfoxide and acetone irreversibly destroyed the integrity of the spore membranes without solubilizing acid phosphatase. PMID:1167386

  16. 21 CFR 524.981d - Fluocinolone and dimethyl sulfoxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fluocinolone and dimethyl sulfoxide solution. 524... ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.981d Fluocinolone and dimethyl sulfoxide solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 0.01 percent fluocinolone acetonide and 20 percent dimethyl sulfoxide....

  17. Dimethyl sulfoxide inhibits bioactivation of sulindac.

    PubMed

    Swanson, B N; Boppana, V K; Vlasses, P H; Rotmensch, H H; Ferguson, R K

    1983-07-01

    Sulindac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, is converted to a bioactive sulfide metabolite via reversible reduction of its sulfoxide moiety. To test whether DMSO can inhibit conversion of sulindac to its active form, eight healthy men received, in a randomized, crossover manner, 400 mg of sulindac, orally, either alone or 60 min after an oral dose of DMSO (30 ml, 70% solution). After the drug combination, mean plasma concentrations of the sulfide metabolite were significantly lower than in controls at 1.5, 2, 3, 4, and 8 hr after sulindac administration. The mean area under the plasma sulfide concentration-time curve for 0 to 12 hr was 30% (range 7% to 56%) lower after DMSO treatment. This study suggests that DMSO can inhibit metabolism of other sulfoxides in man and may antagonize the therapeutic efficacy of sulindac.

  18. Dimethyl Sulfoxide: Reversible Inhibitor of Pollen Tube Growth 1

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, David B.; Cochran, Donna

    1968-01-01

    Five percent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) completely inhibited tube initiation, stopped tube growth and suppressed the high respiration associated with tube growth of lily pollen. The effect of DMSO on respiration was indirect because uncoupling concentrations of 2,4-dinitrophenol abolished the inhibition of respiration. Five percent DMSO did not inhibit rapid starch synthesis during the first 30 minutes of incubation, nor did DMSO inhibit the period of high respiration associated with rapid starch synthesis. DMSO did not cause permanent damage to the cells since normal pollen tube growth occurred after its removal. Dimethyl sulfoxide is not a general inhibitor of pollen metabolism, but it may be a specific inhibitor of a process required for tube growth. PMID:16656779

  19. Inhibition of sulindac metabolism by dimethyl sulfoxide in the rat.

    PubMed

    Swanson, B N; Mojaverian, P; Boppana, V K

    1983-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) suppresses conversion of the prodrug sulindac to its bioactive sulfide metabolite (SD) by competitively inhibiting sulfoxide reductase. During continuous iv infusions of sulindac (1 mg/kg X h), plasma concentrations of SD at steady-state equilibrium were 80% lower when DMSO was infused concomitantly at 0.34 ml/kg X h, whereas sulindac plasma concentrations were not significantly affected by DMSO. Dermal application and intragastric administration of DMSO also inhibited SD accumulation in plasma. DMSO was only a weak inhibitor of SD oxidation in vitro and did not affect the rate of SD elimination in vivo. In contrast, dimethyl sulfide, a metabolite of DMSO, was a potent inhibitor of SD oxidase in vitro. These data suggest that DMSO can inhibit bioactivation and, hence, the antiinflammatory effects of sulindac.

  20. [Membrane potential before and after deep freezing of Escherichia coli in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide and diethyl sulfoxide].

    PubMed

    Markarian, Sh A; Bagramian, K A; Arakelian, V B

    2002-01-01

    It was shown by the method of penetrating tetraphenylphosphonium cations that low-temperature freezing (-196 degrees C) of Escherichia coli leads to a sharp decrease (from 198 to 85 mV) in membrane potential. Incubation of bacteria in a medium containing dimethyl sulfoxide and diethyl sulfoxide as cryoprotectors results in a reduction of the potential by 16 and 27 mV, respectively. It was also shown that diethyl sulfoxide is more effective in maintaining the membrane potential after freezing--thawing than dimethyl sulfoxide.

  1. Dimethyl sulfoxide as an electron acceptor for anaerobic growth.

    PubMed

    Zinder, S H; Brock, T D

    1978-01-23

    The isolation from lake mud of a bacterium which can use dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as an electron acceptor for growth is described. The isolate, called strain DL-1, was a small, gram negative, non-motile spiral. The sole product of DMSO reduction was dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Other electron acceptors used by the isolate included sulfite, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, methionine sulfoxide, tetramethylene sulfoxide, nitrate, and oxygen (microaerophilically). Sulfate was not reduced and could not even be assimilated. Lactate or succinate could serve as electron donors, with acetate as the main product. Hydrogen could be used as an electron donor if acetate was present in the medium as a carbon source. The organism has a c-type cytochrome, and most likely uses electron transport phosphorylation during DMSO reduction. Cultures of Desulfovibrio sp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus vulgaris were tested for growth using DMSO as an electron acceptor, and only the Proteus strain grew. Both Proteus and strain DL-1 are versatile at coupling reductions with energy generation. There is a marked resemblance between strain DL-1 and the recently described sulfur-reducing spirillum of Wolfe and Pfennig.

  2. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on sulindac disposition in rats.

    PubMed

    Swanson, B N; Mojaverian, P; Boppana, V K; Dudash, M R

    1981-01-01

    Sulindac and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are both effective antiinflammatory agents in man. Since the sulfoxide moiety in these compounds is metabolized similarly, a biochemical interaction between the two drugs in vivo was thought to be possible. After iv injections of sulindac (5 mg/kg), plasma concentrations of sulindac, and its sulfide and sulfone metabolites, were measured in normal rats and in rats that had received, 30 min earlier, a single ip dose of DMSO (0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 ml). The half-life of sulindac (normally 94 min) was increased significantly by DMSO (0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 ml). The half-life of sulindac (normally 94 min) was increased significantly by DMSO (408 min after 1.0 ml of DMSO). Plasma sulfide metabolite levels were reduced in a dose-related manner by DMSO (93% reduction in peak concentration after 1.0 ml of DMSO). Sulfone metabolite concentration was also significantly diminished by the highest dose of DMSO. Similarly, DMSO was shown to decrease conversion of sulindac to sulfide and sulfone metabolites by rat liver enzymes in vitro. Sulfoxide reductase was more sensitive to DMSO inhibition than was sulfoxide oxidase both in vivo and in vitro. These data demonstrate that DMSO can significantly alter in vivo the formation of the pharmacologically active, sulfide metabolite of sulindac; therefore, concurrent use of DMSO and sulindac should be approached with caution.

  3. Acidity of Strong Acids in Water and Dimethyl Sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Trummal, Aleksander; Lipping, Lauri; Kaljurand, Ivari; Koppel, Ilmar A; Leito, Ivo

    2016-05-26

    Careful analysis and comparison of the available acidity data of HCl, HBr, HI, HClO4, and CF3SO3H in water, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and gas-phase has been carried out. The data include experimental and computational pKa and gas-phase acidity data from the literature, as well as high-level computations using different approaches (including the W1 theory) carried out in this work. As a result of the analysis, for every acid in every medium, a recommended acidity value is presented. In some cases, the currently accepted pKa values were revised by more than 10 orders of magnitude.

  4. Plaque Formation with Simian Virus 40: Enhancement by Dimethyl Sulfoxide

    PubMed Central

    Cleaver, James E.

    1974-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) added to agar overlays during plaque assays of simian virus 40 (SV40) in CV1 monkey cells increases the plaque size and number and enables plaques to be read several days earlier than usual. DMSO appears to act during development of plaques, perhaps by causing cell lysis at smaller burst sizes in the presence of near-lethal DMSO concentrations. It does not act synergistically in determining virus inactivation with UV light and is equally effective on wild type and a late mutant of SV40. Images PMID:4372414

  5. Lithium solvation in dimethyl sulfoxide-acetonitrile mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Semino, Rocío; Zaldívar, Gervasio; Calvo, Ernesto J.; Laria, Daniel

    2014-12-07

    We present molecular dynamics simulation results pertaining to the solvation of Li{sup +} in dimethyl sulfoxide-acetonitrile binary mixtures. The results are potentially relevant in the design of Li-air batteries that rely on aprotic mixtures as solvent media. To analyze effects derived from differences in ionic size and charge sign, the solvation of Li{sup +} is compared to the ones observed for infinitely diluted K{sup +} and Cl{sup −} species, in similar solutions. At all compositions, the cations are preferentially solvated by dimethyl sulfoxide. Contrasting, the first solvation shell of Cl{sup −} shows a gradual modification in its composition, which varies linearly with the global concentrations of the two solvents in the mixtures. Moreover, the energetics of the solvation, described in terms of the corresponding solute-solvent coupling, presents a clear non-ideal concentration dependence. Similar nonlinear trends were found for the stabilization of different ionic species in solution, compared to the ones exhibited by their electrically neutral counterparts. These tendencies account for the characteristics of the free energy associated to the stabilization of Li{sup +}Cl{sup −}, contact-ion-pairs in these solutions. Ionic transport is also analyzed. Dynamical results show concentration trends similar to those recently obtained from direct experimental measurements.

  6. Inactivation of MXR1 Abolishes Formation of Dimethyl Sulfide from Dimethyl Sulfoxide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a sulfur compound of importance for the organoleptic properties of beer, especially some lager beers. Synthesis of DMS during beer production occurs partly during wort production and partly during fermentation. Methionine sulfoxide reductases are the enzymes responsible for reduction of oxidized cellular methionines. These enzymes have been suggested to be able to reduce dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as well, with DMS as the product. A gene for an enzymatic activity leading to methionine sulfoxide reduction in Saccharomyces yeast was recently identified. We confirmed that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae open reading frame YER042w appears to encode a methionine sulfoxide reductase, and propose the name MXR1 for the gene. We found that Mxr1p catalyzes reduction of DMSO to DMS and that an mxr1 disruption mutant cannot reduce DMSO to DMS. Mutant strains appear to have unchanged fitness under several laboratory conditions, and in this paper I hypothesize that disruption of MXR1 in brewing yeasts would neutralize the contribution of the yeast to the DMS content in beer. PMID:10473395

  7. Diapause prevention effect of Bombyx mori by dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takayuki; Mase, Keisuke; Sawada, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    HCl treatment has been, for about 80 years, the primary method for the prevention of entry into embryonic diapauses of Bombyx mori. This is because no method is as effective as the HCl treatment. In this study, we discovered that dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) prevented entry into the diapause of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The effect of diapause prevention was 78% as a result of treatment with 100% DMSO concentration, and the effect was comparable to that of the HCl treatment. In contrast, in the case of non-diapause eggs, hatchability was decreased by DMSO in a concentration-dependent manner. The effect of DMSO was restricted within 24 hours after oviposition of diapause eggs, and the critical period was slightly shorter than the effective period of the HCl treatment. DMSO analogs, such as dimethyl formamide (DMF) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS), did little preventive effect against the diapause. Furthermore, we also investigated the permeation effects of chemical compounds by DMSO. When treated with an inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 (CK2) dissolved in DMSO, the prevention rate of the diapause was less than 40%. This means that the inhibition effect by the CK2 inhibitor was the inhibition of embryonic development after diapause prevention by DMSO. These data suggest that DMSO has the effects of preventing from entering into the diapause and permeation of chemicals into diapause eggs.

  8. Diapause Prevention Effect of Bombyx mori by Dimethyl Sulfoxide

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takayuki; Mase, Keisuke; Sawada, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    HCl treatment has been, for about 80 years, the primary method for the prevention of entry into embryonic diapauses of Bombyx mori. This is because no method is as effective as the HCl treatment. In this study, we discovered that dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) prevented entry into the diapause of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The effect of diapause prevention was 78% as a result of treatment with 100% DMSO concentration, and the effect was comparable to that of the HCl treatment. In contrast, in the case of non-diapause eggs, hatchability was decreased by DMSO in a concentration-dependent manner. The effect of DMSO was restricted within 24 hours after oviposition of diapause eggs, and the critical period was slightly shorter than the effective period of the HCl treatment. DMSO analogs, such as dimethyl formamide (DMF) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS), did little preventive effect against the diapause. Furthermore, we also investigated the permeation effects of chemical compounds by DMSO. When treated with an inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 (CK2) dissolved in DMSO, the prevention rate of the diapause was less than 40%. This means that the inhibition effect by the CK2 inhibitor was the inhibition of embryonic development after diapause prevention by DMSO. These data suggest that DMSO has the effects of preventing from entering into the diapause and permeation of chemicals into diapause eggs. PMID:23675522

  9. Effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on lipid membrane electroporation.

    PubMed

    Fernández, M Laura; Reigada, Ramon

    2014-08-07

    Pores can be generated in lipid membranes by the application of an external electric field or by the addition of particular chemicals such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Molecular dynamics (MD) has been shown to be a useful tool for unveiling many aspects of pore formation in lipid membranes in both situations. By means of MD simulations, we address the formation of electropores in cholesterol-containing lipid bilayers under the influence of DMSO. We show how a combination of physical and chemical mechanisms leads to more favorable conditions for generating membrane pores and, in particular, how the addition of DMSO to the medium significantly reduces the minimum electric field required to electroporate a lipid membrane. The strong alteration of membrane transversal properties and the energetic stabilization of the hydrophobic pore stage by DMSO provide the physicochemical mechanisms that explain this effect.

  10. Does dimethyl sulfoxide increase protein immunomarking efficiency for dispersal and predation studies?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marking biological control agents facilitates studies of dispersal and predation. This study examines the effect of a biological solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), on retention of immunoglobulin G (IgG) protein solutions applied to Diorhabda carinulata (Desbrochers) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) eit...

  11. Dimethyl sulfoxide induces oxidative stress in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sadowska-Bartosz, Izabela; Pączka, Aleksandra; Mołoń, Mateusz; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2013-12-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is used as a cryoprotectant for the preservation of cells, including yeast, and as a solvent for chemical compounds. We report that DMSO induces oxidative stress in the yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisiae wt strain EG-103 and its mutants Δsod1, Δsod2, and Δsod1 Δsod2 were used. Yeast were subjected to the action of 1-14% DMSO for 1 h at 28 °C. DMSO induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of yeast growth, the effect being more pronounced for mutants devoid of SOD (especially Δsod1 Δsod2). Cell viability was compromised. DMSO-concentration-dependent activity loss of succinate dehydrogenase, a FeS enzyme sensitive to oxidative stress, was observed. DMSO enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species, estimated with dihydroethidine in a concentration-dependent manner, the effect being again more pronounced in mutants devoid of superoxide dismutases. The content of cellular glutathione was increased with increasing DMSO concentrations, which may represent a compensatory response. Membrane fluidity, estimated by fluorescence polarization of DPH, was decreased by DMSO. These results demonstrate that DMSO, although generally considered to be antioxidant, induces oxidative stress in yeast cells.

  12. Dimethyl sulfoxide induces both direct and indirect tau hyperphosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Julien, Carl; Marcouiller, François; Bretteville, Alexis; El Khoury, Noura B; Baillargeon, Joanie; Hébert, Sébastien S; Planel, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is widely used as a solvent or vehicle for biological studies, and for treatment of specific disorders, including traumatic brain injury and several forms of amyloidosis. As Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains are characterized by deposits of β-amyloid peptides, it has been suggested that DMSO could be used as a treatment for this devastating disease. AD brains are also characterized by aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein, but the effect of DMSO on tau phosphorylation is unknown. We thus investigated the impact of DMSO on tau phosphorylation in vitro and in vivo. One hour following intraperitoneal administration of 1 or 2 ml/kg DMSO in mice, no change was observed in tau phosphorylation. However, at 4 ml/kg, tau was hyperphosphorylated at AT8 (Ser(202)/Thr(205)), PHF-1 (Ser(396)/Ser(404)) and AT180 (Thr(231)) epitopes. At this dose, we also noticed that the animals were hypothermic. When the mice were maintained normothermic, the effect of 4 ml/kg DMSO on tau hyperphosphorylation was prevented. On the other hand, in SH-SY5Y cells, 0.1% DMSO induced tau hyperphosphorylation at AT8 and AT180 phosphoepitopes in normothermic conditions. Globally, these findings demonstrate that DMSO can induce tau hyperphosphorylation indirectly via hypothermia in vivo, and directly in vitro. These data should caution researchers working with DMSO as it can induce artifactual results both in vivo and in vitro.

  13. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Induces Both Direct and Indirect Tau Hyperphosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Julien, Carl; Marcouiller, François; Bretteville, Alexis; El Khoury, Noura B.; Baillargeon, Joanie; Hébert, Sébastien S.; Planel, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is widely used as a solvent or vehicle for biological studies, and for treatment of specific disorders, including traumatic brain injury and several forms of amyloidosis. As Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brains are characterized by deposits of β-amyloid peptides, it has been suggested that DMSO could be used as a treatment for this devastating disease. AD brains are also characterized by aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein, but the effect of DMSO on tau phosphorylation is unknown. We thus investigated the impact of DMSO on tau phosphorylation in vitro and in vivo. One hour following intraperitoneal administration of 1 or 2 ml/kg DMSO in mice, no change was observed in tau phosphorylation. However, at 4 ml/kg, tau was hyperphosphorylated at AT8 (Ser202/Thr205), PHF-1 (Ser396/Ser404) and AT180 (Thr231) epitopes. At this dose, we also noticed that the animals were hypothermic. When the mice were maintained normothermic, the effect of 4 ml/kg DMSO on tau hyperphosphorylation was prevented. On the other hand, in SH-SY5Y cells, 0.1% DMSO induced tau hyperphosphorylation at AT8 and AT180 phosphoepitopes in normothermic conditions. Globally, these findings demonstrate that DMSO can induce tau hyperphosphorylation indirectly via hypothermia in vivo, and directly in vitro. These data should caution researchers working with DMSO as it can induce artifactual results both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:22768202

  14. Chemical Instability of Dimethyl Sulfoxide in Lithium-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kwabi, David G; Batcho, Thomas P; Amanchukwu, Chibueze V; Ortiz-Vitoriano, Nagore; Hammond, Paula; Thompson, Carl V; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2014-08-21

    Although dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has emerged as a promising solvent for Li-air batteries, enabling reversible oxygen reduction and evolution (2Li + O2 ⇔ Li2O2), DMSO is well known to react with superoxide-like species, which are intermediates in the Li-O2 reaction, and LiOH has been detected upon discharge in addition to Li2O2. Here we show that toroidal Li2O2 particles formed upon discharge gradually convert into flake-like LiOH particles upon prolonged exposure to a DMSO-based electrolyte, and the amount of LiOH detectable increases with increasing rest time in the electrolyte. Such time-dependent electrode changes upon and after discharge are not typically monitored and can explain vastly different amounts of Li2O2 and LiOH reported in oxygen cathodes discharged in DMSO-based electrolytes. The formation of LiOH is attributable to the chemical reactivity of DMSO with Li2O2 and superoxide-like species, which is supported by our findings that commercial Li2O2 powder can decompose DMSO to DMSO2, and that the presence of KO2 accelerates both DMSO decomposition and conversion of Li2O2 into LiOH.

  15. Review of in vivo studies of dimethyl sulfoxide cryopreserved platelets.

    PubMed

    Slichter, Sherrill J; Jones, Melinh; Ransom, Janet; Gettinger, Irena; Jones, Mary Kay; Christoffel, Todd; Pellham, Esther; Bailey, S Lawrence; Corson, Jill; Bolgiano, Doug

    2014-10-01

    A literature review was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) cryopreserved platelets for potential military use. In vivo DMSO cryopreserved platelet studies published between 1972 and June of 2013 were reviewed. Assessed were the methods of cryopreservation, posttransfusion platelet responses, prevention or control of bleeding, and adverse events. Using the Department of Defense's preferred 6% DMSO cryopreservation method with centrifugation to remove the DMSO plasma before freezing at -65°C and no postthaw wash, mean radiolabeled platelet recoveries in 32 normal subjects were 33% ± 10% (52% ± 12% of the same subject's fresh platelet recoveries), and survivals were 7.5 ± 1.2 days (89% ± 15% of fresh platelet survivals). Using a variety of methods to freeze autologous platelets from 178 normal subjects, mean radiolabeled platelet recoveries were consistently 39% ± 9%, and survivals, 7.4 ± 1.4 days. More than 3000 cryopreserved platelet transfusions were given to 1334 patients. There were 19 hematology/oncology patient studies, and, in 9, mean 1-hour corrected count increments were 11 100 ± 3600 (range, 5700-15 800) after cryopreserved autologous platelet transfusions. In 5 studies, bleeding times improved after transfusion; in 3, there was either no improvement or a variable response. In 4 studies, there was immediate cessation of bleeding after transfusion; in 3 studies, patients being supported only with cryopreserved platelets had no bleeding. In 1 cardiopulmonary bypass study, cryopreserved platelets resulted in significantly less bleeding vs standard platelets. In 3 trauma studies, cryopreserved platelets were hemostatically effective. No significant adverse events were reported in any study. In summary, cryopreserved platelets have platelet recoveries that are about half of fresh platelets, but survivals are only minimally reduced. The platelets appear hemostatically effective and have no significant adverse events.

  16. Luminescence of Lanthanide-Dimethyl Sulfoxide Compound Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Mingzhen; Li, Yuebin; Hossu, Marius; Joly, Alan G.; Liu, Zhongxin; Liu, Zuli; Chen, Wei

    2011-08-04

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has the ability to penetrate living tissues without causing significant damage. Of foremost importance to our understanding of the possible functions of DMSO in biological systems is its ability to replace some of the water molecules associated with the cellular constituents, or to affect the structure of the omnipresent water. Luminescence probes have been widely used for biological studies such as labeling, imaging and detection. Luminescence probes formed in DMSO may find new applications. Here, luminescence compounds formed by refluxing lanthanide nitrates of Ce, La, Tb, Yb, Nd, Gd and Eu in DMSO are reported and their luminescence properties investigated. Based on their luminescence spectral properties, the compounds can be classified into four classes. For compounds-I with Yb, Ce, and La, the excitation and emission spectra are very broad and their excitation or emission peaks are shifted to longer wavelengths when the monitored emission or excitation wavelength is longer . For compounds-II with Gd and Nd, both the excitation and emission spectra are very broad but their emission wavelengths change little at different excitation wavelengths. For Tb-DMSO as compound-III, both the typical emissions from the f - f transitions of Tb3+ and a broad emission at 445 nm are observed. At low temperatures of reaction, the f - f emissions are dominant, while at high temperatures such as 180 oC of reaction, the broad emission at 445 nm is dominant. For compound-IV with Eu-DMSO compounds, the dominant emissions are from the f - f transitions of Eu3+ and only a weak broad emission is observed, which is likely from the d - f transition of Eu2+ rather than from the metal to ligand charge transfer states.

  17. Dimethyl sulfoxide reduces hepatocellular lipid accumulation through autophagy induction.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Mi; Song, Sun-Ok; Jung, Yong-Keun; Kang, Eun-Seok; Cha, Bong Soo; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Byung-Wan

    2012-07-01

    Induction of autophagy is known not only to regulate cellular homeostasis but also to decrease triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes. The aim of this study is to investigate whether DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) has a beneficial role in free fatty acid-induced hepatic fat accumulation. In HepG2 cells, treatment with 0.5 mM palmitate for six hours significantly increased lipid and triglyceride (TG) accumulation, assessed by Oil-red O staining and TG quantification assay. Treatment with 0.01% DMSO for 16 h statistically reduced palmitate-induced TG contents. Pretreatment of 10 mM 3-methyladenine (3MA) for 2 h restored hepatocellular lipid contents, which were attenuated by treatment with DMSO. DMSO increased LC3-II conversion and decreased SQSTM1/p62 expression in a time and dose-dependent manner. In addition, the number of autophagosomes and autolysosomes, as seen under an electron microscopy, as well as the percentage of RFP-LAMP1 colocalized with GFP-LC3 dots in cells transfected with both GFP-LC3 and RFP-LAMP1, as seen under a fluorescent microscopy, also increased in DMSO-treated HepG2 cells. DMSO also suppressed p-eIF2α/p-EIF2S1, ATF4, p-AKT1, p-MTOR and p-p70s6k/p-RPS6KB2 expression as assessed by western blotting. Knockdown of ATF4 expression using siRNA suppressed ATF4 expression and phosphorylation of AKT1, MTOR and RPS6KB2, but increased LC3-II conversion. DMSO reduced not only soluble but also insoluble mtHTT (mutant huntingtin aggregates) expressions, which were masked in the presence of autophagy inhibitor. DMSO, a kind of chemical chaperone, activated autophagy by suppressing ATF4 expression and might play a protective role in the development of fatty acid-induced hepatosteatosis.

  18. Dimethyl sulfoxide reduces hepatocellular lipid accumulation through autophagy induction

    PubMed Central

    Song, Young Mi; Song, Sun-Ok; Jung, Yong-Keun; Kang, Eun-Seok; Cha, Bong Soo; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Byung-Wan

    2012-01-01

    Induction of autophagy is known not only to regulate cellular homeostasis but also to decrease triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes. The aim of this study is to investigate whether DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) has a beneficial role in free fatty acid-induced hepatic fat accumulation. In HepG2 cells, treatment with 0.5 mM palmitate for six hours significantly increased lipid and triglyceride (TG) accumulation, assessed by Oil-red O staining and TG quantification assay. Treatment with 0.01% DMSO for 16 h statistically reduced palmitate-induced TG contents. Pretreatment of 10 mM 3-methyladenine (3MA) for 2 h restored hepatocellular lipid contents, which were attenuated by treatment with DMSO. DMSO increased LC3-II conversion and decreased SQSTM1/p62 expression in a time and dose-dependent manner. In addition, the number of autophagosomes and autolysosomes, as seen under an electron microscopy, as well as the percentage of RFP-LAMP1 colocalized with GFP-LC3 dots in cells transfected with both GFP-LC3 and RFP-LAMP1, as seen under a fluorescent microscopy, also increased in DMSO-treated HepG2 cells. DMSO also suppressed p-eIF2α/p-EIF2S1, ATF4, p-AKT1, p-MTOR and p-p70s6k/p-RPS6KB2 expression as assessed by western blotting. Knockdown of ATF4 expression using siRNA suppressed ATF4 expression and phosphorylation of AKT1, MTOR and RPS6KB2, but increased LC3-II conversion. DMSO reduced not only soluble but also insoluble mtHTT (mutant huntingtin aggregates) expressions, which were masked in the presence of autophagy inhibitor. DMSO, a kind of chemical chaperone, activated autophagy by suppressing ATF4 expression and might play a protective role in the development of fatty acid-induced hepatosteatosis. PMID:22722716

  19. Molecular characteristics of amylose and starch in dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Radosta, S; Haberer, M; Vorwerg, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work was the molecular characterization of starch polysaccharides to determine solution structure. Studies of amylose and potato starches of different origins were carried out by the static light scattering, dynamic light scattering, and HPSEC-MALLS methods. Molecular parameters such as Mw, Rg, A2, molar mass distribution, Dz, Rh, the structure-dependent rho-parameter, and osmotic modulus for amylose were determined. The Mw of amylose was found to be in the range from 1 x 10(5) to 1 x 10(6) g mol-1. The Mw of potato starches was much higher, that is, in the range of 23-37 x 10(6) g mol-1. The Rg of the amylose samples was in the range of 24-71 nm, and that of the potato starches was between 130 and 150 nm. The intensity-time correlation function showed one diffusive relaxation motion for amylose as well as for starch. The diffusion coefficients of the amylose prepared from starch by several methods were in the range of 2.7-9.1 x 10(-8) cm2 s-1, and those of the starches were 1 magnitude lower between 4.8 and 6.7 x 10(-9) cm2 s-1. The rho-parameter of amylose was calculated as having values between 1.5 and 2.2, and that of starches was calculated to be an average value of 0.62. The assumed solution behavior of amylose in dimethyl sulfoxide corresponds to that of a flexible chain, while the behavior of starch more closely resembles that of a spherelike structure.

  20. Effects of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on Surface Water near Phospholipid Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yuno; Pincus, Philip A.; Hyeon, Changbong

    2016-12-01

    Despite much effort to probe the properties of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution, effects of DMSO on water, especially near plasma membrane surfaces still remain elusive. By performing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at varying DMSO concentrations ($X_{\\text{DMSO}}$), we study how DMSO affects structural and dynamical properties of water in the vicinity of phospholipid bilayers. As proposed by a number of experiments, our simulations confirm that DMSO induces dehydration from bilayer surfaces and disrupts the H-bond structure of water. However, DMSO enhanced water diffusivity at solvent-bilayer interfaces, an intriguing discovery reported by a spin-label measurement, is not confirmed in our simulations. In order to resolve this discrepancy, we examine the location of the spin-label (Tempo), relative to the solvent-bilayer interface. In accord with the evidence in the literature, our simulations, which explicitly model Tempo-PC, find that the Tempo moiety is equilibrated at $\\sim 8-10$ \\AA\\ \\emph{below} the bilayer surface. Furthermore, the DMSO-enhanced surface water diffusion is confirmed only when water diffusion is analyzed around the Tempo moiety that is immersed below the bilayer surface, which implies that the experimentally detected signal of water using Tempo stems from the interior of bilayers, not from the interface. Our analysis finds that the increase of water diffusion below the bilayer surface is coupled to the increase of area per lipid with an increasing $X_{\\text{DMSO}}$ $(\\lesssim 10\\text{ mol\\%})$. Underscoring the hydrophobic nature of Tempo moiety, our study calls for careful re-evaluation of the use of Tempo in the measurement on lipid bilayer surfaces.

  1. Effects of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on Surface Water near Phospholipid Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yuno; Pincus, Philip A; Hyeon, Changbong

    2016-12-06

    Despite much effort to probe the properties of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution, the effects of DMSO on water, especially near plasma membrane surfaces, still remain elusive. By performing molecular dynamics simulations at varying DMSO concentrations (XDMSO), we study how DMSO affects structural and dynamical properties of water in the vicinity of phospholipid bilayers. As proposed by a number of experiments, our simulations confirm that DMSO induces dehydration from bilayer surfaces and disrupts the H-bond structure of water. However, DMSO-enhanced water diffusivity at solvent-bilayer interfaces, an intriguing discovery reported by a spin-label measurement, is not confirmed in our simulations. To resolve this discrepancy, we examine the location of the spin label (Tempo) relative to the solvent-bilayer interface. In accord with the evidence in the literature, our simulations, which explicitly model Tempo-phosphatidylcholine, find that the Tempo moiety is equilibrated at ∼8-10 Å below the bilayer surface. Furthermore, the DMSO-enhanced surface-water diffusion is confirmed only when water diffusion is analyzed around the Tempo moiety that is immersed below the bilayer surface, which implies that the experimentally detected signal of water using Tempo stems from the interior of bilayers, not from the interface. Our analysis finds that the increase of water diffusion below the bilayer surface is coupled to the increase of area per lipid with an increasing XDMSO(≲10mol%). Underscoring the hydrophobic nature of the Tempo moiety, our study calls for careful re-evaluation of the use of Tempo in measurements on lipid bilayer surfaces. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dimethyl sulfoxide modulation of diabetes onset in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Klandorf, H; Chirra, A R; DeGruccio, A; Girman, D J

    1989-02-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a hydroxyl radical scavenger, is known as an immunosuppressive agent and can reduce autoantibody levels in experimental autoimmune diseases. Because classic diabetogens damage the DNA and membrane of the beta-cell by the generation of free radicals, the purpose of these investigations was to determine whether the intake of DMSO or its derivatives methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) and dimethylsulfide (DMS) could prevent the expression of autoimmune diabetes in the spontaneously diabetic NOD mouse. DMSO (2.5%), MSM (2.5%), and DMS (0.25%) were added to the drinking water of female NOD mice immediately after weaning. Control animals were maintained on regular drinking water. The presence of overt diabetes was monitored from the age of 2 mo by weekly urinary glucose testing until the animals either became overtly glucosuric or were greater than 240 days of age. In contrast to what we expected, DMSO (2.5%) markedly increased the rate at which the animals expressed overt diabetes (P less than .0004, log-rank test). MSM had no effect, whereas DMS reduced the incidence and rate of diabetes onset. When DMSO (2.5%) was administered to male NOD mice and control strains of mice (BALB/c and ICR), the control group did not develop glucosuria or insipidus, whereas DMSO increased the incidence of diabetes in the male NOD mice from 21 to 79%. In contrast, when DMSO was fed to female NOD mice on a purified AIN-76 diet, diabetes onset was reduced to 36%. We conclude that DMSO accelerates the uptake of dietary diabetogens into the beta-cell of genetically susceptible animals (NOD mice). The protective effect of the purified diet in such animals may be due to a lack of putative diabetogens in purified diet, or alternatively, the diet itself contains factor(s) that protect the beta-cell from autoimmune attack and/or destruction.

  3. Oxidation of dimethyl sulfide to dimethyl sulfoxide by phototrophic purple bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Zeyer, J.; Eicher, P.; Wakeham, S.G.; Schwarzenbach, R.P.

    1987-09-01

    Enrichment cultures of phototrophic purple bacteria rapidly oxidized up to 10 mM dimethyl sulfide (DMS) to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). DMSO was qualitatively identified by proton nuclear magnetic resonance. By using a biological assay, DMSO was always quantitatively recovered from the culture media. DMS oxidation was not detected in cultures incubated in the dark, and it was slow in cultures exposed to full daylight. Under optimal conditions, the second-order rate constant for DMS oxidation was 6 day/sup -1/ mg of protein/sup -1/ ml/sup -1/. The rate constant was reduced in the presence of high concentration of sulfide (>1 mM), but was not affected by the addition of acetate. DMS was also oxidized to DMSO by a pure strain (tentatively identified as a Thiocystis sp.) isolated from the enrichment cultures. DMS supported growth of the enrichment cultures and of the pure strain by serving as an electron source for photosynthesis. A determination of the amount of protein produced in the cultures and an estimation of the electron balance suggested that the two electrons liberated during the oxidation of DMS to DMSO were quantitatively used to reduce carbon dioxide to biomass. The oxidation of DMS by phototrophic purple bacteria may be an important source of DMSO detected in anaerobic ponds and marshes.

  4. Morphologic Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on the Blood-Brain Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadwell, Richard D.; Salcman, Michael; Kaplan, Richard S.

    1982-07-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) opens the blood-brain barrier of mice to the enzymatic tracer horseradish peroxidase. A single injection of horseradish peroxidase in 10 to 15 percent DMSO into the tail vein along with 10 to 15 percent DMSO delivered intraperitoneally allowed horseradish peroxidase to fill the extracellular clefts throughout the brain within 2 hours. In the absence of DMSO, peroxidase failed to enter brain parenchyma except through the circumventricular organs. Opening of the blood-brain barrier by DMSO is reversible. Dimethyl sulfoxide stimulated the pinocytosis of horseradish peroxidase by the cerebral endothelium; the peroxidase was then directed to lysosomal dense bodies for degradation. Vesicular transport of horseradish peroxidase from the luminal to the abluminal wall of the endothelial cell was not observed. Dimethyl sulfoxide did not alter the morphology of endothelial cells or brain parenchyma.

  5. Structure of the hydrated and dimethyl sulfoxide solvated rubidium ions in solution.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Paola; Persson, Ingmar

    2004-05-31

    The structure of the hydrated and the dimethyl sulfoxide solvated rubidium ions in solution has been determined by means of large-angle X-ray scattering (LAXS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) studies. The models of the hydrated and dimethyl sulfoxide solvated rubidium ions fitting the experimental data best are square antiprisms with Rb-O bond distances of 2.98(2) and 2.98(3) A, respectively. The EXAFS data show a significant asymmetry in the Rb-O bond distance distribution with C(3) values of 0.0076 and 0.015 A(3), respectively. No second hydration sphere is observed around the hydrated rubidium ion. The dimethyl sulfoxide solvated rubidium ion displays a Rb-O-S bond angle of ca. 130 degrees, which is typical for a medium hard electron acceptor such as rubidium.

  6. Dimethyl sulfoxide affects colony morphology on agar and alters distribution of glycosaminoglycans and fibronectin.

    PubMed Central

    Dairkee, S H; Glaser, D A

    1982-01-01

    We have found striking changes in the morphology of colonies of Chinese hamster ovary cells grown on agar containing low doses of dimethyl sulfoxide. Effects on morphology of cells grown on plastic at the same dimethyl sulfoxide concentrations were not as pronounced. Computer-assisted analysis of darkfield photographs of growing colonies proved very useful in measuring the magnitude of morphological changes at various doses. A large decrease in total cell-bound and released glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) was observed in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide by measuring incorporation of radiolabeled precursors into cetylpyridinium chloride-precipitable GAGs in Chinese hamster ovary cells. By contrast, dimethyl sulfoxide was found to cause an increase in the network of fibronectin (the large external transformation-sensitive protein) at the cell surface. These observations demonstrate the association of GAGs and fibronectin in processes affecting the three-dimensional growth patterns of aggregates of mammalian cells and also demonstrate the sensitivity of agargrown colonies as model systems for quantitatively measuring the morphological changes induced by exogenous agents such as drugs, hormones, growth factors, mutagens, and carcinogens. These findings might be relevant to the study and treatment of the important class of genetic diseases called mucopolysaccharidoses which result in mental, skeletal, and ocular defects as a consequence of GAG accumulation. Images PMID:6960355

  7. Molecular dynamics study of unfolding of lysozyme in water and its mixtures with dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Sedov, Igor A; Magsumov, Timur I

    2017-09-01

    All-atom explicit solvent molecular dynamics was used to study the process of unfolding of hen egg white lysozyme in water and mixtures of water with dimethyl sulfoxide at different compositions. We have determined the kinetic parameters of unfolding at a constant temperature 450K. For each run, the time of disruption of the tertiary structure of lysozyme tu was defined as the moment when a certain structural criterion computed from the trajectory reaches its critical value. A good agreement is observed between the results obtained using several different criteria. The secondary structure according to DSSP calculations is found to be partially unfolded to the moment of disruption of tertiary structure, but some of its elements keep for a long time after that. The values of tu averaged over ten 30ns-long trajectories for each solvent composition are shown to decrease very rapidly with addition of dimethyl sulfoxide, and rather small amounts of dimethyl sulfoxide are found to change the pathway of unfolding. In pure water, despite the loss of tertiary contacts and disruption of secondary structure elements, the protein preserves its compact globular state at least over 130ns of simulation, while even at 5mol percents of dimethyl sulfoxide it loses its compactness within 30ns. The proposed methodology is a generally applicable tool to quantify the rate of protein unfolding in simulation studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 21 CFR 524.981e - Fluocinolone acetonide, dimethyl sulfoxide otic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.981e Fluocinolone acetonide, dimethyl sulfoxide otic solution. (a...) twice daily into the ear canal for a maximum period of 14 days. The total dosage used should not exceed...

  9. 21 CFR 524.981e - Fluocinolone acetonide, dimethyl sulfoxide otic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.981e Fluocinolone acetonide, dimethyl sulfoxide otic solution. (a...) twice daily into the ear canal for a maximum period of 14 days. The total dosage used should not exceed...

  10. Organization of dimethyl sulfoxide reductase in the plasma membrane of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Sambasivarao, D; Scraba, D G; Trieber, C; Weiner, J H

    1990-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide reductase is a trimeric, membrane-bound, iron-sulfur molybdoenzyme induced in Escherichia coli under anaerobic growth conditions. The enzyme catalyzes the reduction of dimethyl sulfoxide, trimethylamine N-oxide, and a variety of S- and N-oxide compounds. The topology of dimethyl sulfoxide reductase subunits was probed by a combination of techniques. Immunoblot analysis of the periplasmic proteins from the osmotic shock and chloroform wash fluids indicated that the subunits were not free in the periplasm. The reductase was susceptible to proteases in everted membrane vesicles, but the enzyme in outer membrane-permeabilized cells became protease sensitive only after detergent solubilization of the E. coli plasma membrane. Lactoperoxidase catalyzed the iodination of each of the three subunits in an everted membrane vesicle preparation. Antibodies to dimethyl sulfoxide reductase and fumarate reductase specifically agglutinated the everted membrane vesicles. No TnphoA fusions could be found in the dmsA or -B genes, indicating that these subunits were not translocated to the periplasm. Immunogold electron microscopy of everted membrane vesicles and thin sections by using antibodies to the DmsABC, DmsA, DmsB subunits resulted in specific labeling of the cytoplasmic surface of the inner membrane. These results show that the DmsA (catalytic subunit) and DmsB (electron transfer subunit) are membrane-extrinsic subunits facing the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane. Images PMID:2170332

  11. 21 CFR 524.981d - Fluocinolone acetonide, dimethyl sulfoxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... solution. 524.981d Section 524.981d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.981d Fluocinolone acetonide, dimethyl sulfoxide solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 0.01 percent fluocinolone acetonide and 20 percent...

  12. 21 CFR 524.981d - Fluocinolone acetonide, dimethyl sulfoxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... solution. 524.981d Section 524.981d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.981d Fluocinolone acetonide, dimethyl sulfoxide solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 0.01 percent fluocinolone acetonide and 20 percent...

  13. 21 CFR 524.981e - Fluocinolone acetonide, dimethyl sulfoxide otic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... solution. 524.981e Section 524.981e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.981e Fluocinolone acetonide, dimethyl sulfoxide otic solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 0.01 percent of fluocinolone acetonide in 60...

  14. 21 CFR 524.981e - Fluocinolone acetonide, dimethyl sulfoxide otic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... solution. 524.981e Section 524.981e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.981e Fluocinolone acetonide, dimethyl sulfoxide otic solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 0.01 percent of fluocinolone acetonide in 60...

  15. 21 CFR 524.981d - Fluocinolone acetonide, dimethyl sulfoxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... solution. 524.981d Section 524.981d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.981d Fluocinolone acetonide, dimethyl sulfoxide solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 0.01 percent fluocinolone acetonide and 20 percent...

  16. Dimethyl sulfoxide and ethylene glycol promote membrane phase change during cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Spindler, R; Wolkers, W F; Glasmacher, B

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and cryomicroscopy were used to study the effects of dimethyl sulfoxide and ethylene glycol on cell pellets of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells during freezing from 4 degree C to -60 degree C at 1 degree C per min. FTIR analysis showed that membranes undergo a phase change in the presence of cryoprotective agents (CPAs) which was not observed in the absence of CPAs. Cryomicroscopy revealed the formation of intracellular ice and concomitant cell volume changes. Intracellular ice was detected in the majority of the cells both in the presence and absence of CPAs. Membrane phase changes were found to be most pronounced at intermediate concentrations of cryoprotective agents; for dimethyl sulfoxide at around 1 M and for ethylene glycol at around 1.5 M. At those concentrations cell survival after thawing exhibited a maximum. The results indicate that CPAs promote rather than prevent cell dehydration during freezing.

  17. Optimizing human hepatocyte models for metabolic phenotype and function: effects of treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO).

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Nikolaos; Green, Charlotte J; Gunn, Pippa J; Hodson, Leanne; Tomlinson, Jeremy W

    2016-11-01

    Primary human hepatocytes are considered to be the "gold standard" cellular model for studying hepatic fatty acid and glucose metabolism; however, they come with limitations. Although the HepG2 cell line retains many of the primary hepatocyte metabolic functions they have a malignant origin and low rates of triglyceride secretion. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dimethyl sulfoxide supplementation in the media of HepG2 cells would enhance metabolic functionality leading to the development of an improved in vitro cell model that closely recapitulates primary human hepatocyte metabolism. HepG2 cells were cultured in media containing 1% dimethyl sulfoxide for 2, 4, 7, 14, and 21 days. Gene expression, protein levels, intracellular triglyceride, and media concentrations of triglyceride, urea, and 3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were measured. Dimethyl sulfoxide treatment altered the expression of genes involved in lipid (FAS, ACC1, ACC2, DGAT1, DGAT2, SCD) and glucose (PEPCK, G6Pase) metabolism as well as liver functionality (albumin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, AFP). mRNA changes were paralleled by alterations at the protein level. DMSO treatment decreased intracellular triglyceride content and lactate production and increased triglyceride and 3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in the media in a time-dependent manner. We have demonstrated that the addition of 1% dimethyl sulfoxide to culture media changes the metabolic phenotype of HepG2 cells toward a more primary human hepatocyte phenotype. This will enhance the currently available in vitro model systems for the study of hepatocyte biology related to pathological processes that contribute to disease and their response to specific therapeutic interventions.

  18. Composition and particle size of electrolytic copper powders prepared in water-containing dimethyl sulfoxide electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamyrbekova, Aigul'; Abzhalov, B. S.; Mamyrbekova, Aizhan

    2017-07-01

    The possibility of the electroprecipitation of copper powder via the cathodic reduction of an electrolyte solution containing copper(II) nitrate trihydrate and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is shown. The effect electrolysis conditions (current density, concentration and temperature of electrolyte) have on the dimensional characteristics of copper powder is studied. The size and shape of the particles of the powders were determined by means of electron microscopy; the qualitative composition of the powders, with X-ray diffraction.

  19. Dimethyl Sulfoxide as a Vehicle for Topical Antiviral Chemotherapy,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    To evaluate the importance of drug delivery experimentally, we have measured the penetration of acyclovir (ACV) through guinea pig skin in vitro from...therapeutic ratio, and established clinical activity against cutaneous human HSV infection other than recurrent disease. The penetration of acyclovir through

  20. Photoreactions of p-quinones with dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl sulfoxide in aqueous acetonitrile. goerner@mpi-muelheim.mpg.de.

    PubMed

    Görner, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    The effects of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on the photoreactions of 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), 1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ), 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) and several derivatives in acetonitrile/water were studied. The observed triplet state of the quinones is quenched and the rate constant is close to the diffusion-controlled limit for reactions of most quinones with DMS and lower with DMSO. Semiquinone radical anions (Q*-) produced by electron transfer from sulfur to the triplet quinone were detected. For both DMS and DMSO the yield of Q*- is similar, being generally low for BQ and NQ, substantial for AQ and largest for chloranil. The specific quencher concentrations and the effects of quinone structure and redox potentials on the time-resolved photochemical properties are discussed.

  1. Control Trials of Dimethyl Sulfoxide in Rheumatoid and Collagen Diseases,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    rheumatoid arthritis , and ranged in age from 17 to 75 years. Thirty-five children ages 5-13 were diagnosed with juvenile chronic arthritis. The diagnosis was made according to American Rheumatology Association criteria. Sixty-five patients ranging in age from 18-65, had Sjogren’s syndrome. The diagnosis was based on clinical and laboratory findings. Twenty-nine patients suffered from systemic scleroderma with pronounced and extensive skin involvement. In 6 patients, ulcerations of fingers were

  2. 5-(Naphthalen-1-yl)isophthalic acid-dimethyl sulfoxide-water (2/1/2).

    PubMed

    Vetter, Antje; Seichter, Wilhelm; Weber, Edwin

    2013-06-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, 2C18H12O4·C2H6OS·2H2O, consists of four crystallographically independent mol-ecules of 5-(naphthalen-1-yl)isophthalic acid, two dimethyl sulfoxide and four water mol-ecules. The dihedral angles formed by the the planes of the aromatic fragments of the organic mol-ecules range from 57.4 (1) to 59.1 (1)°. In the crystal, multiple O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the water mol-ecules with the carbonyl and sulfoxide groups, giving rise to double ribbons along the b-axis direction.

  3. Three-body dissociations: The photodissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide at 193 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, D.A.; North, S.W.; Stranges, D.

    1997-04-01

    When a molecule with two equivalent chemical bonds is excited above the threshold for dissociation of both bonds, how the rupture of the two bonds is temporally coupled becomes a salient question. Following absorption at 193 nm dimethyl sulfoxide (CH{sub 3}SOCH{sub 3}) contains enough energy to rupture both C-S bonds. This can happen in a stepwise (reaction 1) or concerted (reaction 2) fashion where the authors use rotation of the SOCH{sub 3} intermediate prior to dissociation to define a stepwise dissociation: (1) CH{sub 3}SOCH{sub 3} {r_arrow} 2CH{sub 3} + SO; (2a) CH{sub 3}SOCH{sub 3} {r_arrow} CH{sub 3} + SOCH{sub 3}; and (2b) SOCH{sub 3} {r_arrow} SO + CH{sub 3}. Recently, the dissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide following absorption at 193 nm was suggested to involve simultaneous cleavage of both C-S bonds on an excited electronic surface. This conclusion was inferred from laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and resonant multiphoton ionization (2+1 REMPI) measurements of the internal energy content in the CH{sub 3} and SO photoproducts and a near unity quantum yield measured for SO. Since this type of concerted three body dissociation is very interesting and a rather rare event in photodissociation dynamics, the authors chose to investigate this system using the technique of photofragment translational spectroscopy at beamline 9.0.2.1. The soft photoionization provided by the VUV undulator radiation allowed the authors to probe the SOCH{sub 3} intermediate which had not been previously observed and provided good evidence that the dissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide primarily proceeds via a two step dissociation, reaction 2.

  4. cis-Bis(2,2′-bipyridine-κ2 N,N′)bis­(dimethyl sulfoxide-κO)zinc bis­(tetra­phenyl­borate) dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Tomyn, Stefania; Gumienna-Kontecka, Elżbieta; Usenko, Natalia I.; Iskenderov, Turganbay S.; Prisyazhnaya, Elena V.

    2011-01-01

    In the mononuclear title complex, [Zn(C10H8N2)2(C2H6OS)2](C24H20B)2·C2H6OS, the ZnII ion is coordinated by four N atoms of two bidentate 2,2′-bipyridine mol­ecules and by the O atoms of two cis-disposed dimethyl sulfoxide mol­ecules in a distorted octa­hedral geometry. The S atom and the methyl groups of one of the coordinated dimethyl sulfoxide mol­ecules are disordered in a 0.509 (2):0.491 (2) ratio. The crystal packing is stabilized by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the dimethyl sulfoxide solvent mol­ecules and tetra­phenyl­borate anions. PMID:22199567

  5. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide addition on ultrasonic degradation of methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimakage, Kaho; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Naya, Masakazu; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Shimada, Yuichiro; Otake, Katsuto; Shono, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    The ultrasonic degradation of methylene blue was carried out in the absence and presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a radical scavenger for various frequencies, and the effects of DMSO addition on the degradation rate constant estimated by assuming first-order kinetics were investigated. The degradation reaction rate decreased with DMSO addition, and hydroxyl radicals were observed to play important roles in the degradation of methylene blue. However, the degradation reaction did not stop with DMSO addition, and the degradation rate constant in the presence of DMSO was not affected by ultrasonic frequency.

  6. Di-μ-chlorido-bis-[chloridobis(dimethyl sulfoxide)dioxidouranium(VI)].

    PubMed

    Takao, Koichiro; Ikeda, Yasuhisa

    2007-12-06

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, [U(2)Cl(4)O(4)(C(2)H(6)OS)(4)], the compound has a centrosymmetric dimeric structure bridged by two chloride anions. Each U(VI) atom is seven-coordinate in a penta-gonal-bipyramidal geometry. In the equatorial plane of the uranyl unit there are two O atoms from non-adjacent dimethyl sulfoxides and three chloride ions (of which two chlorides are bridging). The compound is of inter-est as an anhydrous starting material of the uran-yl(VI) ion.

  7. Di-μ-chlorido-bis­[chloridobis(dimethyl sulfoxide)dioxidouranium(VI)

    PubMed Central

    Takao, Koichiro; Ikeda, Yasuhisa

    2008-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, [U2Cl4O4(C2H6OS)4], the compound has a centrosymmetric dimeric structure bridged by two chloride anions. Each UVI atom is seven-coordinate in a penta­gonal-bipyramidal geometry. In the equatorial plane of the uranyl unit there are two O atoms from non-adjacent dimethyl sulfoxides and three chloride ions (of which two chlorides are bridging). The compound is of inter­est as an anhydrous starting material of the uran­yl(VI) ion. PMID:21200466

  8. Crystal structure of hexa-kis-(dimethyl sulfoxide-κO)manganese(II) diiodide.

    PubMed

    Glatz, Mathias; Schroffenegger, Martina; Weil, Matthias; Kirchner, Karl

    2016-07-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title salt, [Mn(C2H6OS)6]I2, consists of one Mn(II) ion, six O-bound dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) ligands and two I(-) counter-anions. The isolated complex cations have an octa-hedral configuration and are grouped in hexa-gonally arranged rows extending parallel to [100]. The two I(-) anions are located between the rows and are linked to the cations through two weak C-H⋯I inter-actions.

  9. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Protects Escherichia coli from Rapid Antimicrobial-Mediated Killing

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Hongfei; Wang, Dai; Xue, Yunxin; Zhang, Zhi; Hong, Yuzhi; Drlica, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to antimicrobial lethality was examined by treating Escherichia coli with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), an antioxidant solvent frequently used in antimicrobial studies. DMSO inhibited killing by ampicillin, kanamycin, and two quinolones and had little effect on MICs. DMSO-mediated protection correlated with decreased ROS accumulation and provided evidence for ROS-mediated programmed cell death. These data support the contribution of ROS to antimicrobial lethality and suggest caution when using DMSO-dissolved antimicrobials for short-time killing assays. PMID:27246776

  10. Solvation of LiBF4 ions in dimethyl sulfoxide solutions according to Raman spectroscopy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafurov, M. M.; Ataev, M. B.; Rabadanov, K. Sh.; Gorobets, M. I.; Tret'yakov, D. O.; Kirillov, S. A.; Kubataev, Z. Yu.

    2015-04-01

    Ionic equilibria in the LiBF4-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) system were studied by Raman spectroscopy at 50°C at salt concentrations of 0.05-0.25 mole fractions. The spectral signals of hydrogen bonds between the DMSO molecules and the fluoroborate ions were found. The concentrations of the monomer and dimer DMSO molecules and DMSO molecules in the solvation sphere of the lithium cation; free solvent molecules and those in the solvation sphere of the fluoroborate ion; free anions, ion pairs separated by the solvent, and contact ion pairs were determined.

  11. Dimethyl sulfoxide elevates hydrogen peroxide-mediated cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by inhibiting the antioxidant function of methionine sulfoxide reductase A.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Geun-Hee; Choi, Seung Hee; Kim, Hwa-Young

    2010-09-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) can be reduced to dimethyl sulfide by MsrA, which stereospecifically catalyzes the reduction of methionine-S-sulfoxide to methionine. Our previous study showed that DMSO can competitively inhibit methionine sulfoxide reduction ability of yeast and mammalian MsrA in both in vitro and in vivo, and also act as a non-competitive inhibitor for mammalian MsrB2, specific for the reduction of methionine-R-sulfoxide, with lower inhibition effects. The present study investigated the effects of DMSO on the physiological antioxidant functions of methionine sulfoxide reductases. DMSO elevated hydrogen peroxide-mediated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell death, whereas it protected human SK-Hep1 cells against oxidative stress. DMSO reduced the protein-carbonyl content in yeast cells in normal conditions, but markedly increased protein-carbonyl accumulation under oxidative stress. Using Msr deletion mutant yeast cells, we demonstrated the DMSO's selective inhibition of the antioxidant function of MsrA in S. cerevisiae, resulting in an increase in oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity.

  12. A QSPR study on the solvent-induced frequency shifts of acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide in organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yu Heng; Chang, Chia Ming; Chen, Ying Shao

    2016-06-05

    In this study, solvent-induced frequency shifts (SIFS) in the infrared spectrum of acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide in organic solvents were investigated by using four types of quantum-chemical reactivity descriptors. The results showed that the SIFS of acetone is mainly affected by the electron-acceptance chemical potential and the maximum nucleophilic condensed local softness of organic solvents, which represent the electron flow and the polarization between acetone and solvent molecules. On the other hand, the SIFS of dimethyl sulfoxide changes with the maximum positive charge of hydrogen atom and the inverse of apolar surface area of solvent molecules, showing that the electrostatic and hydrophilic interactions are main mechanisms between dimethyl sulfoxide and solvent molecules. The introduction of the four-element theory model-based quantitative structure-property relationship approach improved the assessing quality and provided a basis for interpreting the solute-solvent interactions.

  13. A QSPR study on the solvent-induced frequency shifts of acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide in organic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Yu Heng; Chang, Chia Ming; Chen, Ying Shao

    2016-06-01

    In this study, solvent-induced frequency shifts (SIFS) in the infrared spectrum of acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide in organic solvents were investigated by using four types of quantum-chemical reactivity descriptors. The results showed that the SIFS of acetone is mainly affected by the electron-acceptance chemical potential and the maximum nucleophilic condensed local softness of organic solvents, which represent the electron flow and the polarization between acetone and solvent molecules. On the other hand, the SIFS of dimethyl sulfoxide changes with the maximum positive charge of hydrogen atom and the inverse of apolar surface area of solvent molecules, showing that the electrostatic and hydrophilic interactions are main mechanisms between dimethyl sulfoxide and solvent molecules. The introduction of the four-element theory model-based quantitative structure-property relationship approach improved the assessing quality and provided a basis for interpreting the solute-solvent interactions.

  14. Ribbons of hydrogen-bonded rings in the 1:2 complex of pyromellitic acid and dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhi Min; Pan, Yuan Jian; Shen, Liang; Li, Mei Chao; Hu, Mao Lin

    2003-04-01

    In the title complex, pyromellitic acid-dimethyl sulfoxide (1/2), C(10)H(6)O(8).2C(2)H(6)OS, molecules of pyromellitic acid (1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid) and dimethyl sulfoxide, the latter being well ordered, are linked to each other by O-H.O hydrogen bonds. The formula unit displays crystallographic inversion symmetry. The packing consists of ribbons of hydrogen-bonded rings that can be described by graph set C(2)(1)(10)R(4)(2)(18).

  15. Dimethyl sulfoxide can initiate cell divisions of arrested callus protoplasts by promoting cortical microtuble assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Hahne, G.; Hoffmann, F.

    1984-09-01

    A serious problem in the technology of plant cell culture is that isolated protoplasts from many species are reluctant to divide. We have succeeded in inducing consecutive divisions in a naturally arrested system i.e., protoplasts from a hibiscus cell line, which do not divide under standard conditions and in an artificially arrested system i.e., colchicine-inhibited callus protoplasts of Nicotiana glutinosa, which do readily divide in the absence of colchicine. In both cases, the reinstallation of a net of cortical microtubules, which had been affected either by colchicine or by the protoplast isolation procedure, resulted in continuous divisions of the formerly arrested protoplasts. Several compounds known to support microtubule assembly in vitro were tested for their ability to promote microtubule assembly in vivo. Best results were obtained by addition of dimethyl sulfoxide to the culture medium. Unlimited amounts of callus could be produced with the dimethyl sulfoxide method from protoplasts which never developed a single callus in control experiments. 30 references, 3 figures.

  16. Modification of pineapple peel fiber as metal ion adsorbent through reaction with succinic anhydride in pyridine and dimethyl sulfoxide solvents.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiuyi; Zhao, Mouming; Huang, Huihua

    2010-08-01

    Reactions between saponified pineapple peel fiber (SPPF) and succinic anhydride were performed in refluxed pyridine and dimethyl sulfoxide to obtain modified pineapple peel fiber in pyridine (MPPF-PY) and modified pineapple peel fiber in dimethyl sulfoxide at room temperature (MPPF-DMRT) and at 70 degrees C (MPPF-DM70) as novel metal ionic adsorbents. The modified pineapple peel fibers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The MPPF-PY, MPPF-DMRT, and MPPF-DM70 showed higher Cu2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ adsorption capacity than raw pineapple peel fiber (RPPF) and SPPF. Dimethyl sulfoxide favored introduction of a carboxylic function group into pineapple peel fiber compared with pyridine. The elevated reaction temperature of dimethyl sulfoxide could increase the adsorption capacity of the modified pineapple fiber. Optimum pH values for Cu2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ removal by MPPF-DM70 were pH 5.5, 7.5, and 5.5, respectively. The Cu2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ adsorptions by MPPF-DM70 followed the pseudo second-order kinetics model and Langmuir model.

  17. A Method for the Quantitation of Trace Levels of Dimethyl Sulfoxide in Urine by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY by...for the sample cleanup and concentration, followed by separation by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography . EXPERIMENTAL Materials...DIMETHYL SULFOXIDE IN URINE BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY 4. AUTHORS (Last name, first name, middle initial. If military, show rank, e.g.

  18. Determination of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO), Ethanol (ETOH), Formamide (F) and Glycerol/Formal (GF) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-30

    HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY (HPLC...Classification) (U) Determination of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO), Ethanol, (ETOH), Formamide (F), and Glycerol/ Formal (GF) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC...and 5). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was the analytical method of choice for analyzing DMSO, ethanol, formamide and

  19. In situ observation of electrolyte-concentration-dependent solid electrolyte interphase on graphite in dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing-Rui; Wang, Lin; Wan, Li-Jun; Wang, Dong

    2015-05-13

    High lithium salt concentration strategy has been recently reported to be an effective method to enable various organic solvents as electrolyte of Li-ion batteries. Here, we utilize in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the interfacial morphology on the graphite electrode in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-based electrolyte of various concentrations. The significant differences in interfacial features of the graphite in electrolytes of different concentrations are revealed. In the concentrated electrolyte, stable films form primarily at the step edges and defects on the graphite surface after initial electrochemical cycling. On the other hand, in the dilute electrolyte, DMSO-solvated lithium ions constantly intercalate into graphite layers, and serious decomposition of solvent accompanied by structural deterioration of the graphite surface is observed. The in situ AFM results provide direct evidence for the concentration-dependent interface reactions between graphite electrode and DMSO-based electrolyte.

  20. [Effective dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) occlusive dressing technique for amyloidosis of the urinary bladder].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yoshihiro; Kanda, Hideki; Miki, Manabu; Masui, Satoru; Yoshio, Yuko; Yamada, Yasushi; Soga, Norihito; Arima, Kiminobu; Sugimura, Yoshiki

    2013-10-01

    A 48-year-old married woman complaining of macroscopic hematuria and cystitis symptom was admitted to our institute. Flexible cystoscopy revealed many yellowish, nodular masses at the paries posterior of the urinary bladder, and cold-punch biopsy proved it to be amyloidosis. Serum amyloid protein A (SAA) was high, and suggested systemic amyloidosis. Renal biopsy and colon fiberscopy did not reveal any abnormalities. We therefore diagnosed a primary localized amyloidosis of the urinary bladder. Transurethral resection and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) infusion therapy are used to treat amyloidosis of the urinary bladder. However there is no definite cure for amyloidosis of the urinary bladder. Therefore we selected DMSO occlusive dressing technique therapy. After 5 years of therapy, there was no evidence of a recurrence of amyloidosis.

  1. Carnitine or dimethyl sulfoxide, or both, for the treatment of anthracycline extravasation in rats.

    PubMed

    Uzunoglu, Sernaz; Cosar, Rusen; Cicin, Irfan; Ibis, Kamuran; Demiralay, Ebru; Benlier, Erol; Erdogan, Bulent; Kandulu, Huseyin; Ozen, Alaattin; Altaner, Semsi

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to compare the efficacy of topical dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), intralesional and systemic carnitine as monotherapy and in combination against ulceration in rats induced by intradermal doxorubicin extravasation. Sixty-nine 3-month-old male Wistar albino rats, weighing between 200-225 g, were used in this study. Rats were applied monotherapy or a combination of topical DMSO, intraperitoneal or intralesional carnitine. Control groups received saline or no drug. The necrotic area was measured and extravasated neutrophil leukocytes were counted in healthy tissue adjacent to necrotic areas. Monotherapy with topical and systemic carnitine did not significantly reduce the size of necrotic areas. However, topical DMSO had reduced necrotic areas and inflammatory cells significantly and the addition of systemic carnitine to topical DMSO had increased the efficacy. DMSO is an effective, safe, and easy-to-apply treatment for doxorubicin-induced extravasation. Further clinical studies are needed to evaluate the use of carnitine in combination with DMSO.

  2. An approach for prominent enhancement of the quality of konjac flour: dimethyl sulfoxide as medium.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ting; Wang, Ling; Xu, Wei; Liu, Jinjin; Wang, Yuntao; Zhu, Kunkun; Wang, Sujuan; Li, Bin; Wang, Chao

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an approach to improve several konjac flour (KF) qualities by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) addition using various concentrations at different temperature levels was proposed. Also, various properties of native and refined KF, including transparency, chemical composition and rheological properties have been investigated. The results showed that the KF refined by 75% DMSO achieved 27.7% improvement in transparency, 99.7% removal of starch, 99.4% removal of soluble sugar, and 98.2% removal of protein as well as more satisfactory viscosity stability. In addition, the morphology structure of refined KF showed a significant difference compared with the native one as observed using the SEM, which is promising for further industrial application. Furthermore, the rheological properties of both native and refined konjac sols were studied and the results showed that DMSO refinement is an effective and alternative approach to improve the qualities of KF in many aspects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide on cerebroside metastability.

    PubMed

    Curatolo, W

    1985-07-11

    Aqueous dispersions of n-acyl cerebrosides are known to exhibit metastable polymorphism of the type: (Formula: see text). The involvement of hydration in this metastable polymorphism has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetric studies of aqueous palmitoylgalactocerebroside (C16:0-CER) dispersions in the presence of agents which disrupt water structure. In the presence of 50 vol% ethylene glycol or 50 vol% dimethyl sulfoxide, only a single reversible ordered----liquid-crystalline transition is observed. This single ordered----liquid-crystalline transition exhibits a smaller enthalpy and occurs at a lower temperature than the major Polymorph II----liquid-crystal transition observed for dispersions in water alone. These results indicate that metastable polymorphism in C16:0-CER is related to hydration.

  4. Inactivation kinetics of polyphenol oxidase from pupae of blowfly (Sarcophaga bullata) in the dimethyl sulfoxide solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Qi; Li, Zhi-Cong; Pan, Zhi-Zhen; Zhu, Yu-Jing; Yan, Ruo-Rong; Wang, Qin; Yan, Jiang-Hua; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2010-04-01

    The effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.14.18.1) from blowfly pupae for the oxidation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine were studied. The results showed that low concentrations of DMSO could lead to reversible inactivation to the enzyme. The IC(50) value, the inactivator concentration leading to 50% activity lost, was estimated to be 2.35 M. Inactivation of the enzyme by DMSO was classified as mixed type. The kinetics of inactivation of PPO from blowfly pupae in the low concentrations of DMSO solution was studied using the kinetic method of the substrate reaction. The rate constants of inactivation were determined. The results show that k(+0) was much larger than k'(+0), indicating that the free enzyme molecule was more fragile than the enzyme-substrate complex in the DMSO solution. It was suggested that the presence of the substrate offers marked protection of this enzyme against inactivation by DMSO.

  5. Preferential solvation of lysozyme in dimethyl sulfoxide/water binary mixture probed by terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Das, Dipak Kumar; Patra, Animesh; Mitra, Rajib Kumar

    2016-09-01

    We report the changes in the hydration dynamics around a model protein hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) in water-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) binary mixture using THz time domain spectroscopy (TTDS) technique. DMSO molecules get preferentially solvated at the protein surface, as indicated by circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study in the mid-infrared region, resulting in a conformational change in the protein, which consequently modifies the associated hydration dynamics. As a control we also study the collective hydration dynamics of water-DMSO binary mixture and it is found that it follows a non-ideal behavior owing to the formation of DMSO-water clusters. It is observed that the cooperative dynamics of water at the protein surface does follow the DMSO-mediated conformational modulation of the protein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide on the phase behavior of lysozyme: Theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gögelein, Christoph; Wagner, Dana; Cardinaux, Frédéric; Nägele, Gerhard; Egelhaaf, Stefan U.

    2012-01-01

    Salt, glycerol, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are used to modify the properties of protein solutions. We experimentally determined the effect of these additives on the phase behavior of lysozyme solutions. Upon the addition of glycerol and DMSO, the fluid-solid transition and the gas-liquid coexistence curve (binodal) shift to lower temperatures and the gap between them increases. The experimentally observed trends are consistent with our theoretical predictions based on the thermodynamic perturbation theory and the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek model for the lysozyme-lysozyme pair interactions. The values of the parameters describing the interactions, namely the refractive indices, dielectric constants, Hamaker constant and cut-off length, are extracted from literature or are experimentally determined by independent experiments, including static light scattering, to determine the second virial coefficient. We observe that both, glycerol and DMSO, render the potential more repulsive, while sodium chloride reduces the repulsion.

  7. Changing electrical properties of PEDOT:PSS by incorporating with dimethyl sulfoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yow-Jon; Lee, Jhe-You; Chen, Shang-Min

    2016-11-01

    The effect of incorporation of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) on the electrical conductivity is investigated. It is shown that the values of the carrier mobility and the carrier density increase significantly for PEDOT:PSS films with DMSO addition. The high carrier mobility of PEDOT:PSS samples with the addition of DMSO is attributed to a combined effect of the modification of the electron-phonon coupling and a change in the value of the PSS-to-PEDOT ratio. The high carrier density of PEDOT:PSS samples with DMSO addition is attributed to a high affinity of DMSO for water.

  8. Onychomycosis treated with a dilute povidone–iodine/dimethyl sulfoxide preparation

    PubMed Central

    Capriotti, Kara; Capriotti, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    Background Povidone–iodine (PVP-I) 10% aqueous solution is a well-known, nontoxic, commonly used topical antiseptic with no reported incidence of fungal resistance. We have been using a low-dose formulation of 1% PVP-I (w/w) in a solution containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in our clinical practice for a variety of indications. Presented here is our clinical experience with this novel formulation in a severe case of onychomycosis that was resistant to any other treatment. Findings A 49-year-old woman who had been suffering from severe onychomycosis for years presented after failing to find any remedy including over the counter (OTC), topical, and systemic oral prescribed therapies. Conclusion The topical povidone–iodine/DMSO system was very effective in this case at alleviating the signs and symptoms of onychomycosis. This novel combination warrants further investigation in randomized, controlled trials to further elucidate its clinical utility. PMID:26491374

  9. Electrical conductivity of solutions of copper(II) nitrate crystalohydrate in dimethyl sulfoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamyrbekova, Aigul K.; Mamitova, A. D.; Mamyrbekova, Aizhan K.

    2016-06-01

    Conductometry is used to investigate the electric conductivity of Cu(NO3)2 ṡ 3H2O solutions in dimethyl sulfoxide in the 0.01-2.82 M range of concentrations and at temperatures of 288-318 K. The limiting molar conductivity of the electrolyte and the mobility of Cu2+ and NO 3 - ions, the effective coefficients of diffusion of copper(II) ions and nitrate ions, and the degree and constant of electrolytic dissociation are calculated for different temperatures from the experimental results. It is established that solutions containing 0.1-0.6 M copper nitrate trihydrate in DMSO having low viscosity and high electrical conductivity can be used in electrochemical deposition.

  10. Efficient extraction of xylan from delignified corn stover using dimethyl sulfoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, John; Decker, Stephen R.; Michener, William; Black, Stuart

    2013-09-13

    Xylan can be extracted from biomass using either alkali (KOH or NaOH) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); however, DMSO extraction is the only method that produces a water-soluble xylan. In this study, DMSO extraction of corn stover was studied at different temperatures with the objective of finding a faster, more efficient extraction method. The temperature and time of extraction were compared followed by a basic structural analysis to ensure that no significant structural changes occurred under different temperatures. The resulting data showed that heating to 70 degrees C during extraction can give a yield comparable to room temperature extraction while reducing the extraction time by ~90 %. This method of heating was shown to be the most efficient method currently available and was shown to retain the important structural characteristics of xylan extracted with DMSO at room temperature.

  11. Crystallisation of α-lactose monohydrate from dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions: influence of β-lactose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dincer, T. D.; Parkinson, G. M.; Rohl, A. L.; Ogden, M. I.

    1999-09-01

    In this study, the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-lactose system has been used to study the effect of β-lactose on the morphology of α-lactose monohydrate crystals. DMSO was used as the solvent as it greatly reduces the rate of mutarotation of α-lactose to β-lactose. It is shown that as the β-content of the solution increases, the crystal shape starts increasing in the a and b directions, whereas the major growth occurs in the c direction at low levels of β-lactose. The morphology of the α-lactose monohydrate crystal calculated by molecular modelling is in good agreement with that of the crystals grown in the presence of low β-lactose concentrations. Atomic force microscopy has revealed growth spirals and unit cell high steps on the (0 2 0) face of crystals grown in the presence of low β-anomer concentration.

  12. Thermal characterization of ZnO-DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) colloidal dispersions using the inverse photopyroelectric technique.

    PubMed

    Marín, E; Calderón, A; Díaz, D

    2009-05-01

    Nanofluids, i.e., colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in a base liquid (solvent), have received considerable attention in the last years due to their potential applications. One attractive feature of these systems is that their thermal conductivity can exceed the corresponding values of the base fluid and of the fluid with large particles of the same chemical composition. However, there is a lack of agreement between published results and the suggested mechanisms which explain the thermal conductivity enhancement. Here we show the possibilities of the inverse photopyroelectric method for the determination of the effective thermal effusivity of the system constituted by small ZnO nanoparticles dispersed in dimethyl sulfoxide, as a function of the nanoparticles volumetric fraction. Using a phenomenological model we estimated the thermal conductivity of these colloidal samples without observing any significant enhancement of this parameter above effective medium predictions.

  13. Membrane permeability of the human granulocyte to water, dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, propylene glycol and ethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Vian, Alex M; Higgins, Adam Z

    2014-02-01

    Granulocytes are currently transfused as soon as possible after collection because they rapidly deteriorate after being removed from the body. This short shelf life complicates the logistics of granulocyte collection, banking, and safety testing. Cryopreservation has the potential to significantly increase shelf life; however, cryopreservation of granulocytes has proven to be difficult. In this study, we investigate the membrane permeability properties of human granulocytes, with the ultimate goal of using membrane transport modeling to facilitate development of improved cryopreservation methods. We first measured the equilibrium volume of human granulocytes in a range of hypo- and hypertonic solutions and fit the resulting data using a Boyle-van't Hoff model. This yielded an isotonic cell volume of 378 μm(3) and an osmotically inactive volume of 165 μm(3). To determine the permeability of the granulocyte membrane to water and cryoprotectant (CPA), cells were injected into well-mixed CPA solution while collecting volume measurements using a Coulter Counter. These experiments were performed at temperatures ranging from 4 to 37°C for exposure to dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol. The best-fit water permeability was similar in the presence of all of the CPAs, with an average value at 21°C of 0.18 μmatm(-1)min(-1). The activation energy for water transport ranged from 41 to 61 kJ/mol. The CPA permeability at 21°C was 6.4, 1.0, 8.4, and 4.0 μm/min for dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, respectively, and the activation energy for CPA transport ranged between 59 and 68 kJ/mol.

  14. Purification and properties of Escherichia coli dimethyl sulfoxide reductase, an iron-sulfur molybdoenzyme with broad substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Weiner, J H; MacIsaac, D P; Bishop, R E; Bilous, P T

    1988-04-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide reductase, a terminal electron transfer enzyme, was purified from anaerobically grown Escherichia coli harboring a plasmid which codes for dimethyl sulfoxide reductase. The enzyme was purified to greater than 90% homogeneity from cell envelopes by a three-step purification procedure involving extraction with the detergent Triton X-100, chromatofocusing, and DEAE ion-exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme was composed of three subunits with molecular weights of 82,600, 23,600, and 22,700 as identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The native molecular weight was determined by gel electrophoresis to be 155,000. The purified enzyme contained 7.5 atoms of iron and 0.34 atom of molybdenum per mol of enzyme. The presence of molybdopterin cofactor in dimethyl sulfoxide reductase was identified by reconstitution of cofactor-deficient NADPH nitrate reductase activity from Neurospora crassa nit-I mutant and by UV absorption and fluorescence emission spectra. The enzyme displayed a very broad substrate specificity, reducing various N-oxide and sulfoxide compounds as well as chlorate and hydroxylamine.

  15. Reversible dissociation of thiolate ligands from molybdenum in an enzyme of the dimethyl sulfoxide reductase family.

    PubMed

    Bray, R C; Adams, B; Smith, A T; Bennett, B; Bailey, S

    2000-09-19

    Much is unknown concerning the role of thiolate ligands of molybdenum in molybdopterin enzymes. It has been suggested that thiolate dissociation from molybdenum is part of the catalytic mechanism of bis-molybdopterin enzymes of the dimethyl sulfoxide reductase (DMSOR) family. For DMSOR from Rhodobacter capsulatus, thiolate dissociation has therefore been investigated crystallographically, by UV/visible spectroscopy, and by enzyme assays. When crystallized from sodium citrate, all four thiolates of DMSOR are within bonding distance of Mo, but after extended exposure to Na(+)-Hepes, a pair of thiolates dissociates, a mixture of structures being indicated after shorter exposures to this buffer. DMSOR is stable in sodium citrate and other buffers but unstable aerobically although not anaerobically in Na(+)-Hepes. Aerobically in Na(+)-Hepes, a first-order reaction (k = 0.032 hr(-)(1) at 37 degrees C) leads to loss of activity in the backward but not the forward (dimethyl sulfoxide reduction) assay and loss of absorption at lambda > approximately 450 nm. This reaction can be reversed by a cycle of reduction and reoxidation ("redox-cycling"). Slower irreversible loss of activity in the forward assay and cofactor dissociation follow. Spectral analogy with a mono-molybdopterin enzyme supports the conclusion that in the Hepes-modified DMSOR form, only two cofactor dithiolene sulfur atoms are coordinated to molybdenum. Loss of activity provides the first clear evidence that sulfur ligand dissociation is an artifact, not part of the catalytic cycle. Clearly, structural data on DMSOR samples extensively exposed to Hepes is not directly relevant to the native enzyme. The nature of the oxygen ligands detected crystallographically is discussed, as is the specificity of Hepes and the mechanism whereby its effects are achieved. DMSOR forms complexes with Na(+)-Hepes and other buffer ions. For DMSOR crystallized from Hepes, electron density in the substrate binding channel suggests

  16. 1,1′:4′,1′′-Terphenyl-2′,5′-dicarb­oxy­lic acid dimethyl sulfoxide-d 6 disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Pop, Lucian C.; Preite, Marcelo; Manriquez, Juan Manuel; Vega, Andrés; Chavez, Ivonne

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title solvate, C20H14O4·2C2D6OS, contains half of the substituted terephthalic acid mol­ecule and one solvent mol­ecule. The centroid of the central benzene ring in the acid mol­ecule is coincident with a crystallographic inversion center. Neither the carboxyl nor the phenyl substituents are coplanar with the central aromatic ring, showing dihedral angles of 53.18 (11) and 47.83 (11)°, respectively. The dimethyl sulfoxide solvent mol­ecules are hydrogen bonded to the carb­oxy­lic acid groups. PMID:22606132

  17. Dimeric molecular association of dimethyl sulfoxide in solutions of nonpolar liquids.

    PubMed

    Shikata, Toshiyuki; Sugimoto, Natsuki

    2012-01-26

    Although many vibrational spectroscopic studies using infrared (IR) absorption and Raman scattering (RS) techniques revealed that dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) forms intermolecular dimeric associations in the pure liquid state and in solutions, the results of a number of dielectric relaxation studies did not clearly show the presence of such dimers. Recently, we found the presence of dimeric DMSO associations in not only the pure liquid but also in solutions of nonpolar solvents, such as tetrachloromethane (CCl(4)) and benzene (Bz), using dielectric relaxation (DR) techniques, which ranged from 50 MHz to 50 GHz at 25 °C. The dimeric DMSO associations cause a slow dielectric relaxation process with a relaxation time of ca. 23 ps for solutions in CCl(4) (ca. 17 ps in Bz) due to the dissociation into monomeric DMSO molecules, while the other fast relaxation is caused by monomeric DMSO molecules with a relaxation time of ca. 5.0 ps (ca. 5.5 ps in Bz) at 25 °C. A comparison of DR and vibrational spectroscopic data for DMSO solutions demonstrated that the concentration dependence of the relative magnitude of the slow and fast DR strength corresponds well to the two IR and RS bands assigned to the vibrational stretching modes of the sulfoxide groups (S═O) of the dimeric associations and the monomeric DMSO molecules, respectively. Moreover, the concentrations of the dimeric associations ([DIM]) and monomeric DMSO molecules ([MON]) were governed by a chemical equilibrium and an equilibrium constant (K(d) = [DIM](2)[MON](-1)) that was markedly dependent on the concentration of DMSO and the solvent species (K(d) = 2.5 ± 0.5 M(-1) and 0.7 ± 0.1 M(-1) in dilute CCl(4) and Bz solutions, respectively, and dramatically increased to 20-40 M(-1) in pure DMSO at 25 °C).

  18. Dimethyl sulfoxide participant iron-mediated cascade oxidation/α-formylation reaction of substituted 2,3-dihydropyrroles under air and protonic acid free condition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Tian, Qing; Qian, Jingjing; Liu, Qingfeng; Liu, Tongxin; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Guisheng

    2014-09-05

    An efficient and Brønsted acid free one-pot protocol to directly generate structurally sophisticated α-formylpyrrole derivatives in moderate to good yields has been demonstrated, involving an iron-mediated domino oxidation/formylation reaction of readily available 2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrroles in dimethyl sulfoxide and air atmosphere, in which dimethyl sulfoxide acts as the formyl donor. A possible mechanism is presented.

  19. Variation of Spectral Characteristics of Coelenteramide-Containing Fluorescent Protein from Obelia Longissima Exposed to Dimethyl Sulfoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, A. S.; Alieva, R. R.; Belogurova, N. V.; Tirranen, L. S.; Kudryasheva, N. S.

    2016-08-01

    Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a widespread biomedical agent, on spectral-luminescent characteristics of coelenteramide-containing fluorescent protein - discharged obelin - is investigated. Contributions of violet and blue-green spectral components to fluorescence of discharged obelin are elucidated and characterized at different photoexcitation energies. Dependences of these contributions on the DMSO concentration are presented. Spectral changes are related to the destructive effect of DMSO on fluorescent protein and decreasing efficiency of proton transfer to electronically excited states of fluorophore.

  20. Study on calcination of bi-layered films produced by anodizing iron in dimethyl sulfoxide electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagminas, Arūnas; Klimas, Vaclovas; Mažeika, Kęstutis; Mickevičius, Sigitas; Balakauskas, Saulius

    2012-01-01

    Research on well adherent, thick and nanoporous oxide film formation onto the metal substrates underwent a major burst throughout the last decade. In the current study, thick bi-layered films produced onto a pure iron surface by anodizing way in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) electrolyte containing silica hexafluoride acid have been investigated upon the annealing in air. Compositional, phase and structural transformations of the film material to hematite, α-Fe2O3, were studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy at room to cryogenic temperatures, thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), photoemission spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and wave dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDX). Experimental findings indicated that much longer heating in air is required for these films to be fully transformed to hematite. This effect is linked here with the complex nature of DMSO films. Based on the combined WDX, photoemission and Mössbauer spectroscopy results, the transformations taken place during calcination of such amorphous films by heat-treatment in air to crystalline hematite have been determined. Investigations on the calcination effects of thick iron anodic films reported here offer opportunities for both fundamental research and practical applications.

  1. Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Melatonin on the Isolation of Human Primary Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Solanas, Estela; Sostres, Carlos; Serrablo, Alejandro; García-Gil, Agustín; García, Joaquín J; Aranguren, Francisco J; Jiménez, Pilar; Hughes, Robin D; Serrano, María T

    2015-01-01

    The availability of fully functional human hepatocytes is critical for progress in human hepatocyte transplantation and the development of bioartificial livers and in vitro liver systems. However, the cell isolation process impairs the hepatocyte status and determines the number of viable cells that can be obtained. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and melatonin in the human hepatocyte isolation protocol. Human hepatocytes were isolated from liver pieces resected from 10 patients undergoing partial hepatectomy. Each piece was dissected into 2 equally sized pieces and randomized, in 5 of 10 isolations, to perfusion with 1% DMSO-containing perfusion buffer or buffer also containing 5 mM melatonin using the 2-step collagenase perfusion technique (experiment 1), and in the other 5 isolations to standard perfusion or perfusion including 1% DMSO (experiment 2). Tissues perfused with DMSO yielded 70.6% more viable hepatocytes per gram of tissue (p = 0.076), with a 26.1% greater albumin production (p < 0.05) than those perfused with control buffer. Melatonin did not significantly affect (p > 0.05) any of the studied parameters, but cell viability, dehydrogenase activity, albumin production, urea secretion, and 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activity were slightly higher in cells isolated with melatonin-containing perfusion buffer compared to those isolated with DMSO. In conclusion, addition of 1% DMSO to the hepatocyte isolation protocol could improve the availability and functionality of hepatocytes for transplantation, but further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms involved.

  2. Factors affecting degradation of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by fluidized-bed Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Bellotindos, Luzvisminda M; Lu, Meng-Hsuan; Methatham, Thanakorn; Lu, Ming-Chun

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the target compound is dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which is used as a photoresist stripping solvent in the semiconductor and thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) manufacturing processes. The effects of the operating parameters (pH, Fe(2+) and H2O2 concentrations) on the degradation of DMSO in the fluidized-bed Fenton process were examined. This study used the Box-Behnken design (BBD) to investigate the optimum conditions of DMSO degradation. The highest DMSO removal was 98 % for pH 3, when the H2O2 to Fe(2+) molar ratio was 12. At pH 2 and 4, the highest DMSO removal was 82 %, when the H2O2 to Fe(2+) molar ratio was 6.5. The correlation of DMSO removal showed that the effect of the parameters on DMSO removal followed the order Fe(2+) > H2O2 > pH. From the BBD prediction, the optimum conditions were pH 3, 5 mM of Fe(2+), and 60 mM of H2O2. The difference between the experimental value (98 %) and the predicted value (96 %) was not significant. The removal efficiencies of DMSO, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), and iron in the fluidized-bed Fenton process were higher than those in the traditional Fenton process.

  3. X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopic Characterization of the Molybdenum Site of 'Escherichia Coli' Dimethyl Sulfoxide Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    George, G.N.; Doonan, C.J.; Rothery, R.A.; Boroumand, N.; Weiner, J.H.; /Saskatchewan U. /Alberta U.

    2007-07-09

    Structural studies of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductases were hampered by modification of the active site during purification. We report an X-ray absorption spectroscopic analysis of the molybdenum active site of Escherichia coli DMSO reductase contained within its native membranes. The enzyme in these preparations is expected to be very close to the form found in vivo. The oxidized active site was found to have four Mo-S ligands at 2.43 angstroms, one Mo=O at 1.71 angstroms, and a longer Mo-O at 1.90 angstroms. We conclude that the oxidized enzyme is a monooxomolybdenum(VI) species coordinated by two molybdopterin dithiolenes and a serine. The bond lengths determined for E. coli DMSO reductase are very similar to those determined for the well-characterized Rhodobacter sphaeroides DMSO reductase, suggesting similar active site structures for the two enzymes. Furthermore, our results suggest that the form found in vivo is the monooxobis(molybdopterin) species.

  4. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) exacerbates cisplatin-induced sensory hair cell death in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Uribe, Phillip M; Mueller, Melissa A; Gleichman, Julia S; Kramer, Matthew D; Wang, Qi; Sibrian-Vazquez, Martha; Strongin, Robert M; Steyger, Peter S; Cotanche, Douglas A; Matsui, Jonathan I

    2013-01-01

    Inner ear sensory hair cells die following exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics or chemotherapeutics like cisplatin, leading to permanent auditory and/or balance deficits in humans. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are used to study drug-induced sensory hair cell death since their hair cells are similar in structure and function to those found in humans. We developed a cisplatin dose-response curve using a transgenic line of zebrafish that expresses membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein under the control of the Brn3c promoter/enhancer. Recently, several small molecule screens have been conducted using zebrafish to identify potential pharmacological agents that could be used to protect sensory hair cells in the presence of ototoxic drugs. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is typically used as a solvent for many pharmacological agents in sensory hair cell cytotoxicity assays. Serendipitously, we found that DMSO potentiated the effects of cisplatin and killed more sensory hair cells than treatment with cisplatin alone. Yet, DMSO alone did not kill hair cells. We did not observe the synergistic effects of DMSO with the ototoxic aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin. Cisplatin treatment with other commonly used organic solvents (i.e. ethanol, methanol, and polyethylene glycol 400) also did not result in increased cell death compared to cisplatin treatment alone. Thus, caution should be exercised when interpreting data generated from small molecule screens since many compounds are dissolved in DMSO.

  5. Comparative study of halogen- and hydrogen-bond interactions between benzene derivatives and dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Deng, Geng; Zhou, Yu; Sun, Hai-Yuan; Yu, Zhi-Wu

    2015-08-24

    The halogen bond, similar to the hydrogen bond, is an important noncovalent interaction and plays important roles in diverse chemistry-related fields. Herein, bromine- and iodine-based halogen-bonding interactions between two benzene derivatives (C6 F5 Br and C6 F5 I) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are investigated by using IR and NMR spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. The results are compared with those of interactions between C6 F5 Cl/C6 F5 H and DMSO. First, the interaction energy of the hydrogen bond is stronger than those of bromine- and chlorine-based halogen bonds, but weaker than iodine-based halogen bond. Second, attractive energies depend on 1/r(n) , in which n is between three and four for both hydrogen and halogen bonds, whereas all repulsive energies are found to depend on 1/r(8.5) . Third, the directionality of halogen bonds is greater than that of the hydrogen bond. The bromine- and iodine-based halogen bonds are strict in this regard and the chlorine-based halogen bond only slightly deviates from 180°. The directional order is iodine-based halogen bond>bromine-based halogen bond>chlorine-based halogen bond>hydrogen bond. Fourth, upon the formation of hydrogen and halogen bonds, charge transfers from DMSO to the hydrogen- and halogen-bond donors. The CH3 group contributes positively to stabilization of the complexes.

  6. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) produces widespread apoptosis in the developing central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Hanslick, Jennifer L; Lau, Karen; Noguchi, Kevin K; Olney, John W; Zorumski, Charles F; Mennerick, Steven; Farber, Nuri B

    2009-04-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a solvent that is routinely used as a cryopreservative in allogous bone marrow and organ transplantation. We exposed C57Bl/6 mice of varying postnatal ages (P0-P30) to DMSO in order to study whether DMSO could produce apoptotic degeneration in the developing CNS. DMSO produced widespread apoptosis in the developing mouse brain at all ages tested. Damage was greatest at P7. Significant elevations above the background rate of apoptosis occurred at the lowest dose tested, 0.3 ml/kg. In an in vitro rat hippocampal culture preparation, DMSO produced neuronal loss at concentrations of 0.5% and 1.0%. The ability of DMSO to damage neurons in dissociated cultures indicates that the toxicity likely results from a direct cellular effect. Because children, who undergo bone marrow transplantation, are routinely exposed to DMSO at doses higher than 0.3 ml/kg, there is concern that DMSO might be producing similar damage in human children.

  7. Molecular structure and adsorption of dimethyl sulfoxide at the surface of aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, H.C.; Gragson, D.E.; Richmond, G.L.

    1999-01-28

    Surface vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy complemented with surface tension measurements has been utilized to probe the air/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) interface as a function of DMSO concentration in water. For the neat DMSO surface, the DMSO methyl groups extend away from the liquid phase and VSFG polarization studies show that the methyl transition dipole moments of pure DMSO are on average oriented a maximum of 55{degree} from the surface normal. A blue shift of the methyl symmetric stretch is observed with decreasing DMSO concentration and attributed to an electronic interaction between the sulfur and the methyl groups of DMSO. From surface tension data of the aqueous DMSO system, it is shown the DMSO number densities are higher at the surface of DMSO-water solutions relative to bulk DMSO concentrations revealing surface partitioning effects. Structural changes of surface DMSO are discussed in terms of monomers, dimers, and clusters which could account for the large differences in VSFG intensities and surface number densities. From surface tension measurements and utilizing DMSO activities, {Delta}G{sub ads}{sup 0} is calculated to be {minus}19.8 ({+-}0.4) kJ/mol.

  8. Dimethyl sulfoxide at high concentrations inhibits non-selective cation channels in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nardid, Oleg A; Schetinskey, Miroslav I; Kucherenko, Yuliya V

    2013-03-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a by-product of the pulping industry, is widely used in biological research, cryobiology and medicine. On cellular level DMSO was shown to suppress NMDA-AMPA channels activation, blocks Na+ channel activation and attenuates Ca2+ influx (Lu and Mattson 2001). In the present study we explored the whole-cell patch-clamp to examine the acute effect of high concentrations of DMSO (0.1-2 mol/l) on cation channels activity in human erythrocytes. Acute application of DMSO (0.1-2 mol/l) dissolved in Cl--containing saline buffer solution significantly inhibited cation conductance in human erythrocytes. Inhibition was concentration-dependent and had an exponential decay profile. DMSO (2 mol/l) induced cation inhibition in Cl-- containing saline solutions of: 40.3 ± 3.9% for K+, 35.4 ± 3.1% for Ca2+ and 47.4 ± 1.9% for NMDG+. Substitution of Cl- with gluconate- increased the inhibitory effect of DMSO on the Na+ current. Inhibitory effect of DMSO was neither due to high permeability of erythrocytes to DMSO nor to an increased tonicity of the bath media since no effect was observed in 2 mol/l glycerol solution. In conclusion, we have shown that high concentrations of DMSO inhibit the non-selective cation channels in human erythrocytes and thus protect the cells against Na+ and Ca2+ overload. Possible mechanisms of DMSO effect on cation conductance are discussed.

  9. Dimethyl sulfoxide damages mitochondrial integrity and membrane potential in cultured astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chan; Gao, Junying; Guo, Jichao; Bai, Lei; Marshall, Charles; Cai, Zhiyou; Wang, Linmei; Xiao, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a polar organic solvent that is used to dissolve neuroprotective or neurotoxic agents in neuroscience research. However, DMSO itself also has pharmacological and pathological effects on the nervous system. Astrocytes play a central role in maintaining brain homeostasis, but the effect and mechanism of DMSO on astrocytes has not been studied. The present study showed that exposure of astrocyte cultures to 1% DMSO for 24 h did not significantly affect cell survival, but decreased cell viability and glial glutamate transporter expression, and caused mitochondrial swelling, membrane potential impairment and reactive oxygen species production, and subsequent cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. DMSO at concentrations of 5% significantly inhibited cell variability and promoted apoptosis of astrocytes, accompanied with more severe mitochondrial damage. These results suggest that mitochondrial impairment is a primary event in DMSO-induced astrocyte toxicity. The potential cytotoxic effects on astrocytes need to be carefully considered during investigating neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects of hydrophobic agents dissolved by DMSO.

  10. Endothelium-Dependent and -Independent Vasodilator Effects of Dimethyl Sulfoxide in Rat Aorta.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Takeharu; Sasaki, Noriyasu; Urakawa, Norimoto; Shimizu, Kazumasa

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mechanism of vasorelaxation induced by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in endothelium-intact and -denuded rat aorta. DMSO (0.1-3%) inhibited phenylephrine (PE, 1 μmol/l)-induced contraction in a dose-dependent manner. However, this relaxation was lower in the absence of the endothelium. Increase in DMSO-induced relaxation in the presence of the endothelium was attenuated by preincubation in L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 μmol/l) and by the removal of the endothelium. In the aorta with endothelium, DMSO (3%) and CCh (3 μmol/l) increased cGMP contents, significantly and L-NAME (100 μmol/l) inhibited the DMSO-induced increases of cGMP. In fura 2-loaded endothelium-denuded aorta, cumulative application of DMSO (1-3%) inhibited PE-induced muscle tension; however, this application did not affect the [Ca2+]i level. In PE-precontracted endothelium-denuded aorta, relaxation responses to fasudil were significantly less in the presence of DMSO compared to the control. These results suggest that DMSO causes relaxation by increasing the cGMP content in correlation with the release of NO from endothelial cells and by decreasing the Ca2+ sensitivity of contractile elements partly via inhibiting Rho-kinase in rat aorta.

  11. Investigation of the interaction of dimethyl sulfoxide with lipid membranes by small-angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Gorshkova, J. E. Gordeliy, V. I.

    2007-05-15

    The influence of dimethyl sulfoxide (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}SO (DMSO) on the structure of membranes of 1,2-dimiristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) in an excess of a water-DMSO solvent is investigated over a wide range of DMSO molar concentrations 0.0 {<=} X{sub DMSO} {<=} 1.0 at temperatures T = 12.5 and 55 deg. C. The dependences of the repeat distance d of multilamellar membranes and the thickness d{sub b} of single vesicles on the molar concentration X{sub DMSO} in the L{sub {beta}}{sub '} gel and L{sub {alpha}} liquid-crystalline phases are determined by small-angle neutron scattering. The intermembrane distance d{sub s} is determined from the repeat distance d and the membrane thickness d{sub b}. It is shown that an increase in the molar concentration X{sub DMSO} leads to a considerable decrease in the intermembrane distance and that, at X{sub DMSO} = 0.4, the neighboring membranes are virtually in steric contact with each other. The use of the deuterated phospholipid (DMSO-D6) and the contrast variation method makes it possible, for the first time, to determine the number of DMSO molecules strongly bound to the membrane.

  12. Dimethyl sulfoxide attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced injury in cardiomyocytes via heme oxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Man, Wang; Ming, Ding; Fang, Du; Chao, Liang; Jing, Cang

    2014-06-01

    The antioxidant property of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was formerly attributed to its direct effects. Our former study showed that DMSO is able to induce heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in endothelial cells, which is a potent antioxidant enzyme. In this study, we hypothesized that the antioxidant effects of DMSO in cardiomyocytes are mediated or partially mediated by increased HO-1 expression. Therefore, we investigated whether DMSO exerts protective effects against H2 O2 -induced oxidative damage in cardiomyocytes, and whether HO-1 is involved in DMSO-imparted protective effects, and we also explore the underlying mechanism of DMSO-induced HO-1 expression. Our study demonstrated that DMSO pretreatment showed a cytoprotective effect against H2 O2 -induced oxidative damage (impaired cell viability, increased apopototic cells rate and caspase-3 level, and increased release of LDH and CK) and this process is partially mediated by HO-1 upregulation. Furthermore, our data showed that the activation of p38 MAPK and Nrf2 translocation are involved in the HO-1 upregulation induced by DMSO. This study reports for the first time that the cytoprotective effect of DMSO in cardiomyocytes is partially mediated by HO-1, which may further explain the mechanisms by which DMSO exerts cardioprotection on H2 O2 injury. J. Cell. Biochem. 115: 1159-1165, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Permeability of isolated rat hepatocyte plasma membranes for molecules of dimethyl sulfoxide].

    PubMed

    Kuleshova, L G; Gordienko, E A; Kovalenko, I F

    2014-01-01

    We have studied permeability of isolated rat hepatocyte membranes for molecules of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at different hypertonicity of a cryoprotective medium. The permeability coefficient of hepatocyte membranes κ1 for DMSO molecules was shown to be the differential function of osmotic pressure between a cell and an extracellular medium. Ten-fold augmentation of DMSO concentration in the cryoprotective medium causes the decrease of permeability coefficients κ1 probably associated with the increased viscosity in membrane-adjacent liquid layers as well as partial limitations appeared as a result of change in cell membrane shape after hepatocyte dehydration. We have found out that in aqueous solutions of NaCl (2246 mOsm/l) and DMSO (2250 mOsm/l) the filtration coefficient L(p) in the presence of a penetrating cryoprotectant (L(pDMSO) = (4.45 ± 0.04) x 10(-14) m3/Ns) is 3 orders lower compared to the case with electrolyte (L(pNaCl) = (2.25 ± 0.25) x 10(-11) m3/Ns). This phenomenon is stipulated by the cross impact of flows of a cryoprotectant and water at the stage of cell dehydration. Pronounced lipophilicity of DMSO, geometric parameters of its molecule as well as the presence of large aqueous pores in rat hepatocyte membranes allow of suggesting the availability of two ways of penetrating this cryoprotectant into the cells by non-specific diffusion through membrane lipid areas and hydrophilic channels.

  14. Protective effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on labile protein interactions during electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Landreh, Michael; Alvelius, Gunvor; Johansson, Jan; Jörnvall, Hans

    2014-05-06

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is a valuable tool to probe noncovalent interactions. However, the integrity of the interactions in the gas-phase is heavily influenced by the ionization process. Investigating oligomerization and ligand binding of transthyretin (TTR) and the chaperone domain from prosurfactant protein C, we found that dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) can improve the stability of the noncovalent interactions during the electrospray process, both regarding ligand binding and the protein quaternary structure. Low amounts of DMSO can reduce in-source dissociation of native protein oligomers and their interactions with hydrophobic ligands, even under destabilizing conditions. We interpret the effects of DMSO as being derived from its enrichment in the electrospray droplets during evaporation. Protection of labile interactions can arise from the decrease in ion charges to reduce the contributions from Coulomb repulsions, as well as from the cooling effect of adduct dissociation. The protective effects of DMSO on labile protein interactions are an important property given its widespread use in protein analysis by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

  15. The Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on Supercoiled DNA Relaxation Catalyzed by Type I Topoisomerases.

    PubMed

    Lv, Bei; Dai, Yunjia; Liu, Ju; Zhuge, Qiang; Li, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on supercoiled plasmid DNA relaxation catalyzed by two typical type I topoisomerases were investigated in our studies. It is shown that DMSO in a low concentration (less than 20%, v/v) can induce a dose-related enhancement of the relaxation efficiency of Escherichia coli topoisomerase I (type IA). Conversely, obvious inhibitory effect on the activity of calf thymus topoisomerase I (type IB) was observed when the same concentration of DMSO is used. In addition, our studies demonstrate that 20% DMSO has an ability to reduce the inhibitory effect on EcTopo I, which was induced by double-stranded oligodeoxyribonucleotides while the same effect cannot be found in the case of CtTopo I. Moreover, our AFM examinations suggested that DMSO can change the conformation of negatively supercoiled plasmid by creating some locally loose regions in DNA molecules. Combining all the lines of evidence, we proposed that DMSO enhanced EcTopo I relaxation activity by (1) increasing the single-stranded DNA regions for the activities of EcTopo I in the early and middle stages of the reaction and (2) preventing the formation of double-stranded DNA-enzyme complex in the later stage, which can elevate the effective concentration of the topoisomerase in the reaction solution.

  16. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) attenuates the inflammatory response in the in vitro intestinal Caco-2 cell model.

    PubMed

    Hollebeeck, Sylvie; Raas, Thomas; Piront, Neil; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Toussaint, Olivier; Larondelle, Yvan; During, Alexandrine

    2011-10-30

    This study aimed to investigate dose effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (0.05-1%) on the intestinal inflammatory response in confluent- and differentiated-Caco-2 cells stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1β or a pro-inflammatory cocktail for 24 h. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity was assayed by incubating inflamed cells with arachidonic acid and then measuring prostaglandin-E(2) (PGE(2)) produced. Soluble mediators (IL-8, IL-6, macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and COX-2-derived PGE(2)) were quantified by enzyme immunoassays and mRNA expression of 33 proteins by high throughput TaqMan Low Density Array. Data showed that DMSO decreased induced IL-6 and MCP-1 secretions in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05), but not IL-8; these effects were cell development- and stimulus- independent. Moreover, in IL-1β-stimulated confluent-cells, DMSO dose-dependently reduced COX-2-derived PGE(2) (P<0.05). DMSO at 0.5% decreased significantly mRNA levels of 14 proteins involved in the inflammatory response (including IL-6, IL-1α, IL-1β, and COX-2). Thus, DMSO at low concentrations (0.1-0.5%) exhibits anti-inflammatory properties in the in vitro intestinal Caco-2 cell model. This point is important to be taken into account when assessing anti-inflammatory properties of bioactive compounds requiring DMSO as vehicle, such as phenolic compounds, in order to avoid miss-interpretation of the results.

  17. Characterization of increased drug metabolism activity in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-treated Huh7 hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, S; Sainz, B; Corcoran, P; Uprichard, S; Jeong, H

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize Huh7 cells' baseline capacity to metabolize drugs and to investigate whether the drug metabolism was enhanced upon treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of major Phase I and Phase II enzymes were determined by quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and activities of major drug-metabolizing enzymes were examined using probe drugs by analysing relevant metabolite production rates. The expression levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes in control Huh7 cells were generally very low, but DMSO treatment dramatically increased the mRNA levels of most drug-metabolizing enzymes as well as other liver-specific proteins. Importantly, functionality assays confirmed concomitant increases in drug-metabolizing enzyme activity. Additionally, treatment of the Huh7 cells with 3-methylcholanthrene induced cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 expression. The results indicate that DMSO treatment of Huh7 cells profoundly enhances their differentiation state, thus improving the usefulness of this common cell line as an in vitro hepatocyte model.

  18. Marmoset induced pluripotent stem cells: Robust neural differentiation following pretreatment with dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhifang; Mishra, Anuja; Li, Miao; Farnsworth, Steven L; Guerra, Bernadette; Lanford, Robert E; Hornsby, Peter J

    2015-07-01

    The marmoset is an important nonhuman primate model for regenerative medicine. For experimental autologous cell therapy based on induced pluripotent (iPS) cells in the marmoset, cells must be able to undergo robust and reliable directed differentiation that will not require customization for each specific iPS cell clone. When marmoset iPS cells were aggregated in a hanging drop format for 3 days, followed by exposure to dual SMAD inhibitors and retinoic acid in monolayer culture for 3 days, we found substantial variability in the response of different iPS cell clones. However, when clones were pretreated with 0.05-2% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 24 hours, all clones showed a very similar maximal response to the directed differentiation scheme. Peak responses were observed at 0.5% DMSO in two clones and at 1% DMSO in a third clone. When patterns of gene expression were examined by microarray analysis, hierarchical clustering showed very similar responses in all 3 clones when they were pretreated with optimal DMSO concentrations. The change in phenotype following exposure to DMSO and the 6 day hanging drop/monolayer treatment was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. Analysis of DNA content in DMSO-exposed cells indicated that it is unlikely that DMSO acts by causing cells to exit from the cell cycle. This approach should be generally valuable in the directed neural differentiation of pluripotent cells for experimental cell therapy.

  19. Multinuclear NMR spectroscopy for differentiation of molecular configurations and solvent properties between acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yuan-Chun; Kuo, Hsiao-Ching; Jia, Hsi-Wei

    2016-04-01

    The differences in molecular configuration and solvent properties between acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were investigated using the developed technique of 1H, 13C, 17O, and 1H self-diffusion liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Acetone and DMSO samples in the forms of pure solution, ionic salt-added solution were used to deduce their active sites, relative dipole moments, dielectric constants, and charge separations. The NMR results suggest that acetone is a trigonal planar molecule with a polarized carbonyl double bond, whereas DMSO is a trigonal pyramidal-like molecule with a highly polarized S-O single bond. Both molecules use their oxygen atoms as the active sites to interact other molecules. These different molecular models explain the differences their physical and chemical properties between the two molecules and explain why DMSO is classified as an aprotic but highly dipolar solvent. The results are also in agreement with data obtained using X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, and theoretical calculations.

  20. Heterogeneity in binary mixtures of dimethyl sulfoxide and glycerol: fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chattoraj, Shyamtanu; Chowdhury, Rajdeep; Ghosh, Shirsendu; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2013-06-07

    Diffusion of four coumarin dyes in a binary mixture of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and glycerol is studied using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). The coumarin dyes are C151, C152, C480, and C481. In pure DMSO, all the four dyes exhibit a very narrow (almost uni-modal) distribution of diffusion coefficient (Dt). In contrast, in the binary mixtures all of them display a bimodal distribution of Dt with broadly two components. One of the components of D(t) corresponds to the bulk viscosity. The other one is similar to that in pure DMSO. This clearly indicates the presence of two distinctly different nano-domains inside the binary mixture. In the first, the micro-environment of the solute consists of both DMSO and glycerol approximately at the bulk composition. The other corresponds to a situation where the first layer of the solute consists of DMSO only. The burst integrated fluorescence lifetime (BIFL) analysis also indicates presence of two micro-environments one of which resembles DMSO. The relative contribution of the DMSO-like environment obtained from the BIFL analysis is much larger than that obtained from FCS measurements. It is proposed that BIFL corresponds to an instantaneous environment in a small region (a few nm) around the probe. FCS, on the contrary, describes the long time trajectory of the probes in a region of dimension ~200 nm. The results are explained in terms of the theory of binary mixtures and recent simulations of binary mixtures containing DMSO.

  1. Ion transport properties of magnesium bromide/dimethyl sulfoxide non-aqueous liquid electrolyte

    PubMed Central

    Sheha, E.

    2015-01-01

    Nonaqueous liquid electrolyte system based dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO and magnesium bromide (MgBr2) is synthesized via ‘Solvent-in-Salt’ method for the application in magnesium battery. Optimized composition of MgBr2/DMSO electrolyte exhibits high ionic conductivity of 10−2 S/cm at ambient temperature. This study discusses different concentrations from 0 to 5.4 M of magnesium salt, representing low, intermediate and high concentrations of magnesium salt which are examined in frequency dependence conductivity studies. The temperature dependent conductivity measurements have also been carried out to compute activation energy (Ea) by least square linear fitting of Arrhenius plot: ‘log σ − 1/T. The transport number of Mg2+ ion determined by means of a combination of d.c. and a.c. techniques is ∼0.7. A prototype cell was constructed using nonaqueous liquid electrolyte with Mg anode and graphite cathode. The Mg/graphite cell shows promising cycling. PMID:26843967

  2. Solvation structure and transport properties of alkali cations in dimethyl sulfoxide under exogenous static electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kerisit, Sebastien; Vijayakumar, M. E-mail: karl.mueller@pnnl.gov; Han, Kee Sung; Mueller, Karl T. E-mail: karl.mueller@pnnl.gov

    2015-06-14

    A combination of molecular dynamics simulations and pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is used to investigate the role of exogenous electric fields on the solvation structure and dynamics of alkali ions in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and as a function of temperature. Good agreement was obtained, for select alkali ions in the absence of an electric field, between calculated and experimentally determined diffusion coefficients normalized to that of pure DMSO. Our results indicate that temperatures of up to 400 K and external electric fields of up to 1 V nm{sup −1} have minimal effects on the solvation structure of the smaller alkali cations (Li{sup +} and Na{sup +}) due to their relatively strong ion-solvent interactions, whereas the solvation structures of the larger alkali cations (K{sup +}, Rb{sup +}, and Cs{sup +}) are significantly affected. In addition, although the DMSO exchange dynamics in the first solvation shell differ markedly for the two groups, the drift velocities and mobilities are not significantly affected by the nature of the alkali ion. Overall, although exogenous electric fields induce a drift displacement, their presence does not significantly affect the random diffusive displacement of the alkali ions in DMSO. System temperature is found to have generally a stronger influence on dynamical properties, such as the DMSO exchange dynamics and the ion mobilities, than the presence of electric fields.

  3. Extracellular respiration of dimethyl sulfoxide by Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1.

    PubMed

    Gralnick, Jeffrey A; Vali, Hojatollah; Lies, Douglas P; Newman, Dianne K

    2006-03-21

    Shewanella species are renowned for their respiratory versatility, including their ability to respire poorly soluble substrates by using enzymatic machinery that is localized to the outside of the cell. The ability to engage in "extracellular respiration" to date has focused primarily on respiration of minerals. Here, we identify two gene clusters in Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 that each contain homologs of genes required for metal reduction and genes that are predicted to encode dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase subunits. Molecular and genetic analyses of these clusters indicate that one (SO1427-SO1432) is required for anaerobic respiration of DMSO. We show that DMSO respiration is an extracellular respiratory process through the analysis of mutants defective in type II secretion, which is required for transporting proteins to the outer membrane in Shewanella. Moreover, immunogold labeling of DMSO reductase subunits reveals that they reside on the outer leaflet of the outer membrane under anaerobic conditions. The extracellular localization of the DMSO reductase in S. oneidensis suggests these organisms may perceive DMSO in the environment as an insoluble compound.

  4. Mechanism of the reaction of radicals with peroxides and dimethyl sulfoxide in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Herscu-Kluska, Ronit; Masarwa, Alexandra; Saphier, Magal; Cohen, Haim; Meyerstein, Dan

    2008-01-01

    The reactions of methyl and methylperoxyl radicals derived from dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) with hydrogen peroxide, peroxymonocarbonate (HCO4 (-)), and persulfate were studied. The major reaction observed for the hydroperoxides was the abstraction of the hydrogen atom by the radicals. The radicals interact with a lone pair of electrons on the peroxide to produce methanol and formaldehyde. Furthermore, the results indicate that in RO2H and RO2R', electron-withdrawing groups cause a considerable increase in the reactivity of the peroxides towards the radicals and not only towards nucleophiles. The HO2 (.)/O2 (.-) and CO3 (.-) radicals react with DMSO to produce methyl radicals. Thus, the formation of the (.)CH3 radicals in the presence of DMSO is not proof of the formation of the (.)OH radicals in the system. These reactions must be considered when radical processes, such as in biological and catalytic systems, are studied. Especially, the plausible role of HCO4 (-) ions in biological systems as a source of oxidative stress cannot be overlooked.

  5. A model to predict the permeation kinetics of dimethyl sulfoxide in articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoyi; Chen, Guangming; Zhang, Shaozhi

    2013-02-01

    Cryopreservation of articular cartilage (AC) has excited great interest due to the practical surgical importance of this tissue. Characterization of permeation kinetics of cryoprotective agents (CPA) in AC is important for designing optimal CPA addition/removal protocols to achieve successful cryopreservation. Permeation is predominantly a mass diffusion process. Since the diffusivity is a function of temperature and concentration, analysis of the permeation problem would be greatly facilitated if a predictive method were available. This article describes, a model that was developed to predict the permeation kinetics of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in AC. The cartilage was assumed as a porous medium, and the effect(s) of composition and thermodynamic nonideality of the DMSO solution were considered in model development. The diffusion coefficient was correlated to the infinite dilution coefficients through a binary diffusion thermodynamic model. The UNIFAC model was used to evaluate the activity coefficient, the Vignes equation was employed to estimate the composition dependence of the diffusion coefficient, and the Siddiqi-Lucas correlation was applied to determine the diffusion coefficients at infinite dilution. Comparisons of the predicted overall DMSO uptake by AC with the experimental data over wide temperature and concentration ranges [1~37°C, 10~47% (w/w)] show that the model can accurately describe the permeation kinetics of DMSO in AC [coefficient of determination (R(2)): 0.961~0.996, mean relative error (MRE): 2.2~9.1%].

  6. Dimethyl sulfoxide and sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of refractory cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Ba X; Tran, Dao M; Tran, Hung Q; Nguyen, Phuong T M; Pham, Tuan D; Dang, Hong V T; Ha, Trung V; Tran, Hau D; Hoang, Cuong; Luong, Khue N; Shaw, D Graeme

    2011-01-01

    Pain is a major concern of cancer patients and a significant problem for therapy. Pain can become a predominant symptom in advanced cancers. In this open-label clinical study, the authors have treated 26 cancer patients who have been declared as terminal without the option of conventional treatment. These patients suffered from high levels of pain that was poorly managed by all available interventional approaches recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) guideline. The results indicate that intravenous infusion of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and sodium bicarbonate (SB) solution can be a viable, effective, and safe treatment for refractory pain in cancer patients. These patients had pain due to the disease progression and complication of chemotherapy and radiation. Moreover, the preliminary clinical outcome of 96-day follow-up suggests that the application of DMSO and SB solution intravenously could lead to better quality of life for patients with nontreatable terminal cancers. The data of this clinical observation indicates that further research and application of the DMSO and SB combination may help the development of an effective, safe, and inexpensive therapy to manage cancer pain.

  7. Rice starch, amylopectin, and amylose: molecular weight and solubility in dimethyl sulfoxide-based solvents.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Fang; Yokoyama, Wallace; Wang, Qian; Shoemaker, Charles F

    2006-03-22

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), with either 50 mM LiBr, 10% water, or both, was used as solvent for multi-angle laser-light scattering (MALLS) batch mode analysis of rice starch, and amylopectin and amylose weight-average molecular weight (Mw). DMSO/50 mM LiBr was a better solvent for these measurements than was DMSO/10% water, based on this solvent's ability to dissolve starch and to reduce the size of starch aggregates. Starch concentration decreased and amylose:amylopectin ratio increased when starch suspended in DMSO was centrifuged or filtered prior to size-exclusion chromatography (SEC)-MALLS analysis. A higher amylose:amylopectin ratio made starch more soluble, and the higher this ratio, the lower the Mw of eluted amylopectin. For SEC analysis of Mw, fractions of starch amylopectin and amylose dispersed in DMSO-based solvents yielded better results than starch dispersed directly into the solvents, because dispersion of these fractions decreased starch aggregation. When these two starch components were fractionated and then dissolved separately in DMSO/50 mM LiBr, the Mw of dispersed amylopectin ranged from 40 to 50 million, and that of amylose was ca. 3 million, whereas starch from three rice varieties of varying amylose content ranged from 60 to 130 million. We recommend that SEC evaluation of amylopectin and amylose be accomplished with fractionated samples as in this study; such evaluations were superior to evaluations of natural mixtures of amylopectin and amylose.

  8. Cryopreservation of buffy-coat-derived platelet concentrates in dimethyl sulfoxide and platelet additive solution.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L N; Winter, K M; Reid, S; Hartkopf-Theis, T; Marks, D C

    2011-04-01

    Platelets prepared in plasma can be frozen in 6% dimethyl sulfoxide (Me(2)SO) and stored for extended periods at -80°C. The aim of this study was to reduce the plasma present in the cryopreserved product, by substituting plasma with platelet additive solution (PAS; SSP+), whilst maintaining in vitro platelet quality. Buffy coat-derived pooled leukoreduced platelet concentrates were frozen in a mixture of SSP+, plasma and 6% Me(2)SO. The platelets were concentrated, to avoid post-thaw washing, and frozen at -80°C. The cryopreserved platelet units (n=9) were rapidly thawed at 37°C, reconstituted in 50% SSP+/plasma and stored at 22°C. Platelet recovery and quality were examined 1 and 24h post-thaw and compared to the pre-freeze samples. Upon thawing, platelet recovery ranged from 60% to 80%. However, there were differences between frozen and liquid-stored platelets, including a reduction in aggregation in response to ADP and collagen; increased CD62P expression; decreased viability; increased apoptosis and some loss of mitochondrial membrane integrity. Some recovery of these parameters was detected at 24h post-thaw, indicating an extended shelf-life may be possible. The data suggests that freezing platelets in 6% Me(2)SO and additive solution produces acceptable in vitro platelet quality.

  9. Crystallization of Ice in Aqueous Solutions of Glycerol and Dimethyl Sulfoxide. 1. A Comparison of Mechanisms

    PubMed

    Hey; Macfarlane

    1996-04-01

    The crystallization of ice from aqueous solutions of glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry. In particular, the ice crystallization behavior of glycerol and Me2SO solutions containing approximately the same mole percent solute concentration (i.e., approximately 16 mol%) has been compared. These solutions (45 w/w% Me2SO (15.9 mol%) and 50 w/w% glycerol (16.4 mol%)) were shown to exhibit markedly different ice crystallization properties. For example, the peak homogeneous nucleation temperature of the Me2SO solution was observed to be 3°C above Tg, whereas the peak homogeneous nucleation temperature of the glycerol solution was shown to be 20°C above Tg. Further, the 50 w/w% glycerol solution was shown to devitrify at temperatures close to those of the peak nucleation rate, whereas the Me2SO solution was found to devitrify at temperatures much higher than the peak nucleation temperature. This, along with evidence from emulsion-based calorimetry experiments, indicates that the nucleation leading to devitrification in 45 w/w% Me2SO solutions is largely heterogeneous in nature.

  10. Potential Use of Dimethyl Sulfoxide in Treatment of Infections Caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qiao; Wu, Qiaolian; Bai, Dangdang; Liu, Yang; Chen, Lin; Jin, Sheng; Wu, Yuting

    2016-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is commonly used as a solvent to dissolve water-insoluble drugs or other test samples in both in vivo and in vitro experiments. It was observed during our experiment that DMSO at noninhibitory concentrations could significantly inhibit pyocyanin production in the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pyocyanin is an important pathogenic factor whose production is controlled by a cell density-dependent quorum-sensing (QS) system. Investigation of the effect of DMSO on QS showed that DMSO has significant QS antagonistic activities and concentrations of DMSO in the micromolar range attenuated a battery of QS-controlled virulence factors, including rhamnolipid, elastase, and LasA protease production and biofilm formation. Further study indicated that DMSO inhibition of biofilm formation and pyocyanin production was attained by reducing the level of production of an autoinducer molecule of the rhl QS system, N-butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL). In a mouse model of a burn wound infection with P. aeruginosa, treatment with DMSO significantly decreased mouse mortality compared with that for mice in the control group. The capacity of DMSO to attenuate the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa points to the potential use of DMSO as an antipathogenic agent for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infection. As a commonly used solvent, however, DMSO's impact on bacterial virulence calls for cautionary attention in its usage in biological, medicinal, and clinical studies. PMID:27645245

  11. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as intravesical therapy for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: A review.

    PubMed

    Rawls, William F; Cox, Lindsey; Rovner, Eric S

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to update the current understanding of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and its role in the treatment of interstitial cystitis (IC). A systematic review was conducted using the PRIMSA checklist to identify published articles involving intravesical DMSO for the treatment of IC. Thirteen cohort studies and three randomized-controlled trials were identified. Response rates relying on subjective measurement scores range from 61 to 95%. No increased efficacy was found with "cocktail" DMSO therapy. Great variation existed in diagnostic criteria, DMSO instillation protocols and response measurements. The current evidence backing DMSO is a constellation of cohort studies and a single randomized-controlled trial versus placebo. The optimal dose, dwell time, type of IC most likely to respond to DMSO, definitions of success/failure and the number of treatments are not universally agreed upon. Improvements in study design, phenotyping patients based on symptoms, as well as the emergence of reliable biomarkers of the disease may better guide the use of DMSO in the future. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effects of intravenous dimethyl sulfoxide on ischemia evolution in a rat permanent occlusion model

    PubMed Central

    Bardutzky, Juergen; Meng, Xianjun; Bouley, James; Duong, Timothy Q; Ratan, Rajiv; Fisher, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has a variety of biological actions that suggest efficacy as a neuroprotectant. We (1) tested the neuroprotective potential of DMSO at different time windows on infarct size using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium staining and (2) investigated the effects of DMSO on ischemia evolution using quantitative diffusion and perfusion imaging in a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats. In experiment 1, DMSO treatment (1.5 g/kg intravenously over 3 h) reduced infarct volume 24 h after MCAO by 65% (P<0.00001) when initiated 20 h before MCAO, by 44% (P=0.0006) when initiated 1 h after MCAO, and by 17% (P=0.11) when started 2 h after MCAO. Significant infarct reduction was also observed after a 3-day survival in animals treated 1 h after MCAO (P=0.005). In experiment 2, treatment was initiated 1 h after MCAO and maps for cerebral blood flow (CBF) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were acquired before treatment and then every 30 mins up to 4 h. Cerebral blood flow characteristics and CBF-derived lesion volumes did not differ between treated and untreated animals, whereas the ADC-derived lesion volume essentially stopped progressing during DMSO treatment, resulting in a persistent diffusion/perfusion mismatch. This effect was mainly observed in the cortex. Our data suggest that DMSO represents an interesting candidate for acute stroke treatment. PMID:15744247

  13. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Perturbs Cell Cycle Progression and Spindle Organization in Porcine Meiotic Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Wang, Yan-Kui; Song, Zhi-Qiang; Du, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Cai-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic maturation of mammalian oocytes is a precisely orchestrated and complex process. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a widely used solvent, drug, and cryoprotectant, is capable of disturbing asymmetric cytokinesis of oocyte meiosis in mice. However, in pigs, DMSO's effect on oocyte meiosis still remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate if DMSO treatment will affect porcine oocyte meiosis and the underlying molecular changes as well. Interestingly, we did not observe the formation of the large first polar body and symmetric division for porcine oocytes treated with DMSO, contrary to findings reported in mice. 3% DMSO treatment could inhibit cumulus expansion, increase nuclear abnormality, disturb spindle organization, decrease reactive oxygen species level, and elevate mitochondrial membrane potential of porcine oocytes. There was no effect on germinal vesicle breakdown rate regardless of DMSO concentration. 3% DMSO treatment did not affect expression of genes involved in spindle organization (Bub1 and Mad2) and apoptosis (NF-κB, Pten, Bcl2, Caspase3 and Caspase9), however, it significantly decreased expression levels of pluripotency genes (Oct4, Sox2 and Lin28) in mature oocytes. Therefore, we demonstrated that disturbed cumulus expansion, chromosome alignment, spindle organization and pluripotency gene expression could be responsible for DMSO-induced porcine oocyte meiotic arrest and the lower capacity of subsequent embryo development. Our results provide new insights on DMSO's effect on porcine oocyte meiosis and raise safety concerns over DMSO's usage on female reproduction in both farm animals and humans.

  14. Intravesical Dimethyl Sulfoxide Inhibits Acute and Chronic Bladder Inflammation in Transgenic Experimental Autoimmune Cystitis Models

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ronald; Liu, Wujiang; Chen, Xiaohong; Kreder, Karl J.; Luo, Yi

    2011-01-01

    New animal models are greatly needed in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) research. We recently developed a novel transgenic cystitis model (URO-OVA mice) that mimics certain key aspects of IC/PBS pathophysiology. This paper aimed to determine whether URO-OVA cystitis model was responsive to intravesical dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and if so identify the mechanisms of DMSO action. URO-OVA mice developed acute cystitis upon adoptive transfer of OVA-specific OT-I splenocytes. Compared to PBS-treated bladders, the bladders treated with 50% DMSO exhibited markedly reduced bladder histopathology and expression of various inflammatory factor mRNAs. Intravesical DMSO treatment also effectively inhibited bladder inflammation in a spontaneous chronic cystitis model (URO-OVA/OT-I mice). Studies further revealed that DMSO could impair effector T cells in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest that intravesical DMSO improves the bladder histopathology of IC/PBS patients because of its ability to interfere with multiple inflammatory and bladder cell types. PMID:21113298

  15. Protective effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on stricture formation in corrosive esophageal burns in rats.

    PubMed

    Kilincaslan, Huseyin; Karatepe, Hande Ozgun; Sarac, Fatma; Olgac, Vakur; Kemik, Ahu Sarbay; Gedik, Ahmet Hakan; Uysal, Omer

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on stricture formation in corrosive esophageal burns. A total of 21 male rats were divided equally into three groups. In Group 1 (burn) and Group 2 (burn + DMSO) burns were induced in the distal esophagi with a 30% NaOH solution. In Group 3 (control), a saline solution was applied to the esophageal lumen. In Group 2, DMSO was administered intraperitoneally (3 mg/kg) 15 minutes after the burn was induced and then every 24 hours for 7 days. All rats were humanely killed at the end of Day 22. Distal esophagi were harvested for analysis. The stenosis index (SI) and histopathologic damage score were evaluated in addition to malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. DMSO significantly decreased the levels of MDA, NO, TNF-α, and IL-6 in the rats with burned esophagi. Furthermore, the SI and histopathologic scores decreased significantly in the burn + DMSO group relative to the burn group (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that DMSO can decrease the occurrence of stricture formation and could represent a beneficial alternative therapy for the treatment of corrosive esophagitis. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. The Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on Supercoiled DNA Relaxation Catalyzed by Type I Topoisomerases

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Bei; Dai, Yunjia; Liu, Ju; Zhuge, Qiang; Li, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on supercoiled plasmid DNA relaxation catalyzed by two typical type I topoisomerases were investigated in our studies. It is shown that DMSO in a low concentration (less than 20%, v/v) can induce a dose-related enhancement of the relaxation efficiency of Escherichia coli topoisomerase I (type IA). Conversely, obvious inhibitory effect on the activity of calf thymus topoisomerase I (type IB) was observed when the same concentration of DMSO is used. In addition, our studies demonstrate that 20% DMSO has an ability to reduce the inhibitory effect on EcTopo I, which was induced by double-stranded oligodeoxyribonucleotides while the same effect cannot be found in the case of CtTopo I. Moreover, our AFM examinations suggested that DMSO can change the conformation of negatively supercoiled plasmid by creating some locally loose regions in DNA molecules. Combining all the lines of evidence, we proposed that DMSO enhanced EcTopo I relaxation activity by (1) increasing the single-stranded DNA regions for the activities of EcTopo I in the early and middle stages of the reaction and (2) preventing the formation of double-stranded DNA-enzyme complex in the later stage, which can elevate the effective concentration of the topoisomerase in the reaction solution. PMID:26682217

  17. Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) Produces Widespread Apoptosis in the Developing Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Hanslick, Jennifer L.; Lau, Karen; Noguchi, Kevin K.; Olney, John W.; Zorumski, Charles F.; Mennerick, Steven; Farber, Nuri B.

    2009-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a solvent that is routinely used as a cryopreservative in allogous bone marrow and organ transplantion. We exposed C57Bl/6 mice of varying postnatal ages (P0–P30) to DMSO in order to study whether DMSO could produce apoptotic degeneration in the developing CNS. DMSO produced widespread apoptosis in the developing mouse brain at all ages tested. Damage was greatest at P7. Significant elevations above the background rate of apoptosis occurred at the lowest dose tested, 0.3 ml/kg. In an in vitro rat hippocampal culture preparation, DMSO produced neuronal loss at concentrations of 0.5% and 1.0%. The ability of DMSO to damage neurons in dissociated cultures indicates that the toxicity likely results from a direct cellular effect. Because children, who undergo bone marrow transplantation, are routinely exposed to DMSO at doses higher than 0.3 ml/kg, there is concern that DMSO might be producing similar damage in human children. PMID:19100327

  18. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Damages Mitochondrial Integrity and Membrane Potential in Cultured Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chan; Gao, Junying; Guo, Jichao; Bai, Lei; Marshall, Charles; Cai, Zhiyou; Wang, Linmei; Xiao, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a polar organic solvent that is used to dissolve neuroprotective or neurotoxic agents in neuroscience research. However, DMSO itself also has pharmacological and pathological effects on the nervous system. Astrocytes play a central role in maintaining brain homeostasis, but the effect and mechanism of DMSO on astrocytes has not been studied. The present study showed that exposure of astrocyte cultures to 1% DMSO for 24 h did not significantly affect cell survival, but decreased cell viability and glial glutamate transporter expression, and caused mitochondrial swelling, membrane potential impairment and reactive oxygen species production, and subsequent cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. DMSO at concentrations of 5% significantly inhibited cell variability and promoted apoptosis of astrocytes, accompanied with more severe mitochondrial damage. These results suggest that mitochondrial impairment is a primary event in DMSO-induced astrocyte toxicity. The potential cytotoxic effects on astrocytes need to be carefully considered during investigating neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects of hydrophobic agents dissolved by DMSO. PMID:25238609

  19. Marmoset induced pluripotent stem cells: Robust neural differentiation following pretreatment with dimethyl sulfoxide

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhifang; Mishra, Anuja; Li, Miao; Farnsworth, Steven L.; Guerra, Bernadette; Lanford, Robert E.; Hornsby, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    The marmoset is an important nonhuman primate model for regenerative medicine. For experimental autologous cell therapy based on induced pluripotent (iPS) cells in the marmoset, cells must be able to undergo robust and reliable directed differentiation that will not require customization for each specific iPS cell clone. When marmoset iPS cells were aggregated in a hanging drop format for 3 days, followed by exposure to dual SMAD inhibitors and retinoic acid in monolayer culture for 3 days, we found substantial variability in the response of different iPS cell clones. However, when clones were pretreated with 0.05% – 2% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 24 hours, all clones showed a very similar maximal response to the directed differentiation scheme. Peak responses were observed at 0.5% DMSO in two clones and at 1% DMSO in a third clone. When patterns of gene expression were examined by microarray analysis, hierarchical clustering showed very similar responses in all 3 clones when they were pretreated with optimal DMSO concentrations. The change in phenotype following exposure to DMSO and the 6 day hanging drop/monolayer treatment was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. Analysis of DNAcontent in DMSO-exposed cells indicated that it is unlikely that DMSO acts by causing cells to exit from the cell cycle. This approach should be generally valuable in the directed neural differentiation of pluripotent cells for experimental cell therapy. PMID:26070112

  20. Cytotoxicity of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in direct contact with odontoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Hebling, J; Bianchi, L; Basso, F G; Scheffel, D L; Soares, D G; Carrilho, M R O; Pashley, D H; Tjäderhane, L; de Souza Costa, C A

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the cytotoxicity of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on the repair-related activity of cultured odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cells. Solutions with different concentrations of DMSO (0.05, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 mM), diluted in culture medium (DMEM), were placed in contact with MDPC-23 cells (5 × 104 cells/cm(2)) for 24 h. Eight replicates (n = 8) were prepared for each solutions for the following methods of analysis: violet crystal dye for cell adhesion (CA), quantification of total protein (TP), alizarin red for mineralization nodules formation (MN) and cell death by necrosis (flow cytometry); while twelve replicates (n = 12) were prepared for viable cell number (Trypan Blue) and cell viability (MTT assay). Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey or Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney's tests (p < 0.05). Cell viability, adhesion and percentage of cell death by necrosis were not affected by DMSO at any concentration, with no statistical significant difference among the groups. A significant reduction in total protein production was observed for 0.5 and 1.0 mM of DMSO compared to the control while increased mineralized nodules formation was seen only for 1.0 mM DMSO. DMSO caused no or minor cytotoxic effects on the pulp tissue repair-related activity of odontoblast-like cells. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on asymmetric division and cytokinesis in mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is used extensively as a permeable cryoprotectant and is a common solvent utilized for several water-insoluble substances. DMSO has various biological and pharmacological activities; however, the effect of DMSO on mouse oocyte meiotic maturation remains unknown. Results In DMSO-treated oocytes, we observed abnormal MII oocytes that contained large polar bodies, including 2-cell–like MII oocytes, during in vitro maturation. Oocyte polarization did not occur, due to the absence of actin cap formation and spindle migration. These features are among the primary causes of abnormal symmetric division; however, analysis of the mRNA expression levels of genes related to asymmetric division revealed no significant difference in the expression of these factors between the 3% DMSO-treated group and the control group. After each “blastomere” of the 2-cell–like MII stage oocytes was injected by one sperm head respectively, the oocytes still possessed the ability to extrude the second polar body from each “blastomere” and to begin cleavage. However, MII oocytes with large polar bodies developed to the blastocyst stage after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Furthermore, other permeable cryoprotectants, such as ethylene glycol and glycerol, also caused asymmetric division failure. Conclusion Permeable cryoprotectants, such as DMSO, ethylene glycol, and glycerol, affect asymmetric division. DMSO disrupts cytokinesis completion by inhibiting cortical reorganization and polarization. Oocytes that undergo symmetric division maintain the ability to begin cleavage after ICSI. PMID:24953160

  2. Extracellular respiration of dimethyl sulfoxide by Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1

    PubMed Central

    Gralnick, Jeffrey A.; Vali, Hojatollah; Lies, Douglas P.; Newman, Dianne K.

    2006-01-01

    Shewanella species are renowned for their respiratory versatility, including their ability to respire poorly soluble substrates by using enzymatic machinery that is localized to the outside of the cell. The ability to engage in “extracellular respiration” to date has focused primarily on respiration of minerals. Here, we identify two gene clusters in Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 that each contain homologs of genes required for metal reduction and genes that are predicted to encode dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase subunits. Molecular and genetic analyses of these clusters indicate that one (SO1427–SO1432) is required for anaerobic respiration of DMSO. We show that DMSO respiration is an extracellular respiratory process through the analysis of mutants defective in type II secretion, which is required for transporting proteins to the outer membrane in Shewanella. Moreover, immunogold labeling of DMSO reductase subunits reveals that they reside on the outer leaflet of the outer membrane under anaerobic conditions. The extracellular localization of the DMSO reductase in S. oneidensis suggests these organisms may perceive DMSO in the environment as an insoluble compound. PMID:16537430

  3. The Proline Enamine Formation Pathway Revisited in Dimethyl Sulfoxide: Rate Constants Determined via NMR.

    PubMed

    Haindl, Michael H; Hioe, Johnny; Gschwind, Ruth M

    2015-10-14

    Enamine catalysis is a fundamental activation mode in organocatalysis and can be successfully combined with other catalytic methods, e.g., photocatalysis. Recently, the elusive enamine intermediates were detected, and their stabilization modes were revealed. However, the formation pathway of this central organocatalytic intermediate is still a matter of dispute, and several mechanisms involving iminium and/or oxazolidinone are proposed. Here, the first experimentally determined rate constants and rates of enamine formation are presented using 1D selective exchange spectroscopy (EXSY) buildup curves and initial rate approximation. The trends of the enamine formation rates from exo-oxazolidinones and endo-oxazolidinones upon variation of the proline and water concentrations as well as the nucelophilic/basic properties of additives are investigated together with isomerization rates of the oxazolidinones. These first kinetic data of enamine formations in combination with theoretical calculations reveal the deprotonation of iminium intermediates as the dominant pathway in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The dominant enamine formation pathway varies according to the experimental conditions, e.g., the presence and strength of basic additives. The enamine formation is zero-order in proline and oxazolidinones, which excludes the direct deprotonation of oxazolidinones via E2 mechanism. The nucleophilicity of the additives influences only the isomerization rates of the oxazolidinones and not the enamine formation rates, which excludes a nucleophile-assisted anti elimination of oxazolidinones as a major enamine formation pathway.

  4. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Perturbs Cell Cycle Progression and Spindle Organization in Porcine Meiotic Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuan; Wang, Yan-Kui; Song, Zhi-Qiang; Du, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Cai-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic maturation of mammalian oocytes is a precisely orchestrated and complex process. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a widely used solvent, drug, and cryoprotectant, is capable of disturbing asymmetric cytokinesis of oocyte meiosis in mice. However, in pigs, DMSO’s effect on oocyte meiosis still remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate if DMSO treatment will affect porcine oocyte meiosis and the underlying molecular changes as well. Interestingly, we did not observe the formation of the large first polar body and symmetric division for porcine oocytes treated with DMSO, contrary to findings reported in mice. 3% DMSO treatment could inhibit cumulus expansion, increase nuclear abnormality, disturb spindle organization, decrease reactive oxygen species level, and elevate mitochondrial membrane potential of porcine oocytes. There was no effect on germinal vesicle breakdown rate regardless of DMSO concentration. 3% DMSO treatment did not affect expression of genes involved in spindle organization (Bub1 and Mad2) and apoptosis (NF-κB, Pten, Bcl2, Caspase3 and Caspase9), however, it significantly decreased expression levels of pluripotency genes (Oct4, Sox2 and Lin28) in mature oocytes. Therefore, we demonstrated that disturbed cumulus expansion, chromosome alignment, spindle organization and pluripotency gene expression could be responsible for DMSO-induced porcine oocyte meiotic arrest and the lower capacity of subsequent embryo development. Our results provide new insights on DMSO’s effect on porcine oocyte meiosis and raise safety concerns over DMSO’s usage on female reproduction in both farm animals and humans. PMID:27348312

  5. Specific reduction of N,N-dimethylnitrosamine mutagenicity in Drosophila melanogaster by dimethyl sulfoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Brodberg, R.K.; Mitchell, M.J.; Smith, S.L.; Woodruff, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) used as a solvent has been observed to complicate mutagenicity screens by interacting with tested chemicals to yield false positive or negatives. The authors have used DMSO as a solvent in the Drosophila melanogaster recessive sex-linked lethal mutation assay and find that it reduces, but does not abolish, the detectable mutagenicity of N,N-dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). Its use as a solvent with procarbazine, another promutagen, shows no effect on mutagenicity in Drosophila. DMSO does not exhibit a general inhibitory action on microsome activity when ecdysone 20-monooxygenase activity is used as a measure of cytochrome P-450 activity. They were unable to detect the low DMN demethylase activity in the strain used. Hence, the inhibitory effect of DMSO in Drosophila at both the physiological and biological level appears to be limited and not general in action. Because DMN and DMSO are similar in structure, it is possible that DMSO is interacting with a DMN demethylase in Drosophila. This might lead to a reduction in the conversion of DMN to a mutagen. Consequently, from the results of this study and others DMSO should be used cautiously as a solvent in Drosophila mutagen screening.

  6. Hydrogen-bonded complexes between dimethyl sulfoxide and monoprotic acids: molecular properties and IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Belarmino, Márcia K D L; Cruz, Vanessa F; Lima, Nathália B D

    2014-11-01

    MP2/6-31++G(d,p) and DFT B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) calculations were performed of the structure, binding energies, and vibrational modes of complexes between dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a proton acceptor and monoprotic linear acids HX (X = F, Cl, CN) as well as monoprotic carboxylic acids HOOCR (R = -H, -CH3, -C6H5) in 1:1 and 1:2 stoichiometric ratios. The results show that two different structures are possible in the 1:2 ratio: in the first, the DMSO molecule interacts with both acid molecules (leading to a "Y" structure); in the second, the DMSO interacts with only one monoprotic acid. The second structure shows a lower stability per hydrogen bond. The spontaneities of the reactions to form the 1:1 and 1:2 complexes are greatly influenced by the X group of the linear acid. With the exception of HCN, all the reactions are spontaneous. In the 1:2 complexes with Y structure, we observed that the hydrogen atoms of the linear acid are coupled in symmetric and asymmetric modes, while this type of coupling is absent from the other 1:2 complexes.

  7. Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) Exacerbates Cisplatin-induced Sensory Hair Cell Death in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Gleichman, Julia S.; Kramer, Matthew D.; Wang, Qi; Sibrian-Vazquez, Martha; Strongin, Robert M.; Steyger, Peter S.; Cotanche, Douglas A.; Matsui, Jonathan I.

    2013-01-01

    Inner ear sensory hair cells die following exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics or chemotherapeutics like cisplatin, leading to permanent auditory and/or balance deficits in humans. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are used to study drug-induced sensory hair cell death since their hair cells are similar in structure and function to those found in humans. We developed a cisplatin dose-response curve using a transgenic line of zebrafish that expresses membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein under the control of the Brn3c promoter/enhancer. Recently, several small molecule screens have been conducted using zebrafish to identify potential pharmacological agents that could be used to protect sensory hair cells in the presence of ototoxic drugs. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is typically used as a solvent for many pharmacological agents in sensory hair cell cytotoxicity assays. Serendipitously, we found that DMSO potentiated the effects of cisplatin and killed more sensory hair cells than treatment with cisplatin alone. Yet, DMSO alone did not kill hair cells. We did not observe the synergistic effects of DMSO with the ototoxic aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin. Cisplatin treatment with other commonly used organic solvents (i.e. ethanol, methanol, and polyethylene glycol 400) also did not result in increased cell death compared to cisplatin treatment alone. Thus, caution should be exercised when interpreting data generated from small molecule screens since many compounds are dissolved in DMSO. PMID:23383324

  8. Effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on asymmetric division and cytokinesis in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dongjie; Shen, Xinghui; Gu, Yanli; Zhang, Na; Li, Tong; Wu, Xi; Lei, Lei

    2014-06-21

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is used extensively as a permeable cryoprotectant and is a common solvent utilized for several water-insoluble substances. DMSO has various biological and pharmacological activities; however, the effect of DMSO on mouse oocyte meiotic maturation remains unknown. In DMSO-treated oocytes, we observed abnormal MII oocytes that contained large polar bodies, including 2-cell-like MII oocytes, during in vitro maturation. Oocyte polarization did not occur, due to the absence of actin cap formation and spindle migration. These features are among the primary causes of abnormal symmetric division; however, analysis of the mRNA expression levels of genes related to asymmetric division revealed no significant difference in the expression of these factors between the 3% DMSO-treated group and the control group. After each "blastomere" of the 2-cell-like MII stage oocytes was injected by one sperm head respectively, the oocytes still possessed the ability to extrude the second polar body from each "blastomere" and to begin cleavage. However, MII oocytes with large polar bodies developed to the blastocyst stage after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Furthermore, other permeable cryoprotectants, such as ethylene glycol and glycerol, also caused asymmetric division failure. Permeable cryoprotectants, such as DMSO, ethylene glycol, and glycerol, affect asymmetric division. DMSO disrupts cytokinesis completion by inhibiting cortical reorganization and polarization. Oocytes that undergo symmetric division maintain the ability to begin cleavage after ICSI.

  9. Dissolution of brominated epoxy resins by dimethyl sulfoxide to separate waste printed circuit boards.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ping; Chen, Yan; Wang, Liangyou; Qian, Guangren; Zhang, Wei Jie; Zhou, Ming; Zhou, Jin

    2013-03-19

    Improved methods are required for the recycling of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this study, WPCBs (1-1.5 cm(2)) were separated into their components using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at 60 °C for 45 min and a metallographic microscope was used to verify their delamination. An increased incubation time of 210 min yielded a complete separation of WPCBs into their components, and copper foils and glass fibers were obtained. The separation time decreased with increasing temperature. When the WPCB size was increased to 2-3 cm(2), the temperature required for complete separation increased to 90 °C. When the temperature was increased to 135 °C, liquid photo solder resists could be removed from the copper foil surfaces. The DMSO was regenerated by rotary decompression evaporation, and residues were obtained. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to verify that these residues were brominated epoxy resins. From FT-IR analysis after the dissolution of brominated epoxy resins in DMSO it was deduced that hydrogen bonding may play an important role in the dissolution mechanism. This novel technology offers a method for separating valuable materials and preventing environmental pollution from WPCBs.

  10. Amphipathic polymer-mediated uptake of trehalose for dimethyl sulfoxide-free human cell cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Duncan M C; Picken, Andrew; Morris, Timothy J; Hewitt, Christopher J; Coopman, Karen; Slater, Nigel K H

    2013-12-01

    For stem cell therapy to become a routine reality, one of the major challenges to overcome is their storage and transportation. Currently this is achieved by cryopreserving cells utilising the cryoprotectant dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO). Me2SO is toxic to cells, leads to loss of cell functionality, and can produce severe side effects in patients. Potentially, cells could be frozen using the cryoprotectant trehalose if it could be delivered into the cells at a sufficient concentration. The novel amphipathic membrane permeabilising agent PP-50 has previously been shown to enhance trehalose uptake by erythrocytes, resulting in increased cryosurvival. Here, this work was extended to the nucleated human cell line SAOS-2. Using the optimum PP-50 concentration and media osmolarity, cell viability post-thaw was 60 ± 2%. In addition, the number of metabolically active cells 24h post-thaw, normalised to that before freezing, was found to be between 103 ± 4% and 91 ± 5%. This was found to be comparable to cells frozen using Me2SO. Although reduced (by 22 ± 2%, p=0.09), the doubling time was found not to be statistically different to the non-frozen control. This was in contrast to cells frozen using Me2SO, where the doubling time was significantly reduced (by 41 ± 4%, p=0.004). PP-50 mediated trehalose delivery into cells could represent an alternative cryopreservation protocol, suitable for research and therapeutic applications.

  11. Effects of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on Neuronal Response Characteristics in Deep Layers of Rat Barrel Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Narjes; Mohammadi, Elham; Allahtavakoli, Mohammad; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Roohbakhsh, Ali; Haghparast, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a chemical often used as a solvent for water-insoluble drugs. In this study, we evaluated the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of DMSO on neural response characteristics (in 1200–1500 μm depth) of the rat barrel cortex. Methods: DMSO solution was prepared in 10% v/v concentration and injected into the lateral ventricle of rats. Neuronal spontaneous activity and neuronal responses to deflection of the principal whisker (PW) and adjacent whisker (AW) were recorded in barrel cortex. A condition test ratio (CTR) was used to measure inhibitory receptive fields in barrel cortex. Results: The results showed that both PW and AW evoked ON and OFF responses, neuronal spontaneous activity and inhibitory receptive fields did not change following ICV administration of DMSO. Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that acute ICV administration of 10% DMSO did not modulate the electrophysiological characteristics of neurons in the l deep ayers of rat barrel cortex. PMID:27563414

  12. Electrochemical machining of gold microstructures in LiCl/dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xinzhou; Bán, Andreas; Schuster, Rolf

    2010-02-22

    LiCl/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) electrolytes were applied for the electrochemical micromachining of Au. Upon the application of short potential pulses in the nanosecond range to a small carbon-fiber electrode, three-dimensional microstructures with high aspect ratios were fabricated. We achieved machining resolutions down to about 100 nm. In order to find appropriate machining parameters, that is, tool and workpiece rest potentials, the electrochemical behavior of Au in LiCl/DMSO solutions with and without addition of water was studied by cyclic voltammetry. In waterless electrolyte Au dissolves predominantly as Au(I), whereas upon the addition of water the formation of Au(III) becomes increasingly important. Because of the low conductivity of LiCl/DMSO compared with aqueous electrolytes, high machining precision is obtained with moderately short pulses. Furthermore, the redeposition of dissolved Au can be effectively avoided, since Au dissolution in LiCl/DMSO is highly irreversible. Both observations render LiCl/DMSO an appropriate electrolyte for the routine electrochemical micromachining of Au.

  13. Solvent stimulated actuation of polyurethane-based shape memory polymer foams using dimethyl sulfoxide and ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, A. J.; Weems, A. C.; Hasan, S. M.; Nash, L. D.; Monroe, M. B. B.; Maitland, D. J.

    2016-07-01

    Solvent exposure has been investigated to trigger actuation of shape memory polymers (SMPs) as an alternative to direct heating. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethanol (EtOH) to stimulate polyurethane-based SMP foam actuation and the required solvent concentrations in water for rapid actuation of hydrophobic SMP foams. SMP foams exhibited decreased T g when submerged in DMSO and EtOH when compared to water submersion. Kinetic DMA experiments showed minimal or no relaxation for all SMP foams in water within 30 min, while SMP foams submerged in EtOH exhibited rapid relaxation within 1 min of submersion. SMP foams expanded rapidly in high concentrations of DMSO and EtOH solutions, where complete recovery over 30 min was observed in DMSO concentrations greater than 90% and in EtOH concentrations greater than 20%. This study demonstrates that both DMSO and EtOH are effective at triggering volume recovery of polyurethane-based SMP foams, including in aqueous environments, and provides promise for use of this actuation technique in various applications.

  14. [Study on the effect of extraction behaviour of molybdenum (V) thiocyanate complex in the dimethyl sulfoxide and water system by spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Liang, Yu-zhen; Gao, Lian-bin; Qu, Zeng-lu; He, Zhong-lin

    2003-02-01

    In this paper the effect of petroleum sulfoxide-carbon tetrachloride used as extractant on the extraction behaviour of molybdenum (V) thiocyanate complex at different concentration of dimethyl sulfoxide and water system is studied by spectrophotometry. The mixture ratio of extraction is directly calculated using spectrophotometric data. Functional relation of mixture ratio and concentration of thiocyanate in mixed solution is discussed. By increasing the percent of volume of dimethyl sulfoxide in mixed solution, the effects of mixture ratio and percentage of extraction were studied. The experimental results were explained. It shows that the extraction system of MoO (SCN)3 has an application value.

  15. Microbial Activity in Aquatic Environments Measured by Dimethyl Sulfoxide Reduction and Intercomparison with Commonly Used Methods

    PubMed Central

    Griebler, Christian; Slezak, Doris

    2001-01-01

    A new method to determine microbial (bacterial and fungal) activity in various freshwater habitats is described. Based on microbial reduction of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to dimethyl sulfide (DMS), our DMSO reduction method allows measurement of the respiratory activity in interstitial water, as well as in the water column. DMSO is added to water samples at a concentration (0.75% [vol/vol] or 106 mM) high enough to compete with other naturally occurring electron acceptors, as determined with oxygen and nitrate, without stimulating or inhibiting microbial activity. Addition of NaN3, KCN, and formaldehyde, as well as autoclaving, inhibited the production of DMS, which proves that the reduction of DMSO is a biotic process. DMSO reduction is readily detectable via the formation of DMS even at low microbial activities. All water samples showed significant DMSO reduction over several hours. Microbially reduced DMSO is recovered in the form of DMS from water samples by a purge and trap system and is quantified by gas chromatography and detection with a flame photometric detector. The DMSO reduction method was compared with other methods commonly used for assessment of microbial activity. DMSO reduction activity correlated well with bacterial production in predator-free batch cultures. Cell-production-specific DMSO reduction rates did not differ significantly in batch cultures with different nutrient regimes but were different in different growth phases. Overall, a cell-production-specific DMSO reduction rate of 1.26 × 10−17 ± 0.12 × 10−17 mol of DMS per produced cell (mean ± standard error; R2 = 0.78) was calculated. We suggest that the relationship of DMSO reduction rates to thymidine and leucine incorporation is linear (the R2 values ranged from 0.783 to 0.944), whereas there is an exponential relationship between DMSO reduction rates and glucose uptake, as well as incorporation (the R2 values ranged from 0.821 to 0.931). Based on our results, we conclude that

  16. Effect of sodium chloride on efficiency of cisplatinum dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Doun, Seyed Kazem Bagherpour; Khor, Sohrab Halal; Qujeq, Dardi; Shahmabadi, Hasan Ebrahimi; Alavi, Seyed Ebrahim; Movahedi, Fatemeh; Akbarzadeh, Azim

    2014-04-01

    Cisplatinum (Cispt) is an anti-cancer drug with a low level of solubility. One of Cispt's solvents is dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) which can be substituted with chlorine of drug as Cispt's solvent. Applying such a solvent in biological studies is impossible due to intense reduction in activity. On the other hand, it is specified that Cispt's stability is increased in aqueous media by increasing sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration up to 0.9 %. Consequently, we intended to study the effect of DMSO on cytotoxicity of Cispt in presence of sodium. MTT assay was employed to study cytotoxicity effect of Cispt + NaCl + DMSO and Cispt + DMSO on G-292 cell line. Cytotoxicity in dilutions of 300 and 9 (p < 0.01) of Cispt in Cispt + NaCl + DMSO formulation was equal to 78 and 7 %. These values were estimated 79 and 18 % for Cispt + DMSO formulation and 79 and 24 % for free drug. IC50 values demonstrated reduction of 45 % in cytotoxicity of Cispt in Cispt + DMSO formulation. Studying chemical structure of Cispt and Cispt dissolved in DMSO showed that NaCl cannot inhibit inactivating effect of DMSO on Cispt and effect of this solvent on Cispt is independent from presence of NaCl. Results represented that using NaCl does not result in stability and keeping cytotoxicity properties of Cispt in DMSO. Findings suggest more studies for using DMSO as a solvent of Cispt.

  17. Thermodynamic and Spectroscopic Studies of Lanthanides(III) Complexation with Polyamines in Dimethyl Sulfoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Di Bernardo, Plinio; Zanonato, Pier Luigi; Melchior, Andrea; Portanova, Roberto; Tolazzi, Marilena; Choppin, Gregory R.; Wang, Zheming

    2008-01-01

    The thermodynamic parameters of complexation of Ln(III) cations with tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (tren) and tetraethylenepentamine (tetren) were determined in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by potentiometry and calorimetry. The excitation and emission spectra and luminescence decay constants of Eu3+ and Tb3+ complexed by tren and tetren, as well as those of the same lanthanides(III) complexed with diethylenetriamine (dien) and triethylenetetramine (trien), were also obtained in the same solvent. The combination of thermodynamic and spectroscopic data showed that, in the 1:1 complexes, all nitrogens of the ligands bound to the lanthanides except in the case of tren, in which only pendant N bound. For the larger ligands (trien, tren, tetren) in the higher complexes (ML2), there was less complete binding by available donors, presumably due to steric crowding. FT-IR studies were carried out in an acetonitrile/DMSO mixture, suitably chosen in order to follow the changes in the primary solvation sphere of lanthanide(III) due to complexation of amine ligands. Results show that the mean number of molecules of DMSO removed from the inner coordination sphere of lanthanides(III) is lower than ligand denticity and that the coordination number of the metal ions increases with amine complexation from ~8 to ~10. Independently of the number and structure of the amines, linear trends, similar for all lanthanides, were obtained by plotting the values of ΔGj°, ΔHj° and TΔSj° for the complexation of ethylenediamine (en), dien, trien, tren and tetren as a function of the number of amine metal-coordinated nitrogen atoms. The main factors on which the thermodynamic functions of lanthanide(III) complexation reactions in DMSO depend are discussed.

  18. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on inhibition of post-ovariectomy osteopenia in rats.

    PubMed

    Tamjidipoor, Ahmad; Tavafi, Majid; Ahmadvand, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress, due to estrogen deficiency, leads to osteopenia. In this study, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), an antioxidant solvent, was used against post-ovariectomy osteopenia (PO) in rats. Forty female rats were divided into 5 groups randomly as follows: Sham, control group; OVX, ovariectomized group; DMSO1, ovariectomized injected DMSO (0.5 ml/kg/d ip); DMSO2, ovariectomized injected DMSO (1 ml/kg/day ip) and DMSO3, ovariectomized injected DMSO (2 ml/kg/d ip). DMSO therapy started 1 week after ovariectomy and continued for 13 weeks. After 13th weeks, sera were prepared, and then L4 vertebrae and right tibial bones rinsed in fixative. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), osteocalcin, pyridinoline, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were measured. Trabecular volume density, trabecular and cortex thickness were estimated. Osteoclast and osteoblast numbers were counted morphometrically. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and then post hoc Tukey test at p < 0.05. The increase of pyridinoline and decrease of BALP in DMSO injected groups were inhibited compared with OVX group (p < 0.05). In DMSO injected groups, decrease of bone density, trabecular volume density, thickness of trabecular and tibial cortex were inhibited compared with OVX group (p < 0.05). MDA decreased significantly in DMSO injected groups compared with OVX group. Osteoclast number decreased in DMSO injected groups compared with OVX group (p < 0.05). Osteoblast number did not show significant change in DMSO groups compared with OVX group. In conclusion, DMSO ameliorates PO through decrease of osteoclast number, osteoclast inhibition and osteoblast activation. These effects may probably be mediated via antioxidant property of DMSO.

  19. Inhibition of differentiation and function of osteoclasts by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO).

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunxi; Madhu, Vedavathi; Thomas, Candace; Yang, Xinlin; Du, Xeujun; Dighe, Abhijit S; Cui, Quanjun

    2015-12-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an FDA-approved organosulfur solvent that is reported to have therapeutic value in osteoarthritis and osteopenia. DMSO is used as a cryoprotectant for the cryopreservation of bone grafts and mesenchymal stem cells which are later used for bone repair. It is also used as a solvent in the preparation of various scaffolds used for bone tissue engineering purposes. DMSO has been reported to inhibit osteoclast formation in vitro but the mechanism involved has remained elusive. We investigated the effect of DMSO on osteoclast differentiation and function using a conventional model system of RAW 264.7 cells. The differentiation of RAW 264.7 cells was induced by adding 50 ng/ml RANKL and the effect of DMSO (0.01 and 1% v/v) on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis was investigated. Addition of 1% DMSO significantly inhibited RANKL-induced formation of TRAP+, multinucleated, mature osteoclasts and osteoclast late-stage precursors (c-Kit(-) c-Fms(+) Mac-1(+) RANK(+)). While DMSO did not inhibit proliferation per se, it did inhibit the effect of RANKL on proliferation of RAW 264.7 cells. Key genes related to osteoclast function (TRAP, Integrin αVβ3, Cathepsin K and MMP9) were significantly down-regulated by DMSO. RANKL-induced expression of RANK gene was significantly reduced in the presence of DMSO. Our data, and reports from other investigators, that DMSO enhances osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and also prevents bone loss in ovarietcomized rats, suggest that DMSO has tremendous potential in the treatment of osteoporosis and bone diseases arising from uncontrolled activities of the osteoclasts.

  20. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a potential contrast agent for brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Goñi, T; Martín-Sitjar, J; Simões, R V; Acosta, M; Lope-Piedrafita, S; Arús, C

    2013-02-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is commonly used in preclinical studies of animal models of high-grade glioma as a solvent for chemotherapeutic agents. A strong DMSO signal was detected by single-voxel MRS in the brain of three C57BL/6 control mice during a pilot study of DMSO tolerance after intragastric administration. This led us to investigate the accumulation and wash-out kinetics of DMSO in both normal brain parenchyma (n=3 control mice) by single-voxel MRS, and in 12 GL261 glioblastomas (GBMs) by single-voxel MRS (n=3) and MRSI (n=9). DMSO accumulated differently in each tissue type, reaching its highest concentration in tumors: 6.18 ± 0.85 µmol/g water, 1.5-fold higher than in control mouse brain (p<0.05). A faster wash-out was detected in normal brain parenchyma with respect to GBM tissue: half-lives of 2.06 ± 0.58 and 4.57 ± 1.15 h, respectively. MRSI maps of time-course DMSO changes revealed clear hotspots of differential spatial accumulation in GL261 tumors. Additional MRSI studies with four mice bearing oligodendrogliomas (ODs) revealed similar results as in GBM tumors. The lack of T(1) contrast enhancement post-gadolinium (gadopentetate dimeglumine, Gd-DTPA) in control mouse brain and mice with ODs suggested that DMSO was fully able to cross the intact blood-brain barrier in both normal brain parenchyma and in low-grade tumors. Our results indicate a potential role for DMSO as a contrast agent for brain tumor detection, even in those tumors 'invisible' to standard gadolinium-enhanced MRI, and possibly for monitoring heterogeneities associated with progression or with therapeutic response.

  1. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on cryopreservation of porcine mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs).

    PubMed

    Ock, Sun-A; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a commonly used cryoprotectant in cryopreservation procedures, is detrimental to viability of cells. In this view point, a comparative study was carried out to evaluate the effect of DMSO on porcine mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs). We compared the viability, colony forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) assay, expression of Bak and Bcl2 genes, Bcl2 protein antigen, and CD90 in pMSCs cryopreserved with 5%, 10%, and 20% DMSO. pMSCs isolated from bone marrow were characterized by alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of transcription factors, such as Oct 3/4, Nanog, and Sox2. The cells were then cryopreserved by cooling at a rate of -1°C/min in a programmable freezer and stored in liquid nitrogen. The results of survival of pMSCs cryopreserved at 5% DMSO were comparable to control group (fresh pMSCs). The survival and the number of colonies formed in cryopreserved pMSCs were inversely proportional to the concentration of DMSO. The number of colonies formed in pMSCs cryopreserved with all concentrations of DMSO was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than the control group. An increased tendency for Bak and Bcl2 gene expression was noticed in cryopreserved pMSCs at 3 h postthawing compared to control group. There was a close resemblance in higher level of expression of CD90 between control and cryopreserved pMSCs. Because there was no considerable difference in the results of pMSCs cryopreserved at 5% and 10% DMSO, this study strongly suggests the use of 5% DMSO in cryopreservation of pMSCs as an alternative to conventional 10% DMSO.

  2. Diverse effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on the differentiation potential of human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pal, Rajarshi; Mamidi, Murali Krishna; Das, Anjan Kumar; Bhonde, Ramesh

    2012-04-01

    In vitro disease modeling using pluripotent stem cells can be a fast track screening tool for toxicological testing of candidate drug molecules. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is one of the most commonly used solvents in drug screening. In the present investigation, we exposed 14- to 21-day-old embryoid bodies (EBs) to three different concentrations of DMSO [0.01% (low dose), 0.1% (medium dose) and 1.0% (high dose)] to identify the safest dose that could effectively be used as solvent. We found that DMSO treatment substantially altered the morphology and attachment of cells in concurrence with a significant reduction in cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression studies revealed a selective downregulation of key markers associated with stemness (Oct-4, Sox-2, Nanog and Rex-1); ectoderm (Nestin, TuJ1, NEFH and Keratin-15); mesoderm (HAND-1, MEF-2C, GATA-4 and cardiac-actin); and endoderm (SOX-17, HNF-3β, GATA-6 and albumin), indicating an aberrant and untimely differentiation trajectory. Furthermore, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry and histological analyses demonstrated substantial decrease in the levels of albumin and CK-18 proteins coupled with a massive reduction in the number of cells positive for PAS staining, implicating reduced deposits of glycogen. Our study advocates for the first time that DMSO exposure not only affects the phenotypic characteristics but also induces significant alteration in gene expression, protein content and functionality of the differentiated hepatic cells. Overall, our experiments warrant that hESC-based assays can provide timely alerts about the outcome of widespread applications of DMSO as drug solvent, cryoprotectant and differentiating agent.

  3. Microinjection of the vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) into the periaqueductal gray modulates morphine antinociception.

    PubMed

    Fossum, Erin N; Lisowski, Mark J; Macey, Tara A; Ingram, Susan L; Morgan, Michael M

    2008-04-14

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is commonly used as a solvent for water-insoluble drugs. Given that DMSO has varying cellular and behavioral effects ranging from increased membrane permeability to toxicity, microinjection of DMSO as a vehicle could confound the effects of other drugs. For example, DMSO is often used as a vehicle for studies examining the neurochemical mechanisms underlying morphine antinociception. Given that the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) plays a major role in morphine antinociception and tolerance, the effects of DMSO on morphine antinociception mediated by the vlPAG needs to be evaluated. The present experiment tested whether co-administration of DMSO (0, 0.2, 2, or 20%) would alter the antinociceptive effect of microinjecting morphine into the vlPAG. DMSO had no effect on nociception when microinjected into the vlPAG alone, but 2% DMSO enhanced morphine potency when co-administered with morphine. In contrast, twice daily microinjections of DMSO (5 or 20%) for two days reduced the potency of subsequent microinjections of morphine into the vlPAG--an effect that persisted for at least one week. A similar rightward shift in the morphine dose-response curve was caused by morphine tolerance. Co-administration of morphine and DMSO during the pretreatment did not cause a greater shift in the morphine dose-response curve compared to morphine pretreated alone. In conclusion, DMSO can alter morphine antinociception following both acute (enhancement) and chronic (inhibition) administration depending on the concentration. These data reinforce the need to be cautious when using DMSO as a vehicle for drug administration.

  4. Evaluation of dimethyl sulfoxide and dexamethasone on pulmonary contusion in experimental blunt thoracic trauma.

    PubMed

    Boybeyi, Ozlem; Bakar, Bulent; Aslan, Mustafa Kemal; Atasoy, Pinar; Kisa, Ucler; Soyer, Tutku

    2014-12-01

    A thoracic trauma model was designed to evaluate the effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and dexamethasone (DX) on histopathologic and oxidative changes in lung parenchyma seen after pulmonary contusion. Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were included in the study. They were allocated into control (CG, n=6), sham (SG, n=6), DX (DXG, n=6), and DMSO (DMG, n=6) groups. Only a lung biopsy was performed in CG. In the experimental groups, blunt thoracic trauma was induced by dropping a cylindrical metal weight (0.5 kg) through a stainless steel tube onto the right hemithorax from a height of 0.4 m (E=1.96 J). In the SG, 1 mL of physiologic saline was injected intraperitoneally, in the DXG 10 mg/kg of DX was injected intraperitoneally, and in the DMG 1.2 g/mL of DMSO was injected intraperitoneally 15 minutes after trauma. After 6 hours, lung biopsy was performed for histopathologic and oxidative injury markers. Histopathologically, congestion, hemorrhage, neutrophil infiltration, endothelial-nitric oxide synthase (E-NoS), and total pathologic score were significantly higher in SG, DXG, and DMG when compared with CG (p<0.05). Neutrophil infiltration, total pathologic score, and E-NoS were significantly decreased in DMG when compared with SG and DXG (p<0.05). Biochemically, superoxide dismutase (SOD) level was significantly higher in SG, DXG, and DMG than in CG. SOD level was significantly lower in DXG and DMG than in SG (p<0.05). DMSO prevents further injury by decreasing neutrophil infiltration and endothelial injury in lung contusions. DX may have a role in the progression of inflammation but not in preventing the pathologic disruption of pulmonary parenchyma. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Structure and hydrogen bond dynamics of water-dimethyl sulfoxide mixtures by computer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzar, Alenka; Chandler, David

    1993-05-01

    We have used two different force field models to study concentrated dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-water solutions by molecular dynamics. The results of these simulations are shown to compare well with recent neutron diffraction experiments using H/D isotope substitution [A. K. Soper and A. Luzar, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 1320 (1992)]. Even for the highly concentrated 1 DMSO : 2 H2O solution, the water hydrogen-hydrogen radial distribution function, gHH(r), exhibits the characteristic tetrahedral ordering of water-water hydrogen bonds. Structural information is further obtained from various partial atom-atom distribution functions, not accessible experimentally. The behavior of water radial distribution functions, gOO(r) and gOH(r) indicate that the nearest neighbor correlations among remaining water molecules in the mixture increase with increasing DMSO concentration. No preferential association of methyl groups on DMSO is detected. The pattern of hydrogen bonding and the distribution of hydrogen bond lifetimes in the simulated mixtures is further investigated. Molecular dynamics results show that DMSO typically forms two hydrogen bonds with water molecules. Hydrogen bonds between DMSO and water molecules are longer lived than water-water hydrogen bonds. The hydrogen bond lifetimes determined by reactive flux correlation function approach are about 5 and 3 ps for water-DMSO and water-water pairs, respectively, in 1 DMSO : 2 H2O mixture. In contrast, for pure water, the hydrogen bond lifetime is about 1 ps. We discuss these times in light of experimentally determined rotational relaxation times. The relative values of the hydrogen bond lifetimes are consistent with a statistical (i.e., transition state theory) interpretation.

  6. Radiolytic reductions and oxidations in dimethyl sulfoxide solutions. Solvent effects on reactivity of halogen atom complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M.; Neta, P.

    1992-04-16

    Radiolysis of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions containing various additives was used to achieve clean one-electron reduction or oxidation of solutes. Pulse radiolysis of benzoquinone in DMSO solutions containing acetone and triethylamine permitted conversion of all primary radicals into reducing species. The total yield of reduction in the {gamma}-radiolysis of methyl viologen solutions was found to be 0.37 {mu}mol/J. In the pulse radiolysis of TMPD and triphenylamine in aerated DMSO containing LiCl and/or CCl{sub 4}, all the primary radicals were converted into oxidizing species and gave a maximum yield of 0.39 {mu}mol/J. In the latter systems, oxidation, was partly by halogen atom complexes. The reactivity of complexes of DMSO (DMSO-Cl DMSO-Br) and of halide ions (Br{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}{minus}}, I{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}{minus}}) was examined for several organic compounds. DMSO-Cl oxidizes chlorpromazine triphenylamine, and zinc porphyrin with rate constants of the order of 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} M{sup {minus}1}s{sup {minus}1}, and the rates increase upon addition of CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} as well as upon addition of water and formamide. DMSO-Cl also reacts with olefins by addition of Cl to the double bond; the rate constants increase upon increasing the electron-donating properties of the substituents on the double bond. The rate constants for oxidation of chlorpromazine by Br{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}{minus}} and I{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}{minus}} increase by more than 2 orders of magnitude upon changing the solvent from DMSO gradually to water. The change was less with acetonitrile/water mixtures, and the difference is probably due to differences in ion solvation. 28 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Swelling behavior of halthane 73-18 polyurethane adhesive in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)

    SciTech Connect

    LeMay, J. D., LLNL

    1996-06-01

    To insure safe performance during the launch and flight of the W79 Artillery Fired Atomic Projectile (AFAP), the assembly gaps in the high explosive assembly were filled with a continuous film of polyurethane elastomer adhesive called Halthane 73-18. To disassemble bonded weapons like the W79, Lawrence Livermore and Mason & Hanger, Pantex Plant have developed a chemical dissolution process that safely removes the high explosive, thereby facilitating the recovery of the pit. The solvent of choice for the W79 AFAP was dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). In the W79 dissolution process, a continuous spray of DMSO is emitted through nozzles mounted in manifold assembly that encircles the HE assembly. The operating pressure and temperature of the DMSO are less than 100 psig and less than 160{degrees}F. Although warm DMSO readily dissolves the LX-10{sup 1} explosive, it cannot dissolve the Halthane 73-18 adhesive due to its chemically crosslinked structure. DMSO does, however, swell the Halthane adhesive. The resulting swollen films are soft and unable to support their own weight, yet they are not necessarily so fragile that they will tear or shred readily under the force of the DMSO spray. Indeed, the swollen Halthane films encountered in several W79 Type 6B 2048 units tested in the Pantex Workstation proved to be quite tenacious. They remained intact under the action of DMSO spray and became an encapsulating barrier that shielded the remaining undissolved HE. This effectively stopped the dissolution process, forcing manual removal in order to complete the dissolution process. By comparison, the swollen Halthane film was readily shredded and eliminated under the action of the DMSO spray nozzles in tests at LLNL in workstation of a different design. This apparent difference in response is the subject of this report.

  8. Transient osmotic absorption of fluid in microvessels exposed to low concentrations of dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Glass, Catherine A; Perrin, Rachel M; Pocock, Tristan M; Bates, David O

    2006-01-01

    Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) is a common solvent for pharmacological agents. It is a small, lipophilic molecule thought to be relatively highly permeable through the cell membrane. While measuring the effect of low concentrations of DMSO (0.05-0.5% v/v) on capillary hydraulic conductivity as a vehicle control for pharmacological agents, the authors noticed what appeared to be an unusual transient absorption of fluid across the vessel wall. This absorption occurred during occlusion of the vessel, but dissipated quickly (1.7-8.6 s). The transient reabsorption reappeared upon each successive occlusion. To determine the nature of this transient absorption, the authors have measured the effect of increasing the pressure of the perfusing solution, of the concentration and time of perfusion of DMSO, and of superfusing the DMSO. They found that the absorption rate, but not the filtration rate, was concentration dependent, and was significantly correlated with the osmotic pressure of the DMSO. Moreover, the time taken for completion of the transient, i.e., time to reversal of flow, was inversely proportional to the hydraulic conductivity of the vessel. Furthermore, the transient absorption could be reduced and eventually abolished by increasing the hydrostatic pressure. These results strongly suggested that perfusion with low concentrations of DMSO could set up a significant osmotic pressure gradient across the vessel wall. This proposed mechanism for the absorption was confirmed by the measurement of a significant osmotic reflection coefficient of the vessel wall to DMSO (0.11 +/- 0.01). Relatively low concentrations (0.05-0.5%) of DMSO were therefore able to stimulate a significant osmotic transient across the blood vessel walls.

  9. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Attenuates Acute Lung Injury Induced by Hemorrhagic Shock/Resuscitation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Tsung, Yu-Chi; Chung, Chih-Yang; Wan, Hung-Chieh; Chang, Ya-Ying; Shih, Ping-Cheng; Hsu, Han-Shui; Kao, Ming-Chang; Huang, Chun-Jen

    2017-04-01

    Inflammation following hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation (HS/RES) induces acute lung injury (ALI). Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidative capacities. We sought to clarify whether DMSO could attenuate ALI induced by HS/RES. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to receive either a sham operation, sham plus DMSO, HS/RES, or HS/RES plus DMSO, and these were denoted as the Sham, Sham + DMSO, HS/RES, or HS/RES + DMSO group, respectively (n = 12 in each group). HS/RES was achieved by drawing blood to lower mean arterial pressure (40-45 mmHg for 60 min) followed by reinfusion with shed blood/saline mixtures. All rats received an intravenous injection of normal saline or DMSO immediately before resuscitation or at matching points relative to the sham groups. Arterial blood gas and histological assays (including histopathology, neutrophil infiltration, and lung water content) confirmed that HS/RES induced ALI. Significant increases in pulmonary expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), malondialdehyde, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) confirmed that HS/RES induced pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress. DMSO significantly attenuated the pulmonary inflammation and ALI induced by HS/RES. The mechanisms for this may involve reducing inflammation and oxidative stress through inhibition of pulmonary NF-κB, TNF-α, iNOS, and COX-2 expression.

  10. 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and pentastarch improves cryopreservation of cord blood cells over 10% DMSO.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Jun; Joyal, Elizabeth G; Gildner, Jean F; Washington, Kareem N; Phang, Oswald A; Uchida, Naoya; Hsieh, Matthew M; Tisdale, John F

    2010-10-01

    Cell number and viability are important in cord blood (CB) transplantation. While 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is the standard medium, adding a starch to freezing medium is increasingly utilized as a cytoprotectant for the thawing process. Similar to hetastarch, pentastarch has the advantages of faster renal clearance and less effect on the coagulation system. We compared a lower DMSO concentration (5%) containing pentastarch with 10% DMSO and performed cell viability assay, colony-forming units (CFUs), and transplantation of CB cells in NOD/SCID IL2Rγ(null) mice. CB cells in 5% DMSO/pentastarch had similar CD34+, CD3+, and CD19+ cell percentages after thawing as fresh CB cells. CB cells in 5% DMSO/pentastarch had higher viability (83.3±9.23%) than those frozen in 10% DMSO (75.3±11.0%, p<0.05). We monitored cell viability postthaw every 30 minutes. The mean loss in the first 30 minutes was less in the 5% DMSO/pentastarch group. At the end of 3 hours, the viability decreased by a mean of 7.75% for the 5% DMSO/pentastarch and 17.5% for the 10% DMSO groups. CFUs were similar between the two cryopreserved groups. Frozen CB cells engrafted equally well in IL2Rγ(null) mice compared to fresh CB cells up to 24 weeks, and CB cells frozen in 5% DMSO/pentastarch engrafted better than those in 10% DMSO. Our data indicate that the lower DMSO concentration with pentastarch represents an improvement in the CB cryopreservation process and could have wider clinical application as an alternate freezing medium over 10% DMSO. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  11. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide wet-bonding technique on hybrid layer quality and dentin bond strength.

    PubMed

    Stape, Thiago Henrique Scarabello; Tjäderhane, Leo; Marques, Marcelo Rocha; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Martins, Luís Roberto Marcondes

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the effect of a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) wet bonding technique on the resin infiltration depths at the bonded interface and dentin bond strength of different adhesive systems. Flat dentin surfaces of 48 human third molars were treated with 50% DMSO (experimental groups) or with distilled water (controls) before bonding using an etch-and-rinse (SBMP: Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE) or a self-etch (Clearfil: Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray) adhesive system. The restored crown segments (n=12/group) were stored in distilled water (24h) and sectioned for interfacial analysis of exposed collagen using Masson's Trichrome staining and for microtensile bond strength testing. The extent of exposed collagen was measured using light microscopy and a histometric analysis software. Failure modes were examined by SEM. Data was analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey Test (α=0.05). The interaction of bonding protocol and adhesive system had significant effects on the extension of exposed collagen matrix (p<0.0001) and bond strength (p=0.0091). DMSO-wet bonding significantly reduced the extent of exposed collagen matrix for SBMP and Clearfil (p<0.05). Significant increase in dentin bond strength was observed on DMSO-treated specimens bonded with SBMP (p<0.05), while no differences were observed for Clearfil (p>0.05). DMSO-wet bonding was effective to improve the quality of resin-dentin bonds of the tested etch-and-rinse adhesives by reducing the extent of exposed collagen matrix at the base of the resin-dentin biopolymer. The improved penetration of adhesive monomers is reflected as an increase in the immediate bond strength when the DMSO-wet bonding technique is used with a water-based etch-and-rinse adhesive. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dielectric Relaxation in Dimethyl Sulfoxide/Water Mixtures Studied by Microwave Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zijie; Manias, Evangelos; MacDonald, Digby D.; Lanagan, Michael

    2009-10-01

    Dielectric spectra of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/water mixtures, over the entire concentration range, have been measured using the transmission line method at frequencies from 45 MHz to 26 GHz and at temperatures of 298-318 K. The relaxation times of the mixtures show a maximum at an intermediate molar fraction of DMSO. The specific structure of mixtures in different concentration regions was determined by the dielectric relaxation dynamics, obtained from the effect of temperature on the relaxation time. A water structure "breaking effect" is observed in dilute aqueous solutions. The average number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule in these mixtures is found to be reduced compared to pure water. The increase in the dielectric relaxation time in DMSO/water mixtures is attributed to the spatial (steric) constraints of DMSO molecules on the hydrogen-bond network, rather than being due to hydrophobic hydration of the methyl groups. The interaction between water and DMSO by hydrogen bonding reaches a maximum at a DMSO molar fraction of 0.33, reflected by the maximum activation enthalpy for dielectric relaxation in this concentration, suggesting the formation of a stoichiometric compound, H2O-DMSO-H2O. In highly concentrated solutions, negative activation entropies are observed, indicating the presence of aggregates of DMSO molecules. A distinct antiparallel arrangement of dipoles is obtained for neat DMSO in the liquid state according to the Kirkwood correlation factor (gK = 0.5), calculated from the static permittivity. The similarity of the dielectric behavior of pure DMSO and DMSO-rich mixtures suggests that dipole-dipole interactions contribute significantly to the rotational relaxation process in these solutions.

  13. Hydrogen-bonding interactions between [BMIM][BF4] and dimethyl sulfoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yan-Zhen; He, Hong-Yan; Zhou, Yu; Yu, Zhi-Wu

    2014-07-01

    Mixtures of Ionic liquids and small polar organic solvent are potential green solvents for cellulose dissolution under mild conditions. In this work, the interactions between a representative imidazolium-based ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were investigated in detail by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and density functional theory calculations (DFT). The main conclusions are: (1) C2-H is the main interaction site in forming cation-anion, cation-DMSO, and [BMIM][BF4]-DMSO complexes. (2) The two turning points of the wavenumber shift changes of C2-H may indicate that the dilution process can be divided into several stages: from larger ion clusters to smaller ion clusters, then to ion pairs, and finally to individual ions. The solvent molecules cannot break apart the strong Coulombic interaction between [BMIM]+ and [BF4]- but can break apart the ion clusters into ion pairs when the mole fraction of DMSO is less than 0.9. When the mole fraction of DMSO is greater than 0.9, ion pairs can be broke into ions. (3) The hydrogen-bonds of the aromatic C-Hs in [BMIM]+ are strengthened in the dilution process while those of the alkyl C-Hs of [BMIM]+ are weakened. (4) The aromatic C-Hs of the [BMIM]+ cation strength before the weakening of the alkyl C-Hs. These in-depth studies on the properties of the ionic liquid-DMSO mixed solvents may shed light on exploring their applications as mixed solvents in cellulose dissolution and other practices.

  14. Aflatoxin and dimethyl sulfoxide influence on radiomanganese distribution and retention in neonate mice

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.S.; Llewellyn, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    The LD50 (7 d) for aflatoxin B/sub 1/ (AFB/sub 1/) in CD-1 neonate mice (3.1 g; 5 d of age) was determined to be 13.3 mg/kg. The vehicle was dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), given intraperitoneally, at 0.01 ml/animal (7 mg/kg). The solvent was nontoxic and caused no significant change in body weight in animals during an 11-d experimental period (17 d of age). Aflatoxin B/sub 1/ at 5.0 mg/kg and above caused reduced body weight gain. DMSO animals had a mean loss of more than 17% of the radiolabel over a 9-d period. Aflatoxin treatments reversed the DMSO loss of /sup 54/Mn in a concentration-related fashion, and generally, AFB/sub 1/ caused a conservation of the radioisotope. The radiolabel was redistributed into the following organs/tissues: liver > brain > bone > muscle = lungs > blood. Aflatoxin-treated animals showed a twofold increase of radiolabel in the liver as compared to controls. The DMSO itself failed to influence /sup 54/Mn influx into the liver. In general, control neonate mice, by 17 d of age, were retaining and redistributing the /sup 54/MnCl/sub 2/ and had not reached the time for sudden emergence of excretion common in rodents. DMSO was found not to be the most satisfactory solvent to use in the administration of aflatoxins, especially when manganese metabolism is being studied. Generally, both DMSO and AFB/sub 1/ influenced radiomanganese distribution, DMSO having a substantial influence. 27 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Kinetics and thermodynamics of oxidation mediated reaction in L-cysteine and its methyl and ethyl esters in dimethyl sulfoxide-d6 by NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, Ryan J.; Singh, Jaideep; Krishnan, V. V.

    2017-03-01

    L-Cysteine (L-Cys), L-Cysteine methyl ester (L-CysME) or L-Cysteine ethyl ester (L-CysEE), when dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, undergoes an oxidation process. This process is slow enough and leads to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral changes that could be monitored in real time. The oxidation mediated transition is modeled as a pseudo-first order kinetics and the thermodynamic parameters are estimated using the Eyring's formulation. L-Cysteine and their esters are often used as biological models due to the remarkable thiol group that can be found in different oxidation states. This oxidation mediated transition is due to the combination of thiol oxidation to a disulfide followed by solvent-induced effects may be relevant in designing cysteine-based molecular models.

  16. Dimethyl sulfoxide-induced dehydration of the intermembrane space of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine multilamellar vesicles: Neutron and synchrotron diffraction study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, M. A.; Zemlyanaya, E. V.

    2017-09-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering spectra of a polydispersed population of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) unilamellar vesicles in heavy water in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are analyzed by means of the separated form-factor method. An increase in the mole fraction of DMSO in water from 0 to 15% was shown to lead to an increase in the thickness of the bilayer to the characteristics repeat distances of DPPC multilamellar membranes. This fact is indicative of dehydration of the intermembrane space and a steric contact between adjacent DPPC bilayers at 15% mole fraction of DMSO.

  17. Experimental and theoretical evaluation on the microenvironmental effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on adrenaline in acid aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhang-Yu; Liu, Tao; Guo, Dao-Jun; Liu, Yong-Jun; Liu, Cheng-Bu

    2010-12-01

    The microenvironmental effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on adrenaline was studied by several approaches including the cyclic voltammetry (CV) of adrenaline at a platinum electrode in acid aqueous solution, the chemical shift of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1H NMR) of adrenaline, and the change of diffusion coefficient of adrenaline. The experimental results demonstrated that DMSO has significant microenvironmental effect on adrenaline, which was confirmed by the density functional theory (DFT) study on the hydrogen bond (H-bond) complexes of adrenaline with water and DMSO.

  18. Freezing of Apheresis Platelet Concentrates in 6% Dimethyl Sulfoxide: The First Preliminary Study in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Soner; Çetinkaya, Rıza Aytaç; Eker, İbrahim; Ünlü, Aytekin; Uyanık, Metin; Tapan, Serkan; Pekoğlu, Ahmet; Pekel, Aysel; Erkmen, Birgül; Muşabak, Uğur; Yılmaz, Sebahattin; Avcı, İsmail Yaşar; Avcu, Ferit; Kürekçi, Emin; Eyigün, Can Polat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Transfusion of platelet suspensions is an essential part of patient care for certain clinical indications. In this pioneering study in Turkey, we aimed to assess the in vitro hemostatic functions of platelets after cryopreservation. Materials and Methods: Seven units of platelet concentrates were obtained by apheresis. Each apheresis platelet concentrate (APC) was divided into 2 equal volumes and frozen with 6% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The 14 frozen units of APCs were kept at -80 °C for 1 day. APCs were thawed at 37 °C and diluted either with autologous plasma or 0.9% NaCl. The volume and residual numbers of leukocytes and platelets were tested in both before-freezing and post-thawing periods. Aggregation and thrombin generation tests were used to analyze the in vitro hemostatic functions of platelets. Flow-cytometric analysis was used to assess the presence of frozen treated platelets and their viability. Results: The residual number of leukocytes in both dilution groups was <1x106. The mean platelet recovery rate in the plasma-diluted group (88.1±9.5%) was higher than that in the 0.9% NaCl-diluted group (63±10%). These results were compatible with the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines quality criteria. Expectedly, there was no aggregation response to platelet aggregation test. The mean thrombin generation potential of post-thaw APCs was higher in the plasma-diluted group (2411 nmol/L per minute) when compared to both the 0.9% NaCl-diluted group (1913 nmol/L per minute) and the before-freezing period (1681 nmol/L per minute). The flow-cytometric analysis results for the viability of APCs after cryopreservation were 94.9% and 96.6% in the plasma and 0.9% NaCl groups, respectively. Conclusion: Cryopreservation of platelets with 6% DMSO and storage at -80 °C increases their shelf life from 7 days to 2 years. Besides the increase in hemostatic functions of platelets, the cryopreservation process also does not affect their viability

  19. Protocol to cryopreserve and isolate nuclei from adipose tissue without dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Almeida, M M; Caires, L C J; Musso, C M; Campos, J M S; Maranduba, C M C; Macedo, G C; Mendonça, J P R F; Garcia, R M G

    2014-12-19

    Cryopreservation injuries involve nuclear DNA damage. A protocol for cryopreserving and isolating adipocyte nuclei is proposed. Adipose tissue samples were directly analyzed (NoCRYO-0h), or stored at -196°C for 7 days without 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (CRYO-WO-DMSO) or with DMSO (CRYO-W-DMSO). To determine the effect of DMSO on cryopreservation treatment, adipose tissue samples were stored at 4°C for 24 h with 10% DMSO (NoCRYO-W-DMSO-24h) and without (NoCRYO-WO-DMSO-24h). Samples were processed in isolation buffer, and nuclear integrity was measured by flow cytometry. The coefficient of variation, forward scatter, side scatter, and number of nuclei analyzed were evaluated. Pea (Pisum sativum) was used to measure the amount of DNA. All groups contained similar amounts of DNA to previously reported values and a satisfactory number of nuclei were analyzed. CRYO-W-DMSO presented a higher coefficient of variation (3.19 ± 0.09) compared to NoCRYO-0h (1.85 ± 0.09) and CRYO-WO-DMSO (2.02 ± 0.02). The coefficient of variation was increased in NoCRYO-W-DMSO-24h (3.80 ± 0.01) compared to NoCRYO-WO-DMSO-24h (2.46 ± 0.03). These results relate DMSO presence to DNA damage independently of the cryopreservation process. CRYO-W-DMSO showed increased side scatter (93.46 ± 5.03) compared to NoCRYO-0h (41.13 ± 3.19) and CRYO-WO-DMSO (48.01 ± 2.28), indicating that cryopreservation with DMSO caused chromatin condensation and/or nuclear fragmentation. CRYO-W-DMSO and CRYO-WO-DMSO presented lower forward scatter (186.33 ± 9.33 and 196.89 ± 26.86, respectively) compared to NoCRYO-0h (322.80 ± 3.36), indicating that cryopreservation reduced nuclei size. Thus, a simple method for cryopreservation and isolation of adipocyte nuclei causing less damage to DNA integrity was proposed.

  20. The effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on hepatic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Effat; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Barzegar, Abolfazl; Mohammadi, Seyed Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) are suitable choices in autologous stem cell treatment of liver-associated diseases due to their hepatic differentiation potential. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an amphipathic molecule with potential of delivering both lipophilic and hydrophilic agents into cells, also a common cryoprotectant for freezing of the cells. DMSO was used in some protocols for induction of AT-MSCs towards hepatocyte like cells. However, the effect of DMSO on hepatogenic differentiation of AT-MSCs were not surveyed, previously. In the present study, we aimed at evaluation of the effect of DMSO on differentiation of AT-MSCs into hepatic lineage. We isolated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from adipose tissue, and then verifies multi-potency and surface markers of AT-MSCs . Isolated AT-MSCs randomly dispensed in four groups including Group 1: HGF treated, 2: HGF+ DMSO treated, 3: HGF+ DMSO+ OSM treated, and group control for a period of 3 weeks in the expansion medium without serum; EGF and bFGF were also included in the first days of inductions. The morphologic changes during induction period was observed with microscopy. The secretion of albumin (ALB) of the differentiating MSCs was investigated using ELISA, and urea production was evaluated using colorimetric assay. The qRT-PCR was performed for quantitation of hepatocyte marker genes including AFP, ALB, CK18, HNF4a, and HNF6. The glycogen storage of differentiated cells was visualized by periodic-acid Schiff‘s staining. The results demonstrate that DMSO speeds up hepatic differentiation of AT-MSCs characterized by rapid changes in morphology; higher expression of hepatic marker gene (ALB) in both mRNA and protein level (P < 0.05); also increased transcriptional levels of other liver genes including CK18, HNF4a, and HNF6 (P < 0.01); and moreover, greater percentage of glycogen storage(p < 0.05) in DMSO-treated groups. DMSO catalyzes hepatic

  1. Freezing of Apheresis Platelet Concentrates in 6% Dimethyl Sulfoxide: The First Preliminary Study in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Soner; Çetinkaya, Rıza Aytaç; Eker, İbrahim; Ünlü, Aytekin; Uyanık, Metin; Tapan, Serkan; Pekoğlu, Ahmet; Pekel, Aysel; Erkmen, Birgül; Muşabak, Uğur; Yılmaz, Sebahattin; Avcı, İsmail Yaşar; Avcu, Ferit; Kürekçi, Emin; Eyigün, Can Polat

    2016-03-05

    Transfusion of platelet suspensions is an essential part of patient care for certain clinical indications. In this pioneering study in Turkey, we aimed to assess the in vitro hemostatic functions of platelets after cryopreservation. Seven units of platelet concentrates were obtained by apheresis. Each apheresis platelet concentrate (APC) was divided into 2 equal volumes and frozen with 6% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The 14 frozen units of APCs were kept at -80 °C for 1 day. APCs were thawed at 37 °C and diluted either with autologous plasma or 0.9% NaCl. The volume and residual numbers of leukocytes and platelets were tested in both before-freezing and post-thawing periods. Aggregation and thrombin generation tests were used to analyze the in vitro hemostatic functions of platelets. Flow-cytometric analysis was used to assess the presence of frozen treated platelets and their viability. The residual number of leukocytes in both dilution groups was <1x106. The mean platelet recovery rate in the plasma-diluted group (88.1±9.5%) was higher than that in the 0.9% NaCl-diluted group (63±10%). These results were compatible with the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines quality criteria. Expectedly, there was no aggregation response to platelet aggregation test. The mean thrombin generation potential of post-thaw APCs was higher in the plasma-diluted group (2411 nmol/L per minute) when compared to both the 0.9% NaCl-diluted group (1913 nmol/L per minute) and the before-freezing period (1681 nmol/L per minute). The flow-cytometric analysis results for the viability of APCs after cryopreservation were 94.9% and 96.6% in the plasma and 0.9% NaCl groups, respectively. Cryopreservation of platelets with 6% DMSO and storage at -80 °C increases their shelf life from 7 days to 2 years. Besides the increase in hemostatic functions of platelets, the cryopreservation process also does not affect their viability rates.

  2. Dimethyl sulfoxide inhibits zymosan-induced intestinal inflammation and barrier dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Meng; Wang, Hai-Bin; Zheng, Jin-Guang; Bai, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Zeng-Kai; Li, Jing-Yuan; Hu, Sen

    2015-10-14

    To investigate whether dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) inhibits gut inflammation and barrier dysfunction following zymosan-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham with administration of normal saline (SS group); sham with administration of DMSO (SD group); zymosan with administration of normal saline (ZS group); and zymosan with administration of DMSO (ZD group). Each group contained three subgroups according to 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h after surgery. At 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h after intraperitoneal injection of zymosan (750 mg/kg), the levels of intestinal inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-10] and oxides (myeloperoxidase, malonaldehyde, and superoxide dismutase) were examined. The levels of diamine oxidase (DAO) in plasma and intestinal mucosal blood flow (IMBF) were determined. Intestinal injury was also evaluated using an intestinal histological score and apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells was determined by deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The intestinal epithelial tight junction protein, ZO-1, was observed by immunofluorescence. DMSO decreased TNF-α and increased IL-10 levels in the intestine compared with the ZS group at the corresponding time points. The activity of intestinal myeloperoxidase in the ZS group was higher than that in the ZD group 24 h after zymosan administration (P < 0.05). DMSO decreased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased the activity of superoxide dehydrogenase (SOD) 24 h after zymosan administration. The IMBF was lowest at 24 h and was 49.34% and 58.26% in the ZS group and ZD group, respectively (P < 0.05). DMSO alleviated injury in intestinal villi, and the gut injury score was significantly lower than the ZS group (3.6 ± 0.2 vs 4.2 ± 0.3, P < 0.05). DMSO decreased the level of DAO in plasma compared with the ZS group (65.1 ± 4.7 U/L vs

  3. Dimethyl sulfoxide inhibits zymosan-induced intestinal inflammation and barrier dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Meng; Wang, Hai-Bin; Zheng, Jin-Guang; Bai, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Zeng-Kai; Li, Jing-Yuan; Hu, Sen

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) inhibits gut inflammation and barrier dysfunction following zymosan-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham with administration of normal saline (SS group); sham with administration of DMSO (SD group); zymosan with administration of normal saline (ZS group); and zymosan with administration of DMSO (ZD group). Each group contained three subgroups according to 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h after surgery. At 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h after intraperitoneal injection of zymosan (750 mg/kg), the levels of intestinal inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-10] and oxides (myeloperoxidase, malonaldehyde, and superoxide dismutase) were examined. The levels of diamine oxidase (DAO) in plasma and intestinal mucosal blood flow (IMBF) were determined. Intestinal injury was also evaluated using an intestinal histological score and apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells was determined by deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The intestinal epithelial tight junction protein, ZO-1, was observed by immunofluorescence. RESULTS: DMSO decreased TNF-α and increased IL-10 levels in the intestine compared with the ZS group at the corresponding time points. The activity of intestinal myeloperoxidase in the ZS group was higher than that in the ZD group 24 h after zymosan administration (P < 0.05). DMSO decreased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased the activity of superoxide dehydrogenase (SOD) 24 h after zymosan administration. The IMBF was lowest at 24 h and was 49.34% and 58.26% in the ZS group and ZD group, respectively (P < 0.05). DMSO alleviated injury in intestinal villi, and the gut injury score was significantly lower than the ZS group (3.6 ± 0.2 vs 4.2 ± 0.3, P < 0.05). DMSO decreased the level of DAO in plasma compared with the ZS

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assays for Dimethyl Sulfoxide Effect on Cancer Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Cyran, Clemens C.; Sennino, Barbara; Chaopathomkul, Bundit; Fu, Yanjun; Rogut, Victor; Shames, David M.; Wendland, Michael F.; McDonald, Donald M.; Brasch, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the potential of quantitative assays of vascular characteristics based on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a macromolecular contrast medium (MMCM) to search for and measure effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on cancer vasculature with microscopic correlations. Material and Methods Saline-treated control (n = 8) and DMSO-treated (n = 7) human breast cancer xenografts (MDA-MB-435) in rats were imaged dynamically by MMCM-enhanced MRI using albumin-(Gd-DTPA)27-(biotin)11 (molecular weight approximately 90 kDa), before and after a 1-week, 3-dose treatment course. After the posttreatment MRI examinations, tumors were perfused with lectin and fixative and subsequently stained with RECA-1 and streptavidin for quantitative fluorescent microscopy. Quantitative MRI estimates of cancer microvessel permeability (KPS; µL/ min·100 cm3) and fractional plasma volume (fPV; %) were based on a 2-compartment kinetic model. Fluorescent microscopy yielded estimates of MMCM extravasation and vascular density that were compared to the MRI results. Results DMSO decreased cancer vascular endothelial permeability significantly (P < 0.05) from tumor KPSday0 = 19.3 ± 8.8 µL/min·100 cm3 to KPSday7 = 0 µL/min·100 cm3). KPS values in the saline-treated tumors did not change significantly. The amount of extravasated albumin-Gd-(DTPA)27-(biotin)11, as assayed by a fluorescently labeled streptavidin stain that strongly binds to the biotin tag on the MMCM, was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the DMSO-treated cancers than in the control cancers (57.7% ± 5.5% vs. 34.2% ± 4.9%). Tumor vascular richness as reflected by the MRI-assayed fPV and by the RECA-1 and lectin-stained microscopy did not change significantly with DMSO or saline treatment. Conclusion Reductions in cancer microvascular leakiness induced by a 7-day course of DMSO could be detected and measured by dynamic MMCM-enhanced MRI and were confirmed by microscopic measurements

  5. The differentiation inducer, dimethyl sulfoxide, transiently increases the intracellular calcium ion concentration in various cell types.

    PubMed

    Morley, P; Whitfield, J F

    1993-08-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) initiates a coordinated differentiation program in various cell types but the mechanism(s) by which DMSO does this is not understood. In this study, the effect of DMSO on intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) was determined in primary cultures of chicken ovarian granulosa cells from the two largest preovulatory follicles of laying hens, and in three cell lines: undifferentiated P19 embryonal carcinoma cells, 3T3-L1 fibroblasts, and Friend murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells. [Ca2+]i was measured in cells loaded with the Ca(2+)-specific fluoroprobe Fura-2. There was an immediate (i.e., within 5 sec), transient, two to sixfold increase in [Ca2+]i after exposing all cell types to 1% DMSO. DMSO was effective between 0.2 and 1%. The prompt DMSO-induced [Ca2+]i spike in all of the cell types was not prevented by incubating the cells in Ca(2+)-free medium containing 2 mM EGTA or by pretreating them with the Ca(2+)-channel blockers methoxyverapamil (D600; 100 microM), nifedipine (20 microM), or cobalt (5 mM). However, when granulosa cells, 3T3-L1 cells, or MEL cells were pretreated with lanthanum (La3+; 1 mM), which blocks both Ca2+ channels and membrane Ca2+ pumps, there was a sustained increase in [Ca2+]i in response to 1% DMSO. By contrast, pretreating P19 cells with La3+ (1 mM) did not prolong the DMSO-triggered [Ca2+]i transient. In all cases, the DMSO-induced [Ca2+]i surge was unaffected by pretreating the cells with the inhibitors of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis, neomycin (1.5 mM) or U-73, 122 (2.5 microM). These results suggest that DMSO almost instantaneously triggers the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores through a common mechanism in cells in primary cultures and in cells of a variety of established lines, but this release is not mediated through phosphoinositide breakdown. This large, DMSO-induced Ca2+ spike may play a role in the induction of cell differentiation by DMSO.

  6. Formation of a Criegee intermediate in the low-temperature oxidation of dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Asatryan, Rubik; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2008-04-07

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is the major sulfur-containing constituent of the Marine Boundary Layer. It is a significant source of H2SO4 aerosol/particles and methane sulfonic acid via atmospheric oxidation processes, where the mechanism is not established. In this study, several new, low-temperature pathways are revealed in the oxidation of DMSO using CBS-QB3 and G3MP2 multilevel and B3LYP hybrid density functional quantum chemical methods. Unlike analogous hydrocarbon peroxy radicals the chemically activated DMSO peroxy radical, [CH3S(=O)CH2OO*]*, predominantly undergoes simple dissociation to a methylsulfinyl radical CH3S*(=O) and a Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, with the barrier to dissociation 11.3 kcal mol(-1) below the energy of the CH3S(=O)CH2* + O2 reactants. The well depth for addition of O2 to the CH3S(=O)CH2 precursor radical is 29.6 kcal mol(-1) at the CBS-QB3 level of theory. We believe that this reaction may serve an important role in atmospheric photochemical and irradiated biological (oxygen-rich) media where formation of initial radicals is facilitated even at lower temperatures. The Criegee intermediate (carbonyl oxide, peroxymethylene) and sulfinyl radical can further decompose, resulting in additional chain branching. A second reaction channel important for oxidation processes includes formation (via intramolecular H atom transfer) and further decomposition of hydroperoxide methylsulfoxide radical, *CH2S(=O)CH2OOH over a low barrier of activation. The initial H-transfer reaction is similar and common in analogous hydrocarbon radical + O2 reactions; but the subsequent very low (3-6 kcal mol(-1)) barrier (14 kcal mol(-1) below the initial reagents) to beta-scission products is not common in HC systems. The low energy reaction of the hydroperoxide radical is a beta-scission elimination of *CH2S(=O)CH2OOH into the CH2=S=O + CH2O + *OH product set. This beta-scission barrier is low, because of the delocalization of the *CH2 radical center through the -S

  7. Performance of the SMD and SM8 models for predicting solvation free energy of neutral solutes in methanol, dimethyl sulfoxide and acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Zanith, Caroline C; Pliego, Josefredo R

    2015-03-01

    The continuum solvation models SMD and SM8 were developed using 2,346 solvation free energy values for 318 neutral molecules in 91 solvents as reference. However, no solvation data of neutral solutes in methanol was used in the parametrization, while only few solvation free energy values of solutes in dimethyl sulfoxide and acetonitrile were used. In this report, we have tested the performance of the models for these important solvents. Taking data from literature, we have generated solvation free energy, enthalpy and entropy values for 37 solutes in methanol, 21 solutes in dimethyl sulfoxide and 19 solutes in acetonitrile. Both SMD and SM8 models have presented a good performance in methanol and acetonitrile, with mean unsigned error equal or less than 0.66 and 0.55 kcal mol(-1) in methanol and acetonitrile, respectively. However, the correlation is worse in dimethyl sulfoxide, where the SMD and SM8 methods present mean unsigned error of 1.02 and 0.95 kcal mol(-1), respectively. Our results point out the SMx family of models need be improved for dimethyl sulfoxide solvent.

  8. Dimethyl sulfoxide reduction by a hyperhermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 via a cysteine-cystine redox shuttle.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ae Ran; Kim, Min-Sik; Kang, Sung Gyun; Lee, Hyun Sook

    2016-01-01

    A variety of microbes grow by respiration with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as an electron acceptor, and several distinct DMSO respiratory systems, consisting of electron carriers and a terminal DMSO reductase, have been characterized. The heterotrophic growth of a hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 was enhanced by the addition of DMSO, but the archaeon was not capable of reducing DMSO to DMS directly using a DMSO reductase. Instead, the archaeon reduced DMSO via a cysteine-cystine redox shuttle through a mechanism whereby cystine is microbially reduced to cysteine, which is then reoxidized by DMSO reduction. A thioredoxin reductase-protein disulfide oxidoreductase redox couple was identified to have intracellular cystine-reducing activity, permitting recycle of cysteine. This study presents the first example of DMSO reduction via an electron shuttle. Several Thermococcales species also exhibited enhanced growth coupled with DMSO reduction, probably by disposing of excess reducing power rather than conserving energy.

  9. Modification of electrical properties of PEDOT:PSS/p-Si heterojunction diodes by doping with dimethyl sulfoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, C. S.; Singh, J. P.; Singh, R.

    2016-05-01

    We report about the fabrication and electrical characterization of heterojunction diodes between poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) doped with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and p-Si. Electrical characterization of the heterojunction diodes was performed using current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The heterojunction diodes showed good rectifying behavior. Interestingly, for 5 vol.% doping concentration of DMSO, the heterojunction diode showed the best diode characteristics with an ideality factor of 1.9. The doping of DMSO into PEDOT:PSS solution resulted in an increase in the conductivity of films by two orders of magnitude and the films showed high optical transmission (>85%) in the visible region.

  10. Evaluation of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a mobile phase additive during top 3 label-free quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Strzelecka, Dominika; Holman, Stephen W; Eyers, Claire E

    2015-11-30

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been advocated as a beneficial additive to electrospray solvents for peptide analysis due to the improved ionisation efficiency conferred. Previous reports have shown that the resultant improvements in peptide ion signal intensities are non-uniform. As a result, it was hypothesised that inclusion of DMSO in electrospray solvents could be detrimental to the outcome of intensity-based label-free absolute quantification approaches, specifically the top 3 method. The effect of DMSO as a mobile phase additive in top 3 label-free quantification was therefore evaluated. We show that inclusion of DMSO enhances data quality, improving the precision and number of proteins quantified, with no significant change to the quantification values observed in its absence.

  11. Free energy landscape for glucose condensation and dehydration reactions in dimethyl sulfoxide and the effects of solvent.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xianghong; Liu, Dajiang

    2014-03-31

    The mechanisms and free energy surfaces (FES) for the initial critical steps during proton-catalyzed glucose condensation and dehydration reactions were elucidated in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) using Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) coupled with metadynamics (MTD) simulations. Glucose condensation reaction is initiated by protonation of C1--OH whereas dehydration reaction is initiated by protonation of C2--OH. The mechanisms in DMSO are similar to those in aqueous solution. The DMSO molecules closest to the C1--OH or C2--OH on glucose are directly involved in the reactions and act as proton acceptors during the process. However, the energy barriers are strongly solvent dependent. Moreover, polarization from the long-range electrostatic interaction affects the mechanisms and energetics of glucose reactions. Experimental measurements conducted in various DMSO/Water mixtures also show that energy barriers are solvent dependent in agreement with our theoretical results.

  12. Synthesis of ZIF-67 and ZIF-8 crystals using DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide) as solvent and kinetic transformation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xuhui; Wu, Ting; Carreon, Moises A.

    2016-12-01

    Herein we report the synthesis of ZIF-67 and ZIF-8 with Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvent. The structural evolution of ZIF-67 and ZIF-8 as a function of time at room temperature was followed. We have identified the different stages of ZIF-67 and ZIF-8 formation (nucleation, crystallization, growth, and stationary periods) and elucidated its kinetics of transformation. The nucleation and growth of ZIF-67 and ZIF-8 crystals followed Avrami's kinetics. The role that DMSO plays in the crystallization and growth of ZIF-67 and ZIF-8 is discussed. The crystal sizes of ZIF-67 and ZIF-8 in the presence of DMSO as solvent were significantly smaller than those obtained in typical solvents such as methanol, making this solvent appealing for the synthesis of small crystals with relatively narrow size distribution, a property which is highly desirable for diverse functional applications.

  13. Cryopreservation of Peruvian Paso horse spermatozoa: dimethylacetamide preserved an optimal sperm function compared to dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol and glycerol.

    PubMed

    Santiani, A; Evangelista-Vargas, S; Vargas, S; Gallo, S; Ruiz, L; Orozco, V; Rosemberg, M

    2017-08-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of different cryoprotectant agents in the cryopreservation of Peruvian Paso horse semen. Twenty semen samples were collected from five Peruvian Paso horse stallions. Each sample was divided into 12 parts to form the groups: dimethylacetamide (DMA), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG) and glycerol (GLY), at 3%, 4% and 5%. Samples were frozen using a rate-controlled freezer. Sperm parameters evaluated were motility and viability/acrosomal status. After thawing, progressive motility in DMA group was higher (p < .05) than in DMSO, EG and GLY groups. Similarly, viable acrosome-intact spermatozoa were higher (p < .05) using DMA in comparison with DMSO. No differences were found when comparing concentrations for any of the cryoprotectant agents. In conclusion, DMA seems to be a good cryoprotectant agent for the cryopreservation of Peruvian Paso horse stallion semen. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. The effect of structural properties on rheological behaviour of starches in binary dimethyl sulfoxide-water solutions.

    PubMed

    Ptaszek, Anna; Ptaszek, Paweł; Dziubiński, Marek; Grzesik, N Mirosław; Liszka-Skoczylas, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This research study analysed the rheological properties of potato amylose and potato amylopectin in binary solutions of the following water and dimethyl sulfoxide concentrations: 90% DMSO (1), 80% DMSO (2) and 50% DMSO (3), with preparation methodology involving the dissolution at the temperature of 98°C. The studies of dynamic light scattering on the biopolymer coils and the determination of main relaxation times of the solutions were carried out. For the amylose solutions, the fast relaxation phenomena are predominant. The results of the quality tests of the hysteresis loop showed, that the amylose solutions in the solvents (1) and (2) are rheologically stable and shear-thickened. The amylose solutions in solvents (3) reveal oscillatory alterations of viscosity in the time. Amylopectin solutions are characterized by 80% share of slow relaxation phenomena, very low diffusion coefficients and hydrodynamic radii in the range of 2000 nm. The amylopectin solutions are rheologically unstable.

  15. Importance of Reaction Kinetics and Oxygen Crossover in aprotic Li-O2 Batteries Based on a Dimethyl Sulfoxide Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Marinaro, M; Balasubramanian, P; Gucciardi, E; Theil, S; Jörissen, L; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, M

    2015-09-21

    Although still in their embryonic state, aprotic rechargeable Li-O2 batteries have, theoretically, the capabilities of reaching higher specific energy densities than Li-ion batteries. There are, however, significant drawbacks that must be addressed to allow stable electrochemical performance; these will ultimately be solved by a deeper understanding of the chemical and electrochemical processes occurring during battery operations. We report a study on the electrochemical and chemical stability of Li-O2 batteries comprising Au-coated carbon cathodes, a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-based electrolyte and Li metal negative electrodes. The use of the aforementioned Au-coated cathodes in combination with a 1 M lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (LiTFSI)-DMSO electrolyte guarantees very good cycling stability (>300 cycles) by minimizing eventual side reactions. The main drawbacks arise from the high reactivity of the Li metal electrode when in contact with the O2 -saturated DMSO-based electrolyte.

  16. Crystal structure of hexa­kis­(dimethyl sulfoxide-κO)manganese(II) tetra­iodide

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Md Azimul; Davaasuren, Bambar; Rothenberger, Alexander; Wu, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The title salt, [Mn(C2H6OS)6]I4, is made up from discrete [Mn(DMSO)6]2+ (DMSO is dimethyl sulfoxide) units connected through non-classical hydrogen bonds to linear I4 2− tetra­iodide anions. The MnII ion in the cation, situated on a position with site symmetry -3., is octa­hedrally coordinated by O atoms of the DMSO mol­ecule with an Mn—O distance of 2.1808 (12) Å. The I4 2− anion contains a neutral I2 mol­ecule weakly coordinated by two iodide ions, forming a linear centrosymmetric tetra­iodide anion. The title compound is isotypic with the Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn analogues. PMID:27980832

  17. The effect of structural properties on rheological behaviour of starches in binary dimethyl sulfoxide-water solutions

    PubMed Central

    Ptaszek, Paweł; Dziubiński, Marek; Grzesik, N. Mirosław; Liszka-Skoczylas, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This research study analysed the rheological properties of potato amylose and potato amylopectin in binary solutions of the following water and dimethyl sulfoxide concentrations: 90% DMSO (1), 80% DMSO (2) and 50% DMSO (3), with preparation methodology involving the dissolution at the temperature of 98°C. The studies of dynamic light scattering on the biopolymer coils and the determination of main relaxation times of the solutions were carried out. For the amylose solutions, the fast relaxation phenomena are predominant. The results of the quality tests of the hysteresis loop showed, that the amylose solutions in the solvents (1) and (2) are rheologically stable and shear-thickened. The amylose solutions in solvents (3) reveal oscillatory alterations of viscosity in the time. Amylopectin solutions are characterized by 80% share of slow relaxation phenomena, very low diffusion coefficients and hydrodynamic radii in the range of 2000 nm. The amylopectin solutions are rheologically unstable. PMID:28152071

  18. Solvent dependent frequency shift and Raman noncoincidence effect of Sdbnd O stretching mode of Dimethyl sulfoxide in liquid binary mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Ganesh; Devi, Th. Gomti; Singh, Ranjan K.; Singh, A.; Alapati, P. R.

    2013-05-01

    The isotropic and anisotropic Raman peak frequencies of Sdbnd O stretching mode of Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) have been discussed in different chemical and isotopic solvent molecules using different mechanisms. The shifting of peak frequency in further dilution of DMSO with solvent molecule is observed for all solvents. Transition dipole - transition dipole interaction and hydrogen bonding may play a major role in shifting of peak frequencies. The non-coincidence effect (NCE) of DMSO was determined for all the solvents and compared with four theoretical models such as McHale's model, Mirone's modification of McHale's model, Logan's model and Onsager-Fröhlich dielectric continuum model respectively. Most of the theoretical models are largely consistent with our experimental data.

  19. Induction of sister chromatid exchange in the presence of gadolinium-DTPA and its reduction by dimethyl sulfoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, Etsuo; Fukuda, Hozumi; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Matsubara, Sho

    1996-05-01

    The authors investigate the frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) after the addition of gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA to venous blood samples. Venous blood was obtained from nonsmokers. Samples were incubated with Gd-DTPA alone or in combination with mitomycin C, cytarabine, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and then evaluated for SCEs. The frequency of SCE increased with the concentration of Gd-DTPA and as each chemotherapeutic agent was added. Sister chromatid exchange frequencies were lower when the blood was treated with a combination of Gd-DTPA and DMSO compared with Gd-DTPA alone. The increase in frequency of SCE seen after the addition of Gd-DTPA was decreased by the addition of DMSO, indicating the production of hydroxyl radicals. The effect likely is dissociation-related. 14 refs., 6 tabs.

  20. Dimethyl sulfoxide-induced toxicity in cord blood stem cell transplantation: report of three cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Delgado, Guillermo J; Mancías-Guerra, Consuelo; Tamez-Gómez, Edna L; Rodríguez-Romo, Laura N; López-Otero, Avril; Hernández-Arizpe, Ana; Gómez-Almaguer, David; Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo J

    2009-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood transplantation using nonmyeloablative conditioning is currently considered by many as a valid potential alternative for any patient who requires an unrelated donor allograft and who is without a suitably matched and readily available volunteer. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been used for years as a cryoprotectant agent; it acts by penetrating the cell and binding water molecules and it has been described as harmless for the individual who receives it in limited amounts. In this paper, we describe 3 cases of DMSO-induced toxicities and briefly review the most common adverse reactions of the DMSO when used as a cryopreservation agent for the long-term storage of cord blood cells. Two of the 3 cases had a dismal prognosis. A brief review of the literature is presented. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. The optical sensor fac-tricarbonylchloro(di-2-pyridylmethanone p-nitrophenylhydrazone)rhenium(I) dimethyl sulfoxide solvate.

    PubMed

    Bakir, M

    2001-12-01

    The first metal complex of di-2-pyridylmethanone p-nitrophenylhydrazone (dpknph), i.e. the title compound, fac-[ReCl(C17H13N5O2)(CO)3]*C2H6OS, crystallizes as well separated pseudo-tetrahedral DMSO (DMSO is dimethyl sulfoxide) and pseudo-octahedral fac-[ReCl(dpknph)(CO)3] moieties. Two N atoms from dpknph, three C atoms from the carbonyl groups and one chloride ion occupy the coordination sphere around rhenium. The coordinated dpknph ligand forms a six-membered ring in a boat conformation, with the pyridine rings in a butterfly formation. The p-nitrophenylhydrazone moiety is planar, with all C and N atoms in sp2-hybridized forms. The molecules pack as stacks of interlocked fac-[ReCl(dpknph)(CO)3]*DMSO units via a network of non-covalent bonds that include solute-solute, solvent-solute and pi-pi interactions.

  2. Concentrations of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in cerebrospinal fluid and serum in mares with and without a dimethyl sulfoxide pretreatment.

    PubMed Central

    Green, S L; Mayhew, I G; Brown, M P; Gronwall, R R; Montieth, G

    1990-01-01

    Each of seven mares was given an intravenous (IV) injection of 40% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at a dosage of 1 g/kg, over 35 min, immediately followed by a single IV injection of a trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) combination (SMZ 83%, TMP 17%) at a combined dosage of 44 mg/kg (7.48 mg/kg TMP; 36.52 mg/kg SMZ). Each horse served as its own control and was alternately treated with an identical dose of TMP-SMZ treatment alone at least seven days following or preceding the DMSO and TMP-SMZ treatment. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of TMP and SMZ were measured over a six hour period. Dimethyl sulfoxide treatment caused no significant difference in the mean serum concentration of SMZ or in the mean CSF concentrations of TMP or SMZ. The mean serum concentration of TMP was significantly (p less than 0.05) increased at the two, four and six hour sampling time in the mares receiving pretreatment with DMSO. The clearance of TMP was also significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased from 675 mL/h/kg to 327 mL/h/kg by DMSO administration. Concentrations of TMP and SMZ in the CSF in both treatment groups exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentrations for many common bacterial pathogens of equine origin. In addition, CSF concentration of TMP exceeded the serum concentrations required for 50% inhibition of dihydrofolate reductases of protozoan origin. Serum TMP and SMZ concentration were similar to those reported to be effective against Toxoplasma gondii in in vitro studies on the killing or inhibition of the organism. PMID:2357657

  3. Systematic review of the nutritional supplements dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Brien, S; Prescott, P; Bashir, N; Lewith, H; Lewith, G

    2008-11-01

    Conventional treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is associated with serious gastrointestinal side effects and in view of the recent withdrawal of some cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors, identifying safer alternative treatment options is needed. The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the existing evidence from randomised controlled trials of two chemically related nutritional supplements, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in the treatment of OA to determine their efficacy and safety profile. The electronic databases [Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, Amed, Cinahl and NeLH (1950 to November 2007)] were searched. The search strategy combined terms: osteoarthritis, degenerative joint disorder, dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO, methylsulfonylmethane, MSM, clinical trial; double-blind, single blind, RCT, placebo, randomized, comparative study, evaluation study, control. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Data were extracted and quality was assessed using the JADAD scale. Six studies were included [evaluating a total of 681 patients with OA of the knee for DMSO (N=297 on active treatment); 168 patients for MSM (N=52 on active treatment)]. Two of the four DMSO trials, and both MSM trials reported significant improvement in pain outcomes in the treatment group compared to comparator treatments, however, methodological issues and concerns over optimal dosage and treatment period, were highlighted. No definitive conclusion can currently be drawn for either supplement. The findings from all the DMSO studies need to be viewed with caution because of poor methodology including; possible unblinding, and questionable treatment duration and dose. The data from the more rigorous MSM trials provide positive but not definitive evidence that MSM is superior to placebo in the treatment of mild to moderate OA of the knee. Further studies are now required to identify both the optimum dosage and longer

  4. Depression of the ice-nucleation temperature of rapidly cooled mouse embryos by glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed Central

    Rall, W F; Mazur, P; McGrath, J J

    1983-01-01

    The temperature at which ice formation occurs in supercooled cytoplasm is an important element in predicting the likelihood of intracellular freezing of cells cooled by various procedures to subzero temperatures. We have confirmed and extended prior indications that permeating cryoprotective additives decrease the ice nucleation temperature of cells, and have determined some possible mechanisms for the decrease. Our experiments were carried out on eight-cell mouse embryos equilibrated with various concentrations (0-2.0 M) of dimethyl sulfoxide or glycerol and then cooled rapidly. Two methods were used to assess the nucleation temperature. The first, indirect, method was to determine the in vitro survival of the rapidly cooled embryos as a function of temperature. The temperatures over which an abrupt drop in survival occurs are generally diagnostic of the temperature range for intracellular freezing. The second, direct, method was to observe the microscopic appearance during rapid cooling and note the temperature at which nucleation occurred. Both methods showed that the nucleation temperature decreased from - 10 to - 15 degrees C in saline alone to between - 38 degrees and - 44 degrees C in 1.0-2.0 M glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide. The latter two temperatures are close to the homogeneous nucleation temperatures of the solutions in the embryo cytoplasm, and suggest that embryos equilibrated in these solutions do not contain heterogeneous nucleating agents and are not accessible to any extracellular nucleating agents, such as extracellular ice. The much higher freezing temperatures of cells in saline or in low concentrations of additive indicate that they are being nucleated by heterogeneous agents or, more likely, by extracellular ice. Images FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:6824748

  5. Degradation of dimethyl-sulfoxide-containing wastewater using airlift bioreactor by polyvinyl-alcohol-immobilized cell beads.

    PubMed

    He, Sin-Yi; Lin, Yun-Huin; Hou, Kuan-Yun; Hwang, Sz-Chwun John

    2011-05-01

    Airlift bioreactor containing polyvinyl-alcohol-immobilized cell beads was investigated for its capability of biodegradation of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in term of sludge characteristics including the strategy of acclimation with sucrose and the protection of microorganism from poisoning of DMSO by PVA cell beads. Media condition with sucrose at 50 mg L(-1) was beneficial to the biodegradation of DMSO in the fresh PVA entrapped-sludge, but became insignificant in the acclimated one as for tolerance of DMSO toxicity. The removal efficiency of DMSO had the highest rate at 1.42-kg DMSO per kilogram of suspended solid per day after series acclimation batches in the oxygen-enriched airlift bioreactor treated with the 1187.4 mg L(-1) of DMSO. Microbial consortium was required for the complete biodegradation of DMSO without any dimethyl sulfide produced. Pseudomonas sp. W1, excreting extracellular monooxygenase identified by indole, was isolated to be one of the most effective DMSO-degrading microorganism in our airlift bioreactor.

  6. Dimethyl sulfoxide with lignocaine versus eutectic mixture of local anesthetics: prospective randomized study to compare the efficacy of cutaneous anesthesia in shock wave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Sunil; Ganesamoni, Raguram; Mandal, Arup K; Prasad, Seema; Singh, Shrawan K

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixed with lignocaine and eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) cream as topically applied surface anesthetics in relieving pain during shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in a prospective randomized study. Of the 160 patients, 80 patients received DMSO with lignocaine and 80 patients received EMLA cream, applied to the skin of the flank at the area of entry of shock waves. SWL was done with Seimens lithostar multiline lithotripter. The pain during the procedure was assessed using visual analog and verbal rating scores. The mean visual analog scale scores for the two groups were 3.03 for DMSO group and 4.43 for EMLA group. The difference of pain score on visual analog scale was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Similarly, the pain scores as rated on the verbal rating scale were also evaluated; the mean score on verbal rating scale were 2.34 for DMSO group and 3.00 for the EMLA group. The difference between the pain score on verbal rating scale was also found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). Our study showed that DMSO with lignocaine is a better local anesthetic agent for SWL than EMLA cream. The stone fragmentation and clearance rates are also better in the DMSO group.

  7. Protection against UVB-induced oxidative stress in human skin cells and skin models by methionine sulfoxide reductase A.

    PubMed

    Pelle, Edward; Maes, Daniel; Huang, Xi; Frenkel, Krystyna; Pernodet, Nadine; Yarosh, Daniel B; Zhang, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Environmental trauma to human skin can lead to oxidative damage of proteins and affect their activity and structure. When methionine becomes oxidized to its sulfoxide form, methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA) reduces it back to methionine. We report here the increase in MSRA in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) after ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, as well as the reduction in hydrogen peroxide levels in NHEK pre-treated with MSRA after exposure. Further, when NHEK were pre-treated with a non-cytotoxic pentapeptide containing methionine sulfoxide (metSO), MSRA expression increased by 18.2%. Additionally, when the media of skin models were supplemented with the metSO pentapeptide and then exposed to UVB, a 31.1% reduction in sunburn cells was evident. We conclude that the presence of MSRA or an externally applied peptide reduces oxidative damage in NHEK and skin models and that MSRA contributes to the protection of proteins against UVB-induced damage in skin.

  8. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) waste residues and municipal waste water odor by dimethyl sulfide (DMS): the north-east WPCP plant of Philadelphia.

    PubMed

    Glindemann, Dietmar; Novak, John; Witherspoon, Jay

    2006-01-01

    This study shows for the first time that overlooked mg/L concentrations of industrial dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) waste residues in sewage can cause "rotten cabbage" odor problems bydimethyl sulfide (DMS) in conventional municipal wastewater treatment. In laboratory studies, incubation of activated sludge with 1-10 mg/L DMSO in bottles produced dimethyl sulfide (DMS) at concentrations that exceeded the odor threshold by approximately 4 orders of magnitude in the headspace gas. Aeration at a rate of 6 m3 air/m3 sludge resulted in emission of the DMS into the exhaust air in a manner analogous to that of an activated sludge aeration tank. A field study atthe NEWPCP sewage treatment plant in Philadelphia found DMSO levels intermittently peaking as high as 2400 mg/L in sewage near an industrial discharger. After 3 h, the DMSO concentration in the influent to the aeration tank rose from a baseline level of less than 0.01 mg/L to a level of 5.6 mg/L and the DMS concentration in the mixed liquor rose from less than 0.01 to 0.2 mg/L. Finding this link between the intermittent occurrence of DMSO residues in influent of the treatment plant and the odorant DMS in the aeration tank was the keyto understanding and eliminating the intermittent "canned corn" or "rotten cabbage" odor emissions from the aeration tank that had randomly plagued this plant and its city neighborhood for two decades. Sewage authorities should consider having wastewater samples analyzed for DMSO and DMS to check for this possible odor problem and to determine whether DMSO emission thresholds should be established to limit odor generation at sewage treatment plants.

  9. Aqueous dissociation constants of bile pigments and sparingly soluble carboxylic acids by 13C NMR in aqueous dimethyl sulfoxide: effects of hydrogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Trull, F R; Boiadjiev, S; Lightner, D A; McDonagh, A F

    1997-06-01

    pKas for the acid dissociation of the carboxyl groups of bilirubin in water have been reported recently to be 8.1-8.4, or higher. These high values were attributed to intramolecular hydrogen bonding. They have led to suggestions that monoanions of bilirubin predominate at physiologic pH and are the species transported most readily into hepatocytes by carriers. Such high aqueous pKas are inconsistent with recent 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements on mesobilirubin XIII alpha, done on aqueous solutions containing dimethyl sulfoxide. To investigate whether the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide leads to unreliable values when using 13C NMR spectroscopy to determine pKas of carboxylic acids that can undergo intramolecular hydrogen bonding, we measured the pKas of 13C-labeled fumaric, maleic, and phthalic acids in solutions containing up to 27 vol% dimethyl sulfoxide. In addition, we used 13C NMR to estimate the pKas of 2,2'-methylenebis[5-carbomethoxy-4-methylpyrrole-3-[1-13C] propanoic acid], a model for the two central rings of bilirubin. Our results show that 13C NMR of aqueous dimethyl sulfoxide solutions can be used with confidence to measure pKas of intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded carboxylic acids. They support our previous estimates for the pKas of bilirubin and confirm that intramolecular hydrogen bonding has little effect on the acidity of bilirubins in water. Together with previous studies and chemical arguments they strongly suggest that reported aqueous pKas of > 8, or even > 6, for the carboxyl groups of bilirubin are incorrect and that arguments used to rationalize them are questionable.

  10. Absolute solvation free energy of Li{sup +} and Na{sup +} ions in dimethyl sulfoxide solution: A theoretical ab initio and cluster-continuum model study

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, Eduard; Pliego, Josefredo R. Jr.

    2005-08-15

    The solvation of the lithium and sodium ions in dimethyl sulfoxide solution was theoretically investigated using ab initio calculations coupled with the hybrid cluster-continuum model, a quasichemical theory of solvation. We have investigated clusters of ions with up to five dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) molecules, and the bulk solvent was described by a dielectric continuum model. Our results show that the lithium and sodium ions have four and five DMSO molecules into the first coordination shell, and the calculated solvation free energies are -135.5 and -108.6 kcal mol{sup -1}, respectively. These data suggest a solvation free energy value of -273.2 kcal mol{sup -1} for the proton in dimethyl sulfoxide solution, a value that is more negative than the present uncertain experimental value. This and previous studies on the solvation of ions in water solution indicate that the tetraphenylarsonium tetraphenylborate assumption is flawed and the absolute value of the free energy of transfer of ions from water to DMSO solution is higher than the present experimental values.

  11. Permeability of atenolol and propranolol in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide in rat single-pass intestinal perfusion assay with liquid chromatography/UV detection.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Gantala; Ramanathan, S; Nair, N K; Mansor, S M; Sattar, Munavvar Abdul; Khan, Md Abdul Hye; Navaratnam, V

    2007-05-01

    A simple and sensitive RP-HPLC-UV method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of atenolol and propranolol and subsequently applied to investigate the effect of dimethyl sulfoxide in rat in situ intestinal permeability studies. Atenolol (400 microm) and propranolol (100 microm) were perfused in the small intestine of anaesthetized (pentobarbitone sodium 60 mg/kg, i.p.) male Sprague-Dawley rats either in the presence (1, 3 and 5%) or in the absence of dimethyl sulfoxide. There was no significant alteration (p > 0.05) in the permeability of atenolol and propranolol, which indicated there was no effect of various concentrations of dimethyl sulfoxide (1-5%) on the membrane integrity of the rat intestinal tissues. The analytical method was validated on a C(4) column with a mobile phase comprising ammonium acetate buffer (pH 3.5, 0.02 m) and acetonitrile in the ratio of 30:70 (v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The validated method was found to be accurate and precise and stability studies were carried out at different storage conditions and both analytes were found to be stable. These findings are applicable for determining the absorbability of water-insoluble drugs and new chemical entities for the purpose of classifying them in the biopharmaceutical classification system. (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Viscosities of the ternary solution dimethyl sulfoxide/water/sodium chloride at subzero temperatures and their application in cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaozhi; Yu, Xiaoyi; Chen, Zhaojie; Chen, Guangming

    2013-04-01

    Vitrification is considered as the most promising method for long-term storage of tissues and organs. An effective way to reduce the accompanied cryoprotectant (CPA) toxicity, during CPA addition/removal, is to operate at low temperatures. The permeation process of CPA into/out of biomaterials is affected by the viscosity of CPA solution, especially at low temperatures. The objective of the present study is to measure the viscosity of the ternary solution, dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO)/water/sodium chloride (NaCl), at low temperatures and in a wide range of concentrations. A rotary viscometer coupled with a low temperature thermostat bath was used. The measurement was carried out at temperatures from -10 to -50°C. The highest mass fraction of Me2SO was 75% (w/w) and the lowest mass fraction of Me2SO was the value that kept the solution unfrozen at the measurement temperature. The concentration of NaCl was kept as a constant [0.85% (w/w), the normal salt content of extracellular fluids]. The Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) model was employed to fit the obtained viscosity data. As an example, the effect of solution viscosity on modeling the permeation of Me2SO into articular cartilage was qualitatively analyzed.

  13. Homogeneous graft copolymerization of styrene onto cellulose in a sulfur dioxide-diethylamine-dimethyl sulfoxide cellulose solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuzuki, M.; Hagiwara, I.; Shiraishi, N.; Yokota, T.

    1980-12-01

    Graft copolymerization of styrene onto cellulose was studied in a homogeneous system (SO/sub 2/(liquid)- diethylamine (DEA)-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) medium)) by ..gamma..-ray mutual irradiation technique. At the same time, homopolymerization of styrene was also examined separately in DMSO, SO/sub 2/-DMSO, DEA-DMSO, and SO/sub 2/-DEA-DMSO media by the same technique. Polymerization of styrene hardly occurs on concentrations above 10 mole SO/sub 2/-DEA complex per mole glucose unit. Maximum percent grafting was obtained in concentrations of 4 mole, after which it decreased rapidly. Total conversion and percent grafting increased with the irradiation time. The value (=0.55) of the slope of the total conversion rate plotted against the dose was only a little higher than the 1/2 which was expected from normal kinetics. No retardation in homopolymerization of styrene in DMSO, SO/sub 2/-DMSO, and DEA-DMSO was evident, while the retardation of homopolymerization in the SO/sub 2/-DEA-DMSO medium was measurable. Sulfur atoms were detected in the polymers obtained in both of SO/sub 2/-DMSO and SO/sub 2/-DEA-DMSO solutions. All of the molecular weights of polymers obtained in the present experiment were very low (3.9 x 10/sup 3/-1.75 x 10/sup 4/).

  14. Effects of dimethyl sulfoxide in cholesterol-containing lipid membranes: a comparative study of experiments in silico and with cells.

    PubMed

    de Ménorval, Marie-Amélie; Mir, Lluis M; Fernández, M Laura; Reigada, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been known to enhance cell membrane permeability of drugs or DNA. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with single-component lipid bilayers predicted the existence of three regimes of action of DMSO: membrane loosening, pore formation and bilayer collapse. We show here that these modes of action are also reproduced in the presence of cholesterol in the bilayer, and we provide a description at the atomic detail of the DMSO-mediated process of pore formation in cholesterol-containing lipid membranes. We also successfully explore the applicability of DMSO to promote plasma membrane permeability to water, calcium ions (Ca(2+)) and Yo-Pro-1 iodide (Yo-Pro-1) in living cell membranes. The experimental results on cells in culture can be easily explained according to the three expected regimes: in the presence of low doses of DMSO, the membrane of the cells exhibits undulations but no permeability increase can be detected, while at intermediate DMSO concentrations cells are permeabilized to water and calcium but not to larger molecules as Yo-Pro-1. These two behaviors can be associated to the MD-predicted consequences of the effects of the DMSO at low and intermediate DMSO concentrations. At larger DMSO concentrations, permeabilization is larger, as even Yo-Pro-1 can enter the cells as predicted by the DMSO-induced membrane-destructuring effects described in the MD simulations.

  15. Modulation of brain metabolism by very low concentrations of the commonly used drug delivery vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO).

    PubMed

    Nasrallah, Fatima A; Garner, Brett; Ball, Graham E; Rae, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has long been used in studies as a vehicle to enhance the solubility and transport of ligands in biological systems. The effects of this drug on the outcomes of such studies are still unclear, with concentrations of DMSO reported as "safe" varying considerably. In the present work, we investigated the effects of very low concentrations of DMSO on the brain metabolism of [3-(13)C]pyruvate and D-[1-(13)C]glucose using (1)H/(13)C NMR spectroscopy and a guinea pig cortical brain slice model. Our results show that DMSO is accumulated by brain slices. DMSO at all concentrations [0.000025%-0.25% (v/v)] increased the metabolic rate when [3-(13)C]pyruvate was used as a substrate and also in the presence of D-[1-(13)C]glucose (0.00025%-0.1% DMSO). These results are consistent with DMSO stimulating respiration, which it may do through altering the kinetics of ATP-requiring reactions. Our results also emphasize that there is no practical concentration of DMSO that can be used in metabolic experiments without effect. Therefore, care should be taken when evaluating the actions of drugs administered in combination with DMSO.

  16. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Induced Destabilization and Disassembly of Various Structural Variants of Insulin Fibrils Monitored by Vibrational Circular Dichroism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ge; Babenko, Viktoria; Dzwolak, Wojciech; Keiderling, Timothy A

    2015-12-15

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) induced destabilization of insulin fibrils has been previously studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and interpreted in terms of secondary structural changes. The variation of this process for fibrils with different types of higher-order morphological structures remained unclear. Here, we utilize vibrational circular dichroism (VCD), which has been reported to provide a useful biophysical probe of the supramolecular chirality of amyloid fibrils, to characterize changes in the macroscopic chirality following DMSO-induced disassembly for two types of insulin fibrils formed under different conditions, at different reduced pH values with and without added salt and agitation. We confirm that very high concentrations of DMSO can disaggregate both types of insulin fibrils, which initially maintained a β-sheet conformation and eventually changed their secondary structure to a disordered form. The two types responded to varying concentrations of DMSO, and disaggregation followed different mechanisms. Interconversion of specific insulin fibril morphological types also occurred during the destabilization process as monitored by VCD. With transmission electron microscopy, we were able to correlate the changes in VCD sign patterns to alteration of morphology of the insulin fibrils.

  17. Positive and negative ion formation in deep-core excited molecules: S 1s excitation in dimethyl sulfoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Coutinho, L. H.; Gardenghi, D. J.; Schlachter, A. S.; Souza, G. G. B. de; Stolte, W. C.

    2014-01-14

    The photo-fragmentation of the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) molecule was studied using synchrotron radiation and a magnetic mass spectrometer. The total cationic yield spectrum was recorded in the photon energy region around the sulfur K edge. The sulfur composition of the highest occupied molecular orbital's and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital's in the DMSO molecule has been obtained using both ab initio and density functional theory methods. Partial cation and anion-yield measurements were obtained in the same energy range. An intense resonance is observed at 2475.4 eV. Sulfur atomic ions present a richer structure around this resonant feature, as compared to other fragment ions. The yield curves are similar for most of the other ionic species, which we interpret as due to cascade Auger processes leading to multiply charged species which then undergo Coulomb explosion. The anions S{sup −}, C{sup −}, and O{sup −} are observed for the first time in deep-core-level excitation of DMSO.

  18. Formation and Luminescence Phenomena of LaF3:Ce3+ Nanoparticles and Lanthanide-Organic Compounds in Dimethyl Sulfoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Mingzhen; Joly, Alan G.; Chen, Wei

    2010-01-21

    LaF3:Ce3+ doped nanoparticles were synthesized at different temperatures in dimethyl sulfoxide by the chemical reaction of lanthanum nitrate hydrate and cerium nitrate hexahydrate with ammonium fluoride. The formation of Ce3+ doped LaF3 nanoparticles is confirmed by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. An intense emission at around 310 nm from the d - f transition of Ce3+ was observed from the LaF3:Ce3+ powder samples. However, in solution samples, the ultraviolet emission from Ce3+ is mostly absent, but intense luminescence is observed in the visible range from blue to red. The emission wavelength of the solution samples is dependent on the reaction time and temperature. More interestingly, the emission wavelength varies with the excitation wavelength. Most likely, this emission is from the metalorganic compounds of Ce3+ or La3+ and DMSO as similar phenomena are also observed when lanthanum nitrate hydrate or cerium nitrate hexahydrate are heated in DMSO.

  19. Recovery of Leptospires in Short- and Medium-Term Cryopreservation Using Different Glycerol and Dimethyl Sulfoxide Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Narduche, Lorena; Hamond, Camila; Martins, Gabriel M S; Medeiros, Marco A; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2016-02-01

    Cryopreservation is a recognized method for the maintenance of Leptospira collections. Although cryoprotectants are commonly used in order to prevent or reduce the adverse effects of freezing, there is no consensus regarding the protocols of cryopreservation. This study aimed to compare cryopreservation protocols for Leptospira using different glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) concentrations. Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae, L. interrogans serovar Bratislava, and L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo were used as the experimental strains. For each strain, three protocols were tested using 5% and 10% glycerol and 2.5% DMSO. For each protocol, 12 tubes containing 1.5 mL of serovar were frozen at -70°C on the same day. An aliquot of each serovar/protocol was thawed once a month throughout 1 year. The viability of leptospires was evaluated by the recovery of those at days 7, 14, and 21 after thawing. Although no significant difference was found among the leptospiral recovery rates for the 9 serovar/protocols tested, DMSO (2.5%) was shown to be slightly better than glycerol, and its use should be encouraged as a cryoprotectant for leptospires.

  20. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on bond durability of fiber posts cemented with etch-and-rinse adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Sarafraz, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study was undertaken to investigate whether use of an adhesive penetration enhancer, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), improves bond stability of fiber posts to root dentin using two two-step etch-and-rinse resin cements. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty human maxillary central incisor roots were randomly divided into 4 groups after endodontic treatment and post space preparation, based on the fiber post/cement used with and without DMSO pretreatment. Acid-etched root dentin was treated with 5% DMSO aqueous solution for 60 seconds or with distilled water (control) prior to the application of Excite DSC/Variolink II or One-Step Plus/Duo-link for post cementation. After micro-slicing the bonded root dentin, push-out bond strength (P-OBS) test was performed immediately or after 1-year of water storage in each group. Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Student's t-test (α=.05). RESULTS A significant effect of time, DMSO treatment, and treatment × time interaction were observed (P<.001). DMSO did not affect immediate bonding of the two cements. Aging significantly reduced P-OBS in control groups (P<.001), while in DMSO-treated groups, no difference in P-OBS was observed after aging (P>.05). CONCLUSION DMSO-wet bonding might be a beneficial method in preserving the stability of resin-dentin bond strength over time when fiber post is cemented with the tested etch-and-rinse adhesive cements. PMID:27555893

  1. Spectroscopic and Electronic Structure Studies of a Dimethyl Sulfoxide Reductase Catalytic Intermediate: Implications for Electron and Atom Transfer Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Mtei, Regina P.; Lyashenko, Ganna; Stein, Benjamin; Rubie, Nick; Hille, Russ; Kirk, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    The electronic structure of a genuine paramagnetic des-oxo Mo(V) catalytic intermediate in the reaction of dimethyl sulfoxide reductase (DMSOR) with (CH3)3NO has been probed by EPR, electronic absorption and MCD spectroscopies. EPR spectroscopy reveals rhombic g- and A-tensors that indicate a low-symmetry geometry for this intermediate and a singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) that is dominantly metal centered. The excited state spectroscopic data were interpreted in the context of electronic structure calculations, and this has resulted in a full assignment of the observed magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) and electronic absorption bands, a detailed understanding of the metal-ligand bonding scheme, and an evaluation of the Mo(V) coordination geometry and Mo(V)-Sdithiolene covalency as it pertains to the stability of the intermediate and electron transfer regeneration. Finally, the relationship between des-oxo Mo(V) and des-oxo Mo(IV) geometric and electronic structures is discussed relative to the reaction coordinate in members of the DMSOR enzyme family. PMID:21648481

  2. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on bond durability of fiber posts cemented with etch-and-rinse adhesives.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Memarpour, Mahtab; Sarafraz, Zahra

    2016-08-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether use of an adhesive penetration enhancer, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), improves bond stability of fiber posts to root dentin using two two-step etch-and-rinse resin cements. Forty human maxillary central incisor roots were randomly divided into 4 groups after endodontic treatment and post space preparation, based on the fiber post/cement used with and without DMSO pretreatment. Acid-etched root dentin was treated with 5% DMSO aqueous solution for 60 seconds or with distilled water (control) prior to the application of Excite DSC/Variolink II or One-Step Plus/Duo-link for post cementation. After micro-slicing the bonded root dentin, push-out bond strength (P-OBS) test was performed immediately or after 1-year of water storage in each group. Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Student's t-test (α=.05). A significant effect of time, DMSO treatment, and treatment × time interaction were observed (P<.001). DMSO did not affect immediate bonding of the two cements. Aging significantly reduced P-OBS in control groups (P<.001), while in DMSO-treated groups, no difference in P-OBS was observed after aging (P>.05). DMSO-wet bonding might be a beneficial method in preserving the stability of resin-dentin bond strength over time when fiber post is cemented with the tested etch-and-rinse adhesive cements.

  3. The tetraheme cytochrome CymA is required for anaerobic respiration with dimethyl sulfoxide and nitrite in Shewanella oneidensis.

    PubMed

    Schwalb, Carsten; Chapman, Stephen K; Reid, Graeme A

    2003-08-12

    The tetraheme c-type cytochrome, CymA, from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 has previously been shown to be required for respiration with Fe(III), nitrate, and fumarate [Myers, C. R., and Myers, J. M. (1997) J. Bacteriol. 179, 1143-1152]. It is located in the cytoplasmic membrane where the bulk of the protein is exposed to the periplasm, enabling it to transfer electrons to a series of redox partners. We have expressed and purified a soluble derivative of CymA (CymA(sol)) that lacks the N-terminal membrane anchor. We show here, by direct measurements of electron transfer between the purified proteins, that CymA(sol) efficiently reduces S. oneidensis fumarate reductase. This indicates that no further proteins are required for electron transfer between the quinone pool and fumarate if we assume direct reduction of CymA by quinols. By expressing CymA(sol) in a mutant lacking CymA, we have shown that this soluble form of the protein can complement the defect in fumarate respiration. We also demonstrate that CymA is essential for growth with DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) and for reduction of nitrite, implicating CymA in at least five different electron transfer pathways in Shewanella.

  4. Heat-induced conformation transition of the comb-branched β-glucan in dimethyl sulfoxide/water mixture.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuqin; Xu, Xiaojuan; Xu, Min; O'Leary, Timothy R; Zhang, Lina

    2017-02-10

    We studied the chain conformation transition of the comb-branched β-glucan (AF1) isolated from Auricularia auricula-judae by heating associated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The results from (1)H NMR and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) indicated that the reversible hydrogen bonds between side chains of AF1 and water clusters formed at relatively low temperatures. With increasing vDMSO to 0.70, the transition temperature (Tm) increased from 9 to 71°C, and then decreased to 57°C with continuously increasing vDMSO due to the competition between DMSO and water for forming hydrogen bonds. Additionally, the combined analysis of (13)C NMR, viscosity and light scattering revealed an obvious stiff-to-flexible chain conformation transition of AF1, which occurred at 95-130°C, 120-145°C and 130-160°C with vDMSO of 0.90, 0.85 and 0.70, respectively. This work demonstrated that AF1 has complex structure under different conditions, and the results obtained herein would benefit us to understand its specific behaviors including hollow fibril and anti-hepatoma activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acid-base equilibrium dynamics in methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide probed by two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chiho; Son, Hyewon; Park, Sungnam

    2015-07-21

    Two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy, which has been proven to be an excellent experimental method for studying thermally-driven chemical processes, was successfully used to investigate the acid dissociation equilibrium of HN3 in methanol (CH3OH) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for the first time. Our 2DIR experimental results indicate that the acid-base equilibrium occurs on picosecond timescales in CH3OH but that it occurs on much longer timescales in DMSO. Our results imply that the different timescales of the acid-base equilibrium originate from different proton transfer mechanisms between the acidic (HN3) and basic (N3(-)) species in CH3OH and DMSO. In CH3OH, the acid-base equilibrium is assisted by the surrounding CH3OH molecules which can directly donate H(+) to N3(-) and accept H(+) from HN3 and the proton migrates through the hydrogen-bonded chain of CH3OH. On the other hand, the acid-base equilibrium in DMSO occurs through the mutual diffusion of HN3 and N3(-) or direct proton transfer. Our 2DIR experimental results corroborate different proton transfer mechanisms in the acid-base equilibrium in protic (CH3OH) and aprotic (DMSO) solvents.

  6. Nucleation and growth of ice crystals inside cultured hepatocytes during freezing in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, J O; Cravalho, E G; Borel Rinkes, I H; Tompkins, R G; Yarmush, M L; Toner, M

    1993-01-01

    A three-part, coupled model of cell dehydration, nucleation, and crystal growth was used to study intracellular ice formation (IIF) in cultured hepatocytes frozen in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Heterogeneous nucleation temperatures were predicted as a function of DMSO concentration and were in good agreement with experimental data. Simulated freezing protocols correctly predicted and explained experimentally observed effects of cooling rate, warming rate, and storage temperature on hepatocyte function. For cells cooled to -40 degrees C, no IIF occurred for cooling rates less than 10 degrees C/min. IIF did occur at faster cooling rates, and the predicted volume of intracellular ice increased with increasing cooling rate. Cells cooled at 5 degrees C/min to -80 degrees C were shown to undergo nucleation at -46.8 degrees C, with the consequence that storage temperatures above this value resulted in high viability independent of warming rate, whereas colder storage temperatures resulted in cell injury for slow warming rates. Cell damage correlated positively with predicted intracellular ice volume, and an upper limit for the critical ice content was estimated to be 3.7% of the isotonic water content. The power of the model was limited by difficulties in estimating the cytosol viscosity and membrane permeability as functions of DMSO concentration at low temperatures. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8312489

  7. Palliative treatment for advanced biliary adenocarcinomas with combination dimethyl sulfoxide-sodium bicarbonate infusion and S-adenosyl-L-methionine.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Ba X; Tran, Hung Q; Vu, Ut V; Pham, Quynh T; Shaw, D Graeme

    2014-09-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder and cholangiocarcinoma account for 4% and 3%, respectively, of all gastrointestinal cancers. Advanced biliary tract carcinoma has a very poor prognosis with all current available modalities of treatment. In this pilot open-label study, the authors investigated the efficacy and safety of a combination of dimethyl sulfoxide-sodium bicarbonate (DMSO-SB) infusion and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (ademetionine) oral supplementation as palliative pharmacotherapy in nine patients with advanced nonresectable biliary tract carcinomas (ABTCs). Patients with evidence of biliary obstruction with a total serum bilirubin ≤300 μmol/L were allowed to join the study. The results of this 6-month study and follow-up of all nine patients with ABTC indicated that the investigated combination treatment improved pain control, blood biochemical parameters, and quality of life for the patients. Moreover, this method of treatment has led to a 6-month progression-free survival for all investigated patients. The treatment was well tolerated for all patients without major adverse reactions. Given that ABTC is a highly fatal malignancy with poor response to chemotherapy and targeted drugs, the authors consider that the combination of DMSO-SB and ademetionine deserves further research and application as a palliative care and survival-enhancing treatment for this group of patients.

  8. Dimethyl sulfoxide-sodium bicarbonate infusion for palliative care and pain relief in patients with metastatic prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Ba X; Le, Bao T; Tran, Hau D; Hoang, Cuong; Tran, Hung Q; Tran, Dao M; Pham, Cu Q; Pham, Tuan D; Ha, Trung V; Bui, Nga T; Shaw, D Graeme

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (adenocarcinoma of the prostate) is the most widespread cancer in men. It causes significant suffering and mortality due to metastatic disease. The main therapy for metastatic prostate cancer (MPC) includes androgen manipulation, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy and/or radioisotopes. However, these therapeutic approaches are considered palliative at this stage, and their significant side effects can cause further decline in patients' quality of life and increase non-cancer-related morbidity/mortality. In this study, the authors have used the infusion of dimethyl sulfoxide-sodium bicarbonate (DMSO-SB) to treat 18 patients with MPC. The 90-day follow-up of the patients having undergone the proposed therapeutic regimen showed significant improvement in clinical symptoms, blood and biochemistry tests, and quality of life. There were no major side effects from the treatment. In searching for new and better methods for palliative treatment and pain relief, this study strongly suggested therapy with DMSO-SB infusions could provide a rational alternative to conventional treatment for patients with MPC.

  9. Effects of Dimethyl Sulfoxide in Cholesterol-Containing Lipid Membranes: A Comparative Study of Experiments In Silico and with Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Ménorval, Marie-Amélie; Mir, Lluis M.; Fernández, M. Laura; Reigada, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been known to enhance cell membrane permeability of drugs or DNA. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with single-component lipid bilayers predicted the existence of three regimes of action of DMSO: membrane loosening, pore formation and bilayer collapse. We show here that these modes of action are also reproduced in the presence of cholesterol in the bilayer, and we provide a description at the atomic detail of the DMSO-mediated process of pore formation in cholesterol-containing lipid membranes. We also successfully explore the applicability of DMSO to promote plasma membrane permeability to water, calcium ions (Ca2+) and Yo-Pro-1 iodide (Yo-Pro-1) in living cell membranes. The experimental results on cells in culture can be easily explained according to the three expected regimes: in the presence of low doses of DMSO, the membrane of the cells exhibits undulations but no permeability increase can be detected, while at intermediate DMSO concentrations cells are permeabilized to water and calcium but not to larger molecules as Yo-Pro-1. These two behaviors can be associated to the MD-predicted consequences of the effects of the DMSO at low and intermediate DMSO concentrations. At larger DMSO concentrations, permeabilization is larger, as even Yo-Pro-1 can enter the cells as predicted by the DMSO-induced membrane-destructuring effects described in the MD simulations. PMID:22848583

  10. The effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on the acute phase of experimental acid and alkali corrosive esophageal burns.

    PubMed

    Kilincaslan, H; Ozbey, H; Olgac, V

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on the acute phase of experimental corrosive esophageal burns. Fifty male rats were allocated into five groups (control, acid burn, alkali burn, acid burn + DMSO and alkali burn + DMSO) of ten rats each. Acid and alkali burns were creating by burning the distal esophagus with 1 N hydrochloric acid and 50% sodium hydroxide solution, respectively. DMSO was applied intraperitoneally at 15 minutes after burn creation and then every 12 hours for four days. All animals were sacrificed at the end of the 7th day. Histopathological changes in esophageal tissue were scored by a single investigator who was blind to the burn group. Application of DMSO resulted in a significant decrease in the severity of acute tissue damage as measured by macroscopic and microscopic assessments in both the acidic and alkaline esophagitis groups. The increased immunohistochemical Ki-67 proliferation index was significantly suppressed in the DMSO-treated alkaline esophagitis group, p < 0.05. Furthermore, the immunoreactivity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) was significantly reduced in both the acid and alkali DMSO-treated groups, p < 0.05. DMSO reduced the acute phase symptoms and decreased the severity of tissue damage in both acidic and alkaline corrosive esophagitis.

  11. Cryopreserved stem cell products containing dimethyl sulfoxide lead to activation of the coagulation system without any impact on engraftment.

    PubMed

    Holbro, Andreas; Graf, Lukas; Topalidou, Maria; Bucher, Christoph; Passweg, Jakob R; Tsakiris, Dimitrios A

    2014-06-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is extensively used as a cryoprotectant in stem cell preservation. Little is known on direct hemostatic changes in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), immediately after DMSO administration. The objectives of the current study were to measure hemostatic changes during HSCT. In this prospective analysis, changes in plasma biomarkers, platelets (PLTs), or endothelial cells (D-dimers, thrombin-antithrombin complex [TAT], microparticle activity as thrombin-generation potential [MPA], whole blood aggregation, von Willebrand factor) were measured before and immediately after HSCT. Furthermore, associations with clinical complications were recorded. A total of 54 patients were included in the study. Mean MPA and TAT increased significantly immediately after HSCT, returning to baseline the day after the procedure (p<0.01). No significant differences in engraftment for neutrophils and PLTs were found in patients presenting a high increase of TAT or MPA compared with those presenting with a smaller increase. Patients with a high increase in TAT and MPA had received a greater number of total mononucleated cells (p<0.001) and higher transplant volumes (p=0.002). Infusion of stem cells containing DMSO reversibly activated coagulation, measured as thrombin generation. This finding was not associated with acute adverse events and did not influence engraftment. Further studies are needed to compare variable DMSO concentrations as well as DMSO-free products, to better address the influence of DMSO on hemostasis. © 2013 AABB.

  12. Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Ethanol Elicit Increased Amyloid Biogenesis and Amyloid-Integrated Biofilm Formation in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji Youn; May, Janine M.

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli directs the assembly of functional amyloid fibers termed “curli” that mediate adhesion and biofilm formation. We discovered that E. coli exhibits a tunable and selective increase in curli protein expression and fiber assembly in response to moderate concentrations of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethanol. Furthermore, the molecular alterations resulted in dramatic functional phenotypes associated with community behavior, including (i) cellular agglutination in broth, (ii) altered colony morphology, and (iii) increased biofilm formation. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of intact pellicles formed in the presence of [13C2]DMSO confirmed that DMSO was not being transformed and utilized directly for metabolism. Collectively, the chemically induced phenotypes emphasize the plasticity of E. coli's response to environmental stimuli to enhance amyloid production and amyloid-integrated biofilm formation. The data also support our developing model of the extracellular matrix as an organized assembly of polymeric components, including amyloid fibers, in which composition relates to bacterial physiology and community function. PMID:22389366

  13. 2-[(1-{[3-(dimethylazaniumyl)propyl]methylamino}ethylidene)azaniumyl]-nona-hydro-closo-deca-borate dimethyl sulfoxide disolvate.

    PubMed

    Getman, Thomas D; Luck, Rudy L; Cienkus, Caitlin

    2011-07-01

    The title compound, 2-B(10)H(9)NH=C(CH(3))N(CH(3))CH(2)CH(2)CH(2)N(CH(3))(2)H·2C(2)H(6)OS or C(8)H(29)B(10)N(3)·2C(2)H(6)OS, is zwitterionic with the negative charge localized on the deca-borate cage and the positive charge on the terminal ammonium group. Two mol-ecules of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and one mol-ecule of the title compound constitute the asymmetric unit. One DMSO mol-ecule is disordered [ratio 0.739 (3):0.261 (3)]. The bonds and angles within the deca-borate cage are within the normal ranges. The amidine fragment of the ligand, which is expected to be planar, is significantly distorted from planarity as exemplified by four torsion angles [B-N-C-C = 8.4 (3), H-N-C-N = 5(2), N-C-N-C = 7.3 (3) and C-C-N-C = 14.8 (3)°] found within this portion of the mol-ecule. The crystal packing consists of head-to-tail-arranged dimers of the title mol-ecule held together by four mol-ecules of DMSO which are attached via strong N-H⋯O and weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds.

  14. Inhibition of transcription and translation of globin messenger RNA in dimethyl sulfoxide-stimulated Friend erythroleukemic cells treated with interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, G B; Dolei, A; Cioé, L; Benedetto, A; Matarese, G P; Belardelli, F

    1977-01-01

    The addition of appropriate doses of interferon (IF) to cultures of Friend erythroleukemic cells inhibits dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO)-stimulated erythroid differentiation. In this study, the synthesis of heme, hemoglobin, and globin mRNA in Me2SO-stimulated cultures, with or without IF added, was compared. Although the hemoglobin content in Me2SO+IF-treated cultures was reduced 6- to 9-fold compared to that of cultures treated with Me2SO alone, there was less than a 2-fold decrease in the amount of heme accumulated. Globin mRNA, although unchanged in size or base sequence, was reduced in content in the Me2SO+IF cultures. The level of reduction of globin mRNA was insufficient to account for the lack of globin synthesis. Thus, it appears that IF may operate on two levels--one involving the transcription of globin mRNA and the other involving its translation. PMID:266723

  15. Structures and Intermolecular Interactions in Dimethyl Sulfoxide-Water System Studied by All-atom Molecular Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rong; Wu, Wen-juan

    2010-10-01

    An all-atom dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and water model have been used for molecular dynamics simulation. The NMR and IR spectra are also performed to study the structures and interactions in the DMSO-water system. And there are traditional strong hydrogen bonds and weak C-H ··· O contacts existing in the mixtures according to the analysis of the radial distribution functions. The insight structures in the DMSO-water mixtures can be classified into different regions by the analysis of the hydrogen-bonding network. Interestingly, the molar fraction of DMSO 0.35 is found to be a special concentration by the network. It is the transitional region which is from the water rich region to the DMSO rich region. The stable aggregates of (DMSO)m·S=O···HW-OW·(H2O)n might play a key role in this region. Moreover, the simulation is compared with the chemical shifts in NMR and wavenumbers in IR with concentration dependence. And the statistical results of the average number hydrogen bonds in the MD simulations are in agreement with the experiment data in NMR and IR spectra.

  16. Interaction of 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide with dimethyl sulfoxide reductase of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Z; Weiner, J H

    1998-08-14

    We have studied the interaction of the menaquinol analog 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide (HOQNO) with dimethyl sulfoxide reductase (DmsABC) and the effect of a mutation in the DmsC subunit (DmsABCH65R) using fluorescence titration and stopped-flow methods. The titration data show that the HOQNO fluorescence is quenched when HOQNO binds to DmsABC. The binding stoichiometry is determined to be about 1:1. The mutant DmsABCH65R blocks HOQNO binding to the protein. It is therefore proposed that there is one high-affinity HOQNO binding site per DmsABC molecule located in the DmsC subunit. Stopped-flow kinetic studies show that the interaction can be described by a two-step equilibrium model, a fast bimolecular step followed by a slow unimolecular step. The quenching of HOQNO fluorescence occurs in the bimolecular step. The rates for the forward and reverse reaction of the first equilibrium are determined to be k1 = (3.9 +/- 0.3) x 10(5) M-1 s-1 and k2 = 0. 10 +/- 0.01 s-1, respectively. The dissociation constant for the first equilibrium, Kd1 = k2/k1, is calculated to be about 260 nM. The upper limit of the overall dissociation constant is estimated to be 6 nM.

  17. Anti-cytochrome P450 IIE1 (anti IIE1) and dimethyl sulfoxide inhibit acetaminophen and dimethylnitrosamine oxidation similarly

    SciTech Connect

    Jaw, S.; Jeffery, E.H. ); Roberts, D.W. )

    1991-03-11

    To evaluate specificity of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), the authors compared anti IIE1 and DMSO inhibition of P450 oxidations. Hepatic microsomes from control and acetone-induced female Swiss-Webster mice were preincubated with polyclonal anti IIE1 or IgG for 20 min at 4C before addition of an NADPH-generating system, DMSO or buffer, and substrate (Ethylmorphine, EM; dimethylnitrosamine, DMN; or acetaminophen, AP; 1 mM final concentration). After 20 min at 37C, the incubations were terminated by adding 20% trichloroacetic acid or methanol. Formaldehyde was determined by the Nash method when using EM or DMN as substrate. AP-glutathione conjugate was determined by HPLC when using AP as substrate. Anti IIE1 and DMSO did not inhibit EM demethylation in control or acetone microsomes. However, DMSO inhibited DMN demethylation by 26% and 64% in control and 30% and 75% in acetone microsomes. Anti IIE1 inhibited DMN demethylation by 44% and 24% in control and acetone microsomes, respectively. DMSO inhibited AP metabolism by 31% and 56% and anti IIE1 inhibited AP metabolism by 33%, in control microsomes. The inhibitions of DMN and AP metabolism by anti IIE1 and DMSO were only additive at submaximal inhibitor concentrations and confirm that DMSO specifically inhibits IIE1 activity.

  18. Complex formation of peptide antibiotic Ro09-0198 with lysophosphatidylethanolamine: sup 1 H NMR analyses of dimethyl sulfoxide solution

    SciTech Connect

    Wakamatsu, Kaori; Choung, Seyoung; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Inoue, Keizo; Higashijima, Tsutomu ); Miyazawa, Tatsuo )

    1990-01-09

    Ro09-0198 is a peptide antibiotic and immunopotentiator produced by Streptoverticillium griseoverticillatum which exhibits antitumor and antimicrobial activities. The chemical structure has been determined. This peptide specifically interacts with (lyso)phosphatidylethanolamine, causing hemolysis and enhancing permeability in phosphatidylethanolamine-containing vesicles. The highly specific nature of the interaction was studied by two dimensional proton NMR analyses. Proton resonances of the peptide were observed in dimethyl sulfoxide solution in the presence of 1-dodecanoyl-sn-glycerophosphoethanolamine. By comparison to the chemical shifts in the absence of lysophosphatidylethanolamine and by analysis of intermolecular cross-peaks in NOESY spectra, amino acid residues involved in the binding with the phospholipid were identified. The ammonium group of the phospholipid interacts with the carboxylate group of {beta}-hydroxyaspartic acid-15 but not with that of the carboxylate terminus. The secondary ammonium group of lysinoalanine-19/6 is probably bound to the phosphate group of the lipid. The peptide does not interact strongly with the fatty acid chain of the lipid. A folded structure of the central part (from Phe{sup 7} to Ala(S){sup 14}) of the peptide opens on binding with the phospholipid and accommodates the glycerophoethanolamine head group.

  19. Effect of Calcium Chloride on the Permeation of the Cryoprotectant Dimethyl Sulfoxide to Japanese Whiting Sillago japonica Embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Sk. Mustafizur; Majhi, Sullip Kumar; Suzuki, Toru; Strussmann, Carlos Augusto; Watanabe, Manabu

    Cryopreservation of fish eggs and embryos is a highly desired tool to promote aquaculture production and fisheries resource management, but it is still not technically feasible. The failure to develop successful cryopreservation protocols for fish embryos is largely attributed to poor cryoprotectant permeability. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of CaCl2 to enhance cryoprotectant uptake by fish embryos. In this study, embryos (somites and tail elongation stages) of Japanese whiting Sillago japonica were exposed to 10 and 15% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in artificial sea water (ASW) or a solution of 0.125M CaCl2 in distilled water for 20 min at 24°C. The toxicity of all solutions was estimated from the hatching rates of the embryos and High Performance Liquid Chromatography was used to determine the amount of DMSO taken up during impregnation. The results showed that DMSO incorporation into the embryos was greatly (›50%) enhanced in the presence of CaCl2 compared to ASW. CaCl2 itself was not toxic to the embryos but, probably as a result of the enhanced DMSO uptake, caused decreases in survival of about 14-44% relative to ASW. Somites stage embryos were more tolerant than tail elongation ones to DMSO both as ASW and CaCl2 solutions. The use of CaCl2 as a vehicle for DMSO impregnation could be a promising aid for the successful cryopreservation of fish embryos.

  20. Single-Ion Solvation Free Energies and the Normal Hydrogen Electrode Potential in Methanol, Acetonitrile, and Dimethyl Sulfoxide

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Casey P.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2008-01-01

    The division of thermodynamic solvation free energies of electrolytes into ionic constituents is conventionally accomplished by using the single-ion solvation free energy of one reference ion, conventionally the proton, to set the single-ion scales. Thus the determination of the free energy of solvation of the proton in various solvents is a fundamental issue of central importance in solution chemistry. In the present article, relative solvation free energies of ions and ion-solvent clusters in methanol, acetonitrile, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) have been determined using a combination of experimental and theoretical gas-phase free energies of formation, solution-phase reduction potentials and acid dissociation constants, and gas-phase clustering free energies. Applying the cluster pair approximation to differences between these relative solvation free energies leads to values of −263.5, −260.2, and −273.3 kcal/mol for the absolute solvation free energy of the proton in methanol, acetonitrile, and DMSO, respectively. The final absolute proton solvation free energies are used to assign absolute values for the normal hydrogen electrode potential and the solvation free energies of other single ions in the above solvents. PMID:17214493

  1. Assessment of the genotoxicity of three cryoprotectants used for human oocyte vitrification: dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol and propylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Aye, M; Di Giorgio, C; De Mo, M; Botta, A; Perrin, J; Courbiere, B

    2010-07-01

    Vitrification requires high concentrations of cryoprotectants that may induce long-term toxic effects on cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible genotoxicity of three cryoprotectants extensively used for oocyte vitrification: dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PROH). For this purpose, a Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line (CHO), commonly used in genetic toxicology, was selected as an in vitro biological model to assess both the induction of DNA strand-breaks as identifiable by the alkaline comet assay and the persistence of chromosomal damages (micronuclei) as analyzed by the micronucleus assay. Results showed that DMSO was not genotoxic. EG did not exert direct genotoxic activity, however EG exhibited significant genotoxic and clastogenic activities in the presence of an external cytochrome-based P450 oxidation system (S9 Mix). PrOH produced in vitro DNA-damage leading to chromosome mutations in the presence and absence of the S9 Mix. These results showed that high concentrations of EG and PrOH could induce in vitro chromosomal damage in eukaryotic cells.

  2. Fullerenol C60(OH)24 nanoparticles decrease relaxing effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on rat uterus spontaneous contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavic, Marija; Djordjevic, Aleksandar; Radojicic, Ratko; Milovanovic, Slobodan; Orescanin-Dusic, Zorana; Rakocevic, Zlatko; Spasic, Mihajlo B.; Blagojevic, Dusko

    2013-05-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a widely used solvent and cryoprotectant that can cause impaired blood flow, reduction in intracranial pressure, tissue edema, inflammatory reactions, inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, processes which can lead to atherosclerosis of the coronary, peripheral and cerebral circulation. Although the adverse effects are rare when DMSO is administered in clinically established concentrations, there is no safe antagonist for an overdose. In this work, we treated isolated spontaneous and calcium-induced contractile active rat uteri (Wistar, virgo intacta), with DMSO and fullerenol C60(OH)24 nanoparticle (FNP) in DMSO. FNP is a water-soluble derivative of fullerene C60. Its size is a 1.1 nm in diameter and is a very promising candidate for a drug carrier in nanomedicine. FNP also displays free radical scavenging activity. DMSO decreased both spontaneous and calcium-induced contractions. In contrast, FNP only decreased spontaneous contraction. FNP decreased copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activity and prevented the DMSO-induced increase in glutathione reductase activity. Atomic force microscopy detected that FNP aggregated with calcium ions. Our results indicate that FNP has properties that make it a good candidate to be a modulator of DMSO activity which could minimize side effects of the latter.

  3. Should the standard dimethyl sulfoxide concentration be reduced? Results of a European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation prospective noninterventional study on usage and side effects of dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Morris, Curly; de Wreede, Liesbeth; Scholten, Marijke; Brand, Ronald; van Biezen, Anja; Sureda, Anna; Dickmeiss, Ebbe; Trneny, Marek; Apperley, Jane; Chiusolo, Patrizia; van Imhoff, Gustaaf W; Lenhoff, Stig; Martinelli, Giovanni; Hentrich, Marcus; Pabst, Thomas; Onida, Francesco; Quinn, Michael; Kroger, Nicolaus; de Witte, Theo; Ruutu, Tapani

    2014-10-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is essential for the preservation of liquid nitrogen-frozen stem cells, but is associated with toxicity in the transplant recipient. In this prospective noninterventional study, we describe the use of DMSO in 64 European Blood and Marrow Transplant Group centers undertaking autologous transplantation on patients with myeloma and lymphoma and analyze side effects after return of DMSO-preserved stem cells. While the majority of centers continue to use 10% DMSO, a significant proportion either use lower concentrations, mostly 5 or 7.5%, or wash cells before infusion (some for selected patients only). In contrast, the median dose of DMSO given (20 mL) was much less than the upper limit set by the same institutions (70 mL). In an accompanying statistical analysis of side effects noted after return of DMSO-preserved stem cells, we show that patients in the highest quartile receiving DMSO (mL and mL/kg body weight) had significantly more side effects attributed to DMSO, although this effect was not observed if DMSO was calculated as mL/min. Dividing the myeloma and lymphoma patients each into two equal groups by age we were able to confirm this result in all but young myeloma patients in whom an inversion of the odds ratio was seen, possibly related to the higher dose of melphalan received by young myeloma patients. We suggest better standardization of preservation method with reduced DMSO concentration and attention to the dose of DMSO received by patients could help reduce the toxicity and morbidity of the transplant procedure. © 2014 AABB.

  4. Ion transport through dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) induced transient water pores in cell membranes.

    PubMed

    He, Fei; Liu, Weirong; Zheng, Shengchao; Zhou, Li; Ye, Benlan; Qi, Zhi

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) increases membrane permeability, which makes it widely used as a vehicle to facilitate drug delivery across biological membranes. However, the mechanism of how DMSO increases membrane permeability has not been well understood. Recently, molecular dynamics simulations have demonstrated that DMSO can induce water pores in biological membranes, but no direct experimental evidence is so far available to prove the simulation result. Using FluxOR Tl⁺ influx assay and intracellular Ca²⁺ imaging technique, we studied the effect of DMSO on Tl⁺ and Ca²⁺ permeation across cell membranes. Upon application of DMSO on CHO-K1 cell line, Tl⁺ influx was transiently increased in a dose-dependent manner. The increase in Tl⁺ permeability induced by DMSO was not changed in the presence of blockers for K⁺ channel and Na⁺-K⁺ ATPase, suggesting that Tl⁺ permeates through transient water pores induced by DMSO to enter into the cell. In addition, Ca²⁺ permeability was significantly increased upon application of DMSO, indicating that the transient water pores induced by DMSO were non-selective pores. Furthermore, similar results could be obtained from RAW264.7 macrophage cell line. Therefore, this study provided experimental evidence to support the prediction that DMSO can induce transient water pores in cell membranes, which in turn facilitates the transport of active substances across membranes.

  5. Efficacy and safety of topical diclofenac containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) compared with those of topical placebo, DMSO vehicle and oral diclofenac for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Simon, Lee S; Grierson, Lisa M; Naseer, Zahid; Bookman, Arthur A M; Zev Shainhouse, J

    2009-06-01

    While topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are considered safe, their long-term efficacy for osteoarthritis has been suspect. We conducted a 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized controlled trial of topical diclofenac (TDiclo) in a vehicle solution containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in 775 subjects with radiologically confirmed, symptomatic primary osteoarthritis of the knee. This 5-arm study compared TDiclo with a placebo solution, the DMSO vehicle, oral diclofenac (ODiclo) and the combination of TDiclo+ODiclo for relieving the signs and symptoms of knee osteoarthritis. Subjects applied study solution, 40 drops four times daily, and took one study tablet daily for 12 weeks. Co-primary efficacy variables were WOMAC pain and physical function and a patient overall health assessment. Secondary variables were WOMAC stiffness and patient global assessment (PGA) of the knee osteoarthritis. TDiclo was superior to placebo for pain (-6.0 vs. -4.7, P=0.015), physical function (-15.8 vs. -12.3, P=0.034), overall health (-0.95 vs. -0.37, P<0.0001), and PGA (-1.36 vs. -1.01, P=0.016), and was superior to DMSO vehicle for all efficacy variables. No significant difference was observed between DMSO vehicle and placebo or between TDiclo and ODiclo. The commonest adverse event associated with TDiclo was dry skin (18.2%). Fewer digestive system and laboratory abnormalities were observed with TDiclo than with ODiclo. Addition of TDiclo to ODiclo did not increase the incidence of systemic adverse events. TDiclo in DMSO vehicle is an effective treatment option for knee osteoarthritis with efficacy similar to, but tolerability better than ODiclo. DMSO vehicle was no more efficacious than placebo.

  6. Dimethyl sulfoxide blocks herpes simplex virus-1 productive infection in vitro acting at different stages with positive cooperativity. Application of micro-array analysis

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Background Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is frequently used at a concentration of up to 95% in the formulation of antiherpetic agents because of its properties as a skin penetration enhancer. Here, we have analyzed the effect of DMSO on several parameters of Herpes Simplex Virus replication. Methods Productive infection levels of HSV-1 were determined by plaque assay or by reporter gene activity, and its DNA replication was estimated by PCR. Transcript levels were evaluated with HSV-specific DNA micro-arrays. Results DMSO blocks productive infection in vitro in different cell types with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) from 0.7 to 2% depending upon the multiplicity of infection. The concentration dependence exhibits a Hill coefficient greater than 1, indicating that DMSO blocks productive infection by acting at multiple different points (mechanisms of action) with positive cooperativity. Consistently, we identified at least three distinct temporal target mechanisms for inhibition of virus growth by DMSO. At late stages of infection, DMSO reduces virion infectivity, and markedly inhibits viral DNA replication. A third mode of action was revealed using an oligonucleotide-based DNA microarray system for HSV. These experiments showed that DMSO reduced the transcript levels of many HSV-1 genes; including several genes coding for proteins involved in forming and assembling the virion. Also, DMSO markedly inhibited some but not all early transcripts indicating a previously unknown mode for inhibiting the early phase of HSV transcription-replication cycle. Conclusion These observations suggest that DMSO itself may have a role in the anti-herpetic activity of formulations utilizing it as a dispersant. PMID:12052246

  7. Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Studies on the Sulfoxidation of Dimethyl Sulfide by Compound I and Compound 0 of Cytochrome P450: Which Is the Better Oxidant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porro, Cristina S.; Sutcliffe, Michael J.; de Visser, Sam P.

    2009-06-01

    The cytochromes P450 are ubiquitous enzymes that are involved in key metabolizing processes in the body through the monoxygenation of substrates; however, their active oxidant is elusive. There have been reports that implicate that two oxidants, namely, the iron(IV)-oxo porphyrin cation radical (compound I) and the iron(III)-hydroperoxo complex (compound 0), both act as oxidants of sulfoxidation reactions, which contrasts theoretical studies on alkene epoxidation by compounds I and 0 that implicated compound 0 as a sluggish oxidant. To resolve this controversy and to establish the potency of compound I and compound 0 in sulfoxidation reactions, we have studied dimethyl sulfide sulfoxidation by both oxidants using the quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) technique on cytochrome P450 enzymes and have set up a model of two P450 isozymes: P450cam and P450BM3. The calculations support earlier gas-phase density functional theory modeling and show that compound 0 is a sluggish oxidant that is unable to compete with compound I. Furthermore, compound I is shown to react with dimethyl sulfide via single-state reactivity on a dominant quartet spin state surface.

  8. A comparative VCD study of methyl mandelate in methanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and chloroform: explicit and implicit solvation models.

    PubMed

    Poopari, Mohammad Reza; Dezhahang, Zahra; Xu, Yunjie

    2013-02-07

    Vibrational absorption (VA) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of methyl mandelate, a prototype chiral molecule, in a series of organic solvents, namely methanol (MeOH-d(4)), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO-d(6)), and chloroform (CDCl(3)), have been measured in the finger print region from 1800 to 1150 cm(-1). Implicit solvation models in the form of polarizable continuum model and explicit solvation models have been employed independently and simultaneously. The goal is to evaluate their efficiencies in dealing with solvent effects in each solution and to establish a general strategy to adequately account for effects of solvents. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and radial distribution function analysis have been performed to aid the construction of the explicit solvation models. Initial geometry searches have been carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level for the methyl mandelate monomer and its explicit 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 solute-solvent hydrogen-bonded complexes. B3LYP/cc-pVTZ has been used for all the final geometry optimizations, the vibrational frequency, VA and VCD intensity, and optical rotation dispersion (ORD) calculations. The results show that inclusion of solvent explicitly and implicitly at the same time has significant impacts on the appearance of the VA and VCD spectra, and is crucial for reliable spectral assignments when solvents are capable of hydrogen-bonding interactions with solutes. When no strong solvent-solute hydrogen-bonding interactions in the case of chloroform are expected, the gas phase monomer model is adequate for spectral interpretation, while inclusion of implicit solvation improves the frequency agreement with experiment. ORD spectra of methyl mandelate in the aforementioned solvents at different concentrations under 5 excitation wavelengths have also been measured. The comparison between the calculated and the experimental ORD spectra supports the conclusions drawn from the VA and VCD investigations.

  9. Effect of trehalose as an additive to dimethyl sulfoxide solutions on ice formation, cellular viability, and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Solocinski, Jason; Osgood, Quinn; Wang, Mian; Connolly, Aaron; Menze, Michael A; Chakraborty, Nilay

    2017-04-01

    Cryopreservation is the only established method for long-term preservation of cells and cellular material. This technique involves preservation of cells and cellular components in the presence of cryoprotective agents (CPAs) at liquid nitrogen temperatures (-196 °C). The organic solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) is one of the most commonly utilized CPAs and has been used with various levels of success depending on the type of cells. In recent years, to improve cryogenic outcomes, the non-reducing disaccharide trehalose has been used as an additive to Me2SO-based freezing solutions. Trehalose is a naturally occurring non-toxic compound found in bacteria, fungi, plants, and invertebrates which has been shown to provide cellular protection during water-limited states. The mechanism by which trehalose improves cryopreservation outcomes remains not fully understood. Raman microspectroscopy is a powerful tool to provide valuable insight into the nature of interactions among water, trehalose, and Me2SO during cryopreservation. We found that the addition of trehalose to Me2SO based CPA solutions dramatically reduces the area per ice crystals while increasing the number of ice crystals formed when cooled to -40 or -80 °C. Differences in ice-formation patterns were found to have a direct impact on cellular viability. Despite the osmotic stress caused by addition of 100 mM trehalose, improvement in cellular viability was observed. However, the substantial increase in osmotic pressure caused by trehalose concentrations above 100 mM may offset the beneficial effects of changing the morphology of the ice crystals achieved by addition of this sugar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical unfolding of chicken villin headpiece in aqueous dimethyl sulfoxide solution: cosolvent concentration dependence, pathway, and microscopic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Roy, Susmita; Bagchi, Biman

    2013-04-25

    Unfolding of a protein often proceeds through partial unfolded intermediate states (PUIS). PUIS have been detected in several experimental and simulation studies. However, complete analyses of transitions between different PUIS and the unfolding trajectory are sparse. To understand such dynamical processes, we study chemical unfolding of a small protein, chicken villin head piece (HP-36), in aqueous dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution. We carry out molecular dynamics simulations at various solution compositions under ambient conditions. In each concentration, the initial step of unfolding involves separation of two adjacent native contacts, between phenyl alanine residues (11-18 and 7-18). This first step induces, under appropriate conditions, subsequent separation among other hydrophobic contacts, signifying a high degree of cooperativity in the unfolding process. The observed sequence of structural changes in HP-36 on increasing DMSO concentration and the observed sequence of PUIS, are in approximate agreement with earlier simulation results (in pure water) and experimental observations on unfolding of HP-36. Peculiar to water-DMSO mixture, an intervening structural transformation (around 15% of DMSO) in the binary mixture solvent retards the progression of unfolding as composition is increased. This is reflected in a remarkable nonmonotonic composition dependence of RMSD, radius of gyration and the fraction of native contacts. At 30% mole fraction of DMSO, we find the extended randomly coiled structure of the unfolded protein. The molecular mechanism of DMSO induced unfolding process is attributed to the initial preferential solvation of the hydrophobic side chain atoms through the methyl groups of DMSO, followed by the hydrogen bonding of the oxygen atom of DMSO to the exposed backbone NH groups of HP-36.

  11. Dimethyl sulfoxide induced structural transformations and non-monotonic concentration dependence of conformational fluctuation around active site of lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Roy, Susmita; Jana, Biman; Bagchi, Biman

    2012-03-21

    Experimental studies have observed significant changes in both structure and function of lysozyme (and other proteins) on addition of a small amount of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in aqueous solution. Our atomistic molecular dynamic simulations of lysozyme in water-DMSO reveal the following sequence of changes on increasing DMSO concentration. (i) At the initial stage (around 5% DMSO concentration) protein's conformational flexibility gets markedly suppressed. From study of radial distribution functions, we attribute this to the preferential solvation of exposed protein hydrophobic residues by the methyl groups of DMSO. (ii) In the next stage (10-15% DMSO concentration range), lysozome partially unfolds accompanied by an increase both in fluctuation and in exposed protein surface area. (iii) Between 15-20% concentration ranges, both conformational fluctuation and solvent accessible protein surface area suddenly decrease again indicating the formation of an intermediate collapse state. These results are in good agreement with near-UV circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence studies. We explain this apparently surprising behavior in terms of a structural transformation which involves clustering among the methyl groups of DMSO. (iv) Beyond 20% concentration of DMSO, the protein starts its final sojourn towards the unfolding state with further increase in conformational fluctuation and loss in native contacts. Most importantly, analysis of contact map and fluctuation near the active site reveal that both partial unfolding and conformational fluctuations are centered mostly on the hydrophobic core of active site of lysozyme. Our results could offer a general explanation and universal picture of the anomalous behavior of protein structure-function observed in the presence of cosolvents (DMSO, ethanol, tertiary butyl alcohol, dioxane) at their low concentrations.

  12. Myocyte enhancer factor 2c, an osteoblast transcription factor identified by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-enhanced mineralization.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Alexandre S; Stephens, Sebastien R; Hobbs, Carl; Hutmacher, Deitmar W; Bacic-Welsh, Desa; Woodruff, Maria Ann; Morrison, Nigel A

    2011-08-26

    Rapid mineralization of cultured osteoblasts could be a useful characteristic in stem cell-mediated therapies for fracture and other orthopedic problems. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a small amphipathic solvent molecule capable of stimulating cell differentiation. We report that, in primary human osteoblasts, DMSO dose-dependently enhanced the expression of osteoblast differentiation markers alkaline phosphatase activity and extracellular matrix mineralization. Furthermore, similar DMSO-mediated mineralization enhancement was observed in primary osteoblast-like cells differentiated from mouse mesenchymal cells derived from fat, a promising source of starter cells for cell-based therapy. Using a convenient mouse pre-osteoblast model cell line MC3T3-E1, we further investigated this phenomenon showing that numerous osteoblast-expressed genes were elevated in response to DMSO treatment and correlated with enhanced mineralization. Myocyte enhancer factor 2c (Mef2c) was identified as the transcription factor most induced by DMSO, among the numerous DMSO-induced genes, suggesting a role for Mef2c in osteoblast gene regulation. Immunohistochemistry confirmed expression of Mef2c in osteoblast-like cells in mouse mandible, cortical, and trabecular bone. shRNAi-mediated Mef2c gene silencing resulted in defective osteoblast differentiation, decreased alkaline phosphatase activity, and matrix mineralization and knockdown of osteoblast specific gene expression, including osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein. A flow on knockdown of bone-specific transcription factors, Runx2 and osterix by shRNAi knockdown of Mef2c, suggests that Mef2c lies upstream of these two important factors in the cascade of gene expression in osteoblasts.

  13. Structure and hydrogen bond dynamics of water-dimethyl sulfoxide mixtures by computer simulations. Interim report, April 1992-October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Luzar, A.; Chandler, D.

    1993-10-01

    The authors have used two different force field models to study concentrated dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-water solutions by molecular dynamics. The results of these simulations are shown to compare well with recent neutron diffraction experiments using H/D isotope substitution. Even for the highly concentrated 1DMSO : 2H2O solution, the water hydrogen-hydrogen radial distribution function, gHH(r), exhibits the characteristic tetrahedral ordering of water-water hydrogen bonds. Structural information is, further obtained from various partial atom-atom distribution functions, not accessible experimentally. The behavior of water radial distribution functions, goo(r) and goH(r) indicate that the nearest neighbor correlations among remaining water molecules in the mixture increase with increasing DMSO concentration. No preferential association of methyl groups on DMSO is detected. The pattern of hydrogen bonding and the distribution of hydrogen bond lifetimes in the simulated mixtures is further investigated. Molecular dynamics results show that DMSO typically forms two hydrogen bonds with water molecules. Hydrogen bonds between DMSO and water molecules are longer lived than water-water hydrogen bonds. The hydrogen bond lifetimes determined by reactive flux correlation function approach are about 5 ps and 3 ps for water-DMSO and water-water pairs, respectively, in 1DMSO: 2H20 Mixture. In contrast, for pure water, the hydrogen bond lifetime is about 1 ps. They discuss these times in light of experimentally determined rotational relaxation times. The relative values of the hydrogen bond lifetimes are consistent with a statistical (i.e., transition state theory) interpretation.

  14. Dentin bond optimization using the dimethyl sulfoxide-wet bonding strategy: A 2-year in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Stape, Thiago Henrique Scarabello; Tjäderhane, Leo; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Yanikian, Cristiane Rumi Fujiwara; Szesz, Anna Luiza; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Martins, Luís Roberto Marcondes

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated a new approach, named dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-wet bonding, to produce more desirable long-term prospects for the ultrafine interactions between synthetic polymeric biomaterials and the inherently hydrated dentin substrate. Sound third molars were randomly restored with/without DMSO pretreatment using a total-etch (Scocthbond Multipurpose: SBMP) and a self-etch (Clearfil SE Bond: CF) adhesive systems. Restored teeth (n=10)/group were sectioned into sticks and submitted to different analyses: micro-Raman determined the degree of conversion inside the hybrid layer (DC); resin-dentin microtensile bond strength and fracture pattern analysis at 24h, 1year and 2 years of aging; and nanoleakage evaluation at 24h and 2 years. DMSO-wet bonding produced significantly higher 24h bond strengths for SBMP that were sustained over the two-year period, with significantly less adhesive failures. Similarly, DMSO-treated CF samples presented significantly higher bond strength than untreated samples at two years. Both adhesives had significant less adhesive failures at 2 years with DMSO. DMSO had no effect on DC of SBMP, but significantly increased the DC of CF. DMSO-treated SBMP samples presented reduced silver uptake compared to untreated samples after aging. Biomodification of the dentin substrate by the proposed strategy using DMSO is a suitable approach to produce more durable hybrid layers with superior ability to withstand hydrolytic degradation over time. Although the active role of DMSO on dentin bond improvement may vary according to monomer composition, its use seems to be effective on both self-etch and etch-and-rinse bonding mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dimethyl sulfoxide induced structural transformations and non-monotonic concentration dependence of conformational fluctuation around active site of lysozyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Susmita; Jana, Biman; Bagchi, Biman

    2012-03-01

    Experimental studies have observed significant changes in both structure and function of lysozyme (and other proteins) on addition of a small amount of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in aqueous solution. Our atomistic molecular dynamic simulations of lysozyme in water-DMSO reveal the following sequence of changes on increasing DMSO concentration. (i) At the initial stage (around 5% DMSO concentration) protein's conformational flexibility gets markedly suppressed. From study of radial distribution functions, we attribute this to the preferential solvation of exposed protein hydrophobic residues by the methyl groups of DMSO. (ii) In the next stage (10-15% DMSO concentration range), lysozome partially unfolds accompanied by an increase both in fluctuation and in exposed protein surface area. (iii) Between 15-20% concentration ranges, both conformational fluctuation and solvent accessible protein surface area suddenly decrease again indicating the formation of an intermediate collapse state. These results are in good agreement with near-UV circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence studies. We explain this apparently surprising behavior in terms of a structural transformation which involves clustering among the methyl groups of DMSO. (iv) Beyond 20% concentration of DMSO, the protein starts its final sojourn towards the unfolding state with further increase in conformational fluctuation and loss in native contacts. Most importantly, analysis of contact map and fluctuation near the active site reveal that both partial unfolding and conformational fluctuations are centered mostly on the hydrophobic core of active site of lysozyme. Our results could offer a general explanation and universal picture of the anomalous behavior of protein structure-function observed in the presence of cosolvents (DMSO, ethanol, tertiary butyl alcohol, dioxane) at their low concentrations.

  16. Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2C, an Osteoblast Transcription Factor Identified by Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO)-enhanced Mineralization*

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Alexandre S.; Stephens, Sebastien R.; Hobbs, Carl; Hutmacher, Deitmar W.; Bacic-Welsh, Desa; Woodruff, Maria Ann; Morrison, Nigel A.

    2011-01-01

    Rapid mineralization of cultured osteoblasts could be a useful characteristic in stem cell-mediated therapies for fracture and other orthopedic problems. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a small amphipathic solvent molecule capable of stimulating cell differentiation. We report that, in primary human osteoblasts, DMSO dose-dependently enhanced the expression of osteoblast differentiation markers alkaline phosphatase activity and extracellular matrix mineralization. Furthermore, similar DMSO-mediated mineralization enhancement was observed in primary osteoblast-like cells differentiated from mouse mesenchymal cells derived from fat, a promising source of starter cells for cell-based therapy. Using a convenient mouse pre-osteoblast model cell line MC3T3-E1, we further investigated this phenomenon showing that numerous osteoblast-expressed genes were elevated in response to DMSO treatment and correlated with enhanced mineralization. Myocyte enhancer factor 2c (Mef2c) was identified as the transcription factor most induced by DMSO, among the numerous DMSO-induced genes, suggesting a role for Mef2c in osteoblast gene regulation. Immunohistochemistry confirmed expression of Mef2c in osteoblast-like cells in mouse mandible, cortical, and trabecular bone. shRNAi-mediated Mef2c gene silencing resulted in defective osteoblast differentiation, decreased alkaline phosphatase activity, and matrix mineralization and knockdown of osteoblast specific gene expression, including osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein. A flow on knockdown of bone-specific transcription factors, Runx2 and osterix by shRNAi knockdown of Mef2c, suggests that Mef2c lies upstream of these two important factors in the cascade of gene expression in osteoblasts. PMID:21652706

  17. Dimethyl sulfoxide promotes the multiple functions of the tumor suppressor HLJ1 through activator protein-1 activation in NSCLC cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi-Chung; Lin, Sheng-Yi; Lai, Yi-Hua; Liu, Ya-Jung; Hsu, Yuan-Lin; Chen, Jeremy J W

    2012-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an amphipathic molecule that displays a diversity of antitumor activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that DMSO can modulate AP-1 activity and lead to cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. HLJ1 is a newly identified tumor and invasion suppressor that inhibits tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis. Its transcriptional activity is regulated by the transcription factor AP-1. However, the effects of DMSO on HLJ1 are still unknown. In the present study, we investigate the antitumor effects of DMSO through HLJ1 induction and demonstrate the mechanisms involved. Low-HLJ1-expressing highly invasive CL1-5 lung adenocarcinoma cells were treated with various concentrations of DMSO. We found that DMSO can significantly inhibit cancer cell invasion, migration, proliferation, and colony formation capabilities through upregulation of HLJ1 in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas ethanol has no effect. In addition, the HLJ1 promoter and enhancer reporter assay revealed that DMSO transcriptionally upregulates HLJ1 expression through an AP-1 site within the HLJ1 enhancer. The AP-1 subfamily members JunD and JunB were significantly upregulated by DMSO in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, pretreatment with DMSO led to a significant increase in the percentage of UV-induced apoptotic cells. Our results suggest that DMSO may be an important stimulator of the tumor suppressor protein HLJ1 through AP-1 activation in highly invasive lung adenocarcinoma cells. Targeted induction of HLJ1 represents a promising approach for cancer therapy, which also implied that DMSO may serve as a potential lead compound or coordinated ligand for the development of novel anticancer drugs.

  18. Regulatory effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) on astrocytic reactivity in a murine model of cerebral infarction by arterial embolization.

    PubMed

    Lapuente Chala, Catalina; Rengifo Valbuena, Carlos Augusto; Avila Rodríguez, Marco Fidel; Céspedes Rubio, Angel

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia is essential for early diagnosis, neurologic recovery, the early onset of drug treatment and the prognosis of ischemic events. Experimental models of cerebral ischemia can be used to evaluate the cellular response phenomena and possible neurological protection by drugs. To characterize the cellular changes in the neuronal population and astrocytic response by the effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) on a model of ischemia caused by cerebral embolism. Twenty Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n= 5). The infarct was induced with α-bovine thrombin (40 NIH/Unit.). The treated group received 90 mg (100 μL) of DMSO in saline (1:1 v/v) intraperitoneally for 5 days; ischemic controls received only NaCl (placebo) and two non-ischemic groups (simulated) received NaCl and DMSO respectively. We evaluated the neuronal (anti-NeuN) and astrocytic immune-reactivity (anti-GFAP). The results were analyzed by densitometry (NIH Image J-Fiji 1.45 software) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Graph pad software (Prism 5). Cerebral embolism induced reproducible and reliable lesions in the cortex and hippocampus (CA1)., similar to those of focal models. DMSO did not reverse the loss of post-ischemia neuronal immune-reactivity, but prevented the morphological damage of neurons, and significantly reduced astrocytic hyperactivity in the somato-sensory cortex and CA1 (p <0.001). The regulatory effect of DMSO on astrocyte hyperreactivity and neuronal-astroglial cytoarchitecture , gives it potential neuroprotective properties for the treatment of thromboembolic cerebral ischemia in the acute phase.

  19. Measuring the success of combined intravesical dimethyl sulfoxide and triamcinolone for treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Gafni-Kane, Adam; Botros, Sylvia M; Du, Hongyan; Sand, Robert I; Sand, Peter K

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate change in bladder capacity as a measure of response to combined intravesical dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and triamcinolone instillations for the treatment of newly diagnosed bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC). 141 newly diagnosed women were identified retrospectively. 79 were treated with weekly DMSO/triamcinolone instillations. Change in bladder capacity with bladder retrofill, daytime urinary frequency, nocturia episodes per night, and Likert scale symptom scores were reviewed. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, Spearman's rank correlations, COX regression analysis, and a Kaplan-Meier survival curve were performed. Significant changes (median (25(th)-percentile to 75(th)-percentile) were noted for bladder capacity (75 mL (25 to 130 mL), p < 0.0001), inter-void interval (0 hrs (0 to 1 hour), p < 0.0001), nocturia episodes per night (-1 (-2 to 0), p < 0.0001), and aggregate Likert symptom scores (-2 points (-5 to 0), p < 0.0001). Percent change in bladder capacity correlated positively with percent change in inter-void interval (p = 0.03) and negatively with percent changes in nocturia (p = 0.17) and symptom scores (p = 0.01). Women without detrusor overactivity (DO) had greater percent changes in capacity than women with DO (62.5 % vs. 16.5 %, p = 0.02). 61.3 % of patients were retreated with a 36 weeks median time to retreatment and no difference in time to retreatment based upon DO. Greater capacity was protective against retreatment (hazard ratio = 0.997 [95 % CI 0.994,0.999], p = 0.02). Percent change in bladder capacity is a useful objective measure of response to intravesical DMSO/triamcinolone for newly diagnosed BPS/IC. Clinical outcomes do not differ based upon presence of DO.

  20. Comparison of the effects of glycerol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and hydroxyethyl starch solutions for cryopreservation of avian red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jennifer E; Meola, Dawn M; Kini, Nisha R; Hoffman, Andrew M

    2015-06-01

    To compare effectiveness of glycerol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solutions for cryopreservation of avian RBCs. RBCs from 12 healthy Ameraucana hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). RBCs were stored in 20% (wt/vol) glycerol, 10% (wt/vol) DMSO freezing medium, or various concentrations of HES solution (7.5%, 11.5%, and 20% [wt/vol]) and frozen for 2 months in liquid nitrogen. Cells were then thawed and evaluated by use of cell recovery and saline stability tests, cell staining (7-aminoactinomycin D and annexin V) and flow cytometry, and scanning electron microscopy. Percentage of RBCs recovered was highest for 20% glycerol solution (mean ± SE, 99.71 ± 0.04%) and did not differ significantly from the value for 7.5% HES solution (99.57 ± 0.04%). Mean saline stability of RBCs was highest for 10% DMSO (96.11 ± 0.25%) and did not differ significantly from the value for 20% HES solution (95.74 ± 0.25%). Percentages of cells with 7-aminoactinomycin D staining but without annexin V staining (indicating necrosis or late apoptosis) were lowest for 10% DMSO freezing medium (3%) and 20% glycerol solution (1%) and highest for all HES concentrations (60% to 80%). Scanning electron microscopy revealed severe membrane changes in RBCs cryopreserved in 20% HES solution, compared with membrane appearance in freshly harvested RBCs and RBCs cryopreserved in 10% DMSO freezing medium. Cryopreservation of avian RBCs with HES solution, regardless of HES concentration, resulted in greater degrees of apoptosis and cell death than did cryopreservation with other media. Transfusion with RBCs cryopreserved in HES solution may result in posttransfusion hemolysis in birds.

  1. The effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on dentin bonding and nanoleakage of etch-and-rinse adhesives.

    PubMed

    Tjäderhane, Leo; Mehtälä, Pekka; Scaffa, Polliana; Vidal, Cristina; Pääkkönen, Virve; Breschi, Lorenzo; Hebling, Josimeri; Tay, Franklin R; Nascimento, Fabio D; Pashley, David H; Carrilho, Marcela R

    2013-10-01

    The objective was to examine the effect of a solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on resin-dentin bond durability, as well as potential functional mechanisms behind the effect. Microtensile bond strength (μTBS) was evaluated in extracted human teeth in two separate experiments. Dentin specimens were acid-etched and assigned to pre-treatment with 0.5mM (0.004%) DMSO as additional primer for 30s and to controls with water pre-treatment. Two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (Scotchbond 1XT, 3M ESPE) was applied and resin composite build-ups were created. Specimens were immediately tested for μTBS or stored in artificial saliva for 6 and 12 months prior to testing. Additional immediate and 6-month specimens were examined for interfacial nanoleakage analysis under SEM. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibition by DMSO was examined with gelatin zymography. Demineralized dentin disks were incubated in 100% DMSO to observe the optical clearing effect. The use of 0.5mM DMSO had no effect on immediate bond strength or nanoleakage. In controls, μTBS decreased significantly after storage, but increased significantly in DMSO-treated group. The control group had significantly lower μTBS than DMSO-group after 6 and 12 months. DMSO also eliminated the increase in nanoleakage seen in controls. 5% and higher DMSO concentrations significantly inhibited the gelatinases. DMSO induced optical clearing effect demonstrating collagen dissociation. DMSO as a solvent may be useful in improving the preservation of long-term dentin-adhesive bond strength. The effect may relate to dentinal enzyme inhibition or improved wetting of collagen by adhesives. The collagen dissociation required much higher DMSO concentrations than the 0.5mM DMSO used for bonding. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Promotes the Multiple Functions of the Tumor Suppressor HLJ1 through Activator Protein-1 Activation in NSCLC Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chi-Chung; Lin, Sheng-Yi; Lai, Yi-Hua; Liu, Ya-Jung; Hsu, Yuan-Lin; Chen, Jeremy J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an amphipathic molecule that displays a diversity of antitumor activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that DMSO can modulate AP-1 activity and lead to cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. HLJ1 is a newly identified tumor and invasion suppressor that inhibits tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis. Its transcriptional activity is regulated by the transcription factor AP-1. However, the effects of DMSO on HLJ1 are still unknown. In the present study, we investigate the antitumor effects of DMSO through HLJ1 induction and demonstrate the mechanisms involved. Methods and Findings Low-HLJ1-expressing highly invasive CL1–5 lung adenocarcinoma cells were treated with various concentrations of DMSO. We found that DMSO can significantly inhibit cancer cell invasion, migration, proliferation, and colony formation capabilities through upregulation of HLJ1 in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas ethanol has no effect. In addition, the HLJ1 promoter and enhancer reporter assay revealed that DMSO transcriptionally upregulates HLJ1 expression through an AP-1 site within the HLJ1 enhancer. The AP-1 subfamily members JunD and JunB were significantly upregulated by DMSO in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, pretreatment with DMSO led to a significant increase in the percentage of UV-induced apoptotic cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that DMSO may be an important stimulator of the tumor suppressor protein HLJ1 through AP-1 activation in highly invasive lung adenocarcinoma cells. Targeted induction of HLJ1 represents a promising approach for cancer therapy, which also implied that DMSO may serve as a potential lead compound or coordinated ligand for the development of novel anticancer drugs. PMID:22529897

  3. Regulatory effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) on astrocytic reactivity in a murine model of cerebral infarction by arterial embolization

    PubMed Central

    Rengifo Valbuena, Carlos Augusto; Ávila Rodríguez, Marco Fidel; Céspedes Rubio, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia is essential for early diagnosis, neurologic recovery, the early onset of drug treatment and the prognosis of ischemic events. Experimental models of cerebral ischemia can be used to evaluate the cellular response phenomena and possible neurological protection by drugs. Objective: To characterize the cellular changes in the neuronal population and astrocytic response by the effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) on a model of ischemia caused by cerebral embolism. Methods: Twenty Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n= 5). The infarct was induced with α-bovine thrombin (40 NIH/Unit.). The treated group received 90 mg (100 μL) of DMSO in saline (1:1 v/v) intraperitoneally for 5 days; ischemic controls received only NaCl (placebo) and two non-ischemic groups (simulated) received NaCl and DMSO respectively. We evaluated the neuronal (anti-NeuN) and astrocytic immune-reactivity (anti-GFAP). The results were analyzed by densitometry (NIH Image J-Fiji 1.45 software) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Graph pad software (Prism 5). Results: Cerebral embolism induced reproducible and reliable lesions in the cortex and hippocampus (CA1)., similar to those of focal models. DMSO did not reverse the loss of post-ischemia neuronal immune-reactivity, but prevented the morphological damage of neurons, and significantly reduced astrocytic hyperactivity in the somato-sensory cortex and CA1 (p <0.001). Conclusions: The regulatory effect of DMSO on astrocyte hyperreactivity and neuronal-astroglial cytoarchitecture , gives it potential neuroprotective properties for the treatment of thromboembolic cerebral ischemia in the acute phase. PMID:24892319

  4. An EXAFS Spectroscopic, Large-Angle X-Ray Scattering, And Crystallographic Study of Hexahydrated, Dimethyl Sulfoxide And Pyridine 1-Oxide Hexasolvated Mercury(II) Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, I.; Eriksson, L.; Lindqvist-Reis, P.; Persson, P.; Sandstrom, M.

    2009-05-21

    The structure of the solvated mercury(II) ion in water and dimethyl sulfoxide has been studied by means of large-angle X-ray scattering (LAXS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) techniques. The distribution of the Hg-O distances is unusually wide and asymmetric in both solvents. In aqueous solution, hexahydrated [Hg(OH{sub 2}){sub 6}]{sup 2+} ions in a distorted octahedral configuration, with the centroid of the HgO distance at 2.38(1) {angstrom}, are surrounded by a diffuse second hydration sphere with HgOII distances of 4.20(2) {angstrom}. In dimethyl sulfoxide, the six HgO and HgS distances of the hexasolvated [Hg{l_brace}OS(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 6}]{sup 2+} complex are centered around 2.38(1) and 3.45(2) {angstrom}, respectively. The crystal structure of hexakis(pyridine 1-oxide)mercury(II) perchlorate has been redetermined. The space group R implies six equal HgO distances of 2.3416(7) {angstrom} for the [Hg(ONC{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 6}]{sup 2+} complex at 100 K. However, EXAFS studies of this compound, and of the solids hexaaquamercury(II) perchlorate and hexakis(dimethyl sulfoxide)mercury(II) trifluoromethanesulfonate, also with six equidistant HgO bonds according to crystallographic results, reveal in all cases strongly asymmetric HgO distance distributions. Vibronic coupling of valence states in a so-called pseudo-Jahn-Teller effect probably induces the distorted configurations.

  5. An EXAFS spectroscopic, large-angle X-ray scattering, and crystallographic study of hexahydrated, dimethyl sulfoxide and pyridine 1-oxide hexasolvated mercury(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Persson, Ingmar; Eriksson, Lars; Lindqvist-Reis, Patric; Persson, Per; Sandström, Magnus

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the solvated mercury(II) ion in water and dimethyl sulfoxide has been studied by means of large-angle X-ray scattering (LAXS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) techniques. The distribution of the Hg-O distances is unusually wide and asymmetric in both solvents. In aqueous solution, hexahydrated [Hg(OH(2))(6)](2+) ions in a distorted octahedral configuration, with the centroid of the Hg-O distance at 2.38(1) A, are surrounded by a diffuse second hydration sphere with HgO(II) distances of 4.20(2) A. In dimethyl sulfoxide, the six Hg-O and HgS distances of the hexasolvated [Hg{OS(CH(3))(2)}(6)](2+) complex are centered around 2.38(1) and 3.45(2) A, respectively. The crystal structure of hexakis(pyridine 1-oxide)mercury(II) perchlorate has been redetermined. The space group R(-)3 implies six equal Hg-O distances of 2.3416(7) A for the [Hg(ONC(5)H(5))(6)](2+) complex at 100 K. However, EXAFS studies of this compound, and of the solids hexaaquamercury(II) perchlorate and hexakis(dimethyl sulfoxide)mercury(II) trifluoromethanesulfonate, also with six equidistant Hg-O bonds according to crystallographic results, reveal in all cases strongly asymmetric Hg-O distance distributions. Vibronic coupling of valence states in a so-called pseudo-Jahn-Teller effect probably induces the distorted configurations.

  6. Heat of Mixing and Solution of Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C5H10O3 Diethyl carbonate (HMSD1111, LB4315_H)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'heat of Mixing and Solution of Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C5H10O3 Diethyl carbonate (HMSD1111, LB4315_H)' providing data from direct low-pressure calorimetric measurement of molar excess enthalpy at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  7. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C5H10O3 Diethyl carbonate (VMSD1212, LB5137_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C5H10O3 Diethyl carbonate (VMSD1212, LB5137_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  8. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C5H10O3 Diethyl carbonate (VMSD1111, LB5134_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C5H10O3 Diethyl carbonate (VMSD1111, LB5134_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  9. Combined application of neutron and synchrotron radiation for investigation of the influence of dimethyl sulfoxide on the structure and properties of the dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Kiselev, M. A.

    2007-05-15

    The influence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on the structure and properties of the dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine membrane was studied at positive temperatures by a combination of X-ray diffraction and small-angle neutron scattering. Penetration of DMSO molecules into the lipid membrane was found to depend on the mole fraction of DMSO in an aqueous solution, X{sub DMSO}. At X{sub DMSO} > 0.08 the SO group penetrates into the bilayer polar region, thus resulting in structural alterations. At X{sub DMSO} > 0.2 defects in the membrane surface are developed.

  10. (4-Hydr-oxy-2-oxidobenzaldehyde thio-semicarbazonato-κO,N,S)(1,10-phenanthroline-κN,N')zinc(II) dimethyl sulfoxide disolvate monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kong Wai; Ng, Chew Hee; Maah, Mohd Jamil; Ng, Seik Weng

    2008-12-13

    The Zn(II) atom in the title compound, [Zn(C(8)H(7)N(3)O(2)S)(C(12)H(8)N(2))]·2C(2)H(6)OS·H(2)O, is N,N'-chelated by the N-heterocycle and N,O,S-chelated by the deprotonated Schiff base in a distorted square-pyramidal enviroment. Hydrogen bonds link the mononuclear mol-ecule, the water and the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mol-ecules into a linear chain motif. One DMSO mol-ecule is disordered over two positions in respect of the S atom in an approximate 1:1 ratio.

  11. Bis(3-acetyl-6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-pyran-4-olato)bis­(dimethyl sulfoxide)nickel(II)

    PubMed Central

    Djedouani, Amel; Boufas, Sihem; Bendaas, Abderrahmen; Allain, Magali; Bouet, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, [Ni(C8H7O4)2{(CH3)2SO}2], the NiII atom is located on a crystallographic centre of symmetry and has a distorted octa­hedral coordination geometry of type MO6. The bidentate dehydro­acetic acid (DHA) ligands occupy the equatorial plane of the complex in a trans configuration, and the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) ligands are weakly coordinated through their O atoms in the axial positions. PMID:21577732

  12. Regioselective Oxo-Amination of Alkenes and Enol Ethers with N-Bromosuccinimide-Dimethyl Sulfoxide Combination: A Facile Synthesis of α-Amino-Ketones and Esters.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Pragati K; Reddi, Rambabu N; Sudalai, Arumugam

    2016-02-05

    An unprecedented conversion of alkenes and enol ethers to the corresponding α-imido carbonyl compounds with excellent regioselectivity and yields has been developed. This oxo-amination process employs readily available N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and secondary amines as N-sources and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the oxidant and also leads to the production of amino alcohols in a single step on reduction, thus broadening the scope of this operationally simple reaction. For the first time, the formation of reactive Me2S(+)-O-Br species generated by the interaction of NBS with DMSO has been proven.

  13. Structural studies of the effect that dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has on cisplatin and carboplatin binding to histidine in a protein.

    PubMed

    Tanley, Simon W M; Schreurs, Antoine M M; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M J; Meredith, Joanne; Prendergast, Richard; Walsh, Danielle; Bryant, Patrick; Levy, Colin; Helliwell, John R

    2012-05-01

    The anticancer complexes cisplatin and carboplatin target the DNA major groove, forming intrastrand and interstrand cross-links between guanine bases through their N7 atoms, causing distortion of the DNA helix and apoptotic cell death. A major side effect of these drugs is toxicity, which is caused via binding to many proteins in the body. A range of crystallographic studies have been carried out involving the cocrystallization of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) as a test protein with cisplatin and carboplatin in aqueous and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) conditions. Different cryoprotectants, glycerol and Paratone, were used for each of the cisplatin and carboplatin cocrystallization cases, while silicone oil was used for studies involving N-acetylglucosamine (NAG). Both cisplatin and carboplatin do not bind to HEWL in aqueous media on the timescales of the conditions used here, but upon addition of DMSO two molecules of cisplatin or carboplatin bind either side of His15, which is the only His residue in lysozyme and is assumed to be an imidazolyl anion or a chemical resonance moiety, i.e. both imidazole N atoms are chemically reactive. To identify the platinum-peak positions in the 'with DMSO conditions', anomalous scattering maps were calculated as a cross-check with the F(o) - F(c) OMIT maps. Platinum-occupancy σ values were established using three different software programs in each case. The use of EVAL15 to process all of the diffraction data sets provided a consistent platform for a large ensemble of data sets for the various protein and platinum-compound model refinements with REFMAC5 and then SHELXTL. Overall, this extensive set of crystallization and cryoprotectant conditions allowed a systematic evaluation of cisplatin and carboplatin binding to lysozyme as a test protein via detailed X-ray crystal structure characterizations. DMSO is used as a super-solvent for drug delivery as it is deemed to cause no effect upon drug binding. However, these results show

  14. A Microfluidic Study of Megakaryocytes Membrane Transport Properties to Water and Dimethyl Sulfoxide at Suprazero and Subzero Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Sijie; Shu, Zhiquan; Ding, Weiping; Reems, Jo-Anna

    2011-01-01

    Megakaryocytes (MKs) are the precursor cells of platelets. Cryopreservation of MKs is critical for facilitating research investigations about the biology of this important cell and may help for scaling-up ex-vivo production of platelets from MKs for clinical transfusion. Determining membrane transport properties of MKs to water and cryoprotectant agents (CPAs) is essential for developing optimal conditions for cryopreserving MKs. To obtain these unknown parameters, membrane transport properties of the human UT-7/TPO megakaryocytic cell line were investigated using a microfluidic perfusion system. UT-7/TPO cells were immobilized in a microfluidic system on poly-D-lysine-coated glass substrate and perfused with various hyper-osmotic salt and CPA solutions at suprazero and subzero temperatures. The kinetics of cell volume changes under various extracellular conditions were monitored by a video camera and the information was processed and analyzed using the Kedem–Katchalsky model to determine the membrane transport properties. The osmotically inactive cell volume (Vb=0.15), the permeability coefficient to water (Lp) at 37°C, 22°C, 12°C, 0°C, −5°C, −10°C, and −20°C, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; Ps) at 22, 12, 0, −10, −20, as well as associated activation energies of water and DMSO at different temperature regions were obtained. We found that MKs have relatively higher membrane permeability to water (Lp=2.62 μm/min/atm at 22°C) and DMSO (Ps=1.8×10−3 cm/min at 22°C) than most other common mammalian cell types, such as lymphocytes (Lp=0.46 μm/min/atm at 25°C). This information could suggest a higher optimal cooling rate for MKs cryopreservation. The discontinuity effect was also found on activation energy at 0°C–12°C in the Arrhenius plots of membrane permeability by evaluating the slope of linear regression at each temperature region. This phenomenon may imply the occurrence of cell membrane lipid phase transition. PMID:22232706

  15. Maxwell-Stefan diffusivities in binary mixtures of ionic liquids with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and H2O.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Vlugt, Thijs J H; Bardow, André

    2011-07-07

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are promising solvents for applications ranging from CO2 capture to the pretreatment of biomass. However, slow diffusion often restricts their applicability. A thorough understanding of diffusion in ILs is therefore highly desirable. Previous research largely focused on self-diffusion in ILs. For practical applications, mutual diffusion is by far more important than self-diffusion. For describing mutual diffusion in multicomponent systems, the Maxwell-Stefan (MS) approach is commonly used. Unfortunately, it is difficult to obtain MS diffusivities from experiments, but they can be directly extracted from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In this work, MS diffusivities were computed in binary systems containing 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C(n)mimCl, n = 2, 4, 8), water, and/or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) using MD. The dependence of self- and MS diffusivities on mixture composition was investigated. Our results show the following: (1) For solutions of ILs in water and DMSO, self-diffusivities decrease strongly with increasing IL concentration. For DMSO-IL, a single exponential decay is observed. (2) In both water-IL and DMSO-IL, MS diffusivities vary by a factor of 10 within the concentration range which is, however, still significantly smaller than the variation of the self-diffusion coefficients. (3) The MS diffusivities of the IL are almost independent of the alkyl chain length. (4) ILs stay in a form of isolated ions in C(n)mimCl-H2O mixtures; however, dissociation into ions is much less observed in C(n)mimCl-DMSO systems. This has a large effect on the concentration dependence of MS diffusivities. (5) Recently, we proposed a new model for predicting the MS diffusivity at infinite dilution, that is, Đ(ij)(x(k-->)1) (Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2011, 50, 4776-4782). This quantity describes the friction between components i and j when both are infinitely diluted in component k. In contrast to earlier empirical models, our model is based on

  16. Crystal structure of catena-poly[calcium-di-μ3-benzoato-κ6 O,O′:O-μ2-(dimethyl sulfoxide)-κ2 O:O

    PubMed Central

    Voronova, Anna S.; Petrusenko, Svitlana R.; Goreshnik, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    In the title complex, [Ca(C7H5O2)2(C2H6OS)]n, the Ca2+ ion (site symmetry m..) is surrounded by eight O atoms, six from two bridging–chelating tridentate benzoate carboxyl groups and two from a bridging dimethyl sulfoxide mol­ecule (point group symmetry m..), giving an irregular coordination geometry [Ca—O bond length range = 2.345 (2)–2.524 (2) Å]. One-dimensional coordination complex chains extending parallel to c are generated in which the triply μ2-O-bridged Ca2+ cations are separated by 3.6401 (5) Å. In the crystal, weak intra­chain C—H⋯π hydrogen bonds are present between the methyl H atoms of the dimethyl sulfoxide mol­ecules as donors and the aromatic rings as acceptors [C—H⋯Cg = 3.790 (4) Å]. PMID:26396752

  17. 1-Butyl-3-(1-naphthyl­meth­yl)benzimidazolium hemi{di-μ-iodido-bis­[diiodidomercurate(II)]} dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Shen, Gang; Zheng, Zhan-Ying; Wu, Xiu-Mei; Liu, Qing-Xiang

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, (C22H23N2)[Hg2I6]0.5·(CH3)2SO, the 1-butyl-3-(1-naphthyl­meth­yl)benzimidazolium anion lies across a centre of inversion. The dihedral angle between the benzimidazolium and naphthalene ring systems is 81.9 (3)°. In the crystal structure, π–π stacking inter­actions are observed between the imidazolium ring and the unsubstituted benzene ring of the naphthalene ring system, with a centroid–centroid separation of 3.510 (5) Å. In the centrosymmetric anion, the Hg(II) atoms are in a distorted tetrahedral coordination. The dimethyl sulfoxide solvent mol­ecule is disordered over two sites with occupancies of 0.615 (9) and 0.385 (9). PMID:21578654

  18. Improved Zn/Zn(II) redox kinetics, reversibility and cyclability in 1-ethyl-3-methylimmidazolium dicyanamide with water and dimethyl sulfoxide added

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Ivey, D. G.; Qu, W.; Xie, Z.

    2014-04-01

    Diluents composed of H2O and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were added to 1-ethyl-3-methylimmidazolium dicyanamide (EMI-DCA), yielding an electrolyte system that is potentially applicable for Zn-air batteries. H2O is critical for enhancing both the electrolyte conductivity and Zn/Zn(II) redox kinetics, but impairs Zn/Zn(II) redox reversibility and cyclability. DMSO has the ability to stabilize the electrolyte from H2O decomposition and is beneficial for maintaining Zn/Zn(II) redox reversibility and cyclability. Improved Zn/Zn(II) redox kinetics and reversibility, together with good cyclability up to 200 cycles, was achieved in EMI-DCA + H2O + DMSO in a mole ratio of 1:1.1:2.3.

  19. A highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) film with the solvent bath treatment by dimethyl sulfoxide as cathode for polymer tantalum capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaopin; Wang, Xiuyu; Li, Mingxiu; Chen, Tongning; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Qiang; Ding, Bonan; Liu, Yanpeng

    2016-06-01

    The highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films were prepared on porous tantalum pentoxide surface as cathode for polymer tantalum capacitors (PTC). The electrical performances of PTC with PEDOT:PSS films as cathode were optimized by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) bath treatment. With the DMSO-bath treatment of PTC, the equivalent series resistance (ESR) of PTC decreased from 25 mΩ to 9 mΩ. The ultralow ESR led to better capacitance-frequency performance. The device reliability investigation revealed the enhanced environmental stability of PTC. The enhanced performances were attributed to the conductivity improvement of PEDOT:PSS cathode films and the removal of excess PSS from PEDOT:PSS films.

  20. The transcriptional control machinery as well as the cell wall integrity and its regulation are involved in the detoxification of the organic solvent dimethyl sulfoxide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lilin; Liu, Ningning; Ma, Xiao; Jiang, Linghuo

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, we have identified 339 dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-sensitive and nine DMSO-tolerant gene mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through a functional genomics approach. Twelve of these identified DMSO-sensitive mutations are of genes involved in the general control of gene expression mediated by the SWR1 complex and the RNA polymerase II mediator complex, whereas 71 of them are of genes involved in the protein trafficking and vacuolar sorting processes. In addition, twelve of these DMSO-sensitive mutations are of genes involved in the cell wall integrity (CWI) and its regulation. DMSO-tolerant mutations are of genes mainly involved in the metabolism and the gene expression control. Therefore, the transcriptional control machinery, the CWI and its regulation as well as the protein trafficking and sorting process play critical roles in the DMSO detoxification in yeast cells.

  1. 3-[1-(3-Hy­droxy­benz­yl)-1H-benzimid­azol-2-yl]phenol dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Quezada-Miriel, Magdalena; Avila-Sorrosa, Alcives; German-Acacio, Juan Manuel; Reyes-Martínez, Reyna; Morales-Morales, David

    2012-01-01

    Crystals of the title compound were obtained as a 1:1 dimethyl sulfoxide solvate, C20H16N2O2·C2H6O. The mol­ecular conformation of the organic mol­ecule is similar to that in the previously reported unsolvated structure [Eltayeb et al. (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. E65, o1374–o1375]. Thus, the dihedral angles formed by the benzimidazole moiety with the two benzene rings are 57.54 (4) and 76.22 (5)°, and the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 89.23 (5)°. In the crystal, a three-dimensional network features O—H⋯O, O—H⋯N and O—H⋯S hydrogen bonds, as well as C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:23125815

  2. Mechanism of the dehydration of D-fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in dimethyl sulfoxide at 150 °C: An NMR study

    PubMed Central

    Amarasekara, Ananda S.; Williams, LaToya D.; Ebede, Chidinma C.

    2008-01-01

    The anomeric composition of D-fructose in dimethyl sulfoxide changes when the solution is heated from room temperature to 150 °C, with a small increase in the α-furanose form at the expense of the β-pyranose tautomer. Additionally, a small amount of α-pyranose form was also observed at 150 °C. A mechanism is proposed for the dehydration of D-fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in DMSO at 150 °C, where the solvent acts as the catalyst. A key intermediate in the reaction was identified as (4R,5R)-4-hydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-4,5-dihydrofuran-2-carbaldehyde by using 1H and 13C NMR spectra of the sample during the reaction. PMID:18828997

  3. Raman bandshape analysis on Csbnd H and CSC stretching modes of dimethyl sulfoxide in liquid binary mixture: Comparative study with quantum-chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Ganesh; Gomti Devi, Th.

    2014-12-01

    The interacting nature of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in binary mixtures has been carried out on Csbnd H and CSC stretching modes of vibration using chloroform (CLF), chloroform-d (CLFd), acetonitrile (ACN) and acetonitrile-d3 (ACNd) solvents. Peak frequencies of both the stretching modes show blue shift with the increase in solvent concentration. Variation of Raman bandwidth with the solvent concentration was discussed using different mechanisms. Ab initio calculation for geometry optimization and vibrational wavenumber calculation have been performed on monomer and dimer structures of DMSO to explain the experimentally observed Raman spectra. Theoretically calculated values are found in good agreement with the experimental results. Vibrational and reorientational relaxation times have been studied corresponding to solvent concentrations to elucidate the interacting mechanisms of binary mixtures.

  4. Thermoelectric Performance Enhancement of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(styrenesulfonate) Composite Films by Addition of Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Fangfang; Liu, Congcong; Xu, Jingkun; Huang, Yao; Wang, Jianmin; Sun, Zhi

    2012-09-01

    Significant enhancement of thermoelectric (TE) performance was observed for free-standing poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS) composite films obtained from a PEDOT:PSS aqueous solution by simultaneous addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and different concentrations of urea. The electrical conductivity was enhanced from 8.16 S cm-1 to over 400 S cm-1, and the maximum Seebeck coefficient reached a value of 18.81 μV K-1 at room temperature. The power factor of the PEDOT:PSS composite films reached 8.81 μW m-1 K-2. The highest thermoelectric figure of merit ( ZT) in this study was 0.024 at room temperature, which is at least one order of magnitude higher than most polymers and bulk Si. These results indicate that the obtained composite films are a promising thermoelectric material for applications in thermoelectric refrigeration and thermoelectric microgeneration.

  5. FTIR spectroscopic study of Li+ solvation in the solutions of LiBF4 in propylene carbonate, dimethyl sulfoxide, and their mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Binbin; Li, Yantao; Hou, Baorong

    2017-07-01

    Ionic solvation in solutions of lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4) in propylene carbonate (PC) + dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixtures has been studied using Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Dimerization of DMSO molecules in the solutions was taken into account. The obtained results are discussed with respect to the electrolyte concentration and properties of the cations of the electrolyte. Band changes due to solvation interaction were detected in the region of the C=O stretching vibrations and ring deformation for PC, and the S=O stretching vibrations and C-S-C skeleton stretching modes for DMSO, indicating that there is a strong interaction between lithium cations and solvent molecules. In addition, Li+ was preferentially solvated by DMSO in these binary solvents as a result of the large difference in their donor number (DN) values. The structures of PC, DMSO, Li+-PC, Li+-DMSO, and Li+-PC+DMSO were given.

  6. Chlorido(dimethyl sulfoxide-κS)[2-(2-pyrid­yl)phenyl-κ2 N,C 1]platinum(II)

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Masayuki; Masaoka, Shigeyuki; Sakai, Ken

    2008-01-01

    In the title compound, [Pt(C11H8N)Cl(C2H6OS)], the S atom of dimethyl sulfoxide is trans to the pyridyl N atom [Pt—S = 2.2181 (11) Å] and the chlorido ligand is trans to the carbon donor of 2-(2-pyrid­yl)phenyl [Pt—Cl = 2.4202 (10) Å]. The [2-(2-pyrid­yl)phen­yl]platinum(II) unit forms a one-dimensional stack along the c axis with two independent inter­planar separations of 3.44 (9) and 3.50 (2) Å. PMID:21201060

  7. Room-temperature monoclinic and low-temperature triclinic phase-transition structures of meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole-dimethyl sulfoxide (1/1).

    PubMed

    Lynch, V M; Gale, P A; Sessler, J L; Madeiros, D

    2001-12-01

    Crystals of the title complex, C28H36N4*C2H6OS, undergo a phase transition between room temperature and 198 K, as determined by X-ray diffraction techniques. A monoclinic form is observed at room temperature, while a triclinic modification is found at 198 K, with Z' changing from 1 to 2. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of the calixpyrrole-dimethyl sulfoxide complex revealed a series of phase changes between 273 and 243 K. The transition from the room-temperature monoclinic form to the low-temperature triclinic form is reversible, as determined by changes in the cell dimensions from remeasuring selected reflections at room temperature and at temperatures below 223 K. The uncomplexed calix[4]pyrrole molecule shows no phase changes occurring between room temperature and 233 K, the low-temperature limit of the DSC.

  8. [Apha-tocopherol in a complex with dimethyl sulfoxide--an agent possessing highly effective adaptogenic action in chronic emotional-pain stress in rats].

    PubMed

    Levshina, I P; Kurochkina, E V; Obidin, A B; Guliaeva, N V

    1988-01-01

    Alpha-tocopherol (5 mg/kg) administered perorally with dimethyl sulfoxide (50 mg/kg) in chronic emotional pain stress in rats possesses an effective antistress action, exceeding the effects of these drugs administered separately. Their prophylactic complex administration prevents the hypertension produced by stress, disturbance of reactivity of the vegetative nervous system during functional load, change of the behaviour in the open field. Adaptogenic action of the drugs is accompanied by a reduction of the content of free-radical oxidation products and by raising of superoxide scavenging activity in the brain and blood serum, by raising of phospholipids content, lowering of cholesterol content and of the ratio of cholesterol phospholipids in the brain extracts.

  9. Revisiting the Aqueous Solutions of Dimethyl Sulfoxide by Spectroscopy in the Mid- and Near-Infrared: Experiments and Car-Parrinello Simulations.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Victoria M; Dhumal, Nilesh R; Zehentbauer, Florian M; Kim, Hyung J; Kiefer, Johannes

    2015-11-19

    The infrared and near-infrared spectra of the aqueous solutions of dimethyl sulfoxide are revisited. Experimental and computational vibrational spectra are analyzed and compared. The latter are determined as the Fourier transformation of the velocity autocorrelation function of data obtained from Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations. The experimental absorption spectra are deconvolved, and the excess spectra are determined. The two-dimensional excess contour plot provides a means of visualizing and identifying spectral regions and concentration ranges exhibiting nonideal behavior. In the binary mixtures, the analysis of the SO stretching band provides a semiquantitative picture of the formation and dissociation of hydrogen-bonded DMSO-water complexes. A maximum concentration of these clusters is found in the equimolar mixture. At high DMSO concentration, the formation of rather stable 3DMSO:1water complexes is suggested. The formation of 1DMSO:2water clusters, in which the water oxygen atoms interact with the sulfoxide methyl groups, is proposed as a possible reason for the marked depression of the freezing temperature at the eutectic point.

  10. Brain Damage from Soman-Induced Seizures Is Greatly Exacerbated by Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO): Modest Neuroprotection by 2-Aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2- APB), a Transient Receptor Potential Channel Inhibitor and Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate Receptor Antagonist

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-04

    avidin- biotin -peroxidase method of Hsu et al. (1981). Morphometric 7 image analysis of MAP-2 immunostained brain sections was performed using an...Fanger H. 1981. Use of avidin- biotin -peroxidase complex (ABC) in immunoperoxidase techniques: a comparison between ABC and unlabeled antibody (PAP...dimethyl sulfoxide on nociceptive transmission in isolated spinal cord of newborn rat. Eur J Pharmacol. 1998;351(2):173-9. Lallement G

  11. Crystal structure of bis­(bis­{μ3-3-methyl-3-[(4-nitro-2-oxido­benzyl­idene)amino]­propane-1,3-diolato}tris­[chlorido­(dimethyl sulfoxide)­iron(III)]) dimethyl sulfoxide hepta­solvate dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Chygorin, Eduard; Smal, Yuri; Omelchenko, Irina V.

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, [Fe3(C11H11N2O5)2Cl3(C2H6OS)3]2·7C2H6OS·2H2O, was isolated accidentally from an Fe0–NiCl2·6H2O–H3 L–TEA–DMSO system [where H3 L is the product of the condensation between p-nitro­salicyl­aldehyde and 2-amino-2-methyl­propane-1,3-diol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and TEA is triethylamine]. The structure is based on a trinuclear {Fe3(μ-O)4} core, with an angular arrangement of the FeIII ions that can be explained by the geometrical restrictions of two bulky ligands, each coordinating to all of the metal cations. PMID:27980847

  12. Carrier effects of dosing the H4IIE cells with 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77) in dimethyl sulfoxide or isooctane.

    PubMed

    Yu, K O; Fisher, J W; Burton, G A; Tillitt, D E

    1997-08-01

    A rat hepatoma cell line, H4IIE, serves as a bioassay tool to assess the potential toxicity of dioxin-like chemicals, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in environmental samples. PCB exposure to these cells induces cytochrome (CYP) P4501A1 activity in a dose-dependent fashion, thus allowing assessment of mixtures. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different carriers, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and isooctane on the concentrations of PCBs in the H4IIE cells and induction of CYP1A1 activity as measured by ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity. H4IIE cells were dosed with three micrograms of UL-14C-PCB77/plate dissolved in DMSO or isooctane, and were harvested at sequential time periods for 4 days. PCB77 concentration and EROD activity were measured in the cells. EROD activity was greater when using DMSO as compared to isooctane, while there was no difference in the distribution of PCB77-derived radioactivities within the cell culture system based upon the carrier solvent used to deliver PCB77.

  13. Carbon nanotube (CNT) and nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) reinforcement effect on thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) scaffolds fabricated via phase separation using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvent.

    PubMed

    Mi, Hao-Yang; Jing, Xin; Salick, Max R; Cordie, Travis M; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Although phase separation is a simple method of preparing tissue engineering scaffolds, it suffers from organic solvent residual in the scaffold. Searching for nontoxic solvents and developing effective solvent removal methods are current challenges in scaffold fabrication. In this study, thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) scaffolds containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or nanofibrillated cellulose fibers (NFCs) were prepared using low toxicity dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent. The effects of two solvent removal approaches on the final scaffold morphology were studied. The freeze drying method caused large pores, with small pores on the pore walls, which created connections between the pores. Meanwhile, the leaching and freeze drying method led to interconnected fine pores with smaller pore diameters. The nucleation effect of CNTs and the phase separation behavior of NFCs in the TPU solution resulted in significant differences in the microstructures of the resulting scaffolds. The mechanical performance of the nanocomposite scaffolds with different morphologies was investigated. Generally, the scaffolds with a fine pore structure showed higher compressive properties, and both the CNTs and NFCs improved the compressive properties of the scaffolds, with greater enhancement found in TPU/NFC nanocomposite scaffolds. In addition, all scaffolds showed good sustainability under cyclical load bearing, and the biocompatibility of the scaffolds was verified via 3T3 fibroblast cell culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dimethyl sulfoxide inhibits spontaneous diabetes and autoimmune recurrence in non-obese diabetic mice by inducing differentiation of regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gu-Jiun; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Chen, Yuan-Wu; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Yu, Chiao-Chi; Chang, Hao-Ming; Chan, De-Chuan; Huang, Shing-Hwa

    2015-01-15

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is caused by the destruction of insulin-producing β cells in pancreatic islets by autoimmune T cells. Islet transplantation has been established as an effective therapeutic strategy for T1D. However, the survival of islet grafts can be disrupted by recurrent autoimmunity. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a solvent for organic and inorganic substances and an organ-conserving agent used in solid organ transplantations. DMSO also exerts anti-inflammatory, reactive oxygen species scavenger and immunomodulatory effects and therefore exhibits therapeutic potential for the treatment of several human inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of DMSO in the inhibition of autoimmunity. We treated an animal model of islet transplantation (NOD mice) with DMSO. The survival of the syngeneic islet grafts was significantly prolonged. The population numbers of CD8, DC and Th1 cells were decreased, and regulatory T (Treg) cell numbers were increased in recipients. The expression levels of IFN-γ and proliferation of T cells were also reduced following DMSO treatment. Furthermore, the differentiation of Treg cells from naive CD4 T cells was significantly increased in the in vitro study. Our results demonstrate for the first time that in vivo DMSO treatment suppresses spontaneous diabetes and autoimmune recurrence in NOD mice by inhibiting the Th1 immune response and inducing the differentiation of Treg cells.

  15. Use of high concentrations of dimethyl sulfoxide for cryopreservation of HepG2 cells adhered to glass and polydimethylsiloxane matrices.

    PubMed

    Nagahara, Yukitoshi; Sekine, Hiroaki; Otaki, Mari; Hayashi, Masakazu; Murase, Norio

    2016-02-01

    Animal cells are generally cryopreserved in cryovials in a cell suspension state containing 5%-10% v/v dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) used as a cryoprotective agent. However, cryopreservation of cells in an attached state has not been intensively studied, and the effective freezing solution remains unknown. Here we determined the suitable DMSO concentration for the cryopreservation of human hepatoma HepG2 cells attached to glass and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrices coated with poly-l-lysine. With the use of the glass matrix, the rate of cell adhesion increased with the DMSO concentration up to 30% v/v in the freezing solution. In contrast, the cell-adhesion rate remained constant in the case of the PDMS matrix irrespective of the DMSO concentration between 10% v/v and 30% v/v. The viability of post-thawed cells attached to glass or PDMS matrix was also investigated. The viability was highest at the DMSO concentration of 20% v/v in the freezing solution. The DMSO concentration of 30% v/v, however, had a cytotoxic effect on the cell viability. Thus, the 20% v/v DMSO concentration was found to be most suitable for the cryopreservation of HepG2 cells in the attached state. This dose is high compared to the DMSO concentration used for the cryopreservation of cells in the suspended state.

  16. Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) in the new solvent Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO)/Tetrabutylammonium Fluoride (TBAF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliza, M. Y.; Shahruddin, M.; Noormaziah, J.; Rosli, W. D. Wan

    2015-06-01

    The surplus of Oil Palm is the most galore wastes in Malaysia because it produced about half of the world palm oil production, which contributes a major disposal problem Synthesis from an empty fruit bunch produced products such as Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC), could apply in diverse application such as for paper coating, food packaging and most recently, the potential as biomaterials has been revealed. In this study, CMC was prepared by firstly dissolved the bleached pulp from OPEFB in mixture solution of dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO)/tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) without any prior chemical modification. It took only 30 minutes to fully dissolve at temperature 60°C before sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were added for activation and monochloroacetateas terrifying agent. The final product is appeared in white powder, which is then will be analyzedby FTIR analysis. FTIR results show peaks appeared at wavenumber between 1609 cm-1 to 1614 cm-1 proved the existence of carboxymethyl groups which substitute OH groups at anhydroglucose(AGU) unit. As a conclusion, mixture solution of DMSO/TBAF is the suitable solvent used for dissolved cellulose before modifying it into CMC with higher Degree of Substitution (DS). Furthermore, the dissolution of the OPEFB bleached pulp was easy, simple and at a faster rate without prior chemical modification at temperature as low as 60°C.

  17. Second-harmonic generation microscopy used to evaluate the effect of the dimethyl sulfoxide in the cryopreservation process in collagen fibers of differentiated chondrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreoli-Risso, M. F.; Duarte, A. S. S.; Ribeiro, T. B.; Bordeaux-Rego, P.; Luzo, A.; Baratti, M. O.; Adur, J.; de Thomaz, A. A.; Pelegati, V. B.; Carvalho, H. F.; Cesar, C. L.; Kharmadayan, P.; Costa, F. F.; Olalla-Saad, S. T.

    2012-03-01

    Cartilaginous lesions are a significant public health problem and the use of adult stem cells represents a promising therapy for this condition. Cryopreservation confers many advantages for practitioners engaged in cell-based therapies. However, conventional slow freezing has always been associated with damage and mortality due to intracellular ice formation, cryoprotectant toxicity, and dehydration. The aim of this work is to observe the effect of the usual Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) cryopreservation process on the architecture of the collagen fiber network of chondrogenic cells from mesenchymal stem cells by Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy. To perform this study we used Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) derived from adipose tissue which presents the capacity to differentiate into other lineages such as osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages. Mesenchymal stem cells obtained after liposuction were isolated digested by collagenase type I and characterization was carried out by differentiation of mesodermic lineages, and flow cytometry using specific markers. The isolated MSCs were cryopreserved by the DMSO technique and the chondrogenic differentiation was carried out using the micromass technique. We then compared the cryopreserved vs non-cryopreserved collagen fibers which are naturally formed during the differentiation process. We observed that noncryopreserved MSCs presented a directional trend in the collagen fibers formed which was absent in the cryopreserved MSCs. We confirmed this trend quantitatively by the aspect ratio obtained by Fast Fourier Transform which was 0.76 for cryopreserved and 0.52 for non-cryopreserved MSCs, a statistical significant difference.

  18. Carrier effects of dosing the h4iie cells with 3,3′,4,4tt´etrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77) in dimethyl sulfoxide or isooctane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yu, Kyung O.; Fisher, Jeff W.; Burton, G. Allen; Tillitt, Donald E.

    1997-01-01

    A rat hepatoma cell line, H4IIE serves as a bioassay tool to assess the potential toxicity of dioxin-like chemicals, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in environmental samples. PCB exposure to these cells induces cytochrome (CYP) P4501A1 activity in a dose-dependent fashion, thus allowing assessment of mixtures. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different carriers, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and isooctane on the concentrations of PCBs in the H411E cells and induction of CYPIA1 activity as measured by ethoxyresorufm O-deethylase (EROD) activity. H4IIE cells were dosed with three micrograms of UL-14C-PCB77/ plate dissolved in DMSO or isooctane, and were harvested at sequential time periods for 4 days. PCB77 concentration and EROD activity were measured in the cells. EROD activity was greater when using DMSO as compared to isooctane, while there was no difference in the distribution of PCB77-derived radioactivities within the cell culture system based upon the carrier solvent used to deliver PCB77.

  19. Synergistic effect of hyperosmotic agents of dimethyl sulfoxide and glycerol on optical clearing of gastric tissue studied with near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiangqun; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2004-02-01

    In an effort to find an effective concentration that could minimize the side effect for clinical applications, and to understand the potential synergistic effect of hyperosmotic agents on optical clearing of gastric tissues, porcine stomach tissues (pyloric mucosa) applied with a mixed solution of glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are investigated with near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Five chemical solutions, containing 80% glycerol, 50% DMSO, 50% glycerol with 10% DMSO, 20% DMSO and 30% DMSO, respectively, are prepared and studied; all of which show significant improvement in light transmittance, and thus reduction of the light scattering of tissue. It is found that, among the solutions investigated, 50% glycerol with 30% DMSO achieves the best clearing effect on the improvement of light penetration. Light transmittance is increased approximately 29% and diffuse reflectance decreased approximately 31% at 30 min after the topical application of 50% glycerol with 30% DMSO. This solution shows significantly stronger effect than 80% glycerol on optical clearing even though they have the same osmolarity. 80% glycerol leads to 23% increase of light transmittance and 24% decrease of diffuse reflectance. The mixed solution of 50% glycerol and 20% DMSO has less osmolarity than the solution of 80% glycerol, but they achieve a similar degree of optical clearing. In other words, the clearing effect of glycerol is enhanced by adding DMSO into it. It is suggested that membrane penetration and carrier effect of DMSO probably accounts for this synergistic effect.

  20. Improved in situ saccharification of cellulose pretreated by dimethyl sulfoxide/ionic liquid using cellulase from a newly isolated Paenibacillus sp. LLZ1.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dongxue; Ju, Xin; Li, Liangzhi; Hu, Cuiying; Yan, Lishi; Wu, Tianyun; Fu, Jiaolong; Qin, Ming

    2016-02-01

    A cellulase producing strain was newly isolated from soil samples and identified as Paenibacillus sp. LLZ1. A novel aqueous-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate ([Emin]DEP)-cellulase system was designed and optimized. In the pretreatment, DMSO was found to be a low-cost substitute of up to 70% ionic liquid to enhance the cellulose dissolution. In the enzymatic saccharification, the optimum pH and temperature of the Paenibacillus sp. LLZ1 cellulase were identified as 6.0 and 40°C, respectively. Under the optimized reaction condition, the conversion of microcrystalline cellulose and bagasse cellulose increased by 39.3% and 37.6%, compared with unpretreated cellulose. Compared to current methods of saccharification, this new approach has several advantages including lower operating temperature, milder pH, and less usage of ionic liquid, indicating a marked progress in environmental friendly hydrolysis of biomass-based materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydrothermal conversion of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural using ionic liquid as a recycled catalyst in a water-dimethyl sulfoxide mixture.

    PubMed

    Zang, Hongjun; Yu, Songbai; Yu, Pengfei; Ding, Hongying; Du, Yannan; Yang, Yuchan; Zhang, Yiwen

    2017-04-10

    Here, N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc), the monomer composing the second most abundant biopolymer, chitin, was efficiently converted into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) using ionic liquid (IL) catalysts in a water/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixture solvent. Various reaction parameters, including reaction temperature and time, DMSO/water mass ratios and catalyst dosage were optimized. A series of ILs with different structures were analyzed to explore their impact on GlcNAc conversion. The substrate scope was expanded from GlcNAc to d-glucosamine, chitin, chitosan and monosaccharides, although 5-HMF yields obtained from polymers and other monosaccharides were generally lower than those from GlcNAc. Moreover, the IL N-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([Hmim][HSO4]) exhibited the best catalyst performance (64.6% yield) when GlcNAc was dehydrated in a DMSO/water mixture at 180 °C for 6 h without the addition of extra catalysts. To summarize, these results could provide knowledge essential to the production of valuable chemicals that are derived from renewable marine resources and benefit biofuel-related applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Maintenance of the response to dimethyl sulfoxide treatment using hyperbaric oxygen in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome: a prospective, randomized, comparative study.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Vilar, Daniel; García-Fadrique, Gonzalo; Povo-Martin, Ivan; Salvador-Marin, Manuel; Gallego-Gomez, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC)/painful bladder syndrome (PBS) is a difficult disease to manage and creates critical limitations in patients' daily lives. Our objective was to determine the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy in the maintenance of response after the administration of intravesical dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). We conducted an open, prospective, randomized, comparative pilot study with women diagnosed with IC/PBS according to the European Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis criteria. In the first phase, DMSO was given to all patients. In the second phase, we used 1:1 randomization and administered HBO to 10 women. The evaluated variables were pain (through a visual analog scale), frequency and urgency of voids, nocturia, and quality of life using the O'Leary-Sant Interstitial Cystitis Score/Problem Index and the King's Health Questionnaire. In the second phase, we measured the length of time that clinical improvement was maintained. The mean age was 47.6 years (SD 18.4). Out of 20 patients, 14 experienced clinical improvement after DMSO in all of the evaluated symptoms (p < 0.05; 95% CI). After the second phase, all patients who received HBO had a more substantive and prolonged maintenance of the effects of DMSO. In this study, HBO improved the maintenance of the beneficial effects of DMSO among women with IC/PBS. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. A Novel QSPR Model for Prediction of Gas to Dimethyl Sulfoxide Solvation Enthalpy of Organic Compounds Based on Support Vector Machine.

    PubMed

    Golmohammadi, Hassan; Dashtbozorgi, Zahra; Acree, William E

    2012-05-01

    In this study, a quantitative structureproperty relationship (QSPR) study is developed for the prediction of gas to dimethyl sulfoxide solvation enthalpy (ΔHSolv ) of organic compounds based on molecular descriptors calculated solely from molecular structure considerations. Diverse types of molecular descriptors were calculated to represent the molecular structures of the various compounds studied. Multiple linear regression (MLR) was employed to select an optimal subset of descriptors that have significant contributions to the ΔHSolv overall property. Our investigation revealed that the dependence of physicochemical properties on solvation enthalpy is a nonlinear observable fact and that MLR method is unable to model the solvation enthalpy accurately. It has been observed that support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural network (ANN) demonstrates better performance compared with MLR. The standard error value of the test set for SVM is 1.731 kJ mol(-1) , while it is 2.303 kJ mol(-1) and 5.146 kJ mol(-1) for ANN and MLR, respectively. The results showed that the calculated ΔHSolv values by SVM were in good agreement with the experimental data, and the performance of the SVM model was superior to those of MLR and ANN ones. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Solution-processed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) thin films as transparent conductors: effect of p-toluenesulfonic acid in dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Smita; Singh, Rekha; Gopinathan, Sreelekha; Murugan, Sengottaiyan; Gawali, Suhas; Saha, Biswajit; Biswas, Jayeeta; Lodha, Saurabh; Kumar, Anil

    2014-10-22

    Conductivity enhancement of thin transparent films based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) by a solution-processed route involving mixture of an organic acid and organic solvent is reported. The combined effect of p-toluenesulfonic acid and dimethyl sulfoxide on spin-coated films of PEDOT-PSS on glass substrates, prepared from its commercially available aqueous dispersion, was found to increase the conductivity of the PEDOT-PSS film to ∼3500 S·cm(-1) with a high transparency of at least 94%. Apart from conductivity and transparency measurements, the films were characterized by Raman, infrared, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy along with atomic force microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Combined results showed that the conductivity enhancement was due to doping, rearrangement of PEDOT particles owing to phase separation, and removal of PSS matrix throughout the depth of the film. The temperature dependence of the resistance for the treated films was found to be in accordance with one-dimensional variable range hopping, showing that treatment is effective in reducing energy barrier for interchain and interdomain charge hopping. Moreover, the treatment was found to be compatible with flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates as well. Apart from being potential candidates to replace inorganic transparent conducting oxide materials, the films exhibited stand-alone catalytic activity toward I(-)/I3(-) redox couple as well and successfully replaced platinum and fluorinated tin oxide as counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  5. Nonideality in diffusion of ionic and neutral solutes and hydrogen bond dynamics in dimethyl sulfoxide-chloroform mixtures of varying composition.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rini; Chandra, Amalendu

    2011-09-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of charged and neutral solutes in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-chloroform mixtures reveal pronounced nonideality in the solute diffusion with changes of composition of the mixtures. The diffusion coefficient of the anionic solute first decreases, passes through a minimum at DMSO mole fraction of about 0.50, and then increases to reach its value for pure DMSO. The diffusion coefficients of the cationic and neutral solutes are found to decrease with increase in DMSO content of the solvent mixture. The extent of nonideality in the diffusion and orientational relaxation of solvent molecules is found to be somewhat stronger than that in diffusion of the anionic solute in these mixtures. We have also calculated the relaxation of hydrogen bonds formed between DMSO and chloroform molecules. The lifetimes of DMSO-chloroform hydrogen bonds are found to increase monotonically with increase in DMSO concentration. The average number of hydrogen bonds and their average energies are also computed. It is found that an increase in DMSO concentration causes a decrease in the number of DMSO-chloroform hydrogen bonds per DMSO or chloroform molecules but increases the strength of these hydrogen bonds. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Development of Dimethyl Sulfoxide Solubility Models Using 163 000 Molecules: Using a Domain Applicability Metric to Select More Reliable Predictions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solubility data from Enamine and two UCB pharma compound collections were analyzed using 8 different machine learning methods and 12 descriptor sets. The analyzed data sets were highly imbalanced with 1.7–5.8% nonsoluble compounds. The libraries’ enrichment by soluble molecules from the set of 10% of the most reliable predictions was used to compare prediction performances of the methods. The highest accuracies were calculated using a C4.5 decision classification tree, random forest, and associative neural networks. The performances of the methods developed were estimated on individual data sets and their combinations. The developed models provided on average a 2-fold decrease of the number of nonsoluble compounds amid all compounds predicted as soluble in DMSO. However, a 4–9-fold enrichment was observed if only 10% of the most reliable predictions were considered. The structural features influencing compounds to be soluble or nonsoluble in DMSO were also determined. The best models developed with the publicly available Enamine data set are freely available online at http://ochem.eu/article/33409. PMID:23855787

  7. Unscrambling micro-solvation of -COOH and -NH groups in neat dimethyl sulfoxide: insights from (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Takis, Panteleimon G; Papavasileiou, Konstantinos D; Peristeras, Loukas D; Boulougouris, Georgios C; Melissas, Vasilios S; Troganis, Anastassios N

    2017-05-31

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has a significant, multi-faceted role in medicine, pharmacy, and biology as well as in biophysical chemistry and catalysis. Its physical properties and impact on biomolecular structures still attract major scientific interest, especially the interactions of DMSO with biomolecular functional groups. In the present study, we shed light on the "isolated" carboxylic (-COOH) and amide (-NH) interactions in neat DMSO via(1)H NMR studies along with extensive theoretical approaches, i.e. molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, density functional theory (DFT), and ab initio calculations, applied on model compounds (i.e. acetic and benzoic acid, ethyl acetamidocyanoacetate). Both experimental and theoretical results show excellent agreement, thereby permitting the calculation of the association constants between the studied compounds and DMSO molecules. Our coupled MD simulations, DFT and ab initio calculations, and NMR spectroscopy results indicated that complex formation is entropically driven and DMSO molecules undergo multiple strong interactions with the studied molecules, particularly with the -COOH groups. The combined experimental and theoretical techniques unraveled the interactions of DMSO with the most abundant functional groups of peptides (i.e. peptide bonds, side chain and terminal carboxyl groups) in high detail, providing significant insights on the underlying thermodynamics driving these interactions. Moreover, the developed methodology for the analysis of the simulation results could serve as a template for future thermodynamic and kinetic studies of similar systems.

  8. Efficient proliferation and maturation of fetal liver cells in three-dimensional culture by stimulation of oncostatin M, epidermal growth factor, and dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Toshie; Ehashi, Tomo; Ohshima, Norio; Miyoshi, Hirotoshi

    2009-05-01

    For the purpose of applying fetal liver cells (FLCs) as a cell source to tissue-engineered bioartificial livers, three-dimensional (3-D) cultures of FLCs using a porous polymer scaffold, as well as monolayer cultures as a control, were simultaneously performed. To achieve efficient growth and differentiation, the FLCs were cultured in the growth medium for the first 3 weeks and then cultured in the differentiation medium for 3 more weeks. In these cultures, stimulating factors (oncostatin M (OSM), epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)) were added to the media, and their effects were examined. When the growth medium containing OSM and EGF was used, EGF stimulated the growth of FLCs synergistically with OSM. For the differentiation of FLCs into mature hepatocytes, DMSO added to the differentiation medium remarkably enhanced albumin secretion in the 3-D and monolayer cultures, although HGF was effective only in the monolayer culture. Microscopic observation proved that FLCs exhibited hepatocyte-like morphology only in the media containing DMSO. In conclusion, successive supply of the growth medium containing EGF and OSM and the differentiation medium containing DMSO efficiently induced the growth of the 3-D cultured FLCs and their differentiation into mature hepatocytes.

  9. Solvation dynamics of tryptophan in water-dimethyl sulfoxide binary mixture: In search of molecular origin of composition dependent multiple anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Susmita; Bagchi, Biman

    2013-07-01

    Experimental and simulation studies have uncovered at least two anomalous concentration regimes in water-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) binary mixture whose precise origin has remained a subject of debate. In order to facilitate time domain experimental investigation of the dynamics of such binary mixtures, we explore strength or extent of influence of these anomalies in dipolar solvation dynamics by carrying out long molecular dynamics simulations over a wide range of DMSO concentration. The solvation time correlation function so calculated indeed displays strong composition dependent anomalies, reflected in pronounced non-exponential kinetics and non-monotonous composition dependence of the average solvation time constant. In particular, we find remarkable slow-down in the solvation dynamics around 10%-20% and 35%-50% mole percentage. We investigate microscopic origin of these two anomalies. The population distribution analyses of different structural morphology elucidate that these two slowing down are reflections of intriguing structural transformations in water-DMSO mixture. The structural transformations themselves can be explained in terms of a change in the relative coordination number of DMSO and water molecules, from 1DMSO:2H2O to 1H2O:1DMSO and 1H2O:2DMSO complex formation. Thus, while the emergence of first slow down (at 15% DMSO mole percentage) is due to the percolation among DMSO molecules supported by the water molecules (whose percolating network remains largely unaffected), the 2nd anomaly (centered on 40%-50%) is due to the formation of the network structure where the unit of 1DMSO:1H2O and 2DMSO:1H2O dominates to give rise to rich dynamical features. Through an analysis of partial solvation dynamics an interesting negative cross-correlation between water and DMSO is observed that makes an important contribution to relaxation at intermediate to longer times.

  10. Solvation dynamics of tryptophan in water-dimethyl sulfoxide binary mixture: in search of molecular origin of composition dependent multiple anomalies.

    PubMed

    Roy, Susmita; Bagchi, Biman

    2013-07-21

    Experimental and simulation studies have uncovered at least two anomalous concentration regimes in water-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) binary mixture whose precise origin has remained a subject of debate. In order to facilitate time domain experimental investigation of the dynamics of such binary mixtures, we explore strength or extent of influence of these anomalies in dipolar solvation dynamics by carrying out long molecular dynamics simulations over a wide range of DMSO concentration. The solvation time correlation function so calculated indeed displays strong composition dependent anomalies, reflected in pronounced non-exponential kinetics and non-monotonous composition dependence of the average solvation time constant. In particular, we find remarkable slow-down in the solvation dynamics around 10%-20% and 35%-50% mole percentage. We investigate microscopic origin of these two anomalies. The population distribution analyses of different structural morphology elucidate that these two slowing down are reflections of intriguing structural transformations in water-DMSO mixture. The structural transformations themselves can be explained in terms of a change in the relative coordination number of DMSO and water molecules, from 1DMSO:2H2O to 1H2O:1DMSO and 1H2O:2DMSO complex formation. Thus, while the emergence of first slow down (at 15% DMSO mole percentage) is due to the percolation among DMSO molecules supported by the water molecules (whose percolating network remains largely unaffected), the 2nd anomaly (centered on 40%-50%) is due to the formation of the network structure where the unit of 1DMSO:1H2O and 2DMSO:1H2O dominates to give rise to rich dynamical features. Through an analysis of partial solvation dynamics an interesting negative cross-correlation between water and DMSO is observed that makes an important contribution to relaxation at intermediate to longer times.

  11. Dimethyl sulfoxide-caused changes in pro- and anti-angiogenic factor levels could contribute to an anti-angiogenic response in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Şimşek, Ece; Aydemir, Esra Arslan; İmir, Nilüfer; Koçak, Orhan; Kuruoğlu, Aykut; Fışkın, Kayahan

    2015-10-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is widely used in biological research as a general solvent. While it has been previously demonstrated that DMSO possesses a wide range of pharmacological effects, there is no published work regarding the effects of DMSO on pro-angiogenic factor levels. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of DMSO on the levels of three pro-angiogenic factors released from HeLa cells in vitro. Cells were treated with two different and previously determined concentrations of DMSO. The cytotoxic effects of DMSO concentrations on HeLa cells were determined via MTT. Survival rates of DMSO-treated cells were determined by Invitrogen live/dead viability/cytotoxicity kit and trypan blue exclusion assay. Changes in the pro-angiogenic levels in media were evaluated by Cayman's Substance P Enzyme Immunoassay ELISA kit. Vascular endothelial growth factor ELISA kit and interferon gamma ELISA kit for substance P, VEGF and IFNγ respectively. Changes in substance P levels were corrected by standard western blotting. Changes in VEGF and IFNγ levels were corrected both by western blot and real time PCR. Treatment with 1.4 μM DMSO caused a time-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation at 24, 48 and 72 h. 1.4 μM DMSO caused a significant reduction in VEGF levels at 72 h of incubation and sharp increases in IFNγ levels at both 48 and 72 h of incubation. According to real time PCR analyses, DMSO (1.4 μM) exhibited an inhibitory effect on VEGF but acted as an augmenter of IFNγ release on HeLa cells in vitro. This is the first report showing that the general solvent DMSO suppressed HeLa cell proliferation, decreased the levels of two pro-angiogenic factors (substance P and VEGF) and increased the release of an anti-angiogenic factor IFNγ in vitro.

  12. Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) Increases Percentage of CXCR4(+) Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells, Their Responsiveness to an SDF-1 Gradient, Homing Capacities, and Survival.

    PubMed

    Jarocha, Danuta; Zuba-Surma, Ewa; Majka, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Cryopreservation of bone marrow (BM), mobilized peripheral blood (mPB), and cord blood (CB) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) is a routine procedure before transplantation. The most commonly used cryoprotectant for HSPCs is dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of DMSO on surface receptor expression and chemotactic activities of HSPCs. We found that 10 min of incubation of human mononuclear cells (MNCs) with 10% DMSO significantly increases the percentage of CXCR4(+), CD38(+), and CD34(+) cells, resulting in an increase of CD34(+), CD34(+)CXCR4(+), and CD34(+)CXCR4(+)CD38(-) subpopulations. Furthermore, DMSO significantly increased chemotactic responsiveness of MNCs and CXCR4(+) human hematopoietic Jurkat cell line to a stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) gradient. Furthermore, we demonstrated enhanced chemotaxis of human clonogenic progenitor cells to an SDF-1 gradient, which suggests that DMSO directly enhances the chemotactic responsiveness of early human progenitors. DMSO preincubation also caused lower internalization of the CXCR4 receptor. In parallel experiments, we found that approximately 30% more of DMSO-preincubated human CD45(+) and CD45(+)CD34(+) cells homed to the mouse BM 24 h after transplantation in comparison to control cells. Finally, we demonstrated considerably higher (25 days) survival of mice transplanted with DMSO-exposed MNCs than those transplanted with the control cells. We show in this study an unexpected beneficial influence of DMSO on HSPC homing and suggest that a short priming with DMSO before transplantation could be considered a new strategy to enhance cell homing and engraftment.

  13. Application of HC-AFW1 Hepatocarcinoma Cells for Mechanistic Studies: Regulation of Cytochrome P450 2B6 Expression by Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Early Growth Response 1.

    PubMed

    Petzuch, Barbara; Groll, Nicola; Schwarz, Michael; Braeuning, Albert

    2015-11-01

    Various exogenous compounds, for example, the drugs bupropione and propofol, but also various cytostatics, are metabolized in the liver by the enzyme cytochrome P450 (P450) CYP2B6. Transcription from the CYP2B6 gene is regulated mainly via the transcription factors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane-X-receptor (PXR). Most hepatic cell lines express no or only low levels of CYP2B6 because of loss of these two regulators. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is frequently used in liver cell cultivation and is thought to affect the expression of various P450 isoforms by inducing or preserving cellular differentiation. We studied the effects of up to 1.5% of DMSO as cell culture medium supplement on P450 expression in hepatocarcinoma cells from line HC-AFW1. DMSO did not induce differentiation of the HC-AFW1 cell line, as demonstrated by unaltered levels of selected mRNA markers important for hepatocyte differentiation, and also by the lack of a DMSO effect on a broader spectrum of P450s. By contrast, CYP2B6 mRNA was strongly induced by DMSO. This process was independent of CAR or PXR activation. Interestingly, elevated transcription of CYP2B6 was accompanied by a simultaneous induction of early growth response 1 (EGR1), a transcription factor known to influence the expression of CYP2B6. Expression of wild-type EGR1 or of a truncated, dominant-negative EGR1 mutant was able to mimic or attenuate the DMSO effect, respectively. These findings demonstrate that EGR1 is involved in the regulation of CYP2B6 by DMSO in HC-AFW1 cells.

  14. Combination of retinoic acid, dimethyl sulfoxide and 5-azacytidine promotes cardiac differentiation of human fetal liver-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Fuxue; Lei, Han; Hu, Yunfeng; He, Linjing; Fu, Hang; Feng, Rui; Feng, Panpan; Huang, Wei; Wang, Xi; Chang, Jing

    2016-03-01

    There are controversial reports about cardiac differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and there is still no well-defined protocol for the induction of cardiac differentiation. The effects of retinoic acid (RA) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on the proliferation and differentiation of human fetal liver-derived MSCs (HFMSCs) as well as the pluripotent state induced by 5-azacytidine (5-aza) in vitro were investigated. MSCs were isolated from fetal livers and cultured in accordance with previous reports. Cells were plated and were treated for 24 h by the combination of 5-aza, RA and DMSO in different doses. Different culture conditions were tested in our study, including temperature, oxygen content and medium. Three weeks later, cells were harvested for the certification of cardiac differentiation as well as the pluripotency, which indicated by cardiac markers and Oct4. It was found that the cardiac differentiation was only induced when HFMSCs were treated in the following conditions: in high-dose combination (5-aza 50 μM + RA 10(-1) μM + DMSO 1 %) in cardiac differentiation medium at 37 °C and 20 % O2. The results of immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR showed that about 40 % of the cells positively expressed Nkx2.5, desmin and cardiac troponin I, as well as Oct4. No beating cells were observed during the period. The combined treatment with RA, DMSO and 5-aza in high-dose could promote HFMSCs to differentiate into cardiomyocyte-like cells and possibly through the change of their pluripotent state.

  15. A Simple and Highly Effective Method for Slow-Freezing Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Using Dimethyl Sulfoxide, Hydroxyethyl Starch and Ethylene Glycol

    PubMed Central

    Imaizumi, Keitaro; Nishishita, Naoki; Muramatsu, Marie; Yamamoto, Takako; Takenaka, Chiemi; Kawamata, Shin; Kobayashi, Kenichiro; Nishikawa, Shin-ichi; Akuta, Teruo

    2014-01-01

    Vitrification and slow-freezing methods have been used for the cryopreservation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). Vitrification requires considerable skill and post-thaw recovery is low. Furthermore, it is not suitable for cryopreservation of large numbers of hPSCs. While slow-freezing methods for hPSCs are easy to perform, they are usually preceded by a complicated cell dissociation process that yields poor post-thaw survival. To develop a robust and easy slow-freezing method for hPSCs, several different cryopreservation cocktails were prepared by modifying a commercially available freezing medium (CP-1™) containing hydroxyethyl starch (HES), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in saline. The new freezing media were examined for their cryopreservation efficacy in combination with several different cell detachment methods. hPSCs in cryopreservation medium were slowly cooled in a conventional −80°C freezer and thawed rapidly. hPSC colonies were dissociated with several proteases. Ten percent of the colonies were passaged without cryopreservation and another 10% were cryopreserved, and then the recovery ratio was determined by comparing the number of Alkaline Phosphatase-positive colonies after thawing at day 5 with those passaged without cryopreservation at day 5. We found that cell detachment with Pronase/EDTA followed by cryopreservation using 6% HES, 5% DMSO, and 5% ethylene glycol (EG) in saline (termed CP-5E) achieved post-thaw recoveries over 80%. In summary, we have developed a new cryopreservation medium free of animal products for slow-freezing. This easy and robust cryopreservation method could be used widely for basic research and for clinical application. PMID:24533137

  16. Expression of GPI-80, a beta2-integrin-associated glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, requires neutrophil differentiation with dimethyl sulfoxide in HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yuji; Fu, Junfen; Suzuki, Kichiya; Sendo, Dai; Nitto, Takeaki; Sendo, Fujiro; Araki, Yoshihiko

    2003-06-10

    GPI-80 is a member of the amidohydrolase family that has been proposed as a potential regulator of beta2-integrin-dependent leukocyte adhesion. GPI-80 is expressed mainly in human neutrophils. Our previous studies suggested that GPI-80 expression might be associated with myeloid differentiation. To verify this, we examined whether GPI-80 is expressed on the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 following treatment with differentiation inducers. GPI-80 expression was induced in cells treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to stimulate differentiation down the neutrophil pathway. On the other hand, all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), another neutrophil-inducing reagent, induced no clear GPI-80 expression. Potent monocyte-inducing reagents such as 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate also had no significant effect on the protein expression. GPI-80-positive cells were found in the well-differentiated CD11b-positive and transferrin-receptor-negative cell population. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, which augments neutrophil differentiation of HL-60 cells, up-regulated GPI-80 expression in the presence of DMSO. Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, which is known to suppress the neutrophil maturation of cells, inhibited expression. Adhesion of DMSO-induced cells was regulated by anti-GPI-80 monoclonal antibody, similar to the regulation observed in neutrophils. These results suggest that use of DMSO to induce neutrophil differentiation provides suitable conditions for GPI-80 expression, and that this culture system may be a helpful model for further study of the regulation of GPI-80 expression during myeloid differentiation.

  17. Evaluation of Methylcellulose and Dimethyl Sulfoxide as the Cryoprotectants in a Serum-Free Freezing Media for Cryopreservation of Adipose-Derived Adult Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Developing effective techniques for the cryopreservation of human adipose-derived adult stem cells (ASCs) could increase the usefulness of these cells in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. To this end, we investigated the post-freeze/thaw viability and apoptotic behavior of Passage 1 (P1) adult stem cells (ASCs) in 11 different media: (i) the traditional media containing Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) with 80% fetal calf serum (FCS) and 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), (ii) DMEM with 80% human serum (HS) and 10% DMSO, (iii) DMEM with 1% methyl cellulose (MC) and 10% of either HS or FCS or DMSO, and (iv) DMEM with 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, or 10% DMSO. Approximately 1 mL (106 cells/mL) of P1 ASCs were frozen overnight in a −80°C freezer and stored in liquid nitrogen for 2 weeks before being rapidly thawed in a 37°C water bath (1–2 min of agitation), resuspended in culture media, and seeded in separate wells of a 6-well plate for a 24-h incubation period at 37°C. After 24 h, the thawed samples were analyzed by bright-field microscopy and flow cytometry. The results suggest that the absence of DMSO (and the presence of MC) significantly increases the fraction of apoptotic and/or necrotic ASCs. However, the percentage of viable cells obtained with 2% DMSO and DMEM was comparable with that obtained in freezing media with 10% DMSO and 80% serum (HS or FCS), that is, ∼84% ± 5% and ∼84% ± 8%, respectively. Adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation behavior of the frozen thawed cells was also assessed using histochemical staining. Our results suggest that post-thaw ASC viability, adipogenic and osteogenic differentiability can be maintained even when they are frozen in the absence of serum but with a minimal concentration of 2% DMSO in DMEM. PMID:19788372

  18. Dimethyl sulfoxide inhibits spontaneous diabetes and autoimmune recurrence in non-obese diabetic mice by inducing differentiation of regulatory T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Gu-Jiun; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Chen, Yuan-Wu; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Yu, Chiao-Chi; Chang, Hao-Ming; Chan, De-Chuan; Huang, Shing-Hwa

    2015-01-15

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is caused by the destruction of insulin-producing β cells in pancreatic islets by autoimmune T cells. Islet transplantation has been established as an effective therapeutic strategy for T1D. However, the survival of islet grafts can be disrupted by recurrent autoimmunity. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a solvent for organic and inorganic substances and an organ-conserving agent used in solid organ transplantations. DMSO also exerts anti-inflammatory, reactive oxygen species scavenger and immunomodulatory effects and therefore exhibits therapeutic potential for the treatment of several human inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of DMSO in the inhibition of autoimmunity. We treated an animal model of islet transplantation (NOD mice) with DMSO. The survival of the syngeneic islet grafts was significantly prolonged. The population numbers of CD8, DC and Th1 cells were decreased, and regulatory T (Treg) cell numbers were increased in recipients. The expression levels of IFN-γ and proliferation of T cells were also reduced following DMSO treatment. Furthermore, the differentiation of Treg cells from naive CD4 T cells was significantly increased in the in vitro study. Our results demonstrate for the first time that in vivo DMSO treatment suppresses spontaneous diabetes and autoimmune recurrence in NOD mice by inhibiting the Th1 immune response and inducing the differentiation of Treg cells. - Highlights: • We report a therapeutic potential of DMSO in autoimmune diabetes. • DMSO exhibits an immune modulatory effect. • DMSO treatment increases regulatory T cell differentiation. • The increase in STAT5 signaling pathway explains the effect of DMSO in Tregs.

  19. Changes in genome composition of the Friend virus complex in erythroleukemia cells during the course of differentiation induced by dimethyl sulfoxide

    PubMed Central

    Ostertag, W.; Pragnell, I. B.

    1978-01-01

    The Friend spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV) complex released by Friend virus-transformed erythroid cells has been analyzed with respect to changes in the genome composition that may occur during induction of erythropoiesis with dimethyl sulfoxide. It is shown that: (a) There are three types of virus particles, one with buoyant density 1.20 g/ml, one with density 1.17 g/ml (the density of the cloned lymphatic leukemia virus helper component of the complex), and a major fraction that has a density of 1.14 g/ml. (b) Three RNA subunits-35S, 32S, and 30S-have previously been shown to be detectable in the Friend virus complex. The 1.20-g/ml particles contain only 30S RNA, whilst the 1.14- to 1.17-g/ml particles contain a mixture consisting of predominantly 30S and 32S RNA and about 5-10% 35S RNA. (c) Induction of differentiation results in an increase in the 1.14-g/ml particles and 32S RNA. The amount of 30S RNA does not change. (d) Hybridization of the different genomic viral RNAs with full-length virus cDNA shows that the 30S RNA (of induced and uninduced Friend virus) is more closely related to the 32S RNA of the induced Friend virus than to the 32S RNA of the constitutively released Friend virus. (e) The 30S RNA contains SFFV-specific sequences. (f) A hypothesis is presented in which the induction of the new 32S RNA species is related to the increase of SFFV activity and to a specific function of the SFFV during induction of erythropoiesis. Images PMID:277925

  20. Genomic analysis of anaerobic respiration in the archaeon Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1: dimethyl sulfoxide and trimethylamine N-oxide as terminal electron acceptors.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jochen A; DasSarma, Shiladitya

    2005-03-01

    We have investigated anaerobic respiration of the archaeal model organism Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1 by using phenotypic and genetic analysis, bioinformatics, and transcriptome analysis. NRC-1 was found to grow on either dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as the sole terminal electron acceptor, with a doubling time of 1 day. An operon, dmsREABCD, encoding a putative regulatory protein, DmsR, a molybdopterin oxidoreductase of the DMSO reductase family (DmsEABC), and a molecular chaperone (DmsD) was identified by bioinformatics and confirmed as a transcriptional unit by reverse transcriptase PCR analysis. dmsR, dmsA, and dmsD in-frame deletion mutants were individually constructed. Phenotypic analysis demonstrated that dmsR, dmsA, and dmsD are required for anaerobic respiration on DMSO and TMAO. The requirement for dmsR, whose predicted product contains a DNA-binding domain similar to that of the Bat family of activators (COG3413), indicated that it functions as an activator. A cysteine-rich domain was found in the dmsR gene, which may be involved in oxygen sensing. Microarray analysis using a whole-genome 60-mer oligonucleotide array showed that the dms operon is induced during anaerobic respiration. Comparison of dmsR+ and DeltadmsR strains by use of microarrays showed that the induction of the dmsEABCD operon is dependent on a functional dmsR gene, consistent with its action as a transcriptional activator. Our results clearly establish the genes required for anaerobic respiration using DMSO and TMAO in an archaeon for the first time.

  1. Genomic Analysis of Anaerobic Respiration in the Archaeon Halobacterium sp. Strain NRC-1: Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Trimethylamine N-Oxide as Terminal Electron Acceptors†

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Jochen A.; DasSarma, Shiladitya

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated anaerobic respiration of the archaeal model organism Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1 by using phenotypic and genetic analysis, bioinformatics, and transcriptome analysis. NRC-1 was found to grow on either dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as the sole terminal electron acceptor, with a doubling time of 1 day. An operon, dmsREABCD, encoding a putative regulatory protein, DmsR, a molybdopterin oxidoreductase of the DMSO reductase family (DmsEABC), and a molecular chaperone (DmsD) was identified by bioinformatics and confirmed as a transcriptional unit by reverse transcriptase PCR analysis. dmsR, dmsA, and dmsD in-frame deletion mutants were individually constructed. Phenotypic analysis demonstrated that dmsR, dmsA, and dmsD are required for anaerobic respiration on DMSO and TMAO. The requirement for dmsR, whose predicted product contains a DNA-binding domain similar to that of the Bat family of activators (COG3413), indicated that it functions as an activator. A cysteine-rich domain was found in the dmsR gene, which may be involved in oxygen sensing. Microarray analysis using a whole-genome 60-mer oligonucleotide array showed that the dms operon is induced during anaerobic respiration. Comparison of dmsR+ and ΔdmsR strains by use of microarrays showed that the induction of the dmsEABCD operon is dependent on a functional dmsR gene, consistent with its action as a transcriptional activator. Our results clearly establish the genes required for anaerobic respiration using DMSO and TMAO in an archaeon for the first time. PMID:15716436

  2. Low-molecular-weight carbohydrate Pentaisomaltose may replace dimethyl sulfoxide as a safer cryoprotectant for cryopreservation of peripheral blood stem cells.

    PubMed

    Svalgaard, Jesper Dyrendom; Haastrup, Eva Kannik; Reckzeh, Kristian; Holst, Bjørn; Glovinski, Peter Viktor; Gørløv, Jette Sønderskov; Hansen, Morten Bagge; Moench, Kim Theilgaard; Clausen, Christian; Fischer-Nielsen, Anne

    2016-05-01

    Cryopreserved hematopoietic stem cell products are widely used for certain hematologic malignancies. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is the most widely used cryoprotective agent (CPA) today, but due to indications of cellular toxicity, changes of the cellular epigenetic state, and patient-related side effects, there is an increasing demand for DMSO-free alternatives. We therefore investigated whether Pentaisomaltose (PIM), a low-molecular-weight carbohydrate (1 kDa), can be used for cryopreservation of peripheral blood stem cells, more specifically hematopoietic progenitor cell apheresis (HPC(A)) product. We cryopreserved patient or donor HPC(A) products using 10% DMSO or 16% PIM and quantified the recovery of CD34+ cells and CD34+ subpopulations by multicolor flow cytometry. In addition, we compared the frequency of HPCs after DMSO and PIM cryopreservation using the colony-forming cells (CFCs) assay. The mean CD34+ cell recovery was 56.3 ± 23.7% (11.4%-97.3%) and 58.2 ± 10.0% (45.7%-76.9%) for 10% DMSO and 16% PIM, respectively. The distribution of CD34+ cell subpopulations was similar when comparing DMSO or PIM as CPA. CFC assay showed mean colony numbers of 70.7 ± 25.4 (range, 37.8-115.5) and 67.7 ± 15.7 (range, 48-86) for 10% DMSO and 16% PIM, respectively. Our findings demonstrate that PIM cryopreservation of HPC(A) products provides recovery of CD34+ cells, CD34+ subpopulations, and CFCs similar to that of DMSO cryopreservation and therefore may have the potential to be used for cryopreservation of peripheral blood stem cells. © 2016 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  3. Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on Bond Strength of a Self-Etch Primer and an Etch and Rinse Adhesive to Surface and Deep Dentin.

    PubMed

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Salehi, Raha; Feizi, Negar

    2016-09-01

    Composite bond to dentin is crucial in many clinical conditions particularly in deep cavities without enamel margins due to insufficient penetration of adhesive into demineralized dentin. The aim of this study was to assess the shear bond strength (SBS) of a methacrylate-based and a silorane-based composite resin to surface and deep dentin after pretreatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Eighty extracted human premolars were randomly divided into two groups of flat occlusal dentin with different cuts as A: surface group (sections just below the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) and B: deep group (2 mm below DEJ). Each group was randomly assigned to 4 subgroups and their samples were restored with Adper Single bond (ASB) and Filtek Z350 or Silorane system Adhesive (SA) and Filtek P90 composite resins, using a 3×3mm cylindrical plastic mold. following these steps , the subgroups were assigned as SubgroupA1: surface dentin+ Silorane System Primer (SSP)+ Silorane System Bonding (SSB)+ P90; Subgroup A2: surface dentin+ 37% etchant (E37%) + Adper Single Bond (ASB)+ Z350; Subgroup A3: surface dentin+ DMSO+ SSP+ SSB+ P90; Subgroup A4: surface dentin+ E37%+ DMSO+ ASB+ Z350; Subgroup B1: deep dentin+ SSP+ SSB+ P90; Subgroup B2: deep dentin+ E37%+ ASB+ Z350; Subgroup B3: deep dentin+ DMSO+ SSP+ SSB+ P90; Subgroup B4:dentin +E37% +DMSO +ASB +Z350. The specimens were thermocycled at 5± 2/55± 2°C for 1000 cycles and then tested for SBS. Using DMSO as dentin conditioner increased SBS of ASB to deep dentin (p< 0.001) and SBS of SA to surface dentin (p= 0.003) but had no effect on SBS of SA to deep dentin (p= 1.00). The ability of DMSO to increase SBS of ASB to deep dentin provides a basis for improving bonding of this composite resin in deep cavities.

  4. Short and long-term motor and behavioral effects of diazoxide and dimethyl sulfoxide administration in the mouse after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Budinich, Craig S; Tucker, Laura B; Lowe, Dennell; Rosenberger, John G; McCabe, Joseph T

    2013-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a worldwide phenomenon that affects all ages and socioeconomic classes and results in varying degrees of immediate and delayed motor, cognitive, and emotional deficiencies. A plethora of pharmacologic interventions that target recognized initiators and propagators of pathology are being investigated in an attempt to ameliorate secondary injury processes that follow primary injury. Diazoxide (DZ), a K(ATP) channel activator, has been shown to provide short- and long-term protective effects in a variety of in vitro and in vivo cerebral ischemia models. However, the effects of DZ on behavioral outcome following TBI have not been investigated. TBI was induced in male C57BL/6J mice by controlled cortical impact (CCI) and followed by intraperitoneal administration of either normal saline, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or 2.5 mg/kg DZ in DMSO, 30 min post-injury and daily for three days. Open field and beam walk performances were used to assess motor and behavioral function 1, 7, and 14 days following injury. Spatial learning and memory were assessed three weeks following injury using the Morris water maze. Injured mice were significantly impaired on the beam-walk and Morris water maze tasks, and were hyperactive and anxious in an open field environment. On post-injury days 1 and 14, mice treated with DMSO exhibited an increase in the amount of time required to perform the beam walk task. In addition, animals exposed to DMSO or DZ+DMSO exhibited slower swimming speed in the Morris water maze on the final day of testing. There was no therapeutic effect, however, of the treatment or vehicle on open field behavior or learning and memory function in the Morris water maze. In summary, CCI produced significant long-term impairment of motor, memory, and behavioral performance measures, and DZ administration, under the conditions used, provided no functional benefits following injury.

  5. Cluster-continuum quasichemical theory calculation of the lithium ion solvation in water, acetonitrile and dimethyl sulfoxide: an absolute single-ion solvation free energy scale.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Nathalia F; Pliego, Josefredo R

    2015-10-28

    Absolute single-ion solvation free energy is a very useful property for understanding solution phase chemistry. The real solvation free energy of an ion depends on its interaction with the solvent molecules and on the net potential inside the solute cavity. The tetraphenyl arsonium-tetraphenyl borate (TATB) assumption as well as the cluster-continuum quasichemical theory (CC-QCT) approach for Li(+) solvation allows access to a solvation scale excluding the net potential. We have determined this free energy scale investigating the solvation of the lithium ion in water (H2O), acetonitrile (CH3CN) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvents via the CC-QCT approach. Our calculations at the MP2 and MP4 levels with basis sets up to the QZVPP+diff quality, and including solvation of the clusters and solvent molecules by the dielectric continuum SMD method, predict the solvation free energy of Li(+) as -116.1, -120.6 and -123.6 kcal mol(-1) in H2O, CH3CN and DMSO solvents, respectively (1 mol L(-1) standard state). These values are compatible with the solvation free energy of the proton of -253.4, -253.2 and -261.1 kcal mol(-1) in H2O, CH3CN and DMSO solvents, respectively. Deviations from the experimental TATB scale are only 1.3 kcal mol(-1) in H2O and 1.8 kcal mol(-1) in DMSO solvents. However, in the case of CH3CN, the deviation reaches a value of 9.2 kcal mol(-1). The present study suggests that the experimental TATB scale is inconsistent for CH3CN. A total of 125 values of the solvation free energy of ions in these three solvents were obtained. These new data should be useful for the development of theoretical solvation models.

  6. [Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on the extent of DNA single-strand breaks and alkali-labile sites induced by 365 nm UV-radiation in human blood lymphocyte nucleoids].

    PubMed

    Smetanina, N M; Pustovalova, M V; Osipov, A N

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that exposure of 365 nm UV radiation at doses of 10, 20 and 50 kJ/m2 induces a dose-dependent increase in DNA single-strand breaks and alkali-labile sites (SSB and ALS) detected by comet and halo assays in human blood lymphocyte nucleoids. Adding 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reduces the SSB and ALS yields--in 3 times. A strong drop in the output of UV-A-induced SSB and ALS in lymphocyte nucleoids in the presence of DMSO shows the leading role of *OH radicals in this DNA damage formation under exposure to 365-nm UV-radiation.

  7. Ammonia-containing dimethyl sulfoxide: an improved solvent for the dissolution of formazan crystals in the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hengwei; Wang, Fengqing; Tao, Xinyi; Cheng, Hairong

    2012-02-01

    To reduce interference with the dissolution of formazan crystals in the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, we conducted a systematic investigation to study the effects of various buffers, HCl, NaOH, and ammonia. As a result, we identified an improved solvent, alkaline dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) containing 8 to 800 mM ammonia, which could dissolve formazan crystals in approximately 10 min so as to give a stable spectrum by eliminating buffering effects of the residual medium.

  8. Carbonyl derivatives of chloride-dimethyl sulfoxide-ruthenium(III) complexes: Synthesis, crystal structure, and reactivity of [(DMSO){sub 2}H][trans-RuCl{sub 4}(DMSO)(CO)] and mer,cis-RuCl{sub 3}(DMSO){sub 2}(CO)

    SciTech Connect

    Alessio, E.; Bolle, M.; Milani, B.

    1995-09-13

    [(DMSO){sub 2}{sub 2}H][trans-RuCl{sub 4}(DMSO){sub 2}] (1) and mer,trans-RuCl{sub 3}(DMSO){sub 2}(DMSO) (2) (DMSO = S-bonded dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO = O-bonded dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO = O bonded dimethyl sulfoxide) react with carbon monoxide at room temperature and atmospheric pressure to give [(DMSO){sub 2}H][trans-RuCl{sub 4}(DMSO)(CO)] (3) and mer,cis-RuCl{sub 3}(DMSO){sub 2-} (CO) (4), respectively. Coordination of carbon monoxide induces the S to O linkage iosmerization of the DMSO ligand trans to it. Compounds 3 and 4 represent the first example of Ru-(III) chloride-DMSO-carbonyl complexes. In both 3 and 4 the DMSO ligand trans to CO is weakly bonded and easily replaced by a nitrogen donor ligand.

  9. Femtosecond mid-infrared study of the dynamics of water molecules in water-acetone and water-dimethyl sulfoxide mixtures.

    PubMed

    Lotze, S; Groot, C C M; Vennehaug, C; Bakker, H J

    2015-04-23

    We study the vibrational relaxation dynamics and the reorientation dynamics of HDO molecules in binary water-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and water-acetone mixtures with polarization-resolved femtosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy. For low solute concentrations we observe a slowing down of the reorientation of part of the water molecules that hydrate the hydrophobic methyl groups of DMSO and acetone. For water-DMSO mixtures the fraction of slowed-down water molecules rises much steeper with solute concentration than for water-acetone mixtures, showing that acetone molecules show significant aggregation already at low concentrations. At high solute concentrations, the vibrational and reorientation dynamics of both water-DMSO and water-acetone mixtures show a clear distinction between the dynamics of water molecules donating hydrogen bonds to other water molecules and the dynamics of water donating a hydrogen bond to the S═O/C═O group of the solute. For water-DMSO mixtures both types of water molecules show a very slow reorientation. The water molecules forming hydrogen bonds to the S═O group reorient with a time constant that decreases from 46 ± 14 ps at XDMSO = 0.33 to 13 ± 2 ps at XDMSO = 0.95. The water molecules forming hydrogen bonds to the C═O group of acetone show a much faster reorientation with a time constant that decreases from 6.1 ± 0.2 ps at Xacet = 0.3 to 2.96 ± 0.05 ps at Xacet = 0.9. The large difference in reorientation time constant of the solute-bound water for DMSO and acetone can be explained from the fact that the hydrogen bond between water and the S═O group of DMSO is much stronger than the hydrogen bond between water and the C═O group of acetone. We attribute the strongly different behavior of water in DMSO-rich and acetone-rich mixtures to their difference in molecular shape.

  10. Study of the Electrochemical System of Antimony-Tellurium in Dimethyl Sulfoxide for Growth of Nanowire Arrays, and an Innovative Method for Single Nanowire Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalisman, Philip Taubman

    There is a strong interest in thermoelectric materials for energy production and savings. The properties which are integral to thermoelectric performance are typically linked, typically changing one of these properties for the better will change another for the worse. The intertwined nature of these properties has limited bulk thermoelectrics to low efficiencies, which has curbed their use to only niche applications. There has been theoretical and experimental work which has shown that limiting these materials in one or more dimensions will result in deconvolution of properties. Nanowires of well established thermoelectrics should show impressively high performance. Tellurium is attractive in many fields, including thermoelectrics. Nanowires of tellurium have been grown, but with limited success and with out the ability to dope the tellurium. Working on previous work with other systems, tellurium was studied in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The electrochemical system of tellurium was found to be quite dierent from its aqueous analog, but through comprehensive cyclic voltammetric study, all events were identified and explained. The binary antimony-tellurium system was also studied, as doping of tellurium is integral for many applications. Cyclic voltammograms of this system were studied, and the insight from these studies was used to grow nanowire arrays. Arrays of tellurium were grown and analysis showed that by using DMSO, antimony doped tellurium nanowire arrays could be grown. Furthermore, analysis showed that the antimony doped tellurium interstitially, resulting in a n-type material. Measurements were also performed on arrays and individual wires. Arrays of 1.15% antimony showed ZT of 0.092, with the low ZT attributed to poor contact methods. Although contacting was an obstacle towards measuring whole arrays, single wire measurements were also performed. Single wire measurements were done by a novel method which allows for easy, reproducible measurements of wire

  11. Probe dependent anomalies in the solvation dynamics of coumarin dyes in dimethyl sulfoxide-glycerol binary solvent: confirming the local environments are different for coumarin dyes.

    PubMed

    Koley, Somnath; Kaur, Harveen; Ghosh, Subhadip

    2014-10-28

    The solvation dynamics of coumarin dyes in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-glycerol (GLY) binary mixtures were studied across the GLY concentrations. Three coumarin dyes with widely different hydrophobicities were used for probing the entire polarity regions of this solvent mixture. Multiple anomalous concentration regions with significantly slow solvation times were detected from all three coumarin dyes. However, their precise positions were found to be probe molecule dependent. The solvation dynamics of the moderately hydrophobic dye coumarin 480 (C480) maintain a plateau region with a similar solvation time (∼550 ps) with the increase in GLY concentration until X(GLY) (the mole fraction of glycerol) reaches 0.5. This plateau region is followed by a sudden slowdown (to ∼975 ps) on the addition of more GLY to the DMSO-GLY mixture, and then this slow region persists from X(GLY)∼ 0.55 to 0.65 (peak at 0.6). On further addition of GLY (X(GLY) > 0.7), the solvation dynamics again become slower to ∼828 ps (at X(GLY)∼ 0.8) from ∼612 ps (at X(GLY)∼ 0.7). For very high GLY-content samples (X(GLY) > 0.85), the solvation times remain similar on further changes of the GLY concentrations. In contrast to C480, the most hydrophobic dye coumarin 153 (C153) shows a linear increase of solvation time in the DMSO-GLY mixture, from 102 ps (at X(GLY)∼ 0.1) to 946 ps (at X(GLY)∼ 0.9) with increase in GLY concentration, except for the concentration region, X(GLY)∼ 0.45-0.55 (peak at 0.5), where a substantial slowdown of the solvation time is observed. The highly hydrophilic probe coumarin 343 (C343) demonstrates multiple concentration regions (X(GLY)∼ 0.05-0.10, 0.25-0.35 and 0.55-0.65) where the solvation dynamics are significantly retarded. The presence of probe dependent anomalies in the DMSO-GLY mixture is a clear indication of there being different locations of probe molecules within this solvent mixture. We assume that the slowing-down of the solvation time could

  12. Comparative studies on exchange reactions of hexafluoroacetylacetonate in bis(hexafluoroacetylacetonato)(dimethyl sulfoxide)dioxouranium(VI) in nonaqueous solvent and supercritical CO(2).

    PubMed

    Kachi, Yoshihiro; Kayaki, Yoshihito; Tsukahara, Takehiko; Ikariya, Takao; Ikeda, Yasuhisa

    2008-01-07

    Exchange reactions of hexafluoroacetylacetonate (hfacac) in UO2(hfacac)2DMSO (DMSO = dimethyl sulfoxide) in o-C6D4Cl2 and supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2) have been studied using the NMR line-broadening method to compare reactivity in a nonaqueous solvent with that in sc-CO2. It was found that the exchange rates of hfacac in both systems are dependent on the concentration of the enol isomer ([Henol]) of hexafluoroacetylacetone and become slow with an increase in the concentration of free DMSO ([DMSO]). The exchange reaction between free and coordinated DMSO in UO2(hfacac)2DMSO has been also examined in o-C6D4Cl2 and sc-CO2. As a result, the exchange rate of DMSO was found to depend on [DMSO]. From these results, the hfacac exchange reactions in UO2(hfacac)2DMSO in o-C6D4Cl2 and sc-CO2 were proposed to proceed through the mechanism that the ring-opening for one of two coordinated hfacac in UO2(hfacac)2DMSO is the rate-determining step, and the resulting vacant site is coordinated by the incoming Henol, followed by the proton transfer from Henol to hfacac and the ring closure of unidentate hfacac. The rate constants at 60 degrees C and the activation parameters (DeltaH and DeltaS) for the ring-opening path are 35.8 +/- 3.2 s(-1), 57.8 +/- 2.7 kJ.mol(-1), and -42.9 +/- 7.7 J.mol(-1).K(-1) for the o-C6D4Cl2 system, and 518 +/- 50 s(-1), 18.9 +/- 1.8 kJ.mol(-1), and -138 +/- 5 J.mol(-1).K(-1) for the sc-CO2 system, respectively. Differences in kinetic parameters between sc-CO2 and o-C6D4Cl2 systems were proposed to be attributed to the solute-solvent interactions such as Lewis acid-Lewis base interactions and hydrogen bondings between sc-CO2 and beta-diketones.

  13. Spermatozoa from the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) display typical canid hyper-sensitivity to osmotic and freezing-induced injury, but respond favorably to dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Amy E M; Freeman, Elizabeth W; Wildt, David E; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2014-06-01

    We assessed the influences of medium osmolality, cryoprotectant and cooling and warming rate on maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) spermatozoa. Ejaculates were exposed to Ham's F10 medium (isotonic control) or to this medium plus NaCl (350-1000mOsm), sucrose (369 and 479mOsm), 1M glycerol (1086mOsm) or dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO, 1151mOsm) for 10 min. Each sample then was diluted back into Ham's medium and assessed for sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity. Although glycerol and Me2SO had no influence (P>0.05), NaCl and sucrose solutions affected sperm motility (P<0.05), but not membrane integrity. Motility of sperm exposed to <600mOsm NaCl or sucrose was less (P<0.05) than fresh ejaculate, but comparable (P>0.05) to the control. As osmolality of the NaCl solution increased, motility decreased to <5%. In a separate study, ejaculates were diluted in Test Yolk Buffer containing 1M glycerol or Me2SO and cooled from 5°C to -120°C at -57.8°C, -124.2°C or -67.0°C/min, frozen in LN2, thawed in a water bath for 30s at 37°C or 10s at 50°C, and then assessed for motility, plasma- and acrosomal membrane integrity. Cryopreservation markedly (P<0.05) reduced sperm motility by 70% compared to fresh samples. Higher (P<0.05) post-thaw motility (20.0±1.9% versus 13.5±2.1%) and membrane integrity (51.2±1.7% versus 41.5±2.2%) were observed in samples cryopreserved in Me2SO than in glycerol. Cooling rates influenced survival of sperm cryopreserved in glycerol with -57.8°C/min being advantageous (P<0.05). The findings demonstrate that although maned wolf spermatozoa are similar to domestic dog sperm in their sensitivity to osmotic-induced motility damage, the plasma membranes tolerate dehydration, and the cells respond favorably to Me2SO as a cryoprotectant.

  14. Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on Bond Strength of a Self-Etch Primer and an Etch and Rinse Adhesive to Surface and Deep Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Salehi, Raha; Feizi, Negar

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Composite bond to dentin is crucial in many clinical conditions particularly in deep cavities without enamel margins due to insufficient penetration of adhesive into demineralized dentin. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the shear bond strength (SBS) of a methacrylate-based and a silorane-based composite resin to surface and deep dentin after pretreatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Materials and Method: Eighty extracted human premolars were randomly divided into two groups of flat occlusal dentin with different cuts as A: surface group (sections just below the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) and B: deep group (2 mm below DEJ). Each group was randomly assigned to 4 subgroups and their samples were restored with Adper Single bond (ASB) and Filtek Z350 or Silorane system Adhesive (SA) and Filtek P90 composite resins, using a 3×3mm cylindrical plastic mold. following these steps , the subgroups were assigned as SubgroupA1: surface dentin+ Silorane System Primer (SSP)+ Silorane System Bonding (SSB)+ P90; Subgroup A2: surface dentin+ 37% etchant (E37%) + Adper Single Bond (ASB)+ Z350; Subgroup A3: surface dentin+ DMSO+ SSP+ SSB+ P90; Subgroup A4: surface dentin+ E37%+ DMSO+ ASB+ Z350; Subgroup B1: deep dentin+ SSP+ SSB+ P90; Subgroup B2: deep dentin+ E37%+ ASB+ Z350; Subgroup B3: deep dentin+ DMSO+ SSP+ SSB+ P90; Subgroup B4:dentin +E37% +DMSO +ASB +Z350. The specimens were thermocycled at 5± 2/55± 2°C for 1000 cycles and then tested for SBS. Results: Using DMSO as dentin conditioner increased SBS of ASB to deep dentin (p< 0.001) and SBS of SA to surface dentin (p= 0.003) but had no effect on SBS of SA to deep dentin (p= 1.00). Conclusion: The ability of DMSO to increase SBS of ASB to deep dentin provides a basis for improving bonding of this composite resin in deep cavities. PMID:27840836

  15. Oligonucleotide melting temperatures under PCR conditions: nearest-neighbor corrections for Mg(2+), deoxynucleotide triphosphate, and dimethyl sulfoxide concentrations with comparison to alternative empirical formulas.

    PubMed

    von Ahsen, N; Wittwer, C T; Schütz, E

    2001-11-01

    Many techniques in molecular biology depend on the oligonucleotide melting temperature (T(m)), and several formulas have been developed to estimate T(m). Nearest-neighbor (N-N) models provide the highest accuracy for T(m) prediction, but it is not clear how to adjust these models for the effects of reagents commonly used in PCR, such as Mg(2+), deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The experimental T(m)s of 475 matched or mismatched target/probe duplexes were obtained in our laboratories or were compiled from the literature based on studies using the same real-time PCR platform. This data set was used to evaluate the contributions of [Mg(2+)], [dNTPs], and [DMSO] in N-N calculations. In addition, best-fit coefficients for common empirical formulas based on GC content, length, and the equivalent sodium ion concentration of cations [Na(+)(eq)] were obtained by multiple regression. When we used [Na(+)(eq)] = [Monovalent cations] + 120(square root of ([Mg2+]-[dNTPs])) (the concentrations in this formula are mmol/L) to correct DeltaS(0) and a DMSO term of 0.75 degrees C (%DMSO), the SE of the N-N T(m) estimate was 1.76 degrees C for perfectly matched duplexes (n = 217). Alternatively, the empirical formula T(m) ( degrees C) = 77.1 degrees C + 11.7 x log[Na(+)(eq)] + 0.41(%GC) - 528/bp - 0.75 degrees C(%DMSO) gave a slightly higher SE of 1.87 degrees C. When all duplexes (matched and mismatched; n = 475) were included in N-N calculations, the SE was 2.06 degrees C. This robust model, accounting for the effects of Mg(2+), DMSO, and dNTPs on oligonucleotide T(m) in PCR, gives reliable T(m) predictions using thermodynamic N-N calculations or empirical formulas.

  16. Platelet Cryopreservation Using Dimethyl Sulfoxide,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    plateletpheresis methods or cell separators. In recent studies, the corrected count increment following 66 transfusions of frozen platelets collected using the...Haemonetics Model 30 processor (Haemonetics Corp., Natick, Mass.) was 12,3000 (range 0-36,800) compared to a mean CCI of 11,7000 (0-34,900) using manual plateletpheresis technique (N = 211).

  17. Crystal structure of poly[tetra-μ2-cyanido-1:2κ8 N:C-bis­(dimethyl sulfoxide-1κO)diargentate(I)iron(II)

    PubMed Central

    Kucheriv, Olesia I.; Naumova, Dina D.; Tokmenko, Inna I.; Polunin, Ruslan A.; Terebilenko, Kateryna V.

    2017-01-01

    In the title polymeric complex, [Fe{OS(CH3)2}2{Ag(CN)2}2], the FeII cation is located at an inversion centre and is coordinated by four cyanide (CN−) anions and two dimethyl sulfoxide mol­ecules in a slightly compressed N4O2 octa­hedral geometry, the AgI cation is C-coordinated by two CN− anions in a nearly linear geometry. The CN− anions bridge the FeII and AgI cations to form a two-dimensional polymeric structure extending parallel to (102). In the crystal, the nearest Ag⋯Ag distance between polymeric sheets is 3.8122 (12) Å. The crystal studied was a twin with a contribution of 0.2108 (12) for the minor component. PMID:28217357

  18. Crystal structure of di­aqua­bis­(7-di­ethyl­amino-3-formyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-olato-κ2 O 3,O 4)zinc(II) dimethyl sulfoxide disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Aaron B.; Fronczek, Frank R.; Wallace, Karl J.

    2016-01-01

    The structure of the title coordination complex, [Zn(C14H14NO4)2(H2O)2]·2C2H6OS, shows that the ZnII cation adopts an octa­hedral geometry and lies on an inversion center. Two organic ligands occupy the equatorial positions of the coordination sphere, forming a chelate ring motif via the O atom on the formyl group and another O atom of the carbonyl group (a pseudo-β-diketone motif). Two water mol­ecules occupy the remaining coordination sites of the ZnII cation in the axial positions. The water mol­ecules are each hydrogen bonded to a single dimethyl sulfoxide mol­ecule that has been entrapped in the crystal lattice. PMID:27555957

  19. Crystal structure of chlorido­(dimethyl sulfoxide-κS)bis­[4-(pyridin-2-yl)benzaldehyde-κ3 C 2,N]iridium(III) aceto­nitrile monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Peloquin, Andrew J.; Smith, Madelyn B.; Balaich, Gary J.; Iacono, Scott T.

    2017-01-01

    The title compound, [IrCl(C12H8NO)2{(CH3)2SO}]·H3CCN or [IrCl(fppy)2(DMSO)]·H3CCN [where fppy is 4-(pyridin-2-yl)benzaldehyde and DMSO is dimethyl sulfoxide], is a mononuclear iridium(III) complex including two fppy ligands, a sulfur-coordinating DMSO ligand, and one terminal chloride ligand that define a distorted octa­hedral coordination sphere. The complex crystallizes from 1:1 DMSO–aceto­nitrile as an aceto­nitrile solvate. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯O and C—H⋯N hydrogen-bonding inter­actions between adjacent complexes and between the aceto­nitrile solvent and the complex consolidate the packing.

  20. Crystal structure of 6-amino-4-(3-bromo-4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)-3-methyl-2,4-di-hydro-pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole-5-carbo-nitrile dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Sammer; Bano, Huma; Muhammad, Munira Taj; Khan, Khalid Mohammed

    2015-07-01

    In the pyrazole mol-ecule of the title solvate, C15H13BrN4O2·C2H6OS, the dihedral angle between the benzene ring and the mean plane of the di-hydro-pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole ring system [r.m.s deviation = 0.031 (2) Å] is 86.71 (14)°. In the crystal, the pyrazole mol-ecules are linked by N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming a layer parallel to (10-1). The pyrazole and dimethyl sulfoxide mol-ecules are connected by an N-H⋯O hydrogen bond.

  1. Crystal structure of cis,fac-{N,N-bis­[(pyridin-2-yl)meth­yl]methyl­amine-κ3 N,N′,N′′}di­chlorido­(dimethyl sulfoxide-κS)ruthenium(II)

    PubMed Central

    Trotter, Kasey; Arulsamy, Navamoney; Hulley, Elliott

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of di­chlorido­tetra­kis­(dimethyl sulfoxide)­ruthen­ium(II) with N,N-bis[(pyridin-2-yl)meth­yl]methyl­amine aff­ords the title complex, [RuCl2(C13H15N3)(C2H6OS)]. The asymmetric unit contains a well-ordered complex mol­ecule. The N,N-bis­[(pyridin-2-yl)meth­yl]methyl­amine (bpma) ligand binds the cation through its two pyridyl N atoms and one aliphatic N atom in a facial manner. The coordination sphere of the low-spin d 6 RuII is distorted octahedral. The dimethyl sulfoxide (dmso) ligand coordinates to the cation through its S atom and is cis to the aliphatic N atom. The two chloride ligands occupy the remaining sites. The bpma ligand is folded with the dihedral angle between the mean planes passing through its two pyridine rings being 64.55 (8)°. The two N—Ru—N bite angles of the ligand at 81.70 (7) and 82.34 (8)° illustrate the distorted octa­hedral coordination geometry of the RuII cation. Two neighboring molecules are weakly associated through mutual intermolecular hydrogen bonding involving the O atom and one of the methyl groups of the dmso ligand. One of the chloride ligands is also weakly hydrogen bonded to a pyridyl H atom of another molecule. PMID:26396870

  2. Codiffusion of propylene glycol and dimethyl isosorbide in hairless mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Squillante, E; Needham, T; Maniar, A; Kislalioglu, S; Zia, H

    1998-11-01

    The in vitro percutaneous fluxes of propylene glycol (PG), cis-oleic acid (OA) and dimethyl isosorbide (DI) were determined and their effect on nifedipine (N) flux and lag time evaluated. PG, OA and DI flux through hairless mouse (HM) skin was measured in vitro by beta-scintigraphy and N permeation was measured by HPLC under finite and infinite dose conditions. Evaluation of each of the solvents separately showed that pure DI possessed the inherent ability to traverse the skin (12% in 24 h). For the tested formulation after 24 h, 57% of the PG and 40% of the DI had permeated across the skin with nearly linear permeation between 4 and 18 h and the relative order of permeation was PG > DI > N. DI permeation was further aided in the presence of PG and OA. N flux was dependent on concomitant solvent permeation. Over a 24-h test period a dose dependent response was observed for N, with 4.9-15.6 mg of N delivered from the lowest and highest doses, respectively, and the highest dose yielding zero-order flux of 146 (g/h per cm2).

  3. The inner-salt zwitterion, the dihydrochloride dihydrate and the dimethyl sulfoxide disolvate of 3,6-bis(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazine-2,5-dicarboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen

    2012-11-01

    In the inner-salt zwitterion of 3,6-bis(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazine-2,5-dicarboxylic acid, (I), namely 5-carboxy-3-(pyridin-1-ium-2-yl)-6-(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazine-2-carboxylate, [C(16)H(10)N(4)O(4), (Ia)], the pyrazine ring has a twist-boat conformation. The opposing pyridine and pyridinium rings are almost perpendicular to one another, with a dihedral angle of 80.24 (18)°, and are inclined to the pyrazine mean plane by 36.83 (17) and 43.74 (17)°, respectively. The carboxy and carboxylate groups are inclined to the mean plane of the pyrazine ring by 43.60 (17) and 45.46 (17)°, respectively. In the crystal structure, the molecules are linked via N-H···O and O-H···O hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of double-stranded chains propagating in the [010] direction. On treating (Ia) with aqueous 1 M HCl, the diprotonated dihydrate form 2,2'-(3,6-dicarboxypyrazine-2,5-diyl)bis(pyridin-1-ium) dichloride dihydrate [C(16)H(12)N(4)O(4)(2+)·2Cl(-)·2H(2)O, (Ib)] was obtained. The cation lies about an inversion centre. The pyridinium rings and carboxy groups are inclined to the planar pyrazine ring by 55.53 (9) and 19.8 (2)°, respectively. In the crystal structure, the molecules are involved in N-H···Cl, O-H···O(water) and O(water)-H···Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of chains propagating in the [010] direction. When (Ia) was recrystallized from dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), the DMSO disolvate 3,6-bis(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazine-2,5-dicarboxylic acid dimethyl sulfoxide disolvate [C(16)H(10)N(4)O(4)·2C(2)H(6)OS, (Ic)] of (I) was obtained. Here, the molecule of (I) lies about an inversion centre and the pyridine rings are inclined to the planar pyrazine ring by only 23.59 (12)°. However, the carboxy groups are inclined to the pyrazine ring by 69.0 (3)°. In the crystal structure, the carboxy groups are linked to the DMSO molecules by O-H···O hydrogen bonds. In all three crystal structures, the presence of nonclassical hydrogen bonds gives rise to the

  4. Use of Glycerol as an Optical Clearing Agent for Enhancing Photonic Transference and Detection of Salmonella typhimurium Through Porcine Skin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to evaluate glycerol (GLY) and GLY + dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to increase photonic detection of transformed Salmonella typhimurium (S. typh-lux) through porcine skin. Skin was placed on 96-well plates containing S. typh-lux, imaged (5 min) using a CCD camera, and the...

  5. Use of Glycerol as an Optical Clearing Agent for Enhancing Photonic Transference and Detection of Salmonella typhimurium through Porcine Skin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to evaluate glycerol (GLY) and GLY + dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to increase photonic detection of transformed Salmonella typhimurium (S. typh-lux) through porcine skin. Skin was placed on 96-well plates containing S. typh-lux, imaged (5 min) using a CCD camera, and the...

  6. 5-Amino-6-benzoyl-8-nitro-2,3-di-hydro-1H-spiro-[imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-7,3'-indolin]-2'-one dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Nagalakshmi, R A; Suresh, J; Sivakumar, S; Kumar, R Ranjith; Lakshman, P L Nilantha

    2014-05-01

    In the title compound C21H17N5O4·C2H6OS, the central six-membered ring derived from 1,4-di-hydro-pyridine adopts a distorted boat conformation with a small puckering amplitude of 0.127 (3) Å. The sums of bond angles around the pyridine N atom [358.7 (2)°] and the other imidazolidine N atom [60 (2)°] indicate that these atoms are in sp(2) hybridization, leading to an essentially planar imidazolidine ring. The last heterocycle, an oxindole moiety, is also nearly planar with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.0185 (1) Å. The amine NH2 group forms an intra-molecular hydrogen bond with the benzoyl group, giving a S(6) motif. In the crystal, N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds lead to the formation of chains along the c-axis direction. Within the chains there are further N-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds enclosing R (2) 2(14) ring motifs. The chains are linked via N-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the dimethyl sulfoxide solvent mol-ecule which acts as both an acceptor and a donor..

  7. trans-Bis(5-amino-1,3,4-thia­diazol-2-thio­lato-κS 2)bis­(triphenyl­phosphane-κP)palladium(II) dimethyl sulfoxide disolvate hemihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Chontal-Vidal, Felipe; Arroyo-Gómez, Maricela; Hernández-Ortega, Simón; Reyes-Martínez, Reyna; Morales-Morales, David

    2012-01-01

    The title complex, [Pd(C2H2N3S2)2(C18H15P)2]·2C2H6OS·0.5H2O, was obtained from the reaction of trans-[(Ph3P)2PdCl2] with 5-amino-1,3,4-thia­diazole-2-thione (SSNH2) in a 2:1 molar ratio. The PdII atom, located in a crystallographic center of symmetry, has a square-planar geometry with two triphenyl­phosphine P-coordinated mol­ecules and two SSNH2 ligands with the S atoms in a trans conformation. The latter ligand exhibits N—H⋯N hydrogen-bonding contacts formed by the amino group with the thia­diazole ring, generating a chain along the c axis. The asymmetric unit contains one half of the complex mol­ecule along with disordered dimethyl sulfoxide and water mol­ecules. PMID:22589843

  8. Di­chlorido­(4,4′-di-tert-butyl-2,2′-bi­pyridine-κ2 N,N′)palladium(II) dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Márquez, Ricardo A.; Crisóstomo-Lucas, Carmela; Reyes-Martínez, Reyna; Hernández-Ortega, Simón; Morales-Morales, David

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, [PdCl2(C18H24N2)]·(CH3)2SO·H2O, the PdII ion is in a distorted square-planar geometry. The Pd—N bond distances are 2.022 (2) and 2.027 (2) Å, the Pd—Cl bond distances are 2.2880 (7) and 2.2833 (7) Å, and the ligand bite angle is 80.07 (9)°. The dimethyl sulfoxide and water mol­ecules form linear chains along [100] by O—H⋯O and O—H⋯S hydrogen bonds, generating eight- and 12-membered rings. C—H⋯Cl inter­actions link the chains, forming a three-dimensional arrangement. In addition, the 4,4-di-tert-butyl-2,2′-bi­pyridine ligand exhibits π–π stacking inter­actions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.8741 (15) and 3.8353 (15) Å]. The DMSO solvent is disordered and was refined with an occupancy ratio of 0.866 (3):0.134 (3). PMID:24940194

  9. Influence of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on the viscosity of dimethyl sulfoxide-H2O-NaCl and glycerol-H2O-NaCl ternary systems at subzero temperatures.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jingru; Tang, Heyu; Zhao, Gang

    2014-10-01

    The viscosity, at subzero temperatures, of ternary solutions commonly used in cryopreservation is tremendously important for understanding ice formation and molecular diffusion in biopreservation. However, this information is scarce in the literature. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, the effect of nanoparticles on the viscosity of these solutions has not previously been reported. The objectives of this study were thus: (i) to systematically measure the subzero viscosity of two such systems, dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO)-H2O-NaCl and glycerol-H2O-NaCl; (ii) to explore the effect of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles on the viscosity; and (iii) to provide models that precisely predict viscosity at multiple concentrations of cryoprotective agent (CPA) in saline solutions at subzero temperatures. Our experiments were performed in two parts. We first measured the viscosity at multiple CPA concentrations [0.3-0.75 (w/w)] in saline solution with and without nanoparticles at subzero temperatures (0 to -30°C). The data exhibited a good fit to the Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation. We then measured the viscosity of residual unfrozen ternary solutions with and without nanoparticles during equilibrium freezing. HA nanoparticles made the solution more viscous, suggesting applications for these nanoparticles in preventing cell dehydration, ice nucleation, and ice growth during freezing and thawing in cryopreservation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An electron spin resonance study for real-time detection of ascorbyl free radicals after addition of dimethyl sulfoxide in murine hippocampus or plasma during kainic acid-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Shigekiyo; Shingu, Chihiro; Koga, Hironori; Hagiwara, Satoshi; Iwasaka, Hideo; Noguchi, Takayuki; Yokoi, Isao

    2010-07-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR)-silent ascorbate solutions generate a detectable, likely concentration-dependent signal of ascorbyl free radicals (AFR) immediately upon addition of a molar excess of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). We aimed to perform quantitative ESR analysis of AFR in real time after addition of DMSO (AFR/DMSO) to evaluate ascorbate concentrations in fresh hippocampus or plasma following systemic administration of kainate in mice. Use of a special tissue-type quartz cell allowed immediate detection of AFR/DMSO ESR spectra in fresh tissues from mice. AFR/DMSO content was increased significantly in fresh hippocampus or plasma obtained during kainate-induced seizures of mice, reaching maximum levels at 90 min after intraperitoneal administration of 50 mg/kg kainic acid. This suggests that oxidative injury of the hippocampus resulted from the accumulation of large amounts of ascorbic acid in the brain after kainic acid administration. AFR/DMSO content measured on an ESR spectrometer can be used for real-time evaluation of ascorbate content in fresh tissue. Due to the simplicity, good performance, low cost and real-time monitoring of ascorbate, this method may be applied to clinical research and treatment in the future.

  11. Flexibility at a glycosidic linkage revealed by molecular dynamics, stochastic modeling, and (13)C NMR spin relaxation: conformational preferences of α-L-Rhap-α-(1 → 2)-α-L-Rhap-OMe in water and dimethyl sulfoxide solutions.

    PubMed

    Pendrill, Robert; Engström, Olof; Volpato, Andrea; Zerbetto, Mirco; Polimeno, Antonino; Widmalm, Göran

    2016-01-28

    The monosaccharide L-rhamnose is common in bacterial polysaccharides and the disaccharide α-L-Rhap-α-(1 → 2)-α-L-Rhap-OMe represents a structural model for a part of Shigella flexneri O-antigen polysaccharides. Utilization of [1'-(13)C]-site-specific labeling in the anomeric position at the glycosidic linkage between the two sugar residues facilitated the determination of transglycosidic NMR (3)JCH and (3)JCC coupling constants. Based on these spin-spin couplings the major state and the conformational distribution could be determined with respect to the ψ torsion angle, which changed between water and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvents, a finding mirrored by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with explicit solvent molecules. The (13)C NMR spin relaxation parameters T1, T2, and heteronuclear NOE of the probe were measured for the disaccharide in DMSO-d6 at two magnetic field strengths, with standard deviations ≤1%. The combination of MD simulation and a stochastic description based on the diffusive chain model resulted in excellent agreement between calculated and experimentally observed (13)C relaxation parameters, with an average error of <2%. The coupling between the global reorientation of the molecule and the local motion of the spin probe is deemed essential if reproduction of NMR relaxation parameters should succeed, since decoupling of the two modes of motion results in significantly worse agreement. Calculation of (13)C relaxation parameters based on the correlation functions obtained directly from the MD simulation of the solute molecule in DMSO as solvent showed satisfactory agreement with errors on the order of 10% or less.

  12. Conformational preferences of trans-1,2- and cis-1,3-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acids in water and dimethyl sulfoxide as a function of the ionization state as determined from NMR spectroscopy and density functional theory quantum mechanical calculations.

    PubMed

    Garza, Alejandro J; Nag, Mrinmoy; Carroll, William R; Goddard, William A; Roberts, John D

    2012-09-12

    The populations of diaxial (aa) and diequatorial (ee) conformers of trans-1,2- and cis-1,3-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acids (CDCAs; 1 and 2, respectively) and their salts were determined in water and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions from vicinal proton-proton NMR J couplings ((3)J(HH)). Optimized geometries and free energies for these compounds were obtained at the M06-2X/cc-pVTZ(-f)++ level. Although carboxylic acid groups in cyclohexane rings are generally believed to be far more stable (~2 kcal/mol) in equatorial than axial positions, this investigation demonstrated that an aa conformation (normally assumed to be completely insignificant for these compounds) can be favored depending on the medium and ionization state: strong ee preferences (>90%) were observed in water and DMSO for both diacids and their salts, except for the dianion of 1 in DMSO, which was found to be substantially aa (~57%). The possibility of intramolecular hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) was also investigated; the ratios of the ionization constants (K(1)/K(2)) indicated an absence of intramolecular H-bonding because K(1)/K(2) ≪ 10(4) (a standard criterion for non-H-bonding in dicarboxylic acids) for both 1 and 2 in water and also for 2 in DMSO. For 1, K(1)/K(2) increased drastically in DMSO (K(1)/K(2) = 4 × 10(6)), where (3)J(HH) and the ratio K(1)/K(E) = 10, K(E) being the acidity constant of the monomethyl ester of 1, indicated the formation of an intramolecular H-bond for the monoanion in this solvent. An explanation for the observation of compact dianions in solution in terms of the generalized Born equation is also provided.

  13. The assessment of electrophysiological activity in human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes exposed to dimethyl sulfoxide and ethanol by manual patch clamp and multi-electrode array system.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Soo-Wang; Kim, Bo-Ram; Hyun, Sung-Ae; Seo, Joung-Wook

    2017-09-01

    Recently, electrophysiological activity has been effectively measured in human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) to predict drug-induced arrhythmia. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethanol have been used as diluting agents in many experiments. However, the maximum DMSO and ethanol concentrations that can be effectively used in the measurement of electrophysiological parameters in hiPSC-CMs-based patch clamp and multi-electrode array (MEA) have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the effects of varying concentrations of DMSO and ethanol used as diluting agents on several electrophysiological parameters in hiPSC-CMs using patch clamp and MEA. Both DMSO and ethanol at concentrations>1% in external solution resulted in osmolality >400mOsmol/kg, but pH was not affected by either agent. Neither DMSO nor ethanol led to cell death at the concentrations examined. However, resting membrane potential, action potential amplitude, action potential duration at 90% and 40%, and corrected field potential duration were decreased significantly at 1% ethanol concentration. DMSO at 1% also significantly decreased the sodium spike amplitude. In addition, the waveform of action potential and field potential was recorded as irregular at 3% concentrations of both DMSO and ethanol. Concentrations of up to 0.3% of either agent did not affect osmolality, pH, cell death, or electrophysiological parameters in hiPSC-CMs. Our findings suggest that 0.3% is the maximum concentration at which DMSO or ethanol should be used for dilution purposes in hiPSC-CMs-based patch clamp and MEA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Crystal structure of catena-poly[[(dimethyl sulfoxide-κO)(pyridine-2,6-di-carboxyl-ato-κ(3) O,N,O')nickel(II)]-μ-pyrazine-κ(2) N:N'].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Thuijs, Annaliese E; Felts, Ashley C; Ballouk, Hamza F; Abboud, Khalil A

    2016-05-01

    The title coordination polymer, [Ni(C7H3NO4)(C4H4N2)(C2H6OS)] n , consists of [010] chains composed of Ni(II) ions linked by bis-monodentate-bridging pyrazine mol-ecules. Each of the two crystallographically distinct Ni(II) ions is located on a mirror plane and is additionally coordinated by a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) ligand through the oxygen atom and by a tridentate 2,6-pyridine-di-carb-oxy-lic acid dianion through one of each of the carboxyl-ate oxygen atoms and the pyridine nitro-gen atom, leading to a distorted octa-hedral coordination environment. The title structure exhibits an inter-esting complementarity between coordinative bonding and π-π stacking where the Ni-Ni distance of 7.0296 (4) Å across bridging pyrazine ligands allows the pyridine moieties on two adjacent chains to inter-digitate at halfway of the Ni-Ni distance, resulting in π-π stacking between pyridine moieties with a centroid-to-plane distance of 3.5148 (2) Å. The double-chain thus formed also exhibits C-H⋯π inter-actions between pyridine C-H groups on one chain and pyrazine mol-ecules on the other chain. As a result, the inter-ior of the double-chain structure is dominated by π-π stacking and C-H⋯ π inter-actions, while the space between the double-chains is occupied by a C-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding network involving DMSO ligands and carboxyl-ate groups located on the exterior of the double-chains. This separation of dissimilar inter-actions in the inter-ior and exterior of the double-chains further stabilizes the crystal structure.

  15. Tetra­kis{2-[2-(2,6-dichloro­anilino)phen­yl]ethano­ato-κ2 O:O′}bis­[(dimethyl sulfoxide-κO)copper(II)](Cu—Cu): a binuclear CuII complex with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac

    PubMed Central

    Sayen, Stéphanie; Guillon, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, [Cu2(C14H10Cl2NO2)4(C2H6OS)2], comprises a CuII 2 core that is quadruply bridged by four carboxyl­ate ligands with the dimethyl sulfoxide ligands binding along the Cu⋯Cu axis. The four carboxyl­ate ligands bind in a bidentate syn–syn bridging mode. Mol­ecules reside on crystallographic inversion centres bis­ecting the mid-point of the Cu⋯Cu axis. There are no inter­molecular inter­actions of note. PMID:22589837

  16. Polyoxyethylene/polyoxypropylen dimethyl ether (EPDME) improves the structure of intercellular lipids in SDS-induced dry skin.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Eiichiro; Ohmori, Takashi; Sakamoto, Kazutami

    2010-01-01

    The dimethyl ether of an amphiphilic random ethylene oxide/propylene oxide copolymer (EPDME) is useful for the preparation of finely dispersed micro-emulsions. We examined whether EPDME is effective for skin moisturization by means of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of ex vivo specimens of stratum corneum (SC) obtained by successive stripping. The values of the order parameter S obtained by EPR measurement indicated that EPDME treatment improved sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-induced disruption of SC lipid structures. This effect appeared to be related to improved hydration of the epidermis, not occlusion by EPDME, since there was no significant change in transepidermal water loss (TEWL).

  17. A randomized, open-label, multicenter study of the efficacy and safety of intravesical hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate versus dimethyl sulfoxide in women with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Cervigni, Mauro; Sommariva, Monica; Tenaglia, Raffaele; Porru, Daniele; Ostardo, Edoardo; Giammò, Alessandro; Trevisan, Silvia; Frangione, Valeria; Ciani, Oriana; Tarricone, Rosanna; Pappagallo, Giovanni L

    2017-04-01

    Intravesical instillation of hyaluronic acid (HA) plus chondroitin sulfate (CS) in women with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) has shown promising results. This study compared the efficacy, safety, and costs of intravesical HA/CS (Ialuril(®) , IBSA) to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Randomized, open-label, multicenter study involving 110 women with BPS/IC. The allocation ratio (HA/CS:DMSO) was 2:1. Thirteen weekly instillations of HA (1.6%)/CS (2.0%) or 50% DMSO were given. Patients were evaluated at 3 (end-of-treatment) and 6 months. Primary endpoint was reduction in pain intensity at 6 months by visual analogue scale (VAS) versus baseline. Secondary efficacy measurements were quality of life and economic analyses. A significant reduction in pain intensity was observed at 6 months in both treatment groups versus baseline (P < 0.0001) in the intention-to-treat population. Treatment with HA/CS resulted in a greater reduction in pain intensity at 6 months compared with DMSO for the per-protocol population (mean VAS reduction 44.77 ± 25.07 vs. 28.89 ± 31.14, respectively; P = 0.0186). There were no significant differences between treatment groups in secondary outcomes. At least one adverse event was reported in 14.86% and 30.56% of patients in the HA/CS and DMSO groups, respectively. There were significantly fewer treatment-related adverse events for HA/CS versus DMSO (1.35% vs. 22.22%; P = 0.001). Considering direct healthcare costs, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of HA/CS versus DMSO fell between 3735€/quality-adjusted life years (QALY) and 8003€/QALY. Treatment with HA/CS appears to be as effective as DMSO with a potentially more favorable safety profile. Both treatments increased health-related quality of life, while HA/CS showed a more acceptable cost-effectiveness profile. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on the induction of DNA strand breaks in plasmid DNA and colony formation of PC Cl3 mammalian cells by alpha-, beta-, and Auger electron emitters (223)Ra, (188)Re, and (99m)Tc.

    PubMed

    Runge, Roswitha; Oehme, Liane; Kotzerke, Jörg; Freudenberg, Robert

    2016-12-01

    DNA damage occurs as a consequence of both direct and indirect effects of ionizing radiation. The severity of DNA damage depends on the physical characteristics of the radiation quality, e.g., the linear energy transfer (LET). There are still contrary findings regarding direct or indirect interactions of high-LET emitters with DNA. Our aim is to determine DNA damage and the effect on cellular survival induced by (223)Ra compared to (188)Re and (99m)Tc modulated by the radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Radioactive solutions of (223)Ra, (188)Re, or (99m)Tc were added to either plasmid DNA or to PC Cl3 cells in the absence or presence of DMSO. Following irradiation, single strand breaks (SSB) and double strand breaks (DSB) in plasmid DNA were analyzed by gel electrophoresis. To determine the radiosensitivity of the rat thyroid cell line (PC Cl3), survival curves were performed using the colony formation assay. Exposure to 120 Gy of (223)Ra, (188)Re, or (99m)Tc leads to maximal yields of SSB (80 %) in plasmid DNA. Irradiation with 540 Gy (223)Ra and 500 Gy (188)Re or (99m)Tc induced 40, 28, and 64 % linear plasmid conformations, respectively. DMSO prevented the SSB and DSB in a similar way for all radionuclides. However, with the α-emitter (223)Ra, a low level of DSB could not be prevented by DMSO. Irradiation of PC Cl3 cells with (223)Ra, (188)Re, and (99m)Tc pre-incubated with DMSO revealed enhanced survival fractions (SF) in comparison to treatment without DMSO. Protection factors (PF) were calculated using the fitted survival curves. These factors are 1.23 ± 0.04, 1.20 ± 0.19, and 1.34 ± 0.05 for (223)Ra, (188)Re, and (99m)Tc, respectively. For (223)Ra, as well as for (188)Re and (99m)Tc, dose-dependent radiation effects were found applicable for plasmid DNA and PC Cl3 cells. The radioprotection by DMSO was in the same range for high- and low-LET emitter. Overall, the results indicate the contribution of mainly indirect radiation

  19. Pharmacologic enhancement of rat skin flap survival with topical oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Oscar K; Gabr, Essam; Steward, Earl; Chen, Heidi; Kobayashi, Mark R; Calvert, Jay W; Sundine, Michael J; Kotchounian, Taline; Dhar, Sanjay; Evans, Gregory R D

    2004-06-01

    This study was instituted to investigate in a rat model the effect of topical coadministration of the penetration enhancer oleic acid (10% by volume) and RIMSO-50 (medical grade dimethyl sulfoxide, 50% by volume) on rat skin flap survival. A rectangular abdominal skin flap (2.5 x 3 cm) was surgically elevated over the left abdomen in 40 nude rats. The vein of the flap's neurovascular pedicle was occluded by placement of a microvascular clip, and the flap was resutured with 4-0 Prolene to its adjacent skin. At the end of 8 hours, the distal edge of the flap was reincised to gain access to the clips and the clips were removed. After resuturing of the flap's distal edge to its adjacent skin, the 40 flaps were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 (control) flaps were treated with 5 g of saline, group 2 (dimethyl sulfoxide) flaps were treated with 2.7 g of dimethyl sulfoxide (50% by volume), group 3 flaps (oleic acid) were topically treated with 0.45 g of oleic acid (10% by volume), and group 4 (dimethyl sulfoxide plus oleic acid) flaps were treated with a mixture of 0.45 g of oleic acid (10% by volume) and 2.7 g of dimethyl sulfoxide (50% by volume) diluted in saline. Each flap was topically treated with 5 ml of drug-soaked gauze for 1 hour immediately after clip removal to attenuate reperfusion injury. Thereafter, drug was applied topically once daily for 4 more days. Digital photographs of each flap were then taken on day 6 and the flaps were then harvested. The percentage of skin survival in each flap was determined by computerized morphometry and planimetry. The mean surviving area of group 3 (oleic acid-treated flaps) was 23.60 +/- 4.19 percent and was statistically higher than that in group 1 (control, saline-treated flaps) at 7.20 +/- 2.56 percent. The mean surviving area of group 2 (dimethyl sulfoxide-treated flaps) at 18.00 +/- 5.23 percent and group 4 (oleic acid- and dimethyl sulfoxide-treated flaps) at 9.90 +/- 3.44 percent did not achieve

  20. Sensitive skin: mechanisms and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Primavera, G; Berardesca, E

    2005-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a condition of subjective cutaneous hyperreactivity to environmental factors. Subjects experiencing this condition report exaggerated reactions when their skin is in contact with cosmetics, soaps and sunscreens, and they often report worsening after exposure to dry and cold climate. Although no sign of irritation is commonly detected, itching, burning, stinging and a tight sensation are constantly present. Generally substances that are not commonly considered irritants are involved in this abnormal response. They include many ingredients of cosmetics such as: dimethyl sulfoxide, benzoyl peroxide preparations, salicylic acid, propylene glycol, amyldimethylaminobenzoic acid and 2-ethoxyethyl methoxycinnamate. Sensitive skin and subjective irritation are widespread but still far from being completely defined and understood. The aim of this paper is to summarize the relevant literature in order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of sensitive skin and the best testing methodologies for investigation of sensitive skin.

  1. Penetration kinetics of dimethyl sulphoxide and glycerol in dynamic optical clearing of porcine skin tissue in vitro studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingying; Boese, Matthias; Turner, Paul; Wang, Ruikang K

    2008-01-01

    By use of a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging technique, we examine the dynamic optical clearing processes occurring in hyperosmotically biocompatible agents penetrating into skin tissue in vitro. The sequential collection of images in a time series provides an opportunity to assess penetration kinetics of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and glycerol beneath the surface of skin tissue over time. From 2-D IR spectroscopic images and 3-D false color diagrams, we show that glycerol takes at least 30 min to finally penetrate the layer of epidermis, while DMSO can be detected in epidermis after only 4 min of being topically applied over stratum corneum sides of porcine skin. The results demonstrate the potential of a FTIR spectroscopic imaging technique as an analytical tool for the study of dynamic optical clearing effects when the bio-tissue is impregnated by hyperosmotically biocompatible agents such as glycerol and DMSO.

  2. cis,fac-Dichlorido{N-[3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-(trimethyl­silyl­oxy)benz­yl]-N,N-bis­(2-pyridylmeth­yl)amine}(dimethyl sulfoxide)ruthenium(II) dichloro­methane disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Paul J.; Minasian, Stefan G.; Arnold, John

    2009-01-01

    Reaction of dichloridotetra­kis(dimethyl sulfoxide)ruthenium(II) and N-[3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-(trimethyl­silyl­oxy)benz­yl]-N,N-bis­(2-pyridylmeth­yl)amine (BPPA-TMS) affords the thermodynamic product cis,fac-[RuCl2(BPPA-TMS)(DMSO)] and kinetic product trans,mer-[RuCl2(BPPA-TMS)(DMSO)]. The title complex, [RuCl2(C30H43N3OSi)(C2H6OS)]·2CH2Cl2, crystallizes as a dichloro­methane disolvate, with two formula units in the asymmetric unit. The complex exhibits a distorted-octa­hedral geometry about the low spin d 6 RuII center. The BPPA-TMS ligand is coordinated in a facial fashion, with the DMSO ligand cis to the aliphatic nitro­gen atom of the BPPA-TMS ligand. One of the two dichloromethane solvate molecules is disordered over two positions in a 0.695:0.305 ratio. PMID:21578123

  3. (S)-N-[(4-{(S)-1-[2-(4-Meth­oxy­benz­amido)-2-methyl­propano­yl]pyrrolidine-2-carboxamido}-3,4,5,6-tetra­hydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)carbon­yl]proline dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate (4-MeBz-Aib-Pro-Thp-Pro-OH)

    PubMed Central

    Stoykova, Svetlana A.; Linden, Anthony; Heimgartner, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C28H38N4O8·C2H6OS, contains one tetra­peptide and one disordered dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mol­ecule. The central five-membered ring (Pro2) of the peptide mol­ecule has a disordered envelope conformation [occupancy ratio 0.879 (2):0.121 (2)] with the envelope flap atom, the central C atom of the three ring methylene groups, lying on alternate sides of the mean ring plane. The terminal five-membered ring (Pro4) also adopts an envelope conformation with the C atom of the methylene group closest to the carboxylic acid function as the envelope flap, and the six-membered tetra­hydro­pyrane ring shows a chair conformation. The tetra­peptide exists in a helical conformation, stabilized by an intra­molecular hydrogen bond between the amide N—H group of the heterocyclic α-amino acid Thp and the amide O atom of the 4-meth­oxy­benzoyl group. This inter­action has a graph set motif of S(10) and serves to maintain a fairly rigid β-turn structure. In the crystal, the terminal hy­droxy group forms a hydrogen bond with the amide O atom of Thp of a neighbouring mol­ecule, and the amide N—H group at the opposite end of the mol­ecule forms a hydrogen bond with the amide O atom of Thp of another neighbouring mol­ecule. The combination of both inter­molecular inter­actions links the mol­ecules into an extended three-dimensional framework. PMID:23476594

  4. (S)-N-[(4-{(S)-1-[2-(4-Meth-oxy-benz-amido)-2-methyl-propano-yl]pyrrolidine-2-carboxamido}-3,4,5,6-tetra-hydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)carbon-yl]proline dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate (4-MeBz-Aib-Pro-Thp-Pro-OH).

    PubMed

    Stoykova, Svetlana A; Linden, Anthony; Heimgartner, Heinz

    2013-03-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C28H38N4O8·C2H6OS, contains one tetra-peptide and one disordered dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mol-ecule. The central five-membered ring (Pro(2)) of the peptide mol-ecule has a disordered envelope conformation [occupancy ratio 0.879 (2):0.121 (2)] with the envelope flap atom, the central C atom of the three ring methylene groups, lying on alternate sides of the mean ring plane. The terminal five-membered ring (Pro(4)) also adopts an envelope conformation with the C atom of the methylene group closest to the carboxylic acid function as the envelope flap, and the six-membered tetra-hydro-pyrane ring shows a chair conformation. The tetra-peptide exists in a helical conformation, stabilized by an intra-molecular hydrogen bond between the amide N-H group of the heterocyclic α-amino acid Thp and the amide O atom of the 4-meth-oxy-benzoyl group. This inter-action has a graph set motif of S(10) and serves to maintain a fairly rigid β-turn structure. In the crystal, the terminal hy-droxy group forms a hydrogen bond with the amide O atom of Thp of a neighbouring mol-ecule, and the amide N-H group at the opposite end of the mol-ecule forms a hydrogen bond with the amide O atom of Thp of another neighbouring mol-ecule. The combination of both inter-molecular inter-actions links the mol-ecules into an extended three-dimensional framework.

  5. 21 CFR 524.660b - Dimethyl sulfoxide gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.660b... use—(1) Indications for use. For use on horses and dogs as a topical application to reduce acute... grams per day. Total duration of therapy should not exceed 30 days. (ii) Dogs. Administer 3 or 4 times...

  6. 21 CFR 524.660b - Dimethyl sulfoxide gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.660b... use—(1) Indications for use. For use on horses and dogs as a topical application to reduce acute... grams per day. Total duration of therapy should not exceed 30 days. (ii) Dogs. Administer 3 or 4 times...

  7. 21 CFR 524.660b - Dimethyl sulfoxide gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.660b... use—(1) Indications for use. For use on horses and dogs as a topical application to reduce acute... grams per day. Total duration of therapy should not exceed 30 days. (ii) Dogs. Administer 3 or 4 times...

  8. 21 CFR 524.660b - Dimethyl sulfoxide gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.660b... use—(1) Indications for use. For use on horses and dogs as a topical application to reduce acute... grams per day. Total duration of therapy should not exceed 30 days. (ii) Dogs. Administer 3 or 4 times...

  9. Melanin: The Effects of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on the Spectral Properties.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    Kozikowski et al (14) recently observed fluorescence of melanins from argon ion laser excitation. Infrared absorption spectra of melanin compressed...Photobiol 1978;28:75-81. 13. Gallas JP. Fluorescence of melanin. Dtiss Abstr Int 1982;43:1681. 14. Kozikowski SD, Wolfram LJ, Alfano RR. Fluorescence

  10. 21 CFR 524.660a - Dimethyl sulfoxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....660a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... per day. Total duration of therapy should not exceed 30 days. (ii) In dogs administered 3 or 4 times... days. (2) Not for use in horses and dogs intended for breeding purposes nor in horses slaughtered...

  11. [Dimethyl sulfoxide in the treatment of interstitial cystitis].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J L; Alonso, M; Moreno, B; Server, G; Osca, J M; Jiménez, J F

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents the results obtained with endovesical dimethylsulphoxide in the treatment of interstitial cystitis in 30 women. Up to 80% patients showed clinical improvement with an average of 10 installations. Volume of maximal vesical capacity was increased in 24 patients (80%), the increase being greater than 100 cc in 10 cases. Presently, 24 (80%) patients remain under treatment, 14 with one instillation monthly and 10 once every six months. Six patients are fully asymptomatic without treatment after an average symptoms-free interval of 32 months. Since this is directly related to a decrease both in pain and miction frequency, the increase in vesical capacity appears to be a good improvement index. Dimethylsulphoxide in neither a healing nor a definite therapy but it seems to be effective in the management of this unknown disease.

  12. Dimethyl Fumarate

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a condition in which ... day. Take dimethyl fumarate at around the same times every day. Follow the directions on your prescription ...

  13. Induction of apoptosis by calcium D-glucarate in 7,12-dimethyl benz [a] anthracene-exposed mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jaya; Gupta, Krishna P

    2007-01-01

    Calcium glucarate (Cag), a naturally occurring nontoxic compound, suppresses the DMBA-induced tumor development in mouse skin. In the process of understanding the mechanisms of tumor suppression by Cag, we investigated the effect of topical application of Cag on selective and critical events of apoptotic pathway in DMBA-exposed mouse epidermis. Varied doses of DMBA or Cag were used for the study. DMBA had an inhibitory effect on proteases in general and on caspases in particular. Cag tried to reverse the inhibitory effect of DMBA on 3, 8, or 9 caspase in a dose-dependent manner. Cag inhibited activity of Poly ADP-ribose polymerase enzyme, a substrate of caspses, after DMBA exposure. As indicated by western blotting, Cag treatment also inhibited PARP expression induced by DMBA at the level of protein. Cag induced the DMBA-inhibited Ca++/Mg++-dependent endonuclease, an enzyme responsible for the DNA fragmentation during apoptosis. DMBA induced the expression of mutant-p53 and Bcl-2. This induced expression of proteins was reversed when Cag was given along with DMBA. Cag showed a dose-dependent inhibition of DMBA-induced mutant-p53 expression. Similarly Bcl-2 overexpression by DMBA was also inhibited by topical treatment of Cag when given along with DMBA. Inhibition of mutant-p53 and Bcl-2 expression by Cag in DMBA-exposed mouse skin might contribute to the apoptogenic effect possibly exerted by Cag while suppressing the tumor development. The study indicates that Cag induces apoptosis in mouse epidermis, a possible mechanism for tumor suppression, and thus could be considered a promising anticancer agent.

  14. p-Chlorophenyl methyl sulfoxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    p - Chlorophenyl methyl sulfoxide ; CASRN 934 - 73 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  15. Dimethyl phthalate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dimethyl phthalate ; CASRN 131 - 11 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  16. Dimethyl sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dimethyl sulfate ; CASRN 77 - 78 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  17. Measurement of the Absolute Raman Cross Sections of Diethyl Phthalate, Dimethyl Phthalate, Ethyl Cinnamate, Propylene Carbonate, Tripropyl Phosphate, 1,3-Cyclohexanedione, 3’-Aminoacetophenone, 3’-Hydroxyacetophenone, Diethyl Acetamidomalonate, Isovanillin, Lactide, Meldrum’s Acid, p-Tolyl Sulfoxide, and Vanillin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-13

    Propylene Carbonate , Tripropyl Phosphate, 1,3-Cyclohexanedione, 3’-Aminoacetophenone, 3’-Hydroxyacetophenone, Diethyl Acetamidomalonate, Isovanillin...Cross Sections of Diethyl Phthalate, Dimethyl Phthalate, Ethyl Cinnamate, Propylene Carbonate , Tripropyl Phosphate, 1,3-Cyclohexanedione, 3...been determined for the Raman cross section σR of neat Diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), ethyl cinnamate (EC), propylene carbonate

  18. Skin absorption of actinides: influence of solvents or chelates on skin penetration ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Tazrart, Anissa; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Coudert, Sylvie; Lamart, Stephanie; Miller, Brian W; Angulo, Jaime F; Briançon, Stéphanie; Griffiths, Nina M

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate skin penetration and retention of americium (Am) and plutonium (Pu), in different chemical forms relevant to the nuclear industry and to treatment by chelation. Percutaneous penetration of different Am and Pu forms were evaluated using viable pig skin with the Franz cell diffusion system. The behavior of the complex Pu-tributyl phosphate (Pu-TBP), Am or Pu complexed to the chelator Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and the effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was assessed. Radioactivity was measured in skin and receiver compartments. Three approaches were used to visualize activity in skin including the recent iQID technique for quantification. Transfer of Am was 24-fold greater than Pu and Pu-TBP complex penetration was enhanced by 500-fold. Actinide-DTPA transfer was greater than the Am or Pu alone (17-fold and 148-fold, respectively). The stratum corneum retained the majority of activity in all cases and both DMSO and TBP enhanced skin retention of Am and Pu, respectively. Histological and bioimaging data confirmed these results and the iQID camera allowed the quantification of skin activity. Skin penetration and fixation profiles are different depending on the chemical actinide form. Altered behavior of Pu-TBP and actinide-DTPA complexes reinforces the need to address decontamination protocols.

  19. An enantioselective central-axial-central chiral element transfer process leading to a concise synthesis of (+)-sterpurene: Intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions of vinylallene sulfoxides

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, R.A.; Bartels, K.; Lee, R.W.K.; Okamura, W.H. )

    1989-05-10

    The intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) reaction of vinylallene sulfoxide 19 as the diene component occurs in a rapid and stereoselective manner at room temperature to give tricyclic 20 in good yield. Sulfoxide 19 cyclizes {approximately} 140 times faster than the corresponding hydrocarbon 15a. It was also shown that gem-dimethyl substitution on the tether linking the vinylallene and vinyl group accelerates the rate of cyclization by only a factor of {approximately} 2.6. Treatment of enantiomerically enriched diene propargyl alcohol 6 with benzenesulfenyl chloride gave vinyallene sulfoxide 4 which cyclized in a highly enantio- and diastereoselective fashion to afford optically active tricyclic sulfoxide 5. Sulfoxide 5 was converted in two steps to the novel sesquiterpene fungal metabolite (+)-sterpurene, thus establishing its absolute configuration. By use of 2D NMR techniques, most of the proton and carbon signals in the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectra of sterpurene (8) and the precursor diene 33 were assigned.

  20. Molecular Rhenium(V) Oxotransferases: Oxidation of Thiols to Disulfides with Sulfoxides. The Case of Substrate-Inhibited Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Abu-Omar, Mahdi M.; Khan, Saeed I.

    1998-09-21

    Re(O)Cl(3)(PPh(3))(2), 1, and Re(O)Cl(3)(OPPh(3))(Me(2)S), 2, catalyze the oxidation of thiols to disulfides with sulfoxides under mild conditions. Catalyst 1 exhibits an induction period which features PPh(3) oxidation to OPPh(3) prior to disulfide formation. This lag is absent when 2 is the catalyst precursor. Otherwise, 1 and 2 display comparable kinetics and concentration dependencies. The catalytic reactions are first-order in catalyst, inhibited by thiol, and first-order in sulfoxide at low sulfoxide concentrations. Thiol inhibits the oxygen-transfer reaction because it competes with sulfoxide for coordination on rhenium. Sulfoxides must bind to rhenium in order to be activated for oxo transfer. Ligand substitution reactions of 1 and 2 display kinetics that are consistent with a dissociative (D) mechanism: the substitution rate is zero-order in entering ligand and inhibited by departing ligand. The first-order rate constant for the formation of a 5-coordinate intermediate is 0.06 s(-)(1). As the sulfoxide concentration is increased, the reaction rate increases to reach a maximum and then begins to decline. The catalytic turnover rate at optimal conditions (maximum k(cat) for PhS(O)Me is 180 h(-)(1)) approaches the rate of ligand substitution in these rhenium(V) complexes. Rate retardation at high sulfoxide concentrations is due to catalyst deactivation; sulfoxides oxidize the rhenium(V) catalyst to ReO(4)(-), which is inactive. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is more efficient than aryl sulfoxides at oxidizing the catalyst, a fact that could be rationalized by the thermodynamics of S-O bond strength. Thus, aryl sulfoxides, such as PhS(O)Me, appear to be more reactive than alkyl ones. The oxygen-transfer reaction, therefore, is not involved in the rate-controlling step and the rate is limited by ligand substitution. The rhenium(V) catalyst in these reactions acts as a Lewis acid and activates the sulfoxide via coordination: the sulfoxide ligand and not the metal is

  1. Supported oligomethionine sulfoxide and Ellman's reagent for cysteine bridges formation.

    PubMed

    Ronga, Luisa; Verdié, Pascal; Sanchez, Pierre; Enjabal, Christine; Maurras, Amélie; Jullian, Magalie; Puget, Karine; Martinez, Jean; Subra, Gilles

    2013-02-01

    A large number of bioactive peptides are cyclized through a disulfide bridge. This structural feature is very important for both bioactivity and stability. The oxidation of cysteine side chains is challenging not only to avoid intermolecular reaction leading to oligomers and oxidation of other residues but also to remove solvents and oxidant such as dimethyl sulfoxide. Supported reagents advantageously simplify the work-up of such disulfide bond formation, but may lead to a significant decrease in yield of the oxidized product. In this study, two resins working through different mechanisms were evaluated: Clear-Ox, a supported version of Ellman's reagent and Oxyfold, consisting in a series of oxidized methionine residues. The choice of the supported reagent is discussed on the light of reaction speed, side-products formation and yield considerations.

  2. Structural changes by sulfoxidation of phenothiazine drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Svein G.; Kollman, Peter A.; Rao, Shashidhar N.; Singh, U. Chandra

    1992-06-01

    The side-chain conformations of psychoactive phenothiazine drugs in crystals are different from those of biologically inactive ring sulfoxide metabolites. This study examines the potential energies, molecular conformations and electrostatic potentials in chlorpromazine, levomepromazine (methotrimeprazine), their sulfoxide metabolites and methoxypromazine. The purpose of the study was to examine the significance of the different crystal conformations of active and inactive phenothiazine derivatives, and to determine why phenothiazine drugs lose most of their biological activity by sulfoxidation. Quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics calculations demonstrated that conformations with the side chain folded over the ring structure had lowest potential energy in vacuo, both in the drugs and in the sulfoxide metabolites. In the sulfoxides, side chain conformations corresponding to the crystal structure of chlorpromazine sulfoxide were characterized by stronger negative electrostatic potentials around the ring system than in the parent drugs. This may weaken the electrostatic interaction of sulfoxide metabolites with negatively charged domains in dopamine receptors, and cause the sulfoxides to be virtually inactive in dopamine receptor binding and related pharmacological tests.

  3. Synergistic effects of ethosomes and chemical enhancers on enhancement of naloxone permeation through human skin.

    PubMed

    Xu, D H; Zhang, Q; Feng, X; Xu, X; Liang, W Q

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ethosomes, chemical enhancers and their binary combination on the in vitro permeability enhancement of naloxone through human skin. Franz diffusion cells were used for the percutaneous absorption studies. Propylene glycol (PG), N,N-dimethyl formamide (N,N-DMF), N,N-dimethyl acetamide (N,N-DMA), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), Azone and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400), were chosen as the chemical enhancers. Naloxone ethosomes showed 11.68 times increase in steady-state flux compared to phosphate buffered solution (PBS). Ethosomes in combination with chemical enhancers synergistically increased (p < 0.05) in vitro flux of naloxone. Azone 3% + PG7% pretreated in ethosomal form dramatically enhanced the skin permeation of naloxone in vitro compared with ethosomes (steady-state flux: 96.75 +/- 5.70 microg x cm(-2) x h(-1) vs 20.56 +/- 1.67 microg x cm(-2) x h(-1)). Ethosomal carrier and enhancers accumulated in the skin after 24 h were greater than that of PBS.

  4. Oxygen atom transfer reactions from Mimoun complexes to sulfides and sulfoxides. A bonding evolution theory analysis.

    PubMed

    González-Navarrete, Patricio; Sensato, Fabricio R; Andrés, Juan; Longo, Elson

    2014-08-07

    In this research, a comprehensive theoretical investigation has been conducted on oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reactions from Mimoun complexes to sulfides and sulfoxides. The joint use of the electron localization function (ELF) and Thom's catastrophe theory (CT) provides a powerful tool to analyze the evolution of chemical events along a reaction pathway. The progress of the reaction has been monitored by structural stability domains from ELF topology while the changes between them are controlled by turning points derived from CT which reveal that the reaction mechanism can be separated in several steps: first, a rupture of the peroxo O1-O2 bond, then a rearrangement of lone pairs of the sulfur atom occurs and subsequently the formation of S-O1 bond. The OAT process involving the oxidation of sulfides and sulfoxides is found to be an asynchronous process where O1-O2 bond breaking and S-O1 bond formation processes do not occur simultaneously. Nucleophilic/electrophilic characters of both dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl sulfoxide, respectively, are sufficiently described by our results, which hold the key to unprecedented insight into the mapping of electrons that compose the bonds while the bonds change.

  5. Enantiopure sulfoxides: recent applications in asymmetric synthesis.

    PubMed

    Carreño, M Carmen; Hernández-Torres, Gloria; Ribagorda, María; Urbano, Antonio

    2009-11-07

    Sulfoxides are nowadays recognised as powerful chiral auxiliaries that may participate in a wide range of asymmetric reactions. Their high configurational stability, the existence of several efficient methods allowing the access to both configurations as well as their synthetic versatility are characteristic features offering a tremendous potential to develop new applications. Significant recent advances leading to high asymmetric inductions in carbon-carbon and carbon-oxygen bond forming reactions, and applications of homochiral sulfoxides to atroposelective synthesis and asymmetric catalysis are discussed. New uses of sulfoxides in the design of chiroptical switches are also shown.

  6. Characterization of a reptilian epithelioid skin cell line derived from the green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas.

    PubMed

    Koment, R W; Haines, H

    1982-03-01

    A continuous line of epithelioid cells was established from explant skin tissues of the green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas. These cells, designated GTS, have been subcultured more than 60 times in commercially available mammalian cell culture medium supplemented with 5% bovine calf serum. Of those temperatures tested, optimal growth was achieved at 30 degrees C although replication occurred between 16 and 37 degrees C. These cells may be held as monolayers at 8 degrees C or stored frozen in growth medium containing 10% dimethyl-sulfoxide at -70 or -196 degrees C. The modal number of 55 chromosomes per cell is in agreement with the heterogametic female diploid number of this species. The GTS line represents the first established culture of normal epithelioid skin cells to be reported for a poikilothermic species.

  7. Enhanced skin deposition and delivery of voriconazole using ethosomal preparations.

    PubMed

    Faisal, Waleed; Soliman, Ghareb M; Hamdan, Ahmed M

    2016-10-19

    Despite its broad-spectrum antifungal properties, voriconazole has many side effects when administered systemically. The aim of this work was to develop an ethosomal topical delivery system for voriconazole and test its potential to enhance the antifungal properties and skin delivery of the drug. Voriconazole was encapsulated into various ethosomal preparations and the effect of phospholipid and ethanol concentrations on the ethosomes properties were evaluated. The ethosomes were evaluated for drug encapsulation efficiency, particle size and morphology and antifungal efficacy. Drug permeability and deposition were tested in rat abdominal skin. Drug encapsulation efficiency of up to 46% was obtained and it increased with increasing the phospholipid concentration, whereas the opposite effect was observed for the ethanol concentration. The ethosomes had a size of 420-600 nm and negative zeta potential. The particle size of the ethosomes increased by increasing their ethanol content. The ethosomes achieved similar inhibition zones against Aspergillus flavus at a 2-fold lower drug concentration compared with drug solution in dimethyl sulfoxide. The ex vivo drug permeability through rat abdominal skin was ∼6-fold higher for the ethosomes compared with the drug hydroalcoholic solution. Similarly, the amount of drug deposited in the skin was higher for the ethosomes and was dependent on the ethanol concentration of the ethosomes. These results confirm that voriconazole ethosomal preparations are promising topical delivery systems that can enhance the drug antifungal efficacy and improve its skin delivery.

  8. Liquid structure of dibutyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Lo Celso, Fabrizio; Aoun, Bachir; Triolo, Alessandro; Russina, Olga

    2016-06-21

    We present experimental (X-ray diffraction) data on the structure of liquid dibutyl sulfoxide at 320 K and rationalise the data by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Not unexpectedly, DBSO bearing a strong dipolar moiety and two medium length, apolar butyl chains, this compound was characterised by a distinct degree of polar vs. apolar structural differentiation at the nm spatial scale, which was fingerprinted by a low Q peak in its X-ray diffraction pattern. Similar to, but to a larger extent than its shorter chain family members (such as DMSO), DBSO was also characterised by an enhanced dipole-dipole correlation, which was responsible for a moderate Kirkwood correlation factor as well as for the self-association detected in this compound. We show, however, that the supposedly relevant hydrogen bonding correlations between oxygen and the butyl chain hydrogens are of a limited extent only, and only in the case of α-hydrogens is an appreciable indication of the existence of such an interaction found, albeit this turned out to be a mere consequence of the strong dipole-dipole correlation.

  9. Liquid structure of dibutyl sulfoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lo Celso, Fabrizio; Aoun, Bachir; Triolo, Alessandro; Russina, Olga

    2016-05-16

    We present experimental (x-ray diffraction) data on the structure of liquid dibutyl sulfoxide at 320 K and rationalize them by means of Molecular Dynamics simulations. Not unexpectedly, DBSO bearing a strong dipolar moiety and two medium length, apolar, butyl chains, this compound turns out to be characterised by a distinct degree of polar-vs-apolar structural differentiation at the nm spatial scale that is fingerprinted in a low Q peak in its x-ray diffraction pattern. Similarly to, but to a larger extent than its shorter chain family members (such as DMSO), DBSO is also characterised by an enhanced dipole-dipole correlation that is responsible for the moderate Kirkwood correlation factor as well as for the self-association detected in this compound. In conclusion, we show however that the supposedly relevant hydrogen bonding correlations between oxygen and butyl chain hydrogens are of limited extent and only in the case of α-hydrogens appreciable indication of the existence of such an interaction is found, but it turns out to be a mere consequence of the strong dipole-dipole correlation.

  10. Liquid structure of dibutyl sulfoxide

    DOE PAGES

    Lo Celso, Fabrizio; Aoun, Bachir; Triolo, Alessandro; ...

    2016-05-16

    We present experimental (x-ray diffraction) data on the structure of liquid dibutyl sulfoxide at 320 K and rationalize them by means of Molecular Dynamics simulations. Not unexpectedly, DBSO bearing a strong dipolar moiety and two medium length, apolar, butyl chains, this compound turns out to be characterised by a distinct degree of polar-vs-apolar structural differentiation at the nm spatial scale that is fingerprinted in a low Q peak in its x-ray diffraction pattern. Similarly to, but to a larger extent than its shorter chain family members (such as DMSO), DBSO is also characterised by an enhanced dipole-dipole correlation that ismore » responsible for the moderate Kirkwood correlation factor as well as for the self-association detected in this compound. In conclusion, we show however that the supposedly relevant hydrogen bonding correlations between oxygen and butyl chain hydrogens are of limited extent and only in the case of α-hydrogens appreciable indication of the existence of such an interaction is found, but it turns out to be a mere consequence of the strong dipole-dipole correlation.« less

  11. Cyclic sulfoxides-garlicnins K1, K2, and H1-extracted from Allium sativum.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Komota, Yusuke; Kondo, Yoshihiko; Saku, Taiki; Yamaguchi, Koki; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Takeya, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Newly identified cyclic sulfoxides-garlicnins K1 (1), K2 (2), and H1 (3)-were isolated from the acetone extracts of the bulbs of garlic, Allium sativum. Garlicnin H1 (3) demonstrated potential to suppress tumor cell proliferation by regulating macrophage activation. The structures of garlicnins K1 and K2, 3,4-dimethyl-5-allyl-tetrahydrothiophen-2-one-S-oxides, and the structure of garlicnin H1, 3-carboxy-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-5-allylsulfoxide-tetrahydrothiophen-2-(ethane-1,2-diol)-S-oxide were characterized by spectroscopic analysis.

  12. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling suppresses skin flap apoptosis in a rat ischemia and/or reperfusion model.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ming; Liu, Yifang; Yin, Dechang; Zhang, Mingzi; Wang, Youbin; Ma, Xuemei; Liu, Yunqi; Zhao, Pengxiang

    2016-12-01

    The goals of this study were to validate the role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in skin flap apoptosis in a rat model of abdomen skin ischemia and/or reperfusion (IR) and to compare the protective effect of SP600125 and hydrogen-rich saline in skin IR injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: one sham surgery group and four surgery groups. Before undergoing 3 h of IR management, the surgery groups were treated with normal saline (IR), dimethyl sulfoxide, SP600125 (SP), and hydrogen-rich saline (H). On the third postoperative day, blood perfusion of the flap was measured using Laser Doppler flowmeters. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to observe morphologic changes. Early apoptosis was observed using TdT-mediated dUTP-X nick end-labeling staining. pASK-1, pJNK, Bcl-2, and Bax were examined by immunodetection. Caspase-3 activity was also measured 24 h after reperfusion. Compared to the IR group and the dimethyl sulfoxide group, the SP group and the H group had larger skin flap survival area, more blood perfusion and lower levels of caspase-3 activity. The SP and the H groups had high expression levels of Bcl-2 and low expression levels of pASK-1 and pJNK. Bax was significantly decreased in the SP group. In addition, cell apoptosis was decreased in both the sham surgery and the H groups. IR-induced JNK phosphorylation was reduced by SP600125, indicating that JNK mediates the apoptosis pathways in rat skin. In the SP and the H groups, the apoptotic factors measured showed similar expression levels, indicating that JNK inhibition during IR may be associated with H-mediated protection against skin IR apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibitory effects of Opuntia humifusa on 7, 12-dimethyl- benz[a]anthracene and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13- acetate induced two-stage skin carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-A; Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia humifusa, member of the Cactaceae family, was previously demonstrated to have radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects in in vitro models. It was suggested that O. humifusa could function in the prevention of carcinogenesis. To investigate the in vivo chemopreventive effect of O. humifusa, mice were fed a diet containing either 1% or 3% following 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a] anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induction of skin carcinogenesis. Significant decrease in the numbers of papilloma and epidermal hyperplasia were observed in mice fed with O. humifusa, compared to the control group. O. humifusa also upregulated high total antioxidant capacity and level of phase II detoxifying enzyme such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase activity in the skin. Lipid peroxidation activity level was measured in skin cytosol and significantly inhibited in 3% OH fed group compared to the control group. These results suggest that O. humifusa exerts chemopreventive effects on chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin and that prevention effects are associated with reduction of oxidative stress via the modulation of cutaneous lipid peroxidation, enhancing of total antioxidant capacity especially in phase II detoxifying enzyme system and partial apoptotic influence.

  14. Expression and induction of cytochrome p450 isoenzymes in human skin equivalents.

    PubMed

    Neis, M M; Wendel, A; Wiederholt, T; Marquardt, Y; Joussen, S; Baron, J M; Merk, H F

    2010-01-01

    Organotypic skin models are frequently used for a wide range of applications and latterly also for dermatotoxicological studies. To evaluate their practicability for the investigation of xenobiotic metabolism in human skin we compared three types of organotypic skin models, acquired by purchase from different manufacturers, to a self-constructed in-house model with regard to cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzyme expression on mRNA and protein level and the inducibility of these enzymes by aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands. To induce enzyme activity, models were treated with benzanthracene, liquor carbonis detergens, pix lithanthracis or dimethyl sulfoxide as a solvent control. RNA was isolated by phenol-chloroform extraction and purified. Gene expression patterns were studied by cDNA microarray analysis. Microarray data were confirmed by real-time PCR. For quality control of the models and to detect and localize enzyme expression, immunofluorescence staining was performed with antibodies against CYPs and structure proteins. The immunofluorescence staining demonstrated the regular structure of our models. We could provide evidence for the expression of CYP types 1A1, 1B1, 2E1, 2C and 3A5 in organotypic skin models. The expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 was highly inducible by treatment with liquor carbonis detergens. The proof of the expression and inducibility of CYP enzymes in organotypic skin models suggests that skin equivalents are a valuable tool that can emulate CYP-dependent metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics in human skin.

  15. Permeation Studies of Captopril Transdermal Films Through Human Cadaver Skin.

    PubMed

    Nair, Rajesh Sreedharan; Nair, Sujith

    2015-01-01

    Mortality rate due to heart diseases increases dramatically with age. Captopril is an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE) used effectively for the management of hypertension. Due to short elimination half-life of captopril the oral dose is very high. Captopril is prone to oxidation and it has been reported that the oxidation rate of captopril in skin tissues is considerably low when compared to intestinal tissues. All these factors make captopril an ideal drug candidate for transdermal delivery. In this research work an effort was made to formulate transdermal films of captopril by utilizing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as film formers and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) as a plasticizer. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and dimethylformamide (DMF) were used as permeation enhancers. Physicochemical parameters of the films such as appearance, thickness, weight variation and drug content were evaluated. The invitro permeation studies were carried out through excised human cadaver skin using Franz diffusion cells. The in-vitro permeation studies demonstrated that the film (P4) having the polymer ratio (PVP:PVA = 80:20) with DMSO (10%) resulted a promising drug release of 79.58% at 24 hours with a flux of 70.0 µg/cm(2)/hr. No signs of erythema or oedema were observed on the rabbit skin as a result of skin irritation study by Draize test. Based on the stability report it was confirmed that the films were physically and chemically stable, hence the prepared films are very well suited for transdermal application.

  16. Photonastic effects in ruthenium sulfoxide polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rack, Jeffrey J.; Livshits, Maksim Y.; Shin, Jisoo

    2016-09-01

    We have established that film morphology and laser induced heating from dye absorption are important parameters in the creation of new photonastic materials. Photonastic is defined as regular, repeatable movement in a pre-programmed direction following exposure to light. This work builds upon the development of photonastic polymers of ruthenium sulfoxide complexes, where the action of bending is ascribed to phototriggered isomerization of a sulfoxide ligand in a ruthenium coordination complex that is covalently attached to polynorbornene. The bending is analyzed in terms of a bilayer cantilever model.

  17. Chemistry of dimethyl sulfide in the equatorial Pacific atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Bandy, A.R.; Thornton, D.C.; Blomquist, B.W.

    1996-04-01

    A field study of the chemistry of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was conducted on the island of Kiritimati (Christmas Island) during July and August, 1994. This island is located at 2{degrees}N, 157{degrees}W approximately 2000km south of Hawaii. The authors obtained a very repeatable diurnal variation for both DMS and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) during two 5-day and one 2-day experiments. Near sunrise DMS was about 200pptv. It decreased to about 120 pptv by late afternoon. During the daytime SO{sub 2} increased from about 20 pptv to about 75 pptv. At night DMS increased and SO{sub 2} decreased almost linearly. About 62% of the DMS was converted to SO{sub 2}. DMS was emitted from the ocean at an average flux of 3.7 x 10{sup 13} molecules in m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}. The average dry deposition velocity of SO{sub 2} was 6.8 mm sec{sup {minus}1} Most of the SO{sub 2} appeared to be lost to the ocean although a comparable but not significantly larger flux to aerosol cannot be ruled out. Dimethyl sulfoxide was in the range 10 to 50 pptv with a mean of about 25 pptv. Dimethyl sulfone was in the range 0 to 15 pptv with a mean of about 3 pptv. There was no diurnal trend in other species. A much smaller fraction of the DMS was converted to dimethyl sulfone than dimethyl sulfoxide. 27 refs., 2 fig., 2 tab.

  18. Simultaneous optical coherence and multiphoton microscopy of skin-equivalent tissue models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Tang, Shuo; Lim, Ryan; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2007-07-01

    Three-layer skin-equivalent models (rafts) were created consisting of a collagen/fibroblast layer and an air-exposed keratinocyte layer. Rafts were imaged with a tri-modality microscope including optical coherence (OC), two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF), and second harmonic generation (SHG) channels. Some rafts were stained with Hoechst 33343 or rhodamine 123, and some were exposed to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). OC microscopy revealed signal in cell cytoplasm and nuclear membranes, and a characteristic texture in the collagen/fibroblast layer. TPEF showed signal in cell cytoplasm and from collagen, and stained specimens revealed cell nuclei or mitochondria. There was little SHG in the keratinocyte layer, but strong signal from collagen bundles. Endogenous signals were severely attenuated in DMSO treated rafts; stained samples revealed shrunken and distorted cell structure. OC, TPEF, and SHG can provide complementary and non-destructive information about raft structure and effect of chemical agents.

  19. Histone H3 Phosphorylation in Human Skin Histoculture as a Tool to Evaluate Patient’s Response to Antiproliferative Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ugarte, Fernando; Porth, Katherine; Sadekova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of patient’s response to chemotherapeutic drugs is often difficult and time consuming. Skin punch biopsies are easily accessible material that can be used for the evaluation of surrogate biomarkers of a patient’s response to a drug. In this study, we hypothesized that assessment of phosphorylated histone H3 in human skin punch biopsies could be used as a pharmacodynamics biomarker of patient’s response to the kinesin spindle protein inhibitor SCH2047069. To test this hypothesis, we used a human skin histoculture technique that allows culturing intact human skin in the presence of the drug. Human melanoma and skin histocultures were treated with SCH2047069, and the effect of the drug was assessed by increasing histone H3 phosphorylation using immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that SCH2047069 has a significant effect on cell proliferation in human melanoma and skin histoculture and justify using human skin punch biopsies for evaluation of the pharmacodynamic changes induced by SCH2047069. ACRONYMS Histone subunit H3 (H3), Kinesin spindle protein (KSP), 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EDU), Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE). PMID:26917945

  20. [Application of ESR imaging technique in studying of skin-penetration properties of nitroxide free radical].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ke; Zheng, Yingguang; Cong, Jianbo; Zhang, Qingjun; Wang, Changzhen; Xian, Hong; Sun, Cunpu

    2008-08-01

    A set of L-band electron spin resonance imaging (ESRI) equipment suitable for biological species was developed and an ESRI experiment model for viable skin samples was established. The mechanic process of nitroxide free radical TEMPO (2,2, 6, 6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy) penetrating through skin sample and the spin density distribution of TEMPO after it interacted with skin sample were detected by the developed ESRI method. Skin samples were extracted from mice back. The experimental samples were prepared by cutting the skin pieces into square shape of 2 x 2 cm2 and then the samples were divided into three groups by treating them with three different methods: Method A, simple treatment by simply cutting the hair; method B, 8% Na2S depilation treatment for 10 min; method C, 8% Na2S depilation and then 5% pancreatic digestion treatment for 2 hours. The liposoluble solvent DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) and distilled water were used as two kinds of solvent for the TEMPO liquor. The results indicated that the skin-penetration properties of TEMPO were significantly different among samples treated with different methods and the surface cornifin of skin offered remarkable resistance to TEMPO. The TEMPO liquor of water could hardly penetrate through skins, whereas about 20%-30% of the original TEMPO compounds that solved in liposoluble solvent DMSO could penetrate through the skin sample treated with method C after 16 hours of interaction. Furthermore, the penetration rate of TEMPO through the skin tissue was a strong time dependent process. The preliminary application results suggested that ESRI technique could provide an effective and applicable method for dynamically researching skin-penetration properties of some special kinds of materials such as paramagnetic compounds.

  1. Formation of methanethiol and dimethyl disulfide in crushed tissues of broccoli florets and their inhibition by freeze-thawing.

    PubMed

    Tulio, Artemio Z; Yamanaka, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Yoshinori; Imahori, Yoshihiro

    2002-03-13

    The formation of methanethiol and dimethyl disulfide in crushed, homogenized, and frozen-thawed tissues of broccoli florets was investigated. These volatile sulfur compounds were produced in crushed florets, but their formation was inhibited in frozen-thawed tissues. Only dimethyl disulfide was formed in homogenized tissues. High pH treatment triggered the release of dimethyl disulfide in frozen-thawed tissues and also enhanced the action of cysteine sulfoxide lyase in all disrupted tissues. Methyl methanethiosulfinate and methyl methanethiosulfonate were not detected in crushed florets; thus, the favored mechanism for the formation of methanethiol and dimethyl disulfide is the chemical disproportionation of methanesulfenic acid. In contrast, the formation of dimethyl disulfide in frozen-thawed and homogenized tissues occurs from the chemical disproportionation of methyl methanethiosulfinate that was detected in these tissues. The inhibition of dimethyl disulfide production during freeze-thawing must be caused by a sudden drop in the pH of the tissue, adherence of dimethyl disulfide on the tissue surfaces, and weakening of the cysteine sulfoxide lyase activity under acidic conditions.

  2. Cysteine sulfoxide derivatives in Petiveria alliacea.

    PubMed

    Kubec, R; Musah, R A

    2001-11-01

    Two diastereomers of S-benzyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide have been isolated from fresh roots of Petiveria alliacea. Their structures and absolute configurations have been determined by NMR, MALDI-HRMS, IR and CD spectroscopy and confirmed by comparison with authentic compounds. Both the R(S) and S(S) diastereomers of the sulfoxide are present in all parts of the plant (root, stem, and leaves) with the latter diastereomer being predominant. Their total content greatly varied in different parts of the plant between 0.07 and 2.97 mg g(-1) fr. wt, being by far the highest in the root. S-Benzylcysteine has also been detected in trace amounts (<10 microg g(-1) fr. wt) in all parts of the plant. This represents the first report of the presence of S-benzylcysteine derivatives in nature.

  3. Catalytic oxidation of dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenay, Piotr; Wu, Gang; Johnston, Christina M.; Li, Qing

    2016-05-10

    A composition for oxidizing dimethyl ether includes an alloy supported on carbon, the alloy being of platinum, ruthenium, and palladium. A process for oxidizing dimethyl ether involves exposing dimethyl ether to a carbon-supported alloy of platinum, ruthenium, and palladium under conditions sufficient to electrochemically oxidize the dimethyl ether.

  4. A rhenium tris-carbonyl derivative as a model molecule for incorporation into phospholipid assemblies for skin applications.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Estibalitz; Rodríguez, Gelen; Hostachy, Sarah; Clède, Sylvain; Cócera, Mercedes; Sandt, Christophe; Lambert, François; de la Maza, Alfonso; Policar, Clotilde; López, Olga

    2015-07-01

    A rhenium tris-carbonyl derivative (fac-[Re(CO)3Cl(2-(1-dodecyl-1H-1,2,3,triazol-4-yl)-pyridine)]) was incorporated into phospholipid assemblies, called bicosomes, and the penetration of this molecule into skin was monitored using Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR). To evaluate the capacity of bicosomes to promote the penetration of this derivative, the skin penetration of the Re(CO)3 derivative dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a typical enhancer, was also studied. Dynamic light scattering results (DLS) showed an increase in the size of the bicosomes with the incorporation of the Re(CO)3 derivative, and the FTIR microspectroscopy showed that the Re(CO)3 derivative incorporated in bicosomes penetrated deeper into the skin than when dissolved in DMSO. When this molecule was applied on the skin using the bicosomes, 60% of the Re(CO)3 derivative was retained in the stratum corneum (SC) and 40% reached the epidermis (Epi). Otherwise, the application of this molecule via DMSO resulted in 95% of the Re(CO)3 derivative being in the SC and only 5% reaching the Epi. Using a Re(CO)3 derivative with a dodecyl-chain as a model molecule, it was possible to determine the distribution of molecules with similar physicochemical characteristics in the skin using bicosomes. This fact makes these nanostructures promising vehicles for the application of lipophilic molecules inside the skin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Methionine sulfoxide reductase contributes to meeting dietary methionine requirements

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hang; Kim, Geumsoo; Levine, Rodney L.

    2012-01-01

    Methionine sulfoxide reductases are present in all aerobic organisms. They contribute to antioxidant defenses by reducing methionine sulfoxide in proteins back to methionine. However, the actual in vivo roles of these reductases are not well defined. Since methionine is an essential amino acid in mammals, we hypothesized that methionine sulfoxide reductases may provide a portion of the dietary methionine requirement by recycling methionine sulfoxide. We used a classical bioassay, the growth of weanling mice fed diets varying in methionine, and applied it to mice genetically engineered to alter the levels of methionine sulfoxide reductase A or B1. Mice of all genotypes were growth retarded when raised on chow containing 0.10% methionine instead of the standard 0.45% methionine. Retardation was significantly greater in knockout mice lacking both reductases. We conclude that the methionine sulfoxide reductases can provide methionine for growth in mice with limited intake of methionine, such as may occur in the wild. PMID:22521563

  6. Absorption of nitrogen oxides by sulfoxides and sulfones

    SciTech Connect

    Bikbaeva, G.G.; Isyangil'dina, A.Kh.; Baranovskaya, E.M.; Nikitin, Yu.E.

    1986-10-10

    Petroleum sulfoxides (PSO) have high sorption capacity for NO/sub 2/. In view of their comparative availability and low cost, PSO may be of practical interest as absorbents for nitrogen oxides. At the same time, the properties of adducts formed by sulfoxides, both individual and from petroleum, with nitrogen oxides have been studies very little. In this work the methods of IR and UV spectroscopy were used for studying complex formation of nitrogen oxides with sulfoxides, and also with sulfones, obtained by oxidation of sulfoxides.

  7. Two new bicyclic sulfoxides from Welsh onion.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Murakami, Kotaro; Ono, Masateru; El-Aasr, Mona; Nakano, Daisuke; Kinjo, Junei

    2016-04-01

    Newly identified bicyclic sulfoxides, welsonins A1 (1) and A2 (2), were isolated from acetone extracts of the bulbs of the Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum). In this study, the structures of 1 and 2, which are tetrahydrothiophene-S-oxide derivatives, were characterized by spectroscopic analysis. These compounds appeared to be derived from the coupling of 1-propenyl sulfenic acid and uronic acid. Welsonin A1 (1) showed the potential to suppress tumor-cell proliferation by inhibiting the polarization of alternatively activated M2 macrophages.

  8. General route to racemic and enantiomeric carbo- and heterocyclic vinyl sulfoxides via tandem Michael addition/Horner olefination of alpha-phosphorylvinyl sulfoxides.

    PubMed

    Mikołajczyk, Marian; Krysiak, Jerzy A; Midura, Wanda H; Wieczorek, Michał W; Rózycka-Sokołowska, Ewa

    2006-11-10

    A new one-pot synthesis of heterocyclic and carbocyclic vinyl sulfoxides has been developed which involves reaction of alpha-phosphorylvinyl sulfoxides with carbonyl compounds bearing oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon nucleophilic centers. Use of optically active alpha-phosphorylvinyl p-tolyl sulfoxides in this tandem Michael addition/Horner olefination reaction leads to the corresponding optically active cyclic sulfoxides. In this way, a variety of optically active chromene, pyrrolizine, chinoline, and cyclopentene sulfoxides have been efficiently prepared.

  9. Resveratrol preconditioning increases methionine sulfoxide reductases A expression and enhances resistance of human neuroblastoma cells to neurotoxins.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng-Fei; Xie, Na; Zhang, Juan-Juan; Guan, Xin-Lei; Zhou, Jun; Long, Li-Hong; Li, Yuan-Long; Xiong, Qiu-Ju; Zeng, Jian-Hua; Wang, Fang; Chen, Jian-Guo

    2013-06-01

    Methionine sulfoxide reductases A (MsrA) has been postulated to act as a catalytic antioxidant system involved in the protection of oxidative stress-induced cell injury. Recently, attention has turned to MsrA in coupling with the pathology of Parkinson's disease, which is closely related to neurotoxins that cause dopaminergic neuron degeneration. Here, we firstly provided evidence that pretreatment with a natural polyphenol resveratrol (RSV) up-regulated the expression of MsrA in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. It was also observed that the expression and nuclear translocation of forkhead box group O 3a (FOXO3a), a transcription factor that activates the human MsrA promoter, increased after RSV pretreatment. Nicotinamide , an inhibitor of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), prevented RSV-induced elevation of FOXO3a and MsrA expression, indicating that the effect of RSV was mediated by a SIRT1-dependent pathway. RSV preconditioning increased methionine sulfoxide(MetO)-reducing activity in SH-SY5Y cells and enhanced their resistance to neurotoxins, including chloramine-T and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium. In addition, the enhancement of cell resistance to neurotoxins caused by RSV preconditioning can be largely prevented by MsrA inhibitor dimethyl sulfoxide. Our findings suggest that treatment with polyphenols such as RSV can be used as a potential regulatory strategy for MsrA expression and function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental VOSCs--formation and degradation of dimethyl sulfide, methanethiol and related materials.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Ronald; Chasteen, Thomas G

    2004-04-01

    Volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) play a major role in the global sulfur cycle. Two components, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and methanethiol (MT) are formed in large amounts by living systems (e.g. algae, bacteria, plants), particularly in marine environments. A major route to DMS is by action of a lyase enzyme on dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). DMSP has other roles, for instance as an osmoprotectant and cryoprotectant. Demethiolation of DMSP and other materials leads to MT. A major transport process is release of DMS from the oceans to the atmosphere. Oxidation of DMS in the atmosphere by hydroxyl and nitrate radicals produces many degradation products including CO2, COS, dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone, organic oxyacids of sulfur, and sulfate. These materials also have roles in biotic processes and there are complex metabolic interrelationships between some of them. This review emphasizes the chemical reactions of the organic sulfur cycle. For biotic reactions, details of relevant enzymes are provided when possible.

  11. 21 CFR 524.981e - Fluocinolone and dimethyl sulfoxide otic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW...) Sponsor. See No. 054771 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs—(1) Amount—Instill...

  12. Osmotic behavior and transport properties of human islets in a dimethyl sulfoxide solution.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, R C; Diller, K R; Lakey, J R; Rajotte, R V

    1997-11-01

    The osmotic responses of isolated human islets were evaluated using a perfusion cryomicroscope device. Individual islet volumes were measured following equilibration with a series of solutions of graded solute concentration. The osmotically inactive volume for human islets was determined to be 25% from a Boyle-van't Hoff plot of these data. A network thermodynamic model was developed via the bond graph method to describe the transport of water and cryoprotective agent in pancreatic islets. The model was curve fit to transient volumetric data for the response of islets to a stepwise exposure to 1 Me2SO at temperatures of 24.0, 3.0, or -3.5 degrees C. Standard membrane transport parameters (Lp, omega, sigma) and interstitial diffusion transport properties (kappa w, kappa p) were calculated from the fitting procedure. The temperature coefficients for membrane transport properties were expressed in terms of activation energies for water (ELp) and Me2SO (E omega). Osmotic challenge experiments conducted with fresh and cryopreserved human islets indicate that frozen/thawed islets exhibit a a slight increase in transport properties. Copyright 1997 Academic Press.

  13. Interaction of Product Analogues With the Active Site of Rhodobacter Sphaeroides Dimethyl Sulfoxide Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    George, G.N.; Nelson, K.J.; Harris, H.H.; Doonan, C.J.; Rajagopalan, K.V.; /Saskatchewan U. /Duke U. /Sydney U.

    2007-07-09

    We report a structural characterization using X-ray absorption spectroscopy of Rhodobacter sphaeroides dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) reductase reduced with trimethylarsine, and show that this is structurally analogous to the physiologically relevant dimethylsulfide-reduced DMSO reductase. Our data unambiguously indicate that these species should be regarded as formal MoIV species, and indicate a classical coordination complex of trimethylarsine oxide, with no special structural distortions. The similarity of the trimethylarsine and dimethylsulfide complexes suggests in turn that the dimethylsulfide reduced enzyme possesses a classical coordination of DMSO with no special elongation of the S-O bond, as previously suggested.

  14. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on renal microvillar enzymes in Cu-deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Saari, J.T.; Reeves, P.G.; Noordewier, B. )

    1989-02-09

    Dietary Cu deficiency produces known defects in the kidney. We studied the effects of Cu deficiency on the activity of five renal microvillar enzymes. Further, because Cu deficiency causes oxidative damage in other tissues, we studied the effect of the hydroxyl radical (OH) scavenger DMSO on observed enzyme changes. Male, weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed, in a 2x2 design, diets deficient in Cu (CuD) or supplemented with Cu (CuS, 5 ppm) and water with or without DMSO (4.75%) for 35 d. CuD rats had lower body weights (BW), hematocrits (Hct), serum ceruloplasmin, liver and kidney Cu and higher heart weights (HW), HW/BW ratios and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) than CuS rats. Cu deficiency increased activities of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and endopeptidase (EP), decreased activities of gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and aminopeptidase (AMP) and had no effect on alkaline phosphatase (AP). DMSO attenuated effects of Cu deficiency on HW, HW/BW and Hct, but not on BUN. DMSO independently increased ACE and AMP activity, independently decreased AP activity, significantly inhibited the effect of Cu deficiency on GGT activity and had no effect on EP activity. We conclude that, while Cu deficiency has significant effects on several renal microvillar enzymes, OH dose not play a major role in those effects.

  15. Computational study on the acidic constants of chiral Brønsted acids in dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Xue, Xiao-Song; Li, Xin; Cheng, Jin-Pei

    2014-05-16

    The pK(a) values of a series of chiral Brønsted acids, including N-triflylphosphoramides, bis(sulfonyl)imides, bis(sulfuryl)imides, dicarboxylic acids, sulfonic acids, and N-phosphinyl phosphoramides, were predicted by using the SMD/M06-2x/6-311++G(2df,2p)//B3LYP/6-31+G(d) method in DMSO. The results revealed that the calculated pKa values ranged from -9.06 to 12.18 for different types of acids. The influence of acidic strength on reactivity and stereoselectivity was discussed using the calculated acidity data. Given that the choice of catalyst with appropriate acidity is the primary condition, several new catalyst candidates were designed by calculating corresponding pK(a) values of parent acids.

  16. 21 CFR 524.981d - Fluocinolone acetonide, dimethyl sulfoxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... apparently normal anal sacs, for the reversal of inflammatory changes associated with abnormal anal sacs, and to counteract the offensive odor of anal sac secretions. (2) It is administered by instillation of 1 to 2 milliliters into each anal sac following expression of anal sac contents. It may be necessary to...

  17. Transcriptional regulation of dimethyl sulfoxide respiration in a haloarchaeon, Haloferax volcanii.

    PubMed

    Qi, Qiuzi; Ito, Yoshiyasu; Yoshimatsu, Katsuhiko; Fujiwara, Taketomo

    2016-01-01

    The halophilic euryarchaeon Haloferax volcanii can grow anaerobically by DMSO respiration. DMSO reductase was induced by DMSO respiration not only under anaerobic growth conditions but also in denitrifying cells of H. volcanii. Deletion of the dmsR gene, encoding a putative regulator for the DMSO reductase, resulted in the loss of anaerobic growth by DMSO respiration. Reporter experiments revealed that only the anaerobic condition was essential for transcription of the dmsEABCD genes encoding DMSO reductase and that transcription was enhanced threefold by supplementation of DMSO. In the ∆dmsR mutant, transcription of the dmsEABCD genes induced by the anaerobic condition was not enhanced by DMSO, suggesting that DmsR is a DMSO-responsive regulator. Transcriptions of the dmsR and mgd genes for Mo-bisMGD biosynthesis were regulated in the same manner as the dmsEABCD genes. These results suggest that the genetic regulation of DMSO respiration in H. volcanii is controlled by at least two systems: one is the DMSO-responsive DmsR, and the other is an unknown anaerobic regulator.

  18. Health Effects Research on Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) Munition Recrystallization Process Solvent. Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-30

    44 APPENDIX - GCMS ANALYSIS OF FRACTION 4 PERFORMED AT THE LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY . . . . . ... . . . 45...strAinm requiring metabolic activation. Aroclor obtained from Litton Bionetics was uspd to induce rat liver enzymwes for the S9 fraction. 2...and without the presence of metabolic activation fraction S-9. The plate incorporation assay was used. Control card nogens benzo(a)pyrene and 2

  19. Pulsed EPR studies of the exchangeable proton at the molybdenum center of dimethyl sulfoxide reductase.

    PubMed

    Raitsimring, Arnold M; Astashkin, Andrei V; Feng, Changjian; Enemark, John H; Nelson, Kimberly Johnson; Rajagopalan, K V

    2003-01-01

    Electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy has been used to determine the hyperfine ( hfi) and quadrupole ( nqi) interactions of the exchangeable deuteron (proton) at the Mo(V) site of DMSO reductase. The data obtained have been translated into structure-related parameters. It was found that isotropic hfi constant of the proton is not unique, but is distributed within a range of 26-36 MHz. From this hfi distribution, a 30 degrees -wide distribution of the OH bond orientations due to a rotation around the Mo-O bond was estimated. The angle between the axes of the nqi and anisotropic hfi tensors was found to be anomalously small in comparison with that expected from the Mo-O-D bond geometry. This peculiarity was attributed to the effect of spin density on the hydroxyl oxygen atom. The orientation of the Mo-OH fragment with respect to the g-frame was determined from the experimental orientations of the nqi and hfi tensor axes and a theoretical evaluation of the anisotropic hfi axis direction.

  20. Association in ethylammonium nitrate-dimethyl sulfoxide mixtures: First structural and dynamical evidences

    SciTech Connect

    Russina, Olga; Macchiagodena, Marina; Kirchner, Barbara; Mariani, Alessandro; Aoun, Bachir; Russina, Margarita; Caminiti, Ruggero; Triolo, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the first structural and dynamic investigation on ethylammonium nitrate, a representative protic Ionic liquid, and dimethylsulfoxide. By using joined x/ray and neutron diffraction, we exploit the EPSR approach to extract structural information at atomistic level. EAN/DMSO turns out to be homogeneous at microscopic scales and indications for the existence of a structural leit motiv with stoichiometric composition 2DMSO:1EAN are found. Dielectric spectroscopy is used to access the relaxation map of the DMSO:EAN = 60:40 mixture. No crystallisation is detected and three relaxation processes could be characterised. Overall this study provides new indications of strict analogies between water and ethylammonium nitrate. (c) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Theoretical study on the acidities of chiral phosphoric acids in dimethyl sulfoxide: hints for organocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Xue, Xiao-Song; Jin, Jia-Lu; Li, Xin; Cheng, Jin-Pei

    2013-07-19

    The pKa values of 41 chiral phosphoric acid-family catalysts in DMSO were predicted using the SMD/M06-2x/6-311++G(2df,2p)//B3LYP/6-31+G(d) method for the first time. The study showed that the calculated pKa's range from -4.23 to 6.16 for absolute pKa values and from -4.21 to 6.38 for relative pKa values. Excellent agreement between the calculated and experimental pKa's was achieved for the few available cases (to a precision of around 0.4 pKa unit), indicating that this strategy may be suitable for calculating highly accurate pKa's. A good linear correlation between the pKa's for 3 and 3' disubstituted phenyl BINOL phosphoric acids and the Hammett constants was obtained. The relationship between the acidities of phosphoric acid catalysts and their reaction activity and selectivity was also discussed. Knowledge of the pKa values of phosphoric acids should be of great value for the understanding of chiral Brønsted acid-catalyzed reactions and may aid in future catalyst design.

  2. Health Effects Research on Munition Contaminated Dimethyl Sulfoxide Recrystallization Process Solvent. Phase I Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    hepatotoxicity and possibly nephrotoxicity , although the latter mi8 ht be a secondary effect of DMSO- induced hemolysis. At present there is no clinical evidence...process stream samples and toxicological studies (oral LD50 in rats and mice, primary ocular and dermal irritation in rabbits, acute dermal toxicity...Assay (plate incorporation triplicate) - a mutagenic potential assay (b) Oral LD5 in rats and mice (c) Primary ocular and dermal irritation in rabbits (d

  3. Assessment of the extent of starch dissolution in dimethyl sulfoxide by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Sarah; Dona, Anthony C; Castignolles, Patrice; Gilbert, Robert G; Gaborieau, Marianne

    2009-05-13

    Complete dissolution is needed for the separation, characterization, or homogeneous labeling of whole starch molecules. A method is presented to quantify the extent of starch dissolution in DMSO for the first time; it is validated on a commercial rice starch. It is used directly on starch dispersions containing possible undissolved or co-dissolved species. High-amylose maize starches, known to be digested slowly in vivo, only quantitatively dissolve in the presence of high concentrations of an H-bond disrupter, LiBr, although they form clear dispersions at low LiBr concentrations. Starch quantitatively dissolves from waxy rice flours; non-starch components partially co-dissolve but do not interfere with the dissolution quantification.

  4. Low concentrations of ethanol but not of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) impair reciprocal retinal signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Siapich, Siarhei A; Akhtar, Isha; Hescheler, Jürgen; Schneider, Toni; Lüke, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    The model of the isolated and superfused retina provides the opportunity to test drugs and toxins. Some chemicals have to be applied using low concentrations of organic solvents as carriers. Recently, E-/R-type (Cav2.3) and T-type (Cav3.2) voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels were identified as participating in reciprocal inhibitory retinal signaling. Their participation is apparent, when low concentrations of NiCl2 (15 μM) are applied during superfusion leading to an increase of the ERG b-wave amplitude, which is explained by a reduction of amacrine GABA-release onto bipolar neurons. During these investigations, differences were observed for the solvent carrier used. Recording of the transretinal receptor potentials from the isolated bovine retina. The pretreatment of bovine retina with 0.01 % (v/v) dimethylsulfoxide did not impair the NiCl2-mediated increase of the b-wave amplitude, which was 1.31-fold ± 0.03 of initial value (n = 4). However, pretreatment of the retina with the same concentration of ethanol impaired reciprocal signaling (0.96-fold ± 0.05, n = 4). Further, the implicit time of the b-wave was increased, suggesting that ethanol itself but not DMSO may antagonize GABA-receptors. Ethanol itself but not DMSO may block GABA receptors and cause an amplitude increase by itself, so that reciprocal signaling is impaired.

  5. Efficient uptake of dimethyl sulfoxide by the desoxomolybdenum(IV) dithiolate complex containing bulky hydrophobic groups.

    PubMed

    Hasenaka, Yuki; Okamura, Taka-aki; Onitsuka, Kiyotaka

    2015-04-07

    A desoxomolybdenum(IV) complex containing bulky hydrophobic groups and NH···S hydrogen bonds, (Et4N)[Mo(IV)(OSi(t)BuPh2)(1,2-S2-3,6-{(4-(t)BuC6H4)3CCONH}2C6H2)2], was synthesized. This complex promotes the oxygen-atom-transfer (OAT) reaction of DMSO by efficient uptake of the substrate into the active center. The clean OAT reaction of Me3NO is also achieved.

  6. Analysis of the Ability of DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide) and Lidocaine to Penetrate Dentin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-15

    end of the experiments the cats were euthanitized with 10 ml satur- ated KC1 i.v. Dental pain was induced by perfusing a hyperosmotic (4 M sucrose...the induction of dental pain . Bipolar recording electrodes were placed on the sympathetic chain between the T and T connecting rami to determine if... dental pain 2 3 will evoke reflex activation of sympathetic cardiac efferents. Approximately 5 ml of the stimulating solution was introduced to the

  7. Conference on Biological Actions and Medical Applications of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO), 15-17 September 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    of some sources of variability in experimental spinal cord trauma. ). I. Neurosurg. 50: 784-791. .-. 28. RANSON, S. W. 1913. The fasciculus cerebro ...N. Hi. BASS. 1976. Arachidonate-induced cerebro -vascular occlusion in the rat. The role of platelets and aspirin in stroke. Neurology 26: 297-304

  8. Acute Oral Toxicity of DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide) Process Stream Samples in Male and Female Mice.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    AInjection Volume: 10 microliters 10. Column: LiChrosorb- RP18 , 1/4" x 12" ss eDX Detector: UV. 215-290 nm in s Io 10 nm increments TAX Solvent System: 80...water SEX 20% methanol Flow Rate: 2.5 ml/min Injection Volume: 10 microliters 11. Column: LiChrosorb- RP18 1/4" x 12" ss No component Detector: UV at

  9. 40 CFR 180.1083 - Dimethyl sulfoxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cosolvent in formulations with the following pesticides when used in accordance with good agricultural practices in or on the following raw agricultural commodities: (a) Carbaryl (1-naphthyl methyl-carbamate...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1083 - Dimethyl sulfoxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cosolvent in formulations with the following pesticides when used in accordance with good agricultural practices in or on the following raw agricultural commodities: (a) Carbaryl (1-naphthyl methyl-carbamate...

  11. Acute Oral Toxicity of DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide) Process Stream Samples in Male and Female Rats.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    is unlimited. jt UNLSSIFIRD SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Man .ata. EIweE) READ 1NUTRUCTowUREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEIORE COMPLETING PORN ...31 Whitte--I I a Toxicity Test Sample Composition Concentration by HPLC. g/1 b c d • Sample MDX HNX TAX SEX %H...5.35 94.19 a Calculated Data In Weight Percent Sample RDX HMX TAX SEX H2 0 DMSO Virgin lDSO 0 0 0 0 0.63 99.37 DMSO Recycle Solvent 2.22 3.64 0.02 0

  12. Dimethyl terephthalate (DMT)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dimethyl terephthalate ( DMT ) ; CASRN 120 - 61 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  13. Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase A (MsrA) and Its Function in Ubiquitin-Like Protein Modification in Archaea.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xian; Adams, Zachary; Liu, Rui; Hepowit, Nathaniel L; Wu, Yifei; Bowmann, Connor F; Moskovitz, Jackob; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A

    2017-09-05

    Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) is an antioxidant enzyme found in all domains of life that catalyzes the reduction of methionine-S-sulfoxide (MSO) to methionine in proteins and free amino acids. We demonstrate that archaeal MsrA has a ubiquitin-like (Ubl) protein modification activity that is distinct from its stereospecific reduction of MSO residues. MsrA catalyzes this Ubl modification activity, with the Ubl-activating E1 UbaA, in the presence of the mild oxidant dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and in the absence of reductant. In contrast, the MSO reductase activity of MsrA is inhibited by DMSO and requires reductant. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis reveals that MsrA-dependent Ubl conjugates are associated with DNA replication, protein remodeling, and oxidative stress and include the Ubl-modified MsrA, Orc3 (Orc1/Cdc6), and Cdc48d (Cdc48/p97 AAA+ ATPase). Overall, we found archaeal MsrA to have opposing MSO reductase and Ubl modifying activities that are associated with oxidative stress responses and controlled by exposure to mild oxidant.IMPORTANCE Proteins that are damaged by oxidative stress are often targeted for proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). The mechanisms that control this response are poorly understood, especially under conditions of mild oxidative stress when protein damage is modest. Here, we discovered a novel function of archaeal MsrA in guiding the Ubl modification of target proteins in the presence of mild oxidant. This newly reported activity of MsrA is distinct from its stereospecific reduction of methionine-S-sulfoxide to methionine residues. Our results are significant steps forward, first, in elucidating a protein factor that guides Ubl modification in archaea, and second, in providing an insight into oxidative stress responses that can trigger Ubl modification in a cell. Copyright © 2017 Fu et al.

  14. Niacinamide-containing facial moisturizer improves skin barrier and benefits subjects with rosacea.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana; Ertel, Keith; Berge, Cindy

    2005-08-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that some moisturizers can improve stratum corneum barrier function, as well as ameliorate dry skin. The clinical signs and symptoms of rosacea, which include increased facial skin dryness and sensitivity, suggest a possible role for such moisturizers as an adjuvant in the management of this condition. This randomized, investigator-blind, controlled observational study (N = 50) was designed to assess whether a niacinamide-containing facial moisturizer would improve the stratum corneum barrier and thus provide a clinical benefit to subjects with rosacea. Subjects with rosacea applied the test moisturizer to their face and to one forearm twice daily for 4 weeks. The other forearm remained untreated as a control. Barrier function on the forearms was assessed instrumentally and using a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) chemical probe. Stratum corneum hydration also was measured instrumentally. The dermatologist investigator evaluated each subject's rosacea condition over the course of the study, and subjects self-assessed their facial skin condition at study end. Instruments provided objective measures of stratum corneum barrier function and hydration on the face.

  15. Studies of in vitro skin permeation and retention of a leukotriene antagonist from topical vehicles with a hairless guinea pig model.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Malick, A W; Meltzer, N M; Mouskountakis, J D; Behl, C R

    1992-07-01

    A leukotriene antagonist [Ro 23-3544; 6-acetyl-7-[5-(4-acetyl-3-hydroxy-2-propylphenoxy)pentyloxy] -3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-2-carboxylic acid; 1] was studied in vitro for its permeation through and retention in hairless guinea pig skin from various topical vehicles. Both the free acid and the sodium salt forms of the drug were used. The vehicles evaluated were polyethylene glycol 400, propylene glycol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), C12-C15 alcohol lactates, dimethyl isosorbide, butyrolactone, methylpyrrolidone, hexyl laurate, isopropyl myristate, and caprylic/capric triglyceride (Neobee M5). For the salt form of the drug, the highest permeability coefficient and retention were obtained from DMSO and methylpyrrolidone, respectively. For the acid form, however, the highest permeability coefficient and retention were obtained from hexyl laurate and DMSO, respectively. The highest permeation and retention values were not obtained from the same vehicle for either the salt or the acid form of the drug. This observation questions the validity of using permeation (flux) measurements to screen topical drugs and formulations. Although the precise reasons for this lack of correlation between permeation and retention are not known at this time, this study has shown that the solubility parameters of the drug and the vehicles used may play an important role. It seems logical to conduct skin retention studies rather than flux measurements in evaluating drug delivery from dermatological products.

  16. Development of chiral sulfoxide ligands for asymmetric catalysis.

    PubMed

    Trost, Barry M; Rao, Meera

    2015-04-20

    Nitrogen-, phosphorus-, and oxygen-based ligands with chiral backbones have been the historic workhorses of asymmetric transition-metal-catalyzed reactions. On the contrary, sulfoxides containing chirality at the sulfur atom have mainly been used as chiral auxiliaries for diastereoselective reactions. Despite several distinct advantages over traditional ligand scaffolds, such as the proximity of the chiral information to the metal center and the ability to switch between S and O coordination, these compounds have only recently emerged as a versatile class of chiral ligands. In this Review, we detail the history of the development of chiral sulfoxide ligands for asymmetric catalysis. We also provide brief descriptions of metal-sulfoxide bonding and strategies for the synthesis of enantiopure sulfoxides. Finally, insights into the future development of this underutilized ligand class are discussed.

  17. 5-(Naphthalen-1-yl)isophthalic acid–dimethyl sulfoxide–water (2/1/2)

    PubMed Central

    Vetter, Antje; Seichter, Wilhelm; Weber, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, 2C18H12O4·C2H6OS·2H2O, consists of four crystallographically independent mol­ecules of 5-(naphthalen-1-yl)isophthalic acid, two dimethyl sulfoxide and four water mol­ecules. The dihedral angles formed by the the planes of the aromatic fragments of the organic mol­ecules range from 57.4 (1) to 59.1 (1)°. In the crystal, multiple O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the water mol­ecules with the carbonyl and sulfoxide groups, giving rise to double ribbons along the b-axis direction. PMID:23795084

  18. Identification of N-Oxide and Sulfoxide Functionalities in Protonated Drug Metabolites by Using Ion-Molecule Reactions Followed by Collisionally Activated Dissociation in a Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Huaming; Tang, Weijuan; Yerabolu, Ravikiran; Max, Joann; Kotha, Raghavendhar R; Riedeman, James S; Nash, John J; Zhang, Minli; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I

    2016-01-15

    The in vivo oxidation of sulfur and nitrogen atoms in many drugs into sulfoxide and N-oxide functionalities is a common biotransformation process. Unfortunately, the unambiguous identification of these metabolites can be challenging. In the present study, ion-molecule reactions of tris(dimethylamino)borane followed by collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) in an ion trap mass spectrometer are demonstrated to allow the identification of N-oxide and sulfoxide functionalities in protonated polyfunctional drug metabolites. Only ions with N-oxide or sulfoxide functionality formed diagnostic adducts that had lost dimethyl amine (DMA). This was demonstrated even for an analyte that contains a substantially more basic functionality than the functional group of interest. CAD of the diagnostic product ions (M) resulted mainly in type A (M - DMA) and B fragment ions (M - HO-B(N(CH3)2)2) for N-oxides, but sulfoxides also formed diagnostic C ions (M - O═BN(CH3)2), thus allowing differentiation of the functionalities. Some protonated analytes yielded abundant TDMAB adducts that had lost two DMA molecules instead of just one. This provides information on the environment of the N-oxide and sulfoxide functionalities. Quantum chemical calculations were performed to explore the mechanisms of the above-mentioned reactions. The method can be implemented on HPLC for real drug analysis.

  19. Oxidation of sulfoxides and arsenic(III) in corrosion of nanoscale zero valent iron by oxygen: evidence against ferryl ions (Fe(IV)) as active intermediates in Fenton reaction.

    PubMed

    Pang, Su-Yan; Jiang, Jin; Ma, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the corrosion of zerovalent iron (ZVI) by oxygen (O(2)) via the Fenton reaction can lead to the oxidation of various organic and inorganic compounds. However, the nature of the oxidants involved (i.e., ferryl ion (Fe(IV)) versus hydroxyl radical (HO(•))) is still a controversial issue. In this work, we reevaluated the relative importance of these oxidants and their role in As(III) oxidation during the corrosion of nanoscale ZVI (nZVI) in air-saturated water. It was shown that Fe(IV) species could react with sulfoxides (e.g., dimethyl sulfoxide, methyl phenyl sulfoxide, and methyl p-tolyl sulfoxide) through a 2-electron transfer step producing corresponding sulfones, which markedly differed from their HO(•)-involved products. When using these sulfoxides as probe compounds, the formation of oxidation products indicative of HO(•) but no generation of sulfone products supporting Fe(IV) participation were observed in the nZVI/O(2) system over a wide pH range. As(III) could be completely or partially oxidized by nZVI in air-saturated water. Addition of scavengers for solution-phase HO(•) and/or Fe(IV) quenched As(III) oxidation at acidic pH but had little effect as solution pH increased, highlighting the importance of the heterogeneous iron surface reactions for As(III) oxidation at circumneutral pH.

  20. Dimeth-yl(2-oxo-2-phenyl-eth-yl)sulfanium bromide.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhiling; Liu, Weiwei; Yin, Fujun

    2010-11-17

    Single crystals of the title compound, C(10)H(13)OS(+)·Br(-), were obtained from ethyl acetate/ethyl ether after reaction of acetophenone with hydro-bromic acid and dimethyl-sulfoxide. The carbonyl group is almost coplanar with the neighbouring phenyl ring [O-C-C-C = 178.9 (2)°]. The sulfanium group shows a trigonal-pyramidal geometry at the S atom. The crystal structure is stabil-ized by C-H⋯Br hydrogen-bonding inter-actions. Weak π-π inter-actions link adjacent phenyl rings [centroid-centroid distance = 3.946 (2) Å].

  1. Chiral cyclopentadienylruthenium sulfoxide catalysts for asymmetric redox bicycloisomerization

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Michael C; Rao, Meera

    2016-01-01

    Summary A full account of our efforts toward an asymmetric redox bicycloisomerization reaction is presented in this article. Cyclopentadienylruthenium (CpRu) complexes containing tethered chiral sulfoxides were synthesized via an oxidative [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction between an alkyne and an allylruthenium complex. Sulfoxide complex 1 containing a p-anisole moiety on its sulfoxide proved to be the most efficient and selective catalyst for the asymmetric redox bicycloisomerization of 1,6- and 1,7-enynes. This complex was used to synthesize a broad array of [3.1.0] and [4.1.0] bicycles. Sulfonamide- and phosphoramidate-containing products could be deprotected under reducing conditions. Catalysis performed with enantiomerically enriched propargyl alcohols revealed a matched/mismatched effect that was strongly dependent on the nature of the solvent. PMID:27559366

  2. Mechanistic Investigations into the Application of Sulfoxides in Carbohydrate Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Brabham, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The utility of sulfoxides in a diverse range of transformations in the field of carbohydrate chemistry has seen rapid growth since the first introduction of a sulfoxide as a glycosyl donor in 1989. Sulfoxides have since developed into more than just anomeric leaving groups, and today have multiple roles in glycosylation reactions. These include as activators for thioglycosides, hemiacetals, and glycals, and as precursors to glycosyl triflates, which are essential for stereoselective β‐mannoside synthesis, and bicyclic sulfonium ions that facilitate the stereoselective synthesis of α‐glycosides. In this review we highlight the mechanistic investigations undertaken in this area, often outlining strategies employed to differentiate between multiple proposed reaction pathways, and how the conclusions of these investigations have and continue to inform upon the development of more efficient transformations in sulfoxide‐based carbohydrate synthesis. PMID:26744250

  3. Modification of the swern oxidation: use of a recyclable, polystyrene bound sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Cole, Derek C; Stock, Joseph R; Kappel, Jo Anne

    2002-07-22

    A method has been developed for the oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides on polystyrene resin. The polystyrene bound sulfoxide may be used in Swern oxidation reactions, and the used reagent may be regenerated by oxidation with tert-butylhydrogen peroxide.

  4. The skin-depigmenting potential of Paeonia lactiflora root extract and paeoniflorin: in vitro evaluation using reconstructed pigmented human epidermis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, J; Chen, M; Liu, J; Huang, X; Chen, J; Zhou, L; Ma, J; Sextius, P; Pena, A-M; Cai, Z; Jeulin, S

    2016-10-01

    The roots of the herb Paeonia lactiflora ('White Peony') are used in association with other herbs in traditional clinical cosmetic practice in China as oral treatment for skin pigmentary disorders, such as brown or dark pigmentary spots. However, the skin-depigmenting potential of Paeonia lactiflora root extract and its main ingredient paeoniflorin has been scarcely investigated by topical application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Paeonia lactiflora root extract and paeoniflorin as skin whitening agent in cosmetic application. Paeonia lactiflora root extract (containing 53.25% of paeoniflorin) and paeoniflorin (97% purity) were applied topically on reconstructed pigmented human epidermis model, a three-dimensional (3D) human skin equivalent, showing morphological and functional characteristics similar to those of in vivo human skin. Two specific methods were used for quantifying melanin inside the reconstructed pigmented epidermis: Fontana-Masson staining (2D quantification) and multiphoton microscopy (3D quantification). Compared to vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO), a significant decrease in 2D and 3D melanin content was observed after topical application on reconstructed pigmented epidermis of Paeonia lactiflora extract at 300 μg mL(-1) (-28% and -27%, respectively) and paeoniflorin at 120 μg mL(-1) /250 μM (-30% and -23%, respectively), which is in the same order of magnitude as the positive reference 4-n-butylresorcinol at 83 μg mL(-1) /500 μM (-26% and -40%, respectively). These results demonstrate, for the first time, the depigmenting potential of paeoniflorin and thus the potential interest of using Paeonia lactiflora root extracts containing paeoniflorin in cosmetic or dermatological applications for reducing the severity of some hyperpigmented skin disorders. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. Liquid chromatographic method for perphenazine and its sulfoxide in pharmaceutical dosage forms for determination of stability.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, N; Lovering, E G

    1986-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic method is described for determination of perphenazine and perphenazine sulfoxide in representative dosage forms. Sulfoxide levels were nondetectable or less than 1% in tablets and in an injectable product. Sulfoxide levels increase with time in some syrup formulations and may be as high as 11% in syrup formulations before their expiration date.

  6. USE OF GLYCEROL AS AN OPTICAL CLEARING AGENT FOR ENHANCING PHOTONIC TRANSFERENCE AND DETECTIONOF SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM THROUGH PORCINE SKIN

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to evaluate glycerol (GLY) and GLY+DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) to increase photonic detection of transformed Salmonella typhimurium (S.typh-Lux) through porcineskin. A 96-well plate containing S. typh-lux was imaged for 5 min as a control reference usinga CCD camera. Sk...

  7. Isolation and characterization of a dimeric ruthenium(II) complex. An intermediate in the ruthenium-catalyzed oxygen oxidation of thioethers to sulfoxides

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, D.P.; Thompson, M.R.; Lyon, J. III

    1988-12-01

    Complexes of the type Ru/sup II/X/sub 2/(MeSO)/sub 2 or 3/(PR/sub 3/) are excellent catalysts for the selective oxygen oxidation of thioethers to sulfoxides. The complex RuCl/sub 2/(Me/sub 2/SO)/sub 3/(PPh/sub 3/) is an example of such a catalyst, and its solution chemistry under simulated catalytic conditions reveals that only one detectable complex is present. This presumed catalytic complex has been isolated and characterized by /sup 1/H, /sup 13/C, and /sup 31/P NMR and by an x-ray structure determination to be the chlorotri-/mu/-chlorotris(dimethyl sulfoxide)bis(triphenylphosphine)diruthenium, 2. Single crystals of 2 are monoclinic with space group P/sub 2/sub 1//c/ with a = 16.662(3)/angstrom/, b = 16.576(3)/angstrom/, c = 19.282(3)/angstrom/, and /beta/ = 98.86(1)/degree/. Both Ru centers are coordinated in a distorted octahedral fashion having three /mu/-bridged chlorine atoms shared between them. Ru/sub 1/ possesses three terminal ligands, one chloride, one triphenylphosphine and a dimethyl sulfoxide. Ru/sub 2/ is terminally bonded to two Me/sub 2/SO centers and one triphenylphosphine. The /mu/-bridged chlorine atoms are bonded in an asymmetric fashion due to the differing trans-influences of the Cl/sup /minus//, (CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/SO and PPh/sub 3/ ligands bonded to the metal centers. Ru-/mu/Cl distances range from 2.436(2)/angstrom/ to 2.490(2)/angstrom/, and Ru-S distances from 2.205(2)/angstrom/ to 2.269(2)/angstrom/.

  8. Methionine sulfoxide disposition Is altered in animal models of obesity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over 20% of populations in western countries are obese. Recently, two genetic studies indicate that the MSRA locus, containing the gene for the enzyme methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA), is positively linked to the development of visceral adiposity. MsrA catalyzes the repair of methionyl thiol ...

  9. Ozone Ameliorates Doxorubicine-Induced Skin Necrosis - results from an animal model.

    PubMed

    Kesik, Vural; Yuksel, Ramazan; Yigit, Nuri; Saldir, Mehmet; Karabacak, Ercan; Erdem, Galip; Babacan, Oguzhan; Gulgun, Mustafa; Korkmazer, Nadir; Bayrak, Ziya

    2016-09-01

    Doxorubicin (DXR) extravasation result with serious morbidity like skin ulceration and necrosis. The purpose of this study is to determine the protective effects of ozone, olive oil, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and coenzyme Q10 in the treatment of DXR-induced skin ulcers on rats. After an intradermal injection of DXR on a basis of an animal extravasation model, the materials were topically applied. The ulcer sizes were measured, and a punch biopsy was taken from the extravasation site in which the skin ulcers formed at the end of the experiment. The samples were analyzed for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1-beta (IL1β), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzymes, and examined histopathologically. The ulcer sizes clearly decreased in the study groups, including DMSO, olive oil, ozone plus coenzyme Q10, and ozone plus olive oil groups in comparison with the control group with the exception of the coenzyme Q10 group. The malondialdehyde levels were lower in the DMSO, olive oil, ozone plus olive oil, and ozone plus coenzyme Q10 groups than they were in the control group, but they were not significantly different. The TNF-α level was lower in the DMSO, ozone plus olive oil, coenzyme Q10, and ozone plus coenzyme Q10 groups in comparison with the control group. There was no significant change in the SOD, GSH-Px, and IL1β levels in the study groups in comparison with the control and the sham groups. The ozone plus olive oil group could be considered to be an alternate therapy for skin ulcers due to DXR extravasation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases Are Essential for Virulence of Salmonella Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Rouf, Syed Fazle; Kitowski, Vera; Böhm, Oliver M.; Rhen, Mikael; Jäger, Timo; Bange, Franz-Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Production of reactive oxygen species represents a fundamental innate defense against microbes in a diversity of host organisms. Oxidative stress, amongst others, converts peptidyl and free methionine to a mixture of methionine-S- (Met-S-SO) and methionine-R-sulfoxides (Met-R-SO). To cope with such oxidative damage, methionine sulfoxide reductases MsrA and MsrB are known to reduce MetSOs, the former being specific for the S-form and the latter being specific for the R-form. However, at present the role of methionine sulfoxide reductases in the pathogenesis of intracellular bacterial pathogens has not been fully detailed. Here we show that deletion of msrA in the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella (S.) enterica serovar Typhimurium increased susceptibility to exogenous H2O2, and reduced bacterial replication inside activated macrophages, and in mice. In contrast, a ΔmsrB mutant showed the wild type phenotype. Recombinant MsrA was active against free and peptidyl Met-S-SO, whereas recombinant MsrB was only weakly active and specific for peptidyl Met-R-SO. This raised the question of whether an additional Met-R-SO reductase could play a role in the oxidative stress response of S. Typhimurium. MsrC is a methionine sulfoxide reductase previously shown to be specific for free Met-R-SO in Escherichia (E.) coli. We tested a ΔmsrC single mutant and a ΔmsrBΔmsrC double mutant under various stress conditions, and found that MsrC is essential for survival of S. Typhimurium following exposure to H2O2, as well as for growth in macrophages, and in mice. Hence, this study demonstrates that all three methionine sulfoxide reductases, MsrA, MsrB and MsrC, facilitate growth of a canonical intracellular pathogen during infection. Interestingly MsrC is specific for the repair of free methionine sulfoxide, pointing to an important role of this pathway in the oxidative stress response of Salmonella Typhimurium. PMID:22073230

  11. Chiral Sulfoxide-Induced Single Turn Peptide α-Helicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingzhou; Jiang, Fan; Zhao, Bingchuan; Lin, Huacan; Tian, Yuan; Xie, Mingsheng; Bai, Guoyun; Gilbert, Adam M.; Goetz, Gilles H.; Liras, Spiros; Mathiowetz, Alan A.; Price, David A.; Song, Kun; Tu, Meihua; Wu, Yujie; Wang, Tao; Flanagan, Mark E.; Wu, Yun-Dong; Li, Zigang

    2016-01-01

    Inducing α-helicity through side-chain cross-linking is a strategy that has been pursued to improve peptide conformational rigidity and bio-availability. Here we describe the preparation of small peptides tethered to chiral sulfoxide-containing macrocyclic rings. Furthermore, a study of structure-activity relationships (SARs) disclosed properties with respect to ring size, sulfur position, oxidation state, and stereochemistry that show a propensity to induce α-helicity. Supporting data include circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD), NMR spectroscopy, and a single crystal X-ray structure for one such stabilized peptide. Finally, theoretical studies are presented to elucidate the effect of chiral sulfoxides in inducing backbone α-helicity. PMID:27934919

  12. Fragrance material review on 2,2-dimethyl-3-phenylpropanol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2,2-dimethyl-3-phenylpropanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2,2-Dimethyl-3-phenylpropanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2,2-dimethyl-3-phenylpropanol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, phototoxicity, and photoallergy data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE METHIONINE SULFOXIDE REDUCTASES OF SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI

    PubMed Central

    Oke, Tolulope T.; Moskovitz, Jackob; Williams, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, also known as Bilharzia, is an infectious disease caused by several species of Schistosoma. Twenty million individuals suffer severe symptoms and 200,000 people die annually from the disease. The host responds to the presence of S. mansoni by producing reactive oxygen species that cause oxidative stress. We hypothesized that schistosomes produce antioxidants in response to oxidative stress. A known antioxidant protein is methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr). Methionine residues can be oxidized to methionine sulfoxide in the presence of oxidizing agents, which is readily reversed by the action of the Msr system. Two S. mansoni MsrB genes (MsrB1 and MsrB2) were cloned and the recombinant proteins expressed in bacteria and purified. The S. mansoni MsrB proteins contained the common conserved catalytic and zinc coordinating cysteines. Analysis of the proteins showed that both proteins promote the reduction of both free methionine sulfoxide (Met[O]) and dabsyl-Met(O) to free methionine (Met) and dabsyl-Met, respectively, while exhibiting differences in their specific activities towards these substrates. Using real-time PCR, both proteins were found to be expressed in all stages of the parasite’s life cycle with the highest level of expression of both proteins in the egg stage. This is the first description of MsrB proteins from a parasite. PMID:19604033

  14. Photoinduced conformational switch of enantiopure azobenzenes controlled by a sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Carreño, M Carmen; García, Isabel; Núñez, Irene; Merino, Estíbaliz; Ribagorda, María; Pieraccini, Silvia; Spada, Gian Piero

    2007-06-06

    Two series of enantiopure azobenzenes with a p-tolylsulfoxide at the ortho or meta position with respect to the azo group, have been regioselectively synthesized. Both can act as enantiopure molecular switches showing different structural features owing to the presence of the stereogenic sulfur. The photoisomerization process, studied by UV-vis, circular dichroism (CD), NMR, and chiral HPLC evidenced a double role of the sulfoxide. A transfer of chirality from the sulfoxide to the azo system was observed by CD in both cis and trans-isomers of the meta sulfinyl derivatives 3, whereas this perturbation was evident for the ortho sulfinyl series 7 only in the cis isomer. The NMR study evidenced that the s-cis rigid conformation of the bisaromatic sulfoxide was fixing a different orientation of the overall system in each series both in the trans and cis isomers, by forcing a final U-shaped structure in cis-3 and an S-shaped structure in cis-7. Very different values of specific optical rotations were measured in both trans and cis isomers, also reflecting the existence of distinct chiral entities in the photostationary states. The easy and reversible changes occurring between different conformational states could find applications in the photocontrol of several molecular switches.

  15. In vivo evaluation of the efficacy of albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfoxide loaded solid lipid nanoparticles against hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Ahmadnia, Sara; Moazeni, Mohammad; Mohammadi-Samani, Soliman; Oryan, Ahmad

    2013-10-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, which in this disease the metacestode develop in visceral organs especially liver and lungs. The disease is present worldwide and affects humans as well as herbivores including cattle, sheep, camels, horses and others. Benzimidazole carbamate derivatives, such as mebendazole and albendazole, are currently used for chemotherapeutic treatment of CE in inoperable patients and have to be applied in high doses for extended periods of time, and therefore adverse side effects are frequently observed. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the in vivo effects of 0.5 mg/kg, BID, albendazole sulfoxide (ricobendazole) and two different therapeutic regimens of 0.5 mg/kg BID and 2 mg/kg every 48 h of albendazole sulfoxide loaded solid lipid nanoparticles. Albendazole sulfoxide loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was prepared by solvent diffusion-evaporation method. Fifty Balb/c mice were infected by intraperitoneal injection of protoscoleces and 8 months post infection, the infected mice were treated for 15 days with the above mentioned regimens. They were then euthanized and the size and weight of the cysts as well as their ultrastructural changes were investigated. Although the cysts showed reduced size and weight in the treated animals but these reductions were not statistically significant. The cysts in the animals which received albendazole sulfoxide loaded SLN every 48 h showed more ultrastructural modification. However, these ultrastructural changes should be supported by further biochemical and molecular studies before introducing it as an efficient therapeutic regimen for treatment of human and animal hydatid disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Penetration of guinea pig skin by acyclovir in different vehicles and correlation with the efficacy of topical therapy of experimental cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Spruance, S L; McKeough, M B; Cardinal, J R

    1984-01-01

    Inadequate penetration of antiviral agents through the stratum corneum of the skin may be one of the limiting factors in the topical therapy of recurrent cutaneous herpes simplex virus infections in humans. In vitro studies of the penetration of the nucleoside analog acyclovir (ACV) through guinea pig skin demonstrated a marked increase in drug flux when ACV was formulated in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), compared with water or polyethylene glycol (PEG) as the vehicle. To examine whether the increased transcutaneous flux of ACV effected by DMSO was meaningful in vivo, topical 5% ACV in DMSO was evaluated for the treatment of cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection in guinea pigs and compared with topical 5% ACV in PEG. When compared with infection sites treated with the vehicle alone, ACV in DMSO produced a greater percent reduction than did ACV in PEG in median lesion number (8 versus 58%; P less than 0.001), median lesion area (35 versus 73%; P = 0.001), and median lesion virus titer (21 versus 84%; P = 0.08). We conclude that DMSO is a highly effective vehicle for topical administration of ACV and is superior to PEG in our model. Careful choice of vehicle and consideration of transcutaneous penetration may be important for realization of the full potential of topical antiviral therapy in humans.

  17. Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase A: Characterization of Embryonic Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hang; Kim, Geumsoo; Liu, Chengyu; Levine, Rodney L.

    2012-01-01

    Methionine residues in protein can be oxidized by reactive oxygen species to generate methionine sulfoxide. Aerobic organisms have methionine sulfoxide reductases capable of reducing methionine sulfoxide back to methionine. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A acts on the S-epimer of methionine sulfoxide, and it is known that altering its cellular level by genetic ablation or overexpression has notable effects on resistance to oxidative stress and on lifespan in species from microorganisms to animals. In mammals, the enzyme is present both in the cytosol and mitochondria, and this study was undertaken to assess the contribution of each subcellular compartment’s reductase activity to resistance against oxidative stresses. Non-transgenic mouse embryonic fibroblasts lack methionine sulfoxide reductase A activity, providing a convenient cell type to determine the effect of expression of the enzyme in each compartment. We created transgenic mice with methionine sulfoxide reductase A targeted to the cytosol, mitochondria, or both and studied embryonic fibroblasts derived from each line. Unexpectedly, none of the transgenic cells gained resistance to a variety of oxidative stresses even though the expressed enzymes were catalytically active when assayed in vitro. Noting that activity in vivo requires thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase, we determined the levels of these proteins in the fibroblasts and found that they were very low in both the non-transgenic and transgenic cells. We conclude that overexpression of methionine sulfoxide reductase A did not confer resistance to oxidative stress because the cells lacked other proteins required to constitute a functional methionine sulfoxide reduction system. PMID:20510353

  18. The secret of dimethyl sulfoxide-water mixtures. A quantum chemical study of 1DMSO-nwater clusters.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Barbara; Reiher, Markus

    2002-05-29

    DMSO-water mixtures exhibit a marked freezing point depression, reaching close to 60 K at n(DMSO) = 0.33. The phase diagram indicates that stable DMSO-water clusters may be responsible for this phenomenon. Using time-independent quantum chemical methods, we investigate possible candidates for stable supermolecules at mole fractions n(DMSO) = 0.25 and 0.33. The model clusters are built by adding various numbers of water molecules to a single DMSO molecule. Structures and interaction energetics are discussed in the light of experimental and theoretical results from the literature. A comparison with results from molecular dynamics simulations is of particular interest. Our optimized structures are spatially very different from those previously identified through MD simulations. To identify the structural patterns characterizing the clusters, we classify them on the basis of hydrogen-acceptor interactions. These are well separated on an interaction energy scale. For the hydrophobic interactions of the methyl groups with water, attractive interactions of up to 8 kJ/mol are found. In forming clusters corresponding to a range of different mole fractions, up to four water molecules are added to each DMSO molecule. This corresponds to a rough local model of solvation. Examination of the trends in the interactions indicates that the methyl-water interaction becomes more important upon solvation. Finally, we investigate how the clusters interact and attempt to explain which role is played by the various structures and their intercluster interaction modes in the freezing behavior of DMSO-water.

  19. Effects of intratesticular administration of zinc gluconate and dimethyl sulfoxide on clinical, endocrinological, and reproductive parameters in dogs.

    PubMed

    Vannucchi, C I; Angrimani, D S R; Eyherabide, A R; Mazzei, C P; Lucio, C F; Maiorka, P C; Silva, L C G; Nichi, M

    2015-10-15

    Nonsurgical sterilization methods are considered alternative tools for the worldwide challenge represented by canine overpopulation control. Intratesticular injection of zinc gluconate associated with DMSO arises as an option because of the effortless diffusion throughout the testicular parenchyma. This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of a double testicular injection of zinc gluconate associated with DMSO as a chemical contraceptive for male dogs. The study was conducted with 22 dogs treated with two intratesticular injections of the chemical solution (treated group; n = 15) or 0.9% NaCl solution (control group; n = 7) on a monthly interval. All animals were submitted to clinical examination, breeding soundness evaluation including morphologic and sonographic examination of the testes, assessment of libido, volume of the sperm-rich fraction, sperm motility, total sperm count, plasma membrane integrity, sperm morphologic abnormalities, and the total number of morphologically normal and motile sperm in the ejaculate. Blood samples were collected for serum testosterone analysis, and testicular tissue was morphologically and histologically evaluated. No clinical alterations and signs of pain or local sensitivity along the experimental period were noticed. However, the injection of zinc gluconate and DMSO significantly reduced libido and testosterone concentrations (even beyond the reference range for intact male dogs). Impairment of sperm quality-related variables was observed 15 days after the first intratesticular administration of zinc gluconate and DMSO (i.e., decrease in sperm count and sperm motility and an increase in major sperm defects and by this a decrease in the total number of morphologically normal and motile sperm). Testicular ultrasonographic analysis revealed reduction of testicular volume and changes of testicular echotexture in treated animals, compatible with tissue degeneration, fibrosis, and calcification of testicular parenchyma on histologic examination. In conclusion, intratesticular administration of zinc gluconate associated with DMSO reduces reproductive potential which may lead to subfertility or infertility in dogs.

  20. Altered Hepa1-6 cells by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-treatment induce anti-tumor immunity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Hongxia; Wang, Ye; Yu, Bin; Wang, Chen; Liu, Changcheng; Lu, Juan; Chen, Fei; Wang, Minjun; Yu, Xinlu; Lin, Jiahao; Pan, Xinghua; Wang, Pin; Zhu, Haiying

    2016-02-23

    Cancer immunotherapy is the use of the immune system to treat cancer. Our current research proposed an optional strategy of activating immune system involving in cancer immunotherapy. When being treated with 2% DMSO in culture medium, Hepa1-6 cells showed depressed proliferation with no significant apoptosis or decreased viability. D-hep cells, Hepa1-6 cells treated with DMSO for 7 days, could restore to the higher proliferation rate in DMSO-free medium, but alteration of gene expression profile was irreversible. Interestingly, tumors from D-hep cells, not Hepa1-6 cells, regressed in wild-type C57BL/6 mice whereas D-hep cells exhibited similar tumorigenesis as Hep1-6 cells in immunodeficient mice. As expected, additional Hepa1-6 cells failed to form tumors in the D-hep-C57 mice in which D-hep cells were eliminated. Further research confirmed that D-hep-C57 mice established anti-tumor immunity against Hepa1-6 cells. Our research proposed viable tumor cells with altered biological features by DMSO-treatment could induce anti-tumor immunity in vivo.

  1. Photochemical induced growth and aggregation of metal nanoparticles in diode-array spectrophotometer via excited dimethyl-sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Zidki, Tomer; Cohen, Haim; Meyerstein, Dan

    2010-10-21

    Ag(0) and Au(0) nanoparticles suspended in dilute aqueous solutions containing (CH(3))(2)SO are photochemically unstable. The light source of a diode-array spectrophotometer induces, within less than a minute, particle growth and aggregation. The results indicate that this process is triggered by UV light absorption by the (CH(3))(2)SO.

  2. The Effect of Diazoxide and Dimethyl Sulfoxide on Behavioral Outcomes and Markers of Pathology Following Controlled Cortical Impact

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-16

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant worldwide problem with an estimated incidence of at least 200 cases per 100,000 people per year. Due to...recent military conflicts in the Middle East, a tremendous spike in the incidence of combat related brain injury has occurred over the past decade...potential therapeutic targets are being identified at a staggering rate as technology advances and our understanding of the pathology behind brain injury

  3. Controlled peeling of the surfaces of starch granules by gelatinization in aqueous dimethyl sulfoxide at selected temperatures.

    PubMed

    Mukerjea, Romila; Mukerjea, Rupendra; Robyt, John F

    2006-05-01

    Microscopic examination of starch granules in 90:10 (v/v) Me(2)SO-H(2)O indicated that the granules were slowly being gelatinized from their surfaces. The rate of gelatinization was dependent on two variables: (1) the amount of water in Me(2)SO and (2) the temperature. An increase of water in Me(2)SO and/or an increase in temperature increased the rate of gelatinization and vice versa. Specific ratios of Me(2)SO and H(2)O (85:15-95:5) and temperatures (0-15 degrees C) were found to give controlled sequential peeling/gelatinization of eight kinds of starch granules in 1-12h, with amounts of 10-25% gelatinization per hour. It was observed that the percent of starch granule remaining versus time gave curves that were linear and others that had linear parts separated by one or more abrupt changes. No two starches had a similar gelatinization curve for the same two conditions of the amount of water and the temperature. It is hypothesized that these curves reflect different structural characteristics for the individual kinds of starch granules.

  4. Altered Hepa1-6 cells by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-treatment induce anti-tumor immunity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Hongxia; Wang, Ye; Yu, Bin; Wang, Chen; Liu, Changcheng; Lu, Juan; Chen, Fei; Wang, Minjun; Yu, Xinlu; Lin, Jiahao; Pan, Xinghua; Wang, Pin; Zhu, Haiying

    2016-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is the use of the immune system to treat cancer. Our current research proposed an optional strategy of activating immune system involving in cancer immunotherapy. When being treated with 2% DMSO in culture medium, Hepa1-6 cells showed depressed proliferation with no significant apoptosis or decreased viability. D-hep cells, Hepa1-6 cells treated with DMSO for 7 days, could restore to the higher proliferation rate in DMSO-free medium, but alteration of gene expression profile was irreversible. Interestingly, tumors from D-hep cells, not Hepa1-6 cells, regressed in wild-type C57BL/6 mice whereas D-hep cells exhibited similar tumorigenesis as Hep1–6 cells in immunodeficient mice. As expected, additional Hepa1-6 cells failed to form tumors in the D-hep-C57 mice in which D-hep cells were eliminated. Further research confirmed that D-hep-C57 mice established anti-tumor immunity against Hepa1-6 cells. Our research proposed viable tumor cells with altered biological features by DMSO-treatment could induce anti-tumor immunity in vivo. PMID:26824185

  5. Evaluation of human platelet lysate and dimethyl sulfoxide as cryoprotectants for the cryopreservation of human adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Xiao, Ran; Cao, Yi-Lin; Yin, Hong-Yu

    2017-09-09

    Cryopreservation provides an effective technique to maintain the functional properties of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) are frequently used as cryoprotectants for this purpose. However, the use of DMSO can result in adverse effects and toxic reactions and FBS can introduce risks of viral, prion, zoonose contaminations and evoke immune responses after injection. It is therefore crucial to reduce DMSO concentrations and use serum-free solution in the cryopreservation process. Human platelet lysate (PL) is a promising candidate for use as an alternative to DMSO and FBS. Therefore, in this study, with an aim to identify a cryoprotective agent for ASC cryopreservation, we determined the viability, proliferation potential, phenotype, and differentiation potential of fresh ASCs and ASCs cryopreserved using different combinations of three cryoprotective agents: fetal bovine serum (FBS), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and human platelet lysate (PL). The viability of the ASCs cryopreserved with 90% FBS and 10% DMSO, 95% FBS and 5% DMSO, and 97% PL and 3% DMSO was >80%, and the proliferation potentials, cell phenotypes, and differentiation potentials of these groups were similar to those of fresh ASCs. Together, our findings suggest that a combination of 97% PL and 3% DMSO is an ideal cryoprotective agent for the efficient cryopreservation of human ASCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dimethyl sulfoxide inactivates the anticancer effect of cisplatin against human myelogenous leukemia cell lines in in vitro assays

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Rahul; Cheriyamundath, Sanith; Madassery, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of DMSO on cisplatin induced cytotoxicity (invitro) against K562 (Human mylogenous leukemia) cell line and to study the cisplatin-DMSO adduct formation using UV-spectrophotometer. Materials and methods: Effect of DMSO on the cytotoxicity of cisplatin was studied in K562 (Chronic mylogenous leukemia) cell line by MTT assay. Cisplatin-DMSO adduct formation was studied by continuously monitoring the increase in absorption peaks for 30 minutes using UV-spectrophotometer. Results: 0.1-0.3% DMSO markedly reduced the cytotoxic activity of cisplatin in K562 cells. Cisplatin-DMSO adduct formation was detected using UV-spectrophotometer. Continuous increase in UV absorbance between 250nm-290nm was observed when cisplatin (0.5mg/ml) and DMSO (10%) were mixed. Conclusion: Present study revealed that DMSO inactivates the cytotoxicity of cisplatin. Cisplatin-DMSO mixture showed increased absorbance at 250-290nm. Therefore, using DMSO in invitro assays might result in misinterpretation of actual efficacy of drugs. PMID:26069372

  7. Dimethyl sulfoxide inactivates the anticancer effect of cisplatin against human myelogenous leukemia cell lines in in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Rahul; Cheriyamundath, Sanith; Madassery, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of DMSO on cisplatin induced cytotoxicity (invitro) against K562 (Human mylogenous leukemia) cell line and to study the cisplatin-DMSO adduct formation using UV-spectrophotometer. Effect of DMSO on the cytotoxicity of cisplatin was studied in K562 (Chronic mylogenous leukemia) cell line by MTT assay. Cisplatin-DMSO adduct formation was studied by continuously monitoring the increase in absorption peaks for 30 minutes using UV-spectrophotometer. 0.1-0.3% DMSO markedly reduced the cytotoxic activity of cisplatin in K562 cells. Cisplatin-DMSO adduct formation was detected using UV-spectrophotometer. Continuous increase in UV absorbance between 250nm-290nm was observed when cisplatin (0.5mg/ml) and DMSO (10%) were mixed. Present study revealed that DMSO inactivates the cytotoxicity of cisplatin. Cisplatin-DMSO mixture showed increased absorbance at 250-290nm. Therefore, using DMSO in invitro assays might result in misinterpretation of actual efficacy of drugs.

  8. Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Behaviors of 1-(o-, m-, p- Cl, or Br) Substituted Phenyl-3, 5-diphenylformazans in Dimethyl Sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Tezcan, Habibe; Ekmekci, Güler

    2010-03-01

    1-(o-, m-, p-Cl, -Br) substituted phenyl-3, 5-diphenylformazans were synthesized. Their structures were elucidated and spectral behaviours were investigated by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-vis spectral data. The electrochemical properties such as number of electrons transferred (n), diffusion coefficient (D) and heterogeneous rate constant (ks) were determined and possible mechanisms were proposed using platinum and ultramicro platinum electrodes, cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The oxidations were carried out at different electrochemical steps that were dependent upon the structure of formazans. The relation between their absorption properties with electrochemical properties was investigated. A suitable correlation was obtained between the absorption λmax with electrochemical properties, and between the oxidation peak potentials Eox1 with ks values of formazans.

  9. Intermolecular interaction in nucleobases and dimethyl sulfoxide/water molecules: A DFT, NBO, AIM and NCI analysis.

    PubMed

    Venkataramanan, Natarajan Sathiyamoorthy; Suvitha, Ambigapathy; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2017-10-02

    This study aims to cast light on the physico-chemical nature and energetics of interactions between the nucleobases and water/DMSO molecules which occurs through the non-conventional CH⋯O/N-H bonds using a comprehensive quantum-chemical approach. The computed interaction energies do not show any appreciable change for all the nucleobase-solvent complexes, conforming the experimental findings on the hydration enthalpies. Compared to water, DMSO form complexes with high interaction energies. The quantitative molecular electrostatic potentials display a charge transfer during the complexation. NBO analysis shows the nucleobase-DMSO complexes, have higher stabilization energy values than the nucleobase-water complexes. AIM analysis illustrates that the in the nucleobase-DMSO complexes, SO⋯H-N type interaction have strongest hydrogen bond strength with high EHB values. Furthermore, the Laplacian of electron density and total electron density were negative indicating the partial covalent nature of bonding in these systems, while the other bonds are classified as noncovalent interactions. EDA analysis indicates, the electrostatic interaction is more pronounced in the case of nucleobase-water complexes, while the dispersion contribution is more dominant in nucleobase-DMSO complexes. NCI-RDG analysis proves the existence of strong hydrogen bonding in nucleobase-DMSO complex, which supports the AIM results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Efficacy of a topical treatment protocol with dimethyl sulfoxide 50% in type 1 complex regional pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gaspar, M; Bovaira, M; Carrera-Hueso, F J; Querol, M; Jiménez, A; Moreno, L

    2012-01-01

    Evaluate the efficacy of a topical treatment protocol with DMSO 50% to alleviate inflammatory processes in type 1 complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) with a course of less than 1 year. Retrospective study performed in a traumatology hospital on patients with type 1 CRPS for whom a standard treatment algorithm was prescribed with stepwise administration of oral drugs and interventional techniques. Patients also received topical DMSO 50% cream as a magistral formula. The follow-up period, lasting until patient discharge, or during 1 year for persistent cases, included 6 visits: baseline, 15 days, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year. The evaluation was performed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) as the main efficacy variable. Secondary variables were the Likert scale for quality of life and the limb capacity variable (range of motion, strength, overall limb function). A questionnaire designed for the study was also given. Overall decrease in VAS score in the 29 patients was 3.09 points. The Likert scale score increased by 1.36 points. The scores measuring limb capacity increased to 12.03 for range of motion and to 3 in strength with overall function rated «moderate». Topical application of DMSO 50% associated with a treatment algorithm decreased pain intensity according to the VAS score with results approaching absence of pain, and led to higher scores on the quality of life questionnaire. Topical DMSO 50% is an additional tool for use in treating CRPS I. Its side effects are scarce and it provides an overall sense of relief and lessens rigidity. Copyright © 2011 SEFH. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. The use of dimethyl sulfoxide in contact lens disinfectants is a potential preventative strategy against contracting Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Aqeel, Yousuf; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii is the causative agent of blinding keratitis. Though reported in non-contact lens wearers, it is most frequently associated with improper use of contact lens. For contact lens wearers, amoebae attachment to the lens is a critical first step, followed by amoebae binding to the corneal epithelial cells during extended lens wear. Acanthamoeba attachment to surfaces (biological or inert) and migration is an active process and occurs during the trophozoite stage. Thus retaining amoebae in the cyst stage (dormant form) offers an added preventative measure in impeding parasite traversal from the contact lens onto the cornea. Here, we showed that as low as 3% DMSO, abolished A. castellanii excystation. Based on the findings, it is proposed that DMSO should be included in the contact lens disinfectants as an added preventative strategy against contracting Acanthamoeba keratitis. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dermal Sensitization Potential of the Holston Compounds: Virgin DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide), DMSO Recycle Solvent, and DMSO Evaporator Sludge.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-20

    6-9) was used for this study. The Buehler test was used instead of the standard Landsteiner -Draiize (10-11) test for several reasons. A topical route...Hemisphere Pub. Corp., 1977:193-210. 10. Landsteiner K., Jacob J. Studies on sensitization of animals with simple chemical compounds. J Exp Med 1935...Trinitro-1,3,5,7-TetrazoCilne f At ambient temperature. g By Karl Fisher h Analysis of equilibrium liquid at 40 C. i Water content calculated by

  13. Primary Eye Irritation Potential of the Holston Compounds: Virgin DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide), DMSO Recycle Solvent, and DMSO Evaporator Sludge.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    Of the three animals tested in this group, none showed signs of corneal opacity or iritis (Tables 1 and 2). Slight conjunctival redness (score of 1...animals tested in this group showed signs of corneal opacity or iritis (Tables 5 and 6). Slight conjunctival redness was seen in all rabbits at the 1-hour...observation periods. TP015 As with TP013 and TP014, none of the animals tested in this group showed signs of corneal opacity or iritis (Tables 9 and 10

  14. Development of a biosensor specific for cysteine sulfoxides.

    PubMed

    Keusgen, Michael; Jünger, Martina; Krest, Ingo; Schöning, Michael J

    2003-05-01

    S-Alk(en)yl cysteine sulfoxides have been observed in several plants, mainly belonging to the onion family (Alliaceae), which are of high commercial interest (e.g. garlic, Allium sativum). The quality of most garlic containing herbal remedies produced from garlic powder is determined by their content of the cysteine sulfoxide alliin. Therefore, a comprehensive method for the documentation of alliin amounts present in the fresh plant material through to the final remedy is desirable. The newly developed biosensoric method described in this paper was designed in order to fulfil these demands. In contrast to conventional HPLC-methods, neither a pre-column derivatization nor a chromatographic separation are required allowing a high throughput of samples. This technique is based on immobilized alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4), which was combined with an ammonia-gas electrode. The enzyme was either placed in a small cartridge or was immobilized in direct contact of the electrode surface giving detection limits of 3.7 x 10(-7) and 5.9 x 10(-6) M. Founded on these experiments, a pH-sensitive electrolyte/insulator/semiconductor (EIS) layer structure made of Al/p-Si/SiO(2)/Si(3)N(4) was also combined with immobilized alliinase. Measurements could be performed in a range between 1 x 10(-5) and 1 x 10(-3) M alliin. All sensors were operated in the flow-through modus. A high specificity for alliin could be demonstrated for the electrode and a number of garlic samples were analyzed. Results gained with the new method showed a good correlation with those obtained with conventional HPLC-methods. In addition, onion and a variety of wild Allium species were analyzed in order to determine the amount of isoalliin or total cysteine sulfoxides present, respectively.

  15. Determination of the specific activities of methionine sulfoxide reductase A and B by capillary electrophoresis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the determination of methionine sulfoxide reductase A and methionine sulfoxide reductase B activities in mouse liver is described. The method is based on detection of the 4-(dimethylamino)azobenzene-4’-sulfonyl derivative of L-methionine (dabsyl Met), the ...

  16. FT-IR SOLUTION SPECTRA OF PROPYL SULFIDE, PROPYL SULFOXIDE, AND PROPYL SULFONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    FT-IR spectra were obtained of 0.5% volumetric solutions of propyl sulfide, propyl sulfoxide, and propyl sulfone in hexane, CCl4, CS2, and CHCl3 to assist in the assignment of FT-IR-PAS spectra of propyl sulfoxide sorbed within the structure of several peats and onto cellulose. T...

  17. FT-IR SOLUTION SPECTRA OF PROPYL SULFIDE, PROPYL SULFOXIDE, AND PROPYL SULFONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    FT-IR spectra were obtained of 0.5% volumetric solutions of propyl sulfide, propyl sulfoxide, and propyl sulfone in hexane, CCl4, CS2, and CHCl3 to assist in the assignment of FT-IR-PAS spectra of propyl sulfoxide sorbed within the structure of several peats and onto cellulose. T...

  18. SWELLING OF PEATS IN LIQUID METHYL, TETRAMETHYLENE AND PROPYL SULFOXIDES AND IN LIQUID PROPYL SULFONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interactions of methyl, tetramethylene, and propyl sulfoxides and propyl sulfone during sorption onto four de-waxed, acid-form peats have been studied by means of swelling measurements. The results for sulfoxides are displayed as het-eromolecular sorption isotherms, which plo...

  19. tert-Butyl Sulfoxide as a Starting Point for the Synthesis of Sulfinyl Containing Compounds.

    PubMed

    Wei, Juhong; Sun, Zhihua

    2015-11-06

    Sulfoxides bearing a tert-butyl group can be activated using N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) under acidic conditions and then subsequently treated with a variety of nitrogen, carbon, or oxygen nucleophiles to afford a wide range of the corresponding sulfinic acid amides, new sulfoxides, and sulfinic acid esters.

  20. SWELLING OF PEATS IN LIQUID METHYL, TETRAMETHYLENE AND PROPYL SULFOXIDES AND IN LIQUID PROPYL SULFONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interactions of methyl, tetramethylene, and propyl sulfoxides and propyl sulfone during sorption onto four de-waxed, acid-form peats have been studied by means of swelling measurements. The results for sulfoxides are displayed as het-eromolecular sorption isotherms, which plo...

  1. Enantiomeric behaviour of albendazole and fenbendazole sulfoxides in domestic animals: pharmacological implications.

    PubMed

    Capece, Bettencourt P S; Virkel, Guillermo L; Lanusse, Carlos E

    2009-09-01

    Albendazole and fenbendazole are methylcarbamate benzimidazole anthelmintics extensively used to control gastrointestinal parasites in domestic animals. These parent compounds are metabolised to albendazole sulfoxide and fenbendazole sulfoxide (oxfendazole), respectively. Both sulfoxide derivatives are anthelmintically active and are manufactured for use in animals. They metabolites have an asymmetric centre on their chemical structures and two enantiomeric forms of each sulfoxide have been identified in plasma, tissues of parasite location and within target helminths. Both the flavin-monooxygenase and cytochrome P450 systems are involved in the enantioselective biotransformation of these anthelmintic compounds in ruminant species. A relevant progress on the understanding of the relationship among enantioselective metabolism and systemic availability of each enantiomeric form has been achieved. This article reviews the current knowledge on the pharmacological implications of the enantiomeric behaviour of albendazole sulfoxide and oxfendazole in domestic animals.

  2. Transdermal film-loaded finasteride microplates to enhance drug skin permeation: Two-step optimization study.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tarek A; El-Say, Khalid M

    2016-06-10

    The goal was to develop an optimized transdermal finasteride (FNS) film loaded with drug microplates (MIC), utilizing two-step optimization, to decrease the dosing schedule and inconsistency in gastrointestinal absorption. First; 3-level factorial design was implemented to prepare optimized FNS-MIC of minimum particle size. Second; Box-Behnken design matrix was used to develop optimized transdermal FNS-MIC film. Interaction among MIC components was studied using physicochemical characterization tools. Film components namely; hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (X1), dimethyl sulfoxide (X2) and propylene glycol (X3) were optimized for their effects on the film thickness (Y1) and elongation percent (Y2), and for FNS steady state flux (Y3), permeability coefficient (Y4), and diffusion coefficient (Y5) following ex-vivo permeation through the rat skin. Morphological study of the optimized MIC and transdermal film was also investigated. Results revealed that stabilizer concentration and anti-solvent percent were significantly affecting MIC formulation. Optimized FNS-MIC of particle size 0.93μm was successfully prepared in which there was no interaction observed among their components. An enhancement in the aqueous solubility of FNS-MIC by more than 23% was achieved. All the studied variables, most of their interaction and quadratic effects were significantly affecting the studied variables (Y1-Y5). Morphological observation illustrated non-spherical, short rods, flakes like small plates that were homogeneously distributed in the optimized transdermal film. Ex-vivo study showed enhanced FNS permeation from film loaded MIC when compared to that contains pure drug. So, MIC is a successful technique to enhance aqueous solubility and skin permeation of poor water soluble drug especially when loaded into transdermal films. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Stereoselective analysis of thioridazine-2-sulfoxide and thioridazine-5-sulfoxide: an investigation of rac-thioridazine biotransformation by some endophytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Borges, Keyller Bastos; De Souza Borges, Warley; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico; Bonato, Pierina Sueli

    2008-04-14

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method for the stereoselective analysis of thioridazine-2-sulfoxide (THD-2-SO) and thioridazine-5-sulfoxide (THD-5-SO) in culture medium and to study the biotransformation of rac-thioridazine (THD) by some endophytic fungi. The simultaneous resolution of THD-2-SO and THD-5-SO diastereoisomers was performed on a CHIRALPAK AS column using a mobile phase of hexane:ethanol:methanol (92:6:2, v/v/v)+0.5% diethylamine; UV detection was carried out at 262 nm. Diethyl ether was used as extractor solvent. The validated method was used to evaluate the biotransformation of THD by 12 endophytic fungi isolated from Tithonia diversifolia, Viguiera arenaria and Viguiera robusta. Among the 12 fungi evaluated, 4 of them deserve prominence for presenting an evidenced stereoselective biotransformation potential: Phomopsis sp. (TD2) presented greater mono-2-sulfoxidation to the form (S)-(SE) (12.1%); Glomerella cingulata (VA1) presented greater mono-5-sulfoxidation to the forms (S)-(SE)+(R)-(FE) (10.5%); Diaporthe phaseolorum (VR4) presented greater mono-2-sulfoxidation to the forms (S)-(SE) and (R)-(FE) (84.4% and 82.5%, respectively) and Aspergillus fumigatus (VR12) presented greater mono-2-sulfoxidation to the forms (S)-(SE) and (R)-(SE) (31.5% and 34.4%, respectively).

  4. 21 CFR 172.133 - Dimethyl dicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... following titration method: principles of method Dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) is mixed with excess...) Stirrer Device for potentiometric titration Reference electrode Glass electrode reagents Acetone...

  5. 21 CFR 172.133 - Dimethyl dicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... following titration method: principles of method Dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) is mixed with excess...) Stirrer Device for potentiometric titration Reference electrode Glass electrode reagents Acetone...

  6. Development and characterization of novel 1-(1-Naphthyl)piperazine-loaded lipid vesicles for prevention of UV-induced skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Ana Catarina; Campos, Patrícia Mazureki; Euletério, Carla; Simões, Sandra; Praça, Fabíola Silva Garcia; Bentley, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra; Ascenso, Andreia

    2016-07-01

    1-(1-Naphthyl)piperazine (1-NPZ) has shown promising effects by inhibiting UV radiation-induced immunosuppression. Ultradeformable vesicles are recent advantageous systems capable of improving the (trans)dermal drug delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate 1-NPZ-loaded transethosomes (NPZ-TE) and 1-NPZ-loaded vesicles containing dimethyl sulfoxide (NPZ-DM) as novel delivery nanosystems, and to uncover their chemopreventive effect against UV-induced acute inflammation. Their physicochemical properties were evaluated as follows: vesicles size and zeta potential by dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering, respectively; vesicle deformability by pressure driven transport; rheological behavior by measuring viscosity and I-NPZ entrapment yield by HPLC. In vitro topical delivery studies were performed in order to evaluate the permeation profile of both formulations, whereas in vivo studies sought to assess the photoprotective effect of the selected formulation on irradiated hairless mice by measuring myeloperoxidase activity and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Either NPZ-TE or NPZ-DM exhibited positive results in terms of physicochemical properties. In vitro data revealed an improved permeation of 1-NPZ across pig ear skin, especially by NPZ-DM. In vivo studies demonstrated that NPZ-DM exposure was capable of preventing UVB-induced inflammation and blocking mediators of inflammation in mouse skin. The successful results here obtained encourage us to continue these studies for the management of inflammatory skin conditions that may lead to the development of skin cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro analysis of albendazole sulfoxide enantiomers shows that (+)-(R)-albendazole sulfoxide is the active enantiomer against Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Adriana; de Campos Lourenço, Tiago; Marzal, Miguel; Rivera, Andrea; Dorny, Pierre; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E; Cass, Quezia B

    2013-02-01

    Albendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used in the treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with Taenia solium cysts. However, drug levels of its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), are erratic, likely resulting in decreased efficacy and suboptimal cure rates in NCC. Racemic albendazole sulfoxide is composed of ABZSO (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S) enantiomers that have been shown to differ in pharmacokinetics and activity against other helminths. The antiparasitic activities of racemic ABZSO and its (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S) enantiomers against T. solium cysts were evaluated in vitro. Parasites were collected from naturally infected pigs, cultured, and exposed to the racemic mixture or to each enantiomer (range, 10 to 500 ng/ml) or to praziquantel as a reference drug. The activity of each compound against cysts was assayed by measuring the ability to evaginate and inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and parasite antigen release. (+)-(R)-ABZSO was significantly more active than (-)-(S)-ABZSO in suppressing the release of AP and antigen into the supernatant in a dose- and time-dependent manner, indicating that most of the activity of ABZSO resides in the (+)-(R) enantiomer. Use of this enantiomer alone may lead to increased efficacy and/or less toxicity compared to albendazole.

  8. The chemistry of dimethyl carbonate.

    PubMed

    Tundo, Pietro; Selva, Maurizio

    2002-09-01

    Dimethyl carbonate (DMC) is a versatile compound that represents an attractive eco-friendly alternative to both methyl halides (or dimethyl sulfate) and phosgene for methylation and carbonylation processes, respectively. In fact, the reactivity of DMC is tunable: at T = 90 degrees C, methoxycarbonylations take place, whereas at higher reaction temperatures, methylation reactions are observed with a variety of nucleophiles. In the particular case of substrates susceptible to multiple alkylations (e.g., CH(2)-active compounds and primary amines), DMC allows unprecedented selectivity toward mono-C- and mono-N-methylation reactions. Nowadays produced by a clean process, DMC possesses properties of nontoxicity and biodegradability which makes it a true green reagent to use in syntheses that prevent pollution at the source. Moreover, DMC-mediated methylations are catalytic reactions that use safe solids (alkaline carbonates or zeolites), thereby avoiding the formation of undesirable inorganic salts as byproducts. The reactivity of other carbonates is reported as well: higher homologues of DMC (i.e., diethyl and dibenzyl carbonate), are excellent mono-C- and mono-N-alkylating agents, whereas asymmetrical methyl alkyl carbonates (ROCO(2)Me with R > or = C(3)) undergo methylation processes with a chemoselectivity up to 99%.

  9. Bisguanidinium dinuclear oxodiperoxomolybdosulfate ion pair-catalyzed enantioselective sulfoxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Lili; Wang, Chao; Moeljadi, Adhitya Mangala Putra; Ye, Xinyi; Ganguly, Rakesh; Li, Yongxin; Hirao, Hajime; Tan, Choon-Hong

    2016-11-01

    Catalytic use of peroxomolybdate for asymmetric transformations has attracted increasing attention due to its catalytic properties and application in catalysis. Herein, we report chiral bisguanidinium dinuclear oxodiperoxomolybdosulfate [BG]2+[(μ-SO4)Mo2O2(μ-O2)2(O2)2]2- ion pair, as a catalyst for enantioselective sulfoxidation using aqueous H2O2 as the terminal oxidant. The ion pair catalyst is isolatable, stable and useful for the oxidation of a range of dialkyl sulfides. The practical utility was illustrated using a gram-scale synthesis of armodafinil, a commercial drug, with the catalyst generated in situ from 0.25 mol% of bisguanidinium and 2.5 mol% of Na2MoO4.2H2O. Structural characterization of this ion pair catalyst has been successfully achieved using single-crystal X-ray crystallography.

  10. Bisguanidinium dinuclear oxodiperoxomolybdosulfate ion pair-catalyzed enantioselective sulfoxidation

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Lili; Wang, Chao; Moeljadi, Adhitya Mangala Putra; Ye, Xinyi; Ganguly, Rakesh; Li, Yongxin; Hirao, Hajime; Tan, Choon-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic use of peroxomolybdate for asymmetric transformations has attracted increasing attention due to its catalytic properties and application in catalysis. Herein, we report chiral bisguanidinium dinuclear oxodiperoxomolybdosulfate [BG]2+[(μ-SO4)Mo2O2(μ-O2)2(O2)2]2− ion pair, as a catalyst for enantioselective sulfoxidation using aqueous H2O2 as the terminal oxidant. The ion pair catalyst is isolatable, stable and useful for the oxidation of a range of dialkyl sulfides. The practical utility was illustrated using a gram-scale synthesis of armodafinil, a commercial drug, with the catalyst generated in situ from 0.25 mol% of bisguanidinium and 2.5 mol% of Na2MoO4·2H2O. Structural characterization of this ion pair catalyst has been successfully achieved using single-crystal X-ray crystallography. PMID:27869124

  11. Transformation and adsorption of Fenamiphos, f. sulfoxide and f. sulfone in molokai soil and simulated movement with irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chee-Chow; Green, Richard E.; Apt, Walter J.

    1986-02-01

    The ban of commonly used soil fumigants, DBCP and EDB, for control of nematodes in pineapple fields has prompted investigations into a non-fumigant nematicide, fenamiphos (Nemacur ®). The transformation and adsorption in soil of fenamiphos and its transformation products, f. sulfoxide and f. sulfone were studied in the laboratory. Fenamiphos adsorption on soil exceeded that of f. sulfoxide and f. sulfone. F. sulfoxide, however, was the most persistent. A one-dimensional simulation model was used to assess the impact of transformation and adsorption on the mobility and distribution of fenamiphos and f. sulfoxide in soil. Simulated results showed that fenamiphos stayed in the topsoil and transformed rapidly to f. sulfoxide. Because of the persistence and mobility of f. sulfoxide, this metabolite leached rapidly and significant amounts remained in the soil. This suggests that for times exceeding three weeks, f. sulfoxide may be the dominant compound providing nematode control in drip-irrigated pineapple.

  12. Microbial Formation of Dimethyl Sulfide in Anoxic Sphagnum Peat

    PubMed Central

    Kiene, R. P.; Hines, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    Peat bogs dominated by Sphagnum spp. have relatively high areal rates of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) emission to the atmosphere. DMS was produced in anoxic slurries of Sphagnum peat with a linear time course and with an average rate of 40.4 (range, 22.0 to 68.6) nmol per liter of slurry (middot) day(sup-1) observed in nine batches of slurry. Methanethiol (MeSH) was produced at roughly similar rates over the typical 4- to 8-day incubations. DMS and MeSH production in these acidic (pH 4.2 to 4.6) peats were biological, as they were stopped completely by autoclaving and inhibited strongly by addition of antibiotics and 500 (mu)M chloroform. Endogenous DMS production may be due to the degradation of S-methyl-methionine, dimethyl sulfoxide, or methoxyaromatic compounds (e.g., syringic acid), each of which stimulated DMS formation when added at 5 to 10 (mu)M concentrations. However, on the basis of the high rates of thiol (MeSH and ethanethiol) methylation activity that we observed and the availability of endogenous MeSH, we suggest that methylation of MeSH is the major pathway leading to DMS formation in anaerobic peat. Solid-phase adsorption of MeSH plays a key role in its availability for biomethylation reactions. Additions of acetate (1.5 mM) or compounds which could cause acetate to accumulate (e.g., glucose, alanine, and 2-bromoethanesulfonate) suppressed DMS formation. It is likely that acetogenic bacteria are involved in DMS formation, but our data are insufficient to allow firm conclusions about the metabolic pathways or organisms involved. Our observations are the first which point to the methylation of MeSH as the major mechanism for endogenous DMS production in any environment. The rates of net DMS production observed are sufficient to explain the relatively high fluxes of DMS emitted to the atmosphere from Sphagnum sp.-dominated wetlands. PMID:16535080

  13. Distribution of zirconium in petroleum sulfoxides during extraction and sorption from nitric and hydrochloric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Turanov, A.N.

    1988-11-20

    Petroleum sulfoxides (PSO) are effective extractants for several metals. We discussed the distribution of petroleum sulfoxides and zirconium between aqueous solutions of hydrochloric and nitric acid and organic solvents, and also the macroporous sorbent impregnated with PSO. For the investigation we used a macroposous copolymer of styrene with divinylbenzene. Our investigation showed a noticeable decrease in the contamination of the raffinates by petroleum sulfoxides and their more complete utilization as extractant of metals from solutions of acids when PSO is deposited on a macroporous copolymer of styrene with divinylbenzene.

  14. Liquid-vapor equilibrium in the systems hexane-benzene-petroleum sulfoxides-diethylene glycol and hexane-benzene-petroleum sulfoxides-dimethylformamide

    SciTech Connect

    Vakhitova, N.G.; Baikova, A.Y.; Murinov, Y.I.; Nikitin, Y.E.

    1985-12-01

    This paper reports the results of studies of liquid-vapor equilibrium in the benzene-hexane system in presence of binary extractants: petroleum sulfoxide-dimethylformamide (DMFA) and petroleum sulfoxide-diethylene glycol (DEG). The physicochemical properties of the extractants are presented and the influence of the content of slelective solvent on vapor-liquid equilibrium was studied; the total concentration of the binary solvent in the experiments was 50 vol. %. Results also show that the introduction of a second solvent into petroleum sulfoxides alters the vapor-liquid equilibrium in the system substantially. The volatility of hexane is increased considerably, especially in the case of the PSO-DMFA mixed extractant. In the case of benzene, petroleum sulfoxides and their mixtures with diethylene glycol and dimethylformamide are approximately equal in effectiveness in the region of low benzene concentrations. In the region of high benzene concentrations mixed extractants are more effective than petroleum sulfoxides; this is decisive for isolation of aromatic hydrocarbons from mixtures rich in aromatics.

  15. Selective oxidation of glycosyl sulfides to sulfoxides using magnesium monoperoxyphthalate and microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Yi; Patkar, Laxmikant Narhari; Lin, Chun-Cheng

    2004-04-16

    A protocol that uses moist magnesium monoperoxyphthalate (MMPP) as an oxidant under microwave irradiation rapidly yields a variety of glycosyl sulfoxides from corresponding sulfides in high yields with high selectivity.

  16. Cryobanking the genetic diversity in the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) from skin biopsies. Investigating the cryopreservation and culture ability of highly valuable explants and cells.

    PubMed

    León-Quinto, Trinidad; Simón, Miguel A; Sánchez, Angel; Martín, Francisco; Soria, Bernat

    2011-04-01

    Cryobanking skin samples permit preserving a maximum of genetic representation from the population biodiversity. This is a relevant aspect for threatened species, potentially menaced by an epizooty and from which it is difficult to obtain gametes. As a first step for properly cryobanking skin samples of a given species, the optimal conditions of culture and freezing have to be studied by covering a broad range of possibilities. This paper presents, for the first time, a systematic study of such conditions for the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). To that end, we have analyzed twenty different culture conditions and fifteen different freezing solutions for skin explants, as well as three freezing solutions for isolated cells derived from them. The culture conditions included both two different culture strategies and several combinations of nutritional supplements and mitotic agents. For the freezing solutions, we have considered different concentrations of the permeating cryoprotectant dimethyl sulfoxide (Me(2)SO) either alone (5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% v/v for explants, 10% for isolated cells) or along with the non-permeating cryoprotectant sucrose (0.1 or 0.2M). Our results have been analyzed through several quantitative parameters and show that only thawed explants cryopreserved in Me(2)SO (10%) either alone or with sucrose (0.2M) presented similar properties to those in optimal fresh cultures. In addition, for these freezing conditions, isolated thawed cells also presented high survival rates (90%) and percentages of cellular functionality (85%). These results, focussed on the most endangered felid in the world, could be also useful for other threatened/endangered species.

  17. Stereochemistry of 10-sulfoxidation catalyzed by a soluble delta9 desaturase

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, A.E.; Shanklin, J.; Tan, N.; Whittle, E.; Hodgson, D. J.; Dawson, B.; Buist, P. H.

    2010-03-21

    The stereochemistry of castor stearoyl-ACP 9 desaturase-mediated 10-sulfoxidation has been determined. This was accomplished by 19F NMR analysis of a fluorine-tagged product, 18-fluoro-10-thiastearoyl ACP S-oxide, in combination with a chiral solvating agent, (R)-AMA. Sulfoxidation proceeds with the same stereoselectivity as hydrogen removal from the parent stearoyl substrate. These data validate the use of thia probes to determine the stereochemistry and cryptoregiochemistry of desaturase-mediated oxidations.

  18. Stereospecific micellar electrokinetic chromatography assay of methionine sulfoxide reductase activity employing a multiple layer coated capillary.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qingfu; El-Mergawy, Rabab G; Heinemann, Stefan H; Schönherr, Roland; Jáč, Pavel; Scriba, Gerhard K E

    2013-09-01

    A micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the analysis of the l-methionine sulfoxide diastereomers employing a successive multiple ionic-polymer layer coated fused-silica capillary was developed and validated in order to investigate the stereospecificity of methionine sulfoxide reductases. The capillary coating consisted of a first layer of hexadimethrine and a second layer of dextran sulfate providing a stable strong cathodic EOF and consequently highly repeatable analyte migration times. The methionine sulfoxide diastereomers, methionine as product as well as β-alanine as internal standard were derivatized by dabsyl chloride and separated using a 35 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 8.0, containing 25 mM SDS as BGE and a separation voltage of 25 kV. The method was validated in the range of 0.15-2.0 mM with respect to linearity and precision. The LODs of the analytes ranged between 0.04 and 0.10 mM. The assay was subsequently applied to determine the stereospecificity of methionine sulfoxide reductases as well as the enzyme kinetics of human methionine sulfoxide reductase A. Monitoring the decrease of the l-methionine-(S)-sulfoxide Km = 411.8 ± 33.8 μM and Vmax = 307.5 ± 10.8 μM/min were determined.

  19. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... that need skin grafts to heal Venous ulcers, pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that do not heal Very ... graft; Full thickness skin graft Patient Instructions Preventing pressure ulcers Surgical wound care - open Images Skin graft Skin ...

  20. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Skin Cancer What is Skin Cancer? Skin cancer is the most common type ... of approximately 9,480 Americans in 2013. Can Skin Cancer Be Treated? Most basal cell and squamous ...